Science.gov

Sample records for multilevel fwd loads

  1. Use of Benkelman Beams for Measuring LTE in Whitetopping: An Alternative Tool to FWD Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jundhare, D. R.; Khare, K. C.; Jain, R. K.

    2012-09-01

    Whitetopping is a rehabilitation or structural strengthening alternative on hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavement. It is constructed on the top of existing HMA pavement. Generally, falling weight deflectometer (FWD) deflection measurements are used to obtain the load transfer efficiency (LTE) of the transverse joints. However, the use of FWD in India has been very limited so far because of its high cost and difficulties encountered in maintaining the equipment. Therefore, a need has been aroused to identify an alternative to FWD test, which can be cost effective and easily available. In this work, Benkelman beam deflection test has been conducted using two Benkelman beams simultaneously placed on two adjacent slabs near transverse joint for measuring LTE of 150 mm thick in-service thin whitetopping constructed at Dahanukar Colony, Kothrud, Pune city. An alternative tool has been developed for measuring LTE in whitetopping.

  2. Example of using small falling weight deflectomer (FWD) for Earth structures and low cost road pavement in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Hideaki; Tanaka, Yasutomo; Ono, Isamu; Okano, Tsuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    The FWD (Falling Weight Deflectometer) is an instrument which makes the weight fall freely on its loading plate to apply impact load and measures the displacement caused by the fall at the center of impact load and also at the points in radial direction from the center of impact load. A kind of instrument which is mounted on or drawn by a vehicle used for construction of concrete pavement or asphalt pavement of a runway is usually called FWD. The impact load of FWD is 49KN to 196kN and it can obtain the modulus of elasticity of each pavement layer by back analysis based on the theory of multi-layer elasticity using 6 to 8 of extemal displacement sensors. On the other hand, the small FWD is an FWD which is constructed small and easy and is applicable for hand carry. It makes the weight fall freely on the loading plate to apply impact load and measures the load and displacement caused by the fall. It was developed for mainly assessing the rigidity and bearing capacity of the subgrade easily and promptly. It can measure many points in short term and obtain coefficient of subgrade reaction and modulus of subgrade elasticity without using reaction facilities like as plate bearing test or CBR test. It has also been tried to apply the small FWD to low cost asphalt road pavement (later called as low cost road pavement). Application examples of small FWD test for earth structure and low cost load pavement in Japan are shown and the methods and test results are stated in this report.

  3. Phosphorus load estimation in the Saginaw River, MI using a Bayesian hierarchical/multilevel model.

    PubMed

    Cha, YoonKyung; Stow, Craig A; Reckhow, Kenneth H; DeMarchi, Carlo; Johengen, Thomas H

    2010-05-01

    We propose the use of Bayesian hierarchical/multilevel ratio approach to estimate the annual riverine phosphorus loads in the Saginaw River, Michigan, from 1968 to 2008. The ratio estimator is known to be an unbiased, precise approach for differing flow-concentration relationships and sampling schemes. A Bayesian model can explicitly address the uncertainty in prediction by using a posterior predictive distribution, while in comparison, a Bayesian hierarchical technique can overcome the limitation of interpreting the estimated annual loads inferred from small sample sizes by borrowing strength from the underlying population shared by the years of interest. Thus, by combining the ratio estimator with the Bayesian hierarchical modeling framework, long-term loads estimation can be addressed with explicit quantification of uncertainty. Our study results indicate a slight decrease in total phosphorus load early in the series. The estimated ratio parameter, which can be interpreted as flow-weighted concentration, shows a clearer decrease, damping the noise that yearly flow variation adds to the load. Despite the reductions, it is not likely that Saginaw Bay meets with its target phosphorus load, 440 tonnes/yr. Throughout the decades, the probabilities of the Saginaw Bay not complying with the target load are estimated as 1.00, 0.50, 0.57 and 0.36 in 1977, 1987, 1997, and 2007, respectively. We show that the Bayesian hierarchical model results in reasonable goodness-of-fits to the observations whether or not individual loads are aggregated. Also, this modeling approach can substantially reduce uncertainties associated with small sample sizes both in the estimated parameters and loads. PMID:20382406

  4. New self-magnetically insulated connection of multilevel accelerators to a common load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanDevender, J. Pace; Langston, William L.; Pasik, Michael F.; Coats, Rebecca S.; Pointon, Timothy D.; Seidel, David B.; McKee, G. Randal; Schneider, Larry X.

    2015-03-01

    A new way to connect pulsed-power modules to a common load is presented. Unlike previous connectors, the clam shell magnetically insulated transmission line (CSMITL) has magnetic nulls only at large radius where the cathode electric field is kept below the threshold for emission, has only a simply connected magnetic topology to avoid plasma motion along magnetic field lines into highly stressed gaps, and has electron injectors that ensure efficient electron flow even in the limiting case of self-limited MITLs. Multilevel magnetically insulated transmission lines with a posthole convolute are the standard solution but associated losses limit the performance of state-of-the-art accelerators. Mitigating these losses is critical for the next generation of pulsed-power accelerators. A CSMITL has been successfully implemented on the Saturn accelerator. A reference design for the Z accelerator is derived and presented. The design conservatively meets the design requirements and shows excellent transport efficiency in three simulations of increasing complexity: circuit simulations, electromagnetic fields only with Emphasis, fields plus electron and ion emission with Quicksilver.

  5. Comparison of Intervertebral ROM in Multi-Level Cadaveric Lumbar Spines Using Distinct Pure Moment Loading Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Santoni, Brandon; Cabezas, Andres F; Cook, Daniel J; Yeager, Matthew S; Billys, James B; Whiting, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Background Pure-moment loading is the test method of choice for spinal implant evaluation. However, the apparatuses and boundary conditions employed by laboratories in performing spine flexibility testing vary. The purpose of this study was to quantify the differences, if they exist, in intervertebral range of motion (ROM) resulting from different pure-moment loading apparatuses used in two laboratories. Methods Twenty-four (laboratory A) and forty-two (laboratory B) intact L1-S1 specimens were loaded using pure moments (±7.5 Nm) in flexion-extension (FE), lateral bending (LB) and axial torsion (AT). At laboratory A, pure moments were applied using a system of cables, pulleys and suspended weights in 1.5 Nm increments. At laboratory B, specimens were loaded in a pneumatic biaxial test frame mounted with counteracting stepper-motor-driven biaxial gimbals. ROM was obtained in both labs using identical optoelectronic systems and compared. Results In FE, total L1-L5 ROM was similar, on average, between the two laboratories (lab A: 37.4° ± 9.1°; lab B: 35.0° ± 8.9°, p=0.289). Larger apparent differences, on average, were noted between labs in AT (lab A: 19.4° ± 7.3°; lab B: 15.7° ± 7.1°, p=0.074), and this finding was significant for combined right and left LB (lab A: 45.5° ± 11.4°; lab B: 35.3° ± 8.5°, p < 0.001). Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing ROM of multi-segment lumbar spines between laboratories utilizing different apparatuses. The results of this study show that intervertebral ROM in multi-segment lumbar spine constructs are markedly similar in FE loading. Differences in boundary conditions are likely the source of small and sometimes statistically significant differences between the two techniques in LB and AT ROM. The relative merits of each testing strategy with regard to the physiologic conditions that are to be simulated should be considered in the design of a study including LB and AT modes of loading. An

  6. Multilevel Model Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frees, Edward W.; Kim, Jee-Seon

    2006-01-01

    Multilevel models are proven tools in social research for modeling complex, hierarchical systems. In multilevel modeling, statistical inference is based largely on quantification of random variables. This paper distinguishes among three types of random variables in multilevel modeling--model disturbances, random coefficients, and future response…

  7. Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baurain, Bradley, Ed.; Ha, Phan Le, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The benefits and advantages of classroom practices incorporating unity-in-diversity and diversity-in-unity are what "Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms" is all about. Multilevel classrooms--also known as mixed-ability or heterogeneous classrooms--are a fact of life in ESOL programs around the world. These classrooms are often not only multilevel…

  8. Multilevel Mixture Factor Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varriale, Roberta; Vermunt, Jeroen K.

    2012-01-01

    Factor analysis is a statistical method for describing the associations among sets of observed variables in terms of a small number of underlying continuous latent variables. Various authors have proposed multilevel extensions of the factor model for the analysis of data sets with a hierarchical structure. These Multilevel Factor Models (MFMs)…

  9. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    DOE PAGES

    Hoel, Hakon; Law, Kody J. H.; Tempone, Raul

    2016-06-14

    This study embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the setting of finite dimensional signal evolution and noisy discrete-time observations. The signal dynamics is assumed to be governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE), and a hierarchy of time grids is introduced for multilevel numerical integration of that SDE. Finally, the resulting multilevel EnKF is proved to asymptotically outperform EnKF in terms of computational cost versus approximation accuracy. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.

  10. Multilevel filtering elliptic preconditioners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, C. C. Jay; Chan, Tony F.; Tong, Charles

    1989-01-01

    A class of preconditioners is presented for elliptic problems built on ideas borrowed from the digital filtering theory and implemented on a multilevel grid structure. They are designed to be both rapidly convergent and highly parallelizable. The digital filtering viewpoint allows the use of filter design techniques for constructing elliptic preconditioners and also provides an alternative framework for understanding several other recently proposed multilevel preconditioners. Numerical results are presented to assess the convergence behavior of the new methods and to compare them with other preconditioners of multilevel type, including the usual multigrid method as preconditioner, the hierarchical basis method and a recent method proposed by Bramble-Pasciak-Xu.

  11. Multilevel corporate environmental responsibility.

    PubMed

    Karassin, Orr; Bar-Haim, Aviad

    2016-12-01

    The multilevel empirical study of the antecedents of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been identified as "the first knowledge gap" in CSR research. Based on an extensive literature review, the present study outlines a conceptual multilevel model of CSR, then designs and empirically validates an operational multilevel model of the principal driving factors affecting corporate environmental responsibility (CER), as a measure of CSR. Both conceptual and operational models incorporate three levels of analysis: institutional, organizational, and individual. The multilevel nature of the design allows for the assessment of the relative importance of the levels and of their components in the achievement of CER. Unweighted least squares (ULS) regression analysis reveals that the institutional-level variables have medium relationships with CER, some variables having a negative effect. The organizational level is revealed as having strong and positive significant relationships with CER, with organizational culture and managers' attitudes and behaviors as significant driving forces. The study demonstrates the importance of multilevel analysis in improving the understanding of CSR drivers, relative to single level models, even if the significance of specific drivers and levels may vary by context.

  12. Multilevel corporate environmental responsibility.

    PubMed

    Karassin, Orr; Bar-Haim, Aviad

    2016-12-01

    The multilevel empirical study of the antecedents of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been identified as "the first knowledge gap" in CSR research. Based on an extensive literature review, the present study outlines a conceptual multilevel model of CSR, then designs and empirically validates an operational multilevel model of the principal driving factors affecting corporate environmental responsibility (CER), as a measure of CSR. Both conceptual and operational models incorporate three levels of analysis: institutional, organizational, and individual. The multilevel nature of the design allows for the assessment of the relative importance of the levels and of their components in the achievement of CER. Unweighted least squares (ULS) regression analysis reveals that the institutional-level variables have medium relationships with CER, some variables having a negative effect. The organizational level is revealed as having strong and positive significant relationships with CER, with organizational culture and managers' attitudes and behaviors as significant driving forces. The study demonstrates the importance of multilevel analysis in improving the understanding of CSR drivers, relative to single level models, even if the significance of specific drivers and levels may vary by context. PMID:27595527

  13. Prediction in Multilevel Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afshartous, David; de Leeuw, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Multilevel modeling is an increasingly popular technique for analyzing hierarchical data. This article addresses the problem of predicting a future observable y[subscript *j] in the jth group of a hierarchical data set. Three prediction rules are considered and several analytical results on the relative performance of these prediction rules are…

  14. Multilevel Interventions: Measurement and Measures

    PubMed Central

    Charns, Martin P.; Alligood, Elaine C.; Benzer, Justin K.; Burgess, James F.; Mcintosh, Nathalie M.; Burness, Allison; Partin, Melissa R.; Clauser, Steven B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Multilevel intervention research holds the promise of more accurately representing real-life situations and, thus, with proper research design and measurement approaches, facilitating effective and efficient resolution of health-care system challenges. However, taking a multilevel approach to cancer care interventions creates both measurement challenges and opportunities. Methods One-thousand seventy two cancer care articles from 2005 to 2010 were reviewed to examine the state of measurement in the multilevel intervention cancer care literature. Ultimately, 234 multilevel articles, 40 involving cancer care interventions, were identified. Additionally, literature from health services, social psychology, and organizational behavior was reviewed to identify measures that might be useful in multilevel intervention research. Results The vast majority of measures used in multilevel cancer intervention studies were individual level measures. Group-, organization-, and community-level measures were rarely used. Discussion of the independence, validity, and reliability of measures was scant. Discussion Measurement issues may be especially complex when conducting multilevel intervention research. Measurement considerations that are associated with multilevel intervention research include those related to independence, reliability, validity, sample size, and power. Furthermore, multilevel intervention research requires identification of key constructs and measures by level and consideration of interactions within and across levels. Thus, multilevel intervention research benefits from thoughtful theory-driven planning and design, an interdisciplinary approach, and mixed methods measurement and analysis. PMID:22623598

  15. Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    1997-01-01

    A voltage balanced multilevel converter for high power AC applications such as adjustable speed motor drives and back-to-back DC intertie of adjacent power systems. This converter provides a multilevel rectifier, a multilevel inverter, and a DC link between the rectifier and the inverter allowing voltage balancing between each of the voltage levels within the multilevel converter. The rectifier is equipped with at least one phase leg and a source input node for each of the phases. The rectifier is further equipped with a plurality of rectifier DC output nodes. The inverter is equipped with at least one phase leg and a load output node for each of the phases. The inverter is further equipped with a plurality of inverter DC input nodes. The DC link is equipped with a plurality of rectifier charging means and a plurality of inverter discharging means. The plurality of rectifier charging means are connected in series with one of the rectifier charging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of rectifier DC output nodes. The plurality of inverter discharging means are connected in series with one of the inverter discharging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of inverter DC input nodes. Each of said rectifier DC output nodes are individually electrically connected to the respective inverter DC input nodes. By this means, each of the rectifier DC output nodes and each of the inverter DC input nodes are voltage balanced by the respective charging and discharging of the rectifier charging means and the inverter discharging means.

  16. Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system

    DOEpatents

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-07-01

    Disclosed is a voltage balanced multilevel converter for high power AC applications such as adjustable speed motor drives and back-to-back DC intertie of adjacent power systems. This converter provides a multilevel rectifier, a multilevel inverter, and a DC link between the rectifier and the inverter allowing voltage balancing between each of the voltage levels within the multilevel converter. The rectifier is equipped with at least one phase leg and a source input node for each of the phases. The rectifier is further equipped with a plurality of rectifier DC output nodes. The inverter is equipped with at least one phase leg and a load output node for each of the phases. The inverter is further equipped with a plurality of inverter DC input nodes. The DC link is equipped with a plurality of rectifier charging means and a plurality of inverter discharging means. The plurality of rectifier charging means are connected in series with one of the rectifier charging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of rectifier DC output nodes. The plurality of inverter discharging means are connected in series with one of the inverter discharging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of inverter DC input nodes. Each of said rectifier DC output nodes are individually electrically connected to the respective inverter DC input nodes. By this means, each of the rectifier DC output nodes and each of the inverter DC input nodes are voltage balanced by the respective charging and discharging of the rectifier charging means and the inverter discharging means. 15 figs.

  17. Multilevel Modeling of Social Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leckie, George; Pillinger, Rebecca; Jones, Kelvyn; Goldstein, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    The traditional approach to measuring segregation is based upon descriptive, non-model-based indices. A recently proposed alternative is multilevel modeling. The authors further develop the argument for a multilevel modeling approach by first describing and expanding upon its notable advantages, which include an ability to model segregation at a…

  18. Multilevel optimisation of aerospace and lightweight structures incorporating postbuckling effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Shuang

    The optimisation of aerospace structures is a very complex problem, due to the hundreds of design variables a multidisciplinary optimisation may contain, so that multilevel optimisation is required. This thesis presents the recent developments to the multilevel optimisation software VICONOPT MLO, which is a multilevel optimisation interface between the well established analysis and design software packages VICONOPT and MSC/NASTRAN. The software developed is called VICONOPT MLOP (Multilevel Optimisation with Postbuckling), and allows for postbuckling behaviour, using analysis based on the Wittrick-Williams algorithm. The objective of this research is to enable a more detailed insight into the multilevel optimisation and postbuckling behaviour of a complex structure. In VICONOPT MLOP optimisation problems, individual panels of the structural model are allowed to buckle before the design load is reached. These panels continue to carry load with differing levels of reduced stiffness. VICONOPT MLOP creates new MSC/NASTRAN data files based on this reduced stiffness data and iterates through analysis cycles to converge on an appropriate load re-distribution. Once load convergence has been obtained with an appropriate criterion, the converged load distribution is used as a starting point in the optimisation of the constituent panels, i.e. a new design cycle is started, in which the updated ply thicknesses for each panel are calculated by VICONOPT and returned to MSC/NASTRAN through VICONOPT MLOP. Further finite element analysis of the whole structure is then carried out to determine the new stress distributions in each panel. The whole process is repeated until a mass convergence criterion is met. A detailed overview of the functionality of VICONOPT MLOP is presented in the thesis. A case study is conducted into the multilevel optimisation of a composite aircraft wing, to demonstrate the capabilities of VICONOPT MLOP and identify areas for future studies. The results of

  19. Full-scale accelerated pavement testing of Texas Mobile Load Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.H.; Hugo, F.

    1998-09-01

    This paper presents the test results from full-scale accelerated pavement testing with the Texas Mobile Load Simulator. Data from in-situ instrumentation and nondestructive testing were collected and analyzed at different loading stages to assess material property changes under accelerated loading. Forensic studies were made to study material characteristics in the longitudinal and transverse directions. It was found that at the early stage of trafficking the test pad responded to falling weight deflectometer (FWD) load linearly, not only over the whole pavement system but also within individual layers. Before mobile load simulator testing, FWD data indicated the weakest area exists at the left wheel path (LWP) of 7.5-m line (7.5L). Later, this weak area was confirmed to have the highest rutting and the most intensive cracking. The dynamic cone penetration results showed that the base at this location was at its weakest. Also, at 7.5L the dry density was lowest, {approximately}7% lower with a moisture content {approximately}8% higher than the adjacent area. The LWP had higher FWD deflections than the right wheel path (RWP), and consequently the LWP manifested more rutting. This proved to be primarily due to differences in moisture content. This was probably because more water infiltrated in the area during rain due to manifestation of more extensive cracking during early phases of trafficking. The maximum surface deflection values increased as trafficking increased in the left and right wheel paths due to pavement deterioration, while deflection for the center remained constant because of the lack of traffic loading. The LWP had more rutting than the RWP and this correlated with the measured FWL deflections prior to trafficking. The WI values increased as trafficking increased for the LWP and RWP due to pavement deterioration. The majority (>60%) of rutting was from the 300-mm uncrushed river gravel base.

  20. Multilevel DC link inverter

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui-Jia

    2003-06-10

    A multilevel DC link inverter and method for improving torque response and current regulation in permanent magnet motors and switched reluctance motors having a low inductance includes a plurality of voltage controlled cells connected in series for applying a resulting dc voltage comprised of one or more incremental dc voltages. The cells are provided with switches for increasing the resulting applied dc voltage as speed and back EMF increase, while limiting the voltage that is applied to the commutation switches to perform PWM or dc voltage stepping functions, so as to limit current ripple in the stator windings below an acceptable level, typically 5%. Several embodiments are disclosed including inverters using IGBT's, inverters using thyristors. All of the inverters are operable in both motoring and regenerating modes.

  1. Parallel multilevel preconditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Bramble, J.H.; Pasciak, J.E.; Xu, Jinchao.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, we shall report on some techniques for the development of preconditioners for the discrete systems which arise in the approximation of solutions to elliptic boundary value problems. Here we shall only state the resulting theorems. It has been demonstrated that preconditioned iteration techniques often lead to the most computationally effective algorithms for the solution of the large algebraic systems corresponding to boundary value problems in two and three dimensional Euclidean space. The use of preconditioned iteration will become even more important on computers with parallel architecture. This paper discusses an approach for developing completely parallel multilevel preconditioners. In order to illustrate the resulting algorithms, we shall describe the simplest application of the technique to a model elliptic problem.

  2. Totally parallel multilevel algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederickson, Paul O.

    1988-01-01

    Four totally parallel algorithms for the solution of a sparse linear system have common characteristics which become quite apparent when they are implemented on a highly parallel hypercube such as the CM2. These four algorithms are Parallel Superconvergent Multigrid (PSMG) of Frederickson and McBryan, Robust Multigrid (RMG) of Hackbusch, the FFT based Spectral Algorithm, and Parallel Cyclic Reduction. In fact, all four can be formulated as particular cases of the same totally parallel multilevel algorithm, which are referred to as TPMA. In certain cases the spectral radius of TPMA is zero, and it is recognized to be a direct algorithm. In many other cases the spectral radius, although not zero, is small enough that a single iteration per timestep keeps the local error within the required tolerance.

  3. Multilevel techniques for nonelliptic problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jespersen, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    Multigrid and multilevel methods are extended to the solution of nonelliptic problems. A framework for analyzing these methods is established. A simple nonelliptic problem is given, and it is shown how a multilevel technique can be used for its solution. Emphasis is on smoothness properties of eigenvectors and attention is drawn to the possibility of conditioning the eigensystem so that eigenvectors have the desired smoothness properties.

  4. Multilevel turbulence simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Tziperman, E.

    1994-12-31

    The authors propose a novel method for the simulation of turbulent flows, that is motivated by and based on the Multigrid (MG) formalism. The method, called Multilevel Turbulence Simulations (MTS), is potentially more efficient and more accurate than LES. In many physical problems one is interested in the effects of the small scales on the larger ones, or in a typical realization of the flow, and not in the detailed time history of each small scale feature. MTS takes advantage of the fact that the detailed simulation of small scales is not needed at all times, in order to make the calculation significantly more efficient, while accurately accounting for the effects of the small scales on the larger scale of interest. In MTS, models of several resolutions are used to represent the turbulent flow. The model equations in each coarse level incorporate a closure term roughly corresponding to the tau correction in the MG formalism that accounts for the effects of the unresolvable scales on that grid. The finer resolution grids are used only a small portion of the simulation time in order to evaluate the closure terms for the coarser grids, while the coarse resolution grids are then used to accurately and efficiently calculate the evolution of the larger scales. The methods efficiency relative to direct simulations is of the order of the ratio of required integration time to the smallest eddies turnover time, potentially resulting in orders of magnitude improvement for a large class of turbulence problems.

  5. Multilevel fusion exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, Perry C.; Dasarathy, Belur V.; McCullough, Claire L.

    1996-06-01

    This paper describes a project that was sponsored by the U.S. Army Space and Strategic Defense Command (USASSDC) to develop, test, and demonstrate sensor fusion algorithms for target recognition. The purpose of the project was to exploit the use of sensor fusion at all levels (signal, feature, and decision levels) and all combinations to improve target recognition capability against tactical ballistic missile (TBM) targets. These algorithms were trained with simulated radar signatures to accurately recognize selected TBM targets. The simulated signatures represent measurements made by two radars (S-band and X- band) with the targets at a variety of aspect and roll angles. Two tests were conducted: one with simulated signatures collected at angles different from those in the training database and one using actual test data. The test results demonstrate a high degree of recognition accuracy. This paper describes the training and testing techniques used; shows the fusion strategy employed; and illustrates the advantages of exploiting multi-level fusion.

  6. Displacement based multilevel structural optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Striz, Alfred G.

    1995-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is expected to play a major role in the competitive transportation industries of tomorrow, i.e., in the design of aircraft and spacecraft, of high speed trains, boats, and automobiles. All of these vehicles require maximum performance at minimum weight to keep fuel consumption low and conserve resources. Here, MDO can deliver mathematically based design tools to create systems with optimum performance subject to the constraints of disciplines such as structures, aerodynamics, controls, etc. Although some applications of MDO are beginning to surface, the key to a widespread use of this technology lies in the improvement of its efficiency. This aspect is investigated here for the MDO subset of structural optimization, i.e., for the weight minimization of a given structure under size, strength, and displacement constraints. Specifically, finite element based multilevel optimization of structures (here, statically indeterminate trusses and beams for proof of concept) is performed. In the system level optimization, the design variables are the coefficients of assumed displacement functions, and the load unbalance resulting from the solution of the stiffness equations is minimized. Constraints are placed on the deflection amplitudes and the weight of the structure. In the subsystems level optimizations, the weight of each element is minimized under the action of stress constraints, with the cross sectional dimensions as design variables. This approach is expected to prove very efficient, especially for complex structures, since the design task is broken down into a large number of small and efficiently handled subtasks, each with only a small number of variables. This partitioning will also allow for the use of parallel computing, first, by sending the system and subsystems level computations to two different processors, ultimately, by performing all subsystems level optimizations in a massively parallel manner on separate

  7. A General Multilevel SEM Framework for Assessing Multilevel Mediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preacher, Kristopher J.; Zyphur, Michael J.; Zhang, Zhen

    2010-01-01

    Several methods for testing mediation hypotheses with 2-level nested data have been proposed by researchers using a multilevel modeling (MLM) paradigm. However, these MLM approaches do not accommodate mediation pathways with Level-2 outcomes and may produce conflated estimates of between- and within-level components of indirect effects. Moreover,…

  8. Multilevel Assessments of Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quellmalz, Edys S.; Timms, Michael J.; Silberglitt, Matt D.

    2011-01-01

    The Multilevel Assessment of Science Standards (MASS) project is creating a new generation of technology-enhanced formative assessments that bring the best formative assessment practices into classrooms to transform what, how, when, and where science learning is assessed. The project is investigating the feasibility, utility, technical quality,…

  9. Multilevel Modeling with Correlated Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jee-Seon; Frees, Edward W.

    2007-01-01

    When there exist omitted effects, measurement error, and/or simultaneity in multilevel models, explanatory variables may be correlated with random components, and standard estimation methods do not provide consistent estimates of model parameters. This paper introduces estimators that are consistent under such conditions. By employing generalized…

  10. Multilevel algorithms for nonlinear optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Natalia; Dennis, J. E., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) gives rise to nonlinear optimization problems characterized by a large number of constraints that naturally occur in blocks. We propose a class of multilevel optimization methods motivated by the structure and number of constraints and by the expense of the derivative computations for MDO. The algorithms are an extension to the nonlinear programming problem of the successful class of local Brown-Brent algorithms for nonlinear equations. Our extensions allow the user to partition constraints into arbitrary blocks to fit the application, and they separately process each block and the objective function, restricted to certain subspaces. The methods use trust regions as a globalization strategy, and they have been shown to be globally convergent under reasonable assumptions. The multilevel algorithms can be applied to all classes of MDO formulations. Multilevel algorithms for solving nonlinear systems of equations are a special case of the multilevel optimization methods. In this case, they can be viewed as a trust-region globalization of the Brown-Brent class.

  11. Generalized Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia; Skrondal, Anders; Pickles, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    A unifying framework for generalized multilevel structural equation modeling is introduced. The models in the framework, called generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM), combine features of generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) and structural equation models (SEM) and consist of a response model and a structural model for the latent…

  12. Cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter for renewable energy generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Ravikant; Nath Tripathi, Ravi; Hanamoto, Tsuyoshi

    2016-04-01

    In this paper cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter (CHBMLI) has been investigated for the application of renewable energy generation. Energy sources like solar, wind, hydro, biomass or combination of these can be manipulated to obtain alternative sources for renewable energy generation. These renewable energy sources have different electrical characteristics like DC or AC level so it is challenging to use generated power by connecting to grid or load directly. The renewable energy source require specific power electronics converter as an interface for conditioning generated power .The multilevel inverter can be utilized for renewable energy sources in two different modes, the power generation mode (stand-alone mode), and compensator mode (statcom). The performance of the multilevel inverter has been compared with two level inverter. In power generation mode CHBMLI supplies the active and reactive power required by the different loads. For operation in compensator mode the indirect current control based on synchronous reference frame theory (SRFT) ensures the grid operating in unity power factor and compensate harmonics and reactive power.

  13. Multilevel light bending in nanoplasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Sherif, Mohamed H.; Ahmed, Osman S.; Bakr, Mohamed H.; Swillam, Mohamed A.

    2014-03-01

    Nanoplasmonic optical interconnects is proposed to mitigate challenges facing electronics integration. It provides fast and miniaturized data channel that overcome the diffraction limit. We present a three dimensional plasmonic coupler that vertically bends the light to multilevel circuit configurations. It exploits light guiding in nanoscale plasmonic slot waveguides (PSWs). A triangularly-shaped plasmonic slot waveguide rotator is introduced to attain such coupling with good efficiency over a wide bandwidth. Using this approach, light propagating in a horizontal direction is easily converted and coupled to propagate in the vertical direction and vice versa. The proposed configuration is further extended to the design of a multilayer power divider/combiner with ultra-compact footprint that guides the light to multiple channels. A detailed study of the triangular rotator is demonstrated with the analysis of multiple configurations. This structure is suitable for efficient coupling and splitting in multilevel nano circuit environment.

  14. Experimental Model of Proximal Junctional Fracture after Multilevel Posterior Spinal Instrumentation

    PubMed Central

    Levasseur, Annie; Parent, Stefan; Petit, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    There is a high risk of proximal junctional fractures (PJF) with multilevel spinal instrumentation, especially in the osteoporotic spine. This problem is associated with significant morbidity and possibly the need for reoperation. Various techniques have been proposed in an attempt to decrease the risk of PJF but there is no experimental model described for in vitro production of PJF after multilevel instrumentation. The objective of this study is to develop an experimental model of PJF after multilevel posterior instrumentation. Initially, four porcine specimens including 4 vertebrae and instrumented at the 3 caudal vertebrae using a pedicle screw construct were subjected to different loading conditions. Loading conditions on porcine specimens involving cyclic loading along the axis of the center vertebral body line, with constrained flexion between 0° and 15° proximally, and fully constraining the specimen distally resulted in a fracture pattern most representative of a PJF seen clinically in humans, so to undergo human cadaveric testing with similar loading conditions was decided. Clinically relevant PJF were produced in all 3 human specimens. The experimental model described in this study will allow the evaluation of different parameters influencing the incidence and prevention of PJF after multilevel posterior spinal instrumentation. PMID:27610381

  15. Experimental Model of Proximal Junctional Fracture after Multilevel Posterior Spinal Instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc; Levasseur, Annie; Parent, Stefan; Petit, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    There is a high risk of proximal junctional fractures (PJF) with multilevel spinal instrumentation, especially in the osteoporotic spine. This problem is associated with significant morbidity and possibly the need for reoperation. Various techniques have been proposed in an attempt to decrease the risk of PJF but there is no experimental model described for in vitro production of PJF after multilevel instrumentation. The objective of this study is to develop an experimental model of PJF after multilevel posterior instrumentation. Initially, four porcine specimens including 4 vertebrae and instrumented at the 3 caudal vertebrae using a pedicle screw construct were subjected to different loading conditions. Loading conditions on porcine specimens involving cyclic loading along the axis of the center vertebral body line, with constrained flexion between 0° and 15° proximally, and fully constraining the specimen distally resulted in a fracture pattern most representative of a PJF seen clinically in humans, so to undergo human cadaveric testing with similar loading conditions was decided. Clinically relevant PJF were produced in all 3 human specimens. The experimental model described in this study will allow the evaluation of different parameters influencing the incidence and prevention of PJF after multilevel posterior spinal instrumentation. PMID:27610381

  16. Experimental Model of Proximal Junctional Fracture after Multilevel Posterior Spinal Instrumentation

    PubMed Central

    Levasseur, Annie; Parent, Stefan; Petit, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    There is a high risk of proximal junctional fractures (PJF) with multilevel spinal instrumentation, especially in the osteoporotic spine. This problem is associated with significant morbidity and possibly the need for reoperation. Various techniques have been proposed in an attempt to decrease the risk of PJF but there is no experimental model described for in vitro production of PJF after multilevel instrumentation. The objective of this study is to develop an experimental model of PJF after multilevel posterior instrumentation. Initially, four porcine specimens including 4 vertebrae and instrumented at the 3 caudal vertebrae using a pedicle screw construct were subjected to different loading conditions. Loading conditions on porcine specimens involving cyclic loading along the axis of the center vertebral body line, with constrained flexion between 0° and 15° proximally, and fully constraining the specimen distally resulted in a fracture pattern most representative of a PJF seen clinically in humans, so to undergo human cadaveric testing with similar loading conditions was decided. Clinically relevant PJF were produced in all 3 human specimens. The experimental model described in this study will allow the evaluation of different parameters influencing the incidence and prevention of PJF after multilevel posterior spinal instrumentation.

  17. A Multilevel Assessment of Differential Item Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Linjun

    A multilevel approach was proposed for the assessment of differential item functioning and compared with the traditional logistic regression approach. Data from the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination for 2,300 freshman osteopathic medical students were analyzed. The multilevel approach used three-level hierarchical generalized…

  18. Structural optimization by multilevel decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; James, B.; Dovi, A.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for decomposing an optimization problem into a set of subproblems and a coordination problem which preserves coupling between the subproblems. The method is introduced as a special case of multilevel, multidisciplinary system optimization and its algorithm is fully described for two level optimization for structures assembled of finite elements of arbitrary type. Numerical results are given for an example of a framework to show that the decomposition method converges and yields results comparable to those obtained without decomposition. It is pointed out that optimization by decomposition should reduce the design time by allowing groups of engineers, using different computers to work concurrently on the same large problem.

  19. Factorial invariance in multilevel confirmatory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ehri

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a procedure to test factorial invariance in multilevel confirmatory factor analysis. When the group membership is at level 2, multilevel factorial invariance can be tested by a simple extension of the standard procedure. However level-1 group membership raises problems which cannot be appropriately handled by the standard procedure, because the dependency between members of different level-1 groups is not appropriately taken into account. The procedure presented in this article provides a solution to this problem. This paper also shows Muthén's maximum likelihood (MUML) estimation for testing multilevel factorial invariance across level-1 groups as a viable alternative to maximum likelihood estimation. Testing multilevel factorial invariance across level-2 groups and testing multilevel factorial invariance across level-1 groups are illustrated using empirical examples. SAS macro and Mplus syntax are provided.

  20. A multilevel nonvolatile magnetoelectric memory

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jianxin; Cong, Junzhuang; Shang, Dashan; Chai, Yisheng; Shen, Shipeng; Zhai, Kun; Sun, Young

    2016-01-01

    The coexistence and coupling between magnetization and electric polarization in multiferroic materials provide extra degrees of freedom for creating next-generation memory devices. A variety of concepts of multiferroic or magnetoelectric memories have been proposed and explored in the past decade. Here we propose a new principle to realize a multilevel nonvolatile memory based on the multiple states of the magnetoelectric coefficient (α) of multiferroics. Because the states of α depends on the relative orientation between magnetization and polarization, one can reach different levels of α by controlling the ratio of up and down ferroelectric domains with external electric fields. Our experiments in a device made of the PMN-PT/Terfenol-D multiferroic heterostructure confirm that the states of α can be well controlled between positive and negative by applying selective electric fields. Consequently, two-level, four-level, and eight-level nonvolatile memory devices are demonstrated at room temperature. This kind of multilevel magnetoelectric memory retains all the advantages of ferroelectric random access memory but overcomes the drawback of destructive reading of polarization. In contrast, the reading of α is nondestructive and highly efficient in a parallel way, with an independent reading coil shared by all the memory cells. PMID:27681812

  1. Detailed Modeling and Evaluation of a Scalable Multilevel Checkpointing System

    SciTech Connect

    Mohror, Kathryn; Moody, Adam; Bronevetsky, Greg; de Supinski, Bronis R.

    2014-09-01

    High-performance computing (HPC) systems are growing more powerful by utilizing more components. As the system mean time before failure correspondingly drops, applications must checkpoint frequently to make progress. But, at scale, the cost of checkpointing becomes prohibitive. A solution to this problem is multilevel checkpointing, which employs multiple types of checkpoints in a single run. Moreover, lightweight checkpoints can handle the most common failure modes, while more expensive checkpoints can handle severe failures. We designed a multilevel checkpointing library, the Scalable Checkpoint/Restart (SCR) library, that writes lightweight checkpoints to node-local storage in addition to the parallel file system. We present probabilistic Markov models of SCR's performance. We show that on future large-scale systems, SCR can lead to a gain in machine efficiency of up to 35 percent, and reduce the load on the parallel file system by a factor of two. In addition, we predict that checkpoint scavenging, or only writing checkpoints to the parallel file system on application termination, can reduce the load on the parallel file system by 20 × on today's systems and still maintain high application efficiency.

  2. Multilevel converters for power system applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, J.S.; Stovall, J.P.; Peng, F.Z. |

    1995-09-01

    Multilevel converters are emerging as a new breed of power converter options for power system applications. These converters are most suitable for high voltage high power applications because they connect devices in series without the need for component matching. One of the major limitations of the multilevel converters is the voltage unbalance between different levels. To avoid voltage unbalance between different levels, several techniques have been proposed for different applications. Excluding magnetic-coupled converters, this paper introduces three multilevel voltage source converters: (1) diode-clamp, (2) flying-capacitors, and (3) cascaded inverters with separate dc sources. The operation principle, features, constraints, and potential applications of these converters will be discussed.

  3. Planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects

    DOEpatents

    Tuckerman, David B.

    1987-01-01

    In the fabrication of multilevel integrated circuits, each metal layer is anarized by heating to momentarily melt the layer. The layer is melted by sweeping laser pulses of suitable width, typically about 1 microsecond duration, over the layer in small increments. The planarization of each metal layer eliminates irregular and discontinuous conditions between successive layers. The planarization method is particularly applicable to circuits having ground or power planes and allows for multilevel interconnects. Dielectric layers can also be planarized to produce a fully planar multilevel interconnect structure. The method is useful for the fabrication of VLSI circuits, particularly for wafer-scale integration.

  4. Planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects

    DOEpatents

    Tuckerman, David B.

    1989-01-01

    In the fabrication of multilevel integrated circuits, each metal layer is anarized by heating to momentarily melt the layer. The layer is melted by sweeping laser pulses of suitable width, typically about 1 microsecond duration, over the layer in small increments. The planarization of each metal layer eliminates irregular and discontinuous conditions between successive layers. The planarization method is particularly applicable to circuits having ground or power planes and allows for multilevel interconnects. Dielectric layers can also be planarized to produce a fully planar multilevel interconnect structure. The method is useful for the fabrication of VLSI circuits, particularly for wafer-scale integration.

  5. Planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects

    DOEpatents

    Tuckerman, D.B.

    1985-06-24

    In the fabrication of multilevel integrated circuits, each metal layer is planarized by heating to momentarily melt the layer. The layer is melted by sweeping lase pulses of suitable width, typically about 1 microsecond duration, over the layer in small increments. The planarization of each metal layer eliminates irregular and discontinuous conditions between successive layers. The planarization method is particularly applicable to circuits having ground or power planes and allows for multilevel interconnects. Dielectric layers can also be planarized to produce a fully planar multilevel interconnect structure. The method is useful for the fabrication of VLSI circuits, particularly for wafer-scale integration.

  6. Planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects

    DOEpatents

    Tuckerman, D.B.

    1985-08-23

    In the fabrication of multilevel integrated circuits, each metal layer is planarized by heating to momentarily melt the layer. The layer is melted by sweeping laser pulses of suitable width, typically about 1 microsecond duration, over the layer in small increments. The planarization of each metal layer eliminates irregular and discontinuous conditions between successive layers. The planarization method is particularly applicable to circuits having ground or power planes and allows for multilevel interconnects. Dielectric layers can also be planarized to produce a fully planar multilevel interconnect structure. The method is useful for the fabrication of VLSI circuits, particularly for wafer-scale integration.

  7. Scalable Adaptive Multilevel Solvers for Multiphysics Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jinchao

    2014-12-01

    In this project, we investigated adaptive, parallel, and multilevel methods for numerical modeling of various real-world applications, including Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), complex fluids, Electromagnetism, Navier-Stokes equations, and reservoir simulation. First, we have designed improved mathematical models and numerical discretizaitons for viscoelastic fluids and MHD. Second, we have derived new a posteriori error estimators and extended the applicability of adaptivity to various problems. Third, we have developed multilevel solvers for solving scalar partial differential equations (PDEs) as well as coupled systems of PDEs, especially on unstructured grids. Moreover, we have integrated the study between adaptive method and multilevel methods, and made significant efforts and advances in adaptive multilevel methods of the multi-physics problems.

  8. Impact of Not Addressing Partially Cross-Classified Multilevel Structure in Testing Measurement Invariance: A Monte Carlo Study

    PubMed Central

    Im, Myung H.; Kim, Eun S.; Kwok, Oi-Man; Yoon, Myeongsun; Willson, Victor L.

    2016-01-01

    In educational settings, researchers are likely to encounter multilevel data with cross-classified structure. However, due to the lack of familiarity and limitations of statistical software for cross-classified modeling, most researchers adopt less optimal approaches to analyze cross-classified multilevel data in testing measurement invariance. We conducted two Monte Carlo studies to investigate the performances of testing measurement invariance with cross-classified multilevel data when the noninvarinace is at the between-level: (a) the impact of ignoring crossed factor using conventional multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) which assumes hierarchical multilevel data in testing measurement invariance and (b) the adequacy of the cross-classified multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) models with cross-classified data. We considered two design factors, intraclass correlation (ICC) and magnitude of non-invariance. Generally, MCFA demonstrated very low statistical power to detect non-invariance. The low power was plausibly related to the underestimated factor loading differences and the underestimated ICC due to the redistribution of the variance component from the ignored crossed factor. The results demonstrated possible incorrect statistical inferences with conventional MCFA analyses that assume multilevel data as hierarchical structure for testing measurement invariance with cross-classified data (non-hierarchical structure). On the contrary, the cross-classified MIMIC model demonstrated acceptable performance with cross-classified data. PMID:27047404

  9. Impact of Not Addressing Partially Cross-Classified Multilevel Structure in Testing Measurement Invariance: A Monte Carlo Study.

    PubMed

    Im, Myung H; Kim, Eun S; Kwok, Oi-Man; Yoon, Myeongsun; Willson, Victor L

    2016-01-01

    In educational settings, researchers are likely to encounter multilevel data with cross-classified structure. However, due to the lack of familiarity and limitations of statistical software for cross-classified modeling, most researchers adopt less optimal approaches to analyze cross-classified multilevel data in testing measurement invariance. We conducted two Monte Carlo studies to investigate the performances of testing measurement invariance with cross-classified multilevel data when the noninvarinace is at the between-level: (a) the impact of ignoring crossed factor using conventional multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) which assumes hierarchical multilevel data in testing measurement invariance and (b) the adequacy of the cross-classified multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) models with cross-classified data. We considered two design factors, intraclass correlation (ICC) and magnitude of non-invariance. Generally, MCFA demonstrated very low statistical power to detect non-invariance. The low power was plausibly related to the underestimated factor loading differences and the underestimated ICC due to the redistribution of the variance component from the ignored crossed factor. The results demonstrated possible incorrect statistical inferences with conventional MCFA analyses that assume multilevel data as hierarchical structure for testing measurement invariance with cross-classified data (non-hierarchical structure). On the contrary, the cross-classified MIMIC model demonstrated acceptable performance with cross-classified data. PMID:27047404

  10. Biomechanics of Cervical"Skip' Corpectomy versus Standard Multilevel Corpectomy.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Murat; Yüksel, K Zafer; Baek, Seungwon; Sawa, Anna G U; Dalbayrak, Sedat; Sonntag, Volker K H; Crawford, Neil R

    2012-07-13

    STUDY DESIGN:: In vitro biomechanical study of flexibility with finite element simulation to estimate screw stresses. OBJECTIVE:: To compare cervical spinal stability after a standard plated three-level corpectomy with stability after a plated three-level "skip" corpectomy where the middle vertebra is left intact (i.e., two one-level corpectomies), and to quantify pullout forces acting on the screws during various loading modes. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:: Clinically, three-level cervical plated corpectomy has a high rate of failure, partially because only four contact points affix the plate to the upper and lower intact vertebrae. Leaving the intermediate vertebral body intact for additional fixation points may overcome this problem while still allowing dural sac decompression. METHODS:: Quasistatic nonconstraining torque (maximum 1 Nm) induced flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation while angular motion was recorded stereophotogrammetrically. Specimens were tested intact and after corpectomy with standard plated and strut-grafted three-level corpectomy (7 specimens) or 'skip' corpectomy (7 specimens). Screw stresses were quantified using a validated finite element model of C3-C7 mimicking experimentally tested groups. Skip corpectomy with C5 screws omitted was also simulated. RESULTS:: Plated skip corpectomy tended to be more stable than plated standard corpectomy, but the difference was not significant. Compared to standard plated corpectomy, plated skip corpectomy reduced peak screw pull-out force during axial rotation (mode of loading of highest peak force) by 15% (4-screw attachment) and 19% (6-screw attachment). CONCLUSIONS:: Skip corpectomy is a good alternative to standard three-level corpectomy to improve stability, especially during lateral bending. Under pure moment loading, the screws of a cervical multilevel plate experience the highest pullout forces during axial rotation. Thus, limiting this movement in patients undergoing plated

  11. Alternative Methods for Assessing Mediation in Multilevel Data: The Advantages of Multilevel SEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preacher, Kristopher J.; Zhang, Zhen; Zyphur, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Multilevel modeling (MLM) is a popular way of assessing mediation effects with clustered data. Two important limitations of this approach have been identified in prior research and a theoretical rationale has been provided for why multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) should be preferred. However, to date, no empirical evidence of MSEM's…

  12. Multilevel sequential Monte Carlo samplers

    DOE PAGES

    Beskos, Alexandros; Jasra, Ajay; Law, Kody; Tempone, Raul; Zhou, Yan

    2016-08-24

    Here, we study the approximation of expectations w.r.t. probability distributions associated to the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs); this scenario appears routinely in Bayesian inverse problems. In practice, one often has to solve the associated PDE numerically, using, for instance finite element methods and leading to a discretisation bias, with the step-size level hL. In addition, the expectation cannot be computed analytically and one often resorts to Monte Carlo methods. In the context of this problem, it is known that the introduction of the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method can reduce the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error. This is achieved via a telescoping identity associated to a Monte Carlo approximation of a sequence of probability distributions with discretisation levelsmore » $${\\infty}$$ >h0>h1 ...>hL. In many practical problems of interest, one cannot achieve an i.i.d. sampling of the associated sequence of probability distributions. A sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) version of the MLMC method is introduced to deal with this problem. In conclusion, it is shown that under appropriate assumptions, the attractive property of a reduction of the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error, can be maintained within the SMC context.« less

  13. Applications of cascade multilevel inverters.

    PubMed

    Peng, Fang-zen; Qian, Zhao-ming

    2003-01-01

    Cascade multilevel inverters have been developed for electric utility applications. A cascade M-level inverter consists of (M-1)/2 H-bridges in which each bridge's dc voltage is supported by its own dc capacitor. The new inverter can: (1) generate almost sinusoidal waveform voltage while only switching one time per fundamental cycle; (2) dispense with multi-pulse inverters' transformers used in conventional utility interfaces and static var compensators; (3) enables direct parallel or series transformer-less connection to medium- and high-voltage power systems. In short, the cascade inverter is much more efficient and suitable for utility applications than traditional multi-pulse and pulse width modulation (PWM) inverters. The authors have experimentally demonstrated the superiority of the new inverter for power supply, (hybrid) electric vehicle (EV) motor drive, reactive power (var) and harmonic compensation. This paper summarizes the features, feasibility, and control schemes of the cascade inverter for utility applications including utility interface of renewable energy, voltage regulation, var compensation, and harmonic filtering in power systems. Analytical, simulated, and experimental results demonstrated the superiority of the new inverters. PMID:14566981

  14. Multilevel Complex Networks and Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldarelli, Guido

    2014-03-01

    Network theory has been a powerful tool to model isolated complex systems. However, the classical approach does not take into account the interactions often present among different systems. Hence, the scientific community is nowadays concentrating the efforts on the foundations of new mathematical tools for understanding what happens when multiple networks interact. The case of economic and financial networks represents a paramount example of multilevel networks. In the case of trade, trade among countries the different levels can be described by the different granularity of the trading relations. Indeed, we have now data from the scale of consumers to that of the country level. In the case of financial institutions, we have a variety of levels at the same scale. For example one bank can appear in the interbank networks, ownership network and cds networks in which the same institution can take place. In both cases the systemically important vertices need to be determined by different procedures of centrality definition and community detection. In this talk I will present some specific cases of study related to these topics and present the regularities found. Acknowledged support from EU FET Project ``Multiplex'' 317532.

  15. Testing Group Mean Differences of Latent Variables in Multilevel Data Using Multiple-Group Multilevel CFA and Multilevel MIMIC Modeling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Sook; Cao, Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    Considering that group comparisons are common in social science, we examined two latent group mean testing methods when groups of interest were either at the between or within level of multilevel data: multiple-group multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MG ML CFA) and multilevel multiple-indicators multiple-causes modeling (ML MIMIC). The performance of these methods were investigated through three Monte Carlo studies. In Studies 1 and 2, either factor variances or residual variances were manipulated to be heterogeneous between groups. In Study 3, which focused on within-level multiple-group analysis, six different model specifications were considered depending on how to model the intra-class group correlation (i.e., correlation between random effect factors for groups within cluster). The results of simulations generally supported the adequacy of MG ML CFA and ML MIMIC for multiple-group analysis with multilevel data. The two methods did not show any notable difference in the latent group mean testing across three studies. Finally, a demonstration with real data and guidelines in selecting an appropriate approach to multilevel multiple-group analysis are provided.

  16. Multilevel Approach to Manual Lifting in Manufacturing Industries.

    PubMed

    Kayis; Kothiyal

    1996-01-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries are often the consequences of wrong postural configurations used during Manual Materials Handling (MMH). This eventually leads to large payout of worker's compensation and loss of production time. A simulated study of back injury risks has been carried out on seven selected manufacturing industries to identify and evaluate harmful working postures. For each MMH task, OWAS (Ovako Working Posture Analysing System) codes have been identified with the help of motion study pictures. Also, Chaffin's biomechanical model was used to calculate L5/S1 load compression values on the spine during MMH activities. The multilevel approach adopted was a combination of OWAS and Chaffin's biomechanical model. The application of a digitiser enabled us to identify the coordinates and it made a subsequent evaluation of the angles of each body link possible.

  17. Multi-level block permutation

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Anderson M.; Webster, Matthew A.; Vidaurre, Diego; Nichols, Thomas E.; Smith, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Under weak and reasonable assumptions, mainly that data are exchangeable under the null hypothesis, permutation tests can provide exact control of false positives and allow the use of various non-standard statistics. There are, however, various common examples in which global exchangeability can be violated, including paired tests, tests that involve repeated measurements, tests in which subjects are relatives (members of pedigrees) — any dataset with known dependence among observations. In these cases, some permutations, if performed, would create data that would not possess the original dependence structure, and thus, should not be used to construct the reference (null) distribution. To allow permutation inference in such cases, we test the null hypothesis using only a subset of all otherwise possible permutations, i.e., using only the rearrangements of the data that respect exchangeability, thus retaining the original joint distribution unaltered. In a previous study, we defined exchangeability for blocks of data, as opposed to each datum individually, then allowing permutations to happen within block, or the blocks as a whole to be permuted. Here we extend that notion to allow blocks to be nested, in a hierarchical, multi-level definition. We do not explicitly model the degree of dependence between observations, only the lack of independence; the dependence is implicitly accounted for by the hierarchy and by the permutation scheme. The strategy is compatible with heteroscedasticity and variance groups, and can be used with permutations, sign flippings, or both combined. We evaluate the method for various dependence structures, apply it to real data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) as an example application, show that false positives can be avoided in such cases, and provide a software implementation of the proposed approach. PMID:26074200

  18. A multilevel preconditioner for domain decomposition boundary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bramble, J.H.; Pasciak, J.E.; Xu, Jinchao.

    1991-12-11

    In this note, we consider multilevel preconditioning of the reduced boundary systems which arise in non-overlapping domain decomposition methods. It will be shown that the resulting preconditioned systems have condition numbers which be bounded in the case of multilevel spaces on the whole domain and grow at most proportional to the number of levels in the case of multilevel boundary spaces without multilevel extensions into the interior.

  19. Propensity score weighting with multilevel data.

    PubMed

    Li, Fan; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Landrum, Mary Beth

    2013-08-30

    Propensity score methods are being increasingly used as a less parametric alternative to traditional regression to balance observed differences across groups in both descriptive and causal comparisons. Data collected in many disciplines often have analytically relevant multilevel or clustered structure. The propensity score, however, was developed and has been used primarily with unstructured data. We present and compare several propensity-score-weighted estimators for clustered data, including marginal, cluster-weighted, and doubly robust estimators. Using both analytical derivations and Monte Carlo simulations, we illustrate bias arising when the usual assumptions of propensity score analysis do not hold for multilevel data. We show that exploiting the multilevel structure, either parametrically or nonparametrically, in at least one stage of the propensity score analysis can greatly reduce these biases. We applied these methods to a study of racial disparities in breast cancer screening among beneficiaries of Medicare health plans.

  20. Analysis of Phase Multilevel Recording on Microholograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide, Tatsuro; Mikami, Hideharu; Osawa, Kentaro; Watanabe, Koichi

    2011-09-01

    An optical phase multilevel recording technique using a microholographic system and phase-diversity homodyne detection for enhancement of optical disc capacity is investigated. In this technique, multilevel phase signals are stored as the fringe shifts along the optical axis and recovered from the arctangent of two homodyne-detected signals. For comparison, phase signals from Blu-ray Disc read-only memory (BD-ROM) and Blu-ray Disc recordable (BD-R) media obtained by phase-diversity homodyne detection are experimentally evaluated. From the experimental results, we demonstrated that phase-diversity homodyne detection is useful for detecting the phase signal modulation of the signal beam from an optical disc. Furthermore, simulation results on microholograms indicate that phase signals from the microholograms are much more stable despite the variety of their sizes than those from BD-ROM. These results demonstrate the potential of this multilevel recording method.

  1. Multilevel transport solution of LWR reactor cores

    SciTech Connect

    Jose Ignacio Marquez Damian; Cassiano R.E. de Oliveira; HyeonKae Park

    2008-09-01

    This work presents a multilevel approach for the solution of the transport equation in typical LWR assemblies and core configurations. It is based on the second-order, even-parity formulation of the transport equation, which is solved within the framework provided by the finite element-spherical harmonics code EVENT. The performance of the new solver has been compared with that of the standard conjugate gradient solver for diffusion and transport problems on structured and unstruc-tured grids. Numerical results demonstrate the potential of the multilevel scheme for realistic reactor calculations.

  2. Multilevel Design Efficiency in Educational Effectiveness Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cools, Wilfried; De Fraine, Bieke; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Onghena, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    In educational effectiveness research, multilevel data analyses are often used because research units (most frequently, pupils or teachers) are studied that are nested in groups (schools and classes). This hierarchical data structure complicates designing the study because the structure has to be taken into account when approximating the accuracy…

  3. Engineering applications of heuristic multilevel optimization methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.

    1988-01-01

    Some engineering applications of heuristic multilevel optimization methods are presented and the discussion focuses on the dependency matrix that indicates the relationship between problem functions and variables. Coordination of the subproblem optimizations is shown to be typically achieved through the use of exact or approximate sensitivity analysis. Areas for further development are identified.

  4. Engineering applications of heuristic multilevel optimization methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.

    1989-01-01

    Some engineering applications of heuristic multilevel optimization methods are presented and the discussion focuses on the dependency matrix that indicates the relationship between problem functions and variables. Coordination of the subproblem optimizations is shown to be typically achieved through the use of exact or approximate sensitivity analysis. Areas for further development are identified.

  5. Efficiently Exploring Multilevel Data with Recursive Partitioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Daniel P.; von Oertzen, Timo; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing number of datasets with many participants, variables, or both, in education and other fields that often deal with large, multilevel data structures. Once initial confirmatory hypotheses are exhausted, it can be difficult to determine how best to explore the dataset to discover hidden relationships that could help to inform…

  6. The Economic Cost of Homosexuality: Multilevel Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumle, Amanda K.; Poston, Dudley, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This article builds on earlier studies that have examined "the economic cost of homosexuality," by using data from the 2000 U.S. Census and by employing multilevel analyses. Our findings indicate that partnered gay men experience a 12.5 percent earnings penalty compared to married heterosexual men, and a statistically insignificant earnings…

  7. A Practical Guide to Multilevel Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peugh, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Collecting data from students within classrooms or schools, and collecting data from students on multiple occasions over time, are two common sampling methods used in educational research that often require multilevel modeling (MLM) data analysis techniques to avoid Type-1 errors. The purpose of this article is to clarify the seven major steps…

  8. Using Multilevel Modeling in Counseling Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Martin F.

    2012-01-01

    This conceptual and practical overview of multilevel modeling (MLM) for researchers in counseling and development provides guidelines on setting up SPSS to perform MLM and an example of how to present the findings. It also provides a discussion on how counseling and developmental researchers can use MLM to address their own research questions.…

  9. Suppressor Variables and Multilevel Mixture Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darmawan, I Gusti Ngurah; Keeves, John P.

    2006-01-01

    A major issue in educational research involves taking into consideration the multilevel nature of the data. Since the late 1980s, attempts have been made to model social science data that conform to a nested structure. Among other models, two-level structural equation modelling or two-level path modelling and hierarchical linear modelling are two…

  10. Single-Level and Multilevel Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tofighi, Davood; Thoemmes, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Mediation analysis is a statistical approach used to examine how the effect of an independent variable on an outcome is transmitted through an intervening variable (mediator). In this article, we provide a gentle introduction to single-level and multilevel mediation analyses. Using single-level data, we demonstrate an application of structural…

  11. A grid-connected photovoltaic power conversion system with single-phase multilevel inverter

    SciTech Connect

    Beser, Ersoy; Arifoglu, Birol; Camur, Sabri; Beser, Esra Kandemir

    2010-12-15

    This paper presents a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power conversion system based on a single-phase multilevel inverter. The proposed system fundamentally consists of PV arrays and a single-phase multilevel inverter structure. First, configuration and structural parts of the PV assisted inverter system are introduced in detail. To produce reference output voltage waves, a simple switching strategy based on calculating switching angles is improved. By calculated switching angles, the reference signal is produced as a multilevel shaped output voltage wave. The control algorithm and operational principles of the proposed system are explained. Operating PV arrays in the same load condition is a considerable point; therefore a simulation study is performed to arrange the PV arrays. After determining the number and connection types of the PV arrays, the system is configured through the arrangement of the PV arrays. The validity of the proposed system is verified through simulations and experimental study. The results demonstrate that the system can achieve lower total harmonic distortion (THD) on the output voltage and load current, and it is capable of operating synchronous and transferring power values having different characteristic to the grid. Hence, it is suitable to use the proposed configuration as a PV power conversion system in various applications. (author)

  12. Multilevel Dual Damascene copper interconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayanan, S.

    Copper has been acknowledged as the interconnect material for future generations of ICs to overcome the bottlenecks on speed and reliability present with the current Al based wiring. A new set of challenges brought to the forefront when copper replaces aluminum, have to be met and resolved to make it a viable option. Unit step processes related to copper technology have been under development for the last few years. In this work, the application of copper as the interconnect material in multilevel structures with SiO2 as the interlevel dielectric has been explored, with emphasis on integration issues and complete process realization. Interconnect definition was achieved by the Dual Damascene approach using chemical mechanical polishing of oxide and copper. The choice of materials used as adhesion promoter/diffusion barrier included Ti, Ta and CVD TiN. Two different polish chemistries (NH4OH or HNO3 based) were used to form the interconnects. The diffusion barrier was removed during polishing (in the case of TiN) or by a post CMP etch (as with Ti or Ta). Copper surface passivation was performed using boron implantation and PECVD nitride encapsulation. The interlevel dielectric way composed of a multilayer stack of PECVD SiO2 and SixNy. A baseline process sequence which ensured the mechanical and thermal compatibility of the different unit steps was first created. A comprehensive test vehicle was designed and test structures were fabricated using the process flow developed. Suitable modifications were subsequently introduced in the sequence as and when processing problems were encountered. Electrical characterization was performed on the fabricated devices, interconnects, contacts and vias. The structures were subjected to thermal stressing to assess their stability and performance. The measurement of interconnect sheet resistances revealed lower copper loss due to dishing on samples polished using HNO3 based slurry. Interconnect resistances remained stable upto 400o

  13. Research of Real-time Data Warehouse Storage Strategy Based on Multi-level Caches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YiChuan, Shao; Yao, Xingjia

    Real-time data warehouse extend the application of traditional data warehouse. It can not only support tactical queries for enterprise but also provide much variable tactical decision support effectively. For these reasons, it is very meaningful to research on the structure of real-time data warehouses. This paper introduced the background of real-time data warehouse and proposed the strategy of real-time data warehouse which is based on double mirror replication mechanism. The strategy is composed of double steps. First we used double mirror replication mechanism to enable continuous loading data in the real-time data warehouse with minimum impact in query execution time. Second we proposed incorporating multi-level caches into the data warehouse structure which is based on real-time partition and gave the process of design and implementation with details. We differentiated between queries with various data freshness requirements, and used multi-level caches to satisfy these different requirements.

  14. Efficiency Improvements to the Displacement Based Multilevel Structural Optimization Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plunkett, C. L.; Striz, A. G.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.

    2001-01-01

    Multilevel Structural Optimization (MSO) continues to be an area of research interest in engineering optimization. In the present project, the weight optimization of beams and trusses using Displacement based Multilevel Structural Optimization (DMSO), a member of the MSO set of methodologies, is investigated. In the DMSO approach, the optimization task is subdivided into a single system and multiple subsystems level optimizations. The system level optimization minimizes the load unbalance resulting from the use of displacement functions to approximate the structural displacements. The function coefficients are then the design variables. Alternately, the system level optimization can be solved using the displacements themselves as design variables, as was shown in previous research. Both approaches ensure that the calculated loads match the applied loads. In the subsystems level, the weight of the structure is minimized using the element dimensions as design variables. The approach is expected to be very efficient for large structures, since parallel computing can be utilized in the different levels of the problem. In this paper, the method is applied to a one-dimensional beam and a large three-dimensional truss. The beam was tested to study possible simplifications to the system level optimization. In previous research, polynomials were used to approximate the global nodal displacements. The number of coefficients of the polynomials equally matched the number of degrees of freedom of the problem. Here it was desired to see if it is possible to only match a subset of the degrees of freedom in the system level. This would lead to a simplification of the system level, with a resulting increase in overall efficiency. However, the methods tested for this type of system level simplification did not yield positive results. The large truss was utilized to test further improvements in the efficiency of DMSO. In previous work, parallel processing was applied to the

  15. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1998-12-15

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

  16. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    2001-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs which can be combined to determine any one of the six general load components.

  17. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    1998-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components.

  18. Translating multilevel theory into multilevel research: Challenges and opportunities for understanding the social determinants of psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Erin C.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Yudron, Monica; Jones, Stephanie M.; Subramanian, S.V.

    2014-01-01

    The observation that features of the social environment, including family, school, and neighborhood characteristics, are associated with individual-level outcomes has spurred the development of dozens of multilevel or ecological theoretical frameworks in epidemiology, public health, psychology, and sociology, among other disciplines. Despite the widespread use of such theories in etiological, intervention, and policy studies, challenges remain in bridging multilevel theory and empirical research. This paper set out to synthesize these challenges and provide specific examples of methodological and analytical strategies researchers are using to gain a more nuanced understanding of the social determinants of psychiatric disorders, with a focus on children’s mental health. To accomplish this goal, we begin by describing multilevel theories, defining their core elements, and discussing what these theories suggest is needed in empirical work. In the second part, we outline the main challenges researchers face in translating multilevel theory into research. These challenges are presented for each stage of the research process. In the third section, we describe two methods being used as alternatives to traditional multilevel modeling techniques to better bridge multilevel theory and multilevel research. These are: (1) multilevel factor analysis and multilevel structural equation modeling; and (2) dynamic systems approaches. Through its review of multilevel theory, assessment of existing strategies, and examination of emerging methodologies, this paper offers a framework to evaluate and guide empirical studies on the social determinants of child psychiatric disorders as well as health across the lifecourse. PMID:24469555

  19. Multilevel structured program design: formalization and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Glushkov, V.M.; Tseitlin, G.E.; Yushchenko, E.L.

    1981-07-01

    The authors present the conception of structured design grammars (SDG), which provide the basis for the MSPD method. A classification of program development methods according to top-down, bottom-up, and mixed strategy is proposed. The SDG formalism makes it possible to consider the problem of multilevel partial program verification, program transformation, and documentation generation during program development and subsequent maintenance. The MSPD method is demonstrated in application to a number of program design projects. They develop the arsenal of structured programming using MSPD method. Language and software tools constituting the basis of structured programming are considered. The problem of multilevel optimizing translation is treated in the context of the mul'tiprotsessist system oriented to automatic structured parallel programming by the MSPD method. Applications of the MSPD method to symbolic processing are considered. The process of structured design of the partran system and of software modules for mini- and microcomputers is described. 70 references.

  20. Multilevel Inverters for Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Habetler, T.G.; Peng, F.Z.; Tolbert, L.M.

    1998-10-22

    This paper presents multilevel inverters as an application for all-electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) motor drives. Diode-clamped inverters and cascaded H-bridge inverters, (1) can generate near-sinusoidal voltages with only fundamental frequency switching; (2) have almost no electromagnetic interference (EMI) and common-mode voltage; and (3) make an EV more accessible/safer and open wiring possible for most of an EV'S power system. This paper explores the benefits and discusses control schemes of the cascade inverter for use as an EV motor drive or a parallel HEV drive and the diode-clamped inverter as a series HEV motor drive. Analytical, simulated, and experimental results show the superiority of these multilevel inverters for this new niche.

  1. Computational modeling and multilevel cancer control interventions.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Joseph P; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Price, Rebecca Anhang; Mandelblatt, Jeanne

    2012-05-01

    This chapter presents an overview of computational modeling as a tool for multilevel cancer care and intervention research. Model-based analyses have been conducted at various "beneath the skin" or biological scales as well as at various "above the skin" or socioecological levels of cancer care delivery. We review the basic elements of computational modeling and illustrate its applications in four cancer control intervention areas: tobacco use, colorectal cancer screening, cervical cancer screening, and racial disparities in access to breast cancer care. Most of these models have examined cancer processes and outcomes at only one or two levels. We suggest ways these models can be expanded to consider interactions involving three or more levels. Looking forward, a number of methodological, structural, and communication barriers must be overcome to create useful computational models of multilevel cancer interventions and population health.

  2. Multilevel Selection in Kin Selection Language.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Jussi

    2016-10-01

    Few issues have raised more debate among evolutionary biologists than kin selection (KS) versus multilevel selection (MLS). They are formally equivalent, but use different-looking mathematical approaches, and are not causally equivalent: for a given problem KS can be a more suitable causal explanation than MLS, and vice versa. Methods for analyzing a given model from both viewpoints would therefore be valuable. I argue that there is often an easy way to achieve this: MLS can be written using the components of KS. This applies to the very general regression approach as well as to the practical evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) maximization approach, and can hence be used to analyze many common ESS models from a multilevel perspective. I demonstrate this with example models of gamete competition and limitation. PMID:27590987

  3. Multilevel resistive information storage and retrieval

    DOEpatents

    Lohn, Andrew; Mickel, Patrick R.

    2016-08-09

    The present invention relates to resistive random-access memory (RRAM or ReRAM) systems, as well as methods of employing multiple state variables to form degenerate states in such memory systems. The methods herein allow for precise write and read steps to form multiple state variables, and these steps can be performed electrically. Such an approach allows for multilevel, high density memory systems with enhanced information storage capacity and simplified information retrieval.

  4. Spinal deformity after multilevel osteoplastic laminotomy

    PubMed Central

    Juergen, Krauss; Gloger, Harald; Soerensen, Nils; Wild, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Multilevel laminectomy in children has a significant rate of postoperative spinal deformity. To decrease the incidence of this complication, the use of osteoplastic laminotomy is advocated to minimise the risk of spinal deformity by preserving the normal architecture of the spine. In this retrospective study, a 10-year series of a paediatric population undergoing multilevel osteoplastic laminotomy is reviewed to determine the incidence, especially in contrast to laminectomies, and to identify factors that affect the occurrence of spinal column deformity. Seventy patients (mean age 4.2 years) underwent multilevel osteoplastic laminotomy for congenital anomalies or removal of spinal tumours. All patients had a clinical and radiographic examination preoperatively, 12 months postoperatively and at follow-up. Mean follow-up was 5.3 years (range 3–12.6 years). Nineteen patients (27%) had a new or progressive spinal deformity. There was an increased incidence in patients who had surgery for spinal tumours (P < 0.05), surgery of the cervical spine (P < 0.01), and who had more than five levels of the spine included (P < 0.05). A review of the literature on children with multilevel laminectomy (n = 330), the incidence of spinal deformity found a significantly higher (46%) compared to our study group. This study demonstrates that osteoplastic laminotomy was found to be very effective in decreasing the incidence of spinal deformities after spinal-canal surgery for spinal-cord tumours or congenital anomalies in children and adolescents. The choice of an anatomical reconstructive surgical technique such as osteoplastic laminotomy seems to be essential to minimise secondary problems due to the surgical technique itself. Nevertheless, growing patients should be followed up for several years after the initial operation for early detection and consequent management of any possible deformity of the spinal column. PMID:17323095

  5. Automatic Multilevel Parallelization Using OpenMP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Hao-Qiang; Jost, Gabriele; Yan, Jerry; Ayguade, Eduard; Gonzalez, Marc; Martorell, Xavier; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe the extension of the CAPO (CAPtools (Computer Aided Parallelization Toolkit) OpenMP) parallelization support tool to support multilevel parallelism based on OpenMP directives. CAPO generates OpenMP directives with extensions supported by the NanosCompiler to allow for directive nesting and definition of thread groups. We report some results for several benchmark codes and one full application that have been parallelized using our system.

  6. On the effectiveness of multilevel selection.

    PubMed

    Goodnight, Charles J

    2016-01-01

    Experimental studies of group selection show that higher levels of selection act on indirect genetic effects, making the response to group and community selection qualitatively different from that of individual selection. This suggests that multilevel selection plays a key role in the evolution of supersocial societies. Experiments showing the effectiveness of community selection indicate that we should consider the possibility that selection among communities may be important in the evolution of supersocial species. PMID:27562604

  7. Automatic Multilevel Parallelization Using OpenMP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Hao-Qiang; Jost, Gabriele; Yan, Jerry; Ayguade, Eduard; Gonzalez, Marc; Martorell, Xavier; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe the extension of the CAPO parallelization support tool to support multilevel parallelism based on OpenMP directives. CAPO generates OpenMP directives with extensions supported by the NanosCompiler to allow for directive nesting and definition of thread groups. We report first results for several benchmark codes and one full application that have been parallelized using our system.

  8. Multilevel sparse functional principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Di, Chongzhi; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Jank, Wolfgang S

    2014-01-29

    We consider analysis of sparsely sampled multilevel functional data, where the basic observational unit is a function and data have a natural hierarchy of basic units. An example is when functions are recorded at multiple visits for each subject. Multilevel functional principal component analysis (MFPCA; Di et al. 2009) was proposed for such data when functions are densely recorded. Here we consider the case when functions are sparsely sampled and may contain only a few observations per function. We exploit the multilevel structure of covariance operators and achieve data reduction by principal component decompositions at both between and within subject levels. We address inherent methodological differences in the sparse sampling context to: 1) estimate the covariance operators; 2) estimate the functional principal component scores; 3) predict the underlying curves. Through simulations the proposed method is able to discover dominating modes of variations and reconstruct underlying curves well even in sparse settings. Our approach is illustrated by two applications, the Sleep Heart Health Study and eBay auctions. PMID:24872597

  9. Multilevel sparse functional principal component analysis

    PubMed Central

    Di, Chongzhi; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Jank, Wolfgang S.

    2014-01-01

    We consider analysis of sparsely sampled multilevel functional data, where the basic observational unit is a function and data have a natural hierarchy of basic units. An example is when functions are recorded at multiple visits for each subject. Multilevel functional principal component analysis (MFPCA; Di et al. 2009) was proposed for such data when functions are densely recorded. Here we consider the case when functions are sparsely sampled and may contain only a few observations per function. We exploit the multilevel structure of covariance operators and achieve data reduction by principal component decompositions at both between and within subject levels. We address inherent methodological differences in the sparse sampling context to: 1) estimate the covariance operators; 2) estimate the functional principal component scores; 3) predict the underlying curves. Through simulations the proposed method is able to discover dominating modes of variations and reconstruct underlying curves well even in sparse settings. Our approach is illustrated by two applications, the Sleep Heart Health Study and eBay auctions. PMID:24872597

  10. Computational analyses of multilevel discourse comprehension.

    PubMed

    Graesser, Arthur C; McNamara, Danielle S

    2011-04-01

    The proposed multilevel framework of discourse comprehension includes the surface code, the textbase, the situation model, the genre and rhetorical structure, and the pragmatic communication level. We describe these five levels when comprehension succeeds and also when there are communication misalignments and comprehension breakdowns. A computer tool has been developed, called Coh-Metrix, that scales discourse (oral or print) on dozens of measures associated with the first four discourse levels. The measurement of these levels with an automated tool helps researchers track and better understand multilevel discourse comprehension. Two sets of analyses illustrate the utility of Coh-Metrix in discourse theory and educational practice. First, Coh-Metrix was used to measure the cohesion of the text base and situation model, as well as potential extraneous variables, in a sample of published studies that manipulated text cohesion. This analysis helped us better understand what was precisely manipulated in these studies and the implications for discourse comprehension mechanisms. Second, Coh-Metrix analyses are reported for samples of narrative and science texts in order to advance the argument that traditional text difficulty measures are limited because they fail to accommodate most of the levels of the multilevel discourse comprehension framework.

  11. Multilevel Higher-Order Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2014-01-01

    In the social sciences, latent traits often have a hierarchical structure, and data can be sampled from multiple levels. Both hierarchical latent traits and multilevel data can occur simultaneously. In this study, we developed a general class of item response theory models to accommodate both hierarchical latent traits and multilevel data. The…

  12. Extensions of Mantel-Haenszel for Multilevel DIF Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Brian F.; Finch, W. Holmes

    2013-01-01

    Multilevel data structures are ubiquitous in the assessment of differential item functioning (DIF), particularly in large-scale testing programs. There are a handful of DIF procures for researchers to select from that appropriately account for multilevel data structures. However, little, if any, work has been completed to extend a popular DIF…

  13. Matching Strategies for Observational Data with Multilevel Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Given the different possibilities of matching in the context of multilevel data and the lack of research on corresponding matching strategies, the author investigates two main research questions. The first research question investigates the advantages and disadvantages of different matching strategies that can be pursued with multilevel data…

  14. Multilevel Modeling and School Psychology: A Review and Practical Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Scott L., Jr.; Frohwerk, April

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the state of multilevel modeling in the field of school psychology. The authors provide a systematic assessment of published research of multilevel modeling studies in 5 journals devoted to the research and practice of school psychology. In addition, a practical example from the nationally…

  15. Consequences of Unmodeled Nonlinear Effects in Multilevel Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Daniel J.; Cai, Li

    2009-01-01

    Applications of multilevel models have increased markedly during the past decade. In incorporating lower-level predictors into multilevel models, a key interest is often whether or not a given predictor requires a random slope, that is, whether the effect of the predictor varies over upper-level units. If the variance of a random slope…

  16. Alternatives to Multilevel Modeling for the Analysis of Clustered Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Francis L.

    2016-01-01

    Multilevel modeling has grown in use over the years as a way to deal with the nonindependent nature of observations found in clustered data. However, other alternatives to multilevel modeling are available that can account for observations nested within clusters, including the use of Taylor series linearization for variance estimation, the design…

  17. The multilevel CC3 coupled cluster model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhre, Rolf H.; Koch, Henrik

    2016-07-01

    We present an efficient implementation of the closed shell multilevel coupled cluster method where coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) is used for the inactive orbital space and CCSD with perturbative triples (CC3) is employed for the smaller active orbital space. Using Cholesky orbitals, the active space can be spatially localized and the computational cost is greatly reduced compared to full CC3 while retaining the accuracy of CC3 excitation energies. For the small organic molecules considered we achieve up to two orders of magnitude reduction in the computational requirements.

  18. Multilevel converters -- A new breed of power converters

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, J.S.; Peng, F.Z. |

    1995-09-01

    Multilevel voltage source converters are emerging as a new breed of power converter options for high-power applications. The multilevel voltage source converters typically synthesize the staircase voltage wave from several levels of dc capacitor voltages. One of the major limitations of the multilevel converters is the voltage unbalance between different levels. The techniques to balance the voltage between different levels normally involve voltage clamping or capacitor charge control. There are several ways of implementing voltage balance in multilevel converters. Without considering the traditional magnetic coupled converters, this paper presents three recently developed multilevel voltage source converters: (1) diode-clamp, (2) flying-capacitors, and (3) cascaded-inverters with separate dc sources. The operating principle, features, constraints, and potential applications of these converters will be discussed.

  19. Multilevel design optimization and the effect of epistemic uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesbit, Benjamin Edward

    This work presents the state of the art in hierarchically decomposed multilevel optimization. This work is expanded with the inclusion of evidence theory with the multilevel framework for the quantification of epistemic uncertainty. The novel method, Evidence-Based Multilevel Design optimization, is then used to solve two analytical optimization problems. This method is also used to explore the effect of the belief structure on the final solution. A methodology is presented to reduce the costs of evidence-based optimization through manipulation of the belief structure. In addition, a transport aircraft wing is also solved with multilevel optimization without uncertainty. This complex, real world optimization problem shows the capability of decomposed multilevel framework to reduce costs of solving computationally expensive problems with black box analyses.

  20. Multilevel converters for large electric drives

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, L.M.; Peng, F.Z.

    1997-11-01

    Traditional two-level high frequency pulse width modulation (PWM) inverters for motor drives have several problems associated with their high frequency switching which produces common-mode voltage and high voltage change (dV/dt) rates to the motor windings. Multilevel inverters solve these problems because their devices can switch at a much lower frequency. Two different multilevel topologies are identified for use as a converter for electric drives, a cascade inverter with separate dc sources and a back-to-back diode clamped converter. The cascade inverter is a natural fit for large automotive all electric drives because of the high VA ratings possible and because it uses several levels of dc voltage sources which would be available from batteries or fuel cells. The back to back diode damped converter is ideal where a source of ac voltage is available such as a hybrid electric vehicle. Simulation and experimental results show the superiority of these two converters over PWM based drives.

  1. The treatment for multilevel noncontiguous spinal fractures

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Xiao Feng; Hou, Tie Sheng; Yuan, Jian Dong; Jin, Gen Yang; Li, Zhong Hai

    2006-01-01

    We report the outcome of 30 patients with multilevel noncontiguous spinal fractures treated between 2000 and 2005. Ten cases were treated conservatively (group A), eight cases were operated on at only one level (group B), and 12 cases were treated surgically at both levels (group C). All cases were followed up for 14–60 months (mean 32 months). Initial mobilisation with a wheelchair or crutches in group A was 9.2±1.1 weeks, which was significantly longer than groups B and C with 6.8±0.7 weeks and 3.1±0.4 weeks, respectively. Operative time and blood loss in group C were significantly more than group B. The neurological deficit improved in six cases in group A (60%), six in group B (75%) and eight in group C (80%). Correction of kyphotic deformity was significantly superior in groups C and B at the operated level, and increasing deformity occurred in groups A and B at the non-operated level. From the results we believe that three treatment strategies were suitable for multilevel noncontiguous spinal fractures, and individualised treatment should be used in these patients. In the patients treated surgically, the clinical and radiographic outcomes are much better. PMID:17043863

  2. Plasma simulation studies using multilevel physics models

    SciTech Connect

    Park, W.; Belova, E.V.; Fu, G.Y.

    2000-01-19

    The question of how to proceed toward ever more realistic plasma simulation studies using ever increasing computing power is addressed. The answer presented here is the M3D (Multilevel 3D) project, which has developed a code package with a hierarchy of physics levels that resolve increasingly complete subsets of phase-spaces and are thus increasingly more realistic. The rationale for the multilevel physics models is given. Each physics level is described and examples of its application are given. The existing physics levels are fluid models (3D configuration space), namely magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and two-fluids; and hybrid models, namely gyrokinetic-energetic-particle/MHD (5D energetic particle phase-space), gyrokinetic-particle-ion/fluid-electron (5D ion phase-space), and full-kinetic-particle-ion/fluid-electron level (6D ion phase-space). Resolving electron phase-space (5D or 6D) remains a future project. Phase-space-fluid models are not used in favor of delta f particle models. A practical and accurate nonlinear fluid closure for noncollisional plasmas seems not likely in the near future.

  3. Fault diagnosis method based on FFT-RPCA-SVM for Cascaded-Multilevel Inverter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianzhen; Qi, Jie; Xu, Hao; Wang, Yide; Liu, Lei; Gao, Diju

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to reduced switch stress, high quality of load wave, easy packaging and good extensibility, the cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter is widely used in wind power system. To guarantee stable operation of system, a new fault diagnosis method, based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Relative Principle Component Analysis (RPCA) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), is proposed for H-bridge multilevel inverter. To avoid the influence of load variation on fault diagnosis, the output voltages of the inverter is chosen as the fault characteristic signals. To shorten the time of diagnosis and improve the diagnostic accuracy, the main features of the fault characteristic signals are extracted by FFT. To further reduce the training time of SVM, the feature vector is reduced based on RPCA that can get a lower dimensional feature space. The fault classifier is constructed via SVM. An experimental prototype of the inverter is built to test the proposed method. Compared to other fault diagnosis methods, the experimental results demonstrate the high accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.

  4. Fault diagnosis method based on FFT-RPCA-SVM for Cascaded-Multilevel Inverter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianzhen; Qi, Jie; Xu, Hao; Wang, Yide; Liu, Lei; Gao, Diju

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to reduced switch stress, high quality of load wave, easy packaging and good extensibility, the cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter is widely used in wind power system. To guarantee stable operation of system, a new fault diagnosis method, based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Relative Principle Component Analysis (RPCA) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), is proposed for H-bridge multilevel inverter. To avoid the influence of load variation on fault diagnosis, the output voltages of the inverter is chosen as the fault characteristic signals. To shorten the time of diagnosis and improve the diagnostic accuracy, the main features of the fault characteristic signals are extracted by FFT. To further reduce the training time of SVM, the feature vector is reduced based on RPCA that can get a lower dimensional feature space. The fault classifier is constructed via SVM. An experimental prototype of the inverter is built to test the proposed method. Compared to other fault diagnosis methods, the experimental results demonstrate the high accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method. PMID:26626623

  5. [Applying multilevel models in evaluation of bioequivalence (I)].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiao-lan; Shen, Zhuo-zhi; Chen, Feng; Li, Xiao-song; Yang, Min

    2009-12-01

    This study aims to explore the application value of multilevel models for bioequivalence evaluation. Using a real example of 2 x 4 cross-over experimental design in evaluating bioequivalence of antihypertensive drug, this paper explores complex variance components corresponding to criteria statistics in existing methods recommended by FDA but obtained in multilevel models analysis. Results are compared with those from FDA standard Method of Moments, specifically on the feasibility and applicability of multilevel models in directly assessing the bioequivalence (ABE), the population bioequivalence (PBE) and the individual bioequivalence (IBE). When measuring ln (AUC), results from all variance components of the test and reference groups such as total variance (sigma(TT)(2) and sigma(TR)(2)), between-subject variance (sigma(BT)(2) and sigma(BR)(2)) and within-subject variance (sigma(WT)(2) and sigma(WR)(2)) estimated by simple 2-level models are very close to those that using the FDA Method of Moments. In practice, bioequivalence evaluation can be carried out directly by multilevel models, or by FDA criteria, based on variance components estimated from multilevel models. Both approaches produce consistent results. Multilevel models can be used to evaluate bioequivalence in cross-over test design. Compared to FDA methods, this one is more flexible in decomposing total variance into sub components in order to evaluate the ABE, PBE and IBE. Multilevel model provides a new way into the practice of bioequivalence evaluation.

  6. Design of a multilevel Active Power Filter for More Electrical Airplane variable frequency systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerreiro, Joel Filipe; Pomilio, Jose Antenor; Busarello, Tiago Davi Curi

    This paper presents the design and simulation of an Aeronautical Active Power Filter (AAPF) for a Variable Speed Variable Frequency (VSVF) advanced aircraft electric power system. The purposes of the AAPF are to mitigate current harmonics, to improve the source power factor and to mitigate the effects of unbalanced loads. Regarding the fact that the Aircraft Electrical Power System (AEPS) frequency may vary between 360 Hz and 900 Hz, and the load dynamics is often modified, an enhanced filtering technique is required. The designed AAPF topology is an asymmetrical multilevel inverter (AMI), which control strategy is based on the Conservative Power Theory (CPT) and synchronized by a Kalman Filter Phase-Locked Loop (KF-PLL). The above configuration renders the AAPF very robust and effective to its purpose. Accurate simulation results on Matlab/Simulink platform verify the feasibility of the proposed AAPF and the high performance of the control strategy during steady-state and dynamic operations.

  7. Multilevel Dynamic Generalized Structured Component Analysis for Brain Connectivity Analysis in Functional Neuroimaging Data.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwanghee; Takane, Yoshio; Hwang, Heungsun; Woodward, Todd S

    2016-06-01

    We extend dynamic generalized structured component analysis (GSCA) to enhance its data-analytic capability in structural equation modeling of multi-subject time series data. Time series data of multiple subjects are typically hierarchically structured, where time points are nested within subjects who are in turn nested within a group. The proposed approach, named multilevel dynamic GSCA, accommodates the nested structure in time series data. Explicitly taking the nested structure into account, the proposed method allows investigating subject-wise variability of the loadings and path coefficients by looking at the variance estimates of the corresponding random effects, as well as fixed loadings between observed and latent variables and fixed path coefficients between latent variables. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach by applying the method to the multi-subject functional neuroimaging data for brain connectivity analysis, where time series data-level measurements are nested within subjects.

  8. Evolution of Multilevel Social Systems in Nonhuman Primates and Humans.

    PubMed

    Grueter, Cyril C; Chapais, Bernard; Zinner, Dietmar

    2012-10-01

    Multilevel (or modular) societies are a distinct type of primate social system whose key features are single-male-multifemale, core units nested within larger social bands. They are not equivalent to fission-fusion societies, with the latter referring to routine variability in associations, either on an individual or subunit level. The purpose of this review is to characterize and operationalize multilevel societies and to outline their putative evolutionary origins. Multilevel societies are prevalent in three primate clades: papionins, Asian colobines, and hominins. For each clade, we portray the most parsimonious phylogenetic pathway leading to a modular system and then review and discuss likely socioecological conditions promoting the establishment and maintenance of these societies. The multilevel system in colobines (most notably Rhinopithecus and Nasalis) has likely evolved as single-male harem systems coalesced, whereas the multilevel system of papionins (Papio hamadryas, Theropithecus gelada) and hominins most likely arose as multimale-multifemale groups split into smaller units. We hypothesize that, although ecological conditions acted as preconditions for the origin of multilevel systems in all three clades, a potentially important catalyst was intraspecific social threat, predominantly bachelor threat in colobines and female coercion/infanticide in papionins and humans. We emphasize that female transfers within bands or genetic relationships among leader males help to maintain modular societies by facilitating interunit tolerance. We still lack a good or even basic understanding of many facets of multilevel sociality. Key remaining questions are how the genetic structure of a multilevel society matches the observed social effort of its members, to what degree cooperation of males of different units is manifest and contributes to band cohesion, and how group coordination, communication, and decision making are achieved. Affiliative and cooperative

  9. A multi-level bioreactor to remove organic matter and metals, together with its associated bacterial diversity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yonghong; Hu, Zhengyi; Kerr, Philip G; Yang, Linzhang

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to treat complex wastewater consisting of domestic wastewater, tobacco processing and building materials washings. The proposed multi-level bioreactor consists of a biopond-biofilter, anoxic/aerobic (A/O) fluidized beds and a photoautotrophic system. The results show that when the hydraulic load of the bioreactor was 200 m3/d, it successfully and simultaneously removed the organic matter and metals. When the bioreactor was in a relatively steady-state condition, the overall average organic matter and metals removal efficiencies are as follows, COD (89%), UV245 nm-matter (91%), Cu (78%), Zn (79%) and Fe (84%). The growth conditions of the native bacterial habitat were improved, which resulted from the increase of the in bacterial diversity under the rejuvenated conditions induced by the bioreactor. The results demonstrate that the multi-level bioreactor, without a sludge treatment system, can remove heterogeneous organic matter and metals from wastewater.

  10. A parallel algorithm for multi-level logic synthesis using the transduction method. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Chieng-Fai

    1991-01-01

    The Transduction Method has been shown to be a powerful tool in the optimization of multilevel networks. Many tools such as the SYLON synthesis system (X90), (CM89), (LM90) have been developed based on this method. A parallel implementation is presented of SYLON-XTRANS (XM89) on an eight processor Encore Multimax shared memory multiprocessor. It minimizes multilevel networks consisting of simple gates through parallel pruning, gate substitution, gate merging, generalized gate substitution, and gate input reduction. This implementation, called Parallel TRANSduction (PTRANS), also uses partitioning to break large circuits up and performs inter- and intra-partition dynamic load balancing. With this, good speedups and high processor efficiencies are achievable without sacrificing the resulting circuit quality.

  11. Discrete fluorescent saturation regimes in multilevel systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kastner, S. O.; Bhatia, A. K.

    1988-01-01

    Using models of multilevel atoms, the fluorescent process was examined for the ratio of the photooxidation rate, Pij, to the collisional oxidation rate, Cij, in the pumped resonance transition i-j. It is shown that, in the full range of the parameter Pij/Cij, there exist three distinct regimes (I, II, and III) which may be usefully exploited. These regimes are defined, respectively, by the following conditions: Pij/Cij smaller than about 1; Pij/Cij much greater than 1 and Pij much lower than Cki; and Pij/Cij much greater than 1 and Pij much higher than Cki, where Cki is the collisional rate populating the source level i. The only regime which is characterized by the sensitivity of fluorescent-fluorescent line intensity ratios to Pij is regime I. If regime III is reached, even fluorescent-nonfluorescent line ratios become independent of Pij. The analysis is applied to the resonant photoexcitation of a carbonlike ion.

  12. Multilevel wireless capsule endoscopy video segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Sae; Celebi, M. Emre

    2010-03-01

    Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a relatively new technology (FDA approved in 2002) allowing doctors to view most of the small intestine. WCE transmits more than 50,000 video frames per examination and the visual inspection of the resulting video is a highly time-consuming task even for the experienced gastroenterologist. Typically, a medical clinician spends one or two hours to analyze a WCE video. To reduce the assessment time, it is critical to develop a technique to automatically discriminate digestive organs and shots each of which consists of the same or similar shots. In this paper a multi-level WCE video segmentation methodology is presented to reduce the examination time.

  13. Cantilevered multilevel LIGA devices and methods

    DOEpatents

    Morales, Alfredo Martin; Domeier, Linda A.

    2002-01-01

    In the formation of multilevel LIGA microstructures, a preformed sheet of photoresist material, such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is patterned by exposure through a mask to radiation, such as X-rays, and developed using a developer to remove the exposed photoresist material. A first microstructure is then formed by electroplating metal into the areas from which the photoresist has been removed. Additional levels of microstructure are added to the initial microstructure by covering the first microstructure with a conductive polymer, machining the conductive polymer layer to reveal the surface of the first microstructure, sealing the conductive polymer and surface of the first microstructure with a metal layer, and then forming the second level of structure on top of the first level structure. In such a manner, multiple layers of microstructure can be built up to allow complex cantilevered microstructures to be formed.

  14. Multi-level coupled cluster theory

    SciTech Connect

    Myhre, Rolf H.; Koch, Henrik; Sánchez de Merás, Alfredo M. J.

    2014-12-14

    We present a general formalism where different levels of coupled cluster theory can be applied to different parts of the molecular system. The system is partitioned into subsystems by Cholesky decomposition of the one-electron Hartree-Fock density matrix. In this way the system can be divided across chemical bonds without discontinuities arising. The coupled cluster wave function is defined in terms of cluster operators for each part and these are determined from a set of coupled equations. The total wave function fulfills the Pauli-principle across all borders and levels of electron correlation. We develop the associated response theory for this multi-level coupled cluster theory and present proof of principle applications. The formalism is an essential tool in order to obtain size-intensive complexity in the calculation of local molecular properties.

  15. Multilevel library instruction for emerging nursing roles.

    PubMed Central

    Francis, B W; Fisher, C C

    1995-01-01

    As new nursing roles emerge that involve greater decision making than in the past, added responsibility for outcomes and cost control, and increased emphasis on primary care, the information-seeking skills needed by nurses change. A search of library and nursing literature indicates that there is little comprehensive library instruction covering all levels of nursing programs: undergraduate, returning registered nurses, and graduate students. The University of Florida is one of the few places that has such a multilevel, course-integrated curriculum in place for all entrants into the nursing program. Objectives have been developed for each stage of learning. The courses include instruction in the use of the online public access catalog, printed resources, and electronic databases. A library classroom equipped with the latest technology enables student interaction with electronic databases. This paper discusses the program and several methods used to evaluate it. PMID:8547913

  16. Multilevel library instruction for emerging nursing roles.

    PubMed

    Francis, B W; Fisher, C C

    1995-10-01

    As new nursing roles emerge that involve greater decision making than in the past, added responsibility for outcomes and cost control, and increased emphasis on primary care, the information-seeking skills needed by nurses change. A search of library and nursing literature indicates that there is little comprehensive library instruction covering all levels of nursing programs: undergraduate, returning registered nurses, and graduate students. The University of Florida is one of the few places that has such a multilevel, course-integrated curriculum in place for all entrants into the nursing program. Objectives have been developed for each stage of learning. The courses include instruction in the use of the online public access catalog, printed resources, and electronic databases. A library classroom equipped with the latest technology enables student interaction with electronic databases. This paper discusses the program and several methods used to evaluate it. PMID:8547913

  17. Multilevel domain decomposition for electronic structure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Barrault, M. . E-mail: maxime.barrault@edf.fr; Cances, E. . E-mail: cances@cermics.enpc.fr; Hager, W.W. . E-mail: hager@math.ufl.edu; Le Bris, C. . E-mail: lebris@cermics.enpc.fr

    2007-03-01

    We introduce a new multilevel domain decomposition method (MDD) for electronic structure calculations within semi-empirical and density functional theory (DFT) frameworks. This method iterates between local fine solvers and global coarse solvers, in the spirit of domain decomposition methods. Using this approach, calculations have been successfully performed on several linear polymer chains containing up to 40,000 atoms and 200,000 atomic orbitals. Both the computational cost and the memory requirement scale linearly with the number of atoms. Additional speed-up can easily be obtained by parallelization. We show that this domain decomposition method outperforms the density matrix minimization (DMM) method for poor initial guesses. Our method provides an efficient preconditioner for DMM and other linear scaling methods, variational in nature, such as the orbital minimization (OM) procedure.

  18. Structural optimization by generalized, multilevel decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; James, B. B.; Riley, M. F.

    1985-01-01

    The developments toward a general multilevel optimization capability and results for a three-level structural optimization are described. The method partitions a structure into a number of substructuring levels where each substructure corresponds to a subsystem in the general case of an engineering system. The method is illustrated by a portal framework that decomposes into individual beams. Each beam is a box that can be further decomposed into stiffened plates. Substructuring for this example spans three different levels: (1) the bottom level of finite elements representing the plates; (2) an intermediate level of beams treated as substructures; and (3) the top level for the assembled structure. The three-level case is now considered to be qualitatively complete.

  19. Multilevel Atomic Coherent States and Atomic Holomorphic Representation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Chang-Qi; Haake, Fritz

    1996-01-01

    The notion of atomic coherent states is extended to the case of multilevel atom collective. Based on atomic coherent states, a holomorphic representation for atom collective states and operators is defined. An example is given to illustrate its application.

  20. Novel multilevel inverter carrier-based PWM method

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, L.M.; Habetler, T.G.

    1999-10-01

    The advent of the transformerless multilevel inverter topology has brought forth various pulsewidth modulation (PWM) schemes as a means to control the switching of the active devices in each of the multiple voltage levels in the inverter. An analysis of how existing multilevel carrier-based PWM affects switch utilization for the different levels of a diode-clamped inverter is conducted. Two novel carrier-based multilevel PWM schemes are presented which help to optimize or balance the switch utilization in multilevel inverters. A 10-kW prototype six-level diode-clamped inverter has been built and controlled with the novel PWM strategies proposed in this paper to act as a voltage-source inverter for a motor drive.

  1. Integrated structure/control law design by multilevel optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Michael G.; Schmidt, David K.

    1989-01-01

    A new approach to integrated structure/control law design based on multilevel optimization is presented. This new approach is applicable to aircraft and spacecraft and allows for the independent design of the structure and control law. Integration of the designs is achieved through use of an upper level coordination problem formulation within the multilevel optimization framework. The method requires the use of structure and control law design sensitivity information. A general multilevel structure/control law design problem formulation is given, and the use of Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control law design and design sensitivity methods within the formulation is illustrated. Results of three simple integrated structure/control law design examples are presented. These results show the capability of structure and control law design tradeoffs to improve controlled system performance within the multilevel approach.

  2. Multi-level bandwidth efficient block modulation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu

    1989-01-01

    The multilevel technique is investigated for combining block coding and modulation. There are four parts. In the first part, a formulation is presented for signal sets on which modulation codes are to be constructed. Distance measures on a signal set are defined and their properties are developed. In the second part, a general formulation is presented for multilevel modulation codes in terms of component codes with appropriate Euclidean distances. The distance properties, Euclidean weight distribution and linear structure of multilevel modulation codes are investigated. In the third part, several specific methods for constructing multilevel block modulation codes with interdependency among component codes are proposed. Given a multilevel block modulation code C with no interdependency among the binary component codes, the proposed methods give a multilevel block modulation code C which has the same rate as C, a minimum squared Euclidean distance not less than that of code C, a trellis diagram with the same number of states as that of C and a smaller number of nearest neighbor codewords than that of C. In the last part, error performance of block modulation codes is analyzed for an AWGN channel based on soft-decision maximum likelihood decoding. Error probabilities of some specific codes are evaluated based on their Euclidean weight distributions and simulation results.

  3. Biomechanics of Cervical ‘Skip’ Corpectomy versus Standard Multilevel Corpectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Murat; Yüksel, K. Zafer; Baek, Seungwon; Sawa, Anna G.U.; Dalbayrak, Sedat; Sonntag, Volker K.H.; Crawford, Neil R.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design In vitro biomechanical study of flexibility with finite element simulation to estimate screw stresses. Objective To compare cervical spinal stability after a standard plated three-level corpectomy with stability after a plated three-level “skip” corpectomy where the middle vertebra is left intact (i.e., two one-level corpectomies), and to quantify pullout forces acting on the screws during various loading modes. Summary of Background Data Clinically, three-level cervical plated corpectomy has a high rate of failure, partially because only four contact points affix the plate to the upper and lower intact vertebrae. Leaving the intermediate vertebral body intact for additional fixation points may overcome this problem while still allowing dural sac decompression. Methods Quasistatic nonconstraining torque (maximum 1 Nm) induced flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation while angular motion was recorded stereophotogrammetrically. Specimens were tested intact and after corpectomy with standard plated and strut-grafted three-level corpectomy (7 specimens) or ‘skip’ corpectomy (7 specimens). Screw stresses were quantified using a validated finite element model of C3–C7 mimicking experimentally tested groups. Skip corpectomy with C5 screws omitted was also simulated. Results Plated skip corpectomy tended to be more stable than plated standard corpectomy, but the difference was not significant. Compared to standard plated corpectomy, plated skip corpectomy reduced peak screw pull-out force during axial rotation (mode of loading of highest peak force) by 15% (4-screw attachment) and 19% (6-screw attachment). Conclusions Skip corpectomy is a good alternative to standard three-level corpectomy to improve stability, especially during lateral bending. Under pure moment loading, the screws of a cervical multilevel plate experience the highest pullout forces during axial rotation. Thus, limiting this movement in patients undergoing plated

  4. Cascade Multilevel Inverters for Utility Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, F.Z., McKeever, J.W., Adams, D.J.

    1997-12-31

    Cascade multilevel inverters have been developed by the authors for utility applications. A cascade M-level inverter consists of (M-1)/2 H- bridges in which each bridge has its own separate dc source. The new inverter: (1) can generate almost sinusoidal waveform voltage while only switching one time per fundamental cycle, (2) can eliminate transformers of multipulse inverters used in conventional utility interfaces and static var compensators, and (3) makes possible direct parallel or series connection to medium- and high-voltage power systems without any transformers. In other words, the cascade inverter is much more efficient and suitable for utility applications than traditional multipulse and pulse width modulation (PWM) inverters. The authors have experimentally demonstrated the superiority of the new inverter for reactive power (var) and harmonic compensation. This paper will summarize features,feasibility, and control schemes of the cascade inverter for utility applications including utility interface of renewable energy, voltage regulation, var compensation, and harmonic filtering in power systems.Analytical, simulated, and experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the new inverters.

  5. Learning Stable Multilevel Dictionaries for Sparse Representations.

    PubMed

    Thiagarajan, Jayaraman J; Ramamurthy, Karthikeyan Natesan; Spanias, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Sparse representations using learned dictionaries are being increasingly used with success in several data processing and machine learning applications. The increasing need for learning sparse models in large-scale applications motivates the development of efficient, robust, and provably good dictionary learning algorithms. Algorithmic stability and generalizability are desirable characteristics for dictionary learning algorithms that aim to build global dictionaries, which can efficiently model any test data similar to the training samples. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to learn dictionaries for sparse representations from large scale data, and prove that the proposed learning algorithm is stable and generalizable asymptotically. The algorithm employs a 1-D subspace clustering procedure, the K-hyperline clustering, to learn a hierarchical dictionary with multiple levels. We also propose an information-theoretic scheme to estimate the number of atoms needed in each level of learning and develop an ensemble approach to learn robust dictionaries. Using the proposed dictionaries, the sparse code for novel test data can be computed using a low-complexity pursuit procedure. We demonstrate the stability and generalization characteristics of the proposed algorithm using simulations. We also evaluate the utility of the multilevel dictionaries in compressed recovery and subspace learning applications.

  6. Gaussian translation operator in a multilevel scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Thorkild B.; Borries, Oscar

    2015-08-01

    A multilevel computation scheme for time-harmonic fields in three dimensions will be formulated with a new Gaussian translation operator that decays exponentially outside a circular cone centered on the line connecting the source and observation groups. This Gaussian translation operator is directional and diagonal with its sharpness determined by a beam parameter. When the beam parameter is set to zero, the Gaussian translation operator reduces to the standard fast multipole method translation operator. The directionality of the Gaussian translation operator makes it possible to reduce the number of plane waves required to achieve a given accuracy. The sampling rate can be determined straightforwardly to achieve any desired accuracy. The use of the computation scheme will be illustrated through a near-field scanning problem where the far-field pattern of a source is determined from near-field measurements with a known probe. Here the Gaussian translation operator improves the condition number of the matrix equation that determines the far-field pattern. The Gaussian translation operator can also be used when the probe pattern is known only in one hemisphere, as is common in practice. Also, the Gaussian translation operator will be used to solve the scattering problem of the perfectly conducting sphere.

  7. Multi-level Conceptual Modeling and OWL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumayr, Bernd; Schrefl, Michael

    Ontological metamodeling or multilevel-modeling refers to describing complex domains at multiple levels of abstraction, especially in domains where the borderline between individuals and classes is not clear cut. Punning in OWL2 provides decideable metamodeling support by allowing to use one symbol both as identifier of a class as well as of an individual. In conceptual modeling more powerful approaches to ontological metamodeling exist: materialization, potency-based deep instantiation, and m-objects/m-relationships. These approaches not only support to treat classes as individuals but also to describe domain concepts with members at multiple levels of abstraction. Based on a mapping from m-objects/m-relationships to OWL we show how to transfer these ideas from conceptual modeling to ontology engineering. Therefore we have to combine closed world and open world reasoning. We provide semantic-preserving mappings from m-objects and m-relationships to the decideable fragment of OWL, extended by integrity constraints, and sketch basic tool support for applying this approach.

  8. Experiments in encoding multilevel images as quadtrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    Image storage requirements for several encoding methods are investigated and the use of quadtrees with multigray level or multicolor images are explored. The results of encoding a variety of images having up to 256 gray levels using three schemes (full raster, runlength and quadtree) are presented. Although there is considerable literature on the use of quadtrees to store and manipulate binary images, their application to multilevel images is relatively undeveloped. The potential advantage of quadtree encoding is that an entire area with a uniform gray level may be encoded as a unit. A pointerless quadtree encoding scheme is described. Data are presented on the size of the quadtree required to encode selected images and on the relative storage requirements of the three encoding schemes. A segmentation scheme based on the statistical variation of gray levels within a quadtree quadrant is described. This parametric scheme may be used to control the storage required by an encoded image and to preprocess a scene for feature identification. Several sets of black and white and pseudocolor images obtained by varying the segmentation parameter are shown.

  9. Analysis of biomedical data with multilevel glyphs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper presents multilevel data glyphs optimized for the interactive knowledge discovery and visualization of large biomedical data sets. Data glyphs are three- dimensional objects defined by multiple levels of geometric descriptions (levels of detail) combined with a mapping of data attributes to graphical elements and methods, which specify their spatial position. Methods In the data mapping phase, which is done by a biomedical expert, meta information about the data attributes (scale, number of distinct values) are compared with the visual capabilities of the graphical elements in order to give a feedback to the user about the correctness of the variable mapping. The spatial arrangement of glyphs is done in a dimetric view, which leads to high data density, a simplified 3D navigation and avoids perspective distortion. Results We show the usage of data glyphs in the disease analyser a visual analytics application for personalized medicine and provide an outlook to a biomedical web visualization scenario. Conclusions Data glyphs can be successfully applied in the disease analyser for the analysis of big medical data sets. Especially the automatic validation of the data mapping, selection of subgroups within histograms and the visual comparison of the value distributions were seen by experts as an important functionality. PMID:25079119

  10. The genetical theory of multilevel selection

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, A

    2015-01-01

    The theory of multilevel selection (MLS) is beset with conceptual difficulties. Although it is widely agreed that covariance between group trait and group fitness may arise in the natural world and drive a response to ‘group selection’, ambiguity exists over the precise meaning of group trait and group fitness and as to whether group selection should be defined according to changes in frequencies of different types of individual or different types of group. Moreover, the theory of MLS has failed to properly engage with the problem of class structure, which greatly limits its empirical application to, for example, social insects whose colonies are structured into separate age, sex, caste and ploidy classes. Here, I develop a genetical theory of MLS, to address these problems. I show that taking a genetical approach facilitates a decomposition of group-level traits – including reproductive success – into the separate contributions made by each constituent individual, even in the context of so-called emergence. However, I uncover a novel problem with the group-oriented approach: in many scenarios, it may not be possible to express a meaningful covariance between trait and fitness at the level of the social group, because the group's constituents belong to separate, irreconcilable classes. PMID:25475922

  11. Multilevel Monte Carlo simulation of Coulomb collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Rosin, M.S.; Ricketson, L.F.; Dimits, A.M.; Caflisch, R.E.; Cohen, B.I.

    2014-10-01

    We present a new, for plasma physics, highly efficient multilevel Monte Carlo numerical method for simulating Coulomb collisions. The method separates and optimally minimizes the finite-timestep and finite-sampling errors inherent in the Langevin representation of the Landau–Fokker–Planck equation. It does so by combining multiple solutions to the underlying equations with varying numbers of timesteps. For a desired level of accuracy ε, the computational cost of the method is O(ε{sup −2}) or O(ε{sup −2}(lnε){sup 2}), depending on the underlying discretization, Milstein or Euler–Maruyama respectively. This is to be contrasted with a cost of O(ε{sup −3}) for direct simulation Monte Carlo or binary collision methods. We successfully demonstrate the method with a classic beam diffusion test case in 2D, making use of the Lévy area approximation for the correlated Milstein cross terms, and generating a computational saving of a factor of 100 for ε=10{sup −5}. We discuss the importance of the method for problems in which collisions constitute the computational rate limiting step, and its limitations.

  12. Multilevel Monte Carlo simulation of Coulomb collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Rosin, M. S.; Ricketson, L. F.; Dimits, A. M.; Caflisch, R. E.; Cohen, B. I.

    2014-05-29

    We present a new, for plasma physics, highly efficient multilevel Monte Carlo numerical method for simulating Coulomb collisions. The method separates and optimally minimizes the finite-timestep and finite-sampling errors inherent in the Langevin representation of the Landau–Fokker–Planck equation. It does so by combining multiple solutions to the underlying equations with varying numbers of timesteps. For a desired level of accuracy ε , the computational cost of the method is O(ε–2) or (ε–2(lnε)2), depending on the underlying discretization, Milstein or Euler–Maruyama respectively. This is to be contrasted with a cost of O(ε–3) for direct simulation Monte Carlo or binary collision methods.more » We successfully demonstrate the method with a classic beam diffusion test case in 2D, making use of the Lévy area approximation for the correlated Milstein cross terms, and generating a computational saving of a factor of 100 for ε=10–5. Lastly, we discuss the importance of the method for problems in which collisions constitute the computational rate limiting step, and its limitations.« less

  13. Multilevel Monte Carlo simulation of Coulomb collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Rosin, M. S.; Ricketson, L. F.; Dimits, A. M.; Caflisch, R. E.; Cohen, B. I.

    2014-05-29

    We present a new, for plasma physics, highly efficient multilevel Monte Carlo numerical method for simulating Coulomb collisions. The method separates and optimally minimizes the finite-timestep and finite-sampling errors inherent in the Langevin representation of the Landau–Fokker–Planck equation. It does so by combining multiple solutions to the underlying equations with varying numbers of timesteps. For a desired level of accuracy ε , the computational cost of the method is O(ε–2) or (ε–2(lnε)2), depending on the underlying discretization, Milstein or Euler–Maruyama respectively. This is to be contrasted with a cost of O(ε–3) for direct simulation Monte Carlo or binary collision methods. We successfully demonstrate the method with a classic beam diffusion test case in 2D, making use of the Lévy area approximation for the correlated Milstein cross terms, and generating a computational saving of a factor of 100 for ε=10–5. Lastly, we discuss the importance of the method for problems in which collisions constitute the computational rate limiting step, and its limitations.

  14. LOADING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-10-01

    A device is presented for loading or charging bodies of fissionable material into a reactor. This device consists of a car, mounted on tracks, into which the fissionable materials may be placed at a remote area, transported to the reactor, and inserted without danger to the operating personnel. The car has mounted on it a heavily shielded magazine for holding a number of the radioactive bodies. The magazine is of a U-shaped configuration and is inclined to the horizontal plane, with a cap covering the elevated open end, and a remotely operated plunger at the lower, closed end. After the fissionable bodies are loaded in the magazine and transported to the reactor, the plunger inserts the body at the lower end of the magazine into the reactor, then is withdrawn, thereby allowing gravity to roll the remaining bodies into position for successive loading in a similar manner.

  15. Dispersion retrieval from multi-level ultra-deep reactive-ion-etched microstructures for terahertz slow-wave circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Baik, Chan-Wook Young Ahn, Ho; Kim, Yongsung; Lee, Jooho; Hong, Seogwoo; Hee Choi, Jun; Kim, Sunil; Hun Lee, Sang; Min Kim, Jong; Hwang, Sungwoo; Yeon Jun, So; Yu, SeGi; Lawrence Ives, R.

    2014-01-13

    A multi-level microstructure is proposed for terahertz slow-wave circuits, with dispersion relation retrieved by scattering parameter measurements. The measured return loss shows strong resonances above the cutoff with negligible phase shifts compared with finite element analysis. Splitting the circuit into multi levels enables a low aspect ratio configuration that alleviates the loading effect of deep-reactive-ion etching on silicon wafers. This makes it easier to achieve flat-etched bottom and smooth sidewall profiles. The dispersion retrieved from the measurement, therefore, corresponds well to the theoretical estimation. The result provides a straightforward way to the precise determination of dispersions in terahertz vacuum electronics.

  16. Best Practice Elements of Multilevel Suicide Prevention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.; Sarchiapone, Marco; Postuvan, Vita; Volker, Daniëlle; Roskar, Saska; Grum, Alenka Tančič; Carli, Vladimir; McDaid, David; O’Connor, Rory; Maxwell, Margaret; Ibelshäuser, Angela; Van Audenhove, Chantal; Scheerder, Gert; Sisask, Merike; Gusmão, Ricardo; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based best practices for incorporation into an optimal multilevel intervention for suicide prevention should be identifiable in the literature. Aims: To identify effective interventions for the prevention of suicidal behavior. Methods: Review of systematic reviews found in the Pubmed, Cochrane, and DARE databases. Steps include risk-of-bias assessment, data extraction, summarization of best practices, and identification of synergistic potentials of such practices in multilevel approaches. Results: Six relevant systematic reviews were found. Best practices identified as effective were as follows: training general practitioners (GPs) to recognize and treat depression and suicidality, improving accessibility of care for at-risk people, and restricting access to means of suicide. Although no outcomes were reported for multilevel interventions or for synergistic effects of multiple interventions applied together, indirect support was found for possible synergies in particular combinations of interventions within multilevel strategies. Conclusions: A number of evidence-based best practices for the prevention of suicide and suicide attempts were identified. Research is needed on the nature and extent of potential synergistic effects of various preventive activities within multilevel interventions. PMID:21945840

  17. Multilevel summation method for electrostatic force evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hardy, David J; Wu, Zhe; Phillips, James C; Stone, John E; Skeel, Robert D; Schulten, Klaus

    2015-02-10

    The multilevel summation method (MSM) offers an efficient algorithm utilizing convolution for evaluating long-range forces arising in molecular dynamics simulations. Shifting the balance of computation and communication, MSM provides key advantages over the ubiquitous particle–mesh Ewald (PME) method, offering better scaling on parallel computers and permitting more modeling flexibility, with support for periodic systems as does PME but also for semiperiodic and nonperiodic systems. The version of MSM available in the simulation program NAMD is described, and its performance and accuracy are compared with the PME method. The accuracy feasible for MSM in practical applications reproduces PME results for water property calculations of density, diffusion constant, dielectric constant, surface tension, radial distribution function, and distance-dependent Kirkwood factor, even though the numerical accuracy of PME is higher than that of MSM. Excellent agreement between MSM and PME is found also for interface potentials of air–water and membrane–water interfaces, where long-range Coulombic interactions are crucial. Applications demonstrate also the suitability of MSM for systems with semiperiodic and nonperiodic boundaries. For this purpose, simulations have been performed with periodic boundaries along directions parallel to a membrane surface but not along the surface normal, yielding membrane pore formation induced by an imbalance of charge across the membrane. Using a similar semiperiodic boundary condition, ion conduction through a graphene nanopore driven by an ion gradient has been simulated. Furthermore, proteins have been simulated inside a single spherical water droplet. Finally, parallel scalability results show the ability of MSM to outperform PME when scaling a system of modest size (less than 100 K atoms) to over a thousand processors, demonstrating the suitability of MSM for large-scale parallel simulation. PMID:25691833

  18. On the thermodynamics of multilevel evolution.

    PubMed

    Tessera, Marc; Hoelzer, Guy A

    2013-09-01

    Biodiversity is hierarchically structured both phylogenetically and functionally. Phylogenetic hierarchy is understood as a product of branching organic evolution as described by Darwin. Ecosystem biologists understand some aspects of functional hierarchy, such as food web architecture, as a product of evolutionary ecology; but functional hierarchy extends to much lower scales of organization than those studied by ecologists. We argue that the more general use of the term "evolution" employed by physicists and applied to non-living systems connects directly to the narrow biological meaning. Physical evolution is best understood as a thermodynamic phenomenon, and this perspective comfortably includes all of biological evolution. We suggest four dynamical factors that build on each other in a hierarchical fashion and set the stage for the Darwinian evolution of biological systems: (1) the entropic erosion of structure; (2) the construction of dissipative systems; (3) the reproduction of growing systems and (4) the historical memory accrued to populations of reproductive agents by the acquisition of hereditary mechanisms. A particular level of evolution can underpin the emergence of higher levels, but evolutionary processes persist at each level in the hierarchy. We also argue that particular evolutionary processes can occur at any level of the hierarchy where they are not obstructed by material constraints. This theoretical framework provides an extensive basis for understanding natural selection as a multilevel process. The extensive literature on thermodynamics in turn provides an important advantage to this perspective on the evolution of higher levels of organization, such as the evolution of altruism that can accompany the emergence of social organization.

  19. Multilevel Summation Method for Electrostatic Force Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The multilevel summation method (MSM) offers an efficient algorithm utilizing convolution for evaluating long-range forces arising in molecular dynamics simulations. Shifting the balance of computation and communication, MSM provides key advantages over the ubiquitous particle–mesh Ewald (PME) method, offering better scaling on parallel computers and permitting more modeling flexibility, with support for periodic systems as does PME but also for semiperiodic and nonperiodic systems. The version of MSM available in the simulation program NAMD is described, and its performance and accuracy are compared with the PME method. The accuracy feasible for MSM in practical applications reproduces PME results for water property calculations of density, diffusion constant, dielectric constant, surface tension, radial distribution function, and distance-dependent Kirkwood factor, even though the numerical accuracy of PME is higher than that of MSM. Excellent agreement between MSM and PME is found also for interface potentials of air–water and membrane–water interfaces, where long-range Coulombic interactions are crucial. Applications demonstrate also the suitability of MSM for systems with semiperiodic and nonperiodic boundaries. For this purpose, simulations have been performed with periodic boundaries along directions parallel to a membrane surface but not along the surface normal, yielding membrane pore formation induced by an imbalance of charge across the membrane. Using a similar semiperiodic boundary condition, ion conduction through a graphene nanopore driven by an ion gradient has been simulated. Furthermore, proteins have been simulated inside a single spherical water droplet. Finally, parallel scalability results show the ability of MSM to outperform PME when scaling a system of modest size (less than 100 K atoms) to over a thousand processors, demonstrating the suitability of MSM for large-scale parallel simulation. PMID:25691833

  20. Multilevel Workflow System in the ATLAS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodin, M.; De, K.; Garcia Navarro, J.; Golubkov, D.; Klimentov, A.; Maeno, T.; Vaniachine, A.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    The ATLAS experiment is scaling up Big Data processing for the next LHC run using a multilevel workflow system comprised of many layers. In Big Data processing ATLAS deals with datasets, not individual files. Similarly a task (comprised of many jobs) has become a unit of the ATLAS workflow in distributed computing, with about 0.8M tasks processed per year. In order to manage the diversity of LHC physics (exceeding 35K physics samples per year), the individual data processing tasks are organized into workflows. For example, the Monte Carlo workflow is composed of many steps: generate or configure hard-processes, hadronize signal and minimum-bias (pileup) events, simulate energy deposition in the ATLAS detector, digitize electronics response, simulate triggers, reconstruct data, convert the reconstructed data into ROOT ntuples for physics analysis, etc. Outputs are merged and/or filtered as necessary to optimize the chain. The bi-level workflow manager - ProdSys2 - generates actual workflow tasks and their jobs are executed across more than a hundred distributed computing sites by PanDA - the ATLAS job-level workload management system. On the outer level, the Database Engine for Tasks (DEfT) empowers production managers with templated workflow definitions. On the next level, the Job Execution and Definition Interface (JEDI) is integrated with PanDA to provide dynamic job definition tailored to the sites capabilities. We report on scaling up the production system to accommodate a growing number of requirements from main ATLAS areas: Trigger, Physics and Data Preparation.

  1. A robust multilevel simultaneous eigenvalue solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costiner, Sorin; Taasan, Shlomo

    1993-01-01

    Multilevel (ML) algorithms for eigenvalue problems are often faced with several types of difficulties such as: the mixing of approximated eigenvectors by the solution process, the approximation of incomplete clusters of eigenvectors, the poor representation of solution on coarse levels, and the existence of close or equal eigenvalues. Algorithms that do not treat appropriately these difficulties usually fail, or their performance degrades when facing them. These issues motivated the development of a robust adaptive ML algorithm which treats these difficulties, for the calculation of a few eigenvectors and their corresponding eigenvalues. The main techniques used in the new algorithm include: the adaptive completion and separation of the relevant clusters on different levels, the simultaneous treatment of solutions within each cluster, and the robustness tests which monitor the algorithm's efficiency and convergence. The eigenvectors' separation efficiency is based on a new ML projection technique generalizing the Rayleigh Ritz projection, combined with a technique, the backrotations. These separation techniques, when combined with an FMG formulation, in many cases lead to algorithms of O(qN) complexity, for q eigenvectors of size N on the finest level. Previously developed ML algorithms are less focused on the mentioned difficulties. Moreover, algorithms which employ fine level separation techniques are of O(q(sub 2)N) complexity and usually do not overcome all these difficulties. Computational examples are presented where Schrodinger type eigenvalue problems in 2-D and 3-D, having equal and closely clustered eigenvalues, are solved with the efficiency of the Poisson multigrid solver. A second order approximation is obtained in O(qN) work, where the total computational work is equivalent to only a few fine level relaxations per eigenvector.

  2. Carbohydrate Loading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  3. Multilevel methods for elliptic problems on unstructured grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Tony F.; Go, Susie; Zikatanov, Ludmil

    1997-01-01

    Multilevel methods on unstructured grids for elliptic problems are reviewed. The advantages of these techniques are the flexible approximation of the boundaries of complicated physical domains and the ability to adapt the grid to the resolution of fine scaled structures. Multilevel methods, which include multigrid methods and domain decomposition methods, depend on the correct splitting of appropriate finite element spaces. The standard splittings used in the structured grid case cannot be directly extended to unstructured grids due to their requirement for a hierarchical grid structure. Issues related to the application of multilevel methods to unstructured grids are discussed, including how the coarse spaces and transfer operators are defined and how different types of boundary conditions are treated. An obvious way to generate a coarse mesh is to regrid the physical domain several times. Several alternatives are proposed and discussed: node nested coarse spaces, agglomerated coarse spaces and algebraically generated coarse spaces.

  4. Health reforms as examples of multilevel interventions in cancer care.

    PubMed

    Flood, Ann B; Fennell, Mary L; Devers, Kelly J

    2012-05-01

    To increase access and improve system quality and efficiency, President Obama signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act with sweeping changes to the nation's health-care system. Although not intended to be specific to cancer, the act's implementation will profoundly impact cancer care. Its components will influence multiple levels of the health-care environment including states, communities, health-care organizations, and individuals seeking care. To illustrate these influences, two reforms are considered: 1) accountable care organizations and 2) insurance-based reforms to gather evidence about effectiveness. We discuss these reforms using three facets of multilevel interventions: 1) their intended and unintended consequences, 2) the importance of timing, and 3) their implications for cancer. The success of complex health reforms requires understanding the scientific basis and evidence for carrying out such multilevel interventions. Conversely and equally important, successful implementation of multilevel interventions depends on understanding the political setting and goals of health-care reform.

  5. A multilevel memetic algorithm for large SAT-encoded problems.

    PubMed

    Bouhmala, Noureddine

    2012-01-01

    Many researchers have focused on the satisfiability problem and on many of its variants due to its applicability in many areas of artificial intelligence. This NP-complete problem refers to the task of finding a satisfying assignment that makes a Boolean expression evaluate to True. In this work, we introduce a memetic algorithm that makes use of the multilevel paradigm. The multilevel paradigm refers to the process of dividing large and difficult problems into smaller ones, which are hopefully much easier to solve, and then work backward toward the solution of the original problem, using a solution from a previous level as a starting solution at the next level. Results comparing the memetic with and without the multilevel paradigm are presented using problem instances drawn from real industrial hardware designs. PMID:22540191

  6. Multilevel animal societies can emerge from cultural transmission

    PubMed Central

    Cantor, Maurício; Shoemaker, Lauren G.; Cabral, Reniel B.; Flores, César O.; Varga, Melinda; Whitehead, Hal

    2015-01-01

    Multilevel societies, containing hierarchically nested social levels, are remarkable social structures whose origins are unclear. The social relationships of sperm whales are organized in a multilevel society with an upper level composed of clans of individuals communicating using similar patterns of clicks (codas). Using agent-based models informed by an 18-year empirical study, we show that clans are unlikely products of stochastic processes (genetic or cultural drift) but likely originate from cultural transmission via biased social learning of codas. Distinct clusters of individuals with similar acoustic repertoires, mirroring the empirical clans, emerge when whales learn preferentially the most common codas (conformism) from behaviourally similar individuals (homophily). Cultural transmission seems key in the partitioning of sperm whales into sympatric clans. These findings suggest that processes similar to those that generate complex human cultures could not only be at play in non-human societies but also create multilevel social structures in the wild. PMID:26348688

  7. Multi-level Hierarchical Poly Tree computer architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padovan, Joe; Gute, Doug

    1990-01-01

    Based on the concept of hierarchical substructuring, this paper develops an optimal multi-level Hierarchical Poly Tree (HPT) parallel computer architecture scheme which is applicable to the solution of finite element and difference simulations. Emphasis is given to minimizing computational effort, in-core/out-of-core memory requirements, and the data transfer between processors. In addition, a simplified communications network that reduces the number of I/O channels between processors is presented. HPT configurations that yield optimal superlinearities are also demonstrated. Moreover, to generalize the scope of applicability, special attention is given to developing: (1) multi-level reduction trees which provide an orderly/optimal procedure by which model densification/simplification can be achieved, as well as (2) methodologies enabling processor grading that yields architectures with varying types of multi-level granularity.

  8. Multilevel animal societies can emerge from cultural transmission.

    PubMed

    Cantor, Maurício; Shoemaker, Lauren G; Cabral, Reniel B; Flores, César O; Varga, Melinda; Whitehead, Hal

    2015-01-01

    Multilevel societies, containing hierarchically nested social levels, are remarkable social structures whose origins are unclear. The social relationships of sperm whales are organized in a multilevel society with an upper level composed of clans of individuals communicating using similar patterns of clicks (codas). Using agent-based models informed by an 18-year empirical study, we show that clans are unlikely products of stochastic processes (genetic or cultural drift) but likely originate from cultural transmission via biased social learning of codas. Distinct clusters of individuals with similar acoustic repertoires, mirroring the empirical clans, emerge when whales learn preferentially the most common codas (conformism) from behaviourally similar individuals (homophily). Cultural transmission seems key in the partitioning of sperm whales into sympatric clans. These findings suggest that processes similar to those that generate complex human cultures could not only be at play in non-human societies but also create multilevel social structures in the wild. PMID:26348688

  9. Parametric Multi-Level Tiling of Imperfectly Nested Loops

    SciTech Connect

    Hartono, Albert; Baskaran, Muthu M.; Bastoul, Cedric; Cohen, Albert; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Norris, Boyana; Ramanujam, J.; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy

    2009-05-18

    Tiling is a critical loop transformation for generating high-performance code on modern architectures. Efficient generation of multilevel tiled code is essential to exploit several levels of parallelism and/or to maximize data reuse in deep memory hierarchies. Tiled loops with parameterized tile sizes (not compile time constants) facilitate runtime feedback and dynamic optimizations used in iterative compilation and automatic tuning. The existing parametric multilevel tiling approach has focused on transformation for perfectly nested loops, where all assignment statements are contained inside the innermost loop of a loop nest. Previous solutions to tiling for imperfect loop nests are limited to the case where tile sizes are fixed. In this paper, we present an approach to parameterized multilevel tiling for imperfectly nested loops. Our tiling algorithm generates loops that iterate over full rectangular tiles that are amenable for potential compiler optimizations such as register tiling. Experimental results using a number of computational benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of our tiling approach.

  10. Multilevel Modeling of Cognitive Function in Schizophrenic Patients and Their First Degree Relatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia; Toulopoulou, Timothea; Murray, Robin M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes multilevel modeling of cognitive function in 70 subjects with schizophrenia, 115 of their healthy first-degree relatives, and 66 controls. Describes four methodological issues arising during data analysis and how multilevel modeling can be used, and discusses some cautions in the use of multilevel models. (SLD)

  11. A Multilevel Algorithm for the Solution of Second Order Elliptic Differential Equations on Sparse Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pflaum, Christoph

    1996-01-01

    A multilevel algorithm is presented that solves general second order elliptic partial differential equations on adaptive sparse grids. The multilevel algorithm consists of several V-cycles. Suitable discretizations provide that the discrete equation system can be solved in an efficient way. Numerical experiments show a convergence rate of order Omicron(1) for the multilevel algorithm.

  12. Multilevel Modeling: Applications to Research on the Assessment of Student Learning, Engagement, and Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Pu-Shih Daniel; Cragg, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the suitability of multilevel modeling in the context of institutional research (IR) may ease the doubts of some IR professionals. However, the need for training on how to conduct and report multilevel modeling analysis remains. A major roadblock hindering the proliferation of multilevel modeling in IR is the perception that…

  13. Multilevel SEM Strategies for Evaluating Mediation in Three-Level Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Strategies for modeling mediation effects in multilevel data have proliferated over the past decade, keeping pace with the demands of applied research. Approaches for testing mediation hypotheses with 2-level clustered data were first proposed using multilevel modeling (MLM) and subsequently using multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) to…

  14. Element Agglomeration Algebraic Multilevel Monte-Carlo Library

    SciTech Connect

    2015-02-19

    ElagMC is a parallel C++ library for Multilevel Monte Carlo simulations with algebraically constructed coarse spaces. ElagMC enables Multilevel variance reduction techniques in the context of general unstructured meshes by using the specialized element-based agglomeration techniques implemented in ELAG (the Element-Agglomeration Algebraic Multigrid and Upscaling Library developed by U. Villa and P. Vassilevski and currently under review for public release). The ElabMC library can support different type of deterministic problems, including mixed finite element discretizations of subsurface flow problems.

  15. Element Agglomeration Algebraic Multilevel Monte-Carlo Library

    2015-02-19

    ElagMC is a parallel C++ library for Multilevel Monte Carlo simulations with algebraically constructed coarse spaces. ElagMC enables Multilevel variance reduction techniques in the context of general unstructured meshes by using the specialized element-based agglomeration techniques implemented in ELAG (the Element-Agglomeration Algebraic Multigrid and Upscaling Library developed by U. Villa and P. Vassilevski and currently under review for public release). The ElabMC library can support different type of deterministic problems, including mixed finite element discretizationsmore » of subsurface flow problems.« less

  16. Advanced static compensation using a multilevel GTO thyristor inverter

    SciTech Connect

    Menzies, R.W.; Zhuang, Y.

    1995-04-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of using the multilevel gate turn-off (GTO) thyristor inverter as an advanced static var compensator (STATCON). The studies have indicated that the design shows promise and that the fundamental frequency switching of the GTO thyristors is superior to various forms of pulse-width modulation. The main advantages of the multilevel STATCON over other types of STATCON is that each individual GTO thyristor is clamped to a dc voltage and can be switched independently. Hence a staircase type of output voltage can be used to reduce the harmonics, the filtering requirements and the switching losses.

  17. Dynamic Load Balancing Data Centric Storage for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Song, Seokil; Bok, Kyoungsoo; Kwak, Yun Sik; Goo, Bongeun; Kwak, Youngsik; Ko, Daesik

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new data centric storage that is dynamically adapted to the work load changes is proposed. The proposed data centric storage distributes the load of hot spot areas to neighboring sensor nodes by using a multilevel grid technique. The proposed method is also able to use existing routing protocols such as GPSR (Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing) with small changes. Through simulation, the proposed method enhances the lifetime of sensor networks over one of the state-of-the-art data centric storages. We implement the proposed method based on an operating system for sensor networks, and evaluate the performance through running based on a simulation tool. PMID:22163472

  18. LOADED WAVEGUIDES

    DOEpatents

    Mullett, L.B.; Loach, B.G.; Adams, G.L.

    1958-06-24

    >Loaded waveguides are described for the propagation of electromagnetic waves with reduced phase velocities. A rectangular waveguide is dimensioned so as to cut-off the simple H/sub 01/ mode at the operating frequency. The waveguide is capacitance loaded, so as to reduce the phase velocity of the transmitted wave, by connecting an electrical conductor between directly opposite points in the major median plane on the narrower pair of waveguide walls. This conductor may take a corrugated shape or be an aperature member, the important factor being that the electrical length of the conductor is greater than one-half wavelength at the operating frequency. Prepared for the Second U.N. International ConferThe importance of nuclear standards is duscussed. A brief review of the international callaboration in this field is given. The proposal is made to let the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) coordinate the efforts from other groups. (W.D.M.)

  19. Multilevel Modeling of Science Achievement in the Timss Participating Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza; Kalantarrashidi, Shojae Aldin

    2015-01-01

    The authors aimed to investigate the variability in science achievement as a function of student-, school- and country-level factors. Achievement scores of 134,123 eighth-grade students from 4,511 schools of 29 countries who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study were analyzed. Multilevel modeling results…

  20. People Are Variables Too: Multilevel Structural Equations Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Paras D.; Neale, Michael C.

    2005-01-01

    The article uses confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) as a template to explain didactically multilevel structural equation models (ML-SEM) and to demonstrate the equivalence of general mixed-effects models and ML-SEM. An intuitively appealing graphical representation of complex ML-SEMs is introduced that succinctly describes the underlying model and…

  1. Hierarchical Data Structures, Institutional Research, and Multilevel Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Ann A.; Reed, Sandra J.

    2012-01-01

    Multilevel modeling (MLM), also referred to as hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) or mixed models, provides a powerful analytical framework through which to study colleges and universities and their impact on students. Due to the natural hierarchical structure of data obtained from students or faculty in colleges and universities, MLM offers many…

  2. Transforming SIBTEST to Account for Multilevel Data Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Brian F.; Finch, W. Holmes

    2015-01-01

    SIBTEST is a differential item functioning (DIF) detection method that is accurate and effective with small samples, in the presence of group mean differences, and for assessment of both uniform and nonuniform DIF. The presence of multilevel data with DIF detection has received increased attention. Ignoring such structure can inflate Type I error.…

  3. Multilevel Models in Family Research: Some Conceptual and Methodological Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachman, Jay; Crowder, Kyle

    2002-01-01

    Article introduces this journal's themes that are used to discuss issues surrounding analysis of multilevel data. It cites Butler's work on whether the effect of welfare benefits on premarital childbearing varies by context, Hoffman's work on the effect of context on adolescent drug use, and Simons' research on how the relationship between…

  4. Smart RTI: A Next-Generation Approach to Multilevel Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Compton, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, responsiveness to intervention (RTI) has become popular among many practitioners as a means of transforming schooling into a multilevel prevention system. Popularity aside, its successful implementation requires ambitious intent, a comprehensive structure, and coordinated service delivery. An effective RTI also depends on…

  5. Explaining ESL Essay Holistic Scores: A Multilevel Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    This study adopted a multilevel modeling (MLM) approach to examine the contribution of rater and essay factors to variability in ESL essay holistic scores. Previous research aiming to explain variability in essay holistic scores has focused on either rater or essay factors. The few studies that have examined the contribution of more than one…

  6. Neighborhoods and Child Maltreatment: A Multi-Level Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulton, Claudia; Korbin, Jill; Su, Marilyn

    This study explores the influence of neighborhood conditions on child maltreatment. Unlike previous studies conducted with protective services data aggregated to neighborhoods, this study uses a self-report measure of child abuse potential and controls for individual risk factors in a multilevel model. The survey was completed by an adult residing…

  7. Multilevel Modeling: Overview and Applications to Research in Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Jeffrey H.

    2011-01-01

    Multilevel modeling (MLM) is rapidly becoming the standard method of analyzing nested data, for example, data from students within multiple schools, data on multiple clients seen by a smaller number of therapists, and even longitudinal data. Although MLM analyses are likely to increase in frequency in counseling psychology research, many readers…

  8. College on Credit: A Multilevel Analysis of Student Loan Default

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Nicholas W.

    2014-01-01

    This study updates and expands the literature on student loan default. By applying multilevel regression to the Beginning Postsecondary Students survey, four key findings emerge. First, attending proprietary institutions is strongly associated with default, even after accounting for students' socioeconomic and academic backgrounds. Second,…

  9. Cross-Classification Multilevel Logistic Models in Psychometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van den Noortgate, Wim; De Boeck, Paul; Meulders, Michel

    2003-01-01

    In IRT models, responses are explained on the basis of person and item effects. Person effects are usually defined as a random sample from a population distribution. Regular IRT models therefore can be formulated as multilevel models, including a within-person part and a between-person part. In a similar way, the effects of the items can be…

  10. Attachment, Autonomy, and Emotional Reliance: A Multilevel Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports a test of a multilevel model investigating how attachment security and autonomy contribute to emotional reliance, or the willingness to seek interpersonal support. Participants ("N" = 247) completed online measures of attachment, autonomy, emotional reliance, and vitality with respect to several everyday…

  11. Multiple Imputation of Multilevel Missing Data-Rigor versus Simplicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drechsler, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Multiple imputation is widely accepted as the method of choice to address item-nonresponse in surveys. However, research on imputation strategies for the hierarchical structures that are typically found in the data in educational contexts is still limited. While a multilevel imputation model should be preferred from a theoretical point of view if…

  12. Handling Correlations between Covariates and Random Slopes in Multilevel Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Michael David; Castellano, Katherine E.; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia; Skrondal, Anders

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses estimation of multilevel/hierarchical linear models that include cluster-level random intercepts and random slopes. Viewing the models as structural, the random intercepts and slopes represent the effects of omitted cluster-level covariates that may be correlated with included covariates. The resulting correlations between…

  13. Using Multilevel Modeling in Language Assessment Research: A Conceptual Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    This article critiques traditional single-level statistical approaches (e.g., multiple regression analysis) to examining relationships between language test scores and variables in the assessment setting. It highlights the conceptual, methodological, and statistical problems associated with these techniques in dealing with multilevel or nested…

  14. Exploring the Nature of Divergent Thinking: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Jorg-Tobias; Holling, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a large sample with a clustered data structure from an educational context was utilized to analyze the relationship between cognitive abilities, school type, gender, and divergent thinking. The sample comprised 1098 students in 55 classrooms. A sequence of nested multilevel regression analyses revealed that processing capacity, as a…

  15. Determinants of Academic Entrepreneurship Behavior: A Multilevel Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llano, Joseph Anthony

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that universities encourage the acquisition and dissemination of new knowledge among university community members and beyond. However, what is less well understood is how universities encourage entrepreneurial (opportunity discovery, evaluation, and exploiting) behavior. This research investigated a multilevel model of the…

  16. Concorde and Discord: The Art of Multilevel Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Dougal; Schagen, Ian

    2008-01-01

    A recent issue of "International Journal of Research & Methods in Education" (IJRME) contained a challenging article by Stephen Gorard ["The Dubious Benefits of Multi-Level Modelling," "International Journal of Research & Method in Education," Vol. 30 (2), p221-236 (2007)] in which he attacks aspects of current practice in statistical modelling,…

  17. Daily Stressors in School-Age Children: A Multilevel Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar, Milagros; Alarcón, Rafael; Blanca, María J.; Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Rosel, Jesús F.; Trianes, María Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This study uses hierarchical or multilevel modeling to identify variables that contribute to daily stressors in a population of schoolchildren. Four hierarchical levels with several predictive variables were considered: student (age, sex, social adaptation of the student, number of life events and chronic stressors experienced, and educational…

  18. Multilevel Mediation Modeling in Group-Based Intervention Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krull, Jennifer L.; MacKinnon, David P.

    1999-01-01

    Proposes and evaluates a method to test for mediation in multilevel data sets formed when an intervention administered to groups is designed to produce change in individual mediator and outcome variables. Applies the method to the ATLAS intervention designed to decrease steroid use among high school football players. (SLD)

  19. Criminal Victimization and Crime Risk Perception: A Multilevel Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…

  20. Multilevel Analysis Methods for Partially Nested Cluster Randomized Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores multilevel modeling approaches for 2-group randomized experiments in which a treatment condition involving clusters of individuals is compared to a control condition involving only ungrouped individuals, otherwise known as partially nested cluster randomized designs (PNCRTs). Strategies for comparing groups from a PNCRT in the…

  1. Help Seeking in Online Collaborative Groupwork: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Jianxia; Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao

    2015-01-01

    This study examined predictive models for students' help seeking in the context of online collaborative groupwork. Results from multilevel analysis revealed that most of the variance in help seeking was at the individual student level, and multiple variables at the individual level were predictive of help-seeking behaviour. Help seeking was…

  2. Using multilevel models to quantify heterogeneity in resource selection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, T.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Christensen, S.A.; Norton, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Models of resource selection are being used increasingly to predict or model the effects of management actions rather than simply quantifying habitat selection. Multilevel, or hierarchical, models are an increasingly popular method to analyze animal resource selection because they impose a relatively weak stochastic constraint to model heterogeneity in habitat use and also account for unequal sample sizes among individuals. However, few studies have used multilevel models to model coefficients as a function of predictors that may influence habitat use at different scales or quantify differences in resource selection among groups. We used an example with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to illustrate how to model resource use as a function of distance to road that varies among deer by road density at the home range scale. We found that deer avoidance of roads decreased as road density increased. Also, we used multilevel models with sika deer (Cervus nippon) and white-tailed deer to examine whether resource selection differed between species. We failed to detect differences in resource use between these two species and showed how information-theoretic and graphical measures can be used to assess how resource use may have differed. Multilevel models can improve our understanding of how resource selection varies among individuals and provides an objective, quantifiable approach to assess differences or changes in resource selection. ?? The Wildlife Society, 2011.

  3. Examining Elementary Social Studies Marginalization: A Multilevel Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitchett, Paul G.; Heafner, Tina L.; Lambert, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing data from the National Center for Education Statistics Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), a multilevel model (Hierarchical Linear Model) was developed to examine the association of teacher/classroom and state level indicators on reported elementary social studies instructional time. Findings indicated that state testing policy was a…

  4. Illustration of a Multilevel Model for Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Torre, Jimmy; Camilli, Gregory; Vargas, Sadako; Vernon, R. Fox

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a multilevel (or hierarchical linear) model that illustrates issues in the application of the model to data from meta-analytic studies. In doing so, several issues are discussed that typically arise in the course of a meta-analysis. These include the presence of non-zero between-study variability, how multiple…

  5. A Multilevel Evaluation of a Comprehensive Child Abuse Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Michael A.; Alameda-Lawson, Tania; Byrnes, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which participation in a county-wide prevention program leads to improvements in protective factors associated with child abuse prevention (CAP) and whether improvements in measured protective factors relate to decreased odds of child abuse. Method: Using multilevel growth modeling,…

  6. The Formation of Parent-School Trust: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.; Mitchell, Roxanne M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The authors' focus was on understanding antecedents of parent trust toward schools. Two questions guided the inquiry: Is there a systematic difference in parent-school trust across schools? If so, what organizational conditions predict between-school variability in parent-school trust? Research Methods/Approach: Using multilevel modeling,…

  7. Teaching Strategies for Multilevel ESL Classes. Facilitator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Eve; Williams, Molly

    A guide for teacher strategies in multilevel English-as-a-Second Language classes, developed at Clackamas Community College, Oregon, is presented. It contains the following materials: time schedule for a one-day workshop; facilitator's annotated agenda; five transparencies, including teaching objectives and sample lesson plans; various handouts,…

  8. Hierarchical Logistic Regression: Accounting for Multilevel Data in DIF Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Brian F.; Finch, W. Holmes

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the performance of differential item functioning (DIF) assessment in the presence of a multilevel structure that often underlies data from large-scale testing programs. Analyses were conducted using logistic regression (LR), a popular, flexible, and effective tool for DIF detection. Data were simulated…

  9. The joint effects of kin, multilevel selection and indirect genetic effects on response to genetic selection.

    PubMed

    Bijma, P; Wade, M J

    2008-09-01

    Kin and levels-of-selection models are common approaches for modelling social evolution. Indirect genetic effect (IGE) models represent a different approach, specifying social effects on trait values rather than fitness. We investigate the joint effect of relatedness, multilevel selection and IGEs on response to selection. We present a measure for the degree of multilevel selection, which is the natural partner of relatedness in expressions for response. Response depends on both relatedness and the degree of multilevel selection, rather than only one or the other factor. Moreover, response is symmetric in relatedness and the degree of multilevel selection, indicating that both factors have exactly the same effect. Without IGEs, the key parameter is the product of relatedness and the degree of multilevel selection. With IGEs, however, multilevel selection without relatedness can explain evolution of social traits. Thus, next to relatedness and multilevel selection, IGEs are a key element in the genetical theory of social evolution.

  10. Detailed Modeling, Design, and Evaluation of a Scalable Multi-level Checkpointing System

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A T; Bronevetsky, G; Mohror, K M; de Supinski, B R

    2010-04-09

    High-performance computing (HPC) systems are growing more powerful by utilizing more hardware components. As the system mean-time-before-failure correspondingly drops, applications must checkpoint more frequently to make progress. However, as the system memory sizes grow faster than the bandwidth to the parallel file system, the cost of checkpointing begins to dominate application run times. A potential solution to this problem is to use multi-level checkpointing, which employs multiple types of checkpoints with different costs and different levels of resiliency in a single run. The goal is to design light-weight checkpoints to handle the most common failure modes and rely on more expensive checkpoints for less common, but more severe failures. While this approach is theoretically promising, it has not been fully evaluated in a large-scale, production system context. To this end we have designed a system, called the Scalable Checkpoint/Restart (SCR) library, that writes checkpoints to storage on the compute nodes utilizing RAM, Flash, or disk, in addition to the parallel file system. We present the performance and reliability properties of SCR as well as a probabilistic Markov model that predicts its performance on current and future systems. We show that multi-level checkpointing improves efficiency on existing large-scale systems and that this benefit increases as the system size grows. In particular, we developed low-cost checkpoint schemes that are 100x-1000x faster than the parallel file system and effective against 85% of our system failures. This leads to a gain in machine efficiency of up to 35%, and it reduces the the load on the parallel file system by a factor of two on current and future systems.

  11. Multilevel Methods for the Poisson-Boltzmann Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holst, Michael Jay

    We consider the numerical solution of the Poisson -Boltzmann equation (PBE), a three-dimensional second order nonlinear elliptic partial differential equation arising in biophysics. This problem has several interesting features impacting numerical algorithms, including discontinuous coefficients representing material interfaces, rapid nonlinearities, and three spatial dimensions. Similar equations occur in various applications, including nuclear physics, semiconductor physics, population genetics, astrophysics, and combustion. In this thesis, we study the PBE, discretizations, and develop multilevel-based methods for approximating the solutions of these types of equations. We first outline the physical model and derive the PBE, which describes the electrostatic potential of a large complex biomolecule lying in a solvent. We next study the theoretical properties of the linearized and nonlinear PBE using standard function space methods; since this equation has not been previously studied theoretically, we provide existence and uniqueness proofs in both the linearized and nonlinear cases. We also analyze box-method discretizations of the PBE, establishing several properties of the discrete equations which are produced. In particular, we show that the discrete nonlinear problem is well-posed. We study and develop linear multilevel methods for interface problems, based on algebraic enforcement of Galerkin or variational conditions, and on coefficient averaging procedures. Using a stencil calculus, we show that in certain simplified cases the two approaches are equivalent, with different averaging procedures corresponding to different prolongation operators. We also develop methods for nonlinear problems based on a nonlinear multilevel method, and on linear multilevel methods combined with a globally convergent damped-inexact-Newton method. We derive a necessary and sufficient descent condition for the inexact-Newton direction, enabling the development of extremely

  12. Computerized multilevel analysis for multilayered fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1972-01-01

    A FORTRAN 4 computer code for the micromechanics, macromechanics, and laminate analysis of multilayered fiber composite structural components is described. The code can be used either individually or as a subroutine within a complex structural analysis/synthesis program. The inputs to the code are constituent materials properties, composite geometry, and loading conditions. The outputs are various properties for ply and composite; composite structural response, including bending-stretching coupling; and composite stress analysis, including comparisons with failure criteria for combined stress. The code was used successfully in the analysis and structural synthesis of flat panels, in the buckling analysis of flat panels, in multilayered composite material failure studies, and lamination residual stresses analysis.

  13. On the Multilevel Solution Algorithm for Markov Chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, Graham

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the recently introduced multilevel algorithm for the steady-state solution of Markov chains. The method is based on an aggregation principle which is well established in the literature and features a multiplicative coarse-level correction. Recursive application of the aggregation principle, which uses an operator-dependent coarsening, yields a multi-level method which has been shown experimentally to give results significantly faster than the typical methods currently in use. When cast as a multigrid-like method, the algorithm is seen to be a Galerkin-Full Approximation Scheme with a solution-dependent prolongation operator. Special properties of this prolongation lead to the cancellation of the computationally intensive terms of the coarse-level equations.

  14. Multilevel conductance switching of memory device through photoelectric effect.

    PubMed

    Ye, Changqing; Peng, Qian; Li, Mingzhu; Luo, Jia; Tang, Zhengming; Pei, Jian; Chen, Jianming; Shuai, Zhigang; Jiang, Lei; Song, Yanlin

    2012-12-12

    A photoelectronic switch of a multilevel memory device has been achieved using a meta-conjugated donor-bridge-acceptor (DBA) molecule. Such a DBA optoelectronic molecule responds to both the optical and electrical stimuli. The device exhibits good electrical bistable switching behaviors under dark, with a large ON/OFF ratio more than 10(6). In cooperation with the UV light, photoelectronic ternary states are addressable in a bistable switching system. On the basis of the CV measurement, charge carriers transport modeling, quantum chemical calculation, and absorption spectra analysis, the mechanism of the DBA memory is suggested to be attributed to the substep charge transfer transition process. The capability of tailoring photoelectrical properties is a very promising strategy to explore the multilevel storage, and it will give a new opportunity for designing multifunctional devices.

  15. A multiblock/multilevel mesh refinement procedure for CFD computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teigland, Rune; Eliassen, Inge K.

    2001-07-01

    A multiblock/multilevel algorithm with local refinement for general two- and three-dimensional fluid flow is presented. The patched-based local refinement procedure is presented in detail and algorithmic implementations are also presented. The multiblock implementation is essentially block-unstructured, i.e. each block having its own local curvilinear co-ordinate system. Refined grid patches can be put anywhere in the computational domain and can extend across block boundaries. To simplify the implementation, while still maintaining sufficient generality, the refinement is restricted to a refinement of the grid successively halving the grid size within a selected patch. The multiblock approach is implemented within the framework of the well-known SIMPLE solution strategy. Computational experiments showing the effect of using the multilevel solution procedure are presented for a sample elliptic problem and a few benchmark problems of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Copyright

  16. Learning in multilevel games with incomplete information. II.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J; Billard, E; Lakshmivarahan, S

    1999-01-01

    Multilevel games are abstractions of situations where decision makers are distributed in a network environment. In Part I of this paper, the authors present several of the challenging problems that arise in the analysis of multilevel games. In this paper a specific set up is considered where the two games being played are zero-sum games and where the decision makers use the linear reward-inaction algorithm of stochastic learning automata. It is shown that the effective game matrix is decided by the willingness and the ability to cooperate and is a convex combination of two zero-sum game matrices. Analysis of the properties of this effective game matrix and the convergence of the decision process shows that players tend toward noncooperation in these specific environments. Simulation results illustrate this noncooperative behavior. PMID:18252309

  17. Multilevel modeling: overview and applications to research in counseling psychology.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Jeffrey H

    2011-04-01

    Multilevel modeling (MLM) is rapidly becoming the standard method of analyzing nested data, for example, data from students within multiple schools, data on multiple clients seen by a smaller number of therapists, and even longitudinal data. Although MLM analyses are likely to increase in frequency in counseling psychology research, many readers of counseling psychology journals have had only limited exposure to MLM concepts. This paper provides an overview of MLM that blends mathematical concepts with examples drawn from counseling psychology. This tutorial is intended to be a first step in learning about MLM; readers are referred to other sources for more advanced explorations of MLM. In addition to being a tutorial for understanding and perhaps even conducting MLM analyses, this paper reviews recent research in counseling psychology that has adopted a multilevel framework, and it provides ideas for MLM approaches to future research in counseling psychology.

  18. Multi-level Hybrid Cache: Impact and Feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhe; Kim, Youngjae; Ma, Xiaosong; Shipman, Galen M; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2012-02-01

    Storage class memories, including flash, has been attracting much attention as promising candidates fitting into in today's enterprise storage systems. In particular, since the cost and performance characteristics of flash are in-between those of DRAM and hard disks, it has been considered by many studies as an secondary caching layer underneath main memory cache. However, there has been a lack of studies of correlation and interdependency between DRAM and flash caching. This paper views this problem as a special form of multi-level caching, and tries to understand the benefits of this multi-level hybrid cache hierarchy. We reveal that significant costs could be saved by using Flash to reduce the size of DRAM cache, while maintaing the same performance. We also discuss design challenges of using flash in the caching hierarchy and present potential solutions.

  19. Nonresonant interaction of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses with multilevel quantum systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belenov, E.; Isakov, V.; Nazarkin, A.

    1994-01-01

    Some features of the excitation of multilevel quantum systems under the action of electromagnetic pulses which are shorter than the inverse frequency of interlevel transitions are considered. It is shown that the interaction is characterized by a specific type of selectivity which is not connected with the resonant absorption of radiation. The simplest three-level model displays the inverse population of upper levels. The effect of an ultrashort laser pulse on a multilevel molecule was regarded as an instant reception of the oscillation velocity by the oscillator and this approach showed an effective excitation and dissociation of the molecule. The estimations testify to the fact that these effects can be observed using modern femtosecond lasers.

  20. On the multi-level solution algorithm for Markov chains

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, G.

    1996-12-31

    We discuss the recently introduced multi-level algorithm for the steady-state solution of Markov chains. The method is based on the aggregation principle, which is well established in the literature. Recursive application of the aggregation yields a multi-level method which has been shown experimentally to give results significantly faster than the methods currently in use. The algorithm can be reformulated as an algebraic multigrid scheme of Galerkin-full approximation type. The uniqueness of the scheme stems from its solution-dependent prolongation operator which permits significant computational savings in the evaluation of certain terms. This paper describes the modeling of computer systems to derive information on performance, measured typically as job throughput or component utilization, and availability, defined as the proportion of time a system is able to perform a certain function in the presence of component failures and possibly also repairs.

  1. Multi-stage decoding of multi-level modulation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu; Kasami, Tadao; Costello, Daniel J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Various types of multi-stage decoding for multi-level modulation codes are investigated. It is shown that if the component codes of a multi-level modulation code and types of decoding at various stages are chosen properly, high spectral efficiency and large coding gain can be achieved with reduced decoding complexity. Particularly, it is shown that the difference in performance between the suboptimum multi-stage soft-decision maximum likelihood decoding of a modulation code and the single-stage optimum soft-decision decoding of the code is very small, only a fraction of dB loss in signal to noise ratio at a bit error rate (BER) of 10(exp -6).

  2. Improved Bat Algorithm Applied to Multilevel Image Thresholding

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Multilevel image thresholding is a very important image processing technique that is used as a basis for image segmentation and further higher level processing. However, the required computational time for exhaustive search grows exponentially with the number of desired thresholds. Swarm intelligence metaheuristics are well known as successful and efficient optimization methods for intractable problems. In this paper, we adjusted one of the latest swarm intelligence algorithms, the bat algorithm, for the multilevel image thresholding problem. The results of testing on standard benchmark images show that the bat algorithm is comparable with other state-of-the-art algorithms. We improved standard bat algorithm, where our modifications add some elements from the differential evolution and from the artificial bee colony algorithm. Our new proposed improved bat algorithm proved to be better than five other state-of-the-art algorithms, improving quality of results in all cases and significantly improving convergence speed. PMID:25165733

  3. Integrated control/structure optimization by multilevel decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeiler, Thomas A.; Gilbert, Michael G.

    1990-01-01

    A method for integrated control/structure optimization by multilevel decomposition is presented. It is shown that several previously reported methods were actually partial decompositions wherein only the control was decomposed into a subsystem design. One of these partially decomposed problems was selected as a benchmark example for comparison. The present paper fully decomposes the system into structural and control subsystem designs and produces an improved design. Theory, implementation, and results for the method are presented and compared with the benchmark example.

  4. Multilevel Interventions and Racial/Ethnic Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Hoda; Krebs, Paul; Das, Irene Prabhu

    2012-01-01

    To examine the impact of multilevel interventions (with three or more levels of influence) designed to reduce health disparities, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions for ethnic/racial minorities (all except non-Hispanic whites) that were published between January 2000 and July 2011. The primary aims were to synthesize the findings of studies evaluating multilevel interventions (three or more levels of influence) targeted at ethnic and racial minorities to reduce disparities in their health care and obtain a quantitative estimate of the effect of multilevel interventions on health outcomes among these subgroups. The electronic database PubMed was searched using Medical Subject Heading terms and key words. After initial review of abstracts, 26 published studies were systematically reviewed by at least two independent coders. Those with sufficient data (n = 12) were assessed by meta-analysis and examined for quality using a modified nine-item Physiotherapy Evidence Database coding scheme. The findings from this descriptive review suggest that multilevel interventions have positive effects on several health behavior outcomes, including cancer prevention and screening, as well improving the quality of health-care system processes. The weighted average effect size across studies for all health behavior outcomes reported at the individual participant level (k = 17) was odds ratio (OR) = 1.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11 to 1.44); for the outcomes reported by providers or organizations, the weighted average effect size (k = 3) was OR = 2.53 (95% CI = 0.82 to 7.81). Enhanced application of theories to multiple levels of change, novel design approaches, and use of cultural leveraging in intervention design and implementation are proposed for this nascent field. PMID:22623602

  5. A multi-level method for sparse linear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, Y.

    1997-09-01

    A multi-level method for the solution of sparse linear systems is introduced. The definition of the method is based on data from the coefficient matrix alone. An upper bound for the condition number is available for certain symmetric positive definite (SPD) problems. Numerical experiments confirm the analysis and illustrate the efficiency of the method for diffusion problems with discontinuous coefficients with discontinuities which are not aligned with the coarse meshes.

  6. Implementing message systems in multilevel secure environments: Problems and approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, G. R.; Gaines, R. S.

    1982-07-01

    A study of the problems of building multilevel secure message systems. The need for such systems in the government and commercial sectors is growing. Designs are strongly affected by (1) the granularity of security protection (at the level of folders, messages, paragraphs, or words) and (2) planned departures from the Bell-LaPadula security model, for user convenience. A Taxonomy of design alternatives is defined, and 16 specific approaches are described and compared.

  7. Doubly Latent Multilevel Analyses of Classroom Climate: An Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Marsh, Herbert W.; Nagengast, Benjamin; Scalas, L. Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Many classroom climate studies suffer from 2 critical problems: They (a) treat climate as a student-level (L1) variable in single-level analyses instead of a classroom-level (L2) construct in multilevel analyses; and (b) rely on manifest-variable models rather than on latent-variable models that control measurement error at L1 and L2, and sampling…

  8. Multilevel programmable logic array schemes for microprogrammed automata

    SciTech Connect

    Barkalov, A.A.

    1995-03-01

    Programmable logic arrays (PLAs) provide an efficient tool for implementation of logic schemes of microprogrammed automata (MPA). The number of PLAs in the MPA logic scheme can be minimized by increasing the number of levels. In this paper, we analyze the structures of multilevel schemes of Mealy automata, propose a number of new structures, consider the corresponding correctness conditions, and examine some problems that must be solved in order to satisfy these conditions.

  9. Integrated control/structure optimization by multilevel decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeiler, Thomas A.; Gilbert, Michael G.

    1990-01-01

    A method for integrated control/structure optimization by multilevel decomposition is presented. It is shown that several previously reported methods were actually partial decompositions wherein only the control was decomposed into a subsystem design. One of these partially decomposed problems was selected as a benchmark example for comparison. The system is fully decomposed into structural and control subsystem designs and an improved design is produced. Theory, implementation, and results for the method are presented and compared with the benchmark example.

  10. On codes with multi-level error-correction capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu

    1987-01-01

    In conventional coding for error control, all the information symbols of a message are regarded equally significant, and hence codes are devised to provide equal protection for each information symbol against channel errors. However, in some occasions, some information symbols in a message are more significant than the other symbols. As a result, it is desired to devise codes with multilevel error-correcting capabilities. Another situation where codes with multi-level error-correcting capabilities are desired is in broadcast communication systems. An m-user broadcast channel has one input and m outputs. The single input and each output form a component channel. The component channels may have different noise levels, and hence the messages transmitted over the component channels require different levels of protection against errors. Block codes with multi-level error-correcting capabilities are also known as unequal error protection (UEP) codes. Structural properties of these codes are derived. Based on these structural properties, two classes of UEP codes are constructed.

  11. Multilevel distillation of magic states for quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Cody

    2013-03-01

    We develop a procedure for distilling magic states used in universal quantum computing which requires substantially fewer resources than prior schemes. Our distillation circuit is based on a family of concatenated quantum codes with a transversal Hadamard operation which can distill the eigenstate of the Hadamard operator. A crucial result of this design is that low-fidelity magic states can be consumed to purify high-fidelity magic states to even higher fidelity, which we call ``multilevel distillation.'' We show numerically that there exist multilevel protocols such that the average number of magic states consumed to distill from error rate ɛin = 0 . 01 to ɛout in the range 10-5 to 10-40 is about 14log10 (1 /ɛout) - 40 ; the efficiency of multilevel distillation dominates all other reported protocols when distilling Hadamard magic states from initial infidelity 0.01 to any final infidelity below 10-7. These methods are an important advance for magic-state distillation circuits in high-performance quantum computing.

  12. Soft-assembled Multilevel Dynamics of Tactical Behaviors in Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Ric, Angel; Torrents, Carlota; Gonçalves, Bruno; Sampaio, Jaime; Hristovski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the tactical patterns and the timescales of variables during a soccer match, allowing understanding the multilevel organization of tactical behaviors, and to determine the similarity of patterns performed by different groups of teammates during the first and second halves. Positional data from 20 professional male soccer players from the same team were collected using high frequency global positioning systems (5 Hz). Twenty-nine categories of tactical behaviors were determined from eight positioning-derived variables creating multivariate binary (Boolean) time-series matrices. Hierarchical principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify the multilevel structure of tactical behaviors. The sequential reduction of each set level of principal components revealed a sole principal component as the slowest collective variable, forming the global basin of attraction of tactical patterns during each half of the match. In addition, the mean dwell time of each positioning-derived variable helped to understand the multilevel organization of collective tactical behavior during a soccer match. This approach warrants further investigations to analyze the influence of task constraints on the emergence of tactical behavior. Furthermore, PCA can help coaches to design representative training tasks according to those tactical patterns captured during match competitions and to compare them depending on situational variables. PMID:27761120

  13. Multi-level methods and approximating distribution functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, D.; Baker, R. E.

    2016-07-01

    Biochemical reaction networks are often modelled using discrete-state, continuous-time Markov chains. System statistics of these Markov chains usually cannot be calculated analytically and therefore estimates must be generated via simulation techniques. There is a well documented class of simulation techniques known as exact stochastic simulation algorithms, an example of which is Gillespie's direct method. These algorithms often come with high computational costs, therefore approximate stochastic simulation algorithms such as the tau-leap method are used. However, in order to minimise the bias in the estimates generated using them, a relatively small value of tau is needed, rendering the computational costs comparable to Gillespie's direct method. The multi-level Monte Carlo method (Anderson and Higham, Multiscale Model. Simul. 10:146-179, 2012) provides a reduction in computational costs whilst minimising or even eliminating the bias in the estimates of system statistics. This is achieved by first crudely approximating required statistics with many sample paths of low accuracy. Then correction terms are added until a required level of accuracy is reached. Recent literature has primarily focussed on implementing the multi-level method efficiently to estimate a single system statistic. However, it is clearly also of interest to be able to approximate entire probability distributions of species counts. We present two novel methods that combine known techniques for distribution reconstruction with the multi-level method. We demonstrate the potential of our methods using a number of examples.

  14. Flexible Job Shop Scheduling with Multi-level Job Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Yang-Ja; Kim, Ki-Dong; Jang, Seong-Yong; Park, Jinwoo

    This paper deals with a scheduling problem in a flexible job shop with multi-level job structures where end products are assembled from sub-assemblies or manufactured components. For such shops MRP (Material Requirement Planning) logic is frequently used to synchronize and pace the production activities for the required parts. However, in MRP, the planning of operational-level activities is left to short term scheduling. So, we need a good scheduling algorithm to generate feasible schedules taking into account shop floor characteristics and multi-level job structures used in MRP. In this paper, we present a GA (Genetic Algorithm) solution for this complex scheduling problem based on a new gene to reflect the machine assignment, operation sequences and the levels of the operations relative to final assembly operation. The relative operation level is the control parameter that paces the completion timing of the components belonging to the same branch in the multi-level job hierarchy. We compare the genetic algorithm with several dispatching rules in terms of total tardiness and the genetic algorithm shows outstanding performance for about forty modified standard job-shop problem instances.

  15. Building Xperience: a multilevel alcohol and drug prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Sarah; Schensul, Jean J; Snyder, Leslie B; Bermudez, Alessandro; D'Alessandro, Nicole; Morgan, Damion Sincere

    2009-06-01

    "Xperience" is an innovative alcohol and drug prevention program that has adopted a multilevel, community-based strategy to promote drug-and-alcohol free social activities, venues and norms among urban youth ages 14-20. The intervention aims to strengthen protective factors and reduce risk factors for alcohol and other substance use among high school age youth by addressing multiple factors at the individual, peer, community and city level. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the process of building the different levels of this intervention during the 3-year formative phase. We will explain: (1) Why we chose to adopt a multilevel and participatory strategy, (2) Formative research leading to the intervention model, (3) The theoretical framework underlying the methodology, (4) Pilot intervention development (Years One and Two), (5) Current program methods and outcome goals, and lastly, (6) Some of the lessons learned, goals achieved, and plans for the future. This descriptive account of building a multilevel intervention aims to serve as a useful guide for others wishing to develop similar approaches, and for theorizing about some of the common challenges involved in this process. PMID:19381797

  16. Variable-speed wind power system with improved energy capture via multilevel conversion

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, Robert W.; Al-Naseem, Osama A.; Fingersh, Lee Jay

    2005-05-31

    A system and method for efficiently capturing electrical energy from a variable-speed generator are disclosed. The system includes a matrix converter using full-bridge, multilevel switch cells, in which semiconductor devices are clamped to a known constant DC voltage of a capacitor. The multilevel matrix converter is capable of generating multilevel voltage wave waveform of arbitrary magnitude and frequencies. The matrix converter can be controlled by using space vector modulation.

  17. High-Density, High-Bandwidth, Multilevel Holographic Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2008-01-01

    A proposed holographic memory system would be capable of storing data at unprecedentedly high density, and its data transfer performance in both reading and writing would be characterized by exceptionally high bandwidth. The capabilities of the proposed system would greatly exceed even those of a state-of-the art memory system, based on binary holograms (in which each pixel value represents 0 or 1), that can hold .1 terabyte of data and can support a reading or writing rate as high as 1 Gb/s. The storage capacity of the state-of-theart system cannot be increased without also increasing the volume and mass of the system. However, in principle, the storage capacity could be increased greatly, without significantly increasing the volume and mass, if multilevel holograms were used instead of binary holograms. For example, a 3-bit (8-level) hologram could store 8 terabytes, or an 8-bit (256-level) hologram could store 256 terabytes, in a system having little or no more size and mass than does the state-of-the-art 1-terabyte binary holographic memory. The proposed system would utilize multilevel holograms. The system would include lasers, imaging lenses and other beam-forming optics, a block photorefractive crystal wherein the holograms would be formed, and two multilevel spatial light modulators in the form of commercially available deformable-mirror-device spatial light modulators (DMDSLMs) made for use in high speed input conversion of data up to 12 bits. For readout, the system would also include two arrays of complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) photodetectors matching the spatial light modulators. The system would further include a reference-beam sterring device (equivalent of a scanning mirror), containing no sliding parts, that could be either a liquid-crystal phased-array device or a microscopic mirror actuated by a high-speed microelectromechanical system. Time-multiplexing and the multilevel nature of the DMDSLM would be exploited to enable writing

  18. Fundamental-Frequency-Modulated Six-Level Diode-Clamped Multilevel Inverter for Three-Phase Stand-Alone Photovoltaic System

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdemir, Engin; Ozdemir, Sule; Tolbert, Leon M

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a fundamental-frequency-modulated diode-clamped multilevel inverter (DCMLI) scheme for a three-phase stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system. The system consists of five series-connected PV modules, a six-level DCMLI generating fundamental-modulation staircase three-phase output voltages, and a three-phase induction motor as the load. In order to validate the proposed concept, simulation studies and experimental measurements using a small-scale laboratory prototype are also presented. The results show the feasibility of the fundamental frequency switching application in three-phase stand-alone PV power systems.

  19. Experimental observation of sub-terahertz backward-wave amplification in a multi-level microfabricated slow-wave circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, Chan-Wook; Ahn, Ho Young; Kim, Yongsung; Lee, Jooho; Hong, Seogwoo; Lee, Sang Hun; Choi, Jun Hee; Kim, Sunil; Jeon, So-Yeon; Yu, SeGi; Collins, George; Read, Michael E.; Lawrence Ives, R.; Kim, Jong Min; Hwang, Sungwoo

    2015-11-01

    In our earlier paper dealing with dispersion retrieval from ultra-deep, reactive-ion-etched, slow-wave circuits on silicon substrates, it was proposed that splitting high-aspect-ratio circuits into multilevels enabled precise characterization in sub-terahertz frequency regime. This achievement prompted us to investigate beam-wave interaction through a vacuum-sealed integration with a 15-kV, 85-mA, thermionic, electron gun. Our experimental study demonstrates sub-terahertz, backward-wave amplification driven by an external oscillator. The measured output shows a frequency downshift, as well as power amplification, from beam loading even with low beam perveance. This offers a promising opportunity for the development of terahertz radiation sources, based on silicon technologies.

  20. Experimental observation of sub-terahertz backward-wave amplification in a multi-level microfabricated slow-wave circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Baik, Chan-Wook Ahn, Ho Young; Kim, Yongsung; Lee, Jooho; Hong, Seogwoo; Lee, Sang Hun; Choi, Jun Hee; Kim, Sunil; Kim, Jong Min; Hwang, Sungwoo; Jeon, So-Yeon; Yu, SeGi; Collins, George; Read, Michael E.; Lawrence Ives, R.

    2015-11-09

    In our earlier paper dealing with dispersion retrieval from ultra-deep, reactive-ion-etched, slow-wave circuits on silicon substrates, it was proposed that splitting high-aspect-ratio circuits into multilevels enabled precise characterization in sub-terahertz frequency regime. This achievement prompted us to investigate beam-wave interaction through a vacuum-sealed integration with a 15-kV, 85-mA, thermionic, electron gun. Our experimental study demonstrates sub-terahertz, backward-wave amplification driven by an external oscillator. The measured output shows a frequency downshift, as well as power amplification, from beam loading even with low beam perveance. This offers a promising opportunity for the development of terahertz radiation sources, based on silicon technologies.

  1. Multi-level Monte Carlo finite volume methods for uncertainty quantification of acoustic wave propagation in random heterogeneous layered medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S.; Schwab, Ch.; Šukys, J.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the very challenging problem of efficient uncertainty quantification for acoustic wave propagation in a highly heterogeneous, possibly layered, random medium, characterized by possibly anisotropic, piecewise log-exponentially distributed Gaussian random fields. A multi-level Monte Carlo finite volume method is proposed, along with a novel, bias-free upscaling technique that allows to represent the input random fields, generated using spectral FFT methods, efficiently. Combined together with a recently developed dynamic load balancing algorithm that scales to massively parallel computing architectures, the proposed method is able to robustly compute uncertainty for highly realistic random subsurface formations that can contain a very high number (millions) of sources of uncertainty. Numerical experiments, in both two and three space dimensions, illustrating the efficiency of the method are presented.

  2. A multi-level systems approach for the development of tools, equipment and work processes for the construction industry.

    PubMed

    Vedder, Joachim; Carey, Eilís

    2005-07-01

    Ergonomics is a key issue in the construction industry. Many work tasks and associated equipment and tools are not designed with ergonomics principles in mind. Often, in the development of power tools for construction, any attention to ergonomics is restricted to the human-machine interface and handle design. The need for ergonomics intervention in the development process originates from considerations of safety, health, physical work load, and productivity. It is argued that in each of these respects, the construction industry has lower standards than other industries and therefore has a need and opportunity for improvement. A multi-level ergonomics approach is proposed addressing these issues. The approach defines five levels of ergonomics intervention, from designing individual tools for safety, to designing wider aspects of construction and work flow for optimal productivity. This holistic approach is illustrated using case study examples of the development of power tools and work methods.

  3. A reliable energy-efficient multi-level routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks using fuzzy Petri nets.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenhua; Fu, Xiao; Cai, Yuanli; Vuran, Mehmet C

    2011-01-01

    A reliable energy-efficient multi-level routing algorithm in wireless sensor networks is proposed. The proposed algorithm considers the residual energy, number of the neighbors and centrality of each node for cluster formation, which is critical for well-balanced energy dissipation of the network. In the algorithm, a knowledge-based inference approach using fuzzy Petri nets is employed to select cluster heads, and then the fuzzy reasoning mechanism is used to compute the degree of reliability in the route sprouting tree from cluster heads to the base station. Finally, the most reliable route among the cluster heads can be constructed. The algorithm not only balances the energy load of each node but also provides global reliability for the whole network. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm effectively prolongs the network lifetime and reduces the energy consumption. PMID:22163802

  4. Ultrafast effective multilevel atom method for primordial hydrogen recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Ali-Haiemoud, Yacine; Hirata, Christopher M.

    2010-09-15

    Cosmological hydrogen recombination has recently been the subject of renewed attention because of its importance for predicting the power spectrum of cosmic microwave background anisotropies. It has become clear that it is necessary to account for a large number n > or approx. 100 of energy shells of the hydrogen atom, separately following the angular momentum substates in order to obtain sufficiently accurate recombination histories. However, the multilevel atom codes that follow the populations of all these levels are computationally expensive, limiting recent analyses to only a few points in parameter space. In this paper, we present a new method for solving the multilevel atom recombination problem, which splits the problem into a computationally expensive atomic physics component that is independent of the cosmology and an ultrafast cosmological evolution component. The atomic physics component follows the network of bound-bound and bound-free transitions among excited states and computes the resulting effective transition rates for the small set of 'interface' states radiatively connected to the ground state. The cosmological evolution component only follows the populations of the interface states. By pretabulating the effective rates, we can reduce the recurring cost of multilevel atom calculations by more than 5 orders of magnitude. The resulting code is fast enough for inclusion in Markov chain Monte Carlo parameter estimation algorithms. It does not yet include the radiative transfer or high-n two-photon processes considered in some recent papers. Further work on analytic treatments for these effects will be required in order to produce a recombination code usable for Planck data analysis.

  5. Multilevel and motion model-based ultrasonic speckle tracking algorithms.

    PubMed

    Yeung, F; Levinson, S F; Parker, K J

    1998-03-01

    A multilevel motion model-based approach to ultrasonic speckle tracking has been developed that addresses the inherent trade-offs associated with traditional single-level block matching (SLBM) methods. The multilevel block matching (MLBM) algorithm uses variable matching block and search window sizes in a coarse-to-fine scheme, preserving the relative immunity to noise associated with the use of a large matching block while preserving the motion field detail associated with the use of a small matching block. To decrease further the sensitivity of the multilevel approach to noise, speckle decorrelation and false matches, a smooth motion model-based block matching (SMBM) algorithm has been implemented that takes into account the spatial inertia of soft tissue elements. The new algorithms were compared to SLBM through a series of experiments involving manual translation of soft tissue phantoms, motion field computer simulations of rotation, compression and shear deformation, and an experiment involving contraction of human forearm muscles. Measures of tracking accuracy included mean squared tracking error, peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and blinded observations of optical flow. Measures of tracking efficiency included the number of sum squared difference calculations and the computation time. In the phantom translation experiments, the SMBM algorithm successfully matched the accuracy of SLBM using both large and small matching blocks while significantly reducing the number of computations and computation time when a large matching block was used. For the computer simulations, SMBM yielded better tracking accuracies and spatial resolution when compared with SLBM using a large matching block. For the muscle experiment, SMBM outperformed SLBM both in terms of PSNR and observations of optical flow. We believe that the smooth motion model-based MLBM approach represents a meaningful development in ultrasonic soft tissue motion measurement. PMID:9587997

  6. Multilevel distillation of magic states for quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Cody

    2013-04-01

    We develop a procedure for distilling magic states used in universal quantum computing that requires substantially fewer initial resources than prior schemes. Our distillation circuit is based on a family of concatenated quantum codes that possess a transversal Hadamard operation, enabling each of these codes to distill the eigenstate of the Hadamard operator. A crucial result of this design is that low-fidelity magic states can be consumed to purify other high-fidelity magic states to even higher fidelity, which we call multilevel distillation. When distilling in the asymptotic regime of infidelity ɛ→0 for each input magic state, the number of input magic states consumed on average to yield an output state with infidelity O(ɛ2r) approaches 2r+1, which comes close to saturating the conjectured bound in another investigation [Bravyi and Haah, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.86.052329 86, 052329 (2012)]. We show numerically that there exist multilevel protocols such that the average number of magic states consumed to distill from error rate ɛin=0.01 to ɛout in the range 10-5-10-40 is about 14log10(1/ɛout)-40; the efficiency of multilevel distillation dominates all other reported protocols when distilling Hadamard magic states from initial infidelity 0.01 to any final infidelity below 10-7. These methods are an important advance for magic-state distillation circuits in high-performance quantum computing and provide insight into the limitations of nearly resource-optimal quantum error correction.

  7. Multilevel Effects of Wealth on Women's Contraceptive Use in Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Dias, José G.; de Oliveira, Isabel Tiago

    2015-01-01

    Objective This paper analyzes the impact of wealth on the use of contraception in Mozambique unmixing the contextual effects due to community wealth from the individual effects associated with the women's situation within the community of residence. Methods Data from the 2011 Mozambican Demographic and Health Survey on women who are married or living together are analyzed for the entire country and also for the rural and urban areas separately. We used single level and multilevel probit regression models. Findings A single level probit regression reveals that region, religion, age, previous fertility, education, and wealth impact contraceptive behavior. The multilevel analysis shows that average community wealth and the women’s relative socioeconomic position within the community have significant positive effects on the use of modern contraceptives. The multilevel framework proved to be necessary in rural settings but not relevant in urban areas. Moreover, the contextual effects due to community wealth are greater in rural than in urban areas and this feature is associated with the higher socioeconomic heterogeneity within the richest communities. Conclusion This analysis highlights the need for the studies on contraceptive behavior to specifically address the individual and contextual effects arising from the poverty-wealth dimension in rural and urban areas separately. The inclusion in a particular community of residence is not relevant in urban areas, but it is an important feature in rural areas. Although the women's individual position within the community of residence has a similar effect on contraceptive adoption in rural and urban settings, the impact of community wealth is greater in rural areas and smaller in urban areas. PMID:25786228

  8. Evolution of fairness in the dictator game by multilevel selection.

    PubMed

    Schank, Jeffrey C; Smaldino, Paul E; Miller, Matt L

    2015-10-01

    The most perplexing experimental results on fairness come from the dictator game where one of two players, the dictator, decides how to divide a resource with an anonymous player. The dictator, acting self-interestedly, should offer nothing to the anonymous second player, but in experimental studies, dictators offer much more than nothing. We developed a multilevel selection model to explain why people offer more than nothing in the dictator game. We show that fairness can evolve when population structure emerges from the aggregation and limited dispersal of offspring. We begin with an analytical model that shows how fair behavior can benefit groups by minimizing within-group variance in resources and thereby increasing group fitness. To investigate the generality of this result, we developed an agent-based model with agents that have no information about other agents. We allowed agents to aggregate into groups and evolve different levels of fairness by playing the dictator game for resources to reproduce. This allowed multilevel selection to emerge from the spatiotemporal properties of individual agents. We found that the population structure that emerged under low population densities was most conducive to the evolution of fairness, which is consistent with group selection as a major evolutionary force. We also found that fairness only evolves if resources are not too scarce relative to the lifespan of agents. We conclude that the evolution of fairness could evolve under multilevel selection. Thus, our model provides a novel explanation for the results of dictator game experiments, in which participants often fairly split a resource rather than keeping it all for themselves.

  9. Translating the Social-Ecological Perspective into Multilevel Interventions for Family Planning: How Far Are We?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schölmerich, Vera L. N.; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Scholars and practitioners frequently make recommendations to develop family planning interventions that are "multilevel." Such interventions take explicit account of the role of environments by incorporating multilevel or social-ecological frameworks into their design and implementation. However, research on how interventions have…

  10. Sample Size Limits for Estimating Upper Level Mediation Models Using Multilevel SEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xin; Beretvas, S. Natasha

    2013-01-01

    This simulation study investigated use of the multilevel structural equation model (MLSEM) for handling measurement error in both mediator and outcome variables ("M" and "Y") in an upper level multilevel mediation model. Mediation and outcome variable indicators were generated with measurement error. Parameter and standard…

  11. The Consequences of Ignoring Multilevel Data Structures in Nonhierarchical Covariance Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julian, Marc W.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effects of ignoring multilevel data structures in nonhierarchical covariance modeling using a Monte Carlo simulation. Results suggest that when the magnitudes of intraclass correlations are less than 0.05 and the group size is small, the consequences of ignoring the data dependence within the multilevel data structures seem to be…

  12. The Impact of Ignoring the Level of Nesting Structure in Nonparametric Multilevel Latent Class Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jungkyu; Yu, Hsiu-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The multilevel latent class model (MLCM) is a multilevel extension of a latent class model (LCM) that is used to analyze nested structure data structure. The nonparametric version of an MLCM assumes a discrete latent variable at a higher-level nesting structure to account for the dependency among observations nested within a higher-level unit. In…

  13. The Consequences of Ignoring Individuals' Mobility in Multilevel Growth Models: A Monte Carlo Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Wen; Kwok, Oi-man

    2012-01-01

    In longitudinal multilevel studies, especially in educational settings, it is fairly common that participants change their group memberships over time (e.g., students switch to different schools). Participant's mobility changes the multilevel data structure from a purely hierarchical structure with repeated measures nested within individuals and…

  14. Multilevel Modeling: Presenting and Publishing the Results for Internal and External Constituents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Gary R.; Rocconi, Louis M.

    2012-01-01

    Multilevel modeling provides several advantages over traditional ordinary least squares regression analysis; however, reporting results to stakeholders can be challenging. This article suggests some strategies for presenting complex, multilevel data and statistical results to institutional and higher education decision makers. The article is…

  15. More Thoughts on the Usefulness of Tasks in the Multi-Level Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Jo

    2005-01-01

    The issue of multi-level classrooms and of the increasingly differentiated nature of students' learning experiences continues to be a major challenge for language teachers. It's safe to say that wherever two or more language teachers are gathered together, the "problem" of multi-level classrooms will figure somewhere in the conversation. Working…

  16. The Impact of Sample Size and Other Factors When Estimating Multilevel Logistic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoeneberger, Jason A.

    2016-01-01

    The design of research studies utilizing binary multilevel models must necessarily incorporate knowledge of multiple factors, including estimation method, variance component size, or number of predictors, in addition to sample sizes. This Monte Carlo study examined the performance of random effect binary outcome multilevel models under varying…

  17. Toward A Multilevel Theory of Career Development: Advancing Human Resource Development Theory Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upton, Matthew G.; Egan, Toby Marshall

    2007-01-01

    The established limitations of career development (CD) theory and human resource development (HRD) theory building are addressed by expanding the framing of these issues to multilevel contexts. Multilevel theory building is an approach most effectively aligned with HRD literature and CD and HRD practice realities. An innovative approach multilevel…

  18. Validation of Multilevel Constructs: Validation Methods and Empirical Findings for the EDI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forer, Barry; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to highlight the foundations of multilevel construct validation, describe two methodological approaches and associated analytic techniques, and then apply these approaches and techniques to the multilevel construct validation of a widely-used school readiness measure called the Early Development Instrument (EDI;…

  19. Translating the Socio-Ecological Perspective into Multilevel Interventions: Gaps between Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schölmerich, Vera L. N.; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Multilevel interventions are inspired by socio-ecological models, and seek to create change on various levels--for example by increasing the health literacy of individuals as well as modifying the social norms within a community. Despite becoming a buzzword in public health, actual multilevel interventions remain scarce. In this commentary, we…

  20. The research of multilevel transistor inverter for converting energy of solar panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taissariyeva, K. N.; Issembergenov, N. T.

    2015-09-01

    This article considers multilevel transistor inverter for converting energy of solar panels into electroenergy. The output of multilevel transistor inverter produces the voltage of almost sinusoidal form. The primary objective of this inverter is to transform solar energy into electroenergy of industrial frequency. The analysis of received output curves of voltage for sinusoidality has been conducted.

  1. The Effects of Autonomy and Empowerment on Employee Turnover: Test of a Multilevel Model in Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dong; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Lei; Lee, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Extending research on voluntary turnover in the team setting, this study adopts a multilevel self-determination theoretical approach to examine the unique roles of individual and social-contextual motivational precursors, autonomy orientation and autonomy support, in reducing team member voluntary turnover. Analysis of multilevel time-lagged data…

  2. Multi-Level Modeling of Dyadic Data in Sport Sciences: Conceptual, Statistical, and Practical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudreau, Patrick; Fecteau, Marie-Claude; Perreault, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to present a series of conceptual, statistical, and practical issues in the modeling of multi-level dyadic data. Distinctions are made between distinguishable and undistinguishable dyads and several types of independent variables modeled at the dyadic level of analysis. Multi-level modeling equations are explained in a…

  3. Effects of Teacher-Student Relationships on Peer Harassment: A Multilevel Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas-Molina, Beatriz; Williamson, Ariel A.; Pulido, Rosa; Pérez-Albéniz, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Peer harassment is a major social problem affecting children and adolescents internationally. Much research has focused on student-to-student harassment from either an individual or a multilevel perspective. There is a paucity of multilevel research on students' relationships with the classroom teacher. The purpose of this study was to use a…

  4. Teaching ESL in a Multilevel Classroom. Adult Education Series #13. Refugee Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Language and Orientation Resource Center.

    Adult refugee English as a second language (ESL) programs are often mandated to serve all who sign up for instruction, a requirement that results in multilevel classes. This guide describes and discusses this and other factors which contribute to the existence of multilevel and/or heterogeneous classes, and provides some practical approaches and…

  5. Multilevel Motivation and Engagement: Assessing Construct Validity across Students and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.; Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Liem, Gregory Arief D.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical biases associated with single-level analyses underscore the importance of partitioning variance/covariance matrices into individual and group levels. From a multilevel perspective based on data from 21,579 students in 58 high schools, the present study assesses the multilevel factor structure of motivation and engagement with a…

  6. Multilevel selection with kin and non-kin groups, experimental results with Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Muir, William M; Bijma, P; Schinckel, A

    2013-06-01

    An experiment was conducted comparing multilevel selection in Japanese quail for 43 days weight and survival with birds housed in either kin (K) or random (R) groups. Multilevel selection significantly reduced mortality (6.6% K vs. 8.5% R) and increased weight (1.30 g/MG K vs. 0.13 g/MG R) resulting in response an order of magnitude greater with Kin than Random. Thus, multilevel selection was effective in reducing detrimental social interactions, which contributed to improved weight gain. The observed rates of response did not differ significantly from expected, demonstrating that current theory is adequate to explain multilevel selection response. Based on estimated genetic parameters, group selection would always be superior to any other combination of multilevel selection. Further, near optimal results could be attained using multilevel selection if 20% of the weight was on the group component regardless of group composition. Thus, in nature the conditions for multilevel selection to be effective in bringing about social change maybe common. In terms of a sustainability of breeding programs, multilevel selection is easy to implement and is expected to give near optimal responses with reduced rates of inbreeding as compared to group selection, the only requirement is that animals be housed in kin groups.

  7. Data Aggregation in Multilevel Analysis: A Review of Conceptual and Statistical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Marlene A.; Cunningham, George B.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding that the behavior of people takes place within a context, over the past 20 years research in education and the sport sciences has witnessed an increasing development of multilevel frameworks that are both conceptually and methodologically sound. Despite these advances, the use of multilevel models and research designs in education…

  8. Fitting Multilevel Models with Ordinal Outcomes: Performance of Alternative Specifications and Methods of Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Daniel J.; Sterba, Sonya K.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has compared methods of estimation for fitting multilevel models to binary data, but there are reasons to believe that the results will not always generalize to the ordinal case. This article thus evaluates (a) whether and when fitting multilevel linear models to ordinal outcome data is justified and (b) which estimator to employ…

  9. Using Visual Analysis to Evaluate and Refine Multilevel Models of Single-Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baek, Eun Kyeng; Petit-Bois, Merlande; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Ferron, John M.

    2016-01-01

    In special education, multilevel models of single-case research have been used as a method of estimating treatment effects over time and across individuals. Although multilevel models can accurately summarize the effect, it is known that if the model is misspecified, inferences about the effects can be biased. Concern with the potential for model…

  10. Performance Analysis of Multilevel Parallel Applications on Shared Memory Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Jin, Haoqiang; Labarta, Jesus; Gimenez, Judit; Caubet, Jordi; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe how to apply powerful performance analysis techniques to understand the behavior of multilevel parallel applications. We use the Paraver/OMPItrace performance analysis system for our study. This system consists of two major components: The OMPItrace dynamic instrumentation mechanism, which allows the tracing of processes and threads and the Paraver graphical user interface for inspection and analyses of the generated traces. We describe how to use the system to conduct a detailed comparative study of a benchmark code implemented in five different programming paradigms applicable for shared memory

  11. Macro-actor execution on multilevel data-driven architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudiot, J.L.; Najjar, W.

    1988-12-31

    The data-flow model of computation brings to multiprocessors high programmability at the expense of increased overhead. Applying the model at a higher level leads to better performance but also introduces loss of parallelism. We demonstrate here syntax directed program decomposition methods for the creation of large macro-actors in numerical algorithms. In order to alleviate some of the problems introduced by the lower resolution interpretation, we describe a multi-level of resolution and analyze the requirements for its actual hardware and software integration.

  12. NOVA: A new multi-level logic simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, L.; Prins, P.; Cameron, K.; Shovic, J.

    1990-01-01

    A new logic simulator that was developed at the NASA Space Engineering Research Center for VLSI Design was described. The simulator is multi-level, being able to simulate from the switch level through the functional model level. NOVA is currently in the Beta test phase and was used to simulate chips designed for the NASA Space Station and the Explorer missions. A new algorithm was devised to simulate bi-directional pass transistors and a preliminary version of the algorithm is presented. The usage of functional models in NOVA is also described and performance figures are presented.

  13. Laminoplasty Techniques for the Treatment of Multilevel Cervical Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Mitsunaga, Lance K.; Klineberg, Eric O.; Gupta, Munish C.

    2012-01-01

    Laminoplasty is one surgical option for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. It was developed to avoid the significant risk of complications associated with alternative surgical options such as anterior decompression and fusion and laminectomy with or without posterior fusion. Various laminoplasty techniques have been described. All of these variations are designed to reposition the laminae and expand the spinal canal while retaining the dorsal elements to protect the dura from scar formation and to preserve postoperative cervical stability and alignment. With the right surgical indications, reliable results can be expected with laminoplasty in treating patients with multilevel cervical myelopathy. PMID:22496982

  14. A multilevel optimization of large-scale dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.; Sundareshan, M. K.

    1976-01-01

    A multilevel feedback control scheme is proposed for optimization of large-scale systems composed of a number of (not necessarily weakly coupled) subsystems. Local controllers are used to optimize each subsystem, ignoring the interconnections. Then, a global controller may be applied to minimize the effect of interconnections and improve the performance of the overall system. At the cost of suboptimal performance, this optimization strategy ensures invariance of suboptimality and stability of the systems under structural perturbations whereby subsystems are disconnected and again connected during operation.

  15. A multilevel method for conductive-radiative heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Banoczi, J.M.; Kelley, C.T.

    1996-12-31

    We present a fast multilevel algorithm for the solution of a system of nonlinear integro-differential equations that model steady-state combined radiative-conductive heat transfer. The equations can be formulated as a compact fixed point problem with a fixed point map that requires both a solution of the linear transport equation and the linear heat equation for its evaluation. We use fast transport solvers developed by the second author, to construct an efficient evaluation of the fixed point map and then apply the Atkinson-Brakhage, method, with Newton-GMRES as the coarse mesh solver, to the full nonlinear system.

  16. Multi-level Full Virtualization of Power Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongpeng; Chi, Wanqing; Liu, Yongyan

    Virtual machine technique is employed to improve system utilization and energy efficiency. However, isolation effect of virtualization imposes challenges to power management. A multi-level power behavior statistic framework is introduced to support power profiling of virtual device, virtual machine and host. Power management mechanisms are virtualized to map power management operations between virtual device and physical device. The power consumption of a virtual device is virtualized according to its performance share from the physical device. The experiments demonstrated that our power management virtualization solution has negligible decline of system performance.

  17. A multilevel approach for minimum weight structural design including local and system buckling constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmit, L. A., Jr.; Ramanathan, R. K.

    1977-01-01

    A rational multilevel approach for minimum weight structural design of truss and wing structures including local and system buckling constraints is presented. Overall proportioning of the structure is achieved at the system level subject to strength, displacement and system buckling constraints, while the detailed component designs are carried out separately at the component level satisfying local buckling constraints. Total structural weight is taken to be the objective function at the system level while employing the change in the equivalent system stiffness of the component as the component level objective function. Finite element analysis is used to predict static response while system buckling behavior is handled by incorporating a geometric stiffness matrix capability. Buckling load factors and the corresponding mode shapes are obtained by solving the eigenvalue problem associated with the assembled elastic stiffness and geometric stiffness matrices for the structural system. At the component level various local buckling failure modes are guarded against using semi-empirical formulas. Mathematical programming techniques are employed at both the system and component level.

  18. Synergistic High Charge-Storage Capacity for Multi-level Flexible Organic Flash Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Minji; Khim, Dongyoon; Park, Won-Tae; Kim, Jihong; Kim, Juhwan; Noh, Yong-Young; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2015-07-01

    Electret and organic floating-gate memories are next-generation flash storage mediums for printed organic complementary circuits. While each flash memory can be easily fabricated using solution processes on flexible plastic substrates, promising their potential for on-chip memory organization is limited by unreliable bit operation and high write loads. We here report that new architecture could improve the overall performance of organic memory, and especially meet high storage for multi-level operation. Our concept depends on synergistic effect of electrical characterization in combination with a polymer electret (poly(2-vinyl naphthalene) (PVN)) and metal nanoparticles (Copper). It is distinguished from mostly organic nano-floating-gate memories by using the electret dielectric instead of general tunneling dielectric for additional charge storage. The uniform stacking of organic layers including various dielectrics and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as an organic semiconductor, followed by thin-film coating using orthogonal solvents, greatly improve device precision despite easy and fast manufacture. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] as high-k blocking dielectric also allows reduction of programming voltage. The reported synergistic organic memory devices represent low power consumption, high cycle endurance, high thermal stability and suitable retention time, compared to electret and organic nano-floating-gate memory devices.

  19. Synergistic High Charge-Storage Capacity for Multi-level Flexible Organic Flash Memory

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Minji; Khim, Dongyoon; Park, Won-Tae; Kim, Jihong; Kim, Juhwan; Noh, Yong-Young; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Electret and organic floating-gate memories are next-generation flash storage mediums for printed organic complementary circuits. While each flash memory can be easily fabricated using solution processes on flexible plastic substrates, promising their potential for on-chip memory organization is limited by unreliable bit operation and high write loads. We here report that new architecture could improve the overall performance of organic memory, and especially meet high storage for multi-level operation. Our concept depends on synergistic effect of electrical characterization in combination with a polymer electret (poly(2-vinyl naphthalene) (PVN)) and metal nanoparticles (Copper). It is distinguished from mostly organic nano-floating-gate memories by using the electret dielectric instead of general tunneling dielectric for additional charge storage. The uniform stacking of organic layers including various dielectrics and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as an organic semiconductor, followed by thin-film coating using orthogonal solvents, greatly improve device precision despite easy and fast manufacture. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] as high-k blocking dielectric also allows reduction of programming voltage. The reported synergistic organic memory devices represent low power consumption, high cycle endurance, high thermal stability and suitable retention time, compared to electret and organic nano-floating-gate memory devices. PMID:26201747

  20. A Methodological Review of Statistical Methods for Handling Multilevel Non-Nested Longitudinal Data in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Shuyan; Pan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    As applications of multilevel modelling in educational research increase, researchers realize that multilevel data collected in many educational settings are often not purely nested. The most common multilevel non-nested data structure is one that involves student mobility in longitudinal studies. This article provides a methodological review of…

  1. Predicting Group-Level Outcome Variables from Variables Measured at the Individual Level: A Latent Variable Multilevel Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croon, Marcel A.; van Veldhoven, Marc J. P. M.

    2007-01-01

    In multilevel modeling, one often distinguishes between macro-micro and micro-macro situations. In a macro-micro multilevel situation, a dependent variable measured at the lower level is predicted or explained by variables measured at that lower or a higher level. In a micro-macro multilevel situation, a dependent variable defined at the higher…

  2. A Multi-Level Parallelization Concept for High-Fidelity Multi-Block Solvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatay, Ferhat F.; Jespersen, Dennis C.; Guruswamy, Guru P.; Rizk, Yehia M.; Byun, Chansup; Gee, Ken; VanDalsem, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The integration of high-fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis tools with the industrial design process benefits greatly from the robust implementations that are transportable across a wide range of computer architectures. In the present work, a hybrid domain-decomposition and parallelization concept was developed and implemented into the widely-used NASA multi-block Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) packages implemented in ENSAERO and OVERFLOW. The new parallel solver concept, PENS (Parallel Euler Navier-Stokes Solver), employs both fine and coarse granularity in data partitioning as well as data coalescing to obtain the desired load-balance characteristics on the available computer platforms. This multi-level parallelism implementation itself introduces no changes to the numerical results, hence the original fidelity of the packages are identically preserved. The present implementation uses the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library for interprocessor message passing and memory accessing. By choosing an appropriate combination of the available partitioning and coalescing capabilities only during the execution stage, the PENS solver becomes adaptable to different computer architectures from shared-memory to distributed-memory platforms with varying degrees of parallelism. The PENS implementation on the IBM SP2 distributed memory environment at the NASA Ames Research Center obtains 85 percent scalable parallel performance using fine-grain partitioning of single-block CFD domains using up to 128 wide computational nodes. Multi-block CFD simulations of complete aircraft simulations achieve 75 percent perfect load-balanced executions using data coalescing and the two levels of parallelism. SGI PowerChallenge, SGI Origin 2000, and a cluster of workstations are the other platforms where the robustness of the implementation is tested. The performance behavior on the other computer platforms with a variety of realistic problems will be included as this on

  3. Reduced Switching Frequency Active Harmonic Elimination for Multilevel Converters

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Zhong; Tolbert, Leon M; Chiasson, John N; Ozpineci, Burak

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a reduced switching-frequency active-harmonic-elimination method (RAHEM) to eliminate any number of specific order harmonics of multilevel converters. First, resultant theory is applied to transcendental equations to eliminate low-order harmonics and to determine switching angles for a fundamental frequency-switching scheme. Next, based on the number of harmonics to be eliminated, Newton climbing method is applied to transcendental equations to eliminate high-order harmonics and to determine switching angles for the fundamental frequency-switching scheme. Third, the magnitudes and phases of the residual lower order harmonics are computed, generated, and subtracted from the original voltage waveform to eliminate these low-order harmonics. Compared to the active-harmonic-elimination method (AHEM), which generates square waves to cancel high-order harmonics, RAHEM has lower switching frequency. The simulation results show that the method can effectively eliminate all the specific harmonics, and a low total harmonic distortion (THD) near sine wave is produced. An experimental 11-level H-bridge multilevel converter with a field-programmable gate-array controller is employed to experimentally validate the method. The experimental results show that RAHEM does effectively eliminate any number of specific harmonics, and the output voltage waveform has low switching frequency and low THD.

  4. On decoding of multi-level MPSK modulation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu; Gupta, Alok Kumar

    1990-01-01

    The decoding problem of multi-level block modulation codes is investigated. The hardware design of soft-decision Viterbi decoder for some short length 8-PSK block modulation codes is presented. An effective way to reduce the hardware complexity of the decoder by reducing the branch metric and path metric, using a non-uniform floating-point to integer mapping scheme, is proposed and discussed. The simulation results of the design are presented. The multi-stage decoding (MSD) of multi-level modulation codes is also investigated. The cases of soft-decision and hard-decision MSD are considered and their performance are evaluated for several codes of different lengths and different minimum squared Euclidean distances. It is shown that the soft-decision MSD reduces the decoding complexity drastically and it is suboptimum. The hard-decision MSD further simplifies the decoding while still maintaining a reasonable coding gain over the uncoded system, if the component codes are chosen properly. Finally, some basic 3-level 8-PSK modulation codes using BCH codes as component codes are constructed and their coding gains are found for hard decision multistage decoding.

  5. Empowering leaders optimize working conditions for engagement: a multilevel study.

    PubMed

    Tuckey, Michelle R; Bakker, Arnold B; Dollard, Maureen F

    2012-01-01

    Using a multilevel framework, this study examined the role of empowering leadership at the group level by fire brigade captains in facilitating the individual level motivational processes that underpin work engagement in volunteer firefighters. Anonymous mail surveys were completed by 540 volunteer firefighters from 68 fire brigades and, separately, by 68 brigade captains. As predicted on the basis of the Job Demands-Resources model, increased levels of cognitive demands and cognitive resources partially mediated the relationship between empowering leadership and work engagement. In a three-way Leadership × Demands × Resources interaction, empowering leadership also had the effect of optimizing working conditions for engagement by strengthening the positive effect of a work context in which both cognitive demands and cognitive resources were high. Our findings shed light on a process through which leaders can empower workers and enhance well-being: via their influence on and interaction with the work environment. They also underscore the need to examine work engagement from a multilevel theoretical perspective. PMID:22409390

  6. Altruism and organism: disentangling the themes of multilevel selection theory.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D S

    1997-07-01

    The evolution of groups into adaptive units, similar to single organisms in the coordination of their parts, is one major theme of multilevel selection theory. Another major theme is the evolution of altruistic behaviors that benefit others at the expense of self. These themes are often assumed to be strongly linked, such that altruism is required for group-level adaptation. Multilevel selection theory reveals a more complex relationship between the themes of altruism and organism. Adaptation at every level of the biological hierarchy requires a corresponding process of natural selection, which includes the fundamental ingredients of phenotypic variation, heritability, and fitness consequences. These ingredients can exist for many kinds of groups and do not require the extreme genetic variation among groups that is usually associated with the evolution of altruism. Thus, it is reasonable to expect higher-level units to evolve into adaptive units with respect to specific traits, even when their members are not genealogically related and do not behave in ways that are obviously altruistic. As one example, the concept of a group mind, which has been well documented in the social insects, may be applicable to other species.

  7. Time issues in multilevel interventions for cancer treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Jeffrey; Prabhu Das, Irene; Johnson, Timothy P

    2012-05-01

    The concept of time introduces important complexities in estimating intervention effects, program and evaluation design, and measurement and analysis of individual change in multilevel interventions (MLIs). Despite growing recognition that time is a critical element for assessing both individual-level outcomes and higher-level changes in organizational, community, and policy contexts, most MLI designs and evaluations have not addressed these issues. In this chapter we discuss 1) conceptualizing disease life-course and treatment theory in MLIs, 2) approaches to incorporating time in research and program design for MLIs in cancer treatment and prevention, 3) analysis of time-varying multilevel data in the context of cancer treatment and prevention, and 4) resource considerations and trade-offs of incorporating time as a dimension of MLIs and analysis. Although analytic techniques for analyzing time-related phenomena are becoming more available and powerful, there has not been corresponding progress made in the development of theory to guide the application of these techniques in program design and implementation.

  8. Multilevel Summation of Electrostatic Potentials Using Graphics Processing Units*

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, David J.; Stone, John E.; Schulten, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Physical and engineering practicalities involved in microprocessor design have resulted in flat performance growth for traditional single-core microprocessors. The urgent need for continuing increases in the performance of scientific applications requires the use of many-core processors and accelerators such as graphics processing units (GPUs). This paper discusses GPU acceleration of the multilevel summation method for computing electrostatic potentials and forces for a system of charged atoms, which is a problem of paramount importance in biomolecular modeling applications. We present and test a new GPU algorithm for the long-range part of the potentials that computes a cutoff pair potential between lattice points, essentially convolving a fixed 3-D lattice of “weights” over all sub-cubes of a much larger lattice. The implementation exploits the different memory subsystems provided on the GPU to stream optimally sized data sets through the multiprocessors. We demonstrate for the full multilevel summation calculation speedups of up to 26 using a single GPU and 46 using multiple GPUs, enabling the computation of a high-resolution map of the electrostatic potential for a system of 1.5 million atoms in under 12 seconds. PMID:20161132

  9. Negative voltage bandgap reference with multilevel curvature compensation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Liu; Qian, Liu; Xiaoshi, Jin; Yongrui, Zhao; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2016-05-01

    A novel high-order curvature compensation negative voltage bandgap reference (NBGR) based on a novel multilevel compensation technique is introduced. Employing an exponential curvature compensation (ECC) term with many high order terms in itself, in a lower temperature range (TR) and a multilevel curvature compensation (MLCC) term in a higher TR, a flattened and better effect of curvature compensation over the TR of 165 °C (‑40 to 125 °C) is realised. The MLCC circuit adds two convex curves by using two sub-threshold operated NMOS. The proposed NBGR implemented in the Central Semiconductor Manufacturing Corporation (CSMC) 0.5 μm BCD technology demonstrates an accurate voltage of ‑1.183 V with a temperature coefficient (TC) as low as 2.45 ppm/°C over the TR of 165 °C at a ‑5.0 V power supply; the line regulation is 3 mV/V from a ‑5 to ‑2 V supply voltage. The active area of the presented NBGR is 370 × 180 μm2. Project supported by the Fund of Liaoning Province Education Department (No. L2013045).

  10. Multi-level selection for hygienic behaviour in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sato, J A; Châline, N; Martin, S J; Hughes, W O H; Ratnieks, F L W

    2009-06-01

    Disease is one of the main factors driving both natural and artificial selection. It is a particularly important and increasing threat to the managed honeybee colonies, which are vital in crop pollination. Artificial selection for disease-resistant honeybee genotypes has previously only been carried out at the colony-level, that is, by using queens or males reared from colonies that show resistance. However, honeybee queens mate with many males and so each colony consists of multiple patrilines that will vary in heritable traits, such as disease resistance. Here, we investigate whether response to artificial selection for a key resistance mechanism, hygienic behaviour, can be improved using multi-level selection, that is, by selecting not only among colonies as normal but also among patrilines within colonies. Highly hygienic colonies were identified (between-colony selection), and the specific patrilines within them responsible for most hygienic behaviour were determined using observation hives. Queens reared from these hygienic patrilines (within-colony selection) were identified using DNA microsatellite analysis of a wing-tip tissue sample and then mated to drones from a third highly hygienic colony. The resulting colonies headed by queens from hygienic patrilines showed approximately double the level of hygienic behaviour of colonies headed by sister queens from non-hygienic patrilines. The results show that multi-level selection can significantly improve the success of honeybee breeding programs.

  11. Pulsed laser planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    Tuckerman, D.B.; Schmitt, R.L.

    1985-05-01

    Multilevel interconnect schemes for integrated circuits generally require one or more planarization steps, in order to maintain an acceptably flat topography for lithography and thin-film step coverage on the higher levels. Traditional approaches have involved planarization of the interlevel insulation (dielectric) layers, either by spin-on application (e.g., polyimide), or by reflow (e.g., phosphosilicate glass). We have pursued an alternative approach, in which each metal level is melted (hence planarized) using a pulsed laser prior to patterning. Short (approx.1 ..mu..s) pulses are used to preclude undesirable metallurgical reactions between the film, adhesion or barrier layer, and dielectric layer. Laser planarization of metals is particularly well suited to multilevel systems which include ground or power planes. Results are presented for planarization of gold films on SiO/sub 2/ dielectric layers using a flashlamp-pumped dye laser. The pulse duration is approx.1 ..mu..s, which allows the heat pulse to uniformly penetrate the gold while not penetrating substantially through the underlying SiO/sub 2/ (hence not perturbing the lower levels of metal). Excellent planarization of the gold films is achieved (less than 0.1 ..mu..m surface roughness, even starting with extreme topographic variations), as well as improved conductivity. To demonstrate the process, numerous planarized two-layer structures (transmission lines under a ground plane) were fabricated and characterized. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Multilevel Intervention Research: Lessons Learned and Pathways Forward

    PubMed Central

    Taplin, Stephen H.; Foster, Mary K.; Fagan, Pebbles; Kaluzny, Arnold D.

    2012-01-01

    This summary reflects on this monograph regarding multilevel intervention (MLI) research to 1) assess its added value; 2) discuss what has been learned to date about its challenges in cancer care delivery; and 3) identify specific ways to improve its scientific soundness, feasibility, policy relevance, and research agenda. The 12 submitted chapters, and discussion of them at the March 2011 multilevel meeting, were reviewed and discussed among the authors to elicit key findings and results addressing the questions raised at the outset of this effort. MLI research is underrepresented as an explicit focus in the cancer literature but may improve implementation of studies of cancer care delivery if they assess contextual, organizational, and environmental factors important to understanding behavioral and/or system-level interventions. The field lacks a single unifying theory, although several psychological or biological theories are useful, and an ecological model helps conceptualize and communicate interventions. MLI research designs are often complex, involving nonlinear and nonhierarchical relationships that may not be optimally studied in randomized designs. Simulation modeling and pilot studies may be necessary to evaluate MLI interventions. Measurement and evaluation of team and organizational interventions are especially needed in cancer care, as are attention to the context of health-care reform, eHealth technology, and genomics-based medicine. Future progress in MLI research requires greater attention to developing and supporting relevant metrics of level effects and interactions and evaluating MLI interventions. MLI research holds an unrealized promise for understanding how to improve cancer care delivery. PMID:22623606

  13. Multi-Level Bitmap Indexes for Flash Memory Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kesheng; Madduri, Kamesh; Canon, Shane

    2010-07-23

    Due to their low access latency, high read speed, and power-efficient operation, flash memory storage devices are rapidly emerging as an attractive alternative to traditional magnetic storage devices. However, tests show that the most efficient indexing methods are not able to take advantage of the flash memory storage devices. In this paper, we present a set of multi-level bitmap indexes that can effectively take advantage of flash storage devices. These indexing methods use coarsely binned indexes to answer queries approximately, and then use finely binned indexes to refine the answers. Our new methods read significantly lower volumes of data at the expense of an increased disk access count, thus taking full advantage of the improved read speed and low access latency of flash devices. To demonstrate the advantage of these new indexes, we measure their performance on a number of storage systems using a standard data warehousing benchmark called the Set Query Benchmark. We observe that multi-level strategies on flash drives are up to 3 times faster than traditional indexing strategies on magnetic disk drives.

  14. Advanced micromechanisms in a multi-level polysilicon technology

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, M.S.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Miller, S.L.; Barron, C.C.; McWhorter, P.J.

    1997-08-01

    Quad-level polysilicon surface micromachining technology, comprising three mechanical levels plus an electrical interconnect layer, is giving rise to a new generation of micro-electromechanical devices and assemblies. Enhanced components can not be produced through greater flexibility in fabrication and design. New levels of design complexity that include multi-level gears, single-attempt locks, and optical elements have recently been realized. Extensive utilization of the fourth layer of polysilicon differentiates these latter generation devices from their predecessors. This level of poly enables the fabrication of pin joints, linkage arms, hinges on moveable plates, and multi-level gear assemblies. The mechanical design aspects of these latest micromachines will be discussed with particular emphasis on a number of design aspects of these latest micromachines will be discussed with particular emphasis on a number of design modifications that improve the power, reliability, and smoothness of operation of the microengine. The microengine is the primary actuation mechanism that is being used to drive mirrors out of plane and rotate 1600-{mu}m diameter gears. Also discussed is the authors most advanced micromechanical system to date, a complex proof-of-concept batch-fabricated assembly that, upon transmitting the proper electrical code to a mechanical lock, permits the operation of a micro-optical shutter.

  15. Multilevel intervention research: lessons learned and pathways forward.

    PubMed

    Clauser, Steven B; Taplin, Stephen H; Foster, Mary K; Fagan, Pebbles; Kaluzny, Arnold D

    2012-05-01

    This summary reflects on this monograph regarding multilevel intervention (MLI) research to 1) assess its added value; 2) discuss what has been learned to date about its challenges in cancer care delivery; and 3) identify specific ways to improve its scientific soundness, feasibility, policy relevance, and research agenda. The 12 submitted chapters, and discussion of them at the March 2011 multilevel meeting, were reviewed and discussed among the authors to elicit key findings and results addressing the questions raised at the outset of this effort. MLI research is underrepresented as an explicit focus in the cancer literature but may improve implementation of studies of cancer care delivery if they assess contextual, organizational, and environmental factors important to understanding behavioral and/or system-level interventions. The field lacks a single unifying theory, although several psychological or biological theories are useful, and an ecological model helps conceptualize and communicate interventions. MLI research designs are often complex, involving nonlinear and nonhierarchical relationships that may not be optimally studied in randomized designs. Simulation modeling and pilot studies may be necessary to evaluate MLI interventions. Measurement and evaluation of team and organizational interventions are especially needed in cancer care, as are attention to the context of health-care reform, eHealth technology, and genomics-based medicine. Future progress in MLI research requires greater attention to developing and supporting relevant metrics of level effects and interactions and evaluating MLI interventions. MLI research holds an unrealized promise for understanding how to improve cancer care delivery. PMID:22623606

  16. Multilevel selection theory and evidence: a critique of Gardner, 2015.

    PubMed

    Goodnight, C J

    2015-09-01

    Gardner (2015) recently developed a model of a 'Genetical Theory of Multilevel Selection, which is a thoughtfully developed, but flawed model. The model's flaws appear to be symptomatic of common misunderstandings of the multi level selection (MLS) literature and the recent quantitative genetic literature. I use Gardner's model as a guide for highlighting how the MLS literature can address the misconceptions found in his model, and the kin selection literature in general. I discuss research on the efficacy of group selection, the roll of indirect genetic effects in affecting the response to selection and the heritability of group-level traits. I also discuss why the Price multilevel partition should not be used to partition MLS, and why contextual analysis and, by association, direct fitness are appropriate for partitioning MLS. Finally, I discuss conceptual issues around questions concerning the level at which fitness is measured, the units of selection, and I present a brief outline of a model of selection in class-structured populations. I argue that the results derived from the MLS research tradition can inform kin selection research and models, and provide insights that will allow researchers to avoid conceptual flaws such as those seen in the Gardner model. PMID:26265012

  17. Empowering leaders optimize working conditions for engagement: a multilevel study.

    PubMed

    Tuckey, Michelle R; Bakker, Arnold B; Dollard, Maureen F

    2012-01-01

    Using a multilevel framework, this study examined the role of empowering leadership at the group level by fire brigade captains in facilitating the individual level motivational processes that underpin work engagement in volunteer firefighters. Anonymous mail surveys were completed by 540 volunteer firefighters from 68 fire brigades and, separately, by 68 brigade captains. As predicted on the basis of the Job Demands-Resources model, increased levels of cognitive demands and cognitive resources partially mediated the relationship between empowering leadership and work engagement. In a three-way Leadership × Demands × Resources interaction, empowering leadership also had the effect of optimizing working conditions for engagement by strengthening the positive effect of a work context in which both cognitive demands and cognitive resources were high. Our findings shed light on a process through which leaders can empower workers and enhance well-being: via their influence on and interaction with the work environment. They also underscore the need to examine work engagement from a multilevel theoretical perspective.

  18. Treatment of multilevel degenerative disc disease with intradiscal electrothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Malik, K

    2007-04-01

    Intradiscal electrothermal therapy is a frequently performed procedure for the pain of internal disc disruption. It is typically performed on one to two discs; the discal treatment is followed by a long period of rest and rehabilitation. In patients with multilevel disc disease, intradiscal electrothermal therapy is either not contemplated or only one to two discs are treated at a time. This approach therefore either denies these patients the potential benefits of intradiscal electrothermal therapy or significantly prolongs the period of pain and disability. A 25-year-old female patient presented with internal disc disruption at four lumbar disc levels, diagnosed by provocative discography and post discography CT scan. All these discs were treated simultaneously by intradiscal electrothermal therapy. The patient tolerated the procedure well and responded favourably with significant and prolonged decrease in her symptoms. She reported sustained reduction in her pain and showed no clinical evidence of early neurological or infectious complications during 18 months of follow-up. This report indicates that intradiscal electrothermal therapy can be performed at multiple levels at a single sitting, compared to intradiscal electrothermal therapy performed at one to two discs at a time, this approach may obviate the need for surgery and may reduce the duration of pain and disability incurred. However, the influence of multilevel intradiscal electrothermal therapy on long-term complications or outcome is not known. PMID:17444324

  19. Multi-level analysis in information systems research: the case of enterprise resource planning system usage in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuan; Bhattacherjee, Anol

    2011-11-01

    Information technology (IT) usage within organisations is a multi-level phenomenon that is influenced by individual-level and organisational-level variables. Yet, current theories, such as the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology, describe IT usage as solely an individual-level phenomenon. This article postulates a model of organisational IT usage that integrates salient organisational-level variables such as user training, top management support and technical support within an individual-level model to postulate a multi-level model of IT usage. The multi-level model was then empirically validated using multi-level data collected from 128 end users and 26 managers in 26 firms in China regarding their use of enterprise resource planning systems and analysed using the multi-level structural equation modelling (MSEM) technique. We demonstrate the utility of MSEM analysis of multi-level data relative to the more common structural equation modelling analysis of single-level data and show how single-level data can be aggregated to approximate multi-level analysis when multi-level data collection is not possible. We hope that this article will motivate future scholars to employ multi-level data and multi-level analysis for understanding organisational phenomena that are truly multi-level in nature.

  20. Single Versus Multilevel Fusion, For Single Level Degenerative Spondylolisthesis And Multilevel Lumbar Stenosis. Four-Year Results of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial

    PubMed Central

    Smorgick, Yossi; Park, Daniel K.; Baker, Kevin C; Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Zhao, Wenyan; Herkowitz, Harry; Fischgrund, Jeffrey S; Weinstein, James N.

    2013-01-01

    Study design A subanalysis study. Objective To compare surgical outcomes and complications of multi level decompression and single level fusion to multi level decompression and multi level fusion for patients with multilevel lumbar stenosis and single level degenerative spondylolisthesis. Summary of Background Data In patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis who are treated surgically, decompression and fusion provides a better clinical outcome than decompression alone. Surgical treatment for multilevel lumbar stenosis and degenerative spondylolisthesis typically includes decompression and fusion of the spondylolisthesis segment and decompression with or without fusion for the other stenotic segments. To date, no study has compared the results of these two surgical options for single level degenerative spondylolisthesis with multilevel stenosis. Methods The results from a multicenter randomized and observational study, the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) comparing multilevel decompression and single level fusion and multi level decompression and multi level fusion for spinal stenosis with spondylolisthesis, were analyzed. The primary outcomes measures were the Bodily Pain and Physical Function scales of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form General Health Survey (SF-36) and the modified Oswestry Disability Index at 1,2, 3 and 4 years postoperatively. Secondary analysis consisted of stenosis bothersomeness index, low back pain bothersomeness, leg pain, patient satisfaction, and self-rated progress. Results Overall 207 patients were enrolled to the study, 130 had multlilevel decompression with one level fusion and 77 patients had multi level decompression and multi-level fusion. For all primary and secondary outcome measures, there were no statistically significant differences in surgical outcomes between the two surgical techniques. However, operative time and intraoperative blood loss were significantly higher in the multilevel fusion

  1. Building of multilevel stakeholder consensus in radioactive waste repository siting

    SciTech Connect

    Dreimanis, A.

    2007-07-01

    This report considers the problem of multilevel consensus building for siting and construction of shared multinational/regional repositories for radioactive waste (RW) deep disposal. In the siting of a multinational repository there appears an essential innovative component of stakeholder consensus building, namely: to reach consent - political, social, economic, ecological - among international partners, in addition to solving the whole set of intra-national consensus building items. An entire partnering country is considered as a higher-level stakeholder - the national stakeholder, represented by the national government, being faced to simultaneous seeking an upward (international) and a downward (intra-national) consensus in a psychologically stressed environment, possibly being characterized by diverse political, economic and social interests. The following theses as a possible interdisciplinary approach towards building of shared understanding and stakeholder consensus on the international scale of RW disposal are forwarded and developed: a) building of international stakeholder consensus would be promoted by activating and diversifying on the international scale multilateral interactions between intra- and international stakeholders, including web-based networks of the RW disposal site investigations and decision-making, as well as networks for international cooperation among government authorities in nuclear safety, b) gradual progress in intergovernmental consensus and reaching multilateral agreements on shared deep repositories will be the result of democratic dialogue, via observing the whole set of various interests and common resolving of emerged controversies by using advanced synergetic approaches of conflict resolution, c) cross-cultural thinking and world perception, mental flexibility, creativity and knowledge are considered as basic prerogatives for gaining a higher level of mutual understanding and consensus for seeking further consensus, for

  2. Planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects by pulsed laser heating

    DOEpatents

    Tuckerman, David B.

    1987-01-01

    In the fabrication of multilevel integrated circuits, each metal layer is planarized by heating to momentarily melt the layer. The layer is melted by sweeping laser pulses of suitable width, typically about 1 microsecond duration, over the layer in small increments. The planarization of each metal layer eliminates irregular and discontinuous conditions between successive layers. The planarization method is particularly applicable to circuits having ground or power planes and allows for multilevel interconnects. Dielectric layers can also be planarized to produce a fully planar multilevel interconnect structure. The method is useful for the fabrication of VLSI circuits, particularly for wafer-scale integration.

  3. A multilevel perspective on faultlines: Differentiating the effects between group- and organizational-level faultlines.

    PubMed

    Bezrukova, Katerina; Spell, Chester S; Caldwell, David; Burger, Jerry M

    2016-01-01

    Integrating the literature on faultlines, conflict, and pay, we drew on the basic principles of multilevel theory and differentiated between group- and organizational-level faultlines to introduce a novel multilevel perspective on faultlines. Using multisource, multilevel data on 30 Major League Baseball (MLB) teams, we found that group-level faultlines were negatively associated with group performance, and that internally focused conflict exacerbated but externally focused conflict mitigated this effect. Organizational-level faultlines were negatively related to organizational performance, and were most harmful in organizations with high levels of compensation. Implications for groups and teams in the sports/entertainment and other industries are discussed. PMID:26167645

  4. A multilevel perspective on faultlines: Differentiating the effects between group- and organizational-level faultlines.

    PubMed

    Bezrukova, Katerina; Spell, Chester S; Caldwell, David; Burger, Jerry M

    2016-01-01

    Integrating the literature on faultlines, conflict, and pay, we drew on the basic principles of multilevel theory and differentiated between group- and organizational-level faultlines to introduce a novel multilevel perspective on faultlines. Using multisource, multilevel data on 30 Major League Baseball (MLB) teams, we found that group-level faultlines were negatively associated with group performance, and that internally focused conflict exacerbated but externally focused conflict mitigated this effect. Organizational-level faultlines were negatively related to organizational performance, and were most harmful in organizations with high levels of compensation. Implications for groups and teams in the sports/entertainment and other industries are discussed.

  5. Two-step photolithography to fabricate multilevel microchannels.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sungyoung; Park, Je-Kyun

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study the variation of the thickness of patterned microchannel features in photoresist (PR) by two-step photolithography. The final PR thickness is determined by the thickness and width of the predefined PR pattern in the first-step lithography and the thickness of the spin-coated PR film in the second-step lithography. Thickness variation is demonstrated to be an important consideration within the critical pattern width that the capillary pressure is still dominant for forming the PR film thickness. With this mechanism of two-step photolithography, we demonstrate its ability to form multilevel channel features and its use to fabricate a cross-flow filter with two different pore sizes as a microfluidic application.

  6. Multi-level adaptive finite element methods. 1: Variation problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, A.

    1979-01-01

    A general numerical strategy for solving partial differential equations and other functional problems by cycling between coarser and finer levels of discretization is described. Optimal discretization schemes are provided together with very fast general solvers. It is described in terms of finite element discretizations of general nonlinear minimization problems. The basic processes (relaxation sweeps, fine-grid-to-coarse-grid transfers of residuals, coarse-to-fine interpolations of corrections) are directly and naturally determined by the objective functional and the sequence of approximation spaces. The natural processes, however, are not always optimal. Concrete examples are given and some new techniques are reviewed. Including the local truncation extrapolation and a multilevel procedure for inexpensively solving chains of many boundary value problems, such as those arising in the solution of time-dependent problems.

  7. Ecological influences of early childhood obesity: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Boonpleng, Wannaporn; Park, Chang Gi; Gallo, Agatha M; Corte, Colleen; McCreary, Linda; Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2013-07-01

    This study aims to determine the contributing factors for early childhood overweight/obesity within the contexts of the child's home, school, and community, and to determine how much each of the ecological contexts contributes to childhood overweight/obesity. The framework was developed from Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. Data for 2,100 children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, were used in a series of multilevel modeling analyses. There was significant variation in childhood overweight/obesity by school and community. The majority of variation in childhood overweight/obesity was explained by the child and family factors in addition to school and community factors. Explained variance of childhood overweight/obesity at the school level was 27% and at the community level, 2%. The variance composition at children's family level alone was 71%. Therefore, overweight/obesity prevention efforts should focus primarily on child, family, and school factors and then community factors, to be more effective.

  8. Finding Chemical Reaction Paths with a Multilevel Preconditioning Protocol

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Finding transition paths for chemical reactions can be computationally costly owing to the level of quantum-chemical theory needed for accuracy. Here, we show that a multilevel preconditioning scheme that was recently introduced (Tempkin et al. J. Chem. Phys.2014, 140, 184114) can be used to accelerate quantum-chemical string calculations. We demonstrate the method by finding minimum-energy paths for two well-characterized reactions: tautomerization of malonaldehyde and Claissen rearrangement of chorismate to prephanate. For these reactions, we show that preconditioning density functional theory (DFT) with a semiempirical method reduces the computational cost for reaching a converged path that is an optimum under DFT by several fold. The approach also shows promise for free energy calculations when thermal noise can be controlled. PMID:25516726

  9. Ecology and multilevel selection explain aggression in spider colonies.

    PubMed

    Biernaskie, Jay M; Foster, Kevin R

    2016-08-01

    Progress in sociobiology continues to be hindered by abstract debates over methodology and the relative importance of within-group vs. between-group selection. We need concrete biological examples to ground discussions in empirical data. Recent work argued that the levels of aggression in social spider colonies are explained by group-level adaptation. Here, we examine this conclusion using models that incorporate ecological detail while remaining consistent with kin- and multilevel selection frameworks. We show that although levels of aggression are driven, in part, by between-group selection, incorporating universal within-group competition provides a striking fit to the data that is inconsistent with pure group-level adaptation. Instead, our analyses suggest that aggression is favoured primarily as a selfish strategy to compete for resources, despite causing lower group foraging efficiency or higher risk of group extinction. We argue that sociobiology will benefit from a pluralistic approach and stronger links between ecologically informed models and data.

  10. Development of the Multi-Level Seismic Receiver (MLSR)

    SciTech Connect

    Sleefe, G.E.; Engler, B.P.; Drozda, P.M.; Franco, R.J.; Morgan, J.

    1995-02-01

    The Advanced Geophysical Technology Department (6114) and the Telemetry Technology Development Department (2664) have, in conjunction with the Oil Recovery Technology Partnership, developed a Multi-Level Seismic Receiver (MLSR) for use in crosswell seismic surveys. The MLSR was designed and evaluated with the significant support of many industry partners in the oil exploration industry. The unit was designed to record and process superior quality seismic data operating in severe borehole environments, including high temperature (up to 200{degrees}C) and static pressure (10,000 psi). This development has utilized state-of-the-art technology in transducers, data acquisition, and real-time data communication and data processing. The mechanical design of the receiver has been carefully modeled and evaluated to insure excellent signal coupling into the receiver.

  11. Multilevel image authentication using shared secret threshold and phase retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xuemei; Meng, Xiangfeng; Wang, Yurong; Yang, Xiulun; Peng, Xiang; He, Wenqi; Dong, Guoyan; Chen, Hongyi

    2014-10-01

    A new kind of multilevel authentication system based on the (t, n) threshold secret sharing scheme and the iterative phase retrieval algorithm in Fresnel domain is proposed, in which, the first phase distribution iteratively generated is divided into n parts and delivered to n different participants, during high-level authentication, any t (t ≤ n) or more of them can be collected to reconstruct the original meaningful certification image; While in the case of low-level authentication, any t - 1 or fewer will gain no significant information of certification image, however, it can result in a remarkable peak output in the nonlinear correlation coefficient of the recovered image and the standard certification image, which can successfully provide an additional authentication layer for the high-level authentication. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations both validate the feasibility of our proposed scheme.

  12. The effects of weather on daily mood: a multilevel approach.

    PubMed

    Denissen, Jaap J A; Butalid, Ligaya; Penke, Lars; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2008-10-01

    The present study examines the effects of six weather parameters (temperature, wind power, sunlight, precipitation, air pressure, and photoperiod) on mood (positive affect, negative affect, and tiredness). Data were gathered from an online diary study (N = 1,233), linked to weather station data, and analyzed by means of multilevel analysis. Multivariate and univariate analyses enabled distinction between unique and shared effects. The results revealed main effects of temperature, wind power, and sunlight on negative affect. Sunlight had a main effect on tiredness and mediated the effects of precipitation and air pressure on tiredness. In terms of explained variance, however, the average effect of weather on mood was only small, though significant random variation was found across individuals, especially regarding the effect of photoperiod. However, these individual differences in weather sensitivity could not be explained by the Five Factor Model personality traits, gender, or age.

  13. Multi-Level iterative methods in computational plasma physics

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, D.A.; Barnes, D.C.; Brackbill, J.U.; Chacon, L.; Lapenta, G.

    1999-03-01

    Plasma physics phenomena occur on a wide range of spatial scales and on a wide range of time scales. When attempting to model plasma physics problems numerically the authors are inevitably faced with the need for both fine spatial resolution (fine grids) and implicit time integration methods. Fine grids can tax the efficiency of iterative methods and large time steps can challenge the robustness of iterative methods. To meet these challenges they are developing a hybrid approach where multigrid methods are used as preconditioners to Krylov subspace based iterative methods such as conjugate gradients or GMRES. For nonlinear problems they apply multigrid preconditioning to a matrix-few Newton-GMRES method. Results are presented for application of these multilevel iterative methods to the field solves in implicit moment method PIC, multidimensional nonlinear Fokker-Planck problems, and their initial efforts in particle MHD.

  14. Algebraic multilevel preconditioning in isogeometric analysis: Construction and numerical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahalaut, K. P. S.; Tomar, S. K.; Kraus, J. K.

    2013-11-01

    We present algebraic multilevel iteration (AMLI) methods for isogeometric discretization of scalar second order elliptic problems. The construction of coarse grid operators and hierarchical complementary operators are given. Moreover, for a uniform mesh on a unit interval, the explicit representation of B-spline basis functions for a fixed mesh size $h$ is given for $p=2,3,4$ and for $C^{0}$- and $C^{p-1}$-continuity. The presented methods show $h$- and (almost) $p$-independent convergence rates. Supporting numerical results for convergence factor and iterations count for AMLI cycles ($V$-, linear $W$-, nonlinear $W$-) are provided. Numerical tests are performed, in two-dimensions on square domain and quarter annulus, and in three-dimensions on quarter thick ring.

  15. Accelerating particle-in-cell simulations using multilevel Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricketson, Lee

    2015-11-01

    Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations have been an important tool in understanding plasmas since the dawn of the digital computer. Much more recently, the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method has accelerated particle-based simulations of a variety of systems described by stochastic differential equations (SDEs), from financial portfolios to porous media flow. The fundamental idea of MLMC is to perform correlated particle simulations using a hierarchy of different time steps, and to use these correlations for variance reduction on the fine-step result. This framework is directly applicable to the Langevin formulation of Coulomb collisions, as demonstrated in previous work, but in order to apply to PIC simulations of realistic scenarios, MLMC must be generalized to incorporate self-consistent evolution of the electromagnetic fields. We present such a generalization, with rigorous results concerning its accuracy and efficiency. We present examples of the method in the collisionless, electrostatic context, and discuss applications and extensions for the future.

  16. Optical image encryption using multilevel Arnold transform and noninterferometric imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

    2011-11-01

    Information security has attracted much current attention due to the rapid development of modern technologies, such as computer and internet. We propose a novel method for optical image encryption using multilevel Arnold transform and rotatable-phase-mask noninterferometric imaging. An optical image encryption scheme is developed in the gyrator transform domain, and one phase-only mask (i.e., phase grating) is rotated and updated during image encryption. For the decryption, an iterative retrieval algorithm is proposed to extract high-quality plaintexts. Conventional encoding methods (such as digital holography) have been proven vulnerably to the attacks, and the proposed optical encoding scheme can effectively eliminate security deficiency and significantly enhance cryptosystem security. The proposed strategy based on the rotatable phase-only mask can provide a new alternative for data/image encryption in the noninterferometric imaging.

  17. A multilevel study of leadership, empowerment, and performance in teams.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gilad; Kirkman, Bradley L; Kanfer, Ruth; Allen, Don; Rosen, Benson

    2007-03-01

    A multilevel model of leadership, empowerment, and performance was tested using a sample of 62 teams, 445 individual members, 62 team leaders, and 31 external managers from 31 stores of a Fortune 500 company. Leader-member exchange and leadership climate related differently to individual and team empowerment and interacted to influence individual empowerment. Also, several relationships were supported in more but not in less interdependent teams. Specifically, leader-member exchange related to individual performance partially through individual empowerment; leadership climate related to team performance partially through team empowerment; team empowerment moderated the relationship between individual empowerment and performance; and individual performance was positively related to team performance. Contributions to team leadership theory, research, and practices are discussed.

  18. The multilevel four-stroke swap engine and its environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzdin, Raam; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2014-09-01

    A multilevel four-stroke engine where the thermalization strokes are generated by unitary collisions with thermal bath particles is analyzed. Our model is solvable even when the engine operates far from thermal equilibrium and in the strong system-bath coupling. Necessary operation conditions for the heat machine to perform as an engine or a refrigerator are derived. We relate the work and efficiency of the device to local and non-local statistical properties of the baths (purity, index of coincidence, etc) and put upper bounds on these quantities. Finally, in the ultra-hot regime, we analytically optimize the work and find a striking similarity to results obtained for efficiency at maximal power of classical engines. The complete swap limit of our results holds for any four-stroke quantum Otto engine that is coupled to the baths for periods that are significantly longer than the thermal relaxation time.

  19. Quantum computing with collective ensembles of multilevel systems.

    PubMed

    Brion, E; Mølmer, K; Saffman, M

    2007-12-31

    We propose a new physical approach for encoding and processing of quantum information in ensembles of multilevel quantum systems, where the different bits are not carried by individual particles but associated with the collective population of different internal levels. One- and two-bit gates are implemented by collective internal state transitions taking place in the presence of an excitation blockade mechanism, which restricts the population of each internal state to the values zero and unity. Quantum computers with 10-20 bits can be built via this scheme in single trapped clouds of ground state atoms subject to the Rydberg excitation blockade mechanism, and the linear dependence between register size and the number of internal quantum states in atoms offers realistic means to reach larger registers.

  20. Multigrid and multilevel domain decomposition for unstructured grids

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, T.; Smith, B.

    1994-12-31

    Multigrid has proven itself to be a very versatile method for the iterative solution of linear and nonlinear systems of equations arising from the discretization of PDES. In some applications, however, no natural multilevel structure of grids is available, and these must be generated as part of the solution procedure. In this presentation the authors will consider the problem of generating a multigrid algorithm when only a fine, unstructured grid is given. Their techniques generate a sequence of coarser grids by first forming an approximate maximal independent set of the vertices and then applying a Cavendish type algorithm to form the coarser triangulation. Numerical tests indicate that convergence using this approach can be as fast as standard multigrid on a structured mesh, at least in two dimensions.

  1. Schwarz and multilevel methods for quadratic spline collocation

    SciTech Connect

    Christara, C.C.; Smith, B.

    1994-12-31

    Smooth spline collocation methods offer an alternative to Galerkin finite element methods, as well as to Hermite spline collocation methods, for the solution of linear elliptic Partial Differential Equations (PDEs). Recently, optimal order of convergence spline collocation methods have been developed for certain degree splines. Convergence proofs for smooth spline collocation methods are generally more difficult than for Galerkin finite elements or Hermite spline collocation, and they require stronger assumptions and more restrictions. However, numerical tests indicate that spline collocation methods are applicable to a wider class of problems, than the analysis requires, and are very competitive to finite element methods, with respect to efficiency. The authors will discuss Schwarz and multilevel methods for the solution of elliptic PDEs using quadratic spline collocation, and compare these with domain decomposition methods using substructuring. Numerical tests on a variety of parallel machines will also be presented. In addition, preliminary convergence analysis using Schwarz and/or maximum principle techniques will be presented.

  2. Finding Chemical Reaction Paths with a Multilevel Preconditioning Protocol

    DOE PAGES

    Kale, Seyit; Sode, Olaseni; Weare, Jonathan; Dinner, Aaron R.

    2014-11-07

    Finding transition paths for chemical reactions can be computationally costly owing to the level of quantum-chemical theory needed for accuracy. Here, we show that a multilevel preconditioning scheme that was recently introduced (Tempkin et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2014, 140, 184114) can be used to accelerate quantum-chemical string calculations. We demonstrate the method by finding minimum-energy paths for two well-characterized reactions: tautomerization of malonaldehyde and Claissen rearrangement of chorismate to prephanate. For these reactions, we show that preconditioning density functional theory (DFT) with a semiempirical method reduces the computational cost for reaching a converged path that is an optimum undermore » DFT by several fold. In conclusion, the approach also shows promise for free energy calculations when thermal noise can be controlled.« less

  3. Finding Chemical Reaction Paths with a Multilevel Preconditioning Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Kale, Seyit; Sode, Olaseni; Weare, Jonathan; Dinner, Aaron R.

    2014-11-07

    Finding transition paths for chemical reactions can be computationally costly owing to the level of quantum-chemical theory needed for accuracy. Here, we show that a multilevel preconditioning scheme that was recently introduced (Tempkin et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2014, 140, 184114) can be used to accelerate quantum-chemical string calculations. We demonstrate the method by finding minimum-energy paths for two well-characterized reactions: tautomerization of malonaldehyde and Claissen rearrangement of chorismate to prephanate. For these reactions, we show that preconditioning density functional theory (DFT) with a semiempirical method reduces the computational cost for reaching a converged path that is an optimum under DFT by several fold. In conclusion, the approach also shows promise for free energy calculations when thermal noise can be controlled.

  4. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    1997-01-01

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  5. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with separate DC sources

    DOEpatents

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-06-24

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations. 15 figs.

  6. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    2002-01-01

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  7. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    2001-04-03

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  8. Drilling and completion specifications for CA series multilevel piezometers

    SciTech Connect

    Clawson, T.S.

    1986-08-01

    CX Series multilevel piezometer boreholes will provide information on hydraulic heads in the Rosalia, Sentinel Gap, Ginkgo, Rocky Coulee, Cohassett, Birkett, and Umtanum flow tops. The borehole sites will be located adjacent to the reference repository location. In addition, information from the boreholes will provide input data used to determine horizontal and vertical flow rates, and identify possible geologic structures. This specification includes details for drilling, piezometer design, hydrologic testing, and hydrochemical sampling of the boreholes. It includes drilling requirements, design, and installation procedures for the series piezometer nests, intervals selected for head monitoring and schedules for drilling and piezometer installation. Specific drilling and piezometer installation specifications for boreholes DC-24CX and DC-25CX are also included. 27 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Ecology and multilevel selection explain aggression in spider colonies.

    PubMed

    Biernaskie, Jay M; Foster, Kevin R

    2016-08-01

    Progress in sociobiology continues to be hindered by abstract debates over methodology and the relative importance of within-group vs. between-group selection. We need concrete biological examples to ground discussions in empirical data. Recent work argued that the levels of aggression in social spider colonies are explained by group-level adaptation. Here, we examine this conclusion using models that incorporate ecological detail while remaining consistent with kin- and multilevel selection frameworks. We show that although levels of aggression are driven, in part, by between-group selection, incorporating universal within-group competition provides a striking fit to the data that is inconsistent with pure group-level adaptation. Instead, our analyses suggest that aggression is favoured primarily as a selfish strategy to compete for resources, despite causing lower group foraging efficiency or higher risk of group extinction. We argue that sociobiology will benefit from a pluralistic approach and stronger links between ecologically informed models and data. PMID:27264438

  10. Comparison of Estimation Procedures for Multilevel AR(1) Models.

    PubMed

    Krone, Tanja; Albers, Casper J; Timmerman, Marieke E

    2016-01-01

    To estimate a time series model for multiple individuals, a multilevel model may be used. In this paper we compare two estimation methods for the autocorrelation in Multilevel AR(1) models, namely Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) and Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo. Furthermore, we examine the difference between modeling fixed and random individual parameters. To this end, we perform a simulation study with a fully crossed design, in which we vary the length of the time series (10 or 25), the number of individuals per sample (10 or 25), the mean of the autocorrelation (-0.6 to 0.6 inclusive, in steps of 0.3) and the standard deviation of the autocorrelation (0.25 or 0.40). We found that the random estimators of the population autocorrelation show less bias and higher power, compared to the fixed estimators. As expected, the random estimators profit strongly from a higher number of individuals, while this effect is small for the fixed estimators. The fixed estimators profit slightly more from a higher number of time points than the random estimators. When possible, random estimation is preferred to fixed estimation. The difference between MLE and Bayesian estimation is nearly negligible. The Bayesian estimation shows a smaller bias, but MLE shows a smaller variability (i.e., standard deviation of the parameter estimates). Finally, better results are found for a higher number of individuals and time points, and for a lower individual variability of the autocorrelation. The effect of the size of the autocorrelation differs between outcome measures. PMID:27242559

  11. An integrated approach for multi-level sample size determination

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, M.S.; Teichmann, T.; Sanborn, J.B.

    1997-12-31

    Inspection procedures involving the sampling of items in a population often require steps of increasingly sensitive measurements, with correspondingly smaller sample sizes; these are referred to as multilevel sampling schemes. In the case of nuclear safeguards inspections verifying that there has been no diversion of Special Nuclear Material (SNM), these procedures have been examined often and increasingly complex algorithms have been developed to implement them. The aim in this paper is to provide an integrated approach, and, in so doing, to describe a systematic, consistent method that proceeds logically from level to level with increasing accuracy. The authors emphasize that the methods discussed are generally consistent with those presented in the references mentioned, and yield comparable results when the error models are the same. However, because of its systematic, integrated approach the proposed method elucidates the conceptual understanding of what goes on, and, in many cases, simplifies the calculations. In nuclear safeguards inspections, an important aspect of verifying nuclear items to detect any possible diversion of nuclear fissile materials is the sampling of such items at various levels of sensitivity. The first step usually is sampling by ``attributes`` involving measurements of relatively low accuracy, followed by further levels of sampling involving greater accuracy. This process is discussed in some detail in the references given; also, the nomenclature is described. Here, the authors outline a coordinated step-by-step procedure for achieving such multilevel sampling, and they develop the relationships between the accuracy of measurement and the sample size required at each stage, i.e., at the various levels. The logic of the underlying procedures is carefully elucidated; the calculations involved and their implications, are clearly described, and the process is put in a form that allows systematic generalization.

  12. Politics of innovation in multi-level water governance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, Katherine A.; Coombes, Peter J.; White, Ian

    2014-11-01

    Innovations are being proposed in many countries in order to support change towards more sustainable and water secure futures. However, the extent to which they can be implemented is subject to complex politics and powerful coalitions across multi-level governance systems and scales of interest. Exactly how innovation uptake can be best facilitated or blocked in these complex systems is thus a matter of important practical and research interest in water cycle management. From intervention research studies in Australia, China and Bulgaria, this paper seeks to describe and analyse the behind-the-scenes struggles and coalition-building that occurs between water utility providers, private companies, experts, communities and all levels of government in an effort to support or block specific innovations. The research findings suggest that in order to ensure successful passage of the proposed innovations, champions for it are required from at least two administrative levels, including one with innovation implementation capacity, as part of a larger supportive coalition. Higher governance levels can play an important enabling role in facilitating the passage of certain types of innovations that may be in competition with currently entrenched systems of water management. Due to a range of natural biases, experts on certain innovations and disciplines may form part of supporting or blocking coalitions but their evaluations of worth for water system sustainability and security are likely to be subject to competing claims based on different values and expertise, so may not necessarily be of use in resolving questions of "best courses of action". This remains a political values-based decision to be negotiated through the receiving multi-level water governance system.

  13. A multilevel perspective to explain recycling behaviour in communities.

    PubMed

    Tabernero, Carmen; Hernández, Bernardo; Cuadrado, Esther; Luque, Bárbara; Pereira, Cícero R

    2015-08-15

    Previous research on the motivation for environmentally responsible behaviour has focused mainly on individual variables, rather than organizational or collective variables. Therefore, the results of those studies are hardly applicable to environmental management. This study considers individual, collective, and organizational variables together that contribute to the management of environmental waste. The main aim is to identify, through the development of a multilevel model, those predictive variables of recycling behaviour that help organizations to increase the recycling rates in their communities. Individual (age, gender, educational level, self-efficacy with respect to residential recycling, individual recycling behaviour), organizational (satisfaction with the quality of the service provided by a recycling company), and collective (community recycling rates, number of inhabitants, community efficacy beliefs) motivational factors relevant to recycling behaviour were analysed. A sample of 1501 residents from 55 localities was surveyed. The results of multilevel analyses indicated that there was significant variability within and between localities. Interactions between variables at the level of the individual (e.g. satisfaction with service quality) and variables at the level of the collective (e.g. community efficacy) predicted recycling behaviour in localities with low and high community recycling rates and large and small populations. The interactions showed that the relationship between self-efficacy and recycling is stronger in localities with weak community efficacy beliefs than in communities with strong beliefs. The findings show that the relationship between satisfaction with service quality and recycling behaviour is stronger in localities with strong community efficacy beliefs than in communities with weaker beliefs and a smaller population. The results are discussed accordingly in relation to theory and possible contribution to waste management

  14. Multi-level overlay techniques for improving DPL overlay control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Charlie; Pai, Y. C.; Yu, Dennis; Pang, Peter; Yu, Chun Chi; Wu, Robert (Hsing-Chien); Huang, Eros (Chien Jen); Chen, Marson (Chiun-Chieh); Tien, David; Choi, Dongsub

    2012-03-01

    Overlay continues to be one of the key challenges for lithography in semiconductor manufacturing, especially in light of the accelerated pace of device node shrinks. This reality will be especially evident at 20nm node where DPL and multi-layer overlay will require 4nm or less in overlay control across many critical layers in order to meet device yield entitlements. The motivation for this paper is based on improving DPL overlay control in face of the high complexity involved with multi-layer overlay requirements. For example, the DPL-2nd-litho layer will need to achieve tight registration with the DPL-1st-litho layer, and at the same time, it will need to achieve tight overlay to the reference-litho layer, which in some cases can also be a DPL layer. Of course, multi-level overlay measurements are not new, but the combination of increased complexity of multi-DPL layers and extremely challenging overlay specifications for 20nm node together will necessitate a better understanding of multi-level overlay control, specifically in terms of root cause analysis of multi-layer related overlay errors and appropriate techniques for improvement In this paper, we start with the identification of specific overlay errors caused by multi-layer DPL processing on full film stack product wafers. After validation of these findings with inter-lot and intra-lot controlled experiments, we investigate different advanced control techniques to determine how to optimize overlay control and minimize both intra-lot and inter-lot sources of error. A new approach to overlay data analysis will also be introduced that combines empirical data with target image quality data to more accurately determine and better explain the root cause error mechanism as well as provide effective strategies for improved overlay control.

  15. Multilevel Cortical Processing of Somatosensory Novelty: A Magnetoencephalography Study

    PubMed Central

    Naeije, Gilles; Vaulet, Thibaut; Wens, Vincent; Marty, Brice; Goldman, Serge; De Tiège, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), this study investigates the spatio-temporal dynamics of the multilevel cortical processing of somatosensory change detection. Neuromagnetic signals of 16 healthy adult subjects (7 females and 9 males, mean age 29 ± 3 years) were recorded using whole-scalp-covering MEG while they underwent an oddball paradigm based on simple standard (right index fingertip tactile stimulation) and deviant (simultaneous right index fingertip and middle phalanx tactile stimulation) stimuli gathered into sequences to create and then deviate from stimulus patterns at multiple (local vs. global) levels of complexity. Five healthy adult subjects (3 females and 2 males, mean age 31, 6 ± 2 years) also underwent a similar oddball paradigm in which standard and deviant stimuli were flipped. Local deviations led to a somatosensory mismatch response peaking at 55–130 ms post-stimulus onset with a cortical generator located at the contralateral secondary somatosensory (cSII) cortex. The mismatch response was independent of the deviant stimuli physical characteristics. Global deviants led to a P300 response with cortical sources located bilaterally at temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) and supplementary motor area (SMA). The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and the SMA were found to generate a contingent magnetic variation (CMV) attributed to top-down expectations. Amplitude of mismatch responses were modulated by top-down expectations and correlated with both the magnitude of the CMV and the P300 amplitude at the right TPJ. These results provide novel empirical evidence for a unified sensory novelty detection system in the human brain by linking detection of salient sensory stimuli in personal and extra-personal spaces to a common framework of multilevel cortical processing. PMID:27313523

  16. A multilevel perspective to explain recycling behaviour in communities.

    PubMed

    Tabernero, Carmen; Hernández, Bernardo; Cuadrado, Esther; Luque, Bárbara; Pereira, Cícero R

    2015-08-15

    Previous research on the motivation for environmentally responsible behaviour has focused mainly on individual variables, rather than organizational or collective variables. Therefore, the results of those studies are hardly applicable to environmental management. This study considers individual, collective, and organizational variables together that contribute to the management of environmental waste. The main aim is to identify, through the development of a multilevel model, those predictive variables of recycling behaviour that help organizations to increase the recycling rates in their communities. Individual (age, gender, educational level, self-efficacy with respect to residential recycling, individual recycling behaviour), organizational (satisfaction with the quality of the service provided by a recycling company), and collective (community recycling rates, number of inhabitants, community efficacy beliefs) motivational factors relevant to recycling behaviour were analysed. A sample of 1501 residents from 55 localities was surveyed. The results of multilevel analyses indicated that there was significant variability within and between localities. Interactions between variables at the level of the individual (e.g. satisfaction with service quality) and variables at the level of the collective (e.g. community efficacy) predicted recycling behaviour in localities with low and high community recycling rates and large and small populations. The interactions showed that the relationship between self-efficacy and recycling is stronger in localities with weak community efficacy beliefs than in communities with strong beliefs. The findings show that the relationship between satisfaction with service quality and recycling behaviour is stronger in localities with strong community efficacy beliefs than in communities with weaker beliefs and a smaller population. The results are discussed accordingly in relation to theory and possible contribution to waste management

  17. Multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessment of farming systems

    SciTech Connect

    Van Passel, Steven; Meul, Marijke

    2012-01-15

    Sustainability assessment is needed to build sustainable farming systems. A broad range of sustainability concepts, methodologies and applications already exists. They differ in level, focus, orientation, measurement, scale, presentation and intended end-users. In this paper we illustrate that a smart combination of existing methods with different levels of application can make sustainability assessment more profound, and that it can broaden the insights of different end-user groups. An overview of sustainability assessment tools on different levels and for different end-users shows the complementarities and the opportunities of using different methods. In a case-study, a combination of the sustainable value approach (SVA) and MOTIFS is used to perform a sustainability evaluation of farming systems in Flanders. SVA is used to evaluate sustainability at sector level, and is especially useful to support policy makers, while MOTIFS is used to support and guide farmers towards sustainability at farm level. The combined use of the two methods with complementary goals can widen the insights of both farmers and policy makers, without losing the particularities of the different approaches. To stimulate and support further research and applications, we propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We give an overview of sustainability assessment tools for agricultural systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SVA and MOTIFS are used to evaluate the sustainability of dairy farming in Flanders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of methods with different levels broadens the insights of different end-user groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments.

  18. Load sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Sohns, Carl W.; Nodine, Robert N.; Wallace, Steven Allen

    1999-01-01

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

  19. Biomechanical Analysis of the Proximal Adjacent Segment after Multilevel Instrumentation of the Thoracic Spine: Do Hooks Ease the Transition?

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Melodie F.; Robinson, Samuel T.; Svet, Mark T.; Liu, John C.; Acosta, Frank L.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Biomechanical cadaveric study. Objective Clinical studies indicate that using less-rigid fixation techniques in place of the standard all-pedicle screw construct when correcting for scoliosis may reduce the incidence of proximal junctional kyphosis and improve patient outcomes. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is a biomechanical advantage to using supralaminar hooks in place of pedicle screws at the upper-instrumented vertebrae in a multilevel thoracic construct. Methods T7–T12 spines were biomechanically tested: (1) intact; (2) following a two-level pedicles screw fusion from T9 to T11; and after proximal extension of the fusion to T8–T9 with (3) bilateral supra-laminar hooks, (4) a unilateral hook + unilateral screw hybrid, or (5) bilateral pedicle screws. Specimens were nondestructively loaded while three-dimensional kinematics and intradiscal pressure at the supra-adjacent level were recorded. Results Supra-adjacent hypermobility was reduced when bilateral hooks were used in place of pedicle screws at the upper-instrumented level, with statistically significant differences in lateral bending and torsion (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). Disk pressures in the supra-adjacent segment were not statistically different among top-off techniques. Conclusions The use of supralaminar hooks at the top of a multilevel posterior fusion construct reduces the stress at the proximal uninstrumented motion segment. Although further data is needed to provide a definitive link to the clinical occurrence of PJK, this in vitro study demonstrates the potential benefit of “easing” the transition between the stiff instrumented spine and the flexible native spine and is the first to demonstrate these results with laminar hooks. PMID:27190735

  20. Load forecasting by ANN

    SciTech Connect

    Highley, D.D.; Hilmes, T.J. )

    1993-07-01

    This article discusses the use and training of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for load forecasting. The topics of the article include a brief overview of neural networks, interest in ANNs, training of neural networks, a case study in load forecasting, and the potential for using an artificial neural network to perform short-term load forecasting.

  1. Discharge circuits and loads

    SciTech Connect

    Sarjeant, W.J.

    1980-10-15

    This will be an overview in which some of the general properties of loads are examined: their interface with the energy storage and switching devices; general problems encountered with different types of loads; how load behavior and fault modes can impact on the design of a power conditioning system (PCS).

  2. Fabrication of multilevel resist patterns by using a liquid crystal mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słupski, Piotr; Nikodem, Michał; Chai, Liming; Komorowska, Katarzyna

    2015-11-01

    Photolithographic processes of multilevel features in microfluidics can be complex and expensive. This paper demonstrates a quick method for manufacturing multilevel patterns, which is based on liquid crystal display masking during a standard lithography process for master mold fabrication for the polydimethysiloxane replica process. An active mask, based on a liquid crystal display, can simplify the process due to the ability to quickly modify designs and reduce the overhead for alignment between mask levels. The possibility of multilevel patterning, with the help of active masking, creates new opportunities for optical lithography processes. We have developed the process for a standard, mercury lamp exposure mask aligner system. The patterning characteristics were evaluated with a step pattern fabricated as an example of three-dimensional patterning for multilevel structuring. The application of a liquid crystal mask for resist contrast measurements was demonstrated.

  3. Multilevel Concatenated Block Modulation Codes for the Frequency Non-selective Rayleigh Fading Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu; Rhee, Dojun

    1996-01-01

    This paper is concerned with construction of multilevel concatenated block modulation codes using a multi-level concatenation scheme for the frequency non-selective Rayleigh fading channel. In the construction of multilevel concatenated modulation code, block modulation codes are used as the inner codes. Various types of codes (block or convolutional, binary or nonbinary) are being considered as the outer codes. In particular, we focus on the special case for which Reed-Solomon (RS) codes are used as the outer codes. For this special case, a systematic algebraic technique for constructing q-level concatenated block modulation codes is proposed. Codes have been constructed for certain specific values of q and compared with the single-level concatenated block modulation codes using the same inner codes. A multilevel closest coset decoding scheme for these codes is proposed.

  4. A Parallel Implementation of Multilevel Recursive Spectral Bisection for Application to Adaptive Unstructured Meshes. Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnard, Stephen T.; Simon, Horst; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The design of a parallel implementation of multilevel recursive spectral bisection is described. The goal is to implement a code that is fast enough to enable dynamic repartitioning of adaptive meshes.

  5. Translating the Socio-Ecological Perspective Into Multilevel Interventions: Gaps Between Theory and Practice.

    PubMed

    Schölmerich, Vera L N; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-02-01

    Multilevel interventions are inspired by socio-ecological models, and seek to create change on various levels-for example by increasing the health literacy of individuals as well as modifying the social norms within a community. Despite becoming a buzzword in public health, actual multilevel interventions remain scarce. In this commentary, we explore the operational and empirical barriers to designing and implementing multilevel interventions, and argue that the current theoretical framework based on the socio-ecological model is insufficient to guide those seeking to design multilevel interventions. We consider two theories, namely, the complementarity principle theory and the risk compensation theory-to address the gap between theory and translation into practice.

  6. MULTILEVEL ACCELERATION OF STOCHASTIC COLLOCATION METHODS FOR PDE WITH RANDOM INPUT DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, Clayton G; Jantsch, Peter A; Teckentrup, Aretha L; Gunzburger, Max D

    2013-01-01

    Stochastic Collocation (SC) methods for stochastic partial differential equa- tions (SPDEs) suffer from the curse of dimensionality, whereby increases in the stochastic dimension cause an explosion of computational effort. To combat these challenges, multilevel approximation methods seek to decrease computational complexity by balancing spatial and stochastic discretization errors. As a form of variance reduction, multilevel techniques have been successfully applied to Monte Carlo (MC) methods, but may be extended to accelerate other methods for SPDEs in which the stochastic and spatial degrees of freedom are de- coupled. This article presents general convergence and computational complexity analysis of a multilevel method for SPDEs, demonstrating its advantages with regard to standard, single level approximation. The numerical results will highlight conditions under which multilevel sparse grid SC is preferable to the more traditional MC and SC approaches.

  7. GROUND WATER MONITORING AND SAMPLING: MULTI-LEVEL VERSUS TRADITIONAL METHODS – WHAT’S WHAT?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have been conducted to evaluate different sampling techniques for determining VOC concentrations in groundwater. Samples were obtained using multi-level and traditional sampling techniques in three monitoring wells at the Raymark Superfund site in Stratford, CT. Ve...

  8. Multilevel Interventions To Address Health Disparities Show Promise In Improving Population Health.

    PubMed

    Paskett, Electra; Thompson, Beti; Ammerman, Alice S; Ortega, Alexander N; Marsteller, Jill; Richardson, DeJuran

    2016-08-01

    Multilevel interventions are those that affect at least two levels of influence-for example, the patient and the health care provider. They can be experimental designs or natural experiments caused by changes in policy, such as the implementation of the Affordable Care Act or local policies. Measuring the effects of multilevel interventions is challenging, because they allow for interaction among levels, and the impact of each intervention must be assessed and translated into practice. We discuss how two projects from the National Institutes of Health's Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities used multilevel interventions to reduce health disparities. The interventions, which focused on the uptake of the human papillomavirus vaccine and community-level dietary change, had mixed results. The design and implementation of multilevel interventions are facilitated by input from the community, and more advanced methods and measures are needed to evaluate the impact of the various levels and components of such interventions. PMID:27503968

  9. Mining multilevel and location-aware service patterns in mobile web environments.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Shin-Mu; Tsui, Ching-Fu

    2004-12-01

    In this correspondence, we address the issue of efficiently mining multilevel and location-aware associated service patterns in a mobile web environment. In terms of multilevel concept, we consider the complex problem that locations and services are of hierarchical structures. We propose a new data mining method named two-dimensional multilevel (2-DML) association rules mining, which can efficiently discover the associated service request patterns by taking into account the multilevel properties of locations and services. The discovered patterns can be effectively utilized in real applications like location-based and personalized services. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work addressing this research issue. Some variations of the 2-DML method with different properties in terms of execution efficiency and memory efficiency were also developed. Through empirical evaluation, the proposed methods are shown to deliver good performance in terms of efficiency and scalability under various system conditions.

  10. Groundwater Age in Multi-Level Water Quality Monitor Wells on California Central Valley Dairies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esser, B. K.; Visser, A.; Hillegonds, D. J.; Singleton, M. J.; Moran, J. E.; Harter, T.

    2011-12-01

    Dairy farming in California's Central Valley is a significant source of nitrate to underlying aquifers. One approach to mitigation is to implement farm-scale management plans that reduce nutrient loading to groundwater while sustaining crop yield. While the effect of different management practices on crop yield is easily measured, their effect on groundwater quality has only infrequently been evaluated. Documenting and predicting the impact of management on water quality requires a quantitative assessment of transport (including timescale and mixing) through the vadose and saturated zones. In this study, we measured tritium, helium isotopic composition, and noble gas concentrations in groundwater drawn from monitor wells on several dairies in the Lower San Joaquin Valley and Tulare Lake Basin of California's Central Valley in order to predict the timescales on which changes in management may produce observable changes in groundwater quality. These dairies differ in age (from <10 to >100 years old), thickness of the vadose zone (from <10 to 60 m), hydrogeologic setting, and primary source of irrigation water (surface or groundwater). All of the dairies use manure wastewater for irrigation and fertilization. Three of the dairies have implemented management changes designed to reduce nutrient loading and/or water usage. Monitor wells in the southern Tulare Lake Basin dairies were installed by UC-Davis as multi-level nested wells allowing depth profiling of tritium and noble gases at these sites. Tritium/helium-3 groundwater ages, calculated using a simple piston-flow model, range from <2 to >50 years. Initial tritium (the sum of measured tritium and tritiogenic helium-3) is close to or slightly above precipitation in the calculated recharge year for young samples; and significantly above the precipitation curve for older samples. This pattern is consistent with the use of 20-30 year old groundwater recharged before 1980 for irrigation, and illustrates how irrigation

  11. Fraunhofer diffraction of the plane wave by a multilevel (quantized) spiral phase plate.

    PubMed

    Kotlyar, Victor V; Kovalev, Alexey A

    2008-01-15

    We obtain an analytical expression in the form of a finite sum of plane waves that describes the paraxial scalar Fraunhofer diffraction of a limited plane wave by a multilevel (quantized) spiral phase plate (SPP) bounded by a polygonal aperture. For several topological charges of the SPP we numerically obtain the minimal number of SPP sectors for which the RMS between the Fraunhofer diffraction patterns for multilevel and continuous SPP does not exceed 2%.

  12. Application of wavelet analysis to numerical modeling of deformations in multilevel hierarchical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepanov, Roman O.; Cherepanov, Oleg I.; Krektuleva, Raisa A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper proposes a wavelet based numerical method for the solution of elastoplastic problem. The method is based on the Lagrange variational equation of elastic static and the Haar wavelet transform of the components of deformation field. Some examples of analysis of multilevel deformation are shown for the demonstration of the method's capabilities. Some differences in the wavelet spectrums of multilevel inhomogeneous media are shown and discussed.

  13. Multi-Level Experimental and Analytical Evaluation of Two Composite Energy Absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Littell, Justin D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Annett, Martin S.; Seal, Michael D., II

    2015-01-01

    Two composite energy absorbers were developed and evaluated at NASA Langley Research Center through multi-level testing and simulation performed under the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) research program. A conical-shaped energy absorber, designated the conusoid, was evaluated that consisted of four layers of hybrid carbon-Kevlar plain weave fabric oriented at [+45 deg/-45 deg/-45 deg/+45 deg] with respect to the vertical, or crush, direction. A sinusoidal-shaped energy absorber, designated the sinusoid, was developed that consisted of hybrid carbon-Kevlar plain weave fabric face sheets, two layers for each face sheet oriented at +/-45deg with respect to the vertical direction and a closed-cell ELFOAM P200 polyisocyanurate (2.0-lb/cu ft) foam core. The design goal for the energy absorbers was to achieve average floor-level accelerations of between 25- and 40-g during the full-scale crash test of a retrofitted CH-46E helicopter airframe, designated TRACT 2. Variations in both designs were assessed through dynamic crush testing of component specimens. Once the designs were finalized, subfloor beams of each configuration were fabricated and retrofitted into a barrel section of a CH-46E helicopter. A vertical drop test of the barrel section was conducted onto concrete to evaluate the performance of the energy absorbers prior to retrofit into TRACT 2. The retrofitted airframe was crash tested under combined forward and vertical velocity conditions onto soil, which is characterized as a sand/clay mixture. Finite element models were developed of all test articles and simulations were performed using LS-DYNA, a commercial nonlinear explicit transient dynamic finite element code. Test-analysis results are presented for each energy absorber as comparisons of time-history responses, as well as predicted and experimental structural deformations and progressive damage under impact loading for each evaluation level.

  14. Multilevel factor analysis of smokers' real-time negative affect ratings while quitting.

    PubMed

    Bold, Krysten W; Witkiewitz, Katie; McCarthy, Danielle E

    2016-09-01

    Smoking is a serious public health problem, and accurate real-time assessment of risk factors associated with smoking is critical to understanding smoking relapse. Negative affect is often described as a critical risk factor related to smoking relapse, and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods have been widely used to study real-time relations between negative affect and smoking. However, the factor structure of momentary negative affect ratings is unknown. The current investigation examined the multilevel factor structure and internal consistency of an EMA measure of negative affect. Daily assessments were collected for 1 week prequit and 3 weeks postquit from 113 adult daily smokers receiving nicotine replacement therapy and counseling to quit smoking. Results supported a 2-factor model with correlated but distinct agitation and distress factors, rather than a single-factor model of negative affect. The agitation factor was indicated by these items: impatient, tense/anxious, restless. The distress factor was indicated by these items: sad/depressed, upset, distressed. The 2-factor model had acceptable model fit and consistent factor loadings across 3 separate cessation phases: prequit, postquit with recent smoking, and postquit without recent smoking. The 2 factors were highly correlated, showed good internal consistency, and showed strong associations with theoretically relevant smoking and affect variables. Agitation was more strongly related to urge to smoke, and distress was more strongly related to recent stress. This study provides support for a 2-factor model of an EMA measure of negative affect and highlights distinct facets that may be useful for future investigations of affect and smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27536999

  15. Load Model Data Tool

    2013-04-30

    The LMDT software automates the process of the load composite model data preparation in the format supported by the major power system software vendors (GE and Siemens). Proper representation of the load composite model in power system dynamic analysis is very important. Software tools for power system simulation like GE PSLF and Siemens PSSE already include algorithms for the load composite modeling. However, these tools require that the input information on composite load to bemore » provided in custom formats. Preparation of this data is time consuming and requires multiple manual operations. The LMDT software enables to automate this process. Software is designed to generate composite load model data. It uses the default load composition data, motor information, and bus information as an input. Software processes the input information and produces load composition model. Generated model can be stored in .dyd format supported by GE PSLF package or .dyr format supported by Siemens PSSE package.« less

  16. Load Model Data Tool

    SciTech Connect

    David Chassin, Pavel Etingov

    2013-04-30

    The LMDT software automates the process of the load composite model data preparation in the format supported by the major power system software vendors (GE and Siemens). Proper representation of the load composite model in power system dynamic analysis is very important. Software tools for power system simulation like GE PSLF and Siemens PSSE already include algorithms for the load composite modeling. However, these tools require that the input information on composite load to be provided in custom formats. Preparation of this data is time consuming and requires multiple manual operations. The LMDT software enables to automate this process. Software is designed to generate composite load model data. It uses the default load composition data, motor information, and bus information as an input. Software processes the input information and produces load composition model. Generated model can be stored in .dyd format supported by GE PSLF package or .dyr format supported by Siemens PSSE package.

  17. Multilevel Models for the Analysis of Angle-Specific Torque Curves with Application to Master Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Humberto M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to outline a multilevel modeling approach to fit individual angle-specific torque curves describing concentric knee extension and flexion isokinetic muscular actions in Master athletes. The potential of the analytical approach to examine between individual differences across the angle-specific torque curves was illustrated including between-individuals variation due to gender differences at a higher level. Torques in concentric muscular actions of knee extension and knee extension at 60º·s−1 were considered within a range of motion between 5º and 85º (only torques “truly” isokinetic). Multilevel time series models with autoregressive covariance structures with standard multilevel models were superior fits compared with standard multilevel models for repeated measures to fit angle-specific torque curves. Third and fourth order polynomial models were the best fits to describe angle-specific torque curves of isokinetic knee flexion and extension concentric actions, respectively. The fixed exponents allow interpretations for initial acceleration, the angle at peak torque and the decrement of torque after peak torque. Also, the multilevel models were flexible to illustrate the influence of gender differences on the shape of torque throughout the range of motion and in the shape of the curves. The presented multilevel regression models may afford a general framework to examine angle-specific moment curves by isokinetic dynamometry, and add to the understanding mechanisms of strength development, particularly the force-length relationship, both related to performance and injury prevention. PMID:26839603

  18. Comparing Spatial and Multilevel Regression Models for Binary Outcomes in Neighborhood Studies

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongwei

    2013-01-01

    The standard multilevel regressions that are widely used in neighborhood research typically ignore potential between-neighborhood correlations due to underlying spatial processes, and hence produce inappropriate inferences about neighborhood effects. In contrast, spatial models make estimations and predictions across areas by explicitly modeling the spatial correlations among observations in different locations. A better understanding of the strengths and limitations of spatial models as compared to the standard multilevel model is needed to improve the research on neighborhood and spatial effects. This research systematically compares model estimations and predictions for binary outcomes between (distance- and lattice-based) spatial and the standard multilevel models in the presence of both within- and between-neighborhood correlations, through simulations. Results from simulation analysis reveal that the standard multilevel and spatial models produce similar estimates of fixed effects, but different estimates of random effects variances. Both the standard multilevel and pure spatial models tend to overestimate the corresponding random effects variances, compared to hybrid models when both non-spatial within neighborhood and spatial between-neighborhood effects exist. Spatial models also outperform the standard multilevel model by a narrow margin in case of fully out-of-sample predictions. Distance-based spatial models provide extra spatial information and have stronger predictive power than lattice-based models under certain circumstances. These merits of spatial modeling are exhibited in an empirical analysis of the child mortality data from 1880 Newark, New Jersey. PMID:25284905

  19. Multilevel Green's function interpolation method for scattering from composite metallic and dielectric objects.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Wang, Hao Gang; Li, Long; Chan, Chi Hou

    2008-10-01

    A multilevel Green's function interpolation method based on two kinds of multilevel partitioning schemes--the quasi-2D and the hybrid partitioning scheme--is proposed for analyzing electromagnetic scattering from objects comprising both conducting and dielectric parts. The problem is formulated using the surface integral equation for homogeneous dielectric and conducting bodies. A quasi-2D multilevel partitioning scheme is devised to improve the efficiency of the Green's function interpolation. In contrast to previous multilevel partitioning schemes, noncubic groups are introduced to discretize the whole EM structure in this quasi-2D multilevel partitioning scheme. Based on the detailed analysis of the dimension of the group in this partitioning scheme, a hybrid quasi-2D/3D multilevel partitioning scheme is proposed to effectively handle objects with fine local structures. Selection criteria for some key parameters relating to the interpolation technique are given. The proposed algorithm is ideal for the solution of problems involving objects such as missiles, microstrip antenna arrays, photonic bandgap structures, etc. Numerical examples are presented to show that CPU time is between O(N) and O(N log N) while the computer memory requirement is O(N). PMID:18830332

  20. Phalange Tactile Load Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A tactile load cell that has particular application for measuring the load on a phalange in a dexterous robot system. The load cell includes a flexible strain element having first and second end portions that can be used to mount the load cell to the phalange and a center portion that can be used to mount a suitable contact surface to the load cell. The strain element also includes a first S-shaped member including at least three sections connected to the first end portion and the center portion and a second S-shaped member including at least three sections coupled to the second end portion and the center portion. The load cell also includes eight strain gauge pairs where each strain gauge pair is mounted to opposing surfaces of one of the sections of the S-shaped members where the strain gauge pairs provide strain measurements in six-degrees of freedom.

  1. Load sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

    1999-05-04

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

  2. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  3. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Lawrence M.; Strum, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  4. The multilevel and dynamic interplay between plant and pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yifei; Zhou, Jian-Min

    2009-01-01

    Phytopathogens invade into plant apoplast and proliferate by assimilating nutrition from plant cells. Plants depend on sophisticated defensive strategies to resist this invasion. Therefore, pathogenic disease and plant disease resistance are two opposite phases. Fascinating molecular mechanisms uncovered that interactions between plant and pathogen are multilevel and dynamic processes. On one side, plant immunity system contains multiple layers mainly including the perception of common pathogen- associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) using distinct cell-surface pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) to activate intracellular signaling pathways for broad-spectrum immunity, and the recognition of pathogen virulence proteins by the specific intracellular disease resistance (R) proteins for cultivar-specific immunity. On the opposite side, the bacterial pathogens employ virulence factors, such as phytotoxin and type III effectors (T3SEs) to interfere with the host immunity in different levels. Meanwhile, natural selection drives plants and pathogens to evolve new strategies to confront with each other constantly. The present review highlights recent insights about Arabidopsis immunity and mechanisms for Pseudomonas syringae to counteract this immunity to give a full understanding of plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:19794843

  5. Multilevel depth and image fusion for human activity detection.

    PubMed

    Ni, Bingbing; Pei, Yong; Moulin, Pierre; Yan, Shuicheng

    2013-10-01

    Recognizing complex human activities usually requires the detection and modeling of individual visual features and the interactions between them. Current methods only rely on the visual features extracted from 2-D images, and therefore often lead to unreliable salient visual feature detection and inaccurate modeling of the interaction context between individual features. In this paper, we show that these problems can be addressed by combining data from a conventional camera and a depth sensor (e.g., Microsoft Kinect). We propose a novel complex activity recognition and localization framework that effectively fuses information from both grayscale and depth image channels at multiple levels of the video processing pipeline. In the individual visual feature detection level, depth-based filters are applied to the detected human/object rectangles to remove false detections. In the next level of interaction modeling, 3-D spatial and temporal contexts among human subjects or objects are extracted by integrating information from both grayscale and depth images. Depth information is also utilized to distinguish different types of indoor scenes. Finally, a latent structural model is developed to integrate the information from multiple levels of video processing for an activity detection. Extensive experiments on two activity recognition benchmarks (one with depth information) and a challenging grayscale + depth human activity database that contains complex interactions between human-human, human-object, and human-surroundings demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed multilevel grayscale + depth fusion scheme. Higher recognition and localization accuracies are obtained relative to the previous methods. PMID:23996589

  6. Multi-level molecular modelling for plasma medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogaerts, Annemie; Khosravian, Narjes; Van der Paal, Jonas; Verlackt, Christof C. W.; Yusupov, Maksudbek; Kamaraj, Balu; Neyts, Erik C.

    2016-02-01

    Modelling at the molecular or atomic scale can be very useful for obtaining a better insight in plasma medicine. This paper gives an overview of different atomic/molecular scale modelling approaches that can be used to study the direct interaction of plasma species with biomolecules or the consequences of these interactions for the biomolecules on a somewhat longer time-scale. These approaches include density functional theory (DFT), density functional based tight binding (DFTB), classical reactive and non-reactive molecular dynamics (MD) and united-atom or coarse-grained MD, as well as hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. Specific examples will be given for three important types of biomolecules, present in human cells, i.e. proteins, DNA and phospholipids found in the cell membrane. The results show that each of these modelling approaches has its specific strengths and limitations, and is particularly useful for certain applications. A multi-level approach is therefore most suitable for obtaining a global picture of the plasma-biomolecule interactions.

  7. Multi-level segment analysis: definition and applications in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lipo

    2015-11-01

    The interaction of different scales is among the most interesting and challenging features in turbulence research. Existing approaches used for scaling analysis such as structure-function and Fourier spectrum method have their respective limitations, for instance scale mixing, i.e. the so-called infrared and ultraviolet effects. For a given function, by specifying different window sizes, the local extremal point set will be different. Such window size dependent feature indicates multi-scale statistics. A new method, multi-level segment analysis (MSA) based on the local extrema statistics, has been developed. The part of the function between two adjacent extremal points is defined as a segment, which is characterized by the functional difference and scale difference. The structure function can be differently derived from these characteristic parameters. Data test results show that MSA can successfully reveal different scaling regimes in turbulence systems such as Lagrangian and two-dimensional turbulence, which have been remaining controversial in turbulence research. In principle MSA can generally be extended for various analyses.

  8. Natural Resource Monitoring of Rheum tanguticum by Multilevel Remote Sensing.

    PubMed

    Xie, Caixiang; Song, Jingyuan; Suo, Fengmei; Li, Xiwen; Li, Ying; Yu, Hua; Xu, Xiaolan; Luo, Kun; Li, Qiushi; Xin, Tianyi; Guan, Meng; Xu, Xiuhai; Miki, Eiji; Takeda, Osami; Chen, Shilin

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing has been extensively applied in agriculture for its objectiveness and promptness. However, few applications are available for monitoring natural medicinal plants. In the paper, a multilevel monitoring system, which includes satellite and aerial remote sensing, as well as ground investigation, was initially proposed to monitor natural Rheum tanguticum resource in Baihe Pasture, Zoige County, Sichuan Province. The amount of R. tanguticum from images is M = S*ρ and S is vegetation coverage obtained by satellite imaging, whereas ρ is R. tanguticum density obtained by low-altitude imaging. Only the R. tanguticum which coverages exceeded 1 m(2) could be recognized from the remote sensing image because of the 0.1 m resolution of the remote sensing image (called effective resource at that moment), and the results of ground investigation represented the amounts of R. tanguticum resource in all sizes (called the future resource). The data in paper showed that the present available amount of R. tanguticum accounted for 4% to 5% of the total quantity. The quantity information and the population structure of R. tanguticum in the Baihe Pasture were initially confirmed by this system. It is feasible to monitor the quantitative distribution for natural medicinal plants with scattered distribution.

  9. Implicit extrapolation methods for multilevel finite element computations

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, M.; Ruede, U.

    1994-12-31

    The finite element package FEMGP has been developed to solve elliptic and parabolic problems arising in the computation of magnetic and thermomechanical fields. FEMGP implements various methods for the construction of hierarchical finite element meshes, a variety of efficient multilevel solvers, including multigrid and preconditioned conjugate gradient iterations, as well as pre- and post-processing software. Within FEMGP, multigrid {tau}-extrapolation can be employed to improve the finite element solution iteratively to higher order. This algorithm is based on an implicit extrapolation, so that the algorithm differs from a regular multigrid algorithm only by a slightly modified computation of the residuals on the finest mesh. Another advantage of this technique is, that in contrast to explicit extrapolation methods, it does not rely on the existence of global error expansions, and therefore neither requires uniform meshes nor global regularity assumptions. In the paper the authors will analyse the {tau}-extrapolation algorithm and present experimental results in the context of the FEMGP package. Furthermore, the {tau}-extrapolation results will be compared to higher order finite element solutions.

  10. National INFOSEC technical baseline: multi-level secure systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J P

    1998-09-28

    The purpose of this report is to provide a baseline description of the state of multilevel processor/processing to the INFOSEC Research Council and at their discretion to the R&D community at large. From the information in the report, it is hoped that the members of the IRC will be aware of gaps in MLS research. A primary purpose is to bring IRC and the research community members up to date on what is happening in the MLS arena. The review will attempt to cover what MLS products are still available, and to identify companies who still offer MLS products. We have also attempted to identify requirements for MLS by interviewing senior officers of the Intelligence community as well as those elements of DoD and DOE who are or may be interested in procuring MLS products for various applications. The balance of the report consists of the following sections; a background review of the highlights of the developments of MLS, a quick summary of where we are today in terms of products, installations, and companies who are still in the business of supplying MLS systems [or who are developing MLS system], the requirements as expressed by senior members of the Intelligence community and DoD and DOE, issues and unmet R&D challenges surrounding MLS, and finally a set of recommended research topics.

  11. Intracavity self-induced transparency of a multilevel absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, M.; Kalosha, V. P.; Herrmann, J.

    1998-08-01

    Intracavity self-induced transparency of a three-level absorber is studied in the scope of solid-state laser generation of an ultrabroadband electromagnetic pulse that drives the population of all absorber levels through complete Rabi flopping. We show that at sufficient pump rates a Ti:sapphire laser forces an intracavity GaAs single quantum-well absorber, which provides an inter-valence-band transition in the THz domain in addition to two direct optical interband transitions, into the self-induced transparency regime and acts as an all-solid-state ultrabroadband pulse emitter. In dependence on the resonator bandwidth, the intracavity pulse energy and the absorber dipole moments we obtain a multilevel self-induced transparency pulse spectrum which extends from the THz domain up to the ultraviolet. The steady-state sub-10-fs pulse consists of only a few optical cycles with the high-frequency components at its leading edge and a single to subcyclic THz component at its trailing edge.

  12. Evolution of neuroarchitecture, multi-level analyses and calibrative reductionism

    PubMed Central

    Berntson, Gary G.; Norman, Greg J.; Hawkley, Louise C.; Cacioppo, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Evolution has sculpted the incredibly complex human nervous system, among the most complex functions of which extend beyond the individual to an intricate social structure. Although these functions are deterministic, those determinants are legion, heavily interacting and dependent on a specific evolutionary trajectory. That trajectory was directed by the adaptive significance of quasi-random genetic variations, but was also influenced by chance and caprice. With a different evolutionary pathway, the same neural elements could subserve functions distinctly different from what they do in extant human brains. Consequently, the properties of higher level neural networks cannot be derived readily from the properties of the lower level constituent elements, without studying these elements in the aggregate. Thus, a multi-level approach to integrative neuroscience may offer an optimal strategy. Moreover, the process of calibrative reductionism, by which concepts and understandings from one level of organization or analysis can mutually inform and ‘calibrate’ those from other levels (both higher and lower), may represent a viable approach to the application of reductionism in science. This is especially relevant in social neuroscience, where the basic subject matter of interest is defined by interacting organisms across diverse environments. PMID:23386961

  13. Multilevel evaluations of potential liver injury of bifenthrin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Lu, Meiya; Zhou, Peixue; Wang, Cui; Zhang, Quan; Zhao, Meirong

    2015-07-01

    The widespread use of pesticides, such as pyrethroids, increases health risks to non-target organisms. The potential toxicity of pyrethroids to the liver remains unclear and could be easily overlooked if only the common clinical indicators of liver disease are examined. In the present study, BALB/c mice were given intraperitoneal injections of 0, 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg bifenthrin (BF) for 7 days. The potential liver injury of BF and its underlying mechanism were then investigated through multilevel evaluations. Histological analyses and serum enzyme activities showed no obvious clinical evidence of liver damage. Oxidative stress was induced and caspases were activated in response to increased BF concentrations. Exposure to BF also significantly altered the expression levels of mitochondrial apoptosis-related genes in dose-dependent relationships. The microarray results showed that BF could disturb the metabolic profile and extensively induce genes related to oxidative stress, including the cytochrome P450 family, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione s-transferases and kinases. In the in vivo model, BF induced liver injury through caspase-mediated mitochondrial-dependent cell death, a process that is closely related to oxidative stress, even in the absence of classical clinical biomarkers of liver dysfunction. The results of this study suggest that classical evaluations are not adequate for liver toxicity of pyrethroids, and highlight the need for more comprehensive assessment of health risks of these widely used pesticides. PMID:26071804

  14. A multilevel adaptive projection method for unsteady incompressible flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Louis H.

    1993-01-01

    There are two main requirements for practical simulation of unsteady flow at high Reynolds number: the algorithm must accurately propagate discontinuous flow fields without excessive artificial viscosity, and it must have some adaptive capability to concentrate computational effort where it is most needed. We satisfy the first of these requirements with a second-order Godunov method similar to those used for high-speed flows with shocks, and the second with a grid-based refinement scheme which avoids some of the drawbacks associated with unstructured meshes. These two features of our algorithm place certain constraints on the projection method used to enforce incompressibility. Velocities are cell-based, leading to a Laplacian stencil for the projection which decouples adjacent grid points. We discuss features of the multigrid and multilevel iteration schemes required for solution of the resulting decoupled problem. Variable-density flows require use of a modified projection operator--we have found a multigrid method for this modified projection that successfully handles density jumps of thousands to one. Numerical results are shown for the 2D adaptive and 3D variable-density algorithms.

  15. Nucleus segmentation in histology images with hierarchical multilevel thresholding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmady Phoulady, Hady; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Hall, Lawrence O.; Mouton, Peter R.

    2016-03-01

    Automatic segmentation of histological images is an important step for increasing throughput while maintaining high accuracy, avoiding variation from subjective bias, and reducing the costs for diagnosing human illnesses such as cancer and Alzheimer's disease. In this paper, we present a novel method for unsupervised segmentation of cell nuclei in stained histology tissue. Following an initial preprocessing step involving color deconvolution and image reconstruction, the segmentation step consists of multilevel thresholding and a series of morphological operations. The only parameter required for the method is the minimum region size, which is set according to the resolution of the image. Hence, the proposed method requires no training sets or parameter learning. Because the algorithm requires no assumptions or a priori information with regard to cell morphology, the automatic approach is generalizable across a wide range of tissues. Evaluation across a dataset consisting of diverse tissues, including breast, liver, gastric mucosa and bone marrow, shows superior performance over four other recent methods on the same dataset in terms of F-measure with precision and recall of 0.929 and 0.886, respectively.

  16. Evolution of neuroarchitecture, multi-level analyses and calibrative reductionism.

    PubMed

    Berntson, Gary G; Norman, Greg J; Hawkley, Louise C; Cacioppo, John T

    2012-02-01

    Evolution has sculpted the incredibly complex human nervous system, among the most complex functions of which extend beyond the individual to an intricate social structure. Although these functions are deterministic, those determinants are legion, heavily interacting and dependent on a specific evolutionary trajectory. That trajectory was directed by the adaptive significance of quasi-random genetic variations, but was also influenced by chance and caprice. With a different evolutionary pathway, the same neural elements could subserve functions distinctly different from what they do in extant human brains. Consequently, the properties of higher level neural networks cannot be derived readily from the properties of the lower level constituent elements, without studying these elements in the aggregate. Thus, a multi-level approach to integrative neuroscience may offer an optimal strategy. Moreover, the process of calibrative reductionism, by which concepts and understandings from one level of organization or analysis can mutually inform and 'calibrate' those from other levels (both higher and lower), may represent a viable approach to the application of reductionism in science. This is especially relevant in social neuroscience, where the basic subject matter of interest is defined by interacting organisms across diverse environments. PMID:23386961

  17. Predicting perceived risk of crime: a multilevel study.

    PubMed

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio

    2011-12-01

    With a sample of Italians selected from 71 Italian counties (N = 1,868), we performed two multilevel analyses aimed at predicting the perceived risk of crime at local (i.e., in the participants' county of residence) and at societal (i.e., in the context of Italian society) levels. A significant proportion of the variation in local risk perception was at the county level. The following individual variables predicted higher levels of this variable: indirect victimization, the perception of social and physical disorder, being a woman, being poorly educated, and being an older person. Among the ecological predictors, the crime rate and unemployment rate predicted higher levels of local crime risk perception, while the immigrant rate did not. Perceived risk of crime at the societal level did not show significant variation at the county level. Education, being a man, trusting people, and adhesion to post-materialistic values predicted lower levels of societal crime risk perception, while number of sons/daughters and exposure to television news increased it. The limitations and possible development of this study are discussed.

  18. Multilevel analysis of elastic morphology: The mantis shrimp's spring.

    PubMed

    Rosario, M V; Patek, S N

    2015-09-01

    Spring systems, whether natural or engineered, are composed of compliant and rigid regions. Biological springs are often similar to monolithic structures that distribute compliance and rigidity across the whole system. For example, to confer different amounts of compliance in distinct regions within a single structure, biological systems typically vary regional morphology through thickening or elongation. Here, we analyze the monolithic spring in mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) raptorial appendages to rapidly acquire or process prey. We quantified the shape of cross-sections of the merus segment of the raptorial appendage. We also examined specific regions of the merus that are hypothesized to either store elastic energy or provide structural support to permit energy storage in other regions of the system. We found that while all mantis shrimp contain thicker ventral bars in distal cross-sections, differences in thickness are more pronounced in high-impact "smasher" mantis shrimp than in the slower-striking "spearer" mantis shrimp. We also found that spearer cross-sections are more circular while those of smashers are more eccentric with elongation along the dorso-ventral axis. The results suggest that the regional thickening of ventral bars provides structural support for resisting spring compression and also reduces flexural stiffness along the system's long axis. This multilevel morphological analysis offers a foundation for understanding the evolution and mechanics of monolithic systems in biology. PMID:26195244

  19. Natural Resource Monitoring of Rheum tanguticum by Multilevel Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Caixiang; Song, Jingyuan; Suo, Fengmei; Li, Xiwen; Li, Ying; Yu, Hua; Xu, Xiaolan; Luo, Kun; Li, Qiushi; Xin, Tianyi; Guan, Meng; Xu, Xiuhai; Miki, Eiji; Takeda, Osami; Chen, Shilin

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing has been extensively applied in agriculture for its objectiveness and promptness. However, few applications are available for monitoring natural medicinal plants. In the paper, a multilevel monitoring system, which includes satellite and aerial remote sensing, as well as ground investigation, was initially proposed to monitor natural Rheum tanguticum resource in Baihe Pasture, Zoige County, Sichuan Province. The amount of R. tanguticum from images is M = S*ρ and S is vegetation coverage obtained by satellite imaging, whereas ρ is R. tanguticum density obtained by low-altitude imaging. Only the R. tanguticum which coverages exceeded 1 m2 could be recognized from the remote sensing image because of the 0.1 m resolution of the remote sensing image (called effective resource at that moment), and the results of ground investigation represented the amounts of R. tanguticum resource in all sizes (called the future resource). The data in paper showed that the present available amount of R. tanguticum accounted for 4% to 5% of the total quantity. The quantity information and the population structure of R. tanguticum in the Baihe Pasture were initially confirmed by this system. It is feasible to monitor the quantitative distribution for natural medicinal plants with scattered distribution. PMID:25101134

  20. Multilevel Context of Depression in Two American Indian Tribes

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Carol E.; Beals, Janette; Croy, Calvin; Jiang, Luohua; Novins, Douglas K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Depression is a major debilitating disease. For American Indians living in tribal reservations, who endure disproportionately high levels of stress and poverty often associated with depression, determining the patterns and correlates is key to appropriate clinical assessment and intervention development. Yet, little attention has been given to the cultural context of correlates for depression, including the influence of family, cultural traditions or practices, or community conditions. Method We used data from a large representative psychiatric epidemiological study among American Indians in two reservation communities to estimate nested individual and multilevel models of past-year Major Depressive Episode (MDE) accounting for family, cultural, and community conditions. Results We found that models including culturally informed individual-level measures significantly improved the model fit over demographics alone. We found significant community-level variation in the probability of past-year MDE diagnosis in one tribe even after accounting for individual-level characteristics. Conclusions Accounting for culture, family, and community context will facilitate research, clinician assessment, and treatment of depression in diverse settings. PMID:24016293

  1. Individual environmental concern in the world polity: A multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Givens, Jennifer E; Jorgenson, Andrew K

    2013-03-01

    The authors assess the extent to which national-level integration in the world polity influences individual-level concern for the environment. While theoretically-derived propositions about such relationships have a deep history in comparative sociology, they-with few exceptions-remain untested. Consistent with past research, employed national-level measures of world polity integration include the relative presence of environmental international nongovernmental organizations (EINGOs) and the existence of environmental ministries. Results of multilevel analyses of individual-level environmental concern in 37 nations indicate that both forms of world polity integration increase the likelihood of individual-level environmental concern, net of other national-level factors and individual-level characteristics; although we find stronger support for the influence of EINGOs as a key variable indicating world polity connection. The findings provide unique support for world polity theory, suggesting that future research should consider how elements of world polity integration influence other forms of individual attitudes and behaviors. The results also highlight the importance in considering global and transnational factors when assessing the determinants of individual attitudes about the environment.

  2. A multi-level typology of abstract visualization tasks.

    PubMed

    Brehmer, Matthew; Munzner, Tamara

    2013-12-01

    The considerable previous work characterizing visualization usage has focused on low-level tasks or interactions and high-level tasks, leaving a gap between them that is not addressed. This gap leads to a lack of distinction between the ends and means of a task, limiting the potential for rigorous analysis. We contribute a multi-level typology of visualization tasks to address this gap, distinguishing why and how a visualization task is performed, as well as what the task inputs and outputs are. Our typology allows complex tasks to be expressed as sequences of interdependent simpler tasks, resulting in concise and flexible descriptions for tasks of varying complexity and scope. It provides abstract rather than domain-specific descriptions of tasks, so that useful comparisons can be made between visualization systems targeted at different application domains. This descriptive power supports a level of analysis required for the generation of new designs, by guiding the translation of domain-specific problems into abstract tasks, and for the qualitative evaluation of visualization usage. We demonstrate the benefits of our approach in a detailed case study, comparing task descriptions from our typology to those derived from related work. We also discuss the similarities and differences between our typology and over two dozen extant classification systems and theoretical frameworks from the literatures of visualization, human-computer interaction, information retrieval, communications, and cartography. PMID:24051804

  3. Microbial load monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caplin, R. S.; Royer, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    Design analysis of a microbial load monitor system flight engineering model was presented. Checkout of the card taper and media pump system was fabricated as well as the final two incubating reading heads, the sample receiving and card loading device assembly, related sterility testing, and software. Progress in these areas was summarized.

  4. Combined Load Test Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Donald J.

    2010-01-01

    A test fixture has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center that has the capability of applying compression load and shear load simultaneously to a test specimen. The test specimen size is 24-inches by 28-inches. This report describes the test specimen design, test specimen preparation, fixture assembly in the test machine, and a test operation plan.

  5. CRITICAL LOADS METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    I summarize the results of an interagency project that 1) defines a generic approach to quantifying and reporting critical loads, and 2) exercises that generic approach by examining a data rich system -- the critical loads of sulfur deposition and it's effect on the chronic acidi...

  6. Load Induced Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, James S. P.; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-01-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005, for a review). Here we varied the level of…

  7. Transportation and handling loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrem, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    Criteria and recommended practices are presented for the prediction and verification of transportation and handling loads for the space vehicle structure and for monitoring these loads during transportation and handling of the vehicle or major vehicle segments. Elements of the transportation and handling systems, and the forcing functions and associated loads are described. The forcing functions for common carriers and typical handling devices are assessed, and emphasis is given to the assessment of loads at the points where the space vehicle is supported during transportation and handling. Factors which must be considered when predicting the loads include the transportation and handling medium; type of handling fixture; transport vehicle speed; types of terrain; weather (changes in pressure of temperature, wind, etc.); and dynamics of the transportation modes or handling devices (acceleration, deceleration, and rotations of the transporter or handling device).

  8. Constructing and validating readability models: the method of integrating multilevel linguistic features with machine learning.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Chen, Ju-Ling; Cha, Ji-Her; Tseng, Hou-Chiang; Chang, Tao-Hsing; Chang, Kuo-En

    2015-06-01

    Multilevel linguistic features have been proposed for discourse analysis, but there have been few applications of multilevel linguistic features to readability models and also few validations of such models. Most traditional readability formulae are based on generalized linear models (GLMs; e.g., discriminant analysis and multiple regression), but these models have to comply with certain statistical assumptions about data properties and include all of the data in formulae construction without pruning the outliers in advance. The use of such readability formulae tends to produce a low text classification accuracy, while using a support vector machine (SVM) in machine learning can enhance the classification outcome. The present study constructed readability models by integrating multilevel linguistic features with SVM, which is more appropriate for text classification. Taking the Chinese language as an example, this study developed 31 linguistic features as the predicting variables at the word, semantic, syntax, and cohesion levels, with grade levels of texts as the criterion variable. The study compared four types of readability models by integrating unilevel and multilevel linguistic features with GLMs and an SVM. The results indicate that adopting a multilevel approach in readability analysis provides a better representation of the complexities of both texts and the reading comprehension process.

  9. [Improving laser center wavelength detection accuracy based on multi-level combination prisms].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Zhi-Jie

    2011-08-01

    In order to improve the spectral resolution of birefringence prism under the conditions of ensuring the quality of interference fringes image, the system used multi-level combination prisms and designed the method of interferometer fringes splice. According to calculation of the interferometer fringes intensity of multi-level combination prisms, the optical path difference function and the spectrum resolution, the present paper analyzed that the least spectrum resolution is 2.875 cm(-1) in multi-level combination prisms of four prisms structure. The method of interferometer fringes splice was designed to splice the section interferometer fringes, and in experiment the size of multi-level combination prisms is 30 mm x 28 mm x 10 mm. The standard 635 nm laser for getting the interferometer fringes was dealed with. Experimental data show that the detection spectrum distribution of the 635.0 nm laser was distorted by the direct splicing of the interference fringes, while the detection spectrum distribution of the 635.0 nm laser was consistent with the standard spectrum by the method of interferometer fringes splice. So the method can effectively avoid spectrum distortion by interferometer fringes splice in multi-level combination prisms.

  10. Multi-level systems modeling and optimization for novel aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Shreyas Vathul

    This research combines the disciplines of system-of-systems (SoS) modeling, platform-based design, optimization and evolving design spaces to achieve a novel capability for designing solutions to key aeronautical mission challenges. A central innovation in this approach is the confluence of multi-level modeling (from sub-systems to the aircraft system to aeronautical system-of-systems) in a way that coordinates the appropriate problem formulations at each level and enables parametric search in design libraries for solutions that satisfy level-specific objectives. The work here addresses the topic of SoS optimization and discusses problem formulation, solution strategy, the need for new algorithms that address special features of this problem type, and also demonstrates these concepts using two example application problems - a surveillance UAV swarm problem, and the design of noise optimal aircraft and approach procedures. This topic is critical since most new capabilities in aeronautics will be provided not just by a single air vehicle, but by aeronautical Systems of Systems (SoS). At the same time, many new aircraft concepts are pressing the boundaries of cyber-physical complexity through the myriad of dynamic and adaptive sub-systems that are rising up the TRL (Technology Readiness Level) scale. This compositional approach is envisioned to be active at three levels: validated sub-systems are integrated to form conceptual aircraft, which are further connected with others to perform a challenging mission capability at the SoS level. While these multiple levels represent layers of physical abstraction, each discipline is associated with tools of varying fidelity forming strata of 'analysis abstraction'. Further, the design (composition) will be guided by a suitable hierarchical complexity metric formulated for the management of complexity in both the problem (as part of the generative procedure and selection of fidelity level) and the product (i.e., is the mission

  11. Identifying Multilevel Barriers to Tobacco Intervention in Postdoctoral Dental Education.

    PubMed

    Albert, David A; Bruzelius, Emilie; Ward, Angela; Gordon, Judith S

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this mixed-methods study were to assess tobacco treatment behaviors among residents and faculty in dental specialty postdoctoral programs and to explore factors in training and practice related to tobacco treatment education. Surveys and focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of participants at three postdoctoral residency programs in New York City. Surveys assessed tobacco cessation training and behaviors. Focus groups explored barriers to implementing tobacco cessation treatment in educational settings. Data were collected between May and December 2013. Among the 160 faculty and residents identified as potentially eligible for the study, 60 were invited by program directors to participate, and 50 subsequently completed the survey and participated in a focus group (response rate of 31.3%). Survey results indicated high levels of asking patients about tobacco use and advising patients to quit. In contrast, specific tobacco cessation assistance and follow-up care occurred less frequently. There were statistically significant differences in tobacco cessation intervention across the specialties surveyed, but not between residents and faculty. Focus group comments were grouped into three broad areas: clinician factors, organizational support, and structural and contextual factors. Focus group results indicated that participants experienced significant organizational and structural barriers to learning about and providing tobacco treatment. Participants from each specialty indicated that multi-level barriers impeded their provision of evidence-based tobacco cessation interventions in postdoctoral educational settings. They suggested that didactic education should be reinforced by organizational- and systems-level changes to facilitate comprehensive tobacco education and effective cessation treatment in future dental practice.

  12. Multilevel selection and social evolution of insect societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korb, Judith; Heinze, Jürgen

    How sterile, altruistic worker castes have evolved in social insects and how they are maintained have long been central topics in evolutionary biology. With the advance of kin selection theory, insect societies, in particular those of haplodiploid bees, ants, and wasps, have become highly suitable model systems for investigating the details of social evolution and recently also how within-group conflicts are resolved. Because insect societies typically do not consist of clones, conflicts among nestmates arise, for example about the partitioning of reproduction and the allocation of resources towards male and female sexuals. Variation in relatedness among group members therefore appears to have a profound influence on the social structure of groups. However, insect societies appear to be remarkably robust against such variation: division of labor and task allocation are often organized in more or less the same way in societies with high as in those with very low nestmate relatedness. To explain the discrepancy between predictions from kin structure and empirical data, it was suggested that constraints-such as the lack of power or information-prevent individuals from pursuing their own selfish interests. Applying a multilevel selection approach shows that these constraints are in fact group-level adaptation preventing or resolving intracolonial conflict. The mechanisms of conflict resolution in insect societies are similar to those at other levels in the biological hierarchy (e.g., in the genome or multicellular organisms): alignment of interests, fair lottery, and social control. Insect societies can thus be regarded as a level of selection with novelties that provide benefits beyond the scope of a solitary life. Therefore, relatedness is less important for the maintenance of insect societies, although it played a fundamental role in their evolution.

  13. Antibiotic resistance shaping multi-level population biology of bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Baquero, Fernando; Tedim, Ana P.; Coque, Teresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotics have natural functions, mostly involving cell-to-cell signaling networks. The anthropogenic production of antibiotics, and its release in the microbiosphere results in a disturbance of these networks, antibiotic resistance tending to preserve its integrity. The cost of such adaptation is the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes, and of all genetic and cellular vehicles in which these genes are located. Selection of the combinations of the different evolutionary units (genes, integrons, transposons, plasmids, cells, communities and microbiomes, hosts) is highly asymmetrical. Each unit of selection is a self-interested entity, exploiting the higher hierarchical unit for its own benefit, but in doing so the higher hierarchical unit might acquire critical traits for its spread because of the exploitation of the lower hierarchical unit. This interactive trade-off shapes the population biology of antibiotic resistance, a composed-complex array of the independent “population biologies.” Antibiotics modify the abundance and the interactive field of each of these units. Antibiotics increase the number and evolvability of “clinical” antibiotic resistance genes, but probably also many other genes with different primary functions but with a resistance phenotype present in the environmental resistome. Antibiotics influence the abundance, modularity, and spread of integrons, transposons, and plasmids, mostly acting on structures present before the antibiotic era. Antibiotics enrich particular bacterial lineages and clones and contribute to local clonalization processes. Antibiotics amplify particular genetic exchange communities sharing antibiotic resistance genes and platforms within microbiomes. In particular human or animal hosts, the microbiomic composition might facilitate the interactions between evolutionary units involved in antibiotic resistance. The understanding of antibiotic resistance implies expanding our knowledge on multi-level

  14. Improving overlay control through proper use of multilevel query APC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, Timothy H.; Carlson, Alan; Crow, David A.

    2003-06-01

    Many state-of-the-art fabs are operating with increasingly diversified product mixes. For example, at Cypress Semiconductor, it is not unusual to be concurrently running multiple technologies and many devices within each technology. This diverse product mix significantly increases the difficulty of manually controlling overlay process corrections. As a result, automated run-to-run feedforward-feedback control has become a necessary and vital component of manufacturing. However, traditional run-to-run controllers rely on highly correlated historical events to forecast process corrections. For example, the historical process events typically are constrained to match the current event for exposure tool, device, process level and reticle ID. This narrowly defined process stream can result in insufficient data when applied to lowvolume or new-release devices. The run-to-run controller implemented at Cypress utilizes a multi-level query (Level-N) correlation algorithm, where each subsequent level widens the search criteria for available historical data. The paper discusses how best to widen the search criteria and how to determine and apply a known bias to account for tool-to-tool and device-to-device differences. Specific applications include offloading lots from one tool to another when the first tool is down for preventive maintenance, utilizing related devices to determine a default feedback vector for new-release devices, and applying bias values to account for known reticle-to-reticle differences. In this study, we will show how historical data can be leveraged from related devices or tools to overcome the limitations of narrow process streams. In particular, this paper discusses how effectively handling narrow process streams allows Cypress to offload lots from a baseline tool to an alternate tool.

  15. Contextual Risk Factors for Low Birth Weight: A Multilevel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kayode, Gbenga A.; Amoakoh-Coleman, Mary; Agyepong, Irene Akua; Ansah, Evelyn; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    Background Low birth weight (LBW) remains to be a leading cause of neonatal death and a major contributor to infant and under-five mortality. Its prevalence has not declined in the last decade in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and Asia. Some individual level factors have been identified as risk factors for LBW but knowledge is limited on contextual risk factors for LBW especially in SSA. Methods Contextual risk factors for LBW in Ghana were identified by performing multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis of 6,900 mothers dwelling in 412 communities that participated in the 2003 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys in Ghana. Results Contextual-level factors were significantly associated with LBW: Being a rural dweller increased the likelihood of having a LBW infant by 43% (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.01–2.01; P-value <0.05) while living in poverty-concentrated communities increased the risk of having a LBW infant twofold (OR 2.16; 95% CI 1.29–3.61; P-value <0.01). In neighbourhoods with a high coverage of safe water supply the odds of having a LBW infant reduced by 28% (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.57–0.96; P-value <0.05). Conclusion This study showed contextual risk factors to have independent effects on the prevalence of LBW infants. Being a rural dweller, living in a community with a high concentration of poverty and a low coverage of safe water supply were found to increase the prevalence of LBW infants. Implementing appropriate community-based intervention programmes will likely reduce the occurrence of LBW infants. PMID:25360709

  16. Multilevel method for modeling large-scale networks.

    SciTech Connect

    Safro, I. M.

    2012-02-24

    researchers. We propose to develop multilevel methods to model complex networks. The key point of the proposed strategy is that it will help to preserve part of the unknown structural attributes by guaranteeing the similar behavior of the real and artificial model on different scales.

  17. Statistical behaviour of adaptive multilevel splitting algorithms in simple models

    SciTech Connect

    Rolland, Joran Simonnet, Eric

    2015-02-15

    Adaptive multilevel splitting algorithms have been introduced rather recently for estimating tail distributions in a fast and efficient way. In particular, they can be used for computing the so-called reactive trajectories corresponding to direct transitions from one metastable state to another. The algorithm is based on successive selection–mutation steps performed on the system in a controlled way. It has two intrinsic parameters, the number of particles/trajectories and the reaction coordinate used for discriminating good or bad trajectories. We investigate first the convergence in law of the algorithm as a function of the timestep for several simple stochastic models. Second, we consider the average duration of reactive trajectories for which no theoretical predictions exist. The most important aspect of this work concerns some systems with two degrees of freedom. They are studied in detail as a function of the reaction coordinate in the asymptotic regime where the number of trajectories goes to infinity. We show that during phase transitions, the statistics of the algorithm deviate significatively from known theoretical results when using non-optimal reaction coordinates. In this case, the variance of the algorithm is peaking at the transition and the convergence of the algorithm can be much slower than the usual expected central limit behaviour. The duration of trajectories is affected as well. Moreover, reactive trajectories do not correspond to the most probable ones. Such behaviour disappears when using the optimal reaction coordinate called committor as predicted by the theory. We finally investigate a three-state Markov chain which reproduces this phenomenon and show logarithmic convergence of the trajectory durations.

  18. Social capital and health in Kenya: A multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Musalia, John

    2016-10-01

    Despite the acknowledgment that social capital is an important predictor of good health and overall well being in wealthy countries, little empirical research has been conducted in developing countries, particularly in Africa, to examine this relationship. This study examines the association between cognitive (trust) and structural (membership in organization) social capital on health at both the individual and contextual levels. Health was measured using answers to a subjective question on physical health and anxiety/worry suffered by individuals within the last 30 days. This study utilized Afrobarometer data collected in Kenya in 2005 to examine this relationship using multilevel logistic statistical modeling. Upon controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors, social capital was found to be significantly associated with anxiety/worry and physical health in Kenya. Membership in organizations was associated with increased odds (OR = 1.34, 95%CI: 1.02-1.76) of physical health problems, while individual trust was associated with a 6% (OR = 0.94, 95%CI: 0.90-0.99) reduction in the likelihood of physical health problems. Conversely, generalized trust was associated with a 37% reduction in the odds (OR = 0.63, 95%CI: 0.40-0.99) of anxiety/worry, while individual trust was associated with a 5% reduction (OR = 0.95, 95%CI: 0.90-1.00) of anxiety/worry. With the exception of membership in an organization that exacerbates physical health, both individual level trust and generalized trust were associated with better health outcomes in Kenya. The availability of social organizations at the contextual level was associated with worsening anxiety/worry although the effect size was small. These results show that social capital, particularly trust, is a concept that can apply to different social and cultural contexts and can potentially be harnessed to improve health in settings that suffer from resource poverty.

  19. Longitudinal Multilevel Modeling of Facial Pain, Muscle Tension, and Stress.

    PubMed

    Glaros, A G; Marszalek, J M; Williams, K B

    2016-04-01

    The role of masticatory muscle activation on pain in temporomandibular muscle and joint disorders (TMJD) is controversial. This single-group, prospective panel study examined the relationships among masticatory muscle tension, emotional distress, and TMJD pain in a sample of 7,023 observations obtained from 171 individuals using longitudinal multilevel modeling. Three main hypotheses were tested. The first posited that emotional distress and muscle tension directly influenced pain (hypothesis 1a: Distress → TMJD Pain; hypothesis 1b: Muscle Tension → TMJD Pain). The second posited that emotional distress directly influenced muscle tension (Distress → Muscle Tension), and the third posited that the effect of emotional distress on pain was mediated by muscle tension (Distress → Muscle Tension → TMJD pain). We also examined the fit of the data to possible alternative models. All the data used in this study were collected via an experience sampling methodology. The fit of the preferred models was better than that of the alternative models, with the preferred models explaining large proportions of the data, especially for level 2 variance (hypothesis 1a = 41% variance; hypothesis 1b = 69% variance; hypothesis 2 = 48% variance). In the mediation model, the addition of muscle tension to the model reduced the impact of emotional distress. The findings support a causal role for masticatory muscle tension in TMJD pain. Clinically, the results suggest that addressing tension and other oral parafunctions in those diagnosed with TMJDs should be an important part of the conservative, noninvasive care of individuals diagnosed with the myofascial pain or arthralgia of TMJD.

  20. Laminoplasty versus laminectomy and fusion for multilevel cervical compressive myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng-Yu; Yang, Si-Dong; Huo, Li-Shuang; Wang, Tao; Yang, Da-Long; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This is a meta-analysis to compare the results between laminoplasty and laminectomy followed by fusion for the patients with multilevel cervical compressive myelopathy. An extensive search of literature was performed in MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane library, CNKI, and WANFANG. The following outcome measures were extracted: the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores, cervical curvature index (CCI), visual analog scale (VAS), cervical lordosis (C2–7), complications, blood loss, and operation time. Data analysis was conducted with RevMan 5.3 and STATA 12.0. A total of 23 studies comprising 774 and 743 patients treated with laminoplasty and laminectomy followed by fusion, respectively, were included in the final analysis. The pooled analysis showed that there was no significant difference in preoperative JOA scores [P = 0.89], postoperative JOA scores [P = 0.13], JOA scores improvement rate [P = 0.27], preoperative CCI [P = 0.15], postoperative CCI [P = 0.14], preoperative VAS [P = 0.41], postoperative VAS [P = 0.52], preoperative cervical lordosis (C2–7) [P = 0.46], postoperative cervical lordosis (C2–7) [P = 0.67], total complications [P = 0.07], axial pain [P = 0.94], and blood loss [P = 0.51]. However, there were significant difference in operation time (WMD = −19.57 [−32.11, −7.02], P = 0.002) and C5 palsy (OR = 0.26 [0.15, 0.44], P < 0.001). As compared with laminectomy followed by fusion, expansive laminoplasty showed no significant differences in JOA scores, CCI, ROM, VAS, cervical lordosis (C2–7), axial pain, total complications, and blood loss, but shorter operation time and fewer C5 palsy. PMID:27281067

  1. Multilevel samplers as microcosms to assess microbial response to biostimulation.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, B R; Peacock, A D; Park, M; Ogles, D M; Istok, J D; McKinley, J P; Resch, C T; White, D C

    2008-01-01

    Passive multilevel samplers (MLS) containing a solid matrix for microbial colonization were used as in situ microcosms in conjunction with a push-pull biostimulation experiment designed to promote biological U(VI) and Tc(VII) reduction. MLS were deployed at 24 elevations in the injection well and two downgradient wells to investigate the spatial variability in microbial community composition and growth prior to and following biostimulation. The microbial community was characterized by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) quantification of bacteria, NO(3)(-)-reducing bacteria (nirS and nirK), delta-proteobacteria, Geobacter sp., and methanogens (mcrA). Pretest cell densities were low overall but varied substantially with significantly greater bacterial populations detected at circumneutral pH (t-test, alpha= 0.05), suggesting carbon substrate and low pH limitations of microbial activity. Although pretest cell densities were low, denitrifying bacteria were dominant members of the microbial community. Biostimulation with an ethanol-amended ground water resulted in concurrent NO(3)(-) and Tc(VII) reduction, followed by U(VI) reduction. Q-PCR analysis of MLS revealed significant (1 to 2 orders of magnitude, Mann-Whitney U-test, alpha= 0.05) increases in cell densities of bacteria, denitrifiers, delta-proteobacteria, Geobacter sp., and methanogens in response to biostimulation. Traditionally, characterization of sediment samples has been used to investigate the microbial community response to biostimulation; however, collection of sediment samples is expensive and not conducive to deep aquifers or temporal studies. The results presented demonstrate that push-pull tests with passive MLS provide an inexpensive approach to determine the effect of biostimulation on contaminant concentrations, geochemical conditions, and the microbial community composition and function. PMID:18194316

  2. Specific Heat Anomalies in Solids Described by a Multilevel Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Mariano de; Paupitz, Ricardo; Seridonio, Antonio; Lagos, Roberto E.

    2016-04-01

    In the field of condensed matter physics, specific heat measurements can be considered as a pivotal experimental technique for characterizing the fundamental excitations involved in a certain phase transition. Indeed, phase transitions involving spin (de Souza et al. Phys. B Condens. Matter 404, 494 (2009) and Manna et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 016403 (2010)), charge (Pregelj et al. Phys. Rev. B 82, 144438 (2010)), lattice (Jesche et al. Phys. Rev. B 81, 134525 (2010)) (phonons) and orbital degrees of freedom, the interplay between ferromagnetism and superconductivity (Jesche et al. Phys. Rev. B 86, 020501 (2012)), Schottky-like anomalies in doped compounds (Lagos et al. Phys. C Supercond. 309, 170 (1998)), electronic levels in finite correlated systems (Macedo and Lagos J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 226, 105 (2001)), among other features, can be captured by means of high-resolution calorimetry. Furthermore, the entropy change associated with a first-order phase transition, no matter its nature, can be directly obtained upon integrating the specific heat over T, i.e., C( T)/ T, in the temperature range of interest. Here, we report on a detailed analysis of the two-peak specific heat anomalies observed in several materials. Employing a simple multilevel model, varying the spacing between the energy levels Δ i = ( E i - E 0) and the degeneracy of each energy level g i , we derive the required conditions for the appearance of such anomalies. Our findings indicate that a ratio of {Δ }2/{Δ }1thickapprox 10 between the energy levels and a high degeneracy of one of the energy levels define the two-peaks regime in the specific heat. Our approach accurately matches recent experimental results. Furthermore, using a mean-field approach, we calculate the specific heat of a degenerate Schottky-like system undergoing a ferromagnetic (FM) phase transition. Our results reveal that as the degeneracy is increased the Schottky maximum in the specific heat becomes narrow while the peak

  3. Are BMI and Sedentariness Correlated? A Multilevel Study in Children

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; de Chaves, Raquel Nichele; Santos, Daniel; Pereira, Sara; Champagne, Catherine M.; Hedeker, Donald; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and sedentariness (Sed) in children and to examine the influence of child and school correlates on their variation. The sample comprises 580 children (337 girls, 9–11 years). Sedentariness was assessed with an accelerometer, and BMI was computed. Child- and school-level covariates were analyzed using multilevel models. No significant correlation between Sed and BMI was found. School context explains 5% and 1.5% of the total variance in Sed and BMI, respectively. At the child level, only moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with both Sed (β = −0.02 ± 0.002) and BMI (β = −0.005 ± 0.002). Sleep time is related to Sed (β = −0.42 ± 0.04), while sex (β = 1.97 ± 0.13), biological maturity (β = 1.25 ± 0.07), media in the bedroom (β = 0.26 ± 0.08) and healthy (β = −0.09 ± 0.03) and unhealthy (β = −0.07 ± 0.04) diet scores were associated with BMI. None of the school-level covariates were related to BMI, but access to cafeteria (β = −0.97 ± 0.25), playground equipment (β = −0.67 ± 0.20) and restaurants (β = 0.16 ± 0.08) were related to Sed. In conclusion, Sed and BMI were not correlated. Further, they have different correlates, while children’s traits seem to play more relevant roles in their differences in Sed and BMI than the school milieu. This information should be taken into account when strategies to reduce Sed and BMI are implemented. PMID:26193311

  4. Multilevel Samplers to Assess Microbial Community Response to Biostimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, B. R.; McKinley, J. P.; Peacock, A. D.; Park, M.; Ogles, D.; Istok, J. D.; Resch, C. T.; White, D. C.

    2006-05-01

    Passive multilevel samplers (MLS) containing a solid matrix for microbial colonization were used in conjunction with a push-pull biostimulation experiment designed to promote biological U(VI) and Tc(VII) reduction. MLS were deployed at 24 elevations in the injection well and two down gradient wells to investigate the spatial variability in microbial community composition and growth prior to and following biostimulation. The microbial community was characterized by real-time PCR (Q-PCR) quantification of eubacteria, NO3- reducing bacteria (nirS and nirK), δ-proteobacteria, Geobacter sp., and methanogens (mcrA). Pretest cell densities were low overall but varied substantially with significantly greater eubacterial populations detected at circumneutral pH (T-test, α=0.05) suggesting carbon substrate and low pH limitation of microbial activity. Although pretest cell densities were low, denitrifying bacteria were dominant members of the microbial community. Biostimulation with an ethanol amended groundwater resulted in concurrent NO3- and Tc(VII) reduction followed by U(VI) reduction. Q-PCR analysis of MLS revealed significant (1-2 orders of magnitude, T-test, α=0.05) increases in cell densities of eubacteria, denitrifiers, δ- proteobacteria, Geobacter sp., and methanogens in response to biostimulation. Traditionally characterization of sediment samples has been used to investigate the microbial community response to biostimulation, however, collection of sediment samples is expensive and not conducive to deep aquifers or temporal studies. The results presented demonstrate that push-pull tests with passive MLS provide an inexpensive approach to determine the effect of biostimulation on contaminant concentrations, geochemical conditions, and the microbial community composition and function.

  5. Multilevel samplers as microcosms to assess microbial response to biostimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, Brett R.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Park, Melora M.; Ogles, Dora; Istok, Jonathan D.; McKinley, James P.; Resch, Charles T.; White, David C.

    2008-03-01

    Passive multilevel samplers (MLS) containing a solid matrix for microbial colonization were used in conjunction with a push-pull biostimulation experiment designed to promote biological U(VI) and Tc(VII) reduction. MLS were deployed at 24 elevations in the injection well and two down gradient wells to investigate the spatial variability in microbial community composition and growth prior to and following biostimulation. The microbial community was characterized by real-time PCR (Q-PCR) quantification of Bacteria, NO3- reducing bacteria (nirS and nirK), δ-proteobacteria, Geobacter sp., and methanogens (mcrA). Pretest cell densities were low overall but varied substantially with significantly greater Bacterial populations detected at circumneutral pH (T-test, α=0.05) suggesting carbon substrate and low pH limitations of microbial activity. Although pretest cell densities were low, denitrifying bacteria were dominant members of the microbial community. Biostimulation with an ethanol amended groundwater resulted in concurrent NO3- and Tc(VII) reduction followed by U(VI) reduction. Q-PCR analysis of MLS revealed significant (1-2 orders of magnitude, T-test, α=0.05) increases in cell densities of Bacteria, denitrifiers, δ-proteobacteria, Geobacter sp., and methanogens in response to biostimulation. Traditionally characterization of sediment samples has been used to investigate the microbial community response to biostimulation, however, collection of sediment samples is expensive and not conducive to deep aquifers or temporal studies. The results presented demonstrate that push-pull tests with passive MLS provide an inexpensive approach to determine the effect of biostimulation on contaminant concentrations, geochemical conditions, and the microbial community composition and function.

  6. Social capital and health in Kenya: A multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Musalia, John

    2016-10-01

    Despite the acknowledgment that social capital is an important predictor of good health and overall well being in wealthy countries, little empirical research has been conducted in developing countries, particularly in Africa, to examine this relationship. This study examines the association between cognitive (trust) and structural (membership in organization) social capital on health at both the individual and contextual levels. Health was measured using answers to a subjective question on physical health and anxiety/worry suffered by individuals within the last 30 days. This study utilized Afrobarometer data collected in Kenya in 2005 to examine this relationship using multilevel logistic statistical modeling. Upon controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors, social capital was found to be significantly associated with anxiety/worry and physical health in Kenya. Membership in organizations was associated with increased odds (OR = 1.34, 95%CI: 1.02-1.76) of physical health problems, while individual trust was associated with a 6% (OR = 0.94, 95%CI: 0.90-0.99) reduction in the likelihood of physical health problems. Conversely, generalized trust was associated with a 37% reduction in the odds (OR = 0.63, 95%CI: 0.40-0.99) of anxiety/worry, while individual trust was associated with a 5% reduction (OR = 0.95, 95%CI: 0.90-1.00) of anxiety/worry. With the exception of membership in an organization that exacerbates physical health, both individual level trust and generalized trust were associated with better health outcomes in Kenya. The availability of social organizations at the contextual level was associated with worsening anxiety/worry although the effect size was small. These results show that social capital, particularly trust, is a concept that can apply to different social and cultural contexts and can potentially be harnessed to improve health in settings that suffer from resource poverty. PMID:27597538

  7. Identifying Multilevel Barriers to Tobacco Intervention in Postdoctoral Dental Education.

    PubMed

    Albert, David A; Bruzelius, Emilie; Ward, Angela; Gordon, Judith S

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this mixed-methods study were to assess tobacco treatment behaviors among residents and faculty in dental specialty postdoctoral programs and to explore factors in training and practice related to tobacco treatment education. Surveys and focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of participants at three postdoctoral residency programs in New York City. Surveys assessed tobacco cessation training and behaviors. Focus groups explored barriers to implementing tobacco cessation treatment in educational settings. Data were collected between May and December 2013. Among the 160 faculty and residents identified as potentially eligible for the study, 60 were invited by program directors to participate, and 50 subsequently completed the survey and participated in a focus group (response rate of 31.3%). Survey results indicated high levels of asking patients about tobacco use and advising patients to quit. In contrast, specific tobacco cessation assistance and follow-up care occurred less frequently. There were statistically significant differences in tobacco cessation intervention across the specialties surveyed, but not between residents and faculty. Focus group comments were grouped into three broad areas: clinician factors, organizational support, and structural and contextual factors. Focus group results indicated that participants experienced significant organizational and structural barriers to learning about and providing tobacco treatment. Participants from each specialty indicated that multi-level barriers impeded their provision of evidence-based tobacco cessation interventions in postdoctoral educational settings. They suggested that didactic education should be reinforced by organizational- and systems-level changes to facilitate comprehensive tobacco education and effective cessation treatment in future dental practice. PMID:27037448

  8. Cable load sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Beus, Michael J.; McCoy, William G.

    1998-01-01

    Apparatus for sensing the magnitude of a load on a cable as the cable is employed to support the load includes a beam structure clamped to the cable so that a length of the cable lies along the beam structure. A spacer associated with the beam structure forces a slight curvature in a portion of the length of cable under a cable "no-load" condition so that the portion of the length of cable is spaced from the beam structure to define a cable curved portion. A strain gauge circuit including strain gauges is secured to the beam structure by welding. As the cable is employed to support a load the load causes the cable curved portion to exert a force normal to the cable through the spacer and on the beam structure to deform the beam structure as the cable curved portion attempts to straighten under the load. As this deformation takes place, the resistance of the strain gauges is set to a value proportional to the magnitude of the normal strain on the beam structure during such deformation. The magnitude of the normal strain is manipulated in a control device to generate a value equal to the magnitude or weight of the load supported by the cable.

  9. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  10. Estimation of Contextual Effects through Nonlinear Multilevel Latent Variable Modeling with a Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Ji Seung

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear multilevel latent variable modeling has been suggested as an alternative to traditional hierarchical linear modeling to more properly handle measurement error and sampling error issues in contextual effects modeling. However, a nonlinear multilevel latent variable model requires significant computational effort because the estimation…

  11. Multilevel Issues in Research Using Students' Perceptions of Learning Environments: The Case of the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Brok, Perry; Brekelmans, Mieke; Wubbels, Theo

    2006-01-01

    The design of learning environment studies investigating students' perceptions often is multilevel in nature. This multilevel nature of studies can appear in the object of research (for example, teacher behaviour towards the individual student or towards the class), the level of perception (personalised perceptions or group perceptions) and the…

  12. Income Inequality and Risk of Suicide in New York City Neighborhoods: A Multilevel Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jeffrey R.; Piper, Tinka Markham; Ahern, Jennifer; Tracy, Melissa; Tardiff, Kenneth J.; Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro

    2005-01-01

    Evidence on the relationship between income inequality and suicide is inconsistent. Data from the New York City Office of the Chief Medical Examiner for all fatal injuries was collected to conduct a multilevel case-control study. In multilevel models, suicide decedents (n = 374) were more likely than accident controls (n = 453) to reside in…

  13. Centering or Not Centering in Multilevel Models? The Role of the Group Mean and the Assessment of Group Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paccagnella, Omar

    2006-01-01

    In multilevel regression, centering the model variables produces effects that are different and sometimes unexpected compared with those in traditional regression analysis. In this article, the main contributions in terms of meaning, assumptions, and effects underlying a multilevel centering solution are reviewed, emphasizing advantages and…

  14. The Multilevel Latent Covariate Model: A New, More Reliable Approach to Group-Level Effects in Contextual Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludtke, Oliver; Marsh, Herbert W.; Robitzsch, Alexander; Trautwein, Ulrich; Asparouhov, Tihomir; Muthen, Bengt

    2008-01-01

    In multilevel modeling (MLM), group-level (L2) characteristics are often measured by aggregating individual-level (L1) characteristics within each group so as to assess contextual effects (e.g., group-average effects of socioeconomic status, achievement, climate). Most previous applications have used a multilevel manifest covariate (MMC) approach,…

  15. Estimating Correlates of Growth between Mathematics and Science Achievement via a Multivariate Multilevel Design with Latent Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Lingling; Ma, Xin

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to improve a multivariate multilevel model in the research literature which estimates the consistency in the rates of growth between mathematics and science achievement among students and schools. We introduced a new multivariate multilevel model via a latent variable approach. Data from the Longitudinal Study…

  16. The Impact of Misspecifying the Within-Subject Covariance Structure in Multiwave Longitudinal Multilevel Models: A Monte Carlo Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Oi-man; West, Stephen G.; Green, Samuel B.

    2007-01-01

    This Monte Carlo study examined the impact of misspecifying the [big sum] matrix in longitudinal data analysis under both the multilevel model and mixed model frameworks. Under the multilevel model approach, under-specification and general-misspecification of the [big sum] matrix usually resulted in overestimation of the variances of the random…

  17. The Mantel-Haenszel Method for Detecting Differential Item Functioning in Dichotomously Scored Items: A Multilevel Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacInnes, Jann Marie Wise

    2009-01-01

    Multilevel data often exist in educational studies. The focus of this study is to consider differential item functioning (DIF) for dichotomous items from a multilevel perspective. One of the most often used methods for detecting DIF in dichotomously scored items is the Mantel-Haenszel log odds-ratio. However, the Mantel-Haenszel reduces the…

  18. Multilevel Weighted Support Vector Machine for Classification on Healthcare Data with Missing Values

    PubMed Central

    Razzaghi, Talayeh; Roderick, Oleg; Safro, Ilya; Marko, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    This work is motivated by the needs of predictive analytics on healthcare data as represented by Electronic Medical Records. Such data is invariably problematic: noisy, with missing entries, with imbalance in classes of interests, leading to serious bias in predictive modeling. Since standard data mining methods often produce poor performance measures, we argue for development of specialized techniques of data-preprocessing and classification. In this paper, we propose a new method to simultaneously classify large datasets and reduce the effects of missing values. It is based on a multilevel framework of the cost-sensitive SVM and the expected maximization imputation method for missing values, which relies on iterated regression analyses. We compare classification results of multilevel SVM-based algorithms on public benchmark datasets with imbalanced classes and missing values as well as real data in health applications, and show that our multilevel SVM-based method produces fast, and more accurate and robust classification results. PMID:27195952

  19. A multilevel voltage-source inverter with separate dc sources for static var generation

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Fang Zheng |; Lai, Jih-Sheng; McKeever, J.; VanCoevering, J.

    1995-09-01

    A new multilevel voltage-source inverter with a separate dc sources is proposed for high-voltage, high-power applications, such as flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS) including static var generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting, voltage balancing, fuel cell and photovoltaic utility systems interfacing, etc. The new M-level inverter consists of (M-1)/2 single phase full bridges in which each bridge has its own separate dc source. This inverter can generate almost sinusoidal waveform voltage with only one time switching per cycle as the number of levels increases. It can solve the problems of conventional transformer-based multipulse inverters and the problems of the multilevel diode-clamped inverter and the multilevel flying capacitor inverter. To demonstrate the superiority of the new inverter, a SVG system using the new inverter topology is discussed through analysis, simulation and experiment.

  20. Self-compliance multilevel storage characteristic in HfO2-based device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiao-Ping; Fu, Li-Ping; Chen, Chuan-Bing; Yuan, Peng; Li, Ying-Tao

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the self-compliance bipolar resistive switching characteristic of an HfO2-based memory device with Ag/HfO2/Au structure for multilevel storage is investigated. By applying a positive voltage, the dual-step set processes corresponding to three stable resistance states are observed in the device. The multilevel switching characteristics can still be observed after 48 hours. In addition, the resistance values of all the three states show negligible degradation over 104 s, which may be useful for the applications in nonvolatile multilevel storage. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61664001, 61574070, and 61306148) and the Application Research and Development Plan of Gansu Academy of Sciences, China (Grant Nos. 2015JK-11 and 2015JK-01).

  1. A multilevel control system for the large space telescope. [numerical analysis/optimal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.; Sundareshan, S. K.; Vukcevic, M. B.

    1975-01-01

    A multilevel scheme was proposed for control of Large Space Telescope (LST) modeled by a three-axis-six-order nonlinear equation. Local controllers were used on the subsystem level to stabilize motions corresponding to the three axes. Global controllers were applied to reduce (and sometimes nullify) the interactions among the subsystems. A multilevel optimization method was developed whereby local quadratic optimizations were performed on the subsystem level, and global control was again used to reduce (nullify) the effect of interactions. The multilevel stabilization and optimization methods are presented as general tools for design and then used in the design of the LST Control System. The methods are entirely computerized, so that they can accommodate higher order LST models with both conceptual and numerical advantages over standard straightforward design techniques.

  2. Multilevel Modeling and Policy Development: Guidelines and Applications to Medical Travel

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Garzon, Eduardo; Zhukovsky, Peter; Haller, Elisa; Plakolm, Sara; Fink, David; Petrova, Dafina; Mahalingam, Vaishali; Menezes, Igor G.; Ruggeri, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Medical travel has expanded rapidly in recent years, resulting in new markets and increased access to medical care. Whereas several studies investigated the motives of individuals seeking healthcare abroad, the conventional analytical approach is limited by substantial caveats. Classical techniques as found in the literature cannot provide sufficient insight due to the nested nature of data generated. The application of adequate analytical techniques, specifically multilevel modeling, is scarce to non-existent in the context of medical travel. This study introduces the guidelines for application of multilevel techniques in public health research by presenting an application of multilevel modeling in analyzing the decision-making patterns of potential medical travelers. Benefits and potential limitations are discussed. PMID:27252672

  3. Fault protection in a multilevel inverter implementation of a static condenser

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, G.; Hochgraf, C.; Lasseter, R.H.; Divan, D.M.; Lipo, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    Multilevel inverters are well suited for static condenser implementation in utility systems. With multilevel inverters, it is possible to realize low distortion voltage waveforms and keep losses low using suitable switching schemes. The complex topology of these inverters coupled with the large number of devices used increases the probability of device failure. In this paper, the fault modes of a multilevel inverter are investigated with special emphasis on the five level inverter. The main focus of the paper is on device failure and the corresponding impact on the operating conditions and resulting stresses. The presence of redundant states offers the possibility of continuing operation with inferior bus and device utilization following a fault. Failure of some devices is more critical than the failure of others, thereby emphasizing the need for adding redundant devices.

  4. A multilevel voltage-source converter system with balanced dc voltages

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng; McKeever, J.; VanCoevering, J.

    1995-04-01

    A multilevel voltage-source converter system is proposed for high-voltage, high-power applications such as large induction motor drives, back-to-back interconnected power systems, and electrical traction drives. Multilevel voltage-source converters have a voltage unbalance problem in the dc capacitors. The problem may be solved by use of additional voltage regulators or separate dc sources. However, these solutions are found not to be practicable for most applications. The proposed converter system can solve the voltage unbalance problem of the conventional multilevel voltage-source converters, without using any additional voltage balance circuits or separate voltage sources. Mechanism of the voltage unbalance problem is analyzed theoretically in this paper. The validity of the new converter system is demonstrated by simulation and experiment.

  5. Multilevel Modeling and Policy Development: Guidelines and Applications to Medical Travel.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Garzon, Eduardo; Zhukovsky, Peter; Haller, Elisa; Plakolm, Sara; Fink, David; Petrova, Dafina; Mahalingam, Vaishali; Menezes, Igor G; Ruggeri, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Medical travel has expanded rapidly in recent years, resulting in new markets and increased access to medical care. Whereas several studies investigated the motives of individuals seeking healthcare abroad, the conventional analytical approach is limited by substantial caveats. Classical techniques as found in the literature cannot provide sufficient insight due to the nested nature of data generated. The application of adequate analytical techniques, specifically multilevel modeling, is scarce to non-existent in the context of medical travel. This study introduces the guidelines for application of multilevel techniques in public health research by presenting an application of multilevel modeling in analyzing the decision-making patterns of potential medical travelers. Benefits and potential limitations are discussed.

  6. Multilevel Weighted Support Vector Machine for Classification on Healthcare Data with Missing Values.

    PubMed

    Razzaghi, Talayeh; Roderick, Oleg; Safro, Ilya; Marko, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    This work is motivated by the needs of predictive analytics on healthcare data as represented by Electronic Medical Records. Such data is invariably problematic: noisy, with missing entries, with imbalance in classes of interests, leading to serious bias in predictive modeling. Since standard data mining methods often produce poor performance measures, we argue for development of specialized techniques of data-preprocessing and classification. In this paper, we propose a new method to simultaneously classify large datasets and reduce the effects of missing values. It is based on a multilevel framework of the cost-sensitive SVM and the expected maximization imputation method for missing values, which relies on iterated regression analyses. We compare classification results of multilevel SVM-based algorithms on public benchmark datasets with imbalanced classes and missing values as well as real data in health applications, and show that our multilevel SVM-based method produces fast, and more accurate and robust classification results.

  7. Modeling of trophospheric ozone concentrations using genetically trained multi-level cellular neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozcan, H. Kurtulus; Bilgili, Erdem; Sahin, Ulku; Ucan, O. Nuri; Bayat, Cuma

    2007-09-01

    Tropospheric ozone concentrations, which are an important air pollutant, are modeled by the use of an artificial intelligence structure. Data obtained from air pollution measurement stations in the city of Istanbul are utilized in constituting the model. A supervised algorithm for the evaluation of ozone concentration using a genetically trained multi-level cellular neural network (ML-CNN) is introduced, developed, and applied to real data. A genetic algorithm is used in the optimization of CNN templates. The model results and the actual measurement results are compared and statistically evaluated. It is observed that seasonal changes in ozone concentrations are reflected effectively by the concentrations estimated by the multilevel-CNN model structure, with a correlation value of 0.57 ascertained between actual and model results. It is shown that the multilevel-CNN modeling technique is as satisfactory as other modeling techniques in associating the data in a complex medium in air pollution applications.

  8. Multilevel Modeling and Policy Development: Guidelines and Applications to Medical Travel.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Garzon, Eduardo; Zhukovsky, Peter; Haller, Elisa; Plakolm, Sara; Fink, David; Petrova, Dafina; Mahalingam, Vaishali; Menezes, Igor G; Ruggeri, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Medical travel has expanded rapidly in recent years, resulting in new markets and increased access to medical care. Whereas several studies investigated the motives of individuals seeking healthcare abroad, the conventional analytical approach is limited by substantial caveats. Classical techniques as found in the literature cannot provide sufficient insight due to the nested nature of data generated. The application of adequate analytical techniques, specifically multilevel modeling, is scarce to non-existent in the context of medical travel. This study introduces the guidelines for application of multilevel techniques in public health research by presenting an application of multilevel modeling in analyzing the decision-making patterns of potential medical travelers. Benefits and potential limitations are discussed. PMID:27252672

  9. Streamlined mean field variational Bayes for longitudinal and multilevel data analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cathy Yuen Yi; Wand, Matt P

    2016-07-01

    Streamlined mean field variational Bayes algorithms for efficient fitting and inference in large models for longitudinal and multilevel data analysis are obtained. The number of operations is linear in the number of groups at each level, which represents a two orders of magnitude improvement over the naïve approach. Storage requirements are also lessened considerably. We treat models for the Gaussian and binary response situations. Our algorithms allow the fastest ever approximate Bayesian analyses of arbitrarily large longitudinal and multilevel datasets, with little degradation in accuracy compared with Markov chain Monte Carlo. The modularity of mean field variational Bayes allows relatively simple extension to more complicated scenarios. PMID:27214238

  10. Tamper localization and lossless recovery watermarking scheme with ROI segmentation and multilevel authentication.

    PubMed

    Liew, Siau-Chuin; Liew, Siau-Way; Zain, Jasni Mohd

    2013-04-01

    Tamper localization and recovery watermarking scheme can be used to detect manipulation and recover tampered images. In this paper, a tamper localization and lossless recovery scheme that used region of interest (ROI) segmentation and multilevel authentication was proposed. The watermarked images had a high average peak signal-to-noise ratio of 48.7 dB and the results showed that tampering was successfully localized and tampered area was exactly recovered. The usage of ROI segmentation and multilevel authentication had significantly reduced the time taken by approximately 50 % for the tamper localization and recovery processing.

  11. Multilevel radiative thermal memory realized by the hysteretic metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Kota; Nishikawa, Kazutaka; Iizuka, Hideo

    2016-02-01

    Thermal information processing is attracting much interest as an analog of electronic computing. We experimentally demonstrated a radiative thermal memory utilizing a phase change material. The hysteretic metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2) allows us to obtain a multilevel memory. We developed a Preisach model to explain the hysteretic radiative heat transfer between a VO2 film and a fused quartz substrate. The transient response of our memory predicted by the Preisach model agrees well with the measured response. Our multilevel thermal memory paves the way for thermal information processing as well as contactless thermal management.

  12. The effects of autonomy and empowerment on employee turnover: test of a multilevel model in teams.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Lei; Lee, Thomas W

    2011-11-01

    Extending research on voluntary turnover in the team setting, this study adopts a multilevel self-determination theoretical approach to examine the unique roles of individual and social-contextual motivational precursors, autonomy orientation and autonomy support, in reducing team member voluntary turnover. Analysis of multilevel time-lagged data collected from 817 employees on 115 teams indicates that psychological empowerment mediates the main effect of autonomy orientation and the interactive effect of autonomy support and its differentiation on a team member's voluntary turnover. The findings have meaningful implications for the turnover and self-determination literatures as well as for managers who endeavor to prevent voluntary turnover in teams. PMID:21744939

  13. Multilevel Cell Storage and Resistance Variability in Resistive Random Access Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantelis, D. I.; Karakizis, P. N.; Dragatogiannis, D. A.; Charitidis, C. A.

    2016-06-01

    Multilevel per cell (MLC) storage in resistive random access memory (ReRAM) is attractive in achieving high-density and low-cost memory and will be required in future. In this chapter, MLC storage and resistance variability and reliability of multilevel in ReRAM are discussed. Different MLC operation schemes with their physical mechanisms and a comprehensive analysis of resistance variability have been provided. Various factors that can induce variability and their effect on the resistance margin between the multiple resistance levels are assessed. The reliability characteristics and the impact on MLC storage have also been assessed.

  14. The effects of autonomy and empowerment on employee turnover: test of a multilevel model in teams.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Lei; Lee, Thomas W

    2011-11-01

    Extending research on voluntary turnover in the team setting, this study adopts a multilevel self-determination theoretical approach to examine the unique roles of individual and social-contextual motivational precursors, autonomy orientation and autonomy support, in reducing team member voluntary turnover. Analysis of multilevel time-lagged data collected from 817 employees on 115 teams indicates that psychological empowerment mediates the main effect of autonomy orientation and the interactive effect of autonomy support and its differentiation on a team member's voluntary turnover. The findings have meaningful implications for the turnover and self-determination literatures as well as for managers who endeavor to prevent voluntary turnover in teams.

  15. Streamlined mean field variational Bayes for longitudinal and multilevel data analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cathy Yuen Yi; Wand, Matt P

    2016-07-01

    Streamlined mean field variational Bayes algorithms for efficient fitting and inference in large models for longitudinal and multilevel data analysis are obtained. The number of operations is linear in the number of groups at each level, which represents a two orders of magnitude improvement over the naïve approach. Storage requirements are also lessened considerably. We treat models for the Gaussian and binary response situations. Our algorithms allow the fastest ever approximate Bayesian analyses of arbitrarily large longitudinal and multilevel datasets, with little degradation in accuracy compared with Markov chain Monte Carlo. The modularity of mean field variational Bayes allows relatively simple extension to more complicated scenarios.

  16. A multi-level solution algorithm for steady-state Markov chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, Graham; Leutenegger, Scott T.

    1993-01-01

    A new iterative algorithm, the multi-level algorithm, for the numerical solution of steady state Markov chains is presented. The method utilizes a set of recursively coarsened representations of the original system to achieve accelerated convergence. It is motivated by multigrid methods, which are widely used for fast solution of partial differential equations. Initial results of numerical experiments are reported, showing significant reductions in computation time, often an order of magnitude or more, relative to the Gauss-Seidel and optimal SOR algorithms for a variety of test problems. The multi-level method is compared and contrasted with the iterative aggregation-disaggregation algorithm of Takahashi.

  17. Multilevel solvers of first-order system least-squares for Stokes equations

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Chen-Yao G.

    1996-12-31

    Recently, The use of first-order system least squares principle for the approximate solution of Stokes problems has been extensively studied by Cai, Manteuffel, and McCormick. In this paper, we study multilevel solvers of first-order system least-squares method for the generalized Stokes equations based on the velocity-vorticity-pressure formulation in three dimensions. The least-squares functionals is defined to be the sum of the L{sup 2}-norms of the residuals, which is weighted appropriately by the Reynolds number. We develop convergence analysis for additive and multiplicative multilevel methods applied to the resulting discrete equations.

  18. Towards Multi-level Optimization: Space-Mapping and Manifold-Mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Echeverria, D; Tong, C

    2006-07-24

    In this report we study space-mapping and manifold-mapping, two multi-level optimization techniques that aim at accelerating expensive optimization procedures with the aid of simple auxiliary models. Manifold-mapping improves in accuracy the solution given by space-mapping. In this report, the two mentioned techniques are basically described and then applied in the solving of two minimization problems. Several coarse models are tried, both from a two and a three level perspective. The results with these simple tests confirm the speed-up expected for the multi-level approach.

  19. Data-derived symbol synchronization of MASK and QASK signals. [for multilevel digital communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.

    1974-01-01

    Multilevel amplitude-shift-keying (MASK) and quadrature amplitude-shift-keying (QASK) as signaling techniques for multilevel digital communications systems, and the problem of providing symbol synchronization in the receivers of such systems are discussed. A technique is presented for extracting symbol sync from an MASK or QASK signal. The scheme is a generalization of the data transition tracking loop used in PSK systems. The performance of the loop was analyzed in terms of its mean-squared jitter and its effects on the data detection process in MASK and QASK systems.

  20. LOADING MACHINE FOR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Simon, S.L.

    1959-07-01

    An apparatus is described for loading or charging slugs of fissionable material into a nuclear reactor. The apparatus of the invention is a "muzzle loading" type comprising a delivery tube or muzzle designed to be brought into alignment with any one of a plurality of fuel channels. The delivery tube is located within the pressure shell and it is also disposed within shielding barriers while the fuel cantridges or slugs are forced through the delivery tube by an externally driven flexible ram.

  1. Load research manual. Volume 3. Load research for advanced technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms. In Volume 3, special load research procedures are presented for solar, wind, and cogeneration technologies.

  2. Multilevel Resistance Programming in Conductive Bridge Resistive Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahalanabis, Debayan

    This work focuses on the existence of multiple resistance states in a type of emerging non-volatile resistive memory device known commonly as Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) or Conductive Bridge Random Access Memory (CBRAM), which can be important for applications such as multi-bit memory as well as non-volatile logic and neuromorphic computing. First, experimental data from small signal, quasi-static and pulsed mode electrical characterization of such devices are presented which clearly demonstrate the inherent multi-level resistance programmability property in CBRAM devices. A physics based analytical CBRAM compact model is then presented which simulates the ion-transport dynamics and filamentary growth mechanism that causes resistance change in such devices. Simulation results from the model are fitted to experimental dynamic resistance switching characteristics. The model designed using Verilog-a language is computation-efficient and can be integrated with industry standard circuit simulation tools for design and analysis of hybrid circuits involving both CMOS and CBRAM devices. Three main circuit applications for CBRAM devices are explored in this work. Firstly, the susceptibility of CBRAM memory arrays to single event induced upsets is analyzed via compact model simulation and experimental heavy ion testing data that show possibility of both high resistance to low resistance and low resistance to high resistance transitions due to ion strikes. Next, a non-volatile sense amplifier based flip-flop architecture is proposed which can help make leakage power consumption negligible by allowing complete shutdown of power supply while retaining its output data in CBRAM devices. Reliability and energy consumption of the flip-flop circuit for different CBRAM low resistance levels and supply voltage values are analyzed and compared to CMOS designs. Possible extension of this architecture for threshold logic function computation using the CBRAM devices as re

  3. A load factor formula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Roy G

    1927-01-01

    The ultimate test of a load factor formula is experience. The chief advantages of a semi rational formula over arbitrary factors are that it fairs in between points of experience and it differentiates according to variables within a type. Structural failure of an airplane apparently safe according to the formula would call for a specific change in the formula. The best class of airplanes with which to check a load factor formula seems to be those which have experienced structural failure. Table I comprises a list of the airplanes which have experienced failure in flight traceable to the wing structure. The load factor by formula is observed to be greater than the designed strength in each case, without a single exception. Table II comprises the load factor by formula with the designed strength of a number of well-known service types. The formula indicates that by far the majority of these have ample structural strength. One case considered here in deriving a suitable formula is that of a heavy load carrier of large size and practically no reserve power.

  4. Multilevel Selection 2: Estimating the Genetic Parameters Determining Inheritance and Response to Selection

    PubMed Central

    Bijma, Piter; Muir, William M.; Ellen, Esther D.; Wolf, Jason B.; Van Arendonk, Johan A. M.

    2007-01-01

    Interactions among individuals are universal, both in animals and in plants and in natural as well as domestic populations. Understanding the consequences of these interactions for the evolution of populations by either natural or artificial selection requires knowledge of the heritable components underlying them. Here we present statistical methodology to estimate the genetic parameters determining response to multilevel selection of traits affected by interactions among individuals in general populations. We apply these methods to obtain estimates of genetic parameters for survival days in a population of layer chickens with high mortality due to pecking behavior. We find that heritable variation is threefold greater than that obtained from classical analyses, meaning that two-thirds of the full heritable variation is hidden to classical analysis due to social interactions. As a consequence, predicted responses to multilevel selection applied to this population are threefold greater than classical predictions. This work, combined with the quantitative genetic theory for response to multilevel selection presented in an accompanying article in this issue, enables the design of selection programs to effectively reduce competitive interactions in livestock and plants and the prediction of the effects of social interactions on evolution in natural populations undergoing multilevel selection. PMID:17110493

  5. A Multilevel Decomposition of School Performance Using Robust Nonparametric Frontier Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thieme, Claudio; Prior, Diego; Tortosa-Ausina, Emili

    2013-01-01

    We propose a methodology for evaluating educational performance, from a multilevel perspective. We use partial frontier approaches to mitigate the influence of outliers and the curse of dimensionality. Our estimation considers idiosyncratic variables at the school, class, and student levels. Our model is applied to a sample of students in fourth…

  6. Marginal Mean Weighting through Stratification: Adjustment for Selection Bias in Multilevel Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Guanglei

    2010-01-01

    Defining causal effects as comparisons between marginal population means, this article introduces marginal mean weighting through stratification (MMW-S) to adjust for selection bias in multilevel educational data. The article formally shows the inherent connections among the MMW-S method, propensity score stratification, and…

  7. Longitudinal Changes in Physical Fitness Performance in Youth: A Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chee Keng John; Pyun, Do Young; Liu, Woon Chia; Lim, Boon San Coral; Li, Fuzhong

    2013-01-01

    Using a multilevel latent growth curve modeling (LGCM) approach, this study examined longitudinal change in levels of physical fitness performance over time (i.e. four years) in young adolescents aged from 12-13 years. The sample consisted of 6622 students from 138 secondary schools in Singapore. Initial analyses found between-school variation on…

  8. A Multilevel Analysis of the Relationships among Communal School Organization, Student Bonding, and Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Allison Ann

    2008-01-01

    Research has identified school-related factors that are predictive of a student's involvement in delinquency: specifically, school-level communal school organization and individual-level student bonding. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the multilevel relationships among these concepts in a nationally representative sample of…

  9. Multilevel Structural Equation Models for the Analysis of Comparative Data on Educational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Harvey; Bonnet, Gerard; Rocher, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    The Programme for International Student Assessment comparative study of reading performance among 15-year-olds is reanalyzed using statistical procedures that allow the full complexity of the data structures to be explored. The article extends existing multilevel factor analysis and structural equation models and shows how this can extract richer…

  10. Student Teachers' Skills in the Implementation of Collaborative Learning: A Multilevel Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruys, Ilse; Van Keer, Hilde; Aelterman, Antonia

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the development of student teachers' skills in implementing collaborative learning (CL) using a multilevel repeated measures design. Participants were 105 pre-service teachers that were trained in CL implementation. The results indicate that student teachers generally perform well in implementing CL. Further, it appears that…

  11. When Cannabis Is Available and Visible at School--A Multilevel Analysis of Students' Cannabis Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the links between the visibility of cannabis use in school (measured by teachers' reports of students being under the influence of cannabis on school premises), the proportion of cannabis users in the class, perceived availability of cannabis, as well as adolescent cannabis use. Methods: A multilevel regression model was…

  12. Multi-Level Research on Youth Participation in the Haitian Reconstruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluim, Gary W. J.

    2012-01-01

    Research in comparative and international education routinely encounters exceptional research conditions. In this article, the author explores the particular issues he faced in his research on multi-level youth programs of the Haitian reconstruction. Through a vertical analysis of internationally sponsored programs, this study required special…

  13. A Multilevel Perspective on the Climate of Bullying: Discrepancies among Students, School Staff, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Pas, Elise T.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2011-01-01

    Although many bullying prevention programs aim to involve multiple partners, few studies have examined perceptual differences regarding peer victimization and the broader bullying climate among students, staff, and parents. The present study utilized multilevel data from 11,674 students, 960 parents, and 1,027 staff at 44 schools to examine the…

  14. Multilevel Exploratory Factor Analysis: Illustrating Its Surplus Value in Educational Effectiveness Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Haenens, Ellen; Van Damme, Jan; Onghena, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper illustrates the surplus value of multilevel exploratory factor analysis in educational effectiveness research. Educational researchers often use measures for process variables at the class or school level to explain differences in student outcomes. Recently, van de Vijver and Poortinga (2002) have developed a procedure for multilevel…

  15. Evidencing Learning Outcomes: A Multi-Level, Multi-Dimensional Course Alignment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sridharan, Bhavani; Leitch, Shona; Watty, Kim

    2015-01-01

    This conceptual framework proposes a multi-level, multi-dimensional course alignment model to implement a contextualised constructive alignment of rubric design that authentically evidences and assesses learning outcomes. By embedding quality control mechanisms at each level for each dimension, this model facilitates the development of an aligned…

  16. School Climate as a Predictor of Incivility and Bullying among Public School Employees: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Joshua E.; Powell, Anna L.; Petrosko, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    We surveyed public school educators on the workplace incivility and workplace bullying they experienced and obtained their ratings of the organizational climate of the school. We used multilevel modeling to determine the effects of individual-level and school-level predictors. Ratings of school climate were significantly related to incivility and…

  17. Generalized Multilevel Function-on-Scalar Regression and Principal Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Jeff; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Schrack, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Summary This manuscript considers regression models for generalized, multilevel functional responses: functions are generalized in that they follow an exponential family distribution and multilevel in that they are clustered within groups or subjects. This data structure is increasingly common across scientific domains and is exemplified by our motivating example, in which binary curves indicating physical activity or inactivity are observed for nearly six hundred subjects over five days. We use a generalized linear model to incorporate scalar covariates into the mean structure, and decompose subject-specific and subject-day-specific deviations using multilevel functional principal components analysis. Thus, functional fixed effects are estimated while accounting for within-function and within-subject correlations, and major directions of variability within and between subjects are identified. Fixed effect coefficient functions and principal component basis functions are estimated using penalized splines; model parameters are estimated in a Bayesian framework using Stan, a programming language that implements a Hamiltonian Monte Carlo sampler. Simulations designed to mimic the application have good estimation and inferential properties with reasonable computation times for moderate datasets, in both cross-sectional and multilevel scenarios; code is publicly available. In the application we identify effects of age and BMI on the time-specific change in probability of being active over a twenty-four hour period; in addition, the principal components analysis identifies the patterns of activity that distinguish subjects and days within subjects. PMID:25620473

  18. Group Climate, Cohesion, Alliance, and Empathy in Group Psychotherapy: Multilevel Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jennifer E.; Burlingame, Gary M.; Olsen, Joseph A.; Davies, D. Robert; Gleave, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the definitional and statistical overlap among 4 key group therapeutic relationship constructs--group climate, cohesion, alliance, and empathy--across member-member, member-group, and member-leader relationships. Three multilevel structural equation models were tested using self-report measures completed by 662 participants…

  19. Multi-Level Process Analysis: An Alternative Technique for Modeling and Systems Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, William H.

    The purpose of this paper is to propose the combined use of distinct symbol sets to conduct multilevel process (MLP) analysis and to discuss the application of the technique through a case study example. In turn, consideration is given to the meaning of process analysis, the existent technology of representation, proposed new developments, and…

  20. Using Multilevel Factor Analysis with Clustered Data: Investigating the Factor Structure of the Positive Values Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Francis L.; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in multilevel modeling techniques now make it possible to investigate the psychometric properties of instruments using clustered data. Factor models that overlook the clustering effect can lead to underestimated standard errors, incorrect parameter estimates, and model fit indices. In addition, factor structures may differ depending on…

  1. Multilevel approach to the experimental study of plastic deformation of HCP-zirconium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Poletika, T. M. E-mail: girs@ispms.tsc.ru; Girsova, S. L. E-mail: girs@ispms.tsc.ru

    2014-11-14

    A multilevel approach was developed to the experimental study of plastic deformation in anisotropic polycrystalline materials, using by way of an example HCP-Zr alloys. This allowed establishing the relationship and hierarchy of processes occurring at macro-, meso- and microscale levels in conditions of significant heterogeneity of plastic flow and of texture formation.

  2. "Using Power Tables to Compute Statistical Power in Multilevel Experimental Designs"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2009-01-01

    Power computations for one-level experimental designs that assume simple random samples are greatly facilitated by power tables such as those presented in Cohen's book about statistical power analysis. However, in education and the social sciences experimental designs have naturally nested structures and multilevel models are needed to compute the…

  3. Development of a Multilevel Intervention to Increase HIV Clinical Trial Participation among Rural Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Odeneye, Ebun; Banks, Bahby; Shandor Miles, Margaret; Roman Isler, Malika

    2013-01-01

    Minorities are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS in the rural Southeast; therefore, it is important to develop targeted, culturally appropriate interventions to support rural minority participation in HIV/AIDS research. Using intervention mapping, we developed a comprehensive multilevel intervention for service providers (SPs) and people…

  4. Gender Differences When Parenting Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Multilevel Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Leah; Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.; Petalas, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Parenting a child with autism may differentially affect mothers and fathers. Existing studies of mother-father differences often ignore the interdependence of data within families. We investigated gender differences within-families using multilevel linear modeling. Mothers and fathers of children with autism (161 couples) reported on their own…

  5. Multilevel Analysis of the Effects of Antidiscrimination Policies on Earnings by Sexual Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klawitter, Marieka

    2011-01-01

    This study uses the 2000 U.S. Census data to assess the impact of antidiscrimination policies for sexual orientation on earnings for gays and lesbians. Using a multilevel model allows estimation of the effects of state and local policies on earnings and of variation in the effects of sexual orientation across local labor markets. The results…

  6. A Multilevel Model of School Effectiveness in a Developing Country. World Bank Discussion Papers Number 69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockheed, Marlaine E.; Longford, Nicholas T.

    A multilevel approach was used to examine determinants of growth in grade 8 mathematics achievement in Thailand. Data for 99 mathematics teachers and their 4,030 eighth graders (the 14-year-old cohort) were taken from the Second International Mathematics Study (1981-82) of the International Association for the Assessment of Educational…

  7. The Roots and Consequences of Early Mother-Child Relationship: A Multilevel Model of Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seitamo, Leila

    Part of an ongoing longitudinal research project, a study was made to develop a method and a multilevel model for evaluating at its earliest stages the relationship between a mother and her child. The main hypothesis of the study was that the early mother-child relationship, consisting of maternal responses and a mother's images of her role in…

  8. A Multi-Level Analysis of Risk Factors for Campylobacter spp. in Broiler Chickens in Iceland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction We carried out a longitudinal study of the broiler industry in Iceland between May 2001 and September 2004. Using multi-level statistical methods, our objective was to determine which aspects of the birds, their management and/or their housing may be most useful for applying interventi...

  9. Parent Involvement and Science Achievement: A Cross-Classified Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ursula Y.; Hull, Darrell M.

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined science achievement growth at Grades 3, 5, and 8 and parent school involvement at the same time points using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999. Data were analyzed using cross-classified multilevel latent growth curve modeling with time invariant and varying covariates. School-based…

  10. A Bayesian Multi-Level Factor Analytic Model of Consumer Price Sensitivities across Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvvuri, Sri Devi; Gruca, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying price sensitive consumers is an important problem in marketing. We develop a Bayesian multi-level factor analytic model of the covariation among household-level price sensitivities across product categories that are substitutes. Based on a multivariate probit model of category incidence, this framework also allows the researcher to…

  11. Education and Earnings: A Multilevel Analysis. A Case Study of the Manufacturing Sector in Iran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naderi, A.; Mace, J.

    2003-01-01

    Using data from the manufacturing sector of Iran, examines the existence of hierarchical structure in data used and the advantages of employing multilevel modeling in human capital analysis of earnings differentials. Finds that (1) data used are dominated by a hierarchical structure and (2) the amount of education and experience is significantly…

  12. Distinguishing Continuous and Discrete Approaches to Multilevel Mixture IRT Models: A Model Comparison Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xiaoshu

    2013-01-01

    The current study introduced a general modeling framework, multilevel mixture IRT (MMIRT) which detects and describes characteristics of population heterogeneity, while accommodating the hierarchical data structure. In addition to introducing both continuous and discrete approaches to MMIRT, the main focus of the current study was to distinguish…

  13. Individual-Level Influences on Perceptions of Neighborhood Disorder: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latkin, Carl A.; German, Danielle; Hua, Wei; Curry, Aaron D.

    2009-01-01

    Health outcomes are associated with aggregate neighborhood measures and individual neighborhood perceptions. In this study, the authors sought to delineate individual, social network, and spatial factors that may influence perceptions of neighborhood disorder. Multilevel regression analysis showed that neighborhood perceptions were more negative…

  14. Multilevel Factor Analyses of Family Data from the Hawai'i Family Study of Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, John J.; Hamagami, Fumiaki; Bautista, Randy; Onoye, Jane; Hishinuma, Earl S.; Prescott, Carol A.; Takeshita, Junji; Zonderman, Alan B.; Johnson, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we reanalyzed the classic Hawai'i Family Study of Cognition (HFSC) data using contemporary multilevel modeling techniques. We used the HFSC baseline data ("N" = 6,579) and reexamined the factorial structure of 16 cognitive variables using confirmatory (restricted) measurement models in an explicit sequence. These…

  15. Multi-level 3D implementation of thermo-pneumatic pumping on centrifugal microfluidic CD platforms.

    PubMed

    Thio, Tzer Hwai Gilbert; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Al-Faqheri, Wisam; Soin, Norhayati; Abdul Kahar, Maria Kahar Bador; Madou, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Thermo-pneumatic (TP) pumping is a method employing the principle of expanding heated air to transfer fluids back towards the CD center on the centrifugal microfluidic CD platform. While the TP features are easy to fabricate as no moving parts are involved, it consumes extra real estate on the CD, and because heating is involved, it introduces unnecessary heating to the fluids on the CD. To overcome these limitations, we introduce a multi-level 3D approach and implement forced convection heating. In a multi-level 3D CD, the TP features are relocated to a separate top level, while the microfluidic process remains on a lower bottom level. This allows for heat shielding of the fluids in the microfluidic process level, and also improve usage of space on the CD. To aid in future implementations of TP pumping on a multi-level 3D CD, studies on the effect of heat source setting, and the effect of positioning the TP feature (it distance from the CD center) on CD surface heating are also presented. In this work, we successfully demonstrate a multi-level 3D approach to implement TP pumping on the microfluidic CD platform.

  16. Determinants of Classroom Environment in Queensland Secondary Schools: A Multilevel Reanalysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, Jeffrey P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the reanalysis of data collected in a study of 3 determinants of classroom environment (viz. year level, subject, and school type) using multivariate analysis of variance and multilevel analysis. Data were collected from 2,211 students in Queensland Catholic and government schools. The Catholic School Classroom Environment…

  17. GROUND WATER MONITORING AND SAMPLING: MULTI-LEVEL VERSUS TRADITIONAL METHODS WHATS WHAT?

    EPA Science Inventory

    After years of research and many publications, the question still remains: What is the best method to collect representative ground water samples from monitoring wells? Numerous systems and devices are currently available for obtaining both multi-level samples as well as traditi...

  18. Documenting Attitudes toward Undocumented Immigrant Access to Public Education: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Felisha A.; Garibay, Juan C.; Garcia, Gina A.; Johnston, Marc P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how students' views toward undocumented immigrants' access to public education change during college. A multilevel analysis among a national sample of 12,388 undergraduates, drawn from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program's (CIRP) Freshman Survey and College Senior Survey, revealed that significant…

  19. Multi-Level Assessment of Scientific Content Knowledge Gains Associated with Socioscientific Issues-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klosterman, Michelle L.; Sadler, Troy D.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the impact of using a socioscientific issue (SSI) based curriculum on developing science content knowledge. Using a multi-level assessment design, student content knowledge gains were measured before and after implementation of a three-week unit on global warming (a prominent SSI) that explored both the relevant science content…

  20. Explaining Differences in Civic Knowledge: Multi-Level Regression Analysis of Student Data from 27 Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Wolfram

    Differences in student knowledge about democracy, institutions, and citizenship and students skills in interpreting political communication were studied through multilevel regression analysis of results from the second International Education Association (IEA) Study. This study provides data on 14-year-old students from 28 countries in Europe,…

  1. EVALUATION OF IN SITU COSOLVENT FLUSHING DYNAMICS USING A NETWORK OF SPATIALLY DISTRIBUTED MULTILEVEL SAMPLERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A network of multilevel samplers was used to evaluate the spatial patterns in containment extraction during an in situ cosolvent flushing field test. The study was conducted in an isolation test cell installed in a fuel contaminated site at Hill Air Force Base, Utah. Partitioni...

  2. Fluid Intelligence as a Predictor of Learning: A Longitudinal Multilevel Approach Applied to Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primi, Ricardo; Ferrao, Maria Eugenia; Almeida, Leandro S.

    2010-01-01

    The association between fluid intelligence and inter-individual differences was investigated using multilevel growth curve modeling applied to data measuring intra-individual improvement on math achievement tests. A sample of 166 students (88 boys and 78 girls), ranging in age from 11 to 14 (M = 12.3, SD = 0.64), was tested. These individuals took…

  3. Influences on Member Assimilation in Work Groups in High-Reliability Organizations: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Karen Kroman; McPhee, Robert D.

    2006-01-01

    This multilevel investigation examined the effect of group interaction and its influence on individual-level membership variables and group assimilation. The study is based on a model of group socialization developed by Moreland and Levine (1982) and was modified in this study to investigate the development and maintenance of highly interdependent…

  4. Neighborhoods, Social Support, and African American Adolescents' Mental Health Outcomes: A Multilevel Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how neighborhood characteristics may relate to African American adolescents' internalizing symptoms via adolescents' social support and perceptions of neighborhood cohesion. Participants included 571 urban, African American adolescents (52% female; "M" age = 17.8). A multilevel path analysis testing both direct and indirect…

  5. Multilevel Latent Class Analysis: An Application of Adolescent Smoking Typologies with Individual and Contextual Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Kimberly L.; Muthen, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    Latent class analysis (LCA) is a statistical method used to identify subtypes of related cases using a set of categorical or continuous observed variables. Traditional LCA assumes that observations are independent. However, multilevel data structures are common in social and behavioral research and alternative strategies are needed. In this…

  6. Simple imputation methods versus direct likelihood analysis for missing item scores in multilevel educational data.

    PubMed

    Kadengye, Damazo T; Cools, Wilfried; Ceulemans, Eva; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2012-06-01

    Missing data, such as item responses in multilevel data, are ubiquitous in educational research settings. Researchers in the item response theory (IRT) context have shown that ignoring such missing data can create problems in the estimation of the IRT model parameters. Consequently, several imputation methods for dealing with missing item data have been proposed and shown to be effective when applied with traditional IRT models. Additionally, a nonimputation direct likelihood analysis has been shown to be an effective tool for handling missing observations in clustered data settings. This study investigates the performance of six simple imputation methods, which have been found to be useful in other IRT contexts, versus a direct likelihood analysis, in multilevel data from educational settings. Multilevel item response data were simulated on the basis of two empirical data sets, and some of the item scores were deleted, such that they were missing either completely at random or simply at random. An explanatory IRT model was used for modeling the complete, incomplete, and imputed data sets. We showed that direct likelihood analysis of the incomplete data sets produced unbiased parameter estimates that were comparable to those from a complete data analysis. Multiple-imputation approaches of the two-way mean and corrected item mean substitution methods displayed varying degrees of effectiveness in imputing data that in turn could produce unbiased parameter estimates. The simple random imputation, adjusted random imputation, item means substitution, and regression imputation methods seemed to be less effective in imputing missing item scores in multilevel data settings.

  7. A Multilevel Investigation of Relationships between Australian Teachers' Career Stages and Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, John; Barnett, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to posit and test hypotheses concerned with relationships between teachers' demographics, locus of control and career stages. Design/methodology/approach: A sample consisting of 416 Australian non-executive high school teachers was gathered from 40 randomly selected high schools. Multilevel regression…

  8. Brief Report: Multilevel Analysis of School Smoking Policy and Pupil Smoking Behaviour in Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiium, Nora; Burgess, Stephen; Moore, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    A multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from a survey involving 1941 pupils (in grades 10 and 11) and policy indicators developed from interviews with staff from 45 secondary schools in Wales examined the hypotheses that pupil smoking prevalence would be associated with: restrictive staff and pupil smoking policies; dissemination of school…

  9. Asymptotic Effect of Misspecification in the Random Part of the Multilevel Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkhof, Johannes; Kampen, Jarl Kennard

    2004-01-01

    The authors examine the asymptotic effect of omitting a random coefficient in the multilevel model and derive expressions for the change in (a) the variance components estimator and (b) the estimated variance of the fixed effects estimator. They apply the method of moments, which yields a closed form expression for the omission effect. In…

  10. Birth Weight, Math and Reading Achievement Growth: A Multilevel between-Sibling, between-Families Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goosby, Bridget J.; Cheadle, Jacob E.

    2009-01-01

    We used multilevel covariance structure analysis to study the relationship between birth weight, family context and youth math and reading comprehension growth from approximately ages 5 through 14 within and between families. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Child Sample, we examined the relationship between birth weight…

  11. Assessing Differential Prediction of College Grades by Race/Ethnicity with a Multilevel Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culpepper, Steven A.; Davenport, Ernest C.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research notes the importance of understanding racial/ethnic differential prediction of college grades across multiple institutions. Institutional variation in selection indices is especially important given some states' laws governing public institutions' admissions decisions. This paper employed multilevel moderated multiple regression…

  12. Does the Organization Matter? A Multilevel Analysis of Organizational Effects in Homeless Service Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronley, Courtney; Patterson, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of organizational culture on staff members' use of management information systems ("N" = 142) within homeless service organizations ("N" = 24), using a multilevel model. The Organizational Social Context Questionnaire was used to measure organizational culture, defined by three sub-constructs: (1) proficiency, (2)…

  13. Multi-Level Model of Contextual Factors and Teachers' Assessment Practices: An Integrative Review of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulmer, Gavin W.; Lee, Iris C. H.; Tan, Kelvin H. K.

    2015-01-01

    We present a multi-level model of contextual factors that may influence teachers' assessment practices, and use this model in a selected review of existing literature on teachers' assessment knowledge, views and conceptions with respect to these contextual factors. Adapting Kozma's model, we distinguish three levels of influence on teachers'…

  14. A New Approach for Estimating a Nonlinear Growth Component in Multilevel Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolvanen, Asko; Kiuru, Noona; Leskinen, Esko; Hakkarainen, Kai; Inkinen, Mikko; Lonka, Kirsti; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a new approach to estimation of a nonlinear growth curve component with fixed and random effects in multilevel modeling. This approach can be used to estimate change in longitudinal data, such as day-of-the-week fluctuation. The motivation of the new approach is to avoid spurious estimates in a random coefficient regression…

  15. The Influence of Distributed Leadership on Teachers' Organizational Commitment: A Multilevel Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulpia, Hester; Devos, Geert; Van Keer, Hilde

    2009-01-01

    In the present study the effects of a cooperative leadership team, distributed leadership, participative decision-making, and context variables on teachers' organizational commitment are investigated. Multilevel analyses on data from 1522 teachers indicated that 9% of the variance in teachers' organizational commitment is attributable to…

  16. Laser processes for multichip module's high-density multilevel thin film packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Rajesh S.; Wassick, Thomas A.

    1997-05-01

    Today multichip modules (MCMs) have found applications in a variety of fields including computers, telecommunication, automotive industry, and medical diagnosis devices. Lasers are being used as a processing tool for fabricating high density multilevel thin film packages for MCMs. The two most commonly practiced laser processes for multilevel thin film packaging are, laser via ablation and laser based circuit repair processes. Laser via ablation is used for creating via holes in polyimide to provide vertical connection between two adjacent layers of multilevel thin film. It is a dry, precise, and highly robust patterning technology available today in packaging industry. The three major aspects of via ablation technology are ablation process, mask technology, and tooling. IBM has pioneered the laser via ablation technology and has developed all three aspects to use it as a primary technology for via formation for thin film packages. Laser based circuit repair processes have also been developed to a mature state where they are being used on a routine basis to repair circuits in multilevel thin film packages. The need for repair of circuit arises for variety of reasons including, contamination, yield improvement, to accommodate engineering changes or to correct design errors. The commonly practiced laser based repair processes are deleting metal shorts using a laser, depositing metal using laser chemical vapor deposition technique, and stitching metal lines using laser sonic bonding technique.

  17. Multi-Level Partnerships Support a Comprehensive Faith-Based Health Promotion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardison-Moody, Annie; Dunn, Carolyn; Hall, David; Jones, Lorelei; Newkirk, Jimmy; Thomas, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the role of multi-level partnerships in implementing Faithful Families Eating Smart and Moving More, a faith-based health promotion program that works with low-resource faith communities in North Carolina. This program incorporates a nine-lesson individual behavior change program in concert with policy and environmental…

  18. Pedagogical Conditions of Multilevel Foreign Languages Teaching in Pedagogical Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadakin, Vasily V.; Shukshina, Tatiana I.; Piskunova, Svetlana I.; Babushkina, Larisa E.; Falileev, Alexander E.

    2016-01-01

    This article is devoted to pedagogical conditions of multilevel foreign languages teaching in pedagogical higher education. The purpose of the study is to form the students' skills in foreign language mastering, to form the ability to operate independently and autonomously in this activity, both in the specific learning situation, and in the…

  19. Friendship and Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence: A Multilevel Social Network Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knecht, Andrea B.; Burk, William J.; Weesie, Jeroen; Steglich, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This study applies multilevel social network analytic techniques to examine processes of homophilic selection and social influence related to alcohol use among friends in early adolescence. Participants included 3,041 Dutch youth (M age =12 years, 49% female) from 120 classrooms in 14 schools. Three waves with 3-month intervals of friendship…

  20. The Impact of a Multilevel Intervention on Special Education Induction Teacher Retention Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Breck

    2012-01-01

    This mixed methods action research study explores the impact of a multilevel intervention on retention indicators of special education induction teachers and the leadership capacities of the special education induction coaches and coordinator. The purpose of this investigation was to understand the impact of developing and implementing an action…

  1. Moral Orientation and Relationships in School and Adolescent Pro- and Antisocial Behaviors: A Multilevel Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Stams, Geert-Jan; Asscher, Jessica J.; Rutten, Esther; Zijlstra, Bonne J. H.

    2014-01-01

    This multilevel study examined the relationships between moral climate factors and prosocial as well as antisocial behaviors inside and outside the school (school misconduct, delinquent behavior, and vandalism). The moral climate factors were punishment-and victim-based moral orientation, relationships among students, and teacher-student…

  2. Covariate Measurement Error Adjustment for Multilevel Models with Application to Educational Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battauz, Michela; Bellio, Ruggero; Gori, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a multilevel model for the assessment of school effectiveness where the intake achievement is a predictor and the response variable is the achievement in the subsequent periods. The achievement is a latent variable that can be estimated on the basis of an item response theory model and hence subject to measurement error.…

  3. On the Usefulness of a Multilevel Logistic Regression Approach to Person-Fit Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conijn, Judith M.; Emons, Wilco H. M.; van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    The logistic person response function (PRF) models the probability of a correct response as a function of the item locations. Reise (2000) proposed to use the slope parameter of the logistic PRF as a person-fit measure. He reformulated the logistic PRF model as a multilevel logistic regression model and estimated the PRF parameters from this…

  4. Observations of Student Behavior in Nonclassroom Settings: A Multilevel Examination of Location, Density, and School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Anne H.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Leaf, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    Observational methods are increasingly used to assess the impact of school-based interventions. Yet, few studies have used observations in nonclassroom settings, such as hallways or the cafeteria, or explored aspects of the school context that may be related to the observed behavior. The current study used a multilevel approach to examine…

  5. Multiple-Indicator Multilevel Growth Model: A Solution to Multiple Methodological Challenges in Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Amery D.; Liu, Yan; Gadermann, Anne M.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper described the versatility of the multiple-indicator multilevel (MIML) model in helping to resolve four common challenges in studying growth using longitudinal data. These challenges are (1) how to deal with changes in measurement over time and investigate temporal measurement invariance, (2) how to model residual dependence due to the…

  6. Managing Money in Marriage: Multilevel and Cross-National Effects of the Breadwinner Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yodanis, Carrie; Lauer, Sean

    2007-01-01

    We examine whether institutionalized practices and beliefs regarding breadwinning roles are associated with the choice of more or less equal money management strategies in marriage. Using cross-national data from 21 country contexts in the International Social Survey Programme and multilevel modeling, we find that in contexts of shared…

  7. Teaching Quality Management Model for the Training of Innovation Ability and the Multilevel Decomposition Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Xingjiang; Yao, Chen; Zheng, Jianmin

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the training of undergraduate students' innovation ability. On top of the theoretical framework of the Quality Function Deployment (QFD), we propose a teaching quality management model. Based on this model, we establish a multilevel decomposition indicator system, which integrates innovation ability characterized by four…

  8. Generalized multilevel function-on-scalar regression and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Jeff; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Schrack, Jennifer

    2015-06-01

    This manuscript considers regression models for generalized, multilevel functional responses: functions are generalized in that they follow an exponential family distribution and multilevel in that they are clustered within groups or subjects. This data structure is increasingly common across scientific domains and is exemplified by our motivating example, in which binary curves indicating physical activity or inactivity are observed for nearly 600 subjects over 5 days. We use a generalized linear model to incorporate scalar covariates into the mean structure, and decompose subject-specific and subject-day-specific deviations using multilevel functional principal components analysis. Thus, functional fixed effects are estimated while accounting for within-function and within-subject correlations, and major directions of variability within and between subjects are identified. Fixed effect coefficient functions and principal component basis functions are estimated using penalized splines; model parameters are estimated in a Bayesian framework using Stan, a programming language that implements a Hamiltonian Monte Carlo sampler. Simulations designed to mimic the application have good estimation and inferential properties with reasonable computation times for moderate datasets, in both cross-sectional and multilevel scenarios; code is publicly available. In the application we identify effects of age and BMI on the time-specific change in probability of being active over a 24-hour period; in addition, the principal components analysis identifies the patterns of activity that distinguish subjects and days within subjects.

  9. Principles of multilevel analysis and its relevance to studies of antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Vellinga, Akke; Bennett, Kathleen; Murphy, Andrew W; Cormican, Martin

    2012-10-01

    When studying antimicrobial resistance it is clear that individuals do not exist in isolation and are often clustered into groups. Data within groups are generally not independent, but standard statistical approaches assume independence of observations. When data are clustered (e.g. students in schools, patients in general practices, etc.) multilevel analysis can be used. The overall idea of multilevel analysis is that the clustering is taken into account in the analysis and provides additional information on the interactions between individuals and groups. The lowest level is often the individual and additional levels are formed by clustering in groups (the higher levels). This article introduces the principles behind multilevel modelling. The approach is to provide readers with sufficient information to understand outcomes in which this statistical technique is used, without expecting the reader to be able to perform such an analysis. As multilevel modelling can be seen as an extension of linear regression analysis, this is the starting point of the article. Other concepts and terms are introduced throughout, resulting in the explanation of the accompanying article on antimicrobial prescribing and resistance in Irish general practice (Vellinga A, Tansey S, Hanahoe B et al. J Antimicrob Chemother 2012; 67: 2523-30).

  10. Teamwork Satisfaction: Exploring the Multilevel Interaction of Teamwork Interest and Group Extraversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Kimberly A.; Kottke, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    Multilevel modeling is used to examine the impact of teamwork interest and group extraversion on group satisfaction. Participants included 206 undergraduates in 65 groups who were surveyed at the beginning and end of a requisite term-length group project for an upper-division university course. We hypothesized that teamwork interest and both…

  11. Estimating Treatment Effects via Multilevel Matching within Homogenous Groups of Clusters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Peter M.; Kim, Jee-Seon

    2015-01-01

    Despite the popularity of propensity score (PS) techniques they are not yet well studied for matching multilevel data where selection into treatment takes place among level-one units within clusters. This paper suggests a PS matching strategy that tries to avoid the disadvantages of within- and across-cluster matching. The idea is to first…

  12. Graduate Attribute Attainment in a Multi-Level Undergraduate Geography Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mager, Sarah; Spronken-Smith, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    We investigated students' perceptions of graduate attributes in a multi-level (second and third year) geography course. A case study with mixed methodology was employed, with data collected through focus groups and a survey. We found that undergraduate geography students can identify the skills, knowledge and attributes that are developed…

  13. A Multilevel Model of Educational Expectations of Secondary School Students in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Jennifer; Elliott, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Using the Educational Longitudinal Survey of 2002, we investigate variation in factors that contribute to Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White students' educational expectations. Separate multilevel models demonstrate group variation in student and school-level influences. Academic and school factors explained the most variation in White students'…

  14. Testing Latent Mean Differences between Observed and Unobserved Groups Using Multilevel Factor Mixture Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allua, Shane; Stapleton, Laura M.; Beretvas, S. Natasha

    2008-01-01

    When assessing latent mean differences, researchers frequently do not explore possible heterogeneity within their data sets. Sources of differences may be functions of a nested data structure or heterogeneity in the form of unobserved classes of observations defined by a difference in factor means. In this study, the use of multilevel structural…

  15. A Multi-Level Assessment of a Program to Teach Medical Students to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, Benjamin; Greenberg, Larrie

    2007-01-01

    Few longitudinal programs exist to teach senior students (MS4s) to be teachers, nor have there been any reports of comprehensive program evaluation in this area. The primary objectives of this study were to describe our ongoing faculty development effort and to develop a multi-level program evaluation, using Dixon's model. The TALKS (Teaching and…

  16. Commitment to the Study of International Business and Cultural Intelligence: A Multilevel Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Jase R.; Barakat, Livia L.; Aad, Amine Abi

    2014-01-01

    Adopting a multilevel theoretical framework, we examined how metacognitive and motivational cultural intelligence influence an individual's commitment to the study of international business (IB). Data from 292 undergraduate and graduate business students nested in 12 U.S. business school classes demonstrated that individuals'…

  17. A Multilevel Multivariate Analysis of Academic Performances in College Based on NCAA Student-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, John J.; Paskus, Thomas S.; Boker, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    This is an application of contemporary multilevel regression modeling to the prediction of academic performances of 1st-year college students. At a first level of analysis, the data come from N greater than 16,000 students who were college freshman in 1994-1995 and who were also participants in high-level college athletics. At a second level of…

  18. School Climate for Academic Success: A Multilevel Analysis of School Climate and Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwong, Darren; Davis, Jonathan Ryan

    2015-01-01

    This multilevel study examined the relationship between school climate and academic achievement. Using the Educational Longitudinal Survey (ELS, 2002), and a sample of 16,258 students and 1954 schools nationwide, we found that student-level perception of school climate--especially the student learning environment--was highly predictive of academic…

  19. A multivariate multilevel Gaussian model with a mixed effects structure in the mean and covariance part.

    PubMed

    Li, Baoyue; Bruyneel, Luk; Lesaffre, Emmanuel

    2014-05-20

    A traditional Gaussian hierarchical model assumes a nested multilevel structure for the mean and a constant variance at each level. We propose a Bayesian multivariate multilevel factor model that assumes a multilevel structure for both the mean and the covariance matrix. That is, in addition to a multilevel structure for the mean we also assume that the covariance matrix depends on covariates and random effects. This allows to explore whether the covariance structure depends on the values of the higher levels and as such models heterogeneity in the variances and correlation structure of the multivariate outcome across the higher level values. The approach is applied to the three-dimensional vector of burnout measurements collected on nurses in a large European study to answer the research question whether the covariance matrix of the outcomes depends on recorded system-level features in the organization of nursing care, but also on not-recorded factors that vary with countries, hospitals, and nursing units. Simulations illustrate the performance of our modeling approach.

  20. Multilevel Compression of Random Walks on Networks Reveals Hierarchical Organization in Large Integrated Systems

    PubMed Central

    Rosvall, Martin; Bergstrom, Carl T.

    2011-01-01

    To comprehend the hierarchical organization of large integrated systems, we introduce the hierarchical map equation, which reveals multilevel structures in networks. In this information-theoretic approach, we exploit the duality between compression and pattern detection; by compressing a description of a random walker as a proxy for real flow on a network, we find regularities in the network that induce this system-wide flow. Finding the shortest multilevel description of the random walker therefore gives us the best hierarchical clustering of the network — the optimal number of levels and modular partition at each level — with respect to the dynamics on the network. With a novel search algorithm, we extract and illustrate the rich multilevel organization of several large social and biological networks. For example, from the global air traffic network we uncover countries and continents, and from the pattern of scientific communication we reveal more than 100 scientific fields organized in four major disciplines: life sciences, physical sciences, ecology and earth sciences, and social sciences. In general, we find shallow hierarchical structures in globally interconnected systems, such as neural networks, and rich multilevel organizations in systems with highly separated regions, such as road networks. PMID:21494658