Membership generation using multilayer neural network
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Jaeseok
1992-01-01
There has been intensive research in neural network applications to pattern recognition problems. Particularly, the back-propagation network has attracted many researchers because of its outstanding performance in pattern recognition applications. In this section, we describe a new method to generate membership functions from training data using a multilayer neural network. The basic idea behind the approach is as follows. The output values of a sigmoid activation function of a neuron bear remarkable resemblance to membership values. Therefore, we can regard the sigmoid activation values as the membership values in fuzzy set theory. Thus, in order to generate class membership values, we first train a suitable multilayer network using a training algorithm such as the back-propagation algorithm. After the training procedure converges, the resulting network can be treated as a membership generation network, where the inputs are feature values and the outputs are membership values in the different classes. This method allows fairly complex membership functions to be generated because the network is highly nonlinear in general. Also, it is to be noted that the membership functions are generated from a classification point of view. For pattern recognition applications, this is highly desirable, although the membership values may not be indicative of the degree of typicality of a feature value in a particular class.
Spatial Dynamics of Multilayer Cellular Neural Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Shi-Liang; Hsu, Cheng-Hsiung
2017-06-01
The purpose of this work is to study the spatial dynamics of one-dimensional multilayer cellular neural networks. We first establish the existence of rightward and leftward spreading speeds of the model. Then we show that the spreading speeds coincide with the minimum wave speeds of the traveling wave fronts in the right and left directions. Moreover, we obtain the asymptotic behavior of the traveling wave fronts when the wave speeds are positive and greater than the spreading speeds. According to the asymptotic behavior and using various kinds of comparison theorems, some front-like entire solutions are constructed by combining the rightward and leftward traveling wave fronts with different speeds and a spatially homogeneous solution of the model. Finally, various qualitative features of such entire solutions are investigated.
Extrapolation limitations of multilayer feedforward neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haley, Pamela J.; Soloway, Donald
1992-01-01
The limitations of backpropagation used as a function extrapolator were investigated. Four common functions were used to investigate the network's extrapolation capability. The purpose of the experiment was to determine whether neural networks are capable of extrapolation and, if so, to determine the range for which networks can extrapolate. The authors show that neural networks cannot extrapolate and offer an explanation to support this result.
Extrapolation limitations of multilayer feedforward neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haley, Pamela J.; Soloway, Donald
1992-01-01
The limitations of backpropagation used as a function extrapolator were investigated. Four common functions were used to investigate the network's extrapolation capability. The purpose of the experiment was to determine whether neural networks are capable of extrapolation and, if so, to determine the range for which networks can extrapolate. The authors show that neural networks cannot extrapolate and offer an explanation to support this result.
Optoelectronic implementation of multilayer perceptron and Hopfield neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Domanski, Andrzej W.; Olszewski, Mikolaj K.; Wolinski, Tomasz R.
2004-11-01
In this paper we present an optoelectronic implementation of two networks based on multilayer perceptron and the Hopfield neural network. We propose two different methods to solve a problem of lack of negative optical signals that are necessary for connections between layers of perceptron as well as within the Hopfield network structure. The first method applied for construction of multilayer perceptron was based on division of signals into two channels and next to use both of them independently as positive and negative signals. The second one, applied for implementation of the Hopfield model, was based on adding of constant value for elements of matrix weight. Both methods of compensation of lack negative optical signals were tested experimentally as optoelectronic models of multilayer perceptron and Hopfield neural network. Special configurations of optical fiber cables and liquid crystal multicell plates were used. In conclusion, possible applications of the optoelectronic neural networks are briefly discussed.
Multilayer neural network models based on grid methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazovskaya, T.; Tarkhov, D.
2016-11-01
The article discusses building hybrid models relating classical numerical methods for solving ordinary and partial differential equations and the universal neural network approach being developed by D Tarkhov and A Vasilyev. The different ways of constructing multilayer neural network structures based on grid methods are considered. The technique of building a continuous approximation using one simple modification of classical schemes is presented. Introduction non-linear relationships into the classic models with and without posterior learning are investigated. The numerical experiments are conducted.
Optimization of multilayer neural network parameters for speaker recognition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tovarek, Jaromir; Partila, Pavol; Rozhon, Jan; Voznak, Miroslav; Skapa, Jan; Uhrin, Dominik; Chmelikova, Zdenka
2016-05-01
This article discusses the impact of multilayer neural network parameters for speaker identification. The main task of speaker identification is to find a specific person in the known set of speakers. It means that the voice of an unknown speaker (wanted person) belongs to a group of reference speakers from the voice database. One of the requests was to develop the text-independent system, which means to classify wanted person regardless of content and language. Multilayer neural network has been used for speaker identification in this research. Artificial neural network (ANN) needs to set parameters like activation function of neurons, steepness of activation functions, learning rate, the maximum number of iterations and a number of neurons in the hidden and output layers. ANN accuracy and validation time are directly influenced by the parameter settings. Different roles require different settings. Identification accuracy and ANN validation time were evaluated with the same input data but different parameter settings. The goal was to find parameters for the neural network with the highest precision and shortest validation time. Input data of neural networks are a Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC). These parameters describe the properties of the vocal tract. Audio samples were recorded for all speakers in a laboratory environment. Training, testing and validation data set were split into 70, 15 and 15 %. The result of the research described in this article is different parameter setting for the multilayer neural network for four speakers.
Blur identification by multilayer neural network based on multivalued neurons.
Aizenberg, Igor; Paliy, Dmitriy V; Zurada, Jacek M; Astola, Jaakko T
2008-05-01
A multilayer neural network based on multivalued neurons (MLMVN) is a neural network with a traditional feedforward architecture. At the same time, this network has a number of specific different features. Its backpropagation learning algorithm is derivative-free. The functionality of MLMVN is superior to that of the traditional feedforward neural networks and of a variety kernel-based networks. Its higher flexibility and faster adaptation to the target mapping enables to model complex problems using simpler networks. In this paper, the MLMVN is used to identify both type and parameters of the point spread function, whose precise identification is of crucial importance for the image deblurring. The simulation results show the high efficiency of the proposed approach. It is confirmed that the MLMVN is a powerful tool for solving classification problems, especially multiclass ones.
Deep and shallow architecture of multilayer neural networks.
Chang, Chih-Hung
2015-10-01
This paper focuses on the deep and shallow architecture of multilayer neural networks (MNNs). The demonstration of whether or not an MNN can be replaced by another MNN with fewer layers is equivalent to studying the topological conjugacy of its hidden layers. This paper provides a systematic methodology to indicate when two hidden spaces are topologically conjugated. Furthermore, some criteria are presented for some specific cases.
Multi-Layer and Recursive Neural Networks for Metagenomic Classification.
Ditzler, Gregory; Polikar, Robi; Rosen, Gail
2015-09-01
Recent advances in machine learning, specifically in deep learning with neural networks, has made a profound impact on fields such as natural language processing, image classification, and language modeling; however, feasibility and potential benefits of the approaches to metagenomic data analysis has been largely under-explored. Deep learning exploits many layers of learning nonlinear feature representations, typically in an unsupervised fashion, and recent results have shown outstanding generalization performance on previously unseen data. Furthermore, some deep learning methods can also represent the structure in a data set. Consequently, deep learning and neural networks may prove to be an appropriate approach for metagenomic data. To determine whether such approaches are indeed appropriate for metagenomics, we experiment with two deep learning methods: i) a deep belief network, and ii) a recursive neural network, the latter of which provides a tree representing the structure of the data. We compare these approaches to the standard multi-layer perceptron, which has been well-established in the machine learning community as a powerful prediction algorithm, though its presence is largely missing in metagenomics literature. We find that traditional neural networks can be quite powerful classifiers on metagenomic data compared to baseline methods, such as random forests. On the other hand, while the deep learning approaches did not result in improvements to the classification accuracy, they do provide the ability to learn hierarchical representations of a data set that standard classification methods do not allow. Our goal in this effort is not to determine the best algorithm in terms accuracy-as that depends on the specific application-but rather to highlight the benefits and drawbacks of each of the approach we discuss and provide insight on how they can be improved for predictive metagenomic analysis.
Optical proximity correction using a multilayer perceptron neural network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Rui
2013-07-01
Optical proximity correction (OPC) is one of the resolution enhancement techniques (RETs) in optical lithography, where the mask pattern is modified to improve the output pattern fidelity. Algorithms are needed to generate the modified mask pattern automatically and efficiently. In this paper, a multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network (NN) is used to synthesize the mask pattern. We employ the pixel-based approach in this work. The MLP takes the pixel values of the desired output wafer pattern as input, and outputs the optimal mask pixel values. The MLP is trained with the backpropagation algorithm, with a training set retrieved from the desired output pattern, and the optimal mask pattern obtained by the model-based method. After training, the MLP is able to generate the optimal mask pattern non-iteratively with good pattern fidelity.
Parallel multilayer perceptron neural network used for hyperspectral image classification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia-Salgado, Beatriz P.; Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; Robles-Gonzalez, Marco A.
2016-04-01
This study is focused on time optimization for the classification problem presenting a comparison of five Artificial Neural Network Multilayer Perceptron (ANN-MLP) architectures. We use the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) because it allows to recognize patterns in data in a lower time rate. Time and classification accuracy are taken into account together for the comparison. According to time comparison, two paradigms in the computational field for each ANN-MLP architecture are analysed with three schemes. Firstly, sequential programming is applied by using a single CPU core. Secondly, parallel programming is employed over a multi-core CPU architecture. Finally, a programming model running on GPU architecture is implemented. Furthermore, the classification accuracy is compared between the proposed five ANN-MLP architectures and a state-of.the-art Support Vector Machine (SVM) with three classification frames: 50%,60% and 70% of the data set's observations are randomly selected to train the classifiers. Also, a visual comparison of the classified results is presented. The Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Structural Similarity Index Measure (SSIM) criteria are also calculated to characterise visual perception. The images employed were acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), the Reflective Optics System Imaging Spectrometer (ROSIS) and the Hyperion sensor.
An Efficient Supervised Training Algorithm for Multilayer Spiking Neural Networks
Xie, Xiurui; Qu, Hong; Liu, Guisong; Zhang, Malu; Kurths, Jürgen
2016-01-01
The spiking neural networks (SNNs) are the third generation of neural networks and perform remarkably well in cognitive tasks such as pattern recognition. The spike emitting and information processing mechanisms found in biological cognitive systems motivate the application of the hierarchical structure and temporal encoding mechanism in spiking neural networks, which have exhibited strong computational capability. However, the hierarchical structure and temporal encoding approach require neurons to process information serially in space and time respectively, which reduce the training efficiency significantly. For training the hierarchical SNNs, most existing methods are based on the traditional back-propagation algorithm, inheriting its drawbacks of the gradient diffusion and the sensitivity on parameters. To keep the powerful computation capability of the hierarchical structure and temporal encoding mechanism, but to overcome the low efficiency of the existing algorithms, a new training algorithm, the Normalized Spiking Error Back Propagation (NSEBP) is proposed in this paper. In the feedforward calculation, the output spike times are calculated by solving the quadratic function in the spike response model instead of detecting postsynaptic voltage states at all time points in traditional algorithms. Besides, in the feedback weight modification, the computational error is propagated to previous layers by the presynaptic spike jitter instead of the gradient decent rule, which realizes the layer-wised training. Furthermore, our algorithm investigates the mathematical relation between the weight variation and voltage error change, which makes the normalization in the weight modification applicable. Adopting these strategies, our algorithm outperforms the traditional SNN multi-layer algorithms in terms of learning efficiency and parameter sensitivity, that are also demonstrated by the comprehensive experimental results in this paper. PMID:27044001
Unsupervised classification of neural spikes with a hybrid multilayer artificial neural network.
García, P; Suárez, C P; Rodríguez, J; Rodríguez, M
1998-07-01
The understanding of the brain structure and function and its computational style is one of the biggest challenges both in Neuroscience and Neural Computation. In order to reach this and to test the predictions of neural network modeling, it is necessary to observe the activity of neural populations. In this paper we propose a hybrid modular computational system for the spike classification of multiunits recordings. It works with no knowledge about the waveform, and it consists of two moduli: a Preprocessing (Segmentation) module, which performs the detection and centering of spike vectors using programmed computation; and a Processing (Classification) module, which implements the general approach of neural classification: feature extraction, clustering and discrimination, by means of a hybrid unsupervised multilayer artificial neural network (HUMANN). The operations of this artificial neural network on the spike vectors are: (i) compression with a Sanger Layer from 70 points vector to five principal component vector; (ii) their waveform is analyzed by a Kohonen layer; (iii) the electrical noise and overlapping spikes are rejected by a previously unreported artificial neural network named Tolerance layer; and (iv) finally the spikes are labeled into spike classes by a Labeling layer. Each layer of the system has a specific unsupervised learning rule that progressively modifies itself until the performance of the layer has been automatically optimized. The procedure showed a high sensitivity and specificity also when working with signals containing four spike types.
Zhang, Haowei; Gao, Yanni; Yuan, Chengmei; Liu, Ying; Ding, Yuqing
2015-06-01
Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network belongs to multi-layer feedforward neural network, and has the ability and characteristics of high intelligence. It can realize the complex nonlinear mapping by its own learning through the network. Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness with high recurrence rate, high self-harm rate and high suicide rate. Most of the onset of the bipolar disorder starts with depressive episode, which can be easily misdiagnosed as unipolar depression and lead to a delayed treatment so as to influence the prognosis. The early identifica- tion of bipolar disorder is of great importance for patients with bipolar disorder. Due to the fact that the process of early identification of bipolar disorder is nonlinear, we in this paper discuss the MLP neural network application in early identification of bipolar disorder. This study covered 250 cases, including 143 cases with recurrent depression and 107 cases with bipolar disorder, and clinical features were statistically analyzed between the two groups. A total of 42 variables with significant differences were screened as the input variables of the neural network. Part of the samples were randomly selected as the learning sample, and the other as the test sample. By choosing different neu- ral network structures, all results of the identification of bipolar disorder were relatively good, which showed that MLP neural network could be used in the early identification of bipolar disorder.
A simple method to derive bounds on the size and to train multilayer neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sartori, Michael A.; Antsaklis, Panos J.
1991-01-01
A new derivation is presented for the bounds on the size of a multilayer neural network to exactly implement an arbitrary training set; namely, the training set can be implemented with zero error with two layers and with the number of the hidden-layer neurons equal to no.1 is greater than p - 1. The derivation does not require the separation of the input space by particular hyperplanes, as in previous derivations. The weights for the hidden layer can be chosen almost arbitrarily, and the weights for the output layer can be found by solving no.1 + 1 linear equations. The method presented exactly solves (M), the multilayer neural network training problem, for any arbitrary training set.
Orozco-Monteagudo, Maykel; Taboada-Crispi, Alberto; Gutierrez-Hernandez, Liliana
2008-11-06
This paper deals with the controversial topic of the selection of the parameters of a genetic algorithm, in this case hierarchical, used for training of multilayer perceptron neural networks for the binary classification. The parameters to select are the crossover and mutation probabilities of the control and parametric genes and the permanency percent. The results can be considered as a guide for using this kind of algorithm.
Multi-layer neural networks for robot control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pourboghrat, Farzad
1989-01-01
Two neural learning controller designs for manipulators are considered. The first design is based on a neural inverse-dynamics system. The second is the combination of the first one with a neural adaptive state feedback system. Both types of controllers enable the manipulator to perform any given task very well after a period of training and to do other untrained tasks satisfactorily. The second design also enables the manipulator to compensate for unpredictable perturbations.
A Memristive Multilayer Cellular Neural Network With Applications to Image Processing.
Hu, Xiaofang; Feng, Gang; Duan, Shukai; Liu, Lu
2016-05-13
The memristor has been extensively studied in electrical engineering and biological sciences as a means to compactly implement the synaptic function in neural networks. The cellular neural network (CNN) is one of the most implementable artificial neural network models and capable of massively parallel analog processing. In this paper, a novel memristive multilayer CNN (Mm-CNN) model is presented along with its performance analysis and applications. In this new CNN design, the memristor crossbar circuit acts as the synapse, which realizes one signed synaptic weight with a pair of memristors and performs the synaptic weighting compactly and linearly. Moreover, the complex weighted summation is executed in an efficient way with a proper design of Mm-CNN cell circuits. The proposed Mm-CNN has several merits, such as compactness, nonvolatility, versatility, and programmability of synaptic weights. Its performance in several image processing applications is illustrated through simulations.
Architecture and statistical model of a pulse-mode digital multilayer neural network.
Kim, Y C; Shanblatt, M A
1995-01-01
A new architecture and a statistical model for a pulse-mode digital multilayer neural network (DMNN) are presented. Algebraic neural operations are replaced by stochastic processes using pseudo-random pulse sequences. Synaptic weights and neuron states are represented as probabilities and estimated as average rates of pulse occurrences in corresponding pulse sequences. A statistical model of error (or noise) is developed to estimate relative accuracy associated with stochastic computing in terms of mean and variance. The stochastic computing technique is implemented with simple logic gates as basic computing elements leading to a high neuron-density on a chip. Furthermore, the use of simple logic gates for neural operations, the pulse-mode signal representation, and the modular design techniques lead to a massively parallel yet compact and flexible network architecture, well suited for VLSI implementation. Any size of a feedforward network can be configured where processing speed is independent of the network size. Multilayer feedforward networks are modeled and applied to pattern classification problems such as encoding and character recognition.
Application of Multilayer Feedforward Neural Networks to Precipitation Cell-Top Altitude Estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spina, Michelle S.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Staelin, David H.; Gasiewski, Albin J.
1998-01-01
The use of passive 118-GHz O2 observations of rain cells for precipitation cell-top altitude estimation is demonstrated by using a multilayer feed forward neural network retrieval system. Rain cell observations at 118 GHz were compared with estimates of the cell-top altitude obtained by optical stereoscopy. The observations were made with 2 4 km horizontal spatial resolution by using the Millimeter-wave Temperature Sounder (MTS) scanning spectrometer aboard the NASA ER-2 research aircraft during the Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment (GALE) and the COoperative Huntsville Meteorological EXperiment (COHMEX) in 1986. The neural network estimator applied to MTS spectral differences between clouds, and nearby clear air yielded an rms discrepancy of 1.76 km for a combined cumulus, mature, and dissipating cell set and 1.44 km for the cumulus-only set. An improvement in rms discrepancy to 1.36 km was achieved by including additional MTS information on the absolute atmospheric temperature profile. An incremental method for training neural networks was developed that yielded robust results, despite the use of as few as 56 training spectra. Comparison of these results with a nonlinear statistical estimator shows that superior results can be obtained with a neural network retrieval system. Imagery of estimated cell-top altitudes was created from 118-GHz spectral imagery gathered from CAMEX, September through October 1993, and from cyclone Oliver, February 7, 1993.
Ceballos-Magaña, Silvia G; de Pablos, Fernando; Jurado, José Marcos; Martín, María Jesús; Alcázar, Ángela; Muñiz-Valencia, Roberto; Gonzalo-Lumbreras, Raquel; Izquierdo-Hornillos, Roberto
2013-02-15
Differentiation of silver, gold, aged and extra-aged tequila using 1-propanol, ethyl acetate, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol and furan derivatives like 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde and 2-furaldehyde has been carried out. The content of 1-propanol, ethyl acetate, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol was determined by means of head space solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass-spectrometry. 5-(Hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde and 2-furaldehyde were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to highlight significant differences between types of tequila. Principal component analysis was applied as visualisation technique. Linear discriminant analysis and multilayer perceptron artificial neural networks were used to construct classification models. The best classification performance was obtained when multilayer perceptron model was applied. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Artificial vision by multi-layered neural networks: neocognitron and its advances.
Fukushima, Kunihiko
2013-01-01
The neocognitron is a neural network model proposed by Fukushima (1980). Its architecture was suggested by neurophysiological findings on the visual systems of mammals. It is a hierarchical multi-layered network. It acquires the ability to robustly recognize visual patterns through learning. Although the neocognitron has a long history, modifications of the network to improve its performance are still going on. For example, a recent neocognitron uses a new learning rule, named add-if-silent, which makes the learning process much simpler and more stable. Nevertheless, a high recognition rate can be kept with a smaller scale of the network. Referring to the history of the neocognitron, this paper discusses recent advances in the neocognitron. We also show that various new functions can be realized by, for example, introducing top-down connections to the neocognitron: mechanism of selective attention, recognition and completion of partly occluded patterns, restoring occluded contours, and so on.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Yiping; Li, Ce; Lin, Zhen; Watanabe, Takahiro
This paper presents a novel architecture for an FPGA-based implementation of multilayer Artificial Neural Network (ANN), which integrates both the layer-multiplexing and pipeline architecture. Given a kind of FPGA to be used, the proposed method aims at enhancing the efficiency of resource usage of the FPGA and improving the forward speed at the module level, so that a larger ANN can be implemented on traditional FPGAs and also a high performance is achieved. Usually FPGA board is not changed for every applications, thus, we need not mind about the usage of it if the application can be implemented within the resource limitation. We developed a new mapping method from ANN schematic to FPGA by using this hybrid architecture, and also developed an algorithm to automatically determine the architecture by optimizing the application specific neural network topology. The experimental results show that the proposed architecture can produce a very compact circuit for multilayer ANN to meet resource limitation of a given FPGA. Furthermore, higher performance is obtained as compared with conventional methods.
Random noise effects in pulse-mode digital multilayer neural networks.
Kim, Y C; Shanblatt, M A
1995-01-01
A pulse-mode digital multilayer neural network (DMNN) based on stochastic computing techniques is implemented with simple logic gates as basic computing elements. The pulse-mode signal representation and the use of simple logic gates for neural operations lead to a massively parallel yet compact and flexible network architecture, well suited for VLSI implementation. Algebraic neural operations are replaced by stochastic processes using pseudorandom pulse sequences. The distributions of the results from the stochastic processes are approximated using the hypergeometric distribution. Synaptic weights and neuron states are represented as probabilities and estimated as average pulse occurrence rates in corresponding pulse sequences. A statistical model of the noise (error) is developed to estimate the relative accuracy associated with stochastic computing in terms of mean and variance. Computational differences are then explained by comparison to deterministic neural computations. DMNN feedforward architectures are modeled in VHDL using character recognition problems as testbeds. Computational accuracy is analyzed, and the results of the statistical model are compared with the actual simulation results. Experiments show that the calculations performed in the DMNN are more accurate than those anticipated when Bernoulli sequences are assumed, as is common in the literature. Furthermore, the statistical model successfully predicts the accuracy of the operations performed in the DMNN.
Respiratory signal prediction based on adaptive boosting and multi-layer perceptron neural network.
Sun, W Z; Jiang, M Y; Ren, L; Dang, J; You, T; Yin, F-F
2017-08-03
To improve the prediction accuracy of respiratory signals using adaptive boosting and multi-layer perceptron neural network (ADMLP-NN) for gated treatment of moving target in radiation therapy. The respiratory signals acquired using a real-time position management (RPM) device from 138 previous 4DCT scans were retrospectively used in this study. The ADMLP-NN was composed of several artificial neural networks (ANNs) which were used as weaker predictors to compose a stronger predictor. The respiratory signal was initially smoothed using a Savitzky-Golay finite impulse response smoothing filter (S-G filter). Then, several similar multi-layer perceptron neural networks (MLP-NNs) were configured to estimate future respiratory signal position from its previous positions. Finally, an adaptive boosting (Adaboost) decision algorithm was used to set weights for each MLP-NN based on the sample prediction error of each MLP-NN. Two prediction methods, MLP-NN and ADMLP-NN (MLP-NN plus adaptive boosting), were evaluated by calculating correlation coefficient and root-mean-square-error between true and predicted signals. For predicting 500 ms ahead of prediction, average correlation coefficients were improved from 0.83 (MLP-NN method) to 0.89 (ADMLP-NN method). The average of root-mean-square-error (relative unit) for 500 ms ahead of prediction using ADMLP-NN were reduced by 27.9%, compared to those using MLP-NN. The preliminary results demonstrate that the ADMLP-NN respiratory prediction method is more accurate than the MLP-NN method and can improve the respiration prediction accuracy.
Respiratory signal prediction based on adaptive boosting and multi-layer perceptron neural network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, W. Z.; Jiang, M. Y.; Ren, L.; Dang, J.; You, T.; Yin, F.-F.
2017-09-01
To improve the prediction accuracy of respiratory signals using adaptive boosting and multi-layer perceptron neural network (ADMLP-NN) for gated treatment of moving target in radiation therapy. The respiratory signals acquired using a real-time position management (RPM) device from 138 previous 4DCT scans were retrospectively used in this study. The ADMLP-NN was composed of several artificial neural networks (ANNs) which were used as weaker predictors to compose a stronger predictor. The respiratory signal was initially smoothed using a Savitzky-Golay finite impulse response smoothing filter (S-G filter). Then, several similar multi-layer perceptron neural networks (MLP-NNs) were configured to estimate future respiratory signal position from its previous positions. Finally, an adaptive boosting (Adaboost) decision algorithm was used to set weights for each MLP-NN based on the sample prediction error of each MLP-NN. Two prediction methods, MLP-NN and ADMLP-NN (MLP-NN plus adaptive boosting), were evaluated by calculating correlation coefficient and root-mean-square-error between true and predicted signals. For predicting 500 ms ahead of prediction, average correlation coefficients were improved from 0.83 (MLP-NN method) to 0.89 (ADMLP-NN method). The average of root-mean-square-error (relative unit) for 500 ms ahead of prediction using ADMLP-NN were reduced by 27.9%, compared to those using MLP-NN. The preliminary results demonstrate that the ADMLP-NN respiratory prediction method is more accurate than the MLP-NN method and can improve the respiration prediction accuracy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kayri, Murat
2015-01-01
The objective of this study is twofold: (1) to investigate the factors that affect the success of university students by employing two artificial neural network methods (i.e., multilayer perceptron [MLP] and radial basis function [RBF]); and (2) to compare the effects of these methods on educational data in terms of predictive ability. The…
Dong, Zhekang; Duan, Shukai; Hu, Xiaofang; Wang, Lidan
2014-01-01
In this paper, we present an implementation scheme of memristor-based multilayer feedforward small-world neural network (MFSNN) inspirited by the lack of the hardware realization of the MFSNN on account of the need of a large number of electronic neurons and synapses. More specially, a mathematical closed-form charge-governed memristor model is presented with derivation procedures and the corresponding Simulink model is presented, which is an essential block for realizing the memristive synapse and the activation function in electronic neurons. Furthermore, we investigate a more intelligent memristive PID controller by incorporating the proposed MFSNN into intelligent PID control based on the advantages of the memristive MFSNN on computation speed and accuracy. Finally, numerical simulations have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. PMID:25202723
An Analog Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network for a Portable Electronic Nose
Pan, Chih-Heng; Hsieh, Hung-Yi; Tang, Kea-Tiong
2013-01-01
This study examines an analog circuit comprising a multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN). This study proposes a low-power and small-area analog MLP circuit to implement in an E-nose as a classifier, such that the E-nose would be relatively small, power-efficient, and portable. The analog MLP circuit had only four input neurons, four hidden neurons, and one output neuron. The circuit was designed and fabricated using a 0.18 μm standard CMOS process with a 1.8 V supply. The power consumption was 0.553 mW, and the area was approximately 1.36 × 1.36 mm2. The chip measurements showed that this MLPNN successfully identified the fruit odors of bananas, lemons, and lychees with 91.7% accuracy. PMID:23262482
Analysis of (7)Be behaviour in the air by using a multilayer perceptron neural network.
Samolov, A; Dragović, S; Daković, M; Bačić, G
2014-11-01
A multilayer perceptron artificial neural network (ANN) model for the prediction of the (7)Be behaviour in the air as the function of meteorological parameters was developed. The model was optimized and tested using (7)Be activity concentrations obtained by standard gamma-ray spectrometric analysis of air samples collected in Belgrade (Serbia) during 2009-2011 and meteorological data for the same period. Good correlation (r = 0.91) between experimental values of (7)Be activity concentrations and those predicted by ANN was obtained. The good performance of the model in prediction of (7)Be activity concentrations could provide basis for construction of models which would forecast behaviour of other airborne radionuclides.
Intelligent detection of impulse noise using multilayer neural network with multi-valued neurons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aizenberg, Igor; Wallace, Glen
2012-03-01
In this paper, we solve the impulse noise detection problem using an intelligent approach. We use a multilayer neural network based on multi-valued neurons (MLMVN) as an intelligent impulse noise detector. MLMVN was already used for point spread function identification and intelligent edge enhancement. So it is very attractive to apply it for solving another image processing problem. The main result, which is presented in the paper, is the proven ability of MLMVN to detect impulse noise on different images after a learning session with the data taken just from a single noisy image. Hence MLMVN can be used as a robust impulse detector. It is especially efficient for salt and pepper noise detection and outperforms all competitive techniques. It also shows comparable results in detection of random impulse noise. Moreover, for random impulse noise detection, MLMVN with the output neuron with a periodic activation function is used for the first time.
A design philosophy for multi-layer neural networks with applications to robot control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vadiee, Nader; Jamshidi, MO
1989-01-01
A system is proposed which receives input information from many sensors that may have diverse scaling, dimension, and data representations. The proposed system tolerates sensory information with faults. The proposed self-adaptive processing technique has great promise in integrating the techniques of artificial intelligence and neural networks in an attempt to build a more intelligent computing environment. The proposed architecture can provide a detailed decision tree based on the input information, information stored in a long-term memory, and the adapted rule-based knowledge. A mathematical model for analysis will be obtained to validate the cited hypotheses. An extensive software program will be developed to simulate a typical example of pattern recognition problem. It is shown that the proposed model displays attention, expectation, spatio-temporal, and predictory behavior which are specific to the human brain. The anticipated results of this research project are: (1) creation of a new dynamic neural network structure, and (2) applications to and comparison with conventional multi-layer neural network structures. The anticipated benefits from this research are vast. The model can be used in a neuro-computer architecture as a building block which can perform complicated, nonlinear, time-varying mapping from a multitude of input excitory classes to an output or decision environment. It can be used for coordinating different sensory inputs and past experience of a dynamic system and actuating signals. The commercial applications of this project can be the creation of a special-purpose neuro-computer hardware which can be used in spatio-temporal pattern recognitions in such areas as air defense systems, e.g., target tracking, and recognition. Potential robotics-related applications are trajectory planning, inverse dynamics computations, hierarchical control, task-oriented control, and collision avoidance.
Multilayer Optical Learning Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagner, Kelvin; Psaltis, Demetri
1987-08-01
In this paper we present a new approach to learning in a multilayer optical neural network which is based on holographically interconnected nonlinear Fabry-Perot etalons. The network can learn the interconnections that form a distributed representation of a desired pattern transformation operation. The interconnections are formed in an adaptive and self aligning fashion, as volume holographic gratings in photorefractive crystals. Parallel arrays of globally space integrated inner products diffracted by the interconnecting hologram illuminate arrays of nonlinear Fabry-Perot etalons for fast thresholding of the transformed patterns. A phase conjugated reference wave interferes with a backwards propagating error signal to form holographic interference patterns which are time integrated in the volume of the photorefractive crystal in order to slowly modify and learn the appropriate self aligning interconnections. A holographic implementation of a single layer perceptron learning procedure is presented that can be extendept ,to a multilayer learning network through an optical implementation of the backward error propagation (BEP) algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwindling, Jerome
2010-04-01
This course presents an overview of the concepts of the neural networks and their aplication in the framework of High energy physics analyses. After a brief introduction on the concept of neural networks, the concept is explained in the frame of neuro-biology, introducing the concept of multi-layer perceptron, learning and their use as data classifer. The concept is then presented in a second part using in more details the mathematical approach focussing on typical use cases faced in particle physics. Finally, the last part presents the best way to use such statistical tools in view of event classifers, putting the emphasis on the setup of the multi-layer perceptron. The full article (15 p.) corresponding to this lecture is written in french and is provided in the proceedings of the book SOS 2008.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itai, Akitoshi; Yasukawa, Hiroshi; Takumi, Ichi; Hata, Masayasu
It is well known that electromagnetic waves radiated from the earth's crust are useful for predicting earthquakes. We analyze the electromagnetic waves received at the extremely low frequency band of 223Hz. These observed signals contain the seismic radiation from the earth's crust, but also include several undesired signals. Our research focuses on the signal detection technique to identify an anomalous signal corresponding to the seismic radiation in the observed signal. Conventional anomalous signal detections lack a wide applicability due to their assumptions, e.g. the digital data have to be observed at the same time or the same sensor. In order to overcome the limitation related to the observed signal, we proposed the anomalous signals detection based on a multi-layer neural network which is trained by digital data observed during a span of a day. In the neural network approach, training data do not need to be recorded at the same place or the same time. However, some noises, which have a large amplitude, are detected as the anomalous signal. This paper develops a multi-layer neural network to decrease the false detection of the anomalous signal from the electromagnetic wave. The training data for the proposed network is the decomposed signal of the observed signal during several days, since the seismic radiations are often recorded from several days to a couple of weeks. Results show that the proposed neural network is useful to achieve the accurate detection of the anomalous signal that indicates seismic activity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tierra, Alfonso; Romero, Ricardo
2014-12-01
Prior any satellite technology developments, the geodetic networks of a country were realized from a topocentric datum, and hence the respective cartography was performed. With availability of Global Navigation Satellite Systems-GNSS, cartography needs to be updated and referenced to a geocentric datum to be compatible with this technology. Cartography in Ecuador has been performed using the PSAD56 (Provisional South American Datum 1956) systems, nevertheless it's necessary to have inside the system SIRGAS (SIstema de Referencia Geocéntrico para las AmericaS). This transformation between PSAD56 to SIRGAS use seven transformation parameters calculated with the method Helmert. These parameters, in case of Ecuador are compatible for scales of 1:25 000 or less, that does not satisfy the requirements on applications for major scales. In this study, the technique of neural networks is demonstrated as an alternative for improving the processing of UTM planes coordinates E, N (East, North) from PSAD56 to SIRGAS. Therefore, from the coordinates E, N, of the two systems, four transformation parameters were calculated (two of translation, one of rotation, and one scale difference) using the technique bidimensional transformation. Additionally, the same coordinates were used to training Multilayer Artificial Neural Network -MANN, in which the inputs are the coordinates E, N in PSAD56 and output are the coordinates E, N in SIRGAS. Both the two-dimensional transformation and ANN were used as control points to determine the differences between the mentioned methods. The results imply that, the coordinates transformation obtained with the artificial neural network multilayer trained have been improving the results that the bidimensional transformation, and compatible to scales 1:5000. Dostęp do nowoczesnych technologii, w tym GNSS umożliwiły dokładniejsze zdefi niowanie systemów odniesień przestrzennych wykorzystywanych m.in. w defi niowaniu krajowych układów odniesień i
The No-Prop algorithm: a new learning algorithm for multilayer neural networks.
Widrow, Bernard; Greenblatt, Aaron; Kim, Youngsik; Park, Dookun
2013-01-01
A new learning algorithm for multilayer neural networks that we have named No-Propagation (No-Prop) is hereby introduced. With this algorithm, the weights of the hidden-layer neurons are set and fixed with random values. Only the weights of the output-layer neurons are trained, using steepest descent to minimize mean square error, with the LMS algorithm of Widrow and Hoff. The purpose of introducing nonlinearity with the hidden layers is examined from the point of view of Least Mean Square Error Capacity (LMS Capacity), which is defined as the maximum number of distinct patterns that can be trained into the network with zero error. This is shown to be equal to the number of weights of each of the output-layer neurons. The No-Prop algorithm and the Back-Prop algorithm are compared. Our experience with No-Prop is limited, but from the several examples presented here, it seems that the performance regarding training and generalization of both algorithms is essentially the same when the number of training patterns is less than or equal to LMS Capacity. When the number of training patterns exceeds Capacity, Back-Prop is generally the better performer. But equivalent performance can be obtained with No-Prop by increasing the network Capacity by increasing the number of neurons in the hidden layer that drives the output layer. The No-Prop algorithm is much simpler and easier to implement than Back-Prop. Also, it converges much faster. It is too early to definitively say where to use one or the other of these algorithms. This is still a work in progress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Multi-layer holographic bifurcative neural network system for real-time adaptive EOS data analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Hua-Kuang; Huang, K. S.; Diep, J.
1993-01-01
Optical data processing techniques have the inherent advantage of high data throughout, low weight and low power requirements. These features are particularly desirable for onboard spacecraft in-situ real-time data analysis and data compression applications. the proposed multi-layer optical holographic neural net pattern recognition technique will utilize the nonlinear photorefractive devices for real-time adaptive learning to classify input data content and recognize unexpected features. Information can be stored either in analog or digital form in a nonlinear photofractive device. The recording can be accomplished in time scales ranging from milliseconds to microseconds. When a system consisting of these devices is organized in a multi-layer structure, a feedforward neural net with bifurcating data classification capability is formed. The interdisciplinary research will involve the collaboration with top digital computer architecture experts at the University of Southern California.
Multi-layer holographic bifurcative neural network system for real-time adaptive EOS data analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Hua-Kuang; Huang, K.; Diep, J.
1992-01-01
Optical data processing techniques have the inherent advantage of high data throughout, low weight and low power requirements. These features are particularly desirable for onboard spacecraft in-situ real-time data analysis and data compression applications. The proposed multi-layer optical holographic neural net pattern recognition technique will utilize the nonlinear photorefractive devices for real-time adaptive learning to classify input data content and recognize unexpected features. Information can be stored either in analog or digital form in a nonlinear photorefractive device. The recording can be accomplished in time scales ranging from milliseconds to microseconds. When a system consisting of these devices is organized in a multi-layer structure, a feed forward neural net with bifurcating data classification capability is formed. The interdisciplinary research will involve the collaboration with top digital computer architecture experts at the University of Southern California.
Taravat, Alireza; Oppelt, Natascha
2014-12-02
Oil spills represent a major threat to ocean ecosystems and their environmental status. Previous studies have shown that Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), as its recording is independent of clouds and weather, can be effectively used for the detection and classification of oil spills. Dark formation detection is the first and critical stage in oil-spill detection procedures. In this paper, a novel approach for automated dark-spot detection in SAR imagery is presented. A new approach from the combination of adaptive Weibull Multiplicative Model (WMM) and MultiLayer Perceptron (MLP) neural networks is proposed to differentiate between dark spots and the background. The results have been compared with the results of a model combining non-adaptive WMM and pulse coupled neural networks. The presented approach overcomes the non-adaptive WMM filter setting parameters by developing an adaptive WMM model which is a step ahead towards a full automatic dark spot detection. The proposed approach was tested on 60 ENVISAT and ERS2 images which contained dark spots. For the overall dataset, an average accuracy of 94.65% was obtained. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach is very robust and effective where the non-adaptive WMM & pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) model generates poor accuracies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abiriand Bhekisipho Twala, Olufunminiyi
2017-08-01
In this paper, a multilayer feedforward neural network with Bayesian regularization constitutive model is developed for alloy 316L during high strain rate and high temperature plastic deformation. The input variables are strain rate, temperature and strain while the output value is the flow stress of the material. The results show that the use of Bayesian regularized technique reduces the potential of overfitting and overtraining. The prediction quality of the model is thereby improved. The model predictions are in good agreement with experimental measurements. The measurement data used for the network training and model comparison were taken from relevant literature. The developed model is robust as it can be generalized to deformation conditions slightly below or above the training dataset.
Generalized classifier neural network.
Ozyildirim, Buse Melis; Avci, Mutlu
2013-03-01
In this work a new radial basis function based classification neural network named as generalized classifier neural network, is proposed. The proposed generalized classifier neural network has five layers, unlike other radial basis function based neural networks such as generalized regression neural network and probabilistic neural network. They are input, pattern, summation, normalization and output layers. In addition to topological difference, the proposed neural network has gradient descent based optimization of smoothing parameter approach and diverge effect term added calculation improvements. Diverge effect term is an improvement on summation layer calculation to supply additional separation ability and flexibility. Performance of generalized classifier neural network is compared with that of the probabilistic neural network, multilayer perceptron algorithm and radial basis function neural network on 9 different data sets and with that of generalized regression neural network on 3 different data sets include only two classes in MATLAB environment. Better classification performance up to %89 is observed. Improved classification performances proved the effectivity of the proposed neural network.
Analysis of Mars Express Ionogram Data via a Multilayer Artificial Neural Network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilkinson, Collin; Potter, Arron; Palmer, Greg; Duru, Firdevs
2017-01-01
Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS), which is a low frequency radar on the Mars Express (MEX) Spacecraft, can provide electron plasma densities of the ionosphere local at the spacecraft in addition to densities obtained with remote sounding. The local electron densities are obtained, with a standard error of about 2%, by measuring the electron plasma frequencies with an electronic ruler on ionograms, which are plots of echo intensity as a function of time and frequency. This is done by using a tool created at the University of Iowa (Duru et al., 2008). This approach is time consuming due to the rapid accumulation of ionogram data. In 2013, results from an algorithm-based analysis of ionograms were reported by Andrews et al., but this method did not improve the human error. In the interest of fast, accurate data interpretation, a neural network (NN) has been created based on the Fast Artificial Neural Network C libraries. This NN consists of artificial neurons, with 4 layers of 12960, 10000, 1000 and 1 neuron(s) each, consecutively. This network was trained using 40 iterations of 1000 orbits. The algorithm-based method of Andrews et al. had a standard error of 40%, while the neural network has achieved error on the order of 20%.
Multilayer cellular neural network and fuzzy C-mean classifiers: comparison and performance analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trujillo San-Martin, Maite; Hlebarov, Vejen; Sadki, Mustapha
2004-11-01
Neural Networks and Fuzzy systems are considered two of the most important artificial intelligent algorithms which provide classification capabilities obtained through different learning schemas which capture knowledge and process it according to particular rule-based algorithms. These methods are especially suited to exploit the tolerance for uncertainty and vagueness in cognitive reasoning. By applying these methods with some relevant knowledge-based rules extracted using different data analysis tools, it is possible to obtain a robust classification performance for a wide range of applications. This paper will focus on non-destructive testing quality control systems, in particular, the study of metallic structures classification according to the corrosion time using a novel cellular neural network architecture, which will be explained in detail. Additionally, we will compare these results with the ones obtained using the Fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm and analyse both classifiers according to its classification capabilities.
Regional application of multi-layer artificial neural networks in 3-D ionosphere tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghaffari Razin, Mir Reza; Voosoghi, Behzad
2016-08-01
Tomography is a very cost-effective method to study physical properties of the ionosphere. In this paper, residual minimization training neural network (RMTNN) is used in voxel-based tomography to reconstruct of 3-D ionosphere electron density with high spatial resolution. For numerical experiments, observations collected at 37 GPS stations from Iranian permanent GPS network (IPGN) are used. A smoothed TEC approach was used for absolute STEC recovery. To improve the vertical resolution, empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) obtained from international reference ionosphere 2012 (IRI-2012) used as object function in training neural network. Ionosonde observations is used for validate reliability of the proposed method. Minimum relative error for RMTNN is 1.64% and maximum relative error is 15.61%. Also root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.17 × 1011 (electrons/m3) is computed for RMTNN which is less than RMSE of IRI2012. The results show that RMTNN has higher accuracy and compiles speed than other ionosphere reconstruction methods.
Multilayer neural networks for solving a class of partial differential equations.
He, S; Reif, K; Unbehauen, R
2000-04-01
In this paper, training the derivative of a feedforward neural network with the extended backpropagation algorithm is presented. The method is used to solve a class of first-order partial differential equations for input-to-state linearizable or approximate linearizable systems. The solution of the differential equation, together with the Lie derivatives, yields a change of coordinates. A feedback control law is then designed to keep the system in a desired behavior. The examination of the proposed method, through simulations, exhibits the advantages of it. They include easily and quickly finding approximate solutions for complicated first-order partial differential equations. Therefore, the work presented here can benefit the design of the class of nonlinear control systems, where the nontrivial solutions of the partial differential equations are difficult to find.
1990-01-01
FUNDING NUMBERS PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO 11 TITLE (Include Security Classification) NEURAL NETWORKS 12. PERSONAL...SUB-GROUP Neural Networks Optical Architectures Nonlinear Optics Adaptation 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number...341i Y C-odes , lo iii/(iv blank) 1. INTRODUCTION Neural networks are a type of distributed processing system [1
Stimulated Photorefractive Optical Neural Networks
1992-12-15
This final report describes research in optical neural networks performed under DARPA sponsorship at Hughes Aircraft Company during the period 1989...in photorefractive crystals. This approach reduces crosstalk and improves the utilization of the optical input device. Successfully implemented neural ... networks include the Perceptron, Bidirectional Associative Memory, and multi-layer backpropagation networks. Up to 104 neurons, 2xl0(7) weights, and
Sun, W; Jiang, M; Yin, F
2016-06-15
Purpose: Dynamic tracking of moving organs, such as lung and liver tumors, under radiation therapy requires prediction of organ motions prior to delivery. The shift of moving organ may change a lot due to huge transform of respiration at different periods. This study aims to reduce the influence of that changes using adjustable training signals and multi-layer perceptron neural network (ASMLP). Methods: Respiratory signals obtained using a Real-time Position Management(RPM) device were used for this study. The ASMLP uses two multi-layer perceptron neural networks(MLPs) to infer respiration position alternately and the training sample will be updated with time. Firstly, a Savitzky-Golay finite impulse response smoothing filter was established to smooth the respiratory signal. Secondly, two same MLPs were developed to estimate respiratory position from its previous positions separately. Weights and thresholds were updated to minimize network errors according to Leverberg-Marquart optimization algorithm through backward propagation method. Finally, MLP 1 was used to predict 120∼150s respiration position using 0∼120s training signals. At the same time, MLP 2 was trained using 30∼150s training signals. Then MLP is used to predict 150∼180s training signals according to 30∼150s training signals. The respiration position is predicted as this way until it was finished. Results: In this experiment, the two methods were used to predict 2.5 minute respiratory signals. For predicting 1s ahead of response time, correlation coefficient was improved from 0.8250(MLP method) to 0.8856(ASMLP method). Besides, a 30% improvement of mean absolute error between MLP(0.1798 on average) and ASMLP(0.1267 on average) was achieved. For predicting 2s ahead of response time, correlation coefficient was improved from 0.61415 to 0.7098.Mean absolute error of MLP method(0.3111 on average) was reduced by 35% using ASMLP method(0.2020 on average). Conclusion: The preliminary results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verma, Kuldeep; Hanasoge, Shravan; Bhattacharya, Jishnu; Antia, H. M.; Krishnamurthi, Ganapathy
2016-10-01
The advent of space-based observatories such as Convection, Rotation and planetary Transits (CoRoT) and Kepler has enabled the testing of our understanding of stellar evolution on thousands of stars. Evolutionary models typically require five input parameters, the mass, initial helium abundance, initial metallicity, mixing length (assumed to be constant over time), and the age to which the star must be evolved. Some of these parameters are also very useful in characterizing the associated planets and in studying Galactic archaeology. How to obtain these parameters from observations rapidly and accurately, specifically in the context of surveys of thousands of stars, is an outstanding question, one that has eluded straightforward resolution. For a given star, we typically measure the effective temperature and surface metallicity spectroscopically and low-degree oscillation frequencies through space observatories. Here we demonstrate that statistical learning, using artificial neural networks, is successful in determining the evolutionary parameters based on spectroscopic and seismic measurements. Our trained networks show robustness over a broad range of parameter space, and critically, are entirely computationally inexpensive and fully automated. We analyse the observations of a few stars using this method and the results compare well to inferences obtained using other techniques. This method is both computationally cheap and inferentially accurate, paving the way for analysing the vast quantities of stellar observations from past, current, and future missions.
Heddam, Salim
2016-09-01
This paper proposes multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN) to predict phycocyanin (PC) pigment using water quality variables as predictor. In the proposed model, four water quality variables that are water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance were selected as the inputs for the MLPNN model, and the PC as the output. To demonstrate the capability and the usefulness of the MLPNN model, a total of 15,849 data measured at 15-min (15 min) intervals of time are used for the development of the model. The data are collected at the lower Charles River buoy, and available from the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). For comparison purposes, a multiple linear regression (MLR) model that was frequently used for predicting water quality variables in previous studies is also built. The performances of the models are evaluated using a set of widely used statistical indices. The performance of the MLPNN and MLR models is compared with the measured data. The obtained results show that (i) the all proposed MLPNN models are more accurate than the MLR models and (ii) the results obtained are very promising and encouraging for the development of phycocyanin-predictive models.
Neural Networks For Robot Control
2001-04-17
following: (a) Application of artificial neural networks (multi-layer perceptrons, MLPs) for 2D planar robot arm by using the dynamic backpropagation...methods for the adjustment of parameters; and optimization of the architecture; (b) Application of artificial neural networks in controlling closed...studies in controlling dynamic robot arms by using neural networks in real-time process; (2) Research of optimal architectures used in closed-loop systems in order to compare with adaptive and robust control.
Smith, Patrick I.
2003-09-23
Physicists use large detectors to measure particles created in high-energy collisions at particle accelerators. These detectors typically produce signals indicating either where ionization occurs along the path of the particle, or where energy is deposited by the particle. The data produced by these signals is fed into pattern recognition programs to try to identify what particles were produced, and to measure the energy and direction of these particles. Ideally, there are many techniques used in this pattern recognition software. One technique, neural networks, is particularly suitable for identifying what type of particle caused by a set of energy deposits. Neural networks can derive meaning from complicated or imprecise data, extract patterns, and detect trends that are too complex to be noticed by either humans or other computer related processes. To assist in the advancement of this technology, Physicists use a tool kit to experiment with several neural network techniques. The goal of this research is interface a neural network tool kit into Java Analysis Studio (JAS3), an application that allows data to be analyzed from any experiment. As the final result, a physicist will have the ability to train, test, and implement a neural network with the desired output while using JAS3 to analyze the results or output. Before an implementation of a neural network can take place, a firm understanding of what a neural network is and how it works is beneficial. A neural network is an artificial representation of the human brain that tries to simulate the learning process [5]. It is also important to think of the word artificial in that definition as computer programs that use calculations during the learning process. In short, a neural network learns by representative examples. Perhaps the easiest way to describe the way neural networks learn is to explain how the human brain functions. The human brain contains billions of neural cells that are responsible for processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Zhongchang; Guo, Huadong; Li, Xinwu; Lu, Linlin; Du, Xiaoping
2011-01-01
In recent years, the urban impervious surface has been recognized as a key quantifiable indicator in assessing urbanization impacts on environmental and ecological conditions. A surge of research interests has resulted in the estimation of urban impervious surface using remote sensing studies. The objective of this paper is to examine and compare the effectiveness of two algorithms for extracting impervious surfaces from Landsat TM imagery; the multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN) and the support vector machine (SVM). An accuracy assessment was performed using the high-resolution WorldView images. The root mean square error (RMSE), the mean absolute error (MAE), and the coefficient of determination (R2) were calculated to validate the classification performance and accuracies of MLPNN and SVM. For the MLPNN model, the RMSE, MAE, and R2 were 17.18%, 11.10%, and 0.8474, respectively. The SVM yielded a result with an RMSE of 13.75%, an MAE of 8.92%, and an R2 of 0.9032. The results indicated that SVM performance was superior to that of MLPNN in impervious surface classification. To further evaluate the performance of MLPNN and SVM in handling the mixed-pixels, an accuracy assessment was also conducted for the selected test areas, including commercial, residential, and rural areas. Our results suggested that SVM had better capability in handling the mixed-pixel problem than MLPNN. The superior performance of SVM over MLPNN is mainly attributed to the SVM's capability of deriving the global optimum and handling the over-fitting problem by suitable parameter selection. Overall, SVM provides an efficient and useful method for estimating the impervious surface.
Makris, Georgios-Marios; Pouliakis, Abraham; Siristatidis, Charalampos; Margari, Niki; Terzakis, Emmanouil; Koureas, Nikolaos; Pergialiotis, Vasilios; Papantoniou, Nikolaos; Karakitsos, Petros
2017-03-01
This study aims to investigate the efficacy of an Artificial Neural Network based on Multi-Layer Perceptron (ANN-MPL) to discriminate between benign and malignant endometrial nuclei and lesions in cytological specimens. We collected 416 histologically confirmed liquid-based cytological smears from 168 healthy patients, 152 patients with malignancy, 52 with hyperplasia without atypia, 20 with hyperplasia with atypia, and 24 patients with endometrial polyps. The morphometric characteristics of 90 nuclei per case were analyzed using a custom image analysis system; half of them were used to train the MPL-ANN model, which classified each nucleus as benign or malignant. Data from the remaining 50% of cases were used to evaluate the performance and stability of the ANN. The MLP-ANN for the nuclei classification (numeric and percentage classifiers) and the algorithms for the determination of the optimum threshold values were estimated with in-house developed software for the MATLAB v2011b programming environment; the diagnostic accuracy measures were also calculated. The accuracy of the MPL-ANN model for the classification of endometrial nuclei was 81.33%, while specificity was 88.84% and sensitivity 69.38%. For the case classification based on numeric classifier the overall accuracy was 90.87%, the specificity 93.03% and the sensitivity 87.79%; the indices for the percentage classifier were 95.91%, 93.44%, and 99.42%, respectively. Computerized systems based on ANNs can aid the cytological classification of endometrial nuclei and lesions with sufficient sensitivity and specificity. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:202-211. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Neural Network Function Classifier
2003-02-07
neural network sets. Each of the neural networks in a particular set is trained to recognize a particular data set type. The best function representation of the data set is determined from the neural network output. The system comprises sets of trained neural networks having neural networks trained to identify different types of data. The number of neural networks within each neural network set will depend on the number of function types that are represented. The system further comprises
Payload Invariant Control via Neural Networks: Development and Experimental Evaluation
1989-12-01
control is proposed and experimentally evaluated. An Adaptive Model-Based Neural Network Controller (AMBNNC) uses multilayer perceptron artificial neural ... networks to estimate the payload during high speed manipulator motion. The payload estimate adapts the feedforward compensator to unmodeled system
An Introduction to Neural Networks for Hearing Aid Noise Recognition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Jun W.; Tyler, Richard S.
1995-01-01
This article introduces the use of multilayered artificial neural networks in hearing aid noise recognition. It reviews basic principles of neural networks, and offers an example of an application in which a neural network is used to identify the presence or absence of noise in speech. The ability of neural networks to "learn" the…
An Introduction to Neural Networks for Hearing Aid Noise Recognition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Jun W.; Tyler, Richard S.
1995-01-01
This article introduces the use of multilayered artificial neural networks in hearing aid noise recognition. It reviews basic principles of neural networks, and offers an example of an application in which a neural network is used to identify the presence or absence of noise in speech. The ability of neural networks to "learn" the…
Structural reducibility of multilayer networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Domenico, Manlio; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Arenas, Alexandre; Latora, Vito
2015-04-01
Many complex systems can be represented as networks consisting of distinct types of interactions, which can be categorized as links belonging to different layers. For example, a good description of the full protein-protein interactome requires, for some organisms, up to seven distinct network layers, accounting for different genetic and physical interactions, each containing thousands of protein-protein relationships. A fundamental open question is then how many layers are indeed necessary to accurately represent the structure of a multilayered complex system. Here we introduce a method based on quantum theory to reduce the number of layers to a minimum while maximizing the distinguishability between the multilayer network and the corresponding aggregated graph. We validate our approach on synthetic benchmarks and we show that the number of informative layers in some real multilayer networks of protein-genetic interactions, social, economical and transportation systems can be reduced by up to 75%.
LeMoyne, Robert; Mastroianni, Timothy
2016-08-01
Natural gait consists of synchronous and rhythmic patterns for both the lower and upper limb. People with hemiplegia can experience reduced arm swing, which can negatively impact the quality of gait. Wearable and wireless sensors, such as through a smartphone, have demonstrated the ability to quantify various features of gait. With a software application the smartphone (iPhone) can function as a wireless gyroscope platform capable of conveying a gyroscope signal recording as an email attachment by wireless connectivity to the Internet. The gyroscope signal recordings of the affected hemiplegic arm with reduced arm swing arm and the unaffected arm are post-processed into a feature set for machine learning. Using a multilayer perceptron neural network a considerable degree of classification accuracy is attained to distinguish between the affected hemiplegic arm with reduced arm swing arm and the unaffected arm.
Mandal, Uttam; Gowda, Veeran; Ghosh, Animesh; Bose, Anirbandeep; Bhaumik, Uttam; Chatterjee, Bappaditya; Pal, Tapan Kumar
2008-02-01
The aim of the present study was to apply the simultaneous optimization method incorporating Artificial Neural Network (ANN) using Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP) model to the development of a metformin HCl 500 mg sustained release matrix tablets with an optimized in vitro release profile. The amounts of HPMC K15M and PVP K30 at three levels (-1, 0, +1) for each were selected as casual factors. In vitro dissolution time profiles at four different sampling times (1 h, 2 h, 4 h and 8 h) were chosen as output variables. 13 kinds of metformin matrix tablets were prepared according to a 2(3) factorial design (central composite) with five extra center points, and their dissolution tests were performed. Commercially available STATISTICA Neural Network software (Stat Soft, Inc., Tulsa, OK, U.S.A.) was used throughout the study. The training process of MLP was completed until a satisfactory value of root square mean (RSM) for the test data was obtained using feed forward back propagation method. The root mean square value for the trained network was 0.000097, which indicated that the optimal MLP model was reached. The optimal tablet formulation based on some predetermined release criteria predicted by MLP was 336 mg of HPMC K15M and 130 mg of PVP K30. Calculated difference (f(1) 2.19) and similarity (f(2) 89.79) factors indicated that there was no difference between predicted and experimentally observed drug release profiles for the optimal formulation. This work illustrates the potential for an artificial neural network with MLP, to assist in development of sustained release dosage forms.
Stimulated photorefractive optical neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owechko, Y.; Dunning, G.; Nordin, G.; Soffer, B. H.
1992-12-01
This final report describes research in optical neural networks performed under DARPA sponsorship at Hughes Aircraft Company during the period 1989-1992. The objective of demonstrating a programmable optical computer for flexible implementation of multi-layer neural network models was successfully achieved. The advantages of optics for neural network implementations include large storage capacity, high connectivity, and massive parallelism which result in high computation rates. The optical neurocomputer developed on this program is based on a new type of holography, cascaded grating holography (CGH), in which the neural network weights are distributed among angularly- and spatially-multiplexed gratings generated by stimulated processes in photorefractive crystals. This approach reduces crosstalk and improves the utilization of the optical input device. Successfully implemented neural networks include the Perceptron, Bidirectional Associative Memory, and multi-layer backpropagation networks. Up to 104 neurons, 2x10(7) weights, and processing rates of 2x10(7) connection updates per second were achieved. Packaging concepts for future versions of the neurocomputer were also studied.
1993-07-01
basic useful theorems and general rules which apply to neural networks (in ’Overview of Neural Network Theory’), studies of training time as the...The Neural Network , Bayes- Gaussian, and k-Nearest Neighbor Classifiers’), an analysis of fuzzy logic and its relationship to neural network (in ’Fuzzy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thakoor, Anil
1990-01-01
Viewgraphs on electronic neural networks for space station are presented. Topics covered include: electronic neural networks; electronic implementations; VLSI/thin film hybrid hardware for neurocomputing; computations with analog parallel processing; features of neuroprocessors; applications of neuroprocessors; neural network hardware for terrain trafficability determination; a dedicated processor for path planning; neural network system interface; neural network for robotic control; error backpropagation algorithm for learning; resource allocation matrix; global optimization neuroprocessor; and electrically programmable read only thin-film synaptic array.
Problem Specific applications for Neural Networks
1988-12-01
97 iv List Of Figures Figure Page 1. Neural Network Models ...... ............. 2 2. A Single - Layer Perceptron ..... ........... 4...the network is in use. Three of the most well-known neural networks are the single - layer perceptron , the multi-layer perceptron, and the Kohonen self...three of these networks can accept discrete (binary) or continuous inputs (5:6). 3 Single-Laver Perceptron. The single - layer perceptron (shown in Figure 2
Multilayer motif analysis of brain networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Battiston, Federico; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Chavez, Mario; Latora, Vito
2017-04-01
In the last decade, network science has shed new light both on the structural (anatomical) and on the functional (correlations in the activity) connectivity among the different areas of the human brain. The analysis of brain networks has made possible to detect the central areas of a neural system and to identify its building blocks by looking at overabundant small subgraphs, known as motifs. However, network analysis of the brain has so far mainly focused on anatomical and functional networks as separate entities. The recently developed mathematical framework of multi-layer networks allows us to perform an analysis of the human brain where the structural and functional layers are considered together. In this work, we describe how to classify the subgraphs of a multiplex network, and we extend the motif analysis to networks with an arbitrary number of layers. We then extract multi-layer motifs in brain networks of healthy subjects by considering networks with two layers, anatomical and functional, respectively, obtained from diffusion and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results indicate that subgraphs in which the presence of a physical connection between brain areas (links at the structural layer) coexists with a non-trivial positive correlation in their activities are statistically overabundant. Finally, we investigate the existence of a reinforcement mechanism between the two layers by looking at how the probability to find a link in one layer depends on the intensity of the connection in the other one. Showing that functional connectivity is non-trivially constrained by the underlying anatomical network, our work contributes to a better understanding of the interplay between the structure and function in the human brain.
Neural Network Design on the SRC-6 Reconfigurable Computer
2006-12-01
speeds of FPGA systems. This thesis explores the use of a Feed-forward, Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) Artificial Neural Network (ANN) architecture... Implementation of a Fast Artificial Neural Network Library (FANN), Graduate Project Report, Department of Computer Science, University of Copenhagen (DIKU...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited NEURAL NETWORK
Nonlinear programming with feedforward neural networks.
Reifman, J.
1999-06-02
We provide a practical and effective method for solving constrained optimization problems by successively training a multilayer feedforward neural network in a coupled neural-network/objective-function representation. Nonlinear programming problems are easily mapped into this representation which has a simpler and more transparent method of solution than optimization performed with Hopfield-like networks and poses very mild requirements on the functions appearing in the problem. Simulation results are illustrated and compared with an off-the-shelf optimization tool.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Çaylak, Çağrı; Kaftan, İlknur
2014-12-01
This study proposes the use of multi-layer perceptron neural networks (MLPNN) to invert dispersion curves obtained via multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) for shear S-wave velocity profile. The dispersion curve used in inversion includes the fundamental-mode dispersion data. In order to investigate the applicability and performance of the proposed MLPNN algorithm, test studies were performed using both synthetic and field examples. Gaussian random noise with a standard deviation of 4 and 8% was added to the noise-free test data to make the synthetic test more realistic. The model parameters, such as S-wave velocities and thicknesses of the synthetic layered-earth model, were obtained for different S/N ratios and noise-free data. The field survey was performed over the natural gas pipeline, located in the Germencik district of Aydın city, western Turkey. The results show that depth, velocity, and location of the embedded natural gas pipe are successfully estimated with reasonably good approximation.
Nonlinear Neural Network Oscillator.
A nonlinear oscillator (10) includes a neural network (12) having at least one output (12a) for outputting a one dimensional vector. The neural ... neural network and the input of the input layer for modifying a magnitude and/or a polarity of the one dimensional output vector prior to the sample of...first or a second direction. Connection weights of the neural network are trained on a deterministic sequence of data from a chaotic source or may be a
Intelligent neural network classifier for automatic testing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Baoxing; Yu, Heping
1996-10-01
This paper is concerned with an application of a multilayer feedforward neural network for the vision detection of industrial pictures, and introduces a high characteristics image processing and recognizing system which can be used for real-time testing blemishes, streaks and cracks, etc. on the inner walls of high-accuracy pipes. To take full advantage of the functions of the artificial neural network, such as the information distributed memory, large scale self-adapting parallel processing, high fault-tolerance ability, this system uses a multilayer perceptron as a regular detector to extract features of the images to be inspected and classify them.
Genetic algorithm for neural networks optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Setyawati, Bina R.; Creese, Robert C.; Sahirman, Sidharta
2004-11-01
This paper examines the forecasting performance of multi-layer feed forward neural networks in modeling a particular foreign exchange rates, i.e. Japanese Yen/US Dollar. The effects of two learning methods, Back Propagation and Genetic Algorithm, in which the neural network topology and other parameters fixed, were investigated. The early results indicate that the application of this hybrid system seems to be well suited for the forecasting of foreign exchange rates. The Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithm were programmed using MATLAB«.
Pricing financial derivatives with neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morelli, Marco J.; Montagna, Guido; Nicrosini, Oreste; Treccani, Michele; Farina, Marco; Amato, Paolo
2004-07-01
Neural network algorithms are applied to the problem of option pricing and adopted to simulate the nonlinear behavior of such financial derivatives. Two different kinds of neural networks, i.e. multi-layer perceptrons and radial basis functions, are used and their performances compared in detail. The analysis is carried out both for standard European options and American ones, including evaluation of the Greek letters, necessary for hedging purposes. Detailed numerical investigation show that, after a careful phase of training, neural networks are able to predict the value of options and Greek letters with high accuracy and competitive computational time.
Neural networks in auroral data assimilation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Härter, Fabrício P.; de Campos Velho, Haroldo F.; Rempel, Erico L.; Chian, Abraham C.-L.
2008-07-01
Data assimilation is an essential step for improving space weather forecasting by means of a weighted combination between observational data and data from a mathematical model. In the present work data assimilation methods based on Kalman filter (KF) and artificial neural networks are applied to a three-wave model of auroral radio emissions. A novel data assimilation method is presented, whereby a multilayer perceptron neural network is trained to emulate a KF for data assimilation by using cross-validation. The results obtained render support for the use of neural networks as an assimilation technique for space weather prediction.
Neural Network Hurricane Tracker
1998-05-27
data about the hurricane and supplying the data to a trained neural network for yielding a predicted path for the hurricane. The system further includes...a device for displaying the predicted path of the hurricane. A method for using and training the neural network in the system is described. In the...method, the neural network is trained using information about hurricanes in a specific geographical area maintained in a database. The training involves
Exploring neural network technology
Naser, J.; Maulbetsch, J.
1992-12-01
EPRI is funding several projects to explore neural network technology, a form of artificial intelligence that some believe may mimic the way the human brain processes information. This research seeks to provide a better understanding of fundamental neural network characteristics and to identify promising utility industry applications. Results to date indicate that the unique attributes of neural networks could lead to improved monitoring, diagnostic, and control capabilities for a variety of complex utility operations. 2 figs.
Advances in Artificial Neural Networks - Methodological Development and Application
USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database
Artificial neural networks as a major soft-computing technology have been extensively studied and applied during the last three decades. Research on backpropagation training algorithms for multilayer perceptron networks has spurred development of other neural network training algorithms for other ne...
Patil, R.B.
1995-05-01
Traditional neural networks like multi-layered perceptrons (MLP) use example patterns, i.e., pairs of real-valued observation vectors, ({rvec x},{rvec y}), to approximate function {cflx f}({rvec x}) = {rvec y}. To determine the parameters of the approximation, a special version of the gradient descent method called back-propagation is widely used. In many situations, observations of the input and output variables are not precise; instead, we usually have intervals of possible values. The imprecision could be due to the limited accuracy of the measuring instrument or could reflect genuine uncertainty in the observed variables. In such situation input and output data consist of mixed data types; intervals and precise numbers. Function approximation in interval domains is considered in this paper. We discuss a modification of the classical backpropagation learning algorithm to interval domains. Results are presented with simple examples demonstrating few properties of nonlinear interval mapping as noise resistance and finding set of solutions to the function approximation problem.
1991-01-01
N00014-87-K-0377 TITLE: "Studies in Neural Networks " fl.U Q l~~izie JUL 021991 "" " F.: L9’CO37 "I! c-1(.d Contract No.: N00014-87-K-0377 Final...34) have been very useful, both in understanding the dynamics of neural networks and in engineering networks to perform particular tasks. We have noted...understanding more complex network computation. Interest in applying ideas from biological neural networks to real problems of engineering raises the issues of
Disease Localization in Multilayer Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Arruda, Guilherme Ferraz; Cozzo, Emanuele; Peixoto, Tiago P.; Rodrigues, Francisco A.; Moreno, Yamir
2017-01-01
We present a continuous formulation of epidemic spreading on multilayer networks using a tensorial representation, extending the models of monoplex networks to this context. We derive analytical expressions for the epidemic threshold of the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) and susceptible-infected-recovered dynamics, as well as upper and lower bounds for the disease prevalence in the steady state for the SIS scenario. Using the quasistationary state method, we numerically show the existence of disease localization and the emergence of two or more susceptibility peaks, which are characterized analytically and numerically through the inverse participation ratio. At variance with what is observed in single-layer networks, we show that disease localization takes place on the layers and not on the nodes of a given layer. Furthermore, when mapping the critical dynamics to an eigenvalue problem, we observe a characteristic transition in the eigenvalue spectra of the supra-contact tensor as a function of the ratio of two spreading rates: If the rate at which the disease spreads within a layer is comparable to the spreading rate across layers, the individual spectra of each layer merge with the coupling between layers. Finally, we report on an interesting phenomenon, the barrier effect; i.e., for a three-layer configuration, when the layer with the lowest eigenvalue is located at the center of the line, it can effectively act as a barrier to the disease. The formalism introduced here provides a unifying mathematical approach to disease contagion in multiplex systems, opening new possibilities for the study of spreading processes.
Scaling properties of multilayer random networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Méndez-Bermúdez, J. A.; de Arruda, Guilherme Ferraz; Rodrigues, Francisco A.; Moreno, Yamir
2017-07-01
Multilayer networks are widespread in natural and manmade systems. Key properties of these networks are their spectral and eigenfunction characteristics, as they determine the critical properties of many dynamics occurring on top of them. Here, we numerically demonstrate that the normalized localization length β of the eigenfunctions of multilayer random networks follows a simple scaling law given by β =x*/(1 +x*) , with x*=γ (beff2/L ) δ , δ ˜1 , and beff being the effective bandwidth of the adjacency matrix of the network, whose size is L . The scaling law for β , that we validate on real-world networks, might help to better understand criticality in multilayer networks and to predict the eigenfunction localization properties of them.
Using Artificial Neural Networks to Predict Malignancy of Ovarian Tumors
2007-11-02
This paper discusses the application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to preoperative discrimination between benign and malignant ovarian tumors...With the input variables selected by logistic regression analysis, two types of feed-forward neural networks were built: multi-layer perceptrons
Probabilistic Analysis of Neural Networks
1990-11-26
provide an understanding of the basic mechanisms of learning and recognition in neural networks . The main areas of progress were analysis of neural ... networks models, study of network connectivity, and investigation of computer network theory.
Equations of Learning and Capacity of Layered Neural Networks
1989-05-01
I-ILL ~Ut *4 (V) NWCTP 7013 (0 Equations of Learning and Capacity of 0Layered Neural Networks by Jorge M. Martin Applied Mathematics Research Group...multilayered neural networks that were discovered during the initial phase of the Independent Research project entitled "The Mathematics of Artificial...represent a small contribution to the basic knowledge of the mathematical aspects of the newly emergent theory of Artificial Neural Networks . This
Neural networks for aircraft control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Linse, Dennis
1990-01-01
Current research in Artificial Neural Networks indicates that networks offer some potential advantages in adaptation and fault tolerance. This research is directed at determining the possible applicability of neural networks to aircraft control. The first application will be to aircraft trim. Neural network node characteristics, network topology and operation, neural network learning and example histories using neighboring optimal control with a neural net are discussed.
Neural network subtyping of depression.
Florio, T M; Parker, G; Austin, M P; Hickie, I; Mitchell, P; Wilhelm, K
1998-10-01
To examine the applicability of a neural network classification strategy to examine the independent contribution of psychomotor disturbance (PMD) and endogeneity symptoms to the DSM-III-R definition of melancholia. We studied 407 depressed patients with the clinical dataset comprising 17 endogeneity symptoms and the 18-item CORE measure of behaviourally rated PMD. A multilayer perception neural network was used to fit non-linear models of varying complexity. A linear discriminant function analysis was also used to generate a model for comparison with the non-linear models. Models (linear and non-linear) using PMD items only and endogeneity symptoms only had similar rates of successful classification, while non-linear models combining both PMD and symptoms scores achieved the best classifications. Our current non-linear model was superior to a linear analysis, a finding which may have wider application to psychiatric classification. Our non-linear analysis of depressive subtypes supports the binary view that melancholic and non-melancholic depression are separate clinical disorders rather than different forms of the same entity. This study illustrates how non-linear modelling with neural networks is a potentially fruitful approach to the study of the diagnostic taxonomy of psychiatric disorders and to clinical decision-making.
Lee, I-Chi; Wu, Yu-Chieh
2014-09-01
Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) are a possible candidate for advancing development and lineage control in neural engineering. Differentiated protocols have been developed in this field to generate neural progeny and to establish neural networks. However, continued refinement is required to enhance differentiation specificity and prevent the generation of unwanted cell types. In this study, we fabricated a niche-modulated system to investigate surface effects on NSPC differentiation by the formation of polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) films governed by electrostatic interactions of poly-l-glutamine acid as a polyanion and poly-l-lysine as a polycation. The serum- and chemical agent-free system provided a clean and clear platform to observe in isolation the interaction between surface niche and stem cell differentiation. We found that NSPCs were inducible on PEM films of up to eight alternating layers. In addition, neurite outgrowth, neuron percentage, and synaptic function were regulated by layer number and the surface charge of the terminal layer. The average process outgrowth length was over 500μm on PLL/PLGA(n=7.5) only after 3 days of culture. Moreover, the quantity and quality of the differentiated neurons were enhanced as the number of layers increased, especially when the terminal layer was poly-l-lysine. Our results achieve important targets of neural engineering, including long processes, large neural network size, and large amounts of functional neurons. Our methodology for nanoscale control of material deposition can be successfully applied for surface modification, neural niche modulation, and neural engineering applications. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Critical Branching Neural Networks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kello, Christopher T.
2013-01-01
It is now well-established that intrinsic variations in human neural and behavioral activity tend to exhibit scaling laws in their fluctuations and distributions. The meaning of these scaling laws is an ongoing matter of debate between isolable causes versus pervasive causes. A spiking neural network model is presented that self-tunes to critical…
Critical Branching Neural Networks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kello, Christopher T.
2013-01-01
It is now well-established that intrinsic variations in human neural and behavioral activity tend to exhibit scaling laws in their fluctuations and distributions. The meaning of these scaling laws is an ongoing matter of debate between isolable causes versus pervasive causes. A spiking neural network model is presented that self-tunes to critical…
Failure behavior identification for a space antenna via neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sartori, Michael A.; Antsaklis, Panos J.
1992-01-01
By using neural networks, a method for the failure behavior identification of a space antenna model is investigated. The proposed method uses three stages. If a fault is suspected by the first stage of fault detection, a diagnostic test is performed on the antenna. The diagnostic test results are used by the second and third stages to identify which fault occurred and to diagnose the extent of the fault, respectively. The first stage uses a multilayer perceptron, the second stage uses a multilayer perceptron and neural networks trained with the quadratic optimization algorithm, a novel training procedure, and the third stage uses backpropagation trained neural networks.
1991-05-01
capture underlying relationships directly from observed behavior is one of the primary capabilities of neural networks. 29 Back P’ropagation Approximailon...model complex behavior patterns. Particularly in areas traditionally addressed by regression and other functional based techniques, neural networks...to.be determined directly from the observed behavior of a system or sample of individuals. This ability should prove important in personnel analysis and
DARPA Neural Network Study: October 1987 - February 1988
1989-03-22
Van Allen) 39 viii Figure No. Page 2-20 Sonar Target Discrimination (Sejnowski) 40 2-21 Multi-layer Perceptron Vowel Classifier (Lippmann) 41 2...system, thanks to the fact that it’s a neural network, is that upon training it is capable of recognizing any alphabet - e.g., Cyrillic, Hebrew , etc...Sejnowski). 2.4A Application: Multi-layer Perceptron Vowel Classifier Figure 2-21 indicates how a multi-layer perceptron neural network developed by
Coronary Artery Diagnosis Aided by Neural Network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stefko, Kamil
2007-01-01
Coronary artery disease is due to atheromatous narrowing and subsequent occlusion of the coronary vessel. Application of optimised feed forward multi-layer back propagation neural network (MLBP) for detection of narrowing in coronary artery vessels is presented in this paper. The research was performed using 580 data records from traditional ECG exercise test confirmed by coronary arteriography results. Each record of training database included description of the state of a patient providing input data for the neural network. Level and slope of ST segment of a 12 lead ECG signal recorded at rest and after effort (48 floating point values) was the main component of input data for neural network was. Coronary arteriography results (verified the existence or absence of more than 50% stenosis of the particular coronary vessels) were used as a correct neural network training output pattern. More than 96% of cases were correctly recognised by especially optimised and a thoroughly verified neural network. Leave one out method was used for neural network verification so 580 data records could be used for training as well as for verification of neural network.
Acute appendicitis diagnosis using artificial neural networks.
Park, Sung Yun; Kim, Sung Min
2015-01-01
Artificial neural networks is one of pattern analyzer method which are rapidly applied on a bio-medical field. The aim of this research was to propose an appendicitis diagnosis system using artificial neural networks (ANNs). Data from 801 patients of the university hospital in Dongguk were used to construct artificial neural networks for diagnosing appendicitis and acute appendicitis. A radial basis function neural network structure (RBF), a multilayer neural network structure (MLNN), and a probabilistic neural network structure (PNN) were used for artificial neural network models. The Alvarado clinical scoring system was used for comparison with the ANNs. The accuracy of the RBF, PNN, MLNN, and Alvarado was 99.80%, 99.41%, 97.84%, and 72.19%, respectively. The area under ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve of RBF, PNN, MLNN, and Alvarado was 0.998, 0.993, 0.985, and 0.633, respectively. The proposed models using ANNs for diagnosing appendicitis showed good performances, and were significantly better than the Alvarado clinical scoring system (p < 0.001). With cooperation among facilities, the accuracy for diagnosing this serious health condition can be improved.
Evolutionary games on multilayer networks: a colloquium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhen; Wang, Lin; Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž
2015-05-01
Networks form the backbone of many complex systems, ranging from the Internet to human societies. Accordingly, not only is the range of our interactions limited and thus best described and modeled by networks, it is also a fact that the networks that are an integral part of such models are often interdependent or even interconnected. Networks of networks or multilayer networks are therefore a more apt description of social systems. This colloquium is devoted to evolutionary games on multilayer networks, and in particular to the evolution of cooperation as one of the main pillars of modern human societies. We first give an overview of the most significant conceptual differences between single-layer and multilayer networks, and we provide basic definitions and a classification of the most commonly used terms. Subsequently, we review fascinating and counterintuitive evolutionary outcomes that emerge due to different types of interdependencies between otherwise independent populations. The focus is on coupling through the utilities of players, through the flow of information, as well as through the popularity of different strategies on different network layers. The colloquium highlights the importance of pattern formation and collective behavior for the promotion of cooperation under adverse conditions, as well as the synergies between network science and evolutionary game theory.
Forecasting PM10 in Algiers: efficacy of multilayer perceptron networks.
Abderrahim, Hamza; Chellali, Mohammed Reda; Hamou, Ahmed
2016-01-01
Air quality forecasting system has acquired high importance in atmospheric pollution due to its negative impacts on the environment and human health. The artificial neural network is one of the most common soft computing methods that can be pragmatic for carving such complex problem. In this paper, we used a multilayer perceptron neural network to forecast the daily averaged concentration of the respirable suspended particulates with aerodynamic diameter of not more than 10 μm (PM10) in Algiers, Algeria. The data for training and testing the network are based on the data sampled from 2002 to 2006 collected by SAMASAFIA network center at El Hamma station. The meteorological data, air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed, are used as inputs network parameters in the formation of model. The training patterns used correspond to 41 days data. The performance of the developed models was evaluated on the basis index of agreement and other statistical parameters. It was seen that the overall performance of model with 15 neurons is better than the ones with 5 and 10 neurons. The results of multilayer network with as few as one hidden layer and 15 neurons were quite reasonable than the ones with 5 and 10 neurons. Finally, an error around 9% has been reached.
Anderson, J.A.; Markman, A.B.; Viscuso, S.R.; Wisniewski, E.J.
1988-09-01
Neural networks ''compute'' though not in the way that traditional computers do. One must accept their weaknesses to use their strengths. The authors present several applications of a particular non-linear network (the BSB model) to illustrate some of the peculiarities inherent in this architecture.
Neural networks in seismic discrimination
Dowla, F.U.
1995-01-01
Neural networks are powerful and elegant computational tools that can be used in the analysis of geophysical signals. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have developed neural networks to solve problems in seismic discrimination, event classification, and seismic and hydrodynamic yield estimation. Other researchers have used neural networks for seismic phase identification. We are currently developing neural networks to estimate depths of seismic events using regional seismograms. In this paper different types of network architecture and representation techniques are discussed. We address the important problem of designing neural networks with good generalization capabilities. Examples of neural networks for treaty verification applications are also described.
Tomography using neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demeter, G.
1997-03-01
We have utilized neural networks for fast evaluation of tomographic data on the MT-1M tokamak. The networks have proven useful in providing the parameters of a nonlinear fit to experimental data, producing results in a fraction of the time required for performing the nonlinear fit. Time required for training the networks makes the method worth applying only if a substantial amount of data are to be evaluated.
Complex Chebyshev-polynomial-based unified model (CCPBUM) neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeng, Jin-Tsong; Lee, Tsu-Tian
1998-03-01
In this paper, we propose complex Chebyshev Polynomial Based unified model neural network for the approximation of complex- valued function. Based on this approximate transformable technique, we have derived the relationship between the single-layered neural network and multi-layered perceptron neural network. It is shown that the complex Chebyshev Polynomial Based unified model neural network can be represented as a functional link network that are based on Chebyshev polynomial. We also derived a new learning algorithm for the proposed network. It turns out that the complex Chebyshev Polynomial Based unified model neural network not only has the same capability of universal approximator, but also has faster learning speed than conventional complex feedforward/recurrent neural network.
Optical-Correlator Neural Network Based On Neocognitron
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, Tien-Hsin; Stoner, William W.
1994-01-01
Multichannel optical correlator implements shift-invariant, high-discrimination pattern-recognizing neural network based on paradigm of neocognitron. Selected as basic building block of this neural network because invariance under shifts is inherent advantage of Fourier optics included in optical correlators in general. Neocognitron is conceptual electronic neural-network model for recognition of visual patterns. Multilayer processing achieved by iteratively feeding back output of feature correlator to input spatial light modulator and updating Fourier filters. Neural network trained by use of characteristic features extracted from target images. Multichannel implementation enables parallel processing of large number of selected features.
Optical-Correlator Neural Network Based On Neocognitron
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, Tien-Hsin; Stoner, William W.
1994-01-01
Multichannel optical correlator implements shift-invariant, high-discrimination pattern-recognizing neural network based on paradigm of neocognitron. Selected as basic building block of this neural network because invariance under shifts is inherent advantage of Fourier optics included in optical correlators in general. Neocognitron is conceptual electronic neural-network model for recognition of visual patterns. Multilayer processing achieved by iteratively feeding back output of feature correlator to input spatial light modulator and updating Fourier filters. Neural network trained by use of characteristic features extracted from target images. Multichannel implementation enables parallel processing of large number of selected features.
The Adaptive Kernel Neural Network
1989-10-01
A neural network architecture for clustering and classification is described. The Adaptive Kernel Neural Network (AKNN) is a density estimation...classification layer. The AKNN retains the inherent parallelism common in neural network models. Its relationship to the kernel estimator allows the network to
Hyperbolic Hopfield neural networks.
Kobayashi, M
2013-02-01
In recent years, several neural networks using Clifford algebra have been studied. Clifford algebra is also called geometric algebra. Complex-valued Hopfield neural networks (CHNNs) are the most popular neural networks using Clifford algebra. The aim of this brief is to construct hyperbolic HNNs (HHNNs) as an analog of CHNNs. Hyperbolic algebra is a Clifford algebra based on Lorentzian geometry. In this brief, a hyperbolic neuron is defined in a manner analogous to a phasor neuron, which is a typical complex-valued neuron model. HHNNs share common concepts with CHNNs, such as the angle and energy. However, HHNNs and CHNNs are different in several aspects. The states of hyperbolic neurons do not form a circle, and, therefore, the start and end states are not identical. In the quantized version, unlike complex-valued neurons, hyperbolic neurons have an infinite number of states.
A multi-layer network approach to MEG connectivity analysis.
Brookes, Matthew J; Tewarie, Prejaas K; Hunt, Benjamin A E; Robson, Sian E; Gascoyne, Lauren E; Liddle, Elizabeth B; Liddle, Peter F; Morris, Peter G
2016-05-15
Recent years have shown the critical importance of inter-regional neural network connectivity in supporting healthy brain function. Such connectivity is measurable using neuroimaging techniques such as MEG, however the richness of the electrophysiological signal makes gaining a complete picture challenging. Specifically, connectivity can be calculated as statistical interdependencies between neural oscillations within a large range of different frequency bands. Further, connectivity can be computed between frequency bands. This pan-spectral network hierarchy likely helps to mediate simultaneous formation of multiple brain networks, which support ongoing task demand. However, to date it has been largely overlooked, with many electrophysiological functional connectivity studies treating individual frequency bands in isolation. Here, we combine oscillatory envelope based functional connectivity metrics with a multi-layer network framework in order to derive a more complete picture of connectivity within and between frequencies. We test this methodology using MEG data recorded during a visuomotor task, highlighting simultaneous and transient formation of motor networks in the beta band, visual networks in the gamma band and a beta to gamma interaction. Having tested our method, we use it to demonstrate differences in occipital alpha band connectivity in patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. We further show that these connectivity differences are predictive of the severity of persistent symptoms of the disease, highlighting their clinical relevance. Our findings demonstrate the unique potential of MEG to characterise neural network formation and dissolution. Further, we add weight to the argument that dysconnectivity is a core feature of the neuropathology underlying schizophrenia.
A multi-layer network approach to MEG connectivity analysis
Brookes, Matthew J.; Tewarie, Prejaas K.; Hunt, Benjamin A.E.; Robson, Sian E.; Gascoyne, Lauren E.; Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Liddle, Peter F.; Morris, Peter G.
2016-01-01
Recent years have shown the critical importance of inter-regional neural network connectivity in supporting healthy brain function. Such connectivity is measurable using neuroimaging techniques such as MEG, however the richness of the electrophysiological signal makes gaining a complete picture challenging. Specifically, connectivity can be calculated as statistical interdependencies between neural oscillations within a large range of different frequency bands. Further, connectivity can be computed between frequency bands. This pan-spectral network hierarchy likely helps to mediate simultaneous formation of multiple brain networks, which support ongoing task demand. However, to date it has been largely overlooked, with many electrophysiological functional connectivity studies treating individual frequency bands in isolation. Here, we combine oscillatory envelope based functional connectivity metrics with a multi-layer network framework in order to derive a more complete picture of connectivity within and between frequencies. We test this methodology using MEG data recorded during a visuomotor task, highlighting simultaneous and transient formation of motor networks in the beta band, visual networks in the gamma band and a beta to gamma interaction. Having tested our method, we use it to demonstrate differences in occipital alpha band connectivity in patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. We further show that these connectivity differences are predictive of the severity of persistent symptoms of the disease, highlighting their clinical relevance. Our findings demonstrate the unique potential of MEG to characterise neural network formation and dissolution. Further, we add weight to the argument that dysconnectivity is a core feature of the neuropathology underlying schizophrenia. PMID:26908313
Program PSNN (Plasma Spectroscopy Neural Network)
Morgan, W.L.; Larsen, J.T.
1993-08-01
This program uses the standard ``delta rule`` back-propagation supervised training algorithm for multi-layer neural networks. The inputs are line intensities in arbitrary units, which are then normalized within the program. The outputs are T{sub e}(eV), N{sub e}(cm{sup {minus}3}), and a fractional ionization, which in our testing using H- and He-like spectra, was N(He)/[N(H) + N(He)].
Random walk centrality in interconnected multilayer networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solé-Ribalta, Albert; De Domenico, Manlio; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex
2016-06-01
Real-world complex systems exhibit multiple levels of relationships. In many cases they require to be modeled as interconnected multilayer networks, characterizing interactions of several types simultaneously. It is of crucial importance in many fields, from economics to biology and from urban planning to social sciences, to identify the most (or the less) influent nodes in a network using centrality measures. However, defining the centrality of actors in interconnected complex networks is not trivial. In this paper, we rely on the tensorial formalism recently proposed to characterize and investigate this kind of complex topologies, and extend two well known random walk centrality measures, the random walk betweenness and closeness centrality, to interconnected multilayer networks. For each of the measures we provide analytical expressions that completely agree with numerically results.
Neural networks for segmentation, tracking, and identification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogers, Steven K.; Ruck, Dennis W.; Priddy, Kevin L.; Tarr, Gregory L.
1992-09-01
The main thrust of this paper is to encourage the use of neural networks to process raw data for subsequent classification. This article addresses neural network techniques for processing raw pixel information. For this paper the definition of neural networks includes the conventional artificial neural networks such as the multilayer perceptrons and also biologically inspired processing techniques. Previously, we have successfully used the biologically inspired Gabor transform to process raw pixel information and segment images. In this paper we extend those ideas to both segment and track objects in multiframe sequences. It is also desirable for the neural network processing data to learn features for subsequent recognition. A common first step for processing raw data is to transform the data and use the transform coefficients as features for recognition. For example, handwritten English characters become linearly separable in the feature space of the low frequency Fourier coefficients. Much of human visual perception can be modelled by assuming low frequency Fourier as the feature space used by the human visual system. The optimum linear transform, with respect to reconstruction, is the Karhunen-Loeve transform (KLT). It has been shown that some neural network architectures can compute approximations to the KLT. The KLT coefficients can be used for recognition as well as for compression. We tested the use of the KLT on the problem of interfacing a nonverbal patient to a computer. The KLT uses an optimal basis set for object reconstruction. For object recognition, the KLT may not be optimal.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baram, Yoram
1988-01-01
Nested neural networks, consisting of small interconnected subnetworks, allow for the storage and retrieval of neural state patterns of different sizes. The subnetworks are naturally categorized by layers of corresponding to spatial frequencies in the pattern field. The storage capacity and the error correction capability of the subnetworks generally increase with the degree of connectivity between layers (the nesting degree). Storage of only few subpatterns in each subnetworks results in a vast storage capacity of patterns and subpatterns in the nested network, maintaining high stability and error correction capability.
Chen, Chao; Yan, Xuefeng
2015-06-01
In this paper, an optimized multilayer feed-forward network (MLFN) is developed to construct a soft sensor for controlling naphtha dry point. To overcome the two main flaws in the structure and weight of MLFNs, which are trained by a back-propagation learning algorithm, minimal redundancy maximal relevance-partial mutual information clustering (mPMIc) integrated with least square regression (LSR) is proposed to optimize the MLFN. The mPMIc can determine the location of hidden layer nodes using information in the hidden and output layers, as well as remove redundant hidden layer nodes. These selected nodes are highly related to output data, but are minimally correlated with other hidden layer nodes. The weights between the selected hidden layer nodes and output layer are then updated through LSR. When the redundant nodes from the hidden layer are removed, the ideal MLFN structure can be obtained according to the test error results. In actual applications, the naphtha dry point must be controlled accurately because it strongly affects the production yield and the stability of subsequent operational processes. The mPMIc-LSR MLFN with a simple network size performs better than other improved MLFN variants and existing efficient models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pham, Binh Thai; Tien Bui, Dieu; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Indra, Prakash; Dholakia, M. B.
2017-04-01
The objective of this study is to make a comparison of the prediction performance of three techniques, Functional Trees (FT), Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks (MLP Neural Nets), and Naïve Bayes (NB) for landslide susceptibility assessment at the Uttarakhand Area (India). Firstly, a landslide inventory map with 430 landslide locations in the study area was constructed from various sources. Landslide locations were then randomly split into two parts (i) 70 % landslide locations being used for training models (ii) 30 % landslide locations being employed for validation process. Secondly, a total of eleven landslide conditioning factors including slope angle, slope aspect, elevation, curvature, lithology, soil, land cover, distance to roads, distance to lineaments, distance to rivers, and rainfall were used in the analysis to elucidate the spatial relationship between these factors and landslide occurrences. Feature selection of Linear Support Vector Machine (LSVM) algorithm was employed to assess the prediction capability of these conditioning factors on landslide models. Subsequently, the NB, MLP Neural Nets, and FT models were constructed using training dataset. Finally, success rate and predictive rate curves were employed to validate and compare the predictive capability of three used models. Overall, all the three models performed very well for landslide susceptibility assessment. Out of these models, the MLP Neural Nets and the FT models had almost the same predictive capability whereas the MLP Neural Nets (AUC = 0.850) was slightly better than the FT model (AUC = 0.849). The NB model (AUC = 0.838) had the lowest predictive capability compared to other models. Landslide susceptibility maps were final developed using these three models. These maps would be helpful to planners and engineers for the development activities and land-use planning.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pham, Binh Thai; Tien Bui, Dieu; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Indra, Prakash; Dholakia, M. B.
2015-12-01
The objective of this study is to make a comparison of the prediction performance of three techniques, Functional Trees (FT), Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks (MLP Neural Nets), and Naïve Bayes (NB) for landslide susceptibility assessment at the Uttarakhand Area (India). Firstly, a landslide inventory map with 430 landslide locations in the study area was constructed from various sources. Landslide locations were then randomly split into two parts (i) 70 % landslide locations being used for training models (ii) 30 % landslide locations being employed for validation process. Secondly, a total of eleven landslide conditioning factors including slope angle, slope aspect, elevation, curvature, lithology, soil, land cover, distance to roads, distance to lineaments, distance to rivers, and rainfall were used in the analysis to elucidate the spatial relationship between these factors and landslide occurrences. Feature selection of Linear Support Vector Machine (LSVM) algorithm was employed to assess the prediction capability of these conditioning factors on landslide models. Subsequently, the NB, MLP Neural Nets, and FT models were constructed using training dataset. Finally, success rate and predictive rate curves were employed to validate and compare the predictive capability of three used models. Overall, all the three models performed very well for landslide susceptibility assessment. Out of these models, the MLP Neural Nets and the FT models had almost the same predictive capability whereas the MLP Neural Nets (AUC = 0.850) was slightly better than the FT model (AUC = 0.849). The NB model (AUC = 0.838) had the lowest predictive capability compared to other models. Landslide susceptibility maps were final developed using these three models. These maps would be helpful to planners and engineers for the development activities and land-use planning.
Neural networks in psychiatry.
Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke; Bullmore, Edward
2013-01-01
Over the past three decades numerous imaging studies have revealed structural and functional brain abnormalities in patients with neuropsychiatric diseases. These structural and functional brain changes are frequently found in multiple, discrete brain areas and may include frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortices as well as subcortical brain areas. However, while the structural and functional brain changes in patients are found in anatomically separated areas, these are connected through (long distance) fibers, together forming networks. Thus, instead of representing separate (patho)-physiological entities, these local changes in the brains of patients with psychiatric disorders may in fact represent different parts of the same 'elephant', i.e., the (altered) brain network. Recent developments in quantitative analysis of complex networks, based largely on graph theory, have revealed that the brain's structure and functions have features of complex networks. Here we briefly introduce several recent developments in neural network studies relevant for psychiatry, including from the 2013 special issue on Neural Networks in Psychiatry in European Neuropsychopharmacology. We conclude that new insights will be revealed from the neural network approaches to brain imaging in psychiatry that hold the potential to find causes for psychiatric disorders and (preventive) treatments in the future.
Neural networks counting chimes.
Amit, D J
1988-01-01
It is shown that the ideas that led to neural networks capable of recalling associatively and asynchronously temporal sequences of patterns can be extended to produce a neural network that automatically counts the cardinal number in a sequence of identical external stimuli. The network is explicitly constructed, analyzed, and simulated. Such a network may account for the cognitive effect of the automatic counting of chimes to tell the hour. A more general implication is that different electrophysiological responses to identical stimuli, at certain stages of cortical processing, do not necessarily imply synaptic modification, a la Hebb. Such differences may arise from the fact that consecutive identical inputs find the network in different stages of an active temporal sequence of cognitive states. These types of networks are then situated within a program for the study of cognition, which assigns the detection of meaning as the primary role of attractor neural networks rather than computation, in contrast to the parallel distributed processing attitude to the connectionist project. This interpretation is free of homunculus, as well as from the criticism raised against the cognitive model of symbol manipulation. Computation is then identified as the syntax of temporal sequences of quasi-attractors. PMID:3353371
Evolving Neural Network Pattern Classifiers
1994-05-01
This work investigates the application of evolutionary programming for automatically configuring neural network architectures for pattern...evaluating a multitude of neural network model hypotheses. The evolutionary programming search is augmented with the Solis & Wets random optimization
Mathematical Theory of Neural Networks
1994-08-31
This report provides a summary of the grant work by the principal investigators in the area of neural networks . The topics covered deal with...properties) for nets; and the use of neural networks for the control of nonlinear systems.
Neural Networks and Micromechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kussul, Ernst; Baidyk, Tatiana; Wunsch, Donald C.
The title of the book, "Neural Networks and Micromechanics," seems artificial. However, the scientific and technological developments in recent decades demonstrate a very close connection between the two different areas of neural networks and micromechanics. The purpose of this book is to demonstrate this connection. Some artificial intelligence (AI) methods, including neural networks, could be used to improve automation system performance in manufacturing processes. However, the implementation of these AI methods within industry is rather slow because of the high cost of conducting experiments using conventional manufacturing and AI systems. To lower the cost, we have developed special micromechanical equipment that is similar to conventional mechanical equipment but of much smaller size and therefore of lower cost. This equipment could be used to evaluate different AI methods in an easy and inexpensive way. The proved methods could be transferred to industry through appropriate scaling. In this book, we describe the prototypes of low cost microequipment for manufacturing processes and the implementation of some AI methods to increase precision, such as computer vision systems based on neural networks for microdevice assembly and genetic algorithms for microequipment characterization and the increase of microequipment precision.
Improved Autoassociative Neural Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hand, Charles
2003-01-01
Improved autoassociative neural networks, denoted nexi, have been proposed for use in controlling autonomous robots, including mobile exploratory robots of the biomorphic type. In comparison with conventional autoassociative neural networks, nexi would be more complex but more capable in that they could be trained to do more complex tasks. A nexus would use bit weights and simple arithmetic in a manner that would enable training and operation without a central processing unit, programs, weight registers, or large amounts of memory. Only a relatively small amount of memory (to hold the bit weights) and a simple logic application- specific integrated circuit would be needed. A description of autoassociative neural networks is prerequisite to a meaningful description of a nexus. An autoassociative network is a set of neurons that are completely connected in the sense that each neuron receives input from, and sends output to, all the other neurons. (In some instantiations, a neuron could also send output back to its own input terminal.) The state of a neuron is completely determined by the inner product of its inputs with weights associated with its input channel. Setting the weights sets the behavior of the network. The neurons of an autoassociative network are usually regarded as comprising a row or vector. Time is a quantized phenomenon for most autoassociative networks in the sense that time proceeds in discrete steps. At each time step, the row of neurons forms a pattern: some neurons are firing, some are not. Hence, the current state of an autoassociative network can be described with a single binary vector. As time goes by, the network changes the vector. Autoassociative networks move vectors over hyperspace landscapes of possibilities.
Partial Information Community Detection in a Multilayer Network
2016-06-01
of terrorist networks within civilian populations is one of ever-increasing importance in our world today. We create a large multilayer synthetic...increasing importance in our world today. We create a large multilayer synthetic network, and embed a known terrorist network in the larger synthetic network...through the multilayer. It is important to provide clarity about what these terms will represent in this work. A Mul- tiplex network will represent
Generalized Adaptive Artificial Neural Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tawel, Raoul
1993-01-01
Mathematical model of supervised learning by artificial neural network provides for simultaneous adjustments of both temperatures of neurons and synaptic weights, and includes feedback as well as feedforward synaptic connections. Extension of mathematical model described in "Adaptive Neurons For Artificial Neural Networks" (NPO-17803). Dynamics of neural network represented in new model by less-restrictive continuous formalism.
Neural Network Communications Signal Processing
1994-08-01
This final technical report describes the research and development- results of the Neural Network Communications Signal Processing (NNCSP) Program...The objectives of the NNCSP program are to: (1) develop and implement a neural network and communications signal processing simulation system for the...purpose of exploring the applicability of neural network technology to communications signal processing; (2) demonstrate several configurations of the
Neural Networks for Speech Application.
1987-11-01
This is a general introduction to the reemerging technology called neural networks , and how these networks may provide an important alternative to...traditional forms of computing in speech applications. Neural networks , sometimes called Artificial Neural Systems (ANS), have shown promise for solving
Generalized Adaptive Artificial Neural Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tawel, Raoul
1993-01-01
Mathematical model of supervised learning by artificial neural network provides for simultaneous adjustments of both temperatures of neurons and synaptic weights, and includes feedback as well as feedforward synaptic connections. Extension of mathematical model described in "Adaptive Neurons For Artificial Neural Networks" (NPO-17803). Dynamics of neural network represented in new model by less-restrictive continuous formalism.
Chaotic Neural Networks and Beyond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aihara, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Taiji; Oku, Makito
2013-01-01
A chaotic neuron model which is closely related to deterministic chaos observed experimentally with squid giant axons is explained, and used to construct a chaotic neural network model. Further, such a chaotic neural network is extended to different chaotic models such as a largescale memory relation network, a locally connected network, a vector-valued network, and a quaternionic-valued neuron.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Villarreal, James A.
1991-01-01
A whole new arena of computer technologies is now beginning to form. Still in its infancy, neural network technology is a biologically inspired methodology which draws on nature's own cognitive processes. The Software Technology Branch has provided a software tool, Neural Execution and Training System (NETS), to industry, government, and academia to facilitate and expedite the use of this technology. NETS is written in the C programming language and can be executed on a variety of machines. Once a network has been debugged, NETS can produce a C source code which implements the network. This code can then be incorporated into other software systems. Described here are various software projects currently under development with NETS and the anticipated future enhancements to NETS and the technology.
Interval probabilistic neural network.
Kowalski, Piotr A; Kulczycki, Piotr
2017-01-01
Automated classification systems have allowed for the rapid development of exploratory data analysis. Such systems increase the independence of human intervention in obtaining the analysis results, especially when inaccurate information is under consideration. The aim of this paper is to present a novel approach, a neural networking, for use in classifying interval information. As presented, neural methodology is a generalization of probabilistic neural network for interval data processing. The simple structure of this neural classification algorithm makes it applicable for research purposes. The procedure is based on the Bayes approach, ensuring minimal potential losses with regard to that which comes about through classification errors. In this article, the topological structure of the network and the learning process are described in detail. Of note, the correctness of the procedure proposed here has been verified by way of numerical tests. These tests include examples of both synthetic data, as well as benchmark instances. The results of numerical verification, carried out for different shapes of data sets, as well as a comparative analysis with other methods of similar conditioning, have validated both the concept presented here and its positive features.
Rule generation from neural networks
Fu, L.
1994-08-01
The neural network approach has proven useful for the development of artificial intelligence systems. However, a disadvantage with this approach is that the knowledge embedded in the neural network is opaque. In this paper, we show how to interpret neural network knowledge in symbolic form. We lay down required definitions for this treatment, formulate the interpretation algorithm, and formally verify its soundness. The main result is a formalized relationship between a neural network and a rule-based system. In addition, it has been demonstrated that the neural network generates rules of better performance than the decision tree approach in noisy conditions. 7 refs.
Neural networks for self-learning control systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Derrick H.; Widrow, Bernard
1990-01-01
It is shown how a neural network can learn of its own accord to control a nonlinear dynamic system. An emulator, a multilayered neural network, learns to identify the system's dynamic characteristics. The controller, another multilayered neural network, next learns to control the emulator. The self-trained controller is then used to control the actual dynamic system. The learning process continues as the emulator and controller improve and track the physical process. An example is given to illustrate these ideas. The 'truck backer-upper,' a neural network controller that steers a trailer truck while the truck is backing up to a loading dock, is demonstrated. The controller is able to guide the truck to the dock from almost any initial position. The technique explored should be applicable to a wide variety of nonlinear control problems.
Neural networks for self-learning control systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Derrick H.; Widrow, Bernard
1990-01-01
It is shown how a neural network can learn of its own accord to control a nonlinear dynamic system. An emulator, a multilayered neural network, learns to identify the system's dynamic characteristics. The controller, another multilayered neural network, next learns to control the emulator. The self-trained controller is then used to control the actual dynamic system. The learning process continues as the emulator and controller improve and track the physical process. An example is given to illustrate these ideas. The 'truck backer-upper,' a neural network controller that steers a trailer truck while the truck is backing up to a loading dock, is demonstrated. The controller is able to guide the truck to the dock from almost any initial position. The technique explored should be applicable to a wide variety of nonlinear control problems.
Multilayer network decoding versatility and trust
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarkar, Camellia; Yadav, Alok; Jalan, Sarika
2016-01-01
In the recent years, the multilayer networks have increasingly been realized as a more realistic framework to understand emergent physical phenomena in complex real-world systems. We analyze massive time-varying social data drawn from the largest film industry of the world under a multilayer network framework. The framework enables us to evaluate the versatility of actors, which turns out to be an intrinsic property of lead actors. Versatility in dimers suggests that working with different types of nodes are more beneficial than with similar ones. However, the triangles yield a different relation between type of co-actor and the success of lead nodes indicating the importance of higher-order motifs in understanding the properties of the underlying system. Furthermore, despite the degree-degree correlations of entire networks being neutral, multilayering picks up different values of correlation indicating positive connotations like trust, in the recent years. The analysis of weak ties of the industry uncovers nodes from a lower-degree regime being important in linking Bollywood clusters. The framework and the tools used herein may be used for unraveling the complexity of other real-world systems.
Lee, I-Chi; Wu, Yu-Chieh; Cheng, En-Ming; Yang, Wen-Ting
2015-05-01
Polyelectrolyte multilayer films have been suggested as tunable substrates with flexible surface properties that can modulate cell behavior. However, these films' biological effects on neural stem/progenitor cells have rarely been studied. Herein, biomimetic multilayer films composed of hyaluronic acid and poly-L-lysine were chosen to mimic the native extracellular matrix niche of brain tissue and were evaluated for their inductive effects, without the addition of chemical factors. Because neural stem/progenitor cells are sensitive to substrate properties, it is important that this system provides control over the surface charge, and slight stiffness variations are also possible. Both of these factors affect neural stem/progenitor cell differentiation. The results showed that neural stem/progenitor cells were induced to differentiate on the poly-L-lysine/hyaluronic acid multilayer films with 0.5-4 alternating layers. In addition, the neurite outgrowth length was regulated by the surface charge of the terminal layer but did not increase with the layer number. In contrast, the quantity of differentiated neurons was enhanced slightly as the number of layers increased but was not affected by the surface charge of the terminal layer. In sum, material pairs in the form of native poly-L-lysine/hyaluronic acid films achieved important targets for neural regenerative medicine, including enhancement of the neurite outgrowth length, regulation of neuron differentiation, and the formation of a network. These extracellular matrix-mimetic poly-L-lysine/hyaluronic acid multilayer films may provide a versatile platform that could be useful for surface modification for applications in neural engineering. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Automated Defect Classification Using AN Artificial Neural Network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chady, T.; Caryk, M.; Piekarczyk, B.
2009-03-01
The automated defect classification algorithm based on artificial neural network with multilayer backpropagation structure was utilized. The selected features of flaws were used as input data. In order to train the neural network it is necessary to prepare learning data which is representative database of defects. Database preparation requires the following steps: image acquisition and pre-processing, image enhancement, defect detection and feature extraction. The real digital radiographs of welded parts of a ship were used for this purpose.
Classification of Magneto-Optic Images using Neural Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nath, Shridhar; Wincheski, Buzz; Fulton, Jim; Namkung, Min
1994-01-01
A real time imaging system with a neural network classifier has been incorporated on a Macintosh computer in conjunction with an MOI system. This system images rivets on aircraft aluminium structures using eddy currents and magnetic imaging. Moment invariant functions from the image of a rivet is used to train a multilayer perceptron neural network to classify the rivets as good or bad (rivets with cracks).
Automatic detection of intruders using a neural network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carvalho, Fernando D.; Novo, Pedro; Pais, Cassiano P.; Rodrigues, Fernando C.; Rego, Toste
1992-09-01
A system is presented that applies a neural network to a video surveillance system. It consists of a pre-processing unit that extract high level information from images and introduces it in the neural network. This system can learn in operational conditions while under the supervision of an unskilled operator. It uses the error backpropagation learning algorithm in a multilayer perceptron structure. The results obtained show that the system performs well, and with a high degree of efficiency.
AUTOMATED DEFECT CLASSIFICATION USING AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK
Chady, T.; Caryk, M.; Piekarczyk, B.
2009-03-03
The automated defect classification algorithm based on artificial neural network with multilayer backpropagation structure was utilized. The selected features of flaws were used as input data. In order to train the neural network it is necessary to prepare learning data which is representative database of defects. Database preparation requires the following steps: image acquisition and pre-processing, image enhancement, defect detection and feature extraction. The real digital radiographs of welded parts of a ship were used for this purpose.
Neural networks for triggering
Denby, B. ); Campbell, M. ); Bedeschi, F. ); Chriss, N.; Bowers, C. ); Nesti, F. )
1990-01-01
Two types of neural network beauty trigger architectures, based on identification of electrons in jets and recognition of secondary vertices, have been simulated in the environment of the Fermilab CDF experiment. The efficiencies for B's and rejection of background obtained are encouraging. If hardware tests are successful, the electron identification architecture will be tested in the 1991 run of CDF. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.
Structured Pyramidal Neural Networks.
Soares, Alessandra M; Fernandes, Bruno J T; Bastos-Filho, Carmelo J A
2017-02-09
The Pyramidal Neural Networks (PNN) are an example of a successful recently proposed model inspired by the human visual system and deep learning theory. PNNs are applied to computer vision and based on the concept of receptive fields. This paper proposes a variation of PNN, named here as Structured Pyramidal Neural Network (SPNN). SPNN has self-adaptive variable receptive fields, while the original PNNs rely on the same size for the fields of all neurons, which limits the model since it is not possible to put more computing resources in a particular region of the image. Another limitation of the original approach is the need to define values for a reasonable number of parameters, which can turn difficult the application of PNNs in contexts in which the user does not have experience. On the other hand, SPNN has a fewer number of parameters. Its structure is determined using a novel method with Delaunay Triangulation and k-means clustering. SPNN achieved better results than PNNs and similar performance when compared to Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), but using lower memory capacity and processing time.
Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks
Mollgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper; Jensen, Mogens H.; Lehmann, Sune; Mathiesen, Joachim
2016-01-01
The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships. PMID:27300084
a Heterosynaptic Learning Rule for Neural Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emmert-Streib, Frank
In this article we introduce a novel stochastic Hebb-like learning rule for neural networks that is neurobiologically motivated. This learning rule combines features of unsupervised (Hebbian) and supervised (reinforcement) learning and is stochastic with respect to the selection of the time points when a synapse is modified. Moreover, the learning rule does not only affect the synapse between pre- and postsynaptic neuron, which is called homosynaptic plasticity, but effects also further remote synapses of the pre- and postsynaptic neuron. This more complex form of synaptic plasticity has recently come under investigations in neurobiology and is called heterosynaptic plasticity. We demonstrate that this learning rule is useful in training neural networks by learning parity functions including the exclusive-or (XOR) mapping in a multilayer feed-forward network. We find, that our stochastic learning rule works well, even in the presence of noise. Importantly, the mean learning time increases with the number of patterns to be learned polynomially, indicating efficient learning.
Inverse kinematics problem in robotics using neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choi, Benjamin B.; Lawrence, Charles
1992-01-01
In this paper, Multilayer Feedforward Networks are applied to the robot inverse kinematic problem. The networks are trained with endeffector position and joint angles. After training, performance is measured by having the network generate joint angles for arbitrary endeffector trajectories. A 3-degree-of-freedom (DOF) spatial manipulator is used for the study. It is found that neural networks provide a simple and effective way to both model the manipulator inverse kinematics and circumvent the problems associated with algorithmic solution methods.
High-performance neural networks. [Neural computers
Dress, W.B.
1987-06-01
The new Forth hardware architectures offer an intermediate solution to high-performance neural networks while the theory and programming details of neural networks for synthetic intelligence are developed. This approach has been used successfully to determine the parameters and run the resulting network for a synthetic insect consisting of a 200-node ''brain'' with 1760 interconnections. Both the insect's environment and its sensor input have thus far been simulated. However, the frequency-coded nature of the Browning network allows easy replacement of the simulated sensors by real-world counterparts.
Program Helps Simulate Neural Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Villarreal, James; Mcintire, Gary
1993-01-01
Neural Network Environment on Transputer System (NNETS) computer program provides users high degree of flexibility in creating and manipulating wide variety of neural-network topologies at processing speeds not found in conventional computing environments. Supports back-propagation and back-propagation-related algorithms. Back-propagation algorithm used is implementation of Rumelhart's generalized delta rule. NNETS developed on INMOS Transputer(R). Predefines back-propagation network, Jordan network, and reinforcement network to assist users in learning and defining own networks. Also enables users to configure other neural-network paradigms from NNETS basic architecture. Small portion of software written in OCCAM(R) language.
On the Interpolation Properties of Feedforward Layered Neural Networks.
1990-10-01
IT W-TE-M1TERPOATON O FRPET1 ES OF FEEDFO1RtM NY!~m-- NEURAL NETWORKS (U) NAVAL WEAPONS CENTER CHINA LAKE CA J M MARTIN OCT 90 NUC-TP-7094 XN-ONR...TP 7094 AD-A23 8 035 On the Interpolation Properties of Feedforward Layered Neural Networks by Jorge M. Martin Research Department OCTOBER 1990 NAVAL...Center FOREWORD This report documents a collection of results concerning the interpolation properties of feed forward multilayered neural networks that
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Villarreal, James A.; Shelton, Robert O.
1992-01-01
Concept of space-time neural network affords distributed temporal memory enabling such network to model complicated dynamical systems mathematically and to recognize temporally varying spatial patterns. Digital filters replace synaptic-connection weights of conventional back-error-propagation neural network.
Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network
2011-01-01
11th International Conference on Fast Sea Transportation FAST 2011, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, September 2011 Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network Richard...Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e... Artificial Neural Network and is restricted to the center and side-hull configurations tested. The value in the parametric model is that it is able to
Optical Neural Network Classifier Architectures
1998-04-01
We present an adaptive opto-electronic neural network hardware architecture capable of exploiting parallel optics to realize real-time processing and...function neural network based on a previously demonstrated binary-input version. The greyscale-input capability broadens the range of applications for...a reduced feature set of multiwavelet images to improve training times and discrimination capability of the neural network . The design uses a joint
Analysis of Simple Neural Networks
1988-12-20
ANALYSIS OF SThlPLE NEURAL NETWORKS Chedsada Chinrungrueng Master’s Report Under the Supervision of Prof. Carlo H. Sequin Department of... Neural Networks 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...and guidJ.nce. I have learned a great deal from his teaching, knowledge, and criti- cism. 1. MOTIVATION ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE NEURAL NETWORKS Chedsada
Electroencephalography epilepsy classifications using hybrid cuckoo search and neural network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pratiwi, A. B.; Damayanti, A.; Miswanto
2017-07-01
Epilepsy is a condition that affects the brain and causes repeated seizures. This seizure is episodes that can vary and nearly undetectable to long periods of vigorous shaking or brain contractions. Epilepsy often can be confirmed with an electrocephalography (EEG). Neural Networks has been used in biomedic signal analysis, it has successfully classified the biomedic signal, such as EEG signal. In this paper, a hybrid cuckoo search and neural network are used to recognize EEG signal for epilepsy classifications. The weight of the multilayer perceptron is optimized by the cuckoo search algorithm based on its error. The aim of this methods is making the network faster to obtained the local or global optimal then the process of classification become more accurate. Based on the comparison results with the traditional multilayer perceptron, the hybrid cuckoo search and multilayer perceptron provides better performance in term of error convergence and accuracy. The purpose methods give MSE 0.001 and accuracy 90.0 %.
Multilayer Network Analysis of Nuclear Reactions
Zhu, Liang; Ma, Yu-Gang; Chen, Qu; Han, Ding-Ding
2016-01-01
The nuclear reaction network is usually studied via precise calculation of differential equation sets, and much research interest has been focused on the characteristics of nuclides, such as half-life and size limit. In this paper, however, we adopt the methods from both multilayer and reaction networks, and obtain a distinctive view by mapping all the nuclear reactions in JINA REACLIB database into a directed network with 4 layers: neutron, proton, 4He and the remainder. The layer names correspond to reaction types decided by the currency particles consumed. This combined approach reveals that, in the remainder layer, the β-stability has high correlation with node degree difference and overlapping coefficient. Moreover, when reaction rates are considered as node strength, we find that, at lower temperatures, nuclide half-life scales reciprocally with its out-strength. The connection between physical properties and topological characteristics may help to explore the boundary of the nuclide chart. PMID:27558995
Multilayer Network Analysis of Nuclear Reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Liang; Ma, Yu-Gang; Chen, Qu; Han, Ding-Ding
2016-08-01
The nuclear reaction network is usually studied via precise calculation of differential equation sets, and much research interest has been focused on the characteristics of nuclides, such as half-life and size limit. In this paper, however, we adopt the methods from both multilayer and reaction networks, and obtain a distinctive view by mapping all the nuclear reactions in JINA REACLIB database into a directed network with 4 layers: neutron, proton, 4He and the remainder. The layer names correspond to reaction types decided by the currency particles consumed. This combined approach reveals that, in the remainder layer, the β-stability has high correlation with node degree difference and overlapping coefficient. Moreover, when reaction rates are considered as node strength, we find that, at lower temperatures, nuclide half-life scales reciprocally with its out-strength. The connection between physical properties and topological characteristics may help to explore the boundary of the nuclide chart.
Accelerating Learning By Neural Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Toomarian, Nikzad; Barhen, Jacob
1992-01-01
Electronic neural networks made to learn faster by use of terminal teacher forcing. Method of supervised learning involves addition of teacher forcing functions to excitations fed as inputs to output neurons. Initially, teacher forcing functions are strong enough to force outputs to desired values; subsequently, these functions decay with time. When learning successfully completed, terminal teacher forcing vanishes, and dynamics or neural network become equivalent to those of conventional neural network. Simulated neural network with terminal teacher forcing learned to produce close approximation of circular trajectory in 400 iterations.
Accelerating Learning By Neural Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Toomarian, Nikzad; Barhen, Jacob
1992-01-01
Electronic neural networks made to learn faster by use of terminal teacher forcing. Method of supervised learning involves addition of teacher forcing functions to excitations fed as inputs to output neurons. Initially, teacher forcing functions are strong enough to force outputs to desired values; subsequently, these functions decay with time. When learning successfully completed, terminal teacher forcing vanishes, and dynamics or neural network become equivalent to those of conventional neural network. Simulated neural network with terminal teacher forcing learned to produce close approximation of circular trajectory in 400 iterations.
[Artificial neural networks in Neurosciences].
Porras Chavarino, Carmen; Salinas Martínez de Lecea, José María
2011-11-01
This article shows that artificial neural networks are used for confirming the relationships between physiological and cognitive changes. Specifically, we explore the influence of a decrease of neurotransmitters on the behaviour of old people in recognition tasks. This artificial neural network recognizes learned patterns. When we change the threshold of activation in some units, the artificial neural network simulates the experimental results of old people in recognition tasks. However, the main contributions of this paper are the design of an artificial neural network and its operation inspired by the nervous system and the way the inputs are coded and the process of orthogonalization of patterns.
Neural Networks, Reliability and Data Analysis
1993-01-01
Neural network technology has been surveyed with the intent of determining the feasibility and impact neural networks may have in the area of...automated reliability tools. Data analysis capabilities of neural networks appear to be very applicable to reliability science due to similar mathematical...tendencies in data.... Neural networks , Reliability, Data analysis, Automated reliability tools, Automated intelligent information processing, Statistical neural network.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mozumder, Chitrini; Tripathi, Nitin K.
2014-10-01
In recent decades, the world has experienced unprecedented urban growth which endangers the green environment in and around urban areas. In this work, an artificial neural network (ANN) based model is developed to predict future impacts of urban and agricultural expansion on the uplands of Deepor Beel, a Ramsar wetland in the city area of Guwahati, Assam, India, by 2025 and 2035 respectively. Simulations were carried out for three different transition rates as determined from the changes during 2001-2011, namely simple extrapolation, Markov Chain (MC), and system dynamic (SD) modelling, using projected population growth, which were further investigated based on three different zoning policies. The first zoning policy employed no restriction while the second conversion restriction zoning policy restricted urban-agricultural expansion in the Guwahati Municipal Development Authority (GMDA) proposed green belt, extending to a third zoning policy providing wetland restoration in the proposed green belt. The prediction maps were found to be greatly influenced by the transition rates and the allowed transitions from one class to another within each sub-model. The model outputs were compared with GMDA land demand as proposed for 2025 whereby the land demand as produced by MC was found to best match the projected demand. Regarding the conservation of Deepor Beel, the Landscape Development Intensity (LDI) Index revealed that wetland restoration zoning policies may reduce the impact of urban growth on a local scale, but none of the zoning policies was found to minimize the impact on a broader base. The results from this study may assist the planning and reviewing of land use allocation within Guwahati city to secure ecological sustainability of the wetlands.
Privacy-preserving backpropagation neural network learning.
Chen, Tingting; Zhong, Sheng
2009-10-01
With the development of distributed computing environment , many learning problems now have to deal with distributed input data. To enhance cooperations in learning, it is important to address the privacy concern of each data holder by extending the privacy preservation notion to original learning algorithms. In this paper, we focus on preserving the privacy in an important learning model, multilayer neural networks. We present a privacy-preserving two-party distributed algorithm of backpropagation which allows a neural network to be trained without requiring either party to reveal her data to the other. We provide complete correctness and security analysis of our algorithms. The effectiveness of our algorithms is verified by experiments on various real world data sets.
Neural networks for aerosol particles characterization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berdnik, V. V.; Loiko, V. A.
2016-11-01
Multilayer perceptron neural networks with one, two and three inputs are built to retrieve parameters of spherical homogeneous nonabsorbing particle. The refractive index ranges from 1.3 to 1.7; particle radius ranges from 0.251 μm to 56.234 μm. The logarithms of the scattered radiation intensity are used as input signals. The problem of the most informative scattering angles selection is elucidated. It is shown that polychromatic illumination helps one to increase significantly the retrieval accuracy. In the absence of measurement errors relative error of radius retrieval by the neural network with three inputs is 0.54%, relative error of the refractive index retrieval is 0.84%. The effect of measurement errors on the result of retrieval is simulated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Metzler, R.; Kinzel, W.; Kanter, I.
2000-08-01
Several scenarios of interacting neural networks which are trained either in an identical or in a competitive way are solved analytically. In the case of identical training each perceptron receives the output of its neighbor. The symmetry of the stationary state as well as the sensitivity to the used training algorithm are investigated. Two competitive perceptrons trained on mutually exclusive learning aims and a perceptron which is trained on the opposite of its own output are examined analytically. An ensemble of competitive perceptrons is used as decision-making algorithms in a model of a closed market (El Farol Bar problem or the Minority Game. In this game, a set of agents who have to make a binary decision is considered.); each network is trained on the history of minority decisions. This ensemble of perceptrons relaxes to a stationary state whose performance can be better than random.
Probability density estimation using artificial neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Likas, Aristidis
2001-04-01
We present an approach for the estimation of probability density functions (pdf) given a set of observations. It is based on the use of feedforward multilayer neural networks with sigmoid hidden units. The particular characteristic of the method is that the output of the network is not a pdf, therefore, the computation of the network's integral is required. When this integral cannot be performed analytically, one is forced to resort to numerical integration techniques. It turns out that this is quite tricky when coupled with subsequent training procedures. Several modifications of the original approach (Modha and Fainman, 1994) are proposed, most of them related to the numerical treatment of the integral and the employment of a preprocessing phase where the network parameters are initialized using supervised training. Experimental results using several test problems indicate that the proposed method is very effective and in most cases superior to the method of Gaussian mixtures.
Vehicle Study with Neural Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruan, Xiaogang; Dai, Lizhen
The biology is characteristic of biologic phototaxis and negative phototaxis. Can a machine be endowed with such a characteristic? This is the question we study in this paper, so a method of realizing vehicle's phototaxis and negative phototaxis through a neural network is presented. A randomly generated network is used as the main computational unit. Only the weights of the output units of this network are changed during training. It will be shown that this simple type of a biological realistic neural network is able to simulate robot controllers like that incorporated in Braitenberg vehicles. Two experiments are presented illustrating the stage-like study emerging with this neural network.
Application of neural networks for sensor validation and plant monitoring
Upadhyaya, B.R.; Eryurek, E. )
1992-02-01
Sensor and process monitoring in power plants requires the estimation of one or more process variables. Neural network paradigms are suitable for establishing general nonlinear relationships among a set of plant variables. Multiple-input/multiple-output autoassociative networks can follow changes in plantwide behavior. The backpropagation (BPN) algorithm has been applied for training multilayer feedforward networks. A new and enhanced BPN algorithm for training neural networks has been developed and implemented in a VAX workstation. Operational data from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) have been used to study the performance of the BPN algorithm. In this paper several results of application to the EBR-II are presented.
Identifying key nodes in multilayer networks based on tensor decomposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Dingjie; Wang, Haitao; Zou, Xiufen
2017-06-01
The identification of essential agents in multilayer networks characterized by different types of interactions is a crucial and challenging topic, one that is essential for understanding the topological structure and dynamic processes of multilayer networks. In this paper, we use the fourth-order tensor to represent multilayer networks and propose a novel method to identify essential nodes based on CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) tensor decomposition, referred to as the EDCPTD centrality. This method is based on the perspective of multilayer networked structures, which integrate the information of edges among nodes and links between different layers to quantify the importance of nodes in multilayer networks. Three real-world multilayer biological networks are used to evaluate the performance of the EDCPTD centrality. The bar chart and ROC curves of these multilayer networks indicate that the proposed approach is a good alternative index to identify real important nodes. Meanwhile, by comparing the behavior of both the proposed method and the aggregated single-layer methods, we demonstrate that neglecting the multiple relationships between nodes may lead to incorrect identification of the most versatile nodes. Furthermore, the Gene Ontology functional annotation demonstrates that the identified top nodes based on the proposed approach play a significant role in many vital biological processes. Finally, we have implemented many centrality methods of multilayer networks (including our method and the published methods) and created a visual software based on the MATLAB GUI, called ENMNFinder, which can be used by other researchers.
Dynamic interactions in neural networks
Arbib, M.A. ); Amari, S. )
1989-01-01
The study of neural networks is enjoying a great renaissance, both in computational neuroscience, the development of information processing models of living brains, and in neural computing, the use of neurally inspired concepts in the construction of intelligent machines. This volume presents models and data on the dynamic interactions occurring in the brain, and exhibits the dynamic interactions between research in computational neuroscience and in neural computing. The authors present current research, future trends and open problems.
Neural Networks for the Beginner.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Snyder, Robin M.
Motivated by the brain, neural networks are a right-brained approach to artificial intelligence that is used to recognize patterns based on previous training. In practice, one would not program an expert system to recognize a pattern and one would not train a neural network to make decisions from rules; but one could combine the best features of…
Neural network applications in telecommunications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alspector, Joshua
1994-01-01
Neural network capabilities include automatic and organized handling of complex information, quick adaptation to continuously changing environments, nonlinear modeling, and parallel implementation. This viewgraph presentation presents Bellcore work on applications, learning chip computational function, learning system block diagram, neural network equalization, broadband access control, calling-card fraud detection, software reliability prediction, and conclusions.
Technology Assessment of Neural Networks
1989-02-13
Unlike a Von Neumann type of computer which needs to be programmed to carry out an information-processing function, neural networks are promised as...trainable through a series of trials to learn how to process information. An assessment of the current, near-term (1995), and long-term (2010) trends in Neural Networks is given.
Phase Detection Using Neural Networks.
1997-03-10
A likelihood of detecting a reflected signal characterized by phase discontinuities and background noise is enhanced by utilizing neural networks to...identify coherency intervals. The received signal is processed into a predetermined format such as a digital time series. Neural networks perform
Epidemic spreading and bond percolation on multilayer networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bianconi, Ginestra
2017-03-01
The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model is studied in multilayer networks with arbitrary number of links across the layers. By following the mapping to bond percolation we give the analytical expression for the epidemic threshold and the fraction of the infected individuals in arbitrary number of layers. These results provide an exact prediction of the epidemic threshold for infinite locally tree-like multilayer networks, and an lower bound of the epidemic threshold for more general multilayer networks. The case of a multilayer network formed by two interconnected networks is specifically studied as a function of the degree distribution within and across the layers. We show that the epidemic threshold strongly depends on the degree correlations of the multilayer structure. Finally we relate our results to the results obtained in the annealed approximation for the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) model.
Hybrid Neural Network for Pattern Recognition.
1997-02-03
two one-layer neural networks and the second stage comprises a feedforward two-layer neural network . A method for recognizing patterns is also...topological representations of the input patterns using the first and second neural networks. The method further comprises providing a third neural network for...classifying and recognizing the inputted patterns and training the third neural network with a back-propagation algorithm so that the third neural network recognizes at least one interested pattern.
Neural network classifier of attacks in IP telephony
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Safarik, Jakub; Voznak, Miroslav; Mehic, Miralem; Partila, Pavol; Mikulec, Martin
2014-05-01
Various types of monitoring mechanism allow us to detect and monitor behavior of attackers in VoIP networks. Analysis of detected malicious traffic is crucial for further investigation and hardening the network. This analysis is typically based on statistical methods and the article brings a solution based on neural network. The proposed algorithm is used as a classifier of attacks in a distributed monitoring network of independent honeypot probes. Information about attacks on these honeypots is collected on a centralized server and then classified. This classification is based on different mechanisms. One of them is based on the multilayer perceptron neural network. The article describes inner structure of used neural network and also information about implementation of this network. The learning set for this neural network is based on real attack data collected from IP telephony honeypot called Dionaea. We prepare the learning set from real attack data after collecting, cleaning and aggregation of this information. After proper learning is the neural network capable to classify 6 types of most commonly used VoIP attacks. Using neural network classifier brings more accurate attack classification in a distributed system of honeypots. With this approach is possible to detect malicious behavior in a different part of networks, which are logically or geographically divided and use the information from one network to harden security in other networks. Centralized server for distributed set of nodes serves not only as a collector and classifier of attack data, but also as a mechanism for generating a precaution steps against attacks.
Neural Network Development Tool (NETS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baffes, Paul T.
1990-01-01
Artificial neural networks formed from hundreds or thousands of simulated neurons, connected in manner similar to that in human brain. Such network models learning behavior. Using NETS involves translating problem to be solved into input/output pairs, designing network configuration, and training network. Written in C.
Tagliaferri, Roberto; Longo, Giuseppe; Milano, Leopoldo; Acernese, Fausto; Barone, Fabrizio; Ciaramella, Angelo; De Rosa, Rosario; Donalek, Ciro; Eleuteri, Antonio; Raiconi, Giancarlo; Sessa, Salvatore; Staiano, Antonino; Volpicelli, Alfredo
2003-01-01
In the last decade, the use of neural networks (NN) and of other soft computing methods has begun to spread also in the astronomical community which, due to the required accuracy of the measurements, is usually reluctant to use automatic tools to perform even the most common tasks of data reduction and data mining. The federation of heterogeneous large astronomical databases which is foreseen in the framework of the astrophysical virtual observatory and national virtual observatory projects, is, however, posing unprecedented data mining and visualization problems which will find a rather natural and user friendly answer in artificial intelligence tools based on NNs, fuzzy sets or genetic algorithms. This review is aimed to both astronomers (who often have little knowledge of the methodological background) and computer scientists (who often know little about potentially interesting applications), and therefore will be structured as follows: after giving a short introduction to the subject, we shall summarize the methodological background and focus our attention on some of the most interesting fields of application, namely: object extraction and classification, time series analysis, noise identification, and data mining. Most of the original work described in the paper has been performed in the framework of the AstroNeural collaboration (Napoli-Salerno).
Inversion of surface parameters using fast learning neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dawson, M. S.; Olvera, J.; Fung, A. K.; Manry, M. T.
1992-01-01
A neural network approach to the inversion of surface scattering parameters is presented. Simulated data sets based on a surface scattering model are used so that the data may be viewed as taken from a completely known randomly rough surface. The fast learning (FL) neural network and a multilayer perceptron (MLP) trained with backpropagation learning (BP network) are tested on the simulated backscattering data. The RMS error of training the FL network is found to be less than one half the error of the BP network while requiring one to two orders of magnitude less CPU time. When applied to inversion of parameters from a statistically rough surface, the FL method is successful at recovering the surface permittivity, the surface correlation length, and the RMS surface height in less time and with less error than the BP network. Further applications of the FL neural network to the inversion of parameters from backscatter measurements of an inhomogeneous layer above a half space are shown.
Inversion of surface parameters using fast learning neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dawson, M. S.; Olvera, J.; Fung, A. K.; Manry, M. T.
1992-01-01
A neural network approach to the inversion of surface scattering parameters is presented. Simulated data sets based on a surface scattering model are used so that the data may be viewed as taken from a completely known randomly rough surface. The fast learning (FL) neural network and a multilayer perceptron (MLP) trained with backpropagation learning (BP network) are tested on the simulated backscattering data. The RMS error of training the FL network is found to be less than one half the error of the BP network while requiring one to two orders of magnitude less CPU time. When applied to inversion of parameters from a statistically rough surface, the FL method is successful at recovering the surface permittivity, the surface correlation length, and the RMS surface height in less time and with less error than the BP network. Further applications of the FL neural network to the inversion of parameters from backscatter measurements of an inhomogeneous layer above a half space are shown.
Modular, Multilayer Perceptron
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, Li-Jen; Liu, Tsuen-Hsi
1991-01-01
Combination of proposed modular, multilayer perceptron and algorithm for its operation recognizes new objects after relatively brief retraining sessions. (Perceptron is multilayer, feedforward artificial neural network fully connected and trained via back-propagation learning algorithm.) Knowledge pertaining to each object to be recognized resides in subnetwork of full network, therefore not necessary to retrain full network to recognize each new object.
Neural networks for calibration tomography
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Decker, Arthur
1993-01-01
Artificial neural networks are suitable for performing pattern-to-pattern calibrations. These calibrations are potentially useful for facilities operations in aeronautics, the control of optical alignment, and the like. Computed tomography is compared with neural net calibration tomography for estimating density from its x-ray transform. X-ray transforms are measured, for example, in diffuse-illumination, holographic interferometry of fluids. Computed tomography and neural net calibration tomography are shown to have comparable performance for a 10 degree viewing cone and 29 interferograms within that cone. The system of tomography discussed is proposed as a relevant test of neural networks and other parallel processors intended for using flow visualization data.
Kamimura, Ryotaro
2004-02-01
In this paper, we extend our greedy network-growing algorithm to multi-layered networks. With multi-layered networks, we can solve many complex problems that single-layered networks fail to solve. In addition, the network-growing algorithm is used in conjunction with teacher-directed learning that produces appropriate outputs without computing errors between targets and outputs. Thus, the present algorithm is a very efficient network-growing algorithm. The new algorithm was applied to three problems: the famous vertical-horizontal lines detection problem, a medical data problem and a road classification problem. In all these cases, experimental results confirmed that the method could solve problems that single-layered networks failed to. In addition, information maximization makes it possible to extract salient features in input patterns.
Lexical tone recognition with an artificial neural network.
Zhou, Ning; Zhang, Wenle; Lee, Chao-Yang; Xu, Li
2008-06-01
Tone production is particularly important for communicating in tone languages such as Mandarin Chinese. In the present study, an artificial neural network was used to recognize tones produced by adult native speakers. The purposes of the study were (1) to test the sensitivity of the neural network to speaker variation typically in adult speaker groups, (2) to evaluate two normalization procedures to overcome the effects of speaker variation, and (3) to compare tone recognition performance of the neural network with that of the human listeners. A feedforward multilayer neural network was used. Twenty-nine adult native Mandarin Chinese speakers were recruited to record tone samples. The F0 contours of the vowel part of the 1044 monosyllabic words recorded were extracted using an autocorrelation method. Samples from the F0 contours were used as inputs to the neural network. The efficacy of the neural network was first tested by varying the number of inputs and the number of neurons in the hidden layer from 1 to 16. The sensitivity of the neural network to speaker variation was tested by (1) using the raw F0 data from speech tokens of a number of randomly drawn speakers that varied from 1 to 29, (2) using the raw F0 data from speech tokens of either male-only or female-only speakers, and (3) using two sets of normalized F0 data (i.e., tone 1-based normalization and first-order derivative) from speech tokens from a number of randomly drawn speakers that varied from 1 to 29. The recognition performance of the neural network under several experimental conditions was compared with the corresponding recognition performance of 10 normal-hearing, native Mandarin Chinese speaking adult listeners. Three inputs and four hidden neurons were found to be sufficient for the neural network to perform at about 85% correct using speech samples without normalization. The performance of the neural network was affected by variation across speakers particularly between genders. Using the
Target Identification Using Wavelet-based Feature Extraction and Neural Network Classifiers
1999-01-01
classification using a multilayer feedforward neural network for vehicle classification. This effort is part of a larger project aimed at developing an...Integrated Vehicle Classification System Using Wavelet I Neural Network Processing of Acoustic/Seismic Emissions on a Windows PC performed under a Phase II...forward neural network vehicle classifier employing the Levenberg-Marquardt deterministic optimization learning scheme will be presented.
Sea ice classification using fast learning neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dawson, M. S.; Fung, A. K.; Manry, M. T.
1992-01-01
A first learning neural network approach to the classification of sea ice is presented. The fast learning (FL) neural network and a multilayer perceptron (MLP) trained with backpropagation learning (BP network) were tested on simulated data sets based on the known dominant scattering characteristics of the target class. Four classes were used in the data simulation: open water, thick lossy saline ice, thin saline ice, and multiyear ice. The BP network was unable to consistently converge to less than 25 percent error while the FL method yielded an average error of approximately 1 percent on the first iteration of training. The fast learning method presented can significantly reduce the CPU time necessary to train a neural network as well as consistently yield higher classification accuracy than BP networks.
Sea ice classification using fast learning neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dawson, M. S.; Fung, A. K.; Manry, M. T.
1992-01-01
A first learning neural network approach to the classification of sea ice is presented. The fast learning (FL) neural network and a multilayer perceptron (MLP) trained with backpropagation learning (BP network) were tested on simulated data sets based on the known dominant scattering characteristics of the target class. Four classes were used in the data simulation: open water, thick lossy saline ice, thin saline ice, and multiyear ice. The BP network was unable to consistently converge to less than 25 percent error while the FL method yielded an average error of approximately 1 percent on the first iteration of training. The fast learning method presented can significantly reduce the CPU time necessary to train a neural network as well as consistently yield higher classification accuracy than BP networks.
Modular, Hierarchical Learning By Artificial Neural Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baldi, Pierre F.; Toomarian, Nikzad
1996-01-01
Modular and hierarchical approach to supervised learning by artificial neural networks leads to neural networks more structured than neural networks in which all neurons fully interconnected. These networks utilize general feedforward flow of information and sparse recurrent connections to achieve dynamical effects. The modular organization, sparsity of modular units and connections, and fact that learning is much more circumscribed are all attractive features for designing neural-network hardware. Learning streamlined by imitating some aspects of biological neural networks.
Modular, Hierarchical Learning By Artificial Neural Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baldi, Pierre F.; Toomarian, Nikzad
1996-01-01
Modular and hierarchical approach to supervised learning by artificial neural networks leads to neural networks more structured than neural networks in which all neurons fully interconnected. These networks utilize general feedforward flow of information and sparse recurrent connections to achieve dynamical effects. The modular organization, sparsity of modular units and connections, and fact that learning is much more circumscribed are all attractive features for designing neural-network hardware. Learning streamlined by imitating some aspects of biological neural networks.
Neural Networks for Readability Analysis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McEneaney, John E.
This paper describes and reports on the performance of six related artificial neural networks that have been developed for the purpose of readability analysis. Two networks employ counts of linguistic variables that simulate a traditional regression-based approach to readability. The remaining networks determine readability from "visual…
Financial time series prediction using spiking neural networks.
Reid, David; Hussain, Abir Jaafar; Tawfik, Hissam
2014-01-01
In this paper a novel application of a particular type of spiking neural network, a Polychronous Spiking Network, was used for financial time series prediction. It is argued that the inherent temporal capabilities of this type of network are suited to non-stationary data such as this. The performance of the spiking neural network was benchmarked against three systems: two "traditional", rate-encoded, neural networks; a Multi-Layer Perceptron neural network and a Dynamic Ridge Polynomial neural network, and a standard Linear Predictor Coefficients model. For this comparison three non-stationary and noisy time series were used: IBM stock data; US/Euro exchange rate data, and the price of Brent crude oil. The experiments demonstrated favourable prediction results for the Spiking Neural Network in terms of Annualised Return and prediction error for 5-Step ahead predictions. These results were also supported by other relevant metrics such as Maximum Drawdown and Signal-To-Noise ratio. This work demonstrated the applicability of the Polychronous Spiking Network to financial data forecasting and this in turn indicates the potential of using such networks over traditional systems in difficult to manage non-stationary environments.
Financial Time Series Prediction Using Spiking Neural Networks
Reid, David; Hussain, Abir Jaafar; Tawfik, Hissam
2014-01-01
In this paper a novel application of a particular type of spiking neural network, a Polychronous Spiking Network, was used for financial time series prediction. It is argued that the inherent temporal capabilities of this type of network are suited to non-stationary data such as this. The performance of the spiking neural network was benchmarked against three systems: two “traditional”, rate-encoded, neural networks; a Multi-Layer Perceptron neural network and a Dynamic Ridge Polynomial neural network, and a standard Linear Predictor Coefficients model. For this comparison three non-stationary and noisy time series were used: IBM stock data; US/Euro exchange rate data, and the price of Brent crude oil. The experiments demonstrated favourable prediction results for the Spiking Neural Network in terms of Annualised Return and prediction error for 5-Step ahead predictions. These results were also supported by other relevant metrics such as Maximum Drawdown and Signal-To-Noise ratio. This work demonstrated the applicability of the Polychronous Spiking Network to financial data forecasting and this in turn indicates the potential of using such networks over traditional systems in difficult to manage non-stationary environments. PMID:25170618
A Complexity Theory of Neural Networks
1990-04-14
Significant results have been obtained on the computation complexity of analog neural networks , and distribute voting. The computing power and...learning algorithms for limited precision analog neural networks have been investigated. Lower bounds for constant depth, polynomial size analog neural ... networks , and a limited version of discrete neural networks have been obtained. The work on distributed voting has important applications for distributed
Collective Computation of Neural Network
1990-03-15
Sciences, Beijing ABSTRACT Computational neuroscience is a new branch of neuroscience originating from current research on the theory of computer...scientists working in artificial intelligence engineering and neuroscience . The paper introduces the collective computational properties of model neural...vision research. On this basis, the authors analyzed the significance of the Hopfield model. Key phrases: Computational Neuroscience , Neural Network, Model
Artificial Neural Network Analysis System
2007-11-02
Target detection, multi-target tracking and threat identification of ICBM and its warheads by sensor fusion and data fusion of sensors in a fuzzy neural network system based on the compound eye of a fly.
The holographic neural network: Performance comparison with other neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klepko, Robert
1991-10-01
The artificial neural network shows promise for use in recognition of high resolution radar images of ships. The holographic neural network (HNN) promises a very large data storage capacity and excellent generalization capability, both of which can be achieved with only a few learning trials, unlike most neural networks which require on the order of thousands of learning trials. The HNN is specially designed for pattern association storage, and mathematically realizes the storage and retrieval mechanisms of holograms. The pattern recognition capability of the HNN was studied, and its performance was compared with five other commonly used neural networks: the Adaline, Hamming, bidirectional associative memory, recirculation, and back propagation networks. The patterns used for testing represented artificial high resolution radar images of ships, and appear as a two dimensional topology of peaks with various amplitudes. The performance comparisons showed that the HNN does not perform as well as the other neural networks when using the same test data. However, modification of the data to make it appear more Gaussian distributed, improved the performance of the network. The HNN performs best if the data is completely Gaussian distributed.
Epidemic Model with Isolation in Multilayer Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zuzek, L. G. Alvarez; Stanley, H. E.; Braunstein, L. A.
2015-07-01
The Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model has successfully mimicked the propagation of such airborne diseases as influenza A (H1N1). Although the SIR model has recently been studied in a multilayer networks configuration, in almost all the research the isolation of infected individuals is disregarded. Hence we focus our study in an epidemic model in a two-layer network, and we use an isolation parameter w to measure the effect of quarantining infected individuals from both layers during an isolation period tw. We call this process the Susceptible-Infected-Isolated-Recovered (SIIR) model. Using the framework of link percolation we find that isolation increases the critical epidemic threshold of the disease because the time in which infection can spread is reduced. In this scenario we find that this threshold increases with w and tw. When the isolation period is maximum there is a critical threshold for w above which the disease never becomes an epidemic. We simulate the process and find an excellent agreement with the theoretical results.
Neural-Network-Development Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phillips, Todd A.
1993-01-01
NETS, software tool for development and evaluation of neural networks, provides simulation of neural-network algorithms plus computing environment for development of such algorithms. Uses back-propagation learning method for all of networks it creates. Enables user to customize patterns of connections between layers of network. Also provides features for saving, during learning process, values of weights, providing more-precise control over learning process. Written in ANSI standard C language. Machine-independent version (MSC-21588) includes only code for command-line-interface version of NETS 3.0.
Neutron spectrum unfolding using radial basis function neural networks.
Alvar, Amin Asgharzadeh; Deevband, Mohammad Reza; Ashtiyani, Meghdad
2017-07-26
Neutron energy spectrum unfolding has been the subject of research for several years. The Bayesian theory, Monte Carlo simulation, and iterative methods are some of the methods that have been used for neutron spectrum unfolding. In this study, the radial basis function (RBF), multilayer perceptron, and artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used for the unfolding of neutron spectrum, and a comparison was made between the networks' results. Both neural network architectures were trained and tested using the same data set for neutron spectrum unfolding from the response of LiI detectors with Eu impurity. Advantages of each ANN method in the unfolding of neutron energy spectrum were investigated, and the performance of the networks was compared. The results obtained showed that RBF neural network can be applied as an effective method for unfolding neutron spectrum, especially when the main target is the neutron dosimetry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
VLSI implementation of neural networks.
Wilamowski, B M; Binfet, J; Kaynak, M O
2000-06-01
Currently, fuzzy controllers are the most popular choice for hardware implementation of complex control surfaces because they are easy to design. Neural controllers are more complex and hard to train, but provide an outstanding control surface with much less error than that of a fuzzy controller. There are also some problems that have to be solved before the networks can be implemented on VLSI chips. First, an approximation function needs to be developed because CMOS neural networks have an activation function different than any function used in neural network software. Next, this function has to be used to train the network. Finally, the last problem for VLSI designers is the quantization effect caused by discrete values of the channel length (L) and width (W) of MOS transistor geometries. Two neural networks were designed in 1.5 microm technology. Using adequate approximation functions solved the problem of activation function. With this approach, trained networks were characterized by very small errors. Unfortunately, when the weights were quantized, errors were increased by an order of magnitude. However, even though the errors were enlarged, the results obtained from neural network hardware implementations were superior to the results obtained with fuzzy system approach.
Evaluation of the efficiency of artificial neural networks for genetic value prediction.
Silva, G N; Tomaz, R S; Sant'Anna, I C; Carneiro, V Q; Cruz, C D; Nascimento, M
2016-03-28
Artificial neural networks have shown great potential when applied to breeding programs. In this study, we propose the use of artificial neural networks as a viable alternative to conventional prediction methods. We conduct a thorough evaluation of the efficiency of these networks with respect to the prediction of breeding values. Therefore, we considered eight simulated scenarios, and for the purpose of genetic value prediction, seven statistical parameters in addition to the phenotypic mean in a network designed as a multilayer perceptron. After an evaluation of different network configurations, the results demonstrated the superiority of neural networks compared to estimation procedures based on linear models, and indicated high predictive accuracy and network efficiency.
The Effect of Network Parameters on Pi-Sigma Neural Network for Temperature Forecasting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Husaini, Noor Aida; Ghazali, Rozaida; Nawi, Nazri Mohd; Ismail, Lokman Hakim
In this paper, we present the effect of network parameters to forecast temperature of a suburban area in Batu Pahat, Johor. The common ways of predicting the temperature using Neural Network has been applied for most meteorological parameters. However, researchers frequently neglected the network parameters which might affect the Neural Network's performance. Therefore, this study tends to explore the effect of network parameters by using Pi Sigma Neural Network (PSNN) with backpropagation algorithm. The network's performance is evaluated using the historical dataset of temperature in Batu Pahat for one step-ahead and benchmarked against Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) for comparison. We found out that, network parameters have significantly affected the performance of PSNN for temperature forecasting. Towards the end of this paper, we concluded the best forecasting model to predict the temperature based on the comparison of our study.
Neural Networks Control of a Magnetic Levitation System
2001-04-17
neural networks (ANN) in conjunction of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers in control of non-contacting active magnetic bearings (AMB). The objective of this technique is to reduce the effect of the unbalance on the rotor displacement without the estimating perturbation. The work consists of the following: 1) application of artificial neural networks (multi-layer perceptrons) for nonlinear model of the active magnetic bearing by using the dynamic back-propagation methods for the adjustment of parameters; and 2) application of
Antenna analysis using neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, William T.
1992-01-01
Conventional computing schemes have long been used to analyze problems in electromagnetics (EM). The vast majority of EM applications require computationally intensive algorithms involving numerical integration and solutions to large systems of equations. The feasibility of using neural network computing algorithms for antenna analysis is investigated. The ultimate goal is to use a trained neural network algorithm to reduce the computational demands of existing reflector surface error compensation techniques. Neural networks are computational algorithms based on neurobiological systems. Neural nets consist of massively parallel interconnected nonlinear computational elements. They are often employed in pattern recognition and image processing problems. Recently, neural network analysis has been applied in the electromagnetics area for the design of frequency selective surfaces and beam forming networks. The backpropagation training algorithm was employed to simulate classical antenna array synthesis techniques. The Woodward-Lawson (W-L) and Dolph-Chebyshev (D-C) array pattern synthesis techniques were used to train the neural network. The inputs to the network were samples of the desired synthesis pattern. The outputs are the array element excitations required to synthesize the desired pattern. Once trained, the network is used to simulate the W-L or D-C techniques. Various sector patterns and cosecant-type patterns (27 total) generated using W-L synthesis were used to train the network. Desired pattern samples were then fed to the neural network. The outputs of the network were the simulated W-L excitations. A 20 element linear array was used. There were 41 input pattern samples with 40 output excitations (20 real parts, 20 imaginary). A comparison between the simulated and actual W-L techniques is shown for a triangular-shaped pattern. Dolph-Chebyshev is a different class of synthesis technique in that D-C is used for side lobe control as opposed to pattern
Fractional Hopfield Neural Networks: Fractional Dynamic Associative Recurrent Neural Networks.
Pu, Yi-Fei; Yi, Zhang; Zhou, Ji-Liu
2017-10-01
This paper mainly discusses a novel conceptual framework: fractional Hopfield neural networks (FHNN). As is commonly known, fractional calculus has been incorporated into artificial neural networks, mainly because of its long-term memory and nonlocality. Some researchers have made interesting attempts at fractional neural networks and gained competitive advantages over integer-order neural networks. Therefore, it is naturally makes one ponder how to generalize the first-order Hopfield neural networks to the fractional-order ones, and how to implement FHNN by means of fractional calculus. We propose to introduce a novel mathematical method: fractional calculus to implement FHNN. First, we implement fractor in the form of an analog circuit. Second, we implement FHNN by utilizing fractor and the fractional steepest descent approach, construct its Lyapunov function, and further analyze its attractors. Third, we perform experiments to analyze the stability and convergence of FHNN, and further discuss its applications to the defense against chip cloning attacks for anticounterfeiting. The main contribution of our work is to propose FHNN in the form of an analog circuit by utilizing a fractor and the fractional steepest descent approach, construct its Lyapunov function, prove its Lyapunov stability, analyze its attractors, and apply FHNN to the defense against chip cloning attacks for anticounterfeiting. A significant advantage of FHNN is that its attractors essentially relate to the neuron's fractional order. FHNN possesses the fractional-order-stability and fractional-order-sensitivity characteristics.
Optical disk based neural network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Taiwei; Choi, Kyusun; Wu, Shudong; Xu, Xin; Yu, Francis T. S.
1989-11-01
An optical disk (OD)-based optical neural network architecture for high-speed and large-capacity associative processing is proposed. The information storage by the OD is described, and an optical neural network using an OD for large-capacity storage of interconnection weight matrices (IWMs) is shown and discussed. The ways that optical interconnections are established between the IWM and the input pattern is shown, as is the way that the loop is closed. The operation of the OD in the network is examined.
Using Hybrid Algorithm to Improve Intrusion Detection in Multi Layer Feed Forward Neural Networks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ray, Loye Lynn
2014-01-01
The need for detecting malicious behavior on a computer networks continued to be important to maintaining a safe and secure environment. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of multilayer feed forward neural network architecture to the ability of detecting abnormal behavior in networks. This involved building, training, and…
Using Hybrid Algorithm to Improve Intrusion Detection in Multi Layer Feed Forward Neural Networks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ray, Loye Lynn
2014-01-01
The need for detecting malicious behavior on a computer networks continued to be important to maintaining a safe and secure environment. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of multilayer feed forward neural network architecture to the ability of detecting abnormal behavior in networks. This involved building, training, and…
Projection learning algorithm for threshold - controlled neural networks
Reznik, A.M.
1995-03-01
The projection learning algorithm proposed in [1, 2] and further developed in [3] substantially improves the efficiency of memorizing information and accelerates the learning process in neural networks. This algorithm is compatible with the completely connected neural network architecture (the Hopfield network [4]), but its application to other networks involves a number of difficulties. The main difficulties include constraints on interconnection structure and the need to eliminate the state uncertainty of latent neurons if such are present in the network. Despite the encouraging preliminary results of [3], further extension of the applications of the projection algorithm therefore remains problematic. In this paper, which is a continuation of the work begun in [3], we consider threshold-controlled neural networks. Networks of this type are quite common. They represent the receptor neuron layers in some neurocomputer designs. A similar structure is observed in the lower divisions of biological sensory systems [5]. In multilayer projection neural networks with lateral interconnections, the neuron layers or parts of these layers may also have the structure of a threshold-controlled completely connected network. Here the thresholds are the potentials delivered through the projection connections from other parts of the network. The extension of the projection algorithm to the class of threshold-controlled networks may accordingly prove to be useful both for extending its technical applications and for better understanding of the operation of the nervous system in living organisms.
Experiments in dysarthric speech recognition using artificial neural networks.
Jayaram, G; Abdelhamied, K
1995-05-01
In this study, we investigated the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to recognize dysarthric speech. Two multilayer neural networks were developed, trained, and tested using isolated words spoken by a dysarthric speaker. One network had the fast Fourier transform (FFT) coefficients as inputs, while the other network had the formant frequencies as inputs. The effect of additional features in the input vector on the recognition rate was also observed. The recognition rate was evaluated against the intelligibility rating obtained by five human listeners and also against the recognition rate of the Introvoice commercial speech-recognition system. Preliminary results demonstrated the ability of the developed networks to successfully recognize dysarthric speech despite its large variability. These networks clearly outperformed both the human listeners and the Introvoice commercial system.
Diversity of multilayer networks and its impact on collaborating epidemics.
Min, Yong; Hu, Jiaren; Wang, Weihong; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie; Jin, Xiaogang
2014-12-01
Interacting epidemics on diverse multilayer networks are increasingly important in modeling and analyzing the diffusion processes of real complex systems. A viral agent spreading on one layer of a multilayer network can interact with its counterparts by promoting (cooperative interaction), suppressing (competitive interaction), or inducing (collaborating interaction) its diffusion on other layers. Collaborating interaction displays different patterns: (i) random collaboration, where intralayer or interlayer induction has the same probability; (ii) concentrating collaboration, where consecutive intralayer induction is guaranteed with a probability of 1; and (iii) cascading collaboration, where consecutive intralayer induction is banned with a probability of 0. In this paper, we develop a top-bottom framework that uses only two distributions, the overlaid degree distribution and edge-type distribution, to model collaborating epidemics on multilayer networks. We then state the response of three collaborating patterns to structural diversity (evenness and difference of network layers). For viral agents with small transmissibility, we find that random collaboration is more effective in networks with higher diversity (high evenness and difference), while the concentrating pattern is more suitable in uneven networks. Interestingly, the cascading pattern requires a network with moderate difference and high evenness, and the moderately uneven coupling of multiple network layers can effectively increase robustness to resist cascading failure. With large transmissibility, however, we find that all collaborating patterns are more effective in high-diversity networks. Our work provides a systemic analysis of collaborating epidemics on multilayer networks. The results enhance our understanding of biotic and informative diffusion through multiple vectors.
Diversity of multilayer networks and its impact on collaborating epidemics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Min, Yong; Hu, Jiaren; Wang, Weihong; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie; Jin, Xiaogang
2014-12-01
Interacting epidemics on diverse multilayer networks are increasingly important in modeling and analyzing the diffusion processes of real complex systems. A viral agent spreading on one layer of a multilayer network can interact with its counterparts by promoting (cooperative interaction), suppressing (competitive interaction), or inducing (collaborating interaction) its diffusion on other layers. Collaborating interaction displays different patterns: (i) random collaboration, where intralayer or interlayer induction has the same probability; (ii) concentrating collaboration, where consecutive intralayer induction is guaranteed with a probability of 1; and (iii) cascading collaboration, where consecutive intralayer induction is banned with a probability of 0. In this paper, we develop a top-bottom framework that uses only two distributions, the overlaid degree distribution and edge-type distribution, to model collaborating epidemics on multilayer networks. We then state the response of three collaborating patterns to structural diversity (evenness and difference of network layers). For viral agents with small transmissibility, we find that random collaboration is more effective in networks with higher diversity (high evenness and difference), while the concentrating pattern is more suitable in uneven networks. Interestingly, the cascading pattern requires a network with moderate difference and high evenness, and the moderately uneven coupling of multiple network layers can effectively increase robustness to resist cascading failure. With large transmissibility, however, we find that all collaborating patterns are more effective in high-diversity networks. Our work provides a systemic analysis of collaborating epidemics on multilayer networks. The results enhance our understanding of biotic and informative diffusion through multiple vectors.
Multiprocessor Neural Network in Healthcare.
Godó, Zoltán Attila; Kiss, Gábor; Kocsis, Dénes
2015-01-01
A possible way of creating a multiprocessor artificial neural network is by the use of microcontrollers. The RISC processors' high performance and the large number of I/O ports mean they are greatly suitable for creating such a system. During our research, we wanted to see if it is possible to efficiently create interaction between the artifical neural network and the natural nervous system. To achieve as much analogy to the living nervous system as possible, we created a frequency-modulated analog connection between the units. Our system is connected to the living nervous system through 128 microelectrodes. Two-way communication is provided through A/D transformation, which is even capable of testing psychopharmacons. The microcontroller-based analog artificial neural network can play a great role in medical singal processing, such as ECG, EEG etc.
Rule extraction with fuzzy neural network.
D'Alché-Buc, F; Andrès, V; Nadal, J P
1994-03-01
This paper deals with the learning of understandable decision rules with connectionist systems. Our approach consists of extracting fuzzy control rules with a new fuzzy neural network. Whereas many other works on this area propose to use combinations of nonlinear neurons to approximate fuzzy operations, we use a fuzzy neuron that computes max-min operations. Thus, this neuron can be interpreted as a possibility estimator, just as sigma-pi neurons can support a probabilistic interpretation. Within this context, possibilistic inferences can be drawn through the multi-layered network, using a distributed representation of the information. A new learning procedure has been developed in order that each part of the network can be learnt sequentially, while other parts are frozen. Each step of the procedure is based on the same kind of learning scheme: the backpropagation of a well-chosen cost function with appropriate derivatives of max-min function. An appealing result of the learning phase is the ability of the network to automatically reduce the number of the condition-parts of the rules, if needed. The network has been successfully tested on the learning of a control rule base for an inverted pendulum.
Predicting Heat Transport across Multiple Devices with Neural Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luna, C. J.; Budny, R. V.; Meneghini, O.; Smith, S. P.; Penna, J.
2014-10-01
Three multi-layer, feed-forward, back-propagation neural networks have been built and trained on heat transport data from DIII-D, TFTR, and JET, respectively. A comparative analysis shows that previous success of neural networks in predicting heat transport in DIII-D is reproduced for both TFTR and JET. The effect of using different neural network topologies has been investigated across all of the devices. It is found that the neural networks can consistently predict the total species' heat fluxes for all of the devices, however they have difficulty in predicting the individual components of the heat fluxes in presence of significant transient variations in stored energy (i.e. non steady-state conditions). Such limitation has been addressed by providing the time-derivative information of the plasma parameters that are input to the neural network. Finally, an attempt is made to draw a connection between the most consistently successful neural network topologies and their relevance to the physics of heat transport in tokamak plasmas. Supported in part by U.S. DoE Contracts No. DE-AC02-09CH1146 and No. DE-FG02-95ER54309.
Atmospheric propagation effects on pattern recognition by neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giever, John C.; Hoock, Donald W., Jr.
1991-07-01
Smart electro-optical systems of the future will need to be adaptive and robust to function in different environments. In 1989 the authors reported how atmospheric losses in contrast, resolution, edge detail, and signal to noise adversely affect image-based classification using linear matched filters and how the atmosphere alters features such as gray-level moments. They also showed that the performance changes with atmospheric path radiance and transmittance are predictable, however, and that some effects can be mitigated automatically by including the atmosphere as a separate training class. This paper extends that analysis to atmospheric effects on pattern recognition by neural network classifiers. The neural net pattern recognition methods considered here are single- and multi-layer perceptron networks trained with back-propagation. Image classifier performance under different atmospheric propagation conditions is shown to be easily predicted for simple single-layer neural nets. This leads to a specific training strategy to minimize the impact of propagation losses by including the atmosphere as a separate training class. This same strategy also improves the performance of multi-layer neural networks. Examples are given of classification of a vehicle partly obscured by highly scattering white smoke and highly absorptive black smoke. Other methods are being investigated that affect the performance and training convergence properties of neural net pattern recognition in atmospheres.
Standard Cell-Based Implementation of a Digital Optoelectronic Neural-Network Hardware
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maier, Klaus D.; Beckstein, Clemens; Blickhan, Reinhard; Erhard, Werner
2001-03-01
A standard cell-based implementation of a digital optoelectronic neural-network architecture is presented. The overall structure of the multilayer perceptron network that was used, the optoelectronic interconnection system between the layers, and all components required in each layer are defined. The design process from VHDL-based modeling from synthesis and partly automatic placing and routing to the final editing of one layer of the circuit of the multilayer perceptrons are described. A suitable approach for the standard cell-based design of optoelectronic systems is presented, and shortcomings of the design tool that was used are pointed out. The layout for the microelectronic circuit of one layer in a multilayer perceptron neural network with a performance potential 1 magnitude higher than neural networks that are purely electronic based has been successfully designed.
Standard cell-based implementation of a digital optoelectronic neural-network hardware.
Maier, K D; Beckstein, C; Blickhan, R; Erhard, W
2001-03-10
A standard cell-based implementation of a digital optoelectronic neural-network architecture is presented. The overall structure of the multilayer perceptron network that was used, the optoelectronic interconnection system between the layers, and all components required in each layer are defined. The design process from VHDL-based modeling from synthesis and partly automatic placing and routing to the final editing of one layer of the circuit of the multilayer perceptrons are described. A suitable approach for the standard cell-based design of optoelectronic systems is presented, and shortcomings of the design tool that was used are pointed out. The layout for the microelectronic circuit of one layer in a multilayer perceptron neural network with a performance potential 1 magnitude higher than neural networks that are purely electronic based has been successfully designed.
Neural networks in structural analysis and design - An overview
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hajela, P.; Berke, L.
1992-01-01
The present paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art in the application of neural networks in problems of structural analysis and design, including a survey of published applications in structural engineering. Such applications have included, among others, the use of neural networks in modeling nonlinear analysis of structures, as a rapid reanalysis capability in optimal design, and in developing problem parameter sensitivity of optimal solutions for use in multilevel decomposition based design. While most of the applications reported in the literature have been restricted to the use of the multilayer perceptron architecture and minor variations thereof, other network architectures have also been successfully explored, including the ART network, the counterpropagation network and the Hopfield-Tank model.
A spiking neural network architecture for nonlinear function approximation.
Iannella, N; Back, A D
2001-01-01
Multilayer perceptrons have received much attention in recent years due to their universal approximation capabilities. Normally, such models use real valued continuous signals, although they are loosely based on biological neuronal networks that encode signals using spike trains. Spiking neural networks are of interest both from a biological point of view and in terms of a method of robust signaling in particularly noisy or difficult environments. It is important to consider networks based on spike trains. A basic question that needs to be considered however, is what type of architecture can be used to provide universal function approximation capabilities in spiking networks? In this paper, we propose a spiking neural network architecture using both integrate-and-fire units as well as delays, that is capable of approximating a real valued function mapping to within a specified degree of accuracy.
Neural networks in structural analysis and design - An overview
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hajela, P.; Berke, L.
1992-01-01
The present paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art in the application of neural networks in problems of structural analysis and design, including a survey of published applications in structural engineering. Such applications have included, among others, the use of neural networks in modeling nonlinear analysis of structures, as a rapid reanalysis capability in optimal design, and in developing problem parameter sensitivity of optimal solutions for use in multilevel decomposition based design. While most of the applications reported in the literature have been restricted to the use of the multilayer perceptron architecture and minor variations thereof, other network architectures have also been successfully explored, including the ART network, the counterpropagation network and the Hopfield-Tank model.
Plant Growth Models Using Artificial Neural Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bubenheim, David
1997-01-01
In this paper, we descrive our motivation and approach to devloping models and the neural network architecture. Initial use of the artificial neural network for modeling the single plant process of transpiration is presented.
Signal Approximation with a Wavelet Neural Network
1992-12-01
specialized electronic devices like the Intel Electronically Trainable Analog Neural Network (ETANN) chip. The WNN representation allows the...accurately approximated with a WNN trained with irregularly sampled data. Signal approximation, Wavelet neural network .
A Neural Network Based Speech Recognition System
1990-02-01
encoder and identifies individual words. This use of neural networks offers two advantages over conventional algorithmic detectors: the detection...environment. Keywords: Artificial intelligence; Neural networks : Back propagation; Speech recognition.
Plant Growth Models Using Artificial Neural Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bubenheim, David
1997-01-01
In this paper, we descrive our motivation and approach to devloping models and the neural network architecture. Initial use of the artificial neural network for modeling the single plant process of transpiration is presented.
Neural Networks for Flight Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jorgensen, Charles C.
1996-01-01
Neural networks are being developed at NASA Ames Research Center to permit real-time adaptive control of time varying nonlinear systems, enhance the fault-tolerance of mission hardware, and permit online system reconfiguration. In general, the problem of controlling time varying nonlinear systems with unknown structures has not been solved. Adaptive neural control techniques show considerable promise and are being applied to technical challenges including automated docking of spacecraft, dynamic balancing of the space station centrifuge, online reconfiguration of damaged aircraft, and reducing cost of new air and spacecraft designs. Our experiences have shown that neural network algorithms solved certain problems that conventional control methods have been unable to effectively address. These include damage mitigation in nonlinear reconfiguration flight control, early performance estimation of new aircraft designs, compensation for damaged planetary mission hardware by using redundant manipulator capability, and space sensor platform stabilization. This presentation explored these developments in the context of neural network control theory. The discussion began with an overview of why neural control has proven attractive for NASA application domains. The more important issues in control system development were then discussed with references to significant technical advances in the literature. Examples of how these methods have been applied were given, followed by projections of emerging application needs and directions.
Neural networks and applications tutorial
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guyon, I.
1991-09-01
The importance of neural networks has grown dramatically during this decade. While only a few years ago they were primarily of academic interest, now dozens of companies and many universities are investigating the potential use of these systems and products are beginning to appear. The idea of building a machine whose architecture is inspired by that of the brain has roots which go far back in history. Nowadays, technological advances of computers and the availability of custom integrated circuits, permit simulations of hundreds or even thousands of neurons. In conjunction, the growing interest in learning machines, non-linear dynamics and parallel computation spurred renewed attention in artificial neural networks. Many tentative applications have been proposed, including decision systems (associative memories, classifiers, data compressors and optimizers), or parametric models for signal processing purposes (system identification, automatic control, noise canceling, etc.). While they do not always outperform standard methods, neural network approaches are already used in some real world applications for pattern recognition and signal processing tasks. The tutorial is divided into six lectures, that where presented at the Third Graduate Summer Course on Computational Physics (September 3-7, 1990) on Parallel Architectures and Applications, organized by the European Physical Society: (1) Introduction: machine learning and biological computation. (2) Adaptive artificial neurons (perceptron, ADALINE, sigmoid units, etc.): learning rules and implementations. (3) Neural network systems: architectures, learning algorithms. (4) Applications: pattern recognition, signal processing, etc. (5) Elements of learning theory: how to build networks which generalize. (6) A case study: a neural network for on-line recognition of handwritten alphanumeric characters.
Fault Tolerance of Neural Networks
1994-07-01
Systematic Ap - proach, Proc. Government Microcircuit Application Conf. (GOMAC), San Diego, Nov. 1986. [10] D.E.Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search...s l m n ttempt to develop fault tolerant neural networks. The lows. Given a well-trained network, we first eliminate temp todevlopfaut tlernt eurl ...both ap - proaches, and this resulted in very slight improve- ments over the addition/deletion procedure. 103 Fisher’s Iris data in average case Fisher’s
Analysis and Design of Neural Networks
1992-01-01
The training problem for feedforward neural networks is nonlinear parameter estimation that can be solved by a variety of optimization techniques...Much of the literature of neural networks has focused on variants of gradient descent. The training of neural networks using such techniques is known to...be a slow process with more sophisticated techniques not always performing significantly better. It is shown that feedforward neural networks can
Radar System Classification Using Neural Networks
1991-12-01
This study investigated methods of improving the accuracy of neural networks in the classification of large numbers of classes. A literature search...revealed that neural networks have been successful in the radar classification problem, and that many complex problems have been solved using systems...of multiple neural networks . The experiments conducted were based on 32 classes of radar system data. The neural networks were modelled using a program
Syntactic neural network for character recognition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaravine, Viktor A.
1992-08-01
This article presents a synergism of syntactic 2-D parsing of images and multilayered, feed- forward network techniques. This approach makes it possible to build a written text reading system with absolute recognition rate for unambiguous text strings. The Syntactic Neural Network (SNN) is created during image parsing process by capturing the higher order statistical structure in the ensemble of input image examples. Acquired knowledge is stored in the form of hierarchical image elements dictionary and syntactic network. The number of hidden layers and neuron units is not fixed and is determined by the structural complexity of the teaching set. A proposed syntactic neuron differs from conventional numerical neuron by its symbolic input/output and usage of the dictionary for determining the output. This approach guarantees exact recognition of an image that is a combinatorial variation of the images from the training set. The system is taught to generalize and to make stochastic parsing of distorted and shifted patterns. The generalizations enables the system to perform continuous incremental optimization of its work. New image data learned by SNN doesn''t interfere with previously stored knowledge, thus leading to unlimited storage capacity of the network.
Artificial neural networks in medicine
Keller, P.E.
1994-07-01
This Technology Brief provides an overview of artificial neural networks (ANN). A definition and explanation of an ANN is given and situations in which an ANN is used are described. ANN applications to medicine specifically are then explored and the areas in which it is currently being used are discussed. Included are medical diagnostic aides, biochemical analysis, medical image analysis and drug development.
How Neural Networks Learn from Experience.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hinton, Geoffrey E.
1992-01-01
Discusses computational studies of learning in artificial neural networks and findings that may provide insights into the learning abilities of the human brain. Describes efforts to test theories about brain information processing, using artificial neural networks. Vignettes include information concerning how a neural network represents…
How Neural Networks Learn from Experience.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hinton, Geoffrey E.
1992-01-01
Discusses computational studies of learning in artificial neural networks and findings that may provide insights into the learning abilities of the human brain. Describes efforts to test theories about brain information processing, using artificial neural networks. Vignettes include information concerning how a neural network represents…
Model Of Neural Network With Creative Dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, Michail; Barhen, Jacob
1993-01-01
Paper presents analysis of mathematical model of one-neuron/one-synapse neural network featuring coupled activation and learning dynamics and parametrical periodic excitation. Demonstrates self-programming, partly random behavior of suitable designed neural network; believed to be related to spontaneity and creativity of biological neural networks.
Semantic Interpretation of An Artificial Neural Network
1995-12-01
success for stock market analysis/prediction is artificial neural networks. However, knowledge embedded in the neural network is not easily translated...interpret neural network knowledge. The first, called Knowledge Math, extends the use of connection weights, generating rules for general (i.e. non-binary
Model Of Neural Network With Creative Dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, Michail; Barhen, Jacob
1993-01-01
Paper presents analysis of mathematical model of one-neuron/one-synapse neural network featuring coupled activation and learning dynamics and parametrical periodic excitation. Demonstrates self-programming, partly random behavior of suitable designed neural network; believed to be related to spontaneity and creativity of biological neural networks.
Are artificial neural networks white boxes?
Kolman, Eyal; Margaliot, Michael
2005-07-01
In this paper, we introduce a novel Mamdani-type fuzzy model, referred to as the all-permutations fuzzy rule base (APFRB), and show that it is mathematically equivalent to a standard feedforward neural network. We describe several applications of this equivalence between a neural network and our fuzzy rule base (FRB), including knowledge extraction from and knowledge insertion into neural networks.
The physics of spreading processes in multilayer networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Domenico, Manlio; Granell, Clara; Porter, Mason A.; Arenas, Alex
2016-10-01
Despite the success of traditional network analysis, standard networks provide a limited representation of complex systems, which often include different types of relationships (or `multiplexity’) between their components. Such structural complexity has a significant effect on both dynamics and function. Throwing away or aggregating available structural information can generate misleading results and be a major obstacle towards attempts to understand complex systems. The recent multilayer approach for modelling networked systems explicitly allows the incorporation of multiplexity and other features of realistic systems. It allows one to couple different structural relationships by encoding them in a convenient mathematical object. It also allows one to couple different dynamical processes on top of such interconnected structures. The resulting framework plays a crucial role in helping to achieve a thorough, accurate understanding of complex systems. The study of multilayer networks has also revealed new physical phenomena that remain hidden when using ordinary graphs, the traditional network representation. Here we survey progress towards attaining a deeper understanding of spreading processes on multilayer networks, and we highlight some of the physical phenomena related to spreading processes that emerge from multilayer structure.
Neural networks for atmospheric retrievals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Motteler, Howard E.; Gualtieri, J. A.; Strow, L. Larrabee; Mcmillin, Larry
1993-01-01
We use neural networks to perform retrievals of temperature and water fractions from simulated clear air radiances for the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Neural networks allow us to make effective use of the large AIRS channel set, and give good performance with noisy input. We retrieve surface temperature, air temperature at 64 distinct pressure levels, and water fractions at 50 distinct pressure levels. Using 728 temperature and surface sensitive channels, the RMS error for temperature retrievals with 0.2K input noise is 1.2K. Using 586 water and temperature sensitive channels, the mean error with 0.2K input noise is 16 percent. Our implementation of backpropagation training for neural networks on the 16,000-processor MasPar MP-1 runs at a rate of 90 million weight updates per second, and allows us to train large networks in a reasonable amount of time. Once trained, the network can be used to perform retrievals quickly on a workstation of moderate power.
Neural network explanation using inversion.
Saad, Emad W; Wunsch, Donald C
2007-01-01
An important drawback of many artificial neural networks (ANN) is their lack of explanation capability [Andrews, R., Diederich, J., & Tickle, A. B. (1996). A survey and critique of techniques for extracting rules from trained artificial neural networks. Knowledge-Based Systems, 8, 373-389]. This paper starts with a survey of algorithms which attempt to explain the ANN output. We then present HYPINV, a new explanation algorithm which relies on network inversion; i.e. calculating the ANN input which produces a desired output. HYPINV is a pedagogical algorithm, that extracts rules, in the form of hyperplanes. It is able to generate rules with arbitrarily desired fidelity, maintaining a fidelity-complexity tradeoff. To our knowledge, HYPINV is the only pedagogical rule extraction method, which extracts hyperplane rules from continuous or binary attribute neural networks. Different network inversion techniques, involving gradient descent as well as an evolutionary algorithm, are presented. An information theoretic treatment of rule extraction is presented. HYPINV is applied to example synthetic problems, to a real aerospace problem, and compared with similar algorithms using benchmark problems.
An Intelligent Ensemble Neural Network Model for Wind Speed Prediction in Renewable Energy Systems.
Ranganayaki, V; Deepa, S N
2016-01-01
Various criteria are proposed to select the number of hidden neurons in artificial neural network (ANN) models and based on the criterion evolved an intelligent ensemble neural network model is proposed to predict wind speed in renewable energy applications. The intelligent ensemble neural model based wind speed forecasting is designed by averaging the forecasted values from multiple neural network models which includes multilayer perceptron (MLP), multilayer adaptive linear neuron (Madaline), back propagation neural network (BPN), and probabilistic neural network (PNN) so as to obtain better accuracy in wind speed prediction with minimum error. The random selection of hidden neurons numbers in artificial neural network results in overfitting or underfitting problem. This paper aims to avoid the occurrence of overfitting and underfitting problems. The selection of number of hidden neurons is done in this paper employing 102 criteria; these evolved criteria are verified by the computed various error values. The proposed criteria for fixing hidden neurons are validated employing the convergence theorem. The proposed intelligent ensemble neural model is applied for wind speed prediction application considering the real time wind data collected from the nearby locations. The obtained simulation results substantiate that the proposed ensemble model reduces the error value to minimum and enhances the accuracy. The computed results prove the effectiveness of the proposed ensemble neural network (ENN) model with respect to the considered error factors in comparison with that of the earlier models available in the literature.
An Intelligent Ensemble Neural Network Model for Wind Speed Prediction in Renewable Energy Systems
Ranganayaki, V.; Deepa, S. N.
2016-01-01
Various criteria are proposed to select the number of hidden neurons in artificial neural network (ANN) models and based on the criterion evolved an intelligent ensemble neural network model is proposed to predict wind speed in renewable energy applications. The intelligent ensemble neural model based wind speed forecasting is designed by averaging the forecasted values from multiple neural network models which includes multilayer perceptron (MLP), multilayer adaptive linear neuron (Madaline), back propagation neural network (BPN), and probabilistic neural network (PNN) so as to obtain better accuracy in wind speed prediction with minimum error. The random selection of hidden neurons numbers in artificial neural network results in overfitting or underfitting problem. This paper aims to avoid the occurrence of overfitting and underfitting problems. The selection of number of hidden neurons is done in this paper employing 102 criteria; these evolved criteria are verified by the computed various error values. The proposed criteria for fixing hidden neurons are validated employing the convergence theorem. The proposed intelligent ensemble neural model is applied for wind speed prediction application considering the real time wind data collected from the nearby locations. The obtained simulation results substantiate that the proposed ensemble model reduces the error value to minimum and enhances the accuracy. The computed results prove the effectiveness of the proposed ensemble neural network (ENN) model with respect to the considered error factors in comparison with that of the earlier models available in the literature. PMID:27034973
Neural networks for process control and optimization: two industrial applications.
Bloch, Gérard; Denoeux, Thierry
2003-01-01
The two most widely used neural models, multilayer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function network (RBFN), are presented in the framework of system identification and control. The main steps for building such nonlinear black box models are regressor choice, selection of internal architecture, and parameter estimation. The advantages of neural network models are summarized: universal approximation capabilities, flexibility, and parsimony. Two applications are described in steel industry and water treatment, respectively, the control of alloying process in a hot dipped galvanizing line and the control of a coagulation process in a drinking water treatment plant. These examples highlight the interest of neural techniques, when complex nonlinear phenomena are involved, but the empirical knowledge of control operators can be learned.
Seismic response modeling of multi-story buildings using neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conte, Joel P.; Durrani, Ahmad J.; Shelton, Robert O.
1994-05-01
A neural network based approach to model the seismic response of multi-story frame buildings is presented. The seismic response of frames is emulated using multi-layer feedforward neural networks with a backpropagation learning algorithm. Actual earthquake accelerograms and corresponding structural response obtained from analytical models of buildings are used in training the neural networks. The application of the neural network model is demonstrated by studying one to six story high building frames subjected to seismic base excitation. Furthermore, the learning ability of the network is examined for the case of multiple inputs where lateral forces at floor levels are included simultaneously with the base excitation. The effects of the network parameters on learning and accuracy of predictions are discussed. Based on this study, it is found that appropriately configured neural network models can successfully learn and simulate the linear elastic dynamic behavior of multi-story buildings.
Forecasting SPEI and SPI Drought Indices Using the Integrated Artificial Neural Networks
Maca, Petr; Pech, Pavel
2016-01-01
The presented paper compares forecast of drought indices based on two different models of artificial neural networks. The first model is based on feedforward multilayer perceptron, sANN, and the second one is the integrated neural network model, hANN. The analyzed drought indices are the standardized precipitation index (SPI) and the standardized precipitation evaporation index (SPEI) and were derived for the period of 1948–2002 on two US catchments. The meteorological and hydrological data were obtained from MOPEX experiment. The training of both neural network models was made by the adaptive version of differential evolution, JADE. The comparison of models was based on six model performance measures. The results of drought indices forecast, explained by the values of four model performance indices, show that the integrated neural network model was superior to the feedforward multilayer perceptron with one hidden layer of neurons. PMID:26880875
Forecasting SPEI and SPI Drought Indices Using the Integrated Artificial Neural Networks.
Maca, Petr; Pech, Pavel
2016-01-01
The presented paper compares forecast of drought indices based on two different models of artificial neural networks. The first model is based on feedforward multilayer perceptron, sANN, and the second one is the integrated neural network model, hANN. The analyzed drought indices are the standardized precipitation index (SPI) and the standardized precipitation evaporation index (SPEI) and were derived for the period of 1948-2002 on two US catchments. The meteorological and hydrological data were obtained from MOPEX experiment. The training of both neural network models was made by the adaptive version of differential evolution, JADE. The comparison of models was based on six model performance measures. The results of drought indices forecast, explained by the values of four model performance indices, show that the integrated neural network model was superior to the feedforward multilayer perceptron with one hidden layer of neurons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liew, C. K.; Veidt, M.
2007-03-01
Neural network pattern recognition is an advanced regression technique that can be applied to identify guided wave response signals for quantifying damages in structures. This paper describes a procedure to optimize the design of a multi-layer perceptron backpropagation neural network with signals preprocessed by the wavelet transform. The performance can be further improved using a weight-range selection technique in a series network since there is increased sensitivity of the neural network to experimental damage patterns if the training range is reduced. Damage identification in beams with longitudinal guided waves is used in this study.
Discontinuities in recurrent neural networks.
Gavaldá, R; Siegelmann, H T
1999-04-01
This article studies the computational power of various discontinuous real computational models that are based on the classical analog recurrent neural network (ARNN). This ARNN consists of finite number of neurons; each neuron computes a polynomial net function and a sigmoid-like continuous activation function. We introduce arithmetic networks as ARNN augmented with a few simple discontinuous (e.g., threshold or zero test) neurons. We argue that even with weights restricted to polynomial time computable reals, arithmetic networks are able to compute arbitrarily complex recursive functions. We identify many types of neural networks that are at least as powerful as arithmetic nets, some of which are not in fact discontinuous, but they boost other arithmetic operations in the net function (e.g., neurons that can use divisions and polynomial net functions inside sigmoid-like continuous activation functions). These arithmetic networks are equivalent to the Blum-Shub-Smale model, when the latter is restricted to a bounded number of registers. With respect to implementation on digital computers, we show that arithmetic networks with rational weights can be simulated with exponential precision, but even with polynomial-time computable real weights, arithmetic networks are not subject to any fixed precision bounds. This is in contrast with the ARNN that are known to demand precision that is linear in the computation time. When nontrivial periodic functions (e.g., fractional part, sine, tangent) are added to arithmetic networks, the resulting networks are computationally equivalent to a massively parallel machine. Thus, these highly discontinuous networks can solve the presumably intractable class of PSPACE-complete problems in polynomial time.
Artificial neural networks applied to forecasting time series.
Montaño Moreno, Juan J; Palmer Pol, Alfonso; Muñoz Gracia, Pilar
2011-04-01
This study offers a description and comparison of the main models of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) which have proved to be useful in time series forecasting, and also a standard procedure for the practical application of ANN in this type of task. The Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), Radial Base Function (RBF), Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN), and Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) models are analyzed. With this aim in mind, we use a time series made up of 244 time points. A comparative study establishes that the error made by the four neural network models analyzed is less than 10%. In accordance with the interpretation criteria of this performance, it can be concluded that the neural network models show a close fit regarding their forecasting capacity. The model with the best performance is the RBF, followed by the RNN and MLP. The GRNN model is the one with the worst performance. Finally, we analyze the advantages and limitations of ANN, the possible solutions to these limitations, and provide an orientation towards future research.
Neural Network Aided Evaluation of Landslide Susceptibility in Southern Italy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rampone, Salvatore; Valente, Alessio
Landslide hazard mapping is often performed through the identification and analysis of hillslope instability factors. In heuristic approaches, these factors are rated by the attribution of scores based on the assumed role played by each of them in controlling the development of a sliding process. The objective of this research is to forecast landslide susceptibility through the application of Artificial Neural Networks. In particular, given the availability of past events data, we mainly focused on the Calabria region (Italy). Vectors of eight hillslope factors (features) were considered for each considered event in this area (lithology, permeability, slope angle, vegetation cover in terms of type and density, land use, yearly rainfall and yearly temperature range). We collected 106 vectors and each one was labeled with its landslide susceptibility, which is assumed to be the output variable. Subsequently a set of these labeled vectors (examples) was used to train an artificial neural network belonging to the category of Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) to evaluate landslide susceptibility. Then the neural network predictions were verified on the vectors not used in the training (validation set), i.e. in previously unseen locations. The comparison between the expected output and the artificial neural network output showed satisfactory results, reporting a prediction discrepancy of less than 4.3%. This is an encouraging preliminary approach towards a systematic introduction of artificial neural network in landslide hazard assessment and mapping in the considered area.
Training Neural Networks with Weight Constraints
1993-03-01
Hardware implementation of artificial neural networks imposes a variety of constraints. Finite weight magnitudes exist in both digital and analog...optimizing a network with weight constraints. Comparisons are made to the backpropagation training algorithm for networks with both unconstrained and hard-limited weight magnitudes. Neural networks , Analog, Digital, Stochastic
Terminal attractors in neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, Michail
1989-01-01
A new type of attractor (terminal attractors) for content-addressable memory, associative memory, and pattern recognition in artificial neural networks operating in continuous time is introduced. The idea of a terminal attractor is based upon a violation of the Lipschitz condition at a fixed point. As a result, the fixed point becomes a singular solution which envelopes the family of regular solutions, while each regular solution approaches such an attractor in finite time. It will be shown that terminal attractors can be incorporated into neural networks such that any desired set of these attractors with prescribed basins is provided by an appropriate selection of the synaptic weights. The applications of terminal attractors for content-addressable and associative memories, pattern recognition, self-organization, and for dynamical training are illustrated.
Terminal attractors in neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, Michail
1989-01-01
A new type of attractor (terminal attractors) for content-addressable memory, associative memory, and pattern recognition in artificial neural networks operating in continuous time is introduced. The idea of a terminal attractor is based upon a violation of the Lipschitz condition at a fixed point. As a result, the fixed point becomes a singular solution which envelopes the family of regular solutions, while each regular solution approaches such an attractor in finite time. It will be shown that terminal attractors can be incorporated into neural networks such that any desired set of these attractors with prescribed basins is provided by an appropriate selection of the synaptic weights. The applications of terminal attractors for content-addressable and associative memories, pattern recognition, self-organization, and for dynamical training are illustrated.
Fiber optic Adaline neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Anjan K.; Trepka, Jim; Paparao, Palacharla
1993-02-01
Optoelectronic realization of adaptive filters and equalizers using fiber optic tapped delay lines and spatial light modulators has been discussed recently. We describe the design of a single layer fiber optic Adaline neural network which can be used as a bit pattern classifier. In our realization we employ as few electronic devices as possible and use optical computation to utilize the advantages of optics in processing speed, parallelism, and interconnection. The new optical neural network described in this paper is designed for optical processing of guided lightwave signals, not electronic signals. We analyzed the convergence or learning characteristics of the optically implemented Adaline in the presence of errors in the hardware, and we studied methods for improving the convergence rate of the Adaline.
Heuristic urban transportation network design method, a multilayer coevolution approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Rui; Ujang, Norsidah; Hamid, Hussain bin; Manan, Mohd Shahrudin Abd; Li, Rong; Wu, Jianjun
2017-08-01
The design of urban transportation networks plays a key role in the urban planning process, and the coevolution of urban networks has recently garnered significant attention in literature. However, most of these recent articles are based on networks that are essentially planar. In this research, we propose a heuristic multilayer urban network coevolution model with lower layer network and upper layer network that are associated with growth and stimulate one another. We first use the relative neighbourhood graph and the Gabriel graph to simulate the structure of rail and road networks, respectively. With simulation we find that when a specific number of nodes are added, the total travel cost ratio between an expanded network and the initial lower layer network has the lowest value. The cooperation strength Λ and the changeable parameter average operation speed ratio Θ show that transit users' route choices change dramatically through the coevolution process and that their decisions, in turn, affect the multilayer network structure. We also note that the simulated relation between the Gini coefficient of the betweenness centrality, Θ and Λ have an optimal point for network design. This research could inspire the analysis of urban network topology features and the assessment of urban growth trends.
Multilayer Network Modeling of Change Propagation for Engineering Change Management
2010-06-01
Engineering change management is a critical and challenging process within product development. One pervasive source of difficulty for this process...rarely more than four, generations of descendants. In all, the multilayer network model’s holistic approach has significant policy implications for engineering change management in industry.
Compressive-Sensing-Based Structure Identification for Multilayer Networks.
Mei, Guofeng; Wu, Xiaoqun; Wang, Yingfei; Hu, Mi; Lu, Jun-An; Chen, Guanrong
2017-02-13
The coexistence of multiple types of interactions within social, technological, and biological networks has motivated the study of the multilayer nature of real-world networks. Meanwhile, identifying network structures from dynamical observations is an essential issue pervading over the current research on complex networks. This paper addresses the problem of structure identification for multilayer networks, which is an important topic but involves a challenging inverse problem. To clearly reveal the formalism, the simplest two-layer network model is considered and a new approach to identifying the structure of one layer is proposed. Specifically, if the interested layer is sparsely connected and the node behaviors of the other layer are observable at a few time points, then a theoretical framework is established based on compressive sensing and regularization. Some numerical examples illustrate the effectiveness of the identification scheme, its requirement of a relatively small number of observations, as well as its robustness against small noise. It is noteworthy that the framework can be straightforwardly extended to multilayer networks, thus applicable to a variety of real-world complex systems.
Prototype neural network pattern recognition testbed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Worrell, Steven W.; Robertson, James A.; Varner, Thomas L.; Garvin, Charles G.
1991-02-01
Recent successes ofneural networks has led to an optimistic outlook for neural network applications to image processing(IP). This paperpresents a general architecture for performing comparative studies of neural processing and more conventional IF techniques as well as hybrid pattern recognition (PR) systems. Two hybrid PR systems have been simulated each of which incorporate both conventional and neural processing techniques.
Practical application of artificial neural networks in the neurosciences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinti, Antonio
1995-04-01
This article presents a practical application of artificial multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural networks in neurosciences. The data that are processed are labeled data from the visual analysis of electrical signals of human sleep. The objective of this work is to automatically classify into sleep stages the electrophysiological signals recorded from electrodes placed on a sleeping patient. Two large data bases were designed by experts in order to realize this study. One data base was used to train the network and the other to test its generalization capacity. The classification results obtained with the MLP network were compared to a type K nearest neighbor Knn non-parametric classification method. The MLP network gave a better result in terms of classification than the Knn method. Both classification techniques were implemented on a transputer system. With both networks in their final configuration, the MLP network was 160 times faster than the Knn model in classifying a sleep period.
The LILARTI neural network system
Allen, J.D. Jr.; Schell, F.M.; Dodd, C.V.
1992-10-01
The material of this Technical Memorandum is intended to provide the reader with conceptual and technical background information on the LILARTI neural network system of detail sufficient to confer an understanding of the LILARTI method as it is presently allied and to facilitate application of the method to problems beyond the scope of this document. Of particular importance in this regard are the descriptive sections and the Appendices which include operating instructions, partial listings of program output and data files, and network construction information.
The Use of Neural Network Technology to Model Swimming Performance
Silva, António José; Costa, Aldo Manuel; Oliveira, Paulo Moura; Reis, Victor Machado; Saavedra, José; Perl, Jurgen; Rouboa, Abel; Marinho, Daniel Almeida
2007-01-01
The aims of the present study were: to identify the factors which are able to explain the performance in the 200 meters individual medley and 400 meters front crawl events in young swimmers, to model the performance in those events using non-linear mathematic methods through artificial neural networks (multi-layer perceptrons) and to assess the neural network models precision to predict the performance. A sample of 138 young swimmers (65 males and 73 females) of national level was submitted to a test battery comprising four different domains: kinanthropometric evaluation, dry land functional evaluation (strength and flexibility), swimming functional evaluation (hydrodynamics, hydrostatic and bioenergetics characteristics) and swimming technique evaluation. To establish a profile of the young swimmer non-linear combinations between preponderant variables for each gender and swim performance in the 200 meters medley and 400 meters font crawl events were developed. For this purpose a feed forward neural network was used (Multilayer Perceptron) with three neurons in a single hidden layer. The prognosis precision of the model (error lower than 0.8% between true and estimated performances) is supported by recent evidence. Therefore, we consider that the neural network tool can be a good approach in the resolution of complex problems such as performance modeling and the talent identification in swimming and, possibly, in a wide variety of sports. Key pointsThe non-linear analysis resulting from the use of feed forward neural network allowed us the development of four performance models.The mean difference between the true and estimated results performed by each one of the four neural network models constructed was low.The neural network tool can be a good approach in the resolution of the performance modeling as an alternative to the standard statistical models that presume well-defined distributions and independence among all inputs.The use of neural networks for sports
Neural Network for Visual Search Classification
2007-11-02
neural network used to perform visual search classification. The neural network consists of a Learning vector quantization network (LVQ) and a single layer perceptron. The objective of this neural network is to classify the various human visual search patterns into predetermined classes. The classes signify the different search strategies used by individuals to scan the same target pattern. The input search patterns are quantified with respect to an ideal search pattern, determined by the user. A supervised learning rule,
Neural Network-Based Hyperspectral Algorithms
2016-06-07
Neural Network -Based Hyperspectral Algorithms Walter F. Smith, Jr. and Juanita Sandidge Naval Research Laboratory Code 7340, Bldg 1105 Stennis Space...combination of in-situ and model data of water column variables (IOP’s, depth, bottom type, upwelling radiance, etc.) a neural network non-linear... network (Lippman, 1987). Neural network -based algorithms have been demonstrated by the investigators for retrieval of water depth from Airborne Visible
Extracting rules from neural networks as decision diagrams.
Chorowski, Jan; Zurada, Jacek M
2011-12-01
Rule extraction from neural networks (NNs) solves two fundamental problems: it gives insight into the logic behind the network and in many cases, it improves the network's ability to generalize the acquired knowledge. This paper presents a novel eclectic approach to rule extraction from NNs, named LOcal Rule Extraction (LORE), suited for multilayer perceptron networks with discrete (logical or categorical) inputs. The extracted rules mimic network behavior on the training set and relax this condition on the remaining input space. First, a multilayer perceptron network is trained under standard regime. It is then transformed into an equivalent form, returning the same numerical result as the original network, yet being able to produce rules generalizing the network output for cases similar to a given input. The partial rules extracted for every training set sample are then merged to form a decision diagram (DD) from which logic rules can be extracted. A rule format explicitly separating subsets of inputs for which an answer is known from those with an undetermined answer is presented. A special data structure, the decision diagram, allowing efficient partial rule merging is introduced. With regard to rules' complexity and generalization abilities, LORE gives results comparable to those reported previously. An algorithm transforming DDs into interpretable boolean expressions is described. Experimental running times of rule extraction are proportional to the network's training time.
A shallow convolutional neural network for blind image sharpness assessment.
Yu, Shaode; Wu, Shibin; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Fan; Xie, Yaoqin; Li, Leida
2017-01-01
Blind image quality assessment can be modeled as feature extraction followed by score prediction. It necessitates considerable expertise and efforts to handcraft features for optimal representation of perceptual image quality. This paper addresses blind image sharpness assessment by using a shallow convolutional neural network (CNN). The network takes single feature layer to unearth intrinsic features for image sharpness representation and utilizes multilayer perceptron (MLP) to rate image quality. Different from traditional methods, CNN integrates feature extraction and score prediction into an optimization procedure and retrieves features automatically from raw images. Moreover, its prediction performance can be enhanced by replacing MLP with general regression neural network (GRNN) and support vector regression (SVR). Experiments on Gaussian blur images from LIVE-II, CSIQ, TID2008 and TID2013 demonstrate that CNN features with SVR achieves the best overall performance, indicating high correlation with human subjective judgment.
Real-time EFIT data reconstruction based on neural network in KSTAR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwak, Sehyun; Jeon, Youngmu; Ghim, Young-Chul
2014-10-01
Real-time EFIT data can be obtained using a neural network method. A non-linear mapping between diagnostic signals and shaping parameters of plasma equilibrium can be established by the neural network, particularly with the multilayer perceptron. The neural network is utilized to attain real-time EFIT data for Korea Superconducting Tokamak for Advanced Research (KSTAR). We collect and process existing datasets of measured data and EFIT data to train and test the neural network. Parameter scans such as the numbers of hidden layers and hidden units were performed in order to find the optimal condition. EFIT data from the neural network was compared with both offline EFIT and real-time EFIT data. Finally, we discuss advantages of using neutral network reconstructed EFIT data for real time plasma control.
Optimal exponential synchronization of general chaotic delayed neural networks: an LMI approach.
Liu, Meiqin
2009-09-01
This paper investigates the optimal exponential synchronization problem of general chaotic neural networks with or without time delays by virtue of Lyapunov-Krasovskii stability theory and the linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique. This general model, which is the interconnection of a linear delayed dynamic system and a bounded static nonlinear operator, covers several well-known neural networks, such as Hopfield neural networks, cellular neural networks (CNNs), bidirectional associative memory (BAM) networks, and recurrent multilayer perceptrons (RMLPs) with or without delays. Using the drive-response concept, time-delay feedback controllers are designed to synchronize two identical chaotic neural networks as quickly as possible. The control design equations are shown to be a generalized eigenvalue problem (GEVP) which can be easily solved by various convex optimization algorithms to determine the optimal control law and the optimal exponential synchronization rate. Detailed comparisons with existing results are made and numerical simulations are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the established synchronization laws.
Image segmentation using neural tree networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samaddar, Sumitro; Mammone, Richard J.
1993-06-01
We present a technique for Image Segmentation using Neural Tree Networks (NTN). We also modify the NTN architecture to let is solve multi-class classification problems with only binary fan-out. We have used a realistic case study of segmenting the pole, coil and painted coil regions of light bulb filaments (LBF). The input to the network is a set of maximum, minimum and average of intensities in radial slices of a circular window around a pixel, taken from a front-lit and a back-lit image of an LBF. Training is done with a composite image drawn from images of many LBFs. Each node of the NTN is a multi-layer perceptron and has one output for each segment class. These outputs are treated as probabilities to compute a confidence value for the segmentation of that pixel. Segmentation results with high confidence values are deemed to be correct and not processed further, while those with moderate and low confidence values are deemed to be outliers by this node and passed down the tree to children nodes. These tend to be pixels in boundary of different regions. The results are favorably compared with a traditional segmentation technique applied to the LBF test case.
Neural tree network method for image segmentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samaddar, Sumitro; Mammone, Richard J.
1994-02-01
We present an extension of the neural tree network (NTN) architecture to let it solve multi- class classification problems with only binary fan-out. We then demonstrate it's effectiveness by applying it in a method for image segmentation. Each node of the NTN is a multi-layer perceptron and has one output for each segment class. These outputs are treated as probabilities to compute a confidence value for the segmentation of that pixel. Segmentation results with high confidence values are deemed to be correct and not processed further, while those with moderate and low confidence values are deemed to be outliers by this node and passed down the tree to children nodes. These tend to be pixels in boundary of different regions. We have used a realistic case study of segmenting the pole, coil and painted coil regions of light bulb filaments (LBF). The input to the network is a set of maximum, minimum and average of intensities in radial slices of a circular window around a pixel, taken from a front-lit and a back-lit image of an LBF. Training is done with a composite image drawn from images of many LBFs. The results are favorably compared with a traditional segmentation technique applied to the LBF test case.
Lexical Tone Recognition with an Artificial Neural Network
Zhou, Ning; Zhang, Wenle; Lee, Chao-Yang; Xu, Li
2008-01-01
Objectives Tone production is particularly important for communicating in tone languages such as Mandarin Chinese. In the present study, an artificial neural network was used to recognize tones produced by adult native speakers. The purposes of the study were (1) to test the sensitivity of the neural network to speaker variation typically in adult speaker groups, (2) to evaluate two normalization procedures to overcome the effects of speaker variation, and (3) to compare tone recognition performance of the neural network with that of the human listeners. Design A feedforward multilayer neural network was used. Twenty-nine adult native Mandarin Chinese speakers were recruited to record tone samples. The F0 contours of the vowel part of the 1044 monosyllabic words recorded were extracted using an autocorrelation method. Samples from the F0 contours were used as inputs to the neural network. The efficacy of the neural network was first tested by varying the number of inputs and the number of neurons in the hidden layer from 1 to 16. The sensitivity of the neural network to speaker variation was tested by (1) using the raw F0 data from speech tokens of a number of randomly drawn speakers that varied from 1 to 29, (2) using the raw F0 data from speech tokens of either male-only or female-only speakers, and (3) using two sets of normalized F0 data (i.e., tone 1-based normalization and first-order derivative) from speech tokens from a number of randomly drawn speakers that varied from 1 to 29. The recognition performance of the neural network under several experimental conditions was compared with the corresponding recognition performance of 10 normal-hearing, native Mandarin Chinese speaking adult listeners. Results Three inputs and four hidden neurons were found to be sufficient for the neural network to perform at about 85% correct using speech samples without normalization. The performance of the neural network was affected by variation across speakers particularly
Dynamic Neural Networks Supporting Memory Retrieval
St. Jacques, Peggy L.; Kragel, Philip A.; Rubin, David C.
2011-01-01
How do separate neural networks interact to support complex cognitive processes such as remembrance of the personal past? Autobiographical memory (AM) retrieval recruits a consistent pattern of activation that potentially comprises multiple neural networks. However, it is unclear how such large-scale neural networks interact and are modulated by properties of the memory retrieval process. In the present functional MRI (fMRI) study, we combined independent component analysis (ICA) and dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to understand the neural networks supporting AM retrieval. ICA revealed four task-related components consistent with the previous literature: 1) Medial Prefrontal Cortex (PFC) Network, associated with self-referential processes, 2) Medial Temporal Lobe (MTL) Network, associated with memory, 3) Frontoparietal Network, associated with strategic search, and 4) Cingulooperculum Network, associated with goal maintenance. DCM analysis revealed that the medial PFC network drove activation within the system, consistent with the importance of this network to AM retrieval. Additionally, memory accessibility and recollection uniquely altered connectivity between these neural networks. Recollection modulated the influence of the medial PFC on the MTL network during elaboration, suggesting that greater connectivity among subsystems of the default network supports greater re-experience. In contrast, memory accessibility modulated the influence of frontoparietal and MTL networks on the medial PFC network, suggesting that ease of retrieval involves greater fluency among the multiple networks contributing to AM. These results show the integration between neural networks supporting AM retrieval and the modulation of network connectivity by behavior. PMID:21550407
Neural network modeling of emotion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levine, Daniel S.
2007-03-01
This article reviews the history and development of computational neural network modeling of cognitive and behavioral processes that involve emotion. The exposition starts with models of classical conditioning dating from the early 1970s. Then it proceeds toward models of interactions between emotion and attention. Then models of emotional influences on decision making are reviewed, including some speculative (not and not yet simulated) models of the evolution of decision rules. Through the late 1980s, the neural networks developed to model emotional processes were mainly embodiments of significant functional principles motivated by psychological data. In the last two decades, network models of these processes have become much more detailed in their incorporation of known physiological properties of specific brain regions, while preserving many of the psychological principles from the earlier models. Most network models of emotional processes so far have dealt with positive and negative emotion in general, rather than specific emotions such as fear, joy, sadness, and anger. But a later section of this article reviews a few models relevant to specific emotions: one family of models of auditory fear conditioning in rats, and one model of induced pleasure enhancing creativity in humans. Then models of emotional disorders are reviewed. The article concludes with philosophical statements about the essential contributions of emotion to intelligent behavior and the importance of quantitative theories and models to the interdisciplinary enterprise of understanding the interactions of emotion, cognition, and behavior.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wing, S.; Greenwald, R. A.; Meng, C.-I.; Sigillito, V. G.; Hutton, L. V.
2003-08-01
The classification of high frequency (HF) radar backscattered signals from the ionospheric irregularities (clutters) into those suitable, or not, for further analysis, is a time-consuming task even by experts in the field. We tested several different feedforward neural networks on this task, investigating the effects of network type (single layer versus multilayer) and number of hidden nodes upon performance. As expected, the multilayer feedforward networks (MLFNs) outperformed the single-layer networks. The MLFNs achieved performance levels of 100% correct on the training set and up to 98% correct on the testing set. Comparable figures for the single-layer networks were 94.5% and 92%, respectively. When measures of sensitivity, specificity, and proportion of variance accounted for by the model are considered, the superiority of the MLFNs over the single-layer networks is much more striking. Our results suggest that such neural networks could aid many HF radar operations such as frequency search, space weather, etc.
Neural network payload estimation for adaptive robot control.
Leahy, M R; Johnson, M A; Rogers, S K
1991-01-01
A concept is proposed for utilizing artificial neural networks to enhance the high-speed tracking accuracy of robotic manipulators. Tracking accuracy is a function of the controller's ability to compensate for disturbances produced by dynamical interactions between the links. A model-based control algorithm uses a nominal model of those dynamical interactions to reduce the disturbances. The problem is how to provide accurate dynamics information to the controller in the presence of payload uncertainty and modeling error. Neural network payload estimation uses a series of artificial neural networks to recognize the payload variation associated with a degradation in tracking performance. The network outputs are combined with a knowledge of nominal dynamics to produce a computationally efficient direct form of adaptive control. The concept is validated through experimentation and analysis on the first three links of a PUMA-560 manipulator. A multilayer perceptron architecture with two hidden layers is used. Integration of the principles of neural network pattern recognition and model-based control produces a tracking algorithm with enhanced robustness to incomplete dynamic information. Tracking efficacy and applicability to robust control algorithms are discussed.
Mathematically Reduced Chemical Reaction Mechanism Using Neural Networks
Ziaul Huque
2007-08-31
This is the final technical report for the project titled 'Mathematically Reduced Chemical Reaction Mechanism Using Neural Networks'. The aim of the project was to develop an efficient chemistry model for combustion simulations. The reduced chemistry model was developed mathematically without the need of having extensive knowledge of the chemistry involved. To aid in the development of the model, Neural Networks (NN) was used via a new network topology known as Non-linear Principal Components Analysis (NPCA). A commonly used Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network (MLP-NN) was modified to implement NPCA-NN. The training rate of NPCA-NN was improved with the GEneralized Regression Neural Network (GRNN) based on kernel smoothing techniques. Kernel smoothing provides a simple way of finding structure in data set without the imposition of a parametric model. The trajectory data of the reaction mechanism was generated based on the optimization techniques of genetic algorithm (GA). The NPCA-NN algorithm was then used for the reduction of Dimethyl Ether (DME) mechanism. DME is a recently discovered fuel made from natural gas, (and other feedstock such as coal, biomass, and urban wastes) which can be used in compression ignition engines as a substitute for diesel. An in-house two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code was developed based on Meshfree technique and time marching solution algorithm. The project also provided valuable research experience to two graduate students.
NNIC—neural network image compressor for satellite positioning system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danchenko, Pavel; Lifshits, Feodor; Orion, Itzhak; Koren, Sion; Solomon, Alan D.; Mark, Shlomo
2007-04-01
We have developed an algorithm, based on novel techniques of data compression and neural networks for the optimal positioning of a satellite. The algorithm is described in detail, and examples of its application are given. The heart of this algorithm is the program NNIC—neural network image compressor. This program was developed for compression color and grayscale images with artificial neural networks (ANNs). NNIC applies three different methods for compression. Two of them are based on neural networks architectures—multilayer perceptron and kohonen network. The third is based on a widely used method of discrete cosine transform, the basis for the JPEG standard. The program also serves as a tool for determining numerical and visual quality parameters of compression and comparison between different methods. A number of advantages and disadvantages of the compression using ANNs were discovered in the course of the present research, some of them presented in this report. The thrust of the report is the discussion of ANNs implementation problems for modern platforms, such as a satellite positioning system that include intensive image flowing and processing.
Constructive neural network learning algorithms
Parekh, R.; Yang, Jihoon; Honavar, V.
1996-12-31
Constructive Algorithms offer an approach for incremental construction of potentially minimal neural network architectures for pattern classification tasks. These algorithms obviate the need for an ad-hoc a-priori choice of the network topology. The constructive algorithm design involves alternately augmenting the existing network topology by adding one or more threshold logic units and training the newly added threshold neuron(s) using a stable variant of the perception learning algorithm (e.g., pocket algorithm, thermal perception, and barycentric correction procedure). Several constructive algorithms including tower, pyramid, tiling, upstart, and perception cascade have been proposed for 2-category pattern classification. These algorithms differ in terms of their topological and connectivity constraints as well as the training strategies used for individual neurons.
Neural-Network Computer Transforms Coordinates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Josin, Gary M.
1990-01-01
Numerical simulation demonstrated ability of conceptual neural-network computer to generalize what it has "learned" from few examples. Ability to generalize achieved with even simple neural network (relatively few neurons) and after exposure of network to only few "training" examples. Ability to obtain fairly accurate mappings after only few training examples used to provide solutions to otherwise intractable mapping problems.
Neural-Network Computer Transforms Coordinates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Josin, Gary M.
1990-01-01
Numerical simulation demonstrated ability of conceptual neural-network computer to generalize what it has "learned" from few examples. Ability to generalize achieved with even simple neural network (relatively few neurons) and after exposure of network to only few "training" examples. Ability to obtain fairly accurate mappings after only few training examples used to provide solutions to otherwise intractable mapping problems.
Feature Extraction Using an Unsupervised Neural Network
1991-05-03
A novel unsupervised neural network for dimensionality reduction which seeks directions emphasizing distinguishing features in the data is presented. A statistical framework for the parameter estimation problem associated with this neural network is given and its connection to exploratory projection pursuit methods is established. The network is shown to minimize a loss function (projection index) over a
Neural Networks in Nonlinear Aircraft Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Linse, Dennis J.
1990-01-01
Recent research indicates that artificial neural networks offer interesting learning or adaptive capabilities. The current research focuses on the potential for application of neural networks in a nonlinear aircraft control law. The current work has been to determine which networks are suitable for such an application and how they will fit into a nonlinear control law.
Neural networks and MIMD-multiprocessors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanhala, Jukka; Kaski, Kimmo
1990-01-01
Two artificial neural network models are compared. They are the Hopfield Neural Network Model and the Sparse Distributed Memory model. Distributed algorithms for both of them are designed and implemented. The run time characteristics of the algorithms are analyzed theoretically and tested in practice. The storage capacities of the networks are compared. Implementations are done using a distributed multiprocessor system.
Satellite image analysis using neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sheldon, Roger A.
1990-01-01
The tremendous backlog of unanalyzed satellite data necessitates the development of improved methods for data cataloging and analysis. Ford Aerospace has developed an image analysis system, SIANN (Satellite Image Analysis using Neural Networks) that integrates the technologies necessary to satisfy NASA's science data analysis requirements for the next generation of satellites. SIANN will enable scientists to train a neural network to recognize image data containing scenes of interest and then rapidly search data archives for all such images. The approach combines conventional image processing technology with recent advances in neural networks to provide improved classification capabilities. SIANN allows users to proceed through a four step process of image classification: filtering and enhancement, creation of neural network training data via application of feature extraction algorithms, configuring and training a neural network model, and classification of images by application of the trained neural network. A prototype experimentation testbed was completed and applied to climatological data.
Dynamic versus static neural network model for rainfall forecasting at Klang River Basin, Malaysia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Shafie, A.; Noureldin, A.; Taha, M. R.; Hussain, A.
2011-07-01
Rainfall is considered as one of the major component of the hydrological process, it takes significant part of evaluating drought and flooding events. Therefore, it is important to have accurate model for rainfall forecasting. Recently, several data-driven modeling approaches have been investigated to perform such forecasting task such as Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Networks (MLP-NN). In fact, the rainfall time series modeling involves an important temporal dimension. On the other hand, the classical MLP-NN is a static and memoryless network architecture that is effective for complex nonlinear static mapping. This research focuses on investigating the potential of introducing a neural network that could address the temporal relationships of the rainfall series. Two different static neural networks and one dynamic neural network namely; Multi-Layer Peceptron Neural network (MLP-NN), Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN) and Input Delay Neural Network (IDNN), respectively, have been examined in this study. Those models had been developed for two time horizon in monthly and weekly rainfall basis forecasting at Klang River, Malaysia. Data collected over 12 yr (1997-2008) on weekly basis and 22 yr (1987-2008) for monthly basis were used to develop and examine the performance of the proposed models. Comprehensive comparison analyses were carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed static and dynamic neural network. Results showed that MLP-NN neural network model able to follow the similar trend of the actual rainfall, yet it still relatively poor. RBFNN model achieved better accuracy over the MLP-NN model. Moreover, the forecasting accuracy of the IDNN model outperformed during training and testing stage which prove a consistent level of accuracy with seen and unseen data. Furthermore, the IDNN significantly enhance the forecasting accuracy if compared with the other static neural network model as they could memorize the sequential or time varying
Adaptive optimization and control using neural networks
Mead, W.C.; Brown, S.K.; Jones, R.D.; Bowling, P.S.; Barnes, C.W.
1993-10-22
Recent work has demonstrated the ability of neural-network-based controllers to optimize and control machines with complex, non-linear, relatively unknown control spaces. We present a brief overview of neural networks via a taxonomy illustrating some capabilities of different kinds of neural networks. We present some successful control examples, particularly the optimization and control of a small-angle negative ion source.
Neural Network Retinal Model Real Time Implementation
1992-09-02
addresses the specific needs of vision processing. The goal of this SBIR Phase I project has been to take a significant neural network vision...application and to map it onto dedicated hardware for real time implementation. The neural network was already demonstrated using software simulation on a...general purpose computer. During Phase 1, HNC took a neural network model of the retina and, using HNC’s Vision Processor (ViP) prototype hardware
Neural Network False Alarm Filter. Volume 1.
1994-12-01
This effort identified, developed and demonstrated a set of approaches for applying neural network learning techniques to the development of a real... neural network models, 9 fault report causes and 12 common groups of BIT techniques was identified. From this space, 4 unique, high-potential...of their strengths and weaknesses were performed along with cost/ benefit analyses. This study concluded that the best candidates for neural network insert
A Neural Network Object Recognition System
1990-07-01
useful for exploring different neural network configurations. There are three main computation phases of a model based object recognition system...segmentation, feature extraction, and object classification. This report focuses on the object classification stage. For segmentation, a neural network based...are available with the current system. Neural network based feature extraction may be added at a later date. The classification stage consists of a
A Complexity Theory of Neural Networks
1991-08-09
Significant progress has been made in laying the foundations of a complexity theory of neural networks . The fundamental complexity classes have been...identified and studied. The class of problems solvable by small, shallow neural networks has been found to be the same class even if (1) probabilistic...behaviour (2)Multi-valued logic, and (3)analog behaviour, are allowed (subject to certain resonable technical assumptions). Neural networks can be
Oil reservoir properties estimation using neural networks
Toomarian, N.B.; Barhen, J.; Glover, C.W.; Aminzadeh, F.
1997-02-01
This paper investigates the applicability as well as the accuracy of artificial neural networks for estimating specific parameters that describe reservoir properties based on seismic data. This approach relies on JPL`s adjoint operators general purpose neural network code to determine the best suited architecture. The authors believe that results presented in this work demonstrate that artificial neural networks produce surprisingly accurate estimates of the reservoir parameters.
A neural network architecture for implementation of expert systems for real time monitoring
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramamoorthy, P. A.
1991-01-01
Since neural networks have the advantages of massive parallelism and simple architecture, they are good tools for implementing real time expert systems. In a rule based expert system, the antecedents of rules are in the conjunctive or disjunctive form. We constructed a multilayer feedforward type network in which neurons represent AND or OR operations of rules. Further, we developed a translator which can automatically map a given rule base into the network. Also, we proposed a new and powerful yet flexible architecture that combines the advantages of both fuzzy expert systems and neural networks. This architecture uses the fuzzy logic concepts to separate input data domains into several smaller and overlapped regions. Rule-based expert systems for time critical applications using neural networks, the automated implementation of rule-based expert systems with neural nets, and fuzzy expert systems vs. neural nets are covered.
Practical target recognition in infrared imagery using a neural network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crowe, Alistair A.; Patel, A.; Wright, William A.; Green, Michael A.; Hughes, Andrew D.
1992-07-01
This paper describes work undertaken by British Aerospace (BAe) on the development of a neural network classifier for automatic recognition of land based targets in infrared imagery. The classifier used a histogram segmentation process to extract regions from the infrared imagery. A set of features were calculated for each region to form a feature vector describing the region. These feature vectors were then used as the input to the neural classifier. Two neural classifiers were investigated based upon the multi-layer perceptron and radial basis function networks. In order to assess the merits of a neural network approach, the neural classifiers were compared with a conventional classifier originally developed by British Aerospace (Systems and Equipment) Ltd., under contract to RARDE (Chertsey), for the purpose of infrared target recognition. This conventional system was based upon a Schurman classifier which operates on data transformed using a Hotelling Trace Transform. The ability of the classifiers to perform practical recognition of real-world targets was evaluated by training and testing the classifiers on real imagery obtained from mock land battles and military vehicle trials.
Narazaki, H; Watanabe, T; Yamamoto, M
1996-01-01
We propose an explanatory mechanism for multilayered neural networks (NN). In spite of the effective learning capability as a uniform function approximator, the multilayered NN suffers from unreadability, i.e., it is difficult for the user to interpret or understand the "knowledge" that the NN has by looking at the connection weights and thresholds obtained by backpropagation (BP). This unreadability comes from the distributed nature of the knowledge representation in the NN. In this paper, we propose a method that reorganizes the distributed knowledge in the NN to extract approximate classification rules. Our rule extraction method is based on the analysis of the function that the NN has learned, rather than on the direct interpretation of connection weights as correlation information. More specifically, our method divides the input space into "monotonic regions" where a monotonic region is a set of input patterns that belongs to the same class with the same sensitivity pattern. Approximate classification rules are generated by projecting these monotonic regions.
Neural network based system for equipment surveillance
Vilim, R.B.; Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.
1998-04-28
A method and system are disclosed for performing surveillance of transient signals of an industrial device to ascertain the operating state. The method and system involves the steps of reading into a memory training data, determining neural network weighting values until achieving target outputs close to the neural network output. If the target outputs are inadequate, wavelet parameters are determined to yield neural network outputs close to the desired set of target outputs and then providing signals characteristic of an industrial process and comparing the neural network output to the industrial process signals to evaluate the operating state of the industrial process. 33 figs.
Neural network based system for equipment surveillance
Vilim, Richard B.; Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.
1998-01-01
A method and system for performing surveillance of transient signals of an industrial device to ascertain the operating state. The method and system involves the steps of reading into a memory training data, determining neural network weighting values until achieving target outputs close to the neural network output. If the target outputs are inadequate, wavelet parameters are determined to yield neural network outputs close to the desired set of target outputs and then providing signals characteristic of an industrial process and comparing the neural network output to the industrial process signals to evaluate the operating state of the industrial process.
Electronic neural networks for global optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thakoor, A. P.; Moopenn, A. W.; Eberhardt, S.
1990-01-01
An electronic neural network with feedback architecture, implemented in analog custom VLSI is described. Its application to problems of global optimization for dynamic assignment is discussed. The convergence properties of the neural network hardware are compared with computer simulation results. The neural network's ability to provide optimal or near optimal solutions within only a few neuron time constants, a speed enhancement of several orders of magnitude over conventional search methods, is demonstrated. The effect of noise on the circuit dynamics and the convergence behavior of the neural network hardware is also examined.
Neural network architecture for crossbar switch control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Troudet, Terry P.; Walters, Stephen M.
1991-01-01
A Hopfield neural network architecture for the real-time control of a crossbar switch for switching packets at maximum throughput is proposed. The network performance and processing time are derived from a numerical simulation of the transitions of the neural network. A method is proposed to optimize electronic component parameters and synaptic connections, and it is fully illustrated by the computer simulation of a VLSI implementation of 4 x 4 neural net controller. The extension to larger size crossbars is demonstrated through the simulation of an 8 x 8 crossbar switch controller, where the performance of the neural computation is discussed in relation to electronic noise and inhomogeneities of network components.
Advances in neural networks research: an introduction.
Kozma, Robert; Bressler, Steven; Perlovsky, Leonid; Venayagamoorthy, Ganesh Kumar
2009-01-01
The present Special Issue "Advances in Neural Networks Research: IJCNN2009" provides a state-of-art overview of the field of neural networks. It includes 39 papers from selected areas of the 2009 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN2009). IJCNN2009 took place on June 14-19, 2009 in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and it represents an exemplary collaboration between the International Neural Networks Society and the IEEE Computational Intelligence Society. Topics in this issue include neuroscience and cognitive science, computational intelligence and machine learning, hybrid techniques, nonlinear dynamics and chaos, various soft computing technologies, intelligent signal processing and pattern recognition, bioinformatics and biomedicine, and engineering applications.
Neural network architecture for crossbar switch control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Troudet, Terry P.; Walters, Stephen M.
1991-01-01
A Hopfield neural network architecture for the real-time control of a crossbar switch for switching packets at maximum throughput is proposed. The network performance and processing time are derived from a numerical simulation of the transitions of the neural network. A method is proposed to optimize electronic component parameters and synaptic connections, and it is fully illustrated by the computer simulation of a VLSI implementation of 4 x 4 neural net controller. The extension to larger size crossbars is demonstrated through the simulation of an 8 x 8 crossbar switch controller, where the performance of the neural computation is discussed in relation to electronic noise and inhomogeneities of network components.
Aerodynamic Design Using Neural Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rai, Man Mohan; Madavan, Nateri K.
2003-01-01
The design of aerodynamic components of aircraft, such as wings or engines, involves a process of obtaining the most optimal component shape that can deliver the desired level of component performance, subject to various constraints, e.g., total weight or cost, that the component must satisfy. Aerodynamic design can thus be formulated as an optimization problem that involves the minimization of an objective function subject to constraints. A new aerodynamic design optimization procedure based on neural networks and response surface methodology (RSM) incorporates the advantages of both traditional RSM and neural networks. The procedure uses a strategy, denoted parameter-based partitioning of the design space, to construct a sequence of response surfaces based on both neural networks and polynomial fits to traverse the design space in search of the optimal solution. Some desirable characteristics of the new design optimization procedure include the ability to handle a variety of design objectives, easily impose constraints, and incorporate design guidelines and rules of thumb. It provides an infrastructure for variable fidelity analysis and reduces the cost of computation by using less-expensive, lower fidelity simulations in the early stages of the design evolution. The initial or starting design can be far from optimal. The procedure is easy and economical to use in large-dimensional design space and can be used to perform design tradeoff studies rapidly. Designs involving multiple disciplines can also be optimized. Some practical applications of the design procedure that have demonstrated some of its capabilities include the inverse design of an optimal turbine airfoil starting from a generic shape and the redesign of transonic turbines to improve their unsteady aerodynamic characteristics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Treurniet, William
A study applied artificial neural networks, trained with the back-propagation learning algorithm, to modelling phonemes extracted from the DARPA TIMIT multi-speaker, continuous speech data base. A number of proposed network architectures were applied to the phoneme classification task, ranging from the simple feedforward multilayer network to more…
Neural networks for nuclear spectroscopy
Keller, P.E.; Kangas, L.J.; Hashem, S.; Kouzes, R.T.
1995-12-31
In this paper two applications of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in nuclear spectroscopy analysis are discussed. In the first application, an ANN assigns quality coefficients to alpha particle energy spectra. These spectra are used to detect plutonium contamination in the work environment. The quality coefficients represent the levels of spectral degradation caused by miscalibration and foreign matter affecting the instruments. A set of spectra was labeled with quality coefficients by an expert and used to train the ANN expert system. Our investigation shows that the expert knowledge of spectral quality can be transferred to an ANN system. The second application combines a portable gamma-ray spectrometer with an ANN. In this system the ANN is used to automatically identify, radioactive isotopes in real-time from their gamma-ray spectra. Two neural network paradigms are examined: the linear perception and the optimal linear associative memory (OLAM). A comparison of the two paradigms shows that OLAM is superior to linear perception for this application. Both networks have a linear response and are useful in determining the composition of an unknown sample when the spectrum of the unknown is a linear superposition of known spectra. One feature of this technique is that it uses the whole spectrum in the identification process instead of only the individual photo-peaks. For this reason, it is potentially more useful for processing data from lower resolution gamma-ray spectrometers. This approach has been tested with data generated by Monte Carlo simulations and with field data from sodium iodide and Germanium detectors. With the ANN approach, the intense computation takes place during the training process. Once the network is trained, normal operation consists of propagating the data through the network, which results in rapid identification of samples. This approach is useful in situations that require fast response where precise quantification is less important.
Neural Networks for Rapid Design and Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Maghami, Peiman G.
1998-01-01
Artificial neural networks have been employed for rapid and efficient dynamics and control analysis of flexible systems. Specifically, feedforward neural networks are designed to approximate nonlinear dynamic components over prescribed input ranges, and are used in simulations as a means to speed up the overall time response analysis process. To capture the recursive nature of dynamic components with artificial neural networks, recurrent networks, which use state feedback with the appropriate number of time delays, as inputs to the networks, are employed. Once properly trained, neural networks can give very good approximations to nonlinear dynamic components, and by their judicious use in simulations, allow the analyst the potential to speed up the analysis process considerably. To illustrate this potential speed up, an existing simulation model of a spacecraft reaction wheel system is executed, first conventionally, and then with an artificial neural network in place.
Artificial Neural Networks for Seismic Data Interpretation
1991-06-30
section is a simple single - layer perceptron network [5]; multilayer perceptrons were also tried, but it was found that additional layers did not improve...and with a larger database. A single - layer perceptron network was used with seven output nodes, one for each phase label. It was discovered that
Neural Network Classifies Teleoperation Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fiorini, Paolo; Giancaspro, Antonio; Losito, Sergio; Pasquariello, Guido
1994-01-01
Prototype artificial neural network, implemented in software, identifies phases of telemanipulator tasks in real time by analyzing feedback signals from force sensors on manipulator hand. Prototype is early, subsystem-level product of continuing effort to develop automated system that assists in training and supervising human control operator: provides symbolic feedback (e.g., warnings of impending collisions or evaluations of performance) to operator in real time during successive executions of same task. Also simplifies transition between teleoperation and autonomous modes of telerobotic system.
Flow Control Using Neural Networks
2007-11-02
FEB 93 - 31 DEC 96 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5 . FUNDING NUMBERS FLOW CONTROL USING NEURAL NETWORKS F49620-93-1-0135 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) 2307/BS THORWALD...OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH (AFOSRO AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 110 DUNCAN AVENUE, ROOM B115 BOLLING AFB DC 20332- 8050 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12a...signals. Figure 5 shows a time series for an actuator that performs a ramp motion in the streamwise direction over about 1 % of the TS period and remains
Neural Network Classifies Teleoperation Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fiorini, Paolo; Giancaspro, Antonio; Losito, Sergio; Pasquariello, Guido
1994-01-01
Prototype artificial neural network, implemented in software, identifies phases of telemanipulator tasks in real time by analyzing feedback signals from force sensors on manipulator hand. Prototype is early, subsystem-level product of continuing effort to develop automated system that assists in training and supervising human control operator: provides symbolic feedback (e.g., warnings of impending collisions or evaluations of performance) to operator in real time during successive executions of same task. Also simplifies transition between teleoperation and autonomous modes of telerobotic system.
Relabeling exchange method (REM) for learning in neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Wen; Mammone, Richard J.
1994-02-01
The supervised training of neural networks require the use of output labels which are usually arbitrarily assigned. In this paper it is shown that there is a significant difference in the rms error of learning when `optimal' label assignment schemes are used. We have investigated two efficient random search algorithms to solve the relabeling problem: the simulated annealing and the genetic algorithm. However, we found them to be computationally expensive. Therefore we shall introduce a new heuristic algorithm called the Relabeling Exchange Method (REM) which is computationally more attractive and produces optimal performance. REM has been used to organize the optimal structure for multi-layered perceptrons and neural tree networks. The method is a general one and can be implemented as a modification to standard training algorithms. The motivation of the new relabeling strategy is based on the present interpretation of dyslexia as an encoding problem.
An architecture for designing fuzzy logic controllers using neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berenji, Hamid R.
1991-01-01
Described here is an architecture for designing fuzzy controllers through a hierarchical process of control rule acquisition and by using special classes of neural network learning techniques. A new method for learning to refine a fuzzy logic controller is introduced. A reinforcement learning technique is used in conjunction with a multi-layer neural network model of a fuzzy controller. The model learns by updating its prediction of the plant's behavior and is related to the Sutton's Temporal Difference (TD) method. The method proposed here has the advantage of using the control knowledge of an experienced operator and fine-tuning it through the process of learning. The approach is applied to a cart-pole balancing system.
Design of Jetty Piles Using Artificial Neural Networks
2014-01-01
To overcome the complication of jetty pile design process, artificial neural networks (ANN) are adopted. To generate the training samples for training ANN, finite element (FE) analysis was performed 50 times for 50 different design cases. The trained ANN was verified with another FE analysis case and then used as a structural analyzer. The multilayer neural network (MBPNN) with two hidden layers was used for ANN. The framework of MBPNN was defined as the input with the lateral forces on the jetty structure and the type of piles and the output with the stress ratio of the piles. The results from the MBPNN agree well with those from FE analysis. Particularly for more complex modes with hundreds of different design cases, the MBPNN would possibly substitute parametric studies with FE analysis saving design time and cost. PMID:25177724
The Laplacian spectrum of neural networks.
de Lange, Siemon C; de Reus, Marcel A; van den Heuvel, Martijn P
2014-01-13
The brain is a complex network of neural interactions, both at the microscopic and macroscopic level. Graph theory is well suited to examine the global network architecture of these neural networks. Many popular graph metrics, however, encode average properties of individual network elements. Complementing these "conventional" graph metrics, the eigenvalue spectrum of the normalized Laplacian describes a network's structure directly at a systems level, without referring to individual nodes or connections. In this paper, the Laplacian spectra of the macroscopic anatomical neuronal networks of the macaque and cat, and the microscopic network of the Caenorhabditis elegans were examined. Consistent with conventional graph metrics, analysis of the Laplacian spectra revealed an integrative community structure in neural brain networks. Extending previous findings of overlap of network attributes across species, similarity of the Laplacian spectra across the cat, macaque and C. elegans neural networks suggests a certain level of consistency in the overall architecture of the anatomical neural networks of these species. Our results further suggest a specific network class for neural networks, distinct from conceptual small-world and scale-free models as well as several empirical networks.
The Laplacian spectrum of neural networks
de Lange, Siemon C.; de Reus, Marcel A.; van den Heuvel, Martijn P.
2014-01-01
The brain is a complex network of neural interactions, both at the microscopic and macroscopic level. Graph theory is well suited to examine the global network architecture of these neural networks. Many popular graph metrics, however, encode average properties of individual network elements. Complementing these “conventional” graph metrics, the eigenvalue spectrum of the normalized Laplacian describes a network's structure directly at a systems level, without referring to individual nodes or connections. In this paper, the Laplacian spectra of the macroscopic anatomical neuronal networks of the macaque and cat, and the microscopic network of the Caenorhabditis elegans were examined. Consistent with conventional graph metrics, analysis of the Laplacian spectra revealed an integrative community structure in neural brain networks. Extending previous findings of overlap of network attributes across species, similarity of the Laplacian spectra across the cat, macaque and C. elegans neural networks suggests a certain level of consistency in the overall architecture of the anatomical neural networks of these species. Our results further suggest a specific network class for neural networks, distinct from conceptual small-world and scale-free models as well as several empirical networks. PMID:24454286
Three dimensional living neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Linnenberger, Anna; McLeod, Robert R.; Basta, Tamara; Stowell, Michael H. B.
2015-08-01
We investigate holographic optical tweezing combined with step-and-repeat maskless projection micro-stereolithography for fine control of 3D positioning of living cells within a 3D microstructured hydrogel grid. Samples were fabricated using three different cell lines; PC12, NT2/D1 and iPSC. PC12 cells are a rat cell line capable of differentiation into neuron-like cells NT2/D1 cells are a human cell line that exhibit biochemical and developmental properties similar to that of an early embryo and when exposed to retinoic acid the cells differentiate into human neurons useful for studies of human neurological disease. Finally induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) were utilized with the goal of future studies of neural networks fabricated from human iPSC derived neurons. Cells are positioned in the monomer solution with holographic optical tweezers at 1064 nm and then are encapsulated by photopolymerization of polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogels formed by thiol-ene photo-click chemistry via projection of a 512x512 spatial light modulator (SLM) illuminated at 405 nm. Fabricated samples are incubated in differentiation media such that cells cease to divide and begin to form axons or axon-like structures. By controlling the position of the cells within the encapsulating hydrogel structure the formation of the neural circuits is controlled. The samples fabricated with this system are a useful model for future studies of neural circuit formation, neurological disease, cellular communication, plasticity, and repair mechanisms.
Neural Network Controlled Visual Saccades
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Jeffrey D.; Grogan, Timothy A.
1989-03-01
The paper to be presented will discuss research on a computer vision system controlled by a neural network capable of learning through classical (Pavlovian) conditioning. Through the use of unconditional stimuli (reward and punishment) the system will develop scan patterns of eye saccades necessary to differentiate and recognize members of an input set. By foveating only those portions of the input image that the system has found to be necessary for recognition the drawback of computational explosion as the size of the input image grows is avoided. The model incorporates many features found in animal vision systems, and is governed by understandable and modifiable behavior patterns similar to those reported by Pavlov in his classic study. These behavioral patterns are a result of a neuronal model, used in the network, explicitly designed to reproduce this behavior.
Noise-enhanced convolutional neural networks.
Audhkhasi, Kartik; Osoba, Osonde; Kosko, Bart
2016-06-01
Injecting carefully chosen noise can speed convergence in the backpropagation training of a convolutional neural network (CNN). The Noisy CNN algorithm speeds training on average because the backpropagation algorithm is a special case of the generalized expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm and because such carefully chosen noise always speeds up the EM algorithm on average. The CNN framework gives a practical way to learn and recognize images because backpropagation scales with training data. It has only linear time complexity in the number of training samples. The Noisy CNN algorithm finds a special separating hyperplane in the network's noise space. The hyperplane arises from the likelihood-based positivity condition that noise-boosts the EM algorithm. The hyperplane cuts through a uniform-noise hypercube or Gaussian ball in the noise space depending on the type of noise used. Noise chosen from above the hyperplane speeds training on average. Noise chosen from below slows it on average. The algorithm can inject noise anywhere in the multilayered network. Adding noise to the output neurons reduced the average per-iteration training-set cross entropy by 39% on a standard MNIST image test set of handwritten digits. It also reduced the average per-iteration training-set classification error by 47%. Adding noise to the hidden layers can also reduce these performance measures. The noise benefit is most pronounced for smaller data sets because the largest EM hill-climbing gains tend to occur in the first few iterations. This noise effect can assist random sampling from large data sets because it allows a smaller random sample to give the same or better performance than a noiseless sample gives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Neural network implementation using bit streams.
Patel, Nitish D; Nguang, Sing Kiong; Coghill, George G
2007-09-01
A new method for the parallel hardware implementation of artificial neural networks (ANNs) using digital techniques is presented. Signals are represented using uniformly weighted single-bit streams. Techniques for generating bit streams from analog or multibit inputs are also presented. This single-bit representation offers significant advantages over multibit representations since they mitigate the fan-in and fan-out issues which are typical to distributed systems. To process these bit streams using ANNs concepts, functional elements which perform summing, scaling, and squashing have been implemented. These elements are modular and have been designed such that they can be easily interconnected. Two new architectures which act as monotonically increasing differentiable nonlinear squashing functions have also been presented. Using these functional elements, a multilayer perceptron (MLP) can be easily constructed. Two examples successfully demonstrate the use of bit streams in the implementation of ANNs. Since every functional element is individually instantiated, the implementation is genuinely parallel. The results clearly show that this bit-stream technique is viable for the hardware implementation of a variety of distributed systems and for ANNs in particular.
2016-09-15
27 5 Taxonomy of neural net architectures. [50...171 41 Multilayer perceptron artificial neural network with bias . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 xiii List of Tables Table Page 1 Taxonomy of...effort was followed by Wilson & Rubinstein in 1984 with two comprehensive VRT reviews [130] and [129] where he introduces a VRT taxonomy to better classify
Predictive vector quantization using a neural network approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohsenian, Nader; Rizvi, Syed A.; Nasrabadi, Nasser M.
1993-07-01
A new predictive vector quantization (PVQ) technique capable of exploring the nonlinear dependencies in addition to the linear dependencies that exist between adjacent blocks (vectors) of pixels is introduced. The two components of the PVQ scheme, the vector predictor and the vector quantizer, are implemented by two different classes of neural networks. A multilayer perceptron is used for the predictive component and Kohonen self- organizing feature maps are used to design the codebook for the vector quantizer. The multilayer perceptron uses the nonlinearity condition associated with its processing units to perform a nonlinear vector prediction. The second component of the PVQ scheme vector quantizers the residual vector that is formed by subtracting the output of the perceptron from the original input vector. The joint-optimization task of designing the two components of the PVQ scheme is also achieved. Simulation results are presented for still images with high visual quality.
Automatic segmentation and classification of outdoor images using neural networks.
Campbell, N W; Thomas, B T; Troscianko, T
1997-02-01
The paper describes how neural networks may be used to segment and label objects in images. A self-organising feature map is used for the segmentation phase, and we quantify the quality of the segmentations produced as well as the contribution made by colour and texture features. A multi-layer perception is trained to label the regions produced by the segmentation process. It is shown that 91.1% of the image area is correctly classified into one of eleven categories which include cars, houses, fences, roads, vegetation and sky.
Recognition of chatter type based on improved neural network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Xiaozheng; Xie, Yongpeng; Zhao, Rongzhen; Jin, Wuyin; Yao, Yunping
2013-03-01
By studying chatter dynamic model, this paper discusses chatter phenomenon between metal cutting tool and workpiece during the cutting. From the point of energy, phase position difference of chatter mark, phase position difference of vibration mode, lagging phase position angle and change rate about cutting force relative to the cutting speed are respectively determined as characteristic parameter of regenerative, coupling vibration, lagging and fricative mode of chatter. With the four input parameters, multilayer feed forward neural network learning algorithm is used to diagnose the type of cutting chatter, and experiments show that this method is effective.It is essential to take appropriate measures on vibration suppression.
Artificial neural networks in Space Station optimal attitude control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Renjith R.; Seywald, Hans; Deshpande, Samir M.; Rahman, Zia
1992-08-01
Innovative techniques of using 'Artificial Neural Networks' (ANN) for improving the performance of the pitch axis attitude control system of Space Station Freedom using Control Moment Gyros (CMGs) are investigated. The first technique uses a feedforward ANN with multilayer perceptrons to obtain an on-line controller which improves the performance of the control system via a model following approach. The second techique uses a single layer feedforward ANN with a modified back propagation scheme to estimate the internal plant variations and the external disturbances separately. These estimates are then used to solve two differential Riccati equations to obtain time varying gains which improve the control system performance in successive orbits.
Dynamic versus static neural network model for rainfall forecasting at Klang River Basin, Malaysia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Shafie, A.; Noureldin, A.; Taha, M.; Hussain, A.; Mukhlisin, M.
2012-04-01
Rainfall is considered as one of the major components of the hydrological process; it takes significant part in evaluating drought and flooding events. Therefore, it is important to have an accurate model for rainfall forecasting. Recently, several data-driven modeling approaches have been investigated to perform such forecasting tasks as multi-layer perceptron neural networks (MLP-NN). In fact, the rainfall time series modeling involves an important temporal dimension. On the other hand, the classical MLP-NN is a static and has a memoryless network architecture that is effective for complex nonlinear static mapping. This research focuses on investigating the potential of introducing a neural network that could address the temporal relationships of the rainfall series. Two different static neural networks and one dynamic neural network, namely the multi-layer perceptron neural network (MLP-NN), radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) and input delay neural network (IDNN), respectively, have been examined in this study. Those models had been developed for the two time horizons for monthly and weekly rainfall forecasting at Klang River, Malaysia. Data collected over 12 yr (1997-2008) on a weekly basis and 22 yr (1987-2008) on a monthly basis were used to develop and examine the performance of the proposed models. Comprehensive comparison analyses were carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed static and dynamic neural networks. Results showed that the MLP-NN neural network model is able to follow trends of the actual rainfall, however, not very accurately. RBFNN model achieved better accuracy than the MLP-NN model. Moreover, the forecasting accuracy of the IDNN model was better than that of static network during both training and testing stages, which proves a consistent level of accuracy with seen and unseen data.
Hand Gesture Recognition Using Neural Networks.
1996-05-01
inherent in the model. The high gesture recognition rates and quick network retraining times found in the present study suggest that a neural network approach to gesture recognition be further evaluated.
Global multi-layer network of human mobility
Belyi, Alexander; Bojic, Iva; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Sitko, Izabela; Hawelka, Bartosz; Rudikova, Lada; Kurbatski, Alexander; Ratti, Carlo
2017-01-01
ABSTRACT Recent availability of geo-localized data capturing individual human activity together with the statistical data on international migration opened up unprecedented opportunities for a study on global mobility. In this paper, we consider it from the perspective of a multi-layer complex network, built using a combination of three datasets: Twitter, Flickr and official migration data. Those datasets provide different, but equally important insights on the global mobility – while the first two highlight short-term visits of people from one country to another, the last one – migration – shows the long-term mobility perspective, when people relocate for good. The main purpose of the paper is to emphasize importance of this multi-layer approach capturing both aspects of human mobility at the same time. On the one hand, we show that although the general properties of different layers of the global mobility network are similar, there are important quantitative differences among them. On the other hand, we demonstrate that consideration of mobility from a multi-layer perspective can reveal important global spatial patterns in a way more consistent with those observed in other available relevant sources of international connections, in comparison to the spatial structure inferred from each network layer taken separately. PMID:28553155
Global multi-layer network of human mobility.
Belyi, Alexander; Bojic, Iva; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Sitko, Izabela; Hawelka, Bartosz; Rudikova, Lada; Kurbatski, Alexander; Ratti, Carlo
2017-07-03
Recent availability of geo-localized data capturing individual human activity together with the statistical data on international migration opened up unprecedented opportunities for a study on global mobility. In this paper, we consider it from the perspective of a multi-layer complex network, built using a combination of three datasets: Twitter, Flickr and official migration data. Those datasets provide different, but equally important insights on the global mobility - while the first two highlight short-term visits of people from one country to another, the last one - migration - shows the long-term mobility perspective, when people relocate for good. The main purpose of the paper is to emphasize importance of this multi-layer approach capturing both aspects of human mobility at the same time. On the one hand, we show that although the general properties of different layers of the global mobility network are similar, there are important quantitative differences among them. On the other hand, we demonstrate that consideration of mobility from a multi-layer perspective can reveal important global spatial patterns in a way more consistent with those observed in other available relevant sources of international connections, in comparison to the spatial structure inferred from each network layer taken separately.
A new formulation for feedforward neural networks.
Razavi, Saman; Tolson, Bryan A
2011-10-01
Feedforward neural network is one of the most commonly used function approximation techniques and has been applied to a wide variety of problems arising from various disciplines. However, neural networks are black-box models having multiple challenges/difficulties associated with training and generalization. This paper initially looks into the internal behavior of neural networks and develops a detailed interpretation of the neural network functional geometry. Based on this geometrical interpretation, a new set of variables describing neural networks is proposed as a more effective and geometrically interpretable alternative to the traditional set of network weights and biases. Then, this paper develops a new formulation for neural networks with respect to the newly defined variables; this reformulated neural network (ReNN) is equivalent to the common feedforward neural network but has a less complex error response surface. To demonstrate the learning ability of ReNN, in this paper, two training methods involving a derivative-based (a variation of backpropagation) and a derivative-free optimization algorithms are employed. Moreover, a new measure of regularization on the basis of the developed geometrical interpretation is proposed to evaluate and improve the generalization ability of neural networks. The value of the proposed geometrical interpretation, the ReNN approach, and the new regularization measure are demonstrated across multiple test problems. Results show that ReNN can be trained more effectively and efficiently compared to the common neural networks and the proposed regularization measure is an effective indicator of how a network would perform in terms of generalization.
Drift chamber tracking with neural networks
Lindsey, C.S.; Denby, B.; Haggerty, H.
1992-10-01
We discuss drift chamber tracking with a commercial log VLSI neural network chip. Voltages proportional to the drift times in a 4-layer drift chamber were presented to the Intel ETANN chip. The network was trained to provide the intercept and slope of straight tracks traversing the chamber. The outputs were recorded and later compared off line to conventional track fits. Two types of network architectures were studied. Applications of neural network tracking to high energy physics detector triggers is discussed.
Coherence resonance in bursting neural networks.
Kim, June Hoan; Lee, Ho Jun; Min, Cheol Hong; Lee, Kyoung J
2015-10-01
Synchronized neural bursts are one of the most noticeable dynamic features of neural networks, being essential for various phenomena in neuroscience, yet their complex dynamics are not well understood. With extrinsic electrical and optical manipulations on cultured neural networks, we demonstrate that the regularity (or randomness) of burst sequences is in many cases determined by a (few) low-dimensional attractor(s) working under strong neural noise. Moreover, there is an optimal level of noise strength at which the regularity of the interburst interval sequence becomes maximal-a phenomenon of coherence resonance. The experimental observations are successfully reproduced through computer simulations on a well-established neural network model, suggesting that the same phenomena may occur in many in vivo as well as in vitro neural networks.
Path optimisation of a mobile robot using an artificial neural network controller
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, M. K.; Parhi, D. R.
2011-01-01
This article proposed a novel approach for design of an intelligent controller for an autonomous mobile robot using a multilayer feed forward neural network, which enables the robot to navigate in a real world dynamic environment. The inputs to the proposed neural controller consist of left, right and front obstacle distance with respect to its position and target angle. The output of the neural network is steering angle. A four layer neural network has been designed to solve the path and time optimisation problem of mobile robots, which deals with the cognitive tasks such as learning, adaptation, generalisation and optimisation. A back propagation algorithm is used to train the network. This article also analyses the kinematic design of mobile robots for dynamic movements. The simulation results are compared with experimental results, which are satisfactory and show very good agreement. The training of the neural nets and the control performance analysis has been done in a real experimental setup.
Neural networks in front-end processing and control
Lister, J.B.; Schnurrenberger, H.; Staeheli, N.; Stockhammer, N.; Duperrex, P.A.; Moret, J.M. )
1992-04-01
Research into neural networks has gained a large following in recent years. In spite of the long term timescale of this Artificial Intelligence research, the tools which the community is developing can already find useful applications to real practical problems in experimental research. One of the main advantages of the parallel algorithms being developed in AI is the structural simplicity of the required hardware implementation, and the simple nature of the calculations involved. This makes these techniques ideal for problems in which both speed and data volume reduction are important, the case for most front-end processing tasks. In this paper the authors illustrate the use of a particular neural network known as the Multi-Layer Perceptron as a method for solving several different tasks, all drawn from the field of Tokamak research. The authors also briefly discuss the use of the Multi-Layer Perceptron as a non-linear controller in a feedback loop. The authors outline the type of problem which can be usefully addressed by these techniques, even before the large-scale parallel processing hardware currently under development becomes cheaply available. The authors also present some of the difficulties encountered in applying these networks.
VoIP attacks detection engine based on neural network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Safarik, Jakub; Slachta, Jiri
2015-05-01
The security is crucial for any system nowadays, especially communications. One of the most successful protocols in the field of communication over IP networks is Session Initiation Protocol. It is an open-source project used by different kinds of applications, both open-source and proprietary. High penetration and text-based principle made SIP number one target in IP telephony infrastructure, so security of SIP server is essential. To keep up with hackers and to detect potential malicious attacks, security administrator needs to monitor and evaluate SIP traffic in the network. But monitoring and following evaluation could easily overwhelm the security administrator in networks, typically in networks with a number of SIP servers, users and logically or geographically separated networks. The proposed solution lies in automatic attack detection systems. The article covers detection of VoIP attacks through a distributed network of nodes. Then the gathered data analyze aggregation server with artificial neural network. Artificial neural network means multilayer perceptron network trained with a set of collected attacks. Attack data could also be preprocessed and verified with a self-organizing map. The source data is detected by distributed network of detection nodes. Each node contains a honeypot application and traffic monitoring mechanism. Aggregation of data from each node creates an input for neural networks. The automatic classification on a centralized server with low false positive detection reduce the cost of attack detection resources. The detection system uses modular design for easy deployment in final infrastructure. The centralized server collects and process detected traffic. It also maintains all detection nodes.
Probing many-body localization with neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schindler, Frank; Regnault, Nicolas; Neupert, Titus
2017-06-01
We show that a simple artificial neural network trained on entanglement spectra of individual states of a many-body quantum system can be used to determine the transition between a many-body localized and a thermalizing regime. Specifically, we study the Heisenberg spin-1/2 chain in a random external field. We employ a multilayer perceptron with a single hidden layer, which is trained on labeled entanglement spectra pertaining to the fully localized and fully thermal regimes. We then apply this network to classify spectra belonging to states in the transition region. For training, we use a cost function that contains, in addition to the usual error and regularization parts, a term that favors a confident classification of the transition region states. The resulting phase diagram is in good agreement with the one obtained by more conventional methods and can be computed for small systems. In particular, the neural network outperforms conventional methods in classifying individual eigenstates pertaining to a single disorder realization. It allows us to map out the structure of these eigenstates across the transition with spatial resolution. Furthermore, we analyze the network operation using the dreaming technique to show that the neural network correctly learns by itself the power-law structure of the entanglement spectra in the many-body localized regime.
Constructing general partial differential equations using polynomial and neural networks.
Zjavka, Ladislav; Pedrycz, Witold
2016-01-01
Sum fraction terms can approximate multi-variable functions on the basis of discrete observations, replacing a partial differential equation definition with polynomial elementary data relation descriptions. Artificial neural networks commonly transform the weighted sum of inputs to describe overall similarity relationships of trained and new testing input patterns. Differential polynomial neural networks form a new class of neural networks, which construct and solve an unknown general partial differential equation of a function of interest with selected substitution relative terms using non-linear multi-variable composite polynomials. The layers of the network generate simple and composite relative substitution terms whose convergent series combinations can describe partial dependent derivative changes of the input variables. This regression is based on trained generalized partial derivative data relations, decomposed into a multi-layer polynomial network structure. The sigmoidal function, commonly used as a nonlinear activation of artificial neurons, may transform some polynomial items together with the parameters with the aim to improve the polynomial derivative term series ability to approximate complicated periodic functions, as simple low order polynomials are not able to fully make up for the complete cycles. The similarity analysis facilitates substitutions for differential equations or can form dimensional units from data samples to describe real-world problems.
Review On Applications Of Neural Network To Computer Vision
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wei; Nasrabadi, Nasser M.
1989-03-01
Neural network models have many potential applications to computer vision due to their parallel structures, learnability, implicit representation of domain knowledge, fault tolerance, and ability of handling statistical data. This paper demonstrates the basic principles, typical models and their applications in this field. Variety of neural models, such as associative memory, multilayer back-propagation perceptron, self-stabilized adaptive resonance network, hierarchical structured neocognitron, high order correlator, network with gating control and other models, can be applied to visual signal recognition, reinforcement, recall, stereo vision, motion, object tracking and other vision processes. Most of the algorithms have been simulated on com-puters. Some have been implemented with special hardware. Some systems use features, such as edges and profiles, of images as the data form for input. Other systems use raw data as input signals to the networks. We will present some novel ideas contained in these approaches and provide a comparison of these methods. Some unsolved problems are mentioned, such as extracting the intrinsic properties of the input information, integrating those low level functions to a high-level cognitive system, achieving invariances and other problems. Perspectives of applications of some human vision models and neural network models are analyzed.
Creativity in design and artificial neural networks
Neocleous, C.C.; Esat, I.I.; Schizas, C.N.
1996-12-31
The creativity phase is identified as an integral part of the design phase. The characteristics of creative persons which are relevant to designing artificial neural networks manifesting aspects of creativity, are identified. Based on these identifications, a general framework of artificial neural network characteristics to implement such a goal are proposed.
Applications of Neural Networks in Finance.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crockett, Henry; Morrison, Ronald
1994-01-01
Discusses research with neural networks in the area of finance. Highlights include bond pricing, theoretical exposition of primary bond pricing, bond pricing regression model, and an example that created networks with corporate bonds and NeuralWare Neuralworks Professional H software using the back-propagation technique. (LRW)
Neural Network Algorithm for Particle Loading
J. L. V. Lewandowski
2003-04-25
An artificial neural network algorithm for continuous minimization is developed and applied to the case of numerical particle loading. It is shown that higher-order moments of the probability distribution function can be efficiently renormalized using this technique. A general neural network for the renormalization of an arbitrary number of moments is given.
Neural Networks for Handwritten English Alphabet Recognition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perwej, Yusuf; Chaturvedi, Ashish
2011-04-01
This paper demonstrates the use of neural networks for developing a system that can recognize hand-written English alphabets. In this system, each English alphabet is represented by binary values that are used as input to a simple feature extraction system, whose output is fed to our neural network system.
Radiation Behavior of Analog Neural Network Chip
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Langenbacher, H.; Zee, F.; Daud, T.; Thakoor, A.
1996-01-01
A neural network experiment conducted for the Space Technology Research Vehicle (STRV-1) 1-b launched in June 1994. Identical sets of analog feed-forward neural network chips was used to study and compare the effects of space and ground radiation on the chips. Three failure mechanisms are noted.
Neural network classification - A Bayesian interpretation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wan, Eric A.
1990-01-01
The relationship between minimizing a mean squared error and finding the optimal Bayesian classifier is reviewed. This provides a theoretical interpretation for the process by which neural networks are used in classification. A number of confidence measures are proposed to evaluate the performance of the neural network classifier within a statistical framework.
Advanced telerobotic control using neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pap, Robert M.; Atkins, Mark; Cox, Chadwick; Glover, Charles; Kissel, Ralph; Saeks, Richard
1993-01-01
Accurate Automation is designing and developing adaptive decentralized joint controllers using neural networks. We are then implementing these in hardware for the Marshall Space Flight Center PFMA as well as to be usable for the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robot arm. Our design is being realized in hardware after completion of the software simulation. This is implemented using a Functional-Link neural network.
Isolated Speech Recognition Using Artificial Neural Networks
2007-11-02
In this project Artificial Neural Networks are used as research tool to accomplish Automated Speech Recognition of normal speech. A small size...the first stage of this work are satisfactory and thus the application of artificial neural networks in conjunction with cepstral analysis in isolated word recognition holds promise.
Online guidance updates using neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filici, Cristian; Sánchez Peña, Ricardo S.
2010-02-01
The aim of this article is to present a method for the online guidance update for a launcher ascent trajectory that is based on the utilization of a neural network approximator. Generation of training patterns and selection of the input and output spaces of the neural network are presented, and implementation issues are discussed. The method is illustrated by a 2-dimensional launcher simulation.
Neural network based architectures for aerospace applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ricart, Richard
1987-01-01
A brief history of the field of neural networks research is given and some simple concepts are described. In addition, some neural network based avionics research and development programs are reviewed. The need for the United States Air Force and NASA to assume a leadership role in supporting this technology is stressed.
Neural Network Classification of Cerebral Embolic Signals
2007-11-02
application of new signal processing techniques to the analysis and classification of embolic signals. We applied a Wavelet Neural Network algorithm...to approximate the embolic signals, with the parameters of the wavelet nodes being used to train a Neural Network to classify these signals as resulting from normal flow, or from gaseous or solid emboli.
Neural Network Research: A Personal Perspective,
1988-03-01
These vision preprocessor and ART autonomous classifier examples are just two of the many neural network architectures now being developed by...computational theories with natural realizations as real-time adaptive neural network architectures with promising properties for tackling some of the
Neural Network Based Helicopter Low Airspeed Indicator
1996-10-24
This invention relates generally to virtual sensors and, more particularly, to a means and method utilizing a neural network for estimating...helicopter airspeed at speeds below about 50 knots using only fixed system parameters (i.e., parameters measured or determined in a reference frame fixed relative to the helicopter fuselage) as inputs to the neural network .
Evolving Neural Networks for Nonlinear Control.
1996-09-30
An approach to creating Amorphous Recurrent Neural Networks (ARNN) using Genetic Algorithms (GA) called 2pGA has been developed and shown to be...effective in evolving neural networks for the control and stabilization of both linear and nonlinear plants, the optimal control for a nonlinear regulator
Advanced telerobotic control using neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pap, Robert M.; Atkins, Mark; Cox, Chadwick; Glover, Charles; Kissel, Ralph; Saeks, Richard
1993-01-01
Accurate Automation is designing and developing adaptive decentralized joint controllers using neural networks. We are then implementing these in hardware for the Marshall Space Flight Center PFMA as well as to be usable for the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robot arm. Our design is being realized in hardware after completion of the software simulation. This is implemented using a Functional-Link neural network.
Neural networks applications to control and computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luxemburg, Leon A.
1994-01-01
Several interrelated problems in the area of neural network computations are described. First an interpolation problem is considered, then a control problem is reduced to a problem of interpolation by a neural network via Lyapunov function approach, and finally a new, faster method of learning as compared with the gradient descent method, was introduced.
Self-organization of neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, John W.; Winston, Jeffrey V.; Rafelski, Johann
1984-05-01
The plastic development of a neural-network model operating autonomously in discrete time is described by the temporal modification of interneuronal coupling strengths according to momentary neural activity. A simple algorithm (“brainwashing”) is found which, applied to nets with initially quasirandom connectivity, leads to model networks with properties conductive to the simulation of memory and learning phenomena.
The neural network approach to parton fitting
Rojo, Joan; Latorre, Jose I.; Del Debbio, Luigi; Forte, Stefano; Piccione, Andrea
2005-10-06
We introduce the neural network approach to global fits of parton distribution functions. First we review previous work on unbiased parametrizations of deep-inelastic structure functions with faithful estimation of their uncertainties, and then we summarize the current status of neural network parton distribution fits.
Medical image analysis with artificial neural networks.
Jiang, J; Trundle, P; Ren, J
2010-12-01
Given that neural networks have been widely reported in the research community of medical imaging, we provide a focused literature survey on recent neural network developments in computer-aided diagnosis, medical image segmentation and edge detection towards visual content analysis, and medical image registration for its pre-processing and post-processing, with the aims of increasing awareness of how neural networks can be applied to these areas and to provide a foundation for further research and practical development. Representative techniques and algorithms are explained in detail to provide inspiring examples illustrating: (i) how a known neural network with fixed structure and training procedure could be applied to resolve a medical imaging problem; (ii) how medical images could be analysed, processed, and characterised by neural networks; and (iii) how neural networks could be expanded further to resolve problems relevant to medical imaging. In the concluding section, a highlight of comparisons among many neural network applications is included to provide a global view on computational intelligence with neural networks in medical imaging. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adaptive Neurons For Artificial Neural Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tawel, Raoul
1990-01-01
Training time decreases dramatically. In improved mathematical model of neural-network processor, temperature of neurons (in addition to connection strengths, also called weights, of synapses) varied during supervised-learning phase of operation according to mathematical formalism and not heuristic rule. Evidence that biological neural networks also process information at neuronal level.
A Survey of Neural Network Publications.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vijayaraman, Bindiganavale S.; Osyk, Barbara
This paper is a survey of publications on artificial neural networks published in business journals for the period ending July 1996. Its purpose is to identify and analyze trends in neural network research during that period. This paper shows which topics have been heavily researched, when these topics were researched, and how that research has…
Introduction to Concepts in Artificial Neural Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Niebur, Dagmar
1995-01-01
This introduction to artificial neural networks summarizes some basic concepts of computational neuroscience and the resulting models of artificial neurons. The terminology of biological and artificial neurons, biological and machine learning and neural processing is introduced. The concepts of supervised and unsupervised learning are explained with examples from the power system area. Finally, a taxonomy of different types of neurons and different classes of artificial neural networks is presented.
Introduction to Concepts in Artificial Neural Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Niebur, Dagmar
1995-01-01
This introduction to artificial neural networks summarizes some basic concepts of computational neuroscience and the resulting models of artificial neurons. The terminology of biological and artificial neurons, biological and machine learning and neural processing is introduced. The concepts of supervised and unsupervised learning are explained with examples from the power system area. Finally, a taxonomy of different types of neurons and different classes of artificial neural networks is presented.
Forecasting Jet Fuel Prices Using Artificial Neural Networks.
1995-03-01
Artificial neural networks provide a new approach to commodity forecasting that does not require algorithm or rule development. Neural networks have...NeuralWare, more people can take advantage of the power of artificial neural networks . This thesis provides an introduction to neural networks, and reviews
Continuous-time quantum walks on multilayer dendrimer networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galiceanu, Mircea; Strunz, Walter T.
2016-08-01
We consider continuous-time quantum walks (CTQWs) on multilayer dendrimer networks (MDs) and their application to quantum transport. A detailed study of properties of CTQWs is presented and transport efficiency is determined in terms of the exact and average return probabilities. The latter depends only on the eigenvalues of the connectivity matrix, which even for very large structures allows a complete analytical solution for this particular choice of network. In the case of MDs we observe an interplay between strong localization effects, due to the dendrimer topology, and good efficiency from the linear segments. We show that quantum transport is enhanced by interconnecting more layers of dendrimers.
Competitive dynamics of lexical innovations in multi-layer networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Javarone, Marco Alberto
2014-04-01
We study the introduction of lexical innovations into a community of language users. Lexical innovations, i.e. new term added to people's vocabulary, plays an important role in the process of language evolution. Nowadays, information is spread through a variety of networks, including, among others, online and offline social networks and the World Wide Web. The entire system, comprising networks of different nature, can be represented as a multi-layer network. In this context, lexical innovations diffusion occurs in a peculiar fashion. In particular, a lexical innovation can undergo three different processes: its original meaning is accepted; its meaning can be changed or misunderstood (e.g. when not properly explained), hence more than one meaning can emerge in the population. Lastly, in the case of a loan word, it can be translated into the population language (i.e. defining a new lexical innovation or using a synonym) or into a dialect spoken by part of the population. Therefore, lexical innovations cannot be considered simply as information. We develop a model for analyzing this scenario using a multi-layer network comprising a social network and a media network. The latter represents the set of all information systems of a society, e.g. television, the World Wide Web and radio. Furthermore, we identify temporal directed edges between the nodes of these two networks. In particular, at each time-step, nodes of the media network can be connected to randomly chosen nodes of the social network and vice versa. In doing so, information spreads through the whole system and people can share a lexical innovation with their neighbors or, in the event they work as reporters, by using media nodes. Lastly, we use the concept of "linguistic sign" to model lexical innovations, showing its fundamental role in the study of these dynamics. Many numerical simulations have been performed to analyze the proposed model and its outcomes.
Learning and coordinating in a multilayer network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lugo, Haydée; Miguel, Maxi San
2015-01-01
We introduce a two layer network model for social coordination incorporating two relevant ingredients: a) different networks of interaction to learn and to obtain a pay-off, and b) decision making processes based both on social and strategic motivations. Two populations of agents are distributed in two layers with intralayer learning processes and playing interlayer a coordination game. We find that the skepticism about the wisdom of crowd and the local connectivity are the driving forces to accomplish full coordination of the two populations, while polarized coordinated layers are only possible for all-to-all interactions. Local interactions also allow for full coordination in the socially efficient Pareto-dominant strategy in spite of being the riskier one.
Automatic target recognition using a feature-based optical neural network
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, Tien-Hsin
1992-01-01
An optical neural network based upon the Neocognitron paradigm (K. Fukushima et al. 1983) is introduced. A novel aspect of the architectural design is shift-invariant multichannel Fourier optical correlation within each processing layer. Multilayer processing is achieved by iteratively feeding back the output of the feature correlator to the input spatial light modulator and updating the Fourier filters. By training the neural net with characteristic features extracted from the target images, successful pattern recognition with intra-class fault tolerance and inter-class discrimination is achieved. A detailed system description is provided. Experimental demonstration of a two-layer neural network for space objects discrimination is also presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, Tien-Hsin; Stoner, William W.
1993-01-01
An optical neural network based on the neocognitron paradigm is introduced. A novel aspect of the architecture design is shift-invariant multichannel Fourier optical correlation within each processing layer. Multilayer processing is achieved by feeding back the ouput of the feature correlator interatively to the input spatial light modulator and by updating the Fourier filters. By training the neural net with characteristic features extracted from the target images, successful pattern recognition with intraclass fault tolerance and interclass discrimination is achieved. A detailed system description is provided. Experimental demonstrations of a two-layer neural network for space-object discrimination is also presented.
Automatic target recognition using a feature-based optical neural network
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, Tien-Hsin
1992-01-01
An optical neural network based upon the Neocognitron paradigm (K. Fukushima et al. 1983) is introduced. A novel aspect of the architectural design is shift-invariant multichannel Fourier optical correlation within each processing layer. Multilayer processing is achieved by iteratively feeding back the output of the feature correlator to the input spatial light modulator and updating the Fourier filters. By training the neural net with characteristic features extracted from the target images, successful pattern recognition with intra-class fault tolerance and inter-class discrimination is achieved. A detailed system description is provided. Experimental demonstration of a two-layer neural network for space objects discrimination is also presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, Tien-Hsin; Stoner, William W.
1993-01-01
An optical neural network based on the neocognitron paradigm is introduced. A novel aspect of the architecture design is shift-invariant multichannel Fourier optical correlation within each processing layer. Multilayer processing is achieved by feeding back the ouput of the feature correlator interatively to the input spatial light modulator and by updating the Fourier filters. By training the neural net with characteristic features extracted from the target images, successful pattern recognition with intraclass fault tolerance and interclass discrimination is achieved. A detailed system description is provided. Experimental demonstrations of a two-layer neural network for space-object discrimination is also presented.
Pruning artificial neural networks using neural complexity measures.
Jorgensen, Thomas D; Haynes, Barry P; Norlund, Charlotte C F
2008-10-01
This paper describes a new method for pruning artificial neural networks, using a measure of the neural complexity of the neural network. This measure is used to determine the connections that should be pruned. The measure computes the information-theoretic complexity of a neural network, which is similar to, yet different from previous research on pruning. The method proposed here shows how overly large and complex networks can be reduced in size, whilst retaining learnt behaviour and fitness. The technique proposed here helps to discover a network topology that matches the complexity of the problem it is meant to solve. This novel pruning technique is tested in a robot control domain, simulating a racecar. It is shown, that the proposed pruning method is a significant improvement over the most commonly used pruning method Magnitude Based Pruning. Furthermore, some of the pruned networks prove to be faster learners than the benchmark network that they originate from. This means that this pruning method can also help to unleash hidden potential in a network, because the learning time decreases substantially for a pruned a network, due to the reduction of dimensionality of the network.
Inverting feedforward neural networks using linear and nonlinear programming.
Lu, B L; Kita, H; Nishikawa, Y
1999-01-01
The problem of inverting trained feedforward neural networks is to find the inputs which yield a given output. In general, this problem is an ill-posed problem because the mapping from the output space to the input space is a one-to-many mapping. In this paper, we present a method for dealing with the inverse problem by using mathematical programming techniques. The principal idea behind the method is to formulate the inverse problem as a nonlinear programming (NLP) problem, a separable programming (SP) problem, or a linear programming (LP) problem according to the architectures of networks to be inverted or the types of network inversions to be computed. An important advantage of the method over the existing iterative inversion algorithm is that various designated network inversions of multilayer perceptrons (MLP's) and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks can be obtained by solving the corresponding SP problems, which can be solved by a modified simplex method, a well-developed and efficient method for solving LP problems. We present several examples to demonstrate the proposed method and the applications of network inversions to examining and improving the generalization performance of trained networks. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Enhancing neural-network performance via assortativity.
de Franciscis, Sebastiano; Johnson, Samuel; Torres, Joaquín J
2011-03-01
The performance of attractor neural networks has been shown to depend crucially on the heterogeneity of the underlying topology. We take this analysis a step further by examining the effect of degree-degree correlations--assortativity--on neural-network behavior. We make use of a method recently put forward for studying correlated networks and dynamics thereon, both analytically and computationally, which is independent of how the topology may have evolved. We show how the robustness to noise is greatly enhanced in assortative (positively correlated) neural networks, especially if it is the hub neurons that store the information.
Enhancing neural-network performance via assortativity
Franciscis, Sebastiano de; Johnson, Samuel; Torres, Joaquin J.
2011-03-15
The performance of attractor neural networks has been shown to depend crucially on the heterogeneity of the underlying topology. We take this analysis a step further by examining the effect of degree-degree correlations - assortativity - on neural-network behavior. We make use of a method recently put forward for studying correlated networks and dynamics thereon, both analytically and computationally, which is independent of how the topology may have evolved. We show how the robustness to noise is greatly enhanced in assortative (positively correlated) neural networks, especially if it is the hub neurons that store the information.
Real-time neural network inversion on the SRC-6e reconfigurable computer.
Duren, Russell W; Marks, Robert J; Reynolds, Paul D; Trumbo, Matthew L
2007-05-01
Implementation of real-time neural network inversion on the SRC-6e, a computer that uses multiple field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) as reconfigurable computing elements, is examined using a sonar application as a specific case study. A feedforward multilayer perceptron neural network is used to estimate the performance of the sonar system (Jung et al., 2001). A particle swarm algorithm uses the trained network to perform a search for the control parameters required to optimize the output performance of the sonar system in the presence of imposed environmental constraints (Fox et al., 2002). The particle swarm optimization (PSO) requires repetitive queries of the neural network. Alternatives for implementing neural networks and particle swarm algorithms in reconfigurable hardware are contrasted. The final implementation provides nearly two orders of magnitude of speed increase over a state-of-the-art personal computer (PC), providing a real-time solution.
Wavelet differential neural network observer.
Chairez, Isaac
2009-09-01
State estimation for uncertain systems affected by external noises is an important problem in control theory. This paper deals with a state observation problem when the dynamic model of a plant contains uncertainties or it is completely unknown. Differential neural network (NN) approach is applied in this uninformative situation but with activation functions described by wavelets. A new learning law, containing an adaptive adjustment rate, is suggested to imply the stability condition for the free parameters of the observer. Nominal weights are adjusted during the preliminary training process using the least mean square (LMS) method. Lyapunov theory is used to obtain the upper bounds for the weights dynamics as well as for the mean squared estimation error. Two numeric examples illustrate this approach: first, a nonlinear electric system, governed by the Chua's equation and second the Lorentz oscillator. Both systems are assumed to be affected by external perturbations and their parameters are unknown.
Sunspot prediction using neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Villarreal, James; Baffes, Paul
1990-01-01
The earliest systematic observance of sunspot activity is known to have been discovered by the Chinese in 1382 during the Ming Dynasty (1368 to 1644) when spots on the sun were noticed by looking at the sun through thick, forest fire smoke. Not until after the 18th century did sunspot levels become more than a source of wonderment and curiosity. Since 1834 reliable sunspot data has been collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Naval Observatory. Recently, considerable effort has been placed upon the study of the effects of sunspots on the ecosystem and the space environment. The efforts of the Artificial Intelligence Section of the Mission Planning and Analysis Division of the Johnson Space Center involving the prediction of sunspot activity using neural network technologies are described.
Tampa Electric Neural Network Sootblowing
Mark A. Rhode
2004-09-30
Boiler combustion dynamics change continuously due to several factors including coal quality, boiler loading, ambient conditions, changes in slag/soot deposits and the condition of plant equipment. NOx formation, Particulate Matter (PM) emissions, and boiler thermal performance are directly affected by the sootblowing practices on a unit. As part of its Power Plant Improvement Initiative program, the US DOE is providing cofunding (DE-FC26-02NT41425) and NETL is the managing agency for this project at Tampa Electric's Big Bend Station. This program serves to co-fund projects that have the potential to increase thermal efficiency and reduce emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. A review of the Big Bend units helped identify intelligent sootblowing as a suitable application to achieve the desired objectives. The existing sootblower control philosophy uses sequential schemes, whose frequency is either dictated by the control room operator or is timed based. The intent of this project is to implement a neural network based intelligent sootblowing system, in conjunction with state-of-the-art controls and instrumentation, to optimize the operation of a utility boiler and systematically control boiler fouling. Utilizing unique, on-line, adaptive technology, operation of the sootblowers can be dynamically controlled based on real-time events and conditions within the boiler. This could be an extremely cost-effective technology, which has the ability to be readily and easily adapted to virtually any pulverized coal fired boiler. Through unique on-line adaptive technology, Neural Network-based systems optimize the boiler operation by accommodating equipment performance changes due to wear and maintenance activities, adjusting to fluctuations in fuel quality, and improving operating flexibility. The system dynamically adjusts combustion setpoints and bias settings in closed-loop supervisory control to simultaneously reduce NO{sub x} emissions and improve heat rate around
Tampa Electric Neural Network Sootblowing
Mark A. Rhode
2004-03-31
Boiler combustion dynamics change continuously due to several factors including coal quality, boiler loading, ambient conditions, changes in slag/soot deposits and the condition of plant equipment. NOx formation, Particulate Matter (PM) emissions, and boiler thermal performance are directly affected by the sootblowing practices on a unit. As part of its Power Plant Improvement Initiative program, the US DOE is providing co-funding (DE-FC26-02NT41425) and NETL is the managing agency for this project at Tampa Electric's Big Bend Station. This program serves to co-fund projects that have the potential to increase thermal efficiency and reduce emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. A review of the Big Bend units helped identify intelligent sootblowing as a suitable application to achieve the desired objectives. The existing sootblower control philosophy uses sequential schemes, whose frequency is either dictated by the control room operator or is timed based. The intent of this project is to implement a neural network based intelligent sootblowing system, in conjunction with state-of-the-art controls and instrumentation, to optimize the operation of a utility boiler and systematically control boiler fouling. Utilizing unique, on-line, adaptive technology, operation of the sootblowers can be dynamically controlled based on real-time events and conditions within the boiler. This could be an extremely cost-effective technology, which has the ability to be readily and easily adapted to virtually any pulverized coal fired boiler. Through unique on-line adaptive technology, Neural Network-based systems optimize the boiler operation by accommodating equipment performance changes due to wear and maintenance activities, adjusting to fluctuations in fuel quality, and improving operating flexibility. The system dynamically adjusts combustion setpoints and bias settings in closed-loop supervisory control to simultaneously reduce NO{sub x} emissions and improve heat rate around
Tampa Electric Neural Network Sootblowing
Mark A. Rhode
2003-12-31
Boiler combustion dynamics change continuously due to several factors including coal quality, boiler loading, ambient conditions, changes in slag/soot deposits and the condition of plant equipment. NO{sub x} formation, Particulate Matter (PM) emissions, and boiler thermal performance are directly affected by the sootblowing practices on a unit. As part of its Power Plant Improvement Initiative program, the US DOE is providing cofunding (DE-FC26-02NT41425) and NETL is the managing agency for this project at Tampa Electric's Big Bend Station. This program serves to co-fund projects that have the potential to increase thermal efficiency and reduce emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. A review of the Big Bend units helped identify intelligent sootblowing as a suitable application to achieve the desired objectives. The existing sootblower control philosophy uses sequential schemes, whose frequency is either dictated by the control room operator or is timed based. The intent of this project is to implement a neural network based intelligent soot-blowing system, in conjunction with state-of-the-art controls and instrumentation, to optimize the operation of a utility boiler and systematically control boiler fouling. Utilizing unique, on-line, adaptive technology, operation of the sootblowers can be dynamically controlled based on real-time events and conditions within the boiler. This could be an extremely cost-effective technology, which has the ability to be readily and easily adapted to virtually any pulverized coal fired boiler. Through unique on-line adaptive technology, Neural Network-based systems optimize the boiler operation by accommodating equipment performance changes due to wear and maintenance activities, adjusting to fluctuations in fuel quality, and improving operating flexibility. The system dynamically adjusts combustion setpoints and bias settings in closed-loop supervisory control to simultaneously reduce NO{sub x} emissions and improve heat rate
Artificial neural networks in neurosurgery.
Azimi, Parisa; Mohammadi, Hasan Reza; Benzel, Edward C; Shahzadi, Sohrab; Azhari, Shirzad; Montazeri, Ali
2015-03-01
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) effectively analyze non-linear data sets. The aimed was A review of the relevant published articles that focused on the application of ANNs as a tool for assisting clinical decision-making in neurosurgery. A literature review of all full publications in English biomedical journals (1993-2013) was undertaken. The strategy included a combination of key words 'artificial neural networks', 'prognostic', 'brain', 'tumor tracking', 'head', 'tumor', 'spine', 'classification' and 'back pain' in the title and abstract of the manuscripts using the PubMed search engine. The major findings are summarized, with a focus on the application of ANNs for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Finally, the future of ANNs in neurosurgery is explored. A total of 1093 citations were identified and screened. In all, 57 citations were found to be relevant. Of these, 50 articles were eligible for inclusion in this review. The synthesis of the data showed several applications of ANN in neurosurgery, including: (1) diagnosis and assessment of disease progression in low back pain, brain tumours and primary epilepsy; (2) enhancing clinically relevant information extraction from radiographic images, intracranial pressure processing, low back pain and real-time tumour tracking; (3) outcome prediction in epilepsy, brain metastases, lumbar spinal stenosis, lumbar disc herniation, childhood hydrocephalus, trauma mortality, and the occurrence of symptomatic cerebral vasospasm in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage; (4) the use in the biomechanical assessments of spinal disease. ANNs can be effectively employed for diagnosis, prognosis and outcome prediction in neurosurgery. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Neural networks for damage identification
Paez, T.L.; Klenke, S.E.
1997-11-01
Efforts to optimize the design of mechanical systems for preestablished use environments and to extend the durations of use cycles establish a need for in-service health monitoring. Numerous studies have proposed measures of structural response for the identification of structural damage, but few have suggested systematic techniques to guide the decision as to whether or not damage has occurred based on real data. Such techniques are necessary because in field applications the environments in which systems operate and the measurements that characterize system behavior are random. This paper investigates the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to identify damage in mechanical systems. Two probabilistic neural networks (PNNs) are developed and used to judge whether or not damage has occurred in a specific mechanical system, based on experimental measurements. The first PNN is a classical type that casts Bayesian decision analysis into an ANN framework; it uses exemplars measured from the undamaged and damaged system to establish whether system response measurements of unknown origin come from the former class (undamaged) or the latter class (damaged). The second PNN establishes the character of the undamaged system in terms of a kernel density estimator of measures of system response; when presented with system response measures of unknown origin, it makes a probabilistic judgment whether or not the data come from the undamaged population. The physical system used to carry out the experiments is an aerospace system component, and the environment used to excite the system is a stationary random vibration. The results of damage identification experiments are presented along with conclusions rating the effectiveness of the approaches.
Tampa Electric Neural Network Sootblowing
Mark A. Rhode
2002-09-30
Boiler combustion dynamics change continuously due to several factors including coal quality, boiler loading, ambient conditions, changes in slag/soot deposits and the condition of plant equipment. NO{sub x} formation, Particulate Matter (PM) emissions, and boiler thermal performance are directly affected by the sootblowing practices on a unit. As part of its Power Plant Improvement Initiative program, the US DOE is providing cofunding (DE-FC26-02NT41425) and NETL is the managing agency for this project at Tampa Electric's Big Bend Station. This program serves to co-fund projects that have the potential to increase thermal efficiency and reduce emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. A review of the Big Bend units helped identify intelligent sootblowing as a suitable application to achieve the desired objectives. The existing sootblower control philosophy uses sequential schemes, whose frequency is either dictated by the control room operator or is timed based. The intent of this project is to implement a neural network based intelligent soot-blowing system, in conjunction with state-of-the-art controls and instrumentation, to optimize the operation of a utility boiler and systematically control boiler fouling. Utilizing unique, online, adaptive technology, operation of the sootblowers can be dynamically controlled based on real-time events and conditions within the boiler. This could be an extremely cost-effective technology, which has the ability to be readily and easily adapted to virtually any pulverized coal fired boiler. Through unique on-line adaptive technology, Neural Network-based systems optimize the boiler operation by accommodating equipment performance changes due to wear and maintenance activities, adjusting to fluctuations in fuel quality, and improving operating flexibility. The system dynamically adjusts combustion setpoints and bias settings in closed-loop supervisory control to simultaneously reduce {sub x} emissions and improve heat rate
Local Dynamics in Trained Recurrent Neural Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rivkind, Alexander; Barak, Omri
2017-06-01
Learning a task induces connectivity changes in neural circuits, thereby changing their dynamics. To elucidate task-related neural dynamics, we study trained recurrent neural networks. We develop a mean field theory for reservoir computing networks trained to have multiple fixed point attractors. Our main result is that the dynamics of the network's output in the vicinity of attractors is governed by a low-order linear ordinary differential equation. The stability of the resulting equation can be assessed, predicting training success or failure. As a consequence, networks of rectified linear units and of sigmoidal nonlinearities are shown to have diametrically different properties when it comes to learning attractors. Furthermore, a characteristic time constant, which remains finite at the edge of chaos, offers an explanation of the network's output robustness in the presence of variability of the internal neural dynamics. Finally, the proposed theory predicts state-dependent frequency selectivity in the network response.
Improving neural networks prediction accuracy using particle swarm optimization combiner.
Elragal, Hassan M
2009-10-01
This paper proposes a technique to improve Artificial Neural Network (ANN) prediction accuracy using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) combiner. A hybrid system consists of two stages with the first stage containing two ANNs. The first ANN predictor is a multi-layer feed-forward network trained with error back-propagation and the second predictor is a functional link network. These two predictors are combined in the second stage using PSO combiner in a linear and non-linear fashion. The proposed method is applied to problem of predicting daily natural gas consumption. The performance of ANN predictors and combination methods are tested on real data from four different gas utilities. The experimental results show that the proposed particle swarm optimization combiners results in more accurate prediction compared to using single ANN predictor. Prediction accuracy improvement of the proposed PSO combiners have been shown using hypothesis testing.
Entropy based comparison of neural networks for classification
Draghici, S.; Beiu, V.
1997-04-01
In recent years, multilayer feedforward neural networks (NN) have been shown to be very effective tools in many different applications. A natural and essential step in continuing the diffusion of these tools in day by day use is their hardware implementation which is by far the most cost effective solution for large scale use. When the hardware implementation is contemplated, the issue of the size of the NN becomes crucial because the size is directly proportional with the cost of the implementation. In this light, any theoretical results which establish bounds on the size of a NN for a given problem is extremely important. In the same context, a particularly interesting case is that of the neural networks using limited integer weights. These networks are particularly suitable for hardware implementation because they need less space for storing the weights and the fixed point, limited precision arithmetic has much cheaper implementations in comparison with its floating point counterpart. This paper presents an entropy based analysis which completes, unifies and correlates results partially presented in [Beiu, 1996, 1997a] and [Draghici, 1997]. Tight bounds for real and integer weight neural networks are calculated.
Detection of systolic ejection click using time growing neural network.
Gharehbaghi, Arash; Dutoit, Thierry; Ask, Per; Sörnmo, Leif
2014-04-01
In this paper, we present a novel neural network for classification of short-duration heart sounds: the time growing neural network (TGNN). The input to the network is the spectral power in adjacent frequency bands as computed in time windows of growing length. Children with heart systolic ejection click (SEC) and normal children are the two groups subjected to analysis. The performance of the TGNN is compared to that of a time delay neural network (TDNN) and a multi-layer perceptron (MLP), using training and test datasets of similar sizes with a total of 614 normal and abnormal cardiac cycles. From the test dataset, the classification rate/sensitivity is found to be 97.0%/98.1% for the TGNN, 85.1%/76.4% for the TDNN, and 92.7%/85.7% for the MLP. The results show that the TGNN performs better than do TDNN and MLP when frequency band power is used as classifier input. The performance of TGNN is also found to exhibit better immunity to noise.
VLSI Cells Placement Using the Neural Networks
Azizi, Hacene; Zouaoui, Lamri; Mokhnache, Salah
2008-06-12
The artificial neural networks have been studied for several years. Their effectiveness makes it possible to expect high performances. The privileged fields of these techniques remain the recognition and classification. Various applications of optimization are also studied under the angle of the artificial neural networks. They make it possible to apply distributed heuristic algorithms. In this article, a solution to placement problem of the various cells at the time of the realization of an integrated circuit is proposed by using the KOHONEN network.
Design and tuning of FPGA implementations of neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clare, Peter J. C.; Gulley, J. W.; Hickman, Duncan; Smith, Moira I.
1997-06-01
Artificial neural network (ANN) algorithms are applicable in a variety of roles for image processing in infrared search and track (IRST) systems. Achieving a high throughput is a key objective in developing ANNs for processing large numbers of pixels at high frame rates. Previous work has investigated the use of a neural core supported by configurable logic to achieve a versatile technology applicable to a variety of systems. The implementation of multi-layer perceptron (MLP) ANNs, using field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology to ensure upgradability and reconfigurability, is the focus of this research. Approximations to the MLP algorithms are needed to ensure that a high throughput can be achieved with a sufficiently low gate count.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sergeev, A. P.; Tarasov, D. A.; Buevich, A. G.; Subbotina, I. E.; Shichkin, A. V.; Sergeeva, M. V.; Lvova, O. A.
2017-06-01
The work deals with the application of neural networks residual kriging (NNRK) to the spatial prediction of the abnormally distributed soil pollutant (Cr). It is known that combination of geostatistical interpolation approaches (kriging) and neural networks leads to significantly better prediction accuracy and productivity. Generalized regression neural networks and multilayer perceptrons are classes of neural networks widely used for the continuous function mapping. Each network has its own pros and cons; however both demonstrated fast training and good mapping possibilities. In the work, we examined and compared two combined techniques: generalized regression neural network residual kriging (GRNNRK) and multilayer perceptron residual kriging (MLPRK). The case study is based on the real data sets on surface contamination by chromium at a particular location of the subarctic Novy Urengoy, Russia, obtained during the previously conducted screening. The proposed models have been built, implemented and validated using ArcGIS and MATLAB environments. The networks structures have been chosen during a computer simulation based on the minimization of the RMSE. MLRPK showed the best predictive accuracy comparing to the geostatistical approach (kriging) and even to GRNNRK.
The recursive deterministic perceptron neural network.
Tajine, Mohamed; Elizondo, David
1998-12-01
We introduce a feedforward multilayer neural network which is a generalization of the single layer perceptron topology (SLPT), called recursive deterministic perceptron (RDP). This new model is capable of solving any two-class classification problem, as opposed to the single layer perceptron which can only solve classification problems dealing with linearly separable sets (two subsets X and Y of R(d) are said to be linearly separable if there exists a hyperplane such that the elements of X and Y lie on the two opposite sides of R(d) delimited by this hyperplane). We propose several growing methods for constructing a RDP. These growing methods build a RDP by successively adding intermediate neurons (IN) to the topology (an IN corresponds to a SLPT). Thus, as a result, we obtain a multilayer perceptron topology, which together with the weights, are determined automatically by the constructing algorithms. Each IN augments the affine dimension of the set of input vectors. This augmentation is done by adding the output of each of these INs, as a new component, to every input vector. The construction of a new IN is made by selecting a subset from the set of augmented input vectors which is LS from the rest of this set. This process ends with LS classes in almost n-1 steps where n is the number of input vectors. For this construction, if we assume that the selected LS subsets are of maximum cardinality, the problem is proven to be NP-complete. We also introduce a generalization of the RDP model for classification of m classes (m>2) allowing to always separate m classes. This generalization is based on a new notion of linear separability for m classes, and it follows naturally from the RDP. This new model can be used to compute functions with a finite domain, and thus, to approximate continuous functions. We have also compared - over several classification problems - the percentage of test data correctly classified, or the topology of the 2 and m classes RDPs with that of
Sign Language Recognition System using Neural Network for Digital Hardware Implementation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vargas, Lorena P.; Barba, Leiner; Torres, C. O.; Mattos, L.
2011-01-01
This work presents an image pattern recognition system using neural network for the identification of sign language to deaf people. The system has several stored image that show the specific symbol in this kind of language, which is employed to teach a multilayer neural network using a back propagation algorithm. Initially, the images are processed to adapt them and to improve the performance of discriminating of the network, including in this process of filtering, reduction and elimination noise algorithms as well as edge detection. The system is evaluated using the signs without including movement in their representation.
Neural network regulation driven by autonomous neural firings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, Myoung Won
2016-07-01
Biological neurons naturally fire spontaneously due to the existence of a noisy current. Such autonomous firings may provide a driving force for network formation because synaptic connections can be modified due to neural firings. Here, we study the effect of autonomous firings on network formation. For the temporally asymmetric Hebbian learning, bidirectional connections lose their balance easily and become unidirectional ones. Defining the difference between reciprocal connections as new variables, we could express the learning dynamics as if Ising model spins interact with each other in magnetism. We present a theoretical method to estimate the interaction between the new variables in a neural system. We apply the method to some network systems and find some tendencies of autonomous neural network regulation.
Object detection using pulse coupled neural networks.
Ranganath, H S; Kuntimad, G
1999-01-01
This paper describes an object detection system based on pulse coupled neural networks. The system is designed and implemented to illustrate the power, flexibility and potential the pulse coupled neural networks have in real-time image processing. In the preprocessing stage, a pulse coupled neural network suppresses noise by smoothing the input image. In the segmentation stage, a second pulse coupled neural-network iteratively segments the input image. During each iteration, with the help of a control module, the segmentation network deletes regions that do not satisfy the retention criteria from further processing and produces an improved segmentation of the retained image. In the final stage each group of connected regions that satisfies the detection criteria is identified as an instance of the object of interest.
Neural networks for the optimization of crude oil blending.
Yu, Wen; Morales, América
2005-10-01
Crude oil blending is an important unit in petroleum refining industry. Many blend automation systems use real-time optimizer (RTO), which apply current process information to update the model and predict the optimal operating policy. The key unites of the conventional RTO are on-line analyzers. Sometimes oil fields cannot apply these analyzers. In this paper, we propose an off-line optimization technique to overcome the main drawback of RTO. We use the history data to approximate the output of the on-line analyzers, then the desired optimal inlet flow rates are calculated by the optimization technique. After this off-line optimization, the inlet flow rates are used for on-line control, for example PID control, which forces the flow rate to follow the desired inlet flow rates. Neural networks are applied to model the blending process from the history data. The new optimization is carried out via the neural model. The contributions of this paper are: (1) Stable learning for the discrete-time multilayer neural network is proposed. (2) Sensitivity analysis of the neural optimization is given. (3) Real data of a oil field is used to show effectiveness of the proposed method.
Functionally Driven Brain Networks Using Multi-layer Graph Clustering
Ghanbari, Yasser; Bloy, Luke; Shankar, Varsha; Edgar, J. Christopher; Roberts, Timothy P.L.; Schultz, Robert T.; Verma, Ragini
2016-01-01
Connectivity analysis of resting state brain has provided a novel means of investigating brain networks in the study of neurodevelopmental disorders. The study of functional networks, often represented by high dimensional graphs, predicates on the ability of methods in succinctly extracting meaningful representative connectivity information at the subject and population level. This need motivates the development of techniques that can extract underlying network modules that characterize the connectivity in a population, while capturing variations of these modules at the individual level. In this paper, we propose a multi-layer graph clustering technique that fuses the information from a collection of connectivity networks of a population to extract the underlying common network modules that serve as network hubs for the population. These hubs form a functional network atlas. In addition, our technique provides subject-specific factors designed to characterize and quantify the degree of intra- and inter- connectivity between hubs, thereby providing a representation that is amenable to group level statistical analyses. We demonstrate the utility of the technique by creating a population network atlas of connectivity by examining MEG based functional connectivity in typically developing children, and using this to describe the individualized variation in those diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. PMID:25320789
A neural network prototyping package within IRAF
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bazell, D.; Bankman, I.
1992-01-01
We outline our plans for incorporating a Neural Network Prototyping Package into the IRAF environment. The package we are developing will allow the user to choose between different types of networks and to specify the details of the particular architecture chosen. Neural networks consist of a highly interconnected set of simple processing units. The strengths of the connections between units are determined by weights which are adaptively set as the network 'learns'. In some cases, learning can be a separate phase of the user cycle of the network while in other cases the network learns continuously. Neural networks have been found to be very useful in pattern recognition and image processing applications. They can form very general 'decision boundaries' to differentiate between objects in pattern space and they can be used for associative recall of patterns based on partial cures and for adaptive filtering. We discuss the different architectures we plan to use and give examples of what they can do.
Deep Neural Networks for Identifying Cough Sounds.
Amoh, Justice; Odame, Kofi
2016-10-01
In this paper, we consider two different approaches of using deep neural networks for cough detection. The cough detection task is cast as a visual recognition problem and as a sequence-to-sequence labeling problem. A convolutional neural network and a recurrent neural network are implemented to address these problems, respectively. We evaluate the performance of the two networks and compare them to other conventional approaches for identifying cough sounds. In addition, we also explore the effect of the network size parameters and the impact of long-term signal dependencies in cough classifier performance. Experimental results show both network architectures outperform traditional methods. Between the two, our convolutional network yields a higher specificity 92.7% whereas the recurrent attains a higher sensitivity of 87.7%.
Multispectral image fusion using neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kagel, J. H.; Platt, C. A.; Donaven, T. W.; Samstad, E. A.
1990-01-01
A prototype system is being developed to demonstrate the use of neural network hardware to fuse multispectral imagery. This system consists of a neural network IC on a motherboard, a circuit card assembly, and a set of software routines hosted by a PC-class computer. Research in support of this consists of neural network simulations fusing 4 to 7 bands of Landsat imagery and fusing (separately) multiple bands of synthetic imagery. The simulations, results, and a description of the prototype system are presented.
Multispectral-image fusion using neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kagel, Joseph H.; Platt, C. A.; Donaven, T. W.; Samstad, Eric A.
1990-08-01
A prototype system is being developed to demonstrate the use of neural network hardware to fuse multispectral imagery. This system consists of a neural network IC on a motherboard a circuit card assembly and a set of software routines hosted by a PC-class computer. Research in support of this consists of neural network simulations fusing 4 to 7 bands of Landsat imagery and fusing (separately) multiple bands of synthetic imagery. The simulations results and a description of the prototype system are presented. 1.
Attitude control of spacecraft using neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vadali, Srinivas R.; Krishnan, S.; Singh, T.
1993-01-01
This paper investigates the use of radial basis function neural networks for adaptive attitude control and momentum management of spacecraft. In the first part of the paper, neural networks are trained to learn from a family of open-loop optimal controls parameterized by the initial states and times-to-go. The trained is then used for closed-loop control. In the second part of the paper, neural networks are used for direct adaptive control in the presence of unmodeled effects and parameter uncertainty. The control and learning laws are derived using the method of Lyapunov.
Description of interatomic interactions with neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hajinazar, Samad; Shao, Junping; Kolmogorov, Aleksey N.
Neural networks are a promising alternative to traditional classical potentials for describing interatomic interactions. Recent research in the field has demonstrated how arbitrary atomic environments can be represented with sets of general functions which serve as an input for the machine learning tool. We have implemented a neural network formalism in the MAISE package and developed a protocol for automated generation of accurate models for multi-component systems. Our tests illustrate the performance of neural networks and known classical potentials for a range of chemical compositions and atomic configurations. Supported by NSF Grant DMR-1410514.
Noise cancellation of memristive neural networks.
Wen, Shiping; Zeng, Zhigang; Huang, Tingwen; Yu, Xinghuo
2014-12-01
This paper investigates noise cancellation problem of memristive neural networks. Based on the reproducible gradual resistance tuning in bipolar mode, a first-order voltage-controlled memristive model is employed with asymmetric voltage thresholds. Since memristive devices are especially tiny to be densely packed in crossbar-like structures and possess long time memory needed by neuromorphic synapses, this paper shows how to approximate the behavior of synapses in neural networks using this memristive device. Also certain templates of memristive neural networks are established to implement the noise cancellation.
Stock market index prediction using neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Komo, Darmadi; Chang, Chein-I.; Ko, Hanseok
1994-03-01
A neural network approach to stock market index prediction is presented. Actual data of the Wall Street Journal's Dow Jones Industrial Index has been used for a benchmark in our experiments where Radial Basis Function based neural networks have been designed to model these indices over the period from January 1988 to Dec 1992. A notable success has been achieved with the proposed model producing over 90% prediction accuracies observed based on monthly Dow Jones Industrial Index predictions. The model has also captured both moderate and heavy index fluctuations. The experiments conducted in this study demonstrated that the Radial Basis Function neural network represents an excellent candidate to predict stock market index.
Neural networks techniques applied to reservoir engineering
Flores, M.; Barragan, C.
1995-12-31
Neural Networks are considered the greatest technological advance since the transistor. They are expected to be a common household item by the year 2000. An attempt to apply Neural Networks to an important geothermal problem has been made, predictions on the well production and well completion during drilling in a geothermal field. This was done in Los Humeros geothermal field, using two common types of Neural Network models, available in commercial software. Results show the learning capacity of the developed model, and its precision in the predictions that were made.
Neural network with formed dynamics of activity
Dunin-Barkovskii, V.L.; Osovets, N.B.
1995-03-01
The problem of developing a neural network with a given pattern of the state sequence is considered. A neural network structure and an algorithm, of forming its bond matrix which lead to an approximate but robust solution of the problem are proposed and discussed. Limiting characteristics of the serviceability of the proposed structure are studied. Various methods of visualizing dynamic processes in a neural network are compared. Possible applications of the results obtained for interpretation of neurophysiological data and in neuroinformatics systems are discussed.
Threshold control of chaotic neural network.
He, Guoguang; Shrimali, Manish Dev; Aihara, Kazuyuki
2008-01-01
The chaotic neural network constructed with chaotic neurons exhibits rich dynamic behaviour with a nonperiodic associative memory. In the chaotic neural network, however, it is difficult to distinguish the stored patterns in the output patterns because of the chaotic state of the network. In order to apply the nonperiodic associative memory into information search, pattern recognition etc. it is necessary to control chaos in the chaotic neural network. We have studied the chaotic neural network with threshold activated coupling, which provides a controlled network with associative memory dynamics. The network converges to one of its stored patterns or/and reverse patterns which has the smallest Hamming distance from the initial state of the network. The range of the threshold applied to control the neurons in the network depends on the noise level in the initial pattern and decreases with the increase of noise. The chaos control in the chaotic neural network by threshold activated coupling at varying time interval provides controlled output patterns with different temporal periods which depend upon the control parameters.
Community detection, link prediction, and layer interdependence in multilayer networks.
De Bacco, Caterina; Power, Eleanor A; Larremore, Daniel B; Moore, Cristopher
2017-04-01
Complex systems are often characterized by distinct types of interactions between the same entities. These can be described as a multilayer network where each layer represents one type of interaction. These layers may be interdependent in complicated ways, revealing different kinds of structure in the network. In this work we present a generative model, and an efficient expectation-maximization algorithm, which allows us to perform inference tasks such as community detection and link prediction in this setting. Our model assumes overlapping communities that are common between the layers, while allowing these communities to affect each layer in a different way, including arbitrary mixtures of assortative, disassortative, or directed structure. It also gives us a mathematically principled way to define the interdependence between layers, by measuring how much information about one layer helps us predict links in another layer. In particular, this allows us to bundle layers together to compress redundant information and identify small groups of layers which suffice to predict the remaining layers accurately. We illustrate these findings by analyzing synthetic data and two real multilayer networks, one representing social support relationships among villagers in South India and the other representing shared genetic substring material between genes of the malaria parasite.
Community detection, link prediction, and layer interdependence in multilayer networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Bacco, Caterina; Power, Eleanor A.; Larremore, Daniel B.; Moore, Cristopher
2017-04-01
Complex systems are often characterized by distinct types of interactions between the same entities. These can be described as a multilayer network where each layer represents one type of interaction. These layers may be interdependent in complicated ways, revealing different kinds of structure in the network. In this work we present a generative model, and an efficient expectation-maximization algorithm, which allows us to perform inference tasks such as community detection and link prediction in this setting. Our model assumes overlapping communities that are common between the layers, while allowing these communities to affect each layer in a different way, including arbitrary mixtures of assortative, disassortative, or directed structure. It also gives us a mathematically principled way to define the interdependence between layers, by measuring how much information about one layer helps us predict links in another layer. In particular, this allows us to bundle layers together to compress redundant information and identify small groups of layers which suffice to predict the remaining layers accurately. We illustrate these findings by analyzing synthetic data and two real multilayer networks, one representing social support relationships among villagers in South India and the other representing shared genetic substring material between genes of the malaria parasite.
Applying backpropagation neural network in the control of medullary reflex pattern
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dalcin, Bruno Luiz Galluzzi; Cruz, Frederico Alan de Oliveira; Cortez, Célia Martins; Passos, Emmanuel Lopes
2015-12-01
We introduced in an artificial neural network (ANN) values of the data matrix that was built with results from simulations performed with the model for the control circuit of spinal reflex presented by Dalcin et al. (2005). Standard multi-layered feed-forward backpropagation network was used to train the ANNs. Results showed that the backpropagation ANN architecture supported the specific classificatory requirements of the study.
Artificial neural network based hourly load forecasting for decentralized load management
Mandal, J.K.; Sinha, A.K.
1995-12-31
Decentralized load management is an essential part of the power system operation. Forecasting load demand at the substation level is generally more difficult and less accurate compared to forecasting total system load demand. In this paper, Multi-Layered Feed Forward (MLFF) neural network is used to predict the bus-load demand at the substation level. The MLFF network is trained using Back-Propagation (BP) algorithm with adaptive learning technique. The algorithm is tested for two systems having different load patterns.
Classification of MCA stenosis in diabetes by MLP and RBF neural network.
Ergün, Uyman; Barýpçý, Necaattin; Ozan, Ahmet Tevfik; Serhatlýoğlu, Selami; Oğur, Erkin; Hardalaç, Firat; Güler, Inan
2004-10-01
For the classification of Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) stenosis, Doppler signals have been received from the diabetes and control group by using 2 MHz Transcranial Doppler. After the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analyses of the Doppler signals, Power Spectrum Density (PSD) estimations have been made and Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and Radial Basis Function (RBF) have been dealt to apply to the neural networks. PSD estimations of Doppler signals received from MCA of 104 subjects have been successfully classified by MLP (correct classification = 94.2%) and RBF (correct classification = 88.4%) neural network. As we have seen in the area under ROC curve (AUC), MLP neural network (AUC = 0.934) has classified more successfully when compared with RBF neural network (AUC = 0.873).
Data Analysis of SilEye-3/Alteino Data With a Neural Network Technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scrimaglio, R.; Finetti, N.; Nurzia, G.; di Gaetano, A.; Rantucci, E.; Segreto, E.; Tassoni, A.; Sileye-3/Alteino, C.
In this work we present the data analysis of the SilEye-3/Alteino experiment with Neural Network technique. SilEye-3/Alteino is composed of two devices: the cosmic ray advanced silicon telescope (an 8 plane, 32 strip silicon detector) and an electroencephalograph. It was placed on board the ISS on April the 27th 2002 to investigate on the Light Flash phenomenon and the radiation environment in space. We show the possibility of using Neural Networks as an useful tool for real time data analysis. A feed-forward neural network (Multi-Layer Perceptron - MLP -) has been implemented and trained (with Monte Carlo data) to perform on line particle identification for ions with Atomic Number (Z) <= 8 and energy reconstruction for ions Z > 2. The result of the analysis of SilEye-3/Alteino real data with the Neural Network and the improvements over classical analysis techniques are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scrimaglio, R.; Rantucci, E.; Segreto, E.; Nurzia, G.; Finetti, N.; Di Gaetano, A.; Tassoni, A.; Picozza, P.; Narici, L.; Casolino, M.; Di Fino, L.; Rinaldi, A.; Zaconte, V.
In this work, we present the data analysis of the Sileye-3/Alteino experiment with neural network technique. Sileye-3/Alteino is composed of two devices: the cosmic ray-advanced silicon telescope (an 8 plane, 32 strip silicon detector) and an electroencephalograph. It was placed on board the ISS on April the 27th 2002 to investigate on the Light Flash phenomenon and the radiation environment in space. We show the possibility of using neural networks as an useful tool for real-time data analysis. A feed-forward neural network (Multi-Layer Perceptron MLP) has been implemented and trained (with Monte Carlo data) to perform on line particle identification for ions with Atomic Number (Z) ⩽8 and incident kinetic energy reconstruction for ions Z > 2. The result of the analysis of Sileye-3/Alteino real data with the neural network and the improvements over classical analysis techniques are discussed.
Nonequilibrium landscape theory of neural networks.
Yan, Han; Zhao, Lei; Hu, Liang; Wang, Xidi; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin
2013-11-05
The brain map project aims to map out the neuron connections of the human brain. Even with all of the wirings mapped out, the global and physical understandings of the function and behavior are still challenging. Hopfield quantified the learning and memory process of symmetrically connected neural networks globally through equilibrium energy. The energy basins of attractions represent memories, and the memory retrieval dynamics is determined by the energy gradient. However, the realistic neural networks are asymmetrically connected, and oscillations cannot emerge from symmetric neural networks. Here, we developed a nonequilibrium landscape-flux theory for realistic asymmetrically connected neural networks. We uncovered the underlying potential landscape and the associated Lyapunov function for quantifying the global stability and function. We found the dynamics and oscillations in human brains responsible for cognitive processes and physiological rhythm regulations are determined not only by the landscape gradient but also by the flux. We found that the flux is closely related to the degrees of the asymmetric connections in neural networks and is the origin of the neural oscillations. The neural oscillation landscape shows a closed-ring attractor topology. The landscape gradient attracts the network down to the ring. The flux is responsible for coherent oscillations on the ring. We suggest the flux may provide the driving force for associations among memories. We applied our theory to rapid-eye movement sleep cycle. We identified the key regulation factors for function through global sensitivity analysis of landscape topography against wirings, which are in good agreements with experiments.
Nonequilibrium landscape theory of neural networks
Yan, Han; Zhao, Lei; Hu, Liang; Wang, Xidi; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin
2013-01-01
The brain map project aims to map out the neuron connections of the human brain. Even with all of the wirings mapped out, the global and physical understandings of the function and behavior are still challenging. Hopfield quantified the learning and memory process of symmetrically connected neural networks globally through equilibrium energy. The energy basins of attractions represent memories, and the memory retrieval dynamics is determined by the energy gradient. However, the realistic neural networks are asymmetrically connected, and oscillations cannot emerge from symmetric neural networks. Here, we developed a nonequilibrium landscape–flux theory for realistic asymmetrically connected neural networks. We uncovered the underlying potential landscape and the associated Lyapunov function for quantifying the global stability and function. We found the dynamics and oscillations in human brains responsible for cognitive processes and physiological rhythm regulations are determined not only by the landscape gradient but also by the flux. We found that the flux is closely related to the degrees of the asymmetric connections in neural networks and is the origin of the neural oscillations. The neural oscillation landscape shows a closed-ring attractor topology. The landscape gradient attracts the network down to the ring. The flux is responsible for coherent oscillations on the ring. We suggest the flux may provide the driving force for associations among memories. We applied our theory to rapid-eye movement sleep cycle. We identified the key regulation factors for function through global sensitivity analysis of landscape topography against wirings, which are in good agreements with experiments. PMID:24145451
Neural network application to aircraft control system design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Troudet, Terry; Garg, Sanjay; Merrill, Walter C.
1991-01-01
The feasibility of using artificial neural networks as control systems for modern, complex aerospace vehicles is investigated via an example aircraft control design study. The problem considered is that of designing a controller for an integrated airframe/propulsion longitudinal dynamics model of a modern fighter aircraft to provide independent control of pitch rate and airspeed responses to pilot command inputs. An explicit model following controller using H infinity control design techniques is first designed to gain insight into the control problem as well as to provide a baseline for evaluation of the neurocontroller. Using the model of the desired dynamics as a command generator, a multilayer feedforward neural network is trained to control the vehicle model within the physical limitations of the actuator dynamics. This is achieved by minimizing an objective function which is a weighted sum of tracking errors and control input commands and rates. To gain insight in the neurocontrol, linearized representations of the nonlinear neurocontroller are analyzed along a commanded trajectory. Linear robustness analysis tools are then applied to the linearized neurocontroller models and to the baseline H infinity based controller. Future areas of research are identified to enhance the practical applicability of neural networks to flight control design.
Neural network application to aircraft control system design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Troudet, Terry; Garg, Sanjay; Merrill, Walter C.
1991-01-01
The feasibility of using artificial neural network as control systems for modern, complex aerospace vehicles is investigated via an example aircraft control design study. The problem considered is that of designing a controller for an integrated airframe/propulsion longitudinal dynamics model of a modern fighter aircraft to provide independent control of pitch rate and airspeed responses to pilot command inputs. An explicit model following controller using H infinity control design techniques is first designed to gain insight into the control problem as well as to provide a baseline for evaluation of the neurocontroller. Using the model of the desired dynamics as a command generator, a multilayer feedforward neural network is trained to control the vehicle model within the physical limitations of the actuator dynamics. This is achieved by minimizing an objective function which is a weighted sum of tracking errors and control input commands and rates. To gain insight in the neurocontrol, linearized representations of the nonlinear neurocontroller are analyzed along a commanded trajectory. Linear robustness analysis tools are then applied to the linearized neurocontroller models and to the baseline H infinity based controller. Future areas of research identified to enhance the practical applicability of neural networks to flight control design.
Neural network application to aircraft control system design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Troudet, Terry; Garg, Sanjay; Merrill, Walter C.
1991-01-01
The feasibility of using artificial neural network as control systems for modern, complex aerospace vehicles is investigated via an example aircraft control design study. The problem considered is that of designing a controller for an integrated airframe/propulsion longitudinal dynamics model of a modern fighter aircraft to provide independent control of pitch rate and airspeed responses to pilot command inputs. An explicit model following controller using H infinity control design techniques is first designed to gain insight into the control problem as well as to provide a baseline for evaluation of the neurocontroller. Using the model of the desired dynamics as a command generator, a multilayer feedforward neural network is trained to control the vehicle model within the physical limitations of the actuator dynamics. This is achieved by minimizing an objective function which is a weighted sum of tracking errors and control input commands and rates. To gain insight in the neurocontrol, linearized representations of the nonlinear neurocontroller are analyzed along a commanded trajectory. Linear robustness analysis tools are then applied to the linearized neurocontroller models and to the baseline H infinity based controller. Future areas of research identified to enhance the practical applicability of neural networks to flight control design.
Estimating Type Ia Supernova Metallicities Using Neural Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villar, V. Ashley
2017-01-01
Normal Type Ia supernovae (SNe) can be used as standardizable candles because their progenitors, white dwarfs, are a fairly homogenous class of objects. However, intrinsic variability in these events arise from a number of factors, including metallicity. Recent studies have investigated the effects of metallicity on Type Ia SNe observables from both a theoretical approach, by tuning model metallicity to analyze spectral features, and an observational approach, by studying the effect of host metallicity on light curves. In this work, we take a new, data-driven approach to the problem. Inspired by the success of neural networks in the field of image processing, we aim to estimate the metallicities of Type Ia SNe progenitors from their near-maximum spectra using feed-forward neural networks. We first collect a sample of near-maximum Type Ia SNe spectra from the literature to be smoothed and down-sampled. We then estimate the metallicities of the SNe hosts using the B-band magnitudes. We build a multilayer perceptron to generate a model that takes as input the down-sampled spectra and returns a scalar metallicity. Finally, we discuss basic considerations to be taken when working with spectral (as opposed to image) data using neural networks.
Neural Network Model For Fast Learning And Retrieval
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arsenault, Henri H.; Macukow, Bohdan
1989-05-01
An approach to learning in a multilayer neural network is presented. The proposed network learns by creating interconnections between the input layer and the intermediate layer. In one of the new storage prescriptions proposed, interconnections are excitatory (positive) only and the weights depend on the stored patterns. In the intermediate layer each mother cell is responsible for one stored pattern. Mutually interconnected neurons in the intermediate layer perform a winner-take-all operation, taking into account correlations between stored vectors. The performance of networks using this interconnection prescription is compared with two previously proposed schemes, one using inhibitory connections at the output and one using all-or-nothing interconnections. The network can be used as a content-addressable memory or as a symbolic substitution system that yields an arbitrarily defined output for any input. The training of a model to perform Boolean logical operations is also described. Computer simulations using the network as an autoassociative content-addressable memory show the model to be efficient. Content-addressable associative memories and neural logic modules can be combined to perform logic operations on highly corrupted data.
Proposal of a multi-layer network architecture for OBS/GMPLS network interworking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Hongxiang; Tsuritani, Takehiro; Yin, Yawei; Otani, Tomohiro; Wu, Jian
2007-11-01
In order to enable the existing optical circuit switching (OCS) network to support both wavelength and subwavelength granularities, this paper proposes overlay-based multi-layer network architecture for interworking the generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) controlled OCS network with optical burst switching (OBS) networks. A dedicated GMPLS border controller with necessary GMPLS extensions, including group label switching path (LSP) provisioning, node capability advertisement, and standard wavelength label as well as wavelength availability advertisement, is introduced in this multi-layer network to enable a simple but flexible interworking operation. The feasibility of this proposal is experimentally confirmed by demonstrating an OBS/GMPLS testbed, in which the extended node capability advertisement and group LSP functions successfully enabled the burst header packet (BHP) and data burst (DB) to transmit over a GMPLS-controlled transparent OCS network.
Results of the neural network investigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uvanni, Lee A.
1992-04-01
Rome Laboratory has designed and implemented a neural network based automatic target recognition (ATR) system under contract F30602-89-C-0079 with Booz, Allen & Hamilton (BAH), Inc., of Arlington, Virginia. The system utilizes a combination of neural network paradigms and conventional image processing techniques in a parallel environment on the IE- 2000 SUN 4 workstation at Rome Laboratory. The IE-2000 workstation was designed to assist the Air Force and Department of Defense to derive the needs for image exploitation and image exploitation support for the late 1990s - year 2000 time frame. The IE-2000 consists of a developmental testbed and an applications testbed, both with the goal of solving real world problems on real-world facilities for image exploitation. To fully exploit the parallel nature of neural networks, 18 Inmos T800 transputers were utilized, in an attempt to provide a near- linear speed-up for each subsystem component implemented on them. The initial design contained three well-known neural network paradigms, each modified by BAH to some extent: the Selective Attention Neocognitron (SAN), the Binary Contour System/Feature Contour System (BCS/FCS), and Adaptive Resonance Theory 2 (ART-2), and one neural network designed by BAH called the Image Variance Exploitation Network (IVEN). Through rapid prototyping, the initial system evolved into a completely different final design, called the Neural Network Image Exploitation System (NNIES), where the final system consists of two basic components: the Double Variance (DV) layer and the Multiple Object Detection And Location System (MODALS). A rapid prototyping neural network CAD Tool, designed by Booz, Allen & Hamilton, was used to rapidly build and emulate the neural network paradigms. Evaluation of the completed ATR system included probability of detections and probability of false alarms among other measures.
Recognition of Telugu characters using neural networks.
Sukhaswami, M B; Seetharamulu, P; Pujari, A K
1995-09-01
The aim of the present work is to recognize printed and handwritten Telugu characters using artificial neural networks (ANNs). Earlier work on recognition of Telugu characters has been done using conventional pattern recognition techniques. We make an initial attempt here of using neural networks for recognition with the aim of improving upon earlier methods which do not perform effectively in the presence of noise and distortion in the characters. The Hopfield model of neural network working as an associative memory is chosen for recognition purposes initially. Due to limitation in the capacity of the Hopfield neural network, we propose a new scheme named here as the Multiple Neural Network Associative Memory (MNNAM). The limitation in storage capacity has been overcome by combining multiple neural networks which work in parallel. It is also demonstrated that the Hopfield network is suitable for recognizing noisy printed characters as well as handwritten characters written by different "hands" in a variety of styles. Detailed experiments have been carried out using several learning strategies and results are reported. It is shown here that satisfactory recognition is possible using the proposed strategy. A detailed preprocessing scheme of the Telugu characters from digitized documents is also described.
Neural Networks for Dynamic Flight Control
1993-12-01
uses the Adaline (22) model for development of the neural networks. Neural Graphics and other AFIT applications use a slightly different model. The...primary difference in the Nguyen application is that the Adaline uses the nonlinear function .f(a) = tanh(a) where standard backprop uses the sigmoid
Radar signal categorization using a neural network
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, James A.; Gately, Michael T.; Penz, P. Andrew; Collins, Dean R.
1991-01-01
Neural networks were used to analyze a complex simulated radar environment which contains noisy radar pulses generated by many different emitters. The neural network used is an energy minimizing network (the BSB model) which forms energy minima - attractors in the network dynamical system - based on learned input data. The system first determines how many emitters are present (the deinterleaving problem). Pulses from individual simulated emitters give rise to separate stable attractors in the network. Once individual emitters are characterized, it is possible to make tentative identifications of them based on their observed parameters. As a test of this idea, a neural network was used to form a small data base that potentially could make emitter identifications.
Control of autonomous robot using neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barton, Adam; Volna, Eva
2017-07-01
The aim of the article is to design a method of control of an autonomous robot using artificial neural networks. The introductory part describes control issues from the perspective of autonomous robot navigation and the current mobile robots controlled by neural networks. The core of the article is the design of the controlling neural network, and generation and filtration of the training set using ART1 (Adaptive Resonance Theory). The outcome of the practical part is an assembled Lego Mindstorms EV3 robot solving the problem of avoiding obstacles in space. To verify models of an autonomous robot behavior, a set of experiments was created as well as evaluation criteria. The speed of each motor was adjusted by the controlling neural network with respect to the situation in which the robot was found.
Imbibition well stimulation via neural network design
Weiss, William
2007-08-14
A method for stimulation of hydrocarbon production via imbibition by utilization of surfactants. The method includes use of fuzzy logic and neural network architecture constructs to determine surfactant use.
Neural Network Solutions to Optical Absorption Spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenbrock, Conrad
2012-10-01
Artificial neural networks have been effective in reducing computation time while achieving remarkable accuracy for a variety of difficult physics problems. Neural networks are trained iteratively by adjusting the size and shape of sums of non-linear functions by varying the function parameters to fit results for complex non-linear systems. For smaller structures, ab initio simulation methods can be used to determine absorption spectra under field perturbations. However, these methods are impractical for larger structures. Designing and training an artificial neural network with simulated data from time-dependent density functional theory may allow time-dependent perturbation effects to be calculated more efficiently. I investigate the design considerations and results of neural network implementations for calculating perturbation-coupled electron oscillations in small molecules.
Temporal Coding in Realistic Neural Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerasyuta, S. M.; Ivanov, D. V.
1995-10-01
The modification of realistic neural network model have been proposed. The model differs from the Hopfield model because of the two characteristic contributions to synaptic efficacious: the short-time contribution which is determined by the chemical reactions in the synapses and the long-time contribution corresponding to the structural changes of synaptic contacts. The approximation solution of the realistic neural network model equations is obtained. This solution allows us to calculate the postsynaptic potential as function of input. Using the approximate solution of realistic neural network model equations the behaviour of postsynaptic potential of realistic neural network as function of time for the different temporal sequences of stimuli is described. The various outputs are obtained for the different temporal sequences of the given stimuli. These properties of the temporal coding can be exploited as a recognition element capable of being selectively tuned to different inputs.
A neural network for bounded linear programming
Culioli, J.C.; Protopopescu, V.; Britton, C.; Ericson, N. )
1989-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to describe a neural network implementation of an algorithm recently designed at ORNL to solve the Transportation and the Assignment Problems, and, more generally, any explicitly bounded linear program. 9 refs.
A neural network architecture for data classification.
Lezoray, O
2001-02-01
This article aims at showing an architecture of neural networks designed for the classification of data distributed among a high number of classes. A significant gain in the global classification rate can be obtained by using our architecture. This latter is based on a set of several little neural networks, each one discriminating only two classes. The specialization of each neural network simplifies their structure and improves the classification. Moreover, the learning step automatically determines the number of hidden neurons. The discussion is illustrated by tests on databases from the UCI machine learning database repository. The experimental results show that this architecture can achieve a faster learning, simpler neural networks and an improved performance in classification.
Using Neural Networks for Sensor Validation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mattern, Duane L.; Jaw, Link C.; Guo, Ten-Huei; Graham, Ronald; McCoy, William
1998-01-01
This paper presents the results of applying two different types of neural networks in two different approaches to the sensor validation problem. The first approach uses a functional approximation neural network as part of a nonlinear observer in a model-based approach to analytical redundancy. The second approach uses an auto-associative neural network to perform nonlinear principal component analysis on a set of redundant sensors to provide an estimate for a single failed sensor. The approaches are demonstrated using a nonlinear simulation of a turbofan engine. The fault detection and sensor estimation results are presented and the training of the auto-associative neural network to provide sensor estimates is discussed.
Blood glucose prediction using neural network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soh, Chit Siang; Zhang, Xiqin; Chen, Jianhong; Raveendran, P.; Soh, Phey Hong; Yeo, Joon Hock
2008-02-01
We used neural network for blood glucose level determination in this study. The data set used in this study was collected using a non-invasive blood glucose monitoring system with six laser diodes, each laser diode operating at distinct near infrared wavelength between 1500nm and 1800nm. The neural network is specifically used to determine blood glucose level of one individual who participated in an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) session. Partial least squares regression is also used for blood glucose level determination for the purpose of comparison with the neural network model. The neural network model performs better in the prediction of blood glucose level as compared with the partial least squares model.
Constructive Autoassociative Neural Network for Facial Recognition
Fernandes, Bruno J. T.; Cavalcanti, George D. C.; Ren, Tsang I.
2014-01-01
Autoassociative artificial neural networks have been used in many different computer vision applications. However, it is difficult to define the most suitable neural network architecture because this definition is based on previous knowledge and depends on the problem domain. To address this problem, we propose a constructive autoassociative neural network called CANet (Constructive Autoassociative Neural Network). CANet integrates the concepts of receptive fields and autoassociative memory in a dynamic architecture that changes the configuration of the receptive fields by adding new neurons in the hidden layer, while a pruning algorithm removes neurons from the output layer. Neurons in the CANet output layer present lateral inhibitory connections that improve the recognition rate. Experiments in face recognition and facial expression recognition show that the CANet outperforms other methods presented in the literature. PMID:25542018
Neural network for image segmentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skourikhine, Alexei N.; Prasad, Lakshman; Schlei, Bernd R.
2000-10-01
Image analysis is an important requirement of many artificial intelligence systems. Though great effort has been devoted to inventing efficient algorithms for image analysis, there is still much work to be done. It is natural to turn to mammalian vision systems for guidance because they are the best known performers of visual tasks. The pulse- coupled neural network (PCNN) model of the cat visual cortex has proven to have interesting properties for image processing. This article describes the PCNN application to the processing of images of heterogeneous materials; specifically PCNN is applied to image denoising and image segmentation. Our results show that PCNNs do well at segmentation if we perform image smoothing prior to segmentation. We use PCNN for obth smoothing and segmentation. Combining smoothing and segmentation enable us to eliminate PCNN sensitivity to the setting of the various PCNN parameters whose optimal selection can be difficult and can vary even for the same problem. This approach makes image processing based on PCNN more automatic in our application and also results in better segmentation.
Tensor-Factorized Neural Networks.
Chien, Jen-Tzung; Bao, Yi-Ting
2017-04-17
The growing interests in multiway data analysis and deep learning have drawn tensor factorization (TF) and neural network (NN) as the crucial topics. Conventionally, the NN model is estimated from a set of one-way observations. Such a vectorized NN is not generalized for learning the representation from multiway observations. The classification performance using vectorized NN is constrained, because the temporal or spatial information in neighboring ways is disregarded. More parameters are required to learn the complicated data structure. This paper presents a new tensor-factorized NN (TFNN), which tightly integrates TF and NN for multiway feature extraction and classification under a unified discriminative objective. This TFNN is seen as a generalized NN, where the affine transformation in an NN is replaced by the multilinear and multiway factorization for tensor-based NN. The multiway information is preserved through layerwise factorization. Tucker decomposition and nonlinear activation are performed in each hidden layer. The tensor-factorized error backpropagation is developed to train TFNN with the limited parameter size and computation time. This TFNN can be further extended to realize the convolutional TFNN (CTFNN) by looking at small subtensors through the factorized convolution. Experiments on real-world classification tasks demonstrate that TFNN and CTFNN attain substantial improvement when compared with an NN and a convolutional NN, respectively.
Artificial neural network and medicine.
Khan, Z H; Mohapatra, S K; Khodiar, P K; Ragu Kumar, S N
1998-07-01
The introduction of human brain functions such as perception and cognition into the computer has been made possible by the use of Artificial Neural Network (ANN). ANN are computer models inspired by the structure and behavior of neurons. Like the brain, ANN can recognize patterns, manage data and most significantly, learn. This learning ability, not seen in other computer models simulating human intelligence, constantly improves its functional accuracy as it keeps on performing. Experience is as important for an ANN as it is for man. It is being increasingly used to supplement and even (may be) replace experts, in medicine. However, there is still scope for improvement in some areas. Its ability to classify and interpret various forms of medical data comes as a helping hand to clinical decision making in both diagnosis and treatment. Treatment planning in medicine, radiotherapy, rehabilitation, etc. is being done using ANN. Morbidity and mortality prediction by ANN in different medical situations can be very helpful for hospital management. ANN has a promising future in fundamental research, medical education and surgical robotics.
Limitations of opto-electronic neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yu, Jeffrey; Johnston, Alan; Psaltis, Demetri; Brady, David
1989-01-01
Consideration is given to the limitations of implementing neurons, weights, and connections in neural networks for electronics and optics. It is shown that the advantages of each technology are utilized when electronically fabricated neurons are included and a combination of optics and electronics are employed for the weights and connections. The relationship between the types of neural networks being constructed and the choice of technologies to implement the weights and connections is examined.
Using neural networks in software repositories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eichmann, David (Editor); Srinivas, Kankanahalli; Boetticher, G.
1992-01-01
The first topic is an exploration of the use of neural network techniques to improve the effectiveness of retrieval in software repositories. The second topic relates to a series of experiments conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using adaptive neural networks as a means of deriving (or more specifically, learning) measures on software. Taken together, these two efforts illuminate a very promising mechanism supporting software infrastructures - one based upon a flexible and responsive technology.
Application of artificial neural networks to gaming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baba, Norio; Kita, Tomio; Oda, Kazuhiro
1995-04-01
Recently, neural network technology has been applied to various actual problems. It has succeeded in producing a large number of intelligent systems. In this article, we suggest that it could be applied to the field of gaming. In particular, we suggest that the neural network model could be used to mimic players' characters. Several computer simulation results using a computer gaming system which is a modified version of the COMMONS GAME confirm our idea.
Predicting Car Production using a Neural Network
2003-04-24
World Almanac Education Group, 2003 [8] E. Petroutsos, Mastering Visual Basic .NET, SYBEX Inc., 2002 [9] D. E. Rumelhart, J. L. McClelland, Parallel...In this example, 100,000 cycles (epochs) were used to train it. The initial weights were randomly selected from values between 1 and -1. Visual ... basic .NET was used to program the neural network [8]. The neural network algorithm followed the steps outlined in [9]. As stated above, a 3 layer
Cellular neuron and large wireless neural network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Ambrose, Barry; Kazantzidis, Matheos; Lin, Freddie
2006-05-01
A new approach to neural networks is proposed, based on wireless interconnects (synapses) and cellular neurons, both software and hardware; with the capacity of 10 10 neurons, almost fully connected. The core of the system is Spatio-Temporal-Variant (STV) kernel and cellular axon with synaptic plasticity variable in time and space. The novel large neural network hardware is based on two established wireless technologies: RF-cellular and IR-wireless.
A neural network simulation package in CLIPS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bhatnagar, Himanshu; Krolak, Patrick D.; Mcgee, Brenda J.; Coleman, John
1990-01-01
The intrinsic similarity between the firing of a rule and the firing of a neuron has been captured in this research to provide a neural network development system within an existing production system (CLIPS). A very important by-product of this research has been the emergence of an integrated technique of using rule based systems in conjunction with the neural networks to solve complex problems. The systems provides a tool kit for an integrated use of the two techniques and is also extendible to accommodate other AI techniques like the semantic networks, connectionist networks, and even the petri nets. This integrated technique can be very useful in solving complex AI problems.
Application of neural network in medical images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xinxin; Sethi, Ishwar K.
2000-04-01
In this paper, we do some pre-processing on the input data to remove some noise before putting them into the network and some post-processing before outputting the results. Different neural networks such as back-propagation, radias basis network with different architecture are tested. We choose the one with the best performance among them. From the experiments we can see that the results of the neural network are similar to those given by the experienced doctors and better than those of previous research, indicating that this approach is very practical and beneficial to doctors comparing with some other methods currently existing.
Logarithmic learning for generalized classifier neural network.
Ozyildirim, Buse Melis; Avci, Mutlu
2014-12-01
Generalized classifier neural network is introduced as an efficient classifier among the others. Unless the initial smoothing parameter value is close to the optimal one, generalized classifier neural network suffers from convergence problem and requires quite a long time to converge. In this work, to overcome this problem, a logarithmic learning approach is proposed. The proposed method uses logarithmic cost function instead of squared error. Minimization of this cost function reduces the number of iterations used for reaching the minima. The proposed method is tested on 15 different data sets and performance of logarithmic learning generalized classifier neural network is compared with that of standard one. Thanks to operation range of radial basis function included by generalized classifier neural network, proposed logarithmic approach and its derivative has continuous values. This makes it possible to adopt the advantage of logarithmic fast convergence by the proposed learning method. Due to fast convergence ability of logarithmic cost function, training time is maximally decreased to 99.2%. In addition to decrease in training time, classification performance may also be improved till 60%. According to the test results, while the proposed method provides a solution for time requirement problem of generalized classifier neural network, it may also improve the classification accuracy. The proposed method can be considered as an efficient way for reducing the time requirement problem of generalized classifier neural network.
Diabetic retinopathy screening using deep neural network.
Ramachandran, Nishanthan; Hong, Sheng Chiong; Sime, Mary J; Wilson, Graham A
2017-09-07
There is a burgeoning interest in the use of deep neural network in diabetic retinal screening. To determine whether a deep neural network could satisfactorily detect diabetic retinopathy that requires referral to an ophthalmologist from a local diabetic retinal screening programme and an international database. Retrospective audit. Diabetic retinal photos from Otago database photographed during October 2016 (485 photos), and 1200 photos from Messidor international database. Receiver operating characteristic curve to illustrate the ability of a deep neural network to identify referable diabetic retinopathy (moderate or worse diabetic retinopathy or exudates within one disc diameter of the fovea). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity and specificity. For detecting referable diabetic retinopathy, the deep neural network had an area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.901 (95% confidence interval 0.807-0.995), with 84.6% sensitivity and 79.7% specificity for Otago and 0.980 (95% confidence interval 0.973-0.986), with 96.0% sensitivity and 90.0% specificity for Messidor. This study has shown that a deep neural network can detect referable diabetic retinopathy with sensitivities and specificities close to or better than 80% from both an international and a domestic (New Zealand) database. We believe that deep neural networks can be integrated into community screening once they can successfully detect both diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular oedema. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.
Combining neural networks and genetic algorithms for hydrological flow forecasting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neruda, Roman; Srejber, Jan; Neruda, Martin; Pascenko, Petr
2010-05-01
We present a neural network approach to rainfall-runoff modeling for small size river basins based on several time series of hourly measured data. Different neural networks are considered for short time runoff predictions (from one to six hours lead time) based on runoff and rainfall data observed in previous time steps. Correlation analysis shows that runoff data, short time rainfall history, and aggregated API values are the most significant data for the prediction. Neural models of multilayer perceptron and radial basis function networks with different numbers of units are used and compared with more traditional linear time series predictors. Out of possible 48 hours of relevant history of all the input variables, the most important ones are selected by means of input filters created by a genetic algorithm. The genetic algorithm works with population of binary encoded vectors defining input selection patterns. Standard genetic operators of two-point crossover, random bit-flipping mutation, and tournament selection were used. The evaluation of objective function of each individual consists of several rounds of building and testing a particular neural network model. The whole procedure is rather computational exacting (taking hours to days on a desktop PC), thus a high-performance mainframe computer has been used for our experiments. Results based on two years worth data from the Ploucnice river in Northern Bohemia suggest that main problems connected with this approach to modeling are ovetraining that can lead to poor generalization, and relatively small number of extreme events which makes it difficult for a model to predict the amplitude of the event. Thus, experiments with both absolute and relative runoff predictions were carried out. In general it can be concluded that the neural models show about 5 per cent improvement in terms of efficiency coefficient over liner models. Multilayer perceptrons with one hidden layer trained by back propagation algorithm and
Neural-Network Object-Recognition Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spirkovska, L.; Reid, M. B.
1993-01-01
HONTIOR computer program implements third-order neural network exhibiting invariance under translation, change of scale, and in-plane rotation. Invariance incorporated directly into architecture of network. Only one view of each object needed to train network for two-dimensional-translation-invariant recognition of object. Also used for three-dimensional-transformation-invariant recognition by training network on only set of out-of-plane rotated views. Written in C language.
Castet, Jean-Francois; Saleh, Joseph H.
2013-01-01
This article develops a novel approach and algorithmic tools for the modeling and survivability analysis of networks with heterogeneous nodes, and examines their application to space-based networks. Space-based networks (SBNs) allow the sharing of spacecraft on-orbit resources, such as data storage, processing, and downlink. Each spacecraft in the network can have different subsystem composition and functionality, thus resulting in node heterogeneity. Most traditional survivability analyses of networks assume node homogeneity and as a result, are not suited for the analysis of SBNs. This work proposes that heterogeneous networks can be modeled as interdependent multi-layer networks, which enables their survivability analysis. The multi-layer aspect captures the breakdown of the network according to common functionalities across the different nodes, and it allows the emergence of homogeneous sub-networks, while the interdependency aspect constrains the network to capture the physical characteristics of each node. Definitions of primitives of failure propagation are devised. Formal characterization of interdependent multi-layer networks, as well as algorithmic tools for the analysis of failure propagation across the network are developed and illustrated with space applications. The SBN applications considered consist of several networked spacecraft that can tap into each other's Command and Data Handling subsystem, in case of failure of its own, including the Telemetry, Tracking and Command, the Control Processor, and the Data Handling sub-subsystems. Various design insights are derived and discussed, and the capability to perform trade-space analysis with the proposed approach for various network characteristics is indicated. The select results here shown quantify the incremental survivability gains (with respect to a particular class of threats) of the SBN over the traditional monolith spacecraft. Failure of the connectivity between nodes is also examined, and the
Fast curve fitting using neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bishop, C. M.; Roach, C. M.
1992-10-01
Neural networks provide a new tool for the fast solution of repetitive nonlinear curve fitting problems. In this article we introduce the concept of a neural network, and we show how such networks can be used for fitting functional forms to experimental data. The neural network algorithm is typically much faster than conventional iterative approaches. In addition, further substantial improvements in speed can be obtained by using special purpose hardware implementations of the network, thus making the technique suitable for use in fast real-time applications. The basic concepts are illustrated using a simple example from fusion research, involving the determination of spectral line parameters from measurements of B iv impurity radiation in the COMPASS-C tokamak.
A neural network for visual pattern recognition
Fukushima, K.
1988-03-01
A modeling approach, which is a synthetic approach using neural network models, continues to gain importance. In the modeling approach, the authors study how to interconnect neurons to synthesize a brain model, which is a network with the same functions and abilities as the brain. The relationship between modeling neutral networks and neurophysiology resembles that between theoretical physics and experimental physics. Modeling takes synthetic approach, while neurophysiology or psychology takes an analytical approach. Modeling neural networks is useful in explaining the brain and also in engineering applications. It brings the results of neurophysiological and psychological research to engineering applications in the most direct way possible. This article discusses a neural network model thus obtained, a model with selective attention in visual pattern recognition.
Recursive least-squares learning algorithms for neural networks
Lewis, P.S. ); Hwang, Jenq-Neng . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)
1990-01-01
This paper presents the development of a pair of recursive least squares (RLS) algorithms for online training of multilayer perceptrons, which are a class of feedforward artificial neural networks. These algorithms incorporate second order information about the training error surface in order to achieve faster learning rates than are possible using first order gradient descent algorithms such as the generalized delta rule. A least squares formulation is derived from a linearization of the training error function. Individual training pattern errors are linearized about the network parameters that were in effect when the pattern was presented. This permits the recursive solution of the least squares approximation, either via conventional RLS recursions or by recursive QR decomposition-based techniques. The computational complexity of the update is in the order of (N{sup 2}), where N is the number of network parameters. This is due to the estimation of the N {times} N inverse Hessian matrix. Less computationally intensive approximations of the RLS algorithms can be easily derived by using only block diagonal elements of this matrix, thereby partitioning the learning into independent sets. A simulation example is presented in which a neural network is trained to approximate a two dimensional Gaussian bump. In this example, RLS training required an order of magnitude fewer iterations on average (527) than did training with the generalized delta rule (6331). 14 refs., 3 figs.
Using Bayesian neural networks to classify forest scenes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vehtari, Aki; Heikkonen, Jukka; Lampinen, Jouko; Juujarvi, Jouni
1998-10-01
We present results that compare the performance of Bayesian learning methods for neural networks on the task of classifying forest scenes into trees and background. Classification task is demanding due to the texture richness of the trees, occlusions of the forest scene objects and diverse lighting conditions under operation. This makes it difficult to determine which are optimal image features for the classification. A natural way to proceed is to extract many different types of potentially suitable features, and to evaluate their usefulness in later processing stages. One approach to cope with large number of features is to use Bayesian methods to control the model complexity. Bayesian learning uses a prior on model parameters, combines this with evidence from a training data, and the integrates over the resulting posterior to make predictions. With this method, we can use large networks and many features without fear of overfitting. For this classification task we compare two Bayesian learning methods for multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural networks: (1) The evidence framework of MacKay uses a Gaussian approximation to the posterior weight distribution and maximizes with respect to hyperparameters. (2) In a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method due to Neal, the posterior distribution of the network parameters is numerically integrated using the MCMC method. As baseline classifiers for comparison we use (3) MLP early stop committee, (4) K-nearest-neighbor and (5) Classification And Regression Tree.
Identifing Atmospheric Pollutant Sources Using Artificial Neural Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paes, F. F.; Campos, H. F.; Luz, E. P.; Carvalho, A. R.
2008-05-01
The estimation of the area source pollutant strength is a relevant issue for atmospheric environment. This characterizes an inverse problem in the atmospheric pollution dispersion. In the inverse analysis, an area source domain is considered, where the strength of such area source term is assumed unknown. The inverse problem is solved by using a supervised artificial neural network: multi-layer perceptron. The conection weights of the neural network are computed from delta rule - learning process. The neural network inversion is compared with results from standard inverse analysis (regularized inverse solution). In the regularization method, the inverse problem is formulated as a non-linear optimization approach, whose the objective function is given by the square difference between the measured pollutant concentration and the mathematical models, associated with a regularization operator. In our numerical experiments, the forward problem is addressed by a source-receptor scheme, where a regressive Lagrangian model is applied to compute the transition matrix. The second order maximum entropy regularization is used, and the regularization parameter is calculated by the L-curve technique. The objective function is minimized employing a deterministic scheme (a quasi-Newton algorithm) [1] and a stochastic technique (PSO: particle swarm optimization) [2]. The inverse problem methodology is tested with synthetic observational data, from six measurement points in the physical domain. The best inverse solutions were obtained with neural networks. References: [1] D. R. Roberti, D. Anfossi, H. F. Campos Velho, G. A. Degrazia (2005): Estimating Emission Rate and Pollutant Source Location, Ciencia e Natura, p. 131-134. [2] E.F.P. da Luz, H.F. de Campos Velho, J.C. Becceneri, D.R. Roberti (2007): Estimating Atmospheric Area Source Strength Through Particle Swarm Optimization. Inverse Problems, Desing and Optimization Symposium IPDO-2007, April 16-18, Miami (FL), USA, vol 1, p
ARTMAP and orthonormal basis function neural networks for pattern classification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shock, Byron Mitchell
This dissertation investigates neural network approaches to pattern classification. One application considered is the classification of land use change in the Nile River delta between 1984 and 1993 from ten Landsat Thematic Mapper (Landsat TM) images acquired during this period. Other applications, including image segmentation, letter recognition, and prediction of variables from census data, are represented by the standardized DELVE (Data for Evaluating Learning in Valid Experiments) machine learning database. An ARTMAP (Adaptive Resonance Theory Map) neural network system is developed for the land use change classification task. Cross-validation is used to enable design decisions and to enable model fitting to be done without regard to data in test partitions. The training of voting ARTMAP systems on brightness-greenness-wetness (BGW) data for multiple dates and location data results in performance competitive with previously used expert systems. Orthonormal basis function classification methods are extended to make them appropriate for multidimensional problems. These methods share the multilayer perceptron architecture common to many neural networks. A layer of basis functions transforms the data prior to classification. Stopping rules are used to determine which basis functions to include in a model to minimize the expected mean integrated squared error (MISE). To perform stopping when using the discriminant function of Devroye et al. (1996), an appropriate MISE estimator is developed. Linear transformations to rotate data and improve multiple classification results are investigated using development benchmarks from the DELVE suite. Orthonormal basis function neural network classifiers using these principles are developed and tested along with standard pattern classification techniques on the DELVE suite. Orthonormal basis function systems appear to be well suited for some multidimensional problems. These systems, along with benchmark classifiers, are also
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeng, Jin-Tsong; Lee, Tsu-Tian
1998-03-01
In this paper, we propose a neural network model with a faster learning speed and a good approximate capability in the function approximation for solving worst-case identification of nonlinear systems H(infinity ) problems. Specifically, via the approximate transformable technique, we develop a Chebyshev Polynomials Based unified model neural network for solving the worst-case identification of nonlinear systems H(infinity ) problems. Based on this approximate transformable technique, the relationship between the single-layered neural network and multi-layered perceptron neural network is derived. It is shown that the Chebyshev Polynomials Based unified model neural network can be represented as a functional link network that is based on Chebyshev polynomials. We also derive a new learning algorithm such that the infinity norm of the transfer function from the input to the output is under a prescribed level. It turns out that the Chebyshev Polynomials Based unified model neural network not only has the same capability of universal approximator, but also has a faster learning speed than multi-layered perceptron or the recurrent neural network in the deterministic worst-case identification of nonlinear systems H(infinity ) problems.
Artificial Astrocytes Improve Neural Network Performance
Porto-Pazos, Ana B.; Veiguela, Noha; Mesejo, Pablo; Navarrete, Marta; Alvarellos, Alberto; Ibáñez, Oscar; Pazos, Alejandro; Araque, Alfonso
2011-01-01
Compelling evidence indicates the existence of bidirectional communication between astrocytes and neurons. Astrocytes, a type of glial cells classically considered to be passive supportive cells, have been recently demonstrated to be actively involved in the processing and regulation of synaptic information, suggesting that brain function arises from the activity of neuron-glia networks. However, the actual impact of astrocytes in neural network function is largely unknown and its application in artificial intelligence remains untested. We have investigated the consequences of including artificial astrocytes, which present the biologically defined properties involved in astrocyte-neuron communication, on artificial neural network performance. Using connectionist systems and evolutionary algorithms, we have compared the performance of artificial neural networks (NN) and artificial neuron-glia networks (NGN) to solve classification problems. We show that the degree of success of NGN is superior to NN. Analysis of performances of NN with different number of neurons or different architectures indicate that the effects of NGN cannot be accounted for an increased number of network elements, but rather they are specifically due to astrocytes. Furthermore, the relative efficacy of NGN vs. NN increases as the complexity of the network increases. These results indicate that artificial astrocytes improve neural network performance, and established the concept of Artificial Neuron-Glia Networks, which represents a novel concept in Artificial Intelligence with implications in computational science as well as in the understanding of brain function. PMID:21526157
Artificial astrocytes improve neural network performance.
Porto-Pazos, Ana B; Veiguela, Noha; Mesejo, Pablo; Navarrete, Marta; Alvarellos, Alberto; Ibáñez, Oscar; Pazos, Alejandro; Araque, Alfonso
2011-04-19
Compelling evidence indicates the existence of bidirectional communication between astrocytes and neurons. Astrocytes, a type of glial cells classically considered to be passive supportive cells, have been recently demonstrated to be actively involved in the processing and regulation of synaptic information, suggesting that brain function arises from the activity of neuron-glia networks. However, the actual impact of astrocytes in neural network function is largely unknown and its application in artificial intelligence remains untested. We have investigated the consequences of including artificial astrocytes, which present the biologically defined properties involved in astrocyte-neuron communication, on artificial neural network performance. Using connectionist systems and evolutionary algorithms, we have compared the performance of artificial neural networks (NN) and artificial neuron-glia networks (NGN) to solve classification problems. We show that the degree of success of NGN is superior to NN. Analysis of performances of NN with different number of neurons or different architectures indicate that the effects of NGN cannot be accounted for an increased number of network elements, but rather they are specifically due to astrocytes. Furthermore, the relative efficacy of NGN vs. NN increases as the complexity of the network increases. These results indicate that artificial astrocytes improve neural network performance, and established the concept of Artificial Neuron-Glia Networks, which represents a novel concept in Artificial Intelligence with implications in computational science as well as in the understanding of brain function.
Lithofacies classification of the Barnett Shale gas reservoir using neural network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aliouane, Leila; Ouadfeul, Sid-Ali
2017-04-01
Here, we show the contribution of the artificial intelligence such as neural network to predict the lithofacies in the lower Barnett shale gas reservoir. The Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) neural network with Hidden Weight Optimization Algorithm is used. The input is raw well-logs data recorded in a horizontal well drilled in the Lower Barnett shale formation, however the output is the concentration of the Clay and the Quartz calculated using the ELAN model and confirmed with the core rock measurement. After training of the MLP machine weights of connection are calculated, the raw well-logs data of two other horizontal wells drilled in the same reservoir are propagated though the neural machine and an output is calculated. Comparison between the predicted and measured clay and Quartz concentrations in these two horizontal wells shows the ability of neural network to improve shale gas reservoirs characterization.
The H1 neural network trigger project
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiesling, C.; Denby, B.; Fent, J.; Fröchtenicht, W.; Garda, P.; Granado, B.; Grindhammer, G.; Haberer, W.; Janauschek, L.; Kobler, T.; Koblitz, B.; Nellen, G.; Prevotet, J.-C.; Schmidt, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.
2001-08-01
We present a short overview of neuromorphic hardware and some of the physics projects making use of such devices. As a concrete example we describe an innovative project within the H1-Experiment at the electron-proton collider HERA, instrumenting hardwired neural networks as pattern recognition machines to discriminate between wanted physics and uninteresting background at the trigger level. The decision time of the system is less than 20 microseconds, typical for a modern second level trigger. The neural trigger has been successfully running for the past four years and has turned out new physics results from H1 unobtainable so far with other triggering schemes. We describe the concepts and the technical realization of the neural network trigger system, present the most important physics results, and motivate an upgrade of the system for the future high luminosity running at HERA. The upgrade concentrates on "intelligent preprocessing" of the neural inputs which help to strongly improve the networks' discrimination power.
Hardware implementation of stochastic spiking neural networks.
Rosselló, Josep L; Canals, Vincent; Morro, Antoni; Oliver, Antoni
2012-08-01
Spiking Neural Networks, the last generation of Artificial Neural Networks, are characterized by its bio-inspired nature and by a higher computational capacity with respect to other neural models. In real biological neurons, stochastic processes represent an important mechanism of neural behavior and are responsible of its special arithmetic capabilities. In this work we present a simple hardware implementation of spiking neurons that considers this probabilistic nature. The advantage of the proposed implementation is that it is fully digital and therefore can be massively implemented in Field Programmable Gate Arrays. The high computational capabilities of the proposed model are demonstrated by the study of both feed-forward and recurrent networks that are able to implement high-speed signal filtering and to solve complex systems of linear equations.
Modeling of surface dust concentrations using neural networks and kriging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buevich, Alexander G.; Medvedev, Alexander N.; Sergeev, Alexander P.; Tarasov, Dmitry A.; Shichkin, Andrey V.; Sergeeva, Marina V.; Atanasova, T. B.
2016-12-01
Creating models which are able to accurately predict the distribution of pollutants based on a limited set of input data is an important task in environmental studies. In the paper two neural approaches: (multilayer perceptron (MLP)) and generalized regression neural network (GRNN)), and two geostatistical approaches: (kriging and cokriging), are using for modeling and forecasting of dust concentrations in snow cover. The area of study is under the influence of dust emissions from a copper quarry and a several industrial companies. The comparison of two mentioned approaches is conducted. Three indices are used as the indicators of the models accuracy: the mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE) and relative root mean square error (RRMSE). Models based on artificial neural networks (ANN) have shown better accuracy. When considering all indices, the most precision model was the GRNN, which uses as input parameters for modeling the coordinates of sampling points and the distance to the probable emissions source. The results of work confirm that trained ANN may be more suitable tool for modeling of dust concentrations in snow cover.
Estimation of sleep stages by an artificial neural network employing EEG, EMG and EOG.
Tagluk, M Emin; Sezgin, Necmettin; Akin, Mehmet
2010-08-01
Analysis and classification of sleep stages is essential in sleep research. In this particular study, an alternative system which estimates sleep stages of human being through a multi-layer neural network (NN) that simultaneously employs EEG, EMG and EOG. The data were recorded through polisomnography device for 7 h for each subject. These collective variant data were first grouped by an expert physician and the software of polisomnography, and then used for training and testing the proposed Artificial Neural Network (ANN). A good scoring was attained through the trained ANN, so it may be put into use in clinics where lacks of specialist physicians.
An MLP neural network for ECG noise removal based on Kalman filter.
Moein, Sara
2010-01-01
In this paper, application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for electrocardiogram (ECG) signal noise removal has been investigated. First, 100 number of ECG signals are selected from Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) database and Kalman filter is applied to remove their low pass noise. Then a suitable dataset based on denoised ECG signal is configured and used to a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) neural network to be trained. Finally, results and experiences are discussed and the effect of changing different parameters for MLP training is shown.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pchelintseva, Svetlana V.; Runnova, Anastasia E.; Musatov, Vyacheslav Yu.; Hramov, Alexander E.
2017-03-01
In the paper we study the problem of recognition type of the observed object, depending on the generated pattern and the registered EEG data. EEG recorded at the time of displaying cube Necker characterizes appropriate state of brain activity. As an image we use bistable image Necker cube. Subject selects the type of cube and interpret it either as aleft cube or as the right cube. To solve the problem of recognition, we use artificial neural networks. In our paper to create a classifier we have considered a multilayer perceptron. We examine the structure of the artificial neural network and define cubes recognition accuracy.
Sequential state generation by model neural networks.
Kleinfeld, D
1986-01-01
Sequential patterns of neural output activity form the basis of many biological processes, such as the cyclic pattern of outputs that control locomotion. I show how such sequences can be generated by a class of model neural networks that make defined sets of transitions between selected memory states. Sequence-generating networks depend upon the interplay between two sets of synaptic connections. One set acts to stabilize the network in its current memory state, while the second set, whose action is delayed in time, causes the network to make specified transitions between the memories. The dynamic properties of these networks are described in terms of motion along an energy surface. The performance of the networks, both with intact connections and with noisy or missing connections, is illustrated by numerical examples. In addition, I present a scheme for the recognition of externally generated sequences by these networks. PMID:3467316
Fuzzy logic and neural networks
Loos, J.R.
1994-11-01
Combine fuzzy logic`s fuzzy sets, fuzzy operators, fuzzy inference, and fuzzy rules - like defuzzification - with neural networks and you can arrive at very unfuzzy real-time control. Fuzzy logic, cursed with a very whimsical title, simply means multivalued logic, which includes not only the conventional two-valued (true/false) crisp logic, but also the logic of three or more values. This means one can assign logic values of true, false, and somewhere in between. This is where fuzziness comes in. Multi-valued logic avoids the black-and-white, all-or-nothing assignment of true or false to an assertion. Instead, it permits the assignment of shades of gray. When assigning a value of true or false to an assertion, the numbers typically used are {open_quotes}1{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}0{close_quotes}. This is the case for programmed systems. If {open_quotes}0{close_quotes} means {open_quotes}false{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}1{close_quotes} means {open_quotes}true,{close_quotes} then {open_quotes}shades of gray{close_quotes} are any numbers between 0 and 1. Therefore, {open_quotes}nearly true{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.8 or 0.9, {open_quotes}nearly false{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.1 or 0.2, and {close_quotes}your guess is as good as mine{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.5. The flexibility available to one is limitless. One can associate any meaning, such as {open_quotes}nearly true{close_quotes}, to any value of any granularity, such as 0.9999. 2 figs.
Optical neural stimulation modeling on degenerative neocortical neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zverev, M.; Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Salas-García, I.; Arce-Diego, J. L.
2015-07-01
Neurodegenerative diseases usually appear at advanced age. Medical advances make people live longer and as a consequence, the number of neurodegenerative diseases continuously grows. There is still no cure for these diseases, but several brain stimulation techniques have been proposed to improve patients' condition. One of them is Optical Neural Stimulation (ONS), which is based on the application of optical radiation over specific brain regions. The outer cerebral zones can be noninvasively stimulated, without the common drawbacks associated to surgical procedures. This work focuses on the analysis of ONS effects in stimulated neurons to determine their influence in neuronal activity. For this purpose a neural network model has been employed. The results show the neural network behavior when the stimulation is provided by means of different optical radiation sources and constitute a first approach to adjust the optical light source parameters to stimulate specific neocortical areas.
Robust Large Margin Deep Neural Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sokolic, Jure; Giryes, Raja; Sapiro, Guillermo; Rodrigues, Miguel R. D.
2017-08-01
The generalization error of deep neural networks via their classification margin is studied in this work. Our approach is based on the Jacobian matrix of a deep neural network and can be applied to networks with arbitrary non-linearities and pooling layers, and to networks with different architectures such as feed forward networks and residual networks. Our analysis leads to the conclusion that a bounded spectral norm of the network's Jacobian matrix in the neighbourhood of the training samples is crucial for a deep neural network of arbitrary depth and width to generalize well. This is a significant improvement over the current bounds in the literature, which imply that the generalization error grows with either the width or the depth of the network. Moreover, it shows that the recently proposed batch normalization and weight normalization re-parametrizations enjoy good generalization properties, and leads to a novel network regularizer based on the network's Jacobian matrix. The analysis is supported with experimental results on the MNIST, CIFAR-10, LaRED and ImageNet datasets.
Artificial neural network intelligent method for prediction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trifonov, Roumen; Yoshinov, Radoslav; Pavlova, Galya; Tsochev, Georgi
2017-09-01
Accounting and financial classification and prediction problems are high challenge and researchers use different methods to solve them. Methods and instruments for short time prediction of financial operations using artificial neural network are considered. The methods, used for prediction of financial data as well as the developed forecasting system with neural network are described in the paper. The architecture of a neural network used four different technical indicators, which are based on the raw data and the current day of the week is presented. The network developed is used for forecasting movement of stock prices one day ahead and consists of an input layer, one hidden layer and an output layer. The training method is algorithm with back propagation of the error. The main advantage of the developed system is self-determination of the optimal topology of neural network, due to which it becomes flexible and more precise The proposed system with neural network is universal and can be applied to various financial instruments using only basic technical indicators as input data.
Computational inference of neural information flow networks.
Smith, V Anne; Yu, Jing; Smulders, Tom V; Hartemink, Alexander J; Jarvis, Erich D
2006-11-24
Determining how information flows along anatomical brain pathways is a fundamental requirement for understanding how animals perceive their environments, learn, and behave. Attempts to reveal such neural information flow have been made using linear computational methods, but neural interactions are known to be nonlinear. Here, we demonstrate that a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) inference algorithm we originally developed to infer nonlinear transcriptional regulatory networks from gene expression data collected with microarrays is also successful at inferring nonlinear neural information flow networks from electrophysiology data collected with microelectrode arrays. The inferred networks we recover from the songbird auditory pathway are correctly restricted to a subset of known anatomical paths, are consistent with timing of the system, and reveal both the importance of reciprocal feedback in auditory processing and greater information flow to higher-order auditory areas when birds hear natural as opposed to synthetic sounds. A linear method applied to the same data incorrectly produces networks with information flow to non-neural tissue and over paths known not to exist. To our knowledge, this study represents the first biologically validated demonstration of an algorithm to successfully infer neural information flow networks.
On sparsely connected optimal neural networks
Beiu, V.; Draghici, S.
1997-10-01
This paper uses two different approaches to show that VLSI- and size-optimal discrete neural networks are obtained for small fan-in values. These have applications to hardware implementations of neural networks, but also reveal an intrinsic limitation of digital VLSI technology: its inability to cope with highly connected structures. The first approach is based on implementing F{sub n,m} functions. The authors show that this class of functions can be implemented in VLSI-optimal (i.e., minimizing AT{sup 2}) neural networks of small constant fan-ins. In order to estimate the area (A) and the delay (T) of such networks, the following cost functions will be used: (i) the connectivity and the number-of-bits for representing the weights and thresholds--for good estimates of the area; and (ii) the fan-ins and the length of the wires--for good approximates of the delay. The second approach is based on implementing Boolean functions for which the classical Shannon`s decomposition can be used. Such a solution has already been used to prove bounds on the size of fan-in 2 neural networks. They will generalize the result presented there to arbitrary fan-in, and prove that the size is minimized by small fan-in values. Finally, a size-optimal neural network of small constant fan-ins will be suggested for F{sub n,m} functions.
Neural networks as perpetual information generators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Englisch, Harald; Xiao, Yegao; Yao, Kailun
1991-07-01
The information gain in a neural network cannot be larger than the bit capacity of the synapses. It is shown that the equation derived by Engel et al. [Phys. Rev. A 42, 4998 (1990)] for the strongly diluted network with persistent stimuli contradicts this condition. Furthermore, for any time step the correct equation is derived by taking the correlation between random variables into account.
Higher-Order Neural Networks Recognize Patterns
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reid, Max B.; Spirkovska, Lilly; Ochoa, Ellen
1996-01-01
Networks of higher order have enhanced capabilities to distinguish between different two-dimensional patterns and to recognize those patterns. Also enhanced capabilities to "learn" patterns to be recognized: "trained" with far fewer examples and, therefore, in less time than necessary to train comparable first-order neural networks.
Orthogonal Patterns In A Binary Neural Network
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baram, Yoram
1991-01-01
Report presents some recent developments in theory of binary neural networks. Subject matter relevant to associate (content-addressable) memories and to recognition of patterns - both of considerable importance in advancement of robotics and artificial intelligence. When probed by any pattern, network converges to one of stored patterns.
An Evolutionary Approach to Designing Neural Networks
1991-10-01
Feature-Map Networks .. .. .. .. ... ... .... ... ... ... .... 42 4.5 Evolution of Learning: A Population Genetics Approach. .. .. .. .. ... .... .. 44...principles of biological evolution and population genetics provide the basis for such behavior. The processes of variation and selection, operating at...better understanding of the relationship among neural network theory, evolutionary and population genetics , and some aspects of dynamical systems
Artificial Neural Networks and Instructional Technology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carlson, Patricia A.
1991-01-01
Artificial neural networks (ANN), part of artificial intelligence, are discussed. Such networks are fed sample cases (training sets), learn how to recognize patterns in the sample data, and use this experience in handling new cases. Two cognitive roles for ANNs (intelligent filters and spreading, associative memories) are examined. Prototypes…
Artificial Neural Networks and Instructional Technology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carlson, Patricia A.
1991-01-01
Artificial neural networks (ANN), part of artificial intelligence, are discussed. Such networks are fed sample cases (training sets), learn how to recognize patterns in the sample data, and use this experience in handling new cases. Two cognitive roles for ANNs (intelligent filters and spreading, associative memories) are examined. Prototypes…
Neural-Network Modeling Of Arc Welding
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, Kristinn; Barnett, Robert J.; Springfield, James F.; Cook, George E.; Strauss, Alvin M.; Bjorgvinsson, Jon B.
1994-01-01
Artificial neural networks considered for use in monitoring and controlling gas/tungsten arc-welding processes. Relatively simple network, using 4 welding equipment parameters as inputs, estimates 2 critical weld-bead paramaters within 5 percent. Advantage is computational efficiency.
Neural network revisited: perception on modified Poincare map of financial time-series data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Situngkir, Hokky; Surya, Yohanes
2004-12-01
Artificial Neural Network Model for prediction of time-series data is revisited on analysis of the Indonesian stock-exchange data. We introduce the use of Multi-Layer Perceptron to percept the modified Poincare map of the given financial time-series data. The modified Poincare map is believed to become the pattern of the data that transforms the data in time- t versus the data in time- t+1 graphically. We built the Multi-Layer Perceptron to percept and demonstrate predicting of the data for specific stock-exchange in Indonesia.
Some neural networks compute, others don't.
Piccinini, Gualtiero
2008-01-01
I address whether neural networks perform computations in the sense of computability theory and computer science. I explicate and defend the following theses. (1) Many neural networks compute--they perform computations. (2) Some neural networks compute in a classical way. Ordinary digital computers, which are very large networks of logic gates, belong in this class of neural networks. (3) Other neural networks compute in a non-classical way. (4) Yet other neural networks do not perform computations. Brains may well fall into this last class.
Disruption forecasting at JET using neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cannas, B.; Fanni, A.; Marongiu, E.; Sonato, P.
2004-01-01
Neural networks are trained to evaluate the risk of plasma disruptions in a tokamak experiment using several diagnostic signals as inputs. A saliency analysis confirms the goodness of the chosen inputs, all of which contribute to the network performance. Tests that were carried out refer to data collected from succesfully terminated and disruption terminated pulses performed during two years of JET tokamak experiments. Results show the possibility of developing a neural network predictor that intervenes well in advance in order to avoid plasma disruption or mitigate its effects.
Electronic device aspects of neural network memories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lambe, J.; Moopenn, A.; Thakoor, A. P.
1985-01-01
The basic issues related to the electronic implementation of the neural network model (NNM) for content addressable memories are examined. A brief introduction to the principles of the NNM is followed by an analysis of the information storage of the neural network in the form of a binary connection matrix and the recall capability of such matrix memories based on a hardware simulation study. In addition, materials and device architecture issues involved in the future realization of such networks in VLSI-compatible ultrahigh-density memories are considered. A possible space application of such devices would be in the area of large-scale information storage without mechanical devices.
Electronic device aspects of neural network memories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lambe, J.; Moopenn, A.; Thakoor, A. P.
1985-01-01
The basic issues related to the electronic implementation of the neural network model (NNM) for content addressable memories are examined. A brief introduction to the principles of the NNM is followed by an analysis of the information storage of the neural network in the form of a binary connection matrix and the recall capability of such matrix memories based on a hardware simulation study. In addition, materials and device architecture issues involved in the future realization of such networks in VLSI-compatible ultrahigh-density memories are considered. A possible space application of such devices would be in the area of large-scale information storage without mechanical devices.
Improving neural network performance on SIMD architectures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Limonova, Elena; Ilin, Dmitry; Nikolaev, Dmitry
2015-12-01
Neural network calculations for the image recognition problems can be very time consuming. In this paper we propose three methods of increasing neural network performance on SIMD architectures. The usage of SIMD extensions is a way to speed up neural network processing available for a number of modern CPUs. In our experiments, we use ARM NEON as SIMD architecture example. The first method deals with half float data type for matrix computations. The second method describes fixed-point data type for the same purpose. The third method considers vectorized activation functions implementation. For each method we set up a series of experiments for convolutional and fully connected networks designed for image recognition task.
A quantum-implementable neural network model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jialin; Wang, Lingli; Charbon, Edoardo
2017-10-01
A quantum-implementable neural network, namely quantum probability neural network (QPNN) model, is proposed in this paper. QPNN can use quantum parallelism to trace all possible network states to improve the result. Due to its unique quantum nature, this model is robust to several quantum noises under certain conditions, which can be efficiently implemented by the qubus quantum computer. Another advantage is that QPNN can be used as memory to retrieve the most relevant data and even to generate new data. The MATLAB experimental results of Iris data classification and MNIST handwriting recognition show that much less neuron resources are required in QPNN to obtain a good result than the classical feedforward neural network. The proposed QPNN model indicates that quantum effects are useful for real-life classification tasks.
Artificial neural networks for automatic target recognition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daniell, Cindy E.; Kemsley, David; Lincoln, William P.; Tackett, Walter A.; Baraghimian, Gregory A.
1992-12-01
The Self Adaptive Hierarchical Target Identification and Recognition Neural Network (SAHTIRNTM), is a unique and powerful combination of state-of-the-art neural network models for automatic target recognition applications. It is a combination of three models: (1) an early vision segmentor based on the Canny edge detector, (2) a hierarchical feature extraction and pattern recognition system based on a modified Neocognitron architecture, and (3) a pattern classifier based on the back-propagation network. Hughes has extensively tested SAHTIRNTM with several ground vehicular targets using terrain board modeled IR imagery under a current neural network program sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. In addition, extensive testing was conducted using several real IR and handwritten character databases. Hughes has demonstrated successful performance with 91 to 100% probability of correct classification over this wide variety of data. End-to-end system results from these experiments are provided and interim results from each stage of the SAHTIRNTM system are discussed.
Extreme events in multilayer, interdependent complex networks and control
Chen, Yu-Zhong; Huang, Zi-Gang; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Eisenberg, Daniel; Seager, Thomas P.; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2015-01-01
We investigate the emergence of extreme events in interdependent networks. We introduce an inter-layer traffic resource competing mechanism to account for the limited capacity associated with distinct network layers. A striking finding is that, when the number of network layers and/or the overlap among the layers are increased, extreme events can emerge in a cascading manner on a global scale. Asymptotically, there are two stable absorption states: a state free of extreme events and a state of full of extreme events, and the transition between them is abrupt. Our results indicate that internal interactions in the multiplex system can yield qualitatively distinct phenomena associated with extreme events that do not occur for independent network layers. An implication is that, e.g., public resource competitions among different service providers can lead to a higher resource requirement than naively expected. We derive an analytical theory to understand the emergence of global-scale extreme events based on the concept of effective betweenness. We also articulate a cost-effective control scheme through increasing the capacity of very few hubs to suppress the cascading process of extreme events so as to protect the entire multi-layer infrastructure against global-scale breakdown. PMID:26612009
Extreme events in multilayer, interdependent complex networks and control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yu-Zhong; Huang, Zi-Gang; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Eisenberg, Daniel; Seager, Thomas P.; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2015-11-01
We investigate the emergence of extreme events in interdependent networks. We introduce an inter-layer traffic resource competing mechanism to account for the limited capacity associated with distinct network layers. A striking finding is that, when the number of network layers and/or the overlap among the layers are increased, extreme events can emerge in a cascading manner on a global scale. Asymptotically, there are two stable absorption states: a state free of extreme events and a state of full of extreme events, and the transition between them is abrupt. Our results indicate that internal interactions in the multiplex system can yield qualitatively distinct phenomena associated with extreme events that do not occur for independent network layers. An implication is that, e.g., public resource competitions among different service providers can lead to a higher resource requirement than naively expected. We derive an analytical theory to understand the emergence of global-scale extreme events based on the concept of effective betweenness. We also articulate a cost-effective control scheme through increasing the capacity of very few hubs to suppress the cascading process of extreme events so as to protect the entire multi-layer infrastructure against global-scale breakdown.
Multiwavelet neural network and its approximation properties.
Jiao, L; Pan, J; Fang, Y
2001-01-01
A model of multiwavelet-based neural networks is proposed. Its universal and L(2) approximation properties, together with its consistency are proved, and the convergence rates associated with these properties are estimated. The structure of this network is similar to that of the wavelet network, except that the orthonormal scaling functions are replaced by orthonormal multiscaling functions. The theoretical analyses show that the multiwavelet network converges more rapidly than the wavelet network, especially for smooth functions. To make a comparison between both networks, experiments are carried out with the Lemarie-Meyer wavelet network, the Daubechies2 wavelet network and the GHM multiwavelet network, and the results support the theoretical analysis well. In addition, the results also illustrate that at the jump discontinuities, the approximation performance of the two networks are about the same.
A Bayesian regularized artificial neural network for adaptive optics forecasting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Zhi; Chen, Ying; Li, Xinyang; Qin, Xiaolin; Wang, Huiyong
2017-01-01
Real-time adaptive optics is a technology for enhancing the resolution of ground-based optical telescopes and overcoming the disturbance of atmospheric turbulence. The performance of the system is limited by delay errors induced by the servo system and photoelectrons noise of wavefront sensor. In order to cut these delay errors, this paper proposes a novel model to forecast the future control voltages of the deformable mirror. The predictive model is constructed by a multi-layered back propagation network with Bayesian regularization (BRBP). For the purpose of parallel computation and less disturbance, we adopt a number of sub-BP neural networks to substitute the whole network. The Bayesian regularized network assigns a probability to the network weights, allowing the network to automatically and optimally penalize excessively complex models. The simulation results show that the BRBP introduces smaller mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and mean square errors (MSE) than other typical algorithms. Meanwhile, real data analysis results show that the BRBP model has strong generalization capability and parallelism.
Optimization of head movement recognition using Augmented Radial Basis Function Neural Network.
Yuwono, Mitchell; Handojoseno, A M Ardi; Nguyen, H T
2011-01-01
For people with severe spine injury, head movement recognition control has been proven to be one of the most convenient and intuitive ways to control a power wheelchair. While substantial research has been done in this area, the challenge to improve system reliability and accuracy remains due to the diversity in movement tendencies and the presence of movement artifacts. We propose a Neural-Network Configuration which we call Augmented Radial Basis Function Neural-Network (ARBF-NN). This network is constructed as a Radial Basis Function Neural-Network (RBF-NN) with a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) augmentation layer to negate optimization limitation posed by linear classifiers in conventional RBF-NN. The RBF centroid is optimized through Regrouping Particle Swarm Optimization (RegPSO) seeded with K-Means. The trial results of ARBF-NN on Head-movement show a significant improvement on recognition accuracy up to 98.1% in sensitivity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Putra, J. C. P.; Safrilah
2017-06-01
Artificial neural network approaches are useful to solve many complicated problems. It solves a number of problems in various areas such as engineering, medicine, business, manufacturing, etc. This paper presents an application of artificial neural network to predict a runway capacity at Juanda International Airport. An artificial neural network model of backpropagation and multi-layer perceptron is adopted to this research to learning process of runway capacity at Juanda International Airport. The results indicate that the training data is successfully recognizing the certain pattern of runway use at Juanda International Airport. Whereas, testing data indicate vice versa. Finally, it can be concluded that the approach of uniformity data and network architecture is the critical part to determine the accuracy of prediction results.
Classification of Images Acquired with Colposcopy Using Artificial Neural Networks
Simões, Priscyla W; Izumi, Narjara B; Casagrande, Ramon S; Venson, Ramon; Veronezi, Carlos D; Moretti, Gustavo P; da Rocha, Edroaldo L; Cechinel, Cristian; Ceretta, Luciane B; Comunello, Eros; Martins, Paulo J; Casagrande, Rogério A; Snoeyer, Maria L; Manenti, Sandra A
2014-01-01
OBJECTIVE To explore the advantages of using artificial neural networks (ANNs) to recognize patterns in colposcopy to classify images in colposcopy. PURPOSE Transversal, descriptive, and analytical study of a quantitative approach with an emphasis on diagnosis. The training test e validation set was composed of images collected from patients who underwent colposcopy. These images were provided by a gynecology clinic located in the city of Criciúma (Brazil). The image database (n = 170) was divided; 48 images were used for the training process, 58 images were used for the tests, and 64 images were used for the validation. A hybrid neural network based on Kohonen self-organizing maps and multilayer perceptron (MLP) networks was used. RESULTS After 126 cycles, the validation was performed. The best results reached an accuracy of 72.15%, a sensibility of 69.78%, and a specificity of 68%. CONCLUSION Although the preliminary results still exhibit an average efficiency, the present approach is an innovative and promising technique that should be deeply explored in the context of the present study. PMID:25374454
Classification of images acquired with colposcopy using artificial neural networks.
Simões, Priscyla W; Izumi, Narjara B; Casagrande, Ramon S; Venson, Ramon; Veronezi, Carlos D; Moretti, Gustavo P; da Rocha, Edroaldo L; Cechinel, Cristian; Ceretta, Luciane B; Comunello, Eros; Martins, Paulo J; Casagrande, Rogério A; Snoeyer, Maria L; Manenti, Sandra A
2014-01-01
To explore the advantages of using artificial neural networks (ANNs) to recognize patterns in colposcopy to classify images in colposcopy. Transversal, descriptive, and analytical study of a quantitative approach with an emphasis on diagnosis. The training test e validation set was composed of images collected from patients who underwent colposcopy. These images were provided by a gynecology clinic located in the city of Criciúma (Brazil). The image database (n = 170) was divided; 48 images were used for the training process, 58 images were used for the tests, and 64 images were used for the validation. A hybrid neural network based on Kohonen self-organizing maps and multilayer perceptron (MLP) networks was used. After 126 cycles, the validation was performed. The best results reached an accuracy of 72.15%, a sensibility of 69.78%, and a specificity of 68%. Although the preliminary results still exhibit an average efficiency, the present approach is an innovative and promising technique that should be deeply explored in the context of the present study.
Applications of Neural Networks to Adaptive Control
1989-12-01
DTIC ;- E py 00 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California I.$ RDTIC IELECTE fl THESIS BEG7V°U APPLICATIONS OF NEURAL NETWORKS TO ADAPTIVE CONTROL...Second keader E . Robert Wood, Chairman, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics Gordoii E . Schacher, Dean of Faculty and Graduate Education ii ABSTRACT...23: Network Dynamic Stability for q(t) . ............................. 55 ix Figure 24: Network Dynamic Stability for e (t
The multilayer temporal network of public transport in Great Britain
Gallotti, Riccardo; Barthelemy, Marc
2015-01-01
Despite the widespread availability of information concerning public transport coming from different sources, it is extremely hard to have a complete picture, in particular at a national scale. Here, we integrate timetable data obtained from the United Kingdom open-data program together with timetables of domestic flights, and obtain a comprehensive snapshot of the temporal characteristics of the whole UK public transport system for a week in October 2010. In order to focus on multi-modal aspects of the system, we use a coarse graining procedure and define explicitly the coupling between different transport modes such as connections at airports, ferry docks, rail, metro, coach and bus stations. The resulting weighted, directed, temporal and multilayer network is provided in simple, commonly used formats, ensuring easy access and the possibility of a straightforward use of old or specifically developed methods on this new and extensive dataset. PMID:25977806
The multilayer temporal network of public transport in Great Britain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gallotti, Riccardo; Barthelemy, Marc
2015-01-01
Despite the widespread availability of information concerning public transport coming from different sources, it is extremely hard to have a complete picture, in particular at a national scale. Here, we integrate timetable data obtained from the United Kingdom open-data program together with timetables of domestic flights, and obtain a comprehensive snapshot of the temporal characteristics of the whole UK public transport system for a week in October 2010. In order to focus on multi-modal aspects of the system, we use a coarse graining procedure and define explicitly the coupling between different transport modes such as connections at airports, ferry docks, rail, metro, coach and bus stations. The resulting weighted, directed, temporal and multilayer network is provided in simple, commonly used formats, ensuring easy access and the possibility of a straightforward use of old or specifically developed methods on this new and extensive dataset.
Neural network technologies for image classification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korikov, A. M.; Tungusova, A. V.
2015-11-01
We analyze the classes of problems with an objective necessity to use neural network technologies, i.e. representation and resolution problems in the neural network logical basis. Among these problems, image recognition takes an important place, in particular the classification of multi-dimensional data based on information about textural characteristics. These problems occur in aerospace and seismic monitoring, materials science, medicine and other. We reviewed different approaches for the texture description: statistical, structural, and spectral. We developed a neural network technology for resolving a practical problem of cloud image classification for satellite snapshots from the spectroradiometer MODIS. The cloud texture is described by the statistical characteristics of the GLCM (Gray Level Co- Occurrence Matrix) method. From the range of neural network models that might be applied for image classification, we chose the probabilistic neural network model (PNN) and developed an implementation which performs the classification of the main types and subtypes of clouds. Also, we chose experimentally the optimal architecture and parameters for the PNN model which is used for image classification.
Using Neural Networks to Describe Tracer Correlations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lary, D. J.; Mueller, M. D.; Mussa, H. Y.
2003-01-01
Neural networks are ideally suited to describe the spatial and temporal dependence of tracer-tracer correlations. The neural network performs well even in regions where the correlations are less compact and normally a family of correlation curves would be required. For example, the CH4-N2O correlation can be well described using a neural network trained with the latitude, pressure, time of year, and CH4 volume mixing ratio (v.m.r.). In this study a neural network using Quickprop learning and one hidden layer with eight nodes was able to reproduce the CH4-N2O correlation with a correlation co- efficient of 0.9995. Such an accurate representation of tracer-tracer correlations allows more use to be made of long-term datasets to constrain chemical models. Such as the dataset from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) which has continuously observed CH4, (but not N2O) from 1991 till the present. The neural network Fortran code used is available for download.
Learning and diagnosing faults using neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitehead, Bruce A.; Kiech, Earl L.; Ali, Moonis
1990-01-01
Neural networks have been employed for learning fault behavior from rocket engine simulator parameters and for diagnosing faults on the basis of the learned behavior. Two problems in applying neural networks to learning and diagnosing faults are (1) the complexity of the sensor data to fault mapping to be modeled by the neural network, which implies difficult and lengthy training procedures; and (2) the lack of sufficient training data to adequately represent the very large number of different types of faults which might occur. Methods are derived and tested in an architecture which addresses these two problems. First, the sensor data to fault mapping is decomposed into three simpler mappings which perform sensor data compression, hypothesis generation, and sensor fusion. Efficient training is performed for each mapping separately. Secondly, the neural network which performs sensor fusion is structured to detect new unknown faults for which training examples were not presented during training. These methods were tested on a task of fault diagnosis by employing rocket engine simulator data. Results indicate that the decomposed neural network architecture can be trained efficiently, can identify faults for which it has been trained, and can detect the occurrence of faults for which it has not been trained.
A neural network approach to cloud classification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Jonathan; Weger, Ronald C.; Sengupta, Sailes K.; Welch, Ronald M.
1990-01-01
It is shown that, using high-spatial-resolution data, very high cloud classification accuracies can be obtained with a neural network approach. A texture-based neural network classifier using only single-channel visible Landsat MSS imagery achieves an overall cloud identification accuracy of 93 percent. Cirrus can be distinguished from boundary layer cloudiness with an accuracy of 96 percent, without the use of an infrared channel. Stratocumulus is retrieved with an accuracy of 92 percent, cumulus at 90 percent. The use of the neural network does not improve cirrus classification accuracy. Rather, its main effect is in the improved separation between stratocumulus and cumulus cloudiness. While most cloud classification algorithms rely on linear parametric schemes, the present study is based on a nonlinear, nonparametric four-layer neural network approach. A three-layer neural network architecture, the nonparametric K-nearest neighbor approach, and the linear stepwise discriminant analysis procedure are compared. A significant finding is that significantly higher accuracies are attained with the nonparametric approaches using only 20 percent of the database as training data, compared to 67 percent of the database in the linear approach.
Representations in neural network based empirical potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cubuk, Ekin D.; Malone, Brad D.; Onat, Berk; Waterland, Amos; Kaxiras, Efthimios
2017-07-01
Many structural and mechanical properties of crystals, glasses, and biological macromolecules can be modeled from the local interactions between atoms. These interactions ultimately derive from the quantum nature of electrons, which can be prohibitively expensive to simulate. Machine learning has the potential to revolutionize materials modeling due to its ability to efficiently approximate complex functions. For example, neural networks can be trained to reproduce results of density functional theory calculations at a much lower cost. However, how neural networks reach their predictions is not well understood, which has led to them being used as a "black box" tool. This lack of understanding is not desirable especially for applications of neural networks in scientific inquiry. We argue that machine learning models trained on physical systems can be used as more than just approximations since they had to "learn" physical concepts in order to reproduce the labels they were trained on. We use dimensionality reduction techniques to study in detail the representation of silicon atoms at different stages in a neural network, which provides insight into how a neural network learns to model atomic interactions.
Estimates on compressed neural networks regression.
Zhang, Yongquan; Li, Youmei; Sun, Jianyong; Ji, Jiabing
2015-03-01
When the neural element number n of neural networks is larger than the sample size m, the overfitting problem arises since there are more parameters than actual data (more variable than constraints). In order to overcome the overfitting problem, we propose to reduce the number of neural elements by using compressed projection A which does not need to satisfy the condition of Restricted Isometric Property (RIP). By applying probability inequalities and approximation properties of the feedforward neural networks (FNNs), we prove that solving the FNNs regression learning algorithm in the compressed domain instead of the original domain reduces the sample error at the price of an increased (but controlled) approximation error, where the covering number theory is used to estimate the excess error, and an upper bound of the excess error is given. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Community structure of complex networks based on continuous neural network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Ting-ting; Shan, Chang-ji; Dong, Yan-shou
2017-09-01
As a new subject, the research of complex networks has attracted the attention of researchers from different disciplines. Community structure is one of the key structures of complex networks, so it is a very important task to analyze the community structure of complex networks accurately. In this paper, we study the problem of extracting the community structure of complex networks, and propose a continuous neural network (CNN) algorithm. It is proved that for any given initial value, the continuous neural network algorithm converges to the eigenvector of the maximum eigenvalue of the network modularity matrix. Therefore, according to the stability of the evolution of the network symbol will be able to get two community structure.
Flexible body control using neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccullough, Claire L.
1992-01-01
Progress is reported on the control of Control Structures Interaction suitcase demonstrator (a flexible structure) using neural networks and fuzzy logic. It is concluded that while control by neural nets alone (i.e., allowing the net to design a controller with no human intervention) has yielded less than optimal results, the neural net trained to emulate the existing fuzzy logic controller does produce acceptible system responses for the initial conditions examined. Also, a neural net was found to be very successful in performing the emulation step necessary for the anticipatory fuzzy controller for the CSI suitcase demonstrator. The fuzzy neural hybrid, which exhibits good robustness and noise rejection properties, shows promise as a controller for practical flexible systems, and should be further evaluated.