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Sample records for multimodal em cirurgia

  1. Multimodal Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Arnold A.

    The multimodal therapy (MMT) approach provides a framework that facilitates systematic treatment selection in a broad-based, comprehensive and yet highly focused manner. It respects science, and data driven findings, and endeavors to use empirically supported methods when possible. Nevertheless, it recognizes that many issues still fall into the…

  2. Multimodality Neuromonitoring.

    PubMed

    Kirkman, Matthew A; Smith, Martin

    2016-09-01

    The monitoring of systemic and central nervous system physiology is central to the management of patients with neurologic disease in the perioperative and critical care settings. There exists a range of invasive and noninvasive and global and regional monitors of cerebral hemodynamics, oxygenation, metabolism, and electrophysiology that can be used to guide treatment decisions after acute brain injury. With mounting evidence that a single neuromonitor cannot comprehensively detect all instances of cerebral compromise, multimodal neuromonitoring allows an individualized approach to patient management based on monitored physiologic variables rather than a generic one-size-fits-all approach targeting predetermined and often empirical thresholds. PMID:27521195

  3. The Intersection of Multimodality and Critical Perspective: Multimodality as Subversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Shin-ying

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relevance of multimodality to critical media literacy. It is based on the understanding that communication is intrinsically multimodal and multimodal communication is inherently social and ideological. By analysing two English-language learners' multimodal ensembles, the study reports on how multimodality contributes to a…

  4. Multimodal Learning Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Multimodal learning clubs link principles of motivation and engagement with 21st century technological tools and texts to support content area learning. The author describes how a sixth grade health teacher and his class incorporated multimodal learning clubs into a unit of study on human body systems. The students worked collaboratively online…

  5. Multimode Directional Coupler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N. (Inventor); Wintucky, Edwin G. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A multimode directional coupler is provided. In some embodiments, the multimode directional coupler is configured to receive a primary signal and a secondary signal at a first port of a primary waveguide. The primary signal is configured to propagate through the primary waveguide and be outputted at a second port of the primary waveguide. The multimode directional coupler also includes a secondary waveguide configured to couple the secondary signal from the primary waveguide with no coupling of the primary signal into the secondary waveguide. The secondary signal is configured to propagate through the secondary waveguide and be outputted from a port of the secondary waveguide.

  6. Multimodal sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Kemény, Ferenc; Meier, Beat

    2016-02-01

    While sequence learning research models complex phenomena, previous studies have mostly focused on unimodal sequences. The goal of the current experiment is to put implicit sequence learning into a multimodal context: to test whether it can operate across different modalities. We used the Task Sequence Learning paradigm to test whether sequence learning varies across modalities, and whether participants are able to learn multimodal sequences. Our results show that implicit sequence learning is very similar regardless of the source modality. However, the presence of correlated task and response sequences was required for learning to take place. The experiment provides new evidence for implicit sequence learning of abstract conceptual representations. In general, the results suggest that correlated sequences are necessary for implicit sequence learning to occur. Moreover, they show that elements from different modalities can be automatically integrated into one unitary multimodal sequence.

  7. Generating Multimodal References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Krahmer, Emiel

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a new computational model for the generation of multimodal referring expressions (REs), based on observations in human communication. The algorithm is an extension of the graph-based algorithm proposed by Krahmer, van Erk, and Verleg (2003) and makes use of a so-called Flashlight Model for pointing. The Flashlight Model…

  8. Multimodal Information Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Oliviero; Zancanaro, Massimo; Strapparava, Carlo

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of information exploration and software design in computer-based educational systems focuses on the integration of hypermedia and natural language dialog. AlFRESCO is described, an interactive natural language-centered multimodal system that was developed for users interested in frescoes and paintings. (LRW)

  9. Multimode optical fiber

    DOEpatents

    Bigot-Astruc, Marianne; Molin, Denis; Sillard, Pierre

    2014-11-04

    A depressed graded-index multimode optical fiber includes a central core, an inner depressed cladding, a depressed trench, an outer depressed cladding, and an outer cladding. The central core has an alpha-index profile. The depressed claddings limit the impact of leaky modes on optical-fiber performance characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, core size, and/or numerical aperture).

  10. Multimodal Nonlinear Optical Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Shuhua; Slipchenko, Mikhail N.; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Because each nonlinear optical (NLO) imaging modality is sensitive to specific molecules or structures, multimodal NLO imaging capitalizes the potential of NLO microscopy for studies of complex biological tissues. The coupling of multiphoton fluorescence, second harmonic generation, and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) has allowed investigation of a broad range of biological questions concerning lipid metabolism, cancer development, cardiovascular disease, and skin biology. Moreover, recent research shows the great potential of using CARS microscope as a platform to develop more advanced NLO modalities such as electronic-resonance-enhanced four-wave mixing, stimulated Raman scattering, and pump-probe microscopy. This article reviews the various approaches developed for realization of multimodal NLO imaging as well as developments of new NLO modalities on a CARS microscope. Applications to various aspects of biological and biomedical research are discussed. PMID:24353747

  11. Multimodal eye recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III

    2010-04-01

    Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

  12. A multimodal parallel architecture: A cognitive framework for multimodal interactions.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Human communication is naturally multimodal, and substantial focus has examined the semantic correspondences in speech-gesture and text-image relationships. However, visual narratives, like those in comics, provide an interesting challenge to multimodal communication because the words and/or images can guide the overall meaning, and both modalities can appear in complicated "grammatical" sequences: sentences use a syntactic structure and sequential images use a narrative structure. These dual structures create complexity beyond those typically addressed by theories of multimodality where only a single form uses combinatorial structure, and also poses challenges for models of the linguistic system that focus on single modalities. This paper outlines a broad theoretical framework for multimodal interactions by expanding on Jackendoff's (2002) parallel architecture for language. Multimodal interactions are characterized in terms of their component cognitive structures: whether a particular modality (verbal, bodily, visual) is present, whether it uses a grammatical structure (syntax, narrative), and whether it "dominates" the semantics of the overall expression. Altogether, this approach integrates multimodal interactions into an existing framework of language and cognition, and characterizes interactions between varying complexity in the verbal, bodily, and graphic domains. The resulting theoretical model presents an expanded consideration of the boundaries of the "linguistic" system and its involvement in multimodal interactions, with a framework that can benefit research on corpus analyses, experimentation, and the educational benefits of multimodality.

  13. A multimodal parallel architecture: A cognitive framework for multimodal interactions.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Human communication is naturally multimodal, and substantial focus has examined the semantic correspondences in speech-gesture and text-image relationships. However, visual narratives, like those in comics, provide an interesting challenge to multimodal communication because the words and/or images can guide the overall meaning, and both modalities can appear in complicated "grammatical" sequences: sentences use a syntactic structure and sequential images use a narrative structure. These dual structures create complexity beyond those typically addressed by theories of multimodality where only a single form uses combinatorial structure, and also poses challenges for models of the linguistic system that focus on single modalities. This paper outlines a broad theoretical framework for multimodal interactions by expanding on Jackendoff's (2002) parallel architecture for language. Multimodal interactions are characterized in terms of their component cognitive structures: whether a particular modality (verbal, bodily, visual) is present, whether it uses a grammatical structure (syntax, narrative), and whether it "dominates" the semantics of the overall expression. Altogether, this approach integrates multimodal interactions into an existing framework of language and cognition, and characterizes interactions between varying complexity in the verbal, bodily, and graphic domains. The resulting theoretical model presents an expanded consideration of the boundaries of the "linguistic" system and its involvement in multimodal interactions, with a framework that can benefit research on corpus analyses, experimentation, and the educational benefits of multimodality. PMID:26491835

  14. Multimode Acoustic Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M.

    1985-01-01

    There is a need for high temperature containerless processing facilities that can efficiently position and manipulate molten samples in the reduced gravity environment of space. The goal of the research is to develop sophisticated high temperature manipulation capabilities such as selection of arbitrary axes rotation and rapid sample cooling. This program will investigate new classes of acoustic levitation in rectangular, cylindrical and spherical geometries. The program tasks include calculating theoretical expressions of the acoustic forces in these geometries for the excitation of up to three acoustic modes (multimodes). These calculations are used to: (1) determine those acoustic modes that produce stable levitation, (2) isolate the levitation and rotation capabilities to produce more than one axis of rotation, and (3) develop methods to translate samples down long tube cylindrical chambers. Experimental levitators will then be constructed to verify the stable levitation and rotation predictions of the models.

  15. [Multimodal iatrogenic apathy].

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Souza, R D; Figueiredo, W M

    1996-06-01

    The present paper reports on five patients who developed apathy as a peculiar side effect of antidepressants. Their behavioral and psychopathological changes were primarily due to the near-absence of emotional experience, a key characteristic that distinguishes apathy from avolition and abulia. The emergence of apathy in the course of an antidepressant treatment should raise the suspicion of an adverse effect of the drug and lead to its prompt withdrawal. A sample of the relevant clinical evidence favoring the distinction of apathy confined to a single sensory domain ("unimodal apathy") from apathy confined to more than one sensory realm ("multimodal apathy") is reviewed. From a pathophysiological standpoint, it would appear that neural nets centered in the amygdala-temporo polar cortex are critical for the integration of sensory perceptions and mental imagery with appropriate emotional tone and quality as well as with their accompanying somatic markers, as they receive afferents from the major projection systems of the prosencephalon and lie in nodes strategic to modify the ongoing activity of multiple parallel brain systems. The fact that one common symptom can be produced by such a heterogeneous family of substances points to a shared neurochemical mechanism of action. At present, discrete cerebral serotoninergic circuits would appear to be suitable candidates for such a role. Cases as these may be critical for the understanding of the cerebral organization of emotions in man, lending support to the notion that distinct neurochemical systems mediate discrete psychopathological symptoms.

  16. Multimodal Communication in Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    TAGLIALATELA, JARED P.; RUSSELL, JAMIE L.; POPE, SARAH M.; MORTON, TAMARA; BOGART, STEPHANIE; REAMER, LISA A.; SCHAPIRO, STEVEN J.; HOPKINS, WILLIAM D.

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental characteristic of human language is multimodality. In other words, humans use multiple signaling channels concurrently when communicating with one another. For example, people frequently produce manual gestures while speaking, and the words a person perceives are impacted by visual information. For this study, we hypothesized that similar to the way that humans regularly couple their spoken utterances with gestures and facial expressions, chimpanzees regularly produce vocalizations in conjunction with other communicative signals. To test this hypothesis, data were collected from 101 captive chimpanzees living in mixed-sex social groupings of seven to twelve individuals. A total of 2,869 vocal events were collected. The data indicate that approximately 50% of the vocal events were produced in conjunction with another communicative modality. In addition, approximately 68% were directed to a specific individual, and these directed vocalizations were more likely to include a signal from another communicative modality than were vocalizations that were not directed to a specific individual. These results suggest that, like humans, chimpanzees often pair their vocalizations with signals from other communicative modalities. In addition, chimpanzees appear to use their communicative signals strategically to meet specific socio-communicative ends, providing support for the growing literature that indicates that at least some chimpanzee vocal signaling is intentional. PMID:26212686

  17. Multimode Silicon Nanowire Transistors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The combined capabilities of both a nonplanar design and nonconventional carrier injection mechanisms are subject to recent scientific investigations to overcome the limitations of silicon metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors. In this Letter, we present a multimode field effect transistors device using silicon nanowires that feature an axial n-type/intrinsic doping junction. A heterostructural device design is achieved by employing a self-aligned nickel-silicide source contact. The polymorph operation of the dual-gate device enabling the configuration of one p- and two n-type transistor modes is demonstrated. Not only the type but also the carrier injection mode can be altered by appropriate biasing of the two gate terminals or by inverting the drain bias. With a combined band-to-band and Schottky tunneling mechanism, in p-type mode a subthreshold swing as low as 143 mV/dec and an ON/OFF ratio of up to 104 is found. As the device operates in forward bias, a nonconventional tunneling transistor is realized, enabling an effective suppression of ambipolarity. Depending on the drain bias, two different n-type modes are distinguishable. The carrier injection is dominated by thermionic emission in forward bias with a maximum ON/OFF ratio of up to 107 whereas in reverse bias a Schottky tunneling mechanism dominates the carrier transport. PMID:25303290

  18. Multimode silicon nanowire transistors.

    PubMed

    Glassner, Sebastian; Zeiner, Clemens; Periwal, Priyanka; Baron, Thierry; Bertagnolli, Emmerich; Lugstein, Alois

    2014-11-12

    The combined capabilities of both a nonplanar design and nonconventional carrier injection mechanisms are subject to recent scientific investigations to overcome the limitations of silicon metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors. In this Letter, we present a multimode field effect transistors device using silicon nanowires that feature an axial n-type/intrinsic doping junction. A heterostructural device design is achieved by employing a self-aligned nickel-silicide source contact. The polymorph operation of the dual-gate device enabling the configuration of one p- and two n-type transistor modes is demonstrated. Not only the type but also the carrier injection mode can be altered by appropriate biasing of the two gate terminals or by inverting the drain bias. With a combined band-to-band and Schottky tunneling mechanism, in p-type mode a subthreshold swing as low as 143 mV/dec and an ON/OFF ratio of up to 10(4) is found. As the device operates in forward bias, a nonconventional tunneling transistor is realized, enabling an effective suppression of ambipolarity. Depending on the drain bias, two different n-type modes are distinguishable. The carrier injection is dominated by thermionic emission in forward bias with a maximum ON/OFF ratio of up to 10(7) whereas in reverse bias a Schottky tunneling mechanism dominates the carrier transport. PMID:25303290

  19. Multimodal Friction Ignition Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Eddie; Howard, Bill; Herald, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The multimodal friction ignition tester (MFIT) is a testbed for experiments on the thermal and mechanical effects of friction on material specimens in pressurized, oxygen-rich atmospheres. In simplest terms, a test involves recording sensory data while rubbing two specimens against each other at a controlled normal force, with either a random stroke or a sinusoidal stroke having controlled amplitude and frequency. The term multimodal in the full name of the apparatus refers to a capability for imposing any combination of widely ranging values of the atmospheric pressure, atmospheric oxygen content, stroke length, stroke frequency, and normal force. The MFIT was designed especially for studying the tendency toward heating and combustion of nonmetallic composite materials and the fretting of metals subjected to dynamic (vibrational) friction forces in the presence of liquid oxygen or pressurized gaseous oxygen test conditions approximating conditions expected to be encountered in proposed composite material oxygen tanks aboard aircraft and spacecraft in flight. The MFIT includes a stainless-steel pressure vessel capable of retaining the required test atmosphere. Mounted atop the vessel is a pneumatic cylinder containing a piston for exerting the specified normal force between the two specimens. Through a shaft seal, the piston shaft extends downward into the vessel. One of the specimens is mounted on a block, denoted the pressure block, at the lower end of the piston shaft. This specimen is pressed down against the other specimen, which is mounted in a recess in another block, denoted the slip block, that can be moved horizontally but not vertically. The slip block is driven in reciprocating horizontal motion by an electrodynamic vibration exciter outside the pressure vessel. The armature of the electrodynamic exciter is connected to the slip block via a horizontal shaft that extends into the pressure vessel via a second shaft seal. The reciprocating horizontal

  20. Multimodal Neuroelectric Interface Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trejo, Leonard J.; Wheeler, Kevin R.; Jorgensen, Charles C.; Totah, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This project aims to improve performance of NASA missions by developing multimodal neuroelectric technologies for augmented human-system interaction. Neuroelectric technologies will add completely new modes of interaction that operate in parallel with keyboards, speech, or other manual controls, thereby increasing the bandwidth of human-system interaction. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of real-time electromyographic (EMG) pattern recognition for a direct neuroelectric human-computer interface. We recorded EMG signals from an elastic sleeve with dry electrodes, while a human subject performed a range of discrete gestures. A machine-teaming algorithm was trained to recognize the EMG patterns associated with the gestures and map them to control signals. Successful applications now include piloting two Class 4 aircraft simulations (F-15 and 757) and entering data with a "virtual" numeric keyboard. Current research focuses on on-line adaptation of EMG sensing and processing and recognition of continuous gestures. We are also extending this on-line pattern recognition methodology to electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. This will allow us to bypass muscle activity and draw control signals directly from the human brain. Our system can reliably detect P-rhythm (a periodic EEG signal from motor cortex in the 10 Hz range) with a lightweight headset containing saline-soaked sponge electrodes. The data show that EEG p-rhythm can be modulated by real and imaginary motions. Current research focuses on using biofeedback to train of human subjects to modulate EEG rhythms on demand, and to examine interactions of EEG-based control with EMG-based and manual control. Viewgraphs on these neuroelectric technologies are also included.

  1. Locating the Semiotic Power of Multimodality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Glynda A.; Nelson, Mark Evan

    2005-01-01

    This article reports research that attempts to characterize what is powerful about digital multimodal texts. Building from recent theoretical work on understanding the workings and implications of multimodal communication, the authors call for a continuing empirical investigation into the roles that digital multimodal texts play in real-world…

  2. Multimodal Hip Hop Productions as Media Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, K. C. Nat

    2012-01-01

    This study draws on ethnographic data from a year-long multimodal media production (MMP) course and the experience of an African American female adolescent who used the production of multimodal Hip Hop texts to express her creativity and growing socially conscious view of the world. The study demonstrates how students made meaning multimodally and…

  3. Large area TES spiderweb bolometer for multi-mode cavity microwave detect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biasotti, M.; Bagliani, D.; Ceriale, V.; Corsini, D.; De Bernardis, P.; Gatti, F.; Gualtieri, R.; Lamagna, L.; Masi, S.; Pizzigoni, G.; Schillaci, A.

    2014-07-01

    Large area spiderweb bolometers of 8 mm diameter and a mesh size of 250 μm are fabricated in order to couple with approximately the first 20 modes of a multimode EM cavity at about 140 GHz. The sensor is a Ti/Au/Ti 3 layer TES with Tc tuned in the 330-380 mK and 2 mK transition width. We describe the detector design and the fabrication process, early TES electro-thermal measurements. We also report optical coupling measurement and show the multimode coupling.

  4. A Learning Algorithm for Multimodal Grammar Inference.

    PubMed

    D'Ulizia, A; Ferri, F; Grifoni, P

    2011-12-01

    The high costs of development and maintenance of multimodal grammars in integrating and understanding input in multimodal interfaces lead to the investigation of novel algorithmic solutions in automating grammar generation and in updating processes. Many algorithms for context-free grammar inference have been developed in the natural language processing literature. An extension of these algorithms toward the inference of multimodal grammars is necessary for multimodal input processing. In this paper, we propose a novel grammar inference mechanism that allows us to learn a multimodal grammar from its positive samples of multimodal sentences. The algorithm first generates the multimodal grammar that is able to parse the positive samples of sentences and, afterward, makes use of two learning operators and the minimum description length metrics in improving the grammar description and in avoiding the over-generalization problem. The experimental results highlight the acceptable performances of the algorithm proposed in this paper since it has a very high probability of parsing valid sentences.

  5. Multimodal imaging of ischemic wounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shiwu; Gnyawali, Surya; Huang, Jiwei; Liu, Peng; Gordillo, Gayle; Sen, Chandan K.; Xu, Ronald

    2012-12-01

    The wound healing process involves the reparative phases of inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Interrupting any of these phases may result in chronically unhealed wounds, amputation, or even patient death. Quantitative assessment of wound tissue ischemia, perfusion, and inflammation provides critical information for appropriate detection, staging, and treatment of chronic wounds. However, no method is available for noninvasive, simultaneous, and quantitative imaging of these tissue parameters. We integrated hyperspectral, laser speckle, and thermographic imaging modalities into a single setup for multimodal assessment of tissue oxygenation, perfusion, and inflammation characteristics. Advanced algorithms were developed for accurate reconstruction of wound oxygenation and appropriate co-registration between different imaging modalities. The multimodal wound imaging system was validated by an ongoing clinical trials approved by OSU IRB. In the clinical trial, a wound of 3mm in diameter was introduced on a healthy subject's lower extremity and the healing process was serially monitored by the multimodal imaging setup. Our experiments demonstrated the clinical usability of multimodal wound imaging.

  6. Multimodal Revision Techniques in Webtexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Cheryl E.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how an online scholarly journal, "Kairos: Rhetoric, Technology, Pedagogy," mentors authors to revise their webtexts (interactive, digital media scholarship) for publication. Using an editorial pedagogy in which multimodal and rhetorical genre theories are merged with revision techniques found in process-based…

  7. Multimodality as a Sociolinguistic Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collister, Lauren Brittany

    2013-01-01

    This work explores the use of multimodal communication in a community of expert "World of Warcraft"® players and its impact on politeness, identity, and relationships. Players in the community regularly communicated using three linguistic modes quasi-simultaneously: text chat, voice chat, and face-to-face interaction. Using the…

  8. Multi-Modality Phantom Development

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, Jennifer S.; Peng, Qiyu; Moses, William W.

    2009-03-20

    Multi-modality imaging has an increasing role in the diagnosis and treatment of a large number of diseases, particularly if both functional and anatomical information are acquired and accurately co-registered. Hence, there is a resulting need for multi modality phantoms in order to validate image co-registration and calibrate the imaging systems. We present our PET-ultrasound phantom development, including PET and ultrasound images of a simple prostate phantom. We use agar and gelatin mixed with a radioactive solution. We also present our development of custom multi-modality phantoms that are compatible with PET, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), MRI and CT imaging. We describe both our selection of tissue mimicking materials and phantom construction procedures. These custom PET-TRUS-CT-MRI prostate phantoms use agargelatin radioactive mixtures with additional contrast agents and preservatives. We show multi-modality images of these custom prostate phantoms, as well as discuss phantom construction alternatives. Although we are currently focused on prostate imaging, this phantom development is applicable to many multi-modality imaging applications.

  9. Experimental verification of MMI by singlemode-multimode-singlemode and multimode-singlemode structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Saikat; Ghosh, Amarnath; Roy, Bapita; Chakraborty, Rajib

    2015-06-01

    Multimode Interference (MMI) based on self imaging phenomenon is investigated using matrix approach. Experimentally MMI is verified using singlemode-multimode-singlemode and multimodesinglemode structures of optical fiber. The results obtained are also verified by BPM technique.

  10. Continuous verification using multimodal biometrics.

    PubMed

    Sim, Terence; Zhang, Sheng; Janakiraman, Rajkumar; Kumar, Sandeep

    2007-04-01

    Conventional verification systems, such as those controlling access to a secure room, do not usually require the user to reauthenticate himself for continued access to the protected resource. This may not be sufficient for high-security environments in which the protected resource needs to be continuously monitored for unauthorized use. In such cases, continuous verification is needed. In this paper, we present the theory, architecture, implementation, and performance of a multimodal biometrics verification system that continuously verifies the presence of a logged-in user. Two modalities are currently used--face and fingerprint--but our theory can be readily extended to include more modalities. We show that continuous verification imposes additional requirements on multimodal fusion when compared to conventional verification systems. We also argue that the usual performance metrics of false accept and false reject rates are insufficient yardsticks for continuous verification and propose new metrics against which we benchmark our system. PMID:17299225

  11. Inorganic Nanoparticles for Multimodal Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Swierczewska, Magdalena; Lee, Seulki; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2013-01-01

    Multimodal molecular imaging can offer a synergistic improvement of diagnostic ability over a single imaging modality. Recent development of hybrid imaging systems has profoundly impacted the pool of available multimodal imaging probes. In particular, much interest has been focused on biocompatible, inorganic nanoparticle–based multimodal probes. Inorganic nanoparticles offer exceptional advantages to the field of multimodal imaging owing to their unique characteristics, such as nanometer dimensions, tunable imaging properties, and multifunctionality. Nanoparticles mainly based on iron oxide, quantum dots, gold, and silica have been applied to various imaging modalities to characterize and image specific biologic processes on a molecular level. A combination of nanoparticles and other materials such as biomolecules, polymers, and radiometals continue to increase functionality for in vivo multimodal imaging and therapeutic agents. In this review, we discuss the unique concepts, characteristics, and applications of the various multimodal imaging probes based on inorganic nanoparticles. PMID:21303611

  12. Decoherence of multimode thermal squeezed coherent states

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, L.

    1992-08-14

    It is well known that any multimode positive definite quadratic Hamiltonian can be transformed into a hamiltonian of uncoupled harmonic oscillators. Based on this theorem, the multimode thermal squeezed coherent states are constructed in terms of density operators. Decoherence of multimode thermal squeezed coherent states in investigated via the characteristic function and it is shown that the decohered (reduced) states are still thermal squeezed coherent states in general.

  13. Decoherence of multimode thermal squeezed coherent states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Leehwa

    1993-01-01

    It is well known that any multimode positive definite quadratic Hamiltonian can be transformed into a Hamiltonian of uncoupled harmonic oscillators. Based on this theorem, the multimode thermal squeezed coherent states are constructed in terms of density operators. Decoherence of multimode thermal squeezed coherent states is investigated via the characteristic function and it is shown that the decohered (reduced) states are still thermal squeezed coherent states in general.

  14. Multi-Mode Broadband Patch Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A multi-mode broad band patch antenna is provided that allows for the same aperture to be used at independent frequencies such as reception at 19 GHz and transmission at 29 GHz. Furthermore, the multi-mode broadband patch antenna provides a ferroelectric film that allows for tuning capability of the multi-mode broadband patch antenna over a relatively large tuning range. The alternative use of a semiconductor substrate permits reduced control voltages since the semiconductor functions as a counter electrode.

  15. Advances in multimodality molecular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Habib; Prasad, Rameshwar

    2009-01-01

    Multimodality molecular imaging using high resolution positron emission tomography (PET) combined with other modalities is now playing a pivotal role in basic and clinical research. The introduction of combined PET/CT systems in clinical setting has revolutionized the practice of diagnostic imaging. The complementarity between the intrinsically aligned anatomic (CT) and functional or metabolic (PET) information provided in a “one-stop shop” and the possibility to use CT images for attenuation correction of the PET data has been the driving force behind the success of this technology. On the other hand, combining PET with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in a single gantry is technically more challenging owing to the strong magnetic fields. Nevertheless, significant progress has been made resulting in the design of few preclinical PET systems and one human prototype dedicated for simultaneous PET/MR brain imaging. This paper discusses recent advances in PET instrumentation and the advantages and challenges of multimodality imaging systems. Future opportunities and the challenges facing the adoption of multimodality imaging instrumentation will also be addressed. PMID:20098557

  16. Radioactive Nanomaterials for Multimodality Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Daiqin; Dougherty, Casey A.; Yang, Dongzhi; Wu, Hongwei; Hong, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear imaging techniques, including primarily positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), can provide quantitative information for a biological event in vivo with ultra-high sensitivity, however, the comparatively low spatial resolution is their major limitation in clinical application. By convergence of nuclear imaging with other imaging modalities like computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical imaging, the hybrid imaging platforms can overcome the limitations from each individual imaging technique. Possessing versatile chemical linking ability and good cargo-loading capacity, radioactive nanomaterials can serve as ideal imaging contrast agents. In this review, we provide a brief overview about current state-of-the-art applications of radioactive nanomaterials in the circumstances of multimodality imaging. We present strategies for incorporation of radioisotope(s) into nanomaterials along with applications of radioactive nanomaterials in multimodal imaging. Advantages and limitations of radioactive nanomaterials for multimodal imaging applications are discussed. Finally, a future perspective of possible radioactive nanomaterial utilization is presented for improving diagnosis and patient management in a variety of diseases. PMID:27227167

  17. A cuckoo search algorithm for multimodal optimization.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Erik; Reyna-Orta, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Interest in multimodal optimization is expanding rapidly, since many practical engineering problems demand the localization of multiple optima within a search space. On the other hand, the cuckoo search (CS) algorithm is a simple and effective global optimization algorithm which can not be directly applied to solve multimodal optimization problems. This paper proposes a new multimodal optimization algorithm called the multimodal cuckoo search (MCS). Under MCS, the original CS is enhanced with multimodal capacities by means of (1) the incorporation of a memory mechanism to efficiently register potential local optima according to their fitness value and the distance to other potential solutions, (2) the modification of the original CS individual selection strategy to accelerate the detection process of new local minima, and (3) the inclusion of a depuration procedure to cyclically eliminate duplicated memory elements. The performance of the proposed approach is compared to several state-of-the-art multimodal optimization algorithms considering a benchmark suite of fourteen multimodal problems. Experimental results indicate that the proposed strategy is capable of providing better and even a more consistent performance over existing well-known multimodal algorithms for the majority of test problems yet avoiding any serious computational deterioration. PMID:25147850

  18. Multimodal Narrative Inquiry: Six Teacher Candidates Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morawski, Cynthia M.; Rottmann, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present findings of a study on the implementation of a multimodal teacher narrative inquiry component, theoretically grounded by Rosenblatt's theory of transaction analysis, methodologically supported by action research and practically enacted by narrative inquiry and multimodal learning. In particular, the component offered…

  19. A cuckoo search algorithm for multimodal optimization.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Erik; Reyna-Orta, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Interest in multimodal optimization is expanding rapidly, since many practical engineering problems demand the localization of multiple optima within a search space. On the other hand, the cuckoo search (CS) algorithm is a simple and effective global optimization algorithm which can not be directly applied to solve multimodal optimization problems. This paper proposes a new multimodal optimization algorithm called the multimodal cuckoo search (MCS). Under MCS, the original CS is enhanced with multimodal capacities by means of (1) the incorporation of a memory mechanism to efficiently register potential local optima according to their fitness value and the distance to other potential solutions, (2) the modification of the original CS individual selection strategy to accelerate the detection process of new local minima, and (3) the inclusion of a depuration procedure to cyclically eliminate duplicated memory elements. The performance of the proposed approach is compared to several state-of-the-art multimodal optimization algorithms considering a benchmark suite of fourteen multimodal problems. Experimental results indicate that the proposed strategy is capable of providing better and even a more consistent performance over existing well-known multimodal algorithms for the majority of test problems yet avoiding any serious computational deterioration.

  20. Radiolabeled Nanoparticles for Multimodality Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yan; Zhao, Jinhua; Conti, Peter S.; Chen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Each imaging modality has its own unique strengths. Multimodality imaging, taking advantages of strengths from two or more imaging modalities, can provide overall structural, functional, and molecular information, offering the prospect of improved diagnostic and therapeutic monitoring abilities. The devices of molecular imaging with multimodality and multifunction are of great value for cancer diagnosis and treatment, and greatly accelerate the development of radionuclide-based multimodal molecular imaging. Radiolabeled nanoparticles bearing intrinsic properties have gained great interest in multimodality tumor imaging over the past decade. Significant breakthrough has been made toward the development of various radiolabeled nanoparticles, which can be used as novel cancer diagnostic tools in multimodality imaging systems. It is expected that quantitative multimodality imaging with multifunctional radiolabeled nanoparticles will afford accurate and precise assessment of biological signatures in cancer in a real-time manner and thus, pave the path towards personalized cancer medicine. This review addresses advantages and challenges in developing multimodality imaging probes by using different types of nanoparticles, and summarizes the recent advances in the applications of radiolabeled nanoparticles for multimodal imaging of tumor. The key issues involved in the translation of radiolabeled nanoparticles to the clinic are also discussed. PMID:24505237

  1. Evaluating Multimodal Literacies in Student Blogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Byrne, Barbara; Murrell, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    This research presents ways in which high school students used the multimodal and interactive affordances of blogs to create, organize, communicate and participate on an educational blog. Their actions demonstrated how plural modes of literacy are infiltrating digital environments and reshaping literacy and learning. Multimodal blogging practices…

  2. Literacy, Media and Multimodality: A Critical Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazalgette, Cary; Buckingham, David

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, literacy educators have increasingly recognised the importance of addressing a broader range of texts in the classroom. This article raises some critical concerns about a particular approach to this issue that has been widely promoted in recent years-- the concept of "multimodality". Multimodality theory offers a broadly…

  3. Multimodal Literacies in the Secondary English Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, William C.; Denton, Shawn

    2011-01-01

    To provide insight into the issue of multimodal literacy instruction, the authors explore presentation techniques and instructional activities employed in their secondary language arts classes. They collaborate on assignments that focus students on "anchored media instruction" and engage them in producing multimodal, technology-infused projects,…

  4. Multimodality, Literacy and Texts: Developing a Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearne, Eve

    2009-01-01

    This article argues for the development of a framework through which to describe children's multimodal texts. Such a shared discourse should be capable of including different modes and media and the ways in which children integrate and combine them for their own meaning-making purposes. It should also acknowledge that multimodal texts are not…

  5. Filter. Remix. Make.: Cultivating Adaptability through Multimodality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusenberry, Lisa; Hutter, Liz; Robinson, Joy

    2015-01-01

    This article establishes traits of adaptable communicators in the 21st century, explains why adaptability should be a goal of technical communication educators, and shows how multimodal pedagogy supports adaptability. Three examples of scalable, multimodal assignments (infographics, research interviews, and software demonstrations) that evidence…

  6. Metawidgets in the multimodal interface

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, M.M. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX ); Glinert, E.P.; Jorge, J.A.; Ormsby, G.R. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-01-01

    We analyze two intertwined and fundamental issues concerning computer-to-human communication in the multimodal interfaces: the interplay between sound and graphics, and the role of object persistence. Our observations lead us to introduce metawidgets as abstract entities capable of manifesting themselves to users as image, as sound, or as various combinations and/or sequences of the two media. We show examples of metawidgets in action, and discuss mechanisms for choosing among alternative media for metawidget instantiation. Finally, we describe a couple of experimental microworlds we have implemented to test out some of our ideas. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Multimodal signature modeling of humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathcart, J. Michael; Kocher, Brian; Prussing, Keith; Lane, Sarah; Thomas, Alan

    2010-04-01

    Georgia Tech been investigating method for the detection of covert personnel in traditionally difficult environments (e.g., urban, caves). This program focuses on a detailed phenomenological analysis of human physiology and signatures with the subsequent identification and characterization of potential observables. Both aspects are needed to support the development of personnel detection and tracking algorithms. The difficult nature of these personnel-related problems dictates a multimodal sensing approach. Human signature data of sufficient and accurate quality and quantity do not exist, thus the development of an accurate signature model for a human is needed. This model should also simulate various human activities to allow motion-based observables to be exploited. This paper will describe a multimodal signature modeling approach that incorporates human physiological aspects, thermoregulation, and dynamics into the signature calculation. This approach permits both passive and active signatures to be modeled. The focus of the current effort involved the computation of signatures in urban environments. This paper will discuss the development of a human motion model for use in simulating both electro-optical signatures and radar-based signatures. Video sequences of humans in a simulated urban environment will also be presented; results using these sequences for personnel tracking will be presented.

  8. Untangled modes in multimode waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plöschner, Martin; Tyc, TomáÅ.¡; Čižmár, TomáÅ.¡

    2016-03-01

    Small, fibre-based endoscopes have already improved our ability to image deep within the human body. A novel approach introduced recently utilised disordered light within a standard multimode optical fibre for lensless imaging. Importantly, this approach brought very significant reduction of the instruments footprint to dimensions below 100 μm. The most important limitations of this exciting technology is the lack of bending flexibility - imaging is only possible as long as the fibre remains stationary. The only route to allow flexibility of such endoscopes is in trading-in all the knowledge about the optical system we have, particularly the cylindrical symmetry of refractive index distribution. In perfect straight step-index cylindrical waveguides we can find optical modes that do not change their spatial distribution as they propagate through. In this paper we present a theoretical background that provides description of such modes in more realistic model of real-life step-index multimode fibre taking into account common deviations in distribution of the refractive index from its ideal step-index profile. Separately, we discuss how to include the influence of fibre bending.

  9. Measuring Bragg gratings in multimode optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Markus J; Müller, Mathias S

    2015-03-23

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) in multimode optical fibers provide a means for cost-effictive devices resulting in simplified and robust optic sensor systems. Parasitic mode effects in optical components of the entire measurement system strongly influence the measured multi-resonance reflection spectrum. Using a mode transfer matrix formalism we can describe these complex mode coupling effects in multimode optical systems in more detail. We demonstrate the accordance of the theory by two experiments. With this formalism it is possible to understand and optimize mode effects in multimode fiber optic systems. PMID:25837146

  10. Multimodality Molecular Imaging of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Delphine L.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    The continued progression of chronic lung disease despite current treatment options has led to the increasing evaluation of molecular imaging tools for diagnosis, treatment planning, drug discovery, and therapy monitoring. Concurrently the development of multimodality PET/CT, SPECT/CT, and MRI/PET scanners has opened up the potential for more sophisticated imaging biomarker probes. Here we review the potential uses of multimodality imaging tools, the established uses of molecular imaging in non-oncologic lung pathophysiology and drug discovery, and some of the technical challenges in multimodality molecular imaging of the lung. PMID:21105145

  11. Multimodal unattended ground sensor (MMUGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Lei; Houser, Jeff; Damarla, T. Raju

    2006-05-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory has developed a real-time multi-modal sensor for the purpose of personnel detection in urban terrain. Possible system usage includes force protection and sniper early warning. The sensor system includes a network of MMUGS sensors, a third-party gateway and user interface device. A MMUGS sensor consists of the following functions: sensing, processing, and communication. Each sensor is composed of multiple sensing modalities-acoustic, passive-infrared, and seismic. A MMUGS sensor is designed to be low cost and power efficient. This paper will first present an overview of the sensor architecture and then provide detailed descriptions of sub components. The paper will conclude with a detailed analysis of system performance. This paper is intended to provide details of the design, integration, and implementation of a MMUGS unit, and demonstrate the overall sensor system performance. This paper does not discuss the network aspect of the system and its affect on performance.

  12. Brain Multimodality Monitoring: Updated Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Roh, David

    2016-01-01

    The challenges posed by acute brain injury (ABI) involve the management of the initial insult in addition to downstream inflammation, edema, and ischemia that can result in secondary brain injury (SBI). SBI is often subclinical, but can be detected through physiologic changes. These changes serve as a surrogate for tissue injury/cell death and are captured by parameters measured by various monitors that measure intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral blood flow (CBF), brain tissue oxygenation (PbtO2), cerebral metabolism, and electrocortical activity. In the ideal setting, multimodality monitoring (MMM) integrates these neurological monitoring parameters with traditional hemodynamic monitoring and the physical exam, presenting the information needed to clinicians who can intervene before irreversible damage occurs. There are now consensus guidelines on the utilization of MMM, and there continue to be new advances and questions regarding its use. In this review, we examine these recommendations, recent evidence for MMM, and future directions for MMM. PMID:27095434

  13. Multimodality treatment for cardiac angiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Fu, Ganglan; Jiang, Huiqi; Zeng, Kuan; Hua, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Primary cardiac angiosarcoma is a rare and highly malignant condition. Besides performing complete surgical excision, it remains controversial as to whether survival can be improved with additional treatment. We herein describe a 30-year-old man with a right atrial angiosarcoma. He underwent two operations for the resection of the primary lesion, and the patient's metastatic lesions involved an intestinal segment. With chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and molecular targeted therapy, he survived for 33 months. The literature describing adjuvant therapy for cardiac angiosarcoma, which is mostly case reports, is also reviewed. In conclusion, the limited evidence suggests that multimodality treatment for cardiac angiosarcoma is a beacon of hope to improve the survival of such patients.

  14. Multimode waveguide based directional coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Rajib; Rifat, Ahmmed A.; Sabouri, Aydin; Al-Qattan, Bader; Essa, Khamis; Butt, Haider

    2016-07-01

    The Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) based platform overcomes limitations of the previous copper and fiber based technologies. Due to its high index difference, SOI waveguide (WG) and directional couplers (DC) are widely used for high speed optical networks and hybrid Electro-Optical inter-connections; TE00-TE01, TE00-TE00 and TM00-TM00 SOI direction couplers are designed with symmetrical and asymmetrical configurations to couple with TE00, TE01 and TM00 in a multi-mode semi-triangular ring-resonator configuration which will be applicable for multi-analyte sensing. Couplers are designed with effective index method and their structural parameters are optimized with consideration to coupler length, wavelength and polarization dependence. Lastly, performance of the couplers are analyzed in terms of cross-talk, mode overlap factor, coupling length and coupling efficiency.

  15. Multi-Modal Treatment of Nocturnal Enuresis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Caroline; Sharpley, Christopher F.

    1988-01-01

    The article reports a multimodal treatment of nocturnal enuresis and anxious behavior in a mildly mentally retarded woman. Behavioral treatment and removal of caffeine from the subject's diet eliminated both nocturnal enuresis and anxious behavior. (Author/DB)

  16. Histology image search using multimodal fusion.

    PubMed

    Caicedo, Juan C; Vanegas, Jorge A; Páez, Fabian; González, Fabio A

    2014-10-01

    This work proposes a histology image indexing strategy based on multimodal representations obtained from the combination of visual features and associated semantic annotations. Both data modalities are complementary information sources for an image retrieval system, since visual features lack explicit semantic information and semantic terms do not usually describe the visual appearance of images. The paper proposes a novel strategy to build a fused image representation using matrix factorization algorithms and data reconstruction principles to generate a set of multimodal features. The methodology can seamlessly recover the multimodal representation of images without semantic annotations, allowing us to index new images using visual features only, and also accepting single example images as queries. Experimental evaluations on three different histology image data sets show that our strategy is a simple, yet effective approach to building multimodal representations for histology image search, and outperforms the response of the popular late fusion approach to combine information. PMID:24820052

  17. Histology image search using multimodal fusion.

    PubMed

    Caicedo, Juan C; Vanegas, Jorge A; Páez, Fabian; González, Fabio A

    2014-10-01

    This work proposes a histology image indexing strategy based on multimodal representations obtained from the combination of visual features and associated semantic annotations. Both data modalities are complementary information sources for an image retrieval system, since visual features lack explicit semantic information and semantic terms do not usually describe the visual appearance of images. The paper proposes a novel strategy to build a fused image representation using matrix factorization algorithms and data reconstruction principles to generate a set of multimodal features. The methodology can seamlessly recover the multimodal representation of images without semantic annotations, allowing us to index new images using visual features only, and also accepting single example images as queries. Experimental evaluations on three different histology image data sets show that our strategy is a simple, yet effective approach to building multimodal representations for histology image search, and outperforms the response of the popular late fusion approach to combine information.

  18. Multi-mode horn antenna simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dod, L. R.; Wolf, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation patterns were computed for a circular multimode horn antenna using waveguide electric field radiation expressions. The circular multimode horn was considered as a possible reflector feed antenna for the Large Antenna Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer (LAMMR). This horn antenna uses a summation of the TE sub 11 deg and TM sub 11 deg modes to generate far field primary radiation patterns with equal E and H plane beamwidths and low sidelobes. A computer program for the radiation field expressions using the summation of waveguide radiation modes is described. The sensitivity of the multimode horn antenna radiation patterns to phase variations between the two modes is given. Sample radiation pattern calculations for a reflector feed horn for LAMMR are shown. The multimode horn antenna provides a low noise feed suitable for radiometric applications.

  19. Rapid prototype modeling in a multimodality world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidaut, Luc; Madewell, John; Yasko, Alan

    2006-03-01

    Introduction: Rapid prototype modeling (RPM) has been used in medicine principally for bones - that are easily extracted from CT data sets - for planning orthopaedic, plastic or maxillo-facial interventions, and/or for designing custom prostheses and implants. Based on newly available technology, highly valuable multimodality approaches can now be applied to RPM, particularly for complex musculo-skeletal (MSK) tumors where multimodality often transcends CT alone. Methods: CT data sets are acquired for primary evaluation of MSK tumors in parallel with other modalities (e.g., MR, PET, SPECT). In our approach, CT is first segmented to provide bony anatomy for RPM and all other data sets are then registered to the CT reference. Parametric information relevant to the tumor's characterization is then extracted from the multimodality space and merged with the CT anatomy to produce a hybrid RPM-ready model. This model - that also accommodates digital multimodality visualization - is then produced on the latest generation of 3D printers, which permits both shapes and colors. Results: Multimodality models of complex MSK tumors have been physically produced on modern RPM equipment. This new approach has been found to be a clear improvement over the previously disconnected physical RPM and digital multimodality visualization. Conclusions: New technical developments keep opening doors to sophisticated medical applications that can directly impact the quality of patient care. Although this early work still deals with bones as base models for RPM, its use to encompass soft tissues is already envisioned for future approaches.

  20. Multimodality Fusion with MRI, CT, and Ultrasound Contrast for Ablation of Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Amalou, Hayet; Wood, Bradford J

    2012-01-01

    Fusion technology with electromagnetic (EM) tracking enables navigation with multimodality feedback that lets the operator use different modalities during different parts of the image-guided procedure. This may be particularly helpful in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing kidney tumor ablation, in whom there is a desire to minimize or avoid nephrotoxic iodinated contrast exposure. EM tracking software merges and fuses different imaging modalities such as MRI, CT, and ultrasound and can also display the position of needles in real time in relation to preprocedure imaging, which may better define tumor targets than available intraoperative imaging. EM tracking was successfully used to ablate a poorly visualized renal tumor, through the combined use of CT, gadolinium-enhanced MR, and contrast-enhanced US imaging to localize the tumor. PMID:23304625

  1. Multimodal imaging measures predict rearrest.

    PubMed

    Steele, Vaughn R; Claus, Eric D; Aharoni, Eyal; Vincent, Gina M; Calhoun, Vince D; Kiehl, Kent A

    2015-01-01

    Rearrest has been predicted by hemodynamic activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during error-processing (Aharoni et al., 2013). Here, we evaluate the predictive power after adding an additional imaging modality in a subsample of 45 incarcerated males from Aharoni et al. (2013). Event-related potentials (ERPs) and hemodynamic activity were collected during a Go/NoGo response inhibition task. Neural measures of error-processing were obtained from the ACC and two ERP components, the error-related negativity (ERN/Ne) and the error positivity (Pe). Measures from the Pe and ACC differentiated individuals who were and were not subsequently rearrested. Cox regression, logistic regression, and support vector machine (SVM) neuroprediction models were calculated. Each of these models proved successful in predicting rearrest and SVM provided the strongest results. Multimodal neuroprediction SVM models with out of sample cross-validating accurately predicted rearrest (83.33%). Offenders with increased Pe amplitude and decreased ACC activation, suggesting abnormal error-processing, were at greatest risk of rearrest. PMID:26283947

  2. Multimodality Instrument for Tissue Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, Robert W. (Inventor); Andrews, Russell J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system with multimodality instrument for tissue identification includes a computer-controlled motor driven heuristic probe with a multisensory tip is discussed. For neurosurgical applications, the instrument is mounted on a stereotactic frame for the probe to penetrate the brain in a precisely controlled fashion. The resistance of the brain tissue being penetrated is continually monitored by a miniaturized strain gauge attached to the probe tip. Other modality sensors may be mounted near the probe tip to provide real-time tissue characterizations and the ability to detect the proximity of blood vessels, thus eliminating errors normally associated with registration of pre-operative scans, tissue swelling, elastic tissue deformation, human judgement, etc., and rendering surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and efficient. A neural network, program adaptively learns the information on resistance and other characteristic features of normal brain tissue during the surgery and provides near real-time modeling. A fuzzy logic interface to the neural network program incorporates expert medical knowledge in the learning process. Identification of abnormal brain tissue is determined by the detection of change and comparison with previously learned models of abnormal brain tissues. The operation of the instrument is controlled through a user friendly graphical interface. Patient data is presented in a 3D stereographics display. Acoustic feedback of selected information may optionally be provided. Upon detection of the close proximity to blood vessels or abnormal brain tissue, the computer-controlled motor immediately stops probe penetration.

  3. Multimodality Imaging of RNA Interference

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Tapas R.; Krasteva, Lazura K.; Cai, Weibo

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and their potential to knock down virtually any gene of interest has ushered in a new era of RNA interference (RNAi). Clinical use of RNAi faces severe limitations due to inefficiency delivery of siRNA or short hairpin RNA (shRNA). Many molecular imaging techniques have been adopted in RNAi-related research for evaluation of siRNA/shRNA delivery, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and the therapeutic effect. In this review article, we summarize the current status of in vivo imaging of RNAi. The molecular imaging techniques that have been employed include bioluminescence/fluorescence imaging, magnetic resonance imaging/spectroscopy, positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, and various combinations of these techniques. Further development of non-invasive imaging strategies for RNAi, not only focusing on the delivery of siRNA/shRNA but also the therapeutic efficacy, is critical for future clinical translation. Rigorous validation will be needed to confirm that biodistribution of the carrier is correlated with that of siRNA/shRNA, since imaging only detects the label (e.g. radioisotopes) but not the gene or carrier themselves. It is also essential to develop multimodality imaging approaches for realizing the full potential of therapeutic RNAi, as no single imaging modality may be sufficient to simultaneously monitor both the gene delivery and silencing effect of RNAi. PMID:23745567

  4. Multimodal imaging measures predict rearrest

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Vaughn R.; Claus, Eric D.; Aharoni, Eyal; Vincent, Gina M.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2015-01-01

    Rearrest has been predicted by hemodynamic activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during error-processing (Aharoni et al., 2013). Here, we evaluate the predictive power after adding an additional imaging modality in a subsample of 45 incarcerated males from Aharoni et al. (2013). Event-related potentials (ERPs) and hemodynamic activity were collected during a Go/NoGo response inhibition task. Neural measures of error-processing were obtained from the ACC and two ERP components, the error-related negativity (ERN/Ne) and the error positivity (Pe). Measures from the Pe and ACC differentiated individuals who were and were not subsequently rearrested. Cox regression, logistic regression, and support vector machine (SVM) neuroprediction models were calculated. Each of these models proved successful in predicting rearrest and SVM provided the strongest results. Multimodal neuroprediction SVM models with out of sample cross-validating accurately predicted rearrest (83.33%). Offenders with increased Pe amplitude and decreased ACC activation, suggesting abnormal error-processing, were at greatest risk of rearrest. PMID:26283947

  5. Multimodality Management of Trigeminal Schwannomas.

    PubMed

    Niranjan, Ajay; Barnett, Samuel; Anand, Vijay; Agazzi, Siviero

    2016-08-01

    Patients presenting with trigeminal schwannomas require multimodality management by a skull base surgical team that can offer expertise in both transcranial and transnasal approaches as well as radiosurgical and microsurgical strategies. Improvement in neurologic symptoms, preservation of cranial nerve function, and control of mass effect are the primary goals of management for trigeminal schwannomas. Complete surgical resection is the treatment of choice but may not be possible in all cases. Radiosurgery is an option as primary management for small- to moderate-sized tumors and can be used for postoperative residuals or recurrences. Planned surgical resection followed by SRS for residual tumor is an effective option for larger trigeminal schwannomas. The endoscopic resection is an excellent approach for patients with an extradural tumor or tumors isolated to the Meckel cave. A detailed analysis of a tumor and its surroundings based on high-quality imaging can help better estimate the expected outcome from each treatment. An expert skull base team should be able to provide precise counseling for each patient's situation for selecting the best option. PMID:27441164

  6. Single LP(0,n) mode excitation in multimode fibers.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Nitin; Rustagi, Kailash C; John, Joseph

    2014-07-14

    We analyze the transmission of a Single mode - Multimode -Multimode (SMm) fiber structure with the aim of exciting a single radial mode in the second multimode fiber. We show that by appropriate choice of the length of the central multimode fiber one can obtain > 90% of the total core power in a chosen mode. We also discuss methods of removing undesirable cladding and radiation modes and estimate tolerances for practical applications.

  7. Multimodality instrument for tissue characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, Robert W. (Inventor); Andrews, Russell J. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A system with multimodality instrument for tissue identification includes a computer-controlled motor driven heuristic probe with a multisensory tip. For neurosurgical applications, the instrument is mounted on a stereotactic frame for the probe to penetrate the brain in a precisely controlled fashion. The resistance of the brain tissue being penetrated is continually monitored by a miniaturized strain gauge attached to the probe tip. Other modality sensors may be mounted near the probe tip to provide real-time tissue characterizations and the ability to detect the proximity of blood vessels, thus eliminating errors normally associated with registration of pre-operative scans, tissue swelling, elastic tissue deformation, human judgement, etc., and rendering surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and efficient. A neural network program adaptively learns the information on resistance and other characteristic features of normal brain tissue during the surgery and provides near real-time modeling. A fuzzy logic interface to the neural network program incorporates expert medical knowledge in the learning process. Identification of abnormal brain tissue is determined by the detection of change and comparison with previously learned models of abnormal brain tissues. The operation of the instrument is controlled through a user friendly graphical interface. Patient data is presented in a 3D stereographics display. Acoustic feedback of selected information may optionally be provided. Upon detection of the close proximity to blood vessels or abnormal brain tissue, the computer-controlled motor immediately stops probe penetration. The use of this system will make surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and more efficient. Other applications of this system include the detection, prognosis and treatment of breast cancer, prostate cancer, spinal diseases, and use in general exploratory surgery.

  8. "Filming in Progress": New Spaces for Multimodal Designing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Kathy A.

    2010-01-01

    Global trends call for new research to investigate multimodal designing mediated by new technologies and the implications for classroom spaces. This article addresses the relationship between new technologies, students' multimodal designing, and the social production of classroom spaces. Multimodal semiotics and sociological principles are applied…

  9. Video genre classification using multimodal features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sung Ho; Bae, Tae Meon; Choo, Jin Ho; Ro, Yong Man

    2003-12-01

    We propose a video genre classification method using multimodal features. The proposed method is applied for the preprocessing of automatic video summarization or the retrieval and classification of broadcasting video contents. Through a statistical analysis of low-level and middle-level audio-visual features in video, the proposed method can achieve good performance in classifying several broadcasting genres such as cartoon, drama, music video, news, and sports. In this paper, we adopt MPEG-7 audio-visual descriptors as multimodal features of video contents and evaluate the performance of the classification by feeding the features into a decision tree-based classifier which is trained by CART. The experimental results show that the proposed method can recognize several broadcasting video genres with a high accuracy and the classification performance with multimodal features is superior to the one with unimodal features in the genre classification.

  10. Multimode theory of single-photon subtraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averchenko, V.; Jacquard, C.; Thiel, V.; Fabre, C.; Treps, N.

    2016-08-01

    We develop a general theory to describe the manipulation of a multimode quantum state of light via the subtraction of a single photon. The theory is applicable for various types of subtraction schemes independent of the physical nature of the light modes, their number or the embedded quantum states. We show that different subtraction schemes can be described in a unified approach through the characterization of their intrinsic subtraction modes. The conditional state of the multimode quantum light after the photon subtraction is defined by the number of subtraction modes and their matching with the light modes. We propose the manipulation of light states by controlling the subtraction modes. Performing a photon subtraction on a multimode quantum resource is promising for the implementation of a number of quantum information protocols in all-optical, multiplexed and scalable way.

  11. Multimodal imaging of cutaneous wound tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shiwu; Gnyawali, Surya; Huang, Jiwei; Ren, Wenqi; Gordillo, Gayle; Sen, Chandan K.; Xu, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of wound tissue ischemia, perfusion, and inflammation provides critical information for appropriate detection, staging, and treatment of chronic wounds. However, few methods are available for simultaneous assessment of these tissue parameters in a noninvasive and quantitative fashion. We integrated hyperspectral, laser speckle, and thermographic imaging modalities in a single-experimental setup for multimodal assessment of tissue oxygenation, perfusion, and inflammation characteristics. Algorithms were developed for appropriate coregistration between wound images acquired by different imaging modalities at different times. The multimodal wound imaging system was validated in an occlusion experiment, where oxygenation and perfusion maps of a healthy subject's upper extremity were continuously monitored during a postocclusive reactive hyperemia procedure and compared with standard measurements. The system was also tested in a clinical trial where a wound of three millimeters in diameter was introduced on a healthy subject's lower extremity and the healing process was continuously monitored. Our in vivo experiments demonstrated the clinical feasibility of multimodal cutaneous wound imaging.

  12. High Resolution Multimode Fiber Image Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    The research emphasis is on developing a cost-effective method of recovering image information from small, closely confined spaces using multimode fibers. The state-of-the-art good quality-viewing fiber, which can currently be used for performing this function, is a 0.5 mm diameter bundle containing 6000 pixels at a cost of $10,000 per fiber bundle. However, these fiber bundles are very fragile and can easily break during surgical use, thereby making instrument reliability and replacement cost,a major impediment to their routine use in many applications. The advantage of working with a single multimode fiber is that it is significantly less expensive and mechanically more robust. In addition, careful choice of numerical aperture allows a higher image resolution (roughly 750,000 pixels) with a 0.5 mm diameter multimode fiber.

  13. Multimodality image guidance system integrating X-ray fluoroscopy and ultrasound image streams with electromagnetic tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Luis F.; Shechter, Guy; Stanton, Douglas; Dalal, Sandeep; Elgort, Daniel; Manzke, Robert; Chan, Raymond C.; Zagorchev, Lyubomir

    2007-03-01

    This work presents an integrated system for multimodality image guidance of minimally invasive medical procedures. This software and hardware system offers real-time integration and registration of multiple image streams with localization data from navigation systems. All system components communicate over a local area Ethernet network, enabling rapid and flexible deployment configurations. As a representative configuration, we use X-ray fluoroscopy (XF) and ultrasound (US) imaging. The XF imaging system serves as the world coordinate system, with gantry geometry derived from the imaging system, and patient table position tracked with a custom-built measurement device using linear encoders. An electromagnetic (EM) tracking system is registered to the XF space using a custom imaging phantom that is also tracked by the EM system. The RMS fiducial registration error for the EM to X-ray registration was 2.19 mm, and the RMS target registration error measured with an EM-tracked catheter was 8.81 mm. The US image stream is subsequently registered to the XF coordinate system using EM tracking of the probe, following a calibration of the US image within the EM coordinate system. We present qualitative results of the system in operation, demonstrating the integration of live ultrasound imaging spatially registered to X-ray fluoroscopy with catheter localization using electromagnetic tracking.

  14. Connecting multimodality in human communication

    PubMed Central

    Regenbogen, Christina; Habel, Ute; Kellermann, Thilo

    2013-01-01

    DCM analysis instead showed a pronounced top-down control. Remarkably, all connections from the dmPFC to the three other regions were modulated by the experimental conditions. This observation is in line with the presumed role of the dmPFC in the allocation of attention. In contrary, all incoming connections to the AG were modulated, indicating its key role in integrating multimodal information and supporting comprehension. Notably, the input from the FFG to the AG was enhanced when facial expressions conveyed emotional information. These findings serve as preliminary results in understanding network dynamics in human emotional communication and empathy. PMID:24265613

  15. Aspects of multimode quantum optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seok, HyoJun

    This dissertation aims to investigate systems in which several optical and mechanical degrees of freedom are coupled through optomechanical interactions. Multimode optomechanics creates the prospect of integrated functional devices and it allows us to explore new types of optomechanical interactions which account for collective dynamics and optically mediated mechanical interactions. Owing to the development of fabrication techniques for micro- and nano-sized mechanical elements, macroscopic mechanical oscillators can be cooled to the deep quantum regime via optomechanical interaction. Based on the possibility to control the motion of mechanical oscillators at the quantum level, we design several schemes involving mechanical systems of macroscopic length and mass scales and we explore the nonlinear dynamics of mechanical oscillators. The first scheme includes a quantum cantilever coupled to a classical tuning fork via magnetic dipole-dipole interaction and also coupled to a single optical field mode via optomechanical interaction. We investigate the generation of nonclassical squeezed states in the quantum cantilever and their detection by transferring them to the optical field. The second scheme involves a quantum membrane coupled to two optical modes via optomechanical interaction. We explore dynamic stabilization of an unstable position of a quantum mechanical oscillator via modulation of the optical fields. We then develop a general formalism to fully describe cavity mediated mechanical interactions. We explore a rather general configuration in which multiple mechanical oscillators interact with a single cavity field mode. We specifically consider the situation in which the cavity dissipation is the dominant source of damping so that the cavity field follows the dynamics of the mechanical modes. In particular, we study two limiting regimes with specific applications: the weak-coupling regime and single-photon strong-coupling regime. In the weak-coupling regime

  16. Multimode interferometer for guided matter waves.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Erika; Calarco, Tommaso; Folman, Ron; Andersson, Mauritz; Hessmo, Björn; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2002-03-11

    Atoms can be trapped and guided with electromagnetic fields, using nanofabricated structures. We describe the fundamental features of an interferometer for guided matter waves, built of two combined Y-shaped beam splitters. We find that such a device is expected to exhibit high contrast fringes even in a multimode regime, analogous to a white light interferometer.

  17. The Arts, New Literacies, and Multimodality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albers, Peggy; Harste, Jerome C.

    2007-01-01

    The arts, multimodality, and new literacies studies, each with its own distinct principles, together can redefine literacy and what constitutes being literate. To recognize the roles that each of these fields plays in literacy necessitates a cultural shift in reading, interpreting, creating, and responding to a range of multimedia messages. The…

  18. Experiential Influences on Multimodal Perception of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackman, Jessica E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of 2 types of learning experiences on children's perception of multimodal emotion cues was examined. Children (aged 7-12 years) were presented with conflicting facial and vocal emotions. The effects of familiarity were tested by varying whether emotions were presented by familiar or unfamiliar adults. The salience of particular…

  19. Multimodal Student Interaction Online: An Ecological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berglund, Therese Ornberg

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the influence of tool and task design on student interaction in language learning at a distance. Interaction in a multimodal desktop video conferencing environment, FlashMeeting, is analyzed from an ecological perspective with two main foci: participation rates and conversational feedback strategies. The quantitative…

  20. A Multimodal Perspective on Textuality and Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewitt, Carey

    2007-01-01

    Textuality is often thought of in linguistic terms; for instance, the talk and writing that circulate in the classroom. In this paper I take a multimodal perspective on textuality and context. I draw on illustrative examples from school Science and English to examine how image, colour, gesture, gaze, posture and movement--as well as writing and…

  1. Researching Multimodal Texts: Applying a Dynamic Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clancy, Susan; Lowrie, Tom

    The arrival of the digital age requires new approaches to understand the literacies used in making meanings from multimodal communications, and a rethinking of the ways in which research into these areas can be used to support learners in the 21st century. This presentation examines the range of literacies children have developed and used to make…

  2. Effects of Webcams on Multimodal Interactive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codreanu, Tatiana; Celik, Christelle Combe

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the multimodal pedagogical communication of two groups of online teachers; trainee tutors (second year students of the Master of Arts in Teaching French as a Foreign Language at the University Lumiere-Lyon 2) and experienced teachers based in different locations (France, Spain and Finland). They all taught French as a Foreign…

  3. Love that Book: Multimodal Response to Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Bridget; Grisham, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    Composing with different modes--image, sound, video and the written word--to respond to and analyze literary and informational text helps students develop as readers and digital communicators. This article showcases five multimodal strategies for engaging children in rich literature-based learning using digital tools and Internet resources.

  4. Multimodality, Translingualism, and Rhetorical Genre Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This article situates one possible future for rhetorical genre studies (RGS) in the translingual, multimodal composing practices of linguistically diverse composition students. Using focus group data collected with L1 (English as a first language) and L2 (English as a second language) students at two large public state universities, the researcher…

  5. Automatic Rejection Of Multimode Laser Pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tratt, David M.; Menzies, Robert T.; Esproles, Carlos

    1991-01-01

    Characteristic modulation detected, enabling rejection of multimode signals. Monitoring circuit senses multiple longitudinal mode oscillation of transversely excited, atmospheric-pressure (TEA) CO2 laser. Facility developed for inclusion into coherent detection laser radar (LIDAR) system. However, circuit described of use in any experiment where desireable to record data only when laser operates in single longitudinal mode.

  6. Reconceptualising Poetry as a Multimodal Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newfield, Denise; D'abdon, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    This conceptual article theorises the role of poetry in English classrooms from a multimodal perspective. It discusses the gap between the practices of poetry inside and outside South African schools, particularly where English is taught as an additional language (EAL). The former is shown to be monomodal and prescriptive, while the latter is…

  7. Naming Block Structures: A Multimodal Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Lynn; Uhry, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    This study describes symbolic representation in block play in a culturally diverse suburban preschool classroom. Block play is "multimodal" and can allow children to experiment with materials to represent the world in many forms of literacy. Combined qualitative and quantitative data from seventy-seven block structures were collected and analyzed.…

  8. Multimode waveguide speckle patterns for compressive sensing.

    PubMed

    Valley, George C; Sefler, George A; Justin Shaw, T

    2016-06-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) of sparse gigahertz-band RF signals using microwave photonics may achieve better performances with smaller size, weight, and power than electronic CS or conventional Nyquist rate sampling. The critical element in a CS system is the device that produces the CS measurement matrix (MM). We show that passive speckle patterns in multimode waveguides potentially provide excellent MMs for CS. We measure and calculate the MM for a multimode fiber and perform simulations using this MM in a CS system. We show that the speckle MM exhibits the sharp phase transition and coherence properties needed for CS and that these properties are similar to those of a sub-Gaussian MM with the same mean and standard deviation. We calculate the MM for a multimode planar waveguide and find dimensions of the planar guide that give a speckle MM with a performance similar to that of the multimode fiber. The CS simulations show that all measured and calculated speckle MMs exhibit a robust performance with equal amplitude signals that are sparse in time, in frequency, and in wavelets (Haar wavelet transform). The planar waveguide results indicate a path to a microwave photonic integrated circuit for measuring sparse gigahertz-band RF signals using CS. PMID:27244406

  9. Academic Knowledge Construction and Multimodal Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveless, Douglas J., Ed.; Griffith, Bryant, Ed.; Bérci, Margaret E., Ed.; Ortlieb, Evan, Ed.; Sullivan, Pamela, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    While incorporating digital technologies into the classroom has offered new ways of teaching and learning into educational processes, it is essential to take a look at how the digital shift impacts teachers, school administration, and curriculum development. "Academic Knowledge Construction and Multimodal Curriculum Development" presents…

  10. Imagining the Possibilities in Multimodal Curriculum Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albers, Peggy

    2006-01-01

    Evolution of the "old page", or written hardcopy texts, to the "new" (Kress, 2003), or electronic page, means that today's learners have experience with reading a variety of texts. Image, music, and electronic inscription (font, style, flash, and so on) are features of multimodal texts that many learners prefer to read and create. With the screen…

  11. Multimode waveguide speckle patterns for compressive sensing.

    PubMed

    Valley, George C; Sefler, George A; Justin Shaw, T

    2016-06-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) of sparse gigahertz-band RF signals using microwave photonics may achieve better performances with smaller size, weight, and power than electronic CS or conventional Nyquist rate sampling. The critical element in a CS system is the device that produces the CS measurement matrix (MM). We show that passive speckle patterns in multimode waveguides potentially provide excellent MMs for CS. We measure and calculate the MM for a multimode fiber and perform simulations using this MM in a CS system. We show that the speckle MM exhibits the sharp phase transition and coherence properties needed for CS and that these properties are similar to those of a sub-Gaussian MM with the same mean and standard deviation. We calculate the MM for a multimode planar waveguide and find dimensions of the planar guide that give a speckle MM with a performance similar to that of the multimode fiber. The CS simulations show that all measured and calculated speckle MMs exhibit a robust performance with equal amplitude signals that are sparse in time, in frequency, and in wavelets (Haar wavelet transform). The planar waveguide results indicate a path to a microwave photonic integrated circuit for measuring sparse gigahertz-band RF signals using CS.

  12. Fock expansion of multimode pure Gaussian states

    SciTech Connect

    Cariolaro, Gianfranco; Pierobon, Gianfranco

    2015-12-15

    The Fock expansion of multimode pure Gaussian states is derived starting from their representation as displaced and squeezed multimode vacuum states. The approach is new and appears to be simpler and more general than previous ones starting from the phase-space representation given by the characteristic or Wigner function. Fock expansion is performed in terms of easily evaluable two-variable Hermite–Kampé de Fériet polynomials. A relatively simple and compact expression for the joint statistical distribution of the photon numbers in the different modes is obtained. In particular, this result enables one to give a simple characterization of separable and entangled states, as shown for two-mode and three-mode Gaussian states.

  13. Comparing Paper and Tangible, Multimodal Tools

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, David R. ); Cohen, Philip R.; Wesson, R M.; Horman, Sheilah

    2002-01-01

    Officers in command posts maintain situational awareness using paper maps, Post-it notes, and hand-written annotations. They do so because paper is robust to failure, it is portable and malleable, it offers ultra-high resolution and supports face-to-face collaboration. We report herein on an evaluation comparing maps and Post-its with a tangible multimodal system called Rasa that augments the paper tools with sensors, enabling it to recognize the multimodal language (both written and spoken) that naturally occurs there. In this study, we found that not only do users prefer Rasa to paper alone, they find it as easy or easier to use than paper tools. Moreover, Rasa introduces no discernible overhead in its operation other than error repair, yet grants the benefits inherent in digital systems. Finally, subjects confirmed that by combining physical and computational tools, Rasa is resistant to computational failure.

  14. Towards multimodal nonlinear optical tomography - experimental methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogler, N.; Medyukhina, A.; Latka, I.; Kemper, S.; Böhm, M.; Dietzek, B.; Popp, J.

    2011-08-01

    All-optical microspectroscopic and tomographic tools reveal great potential for clinical dermatologic diagnostics, i.e., investigation of human skin and skin diseases. While optical-coherence tomography has been complemented by two-photon fluorescence tomography and second-harmonic generation tomography, a joint study of various nonlinear optical microspectroscopies, i.e., application of the recently developed multimodal imaging approach, to sizable human-tissue samples has not been evaluated up to now. Here, we present such multimodal approach combining different nonlinear optical contrast mechanisms for imaging, namely two-photon excited fluorescence (TPF), second-harmonic generation (SHG), and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) into a joint microscopic experiment. We show the potential of imaging large skin areas and discuss the information obtained in a case study comparing normal skin and keloid tissue.

  15. Multimode fibres for micro-endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtaev, Sergey; Leite, Ivo T.; Čižmár, Tomáš

    2015-12-01

    There has been a tremendous effort in modern microscopy towards miniaturisation and fibre-based technology, driven by the need to access hostile or difficult environments in situ and in vivo. Most of these rely on reducing the size of endoscopes based on fibre-optic bundles, and systems incorporating microfabricated lenses. Recently, the use of standard multimode optical fibres for lensless microscopy has become possible mainly due to advances in holographic beam shaping. This article reviews the methods and techniques behind this progress paving theway towards minimally invasive in vivo imaging as well as other applications of multimode waveguides including on-chip integration of optical micro-manipulation and numerous other biophotonics techniques.

  16. Multimodality imaging in nanomedicine and nanotheranostics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue; Zhang, Xue-Ning; Li, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of tumors needs much detailed information. However, available single imaging modality cannot provide complete or comprehensive data. Nanomedicine is the application of nanotechnology to medicine, and multimodality imaging based on nanoparticles has been receiving extensive attention. This new hybrid imaging technology could provide complementary information from different imaging modalities using only a single injection of contrast agent. In this review, we introduce recent developments in multifunctional nanoparticles and their biomedical applications to multimodal imaging and theragnosis as nanomedicine. Most of the reviewed studies are based on the intrinsic properties of nanoparticles and their application in clinical imaging technology. The imaging techniques include positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, optical imaging, and ultrasound imaging. PMID:27807501

  17. Rumination and multi-modal emotional reactivity.

    PubMed

    Hilt, Lori M; Aldao, Amelia; Fischer, Kelsey

    2015-01-01

    Rumination, a cognitive process that involves passively and repetitively focusing on negative feelings and their consequences, has been linked to negative emotional outcomes. Previous research suggests that rumination may lead to deleterious outcomes through prolonging emotional reactivity; however, evidence supporting the link between rumination and reactivity has been mixed. In the present study, we examined the relationship between state and trait rumination and multi-modal emotional reactivity (i.e., hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, autonomic nervous system, subjective experience). Fifty undergraduates participated in a social evaluative laboratory stressor. They also reported on their general tendency to ruminate and their use of rumination in response to this particular laboratory stressor. State, but not trait, rumination was associated with increases in cortisol and negative affect. Findings underscore the importance of multi-modal assessment of emotional reactivity and suggest important implications for rumination following a stressor.

  18. Digital confocal microscopy through a multimode fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loterie, Damien; Farahi, Salma; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Goy, Alexandre; Psaltis, Demetri; Moser, Christophe

    2015-09-01

    Confocal laser-scanning microscopy is a well-known optical imaging method where a pinhole is used in the illumination and detection pathways of a normal microscope, in order to selectively excite and detect a particular focal volume. The advantage of this method is a significant increase in contrast, due to the rejection of background contributions to the signal. Here, we propose to apply this method in the context of multimode fiber endoscopy. Due to modal scrambling, it is not possible to use a physical pinhole to filter light signals that have travel through multimode fibers. Instead, we use a transmission matrix approach to characterize the propagation of light through the fiber, and we apply the filtering operation in the digital domain.

  19. Digital confocal microscopy through a multimode fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loterie, Damien; Farahi, Salma; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Goy, Alexandre; Psaltis, Demetri; Moser, Christophe

    2015-09-01

    Acquiring high-contrast optical images deep inside biological tissues is still a challenging problem. Confocal microscopy is an important tool for biomedical imaging since it improves image quality by rejecting background signals. However, it suffers from low sensitivity in deep tissues due to light scattering. Recently, multimode fibers have provided a new paradigm for minimally invasive endoscopic imaging by controlling light propagation through them. Here we introduce a combined imaging technique where confocal images are acquired through a multimode fiber. We achieve this by digitally engineering the excitation wavefront and then applying a virtual digital pinhole on the collected signal. In this way, we are able to acquire images through the fiber with significantly increased contrast. With a fiber of numerical aperture 0.22, we achieve a lateral resolution of 1.5um, and an axial resolution of 12.7um. The point-scanning rate is currently limited by our spatial light modulator (20Hz).

  20. Small cell carcinoma of epididymis: multimodal therapy.

    PubMed

    Lima, Guilherme C; Varkarakis, Ioannis M; Allaf, Mohamad E; Fine, Samson W; Kavoussi, Louis R

    2005-08-01

    Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma is an infrequent tumor that can occur in various organs. Although a few sporadic reports about extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma have been published, much remains to be uncovered about the clinical features, optimal treatment, and natural history. We present a case of small cell carcinoma of the epididymis with retroperitoneal recurrence, an exceedingly rare tumor with behavior and treatment not well characterized. Multimodal therapy with chemotherapy and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection was necessary to manage this aggressive disease.

  1. Medical Image Retrieval: A Multimodal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yu; Steffey, Shawn; He, Jianbiao; Xiao, Degui; Tao, Cui; Chen, Ping; Müller, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging is becoming a vital component of war on cancer. Tremendous amounts of medical image data are captured and recorded in a digital format during cancer care and cancer research. Facing such an unprecedented volume of image data with heterogeneous image modalities, it is necessary to develop effective and efficient content-based medical image retrieval systems for cancer clinical practice and research. While substantial progress has been made in different areas of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) research, direct applications of existing CBIR techniques to the medical images produced unsatisfactory results, because of the unique characteristics of medical images. In this paper, we develop a new multimodal medical image retrieval approach based on the recent advances in the statistical graphic model and deep learning. Specifically, we first investigate a new extended probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis model to integrate the visual and textual information from medical images to bridge the semantic gap. We then develop a new deep Boltzmann machine-based multimodal learning model to learn the joint density model from multimodal information in order to derive the missing modality. Experimental results with large volume of real-world medical images have shown that our new approach is a promising solution for the next-generation medical imaging indexing and retrieval system. PMID:26309389

  2. Multimodal imaging of cutaneous wound tissue

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shiwu; Gnyawali, Surya; Huang, Jiwei; Ren, Wenqi; Gordillo, Gayle; Sen, Chandan K.; Xu, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Quantitative assessment of wound tissue ischemia, perfusion, and inflammation provides critical information for appropriate detection, staging, and treatment of chronic wounds. However, few methods are available for simultaneous assessment of these tissue parameters in a noninvasive and quantitative fashion. We integrated hyperspectral, laser speckle, and thermographic imaging modalities in a single-experimental setup for multimodal assessment of tissue oxygenation, perfusion, and inflammation characteristics. Algorithms were developed for appropriate coregistration between wound images acquired by different imaging modalities at different times. The multimodal wound imaging system was validated in an occlusion experiment, where oxygenation and perfusion maps of a healthy subject’s upper extremity were continuously monitored during a postocclusive reactive hyperemia procedure and compared with standard measurements. The system was also tested in a clinical trial where a wound of three millimeters in diameter was introduced on a healthy subject’s lower extremity and the healing process was continuously monitored. Our in vivo experiments demonstrated the clinical feasibility of multimodal cutaneous wound imaging. PMID:25604545

  3. Multimode Strong Coupling in Circuit QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaresan, Neereja; Liu, Yanbing; Sadri, Darius; Szocs, Laszlo; Underwood, Devin; Malekakhlagh, Moein; Tureci, Hakan; Houck, Andrew

    We present experimental and theoretical studies in the multimode strong coupling (MMSC) regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). In MMSC, a single atom is simultaneously coupled to a large, but discrete, number of cavity harmonics, with atom-mode coupling strengths comparable to the free spectral range (FSR). This regime is readily accessible in circuit QED, by strongly coupling a transmon qubit to a low fundamental frequency microwave cavity. We present some key results from our original experiment (PRX 5, 021035, 2015), in which a transmon qubit, resonant with the 75th harmonic of a 90 MHz cavity, reached qubit-mode coupling strengths exceeding 30MHz. When this system is coherently driven, we observed complex multimode fluorescence, with the notable formation of ultra-narrow linewidths. To better understand these unique features of multimode resonance fluorescence we developed a quantum formalism, which attributes the spectral linewidth narrowing to the correlated spontaneous emission of doubly dressed states. Finally we will share preliminary experimental results from our continuing study of MMSC, this time from a system where qubit-mode coupling strengths approach and even exceed the FSR.

  4. Medical Image Retrieval: A Multimodal Approach.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Steffey, Shawn; He, Jianbiao; Xiao, Degui; Tao, Cui; Chen, Ping; Müller, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging is becoming a vital component of war on cancer. Tremendous amounts of medical image data are captured and recorded in a digital format during cancer care and cancer research. Facing such an unprecedented volume of image data with heterogeneous image modalities, it is necessary to develop effective and efficient content-based medical image retrieval systems for cancer clinical practice and research. While substantial progress has been made in different areas of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) research, direct applications of existing CBIR techniques to the medical images produced unsatisfactory results, because of the unique characteristics of medical images. In this paper, we develop a new multimodal medical image retrieval approach based on the recent advances in the statistical graphic model and deep learning. Specifically, we first investigate a new extended probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis model to integrate the visual and textual information from medical images to bridge the semantic gap. We then develop a new deep Boltzmann machine-based multimodal learning model to learn the joint density model from multimodal information in order to derive the missing modality. Experimental results with large volume of real-world medical images have shown that our new approach is a promising solution for the next-generation medical imaging indexing and retrieval system.

  5. Multimodal optoacoustic and multiphoton fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sela, Gali; Razansky, Daniel; Shoham, Shy

    2013-03-01

    Multiphoton microscopy is a powerful imaging modality that enables structural and functional imaging with cellular and sub-cellular resolution, deep within biological tissues. Yet, its main contrast mechanism relies on extrinsically administered fluorescent indicators. Here we developed a system for simultaneous multimodal optoacoustic and multiphoton fluorescence 3D imaging, which attains both absorption and fluorescence-based contrast by integrating an ultrasonic transducer into a two-photon laser scanning microscope. The system is readily shown to enable acquisition of multimodal microscopic images of fluorescently labeled targets and cell cultures as well as intrinsic absorption-based images of pigmented biological tissue. During initial experiments, it was further observed that that detected optoacoustically-induced response contains low frequency signal variations, presumably due to cavitation-mediated signal generation by the high repetition rate (80MHz) near IR femtosecond laser. The multimodal system may provide complementary structural and functional information to the fluorescently labeled tissue, by superimposing optoacoustic images of intrinsic tissue chromophores, such as melanin deposits, pigmentation, and hemoglobin or other extrinsic particle or dye-based markers highly absorptive in the NIR spectrum.

  6. Waveform command shaping control of multimode systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhazza, Khaled A.; Masoud, Ziyad N.

    2016-02-01

    A method for eliminating residual vibrations in multimode systems is presented using a command shaping technique. The proposed command shaping technique captures two main advantages. Namely, the independence of the time length of the shaped command from the resonant frequencies of the system, and the ability to generate the command profile without a full system model. Experiments on systems with partial models represented by their resonant frequencies show that shaped command profiles generated using actual measured resonant frequencies of a system outperform those based on mathematical models. This feature of the proposed command shaping technique makes it very attractive for complicated multimode systems where mathematical models are difficult to build. Profiles of the proposed shaped command are simple and do not require intensive calculations. Performance of the proposed shaped command is validated using numerical simulations and experiments. Numerical simulations prove that the shaped commands are capable of completely eliminating residual vibrations of multimode systems. Experiments show that residual vibration elimination depends on the level of accuracy of the measured resonant frequencies of the system.

  7. Multimode-Optical-Fiber Imaging Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    Currently, endoscopic surgery uses single-mode fiber-bundles to obtain in vivo image information inside the orifices of the body. This limits their use to the larger natural orifices and to surgical procedures where there is plenty of room for manipulation. The knee joint, for example, can be easily viewed with a fiber optic viewer, but joints in the finger cannot. However, there are a host of smaller orifices where fiber endoscopy would play an important role if a cost effective fiber probe were developed with small enough dimensions (less than or equal to 250 microns). Examples of beneficiaries of micro-endoscopes are the treatment of the Eustatian tube of the middle ear, the breast ducts, tear ducts, coronary arteries, fallopian tubes, as well as the treatment of salivary duct parotid disease, and the neuro endoscopy of the ventricles and spinal canal. This work describes an approach for recovering images from tightly confined spaces using multimode. The concept draws upon earlier works that concentrated on image recovery after two-way transmission through a multimode fiber as well as work that demonstrated the recovery of images after one-way transmission through a multimode fiber. Both relied on generating a phase conjugated wavefront, which was predistorted with the characteristics of the fiber. The approach described here also relies on generating a phase conjugated wavefront, but utilizes two fibers to capture the image at some intermediate point (accessible by the fibers, but which is otherwise visually inaccessible).

  8. Mothers' multimodal information processing is modulated by multimodal interactions with their infants

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yukari; Fukushima, Hirokata; Okanoya, Kazuo; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako

    2014-01-01

    Social learning in infancy is known to be facilitated by multimodal (e.g., visual, tactile, and verbal) cues provided by caregivers. In parallel with infants' development, recent research has revealed that maternal neural activity is altered through interaction with infants, for instance, to be sensitive to infant-directed speech (IDS). The present study investigated the effect of mother- infant multimodal interaction on maternal neural activity. Event-related potentials (ERPs) of mothers were compared to non-mothers during perception of tactile-related words primed by tactile cues. Only mothers showed ERP modulation when tactile cues were incongruent with the subsequent words, and only when the words were delivered with IDS prosody. Furthermore, the frequency of mothers' use of those words was correlated with the magnitude of ERP differentiation between congruent and incongruent stimuli presentations. These results suggest that mother-infant daily interactions enhance multimodal integration of the maternal brain in parenting contexts. PMID:25322936

  9. A low bending loss multimode fiber transmission system.

    PubMed

    Donlagic, Denis

    2009-11-23

    This paper presents a high bend tolerant multimode optical fiber transmission system that is compatible with standard 50 microm graded index multimode fiber, in terms of achievable bandwidth and interconnectivity losses. When the 10 loops of the proposed bend resistive multimode fiber were wrapped around a cylinder of 1.5 mm radius, bend losses below -0.2 dB were achieved in case of experimentally produced fiber. Furthermore, when the section of the proposed bend resistive fiber was inserted between two sections of a standard 50 microm graded index multimode fiber, the total experimental measured loss proved to be below -0.15 dB. PMID:19997454

  10. Multimodal integration of anatomy and physiology classes: How instructors utilize multimodal teaching in their classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, Gerald M., Jr.

    Multimodality is the theory of communication as it applies to social and educational semiotics (making meaning through the use of multiple signs and symbols). The term multimodality describes a communication methodology that includes multiple textual, aural, and visual applications (modes) that are woven together to create what is referred to as an artifact. Multimodal teaching methodology attempts to create a deeper meaning to course content by activating the higher cognitive areas of the student's brain, creating a more sustained retention of the information (Murray, 2009). The introduction of multimodality educational methodologies as a means to more optimally engage students has been documented within educational literature. However, studies analyzing the distribution and penetration into basic sciences, more specifically anatomy and physiology, have not been forthcoming. This study used a quantitative survey design to determine the degree to which instructors integrated multimodality teaching practices into their course curricula. The instrument used for the study was designed by the researcher based on evidence found in the literature and sent to members of three associations/societies for anatomy and physiology instructors: the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society; the iTeach Anatomy & Physiology Collaborate; and the American Physiology Society. Respondents totaled 182 instructor members of two- and four-year, private and public higher learning colleges collected from the three organizations collectively with over 13,500 members in over 925 higher learning institutions nationwide. The study concluded that the expansion of multimodal methodologies into anatomy and physiology classrooms is at the beginning of the process and that there is ample opportunity for expansion. Instructors continue to use lecture as their primary means of interaction with students. Email is still the major form of out-of-class communication for full-time instructors. Instructors with

  11. Indigenous Ways with Literacies: Transgenerational, Multimodal, Placed, and Collective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Kathy A.; Davis-Warra, John; Sewell, Marlene; Anderson, Mikayla

    2016-01-01

    This research describes some of the salient features of Indigenous ways of working with multimodal literacies in digital contexts of use that emerged within an Indigenous school community with the oversight of Aboriginal Elders. This is significant because the use of multimodal literacy practices among a growing number of Indigenous school…

  12. Multimodal Teaching and Learning: Creating Spaces for Content Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mary

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes her multimodal teaching practices in her "Adolescent Literacy Methods" course at a graduate university in the United States. By doing so, she highlights content teacher's understanding and use of various multimodal texts to effectively teach adolescents inside the classroom. In lieu of this, she raises…

  13. Multimodal Pedagogies in Diverse Classrooms: Representation, Rights and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Pippa

    2012-01-01

    Multimodal Pedagogies in Diverse Classrooms examines how the classroom can become a democratic space founded on the integration of different histories, modes of representation, feelings, languages and discourses, and is essential reading for anyone interested in the connection between multimodality, pedagogy, democracy and social justice in…

  14. Instantiation of Multimodal Semiotic Systems in Science Classroom Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Kok-Sing

    2013-01-01

    Science classroom discourse is inherently multimodal in that scientific meanings are made through an integration of multiple semiotic systems (e.g., language, diagrams, equations). Although some studies have described this multimodal nature, few have examined and explained the relationship between the integration of multiple semiotic systems and…

  15. Multimode waveguide components for millimeter-wave integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhooshan, S.; Mittra, R.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of an investigation of multimode, planar dielectric waveguides for integrated circuit application at millimeter wavelengths. Two multimode devices have been fabricated and tested using the inverted strip guide (ISG), and a comparison between the theoretical and experimental results is given.

  16. Teaching Visual Texts with the Multimodal Analysis Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim Fei, Victor; O'Halloran, Kay L.; Tan, Sabine; E., Marissa K. L.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study introduces the systemic approach and the explicit teaching of a meta-language to provide conceptual tools for students for the analysis and interpretation of multimodal texts. Equipping students with a set of specialised vocabulary with conventionalised meanings associated with specific choices in multimodal texts empowers…

  17. Fracturing Writing Spaces: Multimodal Storytelling Ignites Process Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenters, Kimberly; Winters, Kari-Lynn

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the affordances of literature-based, arts-infused and digital media processes for students, as multimodal practices take centre stage in an English Language Arts unit on fractured fairy tales. The study takes up the challenge of addressing multimodal literacy instruction and research in ways that utilize a range of…

  18. Reading across Multiple Multimodal Sources in Historical Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manderino, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Building on previous studies of multiple text reading in history, this study aimed to contribute to that body of work by focusing on non-traditional multimodal sources. In an age of rapidly increasing access to and use of multimodal sources and a demand for reading and comprehending increasingly complex and specialized texts, it appeared there was…

  19. Critical Visual Literacy: Multimodal Communication across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffelmeyer, Barb Blakely; Ellertson, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    "Critical Visual Literacy: Multimodal Communication Across the Curriculum" makes the case for expanding the pedagogical space and communication possibilities in undergraduate communication-intensive and linked (learning community) courses by allowing students to create multimodal texts that deal with civic and cultural and/or discipline…

  20. A Multimodal Discourse Analysis of a Yoruba Song-Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olateju, Moji. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multimodal discourse analysis of a story that has been turned into a Yoruba song-drama, highlighting the ideational, interpersonal and textual aspects of the song-drama. The data is a short song-drama meant to teach children importunity, determination and hard work through persistence. The multimodal and narrative conventions…

  1. Level up with Multimodal Composition in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Bridget

    2015-01-01

    Students find multimodal composing highly engaging. Even with students' investment in designing multimodal texts, the teaching process is complex. The purpose for writing, audience, and genre must be considered in relation to the modes, digital authoring and presentation tools, and technology devices that are available to the composer. This…

  2. Composition at Washington State University: Building a Multimodal Bricolage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericsson, Patricia; Hunter, Leeann Downing; Macklin, Tialitha Michelle; Edwards, Elizabeth Sue

    2016-01-01

    Multimodal pedagogy is increasingly accepted among composition scholars. However, putting such pedagogy into practice presents significant challenges. In this profile of Washington State University's first-year composition program, we suggest a multi-vocal and multi-theoretical approach to addressing the challenges of multimodal pedagogy. Patricia…

  3. Expanding Perspectives for Comprehending Visual Images in Multimodal Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafini, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The texts that adolescents encounter today are often multimodal, meaning they incorporate a variety of modes, including visual images, hypertext, and graphic design elements along with written text. Expanding the perspectives readers use to make sense of the multimodal texts is an important aspect of comprehension instruction. Moving beyond the…

  4. A Multimodal Discourse Analysis of Tmall's Double Eleven Advertisement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Chunyu; Luo, Mengxi

    2016-01-01

    From the 1990s, the multimodal turn in discourse studies makes multimodal discourse analysis a popular topic in linguistics and communication studies. An important approach to applying Systemic Functional Linguistics to non-verbal modes is Visual Grammar initially proposed by Kress and van Leeuwen (1996). Considering that commercial advertisement…

  5. Using Multimodal Writing to Motivate Struggling Students to Write

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrington, Brett; Dousay, Tonia

    2014-01-01

    One of the reasons that many secondary students fail English classes is because they are not motivated to write. This literature review was conducted to look into the use of multimodal works to increase the motivation for struggling students to write. Change theory was used to evaluate the benefits of multimodal works compared to more traditional…

  6. Composition 2.0: Toward a Multilingual and Multimodal Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraiberg, Steven

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that tracing multimodal-multilingual literacy practices across official and unofficial spaces is key to moving composition into the twenty-first century. Key to this remixing of the field is a situated framework that locates multimodal-multilingual activities in wider genre, cultural, national, and global ecologies. (Contains 3…

  7. Cultural Shifts, Multimodal Representations, and Assessment Practices: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curwood, Jen Scott

    2012-01-01

    Multimodal texts involve the presence, absence, and co-occurrence of alphabetic text with visual, audio, tactile, gestural, and spatial representations. This article explores how teachers' evaluation of students' multimodal work can be understood in terms of cognition and culture. When teachers apply a paradigm of assessment rooted in print-based…

  8. Multimodal Literacy Scale: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulut, Berker; Ulu, Hacer; Kan, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: Most structures of the texts individuals encounter today are multimodal, in which written, visual, and auditory elements are used together. Students who spend most of their time on social networks or playing various computer games gain experience in multimodal environments. As a part of teacher training, it is important that…

  9. New developments in multimodal clinical multiphoton tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Karsten

    2011-03-01

    80 years ago, the PhD student Maria Goeppert predicted in her thesis in Goettingen, Germany, two-photon effects. It took 30 years to prove her theory, and another three decades to realize the first two-photon microscope. With the beginning of this millennium, first clinical multiphoton tomographs started operation in research institutions, hospitals, and in the cosmetic industry. The multiphoton tomograph MPTflexTM with its miniaturized flexible scan head became the Prism-Award 2010 winner in the category Life Sciences. Multiphoton tomographs with its superior submicron spatial resolution can be upgraded to 5D imaging tools by adding spectral time-correlated single photon counting units. Furthermore, multimodal hybrid tomographs provide chemical fingerprinting and fast wide-field imaging. The world's first clinical CARS studies have been performed with a hybrid multimodal multiphoton tomograph in spring 2010. In particular, nonfluorescent lipids and water as well as mitochondrial fluorescent NAD(P)H, fluorescent elastin, keratin, and melanin as well as SHG-active collagen have been imaged in patients with dermatological disorders. Further multimodal approaches include the combination of multiphoton tomographs with low-resolution imaging tools such as ultrasound, optoacoustic, OCT, and dermoscopy systems. Multiphoton tomographs are currently employed in Australia, Japan, the US, and in several European countries for early diagnosis of skin cancer (malignant melanoma), optimization of treatment strategies (wound healing, dermatitis), and cosmetic research including long-term biosafety tests of ZnO sunscreen nanoparticles and the measurement of the stimulated biosynthesis of collagen by anti-ageing products.

  10. Multimode-Optical-Fiber Imaging Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Currently, endoscopic surgery uses single-mode fiber-bundles to obtain in vivo image information inside orifices of the body. This limits their use to the larger natural bodily orifices and to surgical procedures where there is plenty of room for manipulation. The knee joint, for example can be easily viewed with a fiber optic viewer, but joints in the finger cannot. However, there are a host of smaller orifices where fiber endoscopy would play an important role if a cost effective fiber probe were developed with small enough dimensions (< 250 microns). Examples of beneficiaries of micro-endoscopes are the treatment of the Eustatian tube of the middle ear, the breast ducts, tear ducts, coronary arteries, fallopian tubes, as well as the treatment of salivary duct parotid disease, and the neuro endoscopy of the ventricles and spinal canal. To solve this problem, this work describes an approach for recovering images from. tightly confined spaces using multimode fibers and analytically demonstrates that the concept is sound. The proof of concept draws upon earlier works that concentrated on image recovery after two-way transmission through a multimode fiber as well as work that demonstrated the recovery of images after one-way transmission through a multimode fiber. Both relied on generating a phase conjugated wavefront which was predistorted with the characteristics of the fiber. The described approach also relies on generating a phase conjugated wavefront, but utilizes two fibers to capture the image at some intermediate point (accessible by the fibers, but which is otherwise visually unaccessible).

  11. Multimodal Imaging Brain Connectivity Analysis (MIBCA) toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Lacerda, Luis Miguel; Ferreira, Hugo Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Aim. In recent years, connectivity studies using neuroimaging data have increased the understanding of the organization of large-scale structural and functional brain networks. However, data analysis is time consuming as rigorous procedures must be assured, from structuring data and pre-processing to modality specific data procedures. Until now, no single toolbox was able to perform such investigations on truly multimodal image data from beginning to end, including the combination of different connectivity analyses. Thus, we have developed the Multimodal Imaging Brain Connectivity Analysis (MIBCA) toolbox with the goal of diminishing time waste in data processing and to allow an innovative and comprehensive approach to brain connectivity. Materials and Methods. The MIBCA toolbox is a fully automated all-in-one connectivity toolbox that offers pre-processing, connectivity and graph theoretical analyses of multimodal image data such as diffusion-weighted imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). It was developed in MATLAB environment and pipelines well-known neuroimaging softwares such as Freesurfer, SPM, FSL, and Diffusion Toolkit. It further implements routines for the construction of structural, functional and effective or combined connectivity matrices, as well as, routines for the extraction and calculation of imaging and graph-theory metrics, the latter using also functions from the Brain Connectivity Toolbox. Finally, the toolbox performs group statistical analysis and enables data visualization in the form of matrices, 3D brain graphs and connectograms. In this paper the MIBCA toolbox is presented by illustrating its capabilities using multimodal image data from a group of 35 healthy subjects (19–73 years old) with volumetric T1-weighted, diffusion tensor imaging, and resting state fMRI data, and 10 subjets with 18F-Altanserin PET data also. Results. It was observed both a high inter-hemispheric symmetry

  12. Pseudospin dynamics in multimode polaritonic Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, G.; Malpuech, G.; Shelykh, I. A.

    2013-03-01

    Using Keldysh-Green function formalism we theoretically analyzed the dynamics of multimode exciton-polariton Josephson junctions. We took into account the spinor nature of polaritons and considered in detail the role of coupling of the fundamental modes with excited states. We demonstrate that the coupling to the reservoir results in a change of the oscillation pattern. In particular, it can lead to renormalization of the oscillation frequency, appearance of higher order harmonics, and induce transition between the regimes of free Josephson oscillations and macroscopic quantum self-trapping.

  13. Multimode corrugated waveguide feed for monopulse radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarricoats, P. J. B.; Elliot, R. D.

    1981-04-01

    The paper describes the behavior of a multimode corrugated feed for use in monopulse radar. Four square input waveguides are used to excite sum- and difference-channel modes. With appropriate choice of parameters it is possible to generate radiation patterns with low crosspolarization thus allowing the polarization characteristics of a target to be obtained. The results of an analysis of the relevant waveguide discontinuity problem are presented and a means to compensate phase differences between modes is also described. Some preliminary experimental results are found to be in accord with theory.

  14. Multimodal Imaging Brain Connectivity Analysis (MIBCA) toolbox.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Andre Santos; Lacerda, Luis Miguel; Ferreira, Hugo Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Aim. In recent years, connectivity studies using neuroimaging data have increased the understanding of the organization of large-scale structural and functional brain networks. However, data analysis is time consuming as rigorous procedures must be assured, from structuring data and pre-processing to modality specific data procedures. Until now, no single toolbox was able to perform such investigations on truly multimodal image data from beginning to end, including the combination of different connectivity analyses. Thus, we have developed the Multimodal Imaging Brain Connectivity Analysis (MIBCA) toolbox with the goal of diminishing time waste in data processing and to allow an innovative and comprehensive approach to brain connectivity. Materials and Methods. The MIBCA toolbox is a fully automated all-in-one connectivity toolbox that offers pre-processing, connectivity and graph theoretical analyses of multimodal image data such as diffusion-weighted imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). It was developed in MATLAB environment and pipelines well-known neuroimaging softwares such as Freesurfer, SPM, FSL, and Diffusion Toolkit. It further implements routines for the construction of structural, functional and effective or combined connectivity matrices, as well as, routines for the extraction and calculation of imaging and graph-theory metrics, the latter using also functions from the Brain Connectivity Toolbox. Finally, the toolbox performs group statistical analysis and enables data visualization in the form of matrices, 3D brain graphs and connectograms. In this paper the MIBCA toolbox is presented by illustrating its capabilities using multimodal image data from a group of 35 healthy subjects (19-73 years old) with volumetric T1-weighted, diffusion tensor imaging, and resting state fMRI data, and 10 subjets with 18F-Altanserin PET data also. Results. It was observed both a high inter-hemispheric symmetry and

  15. Multimode fiber optic wavelength division multiplexing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) systems, with signals transmitted on different wavelengths through a single optical fiber, can have increased bandwidth and fault isolation properties over single wavelength optical systems. Two WDM system designs that might be used with multimode fibers are considered and a general description of the components which could be used to implement the system are given. The components described are sources, multiplexers, demultiplexers, and detectors. Emphasis is given to the demultiplexer technique which is the major developmental component in the WDM system.

  16. Multimodal CARS microscopy of structured carbohydrate biopolymers

    PubMed Central

    Slepkov, Aaron D.; Ridsdale, Andrew; Pegoraro, Adrian F.; Moffatt, Douglas J.; Stolow, Albert

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the utility of multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy for the study of structured condensed carbohydrate systems. Simultaneous second-harmonic generation (SHG) and spectrally-scanned CARS microscopy was used to elucidate structure, alignment, and density in cellulose cotton fibers and in starch grains undergoing rapid heat-moisture swelling. Our results suggest that CARS response of the O-H stretch region (3000 cm−1–3400 cm−1), together with the commonly-measured C-H stretch (2750 cm−1–2970 cm−1) and SHG provide potentially important structural information and contrast in these materials. PMID:21258555

  17. Confocal microscopy via multimode fibers: fluorescence bandwidth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loterie, Damien; Psaltis, Demetri; Moser, Christophe

    2016-03-01

    We recently described a method for confocal reflection imaging through fibers, as a way to increase contrast when imaging unstained biological specimens. Using a transmission matrix, focused spots can be created at the distal end of a fiber. The backscattered field coming back from the sample can be filtered using optical correlation to obtain spatial selectivity in the detection. In this proceedings article, we briefly review the working principle of this method, and we discuss how the scheme could be adapted to confocal fluorescence imaging. In particular, we show simulations of the achievable detection bandwidth when using step-index multimode fibers as imaging devices.

  18. Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states

    SciTech Connect

    Lupo, C.; Mancini, S.; De Pasquale, A.; Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.

    2012-12-15

    We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom-the symplectic eigenvalues-which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.

  19. Design and installation of a multimode microscopy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helm, Johannes P.; Haug, Finn-Mogens S.; Storm, Johan F.; Ottersen, Ole-Petter

    2001-04-01

    We describe design and installation of a multi-mode microscopy core facility in an environment of varied research activity in life-sciences. The experimentators can select any combination of a) microscopes (upright, upright fixed-stage, inverted), b) microscopy modes (widefield, DIC, IRDIC, widefield epifluorescence, transmission LSM, reflection and fluorescence CLSM, MPLSM), c) imaging techniques (direct observation, video observation, photography, quantitative camera-recording, flying spot scanning), d) auxiliary systems (equipment for live specimen imaging, electrophysiology, time-coordinated laser-scanning and electrophysiology, patch-clamp). The equipment is installed on one large vibration-isolating optical table (3m X 1.5m X 0.3m). Electronics, auxiliary equipment, and a fiber-coupled, remotely controlled Ar+-Kr+ laser are mounted in a rack system fixed to the ceiling. The design of the shelves allows the head of the CSLM to be moved to any of the microscopes without increasing critical cable lengths. At the same time easy access to all the units is preserved. The beam of a Titanium-Sapphire laser, controlled by means of an EOM and a prism GVD, is coupled directly to the microscopes. Three mirrors mounted on a single precision translation table are integrated into the beam steering system so that the beam can easily be redirected to any of the microscopes. All the available instruments can be operated by the educated and trained user. The system is popular among researchers in neuroanatomy, embryology, cell biology, molecular biology - including the study of protein interactions, e.g. by means of FRET, and electrophysiology. Its colocalization with an EM facility promises to provide considerable synergy effects.

  20. Novelty effects in a multimodal warning signal.

    PubMed

    Rowe; Guilford

    1999-02-01

    The warning signals of toxic insects are often 'multimodal', combining bright coloration with sounds or odours (or both). Pyrazine (a common insect warning odour) can elicit an intrinsic avoidance in domestic chicks Gallus gallus domesticus, both against novel coloured food, and also against food colours that are specifically associated with aposematism, namely yellow and red. In three experiments, we investigated the role of novelty in this innate bias against yellow coloured food in the presence of pyrazine. Naive chicks were familiarized either to pyrazine odour or to coloured food before being tested for a bias against yellow (warningly coloured) food as opposed to green (nonwarningly coloured) food. In experiment 1, pyrazine novelty was shown to be vital for eliciting a bias against yellow food. However, experiment 2 suggested that colour novelty was not important: chicks familiarized with coloured crumbs still avoided yellow crumbs when pyrazine was presented. In a third experiment that gave chicks an even greater degree of pre-exposure to coloured crumbs, the bias against yellow food eventually waned, although pyrazine continued to elicit an aversion to yellow even after birds had had experience of up to 24 palatable yellow crumbs. Pyrazine novelty has been an important pressure in the evolution of multimodal warning signals, and can continue to promote the avoidance of warningly coloured food, even when it is relatively familiar. The implications for warning signals are discussed. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  1. ASIC3 channels in multimodal sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Guang; Xu, Tian-Le

    2011-01-19

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), which are members of the sodium-selective cation channels belonging to the epithelial sodium channel/degenerin (ENaC/DEG) family, act as membrane-bound receptors for extracellular protons as well as nonproton ligands. At least five ASIC subunits have been identified in mammalian neurons, which form both homotrimeric and heterotrimeric channels. The highly proton sensitive ASIC3 channels are predominantly distributed in peripheral sensory neurons, correlating with their roles in multimodal sensory perception, including nociception, mechanosensation, and chemosensation. Different from other ASIC subunit composing ion channels, ASIC3 channels can mediate a sustained window current in response to mild extracellular acidosis (pH 7.3-6.7), which often occurs accompanied by many sensory stimuli. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that the sustained component of ASIC3 currents can be enhanced by nonproton ligands including the endogenous metabolite agmatine. In this review, we first summarize the growing body of evidence for the involvement of ASIC3 channels in multimodal sensory perception and then discuss the potential mechanisms underlying ASIC3 activation and mediation of sensory perception, with a special emphasis on its role in nociception. We conclude that ASIC3 activation and modulation by diverse sensory stimuli represent a new avenue for understanding the role of ASIC3 channels in sensory perception. Furthermore, the emerging implications of ASIC3 channels in multiple sensory dysfunctions including nociception allow the development of new pharmacotherapy. PMID:22778854

  2. Multimodal brain monitoring in fulminant hepatic failure

    PubMed Central

    Paschoal Jr, Fernando Mendes; Nogueira, Ricardo Carvalho; Ronconi, Karla De Almeida Lins; de Lima Oliveira, Marcelo; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson

    2016-01-01

    Acute liver failure, also known as fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), embraces a spectrum of clinical entities characterized by acute liver injury, severe hepatocellular dysfunction, and hepatic encephalopathy. Cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension are common causes of mortality in patients with FHF. The management of patients who present acute liver failure starts with determining the cause and an initial evaluation of prognosis. Regardless of whether or not patients are listed for liver transplantation, they should still be monitored for recovery, death, or transplantation. In the past, neuromonitoring was restricted to serial clinical neurologic examination and, in some cases, intracranial pressure monitoring. Over the years, this monitoring has proven insufficient, as brain abnormalities were detected at late and irreversible stages. The need for real-time monitoring of brain functions to favor prompt treatment and avert irreversible brain injuries led to the concepts of multimodal monitoring and neurophysiological decision support. New monitoring techniques, such as brain tissue oxygen tension, continuous electroencephalogram, transcranial Doppler, and cerebral microdialysis, have been developed. These techniques enable early diagnosis of brain hemodynamic, electrical, and biochemical changes, allow brain anatomical and physiological monitoring-guided therapy, and have improved patient survival rates. The purpose of this review is to discuss the multimodality methods available for monitoring patients with FHF in the neurocritical care setting. PMID:27574545

  3. Effect of multimodal stimulus presentation on recall.

    PubMed

    Kobus, D A; Moses, J D; Bloom, F A

    1994-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate how the mode of stimulus presentation affects recall in the classroom environment. 289 undergraduates were randomly assigned to one of 7 experimental groups. All subjects were presented the same stimuli in one of 7 possible modes: (1) Printed Word, (2) Spoken Word, (3) Picture, (4) Printed Word + Spoken Word, (5) Picture + Spoken Word, (6) Picture + Printed Word, and (7) Printed Word, Picture + Spoken Word. 30 words, 6 from each of 5 categories, were presented to each group. A new stimulus was presented every 5 sec. Subjects were to recall (in writing) as many stimuli as possible in 5 min. regardless of order. One-way between groups analyses of variance were conducted on recall and cluster index scores. A significant main effect of mode of presentation showed that recall was best for the Picture or multimodal group (Printed Word, Picture + Spoken Word). Groups receiving only the spoken or printed word showed significantly poorer recall than the multimodal groups. No statistically significant differences between groups were found on the cluster index score. It appears that the simultaneous presentation of redundant stimuli in multiple modalities does support the multiple-resource hypothesis by displaying enhanced recall when information is available from multiple attentional resources.

  4. Multimodal brain monitoring in fulminant hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Paschoal, Fernando Mendes; Nogueira, Ricardo Carvalho; Ronconi, Karla De Almeida Lins; de Lima Oliveira, Marcelo; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson

    2016-08-01

    Acute liver failure, also known as fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), embraces a spectrum of clinical entities characterized by acute liver injury, severe hepatocellular dysfunction, and hepatic encephalopathy. Cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension are common causes of mortality in patients with FHF. The management of patients who present acute liver failure starts with determining the cause and an initial evaluation of prognosis. Regardless of whether or not patients are listed for liver transplantation, they should still be monitored for recovery, death, or transplantation. In the past, neuromonitoring was restricted to serial clinical neurologic examination and, in some cases, intracranial pressure monitoring. Over the years, this monitoring has proven insufficient, as brain abnormalities were detected at late and irreversible stages. The need for real-time monitoring of brain functions to favor prompt treatment and avert irreversible brain injuries led to the concepts of multimodal monitoring and neurophysiological decision support. New monitoring techniques, such as brain tissue oxygen tension, continuous electroencephalogram, transcranial Doppler, and cerebral microdialysis, have been developed. These techniques enable early diagnosis of brain hemodynamic, electrical, and biochemical changes, allow brain anatomical and physiological monitoring-guided therapy, and have improved patient survival rates. The purpose of this review is to discuss the multimodality methods available for monitoring patients with FHF in the neurocritical care setting.

  5. Photonic lantern with multimode fibers embedded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hai-Jiao; Yan, Qi; Huang, Zong-Jun; Tian, He; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Yong-Jun; Zhang, Jian-Zhong; Sun, Wei-Min

    2014-08-01

    A photonic lantern is studied which is formed by seven multimode fibers inserted into a pure silica capillary tube. The core of the tapered end has a uniform refractive index because the polymer claddings are removed before the fibers are inserted. Consequently, the light distribution is also uniform. Two theories describing a slowly varying waveguide and multimode coupling are used to analyze the photonic lantern. The transmission loss decreases as the length of the tapered part increases. For a device with a taper length of 3.4 cm, the loss is about 1.06 dB on average for light propagating through the taper from an inserted fiber to the tapered end and 0.99 dB in the reverse direction. For a device with a taper length of 0.7 cm, the two loss values are 2.63 dB and 2.53 dB, respectively. The results show that it is possible to achieve a uniform light distribution with the tapered end and a low-loss transmission in the device if parameters related to the lantern are reasonably defined.

  6. Multimodal brain monitoring in fulminant hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Paschoal, Fernando Mendes; Nogueira, Ricardo Carvalho; Ronconi, Karla De Almeida Lins; de Lima Oliveira, Marcelo; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson

    2016-08-01

    Acute liver failure, also known as fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), embraces a spectrum of clinical entities characterized by acute liver injury, severe hepatocellular dysfunction, and hepatic encephalopathy. Cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension are common causes of mortality in patients with FHF. The management of patients who present acute liver failure starts with determining the cause and an initial evaluation of prognosis. Regardless of whether or not patients are listed for liver transplantation, they should still be monitored for recovery, death, or transplantation. In the past, neuromonitoring was restricted to serial clinical neurologic examination and, in some cases, intracranial pressure monitoring. Over the years, this monitoring has proven insufficient, as brain abnormalities were detected at late and irreversible stages. The need for real-time monitoring of brain functions to favor prompt treatment and avert irreversible brain injuries led to the concepts of multimodal monitoring and neurophysiological decision support. New monitoring techniques, such as brain tissue oxygen tension, continuous electroencephalogram, transcranial Doppler, and cerebral microdialysis, have been developed. These techniques enable early diagnosis of brain hemodynamic, electrical, and biochemical changes, allow brain anatomical and physiological monitoring-guided therapy, and have improved patient survival rates. The purpose of this review is to discuss the multimodality methods available for monitoring patients with FHF in the neurocritical care setting. PMID:27574545

  7. Quantitative multi-modal NDT data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Heideklang, René; Shokouhi, Parisa

    2014-02-18

    A single NDT technique is often not adequate to provide assessments about the integrity of test objects with the required coverage or accuracy. In such situations, it is often resorted to multi-modal testing, where complementary and overlapping information from different NDT techniques are combined for a more comprehensive evaluation. Multi-modal material and defect characterization is an interesting task which involves several diverse fields of research, including signal and image processing, statistics and data mining. The fusion of different modalities may improve quantitative nondestructive evaluation by effectively exploiting the augmented set of multi-sensor information about the material. It is the redundant information in particular, whose quantification is expected to lead to increased reliability and robustness of the inspection results. There are different systematic approaches to data fusion, each with its specific advantages and drawbacks. In our contribution, these will be discussed in the context of nondestructive materials testing. A practical study adopting a high-level scheme for the fusion of Eddy Current, GMR and Thermography measurements on a reference metallic specimen with built-in grooves will be presented. Results show that fusion is able to outperform the best single sensor regarding detection specificity, while retaining the same level of sensitivity.

  8. A Multimodal Theory of Affect Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Peters, Kim; Kashima, Yoshihisa

    2015-09-01

    There is broad consensus in the literature that affect diffuses through social networks (such that a person may "acquire" or "catch" an affective state from his or her social contacts). It is further assumed that affect diffusion primarily occurs as the result of people's tendencies to synchronize their affective actions (such as smiles and frowns). However, as we show, there is a lack of clarity in the literature about the substrate and scope of affect diffusion. One consequence of this is a difficulty in distinguishing between affect diffusion and several other affective influence phenomena that look similar but have very different consequences. There is also a growing body of evidence that action synchrony is unlikely to be the only, or indeed the most important, pathway for affect diffusion. This paper has 2 key aims: (a) to craft a formal definition of affect diffusion that does justice to the core of the phenomenon while distinguishing it from other phenomena with which it is frequently confounded and (b) to advance a theory of the mechanisms of affect diffusion. This theory, which we call the multimodal theory of affect diffusion, identifies 3 parallel multimodal mechanisms that may act as routes for affect diffusion. It also provides a basis for novel predictions about the conditions under which affect is most likely to diffuse. PMID:26011791

  9. Multimodal approach to seismic pavement testing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryden, N.; Park, C.B.; Ulriksen, P.; Miller, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    A multimodal approach to nondestructive seismic pavement testing is described. The presented approach is based on multichannel analysis of all types of seismic waves propagating along the surface of the pavement. The multichannel data acquisition method is replaced by multichannel simulation with one receiver. This method uses only one accelerometer-receiver and a light hammer-source, to generate a synthetic receiver array. This data acquisition technique is made possible through careful triggering of the source and results in such simplification of the technique that it is made generally available. Multiple dispersion curves are automatically and objectively extracted using the multichannel analysis of surface waves processing scheme, which is described. Resulting dispersion curves in the high frequency range match with theoretical Lamb waves in a free plate. At lower frequencies there are several branches of dispersion curves corresponding to the lower layers of different stiffness in the pavement system. The observed behavior of multimodal dispersion curves is in agreement with theory, which has been validated through both numerical modeling and the transfer matrix method, by solving for complex wave numbers. ?? ASCE / JUNE 2004.

  10. A multimodal behavioral approach to performance anxiety.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Arnold A; Abramovitz, Arnold

    2004-08-01

    Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) stresses a trimodal assessment framework (affect, behavior, and cognition [ABC]), whereas the multimodal approach assesses seven discrete but interactive components--behavior, affect, sensation, imagery, cognition, interpersonal relationships, and drugs/biological factors (BASIC I.D.). Only complex or recalcitrant cases call for the entire seven-pronged range of multimodal interventions. Various case illustrations are offered as examples of how a clinician might proceed when confronted with problems that fall under the general heading of performance anxiety. The main example is of a violinist in a symphony orchestra whose career was in serious jeopardy because of his extreme fear of performing in public. He responded very well to a focused but elaborate desensitization procedure. The hierarchy that was eventually constructed contained many dimensions and subhierarchies featuring interlocking elements that evoked his anxiety. In addition to imaginal systematic desensitization, sessions were devoted to his actual performance in the clinical setting. As a homework assignment, he found it helpful to listen to a long-playing record of an actual rehearsal and to play along with the world-renowned orchestra and conductor. The subsequent disclosure by the client of an important sexual problem was dealt with concomitantly by using a fairly conventional counseling procedure. Therapy required 20 sessions over a 3-month period. PMID:15241811

  11. Performance evaluation of similarity measures for dense multimodal stereovision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaman, Mustafa; Kalkan, Sinan

    2016-05-01

    Multimodal imaging systems have recently been drawing attention in fields such as medical imaging, remote sensing, and video surveillance systems. In such systems, estimating depth has become possible due to the promising progress of multimodal matching techniques. We perform a systematic performance evaluation of similarity measures frequently used in the literature for dense multimodal stereovision. The evaluated measures include mutual information (MI), sum of squared distances, normalized cross-correlation, census transform, local self-similarity (LSS) as well as descriptors adopted to multimodal settings, like scale invariant feature transform (SIFT), speeded-up robust features (SURF), histogram of oriented gradients (HOG), binary robust independent elementary features, and fast retina keypoint (FREAK). We evaluate the measures over datasets we generated, compiled, and provided as a benchmark and compare the performances using the Winner Takes All method. The datasets are (1) synthetically modified four popular pairs from the Middlebury Stereo Dataset (namely, Tsukuba, Venus, Cones, and Teddy) and (2) our own multimodal image pairs acquired using the infrared and the electro-optical cameras of a Kinect device. The results show that MI and HOG provide promising results for multimodal imagery, and FREAK, SURF, SIFT, and LSS can be considered as alternatives depending on the multimodality level and the computational complexity requirements of the intended application.

  12. Performance Evaluation of Multimodal Multifeature Authentication System Using KNN Classification

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopal, Gayathri; Palaniswamy, Ramamoorthy

    2015-01-01

    This research proposes a multimodal multifeature biometric system for human recognition using two traits, that is, palmprint and iris. The purpose of this research is to analyse integration of multimodal and multifeature biometric system using feature level fusion to achieve better performance. The main aim of the proposed system is to increase the recognition accuracy using feature level fusion. The features at the feature level fusion are raw biometric data which contains rich information when compared to decision and matching score level fusion. Hence information fused at the feature level is expected to obtain improved recognition accuracy. However, information fused at feature level has the problem of curse in dimensionality; here PCA (principal component analysis) is used to diminish the dimensionality of the feature sets as they are high dimensional. The proposed multimodal results were compared with other multimodal and monomodal approaches. Out of these comparisons, the multimodal multifeature palmprint iris fusion offers significant improvements in the accuracy of the suggested multimodal biometric system. The proposed algorithm is tested using created virtual multimodal database using UPOL iris database and PolyU palmprint database. PMID:26640813

  13. Towards an intelligent framework for multimodal affective data analysis.

    PubMed

    Poria, Soujanya; Cambria, Erik; Hussain, Amir; Huang, Guang-Bin

    2015-03-01

    An increasingly large amount of multimodal content is posted on social media websites such as YouTube and Facebook everyday. In order to cope with the growth of such so much multimodal data, there is an urgent need to develop an intelligent multi-modal analysis framework that can effectively extract information from multiple modalities. In this paper, we propose a novel multimodal information extraction agent, which infers and aggregates the semantic and affective information associated with user-generated multimodal data in contexts such as e-learning, e-health, automatic video content tagging and human-computer interaction. In particular, the developed intelligent agent adopts an ensemble feature extraction approach by exploiting the joint use of tri-modal (text, audio and video) features to enhance the multimodal information extraction process. In preliminary experiments using the eNTERFACE dataset, our proposed multi-modal system is shown to achieve an accuracy of 87.95%, outperforming the best state-of-the-art system by more than 10%, or in relative terms, a 56% reduction in error rate.

  14. Towards an intelligent framework for multimodal affective data analysis.

    PubMed

    Poria, Soujanya; Cambria, Erik; Hussain, Amir; Huang, Guang-Bin

    2015-03-01

    An increasingly large amount of multimodal content is posted on social media websites such as YouTube and Facebook everyday. In order to cope with the growth of such so much multimodal data, there is an urgent need to develop an intelligent multi-modal analysis framework that can effectively extract information from multiple modalities. In this paper, we propose a novel multimodal information extraction agent, which infers and aggregates the semantic and affective information associated with user-generated multimodal data in contexts such as e-learning, e-health, automatic video content tagging and human-computer interaction. In particular, the developed intelligent agent adopts an ensemble feature extraction approach by exploiting the joint use of tri-modal (text, audio and video) features to enhance the multimodal information extraction process. In preliminary experiments using the eNTERFACE dataset, our proposed multi-modal system is shown to achieve an accuracy of 87.95%, outperforming the best state-of-the-art system by more than 10%, or in relative terms, a 56% reduction in error rate. PMID:25523041

  15. Multimodal Task-Driven Dictionary Learning for Image Classification.

    PubMed

    Bahrampour, Soheil; Nasrabadi, Nasser M; Ray, Asok; Jenkins, William Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Dictionary learning algorithms have been successfully used for both reconstructive and discriminative tasks, where an input signal is represented with a sparse linear combination of dictionary atoms. While these methods are mostly developed for single-modality scenarios, recent studies have demonstrated the advantages of feature-level fusion based on the joint sparse representation of the multimodal inputs. In this paper, we propose a multimodal task-driven dictionary learning algorithm under the joint sparsity constraint (prior) to enforce collaborations among multiple homogeneous/heterogeneous sources of information. In this task-driven formulation, the multimodal dictionaries are learned simultaneously with their corresponding classifiers. The resulting multimodal dictionaries can generate discriminative latent features (sparse codes) from the data that are optimized for a given task such as binary or multiclass classification. Moreover, we present an extension of the proposed formulation using a mixed joint and independent sparsity prior, which facilitates more flexible fusion of the modalities at feature level. The efficacy of the proposed algorithms for multimodal classification is illustrated on four different applications--multimodal face recognition, multi-view face recognition, multi-view action recognition, and multimodal biometric recognition. It is also shown that, compared with the counterpart reconstructive-based dictionary learning algorithms, the task-driven formulations are more computationally efficient in the sense that they can be equipped with more compact dictionaries and still achieve superior performance.

  16. Performance Evaluation of Multimodal Multifeature Authentication System Using KNN Classification.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Gayathri; Palaniswamy, Ramamoorthy

    2015-01-01

    This research proposes a multimodal multifeature biometric system for human recognition using two traits, that is, palmprint and iris. The purpose of this research is to analyse integration of multimodal and multifeature biometric system using feature level fusion to achieve better performance. The main aim of the proposed system is to increase the recognition accuracy using feature level fusion. The features at the feature level fusion are raw biometric data which contains rich information when compared to decision and matching score level fusion. Hence information fused at the feature level is expected to obtain improved recognition accuracy. However, information fused at feature level has the problem of curse in dimensionality; here PCA (principal component analysis) is used to diminish the dimensionality of the feature sets as they are high dimensional. The proposed multimodal results were compared with other multimodal and monomodal approaches. Out of these comparisons, the multimodal multifeature palmprint iris fusion offers significant improvements in the accuracy of the suggested multimodal biometric system. The proposed algorithm is tested using created virtual multimodal database using UPOL iris database and PolyU palmprint database. PMID:26640813

  17. Magnetic Field Sensing Based on Magnetic-Fluid-Clad Multimode-Singlemode-Multimode Fiber Structures

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jiali; Pu, Shengli; Dong, Shaohua; Luo, Longfeng

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic field sensing based on magnetic-fluid-clad multimode-singlemode-multimode fiber structures is proposed and experimentalized. The structures are fabricated out using fiber fusion splicing techniques. The sensing principle is based on the interference between the core mode and cladding modes. Two interference dips are observed in our spectral range. Experimental results indicate that the magnetic field sensing sensitivities of 215 pm/mT and 0.5742 dB/mT are obtained for interference dip around 1595 nm. For interference dip around 1565 nm, the sensitivities are 60.5 pm/mT and 0.4821 dB/mT. The response of temperature is also investigated. The temperature sensitivity for the dip around 1595 nm is obtained to be 9.93 pm/°C. PMID:25317761

  18. Multi-modality molecular imaging for gastric cancer research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jimin; Chen, Xueli; Liu, Junting; Hu, Hao; Qu, Xiaochao; Wang, Fu; Nie, Yongzhan

    2011-12-01

    Because of the ability of integrating the strengths of different modalities and providing fully integrated information, multi-modality molecular imaging techniques provide an excellent solution to detecting and diagnosing earlier cancer, which remains difficult to achieve by using the existing techniques. In this paper, we present an overview of our research efforts on the development of the optical imaging-centric multi-modality molecular imaging platform, including the development of the imaging system, reconstruction algorithms and preclinical biomedical applications. Primary biomedical results show that the developed optical imaging-centric multi-modality molecular imaging platform may provide great potential in the preclinical biomedical applications and future clinical translation.

  19. Investigation on a compact in-line multimode-single-mode-multimode fiber structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Bin; Li, Yang; Liu, Zhi-bo; Feng, Suchun; Bai, Yunlong; Xu, Yao; Jian, Shuisheng

    2016-06-01

    We carried out a detailed investigation on a compact in-line multimode single-mode multimode (MSM) fiber structure. Both theoretical modal and experimental setup were established to demonstrate the transmission characteristics and the corresponding responses of the applied strain and temperature. The proposed structure simply involves a section of the single-mode fiber (SMF) spliced to two sections of multimode fiber (MMF) and lead-in and lead-out SMFs. The excited environment-sensitive cladding modes together with the fundamental mode in the central SMF form a typical Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). We analyzed the transmission characteristics of the different length of the middle SMF and the MMF in detail. In the experiment, we obtained the extinction ratio of the MSM fiber structure based MZI comb spectrum which was up to 20 dB, and sensitivities of 0.7096 pm/με (0-2000 με) and 44.12 pm/°C (10-70 °C), which proved the potential sensing applications of the proposed fiber structure.

  20. Multimodality Imaging of Myocardial Injury and Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Christopher M.; Sinusas, Albert J.; Sosnovik, David E.; French, Brent A.; Bengel, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in cardiovascular molecular imaging have come at a rapid pace over the last several years. Multiple approaches have been taken to better understand the structural, molecular, and cellular events that underlie the progression from myocardial injury to myocardial infarction (MI) and, ultimately, to congestive heart failure. Multimodality molecular imaging including SPECT, PET, cardiac MRI, and optical approaches is offering new insights into the pathophysiology of MI and left ventricular remodeling in small-animal models. Targets that are being probed include, among others, angiotensin receptors, matrix metalloproteinases, integrins, apoptosis, macrophages, and sympathetic innervation. It is only a matter of time before these advances are applied in the clinical setting to improve post-MI prognostication and identify appropriate therapies in patients to prevent the onset of congestive heart failure. PMID:20395347

  1. Disentangling multimodal processes in social categorization.

    PubMed

    Slepian, Michael L

    2015-03-01

    The current work examines the role of sensorimotor processes (manipulating whether visual exposure to hard and soft stimuli encourage sensorimotor simulation) and metaphor processes (assessing whether participants have understanding of a pertinent metaphor: "hard" Republicans and "soft" Democrats) in social categorization. Using new methodology to disassociate these multimodal processes (i.e., semantic, metaphoric, and sensorimotoric), the current work demonstrates that both sensorimotor and metaphor processes, combined, are needed to find an effect upon conceptual processing, providing evidence in support of the combined importance of these two theorized components. When participants comprehended the metaphor of hard Republicans and soft Democrats, and when encouraged to simulate sensorimotor experiences of hard and soft stimuli, those stimuli influenced categorization of faces as Republican and Democrat.

  2. Multimodal interfaces with voice and gesture input

    SciTech Connect

    Milota, A.D.; Blattner, M.M.

    1995-07-20

    The modalities of speech and gesture have different strengths and weaknesses, but combined they create synergy where each modality corrects the weaknesses of the other. We believe that a multimodal system such a one interwining speech and gesture must start from a different foundation than ones which are based solely on pen input. In order to provide a basis for the design of a speech and gesture system, we have examined the research in other disciplines such as anthropology and linguistics. The result of this investigation was a taxonomy that gave us material for the incorporation of gestures whose meanings are largely transparent to the users. This study describes the taxonomy and gives examples of applications to pen input systems.

  3. Managing hyperemesis gravidarum: a multimodal challenge

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Up to 90% of pregnant women experience nausea and vomiting. When prolonged or severe, this is known as hyperemesis gravidarum (HG), which can, in individual cases, be life threatening. In this article the aetiology, diagnosis and treatment strategies will be presented based on a selective literature review. Treatment strategies range from outpatient dietary advice and antiemetic drugs to hospitalization and intravenous (IV) fluid replacement in persistent or severe cases. Alternative methods, such as acupuncture, are not yet evidence based but sometimes have a therapeutic effect. In most cases, the condition is self limiting and subsides by around 20 weeks gestation. More severe forms require medical intervention once other organic causes of nausea and vomiting have been excluded. In addition, a psychosomatic approach is often helpful. In view of its potential complexity, general practitioners and obstetricians should be well informed about HG and therapy should be multimodal. PMID:20633258

  4. Bimodal and multimodal plant biomass particle mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H.

    2013-07-09

    An industrial feedstock of plant biomass particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein the particles are individually characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L, wherein the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces, and wherein the particles in the feedstock are collectively characterized by having a bimodal or multimodal size distribution.

  5. TDRS multimode transponder program. Phase 1: Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cnossen, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    The use of geosynchronous tracking and data relay satellites (TDRS) which can serve both low data rate users at VHF and high data rate users at other frequencies is considered. The effects of radio frequency interference from the earth and of multipath propagation due to reflections from the earth are expected to pose problems for the TDRS system at VHF. Investigations suggest several modulation techniques that offer promise to overcome these problems. This report provides a complete design of a VHF/UHF multimode transponder and its associated ground support equipment. The transponder is designed for installation aboard an aircraft and will demonstrate candidate modulation techniques to provide the required information for the design of an eventual VHF/UHF transponder suitable for installation in a user satellite, capable of operating as part of a TDRS system.

  6. Interactive multi-mode blade impact analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, A.; Cornell, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The theoretical methodology used in developing an analysis for the response of turbine engine fan blades subjected to soft-body (bird) impacts is reported, and the computer program developed using this methodology as its basis is described. This computer program is an outgrowth of two programs that were previously developed for the purpose of studying problems of a similar nature (a 3-mode beam impact analysis and a multi-mode beam impact analysis). The present program utilizes an improved missile model that is interactively coupled with blade motion which is more consistent with actual observations. It takes into account local deformation at the impact area, blade camber effects, and the spreading of the impacted missile mass on the blade surface. In addition, it accommodates plate-type mode shapes. The analysis capability in this computer program represents a significant improvement in the development of the methodology for evaluating potential fan blade materials and designs with regard to foreign object impact resistance.

  7. High-speed spatially multimode atomic memory

    SciTech Connect

    Golubeva, T.; Golubev, Yu.; Mishina, O.; Bramati, A.; Laurat, J.; Giacobino, E.

    2011-05-15

    We study the coherent storage and retrieval of a very short multimode light pulse in an atomic ensemble. We consider a quantum memory process based on the conversion of a signal pulse into a long-lived spin coherence via light matter interaction in an on-resonant {Lambda} -type system. In order to study the writing and reading processes we analytically solve the partial differential equations describing the evolution of the field and of the atomic coherence in time as well as in space. We show how to optimize the process for writing as well as for reading. If the medium length is fixed, for each length, there is an optimal value of the pulse duration. We discuss the information capacity of this memory scheme and we estimate the number of transverse modes that can be stored as a quantum hologram.

  8. Azimut: a multimodal locomotion robotic platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaud, Francois; Letourneau, Dominic; Arsenault, Martin; Bergeron, Yann; Cadrin, Richard; Gagnon, Frederic; Legault, Marc-Antoine; Millette, Mathieu; Pare, Jean-Francois; Tremblay, Marie-Christine; Lepage, Pierre; Morin, Yan; Caron, Serge

    2003-09-01

    Other than from its sensing and processing capabilities, a mobile robotic platform can be limited in its use by its ability to move in the environment. A wheeled robot works well on flat surfaces. Tracks are useful over rough terrains, while legs allow a robot to move over obstacles. In this paper we present a new concept of mobile robot with the objective of combining different locomotion mechanisms on the same platform to increase its locomotion capabilities. After presenting a review of multi-modal robotic platforms, we describe the design of our robot called AZIMUT. AZIMUT combines wheels, legs and tracks to move in three-dimensional environments. The robot is symmetrical and is made of four independent leg-track-wheel articulations. It can move with its articulations up, down or straight, or move sideways without changing the robot's orientation. The robot could be used in surveillance and rescue missions, exploration or operation in hazardous environments.

  9. Fluorescence labeled microbubbles for multimodal imaging.

    PubMed

    Barrefelt, Åsa; Zhao, Ying; Larsson, Malin K; Egri, Gabriella; Kuiper, Raoul V; Hamm, Jörg; Saghafian, Maryam; Caidahl, Kenneth; Brismar, Torkel B; Aspelin, Peter; Heuchel, Rainer; Muhammed, Mamoun; Dähne, Lars; Hassan, Moustapha

    2015-08-28

    Air-filled polyvinyl alcohol microbubbles (PVA-MBs) were recently introduced as a contrast agent for ultrasound imaging. In the present study, we explore the possibility of extending their application in multimodal imaging by labeling them with a near infrared (NIR) fluorophore, VivoTag-680. PVA-MBs were injected intravenously into FVB/N female mice and their dynamic biodistribution over 24 h was determined by 3D-fluorescence imaging co-registered with 3D-μCT imaging, to verify the anatomic location. To further confirm the biodistribution results from in vivo imaging, organs were removed and examined histologically using bright field and fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescence imaging detected PVA-MB accumulation in the lungs within the first 30 min post-injection. Redistribution to a low extent was observed in liver and kidneys at 4 h, and to a high extent mainly in the liver and spleen at 24 h. Histology confirmed PVA-MB localization in lung capillaries and macrophages. In the liver, they were associated with Kupffer cells; in the spleen, they were located mostly within the marginal-zone. Occasional MBs were observed in the kidney glomeruli and interstitium. The potential application of PVA-MBs as a contrast agent was also studied using ultrasound (US) imaging in subcutaneous and orthotopic pancreatic cancer mouse models, to visualize blood flow within the tumor mass. In conclusion, this study showed that PVA-MBs are useful as a contrast agent for multimodal imaging. PMID:26187672

  10. Robust temporal alignment of multimodal cardiac sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perissinotto, Andrea; Queirós, Sandro; Morais, Pedro; Baptista, Maria J.; Monaghan, Mark; Rodrigues, Nuno F.; D'hooge, Jan; Vilaça, João. L.; Barbosa, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Given the dynamic nature of cardiac function, correct temporal alignment of pre-operative models and intraoperative images is crucial for augmented reality in cardiac image-guided interventions. As such, the current study focuses on the development of an image-based strategy for temporal alignment of multimodal cardiac imaging sequences, such as cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or 3D Ultrasound (US). First, we derive a robust, modality-independent signal from the image sequences, estimated by computing the normalized cross-correlation between each frame in the temporal sequence and the end-diastolic frame. This signal is a resembler for the left-ventricle (LV) volume curve over time, whose variation indicates different temporal landmarks of the cardiac cycle. We then perform the temporal alignment of these surrogate signals derived from MRI and US sequences of the same patient through Dynamic Time Warping (DTW), allowing to synchronize both sequences. The proposed framework was evaluated in 98 patients, which have undergone both 3D+t MRI and US scans. The end-systolic frame could be accurately estimated as the minimum of the image-derived surrogate signal, presenting a relative error of 1.6 +/- 1.9% and 4.0 +/- 4.2% for the MRI and US sequences, respectively, thus supporting its association with key temporal instants of the cardiac cycle. The use of DTW reduces the desynchronization of the cardiac events in MRI and US sequences, allowing to temporally align multimodal cardiac imaging sequences. Overall, a generic, fast and accurate method for temporal synchronization of MRI and US sequences of the same patient was introduced. This approach could be straightforwardly used for the correct temporal alignment of pre-operative MRI information and intra-operative US images.

  11. Three-dimensional multimodal image-guidance for neurosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Munger, P.; Comeau, R.; Evans, A.; Olivier, A.; Davey, B.

    1996-04-01

    The authors address the use of multimodality imaging as an aid to the planning and guidance of neurosurgical procedures, and discuss the integration of anatomical (CT and MRI), vascular (DSA), and functional (PET) data for presentation to the surgeon during surgery. The workstation is an enhancement of a commercially available system, and in addition to the guidance offered via a hand-held probe, it incorporates the use of multimodality imaging and adds enhanced realism to the surgeon through the use of a stereoscopic three-dimensional (3-D) image display. The probe may be visualized stereoscopically in single or multimodality images. The integration of multimodality data in this manner provides the surgeon with a complete overview of brain structures on which he is performing surgery, or through which he is passing probes or cannulas, enabling him to avoid critical vessels and/or structures of functional significance.

  12. Multimodal cancer imaging using lanthanide-based upconversion nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongmei; Li, Chunxia; Lin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Multimodal nanoprobes that integrate different imaging modalities in one nano-system could offer synergistic effect over any modality alone to satisfy the higher requirements on the efficiency and accuracy for clinical diagnosis and medical research. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), particularly lanthanide (Ln)-based NPs have been regarded as an ideal building block for constructing multimodal bioprobes due to their fascinating properties. In this review, we first summarize recent advances in the optimizations of existing UCNPs. In particular, we highlight the applications of Ln-based UCNPs for multimodal cancer imaging in vitro and in vivo. The explorations of UCNPs-based multimodal nanoprobes for targeting diagnosis and imaging-guided therapeutics are also presented. Finally, the challenges and perspectives of Ln-based UCNPs in this rapid growing field are discussed. PMID:26293416

  13. Towards a compact fiber laser for multimodal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Bai; Saytashev, Ilyas; Dantus, Marcos

    2014-03-01

    We report on multimodal depth-resolved imaging of unstained living Drosophila Melanogaster larva using sub-50 fs pulses centered at 1060 nm wavelength. Both second harmonic and third harmonic generation imaging modalities are demonstrated.

  14. Registration, segmentation, and visualization of multimodal brain images.

    PubMed

    Viergever, M A; Maintz, J B; Niessen, W J; Noordmans, H J; Pluim, J P; Stokking, R; Vincken, K L

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the studies performed at our institute over the last decade on the processing and visualization of brain images, in the context of international developments in the field. The focus is on multimodal image registration and multimodal visualization, while segmentation is touched upon as a preprocessing step for visualization. The state-of-the-art in these areas is discussed and suggestions for future research are given. PMID:11137791

  15. Teleportation of continuous variable multimode Greeberger Horne Zeilinger entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guangqiang; Zhang, Jingtao; Zeng, Guihua

    2008-11-01

    Quantum teleportation protocols of continuous variable (CV) Greeberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entangled states are proposed, and are generalized to teleportation of arbitrary multimode GHZ entangled states described by Van Loock and Braunstein (2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 3482). Each mode of a multimode entangled state is teleported using a CV EPR entangled pair and classical communication. The analytical expression of fidelity for the multimode Gaussian states which evaluates the teleportation quality is presented. The analytical results show that the fidelity is a function of both the squeezing parameter r, which characterizes the multimode entangled state to be teleported, and the channel parameter p, which characterizes the EPR pairs shared by Alice and Bob. The fidelity increases with increasing p, but decreases with increasing r, i.e., it is more difficult to teleport the more perfect multimode entangled states. The entanglement degree of the teleported multimode entangled states increases with increasing both r and p. In addition, the fact is proved that our teleportation protocol of EPR entangled states using parallel EPR pairs as quantum channels is the best case of the protocol using four-mode entangled states (Adhikari et al 2008 Phys. Rev. A 77 012337).

  16. Multimodal optical imaging for detecting breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Rakesh; Khan, Ashraf; Wirth, Dennis; Kamionek, Michal; Kandil, Dina; Quinlan, Robert; Yaroslavsky, Anna N.

    2012-06-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate wide-field and high-resolution multimodal optical imaging, including polarization, reflectance, and fluorescence for the intraoperative detection of breast cancer. Lumpectomy specimens were stained with 0.05 mg/ml aqueous solution of methylene blue (MB) and imaged. Wide-field reflectance images were acquired between 390 and 750 nm. Wide-field fluorescence images were excited at 640 nm and registered between 660 and 750 nm. High resolution confocal reflectance and fluorescence images were excited at 642 nm. Confocal fluorescence images were acquired between 670 nm and 710 nm. After imaging, the specimens were processed for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histopathology. Histological slides were compared with wide-field and high-resolution optical images to evaluate correlation of tumor boundaries and cellular morphology, respectively. Fluorescence polarization imaging identified the location, size, and shape of the tumor in all the cases investigated. Averaged fluorescence polarization values of tumor were higher as compared to normal tissue. Statistical analysis confirmed the significance of these differences. Fluorescence confocal imaging enabled cellular-level resolution. Evaluation and statistical analysis of MB fluorescence polarization values registered from single tumor and normal cells demonstrated higher fluorescence polarization from cancer. Wide-field high-resolution fluorescence and fluorescence polarization imaging shows promise for intraoperative delineation of breast cancers.

  17. Securing recipiency in workplace meetings: Multimodal practices.

    PubMed

    Ford, Cecilia E; Stickle, Trini

    2012-02-01

    As multiparty interactions with single courses of coordinated action, workplace meetings place particular interactional demands on participants who are not primary speakers (e.g. not chairs) as they work to initiate turns and to interactively coordinate with displays of recipiency from co-participants. Drawing from a corpus of 26 hours of videotaped workplace meetings in a midsized US city, this article reports on multimodal practices - phonetic, prosodic, and bodily-visual - used for coordinating turn transition and for consolidating recipiency in these specialized speech exchange systems. Practices used by self-selecting non-primary speakers as they secure turns in meetings include displays of close monitoring of current speakers' emerging turn structure, displays of heightened interest as current turns approach possible completion, and turn initiation practices designed to pursue and, in a fine-tuned manner, coordinate with displays of recipiency on the parts of other participants as well as from reflexively constructed 'target' recipients. By attending to bodily-visual action, as well as phonetics and prosody, this study contributes to expanding accounts for turn taking beyond traditional word-based grammar (i.e. lexicon and syntax). PMID:24976789

  18. Nanosecond laser damage of optical multimode fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Guido; Krüger, Jörg

    2016-07-01

    For pulse laser materials processing often optical step index and gradient index multimode fibers with core diameters ranging from 100 to 600 μm are used. The design of a high power fiber transmission system must take into account limitations resulting from both surface and volume damage effects. Especially, breakdown at the fiber end faces and selffocusing in the fiber volume critically influence the fiber performance. At least operation charts are desirable to select the appropriate fiber type for given laser parameters. In industry-relevant studies the influence of fiber core diameter and end face preparation on laser-induced (surface) damage thresholds (LIDT) was investigated for frequently used all-silica fiber types (manufacturer LEONI). Experiments on preform material (initial fiber material) and compact specimens (models of the cladding and coating material) accompanied the tests performed in accordance with the relevant LIDT standards ISO 21254-1 and ISO 21254-2 for 1-on-1 and S-on-1 irradiation conditions, respectively. The relation beam diameter vs. LIDT was investigated for fused silica fibers. Additionally, laser-induced (bulk) damage thresholds of fused silica preform material F300 (manufacturer Heraeus) in dependence on external mechanical stress simulating fiber bending were measured. All experiments were performed with 10-ns laser pulses at 1064 and 532 nm wavelength with a Gaussian beam profile.

  19. Multimodal Data Fusion Based on Mutual Information.

    PubMed

    Bramon, Roger; Boada, Imma; Bardera, Anton; Rodríguez, Joaquim; Feixas, Miquel; Puig, Josep; Sbert, Mateu

    2012-09-01

    Multimodal visualization aims at fusing different data sets so that the resulting combination provides more information and understanding to the user. To achieve this aim, we propose a new information-theoretic approach that automatically selects the most informative voxels from two volume data sets. Our fusion criteria are based on the information channel created between the two input data sets that permit us to quantify the information associated with each intensity value. This specific information is obtained from three different ways of decomposing the mutual information of the channel. In addition, an assessment criterion based on the information content of the fused data set can be used to analyze and modify the initial selection of the voxels by weighting the contribution of each data set to the final result. The proposed approach has been integrated in a general framework that allows for the exploration of volumetric data models and the interactive change of some parameters of the fused data set. The proposed approach has been evaluated on different medical data sets with very promising results.

  20. Haptic-Multimodal Flight Control System Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Schutte, Paul C.; Williams, Ralph A.

    2011-01-01

    The rapidly advancing capabilities of autonomous aircraft suggest a future where many of the responsibilities of today s pilot transition to the vehicle, transforming the pilot s job into something akin to driving a car or simply being a passenger. Notionally, this transition will reduce the specialized skills, training, and attention required of the human user while improving safety and performance. However, our experience with highly automated aircraft highlights many challenges to this transition including: lack of automation resilience; adverse human-automation interaction under stress; and the difficulty of developing certification standards and methods of compliance for complex systems performing critical functions traditionally performed by the pilot (e.g., sense and avoid vs. see and avoid). Recognizing these opportunities and realities, researchers at NASA Langley are developing a haptic-multimodal flight control (HFC) system concept that can serve as a bridge between today s state of the art aircraft that are highly automated but have little autonomy and can only be operated safely by highly trained experts (i.e., pilots) to a future in which non-experts (e.g., drivers) can safely and reliably use autonomous aircraft to perform a variety of missions. This paper reviews the motivation and theoretical basis of the HFC system, describes its current state of development, and presents results from two pilot-in-the-loop simulation studies. These preliminary studies suggest the HFC reshapes human-automation interaction in a way well-suited to revolutionary ease-of-use.

  1. Multimodal MRI characterization of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Shen, Q; Watts, L T; Muir, E R; Huang, S; Yang, G-Y; Suarez, J I; Duong, T Q

    2016-03-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We implemented an in-scanner rat model of mild SAH in which blood or vehicle was injected into the cistern magna, and applied multimodal MRI to study the brain prior to, immediately after (5min to 4h), and upto 7days after SAH. Vehicle injection did not change arterial lumen diameter, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), T2, venous signal, vascular reactivity to hypercapnia, or foot-fault scores, but mildly reduce cerebral blood flow (CBF) up to 4h, and open-field activity up to 7days post injection. By contrast, blood injection caused: (i) vasospasm 30min after SAH but not thereafter, (ii) venous abnormalities at 3h and 2days, delayed relative to vasospasm, (iii) reduced basal CBF and to hypercapnia 1-4h but not thereafter, (iv) reduced ADC immediately after SAH but no ADC and T2 changes on days 2 and 7, and (v) reduced open-field activities in both SAH and vehicle animals, but no significant differences in open-field activities and foot-fault tests between groups. Mild SAH exhibited transient and mild hemodynamic disturbances and diffusion changes, but did not show apparent ischemic brain injury nor functional deficits. PMID:26708744

  2. PACS and multimodality in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    D'Asseler, Y; Koole, M; Van Laere, K; Vandenberghe, S; Bouwens, L; Van de Walle, R; Van de Wiele, C; Lemahieu, I; Dierckx, R A

    2000-01-01

    A PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) is a system that is able to store, exchange, display and manipulate images and associated diagnoses from any modality within a hospital in a timely and cost-effective way. Several developments, such as the DICOM standard, fast and convenient networking, and new storage solutions for large amounts of data, make the setup of such a PACS system possible. As the information acquired with various imaging modalities is then available and often complementary, it is desirable for the clinician to have a point-by-point spatial co-registration of images from different modalities in order to enable a synergistic use of the multimodality imaging of a patient for increased diagnostic accuracy. Various types of algorithms are available for the matching of medical images from the same or from different modalities. Co-registration algorithms based on voxel properties consist of a similarity or dissimilarity measure and an iterative or non-iterative method minimizing the dissimilarity or maximizing the similarity between the two images by a transformation of one image relative to the other. PMID:10942990

  3. Multimode Bolometer Development for the PIXIE Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagler, Peter C.; Crowley, Kevin T.; Denis, Kevin L.; Devasia, Archana M.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Kogut, Alan J.; Manos, George; Porter, Scott; Stevenson, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) is an Explorer-class mission concept designed to measure the polarization and absolute intensity of the cosmic microwave background. In the following, we report on the design, fabrication, and performance of the multimode polarization-sensitive bolometers for PIXIE, which are based on silicon thermistors. In particular we focus on several recent advances in the detector design, including the implementation of a scheme to greatly raise the frequencies of the internal vibrational modes of the large-area, low-mass optical absorber structure consisting of a grid of micromachined, ion-implanted silicon wires. With approximately 30 times the absorbing area of the spider-web bolometers used by Planck, the tensioning scheme enables the PIXIE bolometers to be robust in the vibrational and acoustic environment at launch of the space mission. More generally, it could be used to reduce microphonic sensitivity in other types of low temperature detectors. We also report on the performance of the PIXIE bolometers in a dark cryogenic environment.

  4. Practical applications of multimodal NDT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankle, Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    Today's powerful computer workstations enable multimodal nondestructive testing (NDT) to be used for such practical applications as detecting and evaluating defects in structures. Radiography (x ray) and ultrasonics (UT) are examples of two different nondestructive tests, or modalities, which measure characteristics of materials and structures without affecting them. Traditionally, NDT produced an analog result, such as an image on x-ray film, which was difficult to review, interpret, and store. New and more powerful digital NDT techniques, such as industrial x-ray computed tomography (CT), produce digital output that is readily amenable to computerized analysis and storage. Computers are now available with sufficient memory and performance to support interactive processing of digital NDT data sets, which can easily exceed 100 megabytes. Numerous data sets can be stored on small, inexpensive tape cassettes. Failure Analysis Associates, Inc. (FaAA) has developed software-based techniques for using NDT to identify defects in structures. These techniques are also used to visualize the NDT data and to analyze the structural integrity of parts containing NDT-detected defects. FaAA's approach employs state-of-the-art scientific visualization and computer workstation technology. For some types of materials, such as advanced composites, data from different NDT modalities are needed to locate different types of defects. Applications of this technology include assessment of impact damage in composite aerospace structures, investigation of failed assemblies, and evaluation of metallic casting defects.

  5. Multimodal imaging system for dental caries detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Rongguang; Wong, Victor; Marcus, Michael; Burns, Peter; McLaughlin, Paul

    2007-02-01

    Dental caries is a disease in which minerals of the tooth are dissolved by surrounding bacterial plaques. A caries process present for some time may result in a caries lesion. However, if it is detected early enough, the dentist and dental professionals can implement measures to reverse and control caries. Several optical, nonionized methods have been investigated and used to detect dental caries in early stages. However, there is not a method that can singly detect the caries process with both high sensitivity and high specificity. In this paper, we present a multimodal imaging system that combines visible reflectance, fluorescence, and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging. This imaging system is designed to obtain one or more two-dimensional images of the tooth (reflectance and fluorescence images) and a three-dimensional OCT image providing depth and size information of the caries. The combination of two- and three-dimensional images of the tooth has the potential for highly sensitive and specific detection of dental caries.

  6. Multimodal approaches for emotion recognition: a survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebe, Nicu; Cohen, Ira; Gevers, Theo; Huang, Thomas S.

    2004-12-01

    Recent technological advances have enabled human users to interact with computers in ways previously unimaginable. Beyond the confines of the keyboard and mouse, new modalities for human-computer interaction such as voice, gesture, and force-feedback are emerging. Despite important advances, one necessary ingredient for natural interaction is still missing-emotions. Emotions play an important role in human-to-human communication and interaction, allowing people to express themselves beyond the verbal domain. The ability to understand human emotions is desirable for the computer in several applications. This paper explores new ways of human-computer interaction that enable the computer to be more aware of the user's emotional and attentional expressions. We present the basic research in the field and the recent advances into the emotion recognition from facial, voice, and physiological signals, where the different modalities are treated independently. We then describe the challenging problem of multimodal emotion recognition and we advocate the use of probabilistic graphical models when fusing the different modalities. We also discuss the difficult issues of obtaining reliable affective data, obtaining ground truth for emotion recognition, and the use of unlabeled data.

  7. Multimodal approaches for emotion recognition: a survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebe, Nicu; Cohen, Ira; Gevers, Theo; Huang, Thomas S.

    2005-01-01

    Recent technological advances have enabled human users to interact with computers in ways previously unimaginable. Beyond the confines of the keyboard and mouse, new modalities for human-computer interaction such as voice, gesture, and force-feedback are emerging. Despite important advances, one necessary ingredient for natural interaction is still missing-emotions. Emotions play an important role in human-to-human communication and interaction, allowing people to express themselves beyond the verbal domain. The ability to understand human emotions is desirable for the computer in several applications. This paper explores new ways of human-computer interaction that enable the computer to be more aware of the user's emotional and attentional expressions. We present the basic research in the field and the recent advances into the emotion recognition from facial, voice, and physiological signals, where the different modalities are treated independently. We then describe the challenging problem of multimodal emotion recognition and we advocate the use of probabilistic graphical models when fusing the different modalities. We also discuss the difficult issues of obtaining reliable affective data, obtaining ground truth for emotion recognition, and the use of unlabeled data.

  8. Pain Management in Pregnancy: Multimodal Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shalini; Banh, Esther T.; Koury, Katharine; Bhatia, Gaurav; Nandi, Roneeta; Gulur, Padma

    2015-01-01

    Nonobstetrical causes of pain during pregnancy are very common and can be incapacitating if not treated appropriately. Recent reports in the literature show that a significant percentage of pregnant women are treated with opioids during pregnancy. To address common pain conditions that present during pregnancy and the available pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment options, for each of the pain conditions identified, a search using MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases was performed. The quality of the evidence was evaluated in the context of study design. This paper is a narrative summary of the results obtained from individual reviews. There were significant disparities in the studies in terms of design, research and methodology, and outcomes analyzed. There is reasonable evidence available for pharmacological approaches; however, these are also associated with adverse events. Evidence for nonpharmacological approaches is limited and hence their efficacy is unclear, although they do appear to be primarily safe. A multimodal approach using a combination of nonpharmacological and pharmacological options to treat these pain conditions is likely to have the most benefit while limiting risk. Research trials with sound methodology and analysis of outcome data are needed. PMID:26448875

  9. Fluorescent magnetic hybrid nanoprobe for multimodal bioimaging

    PubMed Central

    Bright, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    A fluorescent magnetic hybrid imaging nanoprobe (HINP) was fabricated by conjugation of superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles and visible light-emitting (~600 nm) fluorescent CdTe/CdS quantum dots (QDs). The assembly strategy used the covalent linking of the oxidized dextran shell of magnetic particles to the glutathione ligands of QDs. Synthesized HINP formed stable water-soluble colloidal dispersions. The structure and properties of the particles were characterized by transmission electron and atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering analysis, optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy, and fluorescent imaging. The luminescence imaging region of the nanoprobe was extended to the near-infrared (NIR) (~800 nm) by conjugation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles with synthesized CdHgTe/CdS QDs. Cadmium, mercury based QDs in HINP can be easily replaced by novel water soluble glutathione stabilized AgInS2/ZnS QDs to present a new class of cadmium-free multimodal imaging agents. Observed NIR photoluminescence of fluorescent magnetic nanocomposites supports their use for bioimaging. The developed HINP provides dual-imaging channels for simultaneous optical and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:21597146

  10. Multimodal interaction for human-robot teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Dustin; Schurr, Nathan; Ayers, Jeanine; Rousseau, Jeff; Fertitta, John; Carlin, Alan; Dumond, Danielle

    2013-05-01

    Unmanned ground vehicles have the potential for supporting small dismounted teams in mapping facilities, maintaining security in cleared buildings, and extending the team's reconnaissance and persistent surveillance capability. In order for such autonomous systems to integrate with the team, we must move beyond current interaction methods using heads-down teleoperation which require intensive human attention and affect the human operator's ability to maintain local situational awareness and ensure their own safety. This paper focuses on the design, development and demonstration of a multimodal interaction system that incorporates naturalistic human gestures, voice commands, and a tablet interface. By providing multiple, partially redundant interaction modes, our system degrades gracefully in complex environments and enables the human operator to robustly select the most suitable interaction method given the situational demands. For instance, the human can silently use arm and hand gestures for commanding a team of robots when it is important to maintain stealth. The tablet interface provides an overhead situational map allowing waypoint-based navigation for multiple ground robots in beyond-line-of-sight conditions. Using lightweight, wearable motion sensing hardware either worn comfortably beneath the operator's clothing or integrated within their uniform, our non-vision-based approach enables an accurate, continuous gesture recognition capability without line-of-sight constraints. To reduce the training necessary to operate the system, we designed the interactions around familiar arm and hand gestures.

  11. Multimodality image quantification using the Talairach grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desco, Manuel; Pascau, Javier; Reig, Santiago; Gispert, Juan D.; Santos, Andres; Benito, Carlos; Molina, Vicente; Garcia-Barreno, Pedro

    2001-07-01

    We present an application of the widely accepted anatomical reference of the Talairach atlas as a system for semiautomatic segmentation and analysis of MRI and PET images. The proposed methodology can be seen as a multimodal application where the anatomical information of the MRI is used to build the Talairach grid and a co-registered PET image is superimposed on the same grid. By doing so, the Talairach-normalized tessellation of the brain is directly extended to PET images, allowing for a convenient regional analysis of volume and activity rates of brain structures, defined in the Talairach Atlas as sets of cells. This procedure requires minimal manipulation of brain geometry, thus fully preserving individual brain morphology. To illustrate the potential of the Talairach method for neurological research, we applied our technique in a comparative study of volume and activity rate patterns in MRI and PET images of a group of 51 schizophrenic patients and 24 healthy volunteers. With regard to previous applications of the Talairach grid as an automatic segmentation system, the procedure presented here features two main improvements: the enhanced possibility of measuring metabolic activity in a variety of brain structures including small ones like the caudate nucleus, hippocampus or thalamus; and its conception as an easy-to-use tool developed to work in standard PC Windows environment.

  12. Pseudo-circulator implemented as a multimode fiber coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulota, F.; Bélanger, P.; Leduc, M.; Boudoux, C.; Godbout, N.

    2016-03-01

    We present a linear all-fiber device exhibiting the functionality of a circulator, albeit for multimode fibers. We define a pseudo-circulator as a linear three-port component that transfers most of a multimode light signal from Port 1 to Port 2, and from Port 2 to Port 3. Unlike a traditional circulator which depends on a nonlinear phenomenon to achieve a non-reciprocal behavior, our device is a linear component that seemingly breaks the principle of reciprocity by exploiting the variations of etendue of the multimode fibers in the coupler. The pseudo-circulator is implemented as a 2x2 asymmetric multimode fiber coupler, fabricated using the fusion-tapering technique. The coupler is asymmetric in its transverse fused section. The two multimode fibers differ in area, thus favoring the transfer of light from the smaller to the bigger fiber. The desired difference of area is obtained by tapering one of the fiber before the fusion process. Using this technique, we have successfully fabricated a pseudo-circulator surpassing in efficiency a 50/50 beam-splitter. In all the visible and near-IR spectrum, the transmission ratio exceeds 77% from Port 1 to Port 2, and 80% from Port 2 to Port 3. The excess loss is less than 0.5 dB, regardless of the entry port.

  13. Delivery of ultrashort spatially focused pulses through a multimode fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Delgado, Edgar E.; Papadopoulos, Ioannis N.; Farahi, Salma; Psaltis, Demetri; Moser, Christophe

    2015-08-01

    Multimode optical fibers potentially allow the transmission of larger amounts of information than their single mode counterparts because of their high number of supported modes. However, propagation of a light pulse through a multimode fiber suffers from spatial distortions due to the superposition of the various exited modes and from time broadening due to modal dispersion. We present a method based on digital phase conjugation to selectively excite in a multimode fiber specific optical fiber modes that follow similar optical paths as they travel through the fiber. The excited modes interfere constructively at the fiber output generating an ultrashort spatially focused pulse. The excitation of a limited number of modes following similar optical paths limits modal dispersion, allowing the transmission of the ultrashort pulse. We have experimentally demonstrated the delivery of a focused spot of pulse width equal to 500 fs through a 30 cm, 200 micrometer core step index multimode fiber. The results of this study show that two-photon imaging capability can be added to ultra-thin lensless endoscopy using commercial multimode fibers.

  14. Recent Advances in Higher-order Multimodal Biomedical Imaging Agents

    PubMed Central

    Rieffel, James; Chitgupi, Upendra

    2015-01-01

    Advances in biomedical imaging have spurred the development of integrated multimodal scanners, usually capable of two simultaneous imaging modes. The long-term vision of higher-order multimodality is to improve diagnostics or guidance through analysis of complementary, data-rich, co-registered images. Synergies achieved through combined modalities could enable researchers to better track diverse physiological and structural events, analyze biodistribution and treatment efficacy, and compare established and emerging modalities. Higher-order multimodal approaches stand to benefit from molecular imaging probes and in recent years, contrast agents that have hypermodal characteristics have increasingly been reported in preclinical studies. Given the chemical requirements for contrast agents representing various modalities to be integrated into a single entity, higher-order multimodal agents reported so far tend to be of nanoparticulate form. To date, the majority of reported nanoparticles have included components that are active for magnetic resonance. Herein, we review recent progress in higher-order multimodal imaging agents, which span a range of material and structural classes, that have demonstrated utility in three (or more) imaging modalities. PMID:26185099

  15. Multimodal Spectroscopic Study of Amyloid Fibril Polymorphism.

    PubMed

    VandenAkker, Corianne C; Schleeger, Michael; Bruinen, Anne L; Deckert-Gaudig, Tanja; Velikov, Krassimir P; Heeren, Ron M A; Deckert, Volker; Bonn, Mischa; Koenderink, Gijsje H

    2016-09-01

    Amyloid fibrils are a large class of self-assembled protein aggregates that are formed from unstructured peptides and unfolded proteins. The fibrils are characterized by a universal β-sheet core stabilized by hydrogen bonds, but the molecular structure of the peptide subunits exposed on the fibril surface is variable. Here we show that multimodal spectroscopy using a range of bulk- and surface-sensitive techniques provides a powerful way to dissect variations in the molecular structure of polymorphic amyloid fibrils. As a model system, we use fibrils formed by the milk protein β-lactoglobulin, whose morphology can be tuned by varying the protein concentration during formation. We investigate the differences in the molecular structure and composition between long, straight fibrils versus short, wormlike fibrils. We show using mass spectrometry that the peptide composition of the two fibril types is similar. The overall molecular structure of the fibrils probed with various bulk-sensitive spectroscopic techniques shows a dominant contribution of the β-sheet core but no difference in structure between straight and wormlike fibrils. However, when probing specifically the surface of the fibrils with nanometer resolution using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS), we find that both fibril types exhibit a heterogeneous surface structure with mainly unordered or α-helical structures and that the surface of long, straight fibrils contains markedly more β-sheet structure than the surface of short, wormlike fibrils. This finding is consistent with previous surface-specific vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopic results ( VandenAkker et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. , 2011 , 133 , 18030 - 18033 , DOI: 10.1021/ja206513r ). In conclusion, only advanced vibrational spectroscopic techniques sensitive to surface structure such as TERS and VSFG are able to reveal the difference in structure that underlies the distinct morphology and rigidity of different amyloid

  16. Driver drowsiness detection using multimodal sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Elena O.; Aarabi, Parham; Philiastides, Marios G.; Mohajer, Keyvan; Emami, Majid

    2004-04-01

    This paper proposes a multi-modal sensor fusion algorithm for the estimation of driver drowsiness. Driver sleepiness is believed to be responsible for more than 30% of passenger car accidents and for 4% of all accident fatalities. In commercial vehicles, drowsiness is blamed for 58% of single truck accidents and 31% of commercial truck driver fatalities. This work proposes an innovative automatic sleep-onset detection system. Using multiple sensors, the driver"s body is studied as a mechanical structure of springs and dampeners. The sleep-detection system consists of highly sensitive triple-axial accelerometers to monitor the driver"s upper body in 3-D. The subject is modeled as a linear time-variant (LTV) system. An LMS adaptive filter estimation algorithm generates the transfer function (i.e. weight coefficients) for this LTV system. Separate coefficients are generated for the awake and asleep states of the subject. These coefficients are then used to train a neural network. Once trained, the neural network classifies the condition of the driver as either awake or asleep. The system has been tested on a total of 8 subjects. The tests were conducted on sleep-deprived individuals for the sleep state and on fully awake individuals for the awake state. When trained and tested on the same subject, the system detected sleep and awake states of the driver with a success rate of 95%. When the system was trained on three subjects and then retested on a fourth "unseen" subject, the classification rate dropped to 90%. Furthermore, it was attempted to correlate driver posture and sleepiness by observing how car vibrations propagate through a person"s body. Eight additional subjects were studied for this purpose. The results obtained in this experiment proved inconclusive which was attributed to significant differences in the individual habitual postures.

  17. High resolution multimodal clinical ophthalmic imaging system.

    PubMed

    Mujat, Mircea; Ferguson, R Daniel; Patel, Ankit H; Iftimia, Nicusor; Lue, Niyom; Hammer, Daniel X

    2010-05-24

    We developed a multimodal adaptive optics (AO) retinal imager which is the first to combine high performance AO-corrected scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and swept source Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) imaging modes in a single compact clinical prototype platform. Such systems are becoming ever more essential to vision research and are expected to prove their clinical value for diagnosis of retinal diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and retinitis pigmentosa. The SSOCT channel operates at a wavelength of 1 microm for increased penetration and visualization of the choriocapillaris and choroid, sites of major disease activity for DR and wet AMD. This AO system is designed for use in clinical populations; a dual deformable mirror (DM) configuration allows simultaneous low- and high-order aberration correction over a large range of refractions and ocular media quality. The system also includes a wide field (33 deg.) line scanning ophthalmoscope (LSO) for initial screening, target identification, and global orientation, an integrated retinal tracker (RT) to stabilize the SLO, OCT, and LSO imaging fields in the presence of lateral eye motion, and a high-resolution LCD-based fixation target for presentation of visual cues. The system was tested in human subjects without retinal disease for performance optimization and validation. We were able to resolve and quantify cone photoreceptors across the macula to within approximately 0.5 deg (approximately 100-150 microm) of the fovea, image and delineate ten retinal layers, and penetrate to resolve features deep into the choroid. The prototype presented here is the first of a new class of powerful flexible imaging platforms that will provide clinicians and researchers with high-resolution, high performance adaptive optics imaging to help guide therapies, develop new drugs, and improve patient outcomes.

  18. Multimodality Local Therapy for Retroperitoneal Sarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Paryani, Nitesh N.; Zlotecki, Robert A.; Swanson, Erika L.; Morris, Christopher G.; Grobmyer, Stephen R.; Hochwald, Steven N.; Marcus, Robert B.; Indelicato, Daniel J.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Soft-tissue sarcomas of the retroperitoneum are rare tumors comprising less than 1% of all malignancies. Although surgery continues as the mainstay of treatment, the large size of these tumors coupled with their proximity to critical structures make resection with wide margins difficult to achieve. The role and timing of radiotherapy are controversial. This study updates our institutional experience using multimodality local therapy for resectable retroperitoneal sarcoma and identifies prognostic factors impacting disease control and survival. Methods and Materials: Between 1974 and 2007, 58 patients with nonmetastatic retroperitoneal sarcoma were treated with surgery and radiation at University of Florida. The median age at radiotherapy was 57 years old (range, 18-80 years). Forty-two patients received preoperative radiotherapy and 16 received postoperative radiotherapy. Nineteen patients received 1.8 Gy once daily and 39 patients received 1.2 Gy twice daily. Variables analyzed for prognostic value included age, grade, kidney involvement, histology, de novo versus recurrent presentation, tumor diameter, margin status, radiotherapy sequencing (preoperative vs. postoperative), total radiation dose, fractionation scheme, and treatment era. Results: The 5-year overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local control rates were 49%, 58%, and 62%, respectively. Nearly two-thirds of disease failures involved a component of local progression. On multivariate analysis, only margin status was significantly associated with improved 5-year local control (85%, negative margins; 63%, microscopic positive margins; 0%, gross positive margins; p < 0.0001) and 5-year overall survival (64%, negative margins; 56%, microscopic positive margins; 13%, gross positive margins; p = 0.0012). Thirty-one Grade 3 or greater toxicities were observed in 22 patients, including two treatment-related deaths (3%). Conclusion: For retroperitoneal sarcoma, local control remains a

  19. Automatic parameter selection for multimodal image registration.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Dieter A; Daum, Volker; Hornegger, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    Over the past ten years similarity measures based on intensity distributions have become state-of-the-art in automatic multimodal image registration. An implementation for clinical usage has to support a plurality of images. However, a generally applicable parameter configuration for the number and sizes of histogram bins, optimal Parzen-window kernel widths or background thresholds cannot be found. This explains why various research groups present partly contradictory empirical proposals for these parameters. This paper proposes a set of data-driven estimation schemes for a parameter-free implementation that eliminates major caveats of heuristic trial and error. We present the following novel approaches: a new coincidence weighting scheme to reduce the influence of background noise on the similarity measure in combination with Max-Lloyd requantization, and a tradeoff for the automatic estimation of the number of histogram bins. These methods have been integrated into a state-of-the-art rigid registration that is based on normalized mutual information and applied to CT-MR, PET-MR, and MR-MR image pairs of the RIRE 2.0 database. We compare combinations of the proposed techniques to a standard implementation using default parameters, which can be found in the literature, and to a manual registration by a medical expert. Additionally, we analyze the effects of various histogram sizes, sampling rates, and error thresholds for the number of histogram bins. The comparison of the parameter selection techniques yields 25 approaches in total, with 114 registrations each. The number of bins has no significant influence on the proposed implementation that performs better than both the manual and the standard method in terms of acceptance rates and target registration error (TRE). The overall mean TRE is 2.34 mm compared to 2.54 mm for the manual registration and 6.48 mm for a standard implementation. Our results show a significant TRE reduction for distortion

  20. Multimodal Representations of Identity in the English-as-an-Additional-Language Classroom in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kajee, Leila

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the multimodal engagement of English-as-an-additional-language (EAL) students in a classroom in Johannesburg. Within a social semiotic framework, and using constructions of design and identity to understand the students' multimodal engagement, the paper argues that multimodal representations offer EAL students from…

  1. Multimodality, Ethnodrama, and the Preparation of Pre-Service Teachers of Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Given the prevalence of multimodal texts in today's world, it is not surprising that adolescent literacies are as dynamic, multimodal and visual as the texts with which they interact. As Kress & Van Leeuwen (1996) have outlined, the multimodal texts that make up a large percentage of our world consist of a range of modes (auditory,…

  2. New Technologies, New Possibilities for the Arts and Multimodality in English Language Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Wendy R.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the arts, multimodality, and new technologies in English language arts. It then turns to the example of the illuminated text--a multimodal book report consisting of animated text, music, and images--to consider how art, multimodality, and technology can work together to support students' reading of literature and inspire…

  3. The Work of Comics Collaborations: Considerations of Multimodal Composition for Writing Scholarship and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Molly J.

    2015-01-01

    Though multimodality is increasingly incorporated into our pedagogies and scholarship, explorations of collaborative multimodal composition are lacking. Existing literature on collaborative writing focuses predominately on texts either composed in singular modes or by a single author, neglecting the ways in which multimodal texts are composed…

  4. A multimodal location and routing model for hazardous materials transportation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuanchang; Lu, Wei; Wang, Wen; Quadrifoglio, Luca

    2012-08-15

    The recent US Commodity Flow Survey data suggest that transporting hazardous materials (HAZMAT) often involves multiple modes, especially for long-distance transportation. However, not much research has been conducted on HAZMAT location and routing on a multimodal transportation network. Most existing HAZMAT location and routing studies focus exclusively on single mode (either highways or railways). Motivated by the lack of research on multimodal HAZMAT location and routing and the fact that there is an increasing demand for it, this research proposes a multimodal HAZMAT model that simultaneously optimizes the locations of transfer yards and transportation routes. The developed model is applied to two case studies of different network sizes to demonstrate its applicability. The results are analyzed and suggestions for future research are provided.

  5. A Multimodal User Authentication System Using Faces and Gestures

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyunsoek; Park, Hyeyoung

    2015-01-01

    As a novel approach to perform user authentication, we propose a multimodal biometric system that uses faces and gestures obtained from a single vision sensor. Unlike typical multimodal biometric systems using physical information, the proposed system utilizes gesture video signals combined with facial images. Whereas physical information such as face, fingerprints, and iris is fixed and not changeable, behavioral information such as gestures and signatures can be freely changed by the user, similar to a password. Therefore, it can be a countermeasure when the physical information is exposed. We aim to investigate the potential possibility of using gestures as a signal for biometric system and the robustness of the proposed multimodal user authentication system. Through computational experiments on a public database, we confirm that gesture information can help to improve the authentication performance. PMID:26247018

  6. Joint sparse representation for robust multimodal biometrics recognition.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, Sumit; Patel, Vishal M; Nasrabadi, Nasser M; Chellappa, Rama

    2014-01-01

    Traditional biometric recognition systems rely on a single biometric signature for authentication. While the advantage of using multiple sources of information for establishing the identity has been widely recognized, computational models for multimodal biometrics recognition have only recently received attention. We propose a multimodal sparse representation method, which represents the test data by a sparse linear combination of training data, while constraining the observations from different modalities of the test subject to share their sparse representations. Thus, we simultaneously take into account correlations as well as coupling information among biometric modalities. A multimodal quality measure is also proposed to weigh each modality as it gets fused. Furthermore, we also kernelize the algorithm to handle nonlinearity in data. The optimization problem is solved using an efficient alternative direction method. Various experiments show that the proposed method compares favorably with competing fusion-based methods.

  7. Students' Multimodal Construction of the Work-Energy Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Kok-Sing; Chee Tan, Seng; Yeo, Jennifer

    2011-09-01

    This article examines the role of multimodalities in representing the concept of work-energy by studying the collaborative discourse of a group of ninth-grade physics students engaging in an inquiry-based instruction. Theorising a scientific concept as a network of meaning relationships across semiotic modalities situated in human activity, this article analyses the students' interactions through their use of natural language, mathematical symbolism, depiction, and gestures, and examines the intertextual meanings made through the integration of these modalities. Results indicate that the thematic integration of multimodalities is both difficult and necessary for students in order to construct a scientific understanding that is congruent with the physics curriculum. More significantly, the difficulties in multimodal integration stem from the subtle differences in the categorical, quantitative, and spatial meanings of the work-energy concept whose contrasts are often not made explicit to the students. The implications of these analyses and findings for science teaching and educational research are discussed.

  8. A Multi-Sample Standoff Multimodal Biometric System

    SciTech Connect

    Barstow, Del R; Patlolla, Dilip Reddy; Mann, Christopher J; Boehnen, Chris Bensing

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The data captured by existing standoff biometric systems typically has lower biometric recognition performance than their close range counterparts due to imaging challenges, pose challenges, and other factors. To assist in overcoming these limitations systems typically perform in a multi-modal capacity such as Honeywell s Combined Face and Iris (CFAIRS) [21] system. While this improves the systems performance, standoff systems have yet to be proven as accurate as their close range equivalents. We will present a standoff system capable of operating up to 7 meters in range. Unlike many systems such as the CFAIRS our system captures high quality 12 MP video allowing for a multi-sample as well as multi-modal comparison. We found that for standoff systems multi-sample improved performance more than multi-modal. For a small test group of 50 subjects we were able to achieve 100% rank one recognition performance with our system.

  9. Multimode model for projective photon-counting measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Dantan, Aurelien; Grangier, Philippe; Wubs, Martijn; Soerensen, Anders S.

    2009-07-15

    We present a general model to account for the multimode nature of the quantum electromagnetic field in projective photon-counting measurements. We focus on photon-subtraction experiments, where non-Gaussian states are produced conditionally. These are useful states for continuous-variable quantum-information processing. We present a general method called mode reduction that reduces the multimode model to an effective two-mode problem. We apply this method to a multimode model describing broadband parametric down-conversion, thereby improving the analysis of existing experimental results. The main improvement is that spatial and frequency filters before the photon detector are taken into account explicitly. We find excellent agreement with previously published experimental results, using fewer free parameters than before, and discuss the implications of our analysis for the optimized production of states with negative Wigner functions.

  10. Multimodality Image Fusion-Guided Procedures: Technique, Accuracy, and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Kruecker, Jochen; Kadoury, Samuel; Kobeiter, Hicham; Venkatesan, Aradhana M. Levy, Elliot Wood, Bradford J.

    2012-10-15

    Personalized therapies play an increasingly critical role in cancer care: Image guidance with multimodality image fusion facilitates the targeting of specific tissue for tissue characterization and plays a role in drug discovery and optimization of tailored therapies. Positron-emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) may offer additional information not otherwise available to the operator during minimally invasive image-guided procedures, such as biopsy and ablation. With use of multimodality image fusion for image-guided interventions, navigation with advanced modalities does not require the physical presence of the PET, MRI, or CT imaging system. Several commercially available methods of image-fusion and device navigation are reviewed along with an explanation of common tracking hardware and software. An overview of current clinical applications for multimodality navigation is provided.

  11. Novel technique for mode selection in a multimode fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Daniel, J M O; Chan, J S P; Kim, J W; Sahu, J K; Ibsen, M; Clarkson, W A

    2011-06-20

    A simple technique for transverse mode selection in a large-mode-area (multimode) fiber laser is described. The technique exploits the different spectral responses of feedback elements based on a fiber Bragg grating and a volume Bragg grating to achieve wavelength-dependent mode filtering. This approach has been applied to a cladding-pumped thulium-doped fiber laser with a multimode core to achieve a single-spatial-mode output beam with a beam propagation factor (M2) of 1.05 at 1923 nm. Without mode selection the free-running fiber laser has a multimode output beam with an M2 parameter of 3.3. Selective excitation of higher order modes is also possible via the technique and preliminary results for laser oscillation on the LP11 mode are also discussed along with the prospects for scaling to higher power levels.

  12. Quantitative multimodality imaging in cancer research and therapy.

    PubMed

    Yankeelov, Thomas E; Abramson, Richard G; Quarles, C Chad

    2014-11-01

    Advances in hardware and software have enabled the realization of clinically feasible, quantitative multimodality imaging of tissue pathophysiology. Earlier efforts relating to multimodality imaging of cancer have focused on the integration of anatomical and functional characteristics, such as PET-CT and single-photon emission CT (SPECT-CT), whereas more-recent advances and applications have involved the integration of multiple quantitative, functional measurements (for example, multiple PET tracers, varied MRI contrast mechanisms, and PET-MRI), thereby providing a more-comprehensive characterization of the tumour phenotype. The enormous amount of complementary quantitative data generated by such studies is beginning to offer unique insights into opportunities to optimize care for individual patients. Although important technical optimization and improved biological interpretation of multimodality imaging findings are needed, this approach can already be applied informatively in clinical trials of cancer therapeutics using existing tools. These concepts are discussed herein.

  13. A Multimodal User Authentication System Using Faces and Gestures.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyunsoek; Park, Hyeyoung

    2015-01-01

    As a novel approach to perform user authentication, we propose a multimodal biometric system that uses faces and gestures obtained from a single vision sensor. Unlike typical multimodal biometric systems using physical information, the proposed system utilizes gesture video signals combined with facial images. Whereas physical information such as face, fingerprints, and iris is fixed and not changeable, behavioral information such as gestures and signatures can be freely changed by the user, similar to a password. Therefore, it can be a countermeasure when the physical information is exposed. We aim to investigate the potential possibility of using gestures as a signal for biometric system and the robustness of the proposed multimodal user authentication system. Through computational experiments on a public database, we confirm that gesture information can help to improve the authentication performance. PMID:26247018

  14. A multimodal location and routing model for hazardous materials transportation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuanchang; Lu, Wei; Wang, Wen; Quadrifoglio, Luca

    2012-08-15

    The recent US Commodity Flow Survey data suggest that transporting hazardous materials (HAZMAT) often involves multiple modes, especially for long-distance transportation. However, not much research has been conducted on HAZMAT location and routing on a multimodal transportation network. Most existing HAZMAT location and routing studies focus exclusively on single mode (either highways or railways). Motivated by the lack of research on multimodal HAZMAT location and routing and the fact that there is an increasing demand for it, this research proposes a multimodal HAZMAT model that simultaneously optimizes the locations of transfer yards and transportation routes. The developed model is applied to two case studies of different network sizes to demonstrate its applicability. The results are analyzed and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:22633882

  15. Spectral Multimodal Hashing and Its Application to Multimedia Retrieval.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Yi; Gao, Yue; Yeung, Dit-Yan; Zha, Hongyuan; Li, Xuelong

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, multimedia retrieval has sparked much research interest in the multimedia, pattern recognition, and data mining communities. Although some attempts have been made along this direction, performing fast multimodal search at very large scale still remains a major challenge in the area. While hashing-based methods have recently achieved promising successes in speeding-up large-scale similarity search, most existing methods are only designed for uni-modal data, making them unsuitable for multimodal multimedia retrieval. In this paper, we propose a new hashing-based method for fast multimodal multimedia retrieval. The method is based on spectral analysis of the correlation matrix of different modalities. We also develop an efficient algorithm that learns some parameters from the data distribution for obtaining the binary codes. We empirically compare our method with some state-of-the-art methods on two real-world multimedia data sets.

  16. Joint sparse representation for robust multimodal biometrics recognition.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, Sumit; Patel, Vishal M; Nasrabadi, Nasser M; Chellappa, Rama

    2014-01-01

    Traditional biometric recognition systems rely on a single biometric signature for authentication. While the advantage of using multiple sources of information for establishing the identity has been widely recognized, computational models for multimodal biometrics recognition have only recently received attention. We propose a multimodal sparse representation method, which represents the test data by a sparse linear combination of training data, while constraining the observations from different modalities of the test subject to share their sparse representations. Thus, we simultaneously take into account correlations as well as coupling information among biometric modalities. A multimodal quality measure is also proposed to weigh each modality as it gets fused. Furthermore, we also kernelize the algorithm to handle nonlinearity in data. The optimization problem is solved using an efficient alternative direction method. Various experiments show that the proposed method compares favorably with competing fusion-based methods. PMID:24231870

  17. Multimodal cues improve prey localization under complex environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rhebergen, F.; Taylor, R. C.; Ryan, M. J.; Page, R. A.; Halfwerk, W.

    2015-01-01

    Predators often eavesdrop on sexual displays of their prey. These displays can provide multimodal cues that aid predators, but the benefits in attending to them should depend on the environmental sensory conditions under which they forage. We assessed whether bats hunting for frogs use multimodal cues to locate their prey and whether their use varies with ambient conditions. We used a robotic set-up mimicking the sexual display of a male túngara frog (Physalaemus pustulosus) to test prey assessment by fringe-lipped bats (Trachops cirrhosus). These predatory bats primarily use sound of the frog's call to find their prey, but the bats also use echolocation cues returning from the frog's dynamically moving vocal sac. In the first experiment, we show that multimodal cues affect attack behaviour: bats made narrower flank attack angles on multimodal trials compared with unimodal trials during which they could only rely on the sound of the frog. In the second experiment, we explored the bat's use of prey cues in an acoustically more complex environment. Túngara frogs often form mixed-species choruses with other frogs, including the hourglass frog (Dendropsophus ebraccatus). Using a multi-speaker set-up, we tested bat approaches and attacks on the robofrog under three different levels of acoustic complexity: no calling D. ebraccatus males, two calling D. ebraccatus males and five D. ebraccatus males. We found that bats are more directional in their approach to the robofrog when more D. ebraccatus males were calling. Thus, bats seemed to benefit more from multimodal cues when confronted with increased levels of acoustic complexity in their foraging environments. Our data have important consequences for our understanding of the evolution of multimodal sexual displays as they reveal how environmental conditions can alter the natural selection pressures acting on them. PMID:26336176

  18. Multimodal cues improve prey localization under complex environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Rhebergen, F; Taylor, R C; Ryan, M J; Page, R A; Halfwerk, W

    2015-09-01

    Predators often eavesdrop on sexual displays of their prey. These displays can provide multimodal cues that aid predators, but the benefits in attending to them should depend on the environmental sensory conditions under which they forage. We assessed whether bats hunting for frogs use multimodal cues to locate their prey and whether their use varies with ambient conditions. We used a robotic set-up mimicking the sexual display of a male túngara frog (Physalaemus pustulosus) to test prey assessment by fringe-lipped bats (Trachops cirrhosus). These predatory bats primarily use sound of the frog's call to find their prey, but the bats also use echolocation cues returning from the frog's dynamically moving vocal sac. In the first experiment, we show that multimodal cues affect attack behaviour: bats made narrower flank attack angles on multimodal trials compared with unimodal trials during which they could only rely on the sound of the frog. In the second experiment, we explored the bat's use of prey cues in an acoustically more complex environment. Túngara frogs often form mixed-species choruses with other frogs, including the hourglass frog (Dendropsophus ebraccatus). Using a multi-speaker set-up, we tested bat approaches and attacks on the robofrog under three different levels of acoustic complexity: no calling D. ebraccatus males, two calling D. ebraccatus males and five D. ebraccatus males. We found that bats are more directional in their approach to the robofrog when more D. ebraccatus males were calling. Thus, bats seemed to benefit more from multimodal cues when confronted with increased levels of acoustic complexity in their foraging environments. Our data have important consequences for our understanding of the evolution of multimodal sexual displays as they reveal how environmental conditions can alter the natural selection pressures acting on them. PMID:26336176

  19. Design, Performance and Optimization for Multimodal Radar Operation

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Surendra S.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Rangaswamy, Muralidhar

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the underlying methodology behind an adaptive multimodal radar sensor that is capable of progressively optimizing its range resolution depending upon the target scattering features. It consists of a test-bed that enables the generation of linear frequency modulated waveforms of various bandwidths. This paper discusses a theoretical approach to optimizing the bandwidth used by the multimodal radar. It also discusses the various experimental results obtained from measurement. The resolution predicted from theory agrees quite well with that obtained from experiments for different target arrangements.

  20. Multimodal medical information retrieval with unsupervised rank fusion.

    PubMed

    Mourão, André; Martins, Flávio; Magalhães, João

    2015-01-01

    Modern medical information retrieval systems are paramount to manage the insurmountable quantities of clinical data. These systems empower health care experts in the diagnosis of patients and play an important role in the clinical decision process. However, the ever-growing heterogeneous information generated in medical environments poses several challenges for retrieval systems. We propose a medical information retrieval system with support for multimodal medical case-based retrieval. The system supports medical information discovery by providing multimodal search, through a novel data fusion algorithm, and term suggestions from a medical thesaurus. Our search system compared favorably to other systems in 2013 ImageCLEFMedical. PMID:24909951

  1. Multi-mode entangled states represented as Grassmannian polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleki, Y.

    2016-09-01

    We introduce generalized Grassmannian representatives of multi-mode state vectors. By implementing the fundamental properties of Grassmann coherent states, we map the Hilbert space of the finite-dimensional multi-mode states to the space of some Grassmannian polynomial functions. These Grassmannian polynomials form a well-defined space in the framework of Grassmann variables; namely Grassmannian representative space. Therefore, a quantum state can be uniquely defined and determined by an element of Grassmannian representative space. Furthermore, the Grassmannian representatives of some maximally entangled states are considered, and it is shown that there is a tight connection between the entanglement of the states and their Grassmannian representatives.

  2. Multimodal Imaging of the White Dot Syndromes and Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Knickelbein, Jared E; Sen, H Nida

    2016-01-01

    The white dot syndromes encompass a group of rare posterior uveitis conditions that are characterized by outer retinal and/or choroidal hypopigmented lesions that are thought to be inflammatory in nature. The size, shape, and location of lesions in the fundus aid in differentiating these conditions. Multimodal imaging, including modalities such as fundus autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography, among others, has become integral in diagnosing and monitoring many of the white dot syndromes. Furthermore, multimodal imaging modalities have provided insights into the pathogenesis and exact sites within the retina and choroid affected by white dot syndromes. PMID:27482471

  3. Multi-modality neuro-monitoring: conventional clinical trial design.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, Alexandros L; Palesch, Yuko Y; Zygun, David; Hemphill, J Claude; Robertson, Claudia S; Leroux, Peter D; Suarez, Jose I

    2015-06-01

    Multi-modal monitoring has become an integral part of neurointensive care. However, our approach is at this time neither standardized nor backed by data from randomized controlled trials. The goal of the second Neurocritical Care Research Conference was to discuss research priorities in multi-modal monitoring, what research tools are available, as well as the latest advances in clinical trial design. This section of the meeting was focused on how such a trial should be designed so as to maximize yield and avoid mistakes of the past.

  4. Osm-Oriented Method of Multimodal Route Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Wu, Q.; Chen, L.; Xiong, W.; Jing, N.

    2015-07-01

    With the increasing pervasiveness of basic facilitate of transportation and information, the need of multimodal route planning is becoming more essential in the fields of communication and transportation, urban planning, logistics management, etc. This article mainly described an OSM-oriented method of multimodal route planning. Firstly, it introduced how to extract the information we need from OSM data and build proper network model and storage model; then it analysed the accustomed cost standard adopted by most travellers; finally, we used shortest path algorithm to calculate the best route with multiple traffic means.

  5. Multimodal medical information retrieval with unsupervised rank fusion.

    PubMed

    Mourão, André; Martins, Flávio; Magalhães, João

    2015-01-01

    Modern medical information retrieval systems are paramount to manage the insurmountable quantities of clinical data. These systems empower health care experts in the diagnosis of patients and play an important role in the clinical decision process. However, the ever-growing heterogeneous information generated in medical environments poses several challenges for retrieval systems. We propose a medical information retrieval system with support for multimodal medical case-based retrieval. The system supports medical information discovery by providing multimodal search, through a novel data fusion algorithm, and term suggestions from a medical thesaurus. Our search system compared favorably to other systems in 2013 ImageCLEFMedical.

  6. Multi-modality neuro-monitoring: conventional clinical trial design.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, Alexandros L; Palesch, Yuko Y; Zygun, David; Hemphill, J Claude; Robertson, Claudia S; Leroux, Peter D; Suarez, Jose I

    2015-06-01

    Multi-modal monitoring has become an integral part of neurointensive care. However, our approach is at this time neither standardized nor backed by data from randomized controlled trials. The goal of the second Neurocritical Care Research Conference was to discuss research priorities in multi-modal monitoring, what research tools are available, as well as the latest advances in clinical trial design. This section of the meeting was focused on how such a trial should be designed so as to maximize yield and avoid mistakes of the past. PMID:25832350

  7. Numerical modelling of multimode fibre-optic communication lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidelnikov, O. S.; Sygletos, S.; Ferreira, F.; Fedoruk, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    The results of numerical modelling of nonlinear propagation of an optical signal in multimode fibres with a small differential group delay are presented. It is found that the dependence of the error vector magnitude (EVM) on the differential group delay can be reduced by increasing the number of ADC samples per symbol in the numerical implementation of the differential group delay compensation algorithm in the receiver. The possibility of using multimode fibres with a small differential group delay for data transmission in modern digital communication systems is demonstrated. It is shown that with increasing number of modes the strong coupling regime provides a lower EVM level than the weak coupling one.

  8. Identifying environmental sounds: a multimodal mapping study

    PubMed Central

    Tomasino, Barbara; Canderan, Cinzia; Marin, Dario; Maieron, Marta; Gremese, Michele; D'Agostini, Serena; Fabbro, Franco; Skrap, Miran

    2015-01-01

    Our environment is full of auditory events such as warnings or hazards, and their correct recognition is essential. We explored environmental sounds (ES) recognition in a series of studies. In study 1 we performed an Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of neuroimaging experiments addressing ES processing to delineate the network of areas consistently involved in ES processing. Areas consistently activated in the ALE meta-analysis were the STG/MTG, insula/rolandic operculum, parahippocampal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally. Some of these areas truly reflect ES processing, whereas others are related to design choices, e.g., type of task, type of control condition, type of stimulus. In study 2 we report on 7 neurosurgical patients with lesions involving the areas which were found to be activated by the ALE meta-analysis. We tested their ES recognition abilities and found an impairment of ES recognition. These results indicate that deficits of ES recognition do not exclusively reflect lesions to the right or to the left hemisphere but both hemispheres are involved. The most frequently lesioned area is the hippocampus/insula/STG. We made sure that any impairment in ES recognition would not be related to language problems, but reflect impaired ES processing. In study 3 we carried out an fMRI study on patients (vs. healthy controls) to investigate how the areas involved in ES might be functionally deregulated because of a lesion. The fMRI evidenced that controls activated the right IFG, the STG bilaterally and the left insula. We applied a multimodal mapping approach and found that, although the meta-analysis showed that part of the left and right STG/MTG activation during ES processing might in part be related to design choices, this area was one of the most frequently lesioned areas in our patients, thus highlighting its causal role in ES processing. We found that the ROIs we drew on the two clusters of activation found in the left and in

  9. Drawing Near and Pushing Away: Critical Positioning in Multimodal Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr-Stevens, Candance

    2016-01-01

    As the tools and modes of literate practice continually emerge, so too must our critical approaches to understanding their expression. While media production has been praised for its potential to provide youth a voice to challenge dominant narratives, various questions remain as to what happens at the multimodal levels of composition in terms of…

  10. A Springboard Rather than a Bridge: Diving into Multimodal Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Meadow Sherrill; Benson, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    In the authors' experience as teacher educators, many preservice teachers view literacy as a print-bound process. With multimodal literacy becoming more important as many states push for 21st-century learning standards, the authors are always looking for ways to help students break their concepts of literacy away from the printed page. As they…

  11. Multimodal MRI classification in vascular mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Diciotti, Stefano; Ciulli, Stefano; Ginestroni, Andrea; Salvadori, Emilia; Poggesi, Anna; Pantoni, Leonardo; Inzitari, Domenico; Mascalchi, Mario; Toschi, Nicola

    2015-08-01

    Vascular mild cognitive impairment (VMCI) is a disorder in which multimodal MRI can add significant value by combining diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with brain morphometry. In this study we implemented and compared machine learning techniques for multimodal classification between 58 VMCI patients and 29 healthy subjects as well as for discrimination (within the VMCI group) between patients with different cognitive performances. For each subject, a cortical feature vector was constructed based on cortical parcellation and cortical and subcortical volumetric segmentation and a DTI feature vector was formed by combining descriptive statistical metrics related to the distribution of DTI invariants within white matter. We employed both a sequential minimal optimization and a functional tree classifier, using feature selection and 10-fold cross-validation, and compared their performances in monomodal and multimodal classification for both classification problems (healthy subjects vs VMCI and prediction of cognitive performance). While monomodal classification resulted in satisfactory performance in most cases, turning from monomodal to multimodal classification resulted in an improvement of the performance in the discrimination between VMCI patients with low cognitive performance and healthy subjects by up to 10% in sensitivity (leaving specificity unchanged). We therefore are able to confirm the usefulness of machine learning techniques in discriminating diseased states based on neuroimaging data. PMID:26737240

  12. Transmodal Redesign in Music and Literacy: Diverse Multimodal Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Two classrooms of diverse 5-year-old children were set the task of exploring ways of realising music invention through the semiotic import of composing resources. In both a rural and an inner-urban setting in Australia, children demonstrated syncretism in bilingual practices in communication. Visual multimodal analysis demonstrated how children…

  13. A hidden Markov model for multimodal biometrics score fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2011-05-01

    There are strong evidences of that multimodal biometric score fusion can significantly improve human identification performance. Score level fusion usually involves score normalization, score fusion, and fusion decision. There are several types of score fusion methods, direct combination of fusion scores, classifier-based fusion, and density-based fusion. The real applications require achieving greater reliability in determining or verifying person's identity. The goal of this research is to improve the accuracy and robustness of human identification by using multimodal biometrics score fusion. The accuracy means high verification rate if tested on a closed dataset, or a high genuine accept rate under low false accept rate if tested on an open dataset. While the robustness means the fusion performance is stable with variant biometric scores. We propose a hidden Markov model (HMM) for multiple score fusion, where the biometric scores include multimodal scores and multi-matcher scores. The state probability density functions in a HHM model are estimated by Gaussian mixture model. The proposed HMM model for multiple score fusion is accurate for identification, flexible and reliable with biometrics. The proposed HMM method are tested on three NIST-BSSR1 multimodal databases and on three face-score databases. The results show the HMM method is an excellent and reliable score fusion method.

  14. Risk-Based Neuro-Grid Architecture for Multimodal Biometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataraman, Sitalakshmi; Kulkarni, Siddhivinayak

    Recent research indicates that multimodal biometrics is the way forward for a highly reliable adoption of biometric identification systems in various applications, such as banks, businesses, government and even home environments. However, such systems would require large distributed datasets with multiple computational realms spanning organisational boundaries and individual privacies.

  15. Shrek Meets Vygotsky: Rethinking Adolescents' Multimodal Literacy Practices in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Kathy A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has emphasized the multimodal and digital nature of adolescent literacy practices. These practices cross multiple social spaces, particularly settings outside of schools. This article re-examines current research to yield three caveats that counter assumptions about the pervasiveness, relevance, and spontaneity of youths'…

  16. Multimodal Communication and Identities Options in an Intergenerational Art Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heydon, Rachel M.

    2012-01-01

    This case study of multimodal pedagogies within an intergenerational (IG) art class addresses questions about the learning opportunities that were created therein and what the fixing of participants' ideas within a semiotic chain said about their facility with communicative modes and media, interests, and identity options. Key findings include:…

  17. TDRSS multimode transponder program S-band modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The S-Band TDRS multimode transponder and its associated ground support equipment is described. The transponder demonstrates candidate modulation techniques to provide the required information for the design of an eventual S-band transponder suitable for installation in a user satellite, capable of operating as part of a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) system.

  18. Learning through Story: A Collaborative, Multimodal Arts Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Georgina; Baguley, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Literate practice in the arts encompasses both aesthetics and creativity. It is also multimodal in nature and often collaborative. This article presents data collected from a small multi-age school, with children from Prep to Year 7, during their preparation for an end-of-year show. The children had studied the topics of conservation and…

  19. A new concept for noninvasive tinnitus treatment utilizing multimodal pathways.

    PubMed

    Gloeckner, Cory D; Smith, Benjamin T; Markovitz, Craig D; Lim, Hubert H

    2013-01-01

    Current noninvasive treatments for tinnitus have shown mixed results. There have been encouraging developments in using invasive brain or vagal nerve stimulation to modulate neural populations driving the tinnitus percept. However, these invasive treatments can only be used in a small patient population with severe conditions. In this preliminary study, we present a new treatment option we call Multimodal Synchronization Therapy (MST), which attempts to achieve synchronized and localized brain activation without invasive neural stimulation. MST combines multiple sensory, motor, limbic, and cognitive inputs to elicit activation of multimodal neurons to potentially modulate specific neurons driving the tinnitus percept. We present preliminary data in a guinea pig model showing activation of somatosensory and auditory pathways to alter neural activity within the inferior colliculus, a multimodal integration region that has shown pathological changes in animals and patients with tinnitus. Electrical stimulation of different body locations induced excitatory responses in the inferior colliculus, eliciting responses in up to 41% of all recording sites for a given somatic site. Paired somatic and acoustic stimulation resulted in enhanced or suppressed acoustic-driven neural activity in the inferior colliculus that varied depending on stimulation and recording location. Similar modulation effects were observed in the auditory cortex, which may relate to changes in auditory perception. Further studies need to incorporate multiple multimodal pathways and must also confirm that MST can suppress the abnormal neural patterns that directly drive the tinnitus percept. PMID:24110389

  20. Making Musical Sense: The Multimodal Nature of Clarifying Musical Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pramling, Niklas; Wallerstedt, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    The present study concerns the multimodal nature of music education. How children (aged 4-8 years) respond when faced with the challenge of talking about what they hear in pieces of music is studied. The semiotic tools children and their teachers use in these situations and how they transduce between modalities (verbal, sound, colours and…

  1. Multimodal Play and Adolescents: Notes on Noticing Laughter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasudevan, Lalitha

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I explore laughter as a form of multimodal play in which adolescents' engage across contexts and in various configurations. With a few recent exceptions, a focus on unscripted play is largely missing from ongoing research and discussion about the education of adolescents. Whereas the space to play has been vitally important to the…

  2. Multimodal Geographic Information Systems: Adding Haptic and Auditory Display.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Wooseob; Gluck, Myke

    2003-01-01

    Investigated the feasibility of adding haptic and auditory displays to traditional visual geographic information systems (GISs). Explored differences in user performance, including task completion time and accuracy, and user satisfaction with a multimodal GIS which was implemented with a haptic display, auditory display, and combined display.…

  3. Multimodal Science Teachers' Discourse in Modeling the Water Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquez, Conxita; Izquierdo, Merce; Espinet, Mariona

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents an intensive study of a micro-event aiming at the characterization of teacher's discourse from a multimodal communication perspective in a secondary school science classroom dealing with the topic of "water cycle." The research addresses the following questions: (a) What communicative modes are used by the teacher?, (b) what…

  4. A Multimodal Approach in Dealing with Older Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikel, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Notes that older persons underuse community-based and outpatient mental health services, yet are overrepresented in inpatient facilities. Argues for increased programing targeted for elderly client. Advocates use of multimodal model as efficient method of service delivery and provides sample case study using BASIC ID (Behavior, Affect, Sensation,…

  5. Multimodality in Malaysian Schools: The Case for the Graphic Novel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajendra, Thusha Rani

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring the benefits of including graphic novels as a wholesome supplement in Malaysian schools. Research has indicated that the mono-modality of traditional linear texts may impede comprehension. The emphasis on multi-literacies clearly scaffold the need to employ multimodality in the classrooms; hence the suggestion of…

  6. Berlin Kompass: Multimodal Gameful Empowerment for Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallioniemi, Pekka; Posti, Laura-Pihkala; Hakulinen, Jaakko; Turunen, Markku; Keskinen, Tuuli; Raisamo, Roope

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an innovative, gameful, multimodal, and authentic learning environment for training of oral communication in a foreign language--a virtual adventure called Berlin Kompass. After a brief presentation of the pedagogical and technological backgrounds, the system is described. Central results of a series of pilots in autumn 2013…

  7. Severe Speech Sound Disorders: An Integrated Multimodal Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Amie M.; Hengst, Julie A.; DeThorne, Laura S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study introduces an integrated multimodal intervention (IMI) and examines its effectiveness for the treatment of persistent and severe speech sound disorders (SSD) in young children. The IMI is an activity-based intervention that focuses simultaneously on increasing the "quantity" of a child's meaningful productions of target words…

  8. Resonance-induced multimodal body-size distributions in ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Lampert, Adam; Tlusty, Tsvi

    2013-01-01

    The size of an organism reflects its metabolic rate, growth rate, mortality, and other important characteristics; therefore, the distribution of body size is a major determinant of ecosystem structure and function. Body-size distributions often are multimodal, with several peaks of abundant sizes, and previous studies suggest that this is the outcome of niche separation: species from distinct peaks avoid competition by consuming different resources, which results in selection of different sizes in each niche. However, this cannot explain many ecosystems with several peaks competing over the same niche. Here, we suggest an alternative, generic mechanism underlying multimodal size distributions, by showing that the size-dependent tradeoff between reproduction and resource utilization entails an inherent resonance that may induce multiple peaks, all competing over the same niche. Our theory is well fitted to empirical data in various ecosystems, in which both model and measurements show a multimodal, periodically peaked distribution at larger sizes, followed by a smooth tail at smaller sizes. Moreover, we show a universal pattern of size distributions, manifested in the collapse of data from ecosystems of different scales: phytoplankton in a lake, metazoans in a stream, and arthropods in forests. The demonstrated resonance mechanism is generic, suggesting that multimodal distributions of numerous ecological characters emerge from the interplay between local competition and global migration. PMID:23248320

  9. Podcasting and Performativity: Multimodal Invention in an Advanced Writing Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Leigh A.

    2010-01-01

    This article points composition scholars toward two bodies of theory that are gaining attention in our discipline, performance studies and multimodal discourse theory. Each raises important questions about the ways we teach writing, the kinds of composition processes we value, and the means by which students construct authority in the university.…

  10. Designing Is Learning: An Investigation of Designing Multimodal Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study analyzed the meaning-making practices of urban adolescents participating in a college preparatory program featuring philosophical inquiry into cosmopolitanism and the creation of multimodal texts. In contrast to studies of composing that focus on individual outcomes, this dissertation traced group meaning making. The study…

  11. Beyond Talking Heads: Sourced Comics and the Affordances of Multimodality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Hannah; Werner, Maggie M.

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the genre of the sourced comic as an important pedagogical tool in the development of both alphabetic and multimodal literacies. We argue that sourced comics provide multiple design elements with which students can explore their complex relationships with scholarly sources, make visible various power relations informing…

  12. Comprehension Strategy Instruction for Multimodal Texts in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvermann, Donna E.; Wilson, Amy Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights examples from a middle-school science teacher's instruction using multimodal texts. Its importance lies in reconciling narrowed definitions of reading (and hence reading instruction) with the need to develop students' critical awareness as they engage with multiple sign systems, or semiotic resources, used for constructing…

  13. Transnational Children Orchestrating Competing Voices in Multimodal, Digital Autobiographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandya, Jessica Zacher; Pagdilao, Kathleah Consul; Kim, Enok Aeloch

    2015-01-01

    Background/Context: Prior research on multimodal, digital composition has highlighted the need for educators to bring such practices into classrooms, yet little research has been done to show what kinds of products children create and what those products can tell us as researchers about how children articulate their life experiences. We draw on…

  14. Linguistic Adaptations During Spoken and Multimodal Error Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oviatt, Sharon; Bernard, Jon; Levow, Gina-Anne

    1998-01-01

    Analyzed the types and magnitude of linguistic adaptation occurring during spoken and multimodal human-computer error resolution. Researchers collected samples of users' spoken and written input immediately before and after recognition errors and at different spiral depths. Results indicated that human language changes in at least three different…

  15. Multimodal Composition and the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Bridget

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards call for an expanded view of literacy instruction, one where children learn to critically consume and produce text using technology and media. This article describes how a Digital Writers' Workshop can be a vehicle for integrating multimodal composition into the classroom. It offers general workshop principles and…

  16. Learning from Picturebooks: Reading and Writing Multimodally in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Prisca; Martens, Ray; Doyle, Michelle Hassay; Loomis, Jenna; Aghalarov, Stacy

    2013-01-01

    This article shares the authors' work with first graders and how, through various reading, writing, and art experiences around picturebooks, the children learned to read and communicate through art along with written language. The work is grounded in multimodality theory and the belief that all modes (particularly art for the purposes of this…

  17. Multimodal Geographic Information Systems: Adding Haptic and Auditory Displays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Wooseob

    2001-01-01

    This study consists of two experiments. Pitch, volume, and tempo in auditory-haptic geographic information systems were compared in terms of effectiveness for multimodal interface; volume was determined to be better. Auditory display with volume and haptic display with vibration were compared and the results showed that, in more complex geographic…

  18. Multimodal Bivariate Thematic Maps: Auditory and Haptic Display.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Wooseob; Gluck, Myke

    2002-01-01

    Explores the possibility of multimodal bivariate thematic maps by utilizing auditory and haptic (sense of touch) displays. Measured completion time of tasks and the recall (retention) rate in two experiments, and findings confirmed the possibility of using auditory and haptic displays in geographic information systems (GIS). (Author/LRW)

  19. A simultaneous multimodal imaging system for tissue functional parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Wenqi; Zhang, Zhiwu; Wu, Qiang; Zhang, Shiwu; Xu, Ronald

    2014-02-01

    Simultaneous and quantitative assessment of skin functional characteristics in different modalities will facilitate diagnosis and therapy in many clinical applications such as wound healing. However, many existing clinical practices and multimodal imaging systems are subjective, qualitative, sequential for multimodal data collection, and need co-registration between different modalities. To overcome these limitations, we developed a multimodal imaging system for quantitative, non-invasive, and simultaneous imaging of cutaneous tissue oxygenation and blood perfusion parameters. The imaging system integrated multispectral and laser speckle imaging technologies into one experimental setup. A Labview interface was developed for equipment control, synchronization, and image acquisition. Advanced algorithms based on a wide gap second derivative reflectometry and laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) were developed for accurate reconstruction of tissue oxygenation and blood perfusion respectively. Quantitative calibration experiments and a new style of skinsimulating phantom were designed to verify the accuracy and reliability of the imaging system. The experimental results were compared with a Moor tissue oxygenation and perfusion monitor. For In vivo testing, a post-occlusion reactive hyperemia (PORH) procedure in human subject and an ongoing wound healing monitoring experiment using dorsal skinfold chamber models were conducted to validate the usability of our system for dynamic detection of oxygenation and perfusion parameters. In this study, we have not only setup an advanced multimodal imaging system for cutaneous tissue oxygenation and perfusion parameters but also elucidated its potential for wound healing assessment in clinical practice.

  20. Multimodality Approach to Methadone Treatment of Narcotic Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Leon; Chambers, Carl D.

    1971-01-01

    This multimodality approach is geared primarily to the goal of abstinence. For addicts who cannot achieve this goal, methadone maintenance is suggested as the next step. The modalities described range from low-dose maintenance for clinic outpatients to intensive rehabilitation in a methadone maintenance residential center facility. (Author)

  1. "Convince Me!" Valuing Multimodal Literacies and Composing Public Service Announcements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selfe, Richard J.; Selfe, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    For some teachers, the increasing attention to digital and multimodal composing in English and Language Arts classrooms has brought into sharp relief the profession's investment in print as the primary means of expression. Although new forms of communication that combine words, still and moving images, and animation have begun to dominate digital…

  2. Integrating ICT through Multimodal Discourse in a Primary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Anthony; Reynolds, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Most children talk to their parents about what they learned at school. Parents hear about books read, pictures drawn, stories written and games played. But how often do parents hear of children using ICT to make multimedia stories with a mathematical focus? In this paper the term "multimodality" will be used to describe such activities. Kress…

  3. Discrimination of skin diseases using the multimodal imaging approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogler, N.; Heuke, S.; Akimov, D.; Latka, I.; Kluschke, F.; Röwert-Huber, H.-J.; Lademann, J.; Dietzek, B.; Popp, J.

    2012-06-01

    Optical microspectroscopic tools reveal great potential for dermatologic diagnostics in the clinical day-to-day routine. To enhance the diagnostic value of individual nonlinear optical imaging modalities such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), second harmonic generation (SHG) or two-photon excited fluorescence (TPF), the approach of multimodal imaging has recently been developed. Here, we present an application of nonlinear optical multimodal imaging with Raman-scattering microscopy to study sizable human-tissue cross-sections. The samples investigated contain both healthy tissue and various skin tumors. This contribution details the rich information content, which can be obtained from the multimodal approach: While CARS microscopy, which - in contrast to spontaneous Raman-scattering microscopy - is not hampered by single-photon excited fluorescence, is used to monitor the lipid and protein distribution in the samples, SHG imaging selectively highlights the distribution of collagen structures within the tissue. This is due to the fact, that SHG is only generated in structures which lack inversion geometry. Finally, TPF reveals the distribution of autofluorophores in tissue. The combination of these techniques, i.e. multimodal imaging, allows for recording chemical images of large area samples and is - as this contribution will highlight - of high clinically diagnostic value.

  4. Dynamic bending compensation while focusing through a multimode fiber.

    PubMed

    Farahi, Salma; Ziegler, David; Papadopoulos, Ioannis N; Psaltis, Demetri; Moser, Christophe

    2013-09-23

    Multimode fiber endoscopes have recently been shown to provide sub-micrometer resolution, however, imaging through a multimode fiber is highly sensitive to bending. Here we describe the implementation of a coherent beacon source placed at the distal tip of the multimode fiber, which can be used to compensate for the effects of bending. In the first part of this paper, we show that a diffraction limited focused spot can be generated at the distal tip of the multimode fiber using the beacon. In the second part, we demonstrate focusing even when the fiber is bent by dynamically compensating for it. The speckle pattern at the proximal fiber end, generated by the beacon source placed at its distal end, is highly dependent on the fiber conformation. We experimentally show that by intensity correlation, it is possible to identify the fiber conformation and maintain a focus spot while the fiber is bent over a certain range. Once the fiber configuration is determined, previously calibrated phase patterns could be stored for each fiber conformation and used to scan the distal spot and perform imaging.

  5. Border Crossings and Multimodal Composition in the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Developmental and development-oriented learning with digital media are discussed in relation to the concepts border crossings and multimodal composition. The first concept refers to a transveral of disciplines and recombinations of elements from them. Local-global relations in knowledge building are covered. The second refers to the collaborative…

  6. Multi-modal CT in Stroke Imaging: New Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Ledezma, Carlos J.; Wintermark, Max

    2009-01-01

    A multimodal CT protocol provides a comprehensive non-invasive survey of acute stroke patients with accurate demonstration of the site of arterial occlusion and its hemodynamic tissue status. It combines widespread availability with the ability to provide functional characterization of cerebral ischemia, and could potentially allow more accurate selection of candidates for acute stroke reperfusion therapy. PMID:19195537

  7. Virtual palpation of skeletal landmarks with multimodal display interfaces.

    PubMed

    Taddei, Fulvia; Ansaloni, Mauro; Testi, Debora; Viceconti, Marco

    2007-09-01

    The 3D location of skeletal landmarks on CT datasets is an important procedure, used in many research and clinical contexts. The standard procedure involves the segmentation of the CT images, the creation of a 3D surface bone model, and the location of the landmarks on this surface. However, the segmentation is time-consuming and requires skilled operators and sophisticated software. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of a multimodal display interface to direct volumetric interactive visualization in performing a virtual palpation task. An expert operator used the CT dataset of a patient's thigh region to locate 14 femoral skeletal landmarks. This operation was repeatedly performed using different CT data representation; the accuracy and repeatability were compared to those achievable with the conventional procedure based on the segmented 3D surface. When a multimodal display interface (formed by an orthogonal slice, RXCT and interactive isosurface views) was used to perform the virtual palpation directly on the CT data, the average coordinates of the landmarks did not differ significantly from those located on the 3D surface, and the measurement repeatability was actually better with the multimodal display of the volumetric data than with the 3D surface. Thus, we can conclude that skeletal virtual palpation can be performed directly on the CT dataset, as far as the virtual palpation is performed with a multimodal display interface.

  8. "Imaginings": Reflections on Plurilingual Students' Creative Multimodal Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stille, Saskia; Prasad, Gail

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate the potential contribution of a multimodal approach to English language teaching and learning in the educational context. Collaborating with English as a second language (ESL) and classroom teachers to explore ways to improve pedagogy in multilingual, multicultural schools, the authors discovered many…

  9. Multimodal imaging of lung cancer and its microenvironment (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, Lida P.; Niederst, Matthew J.; Mulvey, Hillary; Adams, David C.; Hu, Haichuan; Chico Calero, Isabel; Szabari, Margit V.; Vakoc, Benjamin J.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Bouma, Brett E.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.; Suter, Melissa J.

    2016-03-01

    Despite significant advances in targeted therapies for lung cancer, nearly all patients develop drug resistance within 6-12 months and prognosis remains poor. Developing drug resistance is a progressive process that involves tumor cells and their microenvironment. We hypothesize that microenvironment factors alter tumor growth and response to targeted therapy. We conducted in vitro studies in human EGFR-mutant lung carcinoma cells, and demonstrated that factors secreted from lung fibroblasts results in increased tumor cell survival during targeted therapy with EGFR inhibitor, gefitinib. We also demonstrated that increased environment stiffness results in increased tumor survival during gefitinib therapy. In order to test our hypothesis in vivo, we developed a multimodal optical imaging protocol for preclinical intravital imaging in mouse models to assess tumor and its microenvironment over time. We have successfully conducted multimodal imaging of dorsal skinfold chamber (DSC) window mice implanted with GFP-labeled human EGFR mutant lung carcinoma cells and visualized changes in tumor development and microenvironment facets over time. Multimodal imaging included structural OCT to assess tumor viability and necrosis, polarization-sensitive OCT to measure tissue birefringence for collagen/fibroblast detection, and Doppler OCT to assess tumor vasculature. Confocal imaging was also performed for high-resolution visualization of EGFR-mutant lung cancer cells labeled with GFP, and was coregistered with OCT. Our results demonstrated that stromal support and vascular growth are essential to tumor progression. Multimodal imaging is a useful tool to assess tumor and its microenvironment over time.

  10. Reading Multimodal Texts: Perceptual, Structural and Ideological Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafini, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a tripartite framework for analyzing multimodal texts. The three analytical perspectives presented include: (1) perceptual, (2) structural, and (3) ideological analytical processes. Using Anthony Browne's picturebook "Piggybook" as an example, assertions are made regarding what each analytical perspective brings to the…

  11. A Multimodal Neural Network Recruited by Expertise with Musical Notation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Yetta Kwailing; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Prior neuroimaging work on visual perceptual expertise has focused on changes in the visual system, ignoring possible effects of acquiring expert visual skills in nonvisual areas. We investigated expertise for reading musical notation, a skill likely to be associated with multimodal abilities. We compared brain activity in music-reading experts…

  12. Utilizing Multi-Modal Literacies in Middle Grades Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saurino, Dan; Ogletree, Tamra; Saurino, Penelope

    2010-01-01

    The nature of literacy is changing. Increased student use of computer-mediated, digital, and visual communication spans our understanding of adolescent multi-modal capabilities that reach beyond the traditional conventions of linear speech and written text in the science curriculum. Advancing technology opens doors to learning that involve…

  13. Multimodality Monitoring, Inflammation, and Neuroregeneration in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Ariel B.; Esteves Veiga, José C.; Teixeira, Manoel J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke, including subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The mortality rate of poor-grade SAH ranges from 34% to 52%. In an attempt to improve SAH outcomes, clinical research on multimodality monitoring has been performed, as has basic science research on inflammation and neuroregeneration (which can occur due to injury-induced neurogenesis). Nevertheless, the current literature does not focus on the integrated study of these fields. Multimodality monitoring corresponds to physiological data obtained during clinical management by both noninvasive and invasive methods. Regarding inflammation and neuroregeneration, evidence suggests that, in all types of stroke, a proinflammatory phase and an anti-inflammatory phase occur consecutively; these phases affect neurogenesis, which is also influenced by other pathophysiological features of stroke, such as ischemia, seizures, and spreading depression. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether injury-induced neurogenesis is a prognostic factor in poor-grade SAH that can be monitored and modulated. METHODS: We propose a protocol for multimodality monitoring-guided hypothermia in poor-grade SAH in which cellular and molecular markers of inflammation and neuroregeneration can be monitored in parallel with clinical and multimodal data. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: This study may reveal correlations between markers of inflammation and neurogenesis in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, based on clinical and multimodality monitoring parameters. DISCUSSION: This protocol has the potential to lead to new therapies for acute, diffuse, and severe brain diseases. ABBREVIATIONS: BBB, blood-brain barrier CPP, cerebral perfusion pressure EEG, electroencephalography ICP, intracranial pressure IL, interleukin MCA, middle cerebral artery SAH, subarachnoid hemorrhage SD, spreading depression SGZ, subgranular zone SVZ, subventricular zone TCD, transcranial Doppler PMID:25050583

  14. The Stability of Multi-modal Traffic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ling-Hui; Sun, Hui-Jun; Zhu, Cheng-Juan; Wu, Jian-Jun; Jia, Bin

    2013-07-01

    There is an explicit and implicit assumption in multimodal traffic equilibrium models, that is, if the equilibrium exists, then it will also occur. The assumption is very idealized; in fact, it may be shown that the quite contrary could happen, because in multimodal traffic network, especially in mixed traffic conditions the interaction among traffic modes is asymmetric and the asymmetric interaction may result in the instability of traffic system. In this paper, to study the stability of multimodal traffic system, we respectively present the travel cost function in mixed traffic conditions and in traffic network with dedicated bus lanes. Based on a day-to-day dynamical model, we study the evolution of daily route choice of travelers in multimodal traffic network using 10000 random initial values for different cases. From the results of simulation, it can be concluded that the asymmetric interaction between the cars and buses in mixed traffic conditions can lead the traffic system to instability when traffic demand is larger. We also study the effect of travelers' perception error on the stability of multimodal traffic network. Although the larger perception error can alleviate the effect of interaction between cars and buses and improve the stability of traffic system in mixed traffic conditions, the traffic system also become instable when the traffic demand is larger than a number. For all cases simulated in this study, with the same parameters, traffic system with dedicated bus lane has better stability for traffic demand than that in mixed traffic conditions. We also find that the network with dedicated bus lane has higher portion of travelers by bus than it of mixed traffic network. So it can be concluded that building dedicated bus lane can improve the stability of traffic system and attract more travelers to choose bus reducing the traffic congestion.

  15. Multimodally controlled intelligent telerobot for people with disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazi, Zunaid; Chen, Shoupu; Beitler, Matthew; Chester, Daniel; Foulds, Richard

    1996-12-01

    This paper reports on the current status of the multimodal user supervised interface and intelligent control (MUSIIC) project, which is working towards the development of an intelligent assistive telemanipulative system for people with motor disabilities. Our MUSIIC strategy overcomes the limitations of previous approaches by integrating a multimodal RUI (robot user interface) and a semi-autonomous reactive planner that will allow users with severe motor disabilities to manipulate objects in an unstructured domain. The multimodal user interface is a speech and deictic (pointing) gesture based control that guides the operation of a semi-autonomous planner controlling the assistive telerobot. MUSIIC uses a vision system to determine the three-dimensional shape, pose and color of objects and surfaces which are in the environment, and as well as an object-oriented knowledge base and planning system which superimposes information about common objects in the three-dimensional world. This approach allows the users to identify objects and tasks via a multimodal user interface which interprets their deictic gestures and a restricted natural language like speech input. The multimodal interface eliminates the need for general purpose object recognition by binding the users speech and gesture input to a locus in the domain of interest. The underlying knowledge-driven planner, combines information obtained from the user, the stereo vision mechanism as well as the knowledge bases to adapt previously learned plans to perform new tasks and also to manipulate newly introduced objects into the workspace. Therefore, what we have is a flexible and intelligent telemanipulative system that functions as an assistive robot for people with motor disabilities.

  16. Research of the multimodal brain-tumor segmentation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yisu; Chen, Wufan

    2015-12-01

    It is well-known that the number of clusters is one of the most important parameters for automatic segmentation. However, it is difficult to define owing to the high diversity in appearance of tumor tissue among different patients and the ambiguous boundaries of lesions. In this study, a nonparametric mixture of Dirichlet process (MDP) model is applied to segment the tumor images, and the MDP segmentation can be performed without the initialization of the number of clusters. A new nonparametric segmentation algorithm combined with anisotropic diffusion and a Markov random field (MRF) smooth constraint is proposed in this study. Besides the segmentation of single modal brain tumor images, we developed the algorithm to segment multimodal brain tumor images by the magnetic resonance (MR) multimodal features and obtain the active tumor and edema in the same time. The proposed algorithm is evaluated and compared with other approaches. The accuracy and computation time of our algorithm demonstrates very impressive performance.

  17. Angular momentum effects in multimodal fission of {sup 226}Th

    SciTech Connect

    Chubarian, G.G.; Hurst, B.J.; OKelly, D.; Schmitt, R.P.; Itkis, M.G.; Kondratiev, N.A.; Kozulin, E.M.; Oganessian, Y.T.; Pashkevich, V.V.; Pokrovsky, I.V.; Salamatin, V.S.; Rusanov, A.Y.; Calabretta, L.; Maiolino, C.; Lukashin, K.; Agodi, C.; Bellia, G.; Hanappe, F.; Liatard, E.; Huck, A.; Stuttge, L.

    1998-12-01

    The {gamma}-rays from the multimodal fission of the {sup 226}Th formed in {sup 18}O+{sup 208}Pb was investigated at the near- and sub-barrier energies. The corresponding excitation energies at the saddle point, E{sub sp}{sup {asterisk}}, ranged from 23 to 26 MeV. The average {gamma}-ray multiplicities and relative {gamma}-ray energies as a function of the mass of the fission fragments exhibits a complex structure and strong variations. Such strong variations have never been previously observed in heavy ion-induced fusion-fission reactions. Obtained results may be explained with the influence of shell effects on the properties of the fission fragments. Present work is the one in series of investigation of the multimodal fission phenomena in At-Th region. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Modification of species-based differential evolution for multimodal optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idrus, Said Iskandar Al; Syahputra, Hermawan; Firdaus, Muliawan

    2015-12-01

    At this time optimization has an important role in various fields as well as between other operational research, industry, finance and management. Optimization problem is the problem of maximizing or minimizing a function of one variable or many variables, which include unimodal and multimodal functions. Differential Evolution (DE), is a random search technique using vectors as an alternative solution in the search for the optimum. To localize all local maximum and minimum on multimodal function, this function can be divided into several domain of fitness using niching method. Species-based niching method is one of method that build sub-populations or species in the domain functions. This paper describes the modification of species-based previously to reduce the computational complexity and run more efficiently. The results of the test functions show species-based modifications able to locate all the local optima in once run the program.

  19. Using multimodal mining to drive clinical guidelines development.

    PubMed

    Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Teodoro, Douglas; Vishnyakova, Dina; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Ruch, Patrick; Lovis, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We present exploratory investigations of multimodal mining to help designing clinical guidelines for antibiotherapy. Our approach is based on the assumption that combining various sources of data, such as the literature, a clinical datawarehouse, as well as information regarding costs will result in better recommendations. Compared to our baseline recommendation system based on a question-answering engine built on top of PubMed, an improvement of +16% is observed when clinical data (i.e. resistance profiles) are injected into the model. In complement to PubMed, an alternative search strategy is reported, which is significantly improved by the use of the combined multimodal approach. These results suggest that combining literature-based discovery with structured data mining can significantly improve effectiveness of decision-support systems for authors of clinical practice guidelines. PMID:21893795

  20. Multimodal targeted high relaxivity thermosensitive liposome for in vivo imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuijten, Maayke M. P.; Hannah Degeling, M.; Chen, John W.; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory; Waterman, Peter; Weissleder, Ralph; Azzi, Jamil; Nicolay, Klaas; Tannous, Bakhos A.

    2015-11-01

    Liposomes are spherical, self-closed structures formed by lipid bilayers that can encapsulate drugs and/or imaging agents in their hydrophilic core or within their membrane moiety, making them suitable delivery vehicles. We have synthesized a new liposome containing gadolinium-DOTA lipid bilayer, as a targeting multimodal molecular imaging agent for magnetic resonance and optical imaging. We showed that this liposome has a much higher molar relaxivities r1 and r2 compared to a more conventional liposome containing gadolinium-DTPA-BSA lipid. By incorporating both gadolinium and rhodamine in the lipid bilayer as well as biotin on its surface, we used this agent for multimodal imaging and targeting of tumors through the strong biotin-streptavidin interaction. Since this new liposome is thermosensitive, it can be used for ultrasound-mediated drug delivery at specific sites, such as tumors, and can be guided by magnetic resonance imaging.

  1. Multimode delay compensation in fibers with profile distortions.

    PubMed

    Marcuse, D

    1979-12-01

    Multimode fibers with power-law index profiles achieve maximum bandwidth for a well-defined optimum value of the exponent a of the power-law function. Even slight sinusoidal fluctuations superimposed on the ideal power-law profile reduce the signal bandwidth of the fiber dramatically. It is shown in this paper that phase reversal of the sinusoidal fluctuation at the midpoint of the fiber leads to substantial compensation of the multimode time delay dispersion. This investigation proves that sinusoidal (and of course more general) perturbations superimposed on perfect power-law index profiles lead to less severe degradation of the fiber bandwidth if their phases vary as a function of the fiber length coordinate z.

  2. A multimodal neural network recruited by expertise with musical notation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yetta Kwailing; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-04-01

    Prior neuroimaging work on visual perceptual expertise has focused on changes in the visual system, ignoring possible effects of acquiring expert visual skills in nonvisual areas. We investigated expertise for reading musical notation, a skill likely to be associated with multimodal abilities. We compared brain activity in music-reading experts and novices during perception of musical notation, Roman letters, and mathematical symbols and found selectivity for musical notation for experts in a widespread multimodal network of areas. The activity in several of these areas was correlated with a behavioral measure of perceptual fluency with musical notation, suggesting that activity in nonvisual areas can predict individual differences in visual expertise. The visual selectivity for musical notation is distinct from that for faces, single Roman letters, and letter strings. Implications of the current findings to the study of visual perceptual expertise, music reading, and musical expertise are discussed.

  3. Multimode-Guided-Wave Ultrasonic Scanning of Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don

    2006-01-01

    Two documents discuss a method of characterizing advanced composite materials by use of multimode-guided ultrasonic waves. A transmitting transducer excites modulated (e.g., pulsed) ultrasonic waves at one location on a surface of a plate specimen. The waves interact with microstructure and flaws as they propagate through the specimen to a receiving transducer at a different location. The received signal is analyzed to determine the total (multimode) ultrasonic response of the specimen and utilize this response to evaluate microstructure and flaws. The analysis is performed by software that extracts parameters of signals in the time and frequency domains. Scanning is effected by using computer-controlled motorized translation stages to position the transducers at specified pairs of locations and repeating the measurement, data-acquisition, and data-analysis processes at the successive locations. One document presents results of a scan of a specimen containing a delamination.

  4. [Multimodal therapy concepts for failed back surgery syndrome].

    PubMed

    Casser, Hans-Raimund

    2016-09-01

    Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is a frequent complication (15-40 %) of lumbar disc surgery and is rarely successfully treated by surgery with the exception of a re-prolapse associated with radicular pain. Multimodal pain treatment, however, is indicated by a lack of pathoanatomical correlates, unclear cause and psychosocial risk factors.This review describes a standardized non-operative treatment starting with broad interdisciplinary clarification by medical, psychological and physiotherapeutic means (assessment).If the conditions for multimodal pain therapy are met, the OPS 8‑918-procedure can be applied to avoid chronic developing pain. In doing so, the already issued quality standards and guidelines for documentation should be respected. PMID:27514828

  5. Creating Tangible Interfaces by Augmenting Physical Objects with Multimodal Language

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, David R. ); Cohen, Philip R.

    2001-01-01

    Rasa is a tangible augmented reality environment that digitally enhances the existing paper-based command and control capability in a military command post. By observing and understanding the users' speech, pen, and touch-based multimodal language, Rasa computationally augments the physical objects on a command post map, linking these items to digital representations of the same; for example, linking a paper map to the world and Post-it notes to military units. Herein, we give a thorough account of Rasa's underlying multiagent framework, and its recognition, understanding, and multimodal integration components. Moreover, we examine five properties of language: generativity, comprehensibility, compositionality, referentiality, and, at times, persistence--that render it suitable as an augmentation approach, contrasting these properties to those of other augmentation methods. It is these properties of language that allow users of Rasa to augment physical objects, transforming them into tangible interfaces.

  6. Melanoma detection using smartphone and multimode hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, Nicholas; Vasefi, Fartash; Booth, Nicholas; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2016-04-01

    This project's goal is to determine how to effectively implement a technology continuum from a low cost, remotely deployable imaging device to a more sophisticated multimode imaging system within a standard clinical practice. In this work a smartphone is used in conjunction with an optical attachment to capture cross-polarized and collinear color images of a nevus that are analyzed to quantify chromophore distribution. The nevus is also imaged by a multimode hyperspectral system, our proprietary SkinSpect™ device. Relative accuracy and biological plausibility of the two systems algorithms are compared to assess aspects of feasibility of in-home or primary care practitioner smartphone screening prior to rigorous clinical analysis via the SkinSpect.

  7. A bioinspired multi-modal flying and walking robot.

    PubMed

    Daler, Ludovic; Mintchev, Stefano; Stefanini, Cesare; Floreano, Dario

    2015-01-19

    With the aim to extend the versatility and adaptability of robots in complex environments, a novel multi-modal flying and walking robot is presented. The robot consists of a flying wing with adaptive morphology that can perform both long distance flight and walking in cluttered environments for local exploration. The robot's design is inspired by the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, which can perform aerial and terrestrial locomotion with limited trade-offs. Wings' adaptive morphology allows the robot to modify the shape of its body in order to increase its efficiency during terrestrial locomotion. Furthermore, aerial and terrestrial capabilities are powered by a single locomotor apparatus, therefore it reduces the total complexity and weight of this multi-modal robot.

  8. Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Tunnell, J W; Desjardins, A E; Galindo, L; Georgakoudi, I; McGee, S A; Mirkovic, J; Mueller, M G; Nazemi, J; Nguyen, F T; Wax, A; Zhang, Q; Dasari, R R; Feld, M S

    2003-12-01

    Reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopies have shown great promise for early detection of epithelial dysplasia. We have developed a clinical reflectance spectrofluorimeter for multimodal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia. This clinical instrument, the FastEEM, collects white light reflectance and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEM's) within a fraction of a second. In this paper we describe the FastEEM instrumentation, designed for collection of multi-modal spectroscopic data. We illustrate its performance using tissue phantoms with well defined optical properties and biochemicals of known fluorescence properties. In addition, we discuss our plans to develop a system that combines a multi-spectral imaging device for wide area surveillance with this contact probe device. PMID:14640762

  9. Multimodal targeted high relaxivity thermosensitive liposome for in vivo imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kuijten, Maayke M. P.; Hannah Degeling, M.; Chen, John W.; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory; Waterman, Peter; Weissleder, Ralph; Azzi, Jamil; Nicolay, Klaas; Tannous, Bakhos A.

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes are spherical, self-closed structures formed by lipid bilayers that can encapsulate drugs and/or imaging agents in their hydrophilic core or within their membrane moiety, making them suitable delivery vehicles. We have synthesized a new liposome containing gadolinium-DOTA lipid bilayer, as a targeting multimodal molecular imaging agent for magnetic resonance and optical imaging. We showed that this liposome has a much higher molar relaxivities r1 and r2 compared to a more conventional liposome containing gadolinium-DTPA-BSA lipid. By incorporating both gadolinium and rhodamine in the lipid bilayer as well as biotin on its surface, we used this agent for multimodal imaging and targeting of tumors through the strong biotin-streptavidin interaction. Since this new liposome is thermosensitive, it can be used for ultrasound-mediated drug delivery at specific sites, such as tumors, and can be guided by magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26610702

  10. Combining Multi-modal Features for Social Media Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolopoulos, Spiros; Giannakidou, Eirini; Kompatsiaris, Ioannis; Patras, Ioannis; Vakali, Athena

    In this chapter we discuss methods for efficiently modeling the diverse information carried by social media. The problem is viewed as a multi-modal analysis process where specialized techniques are used to overcome the obstacles arising from the heterogeneity of data. Focusing at the optimal combination of low-level features (i.e., early fusion), we present a bio-inspired algorithm for feature selection that weights the features based on their appropriateness to represent a resource. Under the same objective of optimal feature combination we also examine the use of pLSA-based aspect models, as the means to define a latent semantic space where heterogeneous types of information can be effectively combined. Tagged images taken from social sites have been used in the characteristic scenarios of image clustering and retrieval, to demonstrate the benefits of multi-modal analysis in social media.

  11. A bioinspired multi-modal flying and walking robot.

    PubMed

    Daler, Ludovic; Mintchev, Stefano; Stefanini, Cesare; Floreano, Dario

    2015-01-01

    With the aim to extend the versatility and adaptability of robots in complex environments, a novel multi-modal flying and walking robot is presented. The robot consists of a flying wing with adaptive morphology that can perform both long distance flight and walking in cluttered environments for local exploration. The robot's design is inspired by the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, which can perform aerial and terrestrial locomotion with limited trade-offs. Wings' adaptive morphology allows the robot to modify the shape of its body in order to increase its efficiency during terrestrial locomotion. Furthermore, aerial and terrestrial capabilities are powered by a single locomotor apparatus, therefore it reduces the total complexity and weight of this multi-modal robot. PMID:25599118

  12. Multimode nondestructive detecting method for high-speed rail defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mingjian; Cheng, Xingzhen; Wan, Guangnan; Liu, Ting; Fu, Ying; Wang, Yan

    2015-11-01

    It is very important to detect the surface defects of the high-speed rail for security concerns. A multimode detecting method, which integrates high resolution of optical image, high precision of photoacoustic detection and strong penetration of ultrasound detecting, is proposed for the rail defect detection. Utilizing the surface defect characteristics obtained from optical signal, the photoacoustic and ultrasound scanning region could be determined, and rail shallow and internal defect characteristics can be acquired subsequently. Eventually, fusing three modal signals mentioned above, the information of the entire rail defect, including type, extension trend and depth can be detected. It has been proved that the multimode method can improve the detecting efficiency, and enlarge the detection range in the meantime.

  13. A secure and user-friendly multimodal biometric system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kenta; Mimura, Masahiro; Isobe, Yoshiaki; Seto, Yoichi

    2004-08-01

    Biometric verification has attracted attention recently because it is more secure than knowledge- or token-based verification techniques. Multi-modal biometric verification can provide even greater accuracy by combining several forms of biometrics. However, there are problems with the availability, usability and acceptability of the technique. In this paper, we take a new approach in proposing a multi-modal biometric system that enables users to select which biometrics they prefer to be matched at the time of verification. This system also reduces the number of inputs required by adopting a sequential test based on statistical methods. In addition, the accuracy of the system can be controlled according to the security level required. We demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed system experimentally.

  14. The problem of multimodal concurrent serial order in behavior.

    PubMed

    Kolodny, Oren; Edelman, Shimon

    2015-09-01

    The "problem of serial order in behavior," as formulated and discussed by Lashley (1951), is arguably more pervasive and more profound both than originally stated and than currently appreciated. We spell out two complementary aspects of what we term the generalized problem of behavior: (i) multimodality, stemming from the disparate nature of the sensorimotor variables and processes that underlie behavior, and (ii) concurrency, which reflects the parallel unfolding in time of these processes and of their asynchronous interactions. We illustrate these on a number of examples, with a special focus on language, briefly survey the computational approaches to multimodal concurrency, offer some hypotheses regarding the manner in which brains address it, and discuss some of the broader implications of these as yet unresolved issues for cognitive science.

  15. Reconfigurable optical interconnection network for multimode optical fiber sensor arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, R. T.; Robinson, D.; Lu, H.; Wang, M. R.; Jannson, T.; Baumbick, R.

    1992-01-01

    A single-source, single-detector architecture has been developed to implement a reconfigurable optical interconnection network multimode optical fiber sensor arrays. The network was realized by integrating LiNbO3 electrooptic (EO) gratings working at the Raman Na regime and a massive fan-out waveguide hologram (WH) working at the Bragg regime onto a multimode glass waveguide. The glass waveguide utilized the whole substrate as a guiding medium. A 1-to-59 massive waveguide fan-out was demonstrated using a WH operating at 514 nm. Measured diffraction efficiency of 59 percent was experimentally confirmed. Reconfigurability of the interconnection was carried out by generating an EO grating through an externally applied electric field. Unlike conventional single-mode integrated optical devices, the guided mode demonstrated has an azimuthal symmetry in mode profile which is the same as that of a fiber mode.

  16. Mono- and multimodal registration of optical breast images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, Paul C.; Adams, Arthur; Elias, Sjoerd G.; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Viergever, Max A.; Pluim, Josien P. W.

    2012-08-01

    Optical breast imaging offers the possibility of noninvasive, low cost, and high sensitivity imaging of breast cancers. Poor spatial resolution and a lack of anatomical landmarks in optical images of the breast make interpretation difficult and motivate registration and fusion of these data with subsequent optical images and other breast imaging modalities. Methods used for registration and fusion of optical breast images are reviewed. Imaging concerns relevant to the registration problem are first highlighted, followed by a focus on both monomodal and multimodal registration of optical breast imaging. Where relevant, methods pertaining to other imaging modalities or imaged anatomies are presented. The multimodal registration discussion concerns digital x-ray mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography.

  17. Two-photon quantum walk in a multimode fiber

    PubMed Central

    Defienne, Hugo; Barbieri, Marco; Walmsley, Ian A.; Smith, Brian J.; Gigan, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton propagation in connected structures—a quantum walk—offers the potential of simulating complex physical systems and provides a route to universal quantum computation. Increasing the complexity of quantum photonic networks where the walk occurs is essential for many applications. We implement a quantum walk of indistinguishable photon pairs in a multimode fiber supporting 380 modes. Using wavefront shaping, we control the propagation of the two-photon state through the fiber in which all modes are coupled. Excitation of arbitrary output modes of the system is realized by controlling classical and quantum interferences. This report demonstrates a highly multimode platform for multiphoton interference experiments and provides a powerful method to program a general high-dimensional multiport optical circuit. This work paves the way for the next generation of photonic devices for quantum simulation, computing, and communication. PMID:27152325

  18. Two-photon quantum walk in a multimode fiber.

    PubMed

    Defienne, Hugo; Barbieri, Marco; Walmsley, Ian A; Smith, Brian J; Gigan, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton propagation in connected structures-a quantum walk-offers the potential of simulating complex physical systems and provides a route to universal quantum computation. Increasing the complexity of quantum photonic networks where the walk occurs is essential for many applications. We implement a quantum walk of indistinguishable photon pairs in a multimode fiber supporting 380 modes. Using wavefront shaping, we control the propagation of the two-photon state through the fiber in which all modes are coupled. Excitation of arbitrary output modes of the system is realized by controlling classical and quantum interferences. This report demonstrates a highly multimode platform for multiphoton interference experiments and provides a powerful method to program a general high-dimensional multiport optical circuit. This work paves the way for the next generation of photonic devices for quantum simulation, computing, and communication.

  19. Two-photon quantum walk in a multimode fiber.

    PubMed

    Defienne, Hugo; Barbieri, Marco; Walmsley, Ian A; Smith, Brian J; Gigan, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton propagation in connected structures-a quantum walk-offers the potential of simulating complex physical systems and provides a route to universal quantum computation. Increasing the complexity of quantum photonic networks where the walk occurs is essential for many applications. We implement a quantum walk of indistinguishable photon pairs in a multimode fiber supporting 380 modes. Using wavefront shaping, we control the propagation of the two-photon state through the fiber in which all modes are coupled. Excitation of arbitrary output modes of the system is realized by controlling classical and quantum interferences. This report demonstrates a highly multimode platform for multiphoton interference experiments and provides a powerful method to program a general high-dimensional multiport optical circuit. This work paves the way for the next generation of photonic devices for quantum simulation, computing, and communication. PMID:27152325

  20. Multidimensional and Multimodal Separations by HPTLC in Phytochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesla, Lukasz; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika

    HPTLC is one of the most widely applied methods in phytochemical analysis. It is due to its numerous advantages, e.g., it is the only chromatographic method offering the option of presenting the results as an image. Other advantages include simplicity, low costs, parallel analysis of samples, high sample capacity, rapidly obtained results, and possibility of multiple detection. HPTLC provides identification as well as quantitative results. It also enables the identification of adulterants. In case of complex samples, the resolving power of traditional one-dimensional chromatography is usually inadequate, hence special modes of development are required. Multidimensional and multimodal HPTLC techniques include those realized in one direction (UMD, IMD, GMD, BMD, AMD) as well as typical two-dimensional methods realized on mono- or bi-layers. In this manuscript, an overview on variable multidimensional and multimodal methods, applied in the analysis of phytochemical samples, is presented.

  1. Using multimodal mining to drive clinical guidelines development.

    PubMed

    Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Teodoro, Douglas; Vishnyakova, Dina; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Ruch, Patrick; Lovis, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We present exploratory investigations of multimodal mining to help designing clinical guidelines for antibiotherapy. Our approach is based on the assumption that combining various sources of data, such as the literature, a clinical datawarehouse, as well as information regarding costs will result in better recommendations. Compared to our baseline recommendation system based on a question-answering engine built on top of PubMed, an improvement of +16% is observed when clinical data (i.e. resistance profiles) are injected into the model. In complement to PubMed, an alternative search strategy is reported, which is significantly improved by the use of the combined multimodal approach. These results suggest that combining literature-based discovery with structured data mining can significantly improve effectiveness of decision-support systems for authors of clinical practice guidelines.

  2. Power-compensated displacement sensing based on single mode-multimode fiber Bragg grating structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, An; Wu, Zhishen; Huang, Huang

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, power-compensated displacement sensing is proposed and investigated experimentally based on single mode-multimode fiber Bragg grating (FBG) structure, which is fabricated by a single mode fiber and an FBG written on 105/125 μm graded-index multimode fiber (MMF). Experimental results verify that the reflected peak power of multiple wavelengths in single mode-multimode fiber Bragg grating structure shows different response to displacement induced bending of transmitting multimode fiber as the result of multimode interference (MMI). By employing different bending responses between multiple wavelengths of multimode FBG, ratiometric detection based high sensitive displacement measurement can be achieved, which provides a simple and practical method for displacement sensing and meanwhile a potential solution for multi-parameter measurement.

  3. Multimode pumped continuous-wave solid-state Raman laser.

    PubMed

    Grabtchikov, A S; Lisinetskii, V A; Orlovich, V A; Schmitt, M; Maksimenka, R; Kiefer, W

    2004-11-01

    We demonstrate the continuous-wave operation of a solid-state Raman laser containing a barium nitrate crystal as the Raman medium. The Raman laser, which has a singly resonant cavity, is pumped by multimode radiation. The Raman oscillation threshold is reached at approximately 2 W of pump power. As much as 500 kW/cm2 of Stokes power density at 60-kW/cm2 pump power density is obtained in the cavity. PMID:15584282

  4. Advanced tracking and data relay experiment study: Multimode transponder experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cnossen, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    A series of experiments utilizing a multimode transponder mounted in an aircraft working either through a spacecraft or directly with a ground station is studied. The purpose of the experiments is to determine the best modulation and encoding techniques for combating RFI and multipath propagation and to determine the characteristics of VHF and UHF RFI in discreet bands. The experiments would also determine the feasibility and accuracy of range and range rate measurements with the various modulation and encoding techniques.

  5. Multimode pumped continuous-wave solid-state Raman laser.

    PubMed

    Grabtchikov, A S; Lisinetskii, V A; Orlovich, V A; Schmitt, M; Maksimenka, R; Kiefer, W

    2004-11-01

    We demonstrate the continuous-wave operation of a solid-state Raman laser containing a barium nitrate crystal as the Raman medium. The Raman laser, which has a singly resonant cavity, is pumped by multimode radiation. The Raman oscillation threshold is reached at approximately 2 W of pump power. As much as 500 kW/cm2 of Stokes power density at 60-kW/cm2 pump power density is obtained in the cavity.

  6. Multimode-diode-pumped gas (alkali-vapor) laser

    SciTech Connect

    Page, R H; Beach, R J; Kanz, V K

    2005-08-22

    We report the first demonstration of a multimode-diode-pumped gas laser--Rb vapor operating on the 795 nm resonance transition. Peak output of {approx}1 Watt was obtained using a volume-Bragg-grating stabilized pump diode array. The laser's output radiance exceeded the pump radiance by a factor greater than 2000. Power scaling (by pumping with larger diode arrays) is therefore possible.

  7. User tests with the multi-mode compression architecture.

    PubMed

    Vlaming, M S; Termeer, P J; Donkers, E H

    2001-01-01

    The Multi-Mode Compression (MMC) architecture is a new system for better speech understanding, listening comfort and user acceptance. This study reports on the user tests that have been performed to verify the benefits of the concept and the quality of the fitting process for the individual hearing impaired. The study concentrates on the 4-channel version of a new series of digital instruments with this MMC architecture.

  8. Multimodal emotion perception after anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL)

    PubMed Central

    Milesi, Valérie; Cekic, Sezen; Péron, Julie; Frühholz, Sascha; Cristinzio, Chiara; Seeck, Margitta; Grandjean, Didier

    2014-01-01

    In the context of emotion information processing, several studies have demonstrated the involvement of the amygdala in emotion perception, for unimodal and multimodal stimuli. However, it seems that not only the amygdala, but several regions around it, may also play a major role in multimodal emotional integration. In order to investigate the contribution of these regions to multimodal emotion perception, five patients who had undergone unilateral anterior temporal lobe resection were exposed to both unimodal (vocal or visual) and audiovisual emotional and neutral stimuli. In a classic paradigm, participants were asked to rate the emotional intensity of angry, fearful, joyful, and neutral stimuli on visual analog scales. Compared with matched controls, patients exhibited impaired categorization of joyful expressions, whether the stimuli were auditory, visual, or audiovisual. Patients confused joyful faces with neutral faces, and joyful prosody with surprise. In the case of fear, unlike matched controls, patients provided lower intensity ratings for visual stimuli than for vocal and audiovisual ones. Fearful faces were frequently confused with surprised ones. When we controlled for lesion size, we no longer observed any overall difference between patients and controls in their ratings of emotional intensity on the target scales. Lesion size had the greatest effect on intensity perceptions and accuracy in the visual modality, irrespective of the type of emotion. These new findings suggest that a damaged amygdala, or a disrupted bundle between the amygdala and the ventral part of the occipital lobe, has a greater impact on emotion perception in the visual modality than it does in either the vocal or audiovisual one. We can surmise that patients are able to use the auditory information contained in multimodal stimuli to compensate for difficulty processing visually conveyed emotion. PMID:24839437

  9. Multimode tapered optical light pipe for illumination systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romańczuk, Patryk; Pietrzycki, Marcin; Źmojda, Jacek; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Dorosz, Dominik

    2015-09-01

    In the article the multimode tapered optical light pipe for illumination systems was investigated. Based on tree light emitting diodes at the wavelength of 460 nm (blue), 528 nm (green) and 631 nm (red) possibility of white light emission on the output surface of the tapered light pipe was submitted. Influence of optical power of LEDs on the colour coordinates (CIE-1931) has been investigated.

  10. Multimode circuit quantum electrodynamics with hybrid metamaterial transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Egger, D J; Wilhelm, F K

    2013-10-18

    Quantum transmission lines are central to superconducting and hybrid quantum computing. In this work we show how coupling them to a left-handed transmission line allows circuit QED to reach a new regime: multimode ultrastrong coupling. Out of the many potential applications of this novel device, we discuss the preparation of multipartite entangled states and the simulation of the spin-boson model where a quantum phase transition is reached up to finite size effects.

  11. Multimodality evoked potentials in HIV infected subjects: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Cazzullo, C L; Gala, C; Ducati, A; Landi, A; Donati, R; Russo, R; Rossini, M; Nicolosi, A

    1990-10-01

    18 subjects with symptomless HIV infection were investigated with multimodal evoked potentials for possible CNS involvement and again after an 8-12 month interval. 13 subjects showed neuropsychological changes, which were confirmed at the second examination. The 5 subjects found normal remained so at the second examination. On WAIS assessment the only patient to earn pathological scores was the one with the greatest evoked potentials changes. Thus the evoked potentials procedure proved capable of identifying early CNS involvement by HIV infection.

  12. The Johns Hopkins University multimodal dataset for human action recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Thomas S.; Mendat, Daniel R.; Pouliquen, Philippe O.; Andreou, Andreas G.

    2015-05-01

    The Johns Hopkins University MultiModal Action (JHUMMA) dataset contains a set of twenty-one actions recorded with four sensor systems in three different modalities. The data was collected with a data acquisition system that includes three independent active sonar devices at three different frequencies and a Microsoft Kinect sensor that provides both RGB and Depth data. We have developed algorithms for human action recognition from active acoustics and provide benchmark baseline recognition performance results.

  13. SBS (stimulated Brillouin scattering) pulse distortion in multimode optical fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.; Hawkins, R.J.; Laumann, C.W.; Hatch, J. )

    1989-01-01

    We have observed sever temporal-pulse-shape distortion due to stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in multimode optical fibers used to diagnose 351 m laser pulses on the Nova laser system. Our measurements can be fit by a basic model of SBS and provide a clear indication of the intensity and temporal regimes where significant SBS-induced temporal-pulse-shape distortion can be avoided. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Construction of a multimodal CT-video chest model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrnes, Patrick D.; Higgins, William E.

    2014-03-01

    Bronchoscopy enables a number of minimally invasive chest procedures for diseases such as lung cancer and asthma. For example, using the bronchoscope's continuous video stream as a guide, a physician can navigate through the lung airways to examine general airway health, collect tissue samples, or administer a disease treatment. In addition, physicians can now use new image-guided intervention (IGI) systems, which draw upon both three-dimensional (3D) multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) chest scans and bronchoscopic video, to assist with bronchoscope navigation. Unfortunately, little use is made of the acquired video stream, a potentially invaluable source of information. In addition, little effort has been made to link the bronchoscopic video stream to the detailed anatomical information given by a patient's 3D MDCT chest scan. We propose a method for constructing a multimodal CT-video model of the chest. After automatically computing a patient's 3D MDCT-based airway-tree model, the method next parses the available video data to generate a positional linkage between a sparse set of key video frames and airway path locations. Next, a fusion/mapping of the video's color mucosal information and MDCT-based endoluminal surfaces is performed. This results in the final multimodal CT-video chest model. The data structure constituting the model provides a history of those airway locations visited during bronchoscopy. It also provides for quick visual access to relevant sections of the airway wall by condensing large portions of endoscopic video into representative frames containing important structural and textural information. When examined with a set of interactive visualization tools, the resulting fused data structure provides a rich multimodal data source. We demonstrate the potential of the multimodal model with both phantom and human data.

  15. Multimodal Sensory Distortions in Post-partum Exacerbation of Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan; Naveen Kumar, C; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Thirthalli, Jagadisha

    2013-11-25

    Background: Sensory distortions of body image commonly occur during migraine, seizures, non-dominant cortical infarcts and hallucinogen abuse.Methods: We report the case of a 30-year-old woman with paranoid schizophrenia, presenting with post-partum onset multimodal sensory distortions in the absence of any neurological disorders or substance use.Results: Her symptoms involved persistent facial/body metamorphopsia (distorted images) and vocal paracousis (distorted voices), in the absence of visual hallucinations, illusions or agnosia. Neuropsychological assessments revealed deficits on visual processing tasks. Neuroimaging, electroencephalography and ophthalmological evaluation revealed no abnormalities. The multimodal sensory distortions responded to anti-psychotic treatment, paralleling improvement in other schizophrenia psychopathology, over a period of one month.Conclusion: Prominent and persistent multimodal sensory distortions like metamorphopsia and paracousis in the presence of psychotic symptoms warrant a detailed neurological and general medical work-up. These symptoms presenting in the absence of neurological or substance use disorders may be a component of schizophrenia. PMID:24275634

  16. Tunable high quality factor in two multimode plasmonic stubs waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiquan; Li, Hongjian; Zhan, Shiping; Li, Boxun; He, Zhihui; Xu, Hui; Zheng, Mingfei

    2016-04-01

    We numerically investigate the optical characteristics of a metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide side-coupled with two identical multimode stub resonators. Double plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) peaks with narrow full width at half maximum (FWHM) and high quality factor (Q-factor) can be observed in this structure. The Q-factors of PIT peaks in two stub resonators system are larger than those in single stub resonator system. A multimode coupled-radiation oscillator theory (MC-ROT), which is derived from ROT, is proposed to analyze the spectral response in the multimode system for the first time. The analytical results are confirmed by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation results. We can also find that the Q-factors of the two PIT peaks have an opposite evolution tendency with the change of the stubs parameters and the maximum can reach to 427. These results may provide some applications for ultrasensitive sensors, switches and efficient filters.

  17. Tunable high quality factor in two multimode plasmonic stubs waveguide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiquan; Li, Hongjian; Zhan, Shiping; Li, Boxun; He, Zhihui; Xu, Hui; Zheng, Mingfei

    2016-04-14

    We numerically investigate the optical characteristics of a metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide side-coupled with two identical multimode stub resonators. Double plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) peaks with narrow full width at half maximum (FWHM) and high quality factor (Q-factor) can be observed in this structure. The Q-factors of PIT peaks in two stub resonators system are larger than those in single stub resonator system. A multimode coupled-radiation oscillator theory (MC-ROT), which is derived from ROT, is proposed to analyze the spectral response in the multimode system for the first time. The analytical results are confirmed by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation results. We can also find that the Q-factors of the two PIT peaks have an opposite evolution tendency with the change of the stubs parameters and the maximum can reach to 427. These results may provide some applications for ultrasensitive sensors, switches and efficient filters.

  18. Total variation minimization-based multimodality medical image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xuelin; Yu, Hengyong; Wang, Ge; Mili, Lamine

    2014-09-01

    Since its recent inception, simultaneous image reconstruction for multimodality fusion has received a great deal of attention due to its superior imaging performance. On the other hand, the compressed sensing (CS)-based image reconstruction methods have undergone a rapid development because of their ability to significantly reduce the amount of raw data. In this work, we combine computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into a single CS-based reconstruction framework. From a theoretical viewpoint, the CS-based reconstruction methods require prior sparsity knowledge to perform reconstruction. In addition to the conventional data fidelity term, the multimodality imaging information is utilized to improve the reconstruction quality. Prior information in this context is that most of the medical images can be approximated as piecewise constant model, and the discrete gradient transform (DGT), whose norm is the total variation (TV), can serve as a sparse representation. More importantly, the multimodality images from the same object must share structural similarity, which can be captured by DGT. The prior information on similar distributions from the sparse DGTs is employed to improve the CT and MRI image quality synergistically for a CT-MRI scanner platform. Numerical simulation with undersampled CT and MRI datasets is conducted to demonstrate the merits of the proposed hybrid image reconstruction approach. Our preliminary results confirm that the proposed method outperforms the conventional CT and MRI reconstructions when they are applied separately.

  19. In vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia by multimodal colposcopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Wenqi; Qu, Yingjie; Pei, Jiaojiao; Xiao, Linlin; Zhang, Shiwu; Chang, Shufang; Smith, Zachary J.; Xu, Ronald X.

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for women in developing countries. Colposcopy plays an important role in early screening and detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). In this paper, we developed a multimodal colposcopy system that combines multispectral reflectance, autofluorescence, and RGB imaging for in vivo detection of CIN, which is capable of dynamically recording multimodal data of the same region of interest (ROI). We studied the optical properties of cervical tissue to determine multi-wavelengths for different imaging modalities. Advanced algorithms based on the second derivative spectrum and the fluorescence intensity were developed to differentiate cervical tissue into two categories: squamous normal (SN) and high grade (HG) dysplasia. In the results, the kinetics of cervical reflectance and autofluorescence characteristics pre and post acetic acid application were observed and analyzed, and the image segmentation revealed good consistency with the gold standard of histopathology. Our pilot study demonstrated the clinical potential of this multimodal colposcopic system for in vivo detection of cervical cancer.

  20. A multimodal bait for trapping blood-sucking arthropods.

    PubMed

    Ryelandt, Julien; Noireau, François; Lazzari, Claudio R

    2011-02-01

    Artificial baits constitute important tools for the detection and sampling of blood-sucking arthropods, in particular those that are vectors of parasites affecting human health. At present, many different devices have been proposed to attract blood-sucking arthropods, mostly based on the attractiveness of particular chemicals or blends. However, most of them revealed themselves as unpractical (e.g. they require an electrical supply), expensive (e.g. gas bottles) or not efficient enough. On the other hand, the use of living baits is as effective but it has practical constraints and/or raises ethical questions. We present here a multimodal lure to attract blood-sucking arthropods designed taking into account both practical constraints and costs. The main characteristics of our bait are: (1) artificiality (no living-host); (2) multimodality (it associates heat, carbon dioxide and chemical attractants); (3) independency from any energy source; (4) no need for gas bottles; (5) easy to prepare and use in the field; (6) low cost. We tested the ability of the bait to attract blood-sucking arthropods in the laboratory and in the field, using capture sticky-traps. Our bait evinced to be almost as efficient as live hosts (mice) for the capture of Chagas disease and Borrelia vectors in Bolivia. The multimodal lure here presented is a generalist bait, i.e. effective for attracting different haematophagous species.

  1. Freeform beam shaping for high-power multimode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim

    2014-03-01

    Widening of using high power multimode lasers in industrial laser material processing is accompanied by special requirements to irradiance profiles in such technologies like metal or plastics welding, cladding, hardening, brazing, annealing, laser pumping and amplification in MOPA lasers. Typical irradiance distribution of high power multimode lasers: free space solid state, fiber-coupled solid state and diodes lasers, fiber lasers, is similar to Gaussian. Laser technologies can be essentially improved when irradiance distribution on a workpiece is uniform (flattop) or inverse-Gauss; when building high-power pulsed lasers it is possible to enhance efficiency of pumping and amplification by applying super-Gauss irradiance distribution with controlled convexity. Therefore, "freeform" beam shaping of multimode laser beams is an important task. A proved solution is refractive field mapping beam shaper like Shaper capable to control resulting irradiance profile - with the same unit it is possible to get various beam profiles and choose optimum one for a particular application. Operational principle of these devices implies transformation of laser irradiance distribution by conserving beam consistency, high transmittance, providing collimated low divergent output beam. Using additional optics makes it possible to create resulting laser spots of necessary size and round, elliptical or linear shape. Operation out of focal plane and, hence, in field of lower wavefront curvature, allows extending depth of field. The refractive beam shapers are implemented as telescopes and collimating systems, which can be connected directly to fiber-coupled lasers or fiber lasers, thus combining functions of beam collimation and irradiance transformation.

  2. Multimodal management of atrophic acne scarring in the aging face.

    PubMed

    O'Daniel, T Gerald

    2011-12-01

    Atrophic facial acne scarring is a widely prevalent condition that can have a negative impact on a patient's quality of life. The appearance of these scars is often worsened by the normal effects of aging. A number of options are available for the treatment of acne scarring, including chemical peeling, dermabrasion, ablative or nonablative laser resurfacing, dermal fillers, and surgical techniques such as subcision or punch excision. Depending on the type and extent of scarring, a multimodal approach is generally necessary to provide satisfactory results. Resurfacing techniques correct surface irregularities, long-lasting dermal fillers address the volume loss resulting from acne, and sub-superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) face-lift procedures counter the soft tissue laxity and ptosis associated with aging. This article briefly reviews the evolution of individual approaches to treating atrophic acne scarring, followed by case examples illustrating results that can be achieved using a multimodal approach. Representative cases from patients in their 30s, 40s, and 50s are presented. In the author's clinical practice, multimodal approaches incorporating fractionated laser, injectable poly-L: -lactic acid, and sub-SMAS face-lift procedures have achieved optimal aesthetic outcomes, high patient satisfaction, and durability of aesthetic effect over time. PMID:21491169

  3. Inhibition is Needed to Learn Precise Multimodal Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2008-03-01

    Multimodal neuronal maps, combining input from two or more sensory systems, e.g., vision and audition, play a key role in processing and transforming sensory to motor information. For such maps to be of any use, the input from all participating modalities must be calibrated so that a stimulus at a specific spatial location is represented at an unambiguous position in the multimodal map. Here we discuss a method based on supervised spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) to gauge input from different sensory modalities so as to ensure proper map alignment. We therefore analyze excitation- and inhibition-mediated learning in conjunction with the problem of how perfect a teacher should be. Analytical calculations and numerical simulations show on the one hand that inhibitory teacher input is essential if high-quality multimodal integration must be learnt rapidly. On the other hand, the quality of the resulting map is not limited by the quality of the teacher signal alone but rather by the accuracy of the input from other sensory modalities.

  4. BER evaluations for multimode beams in underwater turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altay Arpali, Serap; Baykal, Yahya; Arpali, Çağlar

    2016-07-01

    In underwater optical communication links, bit error rate (BER) is an important performance criterion. For this purpose, the effects of oceanic turbulence on multimode laser beam incidences are studied and compared in terms of average BER (), which is related to the scintillation index. Based on the log-normal distribution, is analysed for underwater turbulence parameters, including the rate of dissipation of the mean squared temperature, the rate of dissipation of the turbulent kinetic energy, the parameter that determines the relative strength of temperature and salinity in driving index fluctuations, the Kolmogorov microscale length and other link parameters such as link length, wavelength and laser source size. It is shown that use of multimode improves the system performance of optical wireless communication systems operating in an underwater medium. For all the investigated multimode beams, decreasing link length, source size, the relative strength of temperature and salinity in driving the index fluctuations, the rate of dissipation of the mean squared temperature and Kolmogorov microscale length improve the . Moreover, lower values are obtained for the increasing wavelength of operation and the rate of dissipation of the turbulent kinetic energy in underwater turbulence.

  5. An Iterative Decoding Algorithm for Fusion of Multimodal Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivappa, Shankar T.; Rao, Bhaskar D.; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    2007-12-01

    Human activity analysis in an intelligent space is typically based on multimodal informational cues. Use of multiple modalities gives us a lot of advantages. But information fusion from different sources is a problem that has to be addressed. In this paper, we propose an iterative algorithm to fuse information from multimodal sources. We draw inspiration from the theory of turbo codes. We draw an analogy between the redundant parity bits of the constituent codes of a turbo code and the information from different sensors in a multimodal system. A hidden Markov model is used to model the sequence of observations of individual modalities. The decoded state likelihoods from one modality are used as additional information in decoding the states of the other modalities. This procedure is repeated until a certain convergence criterion is met. The resulting iterative algorithm is shown to have lower error rates than the individual models alone. The algorithm is then applied to a real-world problem of speech segmentation using audio and visual cues.

  6. Deep Dynamic Neural Networks for Multimodal Gesture Segmentation and Recognition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Pigou, Lionel; Kindermans, Pieter-Jan; Le, Nam Do-Hoang; Shao, Ling; Dambre, Joni; Odobez, Jean-Marc

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes a novel method called Deep Dynamic Neural Networks (DDNN) for multimodal gesture recognition. A semi-supervised hierarchical dynamic framework based on a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is proposed for simultaneous gesture segmentation and recognition where skeleton joint information, depth and RGB images, are the multimodal input observations. Unlike most traditional approaches that rely on the construction of complex handcrafted features, our approach learns high-level spatio-temporal representations using deep neural networks suited to the input modality: a Gaussian-Bernouilli Deep Belief Network (DBN) to handle skeletal dynamics, and a 3D Convolutional Neural Network (3DCNN) to manage and fuse batches of depth and RGB images. This is achieved through the modeling and learning of the emission probabilities of the HMM required to infer the gesture sequence. This purely data driven approach achieves a Jaccard index score of 0.81 in the ChaLearn LAP gesture spotting challenge. The performance is on par with a variety of state-of-the-art hand-tuned feature-based approaches and other learning-based methods, therefore opening the door to the use of deep learning techniques in order to further explore multimodal time series data. PMID:26955020

  7. Manifold regularized multitask feature learning for multimodality disease classification.

    PubMed

    Jie, Biao; Zhang, Daoqiang; Cheng, Bo; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-02-01

    Multimodality based methods have shown great advantages in classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its prodromal stage, that is, mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Recently, multitask feature selection methods are typically used for joint selection of common features across multiple modalities. However, one disadvantage of existing multimodality based methods is that they ignore the useful data distribution information in each modality, which is essential for subsequent classification. Accordingly, in this paper we propose a manifold regularized multitask feature learning method to preserve both the intrinsic relatedness among multiple modalities of data and the data distribution information in each modality. Specifically, we denote the feature learning on each modality as a single task, and use group-sparsity regularizer to capture the intrinsic relatedness among multiple tasks (i.e., modalities) and jointly select the common features from multiple tasks. Furthermore, we introduce a new manifold-based Laplacian regularizer to preserve the data distribution information from each task. Finally, we use the multikernel support vector machine method to fuse multimodality data for eventual classification. Conversely, we also extend our method to the semisupervised setting, where only partial data are labeled. We evaluate our method using the baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) data of subjects from AD neuroimaging initiative database. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method can not only achieve improved classification performance, but also help to discover the disease-related brain regions useful for disease diagnosis. PMID:25277605

  8. Multimodal system for the planning and guidance of bronchoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, William E.; Cheirsilp, Ronnarit; Zang, Xiaonan; Byrnes, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Many technical innovations in multimodal radiologic imaging and bronchoscopy have emerged recently in the effort against lung cancer. Modern X-ray computed-tomography (CT) scanners provide three-dimensional (3D) high-resolution chest images, positron emission tomography (PET) scanners give complementary molecular imaging data, and new integrated PET/CT scanners combine the strengths of both modalities. State-of-the-art bronchoscopes permit minimally invasive tissue sampling, with vivid endobronchial video enabling navigation deep into the airway-tree periphery, while complementary endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) reveals local views of anatomical structures outside the airways. In addition, image-guided intervention (IGI) systems have proven their utility for CT-based planning and guidance of bronchoscopy. Unfortunately, no IGI system exists that integrates all sources effectively through the complete lung-cancer staging work flow. This paper presents a prototype of a computer-based multimodal IGI system that strives to fill this need. The system combines a wide range of automatic and semi-automatic image-processing tools for multimodal data fusion and procedure planning. It also provides a flexible graphical user interface for follow-on guidance of bronchoscopy/EBUS. Human-study results demonstrate the system's potential.

  9. Multimodality treatment strategies have changed prognosis of peritoneal metastases

    PubMed Central

    Lungoci, Corneliu; Mironiuc, Aurel Ion; Muntean, Valentin; Oniu, Traian; Leebmann, Hubert; Mayr, Max; Piso, Pompiliu

    2016-01-01

    For a long time, treatment of peritoneal metastases (PM) was mostly palliative and thus, this status was link with “terminal status/despair”. The current multimodal treatment strategy, consisting of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), has been strenuously achieved over time, but seems to be the best treatment option for PM patients. As we reviewed the literature data, we could emphasize some milestones and also, controversies in the history of proposed multimodal treatment and thus, outline the philosophy of this approach, which seems to be an unusual one indeed. Initially marked by nihilism and fear, but benefiting from a remarkable joint effort of human and material resources (multi-center and -institutional research), over a period of 30 years, CRS and HIPEC found their place in the treatment of PM. The next 4 years were dedicated to the refinement of the multimodal treatment, by launching research pathways. In selected patients, with requires training, it demonstrated a significant survival results (similar to the Hepatic Metastases treatment), with acceptable risks and costs. The main debates regarding CRS and HIPEC treatment were based on the oncologists’ perspective and the small number of randomized clinical trials. It is important to statement the PM patient has the right to be informed of the existence of CRS and HIPEC, as a real treatment resource, the decision being made by multidisciplinary teams. PMID:26798438

  10. High-resolution multimodal clinical multiphoton tomography of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Karsten

    2011-03-01

    This review focuses on multimodal multiphoton tomography based on near infrared femtosecond lasers. Clinical multiphoton tomographs for 3D high-resolution in vivo imaging have been placed into the market several years ago. The second generation of this Prism-Award winning High-Tech skin imaging tool (MPTflex) was introduced in 2010. The same year, the world's first clinical CARS studies have been performed with a hybrid multimodal multiphoton tomograph. In particular, non-fluorescent lipids and water as well as mitochondrial fluorescent NAD(P)H, fluorescent elastin, keratin, and melanin as well as SHG-active collagen has been imaged with submicron resolution in patients suffering from psoriasis. Further multimodal approaches include the combination of multiphoton tomographs with low-resolution wide-field systems such as ultrasound, optoacoustical, OCT, and dermoscopy systems. Multiphoton tomographs are currently employed in Australia, Japan, the US, and in several European countries for early diagnosis of skin cancer, optimization of treatment strategies, and cosmetic research including long-term testing of sunscreen nanoparticles as well as anti-aging products.

  11. Deep Dynamic Neural Networks for Multimodal Gesture Segmentation and Recognition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Pigou, Lionel; Kindermans, Pieter-Jan; Le, Nam Do-Hoang; Shao, Ling; Dambre, Joni; Odobez, Jean-Marc

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes a novel method called Deep Dynamic Neural Networks (DDNN) for multimodal gesture recognition. A semi-supervised hierarchical dynamic framework based on a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is proposed for simultaneous gesture segmentation and recognition where skeleton joint information, depth and RGB images, are the multimodal input observations. Unlike most traditional approaches that rely on the construction of complex handcrafted features, our approach learns high-level spatio-temporal representations using deep neural networks suited to the input modality: a Gaussian-Bernouilli Deep Belief Network (DBN) to handle skeletal dynamics, and a 3D Convolutional Neural Network (3DCNN) to manage and fuse batches of depth and RGB images. This is achieved through the modeling and learning of the emission probabilities of the HMM required to infer the gesture sequence. This purely data driven approach achieves a Jaccard index score of 0.81 in the ChaLearn LAP gesture spotting challenge. The performance is on par with a variety of state-of-the-art hand-tuned feature-based approaches and other learning-based methods, therefore opening the door to the use of deep learning techniques in order to further explore multimodal time series data.

  12. Multimodality treatment strategies have changed prognosis of peritoneal metastases.

    PubMed

    Lungoci, Corneliu; Mironiuc, Aurel Ion; Muntean, Valentin; Oniu, Traian; Leebmann, Hubert; Mayr, Max; Piso, Pompiliu

    2016-01-15

    For a long time, treatment of peritoneal metastases (PM) was mostly palliative and thus, this status was link with "terminal status/despair". The current multimodal treatment strategy, consisting of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), has been strenuously achieved over time, but seems to be the best treatment option for PM patients. As we reviewed the literature data, we could emphasize some milestones and also, controversies in the history of proposed multimodal treatment and thus, outline the philosophy of this approach, which seems to be an unusual one indeed. Initially marked by nihilism and fear, but benefiting from a remarkable joint effort of human and material resources (multi-center and -institutional research), over a period of 30 years, CRS and HIPEC found their place in the treatment of PM. The next 4 years were dedicated to the refinement of the multimodal treatment, by launching research pathways. In selected patients, with requires training, it demonstrated a significant survival results (similar to the Hepatic Metastases treatment), with acceptable risks and costs. The main debates regarding CRS and HIPEC treatment were based on the oncologists' perspective and the small number of randomized clinical trials. It is important to statement the PM patient has the right to be informed of the existence of CRS and HIPEC, as a real treatment resource, the decision being made by multidisciplinary teams. PMID:26798438

  13. Passive interferometric symmetries of multimode Gaussian pure states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabay, Natasha; Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    2016-05-01

    As large-scale multimode Gaussian states begin to become accessible in the laboratory, their representation and analysis become a useful topic of research in their own right. The graphical calculus for Gaussian pure states provides powerful tools for their representation, while this work presents a useful tool for their analysis: passive interferometric (i.e., number-conserving) symmetries. Here we show that these symmetries of multimode Gaussian states simplify calculations in measurement-based quantum computing and provide constructive tools for engineering large-scale harmonic systems with specific physical properties, and we provide a general mathematical framework for deriving them. Such symmetries are generated by linear combinations of operators expressed in the Schwinger representation of U (2 ) , called nullifiers because the Gaussian state in question is a zero eigenstate of them. This general framework is shown to have applications in the noise analysis of continuous-various cluster states and is expected to have additional applications in future work with large-scale multimode Gaussian states.

  14. Identifying brain neoplasms using dye-enhanced multimodal confocal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, Dennis; Snuderl, Matija; Sheth, Sameer; Kwon, Churl-Su; Frosch, Matthew P.; Curry, William; Yaroslavsky, Anna N.

    2012-02-01

    Brain tumors cause significant morbidity and mortality even when benign. Completeness of resection of brain tumors improves quality of life and survival; however, that is often difficult to accomplish. The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using multimodal confocal imaging for intraoperative detection of brain neoplasms. We have imaged different types of benign and malignant, primary and metastatic brain tumors. We correlated optical images with histopathology and evaluated the possibility of interpreting confocal images in a manner similar to pathology. Surgical specimens were briefly stained in 0.05 mg/ml aqueous solution of methylene blue (MB) and imaged using a multimodal confocal microscope. Reflectance and fluorescence signals of MB were excited at 642 nm. Fluorescence emission of MB was registered between 670 and 710 nm. After imaging, tissues were processed for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histopathology. The results of comparison demonstrate good correlation between fluorescence images and histopathology. Reflectance images provide information about morphology and vascularity of the specimens, complementary to that provided by fluorescence images. Multimodal confocal imaging has the potential to aid in the intraoperative detection of microscopic deposits of brain neoplasms. The application of this technique may improve completeness of resection and increase patient survival.

  15. Multimodal control of sensors on multiple simulated unmanned vehicles.

    PubMed

    Baber, C; Morin, C; Parekh, M; Cahillane, M; Houghton, R J

    2011-09-01

    The use of multimodal (speech plus manual) control of the sensors on combinations of one, two, three or five simulated unmanned vehicles (UVs) is explored. Novice controllers of simulated UVs complete a series of target checking tasks. Two experiments compare speech and gamepad control for one, two, three or five UVs in a simulated environment. Increasing the number of UVs has an impact on subjective rating of workload (measured by NASA-Task Load Index), particularly when moving from one to three UVs. Objective measures of performance showed that the participants tended to issue fewer commands as the number of vehicles increased (when using the gamepad control), but, while performance with a single UV was superior to that of multiple UVs, there was little difference across two, three or five UVs. Participants with low spatial ability (measured by the Object Perspectives Test) showed an increase in time to respond to warnings when controlling five UVs. Combining speech with gamepad control of sensors on UVs leads to superior performance on a secondary (respond-to-warnings) task (implying a reduction in demand) and use of fewer commands on primary (move-sensors and classify-target) tasks (implying more efficient operation). STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Benefits of multimodal control for unmanned vehicles are demonstrated. When controlling sensors on multiple UVs, participants with low spatial orientation scores have problems. It is proposed that the findings of these studies have implications for selection of UV operators and suggests that future UV workstations could benefit from multimodal control. PMID:21867372

  16. Reflection Effects in Multimode Fiber Systems Utilizing Laser Transmitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Harry E.

    1991-01-01

    A number of optical communication lines are now in use at NASA-Kennedy for the transmission of voice, computer data, and video signals. Now, all of these channels use a single carrier wavelength centered near 1300 or 1550 nm. Engineering tests in the past have given indications of the growth of systematic and random noise in the RF spectrum of a fiber network as the number of connector pairs is increased. This noise seems to occur when a laser transmitter is used instead of a LED. It has been suggested that the noise is caused by back reflections created at connector fiber interfaces. Experiments were performed to explore the effect of reflection on the transmitting laser under conditions of reflective feedback. This effort included computer integration of some of the instrumentation in the fiber optic lab using the Lab View software recently acquired by the lab group. The main goal was to interface the Anritsu Optical and RF spectrum analyzers to the MacIntosh II computer so that laser spectra and network RF spectra could be simultaneously and rapidly acquired in a form convenient for analysis. Both single and multimode fiber is installed at Kennedy. Since most are multimode, this effort concentrated on multimode systems.

  17. Tunable high quality factor in two multimode plasmonic stubs waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhiquan; Li, Hongjian; Zhan, Shiping; Li, Boxun; He, Zhihui; Xu, Hui; Zheng, Mingfei

    2016-01-01

    We numerically investigate the optical characteristics of a metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide side-coupled with two identical multimode stub resonators. Double plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) peaks with narrow full width at half maximum (FWHM) and high quality factor (Q-factor) can be observed in this structure. The Q-factors of PIT peaks in two stub resonators system are larger than those in single stub resonator system. A multimode coupled-radiation oscillator theory (MC-ROT), which is derived from ROT, is proposed to analyze the spectral response in the multimode system for the first time. The analytical results are confirmed by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation results. We can also find that the Q-factors of the two PIT peaks have an opposite evolution tendency with the change of the stubs parameters and the maximum can reach to 427. These results may provide some applications for ultrasensitive sensors, switches and efficient filters. PMID:27075935

  18. Multimode fiber laser beam cleanup based on stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hai-Chuan; Ma, Hao-Tong; Zhou, Pu; Wang, Xiao-Lin; Ma, Yan-Xing; Li, Xiao; Xu, Xiao-Jun; Zhao, Yi-Jun

    2011-01-01

    We present experimental research on multimode fiber laser beam cleanup based on a stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm. The multimode laser is obtained by injecting a 1064 nm central wavelength single mode fiber laser into a multimode fiber and the system is setup by using phase only liquid crystal spatial light modulators (LC-SLM). The quality evaluation function is increased by a factor of 10.5 and 65% of the laser energy is encircled in the central lobe when the system evolves from open-loop into close-loop state. Experimental results indicate the feasibility of the multimode fiber laser beam cleanup by adaptive optics (AO).

  19. Nanoengineered multimodal contrast agent for medical image guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Gregory J.; Zheng, Jinzi; Brock, Kristy; Allen, Christine; Jaffray, David A.

    2005-04-01

    Multimodality imaging has gained momentum in radiation therapy planning and image-guided treatment delivery. Specifically, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are two complementary imaging modalities often utilized in radiation therapy for visualization of anatomical structures for tumour delineation and accurate registration of image data sets for volumetric dose calculation. The development of a multimodal contrast agent for CT and MR with prolonged in vivo residence time would provide long-lasting spatial and temporal correspondence of the anatomical features of interest, and therefore facilitate multimodal image registration, treatment planning and delivery. The multimodal contrast agent investigated consists of nano-sized stealth liposomes encapsulating conventional iodine and gadolinium-based contrast agents. The average loading achieved was 33.5 +/- 7.1 mg/mL of iodine for iohexol and 9.8 +/- 2.0 mg/mL of gadolinium for gadoteridol. The average liposome diameter was 46.2 +/- 13.5 nm. The system was found to be stable in physiological buffer over a 15-day period, releasing 11.9 +/- 1.1% and 11.2 +/- 0.9% of the total amounts of iohexol and gadoteridol loaded, respectively. 200 minutes following in vivo administration, the contrast agent maintained a relative contrast enhancement of 81.4 +/- 13.05 differential Hounsfield units (ΔHU) in CT (40% decrease from the peak signal value achieved 3 minutes post-injection) and 731.9 +/- 144.2 differential signal intensity (ΔSI) in MR (46% decrease from the peak signal value achieved 3 minutes post-injection) in the blood (aorta), a relative contrast enhancement of 38.0 +/- 5.1 ΔHU (42% decrease from the peak signal value achieved 3 minutes post-injection) and 178.6 +/- 41.4 ΔSI (62% decrease from the peak signal value achieved 3 minutes post-injection) in the liver (parenchyma), a relative contrast enhancement of 9.1 +/- 1.7 ΔHU (94% decrease from the peak signal value achieved 3 minutes

  20. Multimodal Concept Drawings: Engaging EAL Learners in Brainstorming about Course Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amicucci, Ann N.; Lassiter, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe a multimodal concept drawing activity designed to facilitate students' understanding of terms used within an assignment in a first-year college writing course. In this activity, students write ideas, read definitions, study images, and create multimodal representations of a term in groups of classroom peers. The activity…

  1. Multimodal Composing in Classrooms: Learning and Teaching for the Digital World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Suzanne M., Ed.; McVee, Mary B., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Taking a close look at multimodal composing as an essential new literacy in schools, this volume draws from contextualized case studies across educational contexts to provide detailed portraits of teachers and students at work in classrooms. Authors elaborate key issues in transforming classrooms with student multimodal composing, including…

  2. Multimodal Instruction as a Means to Scaffold Literary Interpretation in a Secondary English Language Arts Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldakowski, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive study investigates what happens when an English Language Arts teacher implements multimodal instruction in his senior-level World Literature course. The study is grounded in theories of transmediation and New Literacy Studies and examines the following research questions: (1) What does multimodal instruction enable students to do…

  3. Effects of Multimodal Presentation and Stimulus Familiarity on Auditory and Visual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Christopher W.; Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of multimodal presentation and stimulus familiarity on auditory and visual processing. In Experiment 1, 10-month-olds were habituated to either an auditory stimulus, a visual stimulus, or an auditory-visual multimodal stimulus. Processing time was assessed during the habituation phase, and discrimination of…

  4. Multimodal Assessment of and for Learning: A Theory-Driven Design Rubric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Hsiu-Ting; Chiu, Yi-Ching Jean; Yeh, Hui-Chin

    2013-01-01

    Given the changing nature of literacy, there is an urgent need to develop alternative ways of assessment in support of students' new literacy practices in the digital age. While emergent models of multimodal assessment are being developed in theoretical contexts, the study reported in this paper illustrates how multimodal theories can be realized…

  5. Empowering Prospective Teachers to Become Active Sense-Makers: Multimodal Modeling of the Seasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mi Song

    2015-01-01

    Situating science concepts in concrete and authentic contexts, using information and communications technologies, including multimodal modeling tools, is important for promoting the development of higher-order thinking skills in learners. However, teachers often struggle to integrate emergent multimodal models into a technology-rich informal…

  6. Teaching Poetry through Collaborative Art: An Analysis of Multimodal Ensembles for Transformative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wandera, David B.

    2016-01-01

    This study is anchored on two positions: that every communication is multimodal and that different modalities within multimodal communication have particular affordances. Written and oral language and other modalities, such as body language and audio/visual media, are interwoven in classroom communication. What might it look like to strategically…

  7. Multimodal Teacher Input and Science Learning in a Middle School Sheltered Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the results of an ethnographic research about the multimodal science discourse in a sixth-grade sheltered classroom involving English Language Learners (ELLs) only. Drawing from the perspective of multimodality, this study examines how science learning is constructed in science lectures through multiple semiotic resources,…

  8. An Investigation on the Role of Multimodal Metaphors in e-Feedback Interfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigas, Dimitrios; Alharbi, Abdulrhman

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the usability (effectiveness, efficiency and user satisfaction) of e-feedback interfaces. The experiment compares a traditional visual approach with a multimodal approach in order to determine the impact of multimodal metaphors upon the user's understanding, reasoning and engagement with the…

  9. Showing or Telling a Story: A Comparative Study of Public Education Texts in Multimodality and Monomodality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Kelu

    2013-01-01

    Multimodal texts that combine words and images produce meaning in a different way from monomodal texts that rely on words. They differ not only in representing the subject matter, but also constructing relationships between text producers and text receivers. This article uses two multimodal texts and one monomodal written text as samples, which…

  10. Across Languages, Modes, and Identities: Bilingual Adolescents' Multimodal Codemeshing in the Literacy Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacheco, Mark B.; Smith, Blaine E.

    2015-01-01

    We seek to understand how bilingual adolescent students leverage multiple languages and modes in digital composition. Using a translingual and multimodal perspective of composition, this study reports on the distinct communicative affordances associated with four students' multimodal codemeshing practices. Through analysis of students' digital…

  11. A miniaturized monopulse assembly constructed in planar waveguide with multimode scalarhorn feeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrigos, Harry D.

    The paper describes the development of a miniaturized monopulse assembly constructed in planar waveguide with multimode scalar horn feeds. Particular attention is given to the principles of monopulse design, miniature design and comparator mechanization, and functions and properties of the multimode scalar horn feed.

  12. Teachers' Integration of Multimodality into Classroom Practices for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jayoung; Yi, Youngjoo

    2016-01-01

    Despite the proven benefits of multimodal teaching and learning (i.e., through visual, sound, movement, print-based text, and technology) for students, little is known about how teachers of English language learners (ELLs) integrate multimodality into their existing curriculums. In this study, the authors examined how two teachers who had limited…

  13. Marveling at "The Man Called Nova": Comics as Sponsors of Multimodal Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Dale

    2007-01-01

    This essay theorizes the ways in which comics, and Marvel Comics in particular, acted as sponsors of multimodal literacy for the author. In doing so, the essay demonstrates the possibilities that exist in examining comics more closely and in thinking about how literacy sponsorship happens in multimodal texts. (Contains 1 figure and 13 notes.)

  14. An integrated GIS-based data model for multimodal urban public transportation analysis and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shaopei; Tan, Jianjun; Ray, C.; Claramunt, C.; Sun, Qinqin

    2008-10-01

    Diversity is one of the main characteristics of transportation data collected from multiple sources or formats, which can be extremely complex and disparate. Moreover, these multimodal transportation data are usually characterised by spatial and temporal properties. Multimodal transportation network data modelling involves both an engineering and research domain that has attracted the design of a number of spatio-temporal data models in the geographic information system (GIS). However, the application of these specific models to multimodal transportation network is still a challenging task. This research addresses this challenge from both integrated multimodal data organization and object-oriented modelling perspectives, that is, how a complex urban transportation network should be organized, represented and modeled appropriately when considering a multimodal point of view, and using object-oriented modelling method. We proposed an integrated GIS-based data model for multimodal urban transportation network that lays a foundation to enhance the multimodal transportation network analysis and management. This modelling method organizes and integrates multimodal transit network data, and supports multiple representations for spatio-temporal objects and relationship as both visual and graphic views. The data model is expressed by using a spatio-temporal object-oriented modelling method, i.e., the unified modelling language (UML) extended to spatial and temporal plug-in for visual languages (PVLs), which provides an essential support to the spatio-temporal data modelling for transportation GIS.

  15. Digital Multimodal Texts and Their Role in Project Work: Opportunities and Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wikan, Gerd; Molster, Terje; Faugli, Bjorn; Hope, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores how and to what extent digital multimodal text production can play a role in project work. The focus is upon describing and understanding how teachers and learners view multimodal text production as part of a learning process. Group-based project work has been used extensively in Norwegian schools since the 1970s. One criticism…

  16. Reading in the Australian Curriculum English: Describing the Effects of Structure and Organisation on Multimodal Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exley, Beryl; Cottrell, Amber

    2012-01-01

    The recently introduced "Australian Curriculum: English" (Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA), 2012) requires students to "read" multimodal text and describe the effects of structure and organisation. We begin this article by tracing the variable understandings of what reading multimodal text might entail through the…

  17. "Seeing It from a Different Light": Adolescents' Video Reflections about Their Multimodal Compositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Blaine E.; Dalton, Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Although research emphasizes the importance of reflection for productive learning, much of this work has focused on writing as the preferred mode. The goal of this study was to examine how two adolescent composers reflected on their multimodal visions and processes through multimodal means--in particular, how the students remixed research-provided…

  18. Multimodality: An Illuminating Approach to Unravelling the Complexities of Composing with ICT?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeze, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Having previously been employed to investigate science and English classrooms and listening in the music classroom, theories of multimodality would appear to have much to contribute to an examination of group composing using Information and Communications Technology (ICT), owing to the multimodal nature of music software and group discourse. This…

  19. Investigation of protein selectivity in multimodal chromatography using in silico designed Fab fragment variants.

    PubMed

    Karkov, Hanne Sophie; Krogh, Berit Olsen; Woo, James; Parimal, Siddharth; Ahmadian, Haleh; Cramer, Steven M

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a unique set of antibody Fab fragments was designed in silico and produced to examine the relationship between protein surface properties and selectivity in multimodal chromatographic systems. We hypothesized that multimodal ligands containing both hydrophobic and charged moieties would interact strongly with protein surface regions where charged groups and hydrophobic patches were in close spatial proximity. Protein surface property characterization tools were employed to identify the potential multimodal ligand binding regions on the Fab fragment of a humanized antibody and to evaluate the impact of mutations on surface charge and hydrophobicity. Twenty Fab variants were generated by site-directed mutagenesis, recombinant expression, and affinity purification. Column gradient experiments were carried out with the Fab variants in multimodal, cation-exchange, and hydrophobic interaction chromatographic systems. The results clearly indicated that selectivity in the multimodal system was different from the other chromatographic modes examined. Column retention data for the reduced charge Fab variants identified a binding site comprising light chain CDR1 as the main electrostatic interaction site for the multimodal and cation-exchange ligands. Furthermore, the multimodal ligand binding was enhanced by additional hydrophobic contributions as evident from the results obtained with hydrophobic Fab variants. The use of in silico protein surface property analyses combined with molecular biology techniques, protein expression, and chromatographic evaluations represents a previously undescribed and powerful approach for investigating multimodal selectivity with complex biomolecules.

  20. Multimodal Representations: A Fifth-Grade Teacher Influences Students' Design and Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Lynn E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive case study is to explore--through a close analysis of one fifth-grade class project--teacher's scaffolding and students' use of visual and linguistic modes when composing multimodally. Using Kress and van Leeuwen's multimodal theory of communication as a framework, this case study examines why teachers, whose…

  1. A water-soluble temperature nanoprobe based on a multimodal magnetic-luminescent nanocolloid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu; Hoskins, Clare; Wang, Lijun; MacDonald, Michael P; André, Pascal

    2012-03-01

    This communication demonstrates that hybrid nanocolloids can be designed and used to create nanoprobes for remotely sensing the temperature of aqueous media. Such multi-modal nanocolloids combine development opportunities not only for multimodal magnetic-optical imaging but also for non-invasive and remote absolute temperature optical monitoring suitable for hyperthermia treatments and cell poration.

  2. Contrasting Systemic Functional Linguistic and Situated Literacies Approaches to Multimodality in Literacy and Writing Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kate T.

    2013-01-01

    Against the backdrop of proliferating research on multimodality in the fields of literacy and writing studies, this article considers the contributions of two prominent theoretical perspectives--Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) and Situated Literacies--and the methodological tensions they raise for the study of multimodality. To delineate…

  3. The Multimodalities of Globalization: Teaching a YouTube Video in an EAP Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Christian W.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which a multimodal text--a YouTube video on globalization and business--was mediated in two English for Academic Purposes (EAP) classrooms, and how these mediations shaped the instructor's and her students' meaning-making in specific ways. I first explore the complex multimodal discourses involved with this…

  4. Exploring the Multimodality of EFL Textbooks for Chinese College Students: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiqin; Qu, Dianning

    2014-01-01

    To explore the multimodality of two representative EFL textbook series for Chinese college students, their visual and verbal semiotic modes were compared. The target textbooks are "Experiencing English" and "New Century College English". Through multimodal discourse analysis, the study aims to shed some light on how to develop…

  5. Fostering Students' Science Inquiry through App Affordances of Multimodality, Collaboration, Interactivity, and Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Richard; O'Brien, David

    2015-01-01

    This study examined 6th graders' use of the VoiceThread app as part of a science inquiry project on photosynthesis and carbon dioxide emissions in terms of their ability to engage in causal reasoning and their use of the affordances of multimodality, collaboration, interactivity, and connectivity. Students employed multimodal production using…

  6. Develop and Evaluate the Effects of Multimodal Presentation System on Elementary ESL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Fang-O; Yu, Pao-Ta; Hsiao, Wei-Hung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate the effects of multimodal presentation system (MPS), a multimodal presentation software integrated with interactive whiteboard (IWB), on student learning in the elementary English as second language (ESL) course. It focuses primarily on techniques and tools to enhance the students' ESL…

  7. Meaning Making through Multiple Modalities in a Biology Classroom: A Multimodal Semiotics Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaipal, Kamini

    2010-01-01

    The teaching of science is a complex process, involving the use of multiple modalities. This paper illustrates the potential of a multimodal semiotics discourse analysis framework to illuminate meaning-making possibilities during the teaching of a science concept. A multimodal semiotics analytical framework is developed and used to (1) analyze the…

  8. Reconceptualising Understandings of Texts, Readers and Contexts: One English Teacher's Response to Using Multimodal Texts and Interactive Whiteboards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitson, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    The comprehension of multimodal texts is now a key concern with the release of the Australian National Curriculum for English (ACARA, 2010). However, the nature of multimodal texts, the diversity of readers in classrooms, and the complex technological environments through which multimodal texts are mediated, requires English teachers to reconsider…

  9. EMS Student Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogle, Patrick

    This student guide is one of a series of self-contained materials for students enrolled in an emergency medical services (EMS) training program. Discussed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: the purpose and history of EMS professionals; EMS training, certification and examinations (national and state certification and…

  10. Multimodal biometrics for identity documents (MBioID).

    PubMed

    Dessimoz, Damien; Richiardi, Jonas; Champod, Christophe; Drygajlo, Andrzej

    2007-04-11

    The MBioID initiative has been set up to address the following germane question: What and how biometric technologies could be deployed in identity documents in the foreseeable future? This research effort proposes to look at current and future practices and systems of establishing and using biometric identity documents (IDs) and evaluate their effectiveness in large-scale developments. The first objective of the MBioID project is to present a review document establishing the current state-of-the-art related to the use of multimodal biometrics in an IDs application. This research report gives the main definitions, properties and the framework of use related to biometrics, an overview of the main standards developed in the biometric industry and standardisation organisations to ensure interoperability, as well as some of the legal framework and the issues associated to biometrics such as privacy and personal data protection. The state-of-the-art in terms of technological development is also summarised for a range of single biometric modalities (2D and 3D face, fingerprint, iris, on-line signature and speech), chosen according to ICAO recommendations and availabilities, and for various multimodal approaches. This paper gives a summary of the main elements of that report. The second objective of the MBioID project is to propose relevant acquisition and evaluation protocols for a large-scale deployment of biometric IDs. Combined with the protocols, a multimodal database will be acquired in a realistic way, in order to be as close as possible to a real biometric IDs deployment. In this paper, the issues and solutions related to the acquisition setup are briefly presented.

  11. ADHD, Multimodal Treatment, and Longitudinal Outcome: Evidence, Paradox, and Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, L. Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Given major increases in the diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and in rates of medication for this condition, we carefully examine evidence for effects of single versus multimodal (i.e., combined medication and psychosocial/behavioral) interventions for ADHD. Our primary data source is the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA), a 14-month, randomized clinical trial in which intensive behavioral, medication, and multimodal treatment arms were contrasted with one another and with community intervention (treatment-as-usual), regarding outcome domains of ADHD symptoms, comorbidities, and core functional impairments. Although initial reports emphasized the superiority of well-monitored medication for symptomatic improvement, reanalyses and reappraisals have highlighted (a) the superiority of combination treatment for composite outcomes and for domains of functional impairment (e.g., academic achievement, social skills, parenting practices); (b) the importance of considering moderator and mediator processes underlying differential patterns of outcome, including comorbid subgroups and improvements in family discipline style during the intervention period; (c) the emergence of side effects (e.g., mild growth suppression) in youth treated with long-term medication; and (d) the diminution of medication’s initial superiority once the randomly assigned treatment phase turned into naturalistic follow-up. The key paradox is that whereas ADHD clearly responds to medication and behavioral treatment in the short term, evidence for long-term effectiveness remains elusive. We close with discussion of future directions and a call for greater understanding of relevant developmental processes in the attempt to promote optimal, generalized, and lasting treatments for this important and impairing neurodevelopmental disorder. PMID:25558298

  12. Dynamic gate algorithm for multimode fiber Bragg grating sensor systems.

    PubMed

    Ganziy, D; Jespersen, O; Woyessa, G; Rose, B; Bang, O

    2015-06-20

    We propose a novel dynamic gate algorithm (DGA) for precise and accurate peak detection. The algorithm uses a threshold-determined detection window and center of gravity algorithm with bias compensation. We analyze the wavelength fit resolution of the DGA for different values of the signal-to-noise ratio and different peak shapes. Our simulations and experiments demonstrate that the DGA method is fast and robust with better stability and accuracy than conventional algorithms. This makes it very attractive for future implementation in sensing systems, especially based on multimode fiber Bragg gratings. PMID:26193010

  13. Multimode fiber with z-dependent alpha-value.

    PubMed

    Marcuse, D

    1979-07-01

    The width of the impulse response of multimode fibers with power law index profiles depends on the alpha-value of the power law exponent. For constant alpha, optimum pulse width is achievable only in a very narrow range of values centered around alpha = 2 - (12/5)Delta. We show in this paper that the optimum width of the impulse response is achievable for fibers with nonoptimum alpha-values provided alpha varies slowly along the fiber and deviates on average by equal amounts to either side of its (constant) optimum value.

  14. Multiphoton ionization of hydrogen by a strong multimode field

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, S.; Trombetta, F.; Ferrante, G.; Burlon, R.; Leone, C.

    1988-02-01

    Multiphoton ionization of hydrogen atoms by a strong multimode field when several final continuum states are populated is treated theoretically within a model based on the S-matrix formalism. The field is taken in dipole approximation, with zero bandwidth. Field-dressed Coulomb wave functions are used for the electron final states. Ionization rates are calculated for different numbers of photons absorbed in excess of the minimum number required to go into the continuum. In general, the calculated quantities are in good qualitative agreement with the corresponding experimental observations.

  15. Developing a multimodal biometric authentication system using soft computing methods.

    PubMed

    Malcangi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Robust personal authentication is becoming ever more important in computer-based applications. Among a variety of methods, biometric offers several advantages, mainly in embedded system applications. Hard and soft multi-biometric, combined with hard and soft computing methods, can be applied to improve the personal authentication process and to generalize the applicability. This chapter describes the embedded implementation of a multi-biometric (voiceprint and fingerprint) multimodal identification system based on hard computing methods (DSP) for feature extraction and matching, an artificial neural network (ANN) for soft feature pattern matching, and a fuzzy logic engine (FLE) for data fusion and decision.

  16. Developing a multimodal biometric authentication system using soft computing methods.

    PubMed

    Malcangi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Robust personal authentication is becoming ever more important in computer-based applications. Among a variety of methods, biometric offers several advantages, mainly in embedded system applications. Hard and soft multi-biometric, combined with hard and soft computing methods, can be applied to improve the personal authentication process and to generalize the applicability. This chapter describes the embedded implementation of a multi-biometric (voiceprint and fingerprint) multimodal identification system based on hard computing methods (DSP) for feature extraction and matching, an artificial neural network (ANN) for soft feature pattern matching, and a fuzzy logic engine (FLE) for data fusion and decision. PMID:25502384

  17. Multimode terahertz-wave generation using coherent Cherenkov radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, K.; Yang, J.; Ogata, A.; Kondoh, T.; Norizawa, K.; Yoshida, Y.

    2011-12-05

    Multimode terahertz(THz)-wave generation using coherent Cherenkov radiation (CCR) was investigated. The frequency spectra of CCR, which utilized a metal-wrapped hollow dielectric tube of 7 mm outer radius and a picosecond electron bunch of 27 MeV beam energy, were measured by a Michelson interferometer with a 4.2 K silicon bolometer. In this study, discrete spectral components at frequencies of 0.09, 0.14, and 0.36 THz were observed experimentally and explained as transverse magnetic (TM) modes of TM{sub 03}, TM{sub 04}, and TM{sub 09}, respectively, according to a theoretical calculation for the tube.

  18. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles for enhanced magnetic resonance and multimodal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikma, Elise Ann Schultz

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for noninvasive tomographic imaging of biological systems with high spatial and temporal resolution. Superparamagnetic (SPM) nanoparticles have emerged as highly effective MR contrast agents due to their biocompatibility, ease of surface modification and magnetic properties. Conventional nanoparticle contrast agents suffer from difficult synthetic reproducibility, polydisperse sizes and weak magnetism. Numerous synthetic techniques and nanoparticle formulations have been developed to overcome these barriers. However, there are still major limitations in the development of new nanoparticle-based probes for MR and multimodal imaging including low signal amplification and absence of biochemical reporters. To address these issues, a set of multimodal (T2/optical) and dual contrast (T1/T2) nanoparticle probes has been developed. Their unique magnetic properties and imaging capabilities were thoroughly explored. An enzyme-activatable contrast agent is currently being developed as an innovative means for early in vivo detection of cancer at the cellular level. Multimodal probes function by combining the strengths of multiple imaging techniques into a single agent. Co-registration of data obtained by multiple imaging modalities validates the data, enhancing its quality and reliability. A series of T2/optical probes were successfully synthesized by attachment of a fluorescent dye to the surface of different types of nanoparticles. The multimodal nanoparticles generated sufficient MR and fluorescence signal to image transplanted islets in vivo. Dual contrast T1/T2 imaging probes were designed to overcome disadvantages inherent in the individual T1 and T2 components. A class of T1/T2 agents was developed consisting of a gadolinium (III) complex (DTPA chelate or DO3A macrocycle) conjugated to a biocompatible silica-coated metal oxide nanoparticle through a disulfide linker. The disulfide linker has the ability to be reduced

  19. Separating and combining single-mode and multimode optical beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, Anthony J; Masquelier, Donald A; Cooke, Jeffery B; Kallman, Jeffery S

    2013-11-12

    Techniques for combining initially separate single mode and multimode optical beams into a single "Dual Mode" fiber optic have been developed. Bi-directional propagation of two beams that are differentiated only by their mode profiles (i.e., wavefront conditions) is provided. The beams can be different wavelengths and or contain different modulation information but still share a common aperture. This method allows the use of conventional micro optics and hybrid photonic packaging techniques to produce small rugged packages suitable for use in industrial or military environments.

  20. Propagation and radiation characteristics of a multimode corrugated waveguide feedhorn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, D.

    1985-01-01

    A prototype of the multimode corrugated feedhorn which will be used in the 400 kW CW Ka-band radar system is described. A rough design is done using coupled mode theory and standard corrugated waveguide modes. A more exact analysis using mode matching techniques is then used which takes into account the effect of a finite number of corrugations per wavelength and determines the modes which are reflected from the device. A prototype feedhorn has been constructed and measured. These experimental results are then compared to the theoretical predictions which agree satisfactorily closely.

  1. Propagation and radiation characteristics of a multimode corrugated waveguide feedhorn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppe, D.

    1985-08-01

    A prototype of the multimode corrugated feedhorn which will be used in the 400 kW CW Ka-band radar system is described. A rough design is done using coupled mode theory and standard corrugated waveguide modes. A more exact analysis using mode matching techniques is then used which takes into account the effect of a finite number of corrugations per wavelength and determines the modes which are reflected from the device. A prototype feedhorn has been constructed and measured. These experimental results are then compared to the theoretical predictions which agree satisfactorily closely.

  2. Multi-modality nanoparticles having optically responsive shape

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Fanqing; Bouchard, Louis-Serge

    2015-05-19

    In certain embodiments novel nanoparticles (nanowontons) are provided that are suitable for multimodal imaging and/or therapy. In one embodiment, the nanoparticles include a first biocompatible (e.g., gold) layer, an inner core layer (e.g., a non-biocompatible material), and a biocompatible (e.g., gold) layer. The first gold layer includes a concave surface that forms a first outer surface of the layered nanoparticle. The second gold layer includes a convex surface that forms a second outer surface of the layered nanoparticle. The first and second gold layers encapsulate the inner core material layer. Methods of fabricating such nanoparticles are also provided.

  3. Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers with optical feedback.

    PubMed

    Columbo, L L; Brambilla, M

    2014-05-01

    We study the instability thresholds of the stationary emission of a quantum cascade laser with optical feedback described by the Lang Kobayashi model. We introduce an exact linear stability analysis and an approximated one for an unipolar lasers, who does not exhibit relaxation oscillations, and investigate the regimes of the emitter beyond the continuous wave instability threshold, depending on the number and density of the external cavity modes. We then show that a unipolar laser with feedback can exhibit coherent multimode oscillations that indicate spontaneous phase-locking.

  4. Perspectives of multimode fibers and digital holography for optogenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarske, Jürgen W.; Haufe, Daniel; Koukourakis, Nektarios; Büttner, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Optogenetic approaches allow the activation or inhibition of genetically prescribed populations of neurons by light. In principle, optogenetics offers not only the ability to elucidate the functions of neural circuitry, but also new approaches to a treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and recovery of vision and auditory perception. Optogenetics already has revolutionized research in neuroscience. However, new methods for delivering light to three-dimensionally distributed structures e.g. in the brain are necessary. A major hurdle for focusing light through biological tissue is the occurring scattering and scrambling of the light. We demonstrate the correction of the scrambling in a multimode fiber by digital optical phase conjugation with a perspective for optogenetics.

  5. Correlation steering in the angularly multimode Raman atomic memory.

    PubMed

    Mazelanik, Mateusz; Dąbrowski, Michał; Wasilewski, Wojciech

    2016-09-19

    We present the possibility of steering the direction of correlations between the off-resonant Raman scattered photons from the angularly multimode atomic memory based on warm rubidium vapors. Using acousto-optic deflectors (AOD) driven by different modulation frequencies, we experimentally change the angle of incidence of the laser beams on the atomic ensemble. By performing correlation measurements for various deflection angles, we verify that we can choose the anti-Stokes light propagation direction independently of the correlated Stokes scattered light in a continuous way. As a result we can select the spatial mode of photons retrieved from the memory, which may be important for future development of quantum information processing.

  6. Multi-modality imaging of an adult parachute mitral valve.

    PubMed

    Purvis, John A; Smyth, Stephen; Barr, Stephen H

    2011-03-01

    A parachute abnormality of the mitral valve is an extremely rare finding in adults. It is usually seen as part of Shone's complex. The authors present multimodality imaging from a case of adult parachute abnormality of the mitral valve to illustrate and explain features such as the characteristic "pear" shape of the valve and "doming" of the subvalvular apparatus. The solitary papillary muscle that defines the condition may be difficult to identify on transthoracic echocardiography, but redundancy of the chordae is a key echocardiographic feature in the adult form of the condition.

  7. Multimode squeezing, biphotons and uncertainty relations in polarization quantum optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karassiov, V. P.

    1994-01-01

    The concept of squeezing and uncertainty relations are discussed for multimode quantum light with the consideration of polarization. Using the polarization gauge SU(2) invariance of free electromagnetic fields, we separate the polarization and biphoton degrees of freedom from other ones, and consider uncertainty relations characterizing polarization and biphoton observables. As a consequence, we obtain a new classification of states of unpolarized (and partially polarized) light within quantum optics. We also discuss briefly some interrelations of our analysis with experiments connected with solving some fundamental problems of physics.

  8. Quantum teleportation of nonclassical wave packets: An effective multimode theory

    SciTech Connect

    Benichi, Hugo; Takeda, Shuntaro; Lee, Noriyuki; Furusawa, Akira

    2011-07-15

    We develop a simple and efficient theoretical model to understand the quantum properties of broadband continuous variable quantum teleportation. We show that, if stated properly, the problem of multimode teleportation can be simplified to teleportation of a single effective mode that describes the input state temporal characteristic. Using that model, we show how the finite bandwidth of squeezing and external noise in the classical channel affect the output teleported quantum field. We choose an approach that is especially relevant for the case of non-Gaussian nonclassical quantum states and we finally back-test our model with recent experimental results.

  9. Modeling and optimization of multimode fused fiber combiners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Yu, Hao; Califano, Alessio; Braglia, Andrea; Perrone, Guido

    2016-03-01

    An effective method to predict the performance of multimode fused fiber combiners is presented. The realization of high power devices is strongly affected by the specific application, for instance whether used in fiber or in direct-diode lasers, and thus usually requires costly and time-consuming trial-and-error procedures. The proposed approach, which is based on ray tracing and statistical analysis, allows analyzing a-priori the impact of fiber dimensions, combiner geometry, glass material properties and laser beam quality on the coupling efficiency, therefore reducing the fabrication runs. Examples of application to 7-to-1 and 19-to-1 combiners are given and compared with experimental results.

  10. Confocal microscopy through a multimode fiber using optical correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loterie, Damien; Goorden, Sebastianus A.; Psaltis, Demetri; Moser, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    We report on a method to obtain confocal imaging through multimode fibers using optical correlation. First, we measure the fiber's transmission matrix in a calibration step. This allows us to create focused spots at one end of the fiber by shaping the wavefront sent into it from the opposite end. These spots are scanned over a sample, and the light coming back from the sample via the fiber is optically correlated with the input pattern. We show that this achieves spatial selectivity in the detection. The technique is demonstrated on microbeads, a dried epithelial cell, and a cover glass.

  11. EM International. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  12. U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) multimodal signatures database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Kelly

    2008-04-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Multimodal Signatures Database (MMSDB) is a centralized collection of sensor data of various modalities that are co-located and co-registered. The signatures include ground and air vehicles, personnel, mortar, artillery, small arms gunfire from potential sniper weapons, explosives, and many other high value targets. This data is made available to Department of Defense (DoD) and DoD contractors, Intel agencies, other government agencies (OGA), and academia for use in developing target detection, tracking, and classification algorithms and systems to protect our Soldiers. A platform independent Web interface disseminates the signatures to researchers and engineers within the scientific community. Hierarchical Data Format 5 (HDF5) signature models provide an excellent solution for the sharing of complex multimodal signature data for algorithmic development and database requirements. Many open source tools for viewing and plotting HDF5 signatures are available over the Web. Seamless integration of HDF5 signatures is possible in both proprietary computational environments, such as MATLAB, and Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) computational environments, such as Octave and Python, for performing signal processing, analysis, and algorithm development. Future developments include extending the Web interface into a portal system for accessing ARL algorithms and signatures, High Performance Computing (HPC) resources, and integrating existing database and signature architectures into sensor networking environments.

  13. Plasmid DNA purification using a multimodal chromatography resin.

    PubMed

    Matos, Tiago; Queiroz, João A; Bülow, Leif

    2014-04-01

    Multimodal chromatography is widely used for isolation of proteins because it often results in improved selectivity compared to conventional separation resins. The binding potential and chromatographic behavior of plasmid DNA have here been examined on a Capto Adhere resin. Capto Adhere is a recent multimodal chromatography material allowing molecular recognition between the ligand and target molecule, which is based on combined ionic and aromatic interactions. Capto Adhere proved to offer a very strong binding of nucleic acids. This property could be used to isolate plasmid DNA from a crude Escherichia coli extract. Using a stepwise NaCl gradient, pure plasmid DNA could be obtained without protein and endotoxin contaminations. The RNA fraction bound most strongly to the resin and could be eluted only at very high salt concentrations (2.0 M NaCl). The chromatographic separation behavior was very robust between pH values 6 and 9, and the dynamic binding capacity was estimated to 60 µg/ml resin.

  14. Projective filtering of the fundamental eigenmode from spatially multimode radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, A. M.; Sharapova, P. R.; Straupe, S. S.; Miatto, F. M.; Tikhonova, O. V.; Leuchs, G.; Chekhova, M. V.

    2015-11-01

    Lossless filtering of a single coherent (Schmidt) mode from spatially multimode radiation is a problem crucial for optics in general and for quantum optics in particular. It becomes especially important in the case of nonclassical light that is fragile to optical losses. An example is bright squeezed vacuum generated via high-gain parametric down conversion or four-wave mixing. Its highly multiphoton and multimode structure offers a huge increase in the information capacity provided that each mode can be addressed separately. However, the nonclassical signature of bright squeezed vacuum, photon-number correlations, are highly susceptible to losses. Here we demonstrate lossless filtering of a single spatial Schmidt mode by projecting the spatial spectrum of bright squeezed vacuum on the eigenmode of a single-mode fiber. Moreover, we show that the first Schmidt mode can be captured by simply maximizing the fiber-coupled intensity. Importantly, the projection operation does not affect the targeted mode and leaves it usable for further applications.

  15. Multimodal warning signals for a multiple predator world.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, John M; Nydam, Marie L

    2008-09-01

    Aposematism is an anti-predator defence, dependent on a predator's ability to associate unprofitable prey with a prey-borne signal. Multimodal signals should vary in efficacy according to the sensory systems of different predators; however, until now, the impact of multiple predator classes on the evolution of these signals had not been investigated. Here, using a community-level molecular phylogeny to generate phylogenetically independent contrasts, we show that warning signals of tiger moths vary according to the seasonal and daily activity patterns of birds and bats-predators with divergent sensory capacities. Many tiger moths advertise chemical defence using conspicuous colouration and/or ultrasonic clicks. During spring, when birds are active and bats less so, we found that tiger moths did not produce ultrasonic clicks. Throughout both spring and summer, tiger moths most active during the day were visually conspicuous. Those species emerging later in the season produced ultrasonic clicks; those that were most nocturnal were visually cryptic. Our results indicate that selective pressures from multiple predator classes have distinct roles in the evolution of multimodal warning displays now effective against a single predator class. We also suggest that the evolution of acoustic warning signals may lack the theoretical difficulties associated with the origination of conspicuous colouration.

  16. Design and applications of a multimodality image data warehouse framework.

    PubMed

    Wong, Stephen T C; Hoo, Kent Soo; Knowlton, Robert C; Laxer, Kenneth D; Cao, Xinhau; Hawkins, Randall A; Dillon, William P; Arenson, Ronald L

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive data warehouse framework is needed, which encompasses imaging and non-imaging information in supporting disease management and research. The authors propose such a framework, describe general design principles and system architecture, and illustrate a multimodality neuroimaging data warehouse system implemented for clinical epilepsy research. The data warehouse system is built on top of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) environment and applies an iterative object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) approach and recognized data interface and design standards. The implementation is based on a Java CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture) and Web-based architecture that separates the graphical user interface presentation, data warehouse business services, data staging area, and backend source systems into distinct software layers. To illustrate the practicality of the data warehouse system, the authors describe two distinct biomedical applications--namely, clinical diagnostic workup of multimodality neuroimaging cases and research data analysis and decision threshold on seizure foci lateralization. The image data warehouse framework can be modified and generalized for new application domains.

  17. Dye-Enhanced Multimodal Confocal Imaging of Brain Cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, Dennis; Snuderl, Matija; Sheth, Sameer; Curry, William; Yaroslavsky, Anna

    2011-04-01

    Background and Significance: Accurate high resolution intraoperative detection of brain tumors may result in improved patient survival and better quality of life. The goal of this study was to evaluate dye enhanced multimodal confocal imaging for discriminating normal and cancerous brain tissue. Materials and Methods: Fresh thick brain specimens were obtained from the surgeries. Normal and cancer tissues were investigated. Samples were stained in methylene blue and imaged. Reflectance and fluorescence signals were excited at 658nm. Fluorescence emission and polarization were registered from 670 nm to 710 nm. The system provided lateral resolution of 0.6 μm and axial resolution of 7 μm. Normal and cancer specimens exhibited distinctively different characteristics. H&E histopathology was processed from each imaged sample. Results and Conclusions: The analysis of normal and cancerous tissues indicated clear differences in appearance in both the reflectance and fluorescence responses. These results confirm the feasibility of multimodal confocal imaging for intraoperative detection of small cancer nests and cells.

  18. Multimodal biometrics system based on face profile and ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Iman S.; Abaza, Ayman A.; Rasmy, Mohamed E.; Badawi, Ahmed M.

    2014-05-01

    Face recognition from a side profile view, has recently received significant attention in the literature. Even though current face recognition systems have reached a certain level of maturity at angles up to 30 degrees, their success is still limited with side profile angles. This paper presents an efficient technique for the fusion of face profile and ear biometrics. We propose to use a Block-based Local Binary Pattern (LBP) to generate the features for recognition from face profile images and ear images. These feature distributions are then fused at the score level using simple mean rule. Experimental results show that the proposed multimodal system can achieve 97:98% recognition performance, compared to unimodal biometrics of face profile 96.76%, and unimodal biometrics of ear 96.95%, details in the Experimental Results Section. Comparisons with other multimodal systems used in the literature, like Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Full-space Linear Discriminant Analysis (FSLDA) and Kernel Fisher discriminant analysis (KFDA), are presented in the Experimental Results Section.

  19. Plateau Waves of Intracranial Pressure and Multimodal Brain Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Dias, Celeste; Maia, Isabel; Cerejo, Antonio; Smielewski, Peter; Paiva, José-Artur; Czosnyka, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe multimodal brain monitoring characteristics during plateau waves of intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with head injury, using ICM+ software for continuous recording. Plateau waves consist of an abrupt elevation of ICP above 40 mmHg for 5-20 min. This is a prospective observational study of patients with head injury who were admitted to a neurocritical care unit and who developed plateau waves. We analyzed 59 plateau waves that occurred in 8 of 18 patients (44 %). At the top of plateau waves arterial blood pressure remained almost constant, but cerebral perfusion pressure, cerebral blood flow, brain tissue oxygenation, and cerebral oximetry decreased. After plateau waves, patients with a previously better autoregulation status developed hyperemia, demonstrated by an increase in cerebral blood flow and brain oxygenation. Pressure and oxygen cerebrovascular reactivity indexes (pressure reactivity index and ORxshort) increased significantly during the plateau wave as a sign of disruption of autoregulation. Bedside multimodal brain monitoring is important to characterize increases in ICP and give differential diagnoses of plateau waves, as management of this phenomenon differs from that of regular ICP.

  20. Multimode laser beam analyzer instrument using electrically programmable optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marraccini, Philip J.; Riza, Nabeel A.

    2011-12-01

    Presented is a novel design of a multimode laser beam analyzer using a digital micromirror device (DMD) and an electronically controlled variable focus lens (ECVFL) that serve as the digital and analog agile optics, respectively. The proposed analyzer is a broadband laser characterization instrument that uses the agile optics to smartly direct light to the required point photodetectors to enable beam measurements of minimum beam waist size, minimum waist location, divergence, and the beam propagation parameter M2. Experimental results successfully demonstrate these measurements for a 500 mW multimode test laser beam with a wavelength of 532 nm. The minimum beam waist, divergence, and M2 experimental results for the test laser are found to be 257.61 μm, 2.103 mrad, 1.600 and 326.67 μm, 2.682 mrad, 2.587 for the vertical and horizontal directions, respectively. These measurements are compared to a traditional scan method and the results of the beam waist are found to be within error tolerance of the demonstrated instrument.

  1. Effectiveness of multimodality treatment for autoimmune limbic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Divyanshu; Konikkara, John; Modur, Pradeep N; Agostini, Mark; Gupta, Puneet; Shu, Francy; Vernino, Steven

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the outcome of multimodality treatment in autoimmune limbic epilepsy in 3 consecutive patients (2 male and 1 female; age 33-55 years) presenting with a combination of focal non-convulsive status epilepticus, memory impairment, and psychosis. MRI showed right or bitemporal T2 or FLAIR hyperintensity. Video-EEG showed seizures of right temporo-occipital or bitemporal independent onset. Extensive workup failed to reveal infectious aetiology or an underlying tumour. However, the autoantibody panel was positive for one or more of these antibodies: anti-VGKC, anti-GABAB, anti-VGCC (P/Q, N types), and anti-GAD65. All patients received: (1) conventional antiepileptic drugs including levetiracetam, lacosamide, phenobarbital, lamotrigine, and valproate; (2) immunomodulatory therapy including methylprednisolone, plasmapheresis, and intravenous immunoglobulin; and (3) rituximab. After a 4-6-week in-hospital course, the seizures resolved in all patients but 2 had persistent memory impairment. None had treatment-related complications. At the time of last follow-up, 2-3 months later, 2 patients remained seizure-free while 2 had residual memory impairment. Our findings suggest that multimodality treatment with a combination of conventional AEDs, immunomodulatory therapy, and rituximab is effective and safe in autoimmune limbic epilepsy. PMID:25465439

  2. Automatic lip reading by using multimodal visual features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Shohei; Ohya, Jun

    2013-12-01

    Since long time ago, speech recognition has been researched, though it does not work well in noisy places such as in the car or in the train. In addition, people with hearing-impaired or difficulties in hearing cannot receive benefits from speech recognition. To recognize the speech automatically, visual information is also important. People understand speeches from not only audio information, but also visual information such as temporal changes in the lip shape. A vision based speech recognition method could work well in noisy places, and could be useful also for people with hearing disabilities. In this paper, we propose an automatic lip-reading method for recognizing the speech by using multimodal visual information without using any audio information such as speech recognition. First, the ASM (Active Shape Model) is used to track and detect the face and lip in a video sequence. Second, the shape, optical flow and spatial frequencies of the lip features are extracted from the lip detected by ASM. Next, the extracted multimodal features are ordered chronologically so that Support Vector Machine is performed in order to learn and classify the spoken words. Experiments for classifying several words show promising results of this proposed method.

  3. Human Behavior Analysis by Means of Multimodal Context Mining.

    PubMed

    Banos, Oresti; Villalonga, Claudia; Bang, Jaehun; Hur, Taeho; Kang, Donguk; Park, Sangbeom; Huynh-The, Thien; Le-Ba, Vui; Amin, Muhammad Bilal; Razzaq, Muhammad Asif; Khan, Wahajat Ali; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungyoung

    2016-08-10

    There is sufficient evidence proving the impact that negative lifestyle choices have on people's health and wellness. Changing unhealthy behaviours requires raising people's self-awareness and also providing healthcare experts with a thorough and continuous description of the user's conduct. Several monitoring techniques have been proposed in the past to track users' behaviour; however, these approaches are either subjective and prone to misreporting, such as questionnaires, or only focus on a specific component of context, such as activity counters. This work presents an innovative multimodal context mining framework to inspect and infer human behaviour in a more holistic fashion. The proposed approach extends beyond the state-of-the-art, since it not only explores a sole type of context, but also combines diverse levels of context in an integral manner. Namely, low-level contexts, including activities, emotions and locations, are identified from heterogeneous sensory data through machine learning techniques. Low-level contexts are combined using ontological mechanisms to derive a more abstract representation of the user's context, here referred to as high-level context. An initial implementation of the proposed framework supporting real-time context identification is also presented. The developed system is evaluated for various realistic scenarios making use of a novel multimodal context open dataset and data on-the-go, demonstrating prominent context-aware capabilities at both low and high levels.

  4. Enhancing image classification models with multi-modal biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caban, Jesus J.; Liao, David; Yao, Jianhua; Mollura, Daniel J.; Gochuico, Bernadette; Yoo, Terry

    2011-03-01

    Currently, most computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems rely on image analysis and statistical models to diagnose, quantify, and monitor the progression of a particular disease. In general, CAD systems have proven to be effective at providing quantitative measurements and assisting physicians during the decision-making process. As the need for more flexible and effective CADs continues to grow, questions about how to enhance their accuracy have surged. In this paper, we show how statistical image models can be augmented with multi-modal physiological values to create more robust, stable, and accurate CAD systems. In particular, this paper demonstrates how highly correlated blood and EKG features can be treated as biomarkers and used to enhance image classification models designed to automatically score subjects with pulmonary fibrosis. In our results, a 3-5% improvement was observed when comparing the accuracy of CADs that use multi-modal biomarkers with those that only used image features. Our results show that lab values such as Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and Fibrinogen, as well as EKG measurements such as QRS and I:40, are statistically significant and can provide valuable insights about the severity of the pulmonary fibrosis disease.

  5. Multi-modal netted sensor fence for homeland security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Weiqun; Fante, Ronald; Yoder, John; Crawford, Gregory

    2005-05-01

    Potential terrorists/adversaries can exploit a wide range of airborne threats against civilian and military targets. Currently there is no effective, low-cost solution to robustly and reliably detect and identify low observable airborne vehicles such as small, low-flying aircraft or cruise missiles that might be carrying chemical, biological or even nuclear weapons in realistic environments. This paper describes the development of a forward-based fence that contains a multi-modal mix of various low cost, low power, netted sensors including unsophisticated radar, acoustic and optical (Infrared and visible) cameras to detect, track and discriminate such threats. Candidate target (Cessna, Beech Craft, crop duster, and cruise missile) signature phenomenologies are studied in detail through either theoretical, numerical simulation or field experiment. Assessments for all three modalities (Radar, acoustic and IR) indicate reasonable detectability and detection range. A multi-modal kinematic tracker is employed to predict the location, the speed and the heading of the target. Results from a notional, template based classification approach reveal reasonable discrimination between different aircraft tested in the field experiments.

  6. MSM: a new flexible framework for Multimodal Surface Matching.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Emma C; Jbabdi, Saad; Glasser, Matthew F; Andersson, Jesper; Burgess, Gregory C; Harms, Michael P; Smith, Stephen M; Van Essen, David C; Jenkinson, Mark

    2014-10-15

    Surface-based cortical registration methods that are driven by geometrical features, such as folding, provide sub-optimal alignment of many functional areas due to variable correlation between cortical folding patterns and function. This has led to the proposal of new registration methods using features derived from functional and diffusion imaging. However, as yet there is no consensus over the best set of features for optimal alignment of brain function. In this paper we demonstrate the utility of a new Multimodal Surface Matching (MSM) algorithm capable of driving alignment using a wide variety of descriptors of brain architecture, function and connectivity. The versatility of the framework originates from adapting the discrete Markov Random Field (MRF) registration method to surface alignment. This has the benefit of being very flexible in the choice of a similarity measure and relatively insensitive to local minima. The method offers significant flexibility in the choice of feature set, and we demonstrate the advantages of this by performing registrations using univariate descriptors of surface curvature and myelination, multivariate feature sets derived from resting fMRI, and multimodal descriptors of surface curvature and myelination. We compare the results with two state of the art surface registration methods that use geometric features: FreeSurfer and Spherical Demons. In the future, the MSM technique will allow explorations into the best combinations of features and alignment strategies for inter-subject alignment of cortical functional areas for a wide range of neuroimaging data sets. PMID:24939340

  7. On Curating Multimodal Sensory Data for Health and Wellness Platforms.

    PubMed

    Amin, Muhammad Bilal; Banos, Oresti; Khan, Wajahat Ali; Muhammad Bilal, Hafiz Syed; Gong, Jinhyuk; Bui, Dinh-Mao; Cho, Soung Ho; Hussain, Shujaat; Ali, Taqdir; Akhtar, Usman; Chung, Tae Choong; Lee, Sungyoung

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the focus of healthcare and wellness technologies has shown a significant shift towards personal vital signs devices. The technology has evolved from smartphone-based wellness applications to fitness bands and smartwatches. The novelty of these devices is the accumulation of activity data as their users go about their daily life routine. However, these implementations are device specific and lack the ability to incorporate multimodal data sources. Data accumulated in their usage does not offer rich contextual information that is adequate for providing a holistic view of a user's lifelog. As a result, making decisions and generating recommendations based on this data are single dimensional. In this paper, we present our Data Curation Framework (DCF) which is device independent and accumulates a user's sensory data from multimodal data sources in real time. DCF curates the context of this accumulated data over the user's lifelog. DCF provides rule-based anomaly detection over this context-rich lifelog in real time. To provide computation and persistence over the large volume of sensory data, DCF utilizes the distributed and ubiquitous environment of the cloud platform. DCF has been evaluated for its performance, correctness, ability to detect complex anomalies, and management support for a large volume of sensory data. PMID:27355955

  8. Multimodal biometric approach for cancelable face template generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Padma Polash; Gavrilova, Marina

    2012-06-01

    Due to the rapid growth of biometric technology, template protection becomes crucial to secure integrity of the biometric security system and prevent unauthorized access. Cancelable biometrics is emerging as one of the best solutions to secure the biometric identification and verification system. We present a novel technique for robust cancelable template generation algorithm that takes advantage of the multimodal biometric using feature level fusion. Feature level fusion of different facial features is applied to generate the cancelable template. A proposed algorithm based on the multi-fold random projection and fuzzy communication scheme is used for this purpose. In cancelable template generation, one of the main difficulties is keeping interclass variance of the feature. We have found that interclass variations of the features that are lost during multi fold random projection can be recovered using fusion of different feature subsets and projecting in a new feature domain. Applying the multimodal technique in feature level, we enhance the interclass variability hence improving the performance of the system. We have tested the system for classifier fusion for different feature subset and different cancelable template fusion. Experiments have shown that cancelable template improves the performance of the biometric system compared with the original template.

  9. Nonlinear processes in multi-mode optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourbeyram Kaleibar, Hamed

    Nonlinear processes in optical fibers can affect data transmission and power carried by optical fibers and can limit the bandwidth and the capacity of optical communications. On the other hand nonlinear phenomena could be utilized to build in-fiber all-optical light sources and amplifiers. In this thesis new peaks inside an optical fiber have been generated using nonlinear processes. An intense green pump laser has been launched into a short fiber and specific modes have been excited to generate two new peaks in red and blue wavelengths, where two pump photons are annihilated to create two new photons in red and blue. The generated peaks are shifted far from pump; therefore they are less polluted by pump and Raman induced noises. The phase matching condition and the photon-flux rate for spontaneous and stimulated FWM have been studied both theoretically and experimentally for a commercial grade SMF-28 fiber. In low power and spontaneous regime new peaks are generated from quantum vacuum noise. Using the same pump laser for a long fiber, up to 21 new peaks spanning from green to Infrared have been generated. These peaks are equally spaced by 13THz. Generation of a Raman cascade spanning the wavelength range of 523 to 1750 nm wavelength range, in a standard telecommunication graded-index multimode optical fiber has been reported. Despite the highly multimode nature of the pump, the Raman peaks are generated in specific modes of the fiber, confirming substantial beam cleanup during the stimulated Raman scattering process.

  10. On Curating Multimodal Sensory Data for Health and Wellness Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Muhammad Bilal; Banos, Oresti; Khan, Wajahat Ali; Muhammad Bilal, Hafiz Syed; Gong, Jinhyuk; Bui, Dinh-Mao; Cho, Soung Ho; Hussain, Shujaat; Ali, Taqdir; Akhtar, Usman; Chung, Tae Choong; Lee, Sungyoung

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the focus of healthcare and wellness technologies has shown a significant shift towards personal vital signs devices. The technology has evolved from smartphone-based wellness applications to fitness bands and smartwatches. The novelty of these devices is the accumulation of activity data as their users go about their daily life routine. However, these implementations are device specific and lack the ability to incorporate multimodal data sources. Data accumulated in their usage does not offer rich contextual information that is adequate for providing a holistic view of a user’s lifelog. As a result, making decisions and generating recommendations based on this data are single dimensional. In this paper, we present our Data Curation Framework (DCF) which is device independent and accumulates a user’s sensory data from multimodal data sources in real time. DCF curates the context of this accumulated data over the user’s lifelog. DCF provides rule-based anomaly detection over this context-rich lifelog in real time. To provide computation and persistence over the large volume of sensory data, DCF utilizes the distributed and ubiquitous environment of the cloud platform. DCF has been evaluated for its performance, correctness, ability to detect complex anomalies, and management support for a large volume of sensory data. PMID:27355955

  11. Human Behavior Analysis by Means of Multimodal Context Mining

    PubMed Central

    Banos, Oresti; Villalonga, Claudia; Bang, Jaehun; Hur, Taeho; Kang, Donguk; Park, Sangbeom; Huynh-The, Thien; Le-Ba, Vui; Amin, Muhammad Bilal; Razzaq, Muhammad Asif; Khan, Wahajat Ali; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungyoung

    2016-01-01

    There is sufficient evidence proving the impact that negative lifestyle choices have on people’s health and wellness. Changing unhealthy behaviours requires raising people’s self-awareness and also providing healthcare experts with a thorough and continuous description of the user’s conduct. Several monitoring techniques have been proposed in the past to track users’ behaviour; however, these approaches are either subjective and prone to misreporting, such as questionnaires, or only focus on a specific component of context, such as activity counters. This work presents an innovative multimodal context mining framework to inspect and infer human behaviour in a more holistic fashion. The proposed approach extends beyond the state-of-the-art, since it not only explores a sole type of context, but also combines diverse levels of context in an integral manner. Namely, low-level contexts, including activities, emotions and locations, are identified from heterogeneous sensory data through machine learning techniques. Low-level contexts are combined using ontological mechanisms to derive a more abstract representation of the user’s context, here referred to as high-level context. An initial implementation of the proposed framework supporting real-time context identification is also presented. The developed system is evaluated for various realistic scenarios making use of a novel multimodal context open dataset and data on-the-go, demonstrating prominent context-aware capabilities at both low and high levels. PMID:27517928

  12. Multimodal digital color imaging system for facial skin lesion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Youngwoo; Lee, Youn-Heum; Jung, Byungjo

    2008-02-01

    In dermatology, various digital imaging modalities have been used as an important tool to quantitatively evaluate the treatment effect of skin lesions. Cross-polarization color image was used to evaluate skin chromophores (melanin and hemoglobin) information and parallel-polarization image to evaluate skin texture information. In addition, UV-A induced fluorescent image has been widely used to evaluate various skin conditions such as sebum, keratosis, sun damages, and vitiligo. In order to maximize the evaluation efficacy of various skin lesions, it is necessary to integrate various imaging modalities into an imaging system. In this study, we propose a multimodal digital color imaging system, which provides four different digital color images of standard color image, parallel and cross-polarization color image, and UV-A induced fluorescent color image. Herein, we describe the imaging system and present the examples of image analysis. By analyzing the color information and morphological features of facial skin lesions, we are able to comparably and simultaneously evaluate various skin lesions. In conclusion, we are sure that the multimodal color imaging system can be utilized as an important assistant tool in dermatology.

  13. Human Behavior Analysis by Means of Multimodal Context Mining.

    PubMed

    Banos, Oresti; Villalonga, Claudia; Bang, Jaehun; Hur, Taeho; Kang, Donguk; Park, Sangbeom; Huynh-The, Thien; Le-Ba, Vui; Amin, Muhammad Bilal; Razzaq, Muhammad Asif; Khan, Wahajat Ali; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungyoung

    2016-01-01

    There is sufficient evidence proving the impact that negative lifestyle choices have on people's health and wellness. Changing unhealthy behaviours requires raising people's self-awareness and also providing healthcare experts with a thorough and continuous description of the user's conduct. Several monitoring techniques have been proposed in the past to track users' behaviour; however, these approaches are either subjective and prone to misreporting, such as questionnaires, or only focus on a specific component of context, such as activity counters. This work presents an innovative multimodal context mining framework to inspect and infer human behaviour in a more holistic fashion. The proposed approach extends beyond the state-of-the-art, since it not only explores a sole type of context, but also combines diverse levels of context in an integral manner. Namely, low-level contexts, including activities, emotions and locations, are identified from heterogeneous sensory data through machine learning techniques. Low-level contexts are combined using ontological mechanisms to derive a more abstract representation of the user's context, here referred to as high-level context. An initial implementation of the proposed framework supporting real-time context identification is also presented. The developed system is evaluated for various realistic scenarios making use of a novel multimodal context open dataset and data on-the-go, demonstrating prominent context-aware capabilities at both low and high levels. PMID:27517928

  14. The multimodal treatment of acromegaly: current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Etual; Ramirez, Claudia; Mercado, Moises

    2014-01-01

    Acromegaly is a chronic systemic disorder caused by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Active acromegaly results in a poor quality of life due to symptoms such as headache, fatigue, arthralgia, depression, sexual dysfunction and hyperhidrosis; an increased prevalence of co-morbidities like diabetes, hypertension as well as cancer risk and a reduced life expectancy. Appropriate, modern, multimodal treatment of acromegaly has led to a significant improvement in quality of life, an adequate control of co-morbidities and a drastic reduction in the mortality rates that used to prevail in the past. This multimodal strategy includes an adequate selection of patients who are likely to benefit from surgical treatment (which has to be performed by a skilled pituitary neurosurgeon), the use of pharmacological interventions such as somatostatin analogs and dopamine agonists, which target the pituitary adenoma; and pegvisomant, a GH mutant acting as a competitive antagonist of the GH receptor. Radiation therapy is an important tool, particularly in parts of the World where resources are limited. The ultimate outcome of the individual patient depends on the judicious use of all these treatment options, which are critically analyzed in this mini-review.

  15. Multimode laser beam analyzer instrument using electrically programmable optics.

    PubMed

    Marraccini, Philip J; Riza, Nabeel A

    2011-12-01

    Presented is a novel design of a multimode laser beam analyzer using a digital micromirror device (DMD) and an electronically controlled variable focus lens (ECVFL) that serve as the digital and analog agile optics, respectively. The proposed analyzer is a broadband laser characterization instrument that uses the agile optics to smartly direct light to the required point photodetectors to enable beam measurements of minimum beam waist size, minimum waist location, divergence, and the beam propagation parameter M(2). Experimental results successfully demonstrate these measurements for a 500 mW multimode test laser beam with a wavelength of 532 nm. The minimum beam waist, divergence, and M(2) experimental results for the test laser are found to be 257.61 μm, 2.103 mrad, 1.600 and 326.67 μm, 2.682 mrad, 2.587 for the vertical and horizontal directions, respectively. These measurements are compared to a traditional scan method and the results of the beam waist are found to be within error tolerance of the demonstrated instrument.

  16. Asymmetric competition causes multimodal size distributions in spatially structured populations.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, Jorge; Allen, Robert B; Coomes, David A; Eichhorn, Markus P

    2016-01-27

    Plant sizes within populations often exhibit multimodal distributions, even when all individuals are the same age and have experienced identical conditions. To establish the causes of this, we created an individual-based model simulating the growth of trees in a spatially explicit framework, which was parametrized using data from a long-term study of forest stands in New Zealand. First, we demonstrate that asymmetric resource competition is a necessary condition for the formation of multimodal size distributions within cohorts. By contrast, the legacy of small-scale clustering during recruitment is transient and quickly overwhelmed by density-dependent mortality. Complex multi-layered size distributions are generated when established individuals are restricted in the spatial domain within which they can capture resources. The number of modes reveals the effective number of direct competitors, while the separation and spread of modes are influenced by distances among established individuals. Asymmetric competition within local neighbourhoods can therefore generate a range of complex size distributions within even-aged cohorts.

  17. MINERVA-a multi-modal radiation treatment planning system.

    PubMed

    Wemple, C A; Wessol, D E; Nigg, D W; Cogliati, J J; Milvich, M L; Frederickson, C; Perkins, M; Harkin, G J

    2004-11-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and Montana State University have undertaken development of MINERVA, a patient-centric, multi-modal, radiation treatment planning system. This system can be used for planning and analyzing several radiotherapy modalities, either singly or combined, using common modality independent image and geometry construction and dose reporting and guiding. It employs an integrated, lightweight plugin architecture to accommodate multi-modal treatment planning using standard interface components. The MINERVA design also facilitates the future integration of improved planning technologies. The code is being developed with the Java Virtual Machine for interoperability. A full computation path has been established for molecular targeted radiotherapy treatment planning, with the associated transport plugin developed by researchers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Development of the neutron transport plugin module is proceeding rapidly, with completion expected later this year. Future development efforts will include development of deformable registration methods, improved segmentation methods for patient model definition, and three-dimensional visualization of the patient images, geometry, and dose data. Transport and source plugins will be created for additional treatment modalities, including brachytherapy, external beam proton radiotherapy, and the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc codes for external beam photon and electron radiotherapy.

  18. Powder metallurgy processing and deformation characteristics of bulk multimodal nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Farbaniec, L.; Dirras, G.; Krawczynska, A.; Mompiou, F.; Couque, H.; Naimi, F.; Bernard, F.; Tingaud, D.

    2014-08-15

    Spark plasma sintering was used to process bulk nickel samples from a blend of three powder types. The resulting multimodal microstructure was made of coarse (average size ∼ 135 μm) spherical microcrystalline entities (the core) surrounded by a fine-grained matrix (average grain size ∼ 1.5 μm) or a thick rim (the shell) distinguishable from the matrix. Tensile tests revealed yield strength of ∼ 470 MPa that was accompanied by limited ductility (∼ 2.8% plastic strain). Microstructure observation after testing showed debonding at interfaces between the matrix and the coarse entities, but in many instances, shallow dimples within the rim were observed indicating local ductile events in the shell. Dislocation emission and annihilation at grain boundaries and twinning at crack tip were the main deformation mechanisms taking place within the fine-grained matrix as revealed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy. Estimation of the stress from loop's curvature and dislocation pile-up indicates that dislocation emission from grain boundaries and grain boundary overcoming largely contributes to the flow stress. - Highlights: • Bulk multi-modal Ni was processed by SPS from a powder blend. • Ultrafine-grained matrix or rim observed around spherical microcrystalline entities • Yield strength (470 MPa) and ductility (2.8% plastic strain) were measured. • Debonding was found at the matrix/microcrystalline entity interfaces. • In-situ TEM showed twinning, dislocation emission and annihilation at grain boundaries.

  19. Multimodal correlation and intraoperative matching of virtual models in neurosurgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ceresole, Enrico; Dalsasso, Michele; Rossi, Aldo

    1994-01-01

    The multimodal correlation between different diagnostic exams, the intraoperative calibration of pointing tools and the correlation of the patient's virtual models with the patient himself, are some examples, taken from the biomedical field, of a unique problem: determine the relationship linking representation of the same object in different reference frames. Several methods have been developed in order to determine this relationship, among them, the surface matching method is one that gives the patient minimum discomfort and the errors occurring are compatible with the required precision. The surface matching method has been successfully applied to the multimodal correlation of diagnostic exams such as CT, MR, PET and SPECT. Algorithms for automatic segmentation of diagnostic images have been developed to extract the reference surfaces from the diagnostic exams, whereas the surface of the patient's skull has been monitored, in our approach, by means of a laser sensor mounted on the end effector of an industrial robot. An integrated system for virtual planning and real time execution of surgical procedures has been realized.

  20. Multimodality monitoring: informatics, integration data display and analysis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J Michael; De Georgia, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The goal of multimodality neuromonitoring is to provide continuous, real-time assessment of brain physiology to prevent, detect, and attenuate secondary brain injury. Clinical informatics deals with biomedical data, information, and knowledge including their acquisition, storage, retrieval, and optimal use for clinical decision-making. An electronic literature search was conducted for English language articles describing the use of informatics in the intensive care unit setting from January 1990 to August 2013. A total of 64 studies were included in this review. Clinical informatics infrastructure should be adopted that enables a wide range of linear and nonlinear analytical methods be applied to patient data. Specific time epochs of clinical interest should be reviewable. Analysis strategies of monitor alarms may help address alarm fatigue. Ergonomic data display that present results from analyses with clinical information in a sensible uncomplicated manner improve clinical decision-making. Collecting and archiving the highest resolution physiologic and phenotypic data in a comprehensive open format data warehouse is a crucial first step toward information management and two-way translational research for multimodality monitoring. The infrastructure required is largely the same as that needed for telemedicine intensive care applications, which under the right circumstances improves care quality while reducing cost. PMID:25208675

  1. Computer aided measurement of multimode fields in waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonwinterfeld, C.; Zocher, E.

    1982-02-01

    A method for computer aided measurement to analyze closed and open multimode structures, e.g., waveguides, travelling wave structures, is presented. Measurements are realized with a sonde having a very low coupling coefficient with relation to waveguides positioned manually, and connected through an attenuator to a differential analyzer connected at the other hand to the signal generator. The phase and amplitude values are digitized, and fed to a computer. The obtained values are then further analyzed in a larger computer. Precision of measurements attained is plus minus two grad and plus or minus 0.2 dB. The mathematical solution of the nonlinear equations system is an application of the Prony algorithm to waves in a medium with axial translational symmetry. The method was tested by measuring multimodal fields in a circular waveguide with smooth walls. Based on fairly accurate field data, the results of the analysis are checked, the accuracy of the wave number values is established, and the optimum parameters of the analysis are obtained.

  2. Arbitrary integrated multimode interferometers for the elaboration of photonic qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespi, Andrea; Ramponi, Roberta; Brod, Daniel J.; Galvao, Ernesto F.; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Vitelli, Chiara; Sansoni, Linda; Sciarrino, Fabio; Mataloni, Paolo; Osellame, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    Integrated photonic circuits with many input and output modes are essential in applications ranging from conventional optical telecommunication networks, to the elaboration of photonic qubits in the integrated quantum information framework. In particular, the latter field has been object in the recent years of an increasing interest: the compactness and phase stability of integrated waveguide circuits are enabling experiments unconceivable with bulk-optics set-ups. Linear photonic devices for quantum information are based on quantum and classical interference effects: the desired circuit operation can be achieved only with tight fabrication control on both power repartition in splitting elements and phase retardance in the various paths. Here we report on a novel three-dimensional circuit architecture, made possible by the unique capabilities of femtosecond laser waveguide writing, which enables us to realize integrated multimode devices implementing arbitrary linear transformations. Networks of cascaded directional couplers can be built with independent control on the splitting ratios and the phase shifts in each branch. In detail, we show an arbitrarily designed 5×5 integrated interferometer: characterization with one- and two-photon experiments confirms the accuracy of our fabrication technique. We exploit the fabricated circuit to implement a small instance of the boson-sampling experiments with up to three photons, which is one of the most promising approaches to realize phenomena hard to simulate with classical computers. We will further show how, by studying classical and quantum interference in many random multimode circuits, we may gain deeper insight into the bosonic coalescence phenomenon.

  3. MSM: a new flexible framework for Multimodal Surface Matching☆

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Emma C.; Jbabdi, Saad; Glasser, Matthew F.; Andersson, Jesper; Burgess, Gregory C.; Harms, Michael P.; Smith, Stephen. M.; Van Essen, David C.; Jenkinson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Surface-based cortical registration methods that are driven by geometrical features, such as folding, provide sub-optimal alignment of many functional areas due to variable correlation between cortical folding patterns and function. This has led to the proposal of new registration methods using features derived from functional and diffusion imaging. However, as yet there is no consensus over the best set of features for optimal alignment of brain function. In this paper we demonstrate the utility of a new Multimodal Surface Matching (MSM) algorithm capable of driving alignment using a wide variety of descriptors of brain architecture, function and connectivity. The versatility of the framework originates from adapting the discrete Markov Random Field (MRF) registration method to surface alignment. This has the benefit of being unconstrained by choice of a similarity measure and relatively insensitive to local minima. The method offers significant flexibility in the choice of feature set, and we demonstrate the advantages of this by performing registrations using univariate descriptors of surface curvature and myelination, multivariate feature sets derived from resting fMRI, and multimodal descriptors of surface curvature and myelination. We compare the results with two state of the art surface registration methods that use geometric features: FreeSurfer and Spherical Demons. In the future, the MSM technique will allow explorations into the best combinations of features and alignment strategies for inter-subject alignment of cortical functional areas for a wide range of neuroimaging datasets. PMID:24939340

  4. On Curating Multimodal Sensory Data for Health and Wellness Platforms.

    PubMed

    Amin, Muhammad Bilal; Banos, Oresti; Khan, Wajahat Ali; Muhammad Bilal, Hafiz Syed; Gong, Jinhyuk; Bui, Dinh-Mao; Cho, Soung Ho; Hussain, Shujaat; Ali, Taqdir; Akhtar, Usman; Chung, Tae Choong; Lee, Sungyoung

    2016-06-27

    In recent years, the focus of healthcare and wellness technologies has shown a significant shift towards personal vital signs devices. The technology has evolved from smartphone-based wellness applications to fitness bands and smartwatches. The novelty of these devices is the accumulation of activity data as their users go about their daily life routine. However, these implementations are device specific and lack the ability to incorporate multimodal data sources. Data accumulated in their usage does not offer rich contextual information that is adequate for providing a holistic view of a user's lifelog. As a result, making decisions and generating recommendations based on this data are single dimensional. In this paper, we present our Data Curation Framework (DCF) which is device independent and accumulates a user's sensory data from multimodal data sources in real time. DCF curates the context of this accumulated data over the user's lifelog. DCF provides rule-based anomaly detection over this context-rich lifelog in real time. To provide computation and persistence over the large volume of sensory data, DCF utilizes the distributed and ubiquitous environment of the cloud platform. DCF has been evaluated for its performance, correctness, ability to detect complex anomalies, and management support for a large volume of sensory data.

  5. A multi-modal parcellation of human cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Matthew F; Coalson, Timothy S; Robinson, Emma C; Hacker, Carl D; Harwell, John; Yacoub, Essa; Ugurbil, Kamil; Andersson, Jesper; Beckmann, Christian F; Jenkinson, Mark; Smith, Stephen M; Van Essen, David C

    2016-08-11

    Understanding the amazingly complex human cerebral cortex requires a map (or parcellation) of its major subdivisions, known as cortical areas. Making an accurate areal map has been a century-old objective in neuroscience. Using multi-modal magnetic resonance images from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) and an objective semi-automated neuroanatomical approach, we delineated 180 areas per hemisphere bounded by sharp changes in cortical architecture, function, connectivity, and/or topography in a precisely aligned group average of 210 healthy young adults. We characterized 97 new areas and 83 areas previously reported using post-mortem microscopy or other specialized study-specific approaches. To enable automated delineation and identification of these areas in new HCP subjects and in future studies, we trained a machine-learning classifier to recognize the multi-modal 'fingerprint' of each cortical area. This classifier detected the presence of 96.6% of the cortical areas in new subjects, replicated the group parcellation, and could correctly locate areas in individuals with atypical parcellations. The freely available parcellation and classifier will enable substantially improved neuroanatomical precision for studies of the structural and functional organization of human cerebral cortex and its variation across individuals and in development, aging, and disease. PMID:27437579

  6. Multi-mode reliability-based design of horizontal curves.

    PubMed

    Essa, Mohamed; Sayed, Tarek; Hussein, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Recently, reliability analysis has been advocated as an effective approach to account for uncertainty in the geometric design process and to evaluate the risk associated with a particular design. In this approach, a risk measure (e.g. probability of noncompliance) is calculated to represent the probability that a specific design would not meet standard requirements. The majority of previous applications of reliability analysis in geometric design focused on evaluating the probability of noncompliance for only one mode of noncompliance such as insufficient sight distance. However, in many design situations, more than one mode of noncompliance may be present (e.g. insufficient sight distance and vehicle skidding at horizontal curves). In these situations, utilizing a multi-mode reliability approach that considers more than one failure (noncompliance) mode is required. The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate the application of multi-mode (system) reliability analysis to the design of horizontal curves. The process is demonstrated by a case study of Sea-to-Sky Highway located between Vancouver and Whistler, in southern British Columbia, Canada. Two noncompliance modes were considered: insufficient sight distance and vehicle skidding. The results show the importance of accounting for several noncompliance modes in the reliability model. The system reliability concept could be used in future studies to calibrate the design of various design elements in order to achieve consistent safety levels based on all possible modes of noncompliance.

  7. Cognitive-Aware Modality Allocation in Intelligent Multimodal Information Presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yujia; Theune, Mariët; Nijholt, Anton

    Intelligent multimodal presentation (IMMP) systems are able to generate multimodal presentations adaptively, based on the run-time requirements of user-computer interaction. Modality allocation in IMMP system needs to adapt the modality choice to changes in various relevant factors, such as the type of information to be conveyed, the presentation goal, the characteristics of the available modalities, the user profile, the condition of the environment, and the type of user task. In this study, we emphasize that modality allocation in IMMP systems should also take into account the cognitive impacts of modality on human information processing. We first describe several modality-related cognitive and neuropsychological findings. Then a user study is presented to demonstrate the effects of modality on performance, cognitive load and stress, using a high-load and time-critical user task. Finally, we show a possible way to integrate relevant cognitive theories into a computational model that can systematically predict the suitability of a modality choice for a given presentation task.

  8. Comprehensive Context Recognizer Based on Multimodal Sensors in a Smartphone

    PubMed Central

    Han, Manhyung; Vinh, La The; Lee, Young-Koo; Lee, Sungyoung

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in smartphones have increased the processing capabilities and equipped these devices with a number of built-in multimodal sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes, GPS interfaces, Wi-Fi access, and proximity sensors. Despite the fact that numerous studies have investigated the development of user-context aware applications using smartphones, these applications are currently only able to recognize simple contexts using a single type of sensor. Therefore, in this work, we introduce a comprehensive approach for context aware applications that utilizes the multimodal sensors in smartphones. The proposed system is not only able to recognize different kinds of contexts with high accuracy, but it is also able to optimize the power consumption since power-hungry sensors can be activated or deactivated at appropriate times. Additionally, the system is able to recognize activities wherever the smartphone is on a human's body, even when the user is using the phone to make a phone call, manipulate applications, play games, or listen to music. Furthermore, we also present a novel feature selection algorithm for the accelerometer classification module. The proposed feature selection algorithm helps select good features and eliminates bad features, thereby improving the overall accuracy of the accelerometer classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed system can classify eight activities with an accuracy of 92.43%.

  9. Monitoring femtosecond laser microscopic photothermolysis with multimodal microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yimei; Lui, Harvey; Zhao, Jianhua; McLean, David I.; Zeng, Haishan

    2016-02-01

    Photothermolysis induced by femtosecond (fs) lasers may be a promising modality in dermatology because of its advantages of high precision due to multiphoton absorption and deeper penetration due to the use of near infrared wavelengths. Although multiphoton absorption nonlinear effects are capable of precision targeting, the femtosecond laser photothermolysis could still have effects beyond the targeted area if a sufficiently high dose of laser light is used. Such unintended effects could be minimized by real time monitoring photothermolysis during the treatment. Targeted photothermolytic treatment of ex vivo mouse skin dermis was performed with tightly focused fs laser beams. Images of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM), second harmonic generation (SHG), and two-photon fluorescence (TPF) of the mouse skins were obtained with integrated multimodal microscopy before, during, and after the laser treatment. The RCM, SHG, and TPF signal intensities of the treatment areas changed after high power femtosecond laser irradiation. The intensities of the RCM and SHG signals decreased when the tissue was damaged, while the intensity of the TPF signal increased when the photothermolysis was achieved. Moreover, the TPF signal was more susceptible to the degree of the photothermolysis than the RCM and SHG signals. The results suggested that multimodal microscopy is a potentially useful tool to monitor and assess the femtosecond laser treatment of the skin to achieve microscopic photothermolysis with high precision.

  10. Multi-mode reliability-based design of horizontal curves.

    PubMed

    Essa, Mohamed; Sayed, Tarek; Hussein, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Recently, reliability analysis has been advocated as an effective approach to account for uncertainty in the geometric design process and to evaluate the risk associated with a particular design. In this approach, a risk measure (e.g. probability of noncompliance) is calculated to represent the probability that a specific design would not meet standard requirements. The majority of previous applications of reliability analysis in geometric design focused on evaluating the probability of noncompliance for only one mode of noncompliance such as insufficient sight distance. However, in many design situations, more than one mode of noncompliance may be present (e.g. insufficient sight distance and vehicle skidding at horizontal curves). In these situations, utilizing a multi-mode reliability approach that considers more than one failure (noncompliance) mode is required. The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate the application of multi-mode (system) reliability analysis to the design of horizontal curves. The process is demonstrated by a case study of Sea-to-Sky Highway located between Vancouver and Whistler, in southern British Columbia, Canada. Two noncompliance modes were considered: insufficient sight distance and vehicle skidding. The results show the importance of accounting for several noncompliance modes in the reliability model. The system reliability concept could be used in future studies to calibrate the design of various design elements in order to achieve consistent safety levels based on all possible modes of noncompliance. PMID:27180287

  11. Synthesis and radiolabeling of a somatostatin analog for multimodal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, W. Barry; Liang, Kexian; Xu, Baogang; Anderson, Carolyn J.; Achilefu, Samuel

    2006-02-01

    A new multimodal imaging agent for imaging the somatostatin receptor has been synthesized and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. A somatostatin analog, conjugated to both 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraaceticacid (DOTA) and cypate (BS-296), was synthesized entirely on the solid phase (Fmoc) and purified by RP-HPLC. DOTA was added as a ligand for radiometals such as 64Cu or 177Lu for either radio-imaging or radiotherapy respectively. Cytate, a cypatesomatostatin analog conjugate, has previously demonstrated the ability to visualize somatostatin receptor rich tumor xenografts and natural organs by optical imaging techniques. BS-296 exhibited low nanomolar inhibitory capacity toward the binding of radiolabeled somatostatin analogs in cell membranes enriched in the somatostatin receptor, demonstrating the high affinity of this multimodal imaging peptide and indicating its potential as a molecular imaging agent. 64Cu, an isotope for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy, was selected as the isotope for radiolabeling BS-296. BS-296 was radiolabeled with 64Cu in high specific activity (200 μCi/μg) in 90% radiochemical yield. Addition of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (gentisic acid) prevented radiolysis of the sample, allowing for study of the 64Cu -BS-296 the day following radiolabeling. Furthermore, inclusion of DMSO at a level of 20% was found not to interfere with radiolabeling yields and prevented the adherence of 64Cu -BS-296 to the walls of the reaction vessel.

  12. Overview of multimodal techniques for the characterization of sport programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, Nicola; Leonardi, Riccardo; Migliorati, Pierangelo

    2003-06-01

    The problem of content characterization of sports videos is of great interest because sports video appeals to large audiences and its efficient distribution over various networks should contribute to widespread usage of multimedia services. In this paper we analyze several techniques proposed in literature for content characterization of sports videos. We focus this analysis on the typology of the signal (audio, video, text captions, ...) from which the low-level features are extracted. First we consider the techniques based on visual information, then the methods based on audio information, and finally the algorithms based on audio-visual cues, used in a multi-modal fashion. This analysis shows that each type of signal carries some peculiar information, and the multi-modal approach can fully exploit the multimedia information associated to the sports video. Moreover, we observe that the characterization is performed either considering what happens in a specific time segment, observing therefore the features in a "static" way, or trying to capture their "dynamic" evolution in time. The effectiveness of each approach depends mainly on the kind of sports it relates to, and the type of highlights we are focusing on.

  13. Double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with Gaussian and multimode beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lednev, V. N.; Pershin, S. M.; Bunkin, A. F.; Samokhvalov, A. A.; Veiko, V. P.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Ionin, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    Single vs multimode laser beams were compared for double pulse laser ablation, plasma properties and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analytical capabilities. Laser beams with Gaussian and multimode profiles were generated within the same Nd:YAG laser in single and double pulse regimes. Gaussian beam produced a small and deep crater while multimode beam formed a wide shallow crater. Greater double pulse enhancement of ablated material and plasma volume were observed for Gaussian beam sampling. The higher intensity for atomic/ionic lines in the plasma spectra was observed for multimode beam sampling due to greater laser pulse energy and larger ablated mass. Interestingly, spectra line intensity enhancement for double pulse ablation was 2-3 times greater for Gaussian than for multimode beam ablation. Background emission decreased for plasma induced by multimode beam when using double pulse mode while for Gaussian beam an opposite dependence was observed. Surprisingly, higher peak fluence at sample surface for Gaussian beam didn't provide higher plasma temperature and electron density for double pulse ablation. Analytical capabilities of LIBS method were compared for double pulse plasma induced by Gaussian and multimode beam in terms of precision, sensitivity and linearity of calibration curves. It was observed that Gaussian beam sampling leads to improvement of analysis precision while sensitivity was element dependent.

  14. Evaluation of selectivity in homologous multimodal chromatographic systems using in silico designed antibody fragment libraries.

    PubMed

    Karkov, Hanne Sophie; Woo, James; Krogh, Berit Olsen; Ahmadian, Haleh; Cramer, Steven M

    2015-12-24

    This study describes the in silico design, surface property analyses, production and chromatographic evaluations of a diverse set of antibody Fab fragment variants. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized that the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) constitute important binding sites for multimodal chromatographic ligands. Given that antibodies are highly diversified molecules and in particular the CDRs, we set out to examine the generality of this result. For this purpose, four different Fab fragments with different CDRs and/or framework regions of the variable domains were identified and related variants were designed in silico. The four Fab variant libraries were subsequently generated by site-directed mutagenesis and produced by recombinant expression and affinity purification to enable examination of their chromatographic retention behavior. The effects of geometric re-arrangement of the functional moieties on the multimodal resin ligands were also investigated with respect to Fab variant retention profiles by comparing two commercially available multimodal cation-exchange ligands, Capto MMC and Nuvia cPrime, and two novel multimodal ligand prototypes. Interestingly, the chromatographic data demonstrated distinct selectivity trends between the four Fab variant libraries. For three of the Fab libraries, the CDR regions appeared as major binding sites for all multimodal ligands. In contrast, the fourth Fab library displayed a distinctly different chromatographic behavior, where Nuvia cPrime and related multimodal ligand prototypes provided markedly improved selectivity over Capto MMC. Clearly, the results illustrate that the discriminating power of multimodal ligands differs between different Fab fragments. The results are promising indications that multimodal chromatography using the appropriate multimodal ligands can be employed in downstream bioprocessing for challenging selective separation of product related variants. PMID:26654254

  15. Evaluation of selectivity in homologous multimodal chromatographic systems using in silico designed antibody fragment libraries.

    PubMed

    Karkov, Hanne Sophie; Woo, James; Krogh, Berit Olsen; Ahmadian, Haleh; Cramer, Steven M

    2015-12-24

    This study describes the in silico design, surface property analyses, production and chromatographic evaluations of a diverse set of antibody Fab fragment variants. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized that the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) constitute important binding sites for multimodal chromatographic ligands. Given that antibodies are highly diversified molecules and in particular the CDRs, we set out to examine the generality of this result. For this purpose, four different Fab fragments with different CDRs and/or framework regions of the variable domains were identified and related variants were designed in silico. The four Fab variant libraries were subsequently generated by site-directed mutagenesis and produced by recombinant expression and affinity purification to enable examination of their chromatographic retention behavior. The effects of geometric re-arrangement of the functional moieties on the multimodal resin ligands were also investigated with respect to Fab variant retention profiles by comparing two commercially available multimodal cation-exchange ligands, Capto MMC and Nuvia cPrime, and two novel multimodal ligand prototypes. Interestingly, the chromatographic data demonstrated distinct selectivity trends between the four Fab variant libraries. For three of the Fab libraries, the CDR regions appeared as major binding sites for all multimodal ligands. In contrast, the fourth Fab library displayed a distinctly different chromatographic behavior, where Nuvia cPrime and related multimodal ligand prototypes provided markedly improved selectivity over Capto MMC. Clearly, the results illustrate that the discriminating power of multimodal ligands differs between different Fab fragments. The results are promising indications that multimodal chromatography using the appropriate multimodal ligands can be employed in downstream bioprocessing for challenging selective separation of product related variants.

  16. Quantum key distribution over an installed multimode optical fiber local area network.

    PubMed

    Namekata, Naoto; Mori, Shigehiko; Inoue, Shuichiro

    2005-12-12

    We have investigated the possibility of a multimode fiber link for a quantum channel. Transmission of light in an extremely underfilled mode distribution promises a single-mode-like behavior in the multimode fiber. To demonstrate the performance of the fiber link we performed quantum key distribution, on the basis of the BB84 four-state protocol, over 550 m of an installed multimode optical fiber local area network, and the quantum-bit-error rate of 1.09 percent was achieved. PMID:19503207

  17. All-fiber mode-group-selective photonic lantern using graded-index multimode fibers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bin; Fontaine, Nicolas K; Ryf, Roland; Guan, Binbin; Leon-Saval, Sergio G; Shubochkin, R; Sun, Y; Lingle, R; Li, Guifang

    2015-01-12

    We demonstrate the first all-fiber mode-group-selective photonic lantern using multimode graded-index fibers. Mode selectivity for mode groups LP(01), LP(11) and LP(21)+LP(02) is 20-dB, 10-dB and 7-dB respectively. The insertion loss when butt coupled to multimode graded-index fiber is below 0.6-dB. The use of the multimode graded-index fibers in the taper can significantly reduce the adiabaticity requirement. PMID:25835669

  18. All-fiber mode-group-selective photonic lantern using graded-index multimode fibers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bin; Fontaine, Nicolas K; Ryf, Roland; Guan, Binbin; Leon-Saval, Sergio G; Shubochkin, R; Sun, Y; Lingle, R; Li, Guifang

    2015-01-12

    We demonstrate the first all-fiber mode-group-selective photonic lantern using multimode graded-index fibers. Mode selectivity for mode groups LP(01), LP(11) and LP(21)+LP(02) is 20-dB, 10-dB and 7-dB respectively. The insertion loss when butt coupled to multimode graded-index fiber is below 0.6-dB. The use of the multimode graded-index fibers in the taper can significantly reduce the adiabaticity requirement.

  19. Multimodal Semiosis in Science Read-Alouds: Extending Beyond Text Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Rivera, Seema; Glass, Rory; Mastroianni, Michael; Wizner, Francine; Amodeo, Vincent

    2014-10-01

    This study examines elementary teachers reading children's science books aloud to students in the US. Our findings show that science read-aloud semiosis (meaning-making) extends beyond text delivery. In addition to making a written text orally available to students, teachers also deploy different types of gestures (pointing and iconic gesticulation) and pictorial representations (narrative and conceptual) as they scaffold students' understandings. Further, teachers are shown to engage in two distinct forms of meaning-making: multimodal description and multimodal explanation. A conceptual framework is proposed that elementary science educators can use to systematically incorporate multimodality into aloud reading practices.

  20. Tip Based Nanofabrication Using Multi-mode Scanning Probe Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Weihua

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) based nanotechnology is a promising technology in nano-device fabrication. It is able to both manipulate nanostructures and characterize the created nanopatterns using the nano-tip of the scanning probe on a mechanical basis or electrical basis. With the tip and device on similar scales, nano-tip based fabrication permits accurate control over the device geometry through tip manipulation with nanometer (or better) accuracy. However, SPM based nanofabrication is a slow process because the scanning velocity of the microscopy is low. Large, multi-tip arrays offer the possibility for parallel device fabrication, allowing mass fabrication with nanometer control. The goal of Tip-directed Field-emission Assisted Nanofabrication (TFAN) project was to realize parallel fabrication using our probe arrays. We started by fabricating nanodevice using one single probe. In this work, we investigated the study of fabricating single electron transistor (SET) using one single SPM probe. There were four stages we went through toward fabricating a SET. The first stage was to accomplish atomic-precision lithography in TFAN system. Atomic level lithography was achieved by desorbing hydrogen atoms, which were previously adsorbed to the Si(100)-2 × 1 surface, in ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy (UHV-STM). The second stage was to develop method for fabricating SET. SPM based local oxidation was chosen as the method to fabricate a SET on a thin titanium (Ti) film. A multi-mode SPM oxidation method was developed, in which both scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) mode and atomic microscopy (AFM) mode local oxidation were used to fabricated Ti-TiOx-Ti structures with the same conductive AFM probe. This multi-mode method enabled significantly fine feature size control by STM mode, working on insulating SiO2 substrates needed to isolate the device by AFM mode and in situ electrical characterization with conductive AFM mode. After developing the multi-mode

  1. Gold Nanoconstructs for Multimodal Diagnostic Imaging and Photothermal Cancer Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, Andrew James

    Cancer accounts for nearly 1 out of every 4 deaths in the United States, and because conventional treatments are limited by morbidity and off-target toxicities, improvements in cancer management are needed. This thesis further develops nanoparticle-assisted photothermal therapy (NAPT) as a viable treatment option for cancer patients. NAPT enables localized ablation of disease because heat generation only occurs where tissue permissive near-infrared (NIR) light and absorbing nanoparticles are combined, leaving surrounding normal tissue unharmed. Two principle approaches were investigated to improve the specificity of this technique: multimodal imaging and molecular targeting. Multimodal imaging affords the ability to guide NIR laser application for site-specific NAPT and more holistic characterization of disease by combining the advantages of several diagnostic technologies. Towards the goal of image-guided NAPT, gadolinium-conjugated gold-silica nanoshells were engineered and demonstrated to enhance imaging contrast across a range of diagnostic modes, including T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, X-Ray, optical coherence tomography, reflective confocal microscopy, and two-photon luminescence in vitro as well as within an animal tumor model. Additionally, the nanoparticle conjugates were shown to effectively convert NIR light to heat for applications in photothermal therapy. Therefore, the broad utility of gadolinium-nanoshells for anatomic localization of tissue lesions, molecular characterization of malignancy, and mediators of ablation was established. Molecular targeting strategies may also improve NAPT by promoting nanoparticle uptake and retention within tumors and enhancing specificity when malignant and normal tissue interdigitate. Here, ephrinA1 protein ligands were conjugated to nanoshell surfaces for particle homing to overexpressed EphA2 receptors on prostate cancer cells. In vitro, successful targeting and subsequent photothermal ablation of

  2. "Look at what I am saying": Multimodal science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzer-Ardenghi, Lilian

    Language constitutes the dominant representational mode in science teaching, and lectures are still the most prevalent of the teaching methods in school science. In this dissertation, I investigate lectures from a multimodal and communicative perspective to better understand how teaching as a cultural-historical and social activity unfolds; that is, I am concerned with teaching as a communicative event, where a variety of signs (or semiotic resources), expressed in diverse modalities (or modes of communication) are produced and reproduced while the teacher articulates very specific conceptual meanings for the students. Within a trans-disciplinary approach that merges theoretical and methodical frameworks of social and cultural studies of human activity and interaction, communicative and gestures studies, linguistics, semiotics, pragmatics, and studies on teaching and learning science, I investigate teaching as a communicative, dynamic, multimodal, and social activity. My research questions include: What are the resources produced and reproduced in the classroom when the teacher is lecturing? How do these resources interact with each other? What meanings do they carry and how are these associated to achieve the coherence necessary to accomplish the communication of complex and abstract scientific concepts, not only within one lecture, but also within an entire unit of the curricula encompassing various lectures? My results show that, when lecturing, the communication of scientific concepts occur along trajectories driven by the dialectical relation among the various semiotic resources a lecturer makes available that together constitute a unit---the idea. Speech, gestures, and other nonverbal resources are but one-sided expressions of a higher order communicative meaning unit. The iterable nature of the signs produced and reproduced during science lectures permits, supports, and encourages the repetition, variation, and translation of ideas, themes, and languages and

  3. Measurement of the intermodal crosstalk of a bent multimode waveguide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Zhao, Changyun; Wei, Bing; Gencheng, Wang; Dai, Tingge; Wang, Yuehai; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Li, Yubo; Yang, Jianyi

    2016-09-20

    We quantitatively investigate the main source of the intermodal crosstalk of a silicon-based bent multimode waveguide by experiment. The measurement is performed through time-domain scanning low-coherence interferometry. From the measurement results, one can not only calculate the modal crosstalk, but can also locate the position where the crosstalk appears. The results indicate that the modal mismatch at the points where the curvature of the waveguide changes is the main origin of the modal crosstalk. For a two-mode waveguide with a bending radius of 5 μm at 1310 nm, the crosstalk is as high as -20 and -16  dB for the fundamental and first-order mode, respectively. This work gives us a deep insight into how the guided modes actually propagate through the bent waveguide. PMID:27661590

  4. Multiplexed electronically programmable multimode ionization detector for chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Wise, Marcus B.; Buchanan, Michelle V.

    1989-01-01

    Method and apparatus for detecting and differentiating organic compounds based on their electron affinity. An electron capture detector cell (ECD) is operated in a plurality of multiplexed electroncially programmable operating modes to alter the detector response during a single sampling cycle to acquire multiple simultaneous chromatograms corresponding to each of the different operating modes. The cell is held at a constant subatmospheric pressure while the electron collection bias voltage applied to the cell is modulated electronically to allow acquisition of multiple chromatograms for a single sample elution from a chromatograph representing three distinctly different response modes. A system is provided which automatically controls the programmed application of bias pulses at different intervals and/or amplitudes to switch the detector from an ionization mode to the electron capture mode and various degrees therebetween to provide an improved means of tuning an ECD for multimode detection and improved specificity.

  5. Multiplexed electronically programmable multimode ionization detector for chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Wise, M.B.; Buchanan, M.V.

    1988-05-19

    Method and apparatus for detecting and differentiating organic compounds based on their electron affinity. An electron capture detector cell (ECD) is operated in a plurality of multiplexed electronically programmable operating modes to alter the detector response during a single sampling cycle to acquire multiple simultaneous chromatograms corresponding to each of the different operating modes. The cell is held at a constant subatmospheric pressure while the electron collection bias voltage applied to the cell is modulated electronically to allow acquisition of multiple chromatograms for a single sample elution from a chromatograph representing three distinctly different response modes. A system is provided which automatically controls the programmed application of bias pulses at different intervals and/or amplitudes to switch the detector from an ionization mode to the electron capture mode and various degrees therebetween to provide an improved means of tuning an ECD for multimode detection and improved specificity. 6 figs.

  6. Multimodal light-sheet microscopy for fluorescence live imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Y.; Kajiura-Kobayashi, H.; Nonaka, S.

    2012-03-01

    Light-sheet microscopy, it is known as single plane illumination microscope (SPIM), is a fluorescence imaging technique which can avoid phototoxic effects to living cells and gives high contrast and high spatial resolution by optical sectioning with light-sheet illumination in developmental biology. We have been developed a multifunctional light-sheet fluorescence microscopy system with a near infrared femto-second fiber laser, a high sensitive image sensor and a high throughput spectrometer. We performed that multiphoton fluorescence images of a transgenic fish and a mouse embryo were observed on the light-sheet microscope. As the results, two photon images with high contrast and high spatial resolution were successfully obtained in the microscopy system. The system has multimodality, not only mutiphoton fluorescence imaging, but also hyperspectral imaging, which can be applicable to fluorescence unmixing analysis and Raman imaging. It enables to obtain high specific and high throughput molecular imaging in vivo and in vitro.

  7. Feasibility of digitally stained multimodal confocal mosaics to simulate histopathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gareau, Daniel S.

    2009-05-01

    Fluorescence confocal mosaicing microscopy of tissue biopsies stained with acridine orange has been shown to accurately identify tumors and with an overall sensitivity of 96.6% and specificity of 89.2%. However, fluorescence shows only nuclear detail similar to hematoxylin in histopathology and does not show collagen or cytoplasm, which may provide necessary negative contrast information similar to eosin used in histopathology. Reflectance mode contrast is sensitive to collagen and cytoplasm without staining. To further improve sensitivity and specificity, digitally stained confocal mosaics combine confocal fluorescence and reflectance images in a multimodal pseudo-color image to mimic the appearance of histopathology with hematoxylin and eosin and facilitate the introduction of confocal microscopy into the clinical realm.

  8. Multimodal Correlative Preclinical Whole Body Imaging and Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Akselrod-Ballin, Ayelet; Dafni, Hagit; Addadi, Yoseph; Biton, Inbal; Avni, Reut; Brenner, Yafit; Neeman, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Segmentation of anatomical structures and particularly abdominal organs is a fundamental problem for quantitative image analysis in preclinical research. This paper presents a novel approach for whole body segmentation of small animals in a multimodal setting of MR, CT and optical imaging. The algorithm integrates multiple imaging sequences into a machine learning framework, which generates supervoxels by an efficient hierarchical agglomerative strategy and utilizes multiple SVM-kNN classifiers each constrained by a heatmap prior region to compose the segmentation. We demonstrate results showing segmentation of mice images into several structures including the heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, stomach, vena cava, bladder, tumor, and skeleton structures. Experimental validation on a large set of mice and organs, indicated that our system outperforms alternative state of the art approaches. The system proposed can be generalized to various tissues and imaging modalities to produce automatic atlas-free segmentation, thereby enabling a wide range of applications in preclinical studies of small animal imaging. PMID:27325178

  9. Plasmonic Gold Nanostars for Multi-Modality Sensing and Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Yuan, Hsiangkuo; Kersey, Farrell R.; Register, Janna K.; Parrott, Matthew C.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanostars (AuNSs) are unique systems that can provide a novel multifunctional nanoplatform for molecular sensing and diagnostics. The plasmonic absorption band of AuNSs can be tuned to the near infrared spectral range, often referred to as the “tissue optical window”, where light exhibits minimal absorption and deep penetration in tissue. AuNSs have been applied for detecting disease biomarkers and for biomedical imaging using multi-modality methods including surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), two-photon photoluminescence (TPL), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and X-ray computer tomography (CT) imaging. In this paper, we provide an overview of the recent development of plasmonic AuNSs in our laboratory for biomedical applications and highlight their potential for future translational medicine as a multifunctional nanoplatform. PMID:25664431

  10. Correlation steering in the angularly multimode Raman atomic memory.

    PubMed

    Mazelanik, Mateusz; Dąbrowski, Michał; Wasilewski, Wojciech

    2016-09-19

    We present the possibility of steering the direction of correlations between the off-resonant Raman scattered photons from the angularly multimode atomic memory based on warm rubidium vapors. Using acousto-optic deflectors (AOD) driven by different modulation frequencies, we experimentally change the angle of incidence of the laser beams on the atomic ensemble. By performing correlation measurements for various deflection angles, we verify that we can choose the anti-Stokes light propagation direction independently of the correlated Stokes scattered light in a continuous way. As a result we can select the spatial mode of photons retrieved from the memory, which may be important for future development of quantum information processing. PMID:27661934

  11. Unobtrusive Multimodal Biometric Authentication: The HUMABIO Project Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damousis, Ioannis G.; Tzovaras, Dimitrios; Bekiaris, Evangelos

    2008-12-01

    Human Monitoring and Authentication using Biodynamic Indicators and Behavioural Analysis (HUMABIO) (2007) is an EU Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP) where new types of biometrics are combined with state of the art sensorial technologies in order to enhance security in a wide spectrum of applications. The project aims to develop a modular, robust, multimodal biometrics security authentication and monitoring system which utilizes a biodynamic physiological profile, unique for each individual, and advancements of the state-of-the art in behavioural and other biometrics, such as face, speech, gait recognition, and seat-based anthropometrics. Several shortcomings in biometric authentication will be addressed in the course of HUMABIO which will provide the basis for improving existing sensors, develop new algorithms, and design applications, towards creating new, unobtrusive biometric authentication procedures in security sensitive, controlled environments. This paper presents the concept of this project, describes its unobtrusive authentication demonstrator, and reports some preliminary results.

  12. Multimodal Biometrics and Multilayered IDM for Secure Authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashed, Abdullah; Santos, Henrique

    In the Electronic Society (e-world) users are represented by a set of data called Digital Identity (ID), which they must use for authentication purposes. Within the e-world it is certainly risky to lose the identity and this security threat must be ranking with the highest priority, forcing a solution that provides an amenable usage of digital identity. Efficient protection of the digital identity would also encourage users to enter the digital world without worries. Security needs to provide the necessary identity management (IDM) process to mitigate that threat. This paper gives an overview of IDM and suggests a framework that can be particularly useful for a secure user authentication. The proposed model appears as a multi-layered security approach, since it tries to integrate different security technologies and multimodal biometrics tools and practices, such as police, procedures, guidelines, standards and legislation. The advantages, limitations and requirements of the proposed model are discussed.

  13. Measurement of the intermodal crosstalk of a bent multimode waveguide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Zhao, Changyun; Wei, Bing; Gencheng, Wang; Dai, Tingge; Wang, Yuehai; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Li, Yubo; Yang, Jianyi

    2016-09-20

    We quantitatively investigate the main source of the intermodal crosstalk of a silicon-based bent multimode waveguide by experiment. The measurement is performed through time-domain scanning low-coherence interferometry. From the measurement results, one can not only calculate the modal crosstalk, but can also locate the position where the crosstalk appears. The results indicate that the modal mismatch at the points where the curvature of the waveguide changes is the main origin of the modal crosstalk. For a two-mode waveguide with a bending radius of 5 μm at 1310 nm, the crosstalk is as high as -20 and -16  dB for the fundamental and first-order mode, respectively. This work gives us a deep insight into how the guided modes actually propagate through the bent waveguide.

  14. Multimodal Imaging for Improved Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Tempany, Clare; Jayender, Jagadeesan; Kapur, Tina; Bueno, Raphael; Golby, Alexandra; Agar, Nathalie; Jolesz, Ferenc

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews methods for image-guided diagnosis and therapy that increase precision in detection, characterization, and localization of many forms of cancer to achieve optimal target definition and complete resection or ablation. We present a new model of translational clinical image guided therapy research and describe the Advanced Multimodality Image Guided Operating (AMIGO) suite. AMIGO was conceived and designed to allow for the full integration of imaging in cancer diagnosis and treatment. We draw examples from over 500 cases performed on brain, neck, spine, thorax (breast, lung), and pelvis (prostate and gynecologic areas) and describe how they address some of the many challenges of treating brain, prostate and lung tumors. PMID:25204551

  15. Multimodality Molecular Imaging of Stem Cells Therapy for Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Tian, Mei

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells have been proposed as a promising therapy for treating stroke. While several studies have demonstrated the therapeutic benefits of stem cells, the exact mechanism remains elusive. Molecular imaging provides the possibility of the visual representation of biological processes at the cellular and molecular level. In order to facilitate research efforts to understand the stem cells therapeutic mechanisms, we need to further develop means of monitoring these cells noninvasively, longitudinally and repeatedly. Because of tissue depth and the blood-brain barrier (BBB), in vivo imaging of stem cells therapy for stroke has unique challenges. In this review, we describe existing methods of tracking transplanted stem cells in vivo, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear medicine imaging, and optical imaging (OI). Each of the imaging techniques has advantages and drawbacks. Finally, we describe multimodality imaging strategies as a more comprehensive and potential method to monitor transplanted stem cells for stroke. PMID:24222920

  16. The origin of human multi-modal communication.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Stephen C; Holler, Judith

    2014-09-19

    One reason for the apparent gulf between animal and human communication systems is that the focus has been on the presence or the absence of language as a complex expressive system built on speech. But language normally occurs embedded within an interactional exchange of multi-modal signals. If this larger perspective takes central focus, then it becomes apparent that human communication has a layered structure, where the layers may be plausibly assigned different phylogenetic and evolutionary origins--especially in the light of recent thoughts on the emergence of voluntary breathing and spoken language. This perspective helps us to appreciate the different roles that the different modalities play in human communication, as well as how they function as one integrated system despite their different roles and origins. It also offers possibilities for reconciling the 'gesture-first hypothesis' with that of gesture and speech having evolved together, hand in hand--or hand in mouth, rather--as one system.

  17. TDRSS multimode transponder program. Phase 2: Equipment development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cnossen, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    This report contains a complete description of the TDRS Multimode Transponder and its associated ground support equipment. The transponder will demonstrate candidate modulation techniques to provide the required information for the design of an eventual VHF/UHF transponder suitable for installation in a user satellite, capable of operating as part of a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) systems. Use of geosynchronous TDRS which can serve both low data rate users at VHF and high data rate users at other frequencies has been considered. The effects of radio frequency interference from the earth and of multipath propagation due to reflections from the earth are expected to pose problems for the TDRS system at VHF. Investigations have suggested several modulation techniques that offer promise to overcome these problems.

  18. Feature quality-based multimodal unconstrained eye recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi; Du, Eliza Y.; Lin, Yong; Thomas, N. Luke; Belcher, Craig; Delp, Edward J.

    2013-05-01

    Iris recognition has been tested to the most accurate biometrics using high resolution near infrared images. However, it does not work well under visible wavelength illumination. Sclera recognition, however, has been shown to achieve reasonable recognition accuracy under visible wavelengths. Combining iris and sclera recognition together can achieve better recognition accuracy. However, image quality can significantly affect the recognition accuracy. Moreover, in unconstrained situations, the acquired eye images may not be frontally facing. In this research, we proposed a feature quality-based multimodal unconstrained eye recognition method that combine the respective strengths of iris recognition and sclera recognition for human identification and can work with frontal and off-angle eye images. The research results show that the proposed method is very promising.

  19. Compact multiwavelength transmitter module for multimode fiber optic ribbon cable

    DOEpatents

    Deri, Robert J.; Pocha, Michael D.; Larson, Michael C.; Garrett, Henry E.

    2002-01-01

    A compact multiwavelength transmitter module for multimode fiber optic ribbon cable, which couples light from an M.times.N array of emitters onto N fibers, where the M wavelength may be distributed across two or more vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) chips, and combining emitters and multiplexer into a compact package that is compatible with placement on a printed circuit board. A key feature is bringing together two emitter arrays fabricated on different substrates--each array designed for a different wavelength--into close physical proximity. Another key feature is to compactly and efficiently combine the light from two or more clusters of optical emitters, each in a different wavelength band, into a fiber ribbon.

  20. Design and fabrication tolerance analysis of multimode interference couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrissey, P. E.; Yang, H.; Sheehan, R. N.; Corbett, B.; Peters, F. H.

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines the sensitivity of InP multimode interference couplers (MMIs) to fabrication errors caused by over or under exposure during device processing. MMIs are modelled using modal propagation analysis, which provides a rapid means of simulating the performance of such couplers across a large design space with varying structural parameters. We show for the first time that when MMIs are anlaysed with fabrication errors in mind, there exists an optimal set of design parameters for a given input waveguide width which offer the best tolerance to fabrication errors while maximising optical throughput and ensuring compact size. Such MMIs are ideally suited for use in photonic integrated circuits, where robust performance and smallest possible device footprint are required.

  1. Developmental orofacial deficits associated with multimodal cancer therapy: Case report

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, R.J.; Neuman, P.; Spalding, P.; Novak, L.; Strandjord, S.; Coccia, P.F.

    1989-09-01

    Multimodal cancer therapy for pediatric head and neck tumors may be associated with significant developmental orofacial morbidity. This report details these effects in a child (C.I.) diagnosed at 2.5 years of age with a rhabdomyosarcoma, primary to the left buccinator. This case is of interest as C.I. has an unaffected identical twin (D.I.) for comparative study. Both were assessed by comparing panoramic radiographs and lateral and frontal tracings of cephalometric radiographs obtained at 8.25 years of age. C.I. had multiple dental anomalies which included agenesis, ectopia, crown malformation, and root malformation. Root malformation, ectopia, and agenesis were restricted to the left dentition, whereas crown malformation was noted bilaterally. C.I. had a generalized craniofacial skeletal hypoplasia relative to D.I. in all three planes, growth defects were greater on the side of the tumor, and the mandible was affected more than the nasomaxillary complex.

  2. Reducing medication errors in critical care: a multimodal approach

    PubMed Central

    Kruer, Rachel M; Jarrell, Andrew S; Latif, Asad

    2014-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has reported that medication errors are the single most common type of error in health care, representing 19% of all adverse events, while accounting for over 7,000 deaths annually. The frequency of medication errors in adult intensive care units can be as high as 947 per 1,000 patient-days, with a median of 105.9 per 1,000 patient-days. The formulation of drugs is a potential contributor to medication errors. Challenges related to drug formulation are specific to the various routes of medication administration, though errors associated with medication appearance and labeling occur among all drug formulations and routes of administration. Addressing these multifaceted challenges requires a multimodal approach. Changes in technology, training, systems, and safety culture are all strategies to potentially reduce medication errors related to drug formulation in the intensive care unit. PMID:25210478

  3. Multimodal transition and stochastic antiresonance in squid giant axons.

    PubMed

    Borkowski, L S

    2010-10-01

    The experimental data of Takahashi [Physica D 43, 318 (1990)], on the response of squid giant axons stimulated by periodic sequence of short current pulses is interpreted within the Hodgkin-Huxley model. The minimum of the firing rate as a function of the stimulus amplitude I0 in the high-frequency regime is due to the multimodal transition. Below this singular point only odd multiples of the driving period remain and the system is sensitive to noise. The coefficient of variation has a maximum and the firing rate has a minimum as a function of the noise intensity, which is an indication of the stochastic coherence antiresonance. The model calculations reproduce the frequency of occurrence of the most common modes in the vicinity of the transition. A linear relation of output frequency vs I0 above the transition is also confirmed.

  4. Multimodal imaging for improved diagnosis and treatment of cancers.

    PubMed

    Tempany, Clare M C; Jayender, Jagadeesan; Kapur, Tina; Bueno, Raphael; Golby, Alexandra; Agar, Nathalie; Jolesz, Ferenc A

    2015-03-15

    The authors review methods for image-guided diagnosis and therapy that increase precision in the detection, characterization, and localization of many forms of cancer to achieve optimal target definition and complete resection or ablation. A new model of translational, clinical, image-guided therapy research is presented, and the Advanced Multimodality Image-Guided Operating (AMIGO) suite is described. AMIGO was conceived and designed to allow for the full integration of imaging in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Examples are drawn from over 500 procedures performed on brain, neck, spine, thorax (breast, lung), and pelvis (prostate and gynecologic) areas and are used to describe how they address some of the many challenges of treating brain, prostate, and lung tumors. Cancer 2015;121:817-827. © 2014 American Cancer Society. PMID:25204551

  5. Direct-detection wind lidar operating with a multimode laser.

    PubMed

    Bruneau, Didier; Blouzon, Frédéric; Spatazza, Joseph; Montmessin, Franck; Pelon, Jacques; Faure, Benoît

    2013-07-10

    A direct-detection wind lidar that operates with a multimode laser has been developed and tested. The instrument exploits the light backscattered by particles using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with an optical path difference matched to the free spectral range of the laser longitudinal modes. In addition to requiring no monomodal emission, the system requires no frequency locking between the interferometer and the laser. We report laboratory and atmospheric measurements that show that the lidar is capable of measuring the radial wind velocity with a systematic error lower than 1 ms(-1) and a random error lower than 2 ms(-1) for a signal-to-noise ratio of 100. The development is motivated by the possibility to probe wind with a compact system in planetary atmospheres.

  6. Multimodal biometric-information fusion using the Radon transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, Jitendra P.; Dixit, Vaibhav V.; Patil, Pradeep M.; Kosta, Yogesh P.

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes multimodal biometric-based personal identification. Palmprint and fingerprint modalities are utilized in the proposed model due to the availability of more distinctive features and the ease of capture. Principle lines are the main discriminative features in the palmprint, whereas orientations of the ridge and valley structures are the main features by which to identify the fingerprint. To extract these features, the use of the Radon transform is proposed in this work. However, the Radon transform is sensitive to the orientation. In order to make the model rotation invariant and insensitive to noise, a normalization process is generally used. Here, a logarithm-based normalization process has been utilized in the proposed model. A Euclidean-based matching process that is invariant to the rotation has been used. The proposed model is applicable to low resolution images and is invariant to rotation, insensitive to noise, and has less computational complexity as compared to other models.

  7. Multimodal tuned dynamic absorber for split Stirling linear cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, Alexander; Tuito, Avi

    2016-05-01

    Low size, weight, power and price split Stirling linear cryocooler usually comprises electro-dynamically driven compressor and pneumatically driven expander which are side-by-side fixedly mounted upon the common frame and interconnected by the configurable transfer line. Vibration export produced by such a cryocooler comprises of a pair of tonal forces, the frequency of which essentially equals fixed driving frequency. In vibration sensitive applications, this may result in excessive angular line of sight jitter and translational defocusing affecting the image quality. The authors present Multimodal Tuned Dynamic Absorber, having one translational and two tilting modes essentially tuned to the driving frequency. Dynamic analysis shows that the dynamic reactions (force and moment) produced by such a dynamic absorber are capable of simultaneous attenuation of translational and tilting components of cryocooler induced vibration. The authors reveal the preferable design, the method of fine tuning and outcomes of numerical simulation on attainable performance.

  8. Nineteen-port photonic lantern with multimode delivery fiber.

    PubMed

    Noordegraaf, D; Skovgaard, P M W; Sandberg, R H; Maack, M D; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Lawrence, J S; Lægsgaard, J

    2012-02-15

    We demonstrate efficient multimode (MM) to single-mode (SM) conversion in a 19-port photonic lantern with a 50 μm core MM delivery fiber. The photonic lantern can be used within the field of astrophotonics for coupling MM starlight to an ensemble of SM fibers in order to perform fiber-Bragg-grating-based spectral filtering. An MM delivery fiber spliced to the photonic lantern offers the advantage that the delivery fiber guides the light from the focal plane of the telescope to the splitter. Therefore, it is no longer necessary to have the splitter mounted directly in the focal plane of the telescope. The coupling loss from a 50 μm core MM fiber to an ensemble of 19 SM fibers and back to a 50 μm core MM fiber is below 1.1 dB.

  9. Multipole-multimode Floquet theory in nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Ramesh; Griffin, Robert G

    2005-04-22

    In this paper, we present a new analytical approach for describing the spin dynamics of synchronous and asynchronous time-dependent modulations in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. The approach, based on multimode Floquet theory, employs the multipole operator basis of Sanctuary for spin description and illustrates the time evolution in the Floquet-Liouville space using the effective Hamiltonians obtained from the contact (or van Vleck) transformation procedure. Since the Hamiltonian and the density operator are expressed in terms of irreducible tensor operators, extensions to higher spin magnitudes (I>12) and multiple spins are quite straightforward and permit analytical treatments for many problems. We outline the general underlying principles involved in this approach with a brief mention of its potential application in other branches of spectroscopy. PMID:15945688

  10. Statistical mechanics models for multimode lasers and random lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antenucci, F.; Crisanti, A.; Ibáñez-Berganza, M.; Marruzzo, A.; Leuzzi, L.

    2016-03-01

    Referring to recent approaches to multimode laser theory, including Monte Carlo simulations of effective models and statistical mechanical analytic computations, the status for a complete nonperturbative theory in open and disordered cavities is discussed and the derivation of the general statistical models in this framework is presented. When light is propagating in a disordered medium, the relevant models can be analysed via the replica method. For high degrees of disordered-induced frustration and nonlinearity, a glassy behaviour is expected beyond the lasing threshold, providing a suggestive link between glasses and photonics. We describe in detail the results for the general Hamiltonian model in the mean field approximation and we analytically justify an available test for replica symmetry breaking from intensity spectra measurements. Finally, we draw perspectives for such approaches.

  11. Multimodal Correlative Preclinical Whole Body Imaging and Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Akselrod-Ballin, Ayelet; Dafni, Hagit; Addadi, Yoseph; Biton, Inbal; Avni, Reut; Brenner, Yafit; Neeman, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Segmentation of anatomical structures and particularly abdominal organs is a fundamental problem for quantitative image analysis in preclinical research. This paper presents a novel approach for whole body segmentation of small animals in a multimodal setting of MR, CT and optical imaging. The algorithm integrates multiple imaging sequences into a machine learning framework, which generates supervoxels by an efficient hierarchical agglomerative strategy and utilizes multiple SVM-kNN classifiers each constrained by a heatmap prior region to compose the segmentation. We demonstrate results showing segmentation of mice images into several structures including the heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, stomach, vena cava, bladder, tumor, and skeleton structures. Experimental validation on a large set of mice and organs, indicated that our system outperforms alternative state of the art approaches. The system proposed can be generalized to various tissues and imaging modalities to produce automatic atlas-free segmentation, thereby enabling a wide range of applications in preclinical studies of small animal imaging. PMID:27325178

  12. Multimodal transition and stochastic antiresonance in squid giant axons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkowski, L. S.

    2010-10-01

    The experimental data of Takahashi [Physica D 43, 318 (1990)]10.1016/0167-2789(90)90140-K, on the response of squid giant axons stimulated by periodic sequence of short current pulses is interpreted within the Hodgkin-Huxley model. The minimum of the firing rate as a function of the stimulus amplitude I0 in the high-frequency regime is due to the multimodal transition. Below this singular point only odd multiples of the driving period remain and the system is sensitive to noise. The coefficient of variation has a maximum and the firing rate has a minimum as a function of the noise intensity, which is an indication of the stochastic coherence antiresonance. The model calculations reproduce the frequency of occurrence of the most common modes in the vicinity of the transition. A linear relation of output frequency vs I0 above the transition is also confirmed.

  13. Multimodal Approach to Identifying Malingered Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jabeen, Shagufta; Alam, Farzana

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this article is to aid clinicians in differentiating true posttraumatic stress disorder from malingered posttraumatic stress disorder. Posttraumatic stress disorder and malingering are defined, and prevalence rates are explored. Similarities and differences in diagnostic criteria between the fourth and fifth editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders are described for posttraumatic stress disorder. Possible motivations for malingering posttraumatic stress disorder are discussed, and common characteristics of malingered posttraumatic stress disorder are described. A multimodal approach is described for evaluating posttraumatic stress disorder, including interview techniques, collection of collateral data, and psychometric and physiologic testing, that should allow clinicians to distinguish between those patients who are truly suffering from posttraumatic disorder and those who are malingering the illness. PMID:25852974

  14. The origin of human multi-modal communication.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Stephen C; Holler, Judith

    2014-09-19

    One reason for the apparent gulf between animal and human communication systems is that the focus has been on the presence or the absence of language as a complex expressive system built on speech. But language normally occurs embedded within an interactional exchange of multi-modal signals. If this larger perspective takes central focus, then it becomes apparent that human communication has a layered structure, where the layers may be plausibly assigned different phylogenetic and evolutionary origins--especially in the light of recent thoughts on the emergence of voluntary breathing and spoken language. This perspective helps us to appreciate the different roles that the different modalities play in human communication, as well as how they function as one integrated system despite their different roles and origins. It also offers possibilities for reconciling the 'gesture-first hypothesis' with that of gesture and speech having evolved together, hand in hand--or hand in mouth, rather--as one system. PMID:25092670

  15. Longitudinal, multimodal functional imaging of microvascular response to photothermal therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Albert K.; Teves, Kathleen M.; Indrawan, Elmer; Jia, Wangcun; Choi, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Although studies have shown that photothermal therapy can coagulate selectively abnormal vasculature, the ability of this method to achieve consistent, complete removal of the vasculature is questionable. We present the use of multimodal, wide-field functional imaging to study, in greater detail, the biological response to selective laser injury. Specifically, a single-platform instrument capable of coregistered fluorescence imaging and laser speckle imaging was utilized to monitor vascular endothelial growth factor gene expression and blood flow, respectively, in a transgenic rodent model. Collectively, the longitudinal, in vivo data collected with our instrument suggest that the biological response to selective laser injury involves early-stage redistribution of blood flow, followed by increased vascular endothelial growth factor promoter activity to stimulate pro-angiogenic events. PMID:20890338

  16. Robotic multimodality stereotactic brain tissue identification: work in progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, R.; Mah, R.; Galvagni, A.; Guerrero, M.; Papasin, R.; Wallace, M.; Winters, J.

    1997-01-01

    Real-time identification of tissue would improve procedures such as stereotactic brain biopsy (SBX), functional and implantation neurosurgery, and brain tumor excision. To standard SBX equipment has been added: (1) computer-controlled stepper motors to drive the biopsy needle/probe precisely; (2) multiple microprobes to track tissue density, detect blood vessels and changes in blood flow, and distinguish the various tissues being penetrated; (3) neural net learning programs to allow real-time comparisons of current data with a normative data bank; (4) three-dimensional graphic displays to follow the probe as it traverses brain tissue. The probe can differentiate substances such as pig brain, differing consistencies of the 'brain-like' foodstuff tofu, and gels made to simulate brain, as well as detect blood vessels imbedded in these substances. Multimodality probes should improve the safety, efficacy, and diagnostic accuracy of SBX and other neurosurgical procedures.

  17. Recent Advances and Prospects for Multimodality Therapy in Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Awalpreet S; Khoo, Allison; Aliru, Maureen L; Arora, Harpreet K; Gunther, Jillian R; Krishnan, Sunil

    2016-10-01

    The outcomes for treatment of pancreatic cancer have not improved dramatically in many decades. However, the recent promising results with combination chemotherapy regimens for metastatic disease increase optimism for future treatments. With greater control of overt or occult metastatic disease, there will likely be an expanding role for local treatment modalities, especially given that nearly a third of pancreatic cancer patients have locally destructive disease without distant metastatic disease at the time of death. Technical advances have allowed for the safe delivery of dose-escalated radiation therapy, which can then be combined with chemotherapy, targeted agents, immunotherapy, and nanoparticulate drug delivery techniques to produce novel and improved synergistic effects. Here we discuss recent advances and future directions for multimodality therapy in pancreatic cancer. PMID:27619253

  18. Multimodal Holographic Microscopy: Distinction between Apoptosis and Oncosis

    PubMed Central

    Balvan, Jan; Krizova, Aneta; Gumulec, Jaromir; Raudenska, Martina; Sladek, Zbysek; Sedlackova, Miroslava; Babula, Petr; Sztalmachova, Marketa; Kizek, Rene; Chmelik, Radim; Masarik, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Identification of specific cell death is of a great value for many scientists. Predominant types of cell death can be detected by flow-cytometry (FCM). Nevertheless, the absence of cellular morphology analysis leads to the misclassification of cell death type due to underestimated oncosis. However, the definition of the oncosis is important because of its potential reversibility. Therefore, FCM analysis of cell death using annexin V/propidium iodide assay was compared with holographic microscopy coupled with fluorescence detection - “Multimodal holographic microscopy (MHM)”. The aim was to highlight FCM limitations and to point out MHM advantages. It was shown that the annexin V+/PI− phenotype is not specific of early apoptotic cells, as previously believed, and that morphological criteria have to be necessarily combined with annexin V/PI for the cell death type to be ascertained precisely. MHM makes it possible to distinguish oncosis clearly from apoptosis and to stratify the progression of oncosis. PMID:25803711

  19. Radiation characteristics of a multimode linear Zeeman laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonchuk, M. O.; Pugach, I. P.

    An experimental study is presented of a 3.39-micron multimode linear He-Ne Zeeman laser in a longitudinal magnetic field. Conditions are achieved in which elliptically polarized longitudinal modes of the laser are locked by the modulation of resonator losses at the frequency of intermode beats; modulation is carried out using a germanium acoustooptic modulator. An analysis of the laser-emission spectrum is presented, and the frequency and polarization characteristics are investigated. Experimental data on locking and free-lasing regimes are compared, and the observed effects are explained. It is shown that the frequency splitting of modes with opposite signs of ellipticity (achieved by the superposition of a longitudinal magnetic field on the active medium) in the regime of longitudinal-mode locking is realized over the whole gain line of the active medium.

  20. Multi-modal cockpit interface for improved airport surface operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J. (Inventor); Bailey, Randall E. (Inventor); Prinzel, III, Lawrence J. (Inventor); Kramer, Lynda J. (Inventor); Williams, Steven P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system for multi-modal cockpit interface during surface operation of an aircraft comprises a head tracking device, a processing element, and a full-color head worn display. The processing element is configured to receive head position information from the head tracking device, to receive current location information of the aircraft, and to render a virtual airport scene corresponding to the head position information and the current aircraft location. The full-color head worn display is configured to receive the virtual airport scene from the processing element and to display the virtual airport scene. The current location information may be received from one of a global positioning system or an inertial navigation system.

  1. Recent Advances and Prospects for Multimodality Therapy in Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Awalpreet S; Khoo, Allison; Aliru, Maureen L; Arora, Harpreet K; Gunther, Jillian R; Krishnan, Sunil

    2016-10-01

    The outcomes for treatment of pancreatic cancer have not improved dramatically in many decades. However, the recent promising results with combination chemotherapy regimens for metastatic disease increase optimism for future treatments. With greater control of overt or occult metastatic disease, there will likely be an expanding role for local treatment modalities, especially given that nearly a third of pancreatic cancer patients have locally destructive disease without distant metastatic disease at the time of death. Technical advances have allowed for the safe delivery of dose-escalated radiation therapy, which can then be combined with chemotherapy, targeted agents, immunotherapy, and nanoparticulate drug delivery techniques to produce novel and improved synergistic effects. Here we discuss recent advances and future directions for multimodality therapy in pancreatic cancer.

  2. Assessment of fibrotic liver disease with multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Fake; Zheng, Wei; Tai, Dean C. S.; Lin, Jian; Yu, Hanry; Huang, Zhiwei

    2010-02-01

    Liver fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins such as collagens, which may result in cirrhosis, liver failure, and portal hypertension. In this study, we apply a multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy platform developed to investigate the fibrotic liver diseases in rat models established by performing bile duct ligation (BDL) surgery. The three nonlinear microscopy imaging modalities are implemented on the same sectioned tissues of diseased model sequentially: i.e., second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging quantifies the contents of the collagens, the two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) imaging reveals the morphology of hepatic cells, while coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging maps the distributions of fats or lipids quantitatively across the tissue. Our imaging results show that during the development of liver fibrosis (collagens) in BDL model, fatty liver disease also occurs. The aggregated concentrations of collagen and fat constituents in liver fibrosis model show a certain correlationship between each other.

  3. Optimizing the output-photon entanglement in multimode optomechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zhi Jiao; Yan, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Ying-Dan; Wu, Chun-Wang

    2016-03-01

    Entangled light beams are important resources for quantum information processing. For some applications like teleportation, only the entanglement between two wave packets (two harmonic oscillators) is needed. So the calculation of output-photon entanglement involves projecting continuous output modes onto wave-packet modes by filter functions, thus resulting in a strong dependence of entanglement on the filter functions. In this paper, we aim at optimizing the filter functions to obtain a large entanglement in a relatively short time, which is important for utilizing the entangled light beams more efficiently in real experiments. We outline the general optimization procedures based on our previous schemes of generating entangled beams in a multimode optomechanical system. Moreover, we give analytic insights into as well as physical explanations of the wave-packet optimization, which are helpful for experimental estimations.

  4. Multimodal sensor controlled three Degree of Freedom transradial prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Kengo; Morio, Toshiyuki; Takagi, Tomoo; Kajitani, Isamu

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes the basic concept of our multimodal sensor control system for 3-Degree-of-Freedom transradial prosthesis. The target of developing the controller is to reduce the mental effort of planning operating multiple joints in the conventional multifunctional myoelectric controller and reduce the compensating motion of conventional myoelectric prosthesis. An accelerometer is installed in the socket and the angles of the gravitational force are computed to drive the pronation/spination joint and the palmar flexion/dorsifelxion joint of the prosthesis. A threshold On/Off control using the posture information is implemented with the triggering of a co-contraction EMG signal. Through experiment with able-body subjects, we confirmed that this controller has a potential of reducing compensating shoulder movements for pick-raise-place tasks, when compared to the task conducted with conventional locked-wrist prostheses. Yet modification is required for stability. PMID:24187284

  5. Multi-mode ultrasonic welding control and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jason C.H.; Cai, Wayne W

    2013-05-28

    A system and method for providing multi-mode control of an ultrasonic welding system. In one embodiment, the control modes include the energy of the weld, the time of the welding process and the compression displacement of the parts being welded during the welding process. The method includes providing thresholds for each of the modes, and terminating the welding process after the threshold for each mode has been reached, the threshold for more than one mode has been reached or the threshold for one of the modes has been reached. The welding control can be either open-loop or closed-loop, where the open-loop process provides the mode thresholds and once one or more of those thresholds is reached the welding process is terminated. The closed-loop control provides feedback of the weld energy and/or the compression displacement so that the weld power and/or weld pressure can be increased or decreased accordingly.

  6. Multimodal Semantic Analysis and Annotation for Basketball Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Song; Xu, Min; Yi, Haoran; Chia, Liang-Tien; Rajan, Deepu

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents a new multiple-modality method for extracting semantic information from basketball video. The visual, motion, and audio information are extracted from video to first generate some low-level video segmentation and classification. Domain knowledge is further exploited for detecting interesting events in the basketball video. For video, both visual and motion prediction information are utilized for shot and scene boundary detection algorithm; this will be followed by scene classification. For audio, audio keysounds are sets of specific audio sounds related to semantic events and a classification method based on hidden Markov model (HMM) is used for audio keysound identification. Subsequently, by analyzing the multimodal information, the positions of potential semantic events, such as "foul" and "shot at the basket," are located with additional domain knowledge. Finally, a video annotation is generated according to MPEG-7 multimedia description schemes (MDSs). Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Deformable image registration for multimodal lung-cancer staging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheirsilp, Ronnarit; Zang, Xiaonan; Bascom, Rebecca; Allen, Thomas W.; Mahraj, Rickhesvar P. M.; Higgins, William E.

    2016-03-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) serve as major diagnostic imaging modalities in the lung-cancer staging process. Modern scanners provide co-registered whole-body PET/CT studies, collected while the patient breathes freely, and high-resolution chest CT scans, collected under a brief patient breath hold. Unfortunately, no method exists for registering a PET/CT study into the space of a high-resolution chest CT scan. If this could be done, vital diagnostic information offered by the PET/CT study could be brought seamlessly into the procedure plan used during live cancer-staging bronchoscopy. We propose a method for the deformable registration of whole-body PET/CT data into the space of a high-resolution chest CT study. We then demonstrate its potential for procedure planning and subsequent use in multimodal image-guided bronchoscopy.

  8. Fourier domain asymmetric cryptosystem for privacy protected multimodal biometric security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Debesh

    2016-04-01

    We propose a Fourier domain asymmetric cryptosystem for multimodal biometric security. One modality of biometrics (such as face) is used as the plaintext, which is encrypted by another modality of biometrics (such as fingerprint). A private key is synthesized from the encrypted biometric signature by complex spatial Fourier processing. The encrypted biometric signature is further encrypted by other biometric modalities, and the corresponding private keys are synthesized. The resulting biometric signature is privacy protected since the encryption keys are provided by the human, and hence those are private keys. Moreover, the decryption keys are synthesized using those private encryption keys. The encrypted signatures are decrypted using the synthesized private keys and inverse complex spatial Fourier processing. Computer simulations demonstrate the feasibility of the technique proposed.

  9. Exploiting multimode waveguides for pure fibre-based imaging

    PubMed Central

    Čižmár, Tomáš; Dholakia, Kishan

    2012-01-01

    There has been an immense drive in modern microscopy towards miniaturization and fibre-based technology. This has been necessitated by the need to access hostile or difficult environments in situ and in vivo. Strategies to date have included the use of specialist fibres and miniaturized scanning systems accompanied by ingenious microfabricated lenses. Here we present a novel approach for this field by utilizing disordered light within a standard multimode optical fibre for lensless microscopy and optical mode conversion. We demonstrate the modalities of bright- and dark-field imaging and scanning fluorescence microscopy at acquisition rates that allow observation of dynamic processes such as Brownian motion of mesoscopic particles. Furthermore, we show how such control can realize a new form of mode converter and generate various types of advanced light fields such as propagation-invariant beams and optical vortices. These may be useful for future fibre-based implementations of super-resolution or light-sheet microscopy. PMID:22929784

  10. Developmental orofacial deficits associated with multimodal cancer therapy: case report.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, R J; Neuman, P; Spalding, P; Novak, L; Strandjord, S; Coccia, P F

    1989-09-01

    Multimodal cancer therapy for pediatric head and neck tumors may be associated with significant developmental orofacial morbidity. This report details these effects in a child (C.I.) diagnosed at 2.5 years of age with a rhabdomyosarcoma, primary to the left buccinator. This case is of interest as C.I. has an unaffected identical twin (D.I.) for comparative study. Both were assessed by comparing panoramic radiographs and lateral and frontal tracings of cephalometric radiographs obtained at 8.25 years of age. C.I. had multiple dental anomalies which included agenesis, ectopia, crown malformation, and root malformation. Root malformation, ectopia, and agenesis were restricted to the left dentition, whereas crown malformation was noted bilaterally. C.I. had a generalized craniofacial skeletal hypoplasia relative to D.I. in all three planes, growth defects were greater on the side of the tumor, and the mandible was affected more than the nasomaxillary complex.

  11. Multimodality Therapy: Bone-Targeted Radioisotope Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Shi-Ming; Lin, Sue-Hwa; Podoloff, Donald A.; Logothetis, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating data suggest that bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals can be used to treat prostate cancer bone metastasis and improve the clinical outcome of patients with advanced prostate cancer. It remains to be elucidated whether radiopharmaceuticals enhance the disruption of the onco-niche or the eradication of micrometastatic cells in the bone marrow. The purpose of this review is to investigate the role of bone-targeted radioisotope therapy in the setting of multimodality therapy for advanced prostate cancer. We examine available data and evaluate whether dose escalation, newer generations, or repeated dosing of radiopharmaceuticals enhance their antitumor effects and whether their combination with hormone ablative therapy, chemotherapy, or novel targeted therapy can improve clinical efficacy. PMID:20551894

  12. A Multimodal Database for a Home Remote Medical Care Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medjahed, Hamid; Istrate, Dan; Boudy, Jerome; Steenkeste, François; Baldinger, Jean-Louis; Dorizzi, Bernadette

    The home remote monitoring systems aim to make a protective contribution to the well being of individuals (patients, elderly persons) requiring moderate amounts of support for independent living spaces, and improving their everyday life. Existing researches of these systems suffer from lack of experimental data and a standard medical database intended for their validation and improvement. This paper presents a multi-sensors environment for acquiring and recording a multimodal medical database, which includes physiological data (cardiac frequency, activity or agitation, posture, fall), environment sounds and localization data. It provides graphical interface functions to manage, process and index these data. The paper focuses on the system implementation, its usage and it points out possibilities for future work.

  13. MEDCIS: Multi-Modality Epilepsy Data Capture and Integration System.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Cui, Licong; Lhatoo, Samden; Schuele, Stephan U; Sahoo, Satya S

    2014-01-01

    Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) is the leading mode of epilepsy-related death and is most common in patients with intractable, frequent, and continuing seizures. A statistically significant cohort of patients for SUDEP study requires meticulous, prospective follow up of a large population that is at an elevated risk, best represented by the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit (EMU) patient population. Multiple EMUs need to collaborate, share data for building a larger cohort of potential SUDEP patient using a state-of-the-art informatics infrastructure. To address the challenges of data integration and data access from multiple EMUs, we developed the Multi-Modality Epilepsy Data Capture and Integration System (MEDCIS) that combines retrospective clinical free text processing using NLP, prospective structured data capture using an ontology-driven interface, interfaces for cohort search and signal visualization, all in a single integrated environment. A dedicated Epilepsy and Seizure Ontology (EpSO) has been used to streamline the user interfaces, enhance its usability, and enable mappings across distributed databases so that federated queries can be executed. MEDCIS contained 936 patient data sets from the EMUs of University Hospitals Case Medical Center (UH CMC) in Cleveland and Northwestern Memorial Hospital (NMH) in Chicago. Patients from UH CMC and NMH were stored in different databases and then federated through MEDCIS using EpSO and our mapping module. More than 77GB of multi-modal signal data were processed using the Cloudwave pipeline and made available for rendering through the web-interface. About 74% of the 40 open clinical questions of interest were answerable accurately using the EpSO-driven VISual AGregagator and Explorer (VISAGE) interface. Questions not directly answerable were either due to their inherent computational complexity, the unavailability of primary information, or the scope of concept that has been formulated in the existing Ep

  14. Non-rigid multi-modal registration on the GPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, Christoph; Guetter, Christoph; Xu, Chenyang; Westermann, Rüdiger

    2007-03-01

    Non-rigid multi-modal registration of images/volumes is becoming increasingly necessary in many medical settings. While efficient registration algorithms have been published, the speed of the solutions is a problem in clinical applications. Harnessing the computational power of graphics processing unit (GPU) for general purpose computations has become increasingly popular in order to speed up algorithms further, but the algorithms have to be adapted to the data-parallel, streaming model of the GPU. This paper describes the implementation of a non-rigid, multi-modal registration using mutual information and the Kullback-Leibler divergence between observed and learned joint intensity distributions. The entire registration process is implemented on the GPU, including a GPU-friendly computation of two-dimensional histograms using vertex texture fetches as well as an implementation of recursive Gaussian filtering on the GPU. Since the computation is performed on the GPU, interactive visualization of the registration process can be done without bus transfer between main memory and video memory. This allows the user to observe the registration process and to evaluate the result more easily. Two hybrid approaches distributing the computation between the GPU and CPU are discussed. The first approach uses the CPU for lower resolutions and the GPU for higher resolutions, the second approach uses the GPU to compute a first approximation to the registration that is used as starting point for registration on the CPU using double-precision. The results of the CPU implementation are compared to the different approaches using the GPU regarding speed as well as image quality. The GPU performs up to 5 times faster per iteration than the CPU implementation.

  15. Multimodal alexia: neuropsychological mechanisms and implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Esther S; Rapcsak, Steven Z; Andersen, Sarah; Beeson, Pélagie M

    2011-11-01

    Letter-by-letter (LBL) reading is the phenomenon whereby individuals with acquired alexia decode words by sequential identification of component letters. In cases where letter recognition or letter naming is impaired, however, a LBL reading approach is obviated, resulting in a nearly complete inability to read, or global alexia. In some such cases, a treatment strategy wherein letter tracing is used to provide tactile and/or kinesthetic input has resulted in improved letter identification. In this study, a kinesthetic treatment approach was implemented with an individual who presented with severe alexia in the context of relatively preserved recognition of orally spelled words, and mildly impaired oral/written spelling. Eight weeks of kinesthetic treatment resulted in improved letter identification accuracy and oral reading of trained words; however, the participant remained unable to successfully decode untrained words. Further testing revealed that, in addition to the visual-verbal disconnection that resulted in impaired word reading and letter naming, her limited ability to derive benefit from the kinesthetic strategy was attributable to a disconnection that prevented access to letter names from kinesthetic input. We propose that this kinesthetic-verbal disconnection resulted from damage to the left parietal lobe and underlying white matter, a neuroanatomical feature that is not typically observed in patients with global alexia or classic LBL reading. This unfortunate combination of visual-verbal and kinesthetic-verbal disconnections demonstrated in this individual resulted in a persistent multimodal alexia syndrome that was resistant to behavioral treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first case in which the nature of this form of multimodal alexia has been fully characterized, and our findings provide guidance regarding the requisite cognitive skills and lesion profiles that are likely to be associated with a positive response to tactile

  16. Multimodal manifold-regularized transfer learning for MCI conversion prediction.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bo; Liu, Mingxia; Suk, Heung-Il; Shen, Dinggang; Zhang, Daoqiang

    2015-12-01

    As the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has high chance to convert to AD. Effective prediction of such conversion from MCI to AD is of great importance for early diagnosis of AD and also for evaluating AD risk pre-symptomatically. Unlike most previous methods that used only the samples from a target domain to train a classifier, in this paper, we propose a novel multimodal manifold-regularized transfer learning (M2TL) method that jointly utilizes samples from another domain (e.g., AD vs. normal controls (NC)) as well as unlabeled samples to boost the performance of the MCI conversion prediction. Specifically, the proposed M2TL method includes two key components. The first one is a kernel-based maximum mean discrepancy criterion, which helps eliminate the potential negative effect induced by the distributional difference between the auxiliary domain (i.e., AD and NC) and the target domain (i.e., MCI converters (MCI-C) and MCI non-converters (MCI-NC)). The second one is a semi-supervised multimodal manifold-regularized least squares classification method, where the target-domain samples, the auxiliary-domain samples, and the unlabeled samples can be jointly used for training our classifier. Furthermore, with the integration of a group sparsity constraint into our objective function, the proposed M2TL has a capability of selecting the informative samples to build a robust classifier. Experimental results on the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database validate the effectiveness of the proposed method by significantly improving the classification accuracy of 80.1 % for MCI conversion prediction, and also outperforming the state-of-the-art methods.

  17. MultiModality Surgical and Hyperbaric Management of Mandibular Osteoradionecrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Freiberger, John J.; Yoo, David S.; Lisle Dear, Guy de; McGraw, Thomas A.; Blakey, George H.; Padilla Burgos, Rebecca; Kraft, Kevin; Nelson, John W.; Moon, Richard E.; Piantadosi, Claude A.

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: To elucidate long-term outcomes in 65 consecutive patients meeting a uniform definition of mandibular osteoradionecrosis (ORN) treated with multimodality therapy including hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). Methods and Materials: Pretreatment, post-treatment and long-term follow-up of mandibular lesions with exposed bone were ranked by a systematic review of medical records and patient telephone calls. The ranking system was based on lesion diameter and number plus disease progression. Changes from pretreatment to post-treatment and follow-up were analyzed by Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Improved wound survival, measured by time to relapse, defined as any less favorable rank after HBO treatment, was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: In all, 57 cases (88%) resolved or improved by lesion grade or progression and evolution criteria after HBO (p < 0.001). Four patients healed before surgery after HBO alone. Of 57 patients who experienced improvement, 41 had failed previous nonmultimodality therapy for 3 months and 26 for 6 months or more. A total of 43 patients were eligible for time-to-relapse survival analysis. Healing or improvement lasted a mean duration of 86.1 months (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 64.0-108.2) in nonsmokers (n = 20) vs. 15.8 months (95% CI, 8.4-23.2) in smokers (n = 14) versus 24.2 months (95% CI, 15.2-33.2) in patients with recurrent cancer (n = 9) (p = 0.002 by the log-rank method). Conclusions: Multimodality therapy using HBO is effective for ORN when less intensive therapies have failed. Although the healing rate in similarly affected patients not treated with HBO is unknown, the improvements seen with peri-operative HBO were durable provided that the patients remained cancer free and abstained from smoking.

  18. SALSA: A Novel Dataset for Multimodal Group Behavior Analysis.

    PubMed

    Alameda-Pineda, Xavier; Staiano, Jacopo; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Batrinca, Ligia; Ricci, Elisa; Lepri, Bruno; Lanz, Oswald; Sebe, Nicu

    2016-08-01

    Studying free-standing conversational groups (FCGs) in unstructured social settings (e.g., cocktail party ) is gratifying due to the wealth of information available at the group (mining social networks) and individual (recognizing native behavioral and personality traits) levels. However, analyzing social scenes involving FCGs is also highly challenging due to the difficulty in extracting behavioral cues such as target locations, their speaking activity and head/body pose due to crowdedness and presence of extreme occlusions. To this end, we propose SALSA, a novel dataset facilitating multimodal and Synergetic sociAL Scene Analysis, and make two main contributions to research on automated social interaction analysis: (1) SALSA records social interactions among 18 participants in a natural, indoor environment for over 60 minutes, under the poster presentation and cocktail party contexts presenting difficulties in the form of low-resolution images, lighting variations, numerous occlusions, reverberations and interfering sound sources; (2) To alleviate these problems we facilitate multimodal analysis by recording the social interplay using four static surveillance cameras and sociometric badges worn by each participant, comprising the microphone, accelerometer, bluetooth and infrared sensors. In addition to raw data, we also provide annotations concerning individuals' personality as well as their position, head, body orientation and F-formation information over the entire event duration. Through extensive experiments with state-of-the-art approaches, we show (a) the limitations of current methods and (b) how the recorded multiple cues synergetically aid automatic analysis of social interactions. SALSA is available at http://tev.fbk.eu/salsa. PMID:26540677

  19. Multimodal manifold-regularized transfer learning for MCI conversion prediction.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bo; Liu, Mingxia; Suk, Heung-Il; Shen, Dinggang; Zhang, Daoqiang

    2015-12-01

    As the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has high chance to convert to AD. Effective prediction of such conversion from MCI to AD is of great importance for early diagnosis of AD and also for evaluating AD risk pre-symptomatically. Unlike most previous methods that used only the samples from a target domain to train a classifier, in this paper, we propose a novel multimodal manifold-regularized transfer learning (M2TL) method that jointly utilizes samples from another domain (e.g., AD vs. normal controls (NC)) as well as unlabeled samples to boost the performance of the MCI conversion prediction. Specifically, the proposed M2TL method includes two key components. The first one is a kernel-based maximum mean discrepancy criterion, which helps eliminate the potential negative effect induced by the distributional difference between the auxiliary domain (i.e., AD and NC) and the target domain (i.e., MCI converters (MCI-C) and MCI non-converters (MCI-NC)). The second one is a semi-supervised multimodal manifold-regularized least squares classification method, where the target-domain samples, the auxiliary-domain samples, and the unlabeled samples can be jointly used for training our classifier. Furthermore, with the integration of a group sparsity constraint into our objective function, the proposed M2TL has a capability of selecting the informative samples to build a robust classifier. Experimental results on the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database validate the effectiveness of the proposed method by significantly improving the classification accuracy of 80.1 % for MCI conversion prediction, and also outperforming the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:25702248

  20. Multimodal manifold-regularized transfer learning for MCI conversion prediction

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bo; Liu, Mingxia; Suk, Heung-Il; Shen, Dinggang; Zhang, Daoqiang

    2015-01-01

    As the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has high chance to convert to AD. Effective prediction of such conversion from MCI to AD is of great importance for early diagnosis of AD and also for evaluating AD risk pre-symptomatically. Unlike most previous methods that used only the samples from a target domain to train a classifier, in this paper, we propose a novel multimodal manifold-regularized transfer learning (M2TL) method that jointly utilizes samples from another domain (e.g., AD vs. normal controls (NC)) as well as unlabeled samples to boost the performance of the MCI conversion prediction. Specifically, the proposed M2TL method includes two key components. The first one is a kernel-based maximum mean discrepancy criterion, which helps eliminate the potential negative effect induced by the distributional difference between the auxiliary domain (i.e., AD and NC) and the target domain (i.e., MCI converters (MCI-C) and MCI non-converters (MCI-NC)). The second one is a semi-supervised multimodal manifold-regularized least squares classification method, where the target-domain samples, the auxiliary-domain samples, and the unlabeled samples can be jointly used for training our classifier. Furthermore, with the integration of a group sparsity constraint into our objective function, the proposed M2TL has a capability of selecting the informative samples to build a robust classifier. Experimental results on the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database validate the effectiveness of the proposed method by significantly improving the classification accuracy of 80.1 % for MCI conversion prediction, and also outperforming the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:25702248