Multi-million atom electronic structure calculations for quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Usman, Muhammad
Quantum dots grown by self-assembly process are typically constructed by 50,000 to 5,000,000 structural atoms which confine a small, countable number of extra electrons or holes in a space that is comparable in size to the electron wavelength. Under such conditions quantum dots can be interpreted as artificial atoms with the potential to be custom tailored to new functionality. In the past decade or so, these nanostructures have attracted significant experimental and theoretical attention in the field of nanoscience. The new and tunable optical and electrical properties of these artificial atoms have been proposed in a variety of different fields, for example in communication and computing systems, medical and quantum computing applications. Predictive and quantitative modeling and simulation of these structures can help to narrow down the vast design space to a range that is experimentally affordable and move this part of nanoscience to nano-Technology. Modeling of such quantum dots pose a formidable challenge to theoretical physicists because: (1) Strain originating from the lattice mismatch of the materials penetrates deep inside the buffer surrounding the quantum dots and require large scale (multi-million atom) simulations to correctly capture its effect on the electronic structure, (2) The interface roughness, the alloy randomness, and the atomistic granularity require the calculation of electronic structure at the atomistic scale. Most of the current or past theoretical calculations are based on continuum approach such as effective mass approximation or k.p modeling capturing either no or one of the above mentioned effects, thus missing some of the essential physics. The Objectives of this thesis are: (1) to model and simulate the experimental quantum dot topologies at the atomistic scale; (2) to theoretically explore the essential physics i.e. long range strain, linear and quadratic piezoelectricity, interband optical transition strengths, quantum confined
Study of alloy disorder in quantum dots through multi-million atom simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kilmeck, Gerhard; Oyafuso, Fabiano; Boykin, T. B.; Bowen, R. C.; von Allmen, Paul A.
2003-01-01
A tight binding model which includes s, p, d, s orbitals is used to examine the electronic structures of an ensemble of dome-shaped In0.6 Ga0.4 As quantum dots. Given ensembles of identically sized quantum dots, variations in composition and configuration yield a linewidth broadening of less than 0.35 meV, much smaller than the total broadening determined from photoluminescence experiments. It is also found that the computed disorder-induced broadening is very sensitive to the applied boundary conditions, so that care must be taken to ensure proper convergence of the numerical results. Examination of local eigenenergies as functions of position shows similar convergence problems and indicates that an inaccurate resolution of the equilibrium atomic positions due to truncation of the simulation domain may be the source of the slow ground state convergence.
High performance computing in biology: multimillion atom simulations of nanoscale systems.
Sanbonmatsu, K Y; Tung, C-S
2007-03-01
Computational methods have been used in biology for sequence analysis (bioinformatics), all-atom simulation (molecular dynamics and quantum calculations), and more recently for modeling biological networks (systems biology). Of these three techniques, all-atom simulation is currently the most computationally demanding, in terms of compute load, communication speed, and memory load. Breakthroughs in electrostatic force calculation and dynamic load balancing have enabled molecular dynamics simulations of large biomolecular complexes. Here, we report simulation results for the ribosome, using approximately 2.64 million atoms, the largest all-atom biomolecular simulation published to date. Several other nano-scale systems with different numbers of atoms were studied to measure the performance of the NAMD molecular dynamics simulation program on the Los Alamos National Laboratory Q Machine. We demonstrate that multimillion atom systems represent a 'sweet spot' for the NAMD code on large supercomputers. NAMD displays an unprecedented 85% parallel scaling efficiency for the ribosome system on 1024 CPUs. We also review recent targeted molecular dynamics simulations of the ribosome that prove useful for studying conformational changes of this large biomolecular complex in atomic detail. PMID:17187988
Vashishta, Priya; Kalia, Rajiv K; Nakano, Aiichiro
2006-03-01
We have developed a first-principles-based hierarchical simulation framework, which seamlessly integrates (1) a quantum mechanical description based on the density functional theory (DFT), (2) multilevel molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based on a reactive force field (ReaxFF) that describes chemical reactions and polarization, a nonreactive force field that employs dynamic atomic charges, and an effective force field (EFF), and (3) an atomistically informed continuum model to reach macroscopic length scales. For scalable hierarchical simulations, we have developed parallel linear-scaling algorithms for (1) DFT calculation based on a divide-and-conquer algorithm on adaptive multigrids, (2) chemically reactive MD based on a fast ReaxFF (F-ReaxFF) algorithm, and (3) EFF-MD based on a space-time multiresolution MD (MRMD) algorithm. On 1920 Intel Itanium2 processors, we have demonstrated 1.4 million atom (0.12 trillion grid points) DFT, 0.56 billion atom F-ReaxFF, and 18.9 billion atom MRMD calculations, with parallel efficiency as high as 0.953. Through the use of these algorithms, multimillion atom MD simulations have been performed to study the oxidation of an aluminum nanoparticle. Structural and dynamic correlations in the oxide region are calculated as well as the evolution of charges, surface oxide thickness, diffusivities of atoms, and local stresses. In the microcanonical ensemble, the oxidizing reaction becomes explosive in both molecular and atomic oxygen environments, due to the enormous energy release associated with Al-O bonding. In the canonical ensemble, an amorphous oxide layer of a thickness of approximately 40 angstroms is formed after 466 ps, in good agreement with experiments. Simulations have been performed to study nanoindentation on crystalline, amorphous, and nanocrystalline silicon nitride and silicon carbide. Simulation on nanocrystalline silicon carbide reveals unusual deformation mechanisms in brittle nanophase materials, due to
Scaling of Multimillion-Atom Biological Molecular Dynamics Simulation on a Petascale Supercomputer
Schulz, Roland; Lindner, Benjamin; Petridis, Loukas; Smith, Jeremy C
2009-01-01
A strategy is described for a fast all-atom molecular dynamics simulation of multimillion-atom biological systems on massively parallel supercomputers. The strategy is developed using benchmark systems of particular interest to bioenergy research, comprising models of cellulose and lignocellulosic biomass in an aqueous solution. The approach involves using the reaction field (RF) method for the computation of long-range electrostatic interactions, which permits efficient scaling on many thousands of cores. Although the range of applicability of the RF method for biomolecular systems remains to be demonstrated, for the benchmark systems the use of the RF produces molecular dipole moments, Kirkwood G factors, other structural properties, and mean-square fluctuations in excellent agreement with those obtained with the commonly used Particle Mesh Ewald method. With RF, three million- and five million atom biological systems scale well up to 30k cores, producing 30 ns/day. Atomistic simulations of very large systems for time scales approaching the microsecond would, therefore, appear now to be within reach.
Scaling of Multimillion-Atom Biological Molecular Dynamics Simulation on a Petascale Supercomputer.
Schulz, Roland; Lindner, Benjamin; Petridis, Loukas; Smith, Jeremy C
2009-10-13
A strategy is described for a fast all-atom molecular dynamics simulation of multimillion-atom biological systems on massively parallel supercomputers. The strategy is developed using benchmark systems of particular interest to bioenergy research, comprising models of cellulose and lignocellulosic biomass in an aqueous solution. The approach involves using the reaction field (RF) method for the computation of long-range electrostatic interactions, which permits efficient scaling on many thousands of cores. Although the range of applicability of the RF method for biomolecular systems remains to be demonstrated, for the benchmark systems the use of the RF produces molecular dipole moments, Kirkwood G factors, other structural properties, and mean-square fluctuations in excellent agreement with those obtained with the commonly used Particle Mesh Ewald method. With RF, three million- and five million-atom biological systems scale well up to ∼30k cores, producing ∼30 ns/day. Atomistic simulations of very large systems for time scales approaching the microsecond would, therefore, appear now to be within reach. PMID:26631792
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yi-Chun
Multimillion-to-billion molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out to study atomistic mechanisms of deformation, damage and failure in silica glass and energetic materials. The simulations are based on experimentally validated interatomic potentials and employ highly efficiently algorithms for parallel architectures. The onset of void-void interaction is investigated by performing MD simulations of amorphous silica under hydrostatic tension. The simulations reveal that nanocavities in amorphous silica (a-SiO2), which are linked to Si-O rings, play an important role in void-void coalescence and inter-void ligament failure. Nanocracks nucleated by the migration of three-fold coordinated Si and nonbridging O on ---Si-O-Si-O--- rings are observed in the multimillion MD simulations of a single void in amorphous silica subjected to a high shear rate. With the increase in shear strain, nanocracks appear on void surfaces and the voids deform into a threadlike structure. At a strain of 40%, the voids break into fragments. The results are similar to experimental and theoretical studies of bubble deformation and breakup under shear. Defects such as voids are known to be important in the detonation of energetic materials. To investigate deformation of a void in an RDX crystal under high shear rate, we have performed million-atom reactive force field (ReaxFF) MD simulations. Simulations reveal that without breaking a bond, the excess strain energy leads to translational and rotational motion of RDX molecules. At a strain of 13%, molecules with high kinetic energy collapse inward without affecting the rest of the system. MD simulations of nanoindentation in amorphous silica reveal migration of defects and their recombination in the densified plastic region under and the material pileup region around the indenter. The plastic flow of silica glass is related to the defect transport mechanism where a defect migrates a considerable distance via a chain of bond
Nanoindentation of silicon nitride: A multimillion-atom molecular dynamics study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walsh, Phillip; Omeltchenko, Andrey; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya; Saini, Subhash
2003-01-01
Nanoindentation of crystalline and amorphous silicon nitride films is studied using 10-million-atom molecular dynamics simulations. A rigid pyramid-shaped indenter tip is used. Load-displacement curves are computed and are used to derive hardness and elastic moduli of the simulated crystalline and amorphous films. Computer images of local pressure distributions and configuration snapshots show that plastic deformation in the film extends to regions far from the actual indent.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choubey, Amit
Biological cell membranes provide mechanical stability to cells and understanding their structure, dynamics and mechanics are important biophysics problems. Experiments coupled with computational methods such as molecular dynamics (MD) have provided insight into the physics of membranes. We use long-time and large-scale MD simulations to study the structure, dynamics and mechanical behavior of membranes. We investigate shock-induced collapse of nanobubbles in water using MD simulations based on a reactive force field. We observe a focused jet at the onset of bubble shrinkage and a secondary shock wave upon bubble collapse. The jet length scales linearly with the nanobubble radius, as observed in experiments on micron-to-millimeter size bubbles. Shock induces dramatic structural changes, including an ice-VII-like structural motif at a particle velocity of 1 km/s. The incipient ice VII formation and the calculated Hugoniot curve are in good agreement with experimental results. We also investigate molecular mechanisms of poration in lipid bilayers due to shock-induced collapse of nanobubbles. Our multimillion-atom MD simulations reveal that the jet impact generates shear flow of water on bilayer leaflets and pressure gradients across them. This transiently enhances the bilayer permeability by creating nanopores through which water molecules translocate rapidly across the bilayer. Effects of nanobubble size and temperature on the porosity of lipid bilayers are examined. The second research project focuses on cholesterol (CHOL) dynamics in phospholipid bilayers. Several experimental and computational studies have been performed on lipid bilayers consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and CHOL molecules. CHOL interleaflet transport (flip-flop) plays an important role in interleaflet coupling and determining CHOL flip-flop rate has been elusive. Various studies report that the rate ranges between milliseconds to seconds. We calculate CHOL flip-flop rates by
Quantum transport in ultracold atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chien, Chih-Chun; Peotta, Sebastiano; di Ventra, Massimiliano
2015-12-01
Ultracold atoms confined by engineered magnetic or optical potentials are ideal to study phenomena otherwise difficult to realize or probe in the solid state, thanks to the ability to control the atomic interaction strength, number of species, density and geometry. Here, we review quantum transport phenomena in atomic gases that mirror and can either better elucidate or show fundamental differences with respect to those observed in mesoscopic and nanoscopic systems. We discuss the significant progress in transport experiments in atomic gases, the similarities and differences between transport in cold atoms and in condensed matter systems, and survey theoretical predictions that are difficult to verify in conventional set-ups.
Doerk, Hauke; Idziaszek, Zbigniew; Calarco, Tommaso
2010-01-15
Ultracold collisions of ions with neutral atoms in traps are studied. Recently, ultracold atom-ion systems have become available in experimental setups, where their quantum states can be coherently controlled. This control allows for an implementation of quantum information processing, combining the advantages of charged and neutral particles. The state-dependent dynamics that is a necessary ingredient for quantum computation schemes is provided in this case by the short-range interaction forces that depend on the hyperfine states of both particles. In this work, a theoretical description of spin-state-dependent trapped atom-ion collisions is developed in the framework of a multichannel quantum-defect theory and an effective single-channel model is formulated that reduces the complexity of the problem. Based on this description, a two-qubit phase gate between a {sup 135}Ba{sup +} ion and a {sup 87}Rb atom is simulated using a realistic combination of the singlet and triplet scattering lengths. The gate process is optimized and accelerated with the help of optimal control techniques. The result is a gate fidelity of 1-10{sup -3} within 350 mus.
A linear atomic quantum coupler
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Orany, Faisal A. A.; Wahiddin, M. R. B.
2010-04-01
In this paper we develop the notion of the linear atomic quantum coupler. This device consists of two modes propagating into two waveguides, each of which includes a localized atom. These waveguides are placed close enough to allow exchange of energy between them via evanescent waves. Each mode interacts with the atom in the same waveguide in the standard way as the Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) and with the atom-mode system in the second waveguide via the evanescent wave. We present the Hamiltonian for this system and deduce its wavefunction. We investigate the atomic inversions and the second-order correlation function. In contrast to the conventional coupler the atomic quantum coupler is able to generate nonclassical effects. The atomic inversions can exhibit a long revival-collapse phenomenon as well as subsidiary revivals based on the competition among the switching mechanisms in the system. Finally, under certain conditions the system can yield the results of the two-mode JCM.
"Electronium": A Quantum Atomic Teaching Model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Budde, Marion; Niedderer, Hans; Scott, Philip; Leach, John
2002-01-01
Outlines an alternative atomic model to the probability model, the descriptive quantum atomic model Electronium. Discusses the way in which it is intended to support students in learning quantum-mechanical concepts. (Author/MM)
Atomic physics: A milestone in quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartlett, Stephen D.
2016-08-01
Quantum computers require many quantum bits to perform complex calculations, but devices with more than a few bits are difficult to program. A device based on five atomic quantum bits shows a way forward. See Letter p.63
Remote Preparation of an Atomic Quantum Memory
Rosenfeld, Wenjamin; Berner, Stefan; Volz, Juergen; Weber, Markus; Weinfurter, Harald
2007-02-02
Storage and distribution of quantum information are key elements of quantum information processing and future quantum communication networks. Here, using atom-photon entanglement as the main physical resource, we experimentally demonstrate the preparation of a distant atomic quantum memory. Applying a quantum teleportation protocol on a locally prepared state of a photonic qubit, we realized this so-called remote state preparation on a single, optically trapped {sup 87}Rb atom. We evaluated the performance of this scheme by the full tomography of the prepared atomic state, reaching an average fidelity of 82%.
Programmable atom-photon quantum interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurz, Christoph; Eich, Pascal; Schug, Michael; Müller, Philipp; Eschner, Jürgen
2016-06-01
We present the implementation of a programmable atom-photon quantum interface, employing a single trapped +40Ca ion and single photons. Depending on its mode of operation, the interface serves as a bidirectional atom-photon quantum-state converter, as a source of entangled atom-photon states, or as a quantum frequency converter of single photons. The interface lends itself particularly to interfacing ions with spontaneous parametric down-conversion-based single-photon or entangled-photon-pair sources.
Quantum control and a novel atom-light quantum interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jessen, Poul S.; Anderson, Brian E.; Montano, Enrique; Hemmer, Daniel; Sosa Martinez, Hector; Smith, Aaron
2014-09-01
The emerging field of quantum engineering seeks to design and construct quantum devices for use in technological applications. To do so, one must learn to prepare a physical system in a well defined quantum state, drive it though a specified evolution, and access its final state through measurement. Historically, some of the most successful laboratory platforms with which to explore these challenges have originated in the field of quantum optics. This work reviews some of the recent advances in single- and many atom quantum control at the College of Optical Science, and their integration into a novel atom-light quantum interface.
Quantum teleportation between remote atomic-ensemble quantum memories
Bao, Xiao-Hui; Xu, Xiao-Fan; Li, Che-Ming; Yuan, Zhen-Sheng; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2012-01-01
Quantum teleportation and quantum memory are two crucial elements for large-scale quantum networks. With the help of prior distributed entanglement as a “quantum channel,” quantum teleportation provides an intriguing means to faithfully transfer quantum states among distant locations without actual transmission of the physical carriers [Bennett CH, et al. (1993) Phys Rev Lett 70(13):1895–1899]. Quantum memory enables controlled storage and retrieval of fast-flying photonic quantum bits with stationary matter systems, which is essential to achieve the scalability required for large-scale quantum networks. Combining these two capabilities, here we realize quantum teleportation between two remote atomic-ensemble quantum memory nodes, each composed of ∼108 rubidium atoms and connected by a 150-m optical fiber. The spin wave state of one atomic ensemble is mapped to a propagating photon and subjected to Bell state measurements with another single photon that is entangled with the spin wave state of the other ensemble. Two-photon detection events herald the success of teleportation with an average fidelity of 88(7)%. Besides its fundamental interest as a teleportation between two remote macroscopic objects, our technique may be useful for quantum information transfer between different nodes in quantum networks and distributed quantum computing. PMID:23144222
Quantum teleportation between remote atomic-ensemble quantum memories.
Bao, Xiao-Hui; Xu, Xiao-Fan; Li, Che-Ming; Yuan, Zhen-Sheng; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2012-12-11
Quantum teleportation and quantum memory are two crucial elements for large-scale quantum networks. With the help of prior distributed entanglement as a "quantum channel," quantum teleportation provides an intriguing means to faithfully transfer quantum states among distant locations without actual transmission of the physical carriers [Bennett CH, et al. (1993) Phys Rev Lett 70(13):1895-1899]. Quantum memory enables controlled storage and retrieval of fast-flying photonic quantum bits with stationary matter systems, which is essential to achieve the scalability required for large-scale quantum networks. Combining these two capabilities, here we realize quantum teleportation between two remote atomic-ensemble quantum memory nodes, each composed of ∼10(8) rubidium atoms and connected by a 150-m optical fiber. The spin wave state of one atomic ensemble is mapped to a propagating photon and subjected to Bell state measurements with another single photon that is entangled with the spin wave state of the other ensemble. Two-photon detection events herald the success of teleportation with an average fidelity of 88(7)%. Besides its fundamental interest as a teleportation between two remote macroscopic objects, our technique may be useful for quantum information transfer between different nodes in quantum networks and distributed quantum computing. PMID:23144222
Individual Atoms in their Quantum Ground State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwartz, Eyal; Sompet, Pimonpan; Fung, Yin Hsien; Andersen, Mikkel F.
2016-05-01
An ultimate control of pure quantum states is an excellent platform for various quantum science and engineering. In this work, we perform quantum manipulation of individual Rubidium atoms in a tightly focus optical tweezer in order to cool them into their vibrational ground state via Raman sideband cooling. Our experimental scheme involves a combination of Raman sideband transitions and optical pumping of the atoms that couples two magnetic field sublevels indifferent to magnetic noise thus providing a much longer atomic coherence time compared to previous cooling schemes. By installing most of the atoms in their ground state, we managed to achieve two-dimensional cooling on the way to create a full nil entropy quantum state of single atoms and single molecules. We acknowledge the Marsden Fund, CORE and DWC for their support.
Quantum magnetism of alkali Rydberg atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malinovskaya, Svetlana; Liu, Gengyuan
2016-05-01
We discuss a method to control dynamics in many-body spin states of 87Rb Rydberg atoms. The method permits excitation of cold gases and form ordered structures of alkali atoms. It makes use of a two-photon excitation scheme with circularly polarized and linearly chirped pulses. The method aims for controlled quantum state preparation in large ensembles. It is actual for experiments studding the spin hopping dynamics and realization of quantum random walks.
Topologically Reconfigurable Atomic Lattice Quantum Metamaterial
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jha, Pankaj; Mrejen, Michael; Kim, Jeongmin; Wu, Chihhui; Wang, Yuan; Rostovtsev, Yuri; Zhang, Xiang
Metamaterials have attracted unprecedented attention owing to their exceptional light-matter interaction properties. However, harnessing metamaterial at single photon or few photon excitations is still a long way to go due to several critical challenges such as optical loss, defects to name a few. Here we introduce and theoretically demonstrate a novel platform toward quantum metamaterial, immune to aforementioned challenges, with ultra-cold neutral atoms trapped in an artificial crystal of light. Such periodic atomic density grating -an atomic lattice- exhibits extreme anisotropic optical response where it behaves like a metal in one direction but dielectric along orthogonal directions. We harness the interacting dark resonance physics to eliminate the absorption loss and demonstrate an all-optical and ultra-fast control over the photonic topological transition from a close to an open topology at the same frequency. Such atomic lattice quantum metamaterial enables dynamic manipulation of the decay rate of a quantum emitter by more than an order of magnitude. Our proposal brings together two important contemporary realm of science - cold atom physics and metamaterial for applications in both fundamental and applied science. Atomic lattice quantum metamaterial may provide new opportunities, at single or few photon level, for quantum sensing, quantum information processing with metamaterials.
Quantum measurements of atoms using cavity QED
Dada, Adetunmise C.; Andersson, Erika; Jones, Martin L.; Kendon, Vivien M.; Everitt, Mark S.
2011-04-15
Generalized quantum measurements are an important extension of projective or von Neumann measurements in that they can be used to describe any measurement that can be implemented on a quantum system. We describe how to realize two nonstandard quantum measurements using cavity QED. The first measurement optimally and unambiguously distinguishes between two nonorthogonal quantum states. The second example is a measurement that demonstrates superadditive quantum coding gain. The experimental tools used are single-atom unitary operations effected by Ramsey pulses and two-atom Tavis-Cummings interactions. We show how the superadditive quantum coding gain is affected by errors in the field-ionization detection of atoms and that even with rather high levels of experimental imperfections, a reasonable amount of superadditivity can still be seen. To date, these types of measurements have been realized only on photons. It would be of great interest to have realizations using other physical systems. This is for fundamental reasons but also since quantum coding gain in general increases with code word length, and a realization using atoms could be more easily scaled than existing realizations using photons.
Excess optical quantum noise in atomic sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novikova, Irina; Mikhailov, Eugeniy; Xiao, Yanhong
2015-05-01
Enhanced nonlinear optical response of a coherent atomic medium is the basis for many atomic sensors, and their performance is ultimately limited by the quantum fluctuations of the optical read-out. Here we demonstrate that off-resonant interactions can significantly modify the quantum noise of the optical field, even when their effect on the mean signal is negligible. We illustrate this concept by using an atomic magnetometer based on the nonlinear Faraday effect: the rotation of the light polarization is mainly determined by the resonant light-induced spin alignment, which alone does not change the photon statistics of the optical probe. Yet, we found that the minimum noise of output polarization rotation measurements is above the expected shot noise limit. This excess quantum noise is due to off-resonant coupling and grows with atomic density. We also show that the detection scheme can be modified to reduce the measured quantum noise (even below the shot-noise limit) but only at the expense of the reduced rotational sensitivity. These results show the existence of previously unnoticed factors in fundamental limitations in atomic magnetometry and could have impacts in many other atom-light based precision measurements. We acknowledge the support from AFOSR (grant FA9550-13-1-0098), NSF (grant PHY-1308281), NBRPC(973 Program Grant 2012CB921604 and 2011CB921604), and NNSFC (Grants No. 11322436).
Quantum teleportation with atoms trapped in cavities
Cho, Jaeyoon; Lee, Hai-Woong
2004-09-01
We propose a scheme to implement the quantum teleportation protocol with single atoms trapped in cavities. The scheme is based on the adiabatic passage and the polarization measurement. We show that it is possible to teleport the internal state of an atom trapped in a cavity to an atom trapped in another cavity with the success probability of 1/2 and the fidelity of 1. The scheme is resistant to a number of considerable imperfections such as the violation of the Lamb-Dicke condition, weak atom-cavity coupling, spontaneous emission, and detection inefficiency.
Resonant quantum transitions in trapped antihydrogen atoms.
Amole, C; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Capra, A; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Donnan, P H; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Isaac, C A; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Little, A; Madsen, N; McKenna, J T K; Menary, S; Napoli, S C; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Shields, C R; Silveira, D M; Stracka, S; So, C; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S
2012-03-22
The hydrogen atom is one of the most important and influential model systems in modern physics. Attempts to understand its spectrum are inextricably linked to the early history and development of quantum mechanics. The hydrogen atom's stature lies in its simplicity and in the accuracy with which its spectrum can be measured and compared to theory. Today its spectrum remains a valuable tool for determining the values of fundamental constants and for challenging the limits of modern physics, including the validity of quantum electrodynamics and--by comparison with measurements on its antimatter counterpart, antihydrogen--the validity of CPT (charge conjugation, parity and time reversal) symmetry. Here we report spectroscopy of a pure antimatter atom, demonstrating resonant quantum transitions in antihydrogen. We have manipulated the internal spin state of antihydrogen atoms so as to induce magnetic resonance transitions between hyperfine levels of the positronic ground state. We used resonant microwave radiation to flip the spin of the positron in antihydrogen atoms that were magnetically trapped in the ALPHA apparatus. The spin flip causes trapped anti-atoms to be ejected from the trap. We look for evidence of resonant interaction by comparing the survival rate of trapped atoms irradiated with microwaves on-resonance to that of atoms subjected to microwaves that are off-resonance. In one variant of the experiment, we detect 23 atoms that survive in 110 trapping attempts with microwaves off-resonance (0.21 per attempt), and only two atoms that survive in 103 attempts with microwaves on-resonance (0.02 per attempt). We also describe the direct detection of the annihilation of antihydrogen atoms ejected by the microwaves. PMID:22398451
First principle thousand atom quantum dot calculations
Wang, Lin-Wang; Li, Jingbo
2004-03-30
A charge patching method and an idealized surface passivation are used to calculate the single electronic states of IV-IV, III-V, II-VI semiconductor quantum dots up to a thousand atoms. This approach scales linearly and has a 1000 fold speed-up compared to direct first principle methods with a cost of eigen energy error of about 20 meV. The calculated quantum dot band gaps are parametrized for future references.
A quantum gas microscope for ytterbium atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Yoshiro
2016-05-01
In this talk, I report on the development of a quantum gas microscope for ytterbium (Yb) atoms. By using a dual molasses technique in which 399 nm molasses beams of the broad singlet transition are applied for fluorescence imaging and 556 nm molasses beams of the narrow intercombination transition are applied for cooling during the imaging, we successfully demonstrate site-resolved imaging of individual bosonic 174 Yb atoms in a two-dimensional optical lattice with a lattice constant of 266 nm.We also apply a high resolution laser spectroscopy using the ultranarrow intercombination transition between the 1 S0 and 3 P2 states to manipulate an atom distribution in an optical lattice. We expect the demonstrated technique will similarly work for other isotopes of Yb atoms. We are also developing a different mode of an Yb quantum gas microscope.
Cold atom quantum sensors for space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Yeshpal
2016-07-01
Quantum sensors based on cold atoms offer the opportunity to perform highly accurate measurements of physical phenomena related to time, gravity and rotation. The deployment of such technologies in the microgravity environment of space may enable further enhancement of their performance, whilst permitting the detection of these physical phenomena over much larger scales than is possible with a ground-based instrument. In this talk, I will present an overview of the activities of the UK National Quantum Hub in Sensors and Metrology in developing cold atoms technology for space. Our activities are focused in two main areas: optical clocks and atom interferometers. I will also discuss our contributions to recent initiatives including STE-QUEST and AI-GOAT, the ESA/NASA initiative aiming at an atom interferometer gravitational wave detector in space.
Quantum Localization of the Kicked Rydberg Atom
Yoshida, S.; Reinhold, C. O.; Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6373 ; Burgdoerfer, J.; Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6373; Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology, A1040 Vienna,
2000-03-20
We investigate the quantum localization of the one-dimensional Rydberg atom subject to a unidirectional periodic train of impulses. For high frequencies of the train the classical system becomes chaotic and leads to fast ionization. By contrast, the quantum system is found to be remarkably stable. We find this quantum localization to be directly related to the existence of ''scars'' of the unstable periodic orbits of the system. The localization length is given by the energy excursion along the periodic orbits. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Trapped Atomic Ions and Quantum Information Processing
Wineland, D. J.; Leibfried, D.; Bergquist, J. C.; Blakestad, R. B.; Bollinger, J. J.; Britton, J.; Chiaverini, J.; Epstein, R. J.; Hume, D. B.; Itano, W. M.; Jost, J. D.; Koelemeij, J. C. J.; Langer, C.; Ozeri, R.; Reichle, R.; Rosenband, T.; Schaetz, T.; Schmidt, P. O.; Seidelin, S.; Shiga, N.
2006-11-07
The basic requirements for quantum computing and quantum simulation (single- and multi-qubit gates, long memory times, etc.) have been demonstrated in separate experiments on trapped ions. Construction of a large-scale information processor will require synthesis of these elements and implementation of high-fidelity operations on a very large number of qubits. This is still well in the future. NIST and other groups are addressing part of the scaling issue by trying to fabricate multi-zone arrays of traps that would allow highly-parallel and scalable processing. In the near term, some simple quantum processing protocols are being used to aid in quantum metrology, such as in atomic clocks. As the number of qubits increases, Schroedinger's cat paradox and the measurement problem in quantum mechanics become more apparent; with luck, trapped ion systems might be able to shed light on these fundamental issues.
Quantum and Classical Electrostatics Among Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doerr, T. P.; Obolensky, O. I.; Ogurtsov, A. Y.; Yu, Yi-Kuo
Quantum theory has been unquestionably successful at describing physics at the atomic scale. However, it becomes more difficult to apply as the system size grows. On the other hand, classical physics breaks down at sufficiently short length scales but is clearly correct at larger distances. The purpose of methods such as QM/MM is to gain the advantages of both quantum and classical regimes: quantum theory should provide accuracy at the shortest scales, and classical theory, with its somewhat more tractable computational demands, allows results to be computed for systems that would be inaccessible with a purely quantum approach. This strategy will be most effective when one knows with good accuracy the length scale at which quantum calculations are no longer necessary and classical calculations are sufficient. To this end, we have performed both classical and quantum calculations for systems comprising a small number of atoms for which experimental data is also available. The classical calculations are fully exact; the quantum calculations are at the MP4(SDTQ)/aug-cc-pV5Z and CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV5Z levels. The precision of both sets of calculations along with the existence of experimental results allows us to draw conclusions about the range of utility of the respective calculations. This research was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, NLM and utilized the computational resources of the NIH HPC Biowulf cluster.
In Situ Imaging of Atomic Quantum Gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hung, Chen-Lung; Chin, Cheng
2015-09-01
One exciting progress in recent cold atom experiments is the development of high resolution, in situ imaging techniques for atomic quantum gases.1-3 These new powerful tools provide detailed information on the distribution of atoms in a trap with resolution approaching the level of single atom and even single lattice site, and complement the welldeveloped time-of-flight method that probes the system in momentum space. In a condensed matter analogy, this technique is equivalent to locating electrons of a material in a snap shot. In situ imaging has offered a new powerful tool to study atomic gases and inspired many new research directions and ideas. In this chapter, we will describe the experimental setup of in situ absorption imaging, observables that can be extracted from the images, and new physics that can be explored with this technique.
Towards a quantum network with atomic ensembles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chou, Chin-Wen
The experiments discussed in this thesis investigate the application of atomic ensembles in building a quantum network. Specifically, the atomic ensembles refer to cesium atoms in magneto-optical traps. Chapter 1 gives an introduction to quantum networks, along with the difficulty in extending the range due to the optical loss of communication channels. Chapter 2 describes the protocol proposed by Duan, Lukin, Cirac, and Zoller (DLCZ) for overcoming the limit of channel loss on scaling up a quantum network, exploiting relatively simple setups with atomic ensembles. The protocol introduces many capabilities and simplifies many tasks in quantum information processing with atoms and light. Chapter 3 summarizes the first step in our lab toward realizing the DLCZ protocol. In particular, we observed nonclassical correlation between two optical fields generated from one atomic ensemble. Chapter 4 is a sidetrack apart from the DLCZ protocol. We demonstrated that the atomic ensemble can be used as a conditional source of single photons. In addition to a description of the experiment, details of the simple model we used to fit the data are also included. Chapter 5 augments chapter 4 in that the temporal behavior of the nonclassical correlation is investigated. We found that the correlation decayed rapidly, which is a major obstacle for further implementation of the DLCZ protocol. Chapter 6 describes our effort to fight the fast decay of correlation observed in the experiment. A theoretical model is used to better understand the source of decoherence. Chapter 7 is the follow-up in the direction of implementing the DLCZ protocol. Two atomic ensembles located in vacuum chambers on two optical tables are entangled in a heralded fashion. The details on controlling the phases of the interferometers and data processing are elaborated. Chapter 8 is a practical proposal on how to proceed further toward realization of the DLCZ protocol. Four atomic ensembles are involved in the
Quantum Synchronization of three-level atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Peiru; Rey, Ana Maria; Holland, Murray
2015-05-01
Recent studies show that quantum synchronization, the spontaneous alignment of the quantum phase between different oscillators, can be used to build superradiant lasers with ultranarrow linewidth. We theoretically investigate the effect of quantum synchronization on many coupled three-level atoms where there are richer phase diagrams than the standard two-level system. This three-level model allows two-color ultranarrow coherent light to be produced where more than one phase must be simultaneously synchronized. Of particular interest, we study the V-type geometry that is relevant to current 87 Sr experiments in JILA. As well as the synchronization phenomenon, we explore other quantum effects such as photon correlations and squeezing. This work is supported by the DARPA QuASAR program, the NSF, and NIST.
Quantum-classical electron distributions in atoms and atomic ions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kunc, Joseph A.
1988-01-01
A quantum-classical approach is used to obtain the velocity distributions in atoms and positive and negative ions in both ground and excited states. In the analysis, Hartree-Fock electronic wavefunctions are used to determine the radial electron distributions, and the central-field approximation is used to study the the dynamic properties of the localized electrons. The distributions for the outer and inner shells are found to agree well with exact results obtained by numerical calculations.
Quantum sized gold nanoclusters with atomic precision.
Qian, Huifeng; Zhu, Manzhou; Wu, Zhikun; Jin, Rongchao
2012-09-18
Gold nanoparticles typically have a metallic core, and the electronic conduction band consists of quasicontinuous energy levels (i.e. spacing δ ≪ k(B)T, where k(B)T is the thermal energy at temperature T (typically room temperature) and k(B) is the Boltzmann constant). Electrons in the conduction band roam throughout the metal core, and light can collectively excite these electrons to give rise to plasmonic responses. This plasmon resonance accounts for the beautiful ruby-red color of colloidal gold first observed by Faraday back in 1857. On the other hand, when gold nanoparticles become extremely small (<2 nm in diameter), significant quantization occurs to the conduction band. These quantum-sized nanoparticles constitute a new class of nanomaterial and have received much attention in recent years. To differentiate quantum-sized nanoparticles from conventional plasmonic gold nanoparticles, researchers often refer to the ultrasmall nanoparticles as nanoclusters. In this Account, we chose several typical sizes of gold nanoclusters, including Au(25)(SR)(18), Au(38)(SR)(24), Au(102)(SR)(44), and Au(144)(SR)(60), to illustrate the novel properties of metal nanoclusters imparted by quantum size effects. In the nanocluster size regime, many of the physical and chemical properties of gold nanoparticles are fundamentally altered. Gold nanoclusters have discrete electronic energy levels as opposed to the continuous band in plasmonic nanoparticles. Quantum-sized nanoparticles also show multiple optical absorption peaks in the optical spectrum versus a single surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at 520 nm for spherical gold nanocrystals. Although larger nanocrystals show an fcc structure, nanoclusters often have non-fcc atomic packing structures. Nanoclusters also have unique fluorescent, chiral, and magnetic properties. Due to the strong quantum confinement effect, adding or removing one gold atom significantly changes the structure and the electronic and optical
Electronic Conduction through Atomic Chains, Quantum Well and Quantum Wire
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, A. C.
2011-07-01
Charge transport is dynamically and strongly linked with atomic structure, in nanostructures. We report our ab-initio calculations on electronic transport through atomic chains and the model calculations on electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering rates in presence of random impurity potential in a quantum well and in a quantum wire. We computed synthesis and ballistic transport through; (a) C and Si based atomic chains attached to metallic electrodes, (b) armchair (AC), zigzag (ZZ), mixed, rotated-AC and rotated-ZZ geometries of small molecules made of 2S, 6C & 4H atoms attaching to metallic electrodes, and (c) carbon atomic chain attached to graphene electrodes. Computed results show that synthesis of various atomic chains are practically possible and their transmission coefficients are nonzero for a wide energy range. The ab-initio calculations on electronic transport have been performed with the use of Landauer-type scattering formalism formulated in terms of Grben's functions in combination with ground-state DFT. The electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering rates have been calculated as function of excitation energy both at zero and finite temperatures for disordered 2D and 1D systems. Our model calculations suggest that electron scattering rates in a disordered system are mainly governed by effective dimensionality of a system, carrier concentration and dynamical screening effects.
Quantum-gas microscope for fermionic atoms.
Cheuk, Lawrence W; Nichols, Matthew A; Okan, Melih; Gersdorf, Thomas; Ramasesh, Vinay V; Bakr, Waseem S; Lompe, Thomas; Zwierlein, Martin W
2015-05-15
We realize a quantum-gas microscope for fermionic ^{40}K atoms trapped in an optical lattice, which allows one to probe strongly correlated fermions at the single-atom level. We combine 3D Raman sideband cooling with high-resolution optics to simultaneously cool and image individual atoms with single-lattice-site resolution at a detection fidelity above 95%. The imaging process leaves the atoms predominantly in the 3D motional ground state of their respective lattice sites, inviting the implementation of a Maxwell's demon to assemble low-entropy many-body states. Single-site-resolved imaging of fermions enables the direct observation of magnetic order, time-resolved measurements of the spread of particle correlations, and the detection of many-fermion entanglement. PMID:26024169
Quantum-Gas Microscope for Fermionic Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheuk, Lawrence W.; Nichols, Matthew A.; Okan, Melih; Gersdorf, Thomas; Ramasesh, Vinay V.; Bakr, Waseem S.; Lompe, Thomas; Zwierlein, Martin W.
2015-05-01
We realize a quantum-gas microscope for fermionic 40K atoms trapped in an optical lattice, which allows one to probe strongly correlated fermions at the single-atom level. We combine 3D Raman sideband cooling with high-resolution optics to simultaneously cool and image individual atoms with single-lattice-site resolution at a detection fidelity above 95%. The imaging process leaves the atoms predominantly in the 3D motional ground state of their respective lattice sites, inviting the implementation of a Maxwell's demon to assemble low-entropy many-body states. Single-site-resolved imaging of fermions enables the direct observation of magnetic order, time-resolved measurements of the spread of particle correlations, and the detection of many-fermion entanglement.
Enhanced atom interferometry through quantum information science
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edwards, Mark; Benton, Brandon; Krygier, Michael; Clark, Charles
2011-05-01
New designs for atom interferometers can be inspired by quantum information science (QIS). QIS-inspired atom interferometer (AI) designs have the potential for producing AIs with enhanced sensitivity and robustness. We compare the sensitivity of a standard Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) Bragg AI with an AI whose design is based on the idea of decoherence-free subspaces (DFS). We studied the performance of both atom interferometers using an enhanced version of a previously developed Bragg interferometer prototyping model. This model approximates the effect on the condensate of multiple Bragg pulses separated by time delays using two elements: the effect of a single pulse and condensate evolution between pulses. The overall effect is rapidly approximated by following the steps of the interferometric process. We describe this model and then present the comparison of the performance of the M-Z interferometer with that of the DFS-inspired interferometer. Support provided by NSF grant number PHY-0758111.
Enhanced atom interferometry through quantum information science
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edwards, Mark; Benton, Brandon; Krygier, Michael; Clark, Charles W.
2011-03-01
New designs for atom interferometers can be inspired by quantum information science (QIS). QIS--inspired atom interferometer (AI) designs have the potential for producing AIs with enhanced sensitivity and robustness. We compare the sensitivity of a standard Mach--Zehnder (M--Z) Bragg AI with an AI whose design is based on the idea of decoherence--free subspaces (DFS). We studied the performance of both atom interferometers using an enhanced version of a previously developed Bragg interferometer prototyping model. This model approximates the effect on the condensate of multiple Bragg pulses separated by time delays using two elements: the effect of a single pulse and condensate evolution between pulses. The overall effect is rapidly approximated by following the steps of the interferometric process. We describe this model and then present the comparison of the performance of the M--Z interferometer with that of the DFS--inspired interferometer. Support provided by NSF grant number PHY-0758111.
Quantum Gas Microscope for Fermionic Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okan, Melih; Cheuk, Lawrence; Nichols, Matthew; Lawrence, Katherine; Zhang, Hao; Zwierlein, Martin
2016-05-01
Strongly interacting fermions define the properties of complex matter throughout nature, from atomic nuclei and modern solid state materials to neutron stars. Ultracold atomic Fermi gases have emerged as a pristine platform for the study of many-fermion systems. In this poster we demonstrate the realization of a quantum gas microscope for fermionic 40 K atoms trapped in an optical lattice and the recent experiments which allows one to probe strongly correlated fermions at the single atom level. We combine 3D Raman sideband cooling with high- resolution optics to simultaneously cool and image individual atoms with single lattice site resolution at a detection fidelity above 95%. The imaging process leaves the atoms predominantly in the 3D motional ground state of their respective lattice sites, inviting the implementation of a Maxwell's demon to assemble low-entropy many-body states. Single-site resolved imaging of fermions enables the direct observation of magnetic order, time resolved measurements of the spread of particle correlations, and the detection of many-fermion entanglement. NSF, AFOSR-PECASE, AFOSR-MURI on Exotic Phases of Matter, ARO-MURI on Atomtronics, ONR, a Grant from the Army Research Office with funding from the DARPA OLE program, and the David and Lucile Packard Foundation.
Quantum entanglement in multiparticle systems of two-level atoms
Deb, Ram Narayan
2011-09-15
We propose the necessary and sufficient condition for the presence of quantum entanglement in arbitrary symmetric pure states of two-level atomic systems. We introduce a parameter to quantify quantum entanglement in such systems. We express the inherent quantum fluctuations of a composite system of two-level atoms as a sum of the quantum fluctuations of the individual constituent atoms and their correlation terms. This helps to separate out and study solely the quantum correlations among the atoms and obtain the criterion for the presence of entanglement in such multiatomic systems.
Adiabatic Quantum Computation with Neutral Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biedermann, Grant
2013-03-01
We are implementing a new platform for adiabatic quantum computation (AQC)[2] based on trapped neutral atoms whose coupling is mediated by the dipole-dipole interactions of Rydberg states. Ground state cesium atoms are dressed by laser fields in a manner conditional on the Rydberg blockade mechanism,[3,4] thereby providing the requisite entangling interactions. As a benchmark we study a Quadratic Unconstrained Binary Optimization (QUBO) problem whose solution is found in the ground state spin configuration of an Ising-like model. In collaboration with Lambert Parazzoli, Sandia National Laboratories; Aaron Hankin, Center for Quantum Information and Control (CQuIC), University of New Mexico; James Chin-Wen Chou, Yuan-Yu Jau, Peter Schwindt, Cort Johnson, and George Burns, Sandia National Laboratories; Tyler Keating, Krittika Goyal, and Ivan Deutsch, Center for Quantum Information and Control (CQuIC), University of New Mexico; and Andrew Landahl, Sandia National Laboratories. This work was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories
Bohr's Creation of his Quantum Atom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heilbron, John
2013-04-01
Fresh letters throw new light on the content and state of Bohr's mind before and during his creation of the quantum atom. His mental furniture then included the atomic models of the English school, the quantum puzzles of Continental theorists, and the results of his own studies of the electron theory of metals. It also included the poetry of Goethe, plays of Ibsen and Shakespeare, novels of Dickens, and rhapsodies of Kierkegaard and Carlyle. The mind that held these diverse ingredients together oscillated between enthusiasm and dejection during the year in which Bohr took up the problem of atomic structure. He spent most of that year in England, which separated him for extended periods from his close-knit family and friends. Correspondence with his fianc'ee, Margrethe Nørlund, soon to be published, reports his ups and downs as he adjusted to J.J. Thomson, Ernest Rutherford, the English language, and the uneven course of his work. In helping to smooth out his moods, Margrethe played an important and perhaps an enabling role in his creative process.
Cold atom quantum emulation of ultrafast processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajagopal, Shankari; Geiger, Zachary; Fujiwara, Kurt; Singh, Kevin; Senaratne, Ruwan; Weld, David
2016-05-01
Pulsed lasers are an invaluable probe of fast electron dynamics in condensed matter systems. However, despite tremendous progress, physical limitations on lasers and a lack of exact theoretical models still limit the exploration of ultrafast processes in solids. We discuss a possible complementary approach, in which lattice-trapped cold neutral atoms driven far from equilibrium are used as a quantum emulator of ultrafast physics at sub-cycle timescales. The cold atom context is in many ways a natural choice for such experiments: equilibration timescales are more than ten orders of magnitude slower than those in solids, and strong driving forces are easily produced and manipulated. Our experimental approach uses ultracold strontium in optical traps. Multiple stable isotopes and a long-lived metastable state provide control over interaction strengths, while a narrow-linewidth transition expands the typical cold-atom toolbox of readout techniques. We discuss initial efforts in quantum emulation of tunnel ionization and development of a platform for more complicated endeavors, including the study of multiple-pulse sequences and recollision processes. We acknowledge support from the NSF GRFP, the AFOSR, the ARO and DURIP program, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and the University of California Office of the President.
Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics For Atomic Electronic Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markovich, Thomas; Biamonte, Mason; Kouri, Don
2012-02-01
We employ our new approach to non-relativistic supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSY-QM), (J. Phys. Chem. A 114, 8202(2010)) for any number of dimensions and distinguishable particles, to treat the hydrogen atom in full three-dimensional detail. In contrast to the standard one-dimensional radial equation SUSY-QM treatment of the hydrogen atom, where the superpotential is a scalar, in a full three-dimensional treatment, it is a vector which is independent of the angular momentum quantum number. The original scalar Schr"odinger Hamiltonian operator is factored into vector ``charge'' operators: Q and Q^. Using these operators, the first sector Hamiltonian is written as H1= Q^.Q + E0^1. The second sector Hamiltonian is a tensor given by H2= Q Q^ + E0^11 and is isospectral with H1. The second sector ground state, ψ0^(2), can be used to obtain the excited state wave functions of the first sector by application of the adjoint charge operator. We then adapt the aufbau principle to show this approach can be applied to treat the helium atom.
Quantum sticking of atoms on membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clougherty, Dennis P.
2014-12-01
A continuum model for low-energy physisorption on a membrane under tension is proposed and studied with variational mean-field theory. A discontinuous change in the energy-dependent sticking coefficient is predicted under certain conditions. This singularity is a result of the bosonic orthogonality catastrophe of the vibrational states of the membrane. The energy-dependent sticking coefficient is predicted to have exponential scaling in 1 /E at energies above the singularity. The application of this model to the quantum sticking of cold hydrogen to suspended graphene is discussed. The model predicts that a beam of atomic hydrogen can be completely reflected by suspended graphene at ultralow energies.
Quantum Sticking of Atoms on Membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clougherty, Dennis
2014-05-01
A continuum model for low-energy physisorption on a membrane under tension is proposed and studied with variational mean-field theory. A discontinuous change in the energy-dependent sticking coefficient is predicted under certain conditions. This singularity is a result of the bosonic orthogonality catastrophe of the vibrational states of the membrane. The energy-dependent sticking coefficient is predicted to have exponential scaling in 1/E above the singularity. The application of this model to the quantum sticking of cold hydrogen to suspended graphene is discussed. The model predicts that a beam of atomic hydrogen can be completely reflected by suspended graphene at ultralow energies.
A Green's function quantum average atom model
Starrett, Charles Edward
2015-05-21
A quantum average atom model is reformulated using Green's functions. This allows integrals along the real energy axis to be deformed into the complex plane. The advantage being that sharp features such as resonances and bound states are broadened by a Lorentzian with a half-width chosen for numerical convenience. An implementation of this method therefore avoids numerically challenging resonance tracking and the search for weakly bound states, without changing the physical content or results of the model. A straightforward implementation results in up to a factor of 5 speed-up relative to an optimized orbital based code.
Trapping atoms using nanoscale quantum vacuum forces
Chang, D. E.; Sinha, K.; Taylor, J. M.; Kimble, H. J.
2014-01-01
Quantum vacuum forces dictate the interaction between individual atoms and dielectric surfaces at nanoscale distances. For example, their large strengths typically overwhelm externally applied forces, which makes it challenging to controllably interface cold atoms with nearby nanophotonic systems. Here we theoretically show that it is possible to tailor the vacuum forces themselves to provide strong trapping potentials. Our proposed trapping scheme takes advantage of the attractive ground-state potential and adiabatic dressing with an excited state whose potential is engineered to be resonantly enhanced and repulsive. This procedure yields a strong metastable trap, with the fraction of excited-state population scaling inversely with the quality factor of the resonance of the dielectric structure. We analyse realistic limitations to the trap lifetime and discuss possible applications that might emerge from the large trap depths and nanoscale confinement. PMID:25008119
Apparatus for fermion atomic clock, atom interferometry and quantum pumping experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivory, M. K.; Ziltz, A.; Field, J.; Aubin, S.
2010-03-01
We present the current state of an apparatus designed to create and manipulate ultracold bosonic and fermionic Rb and K isotopes for a fermion atomic clock, atom interferometry, microwave trapping, and quantum pumping experiments. Quantum pumping is a phenomenon which can precisely control bias-less flow of single electrons in a circuit. Using ultracold atoms on atom chips, we can test theoretical predictions which have not yet been verified due to experimental difficulties in solid state systems. The apparatus design consists of a magneto-optical trap, magnetic transport system, atom chip, and optical dipole trap. We have demonstrated basic laser cooling and trapping and are working towards transport of the collected atoms to the atom chip for cooling to quantum degeneracy. Once quantum degeneracy is achieved at the chip, micro-magnetic reservoirs of ultracold atoms connected by a 1D ``wire'' create a circuit for various quantum pumping schemes. These schemes are also more broadly applicable to atomtronics experiments.
Control of atomic spin squeezing via quantum coherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shao, Xuping; Ling, Yang; Yang, Xihua; Xiao, Min
2016-06-01
We propose a scheme to generate and control atomic spin squeezing via atomic coherence induced by the strong coupling and probe fields in the Λ-type electromagnetically-induced-transparency configuration in an atomic ensemble. Manipulation of squeezing of the two components in the plane orthogonal to the mean atomic spin direction and generation of nearly perfect squeezing in either component can be achieved by varying the relative intensities of the coupling and probe fields. This method provides a flexible and convenient way to create and control atomic spin squeezing, which may find potential applications in high-precision atomic-physics measurement, quantum coherent control, and quantum information processing.
Coherent quantum depletion of an interacting atom condensate.
Kira, M
2015-01-01
Sufficiently strong interactions promote coherent quantum transitions in spite of thermalization and losses, which are the adversaries of delicate effects such as reversibility and correlations. In atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), strong atom-atom interactions can eject atoms from the BEC to the normal component, yielding quantum depletion instead of temperature depletion. A recent experiment has already been verified to overcome losses. Here I show that it also achieves coherent quantum-depletion dynamics in a BEC swept fast enough from weak to strong atom-atom interactions. The elementary coherent process first excites the normal component into a liquid state that evolves into a spherical shell state, where the atom occupation peaks at a finite momentum to shield 50% of the BEC atoms from annihilation. The identified coherent processes resemble ultrafast semiconductor excitations expanding the scope of BEC explorations to many-body non-equilibrium studies. PMID:25767044
Steady state quantum discord for circularly accelerated atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Jiawei; Yu, Hongwei
2015-12-01
We study, in the framework of open quantum systems, the dynamics of quantum entanglement and quantum discord of two mutually independent circularly accelerated two-level atoms in interaction with a bath of fluctuating massless scalar fields in the Minkowski vacuum. We assume that the two atoms rotate synchronically with their separation perpendicular to the rotating plane. The time evolution of the quantum entanglement and quantum discord of the two-atom system is investigated. For a maximally entangled initial state, the entanglement measured by concurrence diminishes to zero within a finite time, while the quantum discord can either decrease monotonically to an asymptotic value or diminish to zero at first and then followed by a revival depending on whether the initial state is antisymmetric or symmetric. When both of the two atoms are initially excited, the generation of quantum entanglement shows a delayed feature, while quantum discord is created immediately. Remarkably, the quantum discord for such a circularly accelerated two-atom system takes a nonvanishing value in the steady state, and this is distinct from what happens in both the linear acceleration case and the case of static atoms immersed in a thermal bath.
Geometric quantum discord of a Jaynes-Cummings atom and an isolated atom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiang, Wen-Chao; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Hua-Ping
2015-12-01
We studied the geometric quantum discord of a quantum system consisting of a Jaynes-Cummings (JC) atom, a cavity and an isolated atom. The analytical expressions of the geometric quantum discord for two atoms, every atom with a cavity and the total system were obtained. We showed that the geometric quantum discord is not always zero when the entanglement falls to zero for a two-atom subsystem; the geometric measurement of the quantum discord of the total system developed periodically with a single frequency if the initial two-atom state was not entangled, otherwise, it oscillated with two or four frequencies according to whether the cavity was initially empty or not, respectively.
Quantum Theory of Atomic and Molecular Structures and Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makrides, Constantinos
This dissertation consists of topics in two related areas of research that together provide quantum mechanical descriptions of atomic and molecular interactions and reactions. The first is the ab initio electronic structure calculation that provides the atomic and molecular interaction potential, including the long-range potential. The second is the quantum theory of interactions that uses such potentials to understand scattering, long-range molecules, and reactions. In ab initio electronic structure calculations, we present results of dynamic polarizabilities for a variety of atoms and molecules, and the long-range dispersion coefficients for a number of atom-atom and atom-molecule cases. We also present results of a potential energy surface for the triatomic lithium-ytterbium-lithium system, aimed at understanding the related chemical reactions. In the quantum theory of interactions, we present a multichannel quantum-defect theory (MQDT) for atomic interactions in a magnetic field. This subject, which is complex especially for atoms with hyperfine structure, is essential for the understanding and the realization of control and tuning of atomic interactions by a magnetic field: a key feature that has popularized cold atom physics in its investigations of few-body and many-body quantum systems. Through the example of LiK, we show how MQDT provides a systematic and an efficient understanding of atomic interaction in a magnetic field, especially magnetic Feshbach resonances in nonzero partial waves.
Quantum Pumping with Ultracold Atoms on Microchips: Fermions versus Bosons
Das, Kunal K.; Aubin, Seth
2009-09-18
We present a design for simulating quantum pumping of electrons in a mesoscopic circuit with ultracold atoms in a micromagnetic chip trap. We calculate theoretical results for quantum pumping of both bosons and fermions, identifying differences and common features, including geometric behavior and resonance transmission. We analyze the feasibility of experiments with bosonic {sup 87}Rb and fermionic {sup 40}K atoms with an emphasis on reliable atomic current measurements.
Quantum Teleportation of High-dimensional Atomic Momenta State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qurban, Misbah; Abbas, Tasawar; Rameez-ul-Islam; Ikram, Manzoor
2016-06-01
Atomic momenta states of the neutral atoms are known to be decoherence resistant and therefore present a viable solution for most of the quantum information tasks including the quantum teleportation. We present a systematic protocol for the teleportation of high-dimensional quantized momenta atomic states to the field state inside the cavities by applying standard cavity QED techniques. The proposal can be executed under prevailing experimental scenario.
Universal quantum gates for atomic systems assisted by Faraday rotation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Guo-Zhu; Zhang, Mei
2015-08-01
Both cavity quantum electrodynamics and photons are promising candidates for quantum information processing. Here we present two efficient schemes for universal quantum gates, that is, Fredkin gates and \\sqrt{\\text{SWAP}} gates on atomic systems, assisted by Faraday rotation catalyzed by an auxiliary single photon. These gates are achieved by successfully reflecting an auxiliary single photon from an optical cavity with a single-trapped atom. They do not require additional qubits and they only need some linear-optical elements besides the nonlinear interaction between the flying photon and the atoms in the optical cavities. Moreover, these two universal quantum gates are robust. A high fidelity can be achieved in our schemes with current experimental technology. They may be very useful in quantum information processing in future, with the great progress on controlling atomic systems.
Quantum Network of Atom Clocks: A Possible Implementation with Neutral Atoms.
Kómár, P; Topcu, T; Kessler, E M; Derevianko, A; Vuletić, V; Ye, J; Lukin, M D
2016-08-01
We propose a protocol for creating a fully entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type state of neutral atoms in spatially separated optical atomic clocks. In our scheme, local operations make use of the strong dipole-dipole interaction between Rydberg excitations, which give rise to fast and reliable quantum operations involving all atoms in the ensemble. The necessary entanglement between distant ensembles is mediated by single-photon quantum channels and collectively enhanced light-matter couplings. These techniques can be used to create the recently proposed quantum clock network based on neutral atom optical clocks. We specifically analyze a possible realization of this scheme using neutral Yb ensembles. PMID:27541452
Quantum Network of Atom Clocks: A Possible Implementation with Neutral Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kómár, P.; Topcu, T.; Kessler, E. M.; Derevianko, A.; Vuletić, V.; Ye, J.; Lukin, M. D.
2016-08-01
We propose a protocol for creating a fully entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type state of neutral atoms in spatially separated optical atomic clocks. In our scheme, local operations make use of the strong dipole-dipole interaction between Rydberg excitations, which give rise to fast and reliable quantum operations involving all atoms in the ensemble. The necessary entanglement between distant ensembles is mediated by single-photon quantum channels and collectively enhanced light-matter couplings. These techniques can be used to create the recently proposed quantum clock network based on neutral atom optical clocks. We specifically analyze a possible realization of this scheme using neutral Yb ensembles.
Quantum Sticking of Atomic Hydrogen to Graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yanting; Doherty, Adam; Geragotelis, Andrew; Clougherty, Dennis
2013-03-01
We consider the low-energy behavior of the sticking probability of atomic hydrogen to suspended graphene. For energy transfer through the flexural modes of graphene, we find that the inelastic coupling falls in the subOhmic regime. Thus the effects of low-frequency fluctuations of the graphene sheet are crucially important for quantum sticking. We analytically solve for the low-energy asymptotic behavior of the sticking coefficient using a variational mean-field method [D.P. Clougherty and Y. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 120401 (2012)]. We find that as a result of strong coupling to the low-frequency flexural modes of graphene, a new scaling law results. For suspended graphene at finite temperature, we find that at a critical incident energy, the sticking probability drops discontinuously; below this critical energy, the sticking probability is suppressed by the orthogonality catastrophe. We compare our nonperturbative variational results to those obtained by using Fermi's golden rule. We gratefully acknowledge support by the National Science Foundation under DMR-1062966.
Quantum Monte Carlo for atoms and molecules
Barnett, R.N.
1989-11-01
The diffusion quantum Monte Carlo with fixed nodes (QMC) approach has been employed in studying energy-eigenstates for 1--4 electron systems. Previous work employing the diffusion QMC technique yielded energies of high quality for H{sub 2}, LiH, Li{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O. Here, the range of calculations with this new approach has been extended to include additional first-row atoms and molecules. In addition, improvements in the previously computed fixed-node energies of LiH, Li{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O have been obtained using more accurate trial functions. All computations were performed within, but are not limited to, the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. In our computations, the effects of variation of Monte Carlo parameters on the QMC solution of the Schroedinger equation were studied extensively. These parameters include the time step, renormalization time and nodal structure. These studies have been very useful in determining which choices of such parameters will yield accurate QMC energies most efficiently. Generally, very accurate energies (90--100% of the correlation energy is obtained) have been computed with single-determinant trail functions multiplied by simple correlation functions. Improvements in accuracy should be readily obtained using more complex trial functions.
Quantum-mechanical transport equation for atomic systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berman, P. R.
1972-01-01
A quantum-mechanical transport equation (QMTE) is derived which should be applicable to a wide range of problems involving the interaction of radiation with atoms or molecules which are also subject to collisions with perturber atoms. The equation follows the time evolution of the macroscopic atomic density matrix elements of atoms located at classical position R and moving with classical velocity v. It is quantum mechanical in the sense that all collision kernels or rates which appear have been obtained from a quantum-mechanical theory and, as such, properly take into account the energy-level variations and velocity changes of the active (emitting or absorbing) atom produced in collisions with perturber atoms. The present formulation is better suited to problems involving high-intensity external fields, such as those encountered in laser physics.
Coherent quantum depletion of an interacting atom condensate
Kira, M.
2015-01-01
Sufficiently strong interactions promote coherent quantum transitions in spite of thermalization and losses, which are the adversaries of delicate effects such as reversibility and correlations. In atomic Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs), strong atom–atom interactions can eject atoms from the BEC to the normal component, yielding quantum depletion instead of temperature depletion. A recent experiment has already been verified to overcome losses. Here I show that it also achieves coherent quantum-depletion dynamics in a BEC swept fast enough from weak to strong atom–atom interactions. The elementary coherent process first excites the normal component into a liquid state that evolves into a spherical shell state, where the atom occupation peaks at a finite momentum to shield 50% of the BEC atoms from annihilation. The identified coherent processes resemble ultrafast semiconductor excitations expanding the scope of BEC explorations to many-body non-equilibrium studies. PMID:25767044
Nanophotonic quantum phase switch with a single atom.
Tiecke, T G; Thompson, J D; de Leon, N P; Liu, L R; Vuletić, V; Lukin, M D
2014-04-10
By analogy to transistors in classical electronic circuits, quantum optical switches are important elements of quantum circuits and quantum networks. Operated at the fundamental limit where a single quantum of light or matter controls another field or material system, such a switch may enable applications such as long-distance quantum communication, distributed quantum information processing and metrology, and the exploration of novel quantum states of matter. Here, by strongly coupling a photon to a single atom trapped in the near field of a nanoscale photonic crystal cavity, we realize a system in which a single atom switches the phase of a photon and a single photon modifies the atom's phase. We experimentally demonstrate an atom-induced optical phase shift that is nonlinear at the two-photon level, a photon number router that separates individual photons and photon pairs into different output modes, and a single-photon switch in which a single 'gate' photon controls the propagation of a subsequent probe field. These techniques pave the way to integrated quantum nanophotonic networks involving multiple atomic nodes connected by guided light. PMID:24717513
A quantum network with atoms and photons (QNET-AP)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyers, Ronald E.; Lee, Patricia; Deacon, Keith S.; Tunick, Arnold; Quraishi, Qudsia; Stack, Daniel
2012-10-01
Enabling secure communication, unparalleled computing capabilities, and fundamental nonlocality physics exploration, the development of quantum repeaters is the key quantum information processing technology advance needed for implementing real world quantum networks beyond the laboratory environment. Currently, components exist for intra-laboratory quantum networks but no system exists for connecting distant ( 1 km ) quantum memories in the real world. We present a physics analysis of quantum repeater network designs for intracity optical fiber connections between nodes based on atomic memories and linear optics. Long distances will necessitate the use of (1) two-photon Hong-Ou-Mandel style interference between atomic ensembles for entanglement swapping, and (2) photonic qubit wavelength conversion between atomic emissions and photons at telecommunication wavelengths in fiber. We report on our experimental progress towards implementing A Quantum Network with Atoms and Photons (QNET-AP), a quantum repeater network test-bed, between the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and the Joint Quantum Institute (JQI) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland (UMD).
Nanophotonic quantum computer based on atomic quantum transistor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrianov, S. N.; Moiseev, S. A.
2015-10-01
We propose a scheme of a quantum computer based on nanophotonic elements: two buses in the form of nanowaveguide resonators, two nanosized units of multiatom multiqubit quantum memory and a set of nanoprocessors in the form of photonic quantum transistors, each containing a pair of nanowaveguide ring resonators coupled via a quantum dot. The operation modes of nanoprocessor photonic quantum transistors are theoretically studied and the execution of main logical operations by means of them is demonstrated. We also discuss the prospects of the proposed nanophotonic quantum computer for operating in high-speed optical fibre networks.
Voltage-controlled quantum light from an atomically thin semiconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty, Chitraleema; Kinnischtzke, Laura; Goodfellow, Kenneth M.; Beams, Ryan; Vamivakas, A. Nick
2015-06-01
Although semiconductor defects can often be detrimental to device performance, they are also responsible for the breadth of functionality exhibited by modern optoelectronic devices. Artificially engineered defects (so-called quantum dots) or naturally occurring defects in solids are currently being investigated for applications ranging from quantum information science and optoelectronics to high-resolution metrology. In parallel, the quantum confinement exhibited by atomically thin materials (semi-metals, semiconductors and insulators) has ushered in an era of flatland optoelectronics whose full potential is still being articulated. In this Letter we demonstrate the possibility of leveraging the atomically thin semiconductor tungsten diselenide (WSe2) as a host for quantum dot-like defects. We report that this previously unexplored solid-state quantum emitter in WSe2 generates single photons with emission properties that can be controlled via the application of external d.c. electric and magnetic fields. These new optically active quantum dots exhibit excited-state lifetimes on the order of 1 ns and remarkably large excitonic g-factors of 10. It is anticipated that WSe2 quantum dots will provide a novel platform for integrated solid-state quantum photonics and quantum information processing, as well as a rich condensed-matter physics playground with which to explore the coupling of quantum dots and atomically thin semiconductors.
The Quantum Atomic Model "Electronium": A Successful Teaching Tool.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Budde, Marion; Niedderer, Hans; Scott, Philip; Leach, John
2002-01-01
Focuses on the quantum atomic model Electronium. Outlines the Bremen teaching approach in which this model is used, and analyzes the learning of two students as they progress through the teaching unit. (Author/MM)
Quantum Atomic Clock Synchronization: An Entangled Concept of Nonlocal Simultaneity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abrams, D.; Dowling, J.; Williams, C.; Jozsa, R.
2000-01-01
We demonstrate that two spatially separated parties (Alice and Bob) can utilize shared prior quantum entanglement, as well as a classical information channel, to establish a synchronized pair of atomic clocks.
Quantum Electrodynamics Effects in Heavy Ions and Atoms
Shabaev, V. M.; Andreev, O. V.; Bondarev, A. I.; Glazov, D. A.; Kozhedub, Y. S.; Maiorova, A. V.; Tupitsyn, I. I.; Plunien, G.; Volotka, A. V.
2011-05-11
Quantum electrodynamics theory of heavy ions and atoms is considered. The current status of calculations of the binding energies, the hyperfine splitting and g factor values in heavy few-electron ions is reviewed. The theoretical predictions are compared with available experimental data. A special attention is focused on tests of quantum electrodynamics in strong electromagnetic fields and on determination of the fundamental constants. Recent progress in calculations of the parity nonconservation effects with heavy atoms and ions is also reported.
Single-Atom Single-Photon Quantum Interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moehring, David; Bochmann, Joerg; Muecke, Martin; Specht, Holger; Weber, Bernhard; Wilk, Tatjana; Rempe, Gerhard
2008-05-01
By combining atom trapping techniques and cavity cooling schemes we are able to trap a single neutral atom inside a high-finesse cavity for several tens of seconds. We show that our coupled atom-cavity system can be used to generate single photons in a controlled way. With our long trapping times and high single-photon production efficiency, the non-classical properties of the emitted light can be shown in the photon correlations of a single atom. In a similar atom-cavity setup, we investigate the interface between atoms and photons by entangling a single atom with a single photon emitted into the cavity and by further mapping the quantum state of the atom onto a second single photon. These schemes are intrinsically deterministic and establish the basic element required to realize a distributed quantum network with individual atoms at rest as quantum memories and single flying photons as quantum messengers. This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, and the European Union SCALA and CONQUEST programs. D. L. M. acknowledges support from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.
Quantum-Classical Connection for Hydrogen Atom-Like Systems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Syam, Debapriyo; Roy, Arup
2011-01-01
The Bohr-Sommerfeld quantum theory specifies the rules of quantization for circular and elliptical orbits for a one-electron hydrogen atom-like system. This article illustrates how a formula connecting the principal quantum number "n" and the length of the major axis of an elliptical orbit may be arrived at starting from the quantum…
Processing quantum information with relativistic motion of atoms.
Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; Aasen, David; Kempf, Achim
2013-04-19
We show that particle detectors, such as two-level atoms, in noninertial motion (or in gravitational fields) could be used to build quantum gates for the processing of quantum information. Concretely, we show that through suitably chosen noninertial trajectories of the detectors the interaction Hamiltonian's time dependence can be modulated to yield arbitrary rotations in the Bloch sphere due to relativistic quantum effects. PMID:23679587
A Quantum Model of Atoms (the Energy Levels of Atoms).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rafie, Francois
2001-01-01
Discusses the model for all atoms which was developed on the same basis as Bohr's model for the hydrogen atom. Calculates the radii and the energies of the orbits. Demonstrates how the model obeys the de Broglie's hypothesis that the moving electron exhibits both wave and particle properties. (Author/ASK)
Quantum Communication between Atomic Ensembles Using Coherent Light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, Lu-Ming; Cirac, J. I.; Zoller, P.; Polzik, E. S.
2000-12-01
Protocols for quantum communication between massive particles, such as atoms, are usually based on making use of nonclassical light, and/or superhigh finesse optical cavities are normally needed to enhance interaction between atoms and photons. We demonstrate a remarkable result: by using only coherent light, entanglement can be generated between distant free space atomic ensembles, and an unknown quantum state can thus be teleported from one to another. Neither nonclassical light nor cavities are needed in the scheme, which greatly simplifies its experimental implementation.
Towards scalable quantum communication using atomic ensembles and light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lukin, Mikhail
2002-03-01
One of the challenges in experimental quantum information science involves reliable transport (communication) of quantum bits over long distances under realistic conditions involving decoherence and noise. Photons are the fastest and simplest carriers of quantum information since they interact weakly with environment, but they are difficult to localize and store. It appears that an ideal solution would be to store and process quantum information in matter (i.e. nodes of quantum memory), and to communicate between these nodes using photons. In this talk we discuss how quantum optical techniques can be used to accomplish this goal using atomic ensembles and light as tools. In particular, we describe a fast and robust mechanism for quantum state transfer between light fields and atoms. This is achieved by adiabatically reducing the group velocity of propagating light to zero, thereby ``trapping'' the photon states in atomic ensembles. We describe the basic principles of this technique as well as our recent experimental progress toward realization of these ideas. We then describe how these techniques can be used to implement scalable technique for long-distance quantum communication in realistic noisy channels.
Atomically precise, coupled quantum dots fabricated by cleaved edge overgrowth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wegscheider, W.; Schedelbeck, G.; Bichler, M.; Abstreiter, G.
Recent progress in the fabrication of quantum dots by molecular beam epitaxy along three directions in space is reviewed. The optical properties of different sample structures consisting of individual quantum dots, pairs of coupled dots as well as of linear arrays of dots are studied by microscopic photoluminescence spectroscopy. The high degree of control over shape, composition and position of the 7×7×7 nm3 size GaAs quantum dots, which form at the intesection of three orthogonal quantum wells, allows a detailed investigation of the influence of coupling between almost identical zero-dimensional objects. In contrast to the inhomogeneously broadened quantum well and quantum wire signals originating from the complex twofold cleaved edge overgrowth structure, the photoluminescence spetrum of an individual quantum dot exhibits a single sharp line (full width at half maximum <70μeV) almost free of background signal. Microscopic photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy directly reveals the discreteness of the energy levels of the zero-dimensional structures and justifies the denomination "artificial atoms" for the quantum dots. It is further demonstrated that an "artifical molecule", characterized by the existence of bonding and antibonding states can be assembled from two of such "artificial atoms". The coupling strength between the "artificial atoms" is adjusted by the "interatomic" distance and is reflected in the energetic separation of the bonding and antibonding levels and the linewidths of the corresponding interband transitions.
Quantum chaos of atoms in a resonant cavity.
Berman, G. P.; Bulgakov, E. N.; Zaslavsky, G. M.
1992-04-01
A system of atoms interacting with a radiation field in a resonant cavity is studied under conditions when the dynamics in the classical limit is stochastic. This situation is called quantum chaos. Equations of motion are obtained for the quantum-mechanical expectation values which take into account the quantum correlation functions. It is shown that in a situation corresponding to quantum chaos, the quantum corrections grow exponentially, making the evolution of the system essentially quantal after a certain time tau( variant Planck's over 2pi ) has elapsed. Analytical and numerical analysis show that in this regime the time tau( variant Planck's over 2pi ) obeys the logarithmic law tau( variant Planck's over 2pi ) approximately ln N (N is the number of atoms), and not the law tau( variant Planck's over 2pi ) approximately N(alpha) (alpha is a certain constant of order unity), as would be the case in the absence of chaos. PMID:12779972
Scalable neutral atom quantum computing with MEMS micromirrors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knoernschild, Caleb; Lu, Felix; Ryu, Hoon; Feng, Michael; Kim, Jungsang
2010-03-01
In order to realize a useful atom-based quantum computer, a means to efficiently distribute critical laser resources to multiple trap locations is essential. Optical micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) can provide the scalability, flexibility, and stability needed to help bridge the gap between fundamental demonstrations of quantum gates to large scale quantum computing of multiple qubits. Using controllable, broadband micromirrors, an arbitrary atom in a 1, 2, or 3 dimensional optical lattice can be addressed with a single laser source. It is straightforward to scale this base system to address n arbitrary set of atoms simultaneously using n laser sources. We explore on-demand addressability of individual atoms trapped in a 1D lattice, as well as investigate the effect the micromirrors have on the laser beam quality and phase stability.
Quantum metrology with a scanning probe atom interferometer.
Ockeloen, Caspar F; Schmied, Roman; Riedel, Max F; Treutlein, Philipp
2013-10-01
We use a small Bose-Einstein condensate on an atom chip as an interferometric scanning probe to map out a microwave field near the chip surface with a few micrometers resolution. With the use of entanglement between the atoms, our interferometer overcomes the standard quantum limit of interferometry by 4 dB and maintains enhanced performance for interrogation times up to 10 ms. This corresponds to a microwave magnetic field sensitivity of 77 pT/√Hz in a probe volume of 20 μm(3). Quantum metrology with entangled atoms is useful in measurements with high spatial resolution, since the atom number in the probe volume is limited by collisional loss. High-resolution measurements of microwave near fields, as demonstrated here, are important for the development of integrated microwave circuits for quantum information processing and applications in communication technology. PMID:24138235
A computational toolbox for quantum and atomic optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Sze M.
1999-08-01
A collection of routines is described which largely automates the process of generating the quantum mechanical equations of motion for problems involving systems with relatively few degrees of freedom. Their use allows the user to adopt a high-level approach to writing simulation programs which concentrates on the physics of the problem, rather than on the details of the solution. Examples are taken from the fields of quantum and atomic optics, but the toolbox is also useful for problems involving quantum information and in teaching quantum mechanics. The toolbox has been implemented using the Matlab programming language, but the ideas may be applied to any other object-oriented language.
Quantum walks and quantum simulations with Bloch-oscillating spinor atoms
Witthaut, D.
2010-09-15
We propose a scheme for the realization of a quantum walker and a quantum simulator for the Dirac equation with ultracold spinor atoms in driven optical lattices. A precise control of the dynamics of the atomic matter wave can be realized using time-dependent external forces. If the force depends on the spin state of the atoms, the dynamics will entangle the inner and outer degrees of freedom, which offers unique opportunities for quantum information and quantum simulation. Here we introduce a method to realize a quantum walker based on the state-dependent transport of spinor atoms and a coherent driving of the internal state. In the limit of weak driving the dynamics are equivalent to that of a Dirac particle in 1+1 dimensions. Thus it becomes possible to simulate relativistic effects such as Zitterbewegung and Klein tunneling.
Scalable quantum information processing with photons and atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Jian-Wei
Over the past three decades, the promises of super-fast quantum computing and secure quantum cryptography have spurred a world-wide interest in quantum information, generating fascinating quantum technologies for coherent manipulation of individual quantum systems. However, the distance of fiber-based quantum communications is limited due to intrinsic fiber loss and decreasing of entanglement quality. Moreover, probabilistic single-photon source and entanglement source demand exponentially increased overheads for scalable quantum information processing. To overcome these problems, we are taking two paths in parallel: quantum repeaters and through satellite. We used the decoy-state QKD protocol to close the loophole of imperfect photon source, and used the measurement-device-independent QKD protocol to close the loophole of imperfect photon detectors--two main loopholes in quantum cryptograph. Based on these techniques, we are now building world's biggest quantum secure communication backbone, from Beijing to Shanghai, with a distance exceeding 2000 km. Meanwhile, we are developing practically useful quantum repeaters that combine entanglement swapping, entanglement purification, and quantum memory for the ultra-long distance quantum communication. The second line is satellite-based global quantum communication, taking advantage of the negligible photon loss and decoherence in the atmosphere. We realized teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100 km, and later on a rapidly moving platform. We are also making efforts toward the generation of multiphoton entanglement and its use in teleportation of multiple properties of a single quantum particle, topological error correction, quantum algorithms for solving systems of linear equations and machine learning. Finally, I will talk about our recent experiments on quantum simulations on ultracold atoms. On the one hand, by applying an optical Raman lattice technique, we realized a two-dimensional spin-obit (SO
Single-Atom Gating of Quantum State Superpositions
Moon, Christopher
2010-04-28
The ultimate miniaturization of electronic devices will likely require local and coherent control of single electronic wavefunctions. Wavefunctions exist within both physical real space and an abstract state space with a simple geometric interpretation: this state space - or Hilbert space - is spanned by mutually orthogonal state vectors corresponding to the quantized degrees of freedom of the real-space system. Measurement of superpositions is akin to accessing the direction of a vector in Hilbert space, determining an angle of rotation equivalent to quantum phase. Here we show that an individual atom inside a designed quantum corral1 can control this angle, producing arbitrary coherent superpositions of spatial quantum states. Using scanning tunnelling microscopy and nanostructures assembled atom-by-atom we demonstrate how single spins and quantum mirages can be harnessed to image the superposition of two electronic states. We also present a straightforward method to determine the atom path enacting phase rotations between any desired state vectors. A single atom thus becomes a real-space handle for an abstract Hilbert space, providing a simple technique for coherent quantum state manipulation at the spatial limit of condensed matter.
A quantum interface between single atoms and nanophotonic structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thompson, Jeffrey Douglas
Strong interactions between light and atoms at the single-quantum level are an important ingredient for quantum technologies, as well as for studies of fundamental effects in quantum optics. This thesis describes the development of a novel experimental platform that allows for trapping a single rubidium atom in the evanescent mode of a nano-fabricated optical cavity with sub-wavelength dimensions. By virtue of their small size, these cavities provide extremely large atom-photon coupling strengths and good prospects for scalability and integration into complex quantum optical circuits. Positioning the atom near the nano-structure is accomplished using a scanning optical tweezer dipole trap. As a first application, we have demonstrated a coherent optical switch, where a single gate photon controls the propagation of many subsequent signal photons, with the interaction mediated by the atom and cavity. We have also shown that the optical response of the combined atom-cavity system is nonlinear at the level of one or two photons.
Quasieigenstate coalescence in an atom-cavity quantum composite.
Choi, Youngwoon; Kang, Sungsam; Lim, Sooin; Kim, Wookrae; Kim, Jung-Ryul; Lee, Jai-Hyung; An, Kyungwon
2010-04-16
We report the first direct observation of an exceptional point (EP) in an open quantum composite of a single atom and a high-Q cavity mode. The atom-cavity coupling constant was made a continuous variable by utilizing the multisublevel nature of a single rubidium atom when it is optimally coupled to the cavity mode. The spectroscopic properties of quasieigenstates of the atom-cavity composite were experimentally investigated near the EP. Branch-point singularity of quasieigenenergies was observed and its 4pi symmetry was demonstrated. Consequently, the cavity transmission at the quasieigenstate was observed to exhibit a critical behavior at the EP. PMID:20481988
Generation of atom-light entanglement in an optical cavity for quantum enhanced atom interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haine, Simon A.; Lau, Wing Yung Sarah
2016-02-01
We theoretically investigate the generation of atom-light entanglement via Raman superradiance in an optical cavity, and show how this can be used to enhance the sensitivity of atom interferometry. We model a realistic optical cavity, and show that by careful temporal shaping of the optical local oscillator used to measure the light emitted from the cavity, information in the optical mode can be combined with the signal from the atom interferometer to reduce the quantum noise, and thus increase the sensitivity. It was found in Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 053002 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.053002 that an atomic "seed" was required in order to reduce spontaneous emission and allow for single mode behavior of the device. In this paper we find that the optical cavity reduces the need for an atomic seed, which allows for stronger atom-light correlations and a greater level of quantum enhancement.
Quantum galvanometer by interfacing a vibrating nanowire and cold atoms.
Kálmán, O; Kiss, T; Fortágh, J; Domokos, P
2012-01-11
We evaluate the coupling of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of ultracold, paramagnetic atoms to the magnetic field of the current in a mechanically vibrating carbon nanotube within the frame of a full quantum theory. We find that the interaction is strong enough to sense quantum features of the nanowire current noise spectrum by means of hyperfine-state-selective atom counting. Such a nondestructive measurement of the electric current via its magnetic field corresponds to the classical galvanometer scheme, extended to the quantum regime of charge transport. The calculated high sensitivity of the interaction in the nanowire-BEC hybrid systems opens up the possibility of quantum control, which may be further extended to include other relevant degrees of freedom. PMID:22112048
Planar quantum squeezing and atom interferometry
He, Q. Y.; Drummond, P. D.; Reid, M. D.; Peng Shiguo
2011-08-15
We obtain a lower bound on the sum of two orthogonal spin component variances in a plane. This gives a planar uncertainty relation which holds even when the Heisenberg relation is not useful. We investigate the asymptotic, large-J limit and derive the properties of the planar quantum squeezed states that saturate this uncertainty relation. These states extend the concept of spin squeezing to any two conjugate spin directions. We show that planar quantum squeezing can be achieved experimentally as the ground state of a Bose-Einstein condensate in two coupled potential wells with a critical attractive interaction. These states reduce interferometric phase noise at all phase angles simultaneously. This is useful for one-shot interferometric phase measurements where the measured phase is completely unknown. Our results can also be used to derive entanglement criteria for multiple spins J at separated sites, with applications in quantum information.
Quantum Chemical Topology: Knowledgeable atoms in peptides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popelier, Paul L. A.
2012-06-01
The need to improve atomistic biomolecular force fields remains acute. Fortunately, the abundance of contemporary computing power enables an overhaul of the architecture of current force fields, which typically base their electrostatics on fixed atomic partial charges. We discuss the principles behind the electrostatics of a more realistic force field under construction, called QCTFF. At the heart of QCTFF lies the so-called topological atom, which is a malleable box, whose shape and electrostatics changes in response to a changing environment. This response is captured by a machine learning method called Kriging. Kriging directly predicts each multipole moment of a given atom (i.e. the output) from the coordinates of the nuclei surrounding this atom (i.e. the input). This procedure yields accurate interatomic electrostatic energies, which form the basis for future-proof progress in force field design.
Editorial . Quantum fluctuations and coherence in optical and atomic structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eschner, Jürgen; Gatti, Alessandra; Maître, Agnès; Morigi, Giovanna
2003-03-01
From simple interference fringes, over molecular wave packets, to nonlinear optical patterns - the fundamental interaction between light and matter leads to the formation of structures in many areas of atomic and optical physics. Sophisticated technology in experimental quantum optics, as well as modern computational tools available to theorists, have led to spectacular achievements in the investigation of quantum structures. This special issue is dedicated to recent developments in this area. It presents a selection of examples where quantum dynamics, fluctuations, and coherence generate structures in time or in space or where such structures are observed experimentally. The examples range from coherence phenomena in condensed matter, over atoms in optical structures, entanglement in light and matter, to quantum patterns in nonlinear optics and quantum imaging. The combination of such seemingly diverse subjects formed the basis of a successful European TMR network, "Quantum Structures" (visit http://cnqo.phys.strath.ac.uk/~gianluca/QSTRUCT/). This special issue partly re.ects the results and collaborations of the network, going however well beyond its scope by including contributions from a global community and from many related topics which were not addressed directly in the network. The aim of this issue is to present side by side these di.erent topics, all of which are loosely summarized under quantum structures, to highlight their common aspects, their di.erences, and the progress which resulted from the mutual exchange of results, methods, and knowledge. To guide the reader, we have organized the articles into subsections which follow a rough division into structures in material systems and structures in optical .elds. Nevertheless, in the following introduction we point out connections between the contributions which go beyond these usual criteria, thus highlighting the truly interdisciplinary nature of quantum structures. Much of the progress in atom optics
Topological quantum memory interfacing atomic and superconducting qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xue, ZhengYuan; Yin, ZhangQi; Chen, Yan; Wang, ZiDan; Zhu, ShiLiang
2016-06-01
We propose a scheme to manipulate a topological spin qubit which is realized with cold atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice. In particular, by introducing a quantum opto-electro-mechanical interface, we are able to first transfer a superconducting qubit state to an atomic qubit state and then to store it into the topological spin qubit. In this way, an efficient topological quantum memory could be constructed for the superconducting qubit. Therefore, we can consolidate the advantages of both the noise resistance of the topological qubits and the scalability of the superconducting qubits in this hybrid architecture.
Quantum Information Science with Single Atoms and Photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimble, H. J.
2003-03-01
Cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) offers powerful possibilities for the deterministic control of atom-photon interactions quantum by quantum [1]. Indeed, modern experiments in cavity QED have achieved the exceptional circumstance of strong coupling, for which single quanta can profoundly impact the dynamics of the atom-cavity system. The diverse accomplishments of this field set the stage for advances into yet broader frontiers in quantum information science for which cavity QED offers unique advantages, including the creation of quantum networks [2]. The primary technical challenge on the road toward such scientific goals is the need to trap and localize atoms within a cavity in a setting suitable for strong coupling. Two separate experiments in our group have achieved significant milestones in this quest, namely the real-time trapping and tracking of single atoms in cavity QED [3-5]. In one experiment, an atom is trapped by an auxiliary field that functions as a far-detuned dipole-force trap (FORT) [3,4], with trap lifetime 3s, which should be compared to the nanosecond time scale for internal dynamics of the atom-cavity system. In a second experiment, we rely upon light forces at the single-photon level to trap a single atom within the cavity mode [5]. As illustrated by the movies available at http://www.its.caltech.edu/ qoptics/atomorbits/, these reconstructions reveal single atoms bound in orbit by the mechanical forces associated with single photons, and realize a new form of microscopy. Over the duration of the observation, the sensitivity is near the standard quantum limit for sensing the motion of a Cesium atom. This work is supported by the NSF, by the Caltech MURI for Quantum Networks administered by the ARO, and by the ONR. 1. For a review, see contributions in the Special Issue of Physica Scripta T76 (1998). 2. J. I. Cirac, S. J. van Enk, P. Zoller, H. J. Kimble, and H. Mabuchi, Physica Scripta T76, 223 (1998). 3. J. Ye, D. W. Vernooy, and H. J
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mekhov, Igor B.; Maschler, Christoph; Ritsch, Helmut
2007-05-01
Studies of ultracold gases in optical lattices provide a means for testing fundamental and application-oriented quantum many-body concepts of condensed-matter physics in well controllable atomic systems; examples include strongly correlated phases and quantum-information processing. Standard methods to observe quantum properties of Bose-Einstein condensates are based on matter-wave interference between atoms released from traps, a method that ultimately destroys the system. Here, we propose a new approach on the basis of optical measurements that conserves the number of atoms. We prove that atomic quantum statistics can be mapped on transmission spectra of high-Q cavities, where atoms create a quantum refractive index. This can be useful for studying phase transitions-for example, between Mott insulator and superfluid states-as various phases show qualitatively distinct light scattering. Joining the paradigms of cavity quantum electrodynamics and ultracold gases could enable conceptually new investigations of both light and matter at ultimate quantum levels. We predict effects accessible in experiments that recently became possible.
Quantum Logic with Cavity Photons From Single Atoms.
Holleczek, Annemarie; Barter, Oliver; Rubenok, Allison; Dilley, Jerome; Nisbet-Jones, Peter B R; Langfahl-Klabes, Gunnar; Marshall, Graham D; Sparrow, Chris; O'Brien, Jeremy L; Poulios, Konstantinos; Kuhn, Axel; Matthews, Jonathan C F
2016-07-01
We demonstrate quantum logic using narrow linewidth photons that are produced with an a priori nonprobabilistic scheme from a single ^{87}Rb atom strongly coupled to a high-finesse cavity. We use a controlled-not gate integrated into a photonic chip to entangle these photons, and we observe nonclassical correlations between photon detection events separated by periods exceeding the travel time across the chip by 3 orders of magnitude. This enables quantum technology that will use the properties of both narrow-band single photon sources and integrated quantum photonics. PMID:27447506
Quantum Logic with Cavity Photons From Single Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holleczek, Annemarie; Barter, Oliver; Rubenok, Allison; Dilley, Jerome; Nisbet-Jones, Peter B. R.; Langfahl-Klabes, Gunnar; Marshall, Graham D.; Sparrow, Chris; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Poulios, Konstantinos; Kuhn, Axel; Matthews, Jonathan C. F.
2016-07-01
We demonstrate quantum logic using narrow linewidth photons that are produced with an a priori nonprobabilistic scheme from a single 87Rb atom strongly coupled to a high-finesse cavity. We use a controlled-not gate integrated into a photonic chip to entangle these photons, and we observe nonclassical correlations between photon detection events separated by periods exceeding the travel time across the chip by 3 orders of magnitude. This enables quantum technology that will use the properties of both narrow-band single photon sources and integrated quantum photonics.
Analysis of an Atom-Optical Architecture for Quantum Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Devitt, Simon J.; Stephens, Ashley M.; Munro, William J.; Nemoto, Kae
Quantum technology based on photons has emerged as one of the most promising platforms for quantum information processing, having already been used in proof-of-principle demonstrations of quantum communication and quantum computation. However, the scalability of this technology depends on the successful integration of experimentally feasible devices in an architecture that tolerates realistic errors and imperfections. Here, we analyse an atom-optical architecture for quantum computation designed to meet the requirements of scalability. The architecture is based on a modular atom-cavity device that provides an effective photon-photon interaction, allowing for the rapid, deterministic preparation of a large class of entangled states. We begin our analysis at the physical level, where we outline the experimental cavity quantum electrodynamics requirements of the basic device. Then, we describe how a scalable network of these devices can be used to prepare a three-dimensional topological cluster state, sufficient for universal fault-tolerant quantum computation. We conclude at the application level, where we estimate the system-level requirements of the architecture executing an algorithm compiled for compatibility with the topological cluster state.
Light atom quantum oscillations in UC and US
Yiu, Yuen; Aczel, Adam A.; Granroth, Garrett E.; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Stone, Matthew B.; Buyers, W. J. L.; Lin, J. Y. Y.; Samolyuk, German D.; Stocks, George Malcolm; Nagler, Stephen E.
2016-01-19
High energy vibrational scattering in the binary systems UC and US is measured using time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering. A clear set of well-defined peaks equally separated in energy is observed in UC, corresponding to harmonic oscillations of the light C atoms in a cage of heavy U atoms. The scattering is much weaker in US and only a few oscillator peaks are visible. We show how the difference between the materials can be understood by considering the neutron scattering lengths and masses of the lighter atoms. Monte Carlo ray tracing is used to simulate the scattering, with near quantitative agreementmore » with the data in UC, and some differences with US. The possibility of observing anharmonicity and anisotropy in the potentials of the light atoms is investigated in UC. Lastly, the observed data is well accounted for by considering each light atom as a single atom isotropic quantum harmonic oscillator.« less
Light atom quantum oscillations in UC and US
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yiu, Yuen; Aczel, A. A.; Granroth, G. E.; Abernathy, D. L.; Stone, M. B.; Buyers, W. J. L.; Lin, J. Y. Y.; Samolyuk, G. D.; Stocks, G. M.; Nagler, S. E.
2016-01-01
High-energy vibrational scattering in the binary systems UC and US is measured using time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering. A clear set of well-defined peaks equally separated in energy is observed in UC, corresponding to harmonic oscillations of the light C atoms in a cage of heavy U atoms. The scattering is much weaker in US and only a few oscillator peaks are visible. We show how the difference between the materials can be understood by considering the neutron scattering lengths and masses of the lighter atoms. Monte Carlo ray tracing is used to simulate the scattering, with near quantitative agreement with the data in UC, and some differences with US. The possibility of observing anharmonicity and anisotropy in the potentials of the light atoms is investigated in UC. Overall, the observed data is well accounted for by considering each light atom as a single atom isotropic quantum harmonic oscillator.
Light atom quantum oscillations in UC and US
Yiu, Yuen; Aczel, Adam A.; Granroth, Garrett E.; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Stone, Matthew B.; Buyers, W. J. L.; Lin, J. Y. Y.; Samolyuk, German D.; Stocks, George Malcolm; Nagler, Stephen E.
2016-01-01
High energy vibrational scattering in the binary systems UC and US is measured using time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering. A clear set of well-defined peaks equally separated in energy is observed in UC, corresponding to harmonic oscillations of the light C atoms in a cage of heavy U atoms. The scattering is much weaker in US and only a few oscillator peaks are visible. We show how the difference between the materials can be understood by considering the neutron scattering lengths and masses of the lighter atoms. Monte Carlo ray tracing is used to simulate the scattering, with near quantitative agreement with the data in UC, and some differences with US. The possibility of observing anharmonicity and anisotropy in the potentials of the light atoms is investigated in UC. Lastly, the observed data is well accounted for by considering each light atom as a single atom isotropic quantum harmonic oscillator.
Quantum state control of trapped Holmium atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hostetter, James; Yip, Christopher; Milner, William; Booth, Donald; Collett, Jeffrey; Saffman, Mark
2016-05-01
Neutral Holmium with its large number of hyperfine ground states provides a promising approach for collective encoding of a multi-qubit register. A prerequisite for collective encoding is the ability to prepare different states in the 128 state hyperfine ground manifold. We report progress towards optical pumping and control of the hyperfine Zeeman state of trapped Ho atoms. Atoms are transferred from a 410.5 nm MOT into a 455 nm optical dipole trap. The atoms can be optically pumped using light driving the ground 6s2 , F = 11 to 6 s 6 p ,F' = 11 transition together with a F = 10 to F' = 11 repumper. Microwave fields are then used to drive transitions to hyperfine levels with 4 <= F <= 11 . Work supported by NSF award PHY-1404357.
Quantum stability and magic lengths of metal atom wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Ping; Choi, Jin-Ho; Lan, Haiping; Cho, Jun-Hyung; Niu, Qian; Yang, Jinlong; Zhang, Zhenyu
2016-06-01
Metal atom wires represent an important class of nanomaterials in the development of future electronic devices and other functional applications. Using first-principles calculations within density functional theory, we carry out a systematic study of the quantum stability of freestanding atom wires consisting of prototypical metal elements with s -, s p -, and s d -valence electrons. We explore how the quantum mechanically confined motion and local bonding of the valence electrons in these different wire systems can dictate their overall structural stability and find that the formation energy of essentially all the wires oscillates with respect to their length measured by the number n of atoms contained in the wires, establishing the existence of highly preferred (or magic) lengths. Furthermore, different wire classes exhibit distinctively different oscillatory characteristics and quantum stabilities. Alkali metal wires possessing an unpaired s valence electron per atom exhibit simple damped even-odd oscillations. In contrast, Al and Ga wires containing three s2p1 valence electrons per atom generally display much larger and undamped even-odd energy oscillations due to stronger local bonding of the p orbitals. Among the noble metals, the s -dominant Ag wires behave similarly to the linear alkali metal wires, while Au and Pt wires distinctly prefer to be structurally zigzagged due to strong relativistic effects. These findings are discussed in connection with existing experiments and should also be instrumental in future experimental realization of different metal atom wires in freestanding or supported environments with desirable functionalities.
A hybrid quantum system of ultracold atoms and trapped ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sias, Carlo; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Zipkes, Christoph; Koehl, Michael; AMOP Team
2011-05-01
In the last decades, trapped ions and ultracold atoms have emerged as exceptionally controllable experimental systems to investigate fundamental physics, ranging from quantum information science to simulations of condensed matter models. Even though they share some common grounds in experimental techniques, such as laser cooling, ion trapping and atom trapping have developed very much independently, and only little cross-pollination has been seen. In our experiment we study how cold atoms can be combined with single trapped ions to create a new hybrid quantum system with tailored properties. We have deterministically placed a single ion into an atomic Bose Einstein condensate and demonstrated independent control over the two components within the hybrid system. We have studied the fundamental interaction processes and observed sympathetic cooling of the single ion by the condensate. Additionally, we have characterized elastic and inelastic atom- ion collisions and measured the energy-dependent reaction rate constants. Our experiment paves the way for coupling atomic quantum many-body states to an independently controllable single-particle, giving access to a wealth of novel physics and to completely new detection and manipulation techniques.
Interplay of weak interactions in the atom-by-atom condensation of xenon within quantum boxes.
Nowakowska, Sylwia; Wäckerlin, Aneliia; Kawai, Shigeki; Ivas, Toni; Nowakowski, Jan; Fatayer, Shadi; Wäckerlin, Christian; Nijs, Thomas; Meyer, Ernst; Björk, Jonas; Stöhr, Meike; Gade, Lutz H; Jung, Thomas A
2015-01-01
Condensation processes are of key importance in nature and play a fundamental role in chemistry and physics. Owing to size effects at the nanoscale, it is conceptually desired to experimentally probe the dependence of condensate structure on the number of constituents one by one. Here we present an approach to study a condensation process atom-by-atom with the scanning tunnelling microscope, which provides a direct real-space access with atomic precision to the aggregates formed in atomically defined 'quantum boxes'. Our analysis reveals the subtle interplay of competing directional and nondirectional interactions in the emergence of structure and provides unprecedented input for the structural comparison with quantum mechanical models. This approach focuses on-but is not limited to-the model case of xenon condensation and goes significantly beyond the well-established statistical size analysis of clusters in atomic or molecular beams by mass spectrometry. PMID:25608225
Interplay of weak interactions in the atom-by-atom condensation of xenon within quantum boxes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nowakowska, Sylwia; Wäckerlin, Aneliia; Kawai, Shigeki; Ivas, Toni; Nowakowski, Jan; Fatayer, Shadi; Wäckerlin, Christian; Nijs, Thomas; Meyer, Ernst; Björk, Jonas; Stöhr, Meike; Gade, Lutz H.; Jung, Thomas A.
2015-01-01
Condensation processes are of key importance in nature and play a fundamental role in chemistry and physics. Owing to size effects at the nanoscale, it is conceptually desired to experimentally probe the dependence of condensate structure on the number of constituents one by one. Here we present an approach to study a condensation process atom-by-atom with the scanning tunnelling microscope, which provides a direct real-space access with atomic precision to the aggregates formed in atomically defined ‘quantum boxes’. Our analysis reveals the subtle interplay of competing directional and nondirectional interactions in the emergence of structure and provides unprecedented input for the structural comparison with quantum mechanical models. This approach focuses on—but is not limited to—the model case of xenon condensation and goes significantly beyond the well-established statistical size analysis of clusters in atomic or molecular beams by mass spectrometry.
Interplay of weak interactions in the atom-by-atom condensation of xenon within quantum boxes
Nowakowska, Sylwia; Wäckerlin, Aneliia; Kawai, Shigeki; Ivas, Toni; Nowakowski, Jan; Fatayer, Shadi; Wäckerlin, Christian; Nijs, Thomas; Meyer, Ernst; Björk, Jonas; Stöhr, Meike; Gade, Lutz H.; Jung, Thomas A.
2015-01-01
Condensation processes are of key importance in nature and play a fundamental role in chemistry and physics. Owing to size effects at the nanoscale, it is conceptually desired to experimentally probe the dependence of condensate structure on the number of constituents one by one. Here we present an approach to study a condensation process atom-by-atom with the scanning tunnelling microscope, which provides a direct real-space access with atomic precision to the aggregates formed in atomically defined ‘quantum boxes’. Our analysis reveals the subtle interplay of competing directional and nondirectional interactions in the emergence of structure and provides unprecedented input for the structural comparison with quantum mechanical models. This approach focuses on—but is not limited to—the model case of xenon condensation and goes significantly beyond the well-established statistical size analysis of clusters in atomic or molecular beams by mass spectrometry. PMID:25608225
Gradient Echo Quantum Memory in Warm Atomic Vapor
Pinel, Olivier; Hosseini, Mahdi; Sparkes, Ben M.; Everett, Jesse L.; Higginbottom, Daniel; Campbell, Geoff T.; Lam, Ping Koy; Buchler, Ben C.
2013-01-01
Gradient echo memory (GEM) is a protocol for storing optical quantum states of light in atomic ensembles. The primary motivation for such a technology is that quantum key distribution (QKD), which uses Heisenberg uncertainty to guarantee security of cryptographic keys, is limited in transmission distance. The development of a quantum repeater is a possible path to extend QKD range, but a repeater will need a quantum memory. In our experiments we use a gas of rubidium 87 vapor that is contained in a warm gas cell. This makes the scheme particularly simple. It is also a highly versatile scheme that enables in-memory refinement of the stored state, such as frequency shifting and bandwidth manipulation. The basis of the GEM protocol is to absorb the light into an ensemble of atoms that has been prepared in a magnetic field gradient. The reversal of this gradient leads to rephasing of the atomic polarization and thus recall of the stored optical state. We will outline how we prepare the atoms and this gradient and also describe some of the pitfalls that need to be avoided, in particular four-wave mixing, which can give rise to optical gain. PMID:24300586
Long-distance quantum networks using ultra-cold atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solmeyer, Neal; Li, Xiao; Quraishi, Qudsia
2016-05-01
The generation of entanglement between distantly located quantum memories via frequency converted single photons could enable many applications in quantum networking, including quantum teleportation, distributed quantum computing and potentially distributed precision timing. A quantum network with three or more nodes has yet to be demonstrated and moreover hybrid networks leverage advantages of different platforms. With an existing memory at the Army Research Laboratory (ARL), based on weak Raman scattering in a Rb magneto-optical trap, we are building a second node at the Joint Quantum Institute (JQI), connected to ARL by a 13 km optical fiber. The second node will be a higher photon-rate node based on Rydberg excitations of a Rb ensemble in an optical dipole trap (N. Solmeyer et al., arXiv:1511.00025) and the first node will be upgraded to a Rydberg system soon. In the near term, we plan to generate entanglement between the second and a third node, based on a similar experimental setup, 100 m away at the JQI. For the ARL-JQI link we are presently working on quantum frequency conversion from IR photons to telecom wavelengths. Separately, we are pursuing frequency conversion from 493 nm photons to 780 nm to be used in a hybrid quantum network between ions and neutral atoms.
Early atomic models - from mechanical to quantum (1904-1913)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baily, C.
2013-01-01
A complete history of early atomic models would fill volumes, but a reasonably coherent tale of the path from mechanical atoms to the quantum can be told by focusing on the relevant work of three great contributors to atomic physics, in the critically important years between 1904 and 1913: J.J. Thomson, Ernest Rutherford and Niels Bohr. We first examine the origins of Thomson's mechanical atomic models, from his ethereal vortex atoms in the early 1880's, to the myriad "corpuscular" atoms he proposed following the discovery of the electron in 1897. Beyond qualitative predictions for the periodicity of the elements, the application of Thomson's atoms to problems in scattering and absorption led to quantitative predictions that were confirmed by experiments with high-velocity electrons traversing thin sheets of metal. Still, the much more massive and energetic α-particles being studied by Rutherford were better suited for exploring the interior of the atom, and careful measurements on the angular dependence of their scattering eventually allowed him to infer the existence of an atomic nucleus. Niels Bohr was particularly troubled by the radiative instability inherent to any mechanical atom, and succeeded in 1913 where others had failed in the prediction of emission spectra, by making two bold hypotheses that were in contradiction to the laws of classical physics, but necessary in order to account for experimental facts.
Generalized Kronig-Penney model for ultracold atomic quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Negretti, A.; Gerritsma, R.; Idziaszek, Z.; Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Calarco, T.
2014-10-01
We study the properties of a quantum particle interacting with a one-dimensional structure of equidistant scattering centers. We derive an analytical expression for the dispersion relation and for the Bloch functions in the presence of both even and odd scattering waves within the pseudopotential approximation. This generalizes the well-known solid-state physics textbook result known as the Kronig-Penney model. Our generalized model can be used to describe systems such as degenerate Fermi gases interacting with ions or with another neutral atomic species confined in an optical lattice, thus enabling the investigation of polaron or Kondo physics within a simple formalism. We focus our attention on the specific atom-ion system and compare our findings with quantum defect theory. Excellent agreement is obtained within the regime of validity of the pseudopotential approximation. This enables us to derive a Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian for a degenerate quantum Bose gas in a linear chain of ions.
Quantum Coherence between Two Atoms beyond Q=10{sup 15}
Chou, C. W.; Hume, D. B.; Thorpe, M. J.; Wineland, D. J.; Rosenband, T.
2011-04-22
We place two atoms in quantum superposition states and observe coherent phase evolution for 3.4x10{sup 15} cycles. Correlation signals from the two atoms yield information about their relative phase even after the probe radiation has decohered. This technique allowed a frequency comparison of two {sup 27}Al{sup +} ions with fractional uncertainty 3.7{sub -0.8}{sup +1.0}x10{sup -16}/{radical}({tau}/s). Two measures of the Q factor are reported: The Q factor derived from quantum coherence is 3.4{sub -1.1}{sup +2.4}x10{sup 16}, and the spectroscopic Q factor for a Ramsey time of 3 s is 6.7x10{sup 15}. We demonstrate a method to detect the individual quantum states of two Al{sup +} ions in a Mg{sup +}-Al{sup +}-Al{sup +} linear ion chain without spatially resolving the ions.
Editorial . Quantum fluctuations and coherence in optical and atomic structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eschner, Jürgen; Gatti, Alessandra; Maître, Agnès; Morigi, Giovanna
2003-03-01
From simple interference fringes, over molecular wave packets, to nonlinear optical patterns - the fundamental interaction between light and matter leads to the formation of structures in many areas of atomic and optical physics. Sophisticated technology in experimental quantum optics, as well as modern computational tools available to theorists, have led to spectacular achievements in the investigation of quantum structures. This special issue is dedicated to recent developments in this area. It presents a selection of examples where quantum dynamics, fluctuations, and coherence generate structures in time or in space or where such structures are observed experimentally. The examples range from coherence phenomena in condensed matter, over atoms in optical structures, entanglement in light and matter, to quantum patterns in nonlinear optics and quantum imaging. The combination of such seemingly diverse subjects formed the basis of a successful European TMR network, "Quantum Structures" (visit http://cnqo.phys.strath.ac.uk/~gianluca/QSTRUCT/). This special issue partly re.ects the results and collaborations of the network, going however well beyond its scope by including contributions from a global community and from many related topics which were not addressed directly in the network. The aim of this issue is to present side by side these di.erent topics, all of which are loosely summarized under quantum structures, to highlight their common aspects, their di.erences, and the progress which resulted from the mutual exchange of results, methods, and knowledge. To guide the reader, we have organized the articles into subsections which follow a rough division into structures in material systems and structures in optical .elds. Nevertheless, in the following introduction we point out connections between the contributions which go beyond these usual criteria, thus highlighting the truly interdisciplinary nature of quantum structures. Much of the progress in atom optics
Maximal atom-photon entanglement in a double- quantum system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kordi, Zeinab; Ghanbari, Saeed; Mahmoudi, Mohammad
2015-06-01
The atom-photon entanglement of a dressed atom and its spontaneous emission in a double- closed-loop atomic system is studied under multi-photon resonance condition. It is shown that even in the absence of quantum interference due to the spontaneous emission, the von Neumann entropy is phase-sensitive and it can be controlled by either intensity or relative phase of the applied fields. It is demonstrated that for the special case of Rabi frequency of the applied fields, the system is maximally entangled. Moreover, an open-loop configuration is considered, and it is shown that the degree of entanglement can be controlled by intensity of the applied fields. Furthermore, in electromagnetically induced transparency condition, the system is disentangled. Such a system can be used for quantum information processing via entanglement using optical switching.
Quantum oscillations of nitrogen atoms in uranium nitride
Aczel, Adam A; Granroth, Garrett E; MacDougall, Gregory J; Buyers, W. J. L.; Abernathy, Douglas L; Samolyuk, German D; Stocks, George Malcolm; Nagler, Stephen E
2012-01-01
The vibrational excitations of crystalline solids corresponding to acoustic or optic one phonon modes appear as sharp features in measurements such as neutron spectroscopy. In contrast, many-phonon excitations generally produce a complicated, weak, and featureless response. Here we present time-of-flight neutron scattering measurements for the binary solid uranium nitride (UN), showing well-defined, equally-spaced, high energy vibrational modes in addition to the usual phonons. The spectrum is that of a single atom, isotropic quantum harmonic oscillator and characterizes independent motions of light nitrogen atoms, each found in an octahedral cage of heavy uranium atoms. This is an unexpected and beautiful experimental realization of one of the fundamental, exactly-solvable problems in quantum mechanics. There are also practical implications, as the oscillator modes must be accounted for in the design of generation IV nuclear reactors that plan to use UN as a fuel.
Atomic Quantum Gases in Kagomé Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, L.; Baranov, M. A.; Cirac, J. I.; Everts, H.-U.; Fehrmann, H.; Lewenstein, M.
2004-07-01
We demonstrate the possibility of creating and controlling an ideal and trimerized optical Kagomé lattice, and study the low temperature physics of various atomic gases in such lattices. In the trimerized Kagomé lattice, a Bose gas exhibits a Mott transition with fractional filling factors, whereas a spinless interacting Fermi gas at 2/3 filling behaves as a quantum magnet on a triangular lattice. Finally, a Fermi-Fermi mixture at half-filling for both components represents a frustrated quantum antiferromagnet with a resonating-valence-bond ground state and quantum spin liquid behavior dominated by a continuous spectrum of singlet and triplet excitations. We discuss the method of preparing and observing such a quantum spin liquid employing molecular Bose condensates.
Nonlinear spectroscopic effects in quantum gases induced by atom-atom interactions
Safonov, A. I. Safonova, I. I.; Yasnikov, I. S.
2013-05-15
We consider nonlinear spectroscopic effects-interaction-enhanced double resonance and spectrum instability-that appear in ultracold quantum gases owing to collisional frequency shift of atomic transitions and, consequently, due to the dependence of the frequencies on the population of various internal states of the particles. Special emphasis is put to two simplest cases, (a) the gas of two-level atoms and (b) double resonance in a gas of three-level bosons, in which the probe transition frequency remains constant.
Photonic Quantum Logic with Narrowband Light from Single Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rubenok, Allison; Holleczek, Annemarie; Barter, Oliver; Dilley, Jerome; Nisbet-Jones, Peter B. R.; Langfahl-Klabes, Gunnar; Kuhn, Axel; Sparrow, Chris; Marshall, Graham D.; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Poulios, Konstantinos; Matthews, Jonathan C. F.
Atom-cavity sources of narrowband photons are a promising candidate for the future development of quantum technologies. Likewise, integrated photonic circuits have established themselves as a fore-running contender in quantum computing, security, and communication. Here we report on recent achievements to interface these two technologies: Atom-cavity sources coupled to integrated photonic circuits. Using narrow linewidth photons emitted from a single 87 Rb atom strongly coupled to a high-finesse cavity we demonstrate the successful operation of an integrated control-not gate. Furthermore, we are able to verify the generation of post-selected entanglement upon successful operation of the gate. We are able to see non-classical correlations in detection events that are up to three orders of magnitude farther apart than the time needed for light to travel across the chip. Our hybrid approach will facilitate the future development of technologies that benefit from the advantages of both integrated quantum circuits and atom-cavity photon sources. Now at: National Physics Laboratory.
Construction of a single atom trap for quantum information protocols
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shea, Margaret E.; Baker, Paul M.; Gauthier, Daniel J.; Duke Physics Department Team
2016-05-01
The field of quantum information science addresses outstanding problems such as achieving fundamentally secure communication and solving computationally hard problems. Great progress has been made in the field, particularly using photons coupled to ions and super conducting qubits. Neutral atoms are also interesting for these applications and though the technology for control of neutrals lags behind that of trapped ions, they offer some key advantages: primarily coupling to optical frequencies closer to the telecom band than trapped ions or superconducting qubits. Here we report progress on constructing a single atom trap for 87 Rb. This system is a promising platform for studying the technical problems facing neutral atom quantum computing. For example, most protocols destroy the trap when reading out the neutral atom's state; we will investigate an alternative non-destructive state detection scheme. We detail the experimental systems involved and the challenges addressed in trapping a single atom. All of our hardware components are off the shelf and relatively inexpensive. Unlike many other systems, we place a high numerical aperture lens inside our vacuum system to increase photon collection efficiency. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the ARO through Grant # W911NF1520047.
Four-Dimensional Quantum Hall Effect with Ultracold Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Price, H. M.; Zilberberg, O.; Ozawa, T.; Carusotto, I.; Goldman, N.
2015-11-01
We propose a realistic scheme to detect the 4D quantum Hall effect using ultracold atoms. Based on contemporary technology, motion along a synthetic fourth dimension can be accomplished through controlled transitions between internal states of atoms arranged in a 3D optical lattice. From a semiclassical analysis, we identify the linear and nonlinear quantized current responses of our 4D model, relating these to the topology of the Bloch bands. We then propose experimental protocols, based on current or center-of-mass-drift measurements, to extract the topological second Chern number. Our proposal sets the stage for the exploration of novel topological phases in higher dimensions.
Cold atom simulation of interacting relativistic quantum field theories.
Cirac, J Ignacio; Maraner, Paolo; Pachos, Jiannis K
2010-11-01
We demonstrate that Dirac fermions self-interacting or coupled to dynamic scalar fields can emerge in the low energy sector of designed bosonic and fermionic cold atom systems. We illustrate this with two examples defined in two spacetime dimensions. The first one is the self-interacting Thirring model. The second one is a model of Dirac fermions coupled to a dynamic scalar field that gives rise to the Gross-Neveu model. The proposed cold atom experiments can be used to probe spectral or correlation properties of interacting quantum field theories thereby presenting an alternative to lattice gauge theory simulations. PMID:21231152
Efficient teleportation between remote single-atom quantum memories.
Nölleke, Christian; Neuzner, Andreas; Reiserer, Andreas; Hahn, Carolin; Rempe, Gerhard; Ritter, Stephan
2013-04-01
We demonstrate teleportation of quantum bits between two single atoms in distant laboratories. Using a time-resolved photonic Bell-state measurement, we achieve a teleportation fidelity of (88.0 ± 1.5)%, largely determined by our entanglement fidelity. The low photon collection efficiency in free space is overcome by trapping each atom in an optical cavity. The resulting success probability of 0.1% is almost 5 orders of magnitude larger than in previous experiments with remote material qubits. It is mainly limited by photon propagation and detection losses and can be enhanced with a cavity-based deterministic Bell-state measurement. PMID:25166964
Sequential double Auger decay in atoms: A quantum informatic analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parida, S.; Chandra, N.
2009-05-01
We theoretically show that the process of inner-shell photoionization in an atom A, followed by the spontaneous sequential emission of two Auger electrons, produces various kinds of spin-entangled states of three flying electronic qubits. All properties of these states are completely pre-determined by the total spin quantum numbers of the electronic states of four atomic species (i.e., A, A, A, A) participating in this process in the Russell-Saunders coupling. These tripartite states are readily characterized experimentally by measuring only energies of the three emitted electrons, without requiring any entanglement witness or other such protocols.
Rapid cooling to quantum degeneracy in dynamically shaped atom traps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Richard; Green, Alaina; Bowler, Ryan; Gupta, Subhadeep
2016-04-01
We report on a general method for the rapid production of quantum degenerate gases. Using 174Yb, we achieve an experimental cycle time as low as 1.6-1.8 s for the production of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of (0.5 -1 ) ×105 atoms. While laser cooling to 30 μ K proceeds in a standard way, evaporative cooling is highly optimized by performing it in an optical trap that is dynamically shaped by utilizing the time-averaged potential of a single laser beam moving rapidly in one dimension. We also produce large (>106 ) atom number BECs and successfully model the evaporation dynamics over more than three orders of magnitude in phase space density. Our method provides a simple and general approach to solving the problem of long production times of quantum degenerate gases.
Atomic electron energies including relativistic effects and quantum electrodynamic corrections
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aoyagi, M.; Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.; Huang, K. N.; Mark, H.
1977-01-01
Atomic electron energies have been calculated relativistically. Hartree-Fock-Slater wave functions served as zeroth-order eigenfunctions to compute the expectation of the total Hamiltonian. A first order correction to the local approximation was thus included. Quantum-electrodynamic corrections were made. For all orbitals in all atoms with 2 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 106, the following quantities are listed: total energies, electron kinetic energies, electron-nucleus potential energies, electron-electron potential energies consisting of electrostatic and Breit interaction (magnetic and retardation) terms, and vacuum polarization energies. These results will serve for detailed comparison of calculations based on other approaches. The magnitude of quantum electrodynamic corrections is exhibited quantitatively for each state.
Designing Frustrated Quantum Magnets with Laser-Dressed Rydberg Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glaetzle, Alexander W.; Dalmonte, Marcello; Nath, Rejish; Gross, Christian; Bloch, Immanuel; Zoller, Peter
2015-05-01
We show how a broad class of lattice spin-1 /2 models with angular- and distance-dependent couplings can be realized with cold alkali atoms stored in optical or magnetic trap arrays. The effective spin-1 /2 is represented by a pair of atomic ground states, and spin-spin interactions are obtained by admixing van der Waals interactions between fine-structure split Rydberg states with laser light. The strengths of the diagonal spin interactions as well as the "flip-flop," and "flip-flip" and "flop-flop" interactions can be tuned by exploiting quantum interference, thus realizing different spin symmetries. The resulting energy scales of interactions compare well with typical temperatures and decoherence time scales, making the exploration of exotic forms of quantum magnetism, including emergent gauge theories and compass models, accessible within state-of-the-art experiments.
Designing frustrated quantum magnets with laser-dressed Rydberg atoms.
Glaetzle, Alexander W; Dalmonte, Marcello; Nath, Rejish; Gross, Christian; Bloch, Immanuel; Zoller, Peter
2015-05-01
We show how a broad class of lattice spin-1/2 models with angular- and distance-dependent couplings can be realized with cold alkali atoms stored in optical or magnetic trap arrays. The effective spin-1/2 is represented by a pair of atomic ground states, and spin-spin interactions are obtained by admixing van der Waals interactions between fine-structure split Rydberg states with laser light. The strengths of the diagonal spin interactions as well as the "flip-flop," and "flip-flip" and "flop-flop" interactions can be tuned by exploiting quantum interference, thus realizing different spin symmetries. The resulting energy scales of interactions compare well with typical temperatures and decoherence time scales, making the exploration of exotic forms of quantum magnetism, including emergent gauge theories and compass models, accessible within state-of-the-art experiments. PMID:25978228
Quantum entanglement for helium atom in the Debye plasmas
Lin, Yen-Chang; Fang, Te-Kuei; Ho, Yew Kam
2015-03-15
In the present work, we present an investigation on quantum entanglement of the two-electron helium atom immersed in weakly coupled Debye plasmas, modeled by the Debye-Hückel, or screened Coulomb, potential to mimic the interaction between two charged particles inside the plasma. Quantum entanglement is related to correlation effects in a multi-particle system. In a bipartite system, a measurement made on one of the two entangled particles affects the outcome of the other particle, even if such two particles are far apart. Employing wave functions constructed with configuration interaction B-spline basis, we have quantified von Neumann entropy and linear entropy for a series of He {sup 1,3}S{sup e} and {sup 1,3}P{sup o} states in plasma-embedded helium atom.
Mesoscopic Rydberg Impurity in an Atomic Quantum Gas.
Schmidt, Richard; Sadeghpour, H R; Demler, E
2016-03-11
Giant impurity excitations are powerful probes for exploring new regimes of far out of equilibrium dynamics in few- and many-body quantum systems, and in situ observations of correlations. Motivated by recent experimental progress in spectroscopic studies of Rydberg excitations in ultracold atoms, we develop a new theoretical approach for describing multiscale dynamics of Rydberg excitations in quantum Bose gases. We find that the crossover from few- to many-body dynamics manifests in a dramatic change in spectral profile from resolved molecular lines to broad Gaussian distributions representing a superpolaronic state in which many atoms bind to the Rydberg impurity. We discuss signatures of this crossover in the temperature and density dependence of the spectra. PMID:27015490
Mesoscopic Rydberg Impurity in an Atomic Quantum Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, Richard; Sadeghpour, H. R.; Demler, E.
2016-03-01
Giant impurity excitations are powerful probes for exploring new regimes of far out of equilibrium dynamics in few- and many-body quantum systems, and in situ observations of correlations. Motivated by recent experimental progress in spectroscopic studies of Rydberg excitations in ultracold atoms, we develop a new theoretical approach for describing multiscale dynamics of Rydberg excitations in quantum Bose gases. We find that the crossover from few- to many-body dynamics manifests in a dramatic change in spectral profile from resolved molecular lines to broad Gaussian distributions representing a superpolaronic state in which many atoms bind to the Rydberg impurity. We discuss signatures of this crossover in the temperature and density dependence of the spectra.
From rotating atomic rings to quantum Hall states
Roncaglia, M.; Rizzi, M.; Dalibard, J.
2011-01-01
Considerable efforts are currently devoted to the preparation of ultracold neutral atoms in the strongly correlated quantum Hall regime. However, the necessary angular momentum is very large and in experiments with rotating traps this means spinning frequencies extremely near to the deconfinement limit; consequently, the required control on parameters turns out to be too stringent. Here we propose instead to follow a dynamic path starting from the gas initially confined in a rotating ring. The large moment of inertia of the ring-shaped fluid facilitates the access to large angular momenta, corresponding to giant vortex states. The trapping potential is then adiabatically transformed into a harmonic confinement, which brings the interacting atomic gas in the desired quantum-Hall regime. We provide numerical evidence that for a broad range of initial angular frequencies, the giant-vortex state is adiabatically connected to the bosonic ν = 1/2 Laughlin state. PMID:22355562
Experiments with Ultracold Quantum-degenerate Fermionic Lithium Atoms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ketterle, Wolfgang
2003-01-01
Experimental methods of laser and evaporative cooling, used in the production of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates have recently been extended to realize quantum degeneracy in trapped Fermi gases. Fermi gases are a new rich system to explore the implications of Pauli exclusion on scattering properties of the system, and ultimately fermionic superfluidity. We have produced a new macroscopic quantum system, in which a degenerate Li-6 Fermi gas coexists with a large and stable Na-23 BEC. This was accomplished using inter-species sympathetic cooling of fermionic 6Li in a thermal bath of bosonic Na-23. We have achieved high numbers of both fermions (less than 10(exp 5) and bosons (less than 10(exp 6), and Li-6 quantum degeneracy corresponding to one half of the Fermi temperature. This is the first time that a Fermi sea was produced with a condensate as a "refrigerator".
Charge transport and localization in atomically coherent quantum dot solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whitham, Kevin; Yang, Jun; Savitzky, Benjamin H.; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Wise, Frank; Hanrath, Tobias
2016-05-01
Epitaxial attachment of quantum dots into ordered superlattices enables the synthesis of quasi-two-dimensional materials that theoretically exhibit features such as Dirac cones and topological states, and have major potential for unprecedented optoelectronic devices. Initial studies found that disorder in these structures causes localization of electrons within a few lattice constants, and highlight the critical need for precise structural characterization and systematic assessment of the effects of disorder on transport. Here we fabricated superlattices with the quantum dots registered to within a single atomic bond length (limited by the polydispersity of the quantum dot building blocks), but missing a fraction (20%) of the epitaxial connections. Calculations of the electronic structure including the measured disorder account for the electron localization inferred from transport measurements. The calculations also show that improvement of the epitaxial connections will lead to completely delocalized electrons and may enable the observation of the remarkable properties predicted for these materials.
Electronic Structure of Helium Atom in a Quantum Dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jayanta, K. Saha; Bhattacharyya, S.; T. K., Mukherjee
2016-03-01
Bound and resonance states of helium atom have been investigated inside a quantum dot by using explicitly correlated Hylleraas type basis set within the framework of stabilization method. To be specific, precise energy eigenvalues of bound 1sns (1Se) (n = 1-6) states and the resonance parameters i.e. positions and widths of 1Se states due to 2sns (n = 2-5) and 2pnp (n = 2-5) configurations of confined helium below N = 2 ionization threshold of He+ have been estimated. The two-parameter (Depth and Width) finite oscillator potential is used to represent the confining potential due to the quantum dot. It has been explicitly demonstrated that the electronic structural properties become sensitive functions of the dot size. It is observed from the calculations of ionization potential that the stability of an impurity ion within a quantum dot may be manipulated by varying the confinement parameters. A possibility of controlling the autoionization lifetime of doubly excited states of two-electron ions by tuning the width of the quantum cavity is also discussed here. TKM Gratefully Acknowledges Financial Support under Grant No. 37(3)/14/27/2014-BRNS from the Department of Atomic Energy, BRNS, Government of India. SB Acknowledges Financial Support under Grant No. PSW-160/14-15(ERO) from University Grants Commission, Government of India
Quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms on graphene. II. Sticking
Bonfanti, Matteo; Jackson, Bret; Hughes, Keith H.; Burghardt, Irene
2015-09-28
Following our recent system-bath modeling of the interaction between a hydrogen atom and a graphene surface [Bonfanti et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143, 124703 (2015)], we present the results of converged quantum scattering calculations on the activated sticking dynamics. The focus of this study is the collinear scattering on a surface at zero temperature, which is treated with high-dimensional wavepacket propagations with the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method. At low collision energies, barrier-crossing dominates the sticking and any projectile that overcomes the barrier gets trapped in the chemisorption well. However, at high collision energies, energy transfer to the surface is a limiting factor, and fast H atoms hardly dissipate their excess energy and stick on the surface. As a consequence, the sticking coefficient is maximum (∼0.65) at an energy which is about one and half larger than the barrier height. Comparison of the results with classical and quasi-classical calculations shows that quantum fluctuations of the lattice play a primary role in the dynamics. A simple impulsive model describing the collision of a classical projectile with a quantum surface is developed which reproduces the quantum results remarkably well for all but the lowest energies, thereby capturing the essential physics of the activated sticking dynamics investigated.
Long-distance quantum communication with neutral atoms
Razavi, Mohsen; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.
2006-04-15
The architecture proposed by Duan, Lukin, Cirac, and Zoller (DLCZ) for long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles is analyzed. Its fidelity and throughput in entanglement distribution, entanglement swapping, and quantum teleportation is derived within a framework that accounts for multiple excitations in the ensembles as well as loss and asymmetries in the channel. The DLCZ performance metrics that are obtained are compared to the corresponding results for the trapped-atom quantum communication architecture that has been proposed by a team from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Northwestern University (MIT and NU). Both systems are found to be capable of high-fidelity entanglement distribution. However, the DLCZ scheme only provides conditional teleportation and repeater operation, whereas the MIT-NU architecture affords full Bell-state measurements on its trapped atoms. Moreover, it is shown that achieving unity conditional fidelity in DLCZ teleportation and repeater operation requires ideal photon-number resolving detectors. The maximum conditional fidelities for DLCZ teleportation and repeater operation that can be realized with nonresolving detectors are 1/2 and 2/3, respectively.
Cold atoms in cavity QED for quantum information processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vernooy, David William
2000-11-01
The new field of quantum information science has exploded into virtually every area of modern physics because of the promise it holds for understanding physical limits to communication, computation and more generally the processing of information. Remarkably, this has come concomitantly with stunning successes at integrating laser cooling and trapping techniques with high finesse microresonators. A regime where some of the new theoretical ideas may be experimentally tested in the particular setting of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) has now been reached. This thesis contains three inter-related parts. First, work with microspheres as a possible next generation microcavity is presented, including both successful attempts to push the limits of their quality factors in the near infrared and first experimental results at atomic interaction with the mode of the sphere at the one-photon level. The unique properties of these resonators led to some theoretical investigations of the atom-field interaction emphasizing the quantization of the atomic center of mass degrees of freedom. This has been largely unexplored both theoretically and experimentally to this point, yet remains an extremely important aspect of most serious implementations of quantum information processing in the setting of optical cavity QED. Finally, the emphasis of the last part of this thesis is on an attempt at intracavity atomic localization in the laboratory. Results to date include the first ever trapping of single atoms inside a high finesse microresonator. The techniques and capabilities developed en route to this achievement should form the experimental backbone for future work in optical cavity QED.
The Quantum World of Ultra-Cold Atoms and Light - Book 1: Foundations of Quantum Optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gardiner, Crispin; Zoller, Peter
2014-03-01
Abstract The Table of Contents is as follows: * I - THE PHYSICAL BACKGROUND * 1. Controlling the Quantum World * 1.1 Quantum Optics * 1.2 Quantum Information * 2. Describing the Quantum World * 2.1 Classical Stochastic Processes * 2.2. Theoretical Quantum Optics * 2.3. Quantum Stochastic Methods * 2.4. Ultra-Cold Atoms * II - CLASSICAL STOCHASTIC METHODS * 3. Physics in a Noisy World * 3.1. Brownian Motion and the Thermal Origin of Noise * 3.2. Brownian Motion, Friction, Noise and Temperature * 3.3. Measurement in a Fluctuating System * 4. Stochastic Differential Equations * 4.1. Ito Stochastic Differential Equation * 4.2. The Fokker-Planck Equation * 4.3. The Stratonovich Stochastic Differential Equation * 4.4. Systems with Many Variables * 4.5. Numerical Simulation of Stochastic Differential Equations * 5. The Fokker-Planck Equation * 5.1. Fokker-Planck Equation in One Dimension * 5.2. Eigenfunctions of the Fokker-Planck Equation * 5.3. Many-Variable Fokker-Planck Equations * 6. Master Equations and Jump Processes * 6.1. The Master Equation * 7. Applications of Random Processes * 7.1. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck Process * 7.2. Johnson Noise * 7.3. Complex Variable Oscillator Processes * 8. The Markov Limit * 8.1. The White Noise Limit * 8.2. Interpretation and Generalizations of the White Noise Limit * 8.3. Linear Non-Markovian Stochastic Differential Equations * 9. Adiabatic Elimination of Fast Variables * 9.1 Slow and Fast Variables * 9.2. Other Applications of the Adiabatic Elimination Method * III - FIELDS, QUANTA AND ATOMS * 10. Ideal Bose and Fermi Systems * 10.1. The Quantum Gas * 10.2. Thermal States * 10.3. Fluctuations in the Ideal Bose Gas * 10.4. Bosonic Quantum Gaussian Systems * 10.5. Coherent States * 10.6. Fluctuations in Systems of Fermions * 10.7. Two-Level Systems and Pauli Matrices * 11. Quantum Fields * 11.1 Kinds of Quantum Field * 11.2 Coherence and Correlation Functions * 12. Atoms, Light and their Interaction * 12.1. Interaction with the
An architecture for quantum computation with magnetically trapped Holmium atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saffman, Mark; Hostetter, James; Booth, Donald; Collett, Jeffrey
2016-05-01
Outstanding challenges for scalable neutral atom quantum computation include correction of atom loss due to collisions with untrapped background gas, reduction of crosstalk during state preparation and measurement due to scattering of near resonant light, and the need to improve quantum gate fidelity. We present a scalable architecture based on loading single Holmium atoms into an array of Ioffe-Pritchard traps. The traps are formed by grids of superconducting wires giving a trap array with 40 μm period, suitable for entanglement via long range Rydberg gates. The states | F = 5 , M = 5 > and | F = 7 , M = 7 > provide a magic trapping condition at a low field of 3.5 G for long coherence time qubit encoding. The F = 11 level will be used for state preparation and measurement. The availability of different states for encoding, gate operations, and measurement, spectroscopically isolates the different operations and will prevent crosstalk to neighboring qubits. Operation in a cryogenic environment with ultra low pressure will increase atom lifetime and Rydberg gate fidelity by reduction of blackbody induced Rydberg decay. We will present a complete description of the architecture including estimates of achievable performance metrics. Work supported by NSF award PHY-1404357.
Observing the Quantum Spin Hall Effect with Ultracold Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaishnav, J. Y.; Stanescu, Tudor D.; Clark, Charles W.; Galitski, Victor
2009-03-01
The quantum spin Hall (QSH) state is a topologically nontrivial state of matter proposed to exist in certain 2-D systems with spin-orbit coupling. While the electronic states of a QSH insulator are gapped in the bulk, a QSH insulator is characterized by gapless edge states of different spins which counterpropagate at a given edge; the spin is correlated with the direction of propagation. Recent proposals ootnotetextT. D. Stanescu, C. Zhang, V. Galitski, Physical Review Letters 99, 110403 (2007), J. Y. Vaishnav, Charles W. Clark, Physical Review Letters 100, 153002 (2008). suggest that synthetic spin-orbit couplings can be created for cold atoms moving in spatially varying light fields. Here, we identify an optical lattice setup which generates an effective QSH effect for cold, multilevel atoms. We also discuss methods for experimental detection of the atomic QSH effect.
Influence of realistic atom wall potentials in quantum reflection traps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madroñero, Javier; Friedrich, Harald
2007-02-01
We study the influence of atom-surface interactions close to the surface on the confinement properties in a recently proposed model [A. Jurisch and H. Friedrich, Phys. Lett. A 349, 230 (2006)] for quantum reflection traps and test the reliability of the sharp-step approximation used there. Accurate numerical calculations show a dependence of the surviving particle fraction on characteristic potential lengths determined by the behavior of the interaction in the limits r→0 and r→∞ of the atom-surface distance r . For interactions dominated by the retarded potential proportional to 1/r4 we find that the simplified sharp-step potential reproduces the behavior of the trapped atoms well, both qualitatively and quantitatively.
Quantum interference in a driven two-level atom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ficek, Z.; Rudolph, T.
1999-12-01
We show that a dynamical suppression of spontaneous emission, predicted for a three-level atom [S.-Y. Zhu and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 388 (1996)] can occur in a two-level atom driven by a polychromatic field. We find that the quantum interference, responsible for the cancellation of spontaneous emission, appears between different channels of transitions among the dressed states of the driven atom. We discuss the effect for bichromatic and trichromatic (amplitude-modulated) fields and find that these two cases lead to the cancellation of spontaneous emission in different parts of the fluorescence spectrum. Our system has the advantage of being easily accessible by current experiments.
Approaching the quantum limit for plasmonics: linear atomic chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bryant, Garnett W.
2016-07-01
Optical excitations in atomic-scale materials can be strongly mixed, with contributions from both single-particle transitions and collective response. This complicates the quantum description of these excitations, because there is no clear way to define their quantization. To develop a quantum theory for these optical excitations, they must first be characterized so that single-particle-like and collective excitations can be identified. Linear atomic chains, such as atom chains on surfaces, linear arrays of dopant atoms in semiconductors, or linear molecules, provide ideal testbeds for studying collective excitations in small atomic-scale systems. We use exact diagonalization to study the many-body excitations of finite (10 to 25) linear atomic chains described by a simplified model Hamiltonian. Exact diagonalization results can be very different from the density functional theory (DFT) results usually obtained. Highly correlated, multiexcitonic states, strongly dependent on the electron–electron interaction strength, dominate the exact spectral and optical response but are not present in DFT excitation spectra. The ubiquitous presence of excitonic many-body states in the spectra makes it hard to identify plasmonic excitations. A combination of criteria involving a many-body state’s transfer dipole moment, balance, transfer charge, dynamical response, and induced-charge distribution do strongly suggest which many-body states should be considered as plasmonic. This analysis can be used to reveal the few plasmonic many-body states hidden in the dense spectrum of low-energy single-particle-like states and many higher-energy excitonic-like states. These excitonic states are the predominant excitation because of the many possible ways to develop local correlations.
An Atomic Abacus: Trapped ion quantum computing experiments at NIST
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demarco, Brian
2003-03-01
Trapped atomic ions are an ideal system for exploring quantum information science because deterministic state preparation and efficient state detection are possible and coherent manipulation of atomic systems is relatively advanced. In our experiment, a few singly charged Be ions are confined by static and radio-frequency electric fields in a micro-machined linear Paul trap. The internal and motional states of the ions are coherently manipulated using applied laser light. Our current work focuses on demonstrating the necessary ingredients to produce a scalable quantum computing scheme and on simplifying and improving quantum logic gates. I will speak about a new set of experiments that was made possible by recent improvements in trap technology. A novel trap with multiple trapping regions was used to demonstrate the first steps towards a fully scalable quantum computing scheme. Single ions were ``shuttled" between trapping regions without disturbing the ion's motional and internal state, and two ions were separated from a single to two different trapping zones. Improvements in the trap manufacturing process has led to a reduction of nearly two orders of magnitude in the ion's motional heating rate, making possible two new improved logic gates. The first gate utilizes the wave-packet nature of the ions to tune the laser-atom interaction and achieve a controlled-NOT gate between a single ion's spin and motional states. The second, a two-ion phase gate, uses phase-space dynamics to produce a state-sensitive geometric phase. I will end with a quick look at experiments using a Mg ion to sympathetically cool a simultaneously trapped Be ion and a glimpse of the next generation of ions traps currently under construction.
Quantum jumps in a two-level atom: Simple theories versus quantum trajectories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiseman, H. M.; Toombes, G. E.
1999-09-01
A strongly driven (Ω>>γ) two-level atom relaxes towards an equilibrium state ρ which is almost completely mixed. One interpretation of this state is that it represents an ensemble average, and that an individual atom is at any time in one of the eigenstates of ρ. The theory of Teich and Mahler [Phys. Rev. A 45, 3300 (1992)] makes this interpretation concrete, with an individual atom jumping stochastically between the two eigenstates when a photon is emitted. The dressed-atom theory is also supposed to describe the quantum jumps of an individual atom due to photoemissions. But the two pictures are contradictory because the dressed states of the atom are almost orthogonal to the eigenstates of ρ. In this paper we investigate three ways of measuring the field radiated by the atom, which attempt to reproduce the simple quantum jump dynamics of the dressed state or Teich and Mahler models. These are spectral detection (using optical filters), two-state jumps (using adaptive homodyne detection), and orthogonal jumps (another adaptive homodyne scheme). We find that the three schemes closely mimic the jumps of the dressed-state model, with errors of order 34(γ/Ω)2/3, 14(γ/Ω)2, and 34(γ/Ω)2, respectively. The significance of this result to the program of environmentally induced superselection is discussed.
Quantum gases in optical lattices : the atomic Mott insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Oosten, D.
2004-09-01
An optical lattice is a periodic potential for atoms, created using a standing wave pattern of light. Due to the interaction between the light and the atoms, the atoms are attracted to either the nodes or the anti-nodes of the standing wave, depending on the exact wave lenght of the light. This means that if such a lattice is loaded with a sufficiently high number of ultracold atoms, a periodic array of atoms is obtained, we an interatomic distance of a few tenths of a micrometer. In order to obtain such a high number of cold atoms, one first has to create a so-called Bose-Einstein condensate. When an optical lattice is loaded from a Bose-Einstein condensate, it is possible to create a system in which every atom is in the lowest band of the lattice and there is on average one atom in each lattice site. Because the lattice potential is created with laser light, the depth of the lattice can easily be tuned by changing the intensity of the laser. When the intensity of the laser light is low, the atoms can tunnel from one site to the next. Due to this tunneling, the gas of atoms in the lattice will remain superfluid. However, if the intensity of the laser light is increased to above a certain critical value, a quantum phase transition occurs to a so-called Mott insulator. In this state, the atoms can no longer tunnel due to the fact that the on-site interaction between atoms becomes more important then the tunneling probability. In this PhD thesis, a description is given of the experimental setup that is being constructed in our group to create these systems in our lab. Also, a theoretical description is given of these systems and several important quantities our derived, such as the gap of the Mott-insulating state. Furthermore, an experiment is proposed that can be used to accurately measure this gap.
Erber, T.; Hammerling, P.; Hockney, G.; Porrati, M.; Putterman, S.
1989-03-01
When a single trapped /sup 198/Hg/sup +/ ion is illuminated by two lasers,each tuned to an approximate transition, the resulting fluorescence switches/ital on/ and /ital off/ in a series of pulses resembling a bistable telegraph.This intermittent fluorescence can also be obtained by optical pumpingwith a single laser. Quantum jumps between successive atomic levels may betraced directly with multiple-resonance fluorescence. Atomic transition ratesand photon antibunching distributions can be inferred from the pulse statisticsand compared with quantum theory. Stochastic tests also indicate that thequantum telegraphs are good random number generators. During periods whenthe fluorescence is switched /ital off/, the radiationless atomic currentsthat generate the telegraph signals can be adjusted by varying the laserillumination: if this coherent evolution of the wave functions is sustainedover sufficiently long time intervals, novel /ital interactive/ precisionmeasurements, near the limits of the time-energy uncertainty relations, arepossible./copyright/ 1989 Academic Press, Inc.
Quantum Metrology with Lattice-Confined Ultracold SR Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ludlow, A. D.; Campbell, G. K.; Blatt, S.; Boyd, M. M.; Martin, M. J.; Nicholson, T. L.; Swallows, M.; Thomsen, J. W.; Fortier, T.; Oates, C. W.; Diddams, S. A.; Lemke, N. D.; Barber, Z.; Porsev, S. G.; Ye, Jun
2009-04-01
Quantum state engineering of ultracold matter and precise control of optical fields have together allowed accurate measurement of light-matter interactions for applications in precision tests of fundamental physics. State-of-the-art lasers maintain optical phase coherence over one second. Optical frequency combs distribute this optical phase coherence across the entire visible and infrared parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, leading to the direct visualization and measurement of light ripples. At the same time, ultracold atoms confined in an optical lattice with zero differential ac Stark shift between two clock states allow us to minimize quantum decoherence while strengthening the clock signal. For 87Sr, we achieve a resonance quality factor > 2.4 × 1014 on the 1S0 - 3P0 doubly forbidden clock transition at 698 nm [1]. The uncertainty of this new clock has reached 1 × 10-16 and its instability approaches 1 × 10-15 at 1 s [2]. These developments represent a remarkable convergence of ultracold atoms, laser stabilization, and ultrafast science. Further improvements are still tantalizing, with quantum measurement and precision metrology combining forces to explore the next frontier.
Operating Spin Echo in the Quantum Regime for an Atomic-Ensemble Quantum Memory.
Rui, Jun; Jiang, Yan; Yang, Sheng-Jun; Zhao, Bo; Bao, Xiao-Hui; Pan, Jian-Wei
2015-09-25
Spin echo is a powerful technique to extend atomic or nuclear coherence times by overcoming the dephasing due to inhomogeneous broadenings. However, there are disputes about the feasibility of applying this technique to an ensemble-based quantum memory at the single-quanta level. In this experimental study, we find that noise due to imperfections of the rephasing pulses has both intense superradiant and weak isotropic parts. By properly arranging the beam directions and optimizing the pulse fidelities, we successfully manage to operate the spin echo technique in the quantum regime by observing nonclassical photon-photon correlations as well as the quantum behavior of retrieved photons. Our work for the first time demonstrates the feasibility of harnessing the spin echo method to extend the lifetime of ensemble-based quantum memories at the single-quanta level. PMID:26451551
Continuous Measurement Quantum State Tomography of Atomic Ensembles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riofrio Almeida, Carlos A.
Quantum state tomography is a fundamental tool in quantum information processing tasks. It allows us to estimate the state of a quantum system by measuring different observables on many identically prepared copies of the system. Usually, one makes projective measurements of an "informationally complete" set of observables and repeats them enough times so that good estimates of their expectation values are obtained. This is, in general, a very time-consuming task that requires a large number of measurements. There are, however, systems in which the data acquisition can be done more efficiently. In fact, an ensemble of quantum systems can be prepared and manipulated by external fields while being continuously probed collectively, producing enough information to estimate its state. This provides a basis for continuous measurement quantum tomography, and is the main topic of this dissertation. This method, based on weak continuous measurement, has the advantage of being fast, accurate, and almost nonperturbative. In this work, we present a extensive discussion and a generalization of the protocol proposed in [1], which was experimentally achieved in [2] using cold cesium atoms. In this protocol, an ensemble of identically prepared systems is collectively probed and controlled in a time-dependent manner so as to create an informationally complete continuous measurement record. The measurement history is then inverted to determine the state at the initial time. To achieve this, we use two different estimation methods: the widely used maximum likelihood and the novel compressed sensing algorithms. The general formalism is applied to the case of reconstruction of the quantum state encoded in the magnetic sub-levels of a large-spin alkali atom, 133Cs. We extend the applicability of the protocol in [1] to the more ambitious case of reconstruction of states in the full 16-dimensional electronic-ground subspace ( F = 3, F = 4), controlled by microwaves and radio
A Rydberg atom-photon-superconductor quantum interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isaacs, J. A.; Booth, D. W.; Beck, M. A.; Pritchard, J. D.; Xia, T.; McDermott, R.; Saffman, M.; UW Hybrid QC Collaboration
2016-05-01
Hybrid quantum computation bridges disparate quantum technologies in order to achieve fast gates with long coherence times. Our implementation combines superconducting circuit-QED with singly trapped Rydberg atoms. Introducing typical AMO techniques into cryogenic environments required the development of several novel approaches that we will discuss in our talk. Our current experiment involves trapping cesium atoms inside a 4 K cryostat, transporting them first horizontally and then vertically up to a superconducting coplanar waveguide resonator. After transport we use a novel two-photon Rydberg excitation via the 6S1 / 2 --> 5D5 / 2 quadrupole transition to enable direct excitation of nP3 / 2 states for strong electric-dipole coupling to the cavity. This excitation scheme significantly reduces the Doppler mismatch compared to previous two-photon excitation schemes to enable high fidelity operations. First optical spectroscopy and Rabi oscillation results will be shown along with microwave cavity coupling data. Experimental and theoretical efforts toward increasing fidelity of our operations by minimizing sensitivity of the Rydberg atoms to stray external electric fields will be discussed. This work is supported by an ARO DURIP award.
Cold-atom Realization of the Quantum Kapitza Pendulum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujiwara, Kurt; Senaratne, Ruwan; Geiger, Zach; Rajagopal, Shankari; Singh, Kevin; Weld, David; Weld Group Team
2015-05-01
The Kapitza pendulum is perhaps the most famous example of dynamic stabilization in a classical single-particle system. When the pivot of a rigid pendulum is modulated in a certain range of amplitude and frequency, a new stable equilibrium appears in the upward-pointing configuration. Extensions of Kapitza stabilization to the quantum many-body regime remain completely unexplored. We report on progress towards realization of a quantum Kapitza pendulum using lithium atoms in a modulated optical lattice, and discuss prospects for mapping the dynamical phase diagram. Tunable quantum Kapitza pendula could enable a variety of exciting research directions, including investigation of the role of strong interactions, possible applications of controllable stabilization, and advances in our understanding of unconventional dynamical behavior in many-body quantum systems. We acknowledge support from the ONR (award N00014-14-1-0805), the ARO and the PECASE program (award W911NF-14-1-0154), the AFOSR (award FA9550-12-1-0305), and the Alfred P. Sloan foundation (grant BR2013-110).
Towards experimental quantum-field tomography with ultracold atoms
Steffens, A.; Friesdorf, M.; Langen, T.; Rauer, B.; Schweigler, T.; Hübener, R.; Schmiedmayer, J.; Riofrío, C.A.; Eisert, J.
2015-01-01
The experimental realization of large-scale many-body systems in atomic-optical architectures has seen immense progress in recent years, rendering full tomography tools for state identification inefficient, especially for continuous systems. To work with these emerging physical platforms, new technologies for state identification are required. Here we present first steps towards efficient experimental quantum-field tomography. Our procedure is based on the continuous analogues of matrix-product states, ubiquitous in condensed-matter theory. These states naturally incorporate the locality present in realistic physical settings and are thus prime candidates for describing the physics of locally interacting quantum fields. To experimentally demonstrate the power of our procedure, we quench a one-dimensional Bose gas by a transversal split and use our method for a partial quantum-field reconstruction of the far-from-equilibrium states of this system. We expect our technique to play an important role in future studies of continuous quantum many-body systems. PMID:26138511
Non-Abelian quantum holonomy of hydrogenlike atoms
Mousolou, Vahid Azimi; Canali, Carlo M.; Sjoeqvist, Erik
2011-09-15
We study the Uhlmann holonomy [Rep. Math. Phys. 24, 229 (1986)] of quantum states for hydrogenlike atoms where the intrinsic spin and orbital angular momentum are coupled by the spin-orbit interaction and are subject to a slowly varying magnetic field. We show that the holonomy for the orbital angular momentum and spin subsystems is non-Abelian while the holonomy of the whole system is Abelian. Quantum entanglement in the states of the whole system is crucially related to the non-Abelian gauge structure of the subsystems. We analyze the phase of the Wilson loop variable associated with the Uhlmann holonomy and find a relation between the phase of the whole system and corresponding marginal phases. Based on the results for the model system, we provide evidence that the phase of the Wilson loop variable and the mixed-state geometric phase [E. Sjoeqvist et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2845 (2000).] are generally inequivalent.
Energies of the first row atoms from quantum Monte Carlo.
Brown, M D; Trail, J R; Ríos, P López; Needs, R J
2007-06-14
All-electron variational and diffusion quantum Monte Carlo calculations of the ground state energies of the first row atoms (from Li to Ne) are reported. The authors use trial wave functions of four types: single-determinant Slater-Jastrow wave functions, multideterminant Slater-Jastrow wave functions, single-determinant Slater-Jastrow wave functions with backflow transformations, and multideterminant Slater-Jastrow wave functions with backflow transformations. At the diffusion quantum Monte Carlo level and using their multideterminant Slater-Jastrow wave functions with backflow transformations, they recover 99% or more of the correlation energies for Li, Be, B, C, N, and Ne, 97% for O, and 98% for F. PMID:17581047
Quantum manifestations of chaos in elastic atom-surface scattering
Guantes, R.; Miret-Artes, S.; Borondo, F.
2001-06-15
Quantum manifestations of chaos in the diffraction of atoms from corrugated surfaces, for a range of initial conditions easily attainable in scattering experiments, are presented and discussed. The appearance of strong oscillations in diffraction patterns is shown to be directly related to the presence of classical chaos and threshold effects. We also show that the autocorrelation function for some of the collision S-matrix elements over incident angles is sensitive to the character, hyperbolic or nonhyperbolic, of the underlying chaotic dynamics, in agreement with general semiclassical arguments for unbound chaotic systems.
Oettl, Anton; Ritter, Stephan; Koehl, Michael; Esslinger, Tilman
2006-06-15
We present and characterize an experimental system in which we achieve the integration of an ultrahigh finesse optical cavity with a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The conceptually novel design of the apparatus for the production of BECs features nested vacuum chambers and an in vacuo magnetic transport configuration. It grants large scale spatial access to the BEC for samples and probes via a modular and exchangeable ''science platform.'' We are able to produce {sup 87}Rb condensates of 5x10{sup 6} atoms and to output couple continuous atom lasers. The cavity is mounted on the science platform on top of a vibration isolation system. The optical cavity works in the strong coupling regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics and serves as a quantum optical detector for single atoms. This system enables us to study atom optics on a single particle level and to further develop the field of quantum atom optics. We describe the technological modules and the operation of the combined BEC cavity apparatus. Its performance is characterized by single atom detection measurements for thermal and quantum degenerate atomic beams. The atom laser provides a fast and controllable supply of atoms coupling with the cavity mode and allows for an efficient study of atom field interactions in the strong coupling regime. Moreover, the high detection efficiency for quantum degenerate atoms distinguishes the cavity as a sensitive and weakly invasive probe for cold atomic clouds.
Effects of quantum coherence and interference in atoms near nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dhayal, Suman; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.
2016-04-01
Optical properties of ensembles of realistic quantum emitters coupled to plasmonic systems are studied by using adequate models that can take into account full atomic geometry. In particular, the coherent effects such as forming "dark states," optical pumping, coherent Raman scattering, and the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) are revisited in the presence of metallic nanoparticles. It is shown that the dark states are still formed but they have more complicated structure, and the optical pumping and the STIRAP cannot be employed in the vicinity of plasmonic nanostructures. Also, there is a huge difference in the behavior of the local atomic polarization and the atomic polarization averaged over an ensemble of atoms homogeneously spread near nanoparticles. The average polarization is strictly related to the polarization induced by the external field, while the local polarization can be very different from the one induced by the external field. This is important for the excitation of single molecules, e.g., different components of scattering from single molecules can be used for their efficient detection.
Atomic and molecular quantum gases in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hecker Denschlag, Johannes
2007-06-01
We report on recent progress in preparing and manipulating ultracold atomic and molecular ensembles in a 3D optical lattice. Starting from an atomic ^87Rb condensate which is adiabatically loaded into a 3D optical lattice we can control the state and dynamics of the gas on the quantum level with the help of static magnetic fields, radio-frequency and laser radiation and a Feshbach resonance. For example, we can produce a pure molecular ensemble of Rb2 Feshbach molecules in the lattice [1] and can coherently transfer it to a more deeply molecular bound state via STIRAP [2] or radio-frequency transitions. Besides possible applications for investigating molecular collisions and producing ultracold molecules in the vibrational ground state, this can also be used for spectroscopic precision measurements of molecular levels. Besides studying chemically bound molecules, optical lattices also allow for forming a novel kind of stable bound state of two atoms which is based on repulsion rather than attraction between the particles [3]. We will explain how these lattice-induced repulsively bound atom pairs come about and discuss their interesting properties. [1] G. Thalhammer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 050402 (2006). [2] K. Winkler, cond-mat/0611222 [3] K. Winkler et al., Nature 441, 853, (2006).
Single atom detection in ultracold quantum gases: a review of current progress
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ott, Herwig
2016-05-01
The recent advances in single atom detection and manipulation in experiments with ultracold quantum gases are reviewed. The discussion starts with the basic principles of trapping, cooling and detecting single ions and atoms. The realization of single atom detection in ultracold quantum gases is presented in detail and the employed methods, which are based on light scattering, electron scattering, field ionization and direct neutral particle detection are discussed. The microscopic coherent manipulation of single atoms in a quantum gas is also covered. Various examples are given in order to highlight the power of these approaches to study many-body quantum systems.
Single atom detection in ultracold quantum gases: a review of current progress.
Ott, Herwig
2016-05-01
The recent advances in single atom detection and manipulation in experiments with ultracold quantum gases are reviewed. The discussion starts with the basic principles of trapping, cooling and detecting single ions and atoms. The realization of single atom detection in ultracold quantum gases is presented in detail and the employed methods, which are based on light scattering, electron scattering, field ionization and direct neutral particle detection are discussed. The microscopic coherent manipulation of single atoms in a quantum gas is also covered. Various examples are given in order to highlight the power of these approaches to study many-body quantum systems. PMID:27093632
A mesoscopic Rydberg impurity in an atomic quantum gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, Richard; Sadeghpour, Hossein; Demler, Eugene
2016-05-01
Impurity problems have been at the forefront of research in condensed matter physics for several decades. In this talk, we show that Rydberg impurity excitations in ultracold quantum gases present a new frontier in impurity research. Here vastly different energy scales compete, signified in deeply bound Rydberg molecules of mesoscopic size. This situation poses a new challenge for theoretical physics and necessitates the confluence of methods ranging from mesoscopic to atomic physics. In our work, we develop a novel many-body theory for the non-equilibrium dynamics of giant impurity excitations Bose gases. Such single Rydberg impurity excitations have recently been observed, and we demonstrate that the observations can be understood from our theoretical approach which incorporates atomic and many-body theory. The crossover from few-body dynamics to quantum many-body collective behavior - manifest in the appearance of a novel superpolaronic state - is elucidated in our unified functional determinant approach, valid at zero and finite temperature. The time-dependent formalism is not restricted to Rydberg systems but can be generally applied to impurities in bosonic and fermionic environments and opens new possibilities to study impurity dynamics in mesoscopic systems.
Atomic spin chains as testing ground for quantum magnetism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Otte, Sander
2015-03-01
The field of quantum magnetism aims to capture the rich emergent physics that arises when multiple spins interact, in terms of elementary models such as the spin 1/2 Heisenberg chain. Experimental platforms to verify these models are rare and generally do not provide the possibility to detect spin correlations locally. In my lab we use low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy to design and build artificial spin lattices with atomic precision. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy enables us to identify the ground state and probe spin excitations as a function of system size, location inside the lattice and coupling parameter values. Two types of collective excitations that play a role in many dynamic magnetic processes are spin waves (magnons) and spinons. Our experiments enable us to study both types of excitations. First, we have been able to map the standing spin wave modes of a ferromagnetic bit of six atoms, and to determine their role in the collective reversal process of the bit (Spinelli et al., Nature Materials 2014). More recently, we have crafted antiferromagnetic spin 1/2 XXZ chains, which allow us to observe spinon excitations, as well as the stepwise transition to a fully aligned phase beyond the critical magnetic field (Toskovic et al., in preparation). These findings create a promising experimental environment for putting quantum magnetic models to the test. Research funded by NWO and FOM.
Quantum Control of Atomic Hydrogen Using Laser Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xingjun; Red, Eddie; Wynn, Albert, III; Weatherford, Charles
2007-06-01
A method for the ab initio simulation of STIRAP (stimulated Raman adiabatic passage) [1,2] laser quantum control of the energy level poulations of atomic ions will be described. The method employs a new algorithm for the solution of the time- dependent Schr"odinger equation which avoids the time-propagator and uses spectral elements in time with a spectral spatial basis.[3] This results in a set of coupled simultaneous equations and is thus an implicit stable procedure. In order to treat the continuum problem (ionization), a complex absorbing potential is used. The spectral spatial basis used is the Coulomb Sturmians.[4] As an initial application, the control of the levels of atomic hydrogen will be presented. [1] S.A. Rice and M. Zhao, Optical Control of Molecular Dynamics, Wiley, New York, 2000. [2] M. Shapiro and P. Brumer, Principles of the Quantum Control of Molecular Processes, Wiley, New York, 2003. [3] C.A. Weatherford, E. Red, and A. Wynn III, J. Mol. Structure (Theochem) 592, 47 (2002). [4] J. Avery, Hyperspherical Harmonics and Generalized Sturmians, Kluwer, Dordrecht, 2000.
Clustering of ions at atomic dimensions in quantum plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shukla, Padma K.; Eliasson, Bengt; Eliasson
2013-08-01
By means of particle simulations of the equations of motion for ions interacting among themselves under the influence of newly discovered Shukla-Eliasson attractive force (SEAF) in a dense quantum plasma, we demonstrate that the SEAF can bring ions closer at atomic dimensions. We present simulation results of the dynamics of an ensemble of ions in the presence of the SEAF without and with confining external potentials and collisions between ions and degenerate electrons. Our particle simulations reveal that under the SEAF, ions attract each other, come closer, and form ionic clusters in the bath of degenerate electrons that shield ions. Furthermore, an external confining potential produces robust ion clusters that can have cigar- and ball-like shapes, which remain stable when the confining potential is removed. The stability of ion clusters is discussed. Our results may have applications to solid density plasmas (density exceeding 1023 per cm3), where the electrons will be degenerate and quantum forces due to the electron recoil effect caused by the overlapping of electron wave functions and electron tunneling through the Bohm potential, electron-exchange and electron-exchange and electron correlations associated with electron-1/2 spin effect, and the quantum statistical pressure of the degenerate electrons play a decisive role.
Positron scattering from hydrogen atom embedded in dense quantum plasma
Bhattacharya, Arka; Kamali, M. Z. M.; Ghoshal, Arijit; Ratnavelu, K.
2013-08-15
Scattering of positrons from the ground state of hydrogen atoms embedded in dense quantum plasma has been investigated by applying a formulation of the three-body collision problem in the form of coupled multi-channel two-body Lippmann-Schwinger equations. The interactions among the charged particles in dense quantum plasma have been represented by exponential cosine-screened Coulomb potentials. Variationally determined hydrogenic wave function has been employed to calculate the partial-wave scattering amplitude. Plasma screening effects on various possible mode of fragmentation of the system e{sup +}+H(1s) during the collision, such as 1s→1s and 2s→2s elastic collisions, 1s→2s excitation, positronium formation, elastic proton-positronium collisions, have been reported in the energy range 13.6-350 eV. Furthermore, a comparison has been made on the plasma screening effect of a dense quantum plasma with that of a weakly coupled plasma for which the plasma screening effect has been represented by the Debye model. Our results for the unscreened case are in fair agreement with some of the most accurate results available in the literature.
Quantum Mechanics Based Multiscale Modeling of Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Gang
2013-03-01
We present two quantum mechanics based multiscale approaches that can simulate extended defects in metals accurately and efficiently. The first approach (QCDFT) can treat multimillion atoms effectively via density functional theory (DFT). The method is an extension of the original quasicontinuum approach with DFT as its sole energetic formulation. The second method (QM/MM) has to do with quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics coupling based on the constrained density functional theory, which provides an exact framework for a self-consistent quantum mechanical embedding. Several important materials problems will be addressed using the multiscale modeling approaches, including hydrogen-assisted cracking in Al, magnetism-controlled dislocation properties in Fe and Si pipe diffusion along Al dislocation core. We acknowledge the support from the Office of Navel Research and the Army Research Office.
Atom Interferometry with Ultracold Quantum Gases in a Microgravity Environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, Jason; D'Incao, Jose; Chiow, Sheng-Wey; Yu, Nan
2015-05-01
Precision atom interferometers (AI) in space promise exciting technical capabilities for fundamental physics research, with proposals including unprecedented tests of the weak equivalence principle, precision measurements of the fine structure and gravitational constants, and detection of gravity waves and dark energy. Consequently, multiple AI-based missions have been proposed to NASA, including a dual-atomic-species interferometer that is to be integrated into the Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL) onboard the International Space Station. In this talk, I will discuss our plans and preparation at JPL for the proposed flight experiments to use the CAL facility to study the leading-order systematics expected to corrupt future high-precision measurements of fundamental physics with AIs in microgravity. The project centers on the physics of pairwise interactions and molecular dynamics in these quantum systems as a means to overcome uncontrolled shifts associated with the gravity gradient and few-particle collisions. We will further utilize the CAL AI for proof-of-principle tests of systematic mitigation and phase-readout techniques for use in the next-generation of precision metrology experiments based on AIs in microgravity. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Valence atom with bohmian quantum potential: the golden ratio approach
2012-01-01
Background The alternative quantum mechanical description of total energy given by Bohmian theory was merged with the concept of the golden ratio and its appearance as the Heisenberg imbalance to provide a new density-based description of the valence atomic state and reactivity charge with the aim of clarifying their features with respect to the so-called DFT ground state and critical charge, respectively. Results The results, based on the so-called double variational algorithm for chemical spaces of reactivity, are fundamental and, among other issues regarding chemical bonding, solve the existing paradox of using a cubic parabola to describe a quadratic charge dependency. Conclusions Overall, the paper provides a qualitative-quantitative explanation of chemical reactivity based on more than half of an electronic pair in bonding, and provide new, more realistic values for the so-called “universal” electronegativity and chemical hardness of atomic systems engaged in reactivity (analogous to the atoms-in-molecules framework). PMID:23146157
Information-holding quantum router of single photons using natural atom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Guo-An; Cai, Qing-Yu; Chen, Ai-Xi
2016-04-01
In a quantum network, a quantum router can play a key role that involves exchanging quantum information (quantum states) among different parties. In this paper, we propose a single-photon quantum router by using a four-level atom that is embedded in quantum multi-channels, which are composed of coupled-resonator waveguides. Single photons can be guided from one quantum channel to another by controlling an on-demand classical field. The fidelity of the routing atom recovers to a maximum after a time evolution cycle of the system; thus, the fidelity of the information-carrying single photon reaches unit at the same time. For the first time, we demonstrate that quantum information carried by single photons can be perfectly held after a quantum router.
Di Lisi, Antonio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Vitali, David
2005-09-15
We introduce an efficient, quasideterministic scheme to generate maximally entangled states of two atomic ensembles. The scheme is based on quantum nondemolition measurements of total atomic populations and on adiabatic quantum feedback conditioned by the measurements outputs. The high efficiency of the scheme is tested and confirmed numerically for ideal photodetection as well as in the presence of losses.
Cold atom quantum emulation with ultracold lithium and strontium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajagopal, Shankari; Senaratne, Ruwan; Geiger, Zachary; Fujiwara, Kurt; Singh, Kevin; Weld, David
2016-05-01
We discuss progress towards cold atom quantum emulation of nonequilibrium dynamics in optical lattices, focusing on quasiperiodic and strongly-driven systems using lithium and strontium. Tunable interactions in lithium Grant access to an added dimension of parameter space to explore in such systems, which could uncover rich physics. The high nuclear spin of fermionic strontium presents opportunities to study interactions in spin-dependent lattices and develop novel cooling techniques. We also describe construction of a single-site resolution imaging chamber for strontium, including a novel bio-inspired imaging scheme that makes use of a dark metastable state. We acknowledge support from the AFOSR, the ONR, the ARO and the PECASE and DURIP programs, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the NSF GRFP, and the University of California Office of the President.
Cavity-based quantum networks with single atoms and optical photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reiserer, Andreas; Rempe, Gerhard
2015-10-01
Distributed quantum networks will allow users to perform tasks and to interact in ways which are not possible with present-day technology. Their implementation is a key challenge for quantum science and requires the development of stationary quantum nodes that can send and receive as well as store and process quantum information locally. The nodes are connected by quantum channels for flying information carriers, i.e., photons. These channels serve both to directly exchange quantum information between nodes and to distribute entanglement over the whole network. In order to scale such networks to many particles and long distances, an efficient interface between the nodes and the channels is required. This article describes the cavity-based approach to this goal, with an emphasis on experimental systems in which single atoms are trapped in and coupled to optical resonators. Besides being conceptually appealing, this approach is promising for quantum networks on larger scales, as it gives access to long qubit coherence times and high light-matter coupling efficiencies. Thus, it allows one to generate entangled photons on the push of a button, to reversibly map the quantum state of a photon onto an atom, to transfer and teleport quantum states between remote atoms, to entangle distant atoms, to detect optical photons nondestructively, to perform entangling quantum gates between an atom and one or several photons, and even provides a route toward efficient heralded quantum memories for future repeaters. The presented general protocols and the identification of key parameters are applicable to other experimental systems.
Dynamic sensitivity of photon-dressed atomic ensemble with quantum criticality
Huang Jinfeng; Kuang Leman; Li Yong; Liao Jieqiao; Sun, C. P.
2009-12-15
We study the dynamic sensitivity of an atomic ensemble dressed by a single-mode cavity field (called a photon-dressed atomic ensemble), which is described by the Dicke model near the quantum critical point. It is shown that when an extra atom in a pure initial state passes through the cavity, the photon-dressed atomic ensemble will experience a quantum phase transition showing an explicit sudden change in its dynamics characterized by the Loschmidt echo of this quantum critical system. With such dynamic sensitivity, the Dicke model can resemble the cloud chamber for detecting a flying particle by the enhanced trajectory due to the classical phase transition.
Permanent magnetic lattices for ultracold atoms and quantum degenerate gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghanbari, Saeed; Kieu, Tien D.; Sidorov, Andrei; Hannaford, Peter
2006-02-01
We propose the use of periodic arrays of permanent magnetic films for producing magnetic lattices of microtraps for confining, manipulating and controlling small clouds of ultracold atoms and quantum degenerate gases. Using analytical expressions and numerical calculations we show that periodic arrays of magnetic films can produce one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) magnetic lattices with non-zero potential minima, allowing ultracold atoms to be trapped without losses due to spin flips. In particular, we show that two crossed layers of periodic arrays of parallel rectangular magnets plus bias fields, or a single layer of periodic arrays of square-shaped magnets with three different thicknesses plus bias fields, can produce 2D magnetic lattices of microtraps having non-zero potential minima and controllable trap depth. For arrays with micron-scale periodicity, the magnetic microtraps can have very large trap depths (~0.5 mK for the realistic parameters chosen for the 2D lattice) and very tight confinement.
Quantum degenerate atomic gases in controlled optical lattice potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gemelke, Nathan D.
2007-12-01
Since the achievement of Bose Einstein condensation in cold atomic gases, mean-field treatments of the condensed phase have provided an excellent description for the static and dynamic properties observed in experiments. Recent experimental efforts have focused on studying deviations from mean-field behavior. I will describe work on two experiments which introduce controlled single particle degeneracies with time-dependent optical potentials, aiming to induce correlated motion and nontrivial statistics in the gas. In the first experiment, an optical lattice with locally rotating site potentials is produced to investigate fractional quantum Hall effects (FQHE) in rotating Bose gases. Here, the necessary gauge potential is provided by the rotating reference frame of the gas, which, in direct analogy to the electronic system, organizes single particle states into degenerate Landau levels. At low temperatures the repulsive interaction provided by elastic scattering is expected to produce ground states with structure nearly identical to those in the FQHE. I will discuss how these effects are made experimentally feasible by working at small particle numbers in the tight trapping potentials of an optical lattice, and present first results on the use of photoassociation to probe correlation in this system. In the second experiment, a vibrated optical lattice potential alters the single-particle dispersion underlying a condensed Bose gas and offers tailored phase-matching for nonlinear atom optical processes. I will demonstrate how this leads to parametric instability in the condensed gas, and draw analogy to an optical parametric oscillator operating above threshold.
Quantum Correlation of Two Entangled Atoms Interacting with the Binomial Optical Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Tang-Kun; Tao, Yu; Shan, Chuan-Jia; Liu, Ji-bing
2016-05-01
Quantum correlations of two atoms in a system of two entangled atoms interacting with the binomial optical field are investigated. In eight different initial states of the two atoms, the influence of the strength of the dipole-dipole interaction, probabilities of a the Bernoulli trial and particle number of the binomial optical field on the temporal evolution of the geometrical quantum discord between two atoms are discussed. The result shows that two atoms always exist the correlation for different parameters. In addition, when and only when the two atoms are initially in the maximally entangled state, the temporal evolution of geometrical quantum discord is not affected by the parameters, and always keep in the degree of geometrical quantum discord that is a fixed value.
Quantum atom-heteronuclear molecule dark state: Role of population imbalance
Jing Hui; Cui Shuai
2010-08-15
Recently, the finite-number effect of initial atoms in coherent atom-molecule conversion was investigated by Zhao et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 010401 (2008)]. Here, by extending to the atom-heteronuclear molecule dark state, we find that the initial populations imbalance of the atoms plays a significant role in quantum conversion rate and adiabatic fidelity. In particular, even for the finite total number of imbalanced two-species atoms, the mean-field conversion rate, contrary to the general belief, still can be remarkably close to the exact quantum results.
Quantum control of d-dimensional quantum systems with application to alkali atomic spins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merkel, Seth
In this dissertation I analyze Hamiltonian control of d-dimensional quantum systems as realized in alkali atomic spins. Alkali atoms provide an ideal platform for studies of quantum control due to the extreme precision with which the control fields are characterized as well as their isolation from their environment. In many cases, studies into the control of atomic spins restrict attention to a 2-dimesional subspace in order to consider qubit control. The geometry of quantum 2-level systems is much simpler than for any larger dimensional Hilbert space, and so control techniques for qubits often are not applicable to larger systems. In reality, atoms have many internal levels. It seems a shame to throw away most of our Hilbert space when it could in principle be used for encoding information and performing error correction. This work develops some of the tools necessary to control these large atomic spins. Quantum control theory has some very generic properties that have previously been explored in the literature, notably in the work from the Rabitz group. I provide a review of this literature, showing that while the landscape topology of quantum control problems is relatively independent of physical platform, different optimization techniques are required to find optimal controls depending on the particular control task. To this end I have developed two optimal control algorithms for finding unitary maps for the problems of: "state preparation" where we require only that a single fiducial state us taken to a particular target state and "unitary construction" where the entire map is specified. State mapping turns out to be a simple problem to solve and is amenable to a gradient search method. This protocol is not feasible for the task of finding full unitary maps, but I show how we can weave state mappings together to form full unitary maps. This construction of unitary maps is efficient in the dimension of the Hilbert space. The particular system I have used for
Proposal for a telecom quantum repeater with single atoms in optical cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uphoff, Manuel; Brekenfeld, Manuel; Niemietz, Dominik; Ritter, Stephan; Rempe, Gerhard
2016-05-01
Quantum repeaters hold the promise to enable long-distance quantum communication via entanglement generation over arbitrary distances. Single atoms in optical cavities have been shown to be ideally suited for the experimental realization of many tasks in quantum communication. To utilize these systems for a quantum repeater, it would be desirable to operate them at telecom wavelengths. We propose to use a cascaded scheme employing transitions at telecom wavelengths between excited states of alkali atoms for entanglement generation between a single photon at telecom wavelength and a single atom at the crossing point of two cavity modes. A cavity-assisted quantum gate can be used for entanglement swapping. We estimate the performance of these systems using numerical simulations based on experimental parameters obtained for CO2 laser-machined fiber cavities in our laboratory. Finally, we show that a quantum repeater employing the aforementioned scheme and current technology could outperform corresponding schemes based on direct transmission.
Quantum-projection-noise-limited interferometry with coherent atoms in a Ramsey-type setup
Doering, D.; McDonald, G.; Debs, J. E.; Figl, C.; Altin, P. A.; Bachor, H.-A.; Robins, N. P.; Close, J. D.
2010-04-15
Every measurement of the population in an uncorrelated ensemble of two-level systems is limited by what is known as the quantum projection noise limit. Here, we present quantum-projection-noise-limited performance of a Ramsey-type interferometer using freely propagating coherent atoms. The experimental setup is based on an electro-optic modulator in an inherently stable Sagnac interferometer, optically coupling the two interfering atomic states via a two-photon Raman transition. Going beyond the quantum projection noise limit requires the use of reduced quantum uncertainty (squeezed) states. The experiment described demonstrates atom interferometry at the fundamental noise level and allows the observation of possible squeezing effects in an atom laser, potentially leading to improved sensitivity in atom interferometers.
A quantum gas microscope for detecting single atoms in a Hubbard-regime optical lattice.
Bakr, Waseem S; Gillen, Jonathon I; Peng, Amy; Fölling, Simon; Greiner, Markus
2009-11-01
Recent years have seen tremendous progress in creating complex atomic many-body quantum systems. One approach is to use macroscopic, effectively thermodynamic ensembles of ultracold atoms to create quantum gases and strongly correlated states of matter, and to analyse the bulk properties of the ensemble. For example, bosonic and fermionic atoms in a Hubbard-regime optical lattice can be used for quantum simulations of solid-state models. The opposite approach is to build up microscopic quantum systems atom-by-atom, with complete control over all degrees of freedom. The atoms or ions act as qubits and allow the realization of quantum gates, with the goal of creating highly controllable quantum information systems. Until now, the macroscopic and microscopic strategies have been fairly disconnected. Here we present a quantum gas 'microscope' that bridges the two approaches, realizing a system in which atoms of a macroscopic ensemble are detected individually and a complete set of degrees of freedom for each of them is determined through preparation and measurement. By implementing a high-resolution optical imaging system, single atoms are detected with near-unity fidelity on individual sites of a Hubbard-regime optical lattice. The lattice itself is generated by projecting a holographic mask through the imaging system. It has an arbitrary geometry, chosen to support both strong tunnel coupling between lattice sites and strong on-site confinement. Our approach can be used to directly detect strongly correlated states of matter; in the context of condensed matter simulation, this corresponds to the detection of individual electrons in the simulated crystal. Also, the quantum gas microscope may enable addressing and read-out of large-scale quantum information systems based on ultracold atoms. PMID:19890326
Quantum Monte Carlo methods and lithium cluster properties. [Atomic clusters
Owen, R.K.
1990-12-01
Properties of small lithium clusters with sizes ranging from n = 1 to 5 atoms were investigated using quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods. Cluster geometries were found from complete active space self consistent field (CASSCF) calculations. A detailed development of the QMC method leading to the variational QMC (V-QMC) and diffusion QMC (D-QMC) methods is shown. The many-body aspect of electron correlation is introduced into the QMC importance sampling electron-electron correlation functions by using density dependent parameters, and are shown to increase the amount of correlation energy obtained in V-QMC calculations. A detailed analysis of D-QMC time-step bias is made and is found to be at least linear with respect to the time-step. The D-QMC calculations determined the lithium cluster ionization potentials to be 0.1982(14) (0.1981), 0.1895(9) (0.1874(4)), 0.1530(34) (0.1599(73)), 0.1664(37) (0.1724(110)), 0.1613(43) (0.1675(110)) Hartrees for lithium clusters n = 1 through 5, respectively; in good agreement with experimental results shown in the brackets. Also, the binding energies per atom was computed to be 0.0177(8) (0.0203(12)), 0.0188(10) (0.0220(21)), 0.0247(8) (0.0310(12)), 0.0253(8) (0.0351(8)) Hartrees for lithium clusters n = 2 through 5, respectively. The lithium cluster one-electron density is shown to have charge concentrations corresponding to nonnuclear attractors. The overall shape of the electronic charge density also bears a remarkable similarity with the anisotropic harmonic oscillator model shape for the given number of valence electrons.
Rej, Pramit; Ghoshal, Arijit
2014-11-15
Formation of Rydberg atoms due to 1 s → nlm excitations of hydrogen by positron impact, for arbitrary n, l, m, in dense quantum plasma has been investigated using a distorted wave theory which includes screened dipole polarization potential. The interactions among the charged particles in the plasma have been represented by exponential cosine-screened Coulomb potentials. Making use of a simple variationally determined hydrogen wave function, it has been possible to obtain the distorted wave scattering amplitude in a closed analytical form. A detailed study has been made to explore the structure of differential and total cross sections in the energy range 20–300 eV of incident positron. For the unscreened case, our results agree nicely with some of the most accurate results available in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, such a study on the differential and total cross sections for 1 s → nlm inelastic positron-hydrogen collisions in dense quantum plasma is the first reported in the literature.
Light-scattering detection of quantum phases of ultracold atoms in optical lattices
Ye Jinwu; Zhang, J. M.; Liu, W. M.; Zhang Keye; Li Yan; Zhang Weiping
2011-05-15
Ultracold atoms loaded on optical lattices can provide unprecedented experimental systems for the quantum simulations and manipulations of many quantum phases. However, so far, how to detect these quantum phases effectively remains an outstanding challenge. Here, we show that the optical Bragg scattering of cold atoms loaded on optical lattices can be used to detect many quantum phases, which include not only the conventional superfluid and Mott insulating phases, but also other important phases, such as various kinds of charge density wave (CDW), valence bond solid (VBS), CDW supersolid (CDW-SS) and Valence bond supersolid (VB-SS).
Coverage-dependent quantum versus classical scattering of thermal neon atoms from Li/Cu(100).
Maclaren, D A; Huang, C; Levi, A C; Allison, W
2008-09-01
We show that subtle variations in surface structure can enhance quantum scattering and quench atom-surface energy transfer. The scattering of thermal energy neon atoms from a lithium overlayer on a copper substrate switches between a classical regime, dominated by multiphonon interactions, and a quantum regime, dominated by elastic diffraction. The transition is achieved by simple tailoring of the lithium coverage and quantum scattering dominates only in the narrow coverage range of theta=0.3-0.6 ML. The results are described qualitatively using a modified Debye-Waller model that incorporates an approximate quantum treatment of the adsorbate-substrate vibration. PMID:19044885
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puddy, R. K.; Chua, C. J.; Buitelaar, M. R.
2013-10-01
We report low-temperature transport spectroscopy of a graphene quantum dot fabricated by atomic force microscope nanolithography. The excellent spatial resolution of the atomic force microscope allows us to reliably fabricate quantum dots with short constrictions of less than 15 nm in length. Transport measurements demonstrate that the device is dominated by a single quantum dot over a wide gate range. The electron spin system of the quantum dot is investigated by applying an in-plane magnetic field. The results are consistent with a Landé g-factor ˜2 but no regular spin filling sequence is observed, most likely due to disorder.
Heralded Storage of a Photonic Quantum Bit in a Single Atom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalb, Norbert; Reiserer, Andreas; Ritter, Stephan; Rempe, Gerhard
2015-06-01
Combining techniques of cavity quantum electrodynamics, quantum measurement, and quantum feedback, we have realized the heralded transfer of a polarization qubit from a photon onto a single atom with 39% efficiency and 86% fidelity. The reverse process, namely, qubit transfer from the atom onto a given photon, is demonstrated with 88% fidelity and an estimated efficiency of up to 69%. In contrast to previous work based on two-photon interference, our scheme is robust against photon arrival-time jitter and achieves much higher efficiencies. Thus, it constitutes a key step toward the implementation of a long-distance quantum network.
Heralded Storage of a Photonic Quantum Bit in a Single Atom.
Kalb, Norbert; Reiserer, Andreas; Ritter, Stephan; Rempe, Gerhard
2015-06-01
Combining techniques of cavity quantum electrodynamics, quantum measurement, and quantum feedback, we have realized the heralded transfer of a polarization qubit from a photon onto a single atom with 39% efficiency and 86% fidelity. The reverse process, namely, qubit transfer from the atom onto a given photon, is demonstrated with 88% fidelity and an estimated efficiency of up to 69%. In contrast to previous work based on two-photon interference, our scheme is robust against photon arrival-time jitter and achieves much higher efficiencies. Thus, it constitutes a key step toward the implementation of a long-distance quantum network. PMID:26196608
Quantum controlled-phase-flip gate between a flying optical photon and a Rydberg atomic ensemble
Hao, Y. M.; Lin, G. W.; Xia, Keyu; Lin, X. M.; Niu, Y. P.; Gong, S. Q.
2015-01-01
Quantum controlled-phase-flip (CPF) gate between a flying photon qubit and a stationary atomic qubit could allow the linking of distant computational nodes in a quantum network. Here we present a scheme to realize quantum CPF gate between a flying optical photon and an atomic ensemble based on cavity input-output process and Rydberg blockade. When a flying single-photon pulse is reflected off the cavity containing a Rydberg atomic ensemble, the dark resonance and Rydberg blockade induce a conditional phase shift for the photon pulse, thus we can achieve the CPF gate between the photon and the atomic ensemble. Assisted by Rydberg blockade interaction, our scheme works in the N-atoms strong-coupling regime and significantly relaxes the requirement of strong coupling of single atom to photon in the optical cavity. PMID:25966448
Protecting quantum coherence of two-level atoms from vacuum fluctuations of electromagnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xiaobao; Tian, Zehua; Wang, Jieci; Jing, Jiliang
2016-03-01
In the framework of open quantum systems, we study the dynamics of a static polarizable two-level atom interacting with a bath of fluctuating vacuum electromagnetic field and explore under which conditions the coherence of the open quantum system is unaffected by the environment. For both a single-qubit and two-qubit systems, we find that the quantum coherence cannot be protected from noise when the atom interacts with a non-boundary electromagnetic field. However, with the presence of a boundary, the dynamical conditions for the insusceptible of quantum coherence are fulfilled only when the atom is close to the boundary and is transversely polarizable. Otherwise, the quantum coherence can only be protected in some degree in other polarizable direction.
Lars Onsager Prize Talk: Quantum fluids: from liquid helium to cold atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pethick, Christopher
2008-03-01
The study of quantum liquids has led to ideas and concepts of broad applicability. I shall illustrate this by examples from the physics of liquid helium-3, heavy-fermion compounds, quark-gluon plasmas and cold atomic gases.
The Correspondence Principle and the Founding of the Atomic Quantum Theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liu, Hua-Xiang
1995-01-01
Presents a brief historical review and a discussion of the Bohr theory aimed at helping readers understand more completely the development of atomic quantum physics and comprehend more precisely and profoundly the essence of the correspondence principle. (JRH)
Engineering steady three-atom singlet states via quantum-jump-based feedback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shao, Xiao-Qiang; Zheng, Tai-Yu; Zhang, Shou
2012-04-01
A scheme is presented for generating steady three-atom singlet states via three V-type atoms interacting with a strongly dissipative two-mode cavity. The local quantum feedback control is applied based on quantum-jump detection to make the target state fidelity as high as possible. This scheme is insensitive to detection inefficiencies since it only delays the time at which stationarity is achieved. Nevertheless, the spontaneous emission plays a negative role in the current system.
Quantum chemical calculation of the equilibrium structures of small metal atom clusters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kahn, L. R.
1982-01-01
Metal atom clusters are studied based on the application of ab initio quantum mechanical approaches. Because these large 'molecular' systems pose special practical computational problems in the application of the quantum mechanical methods, there is a special need to find simplifying techniques that do not compromise the reliability of the calculations. Research is therefore directed towards various aspects of the implementation of the effective core potential technique for the removal of the metal atom core electrons from the calculations.
Grover search algorithm with Rydberg-blockaded atoms: quantum Monte Carlo simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrosyan, David; Saffman, Mark; Mølmer, Klaus
2016-05-01
We consider the Grover search algorithm implementation for a quantum register of size N={2}k using k (or k+1) microwave- and laser-driven Rydberg-blockaded atoms, following the proposal by Mølmer et al (2011 J. Phys. B 44 184016). We suggest some simplifications for the microwave and laser couplings, and analyze the performance of the algorithm for up to k = 4 multilevel atoms under realistic experimental conditions using quantum stochastic (Monte Carlo) wavefunction simulations.
Transfer of quantum correlations from light to atoms in the case of irreversible evolution
Gorbachev, V. N.; Trubilko, A. I.
2010-10-15
We consider the irreversible dynamics of two two-level atoms that interact with a bipartite broad-band electromagnetic field in an entangled state that forms a heat bath with a quantum correlation. Using Ito's stochastic integration technique, we have derived a kinetic equation for atoms and found their steady state, which turns out to be inseparable and leads to a violation of Bell's inequalities. The application of the atomic state found as a quantum channel for teleportation is considered. We have calculated the channel quality or fidelity that determines the possibilities for using the channel, in particular, characterizes its security. The process of teleportation by means of a quantum channel formed by an entangled heat bath is considered. Comparison of two (atomic and light) channels has shown that they have different properties with regard to separability and identical properties with regard to nonlocality. This means that nonlocality can be completely transferred from light to atoms.
Quantum Correlations of Two Two-level Atoms Interacting with a Single Mode Vacuum Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Ke; Fang, Mao-Fa
2015-04-01
The quantum correlations (QC) of two two-level atoms interacting with a single mode vacuum field are investigated. The relationship between the quantum discord (QD) and the entanglement of formation (EOF), the influence of the atomic dipole-dipole interaction along with two-atom initial states on QC of two atoms are discussed. The results indicate that when two-atom is initially in an entangled state, QD is consistent with EOF. Compared with the quantumness of correlations, the latter is always larger than the former, and the larger the initial QE, the larger the QD. Meanwhile, there is no occurrence of sudden death phenomenon of QC throughout the temporal evolution. Moreover, QD is more robust than QE under strong dipole-dipole interaction, and then the relative stable QC resources can be achieved.
Non-local correlation and quantum discord in two atoms in the non-degenerate model
Mohamed, A.-B.A.
2012-12-15
By using geometric quantum discord (GQD) and measurement-induced nonlocality (MIN), quantum correlation is investigated for two atoms in the non-degenerate two-photon Tavis-Cummings model. It is shown that there is no asymptotic decay for MIN while asymptotic decay exists for GQD. Quantum correlations can be strengthened by introducing the dipole-dipole interaction. The evolvement period of quantum correlation gets shorter with the increase in the dipole-dipole parameter. It is found that there exists not only quantum nonlocality without entanglement but also quantum nonlocality without quantum discord. Also, the MIN and GQD are raised rather than entanglement, and also with weak initial entanglement, there are MIN and entanglement in a interval of death quantum discord. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Geometric quantum discord (GQD) and measurement induced nonlocality (MIN) are used to investigate the correlations of two two-level atoms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is no asymptotic decay for MIN while asymptotic decay exists for GQD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum correlations can be strengthened by introducing the dipole-dipole interaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There exists not only quantum nonlocality without entanglement but also without discord. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Weak initial entanglement leads to MIN and entanglement in intervals of death discord.
A quantum gate between a flying optical photon and a single trapped atom.
Reiserer, Andreas; Kalb, Norbert; Rempe, Gerhard; Ritter, Stephan
2014-04-10
The steady increase in control over individual quantum systems supports the promotion of a quantum technology that could provide functionalities beyond those of any classical device. Two particularly promising applications have been explored during the past decade: photon-based quantum communication, which guarantees unbreakable encryption but which still has to be scaled to high rates over large distances, and quantum computation, which will fundamentally enhance computability if it can be scaled to a large number of quantum bits (qubits). It was realized early on that a hybrid system of light qubits and matter qubits could solve the scalability problem of each field--that of communication by use of quantum repeaters, and that of computation by use of an optical interconnect between smaller quantum processors. To this end, the development of a robust two-qubit gate that allows the linking of distant computational nodes is "a pressing challenge". Here we demonstrate such a quantum gate between the spin state of a single trapped atom and the polarization state of an optical photon contained in a faint laser pulse. The gate mechanism presented is deterministic and robust, and is expected to be applicable to almost any matter qubit. It is based on reflection of the photonic qubit from a cavity that provides strong light-matter coupling. To demonstrate its versatility, we use the quantum gate to create atom-photon, atom-photon-photon and photon-photon entangled states from separable input states. We expect our experiment to enable various applications, including the generation of atomic and photonic cluster states and Schrödinger-cat states, deterministic photonic Bell-state measurements, scalable quantum computation and quantum communication using a redundant quantum parity code. PMID:24717512
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanpera, A.; Kantian, A.; Sanchez-Palencia, L.; Zakrzewski, J.; Lewenstein, M.
2004-07-01
We investigate strongly interacting atomic Fermi-Bose mixtures in inhomogeneous and random optical lattices. We derive an effective Hamiltonian for the system and discuss its low temperature physics. We demonstrate the possibility of controlling the interactions at local level in inhomogeneous but regular lattices. Such a control leads to the achievement of Fermi glass, quantum Fermi spin-glass, and quantum percolation regimes involving bare and/or composite fermions in random lattices.
Controlling Atomic, Solid-State and Hybrid Systems for Quantum Information Processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gullans, Michael John
Quantum information science involves the use of precise control over quantum systems to explore new technologies. However, as quantum systems are scaled up they require an ever deeper understanding of many-body physics to achieve the required degree of control. Current experiments are entering a regime which requires active control of a mesoscopic number of coupled quantum systems or quantum bits (qubits). This thesis describes several approaches to this goal and shows how mesoscopic quantum systems can be controlled and utilized for quantum information tasks. The first system we consider is the nuclear spin environment of GaAs double quantum dots containing two electrons. We show that the through appropriate control of dynamic nuclear polarization one can prepare the nuclear spin environment in three distinct collective quantum states which are useful for quantum information processing with electron spin qubits. We then investigate a hybrid system in which an optical lattice is formed in the near field scattering off an array of metallic nanoparticles by utilizing the plasmonic resonance of the nanoparticles. We show that such a system would realize new regimes of dense, ultra-cold quantum matter and can be used to create a quantum network of atoms and plasmons. Finally we investigate quantum nonlinear optical systems. We show that the intrinsic nonlinearity for plasmons in graphene can be large enough to make a quantum gate for single photons. We also consider two nonlinear optical systems based on ultracold gases of atoms. In one case, we demonstrate an all-optical single photon switch using cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) and slow light. In the second case, we study few photon physics in strongly interacting Rydberg polariton systems, where we demonstrate the existence of two and three photon bound states and study their properties.
Demonstration of a small programmable quantum computer with atomic qubits.
Debnath, S; Linke, N M; Figgatt, C; Landsman, K A; Wright, K; Monroe, C
2016-08-01
Quantum computers can solve certain problems more efficiently than any possible conventional computer. Small quantum algorithms have been demonstrated on multiple quantum computing platforms, many specifically tailored in hardware to implement a particular algorithm or execute a limited number of computational paths. Here we demonstrate a five-qubit trapped-ion quantum computer that can be programmed in software to implement arbitrary quantum algorithms by executing any sequence of universal quantum logic gates. We compile algorithms into a fully connected set of gate operations that are native to the hardware and have a mean fidelity of 98 per cent. Reconfiguring these gate sequences provides the flexibility to implement a variety of algorithms without altering the hardware. As examples, we implement the Deutsch-Jozsa and Bernstein-Vazirani algorithms with average success rates of 95 and 90 per cent, respectively. We also perform a coherent quantum Fourier transform on five trapped-ion qubits for phase estimation and period finding with average fidelities of 62 and 84 per cent, respectively. This small quantum computer can be scaled to larger numbers of qubits within a single register, and can be further expanded by connecting several such modules through ion shuttling or photonic quantum channels. PMID:27488798
Demonstration of a small programmable quantum computer with atomic qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debnath, S.; Linke, N. M.; Figgatt, C.; Landsman, K. A.; Wright, K.; Monroe, C.
2016-08-01
Quantum computers can solve certain problems more efficiently than any possible conventional computer. Small quantum algorithms have been demonstrated on multiple quantum computing platforms, many specifically tailored in hardware to implement a particular algorithm or execute a limited number of computational paths. Here we demonstrate a five-qubit trapped-ion quantum computer that can be programmed in software to implement arbitrary quantum algorithms by executing any sequence of universal quantum logic gates. We compile algorithms into a fully connected set of gate operations that are native to the hardware and have a mean fidelity of 98 per cent. Reconfiguring these gate sequences provides the flexibility to implement a variety of algorithms without altering the hardware. As examples, we implement the Deutsch–Jozsa and Bernstein–Vazirani algorithms with average success rates of 95 and 90 per cent, respectively. We also perform a coherent quantum Fourier transform on five trapped-ion qubits for phase estimation and period finding with average fidelities of 62 and 84 per cent, respectively. This small quantum computer can be scaled to larger numbers of qubits within a single register, and can be further expanded by connecting several such modules through ion shuttling or photonic quantum channels.
Progress toward observation of quantum interference of currents in an Atom SQUID
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryu, Changhyun; Samson, E. Carlo; Boshier, Malcolm
2016-05-01
Quantum interference of currents was first observed in a superconducting loop with two Josephson junctions, leading to the name ``SQUID'' for this device. This interference effect has been used to develop extremely sensitive magnetometers. The Atom SQUID, an analogous device based on ultracold atoms, has been developed recently to study SQUID physics in a device offering a better understanding of the underlying microscopic dynamics. Although many exciting experiments have been done with Atom SQUIDs, the quantum interference of currents has not yet been observed. In analogy with the SQUID magnetometer, it should be possible to use the quantum interference effect in an Atom SQUID to measure rotation, which may lead to the development of a sensitive gyroscope. In a previous experiment, we showed Josephson effects with an atom SQUID by observing the change from the dc Josephson regime to the ac Josephson regime by measurement of the critical atom number for this transition. Quantum interference should cause this critical atom number to vary with rotation rate. We have simulated this system with the Gross-Pitaevski Equation and found the expected oscillatory change of the critical atom number. We will present this simulation result and report the current status of our experiment to
Quantum phase transitions of atom-molecule Bose mixtures in a double-well potential.
Relaño, A; Dukelsky, J; Pérez-Fernández, P; Arias, J M
2014-10-01
The ground state and spectral properties of Bose gases in double-well potentials are studied in two different scenarios: (i) an interacting atomic Bose gas, and (ii) a mixture of an atomic gas interacting with diatomic molecules. A ground state second-order quantum phase transition is observed in both scenarios. For large attractive values of the atom-atom interaction, the ground state is degenerate. For repulsive and small attractive interaction, the ground state is not degenerate and is well approximated by a boson coherent state. Both systems depict an excited state quantum phase transition. In both cases, a critical energy separates a region in which all the energy levels are degenerate in pairs, from another region in which there are no degeneracies. For the atomic system, the critical point displays a singularity in the density of states, whereas this behavior is largely smoothed for the mixed atom-molecule system. PMID:25375470
An integrated quantum repeater at telecom wavelength with single atoms in optical fiber cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uphoff, Manuel; Brekenfeld, Manuel; Rempe, Gerhard; Ritter, Stephan
2016-03-01
Quantum repeaters promise to enable quantum networks over global distances by circumventing the exponential decrease in success probability inherent in direct photon transmission. We propose a realistic, functionally integrated quantum-repeater implementation based on single atoms in optical cavities. Entanglement is directly generated between the single-atom quantum memory and a photon at telecom wavelength. The latter is collected with high efficiency and adjustable temporal and spectral properties into a spatially well-defined cavity mode. It is heralded by a near-infrared photon emitted from a second, orthogonal cavity. Entanglement between two remote quantum memories can be generated via an optical Bell-state measurement, while we propose entanglement swapping based on a highly efficient, cavity-assisted atom-atom gate. Our quantum-repeater scheme eliminates any requirement for wavelength conversion such that only a single system is needed at each node. We investigate a particular implementation with rubidium and realistic parameters for Fabry-Perot cavities based on hbox {CO}_2 laser-machined optical fibers. We show that the scheme enables the implementation of a rather simple quantum repeater that outperforms direct entanglement generation over large distances and does not require any improvements in technology beyond the state of the art.
O'Brien, J. L.; Schofield, S. R.; Simmons, M. Y.; Clark, R. G.; Dzurak, A. S.; Curson, N. J.; Kane, B. E.; McAlpine, N. S.; Hawley, M. E.; Brown, G. W.
2001-01-01
Quantum computers offer the promise of formidable computational power for certain tasks. Of the various possible physical implementations of such a device, silicon based architectures are attractive for their scalability and ease of integration with existing silicon technology. These designs use either the electron or nuclear spin state of single donor atoms to store quantum information. Here we describe a strategy to fabricate an array of single phosphorus atoms in silicon for the construction of such a silicon based quantum computer. We demonstrate the controlled placement of single phosphorus bearing molecules on a silicon surface. This has been achieved by patterning a hydrogen mono-layer 'resist' with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip and exposing the patterned surface to phosphine (PH3) molecules. We also describe preliminary studies into a process to incorporate these surface phosphorus atoms into the silicon crystal at the array sites. Keywords: Quantum computing, nanotechriology scanning turincling microscopy, hydrogen lithography
Mesoscopic atomic entanglement for precision measurements beyond the standard quantum limit
Appel, J.; Windpassinger, P. J.; Oblak, D.; Hoff, U. B.; Kjærgaard, N.; Polzik, E. S.
2009-01-01
Squeezing of quantum fluctuations by means of entanglement is a well-recognized goal in the field of quantum information science and precision measurements. In particular, squeezing the fluctuations via entanglement between 2-level atoms can improve the precision of sensing, clocks, metrology, and spectroscopy. Here, we demonstrate 3.4 dB of metrologically relevant squeezing and entanglement for ≳ 105 cold caesium atoms via a quantum nondemolition (QND) measurement on the atom clock levels. We show that there is an optimal degree of decoherence induced by the quantum measurement which maximizes the generated entanglement. A 2-color QND scheme used in this paper is shown to have a number of advantages for entanglement generation as compared with a single-color QND measurement. PMID:19541646
Cavity-Enhanced Light Scattering in Optical Lattices to Probe Atomic Quantum Statistics
Mekhov, Igor B.; Maschler, Christoph; Ritsch, Helmut
2007-03-09
Different quantum states of atoms in optical lattices can be nondestructively monitored by off-resonant collective light scattering into a cavity. Angle resolved measurements of photon number and variance give information about atom-number fluctuations and pair correlations without single-site access. Observation at angles of diffraction minima provides information on quantum fluctuations insensitive to classical noise. For transverse probing, no photon is scattered into a cavity from a Mott insulator phase, while the photon number is proportional to the atom number for a superfluid.
Exploring Quantum Degenerate Bose-Fermi Mixtures Toward Cooper Pairing of Fermionic Atoms
Deborah Jin
2011-04-20
We have been exploring interaction dynamics in an ultracold, trapped gas of bosonic and fermionic atoms. Investigation of this new class of quantum degenerate gases concentrates on interaction dominated phenomena such as sympathetic cooling, phase separation, excitations, Feshbach resonances, and the effects of quantum degeneracy. In addition to exploring these new phenomena, we seek to understand and ultimately control the interactions in the gas. In particular, effective interactions between the fermionic atoms will be explored in the context of the longer term goal of realizing Cooper pairing of atoms.
Miyake, Hirokazu; Siviloglou, Georgios A; Puentes, Graciana; Pritchard, David E; Ketterle, Wolfgang; Weld, David M
2011-10-21
We have observed Bragg scattering of photons from quantum degenerate ^{87}Rb atoms in a three-dimensional optical lattice. Bragg scattered light directly probes the microscopic crystal structure and atomic wave function whose position and momentum width is Heisenberg limited. The spatial coherence of the wave function leads to revivals in the Bragg scattered light due to the atomic Talbot effect. The decay of revivals across the superfluid to Mott insulator transition indicates the loss of superfluid coherence. PMID:22107532
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Sullivan, Colm
2016-03-01
The role of "semi-classical" (Bohr-Sommerfeld) and "semi-quantum-mechanical" (atomic orbital) models in the context of the teaching of atomic theory is considered. It is suggested that an appropriate treatment of such models can serve as a useful adjunct to quantum mechanical study of atomic systems.
Entanglement distillation for quantum communication network with atomic-ensemble memories.
Li, Tao; Yang, Guo-Jian; Deng, Fu-Guo
2014-10-01
Atomic ensembles are effective memory nodes for quantum communication network due to the long coherence time and the collective enhancement effect for the nonlinear interaction between an ensemble and a photon. Here we investigate the possibility of achieving the entanglement distillation for nonlocal atomic ensembles by the input-output process of a single photon as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. We give an optimal entanglement concentration protocol (ECP) for two-atomic-ensemble systems in a partially entangled pure state with known parameters and an efficient ECP for the systems in an unknown partially entangled pure state with a nondestructive parity-check detector (PCD). For the systems in a mixed entangled state, we introduce an entanglement purification protocol with PCDs. These entanglement distillation protocols have high fidelity and efficiency with current experimental techniques, and they are useful for quantum communication network with atomic-ensemble memories. PMID:25321967
Long-range quantum gate via Rydberg states of atoms in a thermal microwave cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sárkány, Lőrinc; Fortágh, József; Petrosyan, David
2015-09-01
We propose an implementation of a universal quantum gate between pairs of spatially separated atoms in a microwave cavity at finite temperature. The gate results from reversible laser excitation of Rydberg states of atoms interacting with each other via exchange of virtual photons through a common cavity mode. Quantum interference of different transition paths between the two-atom ground and double-excited Rydberg states makes both the transition amplitude and resonance largely insensitive to the excitations in the microwave cavity quantum bus which can therefore be in any superposition or mixture of photon number states. Our scheme for attaining ultra-long-range interactions and entanglement also applies to mesoscopic atomic ensembles in the Rydberg blockade regime and is scalable to many ensembles trapped within a centimeter-sized microwave resonator.
Quantum treatment of two-stage sub-Doppler laser cooling of magnesium atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prudnikov, O. N.; Brazhnikov, D. V.; Taichenachev, A. V.; Yudin, V. I.; Bonert, A. E.; Il'enkov, R. Ya.; Goncharov, A. N.
2015-12-01
Deep laser cooling of 24Mg atoms has been theoretically studied. We propose a two-stage sub-Doppler cooling strategy using electrodipole transition 3 3P2→3 3D3 (λ =383.8 nm). The first stage implies exploiting magneto-optical trap with σ+ and σ- light beams, while at the second stage lin ⊥ lin molasses is used. We focus on achieving a large number of ultracold atoms (Teff<10 μ K ) in a cold-atomic cloud. The calculations have been based on quantum treatment, taking into full account the recoil effect and beyond many widely used approximations. Steady-state values of average kinetic energy and linear momentum distributions of cold atoms have been analyzed for various light-field intensities and frequency detunings. The results of conducted quantum analysis have been significantly different from the results achieved under a semiclassical approximation based on the Fokker-Planck equation. The second cooling stage allows achieving sufficiently lower kinetic energies of the atomic cloud as well as increased fraction of ultracold atoms at certain conditions compared to the first one. We hope that the obtained results can help in overcoming current experimental problems in deep cooling of 24Mg atoms by means of laser field. Cold magnesium atoms cooled in a large amount to several μ K are of huge interest to, for example, quantum metrology and to other many-body cold-atoms physics.
Quantum properties of an atom in a cavity constructed by topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Wei; Yang, Zi-xin; Li, Gao-xiang
2015-12-01
We investigate the spontaneous decay of an atom in a cavity constructed by topological insulators. The method of Green’s function in stratified cavities has been used and expressions of atomic decay rates in two directions parallel and perpendicular to cavity mirrors are derived. It is shown that when an atom is embedded closely to a topological insulator with a strong axion field, the spontaneous decay of the dipole parallel to the surface will be suppressed due to the high anisotropy of the vacuum. The appearance of indirect quantum interference of two orthogonal dipoles representing the different decay channels of a Zeeman atom has also been revealed. It is found that when the cavity length is less than half the wave length in a vacuum—wherever the Zeeman atom is located in the cavity—spontaneous decay of the dipole parallel to the mirror is deeply suppressed while decay through the dipole perpendicular to the mirror is enhanced. As expected, strong quantum interference between the two decay channels is observed. In particular, when the axion field is strong enough, the maximum quantum interference can be generated between two orthogonal dipoles, which is consistent with the phenomenon that appears in cavities constructed by perfect mirrors. By taking loss of material into account, the results show that atomic decay through dissipation dominates when the atom is quite close to the mirror and leads to the destruction of quantum interference in a small region.
Savage, C. M.; Schwenn, P. E.; Kheruntsyan, K. V.
2006-09-15
We investigate the quantum many-body dynamics of dissociation of a Bose-Einstein condensate of molecular dimers into pairs of constituent bosonic atoms and analyze the resulting atom-atom correlations. The quantum fields of both the molecules and atoms are simulated from first principles in three dimensions using the positive-P representation method. This allows us to provide an exact treatment of the molecular field depletion and s-wave scattering interactions between the particles, as well as to extend the analysis to nonuniform systems. In the simplest uniform case, we find that the major source of atom-atom decorrelation is atom-atom recombination which produces molecules outside the initially occupied condensate mode. The unwanted molecules are formed from dissociated atom pairs with nonopposite momenta. The net effect of this process--which becomes increasingly significant for dissociation durations corresponding to more than about 40% conversion--is to reduce the atom-atom correlations. In addition, for nonuniform systems we find that mode mixing due to inhomogeneity can result in further degradation of the correlation signal. We characterize the correlation strength via the degree of squeezing of particle number-difference fluctuations in a certain momentum-space volume and show that the correlation strength can be increased if the signals are binned into larger counting volumes.
Ultracold atoms coupled to micro- and nanomechanical oscillators: towards hybrid quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Treutlein, Philipp
2009-05-01
Micro- and nanomechanical oscillators are presently approaching the quantum regime, driven by the continuous improvement of techniques to read out and cool mechanical motion. For trapped ultracold atoms, a rich toolbox of quantum control techniques already exists. By coupling mechanical oscillators to ultracold atoms, hybrid quantum systems could be formed, in which the atoms are used to cool, read out, and coherently manipulate the oscillators' state. In our work, we investigate different coupling mechanisms between ultracold atoms and mechanical oscillators. In a first experiment, we use atom-surface forces to couple the vibrations of a mechanical cantilever to the motion of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a magnetic microtrap on a chip. The atoms are trapped at sub-micrometer distance from the cantilever surface. We make use of the coupling to read out the cantilever vibrations with the atoms. Coupling via surface forces could be employed to couple atoms to molecular-scale oscillators such as carbon nanotubes. In a second experiment, we investigate coupling via a 1D optical lattice that is formed by a laser beam retroreflected from the cantilever tip. The optical lattice serves as a transfer rod which couples vibrations of the cantilever to the atoms and vice versa. Finally, we investigate magnetic coupling between the spin of ultracold atoms and the vibrations of a nanoscale cantilever with a magnetic tip. Theoretical investigations show that at low temperatures, the backaction of the atoms onto the cantilever is significant and the system represents a mechanical analog of cavity quantum electrodynamics in the strong coupling regime.
Pacheco, Alexander B; Reyes, Andrés; Micha, David A
2006-10-21
The absorption of light during atomic collisions is treated by coupling electronic excitations, treated quantum mechanically, to the motion of the nuclei described within a short de Broglie wavelength approximation, using a density matrix approach. The time-dependent electric dipole of the system provides the intensity of light absorption in a treatment valid for transient phenomena, and the Fourier transform of time-dependent intensities gives absorption spectra that are very sensitive to details of the interaction potentials of excited diatomic states. We consider several sets of atomic expansion functions and atomic pseudopotentials, and introduce new parametrizations to provide light absorption spectra in good agreement with experimentally measured and ab initio calculated spectra. To this end, we describe the electronic excitation of the valence electron of excited alkali atoms in collisions with noble gas atoms with a procedure that combines l-dependent atomic pseudopotentials, including two- and three-body polarization terms, and a treatment of the dynamics based on the eikonal approximation of atomic motions and time-dependent molecular orbitals. We present results for the collision induced absorption spectra in the Li-He system at 720 K, which display both atomic and molecular transition intensities. PMID:17059261
Cavity quantum electrodynamics with a Rydberg-blocked atomic ensemble
Guerlin, Christine; Brion, Etienne; Esslinger, Tilman; Moelmer, Klaus
2010-11-15
The realization of a Jaynes-Cummings model in the optical domain is proposed for an atomic ensemble. The scheme exploits the collective coupling of the atoms to a quantized cavity mode and the nonlinearity introduced by coupling to high-lying Rydberg states. A two-photon transition resonantly couples the single-atom ground state |g> to a Rydberg state |e> via a nonresonant intermediate state |i>, but due to the interaction between Rydberg atoms only a single atom can be resonantly excited in the ensemble. This restricts the state space of the ensemble to the collective ground state |G> and the collectively excited state |E> with a single Rydberg excitation distributed evenly on all atoms. The collectively enhanced coupling of all atoms to the cavity field with coherent coupling strengths which are much larger than the decay rates in the system leads to the strong coupling regime of the resulting effective Jaynes-Cummings model. We use numerical simulations to show that the cavity transmission can be used to reveal detailed properties of the Jaynes-Cummings ladder of excited states and that the atomic nonlinearity gives rise to highly nontrivial photon emission from the cavity. Finally, we suggest that the absence of interactions between remote Rydberg atoms may, due to a combinatorial effect, induce a cavity-assisted excitation blockade whose range is larger than the typical Rydberg dipole-dipole interaction length.
Quantum state transfer between atomic ensembles trapped in separate cavities via adiabatic passage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Chun-Ling; Chen, Mei-Feng
2015-07-01
We propose a new approach for quantum state transfer (QST) between atomic ensembles separately trapped in two distant cavities connected by an optical fiber via adiabatic passage. The three-level Λ-type atoms in each ensemble dispersively interact with the nonresonant classical field and cavity mode. By choosing appropriate parameters of the system, the effective Hamiltonian describes two atomic ensembles interacting with “the same cavity mode” and has a dark state. Consequently, the QST between atomic ensembles can be implemented via adiabatic passage. Numerical calculations show that the scheme is robust against moderate fluctuations of the experimental parameters. In addition, the effect of decoherence can be suppressed effectively. The idea provides a scalable way to an atomic-ensemble-based quantum network, which may be reachable with currently available technology. Project supported by the Funding (type B) from the Fujian Education Department, China (Grant No. JB13261).
Probing the quantum vacuum with an artificial atom in front of a mirror
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoi, I.-C.; Kockum, A. F.; Tornberg, L.; Pourkabirian, A.; Johansson, G.; Delsing, P.; Wilson, C. M.
2015-12-01
Quantum fluctuations of the vacuum are both a surprising and fundamental phenomenon of nature. Understood as virtual photons, they still have a very real impact, for instance, in the Casimir effects and the lifetimes of atoms. Engineering vacuum fluctuations is therefore becoming increasingly important to emerging technologies. Here, we shape vacuum fluctuations using a superconducting circuit analogue of a mirror, creating regions in space where they are suppressed. Moving an artificial atom through these regions and measuring the spontaneous emission lifetime of the atom provides us with the spectral density of the vacuum fluctuations. Using the paradigm of waveguide quantum electrodynamics, we significantly improve over previous studies of the interaction of an atom with its mirror image, observing a spectral density as low as 0.02 quanta, a factor of 50 below the mirrorless result. This demonstrates that we can hide the atom from the vacuum, even though it is exposed in free space.
Universal quantum gates for photon-atom hybrid systems assisted by bad cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Guan-Yu; Liu, Qian; Wei, Hai-Rui; Li, Tao; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo
2016-04-01
We present two deterministic schemes for constructing a CNOT gate and a Toffoli gate on photon-atom and photon-atom-atom hybrid quantum systems assisted by bad cavities, respectively. They are achieved by cavity-assisted photon scattering and work in the intermediate coupling region with bad cavities, which relaxes the difficulty of their implementation in experiment. Also, bad cavities are feasible for fast quantum operations and reading out information. Compared with previous works, our schemes do not need any auxiliary qubits and measurements. Moreover, the schematic setups for these gates are simple, especially that for our Toffoli gate as only a quarter wave packet is used to interact the photon with each of the atoms every time. These atom-cavity systems can be used as the quantum nodes in long-distance quantum communication as their relatively long coherence time is suitable for multi-time operations between the photon and the system. Our calculations show that the average fidelities and efficiencies of our two universal hybrid quantum gates are high with current experimental technology.
Universal quantum gates for photon-atom hybrid systems assisted by bad cavities.
Wang, Guan-Yu; Liu, Qian; Wei, Hai-Rui; Li, Tao; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo
2016-01-01
We present two deterministic schemes for constructing a CNOT gate and a Toffoli gate on photon-atom and photon-atom-atom hybrid quantum systems assisted by bad cavities, respectively. They are achieved by cavity-assisted photon scattering and work in the intermediate coupling region with bad cavities, which relaxes the difficulty of their implementation in experiment. Also, bad cavities are feasible for fast quantum operations and reading out information. Compared with previous works, our schemes do not need any auxiliary qubits and measurements. Moreover, the schematic setups for these gates are simple, especially that for our Toffoli gate as only a quarter wave packet is used to interact the photon with each of the atoms every time. These atom-cavity systems can be used as the quantum nodes in long-distance quantum communication as their relatively long coherence time is suitable for multi-time operations between the photon and the system. Our calculations show that the average fidelities and efficiencies of our two universal hybrid quantum gates are high with current experimental technology. PMID:27067992
Universal quantum gates for photon-atom hybrid systems assisted by bad cavities
Wang, Guan-Yu; Liu, Qian; Wei, Hai-Rui; Li, Tao; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo
2016-01-01
We present two deterministic schemes for constructing a CNOT gate and a Toffoli gate on photon-atom and photon-atom-atom hybrid quantum systems assisted by bad cavities, respectively. They are achieved by cavity-assisted photon scattering and work in the intermediate coupling region with bad cavities, which relaxes the difficulty of their implementation in experiment. Also, bad cavities are feasible for fast quantum operations and reading out information. Compared with previous works, our schemes do not need any auxiliary qubits and measurements. Moreover, the schematic setups for these gates are simple, especially that for our Toffoli gate as only a quarter wave packet is used to interact the photon with each of the atoms every time. These atom-cavity systems can be used as the quantum nodes in long-distance quantum communication as their relatively long coherence time is suitable for multi-time operations between the photon and the system. Our calculations show that the average fidelities and efficiencies of our two universal hybrid quantum gates are high with current experimental technology. PMID:27067992
Quantum coherence and entanglement control for atom-cavity systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shu, Wenchong
Coherence and entanglement play a significant role in the quantum theory. Ideal quantum systems, "closed" to the outside world, remain quantum forever and thus manage to retain coherence and entanglement. Real quantum systems, however, are open to the environment and are therefore susceptible to the phenomenon of decoherence and disentanglement which are major hindrances to the effectiveness of quantum information processing tasks. In this thesis we have theoretically studied the evolution of coherence and entanglement in quantum systems coupled to various environments. We have also studied ways and means of controlling the decay of coherence and entanglement. We have studied the exact qubit entanglement dynamics of some interesting initial states coupled to a high-Q cavity containing zero photon, one photon, two photons and many photons respectively. We have found that an initially correlated environmental state can serve as an enhancer for entanglement decay or generation processes. More precisely, we have demonstrated that the degree of entanglement, including its collapse as well as its revival times, can be significantly modified by the correlated structure of the environmental modes. We have also studied dynamical decoupling (DD) technique --- a prominent strategy of controlling decoherence and preserving entanglement in open quantum systems. We have analyzed several DD control methods applied to qubit systems that can eliminate the system-environment coupling and prolong the quantum coherence time. Particularly, we have proposed a new DD sequence consisting a set of designed control operators that can universally protected an unknown qutrit state against colored phase and amplitude environment noises. In addition, in a non-Markovian regime, we have reformulated the quantum state diffusion (QSD) equation to incorporate the effect of the external control fields. Without any assumptions on the system-environment coupling and the size of environment, we have
Po, Hoi Chun; Zhou, Qi
2015-01-01
Bosons have a natural instinct to condense at zero temperature. It is a long-standing challenge to create a high-dimensional quantum liquid that does not exhibit long-range order at the ground state, as either extreme experimental parameters or sophisticated designs of microscopic Hamiltonians are required for suppressing the condensation. Here we show that synthetic gauge fields for ultracold atoms, using either the Raman scheme or shaken lattices, provide physicists a simple and practical scheme to produce a two-dimensional algebraic quantum liquid at the ground state. This quantum liquid arises at a critical Lifshitz point, where a two-dimensional quartic dispersion emerges in the momentum space, and many fundamental properties of two-dimensional bosons are changed in its proximity. Such an ideal simulator of the quantum Lifshitz model allows experimentalists to directly visualize and explore the deconfinement transition of topological excitations, an intriguing phenomenon that is difficult to access in other systems. PMID:26268154
Quantum Cloning of an Unknown 2-Atom State via Entangled Cluster States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, L.-z.; Zhong, F.
2016-01-01
This paper presented a scheme for cloning a 2-atom state in the QED cavity with the help of Victor who is the state's preparer. The cloning scheme has two steps. In the first step, the scheme requires probabilistic teleportation of a 2-atom state that is unknown in advance, and uses a 4-atom cluster state as quantum channel. In the second step, perfect copies of the 2-atom entangled state may be realized with the assistance of Victor. The finding is that our scheme has two outstanding advantages: it is not sensitive to the cavity decay, and Bell state is easy to identify.
Entanglement and quantum state transfer between two atoms trapped in two indirectly coupled cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Bin; Shen, Li-Tuo; Chen, Ming-Feng
2016-05-01
We propose a one-step scheme for implementing entanglement generation and the quantum state transfer between two atomic qubits trapped in two different cavities that are not directly coupled to each other. The process is realized through engineering an effective asymmetric X-Y interaction for the two atoms involved in the gate operation and an auxiliary atom trapped in an intermediate cavity, induced by virtually manipulating the atomic excited states and photons. We study the validity of the scheme as well as the influences of the dissipation by numerical simulation and demonstrate that it is robust against decoherence.
Quantum Cloning of an Unknown 2-Atom State via Entangled Cluster States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, L.-z.; Zhong, F.
2016-06-01
This paper presented a scheme for cloning a 2-atom state in the QED cavity with the help of Victor who is the state's preparer. The cloning scheme has two steps. In the first step, the scheme requires probabilistic teleportation of a 2-atom state that is unknown in advance, and uses a 4-atom cluster state as quantum channel. In the second step, perfect copies of the 2-atom entangled state may be realized with the assistance of Victor. The finding is that our scheme has two outstanding advantages: it is not sensitive to the cavity decay, and Bell state is easy to identify.
Phase conjugation of a quantum-degenerate atomic fermion beam.
Search, Chris P; Meystre, Pierre
2003-09-01
We discuss the possibility of phase conjugation of an atomic Fermi field via nonlinear wave mixing in an ultracold gas. It is shown that for a beam of fermions incident on an atomic phase-conjugate mirror, a time-reversed backward propagating fermionic beam is generated similar to the case in nonlinear optics. By adopting an operational definition of the phase, we show that it is possible to infer the presence of the phase-conjugate field by the loss of the interference pattern in an atomic interferometer. PMID:14525466
Information-recycling beam splitters for quantum enhanced atom interferometry.
Haine, S A
2013-02-01
We propose a scheme to significantly enhance the sensitivity of atom interferometry performed with Bose-Einstein condensates. When an optical two-photon Raman transition is used to split the condensate into two modes, some information about the number of atoms in one of the modes is contained in one of the optical modes. We introduce a simple model to describe this process, and find that by processing this information in an appropriate way, the phase sensitivity of atom interferometry can be enhanced by more than a factor of 10 for realistic parameters. PMID:23414016
Collective cavity quantum electrodynamics with multiple atomic levels
Arnold, Kyle J.; Baden, Markus P.; Barrett, Murray D.
2011-09-15
We study the transmission spectra of ultracold rubidium atoms coupled to a high-finesse optical cavity. Under weak probing with {pi}-polarized light, the linear response of the system is that of a collective spin with multiple levels coupled to a single mode of the cavity. By varying the atom number, we change the collective coupling of the system. We observe the change in transmission spectra when going from a regime where the collective coupling is much smaller than the separation of the atomic levels to a regime where both are of comparable size. The observations are in good agreement with a reduced model we developed for our system.
Demonstration of a Neutral Atom Controlled-NOT Quantum Gate
Isenhower, L.; Urban, E.; Zhang, X. L.; Gill, A. T.; Henage, T.; Johnson, T. A.; Walker, T. G.; Saffman, M.
2010-01-08
We present the first demonstration of a CNOT gate between two individually addressed neutral atoms. Our implementation of the CNOT uses Rydberg blockade interactions between neutral atoms held in optical traps separated by >8 {mu}m. Using two different gate protocols we measure CNOT fidelities of F=0.73 and 0.72 based on truth table probabilities. The gate was used to generate Bell states with fidelity F=0.48+-0.06. After correcting for atom loss we obtain an a posteriori entanglement fidelity of F=0.58.
Spin dynamics of an individual Cr atom in a semiconductor quantum dot under optical excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lafuente-Sampietro, A.; Utsumi, H.; Boukari, H.; Kuroda, S.; Besombes, L.
2016-08-01
We studied the spin dynamics of a Cr atom incorporated in a II-VI semiconductor quantum dot using photon correlation techniques. We used recently developed singly Cr-doped CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots to access the spin of an individual magnetic atom. Auto-correlation of the photons emitted by the quantum dot under continuous wave optical excitation reveals fluctuations of the localized spin with a timescale in the 10 ns range. Cross-correlation gives quantitative transfer time between Cr spin states. A calculation of the time dependence of the spin levels population in Cr-doped quantum dots shows that the observed spin dynamics is dominated by the exciton-Cr interaction. These measurements also provide a lower bound in the 20 ns range for the intrinsic Cr spin relaxation time.
Quantum gas microscopy with spin, atom-number, and multilayer readout
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Preiss, Philipp M.; Ma, Ruichao; Tai, M. Eric; Simon, Jonathan; Greiner, Markus
2015-04-01
Atom- and site-resolved experiments with ultracold atoms in optical lattices provide a powerful platform for the simulation of strongly correlated materials. In this Rapid Communication, we present a toolbox for the preparation, control, and site-resolved detection of a tunnel-coupled bilayer degenerate quantum gas. Using a collisional blockade, we engineer occupation-dependent interplane transport which enables us to circumvent light-assisted pair loss during imaging and count n =0 to n =3 atoms per site. We obtain the first number- and site-resolved images of the Mott insulator "wedding cake" structure and observe the emergence of antiferromagnetic ordering across a magnetic quantum phase transition. We are further able to employ the bilayer system for spin-resolved readout of a mixture of two hyperfine states. This work opens the door to direct detection of entanglement and Kosterlitz-Thouless-type phase dynamics, as well as studies of coupled planar quantum materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tu, Yanfei; Kim, May E.; Shahriar, Selim M.
2014-10-01
Previously, we had proposed the technique of light shift imbalance induced blockade which leads to a condition where a collection of non-interacting atoms under laser excitation remains combined to a superposition of the ground and the fist excited states, thus realizing a collective state quantum bit which in turn can be used to realize a quantum computer. In this paper, we show first that the light shift imbalance by itself is actually not enough to produce such a blockade, and explain the reason by the limitation of our previous analysis had reached this constraint. We then show that by introducing Rydberg interaction, it is possible to achieve such a blockade for a wide range of parameters. Analytic arguments used to establish these results are confirmed by numerical simulations. The fidelity of coupled quantum gates based on such collective state qubits is highly insensitive to the exact number of atoms in the ensemble. As such, this approach may prove be viable for scalable quantum computing based on neutral atoms.
Accurate energies of the He atom with undergraduate quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Massé, Robert C.; Walker, Thad G.
2015-08-01
Estimating the energies and splitting of the 1s2s singlet and triplet states of helium is a classic exercise in quantum perturbation theory but yields only qualitatively correct results. Using a six-line computer program, the 1s2s energies calculated by matrix diagonalization using a seven-state basis improve the results to 0.4% error or better. This is an effective and practical illustration of the quantitative power of quantum mechanics, at a level accessible to undergraduate students.
Light scattering from ultracold atoms in optical lattices as an optical probe of quantum statistics
Mekhov, Igor B.; Maschler, Christoph; Ritsch, Helmut
2007-11-15
We study off-resonant collective light scattering from ultracold atoms trapped in an optical lattice. Scattering from different atomic quantum states creates different quantum states of the scattered light, which can be distinguished by measurements of the spatial intensity distribution, quadrature variances, photon statistics, or spectral measurements. In particular, angle-resolved intensity measurements reflect global statistics of atoms (total number of radiating atoms) as well as local statistical quantities (single-site statistics even without optical access to a single site) and pair correlations between different sites. As a striking example we consider scattering from transversally illuminated atoms into an optical cavity mode. For the Mott-insulator state, similar to classical diffraction, the number of photons scattered into a cavity is zero due to destructive interference, while for the superfluid state it is nonzero and proportional to the number of atoms. Moreover, we demonstrate that light scattering into a standing-wave cavity has a nontrivial angle dependence, including the appearance of narrow features at angles, where classical diffraction predicts zero. The measurement procedure corresponds to the quantum nondemolition measurement of various atomic variables by observing light.
Quantum transmission of atoms through a slab of superfluid helium.
Williams, C D H; Wyatt, A F G
2003-08-22
We describe a measurement of the transmission probability of 4He atoms through a freely suspended slab of superfluid 4He at low temperatures. In our experiment the slab is realized by using an array of parallel cylindrical holes of diameter 51 microm in a glass disc of thickness 190 microm. By controlling the chemical potential, the holes can be made to fill or empty with liquid, and the surface curvature varied. We have measured the transmission of atom beams, generated by a thin-film heater and detected with a sensitive bolometer, through this structure. The results show that the dominant transmission channel is atom-R+ roton-atom with a probability p approximately 0.12 and that R+ rotons can undergo total internal reflection at the free liquid surfaces. PMID:14525250
Quantum phase transitions in an interacting atom-molecule boson model
Santos, G.; Foerster, A.; Mattei, E.; Dahmen, S. R.; Links, J.
2010-06-15
We study the quantum phase transitions of a model that describes the interconversion of interacting bosonic atoms and molecules. Using a classical analysis, we identify a threshold coupling line separating a molecular phase and a mixed phase. Through studies of the energy gap, von Neumann entanglement entropy, and fidelity, we give evidence that this line is associated with a boundary line in the ground-state phase diagram of the quantum system.
Transfer behavior of quantum states between atoms in photonic crystal coupled cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ke; Li, Zhi-Yuan
2010-03-01
In this article, we discuss the one-excitation dynamics of a quantum system consisting of two two-level atoms each interacting with one of two coupled single-mode cavities via spontaneous emission. When the atoms and cavities are tuned into resonance, a wide variety of time-evolution behaviors can be realized by modulating the atom-cavity coupling strength g and the cavity-cavity hopping strength λ. The dynamics is solved rigorously via the eigenproblem of an ordinary coupled linear system and simple analytical solutions are derived at several extreme situations of g and λ. In the large hopping limit where g≪λ, the behavior of the system is the linear superposition of a fast and slow periodic oscillation. The quantum state transfers from one atom to the other atom accompanied with weak excitation of the cavity mode. In the large coupling limit where g≫λ, the time-evolution behavior of the system is characterized by the usual slowly varying carrier envelope superimposed upon a fast and violent oscillation. At a certain instant, the energy is fully transferred from the one quantum subsystem to the other. When the two interaction strengths are comparable in magnitude, the dynamics acts as a continuous pulse having irregular frequency and line shape of peaks and valleys, and the complicated time-evolution behaviors are ascribed to the violent competition between all the one-excitation quantum states. The coupled quantum system of atoms and cavities makes a good model to study cavity quantum electrodynamics with great freedoms of many-body interaction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Teo, Boon K.; Li, Wai-Kee
2011-01-01
This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, the atomic unit (au) system is introduced and the scales of time, space (length), and speed, as well as those of mass and energy, in the atomic world are discussed. In the second part, the utility of atomic units in quantum mechanical and spectroscopic calculations is illustrated with…
Türkpençe, Deniz; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür E
2016-01-01
We investigate scaling of work and efficiency of a photonic Carnot engine with a number of quantum coherent resources. Specifically, we consider a generalization of the "phaseonium fuel" for the photonic Carnot engine, which was first introduced as a three-level atom with two lower states in a quantum coherent superposition by M. O. Scully, M. Suhail Zubairy, G. S. Agarwal, and H. Walther [Science 299, 862 (2003)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1078955], to the case of N+1 level atoms with N coherent lower levels. We take into account atomic relaxation and dephasing as well as the cavity loss and derive a coarse-grained master equation to evaluate the work and efficiency analytically. Analytical results are verified by microscopic numerical examination of the thermalization dynamics. We find that efficiency and work scale quadratically with the number of quantum coherent levels. Quantum coherence boost to the specific energy (work output per unit mass of the resource) is a profound fundamental difference of quantum fuel from classical resources. We consider typical modern resonator set ups and conclude that multilevel phaseonium fuel can be utilized to overcome the decoherence in available systems. Preparation of the atomic coherences and the associated cost of coherence are analyzed and the engine operation within the bounds of the second law is verified. Our results bring the photonic Carnot engines much closer to the capabilities of current resonator technologies. PMID:26871061
Geometry-Induced Memory Effects in Isolated Quantum Systems: Cold-Atom Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Chen-Yen; Chien, Chih-Chun
2016-03-01
Memory effects result from the history-dependent behavior of a system, are abundant in our daily life, and have broad applications. Here, we explore the possibilities of generating memory effects in simple isolated quantum systems. By utilizing geometrical effects from a class of lattices supporting flatbands consisting of localized states, memory effects could be observed in ultracold atoms in optical lattices. As the optical lattice continuously transforms from a triangular lattice into a kagome lattice with a flatband, history-dependent density distributions manifest quantum memory effects even in noninteracting systems, including fermionic as well as bosonic systems, in the proper ranges of temperatures. Rapid growth of ultracold technology predicts a bright future for quantum memory-effect systems, and here two prototypical applications of geometry-induced quantum memory effects are proposed: A cold-atom-based accelerometer using an atomic differentiator to record the mechanical change rate of a coupled probe, and an atomic quantum memory cell for storing information with write-in and readout schemes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Türkpençe, Deniz; Müstecaplıoǧlu, Özgür E.
2016-01-01
We investigate scaling of work and efficiency of a photonic Carnot engine with a number of quantum coherent resources. Specifically, we consider a generalization of the "phaseonium fuel" for the photonic Carnot engine, which was first introduced as a three-level atom with two lower states in a quantum coherent superposition by M. O. Scully, M. Suhail Zubairy, G. S. Agarwal, and H. Walther [Science 299, 862 (2003), 10.1126/science.1078955], to the case of N +1 level atoms with N coherent lower levels. We take into account atomic relaxation and dephasing as well as the cavity loss and derive a coarse-grained master equation to evaluate the work and efficiency analytically. Analytical results are verified by microscopic numerical examination of the thermalization dynamics. We find that efficiency and work scale quadratically with the number of quantum coherent levels. Quantum coherence boost to the specific energy (work output per unit mass of the resource) is a profound fundamental difference of quantum fuel from classical resources. We consider typical modern resonator set ups and conclude that multilevel phaseonium fuel can be utilized to overcome the decoherence in available systems. Preparation of the atomic coherences and the associated cost of coherence are analyzed and the engine operation within the bounds of the second law is verified. Our results bring the photonic Carnot engines much closer to the capabilities of current resonator technologies.
Atomic spin-chain realization of a model for quantum criticality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toskovic, R.; van den Berg, R.; Spinelli, A.; Eliens, I. S.; van den Toorn, B.; Bryant, B.; Caux, J.-S.; Otte, A. F.
2016-07-01
The ability to manipulate single atoms has opened up the door to constructing interesting and useful quantum structures from the ground up. On the one hand, nanoscale arrangements of magnetic atoms are at the heart of future quantum computing and spintronic devices; on the other hand, they can be used as fundamental building blocks for the realization of textbook many-body quantum models, illustrating key concepts such as quantum phase transitions, topological order or frustration as a function of system size. Here, we use low-temperature scanning tunnelling microscopy to construct arrays of magnetic atoms on a surface, designed to behave like spin-1/2 XXZ Heisenberg chains in a transverse field, for which a quantum phase transition from an antiferromagnetic to a paramagnetic phase is predicted in the thermodynamic limit. Site-resolved measurements on these finite-size realizations reveal a number of sudden ground state changes when the field approaches the critical value, each corresponding to a new domain wall entering the chains. We observe that these state crossings become closer for longer chains, suggesting the onset of critical behaviour. Our results present opportunities for further studies on quantum behaviour of many-body systems, as a function of their size and structural complexity.
Li, Tao; Deng, Fu-Guo
2015-01-01
Quantum repeater is one of the important building blocks for long distance quantum communication network. The previous quantum repeaters based on atomic ensembles and linear optical elements can only be performed with a maximal success probability of 1/2 during the entanglement creation and entanglement swapping procedures. Meanwhile, the polarization noise during the entanglement distribution process is harmful to the entangled channel created. Here we introduce a general interface between a polarized photon and an atomic ensemble trapped in a single-sided optical cavity, and with which we propose a high-efficiency quantum repeater protocol in which the robust entanglement distribution is accomplished by the stable spatial-temporal entanglement and it can in principle create the deterministic entanglement between neighboring atomic ensembles in a heralded way as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. Meanwhile, the simplified parity-check gate makes the entanglement swapping be completed with unity efficiency, other than 1/2 with linear optics. We detail the performance of our protocol with current experimental parameters and show its robustness to the imperfections, i.e., detuning and coupling variation, involved in the reflection process. These good features make it a useful building block in long distance quantum communication. PMID:26502993
Controlled rephasing of single spin-waves in a quantum memory based on cold atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farrera, Pau; Albrecht, Boris; Heinze, Georg; Cristiani, Matteo; de Riedmatten, Hugues; Quantum Photonics With Solids; Atoms Team
2015-05-01
Quantum memories for light allow a reversible transfer of quantum information between photons and long lived matter quantum bits. In atomic ensembles, this information is commonly stored in the form of single collective spin excitations (spin-waves). In this work we demonstrate that we can actively control the dephasing of the spin-waves created in a quantum memory based on a cold Rb87 atomic ensemble. The control is provided by an external magnetic field gradient, which induces an inhomogeneous broadening of the atomic hyperfine levels. We show that acting on this gradient allows to control the dephasing of individual spin-waves and to induce later a rephasing. The spin-waves are then mapped into single photons, and we demonstrate experimentally that the active rephasing preserves the sub-Poissonian statistics of the retrieved photons. Finally we show that this rephasing control enables the creation and storage of multiple spin-waves in different temporal modes, which can be selectively readout. This is an important step towards the implementation of a functional temporally multiplexed quantum memory for quantum repeaters. We acknowledge support from the ERC starting grant, the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, the Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional, and the International PhD- fellowship program ``la Caixa''-Severo Ochoa @ICFO.
Li, Tao; Deng, Fu-Guo
2015-01-01
Quantum repeater is one of the important building blocks for long distance quantum communication network. The previous quantum repeaters based on atomic ensembles and linear optical elements can only be performed with a maximal success probability of 1/2 during the entanglement creation and entanglement swapping procedures. Meanwhile, the polarization noise during the entanglement distribution process is harmful to the entangled channel created. Here we introduce a general interface between a polarized photon and an atomic ensemble trapped in a single-sided optical cavity, and with which we propose a high-efficiency quantum repeater protocol in which the robust entanglement distribution is accomplished by the stable spatial-temporal entanglement and it can in principle create the deterministic entanglement between neighboring atomic ensembles in a heralded way as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. Meanwhile, the simplified parity-check gate makes the entanglement swapping be completed with unity efficiency, other than 1/2 with linear optics. We detail the performance of our protocol with current experimental parameters and show its robustness to the imperfections, i.e., detuning and coupling variation, involved in the reflection process. These good features make it a useful building block in long distance quantum communication. PMID:26502993
Spin-orbit coupling and quantum spin Hall effect for neutral atoms without spin flips.
Kennedy, Colin J; Siviloglou, Georgios A; Miyake, Hirokazu; Burton, William Cody; Ketterle, Wolfgang
2013-11-27
We propose a scheme which realizes spin-orbit coupling and the quantum spin Hall effect for neutral atoms in optical lattices without relying on near resonant laser light to couple different spin states. The spin-orbit coupling is created by modifying the motion of atoms in a spin-dependent way by laser recoil. The spin selectivity is provided by Zeeman shifts created with a magnetic field gradient. Alternatively, a quantum spin Hall Hamiltonian can be created by all-optical means using a period-tripling, spin-dependent superlattice. PMID:24329453
Quantum Mutual Entropy for a Multilevel Atom Interacting with a Cavity Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdel-Aty, M.; Wahiddin, M. R. B.; Obada, A.-S. F.
2007-04-01
We derive an explicit formula for the quantum mutual entropy as a measure of the total correlations in a multi-level atom interacting with a cavity field. We describe its theoretical basis and discuss its practical relevance. The effect of the number of levels involved on the quantum mutual entropy is demonstrated via examples of three-, four- and five-level atom. Numerical calculations under current experimental conditions are performed and it is found that the number of levels present changes the general features of the correlations dramatically.
Quantum Monte Carlo calculation of the properties of atomic carbon and diamond
Fahy, S.; Wang, X.W.; Louie, S.G.
1988-06-01
A new method of calculating total energies of solids using non-local pseudopotentials in conjunction with the variational quantum Monte Carlo approach is presented. By using pseudopotentials, the large fluctuations of the energies in the core region of the atoms which occur in quantum Monte Carlo all-electron schemes are avoided. The method is applied to calculate the cohesive energy and structural properties of diamond and the first ionization energy and electron affinity of the carbon atom. Results are in excellent agreement with experiment. 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.
Fast generation of three-atom singlet state by transitionless quantum driving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhen; Chen, Ye-Hong; Xia, Yan; Song, Jie; Huang, Bi-Hua
2016-03-01
Motivated by “transitionless quantum driving”, we construct shortcuts to adiabatic passage in a three-atom system to create a singlet state with the help of quantum zeno dynamics and non-resonant lasers. The influence of various decoherence processes is discussed by numerical simulation and the results reveal that the scheme is fast and robust against decoherence and operational imperfection. We also investigate how to select the experimental parameters to control the cavity dissipation and atomic spontaneous emission which will have an application value in experiment.
Fast generation of three-atom singlet state by transitionless quantum driving
Chen, Zhen; Chen, Ye-Hong; Xia, Yan; Song, Jie; Huang, Bi-Hua
2016-01-01
Motivated by “transitionless quantum driving”, we construct shortcuts to adiabatic passage in a three-atom system to create a singlet state with the help of quantum zeno dynamics and non-resonant lasers. The influence of various decoherence processes is discussed by numerical simulation and the results reveal that the scheme is fast and robust against decoherence and operational imperfection. We also investigate how to select the experimental parameters to control the cavity dissipation and atomic spontaneous emission which will have an application value in experiment. PMID:26931812
Reply to 'Comment on 'Quantum time-of-flight distribution for cold trapped atoms''
Ali, Md. Manirul; Home, Dipankar; Pan, Alok K.; Majumdar, A. S.
2008-02-15
In their comment Gomes et al. [Phys. Rev. A 77, 026101 (2008)] have questioned the possibility of empirically testable differences existing between the semiclassical time of flight distribution for cold trapped atoms and a quantum distribution discussed by us recently [Ali et al., Phys. Rev. A 75, 042110 (2007).]. We argue that their criticism is based on a semiclassical treatment having restricted applicability for a particular trapping potential. Their claim does not preclude, in general, the possibility of differences between the semiclassical calculations and fully quantum results for the arrival time distribution of freely falling atoms.
Quantum simulations of lattice gauge theories using ultracold atoms in optical lattices.
Zohar, Erez; Cirac, J Ignacio; Reznik, Benni
2016-01-01
Can high-energy physics be simulated by low-energy, non-relativistic, many-body systems such as ultracold atoms? Such ultracold atomic systems lack the type of symmetries and dynamical properties of high energy physics models: in particular, they manifest neither local gauge invariance nor Lorentz invariance, which are crucial properties of the quantum field theories which are the building blocks of the standard model of elementary particles. However, it turns out, surprisingly, that there are ways to configure an atomic system to manifest both local gauge invariance and Lorentz invariance. In particular, local gauge invariance can arise either as an effective low-energy symmetry, or as an exact symmetry, following from the conservation laws in atomic interactions. Hence, one could hope that such quantum simulators may lead to a new type of (table-top) experiments which will be used to study various QCD (quantum chromodynamics) phenomena, such as the confinement of dynamical quarks, phase transitions and other effects, which are inaccessible using the currently known computational methods. In this report, we review the Hamiltonian formulation of lattice gauge theories, and then describe our recent progress in constructing the quantum simulation of Abelian and non-Abelian lattice gauge theories in 1 + 1 and 2 + 1 dimensions using ultracold atoms in optical lattices. PMID:26684222
Quantum Transport Modeling of Atomic Nanostructures on Silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smeu, Manuel
Surface effects can adversely influence the performance of a nanoelectronic device, but may also lead to new functionality. The focus of this thesis is to theoretically study the role of surfaces in nanoelectronics. Our theoretical analysis is from atomic first principles achieved by combining density functional theory with the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function approach. This technique allows for all atoms in a system to be treated on an equal footing without any phenomenological parameters. The first part of the thesis considers conduction through a molecule with no substrate to illustrate the sort of system typically modeled in transport calculations. Two Au electrodes are bridged by a substituted benzenediamine molecule (R = CH3, NH2, OH) where an H atom is removed to form a radical that may behave as a spin filter, depending on the R group. Next is considered a π-stacked line of ethylbenzene molecules on the Si(100) surface, where the Si atoms are explicitly included in the calculation. Although the molecules conduct electrons at certain energies, a channel occurs through the substrate, which can dominate the conductance. The use of substituent groups to modulate the electron transport properties of such wires is also investigated, showing that the conductance of the molecular wire could be tuned to dominate over the substrate. Finally, the conductance of the Si(111)-7 × 7 metallic surface is studied. Inspired by experiments suggesting that atomic steps reduce the surface conductance, the atomic structure and transport properties of such steps are examined, revealing that dimer atom buckling along the step edges is the primary culprit since it leads to an opening of a local band gap at the step.
Atomic thermal motion effect on efficiency of a high-speed quantum memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tikhonov, Kirill; Golubeva, Tania; Golubev, Yuri
2015-11-01
We discuss the influence of atomic thermal motion on the efficiency of multimode quantum memory in two configurations: over the free expand of atoms cooled beforehand in a magneto-optical trap, and over complete mixing of atoms in a closed cell at room temperature. We consider the high-speed quantum memory, and assume that writing and retrieval are short enough, and the displacements of atoms during these stages are negligibly small. At the same time we take in account thermal motion during the storage time, which, as well known, must be much longer than durations of all the other memory processes for successful application of memory cell in communication and computation. We will analyze this influence in terms of eigenmodes of the full memory cycle and show that distortion of the eigenmodes, caused by thermal motion, leads to the efficiency reduction. We will demonstrate, that in the multimode memory this interconnection has complicated character.
Demonstration of a Stable Atom-Photon Entanglement Source for Quantum Repeaters
Chen Shuai; Chen Yuao; Zhao Bo; Yuan Zhensheng; Pan Jianwei; Schmiedmayer, Joerg
2007-11-02
We demonstrate a novel way to efficiently create a robust entanglement between an atomic and a photonic qubit. A single laser beam is used to excite one atomic ensemble and two different modes of Raman fields are collected to generate the atom-photon entanglement. With the help of built-in quantum memory, the entanglement still exists after 20.5 {mu}s storage time which is further proved by the violation of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt type Bell's inequality. The entanglement procedure can serve as a building block for a novel robust quantum repeater architecture [Zhao et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 240502 (2007)] and can be extended to generate high-dimensional atom-photon entanglements.
Cavity quantum optomechanics of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice: Normal-mode splitting
Bhattacherjee, Aranya B.
2009-10-15
We consider the dynamics of a movable mirror (cantilever) of a cavity coupled through radiation pressure to the light scattered from ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. Scattering from different atomic quantum states creates different quantum states of the scattered light, which can be distinguished by measurements of the displacement spectrum of the cantilever. We show that for large pump intensities the steady-state displacement of the cantilever shows bistable behavior. Due to atomic back action, the displacement spectrum of the cantilever is modified and depends on the position of the condensate in the Brillouin zone. We further analyze the occurrence of splitting of the normal mode into three modes due to mixing of the mechanical motion with the fluctuations of the cavity field and the fluctuations of the condensate with finite atomic two-body interaction.
Interaction between two SU(1 , 1) quantum systems and a two-level atom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdalla, M. Sebawe; Khalil, E. M.; Obada, A. S.-F.
2016-07-01
We consider a two-level atom interacting with two coupled quantum systems that can be represented in terms of su(1 , 1) Lie algebra. The wave function that is obtained using the evolution operator for the atom is initially in a superposition state and the coupled su(1 , 1) systems in a pair coherent Barut-Girardello coherent state. We then discuss atomic inversion, where more periods of revivals are observed and compared with a single su(1 , 1) quantum system. For entanglement and squeezing phenomena, the atomic angles coherence and phase as well as the detuning are effective parameters. The second-order correlation function displays Bunching and anti-Bunching behavior.
Interacting single atoms with nanophotonics for chip-integrated quantum networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alton, Daniel James
Underlying matter and light are their building blocks of tiny atoms and photons. The ability to control and utilize matter-light interactions down to the elementary single atom and photon level at the nano-scale opens up exciting studies at the frontiers of science with applications in medicine, energy, and information technology. Of these, an intriguing front is the development of quantum networks where N ≫ 1 single-atom nodes are coherently linked by single photons, forming a collective quantum entity potentially capable of performing quantum computations and simulations. Here, a promising approach is to use optical cavities within the setting of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). However, since its first realization in 1992 by Kimble et al., current proof-of-principle experiments have involved just one or two conventional cavities. To move beyond to N ≫ 1 nodes, in this thesis we investigate a platform born from the marriage of cavity QED and nanophotonics, where single atoms at ˜100 nm near the surfaces of lithographically fabricated dielectric photonic devices can strongly interact with single photons, on a chip. Particularly, we experimentally investigate three main types of devices: microtoroidal optical cavities, optical nanofibers, and nanophotonic crystal based structures. With a microtoroidal cavity, we realized a robust and efficient photon router where single photons are extracted from an incident coherent state of light and redirected to a separate output with high efficiency. We achieved strong single atom-photon coupling with atoms located ~100 nm near the surface of a microtoroid, which revealed important aspects in the atom dynamics and QED of these systems including atom-surface interaction effects. We present a method to achieve state-insensitive atom trapping near optical nanofibers, critical in nanophotonic systems where electromagnetic fields are tightly confined. We developed a system that fabricates high quality nanofibers with high
Short-scale atomic clock based on the quantum magnetometers system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ermak, S. V.; Sagitov, E. A.; Smolin, R. V.; Semenov, V. V.
2016-03-01
The experimental results of dependence of Allan variance as averaging time for system of two quantum magnetometers with laser pumping of the alkaline atoms are presented. Also the role of different components of luminous frequency shift of a radio optical resonance in case of an optimum operation mode of quantum magnetometers in such system is noted. It is shown that the effect of compensation of luminous shift components allows to reduce Allan variance in times of averaging more, than hundreds of seconds in comparison with the quantum standard of frequency on 0-0 transition.
Quantum Two-breathers Formed by Ultracold Bosonic Atoms in Optical Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Bing
2016-06-01
Two-discrete breathers are the bound states of two localized modes that can appear in classical nonlinear lattices. I investigate the quantum signature of two-discrete breathers in the system of ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices, which is modeled as Bose-Hubbard model containing n bosons. When the number of bosons is small, I find numerically quantum two-breathers by making use of numerical diagonalization and perturbation theory. For the cases of a large number of bosons, I can successfully construct quantum two-breather states in the Hartree approximation.
Quantum beats in the field ionization of Rydberg atoms in the presence of magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gregoric, Vincent C.; Hastings, Hannah; Carroll, Thomas J.; Noel, Michael W.
2016-05-01
By exciting a coherent superposition and varying its phase evolution, quantum beats in the selective field ionization of Rydberg atoms have been observed. Here, we present a study exploring the effect of electric and magnetic fields on quantum beats. Beginning with a single excited state, a coherent superposition is created by a short electric field pulse in the presence of a static magnetic field. The resulting quantum beats are then observed in the field ionization spectrum. Additionally, millimeter-wave spectroscopy is used to probe the state populations in this superposition. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants No. 1205895 and No. 1205897.
Discrete Symmetries and 1/3-Quantum Vortices in Condensates of F=2 Cold Atoms
Semenoff, Gordon W.; Zhou, Fei
2007-03-09
In this Letter we study discrete symmetries of mean field manifolds of condensates of F=2 cold atoms, and various unconventional quantum vortices. Discrete quaternion symmetries result in two species of spin defects that can only appear in integer vortices while cyclic symmetries are found to result in a phase shift of 2{pi}/3 (or 4{pi}/3) and therefore 1/3- (or 2/3-) quantum vortices in condensates. We also briefly discuss 1/3-quantum vortices in condensates of trimers.
Cooperative ring exchange and quantum melting of vortex lattices in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates
Ghosh, Tarun Kanti; Baskaran, G.
2004-02-01
Cooperative ring exchange is suggested as a mechanism of quantum melting of vortex lattices in a rapidly rotating quasi-two-dimensional atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Using an approach pioneered by Kivelson et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 873 (1986)] for the fractional quantized Hall effect, we calculate the condition for quantum melting instability by considering large-correlated ring exchanges in a two-dimensional Wigner crystal of vortices in a strong 'pseudomagnetic field' generated by the background superfluid Bose particles. BEC may be profitably used to address issues of quantum melting of a pristine Wigner solid devoid of complications of real solids.
Single-photon-level quantum image memory based on cold atomic ensembles
Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can
2013-01-01
A quantum memory is a key component for quantum networks, which will enable the distribution of quantum information. Its successful development requires storage of single-photon light. Encoding photons with spatial shape through higher-dimensional states significantly increases their information-carrying capability and network capacity. However, constructing such quantum memories is challenging. Here we report the first experimental realization of a true single-photon-carrying orbital angular momentum stored via electromagnetically induced transparency in a cold atomic ensemble. Our experiments show that the non-classical pair correlation between trigger photon and retrieved photon is retained, and the spatial structure of input and retrieved photons exhibits strong similarity. More importantly, we demonstrate that single-photon coherence is preserved during storage. The ability to store spatial structure at the single-photon level opens the possibility for high-dimensional quantum memories. PMID:24084711
Single-photon-level quantum image memory based on cold atomic ensembles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can
2013-10-01
A quantum memory is a key component for quantum networks, which will enable the distribution of quantum information. Its successful development requires storage of single-photon light. Encoding photons with spatial shape through higher-dimensional states significantly increases their information-carrying capability and network capacity. However, constructing such quantum memories is challenging. Here we report the first experimental realization of a true single-photon-carrying orbital angular momentum stored via electromagnetically induced transparency in a cold atomic ensemble. Our experiments show that the non-classical pair correlation between trigger photon and retrieved photon is retained, and the spatial structure of input and retrieved photons exhibits strong similarity. More importantly, we demonstrate that single-photon coherence is preserved during storage. The ability to store spatial structure at the single-photon level opens the possibility for high-dimensional quantum memories.
Topology, localization, and quantum information in atomic, molecular and optical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Norman Ying
The scientific interface between atomic, molecular and optical (AMO) physics, condensed matter, and quantum information science has recently led to the development of new insights and tools that bridge the gap between macroscopic quantum behavior and detailed microscopic intuition. While the dialogue between these fields has sharpened our understanding of quantum theory, it has also raised a bevy of new questions regarding the out-of-equilibrium dynamics and control of many-body systems. This thesis is motivated by experimental advances that make it possible to produce and probe isolated, strongly interacting ensembles of disordered particles, as found in systems ranging from trapped ions and Rydberg atoms to ultracold polar molecules and spin defects in the solid state. The presence of strong interactions in these systems underlies their potential for exploring correlated many-body physics and this thesis presents recent results on realizing fractionalization and localization. From a complementary perspective, the controlled manipulation of individual quanta can also enable the bottom-up construction of quantum devices. To this end, this thesis also describes blueprints for a room-temperature quantum computer, quantum credit cards and nanoscale quantum thermometry.
Das, Kunal K.
2011-09-15
We propose a way to simulate mesoscopic transport processes with counterpropagating wave packets of ultracold atoms in quasi-one-dimensional (1D) waveguides and show quantitative agreement with analytical results. The method allows the study of a broad range of transport processes at the level of individual modes, not possible in electronic systems. Typically suppressed effects of quantum coherence become manifest, along with the effects of tunable interactions, which can be used to develop a simpler type of sensitive atom interferometer.
Measurement and control of single atom motions in the quantum regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Jun; Hood, Christina J.; Lynn, Theresa; Mabuchi, Hideo; Vernooy, David W.; Kimble, H. Jeff
1999-01-01
Using cold atoms strongly coupled to a high finesse optical cavity, we have performed real-time continuous measurement of single atomic trajectories in terms of the interaction energy (Eint) with the cavity. Individual transit events reveal a shot-noise limited measurement (fractional) sensitivity of 4×10-4/√Hz to variations in Eint/ℏ within a bandwidth of 1-300 kHz. The strong coupling of atom and cavity leads to a maximum interaction energy greater than the kinetic energy of an intracavity laser-cooled atom, even under weak cavity excitation. Evidence of mechanical light forces for intracavity photon number <1 has been observed. The quantum character of the nonlinear optical response of the atom-cavity system is manifested for the trajectory of a single atom.
Quantum reflection: Focusing of hydrogen atoms with a concave mirror
Berkhout, J.J.; Luiten, O.J.; Setija, I.D.; Hijmans, T.W.; Mizusaki, T.; Walraven, J.T.M. Van der Waals Laboratorium, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65/67, 1018 XE Amsterdam, The Netherlands )
1989-10-16
We use a concave spherical mirror to focus at 18-mm-diam beam of H atoms down to 0.5 mm. The mirror consists of a fused-quartz substrate polished to optical precision and coated with a liquid-{sup 4}He film to obtain high reflectivity. The temperature dependence of the focused beam intensity enables us to study the influence of the dynamic surface roughness on the reflection of the H atoms. Both zero-point fluctuations and thermal excitations turn out to be of importance. A monolayer of {sup 3}He does not significantly affect the results.
A surface-patterned chip as a strong source of ultracold atoms for quantum technologies.
Nshii, C C; Vangeleyn, M; Cotter, J P; Griffin, P F; Hinds, E A; Ironside, C N; See, P; Sinclair, A G; Riis, E; Arnold, A S
2013-05-01
Laser-cooled atoms are central to modern precision measurements. They are also increasingly important as an enabling technology for experimental cavity quantum electrodynamics, quantum information processing and matter-wave interferometry. Although significant progress has been made in miniaturizing atomic metrological devices, these are limited in accuracy by their use of hot atomic ensembles and buffer gases. Advances have also been made in producing portable apparatus that benefits from the advantages of atoms in the microkelvin regime. However, simplifying atomic cooling and loading using microfabrication technology has proved difficult. In this Letter we address this problem, realizing an atom chip that enables the integration of laser cooling and trapping into a compact apparatus. Our source delivers ten thousand times more atoms than previous magneto-optical traps with microfabricated optics and, for the first time, can reach sub-Doppler temperatures. Moreover, the same chip design offers a simple way to form stable optical lattices. These features, combined with simplicity of fabrication and ease of operation, make these new traps a key advance in the development of cold-atom technology for high-accuracy, portable measurement devices. PMID:23563845
Communication: Heavy atom quantum diffraction by scattering from surfaces.
Moix, Jeremy M; Pollak, Eli
2011-01-01
Typically one expects that when a heavy particle collides with a surface, the scattered angular distribution will follow classical mechanics. The heavy mass usually assures that the coherence length of the incident particle in the direction of the propagation of the particle (the parallel direction) will be much shorter than the characteristic lattice length of the surface, thus leading to a classical description. Recent work on molecular interferometry has shown that extreme collimation of the beam creates a perpendicular coherence length which is sufficiently long so as to observe interference of very heavy species passing through a grating. Here we show, using quantum mechanical simulations, that the same effect will lead to quantum diffraction of heavy particles colliding with a surface. The effect is robust with respect to the incident energy, the angle of incidence, and the mass of the particle. PMID:21218990
Probing mechanical quantum coherence with an ultracold-atom meter
Lo Gullo, N.; Busch, Th.; Palma, G. M.; Paternostro, M.
2011-12-15
We propose a scheme to probe quantum coherence in the state of a nanocantilever based on its magnetic coupling (mediated by a magnetic tip) with a spinor Bose Einstein condensate (BEC). By mapping the BEC into a rotor, its coupling with the cantilever results in a gyroscopic motion whose properties depend on the state of the cantilever: the dynamics of one of the components of the rotor angular momentum turns out to be strictly related to the presence of quantum coherence in the state of the cantilever. We also suggest a detection scheme relying on Faraday rotation, which produces only a very small back-action on the BEC and is thus suitable for a continuous detection of the cantilever's dynamics.
Quantum turbulence in trapped atomic Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsatsos, Marios C.; Tavares, Pedro E. S.; Cidrim, André; Fritsch, Amilson R.; Caracanhas, Mônica A.; dos Santos, F. Ednilson A.; Barenghi, Carlo F.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.
2016-03-01
Turbulence, the complicated fluid behavior of nonlinear and statistical nature, arises in many physical systems across various disciplines, from tiny laboratory scales to geophysical and astrophysical ones. The notion of turbulence in the quantum world was conceived long ago by Onsager and Feynman, but the occurrence of turbulence in ultracold gases has been studied in the laboratory only very recently. Albeit new as a field, it already offers new paths and perspectives on the problem of turbulence. Herein we review the general properties of quantum gases at ultralow temperatures paying particular attention to vortices, their dynamics and turbulent behavior. We review the recent advances both from theory and experiment. We highlight, moreover, the difficulties of identifying and characterizing turbulence in gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates compared to ordinary turbulence and turbulence in superfluid liquid helium and spotlight future possible directions.
Cavity quantum interferences with three-level atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ceban, Victor; Macovei, Mihai A.
2016-05-01
We discuss quantum interference phenomena in a system consisting from a laser driven three-level ladder-type emitter possessing orthogonal transition dipoles and embedded in a leaking optical resonator. The cavity mean-photon number vanishes due to the destructive nature of the interference phenomena. The effect occurs for some particular parameter regimes which were identified. Furthermore, upper bare-state population inversion occurs as well.
Entropic corrected Newton's law of gravitation and the loop quantum black hole gravitational atom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aragão, R. G. L.; Silva, C. A. S.
2016-07-01
One proposal by Verlinde is that gravity is not a fundamental, but an entropic force (Verlinde in JHEP 1104:029, 2011. arXiv:hep-th/1001.0785). Based on this new interpretation of the gravity, Verlinde has provide us with a way to derive the Newton's law of gravitation from the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy-area formula. On the other hand, since it has been demonstrated that this formula is susceptible to quantum gravity corrections, one may hope that such corrections could be inherited by Newton's law. In this sense, the entropic interpretation of Newton's law could be a prolific way in order to get verifiable or falsifiable quantum corrections to ordinary gravity in an observationally accessible regimes. On the other hand, loop quantum gravity is a theory that provide a scheme to approach the quantum properties of spacetime. From this theory, emerges a quantum corrected semiclassical black hole solution called loop quantum black hole or self-dual black hole. Among the interesting features of loop quantum black holes, is the fact that they give rise to a modified entropy-area relation where quantum gravity corrections are present. In this work, we obtain a quantum corrected Newton's law from the entropy-area relation given by loop quantum black holes by using the nonrelativistic Verlinde's approach. Moreover, in order to relate our results with the recent experimental activity, we consider the quantum mechanical properties of a huge gravitational atom consisting in a light neutral elementary particle in the presence of a loop quantum black hole.
Robust quantum logic in neutral atoms via adiabatic Rydberg dressing
Keating, Tyler; Cook, Robert L.; Hankin, Aaron M.; Jau, Yuan -Yu; Biedermann, Grant W.; Deutsch, Ivan H.
2015-01-28
We study a scheme for implementing a controlled-Z (CZ) gate between two neutral-atom qubits based on the Rydberg blockade mechanism in a manner that is robust to errors caused by atomic motion. By employing adiabatic dressing of the ground electronic state, we can protect the gate from decoherence due to random phase errors that typically arise because of atomic thermal motion. In addition, the adiabatic protocol allows for a Doppler-free configuration that involves counterpropagating lasers in a σ_{+}/σ_{-} orthogonal polarization geometry that further reduces motional errors due to Doppler shifts. The residual motional error is dominated by dipole-dipole forces acting on doubly-excited Rydberg atoms when the blockade is imperfect. As a result, for reasonable parameters, with qubits encoded into the clock states of ^{133}Cs, we predict that our protocol could produce a CZ gate in < 10 μs with error probability on the order of 10^{-3}.
Robust quantum logic in neutral atoms via adiabatic Rydberg dressing
Keating, Tyler; Cook, Robert L.; Hankin, Aaron M.; Jau, Yuan -Yu; Biedermann, Grant W.; Deutsch, Ivan H.
2015-01-28
We study a scheme for implementing a controlled-Z (CZ) gate between two neutral-atom qubits based on the Rydberg blockade mechanism in a manner that is robust to errors caused by atomic motion. By employing adiabatic dressing of the ground electronic state, we can protect the gate from decoherence due to random phase errors that typically arise because of atomic thermal motion. In addition, the adiabatic protocol allows for a Doppler-free configuration that involves counterpropagating lasers in a σ+/σ- orthogonal polarization geometry that further reduces motional errors due to Doppler shifts. The residual motional error is dominated by dipole-dipole forces actingmore » on doubly-excited Rydberg atoms when the blockade is imperfect. As a result, for reasonable parameters, with qubits encoded into the clock states of 133Cs, we predict that our protocol could produce a CZ gate in < 10 μs with error probability on the order of 10-3.« less
Measurement noise 100 times lower than the quantum-projection limit using entangled atoms.
Hosten, Onur; Engelsen, Nils J; Krishnakumar, Rajiv; Kasevich, Mark A
2016-01-28
Quantum metrology uses quantum entanglement--correlations in the properties of microscopic systems--to improve the statistical precision of physical measurements. When measuring a signal, such as the phase shift of a light beam or an atomic state, a prominent limitation to achievable precision arises from the noise associated with the counting of uncorrelated probe particles. This noise, commonly referred to as shot noise or projection noise, gives rise to the standard quantum limit (SQL) to phase resolution. However, it can be mitigated down to the fundamental Heisenberg limit by entangling the probe particles. Despite considerable experimental progress in a variety of physical systems, a question that persists is whether these methods can achieve performance levels that compare favourably with optimized conventional (non-entangled) systems. Here we demonstrate an approach that achieves unprecedented levels of metrological improvement using half a million (87)Rb atoms in their 'clock' states. The ensemble is 20.1 ± 0.3 decibels (100-fold) spin-squeezed via an optical-cavity-based measurement. We directly resolve small microwave-induced rotations 18.5 ± 0.3 decibels (70-fold) beyond the SQL. The single-shot phase resolution of 147 microradians achieved by the apparatus is better than that achieved by the best engineered cold atom sensors despite lower atom numbers. We infer entanglement of more than 680 ± 35 particles in the atomic ensemble. Applications include atomic clocks, inertial sensors, and fundamental physics experiments such as tests of general relativity or searches for electron electric dipole moment. To this end, we demonstrate an atomic clock measurement with a quantum enhancement of 10.5 ± 0.3 decibels (11-fold), limited by the phase noise of our microwave source. PMID:26751056
Measurement noise 100 times lower than the quantum-projection limit using entangled atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosten, Onur; Engelsen, Nils J.; Krishnakumar, Rajiv; Kasevich, Mark A.
2016-01-01
Quantum metrology uses quantum entanglement—correlations in the properties of microscopic systems—to improve the statistical precision of physical measurements. When measuring a signal, such as the phase shift of a light beam or an atomic state, a prominent limitation to achievable precision arises from the noise associated with the counting of uncorrelated probe particles. This noise, commonly referred to as shot noise or projection noise, gives rise to the standard quantum limit (SQL) to phase resolution. However, it can be mitigated down to the fundamental Heisenberg limit by entangling the probe particles. Despite considerable experimental progress in a variety of physical systems, a question that persists is whether these methods can achieve performance levels that compare favourably with optimized conventional (non-entangled) systems. Here we demonstrate an approach that achieves unprecedented levels of metrological improvement using half a million 87Rb atoms in their ‘clock’ states. The ensemble is 20.1 ± 0.3 decibels (100-fold) spin-squeezed via an optical-cavity-based measurement. We directly resolve small microwave-induced rotations 18.5 ± 0.3 decibels (70-fold) beyond the SQL. The single-shot phase resolution of 147 microradians achieved by the apparatus is better than that achieved by the best engineered cold atom sensors despite lower atom numbers. We infer entanglement of more than 680 ± 35 particles in the atomic ensemble. Applications include atomic clocks, inertial sensors, and fundamental physics experiments such as tests of general relativity or searches for electron electric dipole moment. To this end, we demonstrate an atomic clock measurement with a quantum enhancement of 10.5 ± 0.3 decibels (11-fold), limited by the phase noise of our microwave source.
Telecom-Wavelength Atomic Quantum Memory in Optical Fiber for Heralded Polarization Qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Jeongwan; Saglamyurek, Erhan; Puigibert, Marcel. lí Grimau; Verma, Varun; Marsili, Francesco; Nam, Sae Woo; Oblak, Daniel; Tittel, Wolfgang
2015-10-01
Polarization-encoded photons at telecommunication wavelengths provide a compelling platform for practical realizations of photonic quantum information technologies due to the ease of performing single qubit manipulations, the availability of polarization-entangled photon-pair sources, and the possibility of leveraging existing fiber-optic links for distributing qubits over long distances. An optical quantum memory compatible with this platform could serve as a building block for these technologies. Here we present the first experimental demonstration of an atomic quantum memory that directly allows for reversible mapping of quantum states encoded in the polarization degree of freedom of a telecom-wavelength photon. We show that heralded polarization qubits at a telecom wavelength are stored and retrieved with near-unity fidelity by implementing the atomic frequency comb protocol in an ensemble of erbium atoms doped into an optical fiber. Despite remaining limitations in our proof-of-principle demonstration such as small storage efficiency and storage time, our broadband light-matter interface reveals the potential for use in future quantum information processing.
Telecom-Wavelength Atomic Quantum Memory in Optical Fiber for Heralded Polarization Qubits.
Jin, Jeongwan; Saglamyurek, Erhan; Puigibert, Marcel lí Grimau; Verma, Varun; Marsili, Francesco; Nam, Sae Woo; Oblak, Daniel; Tittel, Wolfgang
2015-10-01
Polarization-encoded photons at telecommunication wavelengths provide a compelling platform for practical realizations of photonic quantum information technologies due to the ease of performing single qubit manipulations, the availability of polarization-entangled photon-pair sources, and the possibility of leveraging existing fiber-optic links for distributing qubits over long distances. An optical quantum memory compatible with this platform could serve as a building block for these technologies. Here we present the first experimental demonstration of an atomic quantum memory that directly allows for reversible mapping of quantum states encoded in the polarization degree of freedom of a telecom-wavelength photon. We show that heralded polarization qubits at a telecom wavelength are stored and retrieved with near-unity fidelity by implementing the atomic frequency comb protocol in an ensemble of erbium atoms doped into an optical fiber. Despite remaining limitations in our proof-of-principle demonstration such as small storage efficiency and storage time, our broadband light-matter interface reveals the potential for use in future quantum information processing. PMID:26551798
Generation and Control of Chains of Entangled Atom-Ion Pairs with Quantum Light
Shapiro, Moshe; Brumer, Paul
2011-04-15
Coherent control using quantum light incident upon molecules in an optical lattice is shown to give rise to a direct way of writing arbitrary sequences of entangled atom-ion pairs. There is no evident limitation on the length of the word (i.e., the number of qbits) that can be formed.
Rydberg Excitation of Single Atoms for Applications in Quantum Information and Metrology
Hankin, Aaron Michael
2014-08-01
With the advent of laser cooling and trapping, neutral atoms have become a foundational source of accuracy for applications in metrology and are showing great potential for their use as qubits in quantum information. In metrology, neutral atoms provide the most accurate references for the measurement of time and acceleration. The unsurpassed stability provided by these systems make neutral atoms an attractive avenue to explore applications in quantum information and computing. However, to fully investigate the eld of quantum information, we require a method to generate entangling interactions between neutral-atom qubits. Recent progress in the use of highly-excited Rydberg states for strong dipolar interactions has shown great promise for controlled entanglement using the Rydberg blockade phenomenon. I report the use of singly-trapped ^{133}Cs atoms as qubits for applications in metrology and quantum information. Each atom provides a physical basis for a single qubit by encoding the required information into the ground-state hyper ne structure of ^{133}Cs. Through the manipulation of these qubits with microwave and optical frequency sources, we demonstrate the capacity for arbitrary single-qubit control by driving qubit rotations in three orthogonal directions on the Bloch sphere. With this control, we develop an atom interferometer that far surpasses the force sensitivity of other approaches by applying the well-established technique of lightpulsed atom-matterwave interferometry to single atoms. Following this, we focus on two-qubit interactions using highly-excited Rydberg states. Through the development of a unique single-photon approach to Rydberg excitation using an ultraviolet laser at 319 nm, we observe the Rydberg blockade interaction between atoms separated by 6.6(3) m. Motivated by the observation of Rydberg blockade, we study the application of Rydberg-dressed states for a quantum controlled-phase gate. Using a realistic simulation of the
Rydberg Excitation of Single Atoms for Applications in Quantum Information and Metrology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hankin, Aaron Michael
With the advent of laser cooling and trapping, neutral atoms have become a foundational source of accuracy for applications in metrology and are showing great potential for their use as qubits in quantum information. In metrology, neutral atoms provide the most accurate references for the measurement of time and acceleration. The unsurpassed stability provided by these systems make neutral atoms an attractive avenue to explore applications in quantum information and computing. However, to fully investigate the field of quantum information, we require a method to generate entangling interactions between neutral-atom qubits. Recent progress in the use of highly-excited Rydberg states for strong dipolar interactions has shown great promise for controlled entanglement using the Rydberg blockade phenomenon. I report the use of singly-trapped cesium-133 atoms as qubits for applications in metrology and quantum information. Each atom provides a physical basis for a single qubit by encoding the required information into the ground-state hyperfine structure of cesium-133. Through the manipulation of these qubits with microwave and optical frequency sources, we demonstrate the capacity for arbitrary single-qubit control by driving qubit rotations in three orthogonal directions on the Bloch sphere. With this control, we develop an atom interferometer that far surpasses the force sensitivity of other approaches by applying the well-established technique of light-pulsed atom-matterwave interferometry to single atoms. Following this, we focus on two-qubit interactions using highly-excited Rydberg states. Through the development of a unique single-photon approach to Rydberg excitation using an ultraviolet laser at 319 nm, we observe the Rydberg blockade interaction between atoms separated by 6.6(3) μm. Motivated by the observation of Rydberg blockade, we study the application of Rydberg-dressed states for a quantum controlled-phase gate. Using a realistic simulation of the
Quantum ground state of self-organized atomic crystals in optical resonators
Fernandez-Vidal, Sonia; De Chiara, Gabriele; Larson, Jonas; Morigi, Giovanna
2010-04-15
Cold atoms, driven by a laser and simultaneously coupled to the quantum field of an optical resonator, may self-organize in periodic structures. These structures are supported by the optical lattice, which emerges from the laser light they scatter into the cavity mode and form when the laser intensity exceeds a threshold value. We study theoretically the quantum ground state of these structures above the pump threshold of self-organization by mapping the atomic dynamics of the self-organized crystal to a Bose-Hubbard model. We find that the quantum ground state of the self-organized structure can be the one of a Mott insulator, depending on the pump strength of the driving laser. For very large pump strengths, where the intracavity-field intensity is maximum and one would expect a Mott-insulator state, we find intervals of parameters where the phase is compressible. These states could be realized in existing experimental setups.
Quantum dissipative dynamics of two-level atoms in hyperbolic metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cortes, Cristian; Jacob, Zubin
2015-04-01
Hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs) represent a class of artificial nanostructured media that have garnered a lot of attention over the past few years due their broadband singularity in the photonic density of states. This unique property has led to many research directions ranging from subwavelength light manipulation to the control of radiative decay rates of quantum emitters in HMMs. Here, we apply a second quantization approach, first developed by Dekker (1975), to study the quantum dissipative dynamics of a two-level atom coupled to a hyperbolic medium. The Dekker quantization approach provides a framework that allows for non-Hermitian Hamiltonians whose imaginary part represents the dissipation of the quantum system. We calculate the resonance fluorescence spectrum and steady-state dynamics of a two-level atom in an HMM. Our results take into account non-idealities of the medium such as loss and finite unit-cell size and should be experimentally observable using current nanofabrication technology.
Quantum dissipative dynamics of two-level atoms in hyperbolic metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cortes, Cristian; Jacob, Zubin
2015-05-01
Hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs) represent a class of artificial nanostructured media that have garnered a lot of attention over the past few years due their broadband singularity in the photonic density of states. This unique property has led to many research directions ranging from subwavelength light manipulation to the control of radiative decay rates of quantum emitters in HMMs. Here, we apply a second quantization approach first developed by H. Dekker (1975), to study the quantum dissipative dynamics of a two-level atom coupled to a hyperbolic medium. The Dekker quantization approach provides a framework that allows for non-Hermitian Hamiltonians whose imaginary part represents the dissipation of the quantum system. We calculate the resonance fluorescence spectrum and steady-state dynamics of a two-level atom in an HMM. Our results take into account non-idealities of the medium such as loss and finite unit-cell size and should be experimentally observable using current nanofabrication technology.
Electron quantum dynamics in atom-ion interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabzyan, H.; Jenabi, M. J.
2016-04-01
Electron transfer (ET) process and its dependence on the system parameters are investigated by solving two-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation numerically using split operator technique. Evolution of the electron wavepacket occurs from the one-electron species hydrogen atom to another bare nucleus of charge Z > 1. This evolution is quantified by partitioning the simulation box and defining regional densities belonging to the two nuclei of the system. It is found that the functional form of the time-variations of these regional densities and the extent of ET process depend strongly on the inter-nuclear distance and relative values of the nuclear charges, which define the potential energy surface governing the electron wavepacket evolution. Also, the initial electronic state of the single-electron atom has critical effect on this evolution and its consequent (partial) electron transfer depending on its spreading extent and orientation with respect to the inter-nuclear axis.
Electron quantum dynamics in atom-ion interaction.
Sabzyan, H; Jenabi, M J
2016-04-01
Electron transfer (ET) process and its dependence on the system parameters are investigated by solving two-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation numerically using split operator technique. Evolution of the electron wavepacket occurs from the one-electron species hydrogen atom to another bare nucleus of charge Z > 1. This evolution is quantified by partitioning the simulation box and defining regional densities belonging to the two nuclei of the system. It is found that the functional form of the time-variations of these regional densities and the extent of ET process depend strongly on the inter-nuclear distance and relative values of the nuclear charges, which define the potential energy surface governing the electron wavepacket evolution. Also, the initial electronic state of the single-electron atom has critical effect on this evolution and its consequent (partial) electron transfer depending on its spreading extent and orientation with respect to the inter-nuclear axis. PMID:27059569
Quantum teleportation of an arbitrary superposition of atomic states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Qiong; Fang, Xi-Ming
2008-05-01
This paper proposes a scheme to teleport an arbitrary multi-particle two-level atomic state between two parties or an arbitrary zero- and one-photon entangled state of multi-mode between two high-Q cavities in cavity QED. This scheme is based on the resonant interaction between atom and cavity and does not involve Bell-state measurement. It investigates the fidelity of this scheme and find out the case of this unity fidelity of this teleportation. Considering the practical case of the cavity decay, this paper finds that the condition of the unity fidelity is also valid and obtains the effect of the decay of the cavity on the successful probability of the teleportation.
Dynamics and quantum entanglement of two-level atoms in de Sitter spacetime
Tian, Zehua; Jing, Jiliang
2014-11-15
In the framework of open quantum systems, we study the internal dynamics of both freely falling and static two-level atoms interacting with quantized conformally coupled massless scalar field in de Sitter spacetime. We find that the atomic transition rates depend on both the nature of de Sitter spacetime and the motion of atoms, interestingly the steady states for both cases are always driven to being purely thermal, regardless of the atomic initial states. This thermalization phenomenon is structurally similar to what happens to an elementary quantum system immersed in a thermal field, and thus reveals the thermal nature of de Sitter spacetime. Besides, we find that the thermal baths will drive the entanglement shared by the freely falling atom (the static atom) and its auxiliary partner, a same two-level atom which is isolated from external fields, to being sudden death, and the proper time for the entanglement to be extinguished is computed. We also analyze that such thermalization and disentanglement phenomena, in principle, could be understood from the perspective of table-top simulation experiment.
Quantum coherent tractor beam effect for atoms trapped near a nanowaveguide
Sadgrove, Mark; Wimberger, Sandro; Nic Chormaic, Síle
2016-01-01
We propose several schemes to realize a tractor beam effect for ultracold atoms in the vicinity of a few-mode nanowaveguide. Atoms trapped near the waveguide are transported in a direction opposite to the guided mode propagation direction. We analyse three specific examples for ultracold 23Na atoms trapped near a specific nanowaveguide (i.e. an optical nanofibre): (i) a conveyor belt-type tractor beam effect, (ii) an accelerator tractor beam effect, and (iii) a quantum coherent tractor beam effect, all of which can effectively pull atoms along the nanofibre toward the light source. This technique provides a new tool for controlling the motion of particles near nanowaveguides with potential applications in the study of particle transport and binding as well as atom interferometry. PMID:27440516
Quantum coherent tractor beam effect for atoms trapped near a nanowaveguide.
Sadgrove, Mark; Wimberger, Sandro; Nic Chormaic, Síle
2016-01-01
We propose several schemes to realize a tractor beam effect for ultracold atoms in the vicinity of a few-mode nanowaveguide. Atoms trapped near the waveguide are transported in a direction opposite to the guided mode propagation direction. We analyse three specific examples for ultracold (23)Na atoms trapped near a specific nanowaveguide (i.e. an optical nanofibre): (i) a conveyor belt-type tractor beam effect, (ii) an accelerator tractor beam effect, and (iii) a quantum coherent tractor beam effect, all of which can effectively pull atoms along the nanofibre toward the light source. This technique provides a new tool for controlling the motion of particles near nanowaveguides with potential applications in the study of particle transport and binding as well as atom interferometry. PMID:27440516
Quantum coherent tractor beam effect for atoms trapped near a nanowaveguide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadgrove, Mark; Wimberger, Sandro; Nic Chormaic, Síle
2016-07-01
We propose several schemes to realize a tractor beam effect for ultracold atoms in the vicinity of a few-mode nanowaveguide. Atoms trapped near the waveguide are transported in a direction opposite to the guided mode propagation direction. We analyse three specific examples for ultracold 23Na atoms trapped near a specific nanowaveguide (i.e. an optical nanofibre): (i) a conveyor belt-type tractor beam effect, (ii) an accelerator tractor beam effect, and (iii) a quantum coherent tractor beam effect, all of which can effectively pull atoms along the nanofibre toward the light source. This technique provides a new tool for controlling the motion of particles near nanowaveguides with potential applications in the study of particle transport and binding as well as atom interferometry.
Hybrid quantum logic and a test of Bell's inequality using two different atomic isotopes.
Ballance, C J; Schäfer, V M; Home, J P; Szwer, D J; Webster, S C; Allcock, D T C; Linke, N M; Harty, T P; Aude Craik, D P L; Stacey, D N; Steane, A M; Lucas, D M
2015-12-17
Entanglement is one of the most fundamental properties of quantum mechanics, and is the key resource for quantum information processing (QIP). Bipartite entangled states of identical particles have been generated and studied in several experiments, and post-selected or heralded entangled states involving pairs of photons, single photons and single atoms, or different nuclei in the solid state, have also been produced. Here we use a deterministic quantum logic gate to generate a 'hybrid' entangled state of two trapped-ion qubits held in different isotopes of calcium, perform full tomography of the state produced, and make a test of Bell's inequality with non-identical atoms. We use a laser-driven two-qubit gate, whose mechanism is insensitive to the qubits' energy splittings, to produce a maximally entangled state of one (40)Ca(+) qubit and one (43)Ca(+) qubit, held 3.5 micrometres apart in the same ion trap, with 99.8 ± 0.6 per cent fidelity. We test the CHSH (Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt) version of Bell's inequality for this novel entangled state and find that it is violated by 15 standard deviations; in this test, we close the detection loophole but not the locality loophole. Mixed-species quantum logic is a powerful technique for the construction of a quantum computer based on trapped ions, as it allows protection of memory qubits while other qubits undergo logic operations or are used as photonic interfaces to other processing units. The entangling gate mechanism used here can also be applied to qubits stored in different atomic elements; this would allow both memory and logic gate errors caused by photon scattering to be reduced below the levels required for fault-tolerant quantum error correction, which is an essential prerequisite for general-purpose quantum computing. PMID:26672554
Hybrid quantum logic and a test of Bell’s inequality using two different atomic isotopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ballance, C. J.; Schäfer, V. M.; Home, J. P.; Szwer, D. J.; Webster, S. C.; Allcock, D. T. C.; Linke, N. M.; Harty, T. P.; Aude Craik, D. P. L.; Stacey, D. N.; Steane, A. M.; Lucas, D. M.
2015-12-01
Entanglement is one of the most fundamental properties of quantum mechanics, and is the key resource for quantum information processing (QIP). Bipartite entangled states of identical particles have been generated and studied in several experiments, and post-selected or heralded entangled states involving pairs of photons, single photons and single atoms, or different nuclei in the solid state, have also been produced. Here we use a deterministic quantum logic gate to generate a ‘hybrid’ entangled state of two trapped-ion qubits held in different isotopes of calcium, perform full tomography of the state produced, and make a test of Bell’s inequality with non-identical atoms. We use a laser-driven two-qubit gate, whose mechanism is insensitive to the qubits’ energy splittings, to produce a maximally entangled state of one 40Ca+ qubit and one 43Ca+ qubit, held 3.5 micrometres apart in the same ion trap, with 99.8 ± 0.6 per cent fidelity. We test the CHSH (Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt) version of Bell’s inequality for this novel entangled state and find that it is violated by 15 standard deviations; in this test, we close the detection loophole but not the locality loophole. Mixed-species quantum logic is a powerful technique for the construction of a quantum computer based on trapped ions, as it allows protection of memory qubits while other qubits undergo logic operations or are used as photonic interfaces to other processing units. The entangling gate mechanism used here can also be applied to qubits stored in different atomic elements; this would allow both memory and logic gate errors caused by photon scattering to be reduced below the levels required for fault-tolerant quantum error correction, which is an essential prerequisite for general-purpose quantum computing.
Controlled Rephasing of Single Collective Spin Excitations in a Cold Atomic Quantum Memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albrecht, Boris; Farrera, Pau; Heinze, Georg; Cristiani, Matteo; de Riedmatten, Hugues
2015-10-01
We demonstrate active control of inhomogeneous dephasing and rephasing for single collective atomic spin excitations (spin waves) created by spontaneous Raman scattering in a quantum memory based on cold 87Rb atoms. The control is provided by a reversible external magnetic field gradient inducing an inhomogeneous broadening of the atomic hyperfine levels. We demonstrate experimentally that active rephasing preserves the single photon nature of the retrieved photons. Finally, we show that the control of the inhomogeneous dephasing enables the creation of time-separated spin waves in a single ensemble followed by a selective read-out in time. This is an important step towards the implementation of a functional temporally multiplexed quantum repeater node.
Controlled Rephasing of Single Collective Spin Excitations in a Cold Atomic Quantum Memory.
Albrecht, Boris; Farrera, Pau; Heinze, Georg; Cristiani, Matteo; de Riedmatten, Hugues
2015-10-16
We demonstrate active control of inhomogeneous dephasing and rephasing for single collective atomic spin excitations (spin waves) created by spontaneous Raman scattering in a quantum memory based on cold 87Rb atoms. The control is provided by a reversible external magnetic field gradient inducing an inhomogeneous broadening of the atomic hyperfine levels. We demonstrate experimentally that active rephasing preserves the single photon nature of the retrieved photons. Finally, we show that the control of the inhomogeneous dephasing enables the creation of time-separated spin waves in a single ensemble followed by a selective read-out in time. This is an important step towards the implementation of a functional temporally multiplexed quantum repeater node. PMID:26550854
Sensing of mechanical motion at the quantum level via a hybrid atom-optomechanical setup
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seok, Hyojun; Bariani, Francesco; Singh, Swati; Vengalattore, Mukund; Meystre, Pierre
2015-05-01
We consider a hybrid quantum system in which an optomechanical cavity is coupled to a Fabry-Pérot cavity containing a trapped cold atomic ensemble. We show that it is possible to cool the mechanics to the ground state from room temperature outside the resolved-sideband regime by optically coupling it to the internal levels of the atoms. We also find that while in the familiar homodyne detection of small displacements this system exhibits the same standard quantum limit as traditional cavity optomechanics, it is possible to engineer the optical response of the atoms so as to realize a back-action evading measurement scheme. We acknowledge financial support from NSF, ARO and the DARPA QuaSAR and ORCHID programs.
Generation of multi-atom entangled states in coupled cavities via transitionless quantum driving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Xiao-Bin; Zhong, Zhi-Rong; Chen, Ye-Hong
2015-12-01
In this paper, we propose an efficient scheme to generate three-atom W states in spatially separated cavities connected by optical fibers. In the scheme, we combine the "transitionless quantum driving" with "quantum Zeno dynamics" to construct a shortcut to fast generate W states. Comparing with the traditional adiabatic passage, the significant advantage is that the interaction time required for the creation of the W state is much shorter, which is very important in view of decoherence. Furthermore, the harmful effects of various decoherence such as atomic spontaneous emission, cavity losses and the fiber photon leakages are considered. Numerical simulations illustrate that the shortcut scheme is much faster than the schemes using adiabatic passage and robust against the decoherence. Moreover, this scheme can also be generalized to generation of N-atom W states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Huai-Zhi; Yang, Zhen-Biao; Zheng, Shi-Biao
2010-09-01
We report a scheme for implementing a multiqubit quantum phase gate in a neutral atomic ensemble via an asymmetric Rydberg blockade. The multiqubit gate is successfully realized by following a three-step approach. The neutral-atom qubits are always illuminated by the common laser beams and therefore individual addressing of the atoms is not required. The gate errors induced by atomic spontaneous emission, imperfect excitation blockade, and atomic motion are discussed.
Quantum Tunneling Enabled Self-Assembly of Hydrogen Atoms on Cu(111)
Jewell, April D.; Peng, Guowen; Mattera, Michael F.; Lewis, Emily A.; Murphy, Colin J.; Kyriakou, Georgios; Mavrikakis, Manos; Sykes, E. Charles H.
2012-11-27
Atomic and molecular self-assembly are key phenomena that underpin many important technologies. Typically, thermally enabled diffusion allows a system to sample many areas of configurational space, and ordered assemblies evolve that optimize interactions between species. Herein we describe a system in which the diffusion is quantum tunneling in nature and report the self-assembly of H atoms on a Cu(111) surface into complex arrays based on local clustering followed by larger scale islanding of these clusters. By scanning tunneling microscope tip-induced scrambling of H atom assemblies, we are able to watch the atomic scale details of H atom self-assembly in real time. The ordered arrangements we observe are complex and very different from those formed by H on other metals that occur in much simpler geometries. We contrast the diffusion and assembly of H with D, which has a much slower tunneling rate and is not able to form the large islands observed with H over equivalent time scales. Using density functional theory, we examine the interaction of H atoms on Cu(111) by calculating the differential binding energy as a function of H coverage. At the temperature of the experiments (5 K), H(D) diffusion by quantum tunneling dominates. The quantum-tunneling-enabled H and D diffusion is studied using a semiclassically corrected transition state theory coupled with density functional theory. This system constitutes the first example of quantum-tunneling-enabled self-assembly, while simultaneously demonstrating the complex ordering of H on Cu(111), a catalytically relevant surface.
Individual Cr atom in a semiconductor quantum dot: Optical addressability and spin-strain coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lafuente-Sampietro, A.; Utsumi, H.; Boukari, H.; Kuroda, S.; Besombes, L.
2016-04-01
We demonstrate the optical addressability of the spin of an individual chromium atom (Cr) embedded in a semiconductor quantum dot. The emission of Cr-doped quantum dots and their evolution in magnetic field reveal a large magnetic anisotropy of the Cr spin induced by local strain. This results in the zero field splitting of the 0, ±1 , and ±2 Cr spin states and in a thermalization on the magnetic ground states 0 and ±1 . The observed strong spin to strain coupling of Cr is of particular interest for the development of hybrid spin-mechanical devices where coherent mechanical driving of an individual spin in an oscillator is needed. The magneto-optical properties of Cr-doped quantum dots are modeled by a spin Hamiltonian including the sensitivity of the Cr spin to the strain and the influence of the quantum dot symmetry on the carrier-Cr spin coupling.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chapman, S.; Green, S.
1977-01-01
Exact quantum results for the rotational excitation of rigid linear molecules by collisions with atoms are compared with classical trajectory results. The systems studied are CO-He, CS-H2, OCS-H2, HCl-He, and HCl-Ar at collision energies up to 500/cm. Total cross sections and state to state rate constants are compared. The classical results are found to be in good agreement with the quantum results on the average. Differences arising from the existence of purely quantum effects are clearly evident, but consistent and predictable. Two methods of extracting state selective information from moments of the classical distribution are examined and found to be less reliable than the usual histogram method. In conjunction with previous comparisons of classical and quantum results these calculations provide a useful measure of the limitations and reliability of classical trajectories.
Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of lead sulfide quantum wells fabricated by atomic layer deposition
Lee, W. J.; Dasgupta, N. P.; Jung, H. J.; Lee, J. R.; Sinclair, R.; Prinz, F. B.
2010-11-10
We report the use of scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) to investigate one-dimensional quantum confinement effects in lead sulfide (PbS) thin films. Specifically, quantum confinement effects on the band gap of PbS quantum wells were explored by controlling the PbS film thickness and potential barrier height. PbS quantum well structures with a thickness range of 1–20 nm were fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Two barrier materials were selected based on barrier height: aluminum oxide as a high barrier material and zinc oxide as a low barrier material. Band gap measurements were carried out by STS, and an effective mass theory was developed to compare the experimental results. Our results show that the band gap of PbS thin films increased as the film thickness decreased, and the barrier height increased from 0.45 to 2.19 eV.
Quantum discord and entanglement of two atoms in a micromaser-type system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Xue-Qun; Wang, Fu-Zhong
2016-06-01
The correlations dynamics of two atoms in the case of a micromaser-type system is investigated. We show that the entangled state can be created by initially maximally mixed state and there exist collapse and revival phenomena for the time evolutions of both entanglement and quantum discord under the system considered as the field is initially in the Fock state. Our results confirm that entanglement and quantum discord have similar behaviors in certain time ranges, such as their oscillations during the time evolution being almost in phase, but they also present significant differences, such as quantum discord being maintained even after the complete loss of entanglement. Furthermore, we exhibit clearly that the dynamics of quantum discord under the action of environment are intimately related to the generation and evolution of entanglement.
Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics.
Duan, L M; Lukin, M D; Cirac, J I; Zoller, P
2001-11-22
Quantum communication holds promise for absolutely secure transmission of secret messages and the faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photonic channels appear to be very attractive for the physical implementation of quantum communication. However, owing to losses and decoherence in the channel, the communication fidelity decreases exponentially with the channel length. Here we describe a scheme that allows the implementation of robust quantum communication over long lossy channels. The scheme involves laser manipulation of atomic ensembles, beam splitters, and single-photon detectors with moderate efficiencies, and is therefore compatible with current experimental technology. We show that the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel length, and hence the scheme should be operable over very long distances. PMID:11719796
Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, L.-M.; Lukin, M. D.; Cirac, J. I.; Zoller, P.
2001-11-01
Quantum communication holds promise for absolutely secure transmission of secret messages and the faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photonic channels appear to be very attractive for the physical implementation of quantum communication. However, owing to losses and decoherence in the channel, the communication fidelity decreases exponentially with the channel length. Here we describe a scheme that allows the implementation of robust quantum communication over long lossy channels. The scheme involves laser manipulation of atomic ensembles, beam splitters, and single-photon detectors with moderate efficiencies, and is therefore compatible with current experimental technology. We show that the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel length, and hence the scheme should be operable over very long distances.
Quantum Control of Atomic and Molecular Translational Motion
Raizen, M.G.; Fink, M.
2005-08-25
Our research program focuses on the development of a method to cool atoms and molecules of any choice as long as they have a stable gaseous phase. Our approach starts with a very cold supersonic beam of He seeded with the molecules of choice. The internal temperature can reach 1 milliKelvin or less. The high center of mass velocity of the particles forming the beam will be reduced by elastically scattering the atoms/molecules from a very cold single crystal surface (20-40K), which moves in the beam direction. This will enable the continuous control of the mean velocity over a large range, after scattering, down to a few tens of m/s or even below as the crystal surface's velocity approaches v/2 of the impacting particles. We will use the decelerated particles as a source for a white-fringe matter-wave interferometer, where one reflector is a very cold surface of interest. The interference pattern will reveal the real part (via integral intensities) and the imaginary part (via phase shifts) of the scattering cross sections. This is particularly interesting for H{sub 2} and resonance structures. This interferometer set-up follows closely Prichard's arrangement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Brien, J. L.; Schofield, S. R.; Simmons, M. Y.; Clark, R. G.; Dzurak, A. S.; Curson, N. J.; Kane, B. E.; McAlpine, N. S.; Hawley, M. E.; Brown, G. W.
2002-10-01
Recognition of the potentially massive computational power of a quantum computer has driven a considerable experimental effort to build such a device. Of the various possible physical implementations, silicon-based architectures are attractive for the long spin relaxation times involved, their scalability, and ease of integration with existing silicon technology. However, their fabrication requires construction at the atomic scale - an immense technological challenge. Here we outline a detailed strategy for the construction of a phosphorus in silicon quantum computer and demonstrate the first significant step towards this goal - the fabrication of atomically precise arrays of single phosphorus bearing molecules on a silicon surface. After using a monolayer hydrogen resist to passivate a silicon surface we apply pulsed voltages to a scanning tunnelling microscope tip to selectively desorb individual hydrogen atoms with atomic resolution. Exposure of this surface to the phosphorus precursor phosphine results in precise placement of single phosphorus atoms on the surface. We also describe preliminary studies into a process to incorporate these surface phosphorus atoms into the silicon crystal at the array sites.
Isotope Dependence and Quantum Effects on Atomic Hydrogen Diffusion in Liquid Water.
Walker, J A; Mezyk, S P; Roduner, E; Bartels, D M
2016-03-01
Relative diffusion coefficients were determined in water for the D, H, and Mu isotopes of atomic hydrogen by measuring their diffusion-limited spin-exchange rate constants with Ni(2+) as a function of temperature. H and D atoms were generated by pulse radiolysis of water and measured by time-resolved pulsed EPR. Mu atoms are detected by muonium spin resonance. To isolate the atomic mass effect from solvent isotope effect, we measured all three spin-exchange rates in 90% D2O. The diffusion depends on the atomic mass, demonstrating breakdown of Stokes-Einstein behavior. The diffusion can be understood using a combination of water "cavity diffusion" and "hopping" mechanisms, as has been proposed in the literature. The H/D isotope effect agrees with previous modeling using ring polymer molecular dynamics. The "quantum swelling" effect on muonium due to its larger de Broglie wavelength does not seem to slow its "hopping" diffusion as much as predicted in previous work. Quantum effects of both the atom mass and the water librations have been modeled using RPMD and a qTIP4P/f quantized flexible water model. These results suggest that the muonium diffusion is very sensitive to the Mu versus water potential used. PMID:26623663
A photon-photon quantum gate based on a single atom in an optical resonator.
Hacker, Bastian; Welte, Stephan; Rempe, Gerhard; Ritter, Stephan
2016-08-11
That two photons pass each other undisturbed in free space is ideal for the faithful transmission of information, but prohibits an interaction between the photons. Such an interaction is, however, required for a plethora of applications in optical quantum information processing. The long-standing challenge here is to realize a deterministic photon-photon gate, that is, a mutually controlled logic operation on the quantum states of the photons. This requires an interaction so strong that each of the two photons can shift the other's phase by π radians. For polarization qubits, this amounts to the conditional flipping of one photon's polarization to an orthogonal state. So far, only probabilistic gates based on linear optics and photon detectors have been realized, because "no known or foreseen material has an optical nonlinearity strong enough to implement this conditional phase shift''. Meanwhile, tremendous progress in the development of quantum-nonlinear systems has opened up new possibilities for single-photon experiments. Platforms range from Rydberg blockade in atomic ensembles to single-atom cavity quantum electrodynamics. Applications such as single-photon switches and transistors, two-photon gateways, nondestructive photon detectors, photon routers and nonlinear phase shifters have been demonstrated, but none of them with the ideal information carriers: optical qubits in discriminable modes. Here we use the strong light-matter coupling provided by a single atom in a high-finesse optical resonator to realize the Duan-Kimble protocol of a universal controlled phase flip (π phase shift) photon-photon quantum gate. We achieve an average gate fidelity of (76.2 ± 3.6) per cent and specifically demonstrate the capability of conditional polarization flipping as well as entanglement generation between independent input photons. This photon-photon quantum gate is a universal quantum logic element, and therefore could perform most existing two-photon operations
Correlating Electronic Transport to Atomic Structures in Self-Assembled Quantum Wires
Li, An-Ping; Qin, Shengyong; Kim, Tae Hwan; Ouyang, Wenjie; Zhang, Yanning; Weitering, Harm H; Shih, Chih-Kang; Baddorf, Arthur P; Wu, Ruiqian
2012-01-01
Quantum wires, as a smallest electronic conductor, are expected to be a fundamental component in all quantum architectures. The electronic conductance in quantum wires, however, is often dictated by structural instabilities and electron localization at the atomic scale. Here we report on the evolutions of electronic transport as a function of temperature and interwire coupling as the quantum wires of GdSi{sub 2} are self-assembled on Si(100) wire-by-wire. The correlation between structure, electronic properties, and electronic transport are examined by combining nanotransport measurements, scanning tunneling microscopy, and density functional theory calculations. A metal-insulator transition is revealed in isolated nanowires, while a robust metallic state is obtained in wire bundles at low temperature. The atomic defects lead to electron localizations in isolated nanowire, and interwire coupling stabilizes the structure and promotes the metallic states in wire bundles. This illustrates how the conductance nature of a one-dimensional system can be dramatically modified by the environmental change on the atomic scale.
The nature of the hydrogen bond: A synthesis from the interacting quantum atoms picture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martín Pendás, A.; Blanco, M. A.; Francisco, E.
2006-11-01
The interacting quantum atoms approach [IQA, as presented by Blanco et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 1, 1096 (2005)] is applied to standard hydrogen bonded dimers. IQA is an interpretation tool based on a real space energy decomposition scheme fully consistent with the quantum theory of atoms in molecules. It provides a partition of every physical term present in the Hamiltonian into atomic and interatomic contributions. The procedure is orbital-free and self-contained, needing neither external references nor artificial intermediate states. Binding is the result of a competition between the destabilizing deformations suffered by the interacting fragments upon interaction and the stabilizing interaction energy itself. According to IQA, there is no incompatibility between the prevalent electrostatic image of hydrogen bonded systems and that favoring important covalent contributions. Depending on how we gather the different energetic terms, we may recover electrostatic or covalent pictures from the same underlying quantum mechanical description. Our results show that the nonclassical contributions to hydrogen bonding are spatially localized, involving only the H atom and its two nearest neighbors. IQA is well suited as a comparative tool. Its thin energetic decomposition allows us to recover exactly (or to a very good approximation) the quantities of the most widely used energy decomposition schemes. Such a comparison sheds light on the virtues and faults of the different methods and on the origin of the 50years old debate regarding the covalent/electrostatic nature of the hydrogen bond.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chien, Chihchun; Metcalf, Mekena; Lai, Chenyen
2016-05-01
Memory effects are observable in magnetization, rechargeable batteries, and many systems exhibiting history-dependent states. Quantum memory effects are observable, for instance, in atomic superfluids. A counter-intuitive question is whether quantum memory effects can exist in noninteracting systems. Here we present two examples of cold-atom systems demonstrating memory effects in noninteracting systems. The first example is a ring-shaped potential loaded with noninteracting fermions. An artificial vector potential drives a current and with a tunable dissipative background, the current lags behind the driving and exhibits hysteresis loops. The dissipative energy can be controlled by the coupling between the fermions and the background. In the second example, cold atoms loaded in a tunable optical lattice transformed from the triangular to the kagome geometry. The kagome lattice supports a flat-band consisting of degenerate localized states. Quantum memory effects are observable after a lattice transformation as the steady-state density depends on the rate of the transformation. The versatility of memory effects in cold-atom systems promises novel applications in atomtronics.
Quantum control of multilevel atoms with rotational degeneracy using short laser pulses
Demeter, G.
2010-10-15
We study the quantum control of multilevel atoms with rotationally degenerate levels using short laser pulses. Various control schemes are considered, ones using {pi} pulses, frequency-chirped pulses, two consecutive pulses, or two pulses that overlap each other partially. We study the possibilities of controlling the quantum state of an ensemble of atoms distributed randomly over one or more rotationally degenerate levels initially. For the sake of concreteness we use the hyperfine level scheme of the {sup 85}Rb D line, but the results can easily be generalized for any of the alkali-metal atoms used in cooling and trapping experiments. We find that even though a number of difficulties arise, such as unequal coupling constants between rotational sublevels or dephasing between different hyperfine levels during the interaction, control schemes using simple or multiphoton adiabatic passage can be used to control the internal states of the atoms effectively as well as the center-of-mass motion. Furthermore, it is shown that in some cases it is possible to exploit the inequality of the coupling constants to entangle the rotational substates with specific distinct translational quantum states and hence separate these substates in momentum space.
Leung, V. Y. F.; Pijn, D. R. M.; Schlatter, H.; Torralbo-Campo, L.; La Rooij, A. L.; Mulder, G. B.; Naber, J.; Soudijn, M. L.; Tauschinsky, A.; Spreeuw, R. J. C.; Abarbanel, C.; Hadad, B.; Golan, E.; Folman, R.
2014-05-15
We describe the fabrication and construction of a setup for creating lattices of magnetic microtraps for ultracold atoms on an atom chip. The lattice is defined by lithographic patterning of a permanent magnetic film. Patterned magnetic-film atom chips enable a large variety of trapping geometries over a wide range of length scales. We demonstrate an atom chip with a lattice constant of 10 μm, suitable for experiments in quantum information science employing the interaction between atoms in highly excited Rydberg energy levels. The active trapping region contains lattice regions with square and hexagonal symmetry, with the two regions joined at an interface. A structure of macroscopic wires, cutout of a silver foil, was mounted under the atom chip in order to load ultracold {sup 87}Rb atoms into the microtraps. We demonstrate loading of atoms into the square and hexagonal lattice sections simultaneously and show resolved imaging of individual lattice sites. Magnetic-film lattices on atom chips provide a versatile platform for experiments with ultracold atoms, in particular for quantum information science and quantum simulation.
Leung, V Y F; Pijn, D R M; Schlatter, H; Torralbo-Campo, L; La Rooij, A L; Mulder, G B; Naber, J; Soudijn, M L; Tauschinsky, A; Abarbanel, C; Hadad, B; Golan, E; Folman, R; Spreeuw, R J C
2014-05-01
We describe the fabrication and construction of a setup for creating lattices of magnetic microtraps for ultracold atoms on an atom chip. The lattice is defined by lithographic patterning of a permanent magnetic film. Patterned magnetic-film atom chips enable a large variety of trapping geometries over a wide range of length scales. We demonstrate an atom chip with a lattice constant of 10 μm, suitable for experiments in quantum information science employing the interaction between atoms in highly excited Rydberg energy levels. The active trapping region contains lattice regions with square and hexagonal symmetry, with the two regions joined at an interface. A structure of macroscopic wires, cutout of a silver foil, was mounted under the atom chip in order to load ultracold (87)Rb atoms into the microtraps. We demonstrate loading of atoms into the square and hexagonal lattice sections simultaneously and show resolved imaging of individual lattice sites. Magnetic-film lattices on atom chips provide a versatile platform for experiments with ultracold atoms, in particular for quantum information science and quantum simulation. PMID:24880348
Peach, Gillian; Whittingham, Ian B.; Beams, Timothy J.
2004-09-01
We analyze a system of two colliding ultracold atoms under strong harmonic confinement from the viewpoint of quantum defect theory and formulate a generalized self-consistent method for determining the allowed energies. We also present two highly efficient computational methods for determining the bound state energies and eigenfunctions of such systems. The perturbed harmonic oscillator problem is characterized by a long asymptotic region beyond the effective range of the interatomic potential. The first method, which is based on quantum defect theory and is an adaptation of a technique developed by one of the authors (G.P.) for highly excited states in a modified Coulomb potential, is very efficient for integrating through this outer region. The second method is a direct numerical solution of the radial Schroedinger equation using a discrete variable representation of the kinetic energy operator and a scaled radial coordinate grid. The methods are applied to the case of trapped spin-polarized metastable helium atoms. The calculated eigenvalues agree very closely for the two methods, and with the eigenvalues computed using the generalized self-consistent method.
Real-time shot-noise-limited differential photodetection for atomic quantum control.
Martin Ciurana, F; Colangelo, G; Sewell, Robert J; Mitchell, Morgan W
2016-07-01
We demonstrate high-efficiency, shot-noise-limited differential photodetection with real-time signal conditioning, suitable for feedback-based quantum control of atomic systems. The detector system has quantum efficiency of 0.92, is shot-noise-limited from 7.4×10^{5} to 3.7×10^{8} photons per pulse, and provides real-time voltage-encoded output at up to 2.3 M pulses per second. PMID:27367072
Yin, B; Sadtler, B; Berezin, M Y; Thimsen, E
2016-09-25
Applications of luminescent quantum dots require the materials to be stable under a wide range of temperatures, photon fluxes and chemical environments. In this work, we demonstrate that Al2O3 shells synthesized by atomic layer deposition on films of CdTe quantum dots are effective to prevent chemical degradation for up to 17 hours under continuous illumination at 90 °C in ambient air. Control samples with no Al2O3 coating experienced extensive oxidation and severe quenching of the photoluminescence intensity under these conditions. PMID:27550790
Interplay of classical and quantum dynamics in a thermal ensemble of atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warsi Laskar, Arif; Singh, Niharika; Mukherjee, Arunabh; Ghosh, Saikat
2016-05-01
In a thermal ensemble of atoms driven by coherent fields, how does evolution of quantum superposition compete with classical dynamics of optical pumping and atomic diffusion? Is it optical pumping that first prepares a thermal ensemble, with coherent superposition developing subsequently or is it the other way round: coherently superposed atoms driven to steady state via optical pumping? Using a stroboscopic probing technique, here we experimentally explore these questions. A 100 ns pulse is used to probe an experimentally simulated, closed three-level, Λ-like configuration in rubidium atoms, driven by strong coherent (control) and incoherent fields. Temporal evolution of probe transmission shows an initial overshoot with turn-on of control, resulting in a scenario akin to lasing without inversion. The corresponding rise time is dictated by coherent dynamics, with a distinct experimental signature of half-cycle Rabi flop in a thermal ensemble of atoms. Our results indicate that, in fact, optical pumping drives the atoms to a steady state in a significantly longer time-scale that sustains superposed dark states. Eventual control turn-off leads to a sudden fall in transmission with an ubiquitous signature for identifying closed and open systems. Numerical simulations and toy-model predictions confirm our claims. These studies reveal new insights into a rich and complex dynamics associated with atoms in thermal ensemble, which are otherwise absent in state-prepared, cold atomic ensembles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chin, Cheng
2011-05-01
Recent cold atom researches are reaching out far beyond the realm that was conventionally viewed as atomic physics. Many long standing issues in other physics disciplines or in Gedanken-experiments are nowadays common targets of cold atom physicists. Two prominent examples will be discussed in this talk: BEC-BCS crossover and Efimov physics. Here, cold atoms are employed to emulate electrons in superconductors, and nucleons in nuclear reactions, respectively. The ability to emulate exotic or thought systems using cold atoms stems from the precisely determined, simple, and tunable interaction properties of cold atoms. New experimental tools have also been devised toward an ultimate goal: a complete control and a complete characterization of a few- or many-body quantum system. We are tantalizingly close to this major milestone, and will soon open new venues to explore new quantum phenomena that may (or may not!) exist in scientists' dreams.
Quantum Spin Dimers from Chiral Dissipation in Cold-Atom Chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramos, Tomás; Pichler, Hannes; Daley, Andrew J.; Zoller, Peter
2014-12-01
We consider the nonequilibrium dynamics of a driven dissipative spin chain with chiral coupling to a one-dimensional (1D) bosonic bath, and its atomic implementation with a two-species mixture of cold quantum gases. The reservoir is represented by a spin-orbit coupled 1D quasicondensate of atoms in a magnetized phase, while the spins are identified with motional states of a separate species of atoms in an optical lattice. The chirality of reservoir excitations allows the spins to couple differently to left- and right-moving modes, which in our atomic setup can be tuned from bidirectional to purely unidirectional. Remarkably, this leads to a pure steady state in which pairs of neighboring spins form dimers that decouple from the remainder of the chain. Our results also apply to current experiments with two-level emitters coupled to photonic waveguides.
Quantum-interference-enhanced deep sub-Doppler cooling of 39K atoms in gray molasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nath, Dipankar; Easwaran, R. Kollengode; Rajalakshmi, G.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.
2013-11-01
We report enhanced sub-Doppler cooling of the bosonic atoms of 39K facilitated by formation of dark states with the cooling and repumping lasers tuned to the Raman resonance in Λ configuration near the D1 transition. A temperature of about 12 μK and phase-space density >2×10-5 is achieved in the two-stage D2-D1 molasses and spans a very large parameter region where quantum interference persists robustly. We also present results on enhanced radiation heating with a subnatural linewidth (0.07Γ) and a signature Fano-like profile of a coherently driven three-level atomic system. The optical Bloch equations relevant for the three-level atom in a bichromatic light field are solved with the method of continued fractions to show that cooling occurs only for a small velocity class of atoms, emphasizing the need for precooling in the D2 molasses stage.
Visualizing edge states with an atomic Bose gas in the quantum Hall regime.
Stuhl, B K; Lu, H-I; Aycock, L M; Genkina, D; Spielman, I B
2015-09-25
Bringing ultracold atomic gases into the quantum Hall regime is challenging. We engineered an effective magnetic field in a two-dimensional lattice with an elongated-strip geometry, consisting of the sites of an optical lattice in the long direction and of three internal atomic spin states in the short direction. We imaged the localized states of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates in this strip; via excitation dynamics, we further observed both the skipping orbits of excited atoms traveling down the system's edges, analogous to edge magnetoplasmons in two-dimensional electron systems, and a dynamical Hall effect for bulk excitations. Our technique involves minimal heating, which will be important for spectroscopic measurements of the Hofstadter butterfly and realizations of Laughlin's charge pump. PMID:26404830
Concept of a Contact Spectrum and Its Applications in Atomic Quantum Hall States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Mingyuan; Zhang, Shaoliang; Chan, Hon Ming; Zhou, Qi
2016-01-01
A unique feature of ultracold atoms is the separation of length scales, r0≪kF-1, where kF and r0 are the Fermi momentum characterizing the average particle distance and the range of interaction between atoms, respectively. For s -wave scattering, Shina Tan discovered that such diluteness leads to universal thermodynamic relations governed by contact. Here, we show that the concept of contact can be generalized to an arbitrary partial-wave scattering. Contact of all partial-wave scatterings forms a contact spectrum, which establishes universal thermodynamic relations with notable differences from those in the presence of s -wave scattering alone. Such a contact spectrum is particularly useful for characterizing many-body correlations in atomic quantum Hall states (QHSs). It has an interesting connection with a special bipartite entanglement spectrum of QHSs and enables an intrinsic probe of atomic QHSs using short-range two-body correlations.
Partially ferromagnetic electromagnet for trapping and cooling neutral atoms to quantum degeneracy
Fauquembergue, M.; Riou, J-F.; Guerin, W.; Rangwala, S.; Moron, F.; Villing, A.; Le Coq, Y.; Bouyer, P.; Aspect, A.; Lecrivain, M.
2005-10-15
We have developed a compact partially ferromagnetic electromagnet to produce an Ioffe-Pritchard trap for neutral atoms. Our structure permits strong magnetic confinement with low power consumption. Compared to the previous iron-core electromagnet [B. Desruelle, V. Boyer, P. Bouyer, G. Birkl, M. Lecrivain, F. Alves, C. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, Eur. Phys. J. D 1, 255 (1998)], it allows for easy compensation of remnant fields and very high stability, along with cost-effective realization and compactness. We describe and characterize our apparatus and demonstrate trapping and cooling of {sup 87}Rb atoms to quantum degeneracy. Pure Bose-Einstein condensates containing 10{sup 6} atoms are routinely realized on a half-minute cycle. In addition we test the stability of the magnetic trap by producing atom lasers.
Kruse, J.; Gierl, C.; Schlosser, M.; Birkl, G.
2010-06-15
We trap atoms in versatile two-dimensional (2D) arrays of optical potentials, prepare flexible 2D spin configurations, perform site-selective coherent manipulation, and demonstrate the implementation of simultaneous measurements of different system properties, such as dephasing and decoherence. This approach for the flexible manipulation of atomic quantum systems is based on the combination of 2D arrays of microlenses and 2D arrays of liquid crystal light modulators. This offers extended types of control for the investigation of quantum degenerate gases, quantum information processing, and quantum simulations.
Sinuco-Leon, G.; Kaczmarek, B.; Krueger, P.; Fromhold, T. M.
2011-02-15
We show that current in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) can trap ultracold atoms <1 {mu}m away with orders of magnitude less spatial noise than a metal trapping wire. This enables the creation of hybrid systems, which integrate ultracold atoms with quantum electronic devices to give extreme sensitivity and control: For example, activating a single quantized conductance channel in the 2DEG can split a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) for atom interferometry. In turn, the BEC offers unique structural and functional imaging of quantum devices and transport in heterostructures and graphene.
The splitting of atomic orbitals with a common principal quantum number revisited: np vs. ns.
Katriel, Jacob
2012-04-14
Atomic orbitals with a common principal quantum number are degenerate, as in the hydrogen atom, in the absence of interelectronic repulsion. Due to the virial theorem, electrons in such orbitals experience equal nuclear attractions. Comparing states of several-electron atoms that differ by the occupation of orbitals with a common principal quantum number, such as 1s(2) 2s vs. 1s(2) 2p, we find that although the difference in energies, ΔE, is due to the interelectronic repulsion term in the Hamiltonian, the difference between the interelectronic repulsions, ΔC, makes a smaller contribution to ΔE than the corresponding difference between the nuclear attractions, ΔL. Analysis of spectroscopic data for atomic isoelectronic sequences allows an extensive investigation of these issues. In the low nuclear charge range of pertinent isoelectronic sequences, i.e., for neutral atoms and mildly positively charged ions, it is found that ΔC actually reverses its sign. About 96% of the nuclear attraction difference between the 6p (2)P and the 6s (2)S states of the Cs atom is cancelled by the corresponding interelectronic repulsion difference. From the monotonic increase of ΔE with Z it follows (via the Hellmann-Feynman theorem) that ΔL > 0. Upon increasing the nuclear charge along an atomic isoelectronic sequence with a single electron outside a closed shell from Z(c), the critical charge below which the outmost electron is not bound, to infinity, the ratio ΔC/ΔL increases monotonically from lim(Z→Z(c)(+))ΔC/ΔL=-1 to lim(Z→∞)ΔC/ΔL=1. These results should allow for a more nuanced discussion than is usually encountered of the crude electronic structure of many-electron atoms and the structure of the periodic table. PMID:22502506
Ruzi, Mahmut; Anderson, David T
2015-12-17
Our group has been working to develop parahydrogen (pH2) matrix isolation spectroscopy as a method to study low-temperature condensed-phase reactions of atomic hydrogen with various reaction partners. Guided by the well-defined studies of cold atom chemistry in rare-gas solids, the special properties of quantum hosts such as solid pH2 afford new opportunities to study the analogous chemical reactions under quantum diffusion conditions in hopes of discovering new types of chemical reaction mechanisms. In this study, we present Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic studies of the 193 nm photoinduced chemistry of nitric oxide (NO) isolated in solid pH2 over the 1.8 to 4.3 K temperature range. Upon short-term in situ irradiation the NO readily undergoes photolysis to yield HNO, NOH, NH, NH3, H2O, and H atoms. We map the postphotolysis reactions of mobile H atoms with NO and document first-order growth in HNO and NOH reaction products for up to 5 h after photolysis. We perform three experiments at 4.3 K and one at 1.8 K to permit the temperature dependence of the reaction kinetics to be quantified. We observe Arrhenius-type behavior with a pre-exponential factor of A = 0.036(2) min(-1) and Ea = 2.39(1) cm(-1). This is in sharp contrast to previous H atom reactions we have studied in solid pH2 that display definitively non-Arrhenius behavior. The contrasting temperature dependence measured for the H + NO reaction is likely related to the details of H atom quantum diffusion in solid pH2 and deserves further study. PMID:26317154
Quantum synchronization of ultracold atoms with dipole-dipole interactions in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Bihui; Restrepo, Juan; Rey, Ana Maria; Holland, Murray
2014-05-01
Ultracold atoms confined in an optical lattice have been utilized as a powerful platform to study versatile many-body physics both experimentally and theoretically. A recent research focus has been the novel phenomena that would emerge with long-range interactions, which become especially important for atomic clocks where ultrahigh precision can amplify these effects. We develop theoretical models treating the two-level atoms as oscillators and study the synchronization of phases among a large ensemble of atoms coupled by dipole-dipole interactions, where the effect of geometry becomes relevant. We investigate the onset of synchronization and the related phase diagram, and further discuss the parameter regime for potential experimental observation using ultracold atoms such as Strontium. By applying different numerical methods, eg., quantum trajectories and truncated Wigner approximations to compare with the mean-field results, we also explore the underlying role of quantum fluctuations. We acknowledge funding from NIST, JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844, NSF-PIF, ARO, ARO-DARPA-OLE, and AFOSR.
Muestecaplioglu, Oe.E.
2011-02-15
We examine quantum statistics of optical photons emitted from atomic ensembles which are classically driven and simultaneously coupled to a two-level atom via microwave photon exchange. Quantum statistics and correlations are analyzed by calculating second-order coherence degree, von Neumann entropy, spin squeezing for multiparticle entanglement, as well as genuine two- and three-mode entanglement parameters for steady-state and nonequilibrium situations. Coherent transfer of population between the radiation modes and quantum-state mapping between the two-level atom and the optical modes are discussed. A potential experimental realization of the theoretical results in a superconducting coplanar waveguide resonator containing diamond crystals with nitrogen-vacancy color centers and a superconducting artificial two-level atom is discussed.
Dicke-like quantum phase transition and vacuum entanglement with two coupled atomic ensembles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Shi-Biao
2011-09-01
We study the coherent cooperative phenomena of the system composed of two interacting atomic ensembles in the thermodynamic limit. Remarkably, the system exhibits the Dicke-like quantum phase transition and entanglement behavior although the governing Hamiltonian is fundamentally different from the spin-boson Dicke Hamiltonian, offering the opportunity for investigating collective matter-light dynamics with pure matter waves. The model can be realized with two Bose-Einstein condensates or atomic ensembles trapped in two optical cavities coupled to each other. The interaction between the two separate samples is induced by virtual photon exchange.
Zoo of Quantum Phases and Excitations of Cold Bosonic Atoms in Optical Lattices
Alon, Ofir E.; Streltsov, Alexej I.; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.
2005-07-15
Quantum phases and phase transitions of weakly to strongly interacting bosonic atoms in deep to shallow optical lattices are described by a single multiorbital mean-field approach in real space. For weakly interacting bosons in one dimension, the critical value of the superfluid to Mott insulator (MI) transition found is in excellent agreement with many-body treatments of the Bose-Hubbard model. For strongly interacting bosons (i) additional MI phases appear, for which two (or more) atoms residing in each site undergo a Tonks-Girardeau-like transition and localize, and (ii) on-site excitation becomes the excitation lowest in energy. Experimental implications are discussed.
Entanglement and quantum discord dynamics of two atoms under practical feedback control
Li Yang; Luo Bin; Guo Hong
2011-07-15
We study the dynamics of two identical atoms resonantly coupled to a single-mode cavity under practical feedback control, and focus on the detection inefficiency. The entanglement is induced to vanish in finite time by the inefficiency of detection. Counterintuitively, the asymptotic entanglement and quantum discord can be increased by the inefficiency of detection. The noise of detection triggers the control field to create entanglement and discord when no photons are emitted from the atoms. Furthermore, sudden change happens to the dynamics of entanglement.
Can a quantum nondemolition measurement improve the sensitivity of an atomic magnetometer?
Auzinsh, M; Budker, D; Kimball, D F; Rochester, S M; Stalnaker, J E; Sushkov, A O; Yashchuk, V V
2004-10-22
We consider the limitations due to noise (e.g., quantum projection noise and photon shot-noise) on the sensitivity of an idealized atomic magnetometer that utilizes spin squeezing induced by a continuous quantum nondemolition measurement. Such a magnetometer measures spin precession of N atomic spins by detecting optical rotation of far-detuned light. We show that for very short measurement times, the optimal sensitivity scales as N(-3/4); if strongly squeezed probe light is used, the Heisenberg limit of N-1 scaling can be achieved. However, if the measurement time exceeds tau(rel)/N(1/2) in the former case, or tau(rel)/N in the latter, where tau(rel) is the spin relaxation time, the scaling becomes N(-1/2), as for a standard shot-noise-limited magnetometer. PMID:15525071
Quantum correlations of light from atoms trapped around an optical nanofiber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grover, J. A.; Solano, P.; Hoffman, J. E.; Lee, J.; Orozco, L. A.; Rolston, S. L.
2014-05-01
We interrogate an ensemble of rubidium atoms trapped around an optical nanofiber (ONF) through the quantum correlations of the light emitted into the ONF mode. Using trapping light at 750 and 1064 nm, we create an optically thick atomic ensemble. The conditional detection, g (2) (τ) , allows for the study of atomic dynamics and of different contributions to the correlation function from single and multiple atoms. The conditional dynamics can not only probe ensemble properties but also provide information about this unique 1D atomic system, opening the opportunity to study many-body physics with long-range interactions. One example is the recent proposal of self-organization into crystalline order of trapped atoms around an ONF. As an atomic ensemble, the guided mode assures high optical depth and good optical coupling of the photons, which may enable protocols that employ states beyond the first Dicke state. This work is supported by ARO MURI award W911NF0910406 and the NSF Physics Frontier Center at the JQI.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Rocco, Héctor O.; Lanzini, Fernando
2016-04-01
The correction to the Coulomb repulsion between two electrons due to the exchange of a transverse photon, referred to as the Breit interaction, as well as the main quantum electrodynamics contributions to the atomic energies (self-energy and vacuum polarization), are calculated using the recently formulated relativistic screened hydrogenic model. Comparison with the results of multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations and experimental X- ray energies is made.
Quantum and Classical Description of H Atom Under Magnetic Field and Quadrupole Trap Potential
Mahecha, J.; Salas, J. P.
2006-12-01
A discussion regarding the energy levels spectrum of quantum systems whose classical analogous has states of chaotic motion is presented. The chaotic dynamics of the classical underlying system has its manifestation in the wave functions (in the form of 'scars') and in the energy levels (in the form of 'statistical repulsion' of the energy levels). The above mentioned signatures are named 'quantum chaos'. A typical study of quantum chaos requires finding accurate energy eigenvalues of highly excited states, to calculate the nearest neighbors spacing between levels, to perform the 'unfolding' of the spectrum in order to separate the fluctuations, and finally to find the probability distribution of the unfolded spectrum. This is exemplified by the hydrogen atom under uniform magnetic field and a quadrupole electric field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemell, Christoph; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Gräfe, Stefanie; Dimitriou, Konstantinos I.; Arbó, Diego G.; Tong, Xiao-Min
2013-01-01
Atomic ionization by strong and ultrashort laser pulses with frequencies in the midinfrared spectral region have revealed novel features such as the low-energy structures. We have performed fully three-dimensional quantum dynamical as well as classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulations for pulses with wavelengths from λ=2000 to 6000 nm. Furthermore, we apply distorted-wave quantum approximations. This allows to explore the quantum-classical correspondence as well as the (non) perturbative character of the ionization dynamics driven by long-wavelength pulses. We observe surprisingly rich structures in the differential energy and angular momentum distribution which sensitively depend on λ, the pulse duration τp, and the carrier-envelope phase ϕCEP.
Evidence for Efimov quantum states in an ultracold gas of caesium atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kraemer, T.; Mark, M.; Waldburger, P.; Danzl, J. G.; Chin, C.; Engeser, B.; Lange, A. D.; Pilch, K.; Jaakkola, A.; Nägerl, H.-C.; Grimm, R.
2006-03-01
Systems of three interacting particles are notorious for their complex physical behaviour. A landmark theoretical result in few-body quantum physics is Efimov's prediction of a universal set of bound trimer states appearing for three identical bosons with a resonant two-body interaction. Counterintuitively, these states even exist in the absence of a corresponding two-body bound state. Since the formulation of Efimov's problem in the context of nuclear physics 35 years ago, it has attracted great interest in many areas of physics. However, the observation of Efimov quantum states has remained an elusive goal. Here we report the observation of an Efimov resonance in an ultracold gas of caesium atoms. The resonance occurs in the range of large negative two-body scattering lengths, arising from the coupling of three free atoms to an Efimov trimer. Experimentally, we observe its signature as a giant three-body recombination loss when the strength of the two-body interaction is varied. We also detect a minimum in the recombination loss for positive scattering lengths, indicating destructive interference of decay pathways. Our results confirm central theoretical predictions of Efimov physics and represent a starting point with which to explore the universal properties of resonantly interacting few-body systems. While Feshbach resonances have provided the key to control quantum-mechanical interactions on the two-body level, Efimov resonances connect ultracold matter to the world of few-body quantum phenomena.
CP(N - 1) quantum field theories with alkaline-earth atoms in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laflamme, C.; Evans, W.; Dalmonte, M.; Gerber, U.; Mejía-Díaz, H.; Bietenholz, W.; Wiese, U.-J.; Zoller, P.
2016-07-01
We propose a cold atom implementation to attain the continuum limit of (1 + 1) -d CP(N - 1) quantum field theories. These theories share important features with (3 + 1) -d QCD, such as asymptotic freedom and θ-vacua. Moreover, their continuum limit can be accessed via the mechanism of dimensional reduction. In our scheme, the CP(N - 1) degrees of freedom emerge at low energies from a ladder system of SU(N) quantum spins, where the N spin states are embodied by the nuclear Zeeman states of alkaline-earth atoms, trapped in an optical lattice. Based on Monte Carlo results, we establish that the continuum limit can be demonstrated by an atomic quantum simulation by employing the feature of asymptotic freedom. We discuss a protocol for the adiabatic preparation of the ground state of the system, the real-time evolution of a false θ-vacuum state after a quench, and we propose experiments to unravel the phase diagram at non-zero density.
Experimental progress towards a Rydberg atom-photon-superconductor quantum interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isaacs, J. A.; Pritchard, J. D.; Xia, T.; Beck, M. A.; McDermott, R.; Saffman, M.
2015-05-01
Hybrid quantum computation exploits the individual strengths of various quantum technologies, enabling realization of a scalable quantum device capable of both fast gates and long coherence times. Our method combines the long coherence times of neutral atoms with the fast gates of superconducting qubits. We discuss experimental progress towards single atom trapping close to a superconducting resonator, including optimization of the resonator to maximize the quality factor and coupling strength for preliminary experiments performed at 4 K. We use a new resonator design, incorporating 3D micro fabricated structures, that allows for strong electric field coupling to an atom trapped ~ 50 μ m above the resonator. Our scheme uses a novel two-photon Rydberg excitation via the 6S1 / 2 --> 5D5 / 2 quadrupole transition to enable direct excitation of nP3 / 2 states for strong electric-dipole coupling to the cavity. This significantly reduces the Doppler mismatch compared to previous two-photon excitation schemes to enable high fidelity operations. First spectroscopy and Rabi oscillation results will be shown. Work supported by NSF award PHY-1212448.
Quantum simulation of the Hubbard model with dopant atoms in silicon
Salfi, J.; Mol, J. A.; Rahman, R.; Klimeck, G.; Simmons, M. Y.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.; Rogge, S.
2016-01-01
In quantum simulation, many-body phenomena are probed in controllable quantum systems. Recently, simulation of Bose–Hubbard Hamiltonians using cold atoms revealed previously hidden local correlations. However, fermionic many-body Hubbard phenomena such as unconventional superconductivity and spin liquids are more difficult to simulate using cold atoms. To date the required single-site measurements and cooling remain problematic, while only ensemble measurements have been achieved. Here we simulate a two-site Hubbard Hamiltonian at low effective temperatures with single-site resolution using subsurface dopants in silicon. We measure quasi-particle tunnelling maps of spin-resolved states with atomic resolution, finding interference processes from which the entanglement entropy and Hubbard interactions are quantified. Entanglement, determined by spin and orbital degrees of freedom, increases with increasing valence bond length. We find separation-tunable Hubbard interaction strengths that are suitable for simulating strongly correlated phenomena in larger arrays of dopants, establishing dopants as a platform for quantum simulation of the Hubbard model. PMID:27094205
Quantum simulation of the Hubbard model with dopant atoms in silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salfi, J.; Mol, J. A.; Rahman, R.; Klimeck, G.; Simmons, M. Y.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.; Rogge, S.
2016-04-01
In quantum simulation, many-body phenomena are probed in controllable quantum systems. Recently, simulation of Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonians using cold atoms revealed previously hidden local correlations. However, fermionic many-body Hubbard phenomena such as unconventional superconductivity and spin liquids are more difficult to simulate using cold atoms. To date the required single-site measurements and cooling remain problematic, while only ensemble measurements have been achieved. Here we simulate a two-site Hubbard Hamiltonian at low effective temperatures with single-site resolution using subsurface dopants in silicon. We measure quasi-particle tunnelling maps of spin-resolved states with atomic resolution, finding interference processes from which the entanglement entropy and Hubbard interactions are quantified. Entanglement, determined by spin and orbital degrees of freedom, increases with increasing valence bond length. We find separation-tunable Hubbard interaction strengths that are suitable for simulating strongly correlated phenomena in larger arrays of dopants, establishing dopants as a platform for quantum simulation of the Hubbard model.
Quantum simulation of the Hubbard model with dopant atoms in silicon.
Salfi, J; Mol, J A; Rahman, R; Klimeck, G; Simmons, M Y; Hollenberg, L C L; Rogge, S
2016-01-01
In quantum simulation, many-body phenomena are probed in controllable quantum systems. Recently, simulation of Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonians using cold atoms revealed previously hidden local correlations. However, fermionic many-body Hubbard phenomena such as unconventional superconductivity and spin liquids are more difficult to simulate using cold atoms. To date the required single-site measurements and cooling remain problematic, while only ensemble measurements have been achieved. Here we simulate a two-site Hubbard Hamiltonian at low effective temperatures with single-site resolution using subsurface dopants in silicon. We measure quasi-particle tunnelling maps of spin-resolved states with atomic resolution, finding interference processes from which the entanglement entropy and Hubbard interactions are quantified. Entanglement, determined by spin and orbital degrees of freedom, increases with increasing valence bond length. We find separation-tunable Hubbard interaction strengths that are suitable for simulating strongly correlated phenomena in larger arrays of dopants, establishing dopants as a platform for quantum simulation of the Hubbard model. PMID:27094205
Banerjee, D; Dalmonte, M; Müller, M; Rico, E; Stebler, P; Wiese, U-J; Zoller, P
2012-10-26
Using a Fermi-Bose mixture of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice, we construct a quantum simulator for a U(1) gauge theory coupled to fermionic matter. The construction is based on quantum links which realize continuous gauge symmetry with discrete quantum variables. At low energies, quantum link models with staggered fermions emerge from a Hubbard-type model which can be quantum simulated. This allows us to investigate string breaking as well as the real-time evolution after a quench in gauge theories, which are inaccessible to classical simulation methods. PMID:23215198
Tunable two-dimensional arrays of single Rydberg atoms for realizing quantum Ising models.
Labuhn, Henning; Barredo, Daniel; Ravets, Sylvain; de Léséleuc, Sylvain; Macrì, Tommaso; Lahaye, Thierry; Browaeys, Antoine
2016-06-30
Spin models are the prime example of simplified many-body Hamiltonians used to model complex, strongly correlated real-world materials. However, despite the simplified character of such models, their dynamics often cannot be simulated exactly on classical computers when the number of particles exceeds a few tens. For this reason, quantum simulation of spin Hamiltonians using the tools of atomic and molecular physics has become a very active field over the past years, using ultracold atoms or molecules in optical lattices, or trapped ions. All of these approaches have their own strengths and limitations. Here we report an alternative platform for the study of spin systems, using individual atoms trapped in tunable two-dimensional arrays of optical microtraps with arbitrary geometries, where filling fractions range from 60 to 100 per cent. When excited to high-energy Rydberg D states, the atoms undergo strong interactions whose anisotropic character opens the way to simulating exotic matter. We illustrate the versatility of our system by studying the dynamics of a quantum Ising-like spin-1/2 system in a transverse field with up to 30 spins, for a variety of geometries in one and two dimensions, and for a wide range of interaction strengths. For geometries where the anisotropy is expected to have small effects on the dynamics, we find excellent agreement with ab initio simulations of the spin-1/2 system, while for strongly anisotropic situations the multilevel structure of the D states has a measurable influence. Our findings establish arrays of single Rydberg atoms as a versatile platform for the study of quantum magnetism. PMID:27281203
Atomic filtering for hybrid continuous-variable/discrete-variable quantum optics.
Zielińska, Joanna A; Beduini, Federica A; Lucivero, Vito Giovanni; Mitchell, Morgan W
2014-10-20
We demonstrate atomic filtering of frequency-degenerate photon pairs from a sub-threshold optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The filter, a modified Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF), achieves 70% peak transmission simultaneous with 57 dB out-of-band rejection and a 445 MHz transmission bandwidth. When applied to the OPO output, only the degenerate mode, containing one-mode squeezed vacuum, falls in the filter pass-band; all other modes are strongly suppressed. The high transmission preserves non-classical continuous-variable features, e.g. squeezing or non-gaussianity, while the high spectral purity allows reliable discrete-variable detection and heralding. Correlation and atomic absorption measurements indicate a spectral purity of 96% for the individual photons, and 98% for the photon pairs. These capabilities will enable generation of atom-resonant hybrid states, e.g. "Schrödinger kittens" obtained by photon subtraction from squeezed vacuum, making these exotic states available for quantum networking and atomic quantum metrology applications. PMID:25401564
Quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms on graphene. I. System-bath modeling
Bonfanti, Matteo; Jackson, Bret; Hughes, Keith H.; Burghardt, Irene
2015-09-28
An accurate system-bath model to investigate the quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms chemisorbed on graphene is presented. The system comprises a hydrogen atom and the carbon atom from graphene that forms the covalent bond, and it is described by a previously developed 4D potential energy surface based on density functional theory ab initio data. The bath describes the rest of the carbon lattice and is obtained from an empirical force field through inversion of a classical equilibrium correlation function describing the hydrogen motion. By construction, model building easily accommodates improvements coming from the use of higher level electronic structure theory for the system. Further, it is well suited to a determination of the system-environment coupling by means of ab initio molecular dynamics. This paper details the system-bath modeling and shows its application to the quantum dynamics of vibrational relaxation of a chemisorbed hydrogen atom, which is here investigated at T = 0 K with the help of the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method. Paper II deals with the sticking dynamics.
Exploring Few- and Many-Body Dipolar Quantum Phenomena with Ultracold Erbium Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferlaino, Francesca
2016-05-01
Given their strong magnetic moment and exotic electronic configuration, rare-earth atoms disclose a plethora of intriguing phenomena in ultracold quantum physics with dipole-dipole interaction. Here, we report on the first degenerate Fermi gas of erbium atoms, based on direct cooling of identical fermions via dipolar collisions. We reveal universal scattering laws between identical dipolar fermions close to zero temperature, and we demonstrate the long-standing prediction of a deformed Fermi surface in dipolar gas. Finally, we present the first experimental study of an extended Bose-Hubbard model using bosonic Er atoms in a three-dimensional optical lattice and we report on the first observation of nearest-neighbor interactions.
Quantum Otto engine of a two-level atom with single-mode fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jianhui; Wu, Zhaoqi; He, Jizhou
2012-04-01
We establish a quantum Otto engine (QOE) of a two-level atom, which is confined in a one-dimensional (1D) harmonic trap and is coupled to single-mode radiation fields. Besides two adiabatic processes, the QOE cycle consists of two isochoric processes, along one of which the two-level atom as the working substance interacts with a single-mode radiation field. Based on the semigroup approach, we derive the time for completing any adiabatic process and then present a performance analysis of the heat engine model. Furthermore, we generalize the results to the performance optimization for a QOE of a single two-level atom trapped in a 1D power-law potential. Our result shows that the efficiency at maximum power output is dependent on the trap exponent θ but is independent of the energy spectrum index σ.
Quantum Otto engine of a two-level atom with single-mode fields.
Wang, Jianhui; Wu, Zhaoqi; He, Jizhou
2012-04-01
We establish a quantum Otto engine (QOE) of a two-level atom, which is confined in a one-dimensional (1D) harmonic trap and is coupled to single-mode radiation fields. Besides two adiabatic processes, the QOE cycle consists of two isochoric processes, along one of which the two-level atom as the working substance interacts with a single-mode radiation field. Based on the semigroup approach, we derive the time for completing any adiabatic process and then present a performance analysis of the heat engine model. Furthermore, we generalize the results to the performance optimization for a QOE of a single two-level atom trapped in a 1D power-law potential. Our result shows that the efficiency at maximum power output is dependent on the trap exponent θ but is independent of the energy spectrum index σ. PMID:22680458
Investigating the laser angle dependence of movable pinhole traps for neutral atom quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frazer, Travis; Roberts, David; Schray, Jason; Gillen, Glen; Gillen-Christandl, Katharina
2013-05-01
Neutral atom approaches meet all DiVincenzo quantum computing criteria but scalability. Our proposed solution is a two-dimensional array of dipole traps formed in the diffraction pattern immediately behind an array of pinholes. For two-qubit gates, trapped atoms can be brought together and apart by changing the trap laser angle and exploiting the polarization dependence of the trapping potential. We are investigating the diffraction pattern for a large range of angles of incidence through direct measurement and computations. We will present these results and our experimental progress with our in-house system for transferring atoms from our MOT to the pinhole traps. Work supported by the National Science Foundation Grant No. PHY-0855524.
Quantum well effect based on hybridization bandgap in deep subwavelength coupled meta-atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yongqiang; Li, Yunhui; Wu, Qian; Jiang, Haitao; Zhang, Yewen; Chen, Hong
2015-09-01
In this paper, quantum well (QW) effect in a hybridization bandgap (HBG) structure via hiring deep subwavelength coupled meta-atoms is investigated. Subwavelength zero-index-metamaterial-based resonators acting as meta-atoms are side-coupled to a microstrip, forming the HBG structure. Both numerical and microwave experimental results confirm that, through properly hiring another set of meta-atoms, band mismatch between two HBGs can be introduced resulting in the HBG QW effect. Compared with the conventional QW structure based on Bragg interferences in photonic crystal, the device length of the proposed HBG QW structure can be reduced to only 1/4, demonstrating well the deep subwavelength property. Therefore, the above features make our design of HBG QW structures suitable to be utilized as multi-channel filters or multiplexers in microwave and optical communication system.
Adiabatic path to fractional quantum Hall states of a few bosonic atoms
Popp, M.; Paredes, B.; Cirac, J.I.
2004-11-01
We propose a realistic scheme to create motionally entangled states of a few bosonic atoms. It can experimentally be realized with a gas of ultracold bosonic atoms trapped in a deep optical lattice potential. By simultaneously deforming and rotating the trapping potential on each lattice site it is feasible to adiabatically create a variety of entangled states on each lattice well. We fully address the case of N=2 and 4 atoms per well and identify a sequence of fractional quantum Hall states: the Pfaffian state, the 1/2-Laughlin quasiparticle, and the 1/2-Laughlin state. Exact knowledge of the spectrum has allowed us to design adiabatic paths to these states, with all times and parameters well within the reach of current experimental setups. We further discuss the detection of these states by measuring different properties as their density profile, angular momentum, or correlation functions.
Atomic Structure Study of the Quantum Spin-ice Pyrochlore Yb2Ti2O7
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mostaed, Ali; Balakrishnan, Geetha; Lees, Martin; Beanland, Richard; Microscopy Team; Superconductivity; Magnetism Team
The quantum spin-ice candidate Yb2Ti2O7 (YTO) lies on the boundary between a number of competing magnetic ground states. Features in the low-temperature specific heat capacity are found to vary in sharpness and temperature depending on materials processing. It has been suggested that these changes in the magnetic ground state could be influenced by several factors, including the degree of cation stuffing, changes in oxygen occupancy and/or vacancies. In the present work, the structures of three different YTO samples, grown by the optical floating zone technique and that exhibit quite different heat capacity behaviour, have been studied by annular dark field scanning transmission microscopy (ADF-STEM). We show that the detailed intensity distribution around the visible atomic columns is sensitive to the presence of nearby atoms of low atomic number (in this case oxygen), even though they are not directly visible in the images. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that oxygen columns with a distance of ~30 pm have been distinguished in ADF-STEM images. Furthermore, by comparing atomic columns with different configurations of nearby oxygen atoms, we are able to distinguish between the different YTO samples Finally, the ADF data for the crystal that exhibits no specific heat anomaly shows signs of the substitution of Yb atoms on Ti sites, supporting the view that the magnetic ground state of YTO is extremely sensitive to disorder.
Atom-chip based quantum gravimetry with Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abend, Sven; Gersemann, Matthias; Ahlers, Holger; Rasel, Ernst M.; Gebbe, Martina; Muentinga, Hauke; Laemmerzahl, Claus; Quantus Team
2015-05-01
Today's generation of inertial sensitive atom interferometers typically operate with sources of laser cooled atoms and thus their performance is limited by velocity spread and finite-size effects that impose systematic uncertainties. Ultra-cold sources such as a BEC or even delta-kick cooled atomic ensembles with extremely narrow velocity dispersion are able to overcome these limitations and are crucial for obtaining high-fidelity beam splitters. Atom-chip technologies offer the possibility to generate a BEC and perform delta-kick cooling in a fast and reliable away. We show a combination of such an ensemble generated in a miniaturized atom-chip setup with the application of low-loss Bragg beam splitting to perform inertial sensitive measurements. A specialty of this setup is the retro-reflection of the beam splitting light field from the atom-chip itself, serving as inertial reference in vacuum. This allows for a compact realization of a quantum gravimeter determining the local gravitational acceleration to the scale of local variations limited by seismic noise. This work is supported by the German Space Agency (DLR) with funds provided by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) due to an enactment of the German Bundestag under grant numbers DLR 50 1131-1137 (QUANTUS-III).
New approaches in deep laser cooling of magnesium atoms for quantum metrology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prudnikov, O. N.; Brazhnikov, D. V.; Taichenachev, A. V.; Yudin, V. I.; Bonert, A. E.; Tropnikov, M. A.; Goncharov, A. N.
2016-09-01
Two approaches for solving the long-standing problem of deep laser cooling of neutral magnesium atoms are proposed. The first one uses optical molasses with orthogonal linear polarizations of light waves. The second approach involves a ‘nonstandard’ magneto-optical trap (NMOT) composed of light waves with elliptical polarizations (in general). Both the widely used semiclassical approach based on the Fokker–Planck equation and quantum treatment fully taking into account the recoil effect are employed for theoretical analysis. The results show the possibility of obtaining temperatures lower than 100 µK simultaneously with a large number of cold atoms ~106 ÷ 107. A new velocity-selective cooling technique allowing one to reach the microkelvin temperature range is also proposed. This technique may have some advantages over, for instance, the shallow-dipole-trap technique utilized by other authors. In the case of magnesium atoms this new technique may be used for obtaining a large number of ultracold atoms (T ~ 1 µK, N > 105). Such a large number of ultracold atoms is crucial issue for metrological and many other applications of cold atoms.
Atomic quantum simulation of U(N) and SU(N) non-Abelian lattice gauge theories.
Banerjee, D; Bögli, M; Dalmonte, M; Rico, E; Stebler, P; Wiese, U-J; Zoller, P
2013-03-22
Using ultracold alkaline-earth atoms in optical lattices, we construct a quantum simulator for U(N) and SU(N) lattice gauge theories with fermionic matter based on quantum link models. These systems share qualitative features with QCD, including chiral symmetry breaking and restoration at nonzero temperature or baryon density. Unlike classical simulations, a quantum simulator does not suffer from sign problems and can address the corresponding chiral dynamics in real time. PMID:25166816
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdel-Khalek, S.; Quthami, M.; Ahmed, M. M. A.
2015-02-01
In this paper, we study the dynamics of the atomic inversion and von Neumann entropy for a moving and non-moving two-level atom interacting with multi SU(1,1) quantum system. The wave function and system density matrix using specific initial conditions are obtained. The effects of initial atomic state position and detuning parameters are examined in the absence and presence of the atomic motion effect. Important phenomena such as entanglement sudden death, sudden birth and long-living entanglement are explored during time evolution. The results show that the detuning parameter and excitation number is very useful in generating a high amount of entanglement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hur, Gwang-Ok
The -kicked rotor is a paradigm of quantum chaos. Its realisation with clouds of cold atoms in pulsed optical lattices demonstrated the well-known quantum chaos phenomenon of 'dynamical localisation'. In those experi ments by several groups world-wide, the £-kicks were applied at equal time intervals. However, recent theoretical and experimental work by the cold atom group at UCL Monteiro et al 2002, Jonckheere et al 2003, Jones et al 2004 showed that novel quantum and classical dynamics arises if the atomic cloud is pulsed with repeating sequences of unequally spaced kicks. In Mon teiro et al 2002 it was found that the energy absorption rates depend on the momentum of the atoms relative to the optical lattice hence a type of chaotic ratchet was proposed. In Jonckheere et al and Jones et al, a possible mechanism for selecting atoms according to their momenta (velocity filter) was investigated. The aim of this thesis was to study the properties of the underlying eigen values and eigenstates. Despite the unequally-spaced kicks, these systems are still time-periodic, so we in fact investigated the Floquet states, which are eigenstates of U(T), the one-period time evolution operator. The Floquet states and corresponding eigenvalues were obtained by diagonalising a ma trix representation of the operator U(T). It was found that the form of the eigenstates enables us to analyse qual itatively the atomic momentum probability distributions, N(p) measured experimentally. In particular, the momentum width of the individual eigen states varies strongly with < p > as expected from the theoretical and ex- perimental results obtained previously. In addition, at specific < p > close to values which in the experiment yield directed motion (ratchet transport), the probability distribution of the individual Floquet states is asymmetric, mirroring the asymmetric N(p) measured in clouds of cesium atoms. In the penultimate chapter, the spectral fluctuations (eigenvalue statis tics) are
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qian, Peng; Gu, Zhenjie; Cao, Rong; Wen, Rong; Ou, Z. Y.; Chen, J. F.; Zhang, Weiping
2016-07-01
The temporal purity of single photons is crucial to the indistinguishability of independent photon sources for the fundamental study of the quantum nature of light and the development of photonic technologies. Currently, the technique for single photons heralded from time-frequency entangled biphotons created in nonlinear crystals does not guarantee the temporal-quantum purity, except using spectral filtering. Nevertheless, an entirely different situation is anticipated for narrow-band biphotons with a coherence time far longer than the time resolution of a single-photon detector. Here we demonstrate temporally pure single photons with a coherence time of 100 ns, directly heralded from the time-frequency entangled biphotons generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing in cold atomic ensembles, without any supplemented filters or cavities. A near-perfect purity and indistinguishability are both verified through Hong-Ou-Mandel quantum interference using single photons from two independent cold atomic ensembles. The time-frequency entanglement provides a route to manipulate the pure temporal state of the single-photon source.
Qian, Peng; Gu, Zhenjie; Cao, Rong; Wen, Rong; Ou, Z Y; Chen, J F; Zhang, Weiping
2016-07-01
The temporal purity of single photons is crucial to the indistinguishability of independent photon sources for the fundamental study of the quantum nature of light and the development of photonic technologies. Currently, the technique for single photons heralded from time-frequency entangled biphotons created in nonlinear crystals does not guarantee the temporal-quantum purity, except using spectral filtering. Nevertheless, an entirely different situation is anticipated for narrow-band biphotons with a coherence time far longer than the time resolution of a single-photon detector. Here we demonstrate temporally pure single photons with a coherence time of 100 ns, directly heralded from the time-frequency entangled biphotons generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing in cold atomic ensembles, without any supplemented filters or cavities. A near-perfect purity and indistinguishability are both verified through Hong-Ou-Mandel quantum interference using single photons from two independent cold atomic ensembles. The time-frequency entanglement provides a route to manipulate the pure temporal state of the single-photon source. PMID:27419568
Atomic electric fields revealed by a quantum mechanical approach to electron picodiffraction
Müller, Knut; Krause, Florian F.; Béché, Armand; Schowalter, Marco; Galioit, Vincent; Löffler, Stefan; Verbeeck, Johan; Zweck, Josef; Schattschneider, Peter; Rosenauer, Andreas
2014-01-01
By focusing electrons on probes with a diameter of 50 pm, aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is currently crossing the border to probing subatomic details. A major challenge is the measurement of atomic electric fields using differential phase contrast (DPC) microscopy, traditionally exploiting the concept of a field-induced shift of diffraction patterns. Here we present a simplified quantum theoretical interpretation of DPC. This enables us to calculate the momentum transferred to the STEM probe from diffracted intensities recorded on a pixel array instead of conventional segmented bright-field detectors. The methodical development yielding atomic electric field, charge and electron density is performed using simulations for binary GaN as an ideal model system. We then present a detailed experimental study of SrTiO3 yielding atomic electric fields, validated by comprehensive simulations. With this interpretation and upgraded instrumentation, STEM is capable of quantifying atomic electric fields and high-contrast imaging of light atoms. PMID:25501385
Universal diffraction of atoms and molecules from a quantum reflection grating
Zhao, Bum Suk; Zhang, Weiqing; Schöllkopf, Wieland
2016-01-01
Since de Broglie’s work on the wave nature of particles, various optical phenomena have been observed with matter waves of atoms and molecules. However, the analogy between classical and atom/molecule optics is not exact because of different dispersion relations. In addition, according to de Broglie’s formula, different combinations of particle mass and velocity can give the same de Broglie wavelength. As a result, even for identical wavelengths, different molecular properties such as electric polarizabilities, Casimir-Polder forces, and dissociation energies modify (and potentially suppress) the resulting matter-wave optical phenomena such as diffraction intensities or interference effects. We report on the universal behavior observed in matter-wave diffraction of He atoms and He2 and D2 molecules from a ruled grating. Clear evidence for emerging beam resonances is observed in the diffraction patterns, which are quantitatively the same for all three particles and only depend on the de Broglie wavelength. A model, combining secondary scattering and quantum reflection, permits us to trace the observed universal behavior back to the peculiar principles of quantum reflection. PMID:27034979
Quantum states of hydrogen atom on Pd(1 1 0) surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Padama, Allan Abraham B.; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Kasai, Hideaki
2015-12-01
The quantum states of adsorbed hydrogen atom on Pd(1 1 0) surface are investigated in this work. From the calculated potential energy surface (PES) of hydrogen atom on Pd(1 1 0), the wave functions and eigenenergies in the ground and few excited states of protium (H) and deuterium (D) are calculated. Localized wave functions of hydrogen atom exist on pseudo-threefold and long bridge sites of Pd(1 1 0). The short bridge site is a local minimum from the result of PES, however, quantum behavior of hydrogen revealed that its vibration would allow it to hop to other pseudo-threefold site (that crosses the short bridge site) than to stay on the short bridge site. Exchange of ordering of the wave functions between H and D is attributed to the difference in their masses. The calculated eigenenergies are found to be in fair agreement with experimental data based from the identified vibrations of hydrogen with component perpendicular to the surface. The activation barriers measured from the eigenenergies are in better agreement with experimental findings in comparison to the data gathered from PES.
Multichannel quantum-defect theory for ultracold atom-ion collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Idziaszek, Zbigniew; Simoni, Andrea; Calarco, Tommaso; Julienne, Paul S.
2011-08-01
We develop an analytical model for ultracold atom-ion collisions using the multichannel quantum-defect formalism. The model is based on analytical solutions of the r-4 long-range potential and on the application of a frame transformation between asymptotic and molecular bases. This approach allows the description of atom-ion interaction in the ultracold domain in terms of only three parameters: the singlet and triplet scattering lengths, assumed to be independent of the relative motion angular momentum, and the lead dispersion coefficient of the asymptotic potential. We also introduce corrections to the scattering lengths that improve the accuracy of our quantum-defect model for higher-order partial waves, a particularly important result for an accurate description of shape and Feshbach resonances at finite temperature. The theory is applied to the system composed of a 40Ca+ ion and a Na atom, and compared with numerical coupled-channel calculations carried out using ab initio potentials. For this particular system, we investigate the spectrum of bound states, the rate of charge-transfer processes and the collision rates in the presence of magnetic Feshbach resonances at zero and finite temperature.
Universal diffraction of atoms and molecules from a quantum reflection grating.
Zhao, Bum Suk; Zhang, Weiqing; Schöllkopf, Wieland
2016-03-01
Since de Broglie's work on the wave nature of particles, various optical phenomena have been observed with matter waves of atoms and molecules. However, the analogy between classical and atom/molecule optics is not exact because of different dispersion relations. In addition, according to de Broglie's formula, different combinations of particle mass and velocity can give the same de Broglie wavelength. As a result, even for identical wavelengths, different molecular properties such as electric polarizabilities, Casimir-Polder forces, and dissociation energies modify (and potentially suppress) the resulting matter-wave optical phenomena such as diffraction intensities or interference effects. We report on the universal behavior observed in matter-wave diffraction of He atoms and He2 and D2 molecules from a ruled grating. Clear evidence for emerging beam resonances is observed in the diffraction patterns, which are quantitatively the same for all three particles and only depend on the de Broglie wavelength. A model, combining secondary scattering and quantum reflection, permits us to trace the observed universal behavior back to the peculiar principles of quantum reflection. PMID:27034979
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Siping; Li, Jiahua; Yu, Rong; Wu, Ying
2013-06-01
Based on the quantum Zeno effect [B. Misra and E. C. G. Sudarshan, J. Math. Phys.JMAPAQ0022-248810.1063/1.523304 18, 756 (1977)], we propose a scheme to achieve three-dimensional (3D) entanglement between two distant five-level atoms. In our scheme, the two atoms are trapped individually in two spatially-separated double-mode cavities connected by an optical fiber. It is found that the effective quantum Zeno dynamics of the composite cavity-fiber-cavity coupled system gives rise to the deterministic creation of the 3D entangled state with high fidelity. Moreover, only one step operation is required to complete the generation of the 3D entangled state. The numerical simulations clearly show that the proposed scheme is robust against the deviation of the system parameters and insensitive to various decoherence factors, including atomic spontaneous emissions, cavity decays and fiber photon leakages. We justify our scheme by considering the experimental feasibility within the currently available technology.
Atomic-Scale Nuclear Spin Imaging Using Quantum-Assisted Sensors in Diamond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ajoy, A.; Bissbort, U.; Lukin, M. D.; Walsworth, R. L.; Cappellaro, P.
2015-01-01
Nuclear spin imaging at the atomic level is essential for the understanding of fundamental biological phenomena and for applications such as drug discovery. The advent of novel nanoscale sensors promises to achieve the long-standing goal of single-protein, high spatial-resolution structure determination under ambient conditions. In particular, quantum sensors based on the spin-dependent photoluminescence of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond have recently been used to detect nanoscale ensembles of external nuclear spins. While NV sensitivity is approaching single-spin levels, extracting relevant information from a very complex structure is a further challenge since it requires not only the ability to sense the magnetic field of an isolated nuclear spin but also to achieve atomic-scale spatial resolution. Here, we propose a method that, by exploiting the coupling of the NV center to an intrinsic quantum memory associated with the nitrogen nuclear spin, can reach a tenfold improvement in spatial resolution, down to atomic scales. The spatial resolution enhancement is achieved through coherent control of the sensor spin, which creates a dynamic frequency filter selecting only a few nuclear spins at a time. We propose and analyze a protocol that would allow not only sensing individual spins in a complex biomolecule, but also unraveling couplings among them, thus elucidating local characteristics of the molecule structure.
Performance of the density matrix functional theory in the quantum theory of atoms in molecules.
García-Revilla, Marco; Francisco, E; Costales, A; Martín Pendás, A
2012-02-01
The generalization to arbitrary molecular geometries of the energetic partitioning provided by the atomic virial theorem of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) leads to an exact and chemically intuitive energy partitioning scheme, the interacting quantum atoms (IQA) approach, that depends on the availability of second-order reduced density matrices (2-RDMs). This work explores the performance of this approach in particular and of the QTAIM in general with approximate 2-RDMs obtained from the density matrix functional theory (DMFT), which rests on the natural expansion (natural orbitals and their corresponding occupation numbers) of the first-order reduced density matrix (1-RDM). A number of these functionals have been implemented in the promolden code and used to perform QTAIM and IQA analyses on several representative molecules and model chemical reactions. Total energies, covalent intra- and interbasin exchange-correlation interactions, as well as localization and delocalization indices have been determined with these functionals from 1-RDMs obtained at different levels of theory. Results are compared to the values computed from the exact 2-RDMs, whenever possible. PMID:21943031
Dynamics of the fully stripped ion-hydrogen atom charge exchange process in dense quantum plasmas
Zhang, Ling-yu; Wan, Jiang-feng; Zhao, Xiao-ying; Xiao, Guo-qing; Duan, Wen-shan; Qi, Xin; Yang, Lei
2014-09-15
The plasma screening effects of dense quantum plasmas on charge exchange processes of a fully stripped ion colliding with a hydrogen atom are studied by the classical trajectory Monte Carlo method. The inter-particle interactions are described by the exponential cosine-screened Coulomb potentials. It is found that in weak screening conditions, cross sections increase with the increase of the ionic charge Z. However, in strong screening conditions, the dependence of cross sections on the ionic charge is related to the incident particle energy. At high energies, cross sections show a linear increase with the increase of Z, whereas at low energies, cross sections for Z≥4 become approximately the same. The He{sup 2+} and C{sup 6+} impacting charge exchange cross sections in dense quantum plasmas are also compared with those in weakly coupled plasmas. The interactions are described by the static screened Coulomb potential. It is found that for both He{sup 2+} and C{sup 6+}, the oscillatory screening effects of dense quantum plasmas are almost negligible in weak screening conditions. However, in strong screening conditions, the oscillatory screening effects enhance the screening effects of dense quantum plasmas, and the enhancement becomes more and more significant with the increase of the screening parameter and the ionic charge.
Quantum Hall states of atomic Bose gases: Density profiles in single-layer and multilayer geometries
Cooper, N. R.; Lankvelt, F. J. M. van; Reijnders, J. W.; Schoutens, K.
2005-12-15
We describe the density profiles of confined atomic Bose gases in the high-rotation limit, in single-layer and multilayer geometries. We show that, in a local-density approximation, the density in a single layer shows a landscape of quantized steps due to the formation of incompressible liquids, which are analogous to fractional quantum Hall liquids for a two-dimensional electron gas in a strong magnetic field. In a multilayered setup we find different phases, depending on the strength of the interlayer tunneling t. We discuss the situation where a vortex lattice in the three-dimensional condensate (at large tunneling) undergoes quantum melting at a critical tunneling t{sub c{sub 1}}. For tunneling well below t{sub c{sub 1}} one expects weakly coupled or isolated layers, each exhibiting a landscape of quantum Hall liquids. After expansion, this gives a radial density distribution with characteristic features (cusps) that provide experimental signatures of the quantum Hall liquids.
Interaction-free measurements by quantum Zeno stabilization of ultracold atoms
Peise, J.; Lücke, B.; Pezzé, L.; Deuretzbacher, F.; Ertmer, W.; Arlt, J.; Smerzi, A.; Santos, L.; Klempt, C.
2015-01-01
Quantum mechanics predicts that our physical reality is influenced by events that can potentially happen but factually do not occur. Interaction-free measurements (IFMs) exploit this counterintuitive influence to detect the presence of an object without requiring any interaction with it. Here we propose and realize an IFM concept based on an unstable many-particle system. In our experiments, we employ an ultracold gas in an unstable spin configuration, which can undergo a rapid decay. The object—realized by a laser beam—prevents this decay because of the indirect quantum Zeno effect and thus, its presence can be detected without interacting with a single atom. Contrary to existing proposals, our IFM does not require single-particle sources and is only weakly affected by losses and decoherence. We demonstrate confidence levels of 90%, well beyond previous optical experiments. PMID:25869121
Quantum Storage of Orbital Angular Momentum Entanglement in an Atomic Ensemble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Shi, Shuai; Xiang, Guo-Yong; Wang, Xi-Shi; Jiang, Yun-Kun; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can
2015-02-01
Constructing a quantum memory for a photonic entanglement is vital for realizing quantum communication and network. Because of the inherent infinite dimension of orbital angular momentum (OAM), the photon's OAM has the potential for encoding a photon in a high-dimensional space, enabling the realization of high channel capacity communication. Photons entangled in orthogonal polarizations or optical paths had been stored in a different system, but there have been no reports on the storage of a photon pair entangled in OAM space. Here, we report the first experimental realization of storing an entangled OAM state through the Raman protocol in a cold atomic ensemble. We reconstruct the density matrix of an OAM entangled state with a fidelity of 90.3 % ±0.8 % and obtain the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality parameter S of 2.41 ±0.06 after a programed storage time. All results clearly show the preservation of entanglement during the storage.
Applications of Quantum Theory of Atomic and Molecular Scattering to Problems in Hypersonic Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malik, F. Bary
1995-01-01
The general status of a grant to investigate the applications of quantum theory in atomic and molecular scattering problems in hypersonic flow is summarized. Abstracts of five articles and eleven full-length articles published or submitted for publication are included as attachments. The following topics are addressed in these articles: fragmentation of heavy ions (HZE particles); parameterization of absorption cross sections; light ion transport; emission of light fragments as an indicator of equilibrated populations; quantum mechanical, optical model methods for calculating cross sections for particle fragmentation by hydrogen; evaluation of NUCFRG2, the semi-empirical nuclear fragmentation database; investigation of the single- and double-ionization of He by proton and anti-proton collisions; Bose-Einstein condensation of nuclei; and a liquid drop model in HZE particle fragmentation by hydrogen.
Quantum storage of orbital angular momentum entanglement in an atomic ensemble.
Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Shi, Shuai; Xiang, Guo-Yong; Wang, Xi-Shi; Jiang, Yun-Kun; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can
2015-02-01
Constructing a quantum memory for a photonic entanglement is vital for realizing quantum communication and network. Because of the inherent infinite dimension of orbital angular momentum (OAM), the photon's OAM has the potential for encoding a photon in a high-dimensional space, enabling the realization of high channel capacity communication. Photons entangled in orthogonal polarizations or optical paths had been stored in a different system, but there have been no reports on the storage of a photon pair entangled in OAM space. Here, we report the first experimental realization of storing an entangled OAM state through the Raman protocol in a cold atomic ensemble. We reconstruct the density matrix of an OAM entangled state with a fidelity of 90.3%±0.8% and obtain the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality parameter S of 2.41±0.06 after a programed storage time. All results clearly show the preservation of entanglement during the storage. PMID:25699427
Quantum Degenerate Mixtures of Alkali and Alkaline-Earth-Like Atoms
Hara, Hideaki; Takasu, Yosuke; Yamaoka, Yoshifumi; Doyle, John M.; Takahashi, Yoshiro
2011-05-20
We realize simultaneous quantum degeneracy in mixtures consisting of the alkali and alkaline-earth-like atoms Li and Yb. This is accomplished within an optical trap by sympathetic cooling of the fermionic isotope {sup 6}Li with evaporatively cooled bosonic {sup 174}Yb and, separately, fermionic {sup 173}Yb. Using cross-thermalization studies, we also measure the elastic s-wave scattering lengths of both Li-Yb combinations, |a{sub {sup 6}Li-{sup 174}Yb}|=1.0{+-}0.2 nm and |a{sub {sup 6}Li-{sup 173}Yb}|=0.9{+-}0.2 nm. The equality of these lengths is found to be consistent with mass-scaling analysis. The quantum degenerate mixtures of Li and Yb, as realized here, can be the basis for creation of ultracold molecules with electron spin degrees of freedom, studies of novel Efimov trimers, and impurity probes of superfluid systems.
Muhonen, J T; Laucht, A; Simmons, S; Dehollain, J P; Kalra, R; Hudson, F E; Freer, S; Itoh, K M; Jamieson, D N; McCallum, J C; Dzurak, A S; Morello, A
2015-04-22
Building upon the demonstration of coherent control and single-shot readout of the electron and nuclear spins of individual (31)P atoms in silicon, we present here a systematic experimental estimate of quantum gate fidelities using randomized benchmarking of 1-qubit gates in the Clifford group. We apply this analysis to the electron and the ionized (31)P nucleus of a single P donor in isotopically purified (28)Si. We find average gate fidelities of 99.95% for the electron and 99.99% for the nuclear spin. These values are above certain error correction thresholds and demonstrate the potential of donor-based quantum computing in silicon. By studying the influence of the shape and power of the control pulses, we find evidence that the present limitation to the gate fidelity is mostly related to the external hardware and not the intrinsic behaviour of the qubit. PMID:25783435
An ultra-high optical depth cold atomic ensemble for quantum memories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sparkes, B. M.; Bernu, J.; Hosseini, M.; Geng, J.; Glorieux, Q.; Altin, P. A.; Lam, P. K.; Robins, N. P.; Buchler, B. C.
2013-12-01
Quantum memories for light lie at the heart of long-distance provably-secure communication. Demand for a functioning quantum memory, with high efficiency and coherence times approaching a millisecond, is therefore at a premium. Here we report on work towards this goal, with the development of a 87Rb magneto-optical trap with a peak optical depth of 1000 for the D2 F = 2 → F' = 3 transition using spatial and temporal dark spots. With this purpose-built cold atomic ensemble we implemented the gradient echo memory (GEM) scheme on the D1 line. Our data shows a memory efficiency of 80 ± 2% and coherence times up to 195 μs.
Ferromagnetism of a Repulsive Atomic Fermi Gas in an Optical Lattice: A Quantum Monte Carlo Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pilati, Sebastiano; Zintchenko, Ilia; Troyer, Matthias
2015-05-01
We investigate the ferromagnetic behavior of a two-component repulsive Fermi gas under the influence of a periodic potential that describes the effect of a 3D optical lattice, using continuous-space quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We find that a shallow optical lattice below half-filling strongly favors the ferromagnetic instability compared to the homogeneous Fermi gas. Instead, in the regime of deep optical lattices and weak interactions, where the conventional description in terms of single-band tight-binding models is reliable, our results indicate that the paramagnetic state is stable, in agreement with previous quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the Hubbard model. Our findings shed light on the important role played by multi-band effects and by interaction-induced hopping in the physics of atomic gases trapped in optical lattices.
Classical-quantum correspondence for ionization in fast ion-atom collisions
Burgdoerfer, J. |; Reinhold, C.O.
1994-10-01
We analyze the interplay between classical and quantum dynamics in ionization of atoms by fast charged particles The convergence to the classical limit is studied as a function of the momentum transferred to the electron during the collision, the impact parameter. the energy and angle of the emitted electron, and the initial state of the target. One goal is to assess the validity of exact classical (CTMC) methods and approximate classical models such as the Thomson model. Applications to data for electron ejection at large angles are presented. The connection between collisional ionization by charged particles and ionization by half-cycle pulses is discussed.
Highly charged ions for atomic clocks, quantum information, and search for α variation.
Safronova, M S; Dzuba, V A; Flambaum, V V; Safronova, U I; Porsev, S G; Kozlov, M G
2014-07-18
We propose 10 highly charged ions as candidates for the development of next generation atomic clocks, quantum information, and search for α variation. They have long-lived metastable states with transition wavelengths to the ground state between 170-3000 nm, relatively simple electronic structure, stable isotopes, and high sensitivity to α variation (e.g., Sm(14+), Pr(10+), Sm(13+), Nd(10+)). We predict their properties crucial for the experimental exploration and highlight particularly attractive systems for these applications. PMID:25083627
Atomic layer epitaxy of II-VI quantum wells and superlattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faschinger, W.
1993-01-01
Atomic Layer Epitaxy (ALE) under ultra high vacuum conditions is a variation of MBE which makes use of a self-regulating growth process, leading to digital growth in steps of monolayers or even fractions of monolayers. We report on fundamental aspects of the ALE growth of tellurides and selenides, and give three examples on the physics of ALE-grown structures: (a) Phonon confinement in CdTe/ZnTe superlattices (b) "Spin Sheet" superlattices of cubic MnTe with CdTe and (c) Luminescence tuning in ultra-thin CdSe quantum wells embedded in ZnSe.
Quantum information: Jaynes and Shannon entropies in a two-electron entangled artificial atom
Amovilli, Claudio; March, Norman H.
2004-05-01
In the context of quantum information, both Shannon entropy and the different Jaynes entropy for a two-electron 'entangled artificial' atom proposed by Moshinsky are studied here. The Jaynes entropy in this model is shown to be intimately related to the correlation kinetic energy. A generalization of the customary Shannon entropy based on the electron density is then proposed in terms of the electron pair correlation function. Both definitions behave in a similar way to the Jaynes entropy when considered as a function of the strength of the model electron-electron interaction.
Spin-dependent Hubbard model and a quantum phase transition in cold atoms
Liu, W. Vincent; Wilczek, Frank; Zoller, Peter
2004-09-01
We describe an experimental protocol for introducing spin-dependent lattice structure in a cold atomic Fermi gas using lasers. It can be used to realize Hubbard models whose hopping parameters depend on spin and whose interaction strength can be controlled with an external magnetic field. We suggest that exotic superfluidities will arise in this framework. An especially interesting possibility is a class of states that support coexisting superfluid and normal components, even at zero temperature. The quantity of normal component varies with external parameters. We discuss some aspects of the quantum phase transition that arises at the point where it vanishes.
Quantum chemical calculation of the equilibrium structures of small metal atom clusters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kahn, L. R.
1981-01-01
The application of ab initio quantum mechanical approaches in the study of metal atom clusters requires simplifying techniques that do not compromise the reliability of the calculations. Various aspects of the implementation of the effective core potential (ECP) technique for the removal of the metal atom core electrons from the calculation were examined. The ECP molecular integral formulae were modified to bring out the shell characteristics as a first step towards fulfilling the increasing need to speed up the computation of the ECP integrals. Work on the relationships among the derivatives of the molecular integrals that extends some of the techniques pioneered by Komornicki for the calculation of the gradients of the electronic energy was completed and a formulation of the ECP approach that quite naturally unifies the various state-of-the-art "shape- and Hamiltonian-consistent" techniques was discovered.
Chen Goong; Ding Zhonghai; Perronnet, Alain; Zhang Zhigang
2008-06-15
Three-body problems in atomic and molecular quantum mechanics, comprising one electron-two nuclei and two electron-one nucleus, are studied from their Schroedinger-Born-Oppenheimer models. The following are main topics of interest in this paper: (1) review of foundational mathematical properties of the multiparticle Schroedinger operator, (2) visualization of H{sub 2}{sup +} (hydrogen molecular ion)-like and He (helium)-like molecular and atomic states, and (3) spectrum of He obtained by the large-dimension scaling limit. The authors begin with topic (1) for the tutorial purpose and devote topics (2) and (3) to new contributions of the analytical, numerical, and visualization nature. Relevant heuristics, graphics, proofs, and calculations are presented.
All-optical spin manipulation of a single manganese atom in a quantum dot.
Reiter, D E; Kuhn, T; Axt, V M
2009-05-01
For a CdTe quantum dot doped with a single Mn atom we analyze the dynamics of the Mn spin when the dot is excited by ultrashort laser pulses. Because of the exchange interaction with the Mn atom, electron and hole spins can flip and induce a change of the Mn spin. Including both heavy and light-hole excitons and using suitable pulse sequences, angular momentum can be transferred from the light to the Mn system while the exciton system returns to its ground state. We show that by a series of ultrashort laser pulses the Mn spin can be selectively driven into each of its six possible orientations on a picosecond timescale. By applying a magnetic field the total switching time and the required number of pulses can be strongly reduced. PMID:19518830
Ultrafast quantum nondemolition measurements based on a diamond-shaped artificial atom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diniz, I.; Dumur, E.; Buisson, O.; Auffèves, A.
2013-03-01
We propose a quantum nondemolition (QND) readout scheme for a superconducting artificial atom coupled to a resonator in a circuit QED architecture, for which we estimate a very high measurement fidelity without Purcell effect limitations. The device consists of two transmons coupled by a large inductance, giving rise to a diamond-shaped artificial atom with a logical qubit and an ancilla qubit interacting through a cross-Kerr-like term. The ancilla is strongly coupled to a transmission line resonator. Depending on the qubit state, the ancilla is resonantly or dispersively coupled to the resonator, leading to a large contrast in the transmitted microwave signal amplitude. This original method can be implemented with a state-of-the-art Josephson parametric amplifier, leading to QND measurements in a few tens of nanoseconds with fidelity as large as 99.9%.
Rodríguez, Juan I; Ayers, Paul W; Götz, Andreas W; Castillo-Alvarado, F L
2009-07-14
A new approach for computing the atom-in-molecule [quantum theory of atoms in molecule (QTAIM)] energies in Kohn-Sham density-functional theory is presented and tested by computing QTAIM energies for a set of representative molecules. In the new approach, the contribution for the correlation-kinetic energy (T(c)) is computed using the density-functional theory virial relation. Based on our calculations, it is shown that the conventional approach where atomic energies are computed using only the noninteracting part of the kinetic energy might be in error by hundreds of kJ/mol. PMID:19603962
Quantum double-exchange physics with ultracold atoms and synthetic gauge potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schachenmayer, Johannes; Isaev, Leonid; Rey, Ana Maria
We study an interplay between local spin exchange and Néel antiferromagnetism in a two-band optical lattice. The lowest narrow band is half-filled and implements the magnetic background, while a higher band contains mobile atoms. When the local spins are locked in a Néel state, the motion of itinerant atoms is hindered by exchange energy barriers and the system is a flat-band insulator. As we show, this picture breaks down when exchange interaction between local and mobile spins is comparable to an energy scale of the Néel state. In this regime, formation of singlets between local and itinerant spins gives rise to a metallic phase of mobile atoms dressed by the spin fluctuations. This state is characterized by coupled spin-charge excitations whose spin is transverse to the Néel vector. Our predictions can be realized with ultracold alkaline-earth fermionic atoms coupled to a laser-induced staggered magnetic field, which stabilizes the Néel order and controls the amount of quantum fluctuations of local spins. By tuning the strength of this laser coupling relative to the exchange interaction, one can either adiabatically drive the crossover between the flat-band insulator and correlated metal phases, or explore non-equilibrium spin-charge dynamics in quench experiments. This work was supported by the NSF (PIF-1211914 and PFC-1125844), AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI, NIST and ARO individual investigator awards.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopez-Bezanilla, Alejandro
2016-01-01
By means of a multiscale first-principles approach, a description of the local electronic structure of two-dimensional and narrow phosphorene sheets with various types of modifications is presented. First, a rational argument based on the geometry of the pristine and modified P network, and supported by the Wannier functions formalism, is introduced to describe a hybridization model of the P atomic orbitals. Ab initio calculations show that nonisoelectronic foreign atoms form quasibound states at varying energy levels and create different polarization states depending on the number of valence electrons between P and the doping atom. The quantum transport properties of modified phosphorene ribbons are further described with great accuracy. The distortions on the electronic bands induced by the external species lead to strong backscattering effects on the propagating charge carriers. Depending on the energy of the charge carrier and the type of doping, the conduction may range from the diffusive to the localized regime. Interstitial defects at vacant sites lead to homogeneous transport fingerprints across different types of doping atoms. We suggest that the relatively low values of charge mobility reported in experimental measurements may have their origin in the presence of defects.
The Strange World of Ultracold Atomic Collisions: A Cornucopia of Quantum Phenomena
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, Carl J.
1996-11-01
The phenomenal experimental success of laser cooling and atom trapping has has helped to reinvigorate the field of atomic physics and has spawned the field of ultracold atomic collisions. This talk presents an overview of ultracold atomic collisions with an emphasis on some of the remarkable quantum phenomena -- including the Wigner threshold law -- that are inherent in these collisions. Additionally, we discuss the importance of ultracold collisions in Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of weakly interacting atomic systems and their role in the development of an atom laser and atomic clocks. Ultracold atomic collisions can be loosely broken into two classes of problems, collisions of ground state atoms (including metastable atoms) and the collision of atoms in external electric fields. In this latter class is the field of photoassociation spectroscopy. Theoretical analysis of the photoassociation spectrum of the Na2 purely long-range 0^-g state has recently produced three remarkable results. The first two results include the currently most accurate determination of the Na(3P) lifetime and the observation of the predicted but previously unobserved effect of retardation in the interaction between two atoms(K. M. Jones, P. S. Julienne, P. D. Lett, W. D. Phillips, E. Tiesinga, and C. J. Williams, Europhys. Lett. 35), 85 (1996).. Finally, the scattering length for the collision of two Na(3S) atoms in their F=1, M_F=-1 hyperfine state was extracted from the intensities and widths of the 0^-g spectra(E. Tiesinga, C. J. Williams, P. S. Julienne, K. M. Jones, P. D. Lett, and W. D. Phillips, J. Res. Nat. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101) (1996, in press).. Similar types of results have also been obtained in Li_2, K_2, and Rb_2. Ground state scattering lengths are essential for both modeling the formation of a BEC and for understanding collisional loss processes in a BEC. Similar collisional processes are important in pressure shifts in atomic clocks. We use the value of the of the
Ye, Jinwu; Zhang, K.Y.; Li, Yan; Chen, Yan; Zhang, W.P.
2013-01-15
Ultracold atoms loaded on optical lattices can provide unprecedented experimental systems for the quantum simulations and manipulations of many quantum phases and quantum phase transitions between these phases. However, so far, how to detect these quantum phases and phase transitions effectively remains an outstanding challenge. In this paper, we will develop a systematic and unified theory of using the optical Bragg scattering, atomic Bragg scattering or cavity QED to detect the ground state and the excitation spectrum of many quantum phases of interacting bosons loaded in bipartite and frustrated optical lattices. The physically measurable quantities of the three experiments are the light scattering cross sections, the atom scattered clouds and the cavity leaking photons respectively. We show that the two photon Raman transition processes in the three detection methods not only couple to the density order parameter, but also the valence bond order parameter due to the hopping of the bosons on the lattice. This valence bond order coupling is very sensitive to any superfluid order or any valence bond (VB) order in the quantum phases to be probed. These quantum phases include not only the well-known superfluid and Mott insulating phases, but also other important phases such as various kinds of charge density waves (CDW), valence bond solids (VBS), and CDW-VBS phases with both CDW and VBS orders unique to frustrated lattices, and also various kinds of supersolids. We analyze respectively the experimental conditions of the three detection methods to probe these various quantum phases and their corresponding excitation spectra. We also address the effects of a finite temperature and a harmonic trap. We contrast the three scattering methods with recent in situ measurements inside a harmonic trap and argue that the two kinds of measurements are complementary to each other. The combination of both kinds of detection methods could be used to match the combination of
Atom-chip based quantum gravimetry for the precise determination of absolute local gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abend, S.
2015-12-01
We present a novel technique for the precise measurement of absolute local gravity based on cold atom interferometry. Atom interferometry utilizes the interference of matter waves interrogated by laser light to read out inertial forces. Today's generation of these devices typically operate with test mass samples, that consists of ensembles of laser cooled atoms. Their performance is limited by the velocity spread and finite-size of the test masses that impose systematic uncertainties at the level of a few μGal. Rather than laser cooled atoms we employ quantum degenerate ensembles, so called Bose-Einstein condensates, as ultra-sensitive probes for gravity. These sources offer unique properties in temperature as well as in ensemble size that will allow to overcome the current limitations with the next generation of sensors. Furthermore, atom-chip technologies offer the possibility to generate Bose-Einstein condensates in a fast and reliable way. We show a lab-based prototype that uses the atom-chip itself to retro-reflect the interrogation laser and thus serving as inertial reference inside the vacuum. With this setup it is possible to demonstrate all necessary steps to measure gravity, including the preparation of the source, spanning an interferometer as well as the detection of the output signal, within an area of 1 cm3 right below the atom-chip and to analyze relevant systematic effects. In the framework of the center of excellence geoQ a next generation device is under construction at the Institut für Quantenoptik, that will allow for in-field measurements. This device will feature a state-of-the-art atom-chip source with a high-flux of ultra-cold atoms at a repetition rate of 1-2 Hz. In cooperation with the Müller group at the Institut für Erdmessung the sensor will be characterized in the laboratory first, to be ultimately employed in campaigns to measure the Fennoscandian uplift at the level of 1 μGal. The presented work is part of the center of
Quantum simulation of a topological Mott insulator with Rydberg atoms in a Lieb lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dauphin, A.; Müller, M.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.
2016-04-01
We propose a realistic scheme to quantum simulate the so-far experimentally unobserved topological Mott insulator phase—an interaction-driven topological insulator—using cold atoms in an optical Lieb lattice. To this end, we study a system of spinless fermions in a Lieb lattice, exhibiting repulsive nearest- and next-to-nearest-neighbor interactions and derive the associated zero-temperature phase diagram within mean-field approximation. In particular, we analyze how the interactions can dynamically generate a charge density wave ordered, a nematic, and a topologically nontrivial quantum anomalous Hall phase. We characterize the topology of the different phases by the Chern number and discuss the possibility of phase coexistence. Based on the identified phases, we propose a realistic implementation of this model using cold Rydberg-dressed atoms in an optical lattice. The scheme, which allows one to access, in particular, the topological Mott insulator phase, robustly and independently of its exact position in parameter space, merely requires global, always-on off-resonant laser coupling to Rydberg states and is feasible with state-of-the-art experimental techniques that have already been demonstrated in the laboratory.
High teleportation rates using cold-atom-ensemble-based quantum repeaters with Rydberg blockade
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solmeyer, Neal; Li, Xiao; Quraishi, Qudsia
2016-04-01
We present a simplified version of a repeater protocol in a cold neutral-atom ensemble with Rydberg excitations optimized for two-node entanglement generation and describe a protocol for quantum teleportation. Our proposal draws from previous proposals [B. Zhao et al., Phys. Rev. A 81, 052329 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.052329; Y. Han et al., Phys. Rev. A 81, 052311 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.052311] that described efficient and robust protocols for long-distance entanglement with many nodes. Using realistic experimental values, we predict an entanglement generation rate of ˜25 Hz and a teleportation rate of ˜5 Hz . Our predicted rates match the current state-of-the-art experiments for entanglement generation and teleportation between quantum memories. With improved efficiencies we predict entanglement generation and teleportation rates of ˜7.8 and ˜3.6 kHz, respectively, representing a two-order-of-magnitude improvement over the currently realized values. Cold-atom ensembles with Rydberg excitations are promising candidates for repeater nodes because collective effects in the ensemble can be used to deterministically generate a long-lived ground-state memory which may be efficiently mapped onto a directionally emitted single photon.
Quantum mechanical fragment methods based on partitioning atoms or partitioning coordinates.
Wang, Bo; Yang, Ke R; Xu, Xuefei; Isegawa, Miho; Leverentz, Hannah R; Truhlar, Donald G
2014-09-16
Conspectus The development of more efficient and more accurate ways to represent reactive potential energy surfaces is a requirement for extending the simulation of large systems to more complex systems, longer-time dynamical processes, and more complete statistical mechanical sampling. One way to treat large systems is by direct dynamics fragment methods. Another way is by fitting system-specific analytic potential energy functions with methods adapted to large systems. Here we consider both approaches. First we consider three fragment methods that allow a given monomer to appear in more than one fragment. The first two approaches are the electrostatically embedded many-body (EE-MB) expansion and the electrostatically embedded many-body expansion of the correlation energy (EE-MB-CE), which we have shown to yield quite accurate results even when one restricts the calculations to include only electrostatically embedded dimers. The third fragment method is the electrostatically embedded molecular tailoring approach (EE-MTA), which is more flexible than EE-MB and EE-MB-CE. We show that electrostatic embedding greatly improves the accuracy of these approaches compared with the original unembedded approaches. Quantum mechanical fragment methods share with combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) methods the need to treat a quantum mechanical fragment in the presence of the rest of the system, which is especially challenging for those parts of the rest of the system that are close to the boundary of the quantum mechanical fragment. This is a delicate matter even for fragments that are not covalently bonded to the rest of the system, but it becomes even more difficult when the boundary of the quantum mechanical fragment cuts a bond. We have developed a suite of methods for more realistically treating interactions across such boundaries. These methods include redistributing and balancing the external partial atomic charges and the use of tuned fluorine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xiao-Juan; Luo, An; Peng, Zhao-Hui; Zhou, Bing-Ju; Liu, Ming-Wei; Jia, Chun-Xia; Jiang, Chun-Lei
2016-07-01
We investigate quantum echo control and Bell state swapping for two atomic qubits (TAQs) coupling to two-mode vacuum cavity field (TMVCF) environment via two-photon resonance. We discuss the effect of initial entanglement factor 𝜃 and relative coupling strength R=g 1/g 2 on quantum state fidelity of TAQs, and analyze the relation between three kinds of quantum entanglement(C(ρ a ),C(ρ f ),S(ρ a )) and quantum state fidelity, then reveal physical essence of quantum echo of TAQs. It is shown that in the identical coupling case R=1, periodic quantum echo of TAQs with π cycle is always produced, and the value of fidelity can be controlled by choosing appropriate 𝜃 and atom-filed interaction time. In the non-identical coupling case R≠1, quantum echoes with periods of π, 2π and 4π can be formed respectively by adjusting R. The characteristics of quantum echo results from the non-Markovianity of TMVCF environment, and then we propose Bell state swapping scheme between TAQs and two-mode cavity field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Brien, J. L.; Schofield, S. R.; Simmons, M. Y.; Clark, Robert G.; Dzurak, Andrew S.; Curson, N. J.; Kane, Bruce E.; McAlpine, N. S.; Hawley, Marilyn E.; Brown, Geoffrey W.
2001-11-01
Quantum computers offer the promise of formidable computational power for certain tasks. Of the various possible physical implementations of such a device, silicon based architectures are attractive for their scalability and ease of integration with existing silicon technology. These designs use either the electron or nuclear spin state of single donor atoms to store quantum information. Here we describe a strategy to fabricate an array of single phosphorus atoms in silicon for the construction of such a silicon based quantum computer. We demonstrate the controlled placement of single phosphorus bearing molecules on a silicon surface. This has been achieved by patterning a hydrogen mono-layer resist with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip and exposing the patterned surface to phosphine (PH3) molecules. We also describe preliminary studies into a process to incorporate these surface phosphorus atoms into the silicon crystal at the array sites.
Nanofabrication for On-Chip Optical Levitation, Atom-Trapping, and Superconducting Quantum Circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Norte, Richard Alexander
a final value of Qm = 5.8(1.1) x 105, representing more than an order of magnitude improvement over the conventional limits of SiO2 for a pendulum geometry. Our technique may enable new opportunities for mechanical sensing and facilitate observations of quantum behavior in this class of mechanical systems. We then give a detailed overview of the techniques used to produce high-aspect-ratio nanostructures with applications in a wide range of quantum optics experiments. The ability to fabricate such nanodevices with high precision opens the door to a vast array of experiments which integrate macroscopic optical setups with lithographically engineered nanodevices. Coupled with atom-trapping experiments in the Kimble Lab, we use these techniques to realize a new waveguide chip designed to address ultra-cold atoms along lithographically patterned nanobeams which have large atom-photon coupling and near 4pi Steradian optical access for cooling and trapping atoms. We describe a fully integrated and scalable design where cold atoms are spatially overlapped with the nanostring cavities in order to observe a resonant optical depth of d0 ≈ 0.15. The nanodevice illuminates new possibilities for integrating atoms into photonic circuits and engineering quantum states of atoms and light on a microscopic scale. We then describe our work with superconducting microwave resonators coupled to a phononic cavity towards the goal of building an integrated device for quantum-limited microwave-to-optical wavelength conversion. We give an overview of our characterizations of several types of substrates for fabricating a low-loss high-frequency electromechanical system. We describe our electromechanical system fabricated on a SiN membrane which consists of a 12 GHz superconducting LC resonator coupled capacitively to the high frequency localized modes of a phononic nanobeam. Using our suspended membrane geometry we isolate our system from substrates with significant loss tangents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deb, Ram Narayan
2016-07-01
We quantify multiparticle quantum entanglement in a system of N two-level atoms interacting with a squeezed vacuum state of the electromagnetic field. We calculate the amount of quantum entanglement present among one hundred such two-level atoms and also show the variation of that entanglement with the radiation field parameter. We show the continuous variation of the amount of quantum entanglement as we continuously increase the number of atoms from N = 2 to N = 100. We also discuss that the multiparticle correlations among the N two-level atoms are made up of all possible bipartite correlations among the N atoms.
Oblak, Daniel; Tittel, Wolfgang; Vershovski, Anton K.; Mikkelsen, Jens K.; Soerensen, Jens L.; Petrov, Plamen G.; Garrido Alzar, Carlos L.; Polzik, Eugene S.
2005-04-01
We investigate theoretically and experimentally a nondestructive interferometric measurement of the state population of an ensemble of laser-cooled and trapped atoms. This study is a step toward generation of (pseudo)spin squeezing of cold atoms targeted at the improvement of the cesium clock performance beyond the limit set by the quantum projection noise of atoms. We calculate the phase shift and the quantum noise of a near-resonant optical probe pulse propagating through a cloud of cold {sup 133}Cs atoms. We analyze the figure of merit for a quantum nondemolition (QND) measurement of the collective pseudospin and show that it can be expressed simply as a product of the ensemble optical density and the pulse-integrated rate of the spontaneous emission caused by the off-resonant probe light. Based on this, we propose a protocol for the sequence of operations required to generate and utilize spin squeezing for the improved atomic clock performance via a QND measurement on the probe light. In the experimental part we demonstrate that the interferometric measurement of the atomic population can reach a sensitivity of the order of {radical}(N{sub at}) in a cloud of N{sub at} cold atoms, which is an important benchmark toward the experimental realization of the theoretically analyzed protocol.
Bouten, Luc; Stockton, John; Sarma, Gopal; Mabuchi, Hideo
2007-05-15
We propose a model, based on a quantum stochastic differential equation (QSDE), to describe the scattering of polarized laser light by an atomic gas. The gauge terms in the QSDE account for the direct scattering of the laser light into different field channels. Once the model has been set, we can rigorously derive quantum filtering equations for balanced polarimetry and homodyne detection experiments, study the statistics of output processes, and investigate a strong driving, weak coupling limit.
Davisson-Germer Prize Talk: Atomically Uniform Thin Films as Quantum Wells and Device Components
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiang, Tai C.
2015-03-01
Atomically uniform films can be made for various overlayer-substrate combinations (such as Ag, Pb, Sb, ...on Si, Ge, Fe, ...), many of which are not even lattice matched. These films show remarkable property variations as the film thickness is built up in atomic-layer increments. The thermal stability of the film, its work function, electron-phonon coupling, superconducting transition temperature, etc. exhibit damped and modulated oscillations as the film thickness increases toward the bulk limit. The underlying physics can be understood generally in terms of the energetics of a coarsened electronic structure of thin films and more specifically in terms of a ''one-dimensional shell effect'' - the quantized electronic levels in the film are progressively filled at increasing film thicknesses just like the elemental atomic shells in going through the periodic table. The phase and the amplitude of the oscillations can be tailored by surface/interface engineering that leads to changes in the surface potential and the interface Schottky barrier or band mismatch. These quantum size and confinement effects are important and observable at film thicknesses well in the realm of practical device dimensions and at room temperature, suggesting opportunities for applications. When the films are made of topologically nontrivial materials, the electron spin and its transport become relevant parameters. This talk will discuss issues related to uniform film growth, general trends in connection with reduced dimensions, surprising findings including phonon-mediated pseudogaps, and technology potential.
Concept of contact spectrum and its applications in atomic quantum Hall states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Mingyuan; Zhang, Shao-Liang; Chan, Hon-Ming; Zhou, Qi
A unique feature of ultracold atoms is the separation of length scales, r0 <
The Optical Properties of CdSe Quantum Dots by Using Spray-Atomization Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosmani, C. H.; Abdullah, S.; Rusop, M.
2013-06-01
Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) is inorganic material by using spray-atomization method which is the novelty to find out the optical properties for the CdSe QDs. The Selenium (Se) precursor and Cadmium (Cd) precursor were prepared first. Se precursor by using sodium sulfite aqueous was mixed with selenium (Se) powder. For Cd precursor was used cadmium chloride (CdCI) as the Cd precursor. From previous research, CdSe QDs was obtained by using capping agent such as tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and trioctylphosphine (TOP). These capping agent are hazardous to environment and human. By using spray-atomization method it is more safe and economically. The photoluminescence (PL) was used to investigate the optical properties and to investigate the energy band gap from PL result. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was used to know the surface morphology of CdSe QDs. By PL result, the energy band gap was calculate and the comparison was investigate between the size of particle and the energy band gap. This important in this paper is to investigate the optical properties of CdSe QDs by using sprays-atomization method and to relate with the particle size.
Regular and Chaotic Quantum Dynamics of Two-Level Atoms in a Selfconsistent Radiation Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Konkov, L. E.; Prants, S. V.
1996-01-01
Dynamics of two-level atoms interacting with their own radiation field in a single-mode high-quality resonator is considered. The dynamical system consists of two second-order differential equations, one for the atomic SU(2) dynamical-group parameter and another for the field strength. With the help of the maximal Lyapunov exponent for this set, we numerically investigate transitions from regularity to deterministic quantum chaos in such a simple model. Increasing the collective coupling constant b is identical with 8(pi)N(sub 0)(d(exp 2))/hw, we observed for initially unexcited atoms a usual sharp transition to chaos at b(sub c) approx. equal to 1. If we take the dimensionless individual Rabi frequency a = Omega/2w as a control parameter, then a sequence of order-to-chaos transitions has been observed starting with the critical value a(sub c) approx. equal to 0.25 at the same initial conditions.
Maximum likelihood versus likelihood-free quantum system identification in the atom maser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Catana, Catalin; Kypraios, Theodore; Guţă, Mădălin
2014-10-01
We consider the problem of estimating a dynamical parameter of a Markovian quantum open system (the atom maser), by performing continuous time measurements in the system's output (outgoing atoms). Two estimation methods are investigated and compared. Firstly, the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) takes into account the full measurement data and is asymptotically optimal in terms of its mean square error. Secondly, the ‘likelihood-free’ method of approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) produces an approximation of the posterior distribution for a given set of summary statistics, by sampling trajectories at different parameter values and comparing them with the measurement data via chosen statistics. Building on previous results which showed that atom counts are poor statistics for certain values of the Rabi angle, we apply MLE to the full measurement data and estimate its Fisher information. We then select several correlation statistics such as waiting times, distribution of successive identical detections, and use them as input of the ABC algorithm. The resulting posterior distribution follows closely the data likelihood, showing that the selected statistics capture ‘most’ statistical information about the Rabi angle.
Non-resonant elastic scattering of low-energy photons by atomic sodium confined in quantum plasmas
Ghosh, Avijit Ray, Debasis
2015-03-15
The non-resonant elastic scattering of low-energy photons by the bound valence electron in the ground state 3s of atomic sodium confined in quantum plasmas is investigated theoretically. The incident photon energy is assumed to be much smaller than the 3s-3p excitation energy. The alkali atom sodium is first formulated as an effective one-electron problem in which the attractive interaction between the valence electron and the atomic ion core is simulated by a spherically symmetric model potential. The Shukla-Eliasson oscillatory exponential cosine screened-Coulomb potential model is then used to mimic the effective two-body (valence-core) interaction within quantum plasmas. Non-relativistic calculations performed within the electric dipole approximation indicate that the non-resonant elastic photon scattering cross-section undergoes a dramatic growth by several orders of magnitude as the quantum wave number increases. A qualitative explanation of this phenomenon is presented. In the absence of the oscillatory cosine screening term, a similar growth is observed at larger values of the quantum wave number. Our computed relevant atomic data are in very good agreement with the experimental as well as the previous theoretical data for the zero-screening (free atom) case, and with the very limited, accurate theoretical results available for the case of exponential screened-Coulomb two-body interaction, without the cosine screening term.
Amaran, Saieswari; Kosloff, Ronnie; Tomza, Michał; Skomorowski, Wojciech; Pawłowski, Filip; Moszynski, Robert; Rybak, Leonid; Levin, Liat; Amitay, Zohar; Berglund, J. Martin; Reich, Daniel M.; Koch, Christiane P.
2013-10-28
Two-photon photoassociation of hot magnesium atoms by femtosecond laser pulses, creating electronically excited magnesium dimer molecules, is studied from first principles, combining ab initio quantum chemistry and molecular quantum dynamics. This theoretical framework allows for rationalizing the generation of molecular rovibrational coherence from thermally hot atoms [L. Rybak, S. Amaran, L. Levin, M. Tomza, R. Moszynski, R. Kosloff, C. P. Koch, and Z. Amitay, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 273001 (2011)]. Random phase thermal wavefunctions are employed to model the thermal ensemble of hot colliding atoms. Comparing two different choices of basis functions, random phase wavefunctions built from eigenstates are found to have the fastest convergence for the photoassociation yield. The interaction of the colliding atoms with a femtosecond laser pulse is modeled non-perturbatively to account for strong-field effects.
Kasamatsu, Kenichi; Ichinose, Ikuo; Matsui, Tetsuo
2013-09-13
Recently, the possibility of quantum simulation of dynamical gauge fields was pointed out by using a system of cold atoms trapped on each link in an optical lattice. However, to implement exact local gauge invariance, fine-tuning the interaction parameters among atoms is necessary. In the present Letter, we study the effect of violation of the U(1) local gauge invariance by relaxing the fine-tuning of the parameters and showing that a wide variety of cold atoms is still a faithful quantum simulator for a U(1) gauge-Higgs model containing a Higgs field sitting on sites. The clarification of the dynamics of this gauge-Higgs model sheds some light upon various unsolved problems, including the inflation process of the early Universe. We study the phase structure of this model by Monte Carlo simulation and also discuss the atomic characteristics of the Higgs phase in each simulator. PMID:24074102
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amaran, Saieswari; Kosloff, Ronnie; Tomza, Michał; Skomorowski, Wojciech; Pawłowski, Filip; Moszynski, Robert; Rybak, Leonid; Levin, Liat; Amitay, Zohar; Berglund, J. Martin; Reich, Daniel M.; Koch, Christiane P.
2013-10-01
Two-photon photoassociation of hot magnesium atoms by femtosecond laser pulses, creating electronically excited magnesium dimer molecules, is studied from first principles, combining ab initio quantum chemistry and molecular quantum dynamics. This theoretical framework allows for rationalizing the generation of molecular rovibrational coherence from thermally hot atoms [L. Rybak, S. Amaran, L. Levin, M. Tomza, R. Moszynski, R. Kosloff, C. P. Koch, and Z. Amitay, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 273001 (2011)]. Random phase thermal wavefunctions are employed to model the thermal ensemble of hot colliding atoms. Comparing two different choices of basis functions, random phase wavefunctions built from eigenstates are found to have the fastest convergence for the photoassociation yield. The interaction of the colliding atoms with a femtosecond laser pulse is modeled non-perturbatively to account for strong-field effects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xian-Peng; Shen, Li-Tuo; Yang, Zhen-Biao
2014-12-01
We propose a scheme to realize multi-atom entanglement and phase-covariant quantum cloning in a short-time manner possessing the advantage of its robustness with respect to parameter fluctuations. The process is achieved by externally driving the atoms to resonantly couple to the cavity mode. Compared to other strategies, such as the adiabatic or virtual-photon techniques, it provides a method which allows the relatively fast coherent manipulation.
Full quantum mechanical analysis of atomic three-grating Mach-Zehnder interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanz, A. S.; Davidović, M.; Božić, M.
2015-02-01
Atomic three-grating Mach-Zehnder interferometry constitutes an important tool to probe fundamental aspects of the quantum theory. There is, however, a remarkable gap in the literature between the oversimplified models and robust numerical simulations considered to describe the corresponding experiments. Consequently, the former usually lead to paradoxical scenarios, such as the wave-particle dual behavior of atoms, while the latter make difficult the data analysis in simple terms. Here these issues are tackled by means of a simple grating working model consisting of evenly-spaced Gaussian slits. As is shown, this model suffices to explore and explain such experiments both analytically and numerically, giving a good account of the full atomic journey inside the interferometer, and hence contributing to make less mystic the physics involved. More specifically, it provides a clear and unambiguous picture of the wavefront splitting that takes place inside the interferometer, illustrating how the momentum along each emerging diffraction order is well defined even though the wave function itself still displays a rather complex shape. To this end, the local transverse momentum is also introduced in this context as a reliable analytical tool. The splitting, apart from being a key issue to understand atomic Mach-Zehnder interferometry, also demonstrates at a fundamental level how wave and particle aspects are always present in the experiment, without incurring in any contradiction or interpretive paradox. On the other hand, at a practical level, the generality and versatility of the model and methodology presented, makes them suitable to attack analogous problems in a simple manner after a convenient tuning.
Attosecond-resolution quantum dynamics calculations for atoms and molecules in strong laser fields.
Lu, Rui-Feng; Zhang, Pei-Yu; Han, Ke-Li
2008-06-01
A parallel quantum electron and nuclei wave packet computer code, LZH-DICP, has been developed to study laser-atom-molecule interaction in the nonperturbative regime with attosecond resolution. The nonlinear phenomena occurring in that regime can be studied with the code in a rigorous way by numerically solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation of electrons and nuclei. Time propagation of the wave functions is performed using a split-operator approach, and based on a sine discrete variable representation. Photoelectron spectra for hydrogen and kinetic-energy spectra for molecular hydrogen ion in linearly polarized laser fields are calculated using a flux operator scheme, which testifies to the validity and the high efficiency of LZH-DICP. PMID:18643391
Quantum size effects in TiO2 thin films grown by atomic layer deposition
Das, Chittaranjan; Schmeisser, Dieter
2014-01-01
Summary We study the atomic layer deposition of TiO2 by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The Ti precursor, titanium isopropoxide, was used in combination with H2O on Si/SiO2 substrates that were heated at 200 °C. The low growth rate (0.15 Å/cycle) and the in situ characterization permitted to follow changes in the electronic structure of TiO2 in the sub-nanometer range, which are influenced by quantum size effects. The modified electronic properties may play an important role in charge carrier transport and separation, and increase the efficiency of energy conversion systems. PMID:24605275
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in atomic crystal layers from in-plane magnetization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Yafei; Zeng, Junjie; Deng, Xinzhou; Yang, Fei; Pan, Hui; Qiao, Zhenhua
2016-08-01
We theoretically demonstrate that with in-plane magnetization, the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) can be realized in two-dimensional atomic crystal layers with preserved inversion symmetry but broken out-of-plane mirror reflection symmetry. By taking the honeycomb lattice system as an example, we find that the low-buckled structure satisfying the symmetry criteria is crucial to induce QAHE. The topologically nontrivial bulk gap carrying a Chern number of C =±1 opens in the vicinity of the saddle points M , where the band dispersion exhibits strong anisotropy. We further show that the QAHE with electrically tunable Chern number can be achieved in Bernal-stacked multilayer systems, and the applied interlayer potential differences can dramatically decrease the critical magnetization to make the QAHE experimentally feasible.
Robustness of fractional quantum Hall states with dipolar atoms in artificial gauge fields
Grass, T.; Baranov, M. A.; Lewenstein, M.
2011-10-15
The robustness of fractional quantum Hall states is measured as the energy gap separating the Laughlin ground state from excitations. Using thermodynamic approximations for the correlation functions of the Laughlin state and the quasihole state, we evaluate the gap in a two-dimensional system of dipolar atoms exposed to an artificial gauge field. For Abelian fields, our results agree well with the results of exact diagonalization for small systems but indicate that the large value of the gap predicted [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 070404 (2005)] was overestimated. However, we are able to show that the small gap found in the Abelian scenario dramatically increases if we turn to non-Abelian fields squeezing the Landau levels.
Ferromagnetism of a repulsive atomic Fermi gas in an optical lattice: a quantum Monte Carlo study.
Pilati, S; Zintchenko, I; Troyer, M
2014-01-10
Using continuous-space quantum Monte Carlo methods, we investigate the zero-temperature ferromagnetic behavior of a two-component repulsive Fermi gas under the influence of periodic potentials that describe the effect of a simple-cubic optical lattice. Simulations are performed with balanced and with imbalanced components, including the case of a single impurity immersed in a polarized Fermi sea (repulsive polaron). For an intermediate density below half filling, we locate the transitions between the paramagnetic, and the partially and fully ferromagnetic phases. As the intensity of the optical lattice increases, the ferromagnetic instability takes place at weaker interactions, indicating a possible route to observe ferromagnetism in experiments performed with ultracold atoms. We compare our findings with previous predictions based on the standard computational method used in material science, namely density functional theory, and with results based on tight-binding models. PMID:24483906
Zheng, Hao; Xu, Su-Yang; Bian, Guang; Guo, Cheng; Chang, Guoqing; Sanchez, Daniel S; Belopolski, Ilya; Lee, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shin-Ming; Zhang, Xiao; Sankar, Raman; Alidoust, Nasser; Chang, Tay-Rong; Wu, Fan; Neupert, Titus; Chou, Fangcheng; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Yao, Nan; Bansil, Arun; Jia, Shuang; Lin, Hsin; Hasan, M Zahid
2016-01-26
Weyl semimetals may open a new era in condensed matter physics, materials science, and nanotechnology after graphene and topological insulators. We report the first atomic scale view of the surface states of a Weyl semimetal (NbP) using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy. We observe coherent quantum interference patterns that arise from the scattering of quasiparticles near point defects on the surface. The measurements reveal the surface electronic structure both below and above the chemical potential in both real and reciprocal spaces. Moreover, the interference maps uncover the scattering processes of NbP's exotic surface states. Through comparison between experimental data and theoretical calculations, we further discover that the orbital and/or spin texture of the surface bands may suppress certain scattering channels on NbP. These results provide a comprehensive understanding of electronic properties on Weyl semimetal surfaces. PMID:26743693
Confinement and Lattice Quantum-Electrodynamic Electric Flux Tubes Simulated with Ultracold Atoms
Zohar, Erez; Reznik, Benni
2011-12-30
We propose a method for simulating (2+1)D compact lattice quantum-electrodynamics, using ultracold atoms in optical lattices. In our model local Bose-Einstein condensates' (BECs) phases correspond to the electromagnetic vector potential, and the local number operators represent the conjugate electric field. The well-known gauge-invariant Kogut-Susskind Hamiltonian is obtained as an effective low-energy theory. The field is then coupled to external static charges. We show that in the strong coupling limit this gives rise to ''electric flux tubes'' and to confinement. This can be observed by measuring the local density deviations of the BECs, and is expected to hold even, to some extent, outside the perturbative calculable regime.
Generation of single photons with highly tunable wave shape from a cold atomic quantum memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinze, Georg; Farrera, Pau; Albrecht, Boris; de Riedmatten, Hugues; Ho, Melvyn; Chavez, Matias; Teo, Colin; Sangouard, Nicolas
2016-05-01
We report on a single photon source with highly tunable photon shape based on a cold ensemble of Rubidium atoms. We follow the DLCZ scheme to implement an emissive quantum memory, which can be operated as a photon pair source with controllable delay. We find that the temporal wave shape of the emitted read photon can be precisely controlled by changing the shape of the driving read pulse. We generate photons with temporal durations varying over three orders of magnitude up to 10 μs without a significant change of the read-out efficiency. We prove the non-classicality of the emitted photons by measuring their antibunching, showing near single photon behavior at low excitation probabilities. We also show that the photons are emitted in a pure state by measuring unconditional autocorrelation functions. Finally, to demonstrate the usability of the source for realistic applications, we create ultra-long single photons with a rising exponential or doubly peaked time-bin wave shape which are important for several quantum information tasks. ICREA-Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Barcelona, Spain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orlov, D. A.; Krantz, C.; Wolf, A.; Jaroshevich, A. S.; Kosolobov, S. N.; Scheibler, H. E.; Terekhov, A. S.
2009-09-01
Atomic hydrogen, produced by thermal dissociation of H2 molecules inside a hot tungsten capillary, is shown to be an efficient tool for multiple recleaning of degraded surfaces of high quantum efficiency transmission-mode GaAs photocathodes within an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) multichamber photoelectron gun. Ultraviolet quantum yield photoemission spectroscopy has been used to study the removal of surface pollutants and the degraded (Cs,O)-activation layer during the cleaning procedure. For photocathodes grown by the liquid-phase epitaxy technique, the quantum efficiency is found to be stable at about 20% over a large number of atomic hydrogen cleaning cycles. A slow degradation of the quantum efficiency is observed for photocathodes grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, although they reached a higher initial quantum efficiency of about 30%-35%. Study of the spatial distributions of photoluminescence intensity on these photocathodes proved that this overall degradation is likely due to insertion of a dislocation network into the mechanically strained photocathode heterostructures during multiple heating cycles and is not due to the atomic hydrogen treatment itself.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Savall-Alemany, Francisco; Domènech-Blanco, Josep Lluís; Guisasola, Jenaro; Martínez-Torregrosa, Joaquín
2016-01-01
Our study sets out to identify the difficulties that high school students, teachers, and university students encounter when trying to explain atomic spectra. To do so, we identify the key concepts that any quantum model for the emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation must include to account for the gas spectra and we then design two…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rao, Sandhya Kolla
2012-01-01
This dissertation aims to explore how students think about atomic absorption and emission of light in the area of introductory quantum chemistry. In particular, the impact of classical ideas of electron position and energy on student understanding of spectra is studied. The analysis was undertaken to discover how student learning can be…
Haine, S. A.; Ferris, A. J.
2011-10-15
We theoretically investigate a scheme for atom interferometry that surpasses the standard quantum limit. A four-wave mixing scheme similar to the recent experiment performed by Pertot et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 200402 (2010)] is used to generate subshotnoise correlations between two modes. These two modes are then interfered with the remaining two modes in such a way as to surpass the standard quantum limit, whilst utilizing all of the available atoms. Our scheme can be viewed as using two correlated interferometers. That is, the signal from each interferometer when looked at individually is classical, but there are correlations between the two interferometers that allow for the standard quantum limit to be surpassed.
Falaye, Babatunde James; Sun, Guo-Hua; Silva-Ortigoza, Ramón; Dong, Shi-Hai
2016-05-01
This study presents the confinement influences of Aharonov-Bohm (AB) flux and electric and magnetic fields directed along the z axis and encircled by quantum plasmas on the hydrogen atom. The all-inclusive effects result in a strongly attractive system while the localizations of quantum levels change and the eigenvalues decrease. We find that the combined effect of the fields is stronger than a solitary effect and consequently there is a substantial shift in the bound state energy of the system. We also find that to perpetuate a low-energy medium for the hydrogen atom in quantum plasmas, a strong electric field and weak magnetic field are required, whereas the AB flux field can be used as a regulator. The application of the perturbation technique utilized in this paper is not restricted to plasma physics; it can also be applied in molecular physics. PMID:27300989
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, YiMin; Liu, RongWan
2014-12-01
A potentially practical scheme is proposed to realize optical quantum simulation of artificial Abelian gauge field in a scalable architecture consisting of cold atomic ensembles with optical cavities. In the present model, the collective excitations of cold atomic ensembles can be converted to the bosonic modes within the low-excitation limit, where the structure of two-dimension (2D) square plaquette enables the polaritons to move like a charged particle subjected to an external magnetic field. We find that the energy spectrum of this hybrid system exhibits a shape of Hofstadter buttery. Our work provides a different perspective to the quantum simulation of condensed matter and many-body physics in the context of cavity quantum electrodynamics. The experimental feasibility are justified using the existing techniques.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falaye, Babatunde James; Sun, Guo-Hua; Silva-Ortigoza, Ramón; Dong, Shi-Hai
2016-05-01
This study presents the confinement influences of Aharonov-Bohm (AB) flux and electric and magnetic fields directed along the z axis and encircled by quantum plasmas on the hydrogen atom. The all-inclusive effects result in a strongly attractive system while the localizations of quantum levels change and the eigenvalues decrease. We find that the combined effect of the fields is stronger than a solitary effect and consequently there is a substantial shift in the bound state energy of the system. We also find that to perpetuate a low-energy medium for the hydrogen atom in quantum plasmas, a strong electric field and weak magnetic field are required, whereas the AB flux field can be used as a regulator. The application of the perturbation technique utilized in this paper is not restricted to plasma physics; it can also be applied in molecular physics.
A New One-dimensional Quantum Material - Ta2Pd3Se8 Atomic Chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xue; Liu, Jinyu; Hu, Jin; Yue, Chunlei; Mao, Zhiqiang; Wei, Jiang; Antipina, Liubov; Sorokin, Pavel; Sanchez, Ana
Since the discovery of carbon nanotube, there has been a persistent effort to search for other one dimensional (1D) quantum systems. However, only a few examples have been found. We report a new 1D example - semiconducting Ta2Pd3Se8. We demonstrate that the Ta2Pd3Se8 nanowire as thin as 1.3nm can be easily obtained by applying simple mechanical exfoliation from its bulk counterpart. High resolution TEM shows an intrinsic 1D chain-like crystalline morphology on these nano wires, indicating weak bonding between these atomic chains. Theoretical calculation shows a direct bandgap structure, which evolves from 0.53eV in the bulk to 1.04eV in single atomic chain. The field effect transistor based on Ta2Pd3Se8 nanowire achieved a promising performance with 104On/Off ratio and 80 cm2V-1s-1 mobility. Low temperature transport study reflects two different mechanisms, variable range hopping and thermal activation, which dominate the transport properties at different temperature regimes. Ta2Pd3Se8 nanowire provides an intrinsic 1D material system for the study low dimensional condensed matter physics.
Li, Dafang; Liu, Haitao; Zeng, Siliang; Wang, Cong; Wu, Zeqing; Zhang, Ping; Yan, Jun
2014-01-01
By performing quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations, we investigate the equation of states, electrical and optical properties of the expanded beryllium at densities two to one-hundred lower than the normal solid density, and temperatures ranging from 5000 to 30000 K. With decreasing the density of Be, the optical response evolves from the one characteristic of a simple metal to the one of an atomic fluid. By fitting the optical conductivity spectra with the Drude-Smith model, it is found that the conducting electrons become localized at lower densities. In addition, the negative derivative of the electrical resistivity on temperature at density about eight lower than the normal solid density demonstrates that the metal to nonmetal transition takes place in the expanded Be. To interpret this transition, the electronic density of states is analyzed systematically. Furthermore, a direct comparison of the Rosseland opacity obtained by using QMD and the standard opacity code demonstrates that QMD provides a powerful tool to validate plasma models used in atomic physics approaches in the warm dense matter regime. PMID:25081816
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McPhate, Jason; Anne, Joshi; Bacinski, John; Banks, Bruce; Cates, Carey; Christensen, Paul; Cruden, Brett; Dunham, Larry; Graham, Eric; Hughes, David; Kimble, Randy; Lupie, Olivia; Niedner, Malcolm; Osterman, Steven; Penton, Steven; Proffitt, Charles; Pugel, Diane; Siegmund, Oswald; Wheeler, Thomas
2011-09-01
The color dependence of the measured decline of the on-orbit sensitivity of the FUV channel of the HST Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (HST-COS) indicated the principal loss mechanism to be degradation of the cesium iodide (CsI) photocathode of the open-faced FUV detector. A possible cause of this degradation is contamination by atomic oxygen (AO), prompting an investigation of the interaction of AO with CsI. To address this question, opaque CsI photocathodes were deposited on stainless steel substrates employing the same deposition techniques and parameters used for the photocathodes of the HST-COS FUV detector. The as-deposited FUV quantum efficiency of these photocathodes was measured in the 117-174 nm range. Several of the photocathodes were exposed to varying levels of thermalized, atomic oxygen (AO) fluence (produced via an RF plasma). The post AO exposure QE's were measured and the degradation of sensitivity versus wavelength and AO fluence are presented.
Full quantum mechanical analysis of atomic three-grating Mach–Zehnder interferometry
Sanz, A.S.; Davidović, M.; Božić, M.
2015-02-15
Atomic three-grating Mach–Zehnder interferometry constitutes an important tool to probe fundamental aspects of the quantum theory. There is, however, a remarkable gap in the literature between the oversimplified models and robust numerical simulations considered to describe the corresponding experiments. Consequently, the former usually lead to paradoxical scenarios, such as the wave–particle dual behavior of atoms, while the latter make difficult the data analysis in simple terms. Here these issues are tackled by means of a simple grating working model consisting of evenly-spaced Gaussian slits. As is shown, this model suffices to explore and explain such experiments both analytically and numerically, giving a good account of the full atomic journey inside the interferometer, and hence contributing to make less mystic the physics involved. More specifically, it provides a clear and unambiguous picture of the wavefront splitting that takes place inside the interferometer, illustrating how the momentum along each emerging diffraction order is well defined even though the wave function itself still displays a rather complex shape. To this end, the local transverse momentum is also introduced in this context as a reliable analytical tool. The splitting, apart from being a key issue to understand atomic Mach–Zehnder interferometry, also demonstrates at a fundamental level how wave and particle aspects are always present in the experiment, without incurring in any contradiction or interpretive paradox. On the other hand, at a practical level, the generality and versatility of the model and methodology presented, makes them suitable to attack analogous problems in a simple manner after a convenient tuning. - Highlights: • A simple model is proposed to analyze experiments based on atomic Mach–Zehnder interferometry. • The model can be easily handled both analytically and computationally. • A theoretical analysis based on the combination of the position and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shan, Wu-Jiang; Xia, Yan; Chen, Ye-Hong; Song, Jie
2016-06-01
By jointly using quantum Zeno dynamics and the approach of "transitionless quantum driving (TQD)" proposed by Berry to construct shortcuts to adiabatic passage, we propose an efficient scheme to fast generate multiatom Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state in separate cavities connected by optical fibers only by one-step manipulation. We first detail the generation of the three-atom GHZ state via TQD; then, we compare the proposed TQD scheme with the traditional ones with adiabatic passage. At last, the influence of various decoherence factors, such as spontaneous emission, cavity decay and fiber photon leakage, is discussed by numerical simulations. All of the results show that the present TQD scheme is fast and insensitive to atomic spontaneous emission and fiber photon leakage. Furthermore, the scheme can be directly generalized to realize N-atom GHZ state generation by the same principle in theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shu, Jing; Liu, Zhong
2010-06-01
We propose a scheme to generate two-atom maximally entangled state in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). The scheme can be extended to generation of entangled multi-atom Dicke states if we control the interaction time of atoms with cavity modes. We use adiabatically state evolution under large atom-cavity detuning, so the scheme is insensitive to atomic spontaneous decay. The influence of cavity decay on fidelity and success probability is discussed.
Variational theory of average-atom and superconfigurations in quantum plasmas
Blenski, T.
2007-05-15
Models of screened ions in equilibrium plasmas with all quantum electrons are important in opacity and equation of state calculations. Although such models have to be derived from variational principles, up to now existing models have not been fully variational. In this paper a fully variational theory respecting virial theorem is proposed--all variables are variational except the parameters defining the equilibrium, i.e., the temperature T, the ion density n{sub i} and the atomic number Z. The theory is applied to the quasiclassical Thomas-Fermi (TF) atom, the quantum average atom (QAA), and the superconfigurations (SC) in plasmas. Both the self-consistent-field (SCF) equations for the electronic structure and the condition for the mean ionization Z* are found from minimization of a thermodynamic potential. This potential is constructed using the cluster expansion of the plasma free energy from which the zero and the first-order terms are retained. In the zero order the free energy per ion is that of the quantum homogeneous plasma of an unknown free-electron density n{sub 0}=Z*n{sub i} occupying the volume 1/n{sub i}. In the first order, ions submerged in this plasma are considered and local neutrality is assumed. These ions are considered in the infinite space without imposing the neutrality of the Wigner-Seitz (WS) cell. As in the Inferno model, a central cavity of a radius R is introduced, however, the value of R is unknown a priori. The charge density due to noncentral ions is zero inside the cavity and equals en{sub 0} outside. The first-order contribution to free energy per ion is the difference between the free energy of the system 'central ion+infinite plasma' and the free energy of the system 'infinite plasma'. An important part of the approach is an 'ionization model' (IM), which is a relation between the mean ionization charge Z* and the first-order structure variables. Both the IM and the local neutrality are respected in the minimization procedure
Variational theory of average-atom and superconfigurations in quantum plasmas.
Blenski, T; Cichocki, B
2007-05-01
Models of screened ions in equilibrium plasmas with all quantum electrons are important in opacity and equation of state calculations. Although such models have to be derived from variational principles, up to now existing models have not been fully variational. In this paper a fully variational theory respecting virial theorem is proposed-all variables are variational except the parameters defining the equilibrium, i.e., the temperature T, the ion density ni and the atomic number Z. The theory is applied to the quasiclassical Thomas-Fermi (TF) atom, the quantum average atom (QAA), and the superconfigurations (SC) in plasmas. Both the self-consistent-field (SCF) equations for the electronic structure and the condition for the mean ionization Z* are found from minimization of a thermodynamic potential. This potential is constructed using the cluster expansion of the plasma free energy from which the zero and the first-order terms are retained. In the zero order the free energy per ion is that of the quantum homogeneous plasma of an unknown free-electron density n0 = Z* ni occupying the volume 1/ni. In the first order, ions submerged in this plasma are considered and local neutrality is assumed. These ions are considered in the infinite space without imposing the neutrality of the Wigner-Seitz (WS) cell. As in the Inferno model, a central cavity of a radius R is introduced, however, the value of R is unknown a priori. The charge density due to noncentral ions is zero inside the cavity and equals en0 outside. The first-order contribution to free energy per ion is the difference between the free energy of the system "central ion+infinite plasma" and the free energy of the system "infinite plasma." An important part of the approach is an "ionization model" (IM), which is a relation between the mean ionization charge Z* and the first-order structure variables. Both the IM and the local neutrality are respected in the minimization procedure. The correct IM in the TF case
Probing quantum confinement at the atomic scale with optically detected nuclear magnetic resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kempf, James G.
2001-09-01
either donor-bound electrons or excitons indicate differences, where the bound-exciton model provides a significantly better fit to the data. The same spin physics enabled our measurement of the heterojunction interfacial field, which we find to be less than 1.3 kV/cm at the sites responsible for optical NMR. Other simulations show the promise of optical NMR as a tool in future studies aimed at atomic-level characterization of quantum-confined systems such as quantum dots and wells.
Regular and chaotic quantum dynamics in atom-diatom reactive collisions
Gevorkyan, A. S.; Nyman, G.
2008-05-15
A new microirreversible 3D theory of quantum multichannel scattering in the three-body system is developed. The quantum approach is constructed on the generating trajectory tubes which allow taking into account influence of classical nonintegrability of the dynamical quantum system. When the volume of classical chaos in phase space is larger than the quantum cell in the corresponding quantum system, quantum chaos is generated. The probability of quantum transitions is constructed for this case. The collinear collision of the Li + (FH) {sup {yields}}(LiF) + H system is used for numerical illustration of a system generating quantum (wave) chaos.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, J.; Meng, Y.; Park, D. H.; Dagenais, M.; Rolston, S. L.
2014-05-01
A centimeter long silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguide with inverse-tapered ends has been developed to address and trap many cold neutral atoms (87Rb) for studying collective atom-light interactions and a hybrid quantum system. Two-color evanescent trapping fields (750 nm and 1064 nm) of guided modes (TE0) can confine cold neutral atoms above the waveguide, and its inverse-tapered waveguide-end has been used for higher input coupling. For a hybrid quantum system which couples trapped cold neutral atoms to superconducting (SC) circuits through magnetic dipole coupling, we consider a novel SC protection layer because SC circuits are vulnerable to the scattered light from trapping fields. Therefore, we design several types of dielectric and lossy multi-wavelength Bragg layers to protect SC circuits from NIR scattered optical photons and from a broadband MIR blackbody radiation of the nanophotonic device, considering the maximal back-transmission of the SC circuits' electro-magnetic fields through the layer and the heat transfer to SC circuits through the protection layer from absorbed scattered photons. This work is supported by ARO MURI award W911NF0910406.
Glorieux, Quentin; Guidoni, Luca; Guibal, Samuel; Likforman, Jean-Pierre; Coudreau, Thomas
2011-11-15
We study the generation of intensity quantum correlations using four-wave mixing in a rubidium vapor. The absence of cavities in these experiments allows to deal with several spatial modes simultaneously. In the standard amplifying configuration, we measure relative intensity squeezing up to 9.2 dB below the standard quantum limit. We also theoretically identify and experimentally demonstrate an original regime where, despite no overall amplification, quantum correlations are generated. In this regime, a four-wave mixing setup can play the role of a photonic beam splitter with nonclassical properties, that is, a device that splits a coherent state input into two quantum-correlated beams.
Evers, Wiel H.; Schins, Juleon M.; Aerts, Michiel; Kulkarni, Aditya; Capiod, Pierre; Berthe, Maxime; Grandidier, Bruno; Delerue, Christophe; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; van Overbeek, Carlo; Peters, Joep L.; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniel; Siebbeles, Laurens D. A.
2015-01-01
Two-dimensional networks of quantum dots connected by atomic bonds have an electronic structure that is distinct from that of arrays of quantum dots coupled by ligand molecules. We prepared atomically coherent two-dimensional percolative networks of PbSe quantum dots connected via atomic bonds. Here, we show that photoexcitation leads to generation of free charges that eventually decay via trapping. The charge mobility probed with an AC electric field increases with frequency from 150±15 cm2 V−1 s−1 at 0.2 terahertz to 260±15 cm2 V−1 s−1 at 0.6 terahertz. Gated four-probe measurements yield a DC electron mobility of 13±2 cm2 V−1 s−1. The terahertz mobilities are much higher than for arrays of quantum dots coupled via surface ligands and are similar to the highest DC mobilities reported for PbSe nanowires. The terahertz mobility increases only slightly with temperature in the range of 15–290 K. The extent of straight segments in the two-dimensional percolative networks limits the mobility, rather than charge scattering by phonons. PMID:26400049
Sheu, Yae-lin; Hsu, Liang-Yan; Wu, Hau-tieng; Li, Peng-Cheng; Chu, Shih-I
2014-11-15
This study introduces a new adaptive time-frequency (TF) analysis technique, the synchrosqueezing transform (SST), to explore the dynamics of a laser-driven hydrogen atom at an ab initio level, upon which we have demonstrated its versatility as a new viable venue for further exploring quantum dynamics. For a signal composed of oscillatory components which can be characterized by instantaneous frequency, the SST enables rendering the decomposed signal based on the phase information inherited in the linear TF representation with mathematical support. Compared with the classical type of TF methods, the SST clearly depicts several intrinsic quantum dynamical processes such as selection rules, AC Stark effects, and high harmonic generation.
Effect of an atom on a quantum guided field in a weakly driven fiber-Bragg-grating cavity
Le Kien, Fam; Hakuta, K.
2010-02-15
We study the interaction of an atom with a quantum guided field in a weakly driven fiber-Bragg-grating (FBG) cavity. We present an effective Hamiltonian and derive the density-matrix equations for the combined atom-cavity system. We calculate the mean photon number, the second-order photon correlation function, and the atomic excited-state population. We show that due to the confinement of the guided cavity field in the fiber cross-section plane and in the space between the FBG mirrors, the presence of the atom in the FBG cavity can significantly affect the mean photon number and the photon statistics even though the cavity finesse is moderate, the cavity is long, and the probe field is weak.
Benallali, H. Hoummada, K.; Mangelinck, D.; Cremel, T.; André, R.; Tatarenko, S.; Kheng, K.
2014-08-04
Atom probe tomography and photoluminescence spectroscopy have been used to study Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}Se quantum dots embedded in a ZnSe layer grown on a (001) GaAs substrate. Atom probe tomography analyses show significant cadmium incorporation in the center of the dots surrounded by poor cadmium region. These measurements illustrate that the maximum cadmium concentration in the quantum dots is significantly higher than the concentration estimated by transmission electron microscopy. The composition and size of quantum dots obtained by atom probe tomography have been used to calculate the transition energies including excitonic and strain effects.
Quantum scattering calculations for ro-vibrational de-excitation of CO by hydrogen atoms
Song, Lei; Avoird, Ad van der; Karman, Tijs; Groenenboom, Gerrit C.; Balakrishnan, N.
2015-05-28
We present quantum-mechanical scattering calculations for ro-vibrational relaxation of carbon monoxide (CO) in collision with hydrogen atoms. Collisional cross sections of CO ro-vibrational transitions from v = 1, j = 0 − 30 to v′ = 0, j′ are calculated using the close coupling method for collision energies between 0.1 and 15 000 cm{sup −1} based on the three-dimensional potential energy surface of Song et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 7571 (2013)]. Cross sections of transitions from v = 1, j ≥ 3 to v′ = 0, j′ are reported for the first time at this level of theory. Also calculations by the more approximate coupled states and infinite order sudden (IOS) methods are performed in order to test the applicability of these methods to H–CO ro-vibrational inelastic scattering. Vibrational de-excitation rate coefficients of CO (v = 1) are presented for the temperature range from 100 K to 3000 K and are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data. All of these results and additional rate coefficients reported in a forthcoming paper are important for including the effects of H–CO collisions in astrophysical models.
The strength of actinide-element bonds from the quantum theory of atoms-in-molecules.
Huang, Qian-Rui; Kingham, Jennifer R; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas
2015-02-14
[AnX(3)](2)(μ-η(2):η(2)-N(2)) (An = Th-Pu; X = F, Cl, Br, Me, H, OPh) have been studied using relativistic density functional theory. Geometric and vibrational data suggest that metal→N(2) charge transfer maximises at the protactinium systems, which feature the longest N-N bonds and the smallest σ(N-N), as a result of partial population of the N-N π* orbitals. There is very strong correlation of the standard quantum theory of atoms-in-molecules (QTAIM) metrics - bond critical point ρ, ∇(2)ρ and H and delocalisation indices - with An-N and N-N bond lengths and σ(N-N), but the correlation with An-N interaction energies is very poor. A similar situation exists for the other systems studied; neutral and cationic actinide monoxide and dioxides, and AnL(3+) and AnL(3)(3+) (L = pyridine (Py), pyrazine (Pz) and triazine (Tz)) with the exception of some of the ∇(2)ρ data, for which moderate to good correlations with energy data are sometimes seen. By contrast, in almost all cases there is very strong correlation of interaction and bond energies with |ΔQ(QTAIM)(An)|, a simple QTAIM metric which measures the amount of charge transferred to or from the actinide on compound formation. PMID:25307773
Quantum scattering calculations for ro-vibrational de-excitation of CO by hydrogen atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Lei; Balakrishnan, N.; van der Avoird, Ad; Karman, Tijs; Groenenboom, Gerrit C.
2015-05-01
We present quantum-mechanical scattering calculations for ro-vibrational relaxation of carbon monoxide (CO) in collision with hydrogen atoms. Collisional cross sections of CO ro-vibrational transitions from v = 1, j = 0 - 30 to v' = 0, j' are calculated using the close coupling method for collision energies between 0.1 and 15 000 cm-1 based on the three-dimensional potential energy surface of Song et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 7571 (2013)]. Cross sections of transitions from v = 1, j ≥ 3 to v' = 0, j' are reported for the first time at this level of theory. Also calculations by the more approximate coupled states and infinite order sudden (IOS) methods are performed in order to test the applicability of these methods to H-CO ro-vibrational inelastic scattering. Vibrational de-excitation rate coefficients of CO (v = 1) are presented for the temperature range from 100 K to 3000 K and are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data. All of these results and additional rate coefficients reported in a forthcoming paper are important for including the effects of H-CO collisions in astrophysical models.
Savitzky, Benjamin H; Hovden, Robert; Whitham, Kevin; Yang, Jun; Wise, Frank; Hanrath, Tobias; Kourkoutis, Lena F
2016-09-14
Epitaxially connected superlattices of self-assembled colloidal quantum dots present a promising route toward exquisite control of electronic structure through precise hierarchical structuring across multiple length scales. Here, we uncover propagation of disorder as an essential feature in these systems, which intimately connects order at the atomic, superlattice, and grain scales. Accessing theoretically predicted exotic electronic states and highly tunable minibands will therefore require detailed understanding of the subtle interplay between local and long-range structure. To that end, we developed analytical methods to quantitatively characterize the propagating disorder in terms of a real paracrystal model and directly observe the dramatic impact of angstrom scale translational disorder on structural correlations at hundreds of nanometers. Using this framework, we discover improved order accompanies increasing sample thickness and identify the substantial effect of small fractions of missing epitaxial bonds on statistical disorder. These results have significant experimental and theoretical implications for the elusive goals of long-range carrier delocalization and true miniband formation. PMID:27540863
Study of Atoms and Molecules with Auxiliary-Field Quantum Monte Carlo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Purwanto, Wirawan; Suewattana, Malliga; Krakauer, Henry; Zhang, Shiwei; Walter, Eric J.
2006-03-01
We study the ground-state properties of second-row atoms and molecules using the phaseless auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo (AF QMC) method. This method projects the many-body ground state from a trial wave function by means of random walks in the Slater-determinant space. We use a single Slater-determinant trial wave function obtained from density-functional theory (DFT) or Hartree-Fock (HF) calculations. The calculations were done with a plane-wave basis and supercells with periodic boundary condition. We investigate the finite-size effects and the accuracy of pseudopotentials within DFT, HF, and AF QMC frameworks. Pseudopotentials generated from both LDA (OPIUM) and HF are employed. We find that the many-body QMC calculations show a greater sensitivity to the accuracy of the pseudopotentials. With reliable pseudopotentials, the ionization potentials and dissociation energies obtained using AF QMC are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. S. Zhang and H. Krakauer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 136401 (2003) http://opium.sourceforge.net I. Ovcharenko, A. Aspuru-Guzik, and W. A. Lester, J. Chem. Phys. 114, 7790 (2001)
Controlled polarization of two-dimensional quantum turbulence in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cidrim, A.; dos Santos, F. E. A.; Galantucci, L.; Bagnato, V. S.; Barenghi, C. F.
2016-03-01
We propose a scheme for generating two-dimensional turbulence in harmonically trapped atomic condensates with the novelty of controlling the polarization (net rotation) of the turbulence. Our scheme is based on an initial giant (multicharged) vortex which induces a large-scale circular flow. Two thin obstacles, created by blue-detuned laser beams, speed up the decay of the giant vortex into many singly quantized vortices of the same circulation; at the same time, vortex-antivortex pairs are created by the decaying circular flow past the obstacles. Rotation of the obstacles against the circular flow controls the relative proportion of positive and negative vortices, from the limit of strongly anisotropic turbulence (almost all vortices having the same sign) to that of isotropic turbulence (equal number of vortices and antivortices). Using this scheme, we numerically study the decay of two-dimensional quantum turbulence as a function of the polarization. Finally, we present a model for the decay rate of the vortex number which fits our numerical experiment curves, with the novelty of taking into account polarization time dependence.
Quantum Entangled Dark Solitons Formed by Ultracold Atoms in Optical Lattices
Mishmash, R. V.; Carr, L. D.
2009-10-02
Inspired by experiments on Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices, we study the quantum evolution of dark soliton initial conditions in the context of the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian. An extensive set of quantum measures is utilized in our analysis, including von Neumann and generalized quantum entropies, quantum depletion, and the pair correlation function. We find that quantum effects cause the soliton to fill in. Moreover, soliton-soliton collisions become inelastic, in strong contrast to the predictions of mean-field theory. These features show that the lifetime and collision properties of dark solitons in optical lattices provide clear signals of quantum effects.
Cerkic, A.; Milosevic, D. B.
2006-03-15
Using the example of electron-atom scattering in a strong laser field, it is shown that the oscillatory structure of the scattered electron spectrum can be explained as a consequence of the interference of the real electron trajectories in terms of Feynman's path integral. While in previous work on quantum-orbit theory the complex solutions of the saddle-point equations were considered, we show here that for the electron-atom scattering with much simpler real solutions a satisfactory agreement with the strong-field-approximation results can be achieved. Real solutions are applicable both for the direct (low-energy) and the rescattering (high-energy) plateau in the scattered electron spectrum. In between the plateaus and beyond the rescattering cutoff good results can be obtained using the complex (quantum) solutions and the uniform approximation. The interference of real solutions is related to the recent attosecond double-slit experiment in time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savall-Alemany, Francisco; Domènech-Blanco, Josep Lluís; Guisasola, Jenaro; Martínez-Torregrosa, Joaquín
2016-06-01
Our study sets out to identify the difficulties that high school students, teachers, and university students encounter when trying to explain atomic spectra. To do so, we identify the key concepts that any quantum model for the emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation must include to account for the gas spectra and we then design two questionnaires, one for teachers and the other for students. By analyzing the responses, we conclude that (i) teachers lack a quantum model for the emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation capable of explaining the spectra, (ii) teachers and students share the same difficulties, and (iii) these difficulties concern the model of the atom, the model of radiation, and the model of the interaction between them.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minguzzi, A.; Succi, S.; Toschi, F.; Tosi, M. P.; Vignolo, P.
2004-06-01
The achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in ultra-cold vapours of alkali atoms has given enormous impulse to the study of dilute atomic gases in condensed quantum states inside magnetic traps and optical lattices. High-purity and easy optical access make them ideal candidates to investigate fundamental issues on interacting quantum systems. This review presents some theoretical issues which have been addressed in this area and the numerical techniques which have been developed and used to describe them, from mean-field models to classical and quantum simulations for equilibrium and dynamical properties. After an introductory overview on dilute quantum gases, both in the homogeneus state and under harmonic or periodic confinement, the article is organized in three main sections. The first concerns Bose-condensed gases at zero temperature, with main regard to the properties of the ground state in different confinements and to collective excitations and transport in the condensate. Bose-Einstein-condensed gases at finite temperature are addressed in the next section, the main emphasis being on equilibrium properties and phase transitions and on dynamical and transport properties associated with the presence of the thermal cloud. Finally, the last section is focused on theoretical and computational issues that have emerged from the efforts to drive gases of fermionic atoms and boson-fermion mixtures deep into the quantum degeneracy regime, with the aim of realizing novel superfluids from fermion pairing. The attention given in this article to methods beyond standard mean-field approaches should make it a useful reference point for future advances in these areas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loft, N. J. S.; Marchukov, O. V.; Petrosyan, D.; Zinner, N. T.
2016-04-01
We have developed an efficient computational method to treat long, one-dimensional systems of strongly interacting atoms forming self-assembled spin chains. Such systems can be used to realize many spin chain model Hamiltonians tunable by the external confining potential. As a concrete demonstration, we consider quantum state transfer in a Heisenberg spin chain and we show how to determine the confining potential in order to obtain nearly perfect state transfer.
Wang Dongsheng; Zheng Yujun
2011-01-15
In this work, the effects of quantum interference and spontaneously generated coherence (SGC) are theoretically analyzed in a four-level system of a {sup 87}Rb atom. For the effects of SGC, we find that a new kind of electromagnetically induced transparency channel can be induced due to destructive interference, and the nonlinear Kerr absorption can be coherently narrowed or eliminated under different strengths of the coupling and switching fields.
The emergence of Quantum Schools: Munich, Göttingen and Copenhagen as new centers of atomic theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eckert, M.
2001-01-01
The institutes of Arnold Sommerfeld in Munich, Niels Bohr in Copenhagen, and Max Born in Göttingen became the leading centers for the study of quantum theory in the first decades of the twentieth century. Although founded for a broader range of theoretical physics, the quantum became the major topic of research in Munich after the Bohr-Sommerfeld-model of the atom (1913-16). The heyday came in the 1920s, when Bohr's and Born's institutes started operation and became further attractive centers for ambitious theorists all over the world. The discovery of quantum mechanics (1925) should be regarded not only as the achievement of a few young geniuses (in particular Werner Heisenberg and Wolfgang Pauli) but also as the result of a collaborative effort emerging in the new social and intellectual environment of their teachers' schools in Munich, Göttingen and Copenhagen.
Quantum phase transition of a Bose gas in a lattice with a controlled number of atoms per site
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Xu
2005-05-01
We have studied the superfluid-Mott insulator quantum phase transition [1] of a gas of ^87Rb atoms in an optical lattice. We are able to prepare the gas with a controllable number of one, two, or three atoms per lattice site, as verified with photoassociation spectroscopy. We measure momentum distributions using standard time-of-flight imaging techniques. These are similar to those of ref. [1], and exhibit narrow peaks at moderate lattice strengths. We find that the width of these peaks increases for lattice heights greater than about 13 times the recoil energy [2], and we observe interesting differences in this behavior, depending on the number of atoms per site. The data suggest that the quantum phase transition occurs at higher lattice strength with larger site occupation. We acknowledge the support of this work by the R. A. Welch Foundation, The N. S. F., and the D.O.E. Quantum Optics Initiative. [1] Markus Greiner et al., Nature 415, 39 (2002). [2] Thilo St"oferle et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 130403 (2004).
Velocity-dependent quantum phase slips in 1D atomic superfluids.
Tanzi, Luca; Scaffidi Abbate, Simona; Cataldini, Federica; Gori, Lorenzo; Lucioni, Eleonora; Inguscio, Massimo; Modugno, Giovanni; D'Errico, Chiara
2016-01-01
Quantum phase slips are the primary excitations in one-dimensional superfluids and superconductors at low temperatures but their existence in ultracold quantum gases has not been demonstrated yet. We now study experimentally the nucleation rate of phase slips in one-dimensional superfluids realized with ultracold quantum gases, flowing along a periodic potential. We observe a crossover between a regime of temperature-dependent dissipation at small velocity and interaction and a second regime of velocity-dependent dissipation at larger velocity and interaction. This behavior is consistent with the predicted crossover from thermally-assisted quantum phase slips to purely quantum phase slips. PMID:27188334
Velocity-dependent quantum phase slips in 1D atomic superfluids
Tanzi, Luca; Scaffidi Abbate, Simona; Cataldini, Federica; Gori, Lorenzo; Lucioni, Eleonora; Inguscio, Massimo; Modugno, Giovanni; D’Errico, Chiara
2016-01-01
Quantum phase slips are the primary excitations in one-dimensional superfluids and superconductors at low temperatures but their existence in ultracold quantum gases has not been demonstrated yet. We now study experimentally the nucleation rate of phase slips in one-dimensional superfluids realized with ultracold quantum gases, flowing along a periodic potential. We observe a crossover between a regime of temperature-dependent dissipation at small velocity and interaction and a second regime of velocity-dependent dissipation at larger velocity and interaction. This behavior is consistent with the predicted crossover from thermally-assisted quantum phase slips to purely quantum phase slips. PMID:27188334
Precision localization of single atom via phase-dependent quantum coherence in three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhiping; Yu, Benli
2016-03-01
We present a new scheme for high-efficiency three-dimensional (3D) atom localization in a four-level atomic system via measuring the populations in two excited states. Owing to the space-dependent atom-field interaction, the position probability distribution of the atom passing through the standing waves can be directly determined by measuring the populations in two excited states. It is found that the phase-sensitive property of the atomic system reduces the uncertainty in the position measurement of the atom. In particular, the probability of finding the atom in 3D space can be almost 100% via properly varying the parameters of the system. Our scheme opens a promising way to achieve high-precision and high-efficiency 3D atom localization, which provides some potential applications in the atom nanolithography via 3D atom localization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Yan; Rui, Jun; Bao, Xiao-Hui; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-06-01
Motion-induced dephasing is a dominant decoherence mechanism for atom-gas quantum memories. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate a coherent manipulation technique which enables arbitrary engineering of the spin-wave momentum with neglectable noise. By zeroing the spin-wave momentum, motion-induced dephasing can be frozen completely. The experiment is carried out with laser-cooled atoms in a Duan-Lukin-Cirac-Zoller configuration. By applying the freezing pulses, memory lifetime gets extended significantly to the limit of atom cloud expansion and does not depend on the detection angle anymore. The observed high cross correlation above 20 proves that high-fidelity memory operation is well preserved after coherent manipulation.
Optical and Atomic Force Microscopy Characterization of PbI2 Quantum Dots
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mu, R.; Tung, Y. S.; Ueda, A.; Henderson, D. O.
1997-01-01
Lead iodide (PbI2) clusters were synthesized from the chemical reaction of NaI (or KI) with Pb(NO3)2 in H2O, D2O, CH3OH, and C3H7OH media. The observation of the absorption features above 350 nm with the help of integrating sphere accessory strongly suggests the quantum dot formation of PbI2 in solution. Spectral comparison between the synthesized PbI2 clusters in solution and PbI2 nanophase by impregnation of PbI2 in four different pore-sized porous silica indicates that the PbI2 cluster size in solution is less than 2.5 nm in lateral dimension. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements show that the PbL clusters deposited onto three different molecularly flat surfaces are single-layered. The measured height is 1.0 - 0.1 nm. The swollen layer thickness can be attributed to the intralayer contraction from the strong lateral interaction among PbI2 molecules, which is supported by ab initio calculation. Raman scattering measurement of LO and TO modes of PbI2 in bulk and in the confined state were also conducted in 50-150 cu cm region. The observed three bands at 74, %, 106 1/cm are assigned to TO2, LO2, and LO, mode, respectively. The relatively small red-shift in LO modes may be caused by the surface phonon polaritons of PbI2 nanophase in the porous silica.
Holguín-Gallego, Fernando José; Chávez-Calvillo, Rodrigo; García-Revilla, Marco; Francisco, Evelio; Pendás, Ángel Martín; Rocha-Rinza, Tomás
2016-07-15
The electronic energy partition established by the Interacting Quantum Atoms (IQA) approach is an important method of wavefunction analyses which has yielded valuable insights about different phenomena in physical chemistry. Most of the IQA applications have relied upon approximations, which do not include either dynamical correlation (DC) such as Hartree-Fock (HF) or external DC like CASSCF theory. Recently, DC was included in the IQA method by means of HF/Coupled-Cluster (CC) transition densities (Chávez-Calvillo et al., Comput. Theory Chem. 2015, 1053, 90). Despite the potential utility of this approach, it has a few drawbacks, for example, it is not consistent with the calculation of CC properties different from the total electronic energy. To improve this situation, we have implemented the IQA energy partition based on CC Lagrangian one- and two-electron orbital density matrices. The development presented in this article is tested and illustrated with the H2 , LiH, H2 O, H2 S, N2 , and CO molecules for which the IQA results obtained under the consideration of (i) the CC Lagrangian, (ii) HF/CC transition densities, and (iii) HF are critically analyzed and compared. Additionally, the effect of the DC in the different components of the electronic energy in the formation of the T-shaped (H2 )2 van der Waals cluster and the bimolecular nucleophilic substitution between F(-) and CH3 F is examined. We anticipate that the approach put forward in this article will provide new understandings on subjects in physical chemistry wherein DC plays a crucial role like molecular interactions along with chemical bonding and reactivity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27237084
Quantum Optical Lattices for Emergent Many-Body Phases of Ultracold Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caballero-Benitez, Santiago F.; Mekhov, Igor B.
2015-12-01
Confining ultracold gases in cavities creates a paradigm of quantum trapping potentials. We show that this allows us to bridge models with global collective and short-range interactions as novel quantum phases possess properties of both. Some phases appear solely due to quantum light-matter correlations. Because of a global, but spatially structured, interaction, the competition between quantum matter and light waves leads to multimode structures even in single-mode cavities, including delocalized dimers of matter-field coherences (bonds), beyond density orders as supersolids and density waves.
Maxwell, Peter; Pendás, Ángel Martín; Popelier, Paul L A
2016-08-01
An interaction between two atoms, bonded or non-bonded, consists of interatomic contributions: electrostatic energy, exchange energy and electronic correlation energy. Together with the intra-atomic energy of an atom, these contributions are the basic components of the Interacting Quantum Atom (IQA) energy decomposition scheme. Here, we investigate IQA's proper use in conjunction with an explicit implementation of the B3LYP functional. The recovery of the total molecular energy from the IQA components is emphasised, for the first time. A systematic study of three model systems of biological relevance, N-methylacetamide (NMA), the doubly capped tripeptide GlyGlyGly and an alloxan dimer, shows the stabilization effect of B3LYP on most of the interatomic exchange energies (V) compared to their Hartree-Fock values. Diagrams of exchange energies versus interatomic distance show the clustering of interactions, one cluster for each 1,n (n = 1 to 6 where the atoms are separated by n - 1 bonds). The positioning of some V values outside their expected cluster marks interesting interactions. PMID:26804126
Possible quantum phase manipulation of a two-leg ladder in mixed-dimensional fermionic cold atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Wen-Min; Irwin, Kyle; Tsai, Shan-Wen
2013-03-01
The recent realization of mixed-dimensional systems of cold atoms has attracted much attention from both experimentalists and theorists. In this article we investigate a two-species Fermi atom mixture: one species of atom exists in two hyperfine states and is confined to move in a two-leg ladder, interacting with an on-site interaction, and the other moves freely in a two-dimensional square lattice that contains the two-leg ladder. The two species of atoms interact via an on-site interaction on the ladder. In the limit of weak interspecies interactions, the two-dimensional gas can be integrated out, leading to an effective long-range mediated interaction in the ladder, generated by the on-site interspecies interaction. We show that the form of the mediated interaction can be controlled by the density of the two-dimensional gas and that it enhances the charge-density wave instability in the two-leg ladder after the renormalization-group transformation. Parametrizing the phase diagram with various experimentally controllable quantities, we discuss the possible tuning of the macroscopic quantum many-body phases of the two-leg ladder in this mixed-dimensional fermionic cold atom system.
Measuring Chern numbers in Atomic Gases: 2D and 4D Quantum Hall Physics in the Lab
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldman, Nathan
Optical-lattice experiments have recently succeeded in probing the geometry of 2D Bloch bands with cold neutral atoms. Beyond these local geometrical effects, which are captured by the Berry curvature, 2D Bloch bands may also display non-trivial topology, a global property captured by a topological invariant (e.g. the first Chern number). Such topological properties have dramatic consequences on the transport of non-interacting atoms, such as quantized responses whenever the bands are uniformly populated. In this talk, I will start with the first experimental demonstration of topological transport in a gas of neutral particles, which revealed the Chern number through a cold-atom analogue of quantum-Hall measurements. I will then describe how this Chern-number measurement could be extended in order to probe the topology of higher-dimensional systems. In particular, I will show how the second Chern number - an emblematic topological invariant associated with 4D Bloch bands - could be extracted from an atomic gas, using a 3D optical lattice extended by a synthetic dimension. Finally, I will describe a general scheme by which optical lattices of subwavelength spacing could be realized. This method leads to topological band structures with significantly enhanced energy scales, offering an interesting route towards the experimental realization of strongly-correlated topological states with cold atoms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdalla, M. Sebawe; Ahmed, M. M. A.; Khalil, E. M.; Obada, A. S.-F.
2016-01-01
We introduce the problem of three types of interaction between an N-level quantum system and a two-level atom where three coupling parameters are involved. The system can be deduced from the Heisenberg chain. The canonical transformation is used to remove two coupling parameters from the system and consequently it is reduced to atom-atom interaction. The wave function is calculated using the evolution operator and hence we have managed to obtain the expectation value of some dynamical operators. During our study of the atomic inversion we noted that the collapses period is shifted up when we take the effect of λ2 into consideration. While it is shifted up and down in the presence of λ3. The atomic angle plays a crucial role for controlling the degree of entanglement. For the variance squeezing we noted that the coupling parameter λ2 shows amounts of squeezing more than the case of λ3. Similar behavior is noted for the entropy squeezing.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Devries, P. L.; George, T. F.
1978-01-01
The problem of two atoms colliding in the presence of an intense radiation field, such as that of a laser, is investigated. The radiation field, which couples states of different electronic symmetry, is described by the number state representation while the electronic degrees of freedom (plus spin-orbit interaction) are discussed in terms of a diabatic representation. The total angular momentum of the field-free system and the angular momentum transferred by absorption (or emission) of a photon are explicitly considered in the derivation of the coupled scattering equations. A model calculation is discussed for the Xe + F collision system.
Omogo, Benard; Aldana, Jose F.; Heyes, Colin D.
2013-01-01
CdTe quantum dots have unique characteristics that are promising for applications in photoluminescence, photovoltaics or optoelectronics. However, wide variations of the reported quantum yields exist and the influence of ligand-surface interactions that are expected to control the excited state relaxation processes remains unknown. It is important to thoroughly understand the fundamental principles underlying these relaxation processes to tailor the QDs properties to their application. Here, we systematically investigate the roles of the surface atoms, ligand functional groups and solvent on the radiative and non-radiative relaxation rates. Combining a systematic synthetic approach with X-ray photoelectron, quantitative FT-IR and time-resolved visible spectroscopies, we find that CdTe QDs can be engineered with average radiative lifetimes ranging from nanoseconds up to microseconds. The non-radiative lifetimes are anticorrelated to the radiative lifetimes, although they show much less variation. The density, nature and orientation of the ligand functional groups and the dielectric constant of the solvent play major roles in determining charge carrier trapping and excitonic relaxation pathways. These results are used to propose a coupled dependence between hole-trapping on Te atoms and strong ligand coupling, primarily via Cd atoms, that can be used to engineer both the radiative and non-radiative lifetimes. PMID:23543893
Quantum chemistry and dynamics of the abstraction reaction of H atoms from formaldehyde
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siaï, A.; Oueslati, I.; Kerkeni, Boutheïna
2016-08-01
This work reports a reduced dimensionality rate constant calculation of the H-abstraction reaction from formaldehyde. Quantum scattering calculations are performed treating explicitly the bonds being broken and formed. Geometry optimisations and frequency calculations are done at the MP2/cc-pVTZ level while energies are calculated with the CCSD(T) method. An analytical potential energy surface was developed from a relatively small number of grid points. When compared to semi-classical approaches, the quantum scattering calculations show that quantum tunnelling yields large contributions at low temperatures. At 200 K, we note a difference of about 5 orders of magnitude between transition state theory (TST) and quantum rate constants. Our predicted results show that the quantum and the CVT/SCT rate constants are in reasonable agreement with the available experiment at high temperatures, but that the last one gives better agreement to experimental results at low temperatures.
Model of a realistic InP surface quantum dot extrapolated from atomic force microscopy results.
Barettin, Daniele; De Angelis, Roberta; Prosposito, Paolo; Auf der Maur, Matthias; Casalboni, Mauro; Pecchia, Alessandro
2014-05-16
We report on numerical simulations of a zincblende InP surface quantum dot (QD) on In₀.₄₈Ga₀.₅₂ buffer. Our model is strictly based on experimental structures, since we extrapolated a three-dimensional dot directly by atomic force microscopy results. Continuum electromechanical, [Formula: see text] bandstructure and optical calculations are presented for this realistic structure, together with benchmark calculations for a lens-shape QD with the same radius and height of the extrapolated dot. Interesting similarities and differences are shown by comparing the results obtained with the two different structures, leading to the conclusion that the use of a more realistic structure can provide significant improvements in the modeling of QDs fact, the remarkable splitting for the electron p-like levels of the extrapolated dot seems to prove that a realistic experimental structure can reproduce the right symmetry and a correct splitting usually given by atomistic calculations even within the multiband [Formula: see text] approach. Moreover, the energy levels and the symmetry of the holes are strongly dependent on the shape of the dot. In particular, as far as we know, their wave function symmetries do not seem to resemble to any results previously obtained with simulations of zincblende ideal structures, such as lenses or truncated pyramids. The magnitude of the oscillator strengths is also strongly dependent on the shape of the dot, showing a lower intensity for the extrapolated dot, especially for the transition between the electrons and holes ground state, as a result of a relevant reduction of the wave functions overlap. We also compare an experimental photoluminescence spectrum measured on an homogeneous sample containing about 60 dots with a numerical ensemble average derived from single dot calculations. The broader energy range of the numerical spectrum motivated us to perform further verifications, which have clarified some aspects of the experimental
Model of a realistic InP surface quantum dot extrapolated from atomic force microscopy results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barettin, Daniele; De Angelis, Roberta; Prosposito, Paolo; Auf der Maur, Matthias; Casalboni, Mauro; Pecchia, Alessandro
2014-05-01
We report on numerical simulations of a zincblende InP surface quantum dot (QD) on \\text{I}{{\\text{n}}_{0.48}}\\text{G}{{\\text{a}}_{0.52}}\\text{P} buffer. Our model is strictly based on experimental structures, since we extrapolated a three-dimensional dot directly by atomic force microscopy results. Continuum electromechanical, \\vec{k}\\;\\cdot \\;\\vec{p} bandstructure and optical calculations are presented for this realistic structure, together with benchmark calculations for a lens-shape QD with the same radius and height of the extrapolated dot. Interesting similarities and differences are shown by comparing the results obtained with the two different structures, leading to the conclusion that the use of a more realistic structure can provide significant improvements in the modeling of QDs fact, the remarkable splitting for the electron p-like levels of the extrapolated dot seems to prove that a realistic experimental structure can reproduce the right symmetry and a correct splitting usually given by atomistic calculations even within the multiband \\vec{k}\\;\\cdot \\;\\vec{p} approach. Moreover, the energy levels and the symmetry of the holes are strongly dependent on the shape of the dot. In particular, as far as we know, their wave function symmetries do not seem to resemble to any results previously obtained with simulations of zincblende ideal structures, such as lenses or truncated pyramids. The magnitude of the oscillator strengths is also strongly dependent on the shape of the dot, showing a lower intensity for the extrapolated dot, especially for the transition between the electrons and holes ground state, as a result of a relevant reduction of the wave functions overlap. We also compare an experimental photoluminescence spectrum measured on an homogeneous sample containing about 60 dots with a numerical ensemble average derived from single dot calculations. The broader energy range of the numerical spectrum motivated us to perform further
Friesner, Richard A.; Baik, Mu-Hyun; Gherman, Benjamin F.; Guallar, Victor; Wirstam, Maria E.; Murphy, Robert B.; Lippard, Stephen J.
2003-03-01
Over the past several years, rapid advances in computational hardware, quantum chemical methods, and mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) techniques have made it possible to model accurately the interaction of ligands with metal-containing proteins at an atomic level of detail. In this paper, we describe the application of our computational methodology, based on density functional (DFT) quantum chemical methods, to two diiron-containing proteins that interact with dioxygen: methane monooxygenase (MMO) and hemerythrin (Hr). Although the active sites are structurally related, the biological function differs substantially. MMO is an enzyme found in methanotrophic bacteria and hydroxylates aliphatic C-H bonds, whereas Hr is a carrier protein for dioxygen used by a number of marine invertebrates. Quantitative descriptions of the structures and energetics of key intermediates and transition states involved in the reaction with dioxygen are provided, allowing their mechanisms to be compared and contrasted in detail. An in-depth understanding of how the chemical identity of the first ligand coordination shell, structural features, electrostatic and van der Waals interactions of more distant shells control ligand binding and reactive chemistry is provided, affording a systematic analysis of how iron-containing proteins process dioxygen. Extensive contact with experiment is made in both systems, and a remarkable degree of accuracy and robustness of the calculations is obtained from both a qualitative and quantitative perspective.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chien, Chih-Chun; Di Ventra, Massimiliano; Zwolak, Michael
2014-08-01
We compare the Landauer, Kubo, and microcanonical [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16, 8025 (2005), 10.1088/0953-8984/16/45/024] approaches to quantum transport for the average current, the entanglement entropy, and the semiclassical full-counting statistics (FCS). Our focus is on the applicability of these approaches to isolated quantum systems such as ultracold atoms in engineered optical potentials. For two lattices connected by a junction, we find that the current and particle number fluctuations from the microcanonical approach compare well with the values predicted by the Landauer formalism and FCS assuming a binomial distribution. However, we demonstrate that well-defined reservoirs (i.e., particles in Fermi-Dirac distributions) are not present for a substantial duration of the quasi-steady state. Thus, on the one hand, the Landauer assumption of reservoirs and/or inelastic effects is not necessary for establishing a quasi-steady state. Maintaining such a state indefinitely requires an infinite system, and in this limit well-defined Fermi-Dirac distributions can occur. On the other hand, as we show, the existence of a finite speed of particle propagation preserves the quasi-steady state irrespective of the existence of well-defined reservoirs. This indicates that global observables in finite systems may be substantially different from those predicted by an uncritical application of the Landauer formalism, with its underlying thermodynamic limit. Therefore, the microcanonical formalism which is designed for closed, finite-size quantum systems seems more suitable for studying particle dynamics in ultracold atoms. Our results highlight both the connection and differences with more traditional approaches to calculating transport properties in condensed matter systems, and will help guide the way to their simulations in cold-atom systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliveira, A. B.; Bakke, K.
2016-08-01
A quantum description of a neutral particle (atom or molecule) with an induced electric dipole moment in a region with an effective magnetic field under the effects of rotation and a linear scalar potential is discussed. It is shown that analytical solutions to the Schrödinger equation can be achieved. Besides, it is shown that the degeneracy of the Landau-type levels is broken and there exists a restriction on the possible values of the cyclotron frequency associated with the Landau-type system.
Ip, Alexander H.; Labelle, André J.; Sargent, Edward H.
2013-12-23
Atomic layer deposition was used to encapsulate colloidal quantum dot solar cells. A nanolaminate layer consisting of alternating alumina and zirconia films provided a robust gas permeation barrier which prevented device performance degradation over a period of multiple weeks. Unencapsulated cells stored in ambient and nitrogen environments demonstrated significant performance losses over the same period. The encapsulated cell also exhibited stable performance under constant simulated solar illumination without filtration of harsh ultraviolet photons. This monolithically integrated thin film encapsulation method is promising for roll-to-roll processed high efficiency nanocrystal solar cells.
Lin Shiying; Guo Hua
2006-08-15
We describe the implementation of a quantum mechanical method to calculate state-to-state differential cross sections for atom-diatom reactive scattering processes. The key ingredient of this approach is the efficient and accurate propagation of a real scattering wave packet in the Chebyshev order domain, from which the S-matrix elements can be extracted. This approach is implemented with Open MP and applied to compute differential and integral cross sections for the direct H+H{sub 2} abstraction reaction and the more challenging N({sup 2}D)+H{sub 2} insertion reaction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Wenxi; Yang, Wen
2015-10-01
We consider theoretically a magnetic impurity spin driven by polarized electrons tunneling through a double-quantum-dot system. The spin-blockade effect and spin conservation in the system make the magnetic impurity sufficiently interact with each transferring electron. As a result, a single collected electron carries information about spin change of the magnetic impurity. The scheme may develop all-electrical manipulation of magnetic atoms by means of single electrons, which is significant for the implementation of scalable logical gates in information processing systems.
Tosi, Guilherme Mohiyaddin, Fahd A.; Morello, Andrea; Huebl, Hans
2014-08-15
Recent advances in silicon nanofabrication have allowed the manipulation of spin qubits that are extremely isolated from noise sources, being therefore the semiconductor equivalent of single atoms in vacuum. We investigate the possibility of directly coupling an electron spin qubit to a superconducting resonator magnetic vacuum field. By using resonators modified to increase the vacuum magnetic field at the qubit location, and isotopically purified {sup 28}Si substrates, it is possible to achieve coupling rates faster than the single spin dephasing. This opens up new avenues for circuit-quantum electrodynamics with spins, and provides a pathway for dispersive read-out of spin qubits via superconducting resonators.
Han, Yan; Wan, Jian-Guo; Ge, Gui-Xian; Song, Feng-Qi; Wang, Guang-Hou
2015-01-01
The quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) is predicted to be realized at high temperature in a honeycomb bilayer consisting of Au atoms and single-vacancy graphene (Au2-SVG) based on the first-principles calculations. We demonstrate that the ferromagnetic state in the Au2-SVG can be maintained up to 380 K. The combination of spatial inversion symmetry and the strong SOC introduced by the Au atoms causes a topologically nontrivial band gap as large as 36 meV and a QAHE state with Chern number C = −2. The analysis of the binding energy proved that the honeycomb bilayer is stable and feasible to be fabricated in experiment. The QAHEs in Ta2-SVG and other TM2-SVGs are also discussed. PMID:26574924
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Yan; Wan, Jian-Guo; Ge, Gui-Xian; Song, Feng-Qi; Wang, Guang-Hou
2015-11-01
The quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) is predicted to be realized at high temperature in a honeycomb bilayer consisting of Au atoms and single-vacancy graphene (Au2-SVG) based on the first-principles calculations. We demonstrate that the ferromagnetic state in the Au2-SVG can be maintained up to 380 K. The combination of spatial inversion symmetry and the strong SOC introduced by the Au atoms causes a topologically nontrivial band gap as large as 36 meV and a QAHE state with Chern number C = -2. The analysis of the binding energy proved that the honeycomb bilayer is stable and feasible to be fabricated in experiment. The QAHEs in Ta2-SVG and other TM2-SVGs are also discussed.
Signatures of Quantum-Tunneling Diffusion of Hydrogen Atoms on Water Ice at 10 K
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuwahata, K.; Hama, T.; Kouchi, A.; Watanabe, N.
2015-09-01
Reported here is the first observation of the tunneling surface diffusion of a hydrogen (H) atom on water ice. Photostimulated desorption and resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization methods were used to determine the diffusion rates at 10 K on amorphous solid water and polycrystalline ice. H-atom diffusion on polycrystalline ice was 2 orders of magnitude faster than that of deuterium atoms, indicating the occurrence of tunneling diffusion. Whether diffusion is by tunneling or thermal hopping also depends on the diffusion length of the atoms and the morphology of the surface. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of elementary physicochemical processes of hydrogen on cosmic ice dust.
Signatures of Quantum-Tunneling Diffusion of Hydrogen Atoms on Water Ice at 10 K.
Kuwahata, K; Hama, T; Kouchi, A; Watanabe, N
2015-09-25
Reported here is the first observation of the tunneling surface diffusion of a hydrogen (H) atom on water ice. Photostimulated desorption and resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization methods were used to determine the diffusion rates at 10 K on amorphous solid water and polycrystalline ice. H-atom diffusion on polycrystalline ice was 2 orders of magnitude faster than that of deuterium atoms, indicating the occurrence of tunneling diffusion. Whether diffusion is by tunneling or thermal hopping also depends on the diffusion length of the atoms and the morphology of the surface. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of elementary physicochemical processes of hydrogen on cosmic ice dust. PMID:26451552