Multiphase flow and transport in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parker, J. C.
1989-08-01
Multiphase flow and transport of compositionally complex fluids in geologic media is of importance in a number of applied problems which have major social and economic effects. In petroleum reservoir engineering, efficient recovery of energy reserves is the principal goal. Unfortunately, some of these hydrocarbons and other organic chemicals often find their way unwanted into the soils and groundwater supplies. Removal in the latter case is predicated on ensuring the public health and safety. In this paper, principles of modeling fluid flow in systems containing up to three fluid phases (namely, water, air, and organic liquid) are described. Solution of the governing equations for multiphase flow requires knowledge of functional relationships between fluid pressures, saturations, and permeabilities which may be formulated on the basis of conceptual models of fluid-porous media interactions. Mechanisms of transport in multicomponent multiphase systems in which species may partition between phases are also described, and the governing equations are presented for the case in which local phase equilibrium may be assumed. A number of hypothetical numerical problems are presented to illustrate the physical behavior of systems in which multiphase flow and transport arise.
Computational modeling of multiphase flow and transport with Python
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kees, C. E.; Farthing, M. W.; Hines, A. M.; Howington, S. E.
2008-12-01
Computational flow and transport models play an important role in many hydrological investigations. Unfortunately, developing simulators that are efficient, widely applicable, and robust is a challenge. This is particularly true if the target applications include complications like multiple fluid phases with multiple components and material heterogeneity. To be specific, these problems often involve physical phenomena at multiple spatial and temporal scales. The appropriate formulation may evolve, and the systems of partial differential equations (PDEs) that arise from traditional formulations can be hard to solve efficiently at the desired resolution. Here, we discuss the development of a Python-based modeling framework for finite element approximation of systems of nonlinear PDEs with an emphasis on multiphase, multicomponent systems relevant for surface and subsurface hydrology. In addition to the overall approach and application, we consider the role of Python in managing code complexity, providing user interfaces, developing solution algorithms, and implementing numerical methods for execution on serial and parallel platforms. We evaluate trade-offs and design choices that follow from our use of Python versus other languages like C++ or Fortran and consider the impact on performance measured in terms of metrics like memory usage, execution time, and developer time.
Multiphase flow calculation software
Fincke, James R.
2003-04-15
Multiphase flow calculation software and computer-readable media carrying computer executable instructions for calculating liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of high void fraction multiphase flows. The multiphase flow calculation software employs various given, or experimentally determined, parameters in conjunction with a plurality of pressure differentials of a multiphase flow, preferably supplied by a differential pressure flowmeter or the like, to determine liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flows. Embodiments of the multiphase flow calculation software are suitable for use in a variety of applications, including real-time management and control of an object system.
Investigation of hydrate formation and transportability in multiphase flow systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grasso, Giovanny A.
The oil and gas industry is moving towards offshore developments in more challenging environments, where evaluating hydrate plugging risks to avoid operational/safety hazards becomes more difficult (Sloan, 2005). Even though mechanistic models for hydrate plug formation have been developed, components for a full comprehensive model are still missing. Prior to this work, research efforts were focused on flowing hydrate particles with relatively little research on hydrate accumulation, leaving hydrate deposition in multiphase flow an unexplored subject. The focus of this thesis was to better understand hydrate deposition as a form of accumu- lation in pipelines. To incorporate the multiphase flow effect, hydrate formation experiments were carried out at varying water cut (WC) from 15 to 100 vol.%, liquid loading (LL) from 50 to 85 vol.%, mixture velocity (vmix) from 0.75 to 3 m/s, for three fluids systems (100 % WC, water in Conroe crude oil emulsions and King Ranch condensate + water) on the ExxonMobil flowloop (4 in. nominal size and 314 ft. long) at Friendswood, TX. For the 100 % WC flowloop tests, hydrate particle distribution transitions beyond a critical hydrate volume concentration, observed values were between 8.2 to 29.4 vol.%, causing a sudden increase in pressure drop (DP). A revised correlation of the transition as a function of Reynolds number and liquid loading was developed. For Conroe emulsions, DP starts increasing at higher hydrate concentrations than King Ranch condensate, many times at 10 vol.%. Experiments with King Ranch show higher relative DP (10 to 25) than Conroe (2 to 10) performed at the same vmix and LL. Cohesive force measurements between cyclopentane hydrate particles were reduced from a value of 3.32 mN/m to 1.26 mN/m when 6 wt.% Conroe was used and to 0.41 mN/m when 5 wt.% Caratinga crude oil was used; similar values were obtained when extracted asphaltenes were used. King Ranch condensate (11 wt.%) did not significantly change the
Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Trask, Nathaniel; Pan, K.; Jones, Bruce D.; Pan, Wenxiao; Williams, John R.
2016-03-11
Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is a Lagrangian method based on a meshless discretization of partial differential equations. In this review, we present SPH discretization of the Navier-Stokes and Advection-Diffusion-Reaction equations, implementation of various boundary conditions, and time integration of the SPH equations, and we discuss applications of the SPH method for modeling pore-scale multiphase flows and reactive transport in porous and fractured media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Xiaohui; Li, Weishan; Tian, Hailong; Li, Hongliang; Xu, Haixiao; Xu, Tianfu
2015-07-01
The numerical simulation of multiphase flow and reactive transport in the porous media on complex subsurface problem is a computationally intensive application. To meet the increasingly computational requirements, this paper presents a parallel computing method and architecture. Derived from TOUGHREACT that is a well-established code for simulating subsurface multi-phase flow and reactive transport problems, we developed a high performance computing THC-MP based on massive parallel computer, which extends greatly on the computational capability for the original code. The domain decomposition method was applied to the coupled numerical computing procedure in the THC-MP. We designed the distributed data structure, implemented the data initialization and exchange between the computing nodes and the core solving module using the hybrid parallel iterative and direct solver. Numerical accuracy of the THC-MP was verified through a CO2 injection-induced reactive transport problem by comparing the results obtained from the parallel computing and sequential computing (original code). Execution efficiency and code scalability were examined through field scale carbon sequestration applications on the multicore cluster. The results demonstrate successfully the enhanced performance using the THC-MP on parallel computing facilities.
Yortsos, Yanis C.
2001-08-07
This project is an investigation of various multi-phase and multiscale transport and reaction processes associated with heavy oil recovery. The thrust areas of the project include the following: Internal drives, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes, fluid displacements and the effect of instabilities and heterogeneities and the flow of fluids with yield stress. These find respective applications in foamy oils, the evolution of dissolved gas, internal steam drives, the mechanics of concurrent and countercurrent vapor-liquid flows, associated with thermal methods and steam injection, such as SAGD, the in-situ combustion, the upscaling of displacements in heterogeneous media and the flow of foams, Bingham plastics and heavy oils in porous media and the development of wormholes during cold production.
Yortsos, Y.C.
2001-05-29
This report is an investigation of various multi-phase and multiscale transport and reaction processes associated with heavy oil recovery. The thrust areas of the project include the following: Internal drives, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes, fluid displacements and the effect of instabilities and heterogeneities and the flow of fluids with yield stress. These find respective applications in foamy oils, the evolution of dissolved gas, internal steam drives, the mechanics of concurrent and countercurrent vapor-liquid flows, associated with thermal methods and steam injection, such as SAGD, the in-situ combustion, the upscaling of displacements in heterogeneous media and the flow of foams, Bingham plastics and heavy oils in porous media and the development of wormholes during cold production.
Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.; Major, J.C.
2008-10-15
During the construction and operational phases of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository constructed in a clay formation, ventilation of underground drifts will cause desaturation and oxidation of the rock. The Ventilation Experiment (VE) was performed in a 1.3 m diameter unlined horizontal microtunnel on Opalinus clay at Mont Terri underground research laboratory in Switzerland to evaluate the impact of desaturation on rock properties. A multiphase flow and reactive transport model of VE is presented here. The model accounts for liquid, vapor and air flow, evaporation/condensation and multicomponent reactive solute transport with kinetic dissolution of pyrite and siderite and local-equilibrium dissolution/precipitation of calcite, ferrihydrite, dolomite, gypsum and quartz. Model results reproduce measured vapor flow, liquid pressure and hydrochemical data and capture the trends of measured relative humidities, although such data are slightly overestimated near the rock interface due to uncertainties in the turbulence factor. Rock desaturation allows oxygen to diffuse into the rock and triggers pyrite oxidation, dissolution of calcite and siderite, precipitation of ferrihydrite, dolomite and gypsum and cation exchange. pH in the unsaturated rock varies from 7.8 to 8 and is buffered by calcite. Computed changes in the porosity and the permeability of Opalinus clay in the unsaturated zone caused by oxidation and mineral dissolution/precipitation are smaller than 5%. Therefore, rock properties are not expected to be affected significantly by ventilation of underground drifts during construction and operational phases of a HLW repository in clay.
Multiphase Modeling of Flow, Transport, and Biodegradation in a Mesoscale Landfill Bioreactor
Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Hazen, Terry C.
2002-02-01
The need to control gas and leachate production and minimize refuse volume in municipal solid waste landfills has motivated the development of landfill simulation models to predict and design optimal treatment processes. We have developed a multiphase and multicomponent nonisothermal module called T2LBM for the three-dimensional TOUGH2 flow and transport simulator. T2LBM can be used to simulate aerobic or anaerobic biodegradation of municipal solid waste and the associated flow and transport of gas and liquid through the refuse mass. Acetic acid is used as a proxy for all biodegradable substrates in the refuse. T2LBM incorporates a Monod kinetic rate law for the biodegradation of acetic acid by either aerobic or anaerobic microbes as controlled by the local oxygen concentration. We have verified the model against published data, and applied it to our own mesoscale laboratory aerobic landfill bioreactor experiments. We observe spatial variability of flow and biodegradation consistent with permeability heterogeneity and the geometry of the radial grid. The model is capable of matching results of a shut-in test where the respiration of the system is measured over time.
DH Bacon; MD White; BP McGrail
2000-03-07
The Hanford Site, in southeastern Washington State, has been used extensively to produce nuclear materials for the US strategic defense arsenal by the Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors, the US Atomic Energy Commission and the US Energy Research and Development Administration. A large inventory of radioactive and mixed waste has accumulated in 177 buried single- and double shell tanks. Liquid waste recovered from the tanks will be pretreated to separate the low-activity fraction from the high-level and transuranic wastes. Vitrification is the leading option for immobilization of these wastes, expected to produce approximately 550,000 metric tons of Low Activity Waste (LAW) glass. This total tonnage, based on nominal Na{sub 2}O oxide loading of 20% by weight, is destined for disposal in a near-surface facility. Before disposal of the immobilized waste can proceed, the DOE must approve a performance assessment, a document that described the impacts, if any, of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. Studies have shown that release rates of radionuclides from the glass waste form by reaction with water determine the impacts of the disposal action more than any other independent parameter. This report describes the latest accomplishments in the development of a computational tool, Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multiphases (STORM), Version 2, a general, coupled non-isothermal multiphase flow and reactive transport simulator. The underlying mathematics in STORM describe the rate of change of the solute concentrations of pore water in a variably saturated, non-isothermal porous medium, and the alteration of waste forms, packaging materials, backfill, and host rocks.
Hammond, Glenn E.; Lichtner, Peter C.; Lu, Chuan
2007-08-01
Numerical modeling has become a critical tool to the Department of Energy for evaluating the environmental impact of alternative energy sources and remediation strategies for legacy waste sites. Unfortunately, the physical and chemical complexity of many sites overwhelms the capabilities of even most “state of the art” groundwater models. Of particular concern are the representation of highly-heterogeneous stratified rock/soil layers in the subsurface and the biological and geochemical interactions of chemical species within multiple fluid phases. Clearly, there is a need for higher-resolution modeling (i.e. more spatial, temporal, and chemical degrees of freedom) and increasingly mechanistic descriptions of subsurface physicochemical processes. We present research being performed in the development of PFLOTRAN, a parallel multiphase flow and multicomponent reactive transport model. Written in Fortran90, PFLOTRAN is founded upon PETSc data structures and solvers and has exhibited impressive strong scalability on up to 4000 processors on the ORNL Cray XT3. We are employing PFLOTRAN in the simulation of uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area, a contaminated site of major concern to the Department of Energy, the State of Washington, and other government agencies where overly-simplistic historical modeling erroneously predicted decade removal times for uranium by ambient groundwater flow. By leveraging the billions of degrees of freedom available through high-performance computation using tens of thousands of processors, we can better characterize the release of uranium into groundwater and its subsequent transport to the Columbia River, and thereby better understand and evaluate the effectiveness of various proposed remediation strategies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katyal, A. K.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.; Parker, J. C.
1991-05-01
The manual describes a two-dimensional finite element model for coupled multiphase flow and multicomponent transport in planar or radially symmetric vertical sections. Flow and transport of three fluid phases, including water, nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL), and gas are considered by the program. The program can simulate flow only or coupled flow and transport. The flow module can be used to analyze two phases, water and NAPL, with the gas phase held at constant pressure, or explicit three-phase flow of water, NAPL, and gas at various pressures. The transport module can handle up to five components which partition among water, NAPL, gas and solid phases assuming either local equilibrium or first-order mass transfer. Three phase permeability-saturation-capillary pressure relations are defined by an extension of the van Genuchten model. The governing equations are solved using an efficient upstream-weighted finite element scheme. The required inputs for flow and transport analysis are described. Detailed instructions for creating data files needed to run the program and examples of input and output files are given in appendices.
Yannis C. Yortsos
2003-02-01
This is final report for contract DE-AC26-99BC15211. The report describes progress made in the various thrust areas of the project, which include internal drives for oil recovery, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes and the flow of fluids with yield stress. The report consists mainly of a compilation of various topical reports, technical papers and research reports published produced during the three-year project, which ended on May 6, 2002 and was no-cost extended to January 5, 2003. Advances in multiple processes and at various scales are described. In the area of internal drives, significant research accomplishments were made in the modeling of gas-phase growth driven by mass transfer, as in solution-gas drive, and by heat transfer, as in internal steam drives. In the area of vapor-liquid flows, we studied various aspects of concurrent and countercurrent flows, including stability analyses of vapor-liquid counterflow, and the development of novel methods for the pore-network modeling of the mobilization of trapped phases and liquid-vapor phase changes. In the area of combustion, we developed new methods for the modeling of these processes at the continuum and pore-network scales. These models allow us to understand a number of important aspects of in-situ combustion, including steady-state front propagation, multiple steady-states, effects of heterogeneity and modes of combustion (forward or reverse). Additional aspects of reactive transport in porous media were also studied. Finally, significant advances were made in the flow and displacement of non-Newtonian fluids with Bingham plastic rheology, which is characteristic of various heavy oil processes. Various accomplishments in generic displacements in porous media and corresponding effects of reservoir heterogeneity are also cited.
Yorstos, Yannis C.
2003-03-19
The report describes progress made in the various thrust areas of the project, which include internal drives for oil recovery, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes and the flow of fluids with yield stress.
Turbulent Mixing of Multiphase Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, Y.-N.; Ferziger, J.; Ham, F. E.; Herrmann, M.
2003-01-01
Thus we conduct numerical simulations of multiphase fluids stirred by two-dimensional turbulence to assess the possibility of self-similar drop size distribution in turbulence. In our turbulence simulations, we also explore the non-diffusive limit, where molecular mobility for the interface is vanishing. Special care is needed to transport the non-diffusive interface. Numerically, we use the particle level set method to evolve the interface. Instead of using the usual methods to calculate the surface tension force from the level set function, we reconstruct the interface based on phase- field modeling, and calculate the continuum surface tension forcing from the reconstructed interface.
Report on Multiphase Flow Panel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2003-01-01
This paper presents viewgraphs on a multiphase flow panel. The topics include: 1) Discussion of Priorities; 2) Critical Issues Reduced Gravity Instabilities; 3) Severely Limiting Phase Separation; 4) Severely-Limiting Phase Change; 5) Enhancements; 6) Awareness Instabilities; 7) Awareness; 8) Methods of Resolution; 9) 2008 Space Flight; 10) 2003-2008 Ground-Based Microgravity Facilities; 11) 2003-2008 Other; 12) 2009-2015 Space Flight; 13) 2009-2015 Ground-Based Microgravity Facilities; 14) 2009-2015 Other; and 15) 2016.
Yortsos, Yanis C.
2002-10-08
In this report, the thrust areas include the following: Internal drives, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes, fluid displacements and the effect of instabilities and heterogeneities and the flow of fluids with yield stress. These find respective applications in foamy oils, the evolution of dissolved gas, internal steam drives, the mechanics of concurrent and countercurrent vapor-liquid flows, associated with thermal methods and steam injection, such as SAGD, the in-situ combustion, the upscaling of displacements in heterogeneous media and the flow of foams, Bingham plastics and heavy oils in porous media and the development of wormholes during cold production.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bagchi, Prosenjit
2016-11-01
In this talk, two problems in multiphase biological flows will be discussed. The first is the direct numerical simulation of whole blood and drug particulates in microvascular networks. Blood in microcirculation behaves as a dense suspension of heterogeneous cells. The erythrocytes are extremely deformable, while inactivated platelets and leukocytes are nearly rigid. A significant progress has been made in recent years in modeling blood as a dense cellular suspension. However, many of these studies considered the blood flow in simple geometry, e.g., straight tubes of uniform cross-section. In contrast, the architecture of a microvascular network is very complex with bifurcating, merging and winding vessels, posing a further challenge to numerical modeling. We have developed an immersed-boundary-based method that can consider blood cell flow in physiologically realistic and complex microvascular network. In addition to addressing many physiological issues related to network hemodynamics, this tool can be used to optimize the transport properties of drug particulates for effective organ-specific delivery. Our second problem is pseudopod-driven motility as often observed in metastatic cancer cells and other amoeboid cells. We have developed a multiscale hydrodynamic model to simulate such motility. We study the effect of cell stiffness on motility as the former has been considered as a biomarker for metastatic potential. Funded by the National Science Foundation.
Xu, T.; Spycher, N.; Sonnenthal, E.; Zhang, G.; Zheng, L.; Pruess, K.
2010-08-01
TOUGHREACT is a numerical simulation program for chemically reactive non-isothermal flows of multiphase fluids in porous and fractured media, and was developed by introducing reactive chemistry into the multiphase fluid and heat flow simulator TOUGH2 V2. The first version of TOUGHREACT was released to the public through the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC) in August 2004. It is among the most frequently requested of ESTSC's codes. The code has been widely used for studies in CO{sub 2} geological sequestration, nuclear waste isolation, geothermal energy development, environmental remediation, and increasingly for petroleum applications. Over the past several years, many new capabilities have been developed, which were incorporated into Version 2 of TOUGHREACT. Major additions and improvements in Version 2 are discussed here, and two application examples are presented: (1) long-term fate of injected CO{sub 2} in a storage reservoir and (2) biogeochemical cycling of metals in mining-impacted lake sediments.
Reactive multiphase flow simulation workshop summary
VanderHeyden, W.B.
1995-09-01
A workshop on computer simulation of reactive multiphase flow was held on May 18 and 19, 1995 in the Computational Testbed for Industry at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, New Mexico. Approximately 35 to 40 people attended the workshop. This included 21 participants from 12 companies representing the petroleum, chemical, environmental and consumer products industries, two representatives from the DOE Office of Industrial Technologies and several from Los Alamos. The dialog at the meeting suggested that reactive multiphase flow simulation represents an excellent candidate for government/industry/academia collaborative research. A white paper on a potential consortium for reactive multiphase flow with input from workshop participants will be issued separately.
Multiphase Flow Analysis in Hydra-TH
Christon, Mark A.; Bakosi, Jozsef; Francois, Marianne M.; Lowrie, Robert B.; Nourgaliev, Robert
2012-06-20
This talk presents an overview of the multiphase flow efforts with Hydra-TH. The presentation begins with a definition of the requirements and design principles for multiphase flow relevant to CASL-centric problems. A brief survey of existing codes and their solution algorithms is presented before turning the model formulation selected for Hydra-TH. The issues of hyperbolicity and wellposedness are outlined, and a three candidate solution algorithms are discussed. The development status of Hydra-TH for multiphase flow is then presented with a brief summary and discussion of future directions for this work.
Measurement in multiphase reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chigier, N. A.
1979-01-01
A survey is presented of diagnostic techniques and measurements made in multiphase reacting flows. The special problems encountered by the presence of liquid droplets, soot and solid particles in high temperature chemically reacting turbulent environments are outlined. The principal measurement techniques that have been tested in spray flames are spark photography, laser anemometry, thermocouples and suction probes. Spark photography provides measurement of drop size, drop size distribution, drop velocity, and angle of flight. Photographs are analysed automatically by image analysers. Photographic techniques are reliable, inexpensive and proved. Laser anemometers have been developed for simultaneous measurement of velocity and size of individual particles in sprays under conditions of vaporization and combustion. Particle/gas velocity differentials, particle Reynolds numbers, local drag coefficients and direct measurement of vaporization rates can be made by laser anemometry. Gas temperature in sprays is determined by direct in situ measurement of time constants immediately prior to measurement with compensation and signal analysis by micro-processors. Gas concentration is measured by suction probes and gas phase chromatography. Measurements of particle size, particle velocity, gas temperature, and gas concentration made in airblast and pressure atomised liquid spray flames are presented.
Viscous and gravitational fingering in multiphase compositional and compressible flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moortgat, Joachim
2016-03-01
Viscous and gravitational fingering refer to flow instabilities in porous media that are triggered by adverse mobility or density ratios, respectively. These instabilities have been studied extensively in the past for (1) single-phase flow (e.g., contaminant transport in groundwater, first-contact-miscible displacement of oil by gas in hydrocarbon production), and (2) multi-phase immiscible and incompressible flow (e.g., water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection in oil reservoirs). Fingering in multiphase compositional and compressible flow has received much less attention, perhaps due to its high computational complexity. However, many important subsurface processes involve multiple phases that exchange species. Examples are carbon sequestration in saline aquifers and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by gas or WAG injection below the minimum miscibility pressure. In multiphase flow, relative permeabilities affect the mobility contrast for a given viscosity ratio. Phase behavior can also change local fluid properties, which can either enhance or mitigate viscous and gravitational instabilities. This work presents a detailed study of fingering behavior in compositional multiphase flow in two and three dimensions and considers the effects of (1) Fickian diffusion, (2) mechanical dispersion, (3) flow rates, (4) domain size and geometry, (5) formation heterogeneities, (6) gravity, and (7) relative permeabilities. Results show that fingering in compositional multiphase flow is profoundly different from miscible conditions and upscaling techniques used for the latter case are unlikely to be generalizable to the former.
KINEMATIC MODELING OF MULTIPHASE SOLUTE TRANSPORT IN THE VADOSE ZONE
The goal of this research was the development of a computationally efficient simulation model for multiphase flow of organic hazardous waste constituents in the shallow soil environment. Such a model is appropriate for investigation of fate and transport of organic chemicals intr...
Development of Next Generation Multiphase Pipe Flow Prediction Tools
Cem Sarica; Holden Zhang
2006-05-31
basic continuity and momentum equations is established for each phase, and used for both flow pattern and flow behavior predictions. The required closure relationships are being developed, and will be verified with experimental results. Gas-oil-water experimental studies are currently underway for the horizontal pipes. Industry-driven consortia provide a cost-efficient vehicle for developing, transferring, and deploying new technologies into the private sector. The Tulsa University Fluid Flow Projects (TUFFP) is one of the earliest cooperative industry-university research consortia. TUFFP's mission is to conduct basic and applied multiphase flow research addressing the current and future needs of hydrocarbon production and transportation. TUFFP participants and The University of Tulsa are supporting this study through 55% cost sharing.
Cavitation and multiphase flow forum - 1987
Furuya, O
1987-01-01
These proceedings collect papers on cavitation phenomena. Topics include: multiphase flow, the two-phase water hammer in a nuclear power plant, phase separation of dispersed annular flow, liquid films, shock waves propagating through two-phase magnetic fluid, venturimeters, gas-particle flows, particle-wall interactions, and the evaluation of wear in centrifugal slurry pumps.
Mixing and Demixing Processes in Multiphase Flows With Application to Propulsion Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Decker, Rand (Editor); Schafer, Charles F. (Editor)
1988-01-01
A workshop on transport processes in multiphase flow was held at the Marshall Space Flight Center on February 25 and 26, 1988. The program, abstracts and text of the presentations at this workshop are presented. The objective of the workshop was to enhance our understanding of mass, momentum, and energy transport processes in laminar and turbulent multiphase shear flows in combustion and propulsion environments.
Ultrasonic rate measurement of multiphase flow
Dannert, D.A.; Horne, R.N.
1993-01-01
On of the most important tools in production logging and well testing is the downhole flowmeter. Unfortunately, existing tools are inaccurate outside of an idealized single phase flow, regime. Spinner tools are inaccurate at extremely high or low, flow rates and when the flow rate is variable. Radioactive tracer tools have similar inaccuracies and are extremely sensitive to the flow regime. Both tools completely fail in the presence of multiphase flow, whether gas/ oil, gas/water or fluid/solid. Downhole flowmetering is important for locating producing zones and thief zones and monitoring production and injection rates. The effects of stimulation can also be determined. This goal of this project is the investigation of accurate downhole flowmetering techniques for all single phase flow regimes and multiphase flows. The measurement method investigated in this report is the use of ultrasound. There are two ways to use ultrasound for fluid velocity measurement. The first method, examined in Chapter 2, is the contrapropagation, or transit-time, method which compares travel times with and against fluid flow. Chapter 3 details the second method which measures the Doppler frequency shift of a reflected sound wave in the moving fluid. Both of these technologies need to be incorporated in order to build a true multiphase flowmeter. Chapter 4 describes the proposed downhole multiphase flowmeter. It has many advantages besides the ones previously mentioned and is in full in that chapter.
EDITORIAL: Measurement techniques for multiphase flows Measurement techniques for multiphase flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okamoto, Koji; Murai, Yuichi
2009-11-01
Research on multiphase flows is very important for industrial applications, including power stations, vehicles, engines, food processing and so on. Multiphase flows originally have nonlinear features because of multiphase systems. The interaction between the phases plays a very interesting role in the flows. The nonlinear interaction causes the multiphase flows to be very complicated. Therefore techniques for measuring multiphase flows are very useful in helping to understand the nonlinear phenomena. The state-of-the-art measurement techniques were presented and discussed at the sixth International Symposium on Measurement Techniques for Multiphase Flows (ISMTMF2008) held in Okinawa, Japan, on 15-17 December 2008. This special feature of Measurement Science and Technology includes selected papers from ISMTMF2008. Okinawa has a long history as the Ryukyus Kingdom. China, Japan and many western Pacific countries have had cultural and economic exchanges through Okinawa for over 1000 years. Much technical and scientific information was exchanged at the symposium in Okinawa. The proceedings of ISMTMF2008 apart from these special featured papers were published in Journal of Physics: Conference Series vol. 147 (2009). We would like to express special thanks to all the contributors to the symposium and this special feature. This special feature will be a milestone in measurement techniques for multiphase flows.
MSTS - Multiphase Subsurface Transport Simulator theory manual
White, M.D.; Nichols, W.E.
1993-05-01
The US Department of Energy, through the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office, has designated the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada for detailed study as the candidate US geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Site characterization will determine the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for the potential waste repository. If the site is determined suitable, subsequent studies and characterization will be conducted to obtain authorization from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to construct the potential waste repository. A principal component of the characterization and licensing processes involves numerically predicting the thermal and hydrologic response of the subsurface environment of the Yucca Mountain site to the potential repository over a 10,000-year period. The thermal and hydrologic response of the subsurface environment to the repository is anticipated to include complex processes of countercurrent vapor and liquid migration, multiple-phase heat transfer, multiple-phase transport, and geochemical reactions. Numerical simulators based on mathematical descriptions of these subsurface phenomena are required to make numerical predictions of the thermal and hydrologic response of the Yucca Mountain subsurface environment The engineering simulator called the Multiphase Subsurface Transport Simulator (MSTS) was developed at the request of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office to produce numerical predictions of subsurface flow and transport phenomena at the potential Yucca Mountain site. This document delineates the design architecture and describes the specific computational algorithms that compose MSTS. Details for using MSTS and sample problems are given in the {open_quotes}User`s Guide and Reference{close_quotes} companion document.
A Course in Transport Phenomena in Multicomponent, Multiphase, Reacting Systems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carbonell, R. G.; Whitaker, S.
1978-01-01
This course concentrates on a rigorous development of the multicomponent transport equations, boundary conditions at phase interfaces, and volume-averaged transport equations for multiphase reacting systems. (BB)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bijeljic, B.; Andrew, M. G.; Menke, H. P.; Blunt, M. J.
2013-12-01
Advances in X ray imaging techniques made it possible not only to accurately describe solid and fluid(s) distributions in the pore space but also to study dynamics of multi-phase flow and reactive transport in-situ. This has opened up a range of new opportunities to better understand fundamental physics at the pore scale by experiment, and test and validate theoretical models in order to develop predictive tools at the pore scale and use it for upscaling. Firstly, we illustrate this concept by describing a new methodology for predicting non-Fickian transport in millimeter-sized three-dimensional micro-CT images of a beadpack, a sandstone, and a carbonate, representing porous media with an increasing degree of pore-scale complexity. The key strategy is to retain the full information on flow and transport signature of a porous medium by using probability distribution functions (PDFs) of voxel velocities for flow, and both PDFs of particle displacements and PDFs of particle transit times between voxels for transport. For this purpose, direct-simulation flow and transport model is used to analyse the relationship between pore structure, velocity, and the dynamics of the evolving plume. The model predictions for PDFs of particle displacements obtained by the model are in excellent agreement with those measured on similar cores in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. A key determinant for non-Fickian transport is the spread in velocity distribution in the pore space. Further, we present micro-CT imaging of capillary trapping of scCO2 at reservoir conditions in a range of carbonates and sandstones having different pore structure and demonstrate that substantial quantities of scCO2 can be trapped in the pore space. Higher residual scCO2 saturations are found in sandstones compared to carbonates. The trapped ganglia exhibit different distribution of size, related to the inherent structure of pore space. Pore structures with large, open pores that are well connected lead
NMR studies of multiphase flows II
Altobelli, S.A.; Caprihan, A.; Fukushima, E.
1995-12-31
NMR techniques for measurements of spatial distribution of material phase, velocity and velocity fluctuation are being developed and refined. Versions of these techniques which provide time average liquid fraction and fluid phase velocity have been applied to several concentrated suspension systems which will not be discussed extensively here. Technical developments required to further extend the use of NMR to the multi-phase flow arena and to provide measurements of previously unobtainable parameters are the focus of this report.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jordan, Amy
Open challenges remain in using numerical models of subsurface flow and transport systems to make useful predictions related to nuclear waste storage and nonproliferation. The work presented here addresses the sensitivity of model results to unknown parameters, states, and processes, particularly uncertainties related to incorporating previously unrepresented processes (e.g., explosion-induced fracturing, hydrous mineral dehydration) into a subsurface flow and transport numerical simulator. The Finite Element Heat and Mass (FEHM) transfer code is used for all numerical models in this research. An experimental campaign intended to validate the predictive capability of numerical models that include the strongly coupled thermal, hydrological, and chemical processes in bedded salt is also presented. Underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) produce radionuclide gases that may seep to the surface over weeks to months. The estimated timing of gas arrival at the surface may be used to deploy personnel and equipment to the site of a suspected UNE, if allowed under the terms of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. A model was developed using FEHM that considers barometrically pumped gas transport through a simplified fractured medium and was used to quantify the impact of uncertainties in hydrologic parameters (fracture aperture, matrix permeability, porosity, and saturation) and season of detonation on the timing of gas breakthrough. Numerical sensitivity analyses were performed for the case of a 1 kt UNE at a 400 m burial depth. Gas arrival time was found to be most affected by matrix permeability and fracture aperture. Gases having higher diffusivity were more sensitive to uncertainty in the rock properties. The effect of seasonality in the barometric pressure forcing was found to be important, with detonations in March the least likely to be detectable based on barometric data for Rainier Mesa, Nevada. Monte Carlo modeling was also used to predict the window of
Edited by Guenther, Chris; Garg, Rahul
2013-08-19
The Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) sponsored a workshop on non-Newtonian multiphase slurry at NETL’s Morgantown campus August 19 and 20, 2013. The objective of this special two-day meeting of 20-30 invited experts from industry, National Labs and academia was to identify and address technical issues associated with handling non-Newtonian multiphase slurries across various facilities managed by DOE. Particular emphasis during this workshop was placed on applications managed by the Office of Environmental Management (EM). The workshop was preceded by two webinars wherein personnel from ORP and NETL provided background information on the Hanford WTP project and discussed the critical design challenges facing this project. In non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity is not constant and exhibits a complex dependence on applied shear stress or deformation. Many applications under EM’s tank farm mission involve non-Newtonian slurries that are multiphase in nature; tank farm storage and handling, slurry transport, and mixing all involve multiphase flow dynamics, which require an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for rheological changes in non-Newtonian multiphase slurries (NNMS). To discuss the issues in predicting the behavior of NNMS, the workshop focused on two topic areas: (1) State-of-the-art in non-Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Flow, and (2) Scaling up with Confidence and Ensuring Safe and Reliable Long-Term Operation.
Modeling multiphase flow using fluctuating hydrodynamics.
Chaudhri, Anuj; Bell, John B; Garcia, Alejandro L; Donev, Aleksandar
2014-09-01
Fluctuating hydrodynamics provides a model for fluids at mesoscopic scales where thermal fluctuations can have a significant impact on the behavior of the system. Here we investigate a model for fluctuating hydrodynamics of a single-component, multiphase flow in the neighborhood of the critical point. The system is modeled using a compressible flow formulation with a van der Waals equation of state, incorporating a Korteweg stress term to treat interfacial tension. We present a numerical algorithm for modeling this system based on an extension of algorithms developed for fluctuating hydrodynamics for ideal fluids. The scheme is validated by comparison of measured structure factors and capillary wave spectra with equilibrium theory. We also present several nonequilibrium examples to illustrate the capability of the algorithm to model multiphase fluid phenomena in a neighborhood of the critical point. These examples include a study of the impact of fluctuations on the spinodal decomposition following a rapid quench, as well as the piston effect in a cavity with supercooled walls. The conclusion in both cases is that thermal fluctuations affect the size and growth of the domains in off-critical quenches.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moortgat, J.
2015-12-01
Reservoir simulators are widely used to constrain uncertainty in the petrophysical properties of subsurface formations by matching the history of injection and production data. However, such measurements may be insufficient to uniquely characterize a reservoir's properties. Monitoring of natural (isotopic) and introduced tracers is a developing technology to further interrogate the subsurface for applications such as enhanced oil recovery from conventional and unconventional resources, and CO2 sequestration. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been piloting this tracer technology during and following CO2 injection at the Cranfield, Mississippi, CO2 sequestration test site. Two campaigns of multiple perfluorocarbon tracers were injected together with CO2 and monitored at two wells at 68 m and 112 m from the injection site. The tracer data suggest that multiple CO2 flow paths developed towards the monitoring wells, indicative of either channeling through high permeability pathways or of fingering. The results demonstrate that tracers provide an important complement to transient pressure data. Numerical modeling is essential to further explain and interpret the observations. To aid the development of tracer technology, we enhanced a compositional multiphase reservoir simulator to account for tracer transport. Our research simulator uses higher-order finite element (FE) methods that can capture the small-scale onset of fingering on the coarse grids required for field-scale modeling, and allows for unstructured grids and anisotropic heterogeneous permeability fields. Mass transfer between fluid phases and phase behavior are modeled with rigorous equation-of-state based phase-split calculations. We present our tracer simulator and preliminary results related to the Cranfield experiments. Applications to noble gas tracers in unconventional resources are presented by Darrah et al.
Impact of normal stress on multiphase flow through rough fractures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alves da Silva Junior, J.; Kang, P. K.; Yang, Z.; Cueto-Felgueroso, L.; Juanes, R.
2015-12-01
Fluid flow and transport through geologic fractures plays a key role in several areas such as groundwater hydrology, geothermal energy, oil and gas production, CO2 sequestration and nuclear waste disposal. High-permeability zones associated with fracture corridors often serve as fast fluid conduits for both single and multiphase flow in otherwise low-permeability media. When multiphase flow occurs, the presence of one phase interferes with the flow of the other phase, resulting in complex displacement patterns through the fracture, and macroscopic descriptors (such as fracture-scale capillary pressure and relative permeability) that depend on the phase concentration of both phases. Here, we investigate the impact of normal stress on single and multiphase flow through rough-walled fractures: (1) we generate synthetic aperture fields that honor the fractal roughness structure observed in real fractures; (2) we model the effect of normal stress on the fracture aperture geometry by solving the contact problem between fracture walls; and (3) we use invasion percolation with trapping to model immiscible fluid displacement and then compute relative permeability numerically for each stress scenario. Our results indicate that normal stress increases the amount of contact area in the fracture wall, which results in an increase of the tortuosity of the available path for fluid displacement. Increasing normal stress results in low relative permeability for the wetting phase due to a decrease of the available path for fluid flow, and therefore a small amount of non-wetting fluid has a large impact on the flow of the wetting fluid. We find that the relative permeability of the non-wetting fluid shows less variation with stress than the wetting fluid, and that both fluids exhibit strong phase interference at intermediate saturations. Finally, we show early results from our experimental work currently underway to validate the modeling results.
Quantitative tomographic measurements of opaque multiphase flows
GEORGE,DARIN L.; TORCZYNSKI,JOHN R.; SHOLLENBERGER,KIM ANN; O'HERN,TIMOTHY J.; CECCIO,STEVEN L.
2000-03-01
An electrical-impedance tomography (EIT) system has been developed for quantitative measurements of radial phase distribution profiles in two-phase and three-phase vertical column flows. The EIT system is described along with the computer algorithm used for reconstructing phase volume fraction profiles. EIT measurements were validated by comparison with a gamma-densitometry tomography (GDT) system. The EIT system was used to accurately measure average solid volume fractions up to 0.05 in solid-liquid flows, and radial gas volume fraction profiles in gas-liquid flows with gas volume fractions up to 0.15. In both flows, average phase volume fractions and radial volume fraction profiles from GDT and EIT were in good agreement. A minor modification to the formula used to relate conductivity data to phase volume fractions was found to improve agreement between the methods. GDT and EIT were then applied together to simultaneously measure the solid, liquid, and gas radial distributions within several vertical three-phase flows. For average solid volume fractions up to 0.30, the gas distribution for each gas flow rate was approximately independent of the amount of solids in the column. Measurements made with this EIT system demonstrate that EIT may be used successfully for noninvasive, quantitative measurements of dispersed multiphase flows.
Oscillatory multiphase flow strategy for chemistry and biology.
Abolhasani, Milad; Jensen, Klavs F
2016-07-19
Continuous multiphase flow strategies are commonly employed for high-throughput parameter screening of physical, chemical, and biological processes as well as continuous preparation of a wide range of fine chemicals and micro/nano particles with processing times up to 10 min. The inter-dependency of mixing and residence times, and their direct correlation with reactor length have limited the adaptation of multiphase flow strategies for studies of processes with relatively long processing times (0.5-24 h). In this frontier article, we describe an oscillatory multiphase flow strategy to decouple mixing and residence times and enable investigation of longer timescale experiments than typically feasible with conventional continuous multiphase flow approaches. We review current oscillatory multiphase flow technologies, provide an overview of the advancements of this relatively new strategy in chemistry and biology, and close with a perspective on future opportunities.
Multiphase groundwater flow near cooling plutons
Hayba, D.O.; Ingebritsen, S.E.
1997-01-01
We investigate groundwater flow near cooling plutons with a computer program that can model multiphase flow, temperatures up to 1200??C, thermal pressurization, and temperature-dependent rock properties. A series of experiments examines the effects of host-rock permeability, size and depth of pluton emplacement, single versus multiple intrusions, the influence of a caprock, and the impact of topographically driven groundwater flow. We also reproduce and evaluate some of the pioneering numerical experiments on flow around plutons. Host-rock permeability is the principal factor influencing fluid circulation and heat transfer in hydrothermal systems. The hottest and most steam-rich systems develop where permeability is of the order of 10-15 m2. Temperatures and life spans of systems decrease with increasing permeability. Conduction-dominated systems, in which permeabilities are ???10-16m2, persist longer but exhibit relatively modest increases in near-surface temperatures relative to ambient conditions. Pluton size, emplacement depth, and initial thermal conditions have less influence on hydrothermal circulation patterns but affect the extent of boiling and duration of hydrothermal systems. Topographically driven groundwater flow can significantly alter hydrothermal circulation; however, a low-permeability caprock effectively decouples the topographically and density-driven systems and stabilizes the mixing interface between them thereby defining a likely ore-forming environment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paolini, C.; Park, A. J.; Mellors, R. J.; Castillo, J.
2009-12-01
A typical CO2 sequestration scenario involves the use of multiple simulators for addressing multiphase fluid and heat flow, water-rock interaction and mass-transfer, rock mechanics, and other chemical and physical processes. The benefit of such workflow is that each model can be constrained rigorously; however, the drawback is final modeling results may achieve only a limited extent of the theoretically possible capabilities of each model. Furthermore, such an approach in modeling carbon sequestration cannot capture the nonlinearity of the various chemical and physical processes. Hence, the models can only provide guidelines for carbon sequestration processes with large margins of error. As an alternative, a simulator is being constructed by a multi-disciplinary team with the aim of implementing a large array of fundamental phenomenologies, including, but not limited to: water-rock interaction using elemental mass-balance and explicit mass-transfer and reaction coupling methods; multi-phase and heat flow, including super-critical CO2 and oil; fracture mechanics with anisotropic permeabilities; rheological rock mechanics based on incremental stress theory; and a composite petrophysics model capable of describing changing rock composition and properties. The modules representing the processes will be solved using a layered iteration method, with the goal of capturing the nonlinear feedback among all of the processes. The simulator will be constructed using proven optimization and modular, object-oriented, and service-oriented programming methods. Finally, a novel AJAX (asynchronous JavaScript and XML) user interface is being tested to host the simulator that will allow usage through an Internet browser. Currently, the water-rock interaction, composite petrophysics, and multi-phase fluid and heat flow modules are available for integration. Results of the water-rock interaction and petrophysics coupling has been used to model interaction between a CO2-charged water and
Large Interface Simulation in Multiphase Flow Phenomena
Henriques, Aparicio; Coste, Pierre; Pigny, Sylvain; Magnaudet, Jacques
2006-07-01
An attempt to represent multiphase multi-scale flow, filling the gap between Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and averaged approaches, is the purpose of this paper. We present a kind of Large Interface (LI) simulation formalism obtained after a filtering process on local instantaneous conservation equations of the two-fluid model which distinguishes between small scales and large scales contributions. LI surface tension force is also taken into account. Small scale dynamics call for modelization and large scale for simulation. Joined to this formalism, a criterion to recognize LI's is developed. It is used in an interface recognition algorithm which is qualified on a sloshing case and a bubble oscillation under zero-gravity. This method is applied to a rising bubble in a pool that collapses at a free surface and to a square-base basin experiment where splashing and sloshing at the free surface are the main break-up phenomena. (authors)
Multiphase flows in confinement with complex geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aymard, Benjamin; Pradas, Marc; Vaes, Urbain; Kalliadasis, Serafim
2016-11-01
Understanding the dynamics of immiscible fluids in confinement is crucial in numerous applications such as oil recovery, fuel cells and the rapidly growing field of microfluidics. Complexities such as microstructures, chemical-topographical heterogeneities or porous membranes, can often induce non-trivial effects such as critical phenomena and phase transitions . The dynamics of confined multiphase flows may be efficiently described using diffuse-interface theory, leading to the Cahn-Hilliard-Navier-Stokes(CHNS) equations with Cahn wetting boundary conditions. Here we outline an efficient numerical method to solve the CHNS equations using advanced geometry-capturing mesh techniques both in two and three dimensional scenarios. The methodology is applied to two different systems: a droplet on a spatially chemical-topographical heterogeneous substrateand a microfluidic separator.
Workshop on Scientific Issues in Multiphase Flow
Hanratty, Thomas J.
2003-01-02
This report outlines scientific issues whose resolution will help advance and define the field of multiphase flow. It presents the findings of four study groups and of a workshop sponsored by the Program on Engineering Physics of the Department of Energy. The reason why multiphase flows are much more difficult to analyze than single phase flows is that the phases assume a large number of complicated configurations. Therefore, it should not be surprising that the understanding of why the phases configure in a certain way is the principal scientific issue. Research is needed which identifies the microphysics controlling the organization of the phases, which develops physical models for the resultant multi-scale interactions and which tests their validity in integrative experiments/theories that look at the behavior of a system. New experimental techniques and recently developed direct numerical simulations will play important roles in this endeavor. In gas-liquid flows a top priority is to develop an understanding of why the liquid phase in quasi fully-developed pipe flow changes from one configuration to another. Mixing flows offer a more complicated situation in which several patterns can exist at the same time. They introduce new physical challenges. A second priority is to provide a quantitative description of the phase distribution for selected fully-developed flows and for simple mixing flows (that could include heat transfer and phase change). Microphysical problems of interest are identified – including the coupling of molecular and macroscopic behavior that can be observed in many situations and the formation/destruction of interfaces in the coalescence/breakup of drops and bubbles. Solid-fluid flows offer a simpler system in that interfaces are not changing. However, a variety of patterns exist, that depend on the properties of the particles, their concentration and the Reynolds number characterizing the relative velocity. A top priority is the
Online recognition of the multiphase flow regime and study of slug flow in pipeline
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liejin, Guo; Bofeng, Bai; Liang, Zhao; Xin, Wang; Hanyang, Gu
2009-02-01
Multiphase flow is the phenomenon existing widely in nature, daily life, as well as petroleum and chemical engineering industrial fields. The interface structure among multiphase and their movement are complicated, which distribute random and heterogeneously in the spatial and temporal scales and have multivalue of the flow structure and state[1]. Flow regime is defined as the macro feature about the multiphase interface structure and its distribution, which is an important feature to describe multiphase flow. The energy and mass transport mechanism differ much for each flow regimes. It is necessary to solve the flow regime recognition to get a clear understanding of the physical phenomena and their mechanism of multiphase flow. And the flow regime is one of the main factors affecting the online measurement accuracy of phase fraction, flow rate and other phase parameters. Therefore, it is of great scientific and technological importance to develop new principles and methods of multiphase flow regime online recognition, and of great industrial background. In this paper, the key reasons that the present method cannot be used to solve the industrial multiphase flow pattern recognition are clarified firstly. Then the prerequisite to realize the online recognition of multiphase flow regime is analyzed, and the recognition rules for partial flow pattern are obtained based on the massive experimental data. The standard templates for every flow regime feature are calculated with self-organization cluster algorithm. The multi-sensor data fusion method is proposed to realize the online recognition of multiphase flow regime with the pressure and differential pressure signals, which overcomes the severe influence of fluid flow velocity and the oil fraction on the recognition. The online recognition method is tested in the practice, which has less than 10 percent measurement error. The method takes advantages of high confidence, good fault tolerance and less requirement of
Process tomography applied to multi-phase flow measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyakowski, T.
1996-03-01
This paper presents the state of the art in measuring multi-phase flows by using tomographic techniques. The results presented show a wide range of industrial applications of process tomography from the nuclear and chemical to the food industry. This is illustrated by examples of the application of various tomographic sensors to the measurement of geometric or kinematic parameters of multi-phase flows. An application of process tomography for the validation of computational fluid dynamic models and the possibility of constructing a flowmeter for multi-phase flow are addressed.
APPROXIMATE MULTIPHASE FLOW MODELING BY CHARACTERISTIC METHODS
The flow of petroleum hydrocarbons, organic solvents and other liquids that are immiscible with water presents the nation with some of the most difficult subsurface remediation problems. One aspect of contaminant transport associated releases of such liquids is the transport as a...
Multiphase pumps and flow meters avoid platform construction
Elde, J.
1999-02-01
One of the newest wrinkles in efficiency in BP`s Eastern Trough Area Project (ETAP) is the system for moving multiphase oil, water and gas fluids from the Machar satellite field to the Marnock Central Processing Facility (CPF). Using water-turbine-driven multiphase pumps and multiphase flow meters, the system moves fluid with no need for a production platform. In addition, BP has designed the installation so it reduces and controls water coning, thereby increasing recoverable reserves. Both subsea multiphase booster stations (SMUBS) and meters grew out of extensive development work and experience at Framo Engineering AS (Framo) in multiphase meters and multiphase pump systems for subsea installation. Multiphase meter development began in 1990 and the first subsea multiphase meters were installed in the East Spar Project in Australia in 1996. By September 1998, the meters had been operating successfully for more than 1 year. A single multiphase meter installed in Marathon`s West Brae Project has also successfully operated for more than 1 year. Subsea meters for ETAP were installed and began operating in July 1998.
Multiphase transport in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gauthier, Eric D.
Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) enable efficient conversion of fuels to electricity. They have enormous potential due to the high energy density of the fuels they utilize (hydrogen or alcohols). Power density is a major limitation to wide-scale introduction of PEMFCs. Power density in hydrogen fuel cells is limited by accumulation of water in what is termed fuel cell `flooding.' Flooding may occur in either the gas diffusion layer (GDL) or within the flow channels of the bipolar plate. These components comprise the electrodes of the fuel cell and balance transport of reactants/products with electrical conductivity. This thesis explores the role of electrode materials in the fuel cell and examines the fundamental connection between material properties and multiphase transport processes. Water is generated at the cathode catalyst layer. As liquid water accumulates it will utilize the largest pores in the GDL to go from the catalyst layer to the flow channels. Water collects to large pores via lateral transport at the interface between the GDL and catalyst layer. We have shown that water may be collected in these large pores from several centimeters away, suggesting that we could engineer the GDL to control flooding with careful placement and distribution of large flow-directing pores. Once liquid water is in the flow channels it forms slugs that block gas flow. The slugs are pushed along the channel by a pressure gradient that is dependent on the material wettability. The permeable nature of the GDL also plays a major role in slug growth and allowing bypass of gas between adjacent channels. Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) have analogous multiphase flow issues where carbon dioxide bubbles accumulate, `blinding' regions of the fuel cell. This problem is fundamentally similar to water management in hydrogen fuel cells but with a gas/liquid phase inversion. Gas bubbles move laterally through the porous GDL and emerge to form large bubbles within the
FOREWORD: International Symposium of Cavitation and Multiphase Flow (ISCM 2014)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yulin
2015-01-01
The International Symposium on Cavitation and Multiphase Flow (ISCM 2014) was held in Beijing, China during 18th-21st October, 2014, which was jointly organized by Tsinghua University, Beijing, China and Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China. The co-organizer was the State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Beijing, China. Cavitation and multiphase flow is one of paramount topics of fluid mechanics with many engineering applications covering a broad range of topics, e.g. hydraulic machinery, biomedical engineering, chemical and process industry. In order to improve the performances of engineering facilities (e.g. hydraulic turbines) and to accelerate the development of techniques for medical treatment of serious diseases (e.g. tumors), it is essential to improve our understanding of cavitation and Multiphase Flow. For example, the present development towards the advanced hydrodynamic systems (e.g. space engine, propeller, hydraulic machinery system) often requires that the systems run under cavitating conditions and the risk of cavitation erosion needs to be controlled. The purpose of the ISCM 2014 was to discuss the state-of-the-art cavitation and multiphase flow research and their up-to-date applications, and to foster discussion and exchange of knowledge, and to provide an opportunity for the researchers, engineers and graduate students to report their latest outputs in these fields. Furthermore, the participants were also encouraged to present their work in progress with short lead time and discuss the encountered problems. ISCM 2014 covers all aspects of cavitation and Multiphase Flow, e.g. both fundamental and applied research with a focus on physical insights, numerical modelling and applications in engineering. Some specific topics are: Cavitating and Multiphase Flow in hydroturbines, pumps, propellers etc. Numerical simulation techniques Cavitation and multiphase flow erosion and anti-erosion techniques Measurement techniques for cavitation and
A model for multiphase flows through poroelastic media
Ahmadi, Goodarz; Mazaheri, Ali Reza; Smith, D.H
2003-01-01
A continuum model for multiphase fluid mixture flows through poroelastic media is presented. The basic conservation laws developed via a volume averaging technique are considered. Effects of phasic equilibrated forces are included in the model. Based on the thermodynamics of the multiphase mixture flows, appropriate constitutive equations are formulated. The entropy inequality is exploited, and the method of Lagrangian multiplier is used along with the phasic conservation laws to derive the constitutive equations for the phasic stress tensors, equilibrated stress vectors, and the interactions terms. The special cases of wave propagation in poroelastic media saturated with multiphase fluids, and multiphase flows through porous media, are studied. It is shown that the present theory leads to the extended Darcy’s law and contains, as a special case, Biot’s theory of saturated poroelastic media.
MSTS Multiphase Subsurface Transport Simulator User's Guide and Reference
Nichols, W.E.; White, M.D.
1993-05-01
This User's Guide and Reference provides information and instructions on the use of the Multiphase Subsurface Transport Simulator (MSTS) code and the associated MSTS Graphical Input. The MSTS code is used to simulate water flow, air flow, heat transfer, and dilute species mass transport in variably saturated geologic media for one, two, or three dimensions using an integrated finite-difference numerical scheme. Any or all of these processes may be simulated in a fully coupled manner. MSTS is a two-phase, two-component code with secondary processes that include binary diffusion and vapor pressure lowering. The geologic media may be homogeneous or heterogeneous, isotropic or anisotropic, and unfractured or highly fractured. A problem geometry may be described by either Cartesian or cylindrical coordinates. MSTS is written in FORTRAN 77, following the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards, and is machine-independent with the exception of some time and date calls required for quality control (provisions are made in the code for relatively easy adoption to a number of machines for these calls).
System for measuring multiphase flow using multiple pressure differentials
Fincke, James R.
2003-01-01
An improved method and system for measuring a multi-phase flow in a pressure flow meter. An extended throat venturi is used and pressure of the multi-phase flow is measured at three or more positions in the venturi, which define two or more pressure differentials in the flow conduit. The differential pressures are then used to calculate the mass flow of the gas phase, the total mass flow, and the liquid phase. The system for determining the mass flow of the high void fraction fluid flow and the gas flow includes taking into account a pressure drop experienced by the gas phase due to work performed by the gas phase in accelerating the liquid phase.
Gasificaton Transport: A Multiphase CFD Approach & Measurements
Dimitri Gidaspow; Veeraya Jiradilok; Mayank Kashyap; Benjapon Chalermsinsuwan
2009-02-14
The objective of this project was to develop predictive theories for the dispersion and mass transfer coefficients and to measure them in the turbulent fluidization regime, using existing facilities. A second objective was to use our multiphase CFD tools to suggest optimized gasifier designs consistent with aims of Future Gen. We have shown that the kinetic theory based CFD codes correctly compute: (1) Dispersion coefficients; and (2) Mass transfer coefficients. Hence, the kinetic theory based CFD codes can be used for fluidized bed reactor design without any such inputs. We have also suggested a new energy efficient method of gasifying coal and producing electricity using a molten carbonate fuel cell. The principal product of this new scheme is carbon dioxide which can be converted into useful products such as marble, as is done very slowly in nature. We believe this scheme is a lot better than the canceled FutureGen, since the carbon dioxide is safely sequestered.
Evaluation of Two Lattice Boltzmann Models for Multiphase Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, Shuling; Shan, Xiaowen; Zou, Qisu; Doolen, Gary D.; Soll, Wendy E.
1997-12-01
Two lattice Boltzmann models for multiphase flows, the immiscible fluid model proposed by Rothman and Keller (R-K) and the multicomponent nonideal gas lattice Boltzmann model by Shan and Chen (S-C), are studied numerically to compare their abilities to simulate the physics of multiphase flows. The test problem is the simulation of a static bubble. Isotropy, strength of surface tension, thickness of the interface, spurious currents, Laplace's law, and steadiness of the bubble are examined. The results show that the S-C model is a major improvement over the R-K model.
Numerical Methods and Simulations of Complex Multiphase Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brady, Peter
Multiphase flows are an important part of many natural and technological phenomena such as ocean-air coupling (which is important for climate modeling) and the atomization of liquid fuel jets in combustion engines. The unique challenges of multiphase flow often make analytical solutions to the governing equations impossible and experimental investigations very difficult. Thus, high-fidelity numerical simulations can play a pivotal role in understanding these systems. This dissertation describes numerical methods developed for complex multiphase flows and the simulations performed using these methods. First, the issue of multiphase code verification is addressed. Code verification answers the question "Is this code solving the equations correctly?" The method of manufactured solutions (MMS) is a procedure for generating exact benchmark solutions which can test the most general capabilities of a code. The chief obstacle to applying MMS to multiphase flow lies in the discontinuous nature of the material properties at the interface. An extension of the MMS procedure to multiphase flow is presented, using an adaptive marching tetrahedron style algorithm to compute the source terms near the interface. Guidelines for the use of the MMS to help locate coding mistakes are also detailed. Three multiphase systems are then investigated: (1) the thermocapillary motion of three-dimensional and axisymmetric drops in a confined apparatus, (2) the flow of two immiscible fluids completely filling an enclosed cylinder and driven by the rotation of the bottom endwall, and (3) the atomization of a single drop subjected to a high shear turbulent flow. The systems are simulated numerically by solving the full multiphase Navier-Stokes equations coupled to the various equations of state and a level set interface tracking scheme based on the refined level set grid method. The codes have been parallelized using MPI in order to take advantage of today's very large parallel computational
9th International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF 2016)
2016-08-12
International Conference on Multiphase Flows Event Dates: May 22-27, 2016 Event City and Country: Florence, Italy Grantee (Name and Contact ...and Contact Information): Alfredo Soldati (Tel +39 0432 558020, Fax +39 0432 558027, E-mail: soldati@uniud.it) ONRG CSP Grant Number: N62909-16-1
Finite-Element Analysis of Multiphase Immiscible Flow Through Soils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuppusamy, T.; Sheng, J.; Parker, J. C.; Lenhard, R. J.
1987-04-01
A finite-element model is developed for multiphase flow through soil involving three immiscible fluids: namely, air, water, and a nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL). A variational method is employed for the finite-element formulation corresponding to the coupled differential equations governing flow in a three-fluid phase porous medium system with constant air phase pressure. Constitutive relationships for fluid conductivities and saturations as functions of fluid pressures, which are derived in a companion paper by J. C. Parker et al. (this issue) and which may be calibrated from two-phase laboratory measurements, are employed in the finite-element program. The solution procedure uses backward time integration with iteration by a modified Picard method to handle the nonlinear properties. Laboratory experiments involving water displacement from soil columns by p cymene (a benzene-derivative hydrocarbon) under constant pressure were simulated by the finite-element program to validate the numerical model and formulation for constitutive properties. Transient water outflow predicted using independently measured saturation-capillary head data agreed with observed outflow data within the limits of precision of the predictions as estimated by a first-order Taylor series approximation considering parameter uncertainty due to experimental reproducability and constitutive model accuracy. Two-dimensional simulations are presented for a hypothetical field case involving introduction of NAPL near the soil surface due to leakage from an underground storage tank. Subsequent transport of NAPL in the variably saturated vadose and groundwater zones is analyzed.
Wettability control on multiphase flow in patterned microfluidics
Zhao, Benzhong; Juanes, Ruben
2016-01-01
Multiphase flow in porous media is important in many natural and industrial processes, including geologic CO2 sequestration, enhanced oil recovery, and water infiltration into soil. Although it is well known that the wetting properties of porous media can vary drastically depending on the type of media and pore fluids, the effect of wettability on multiphase flow continues to challenge our microscopic and macroscopic descriptions. Here, we study the impact of wettability on viscously unfavorable fluid–fluid displacement in disordered media by means of high-resolution imaging in microfluidic flow cells patterned with vertical posts. By systematically varying the wettability of the flow cell over a wide range of contact angles, we find that increasing the substrate’s affinity to the invading fluid results in more efficient displacement of the defending fluid up to a critical wetting transition, beyond which the trend is reversed. We identify the pore-scale mechanisms—cooperative pore filling (increasing displacement efficiency) and corner flow (decreasing displacement efficiency)—responsible for this macroscale behavior, and show that they rely on the inherent 3D nature of interfacial flows, even in quasi-2D media. Our results demonstrate the powerful control of wettability on multiphase flow in porous media, and show that the markedly different invasion protocols that emerge—from pore filling to postbridging—are determined by physical mechanisms that are missing from current pore-scale and continuum-scale descriptions. PMID:27559089
Wettability control on multiphase flow in patterned microfluidics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Juanes, Ruben; Zhao, Benzhong; MacMinn, Christopher
2016-11-01
Multiphase flow in porous media is important in many natural and industrial processes, including geologic CO2 sequestration, enhanced oil recovery, and water infiltration into soil. Although it is well known that the wetting properties of porous media can vary drastically depending on the type of media and pore fluids, the effect of wettability on multiphase flow continues to challenge our microscopic and macroscopic descriptions. Here, we study the impact of wettability on viscously unfavorable fluid-fluid displacement in disordered media by means of high-resolution imaging in microfluidic flow cells patterned with vertical posts. By systematically varying the wettability of the flow cell over a wide range of contact angles, we find that increasing the substrate's affinity to the injected fluid results in more efficient displacement of the defending fluid up to a critical wetting transition, beyond which the trend is reversed. We identify the pore-scale mechanisms-cooperative pore filling (increasing displacement efficiency) and corner flow (decreasing displacement efficiency)-responsible for this macroscale behavior, and show that they rely on the inherent 3D nature of interfacial flows, even in quasi-2D media. Our results demonstrate the powerful control of wettability on multiphase flow in porous media, and show that the markedly different invasion protocols that emerge-from pore-filling to post-bridging-are determined by physical mechanisms that are missing from current pore-scale and continuum-scale descriptions.
The study of multiphase flow control during odor reproduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Dehan; Yu, Hao; Fan, Danjun; He, Meiqiu
2014-04-01
Odor reproduction, is the use of the chemical composition of the basic components of odor recipe, according to a certain proportion, to control the flow of the various components, which make them sufficiently blended to achieve reproduction. In this paper, reproducing method is to find the corresponding liquid flavor, and then based on chemical flavor recipes, using flowmeters to control the chemical composition of the liquid flavor ratio. In the proportional control, the liquid chemical composition is very likely to be volatile, so that the proportional control is multiphase flow control. Measurement of the flow control will directly affect the odor reproducible results. Using electronic nose to obtain reproducible odor data, and then use pattern recognition algorithm to determine reproducible results. The experimental results can be achieved on the process of odor components multiphase flow proportional control parameter adjustment.
Sand transport and deposition in horizontal multiphase trunklines of subsea satellite developments
Oudeman, P. )
1993-11-01
Gravel packing is unattractive as a way to protect against the effects of sand production in subsea wells because it involves additional completion costs, loss of productivity, and difficulties in subsequent recompletion/well servicing operations. On the other hand, omitting gravel packs means that subsea developments must be designed and operated so that they can tolerate sand production. An experimental study was carried out on sand transport and deposition in multiphase flow in modeled subsea flowlines to address the problem and sand collection in horizontal trunklines, which could lead to reduced line throughput, pigging problems, enhanced pipe-bottom erosion, or even blockage. This study led to the definition of a new model for sand transport in multiphase flow, which was used to establish the risk of sand deposition in trunklines connecting a subsea development to nearby production platform.
Simulation of Compressible Multi-Phase Turbulent Reacting Flows
2008-09-01
Technology, 160:119– 150, 2000. [32] W.-W. Kim, S. Menon, and H. C. Mongia . Large eddy simulations of a gas turbine combustor flow. Combustion Science and...structures and shock induced heating can trigger ignition, combustion and turbulent flame propagation. In this research, a new and an efficient...Simulation of Compressible Multi-Phase Turbulent Reacting Flows Suresh Menon and Franklin Génin Computational Combustion Laboratory School of Aerospace
Grain transport mechanics in shallow overland flow
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
A physical model based on continuum multiphase flow is described to represent saltating transport of grains in shallow overland flow. The two phase continuum flow of water and sediment considers coupled St.Venant type equations. The interactive cumulative effect of grains is incorporated by a disper...
Grain transport mechanics in shallow flow
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
A physical model based on continuum multiphase flow is described to represent saltating transport of grains in shallow overland flows. The two-phase continuum flow of water and sediment considers coupled St.Venant type equations. The interactive cumulative effect of grains is incorporated by a dispe...
Applying uncertainty quantification to multiphase flow computational fluid dynamics
Gel, A; Garg, R; Tong, C; Shahnam, M; Guenther, C
2013-07-01
Multiphase computational fluid dynamics plays a major role in design and optimization of fossil fuel based reactors. There is a growing interest in accounting for the influence of uncertainties associated with physical systems to increase the reliability of computational simulation based engineering analysis. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has recently undertaken an initiative to characterize uncertainties associated with computer simulation of reacting multiphase flows encountered in energy producing systems such as a coal gasifier. The current work presents the preliminary results in applying non-intrusive parametric uncertainty quantification and propagation techniques with NETL's open-source multiphase computational fluid dynamics software MFIX. For this purpose an open-source uncertainty quantification toolkit, PSUADE developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been interfaced with MFIX software. In this study, the sources of uncertainty associated with numerical approximation and model form have been neglected, and only the model input parametric uncertainty with forward propagation has been investigated by constructing a surrogate model based on data-fitted response surface for a multiphase flow demonstration problem. Monte Carlo simulation was employed for forward propagation of the aleatory type input uncertainties. Several insights gained based on the outcome of these simulations are presented such as how inadequate characterization of uncertainties can affect the reliability of the prediction results. Also a global sensitivity study using Sobol' indices was performed to better understand the contribution of input parameters to the variability observed in response variable.
Shock driven multiphase flow with particle evaporation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dahal, Jeevan; McFarland, Jacob
2016-11-01
The computational study of the shock driven instability of a multiphase system with particle evaporation is presented. The particle evaporation modifies the evolution of the interface due to the addition of the vapor phase to the gas. The effects can be quantitatively measured by studying various gas parameters like density, temperature, vorticity and particle properties like diameter and temperature. In addition, the size distribution of particles also modifies the development of instability as the larger size particles damp the evolution of interface in comparison to the smaller size particles. The simulation results are presented to study these effects using FLASH developed at the FLASH Center at the University of Chicago. The capabilities of FLASH for particle modeling were extended using the Particle in Cell (PIC) technique for coupling of mass, momentum, and energy between the particle and carrier gas. A seeded cylinder of gas with particles having either a single radius or a distribution of radii was studied. The enstrophy production and destruction mechanisms were explored to understand the reason for change in vorticity with particle size.
Development of Next Generation Multiphase Pipe Flow Prediction Tools
Tulsa Fluid Flow
2008-08-31
The developments of fields in deep waters (5000 ft and more) is a common occurrence. It is inevitable that production systems will operate under multiphase flow conditions (simultaneous flow of gas-oil-and water possibly along with sand, hydrates, and waxes). Multiphase flow prediction tools are essential for every phase of the hydrocarbon recovery from design to operation. The recovery from deep-waters poses special challenges and requires accurate multiphase flow predictive tools for several applications including the design and diagnostics of the production systems, separation of phases in horizontal wells, and multiphase separation (topside, seabed or bottom-hole). It is very crucial to any multiphase separation technique that is employed either at topside, seabed or bottom-hole to know inlet conditions such as the flow rates, flow patterns, and volume fractions of gas, oil and water coming into the separation devices. The overall objective was to develop a unified model for gas-oil-water three-phase flow in wells, flow lines, and pipelines to predict the flow characteristics such as flow patterns, phase distributions, and pressure gradient encountered during petroleum production at different flow conditions (pipe diameter and inclination, fluid properties and flow rates). The project was conducted in two periods. In Period 1 (four years), gas-oil-water flow in pipes were investigated to understand the fundamental physical mechanisms describing the interaction between the gas-oil-water phases under flowing conditions, and a unified model was developed utilizing a novel modeling approach. A gas-oil-water pipe flow database including field and laboratory data was formed in Period 2 (one year). The database was utilized in model performance demonstration. Period 1 primarily consisted of the development of a unified model and software to predict the gas-oil-water flow, and experimental studies of the gas-oil-water project, including flow behavior description and
Measurement Of Multiphase Flow Water Fraction And Water-cut
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Cheng-gang
2007-06-01
This paper describes a microwave transmission multiphase flow water-cut meter that measures the amplitude attenuation and phase shift across a pipe diameter at multiple frequencies using cavity-backed antennas. The multiphase flow mixture permittivity and conductivity are derived from a unified microwave transmission model for both water- and oil-continuous flows over a wide water-conductivity range; this is far beyond the capability of microwave-resonance-based sensors currently on the market. The water fraction and water cut are derived from a three-component gas-oil-water mixing model using the mixture permittivity or the mixture conductivity and an independently measured mixture density. Water salinity variations caused, for example, by changing formation water or formation/injection water breakthrough can be detected and corrected using an online water-conductivity tracking technique based on the interpretation of the mixture permittivity and conductivity, simultaneously measured by a single-modality microwave sensor.
Multiscale Modeling of Multiphase Fluid Flow
2016-08-01
4 3 TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF WATER AND SODIUM DODECYL...surfactant ( sodium dodecylsulfate) aqueous solutions, the solvent effects on the solubility of the products of the thermal decomposition reaction of ammonium...Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. 3 TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF WATER AND SODIUM DODECYL SULFATE FROM MD SIMULATIONS We performed an
Multiphase flow in geometrically simple fracture intersections
Basagaoglu, H.; Meakin, P.; Green, C.T.; Mathew, M.; ,
2006-01-01
A two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann (LB) model with fluid-fluid and solid-fluid interaction potentials was used to study gravity-driven flow in geometrically simple fracture intersections. Simulated scenarios included fluid dripping from a fracture aperture, two-phase flow through intersecting fractures and thin-film flow on smooth and undulating solid surfaces. Qualitative comparisons with recently published experimental findings indicate that for these scenarios the LB model captured the underlying physics reasonably well.
Multiphase Flow: The Gravity of the Situation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hewitt, Geoffrey F.
1996-01-01
A brief survey is presented of flow patterns in two-phase, gas-liquid flows at normal and microgravity, the differences between them being explored. It seems that the flow patterns in zero gravity are in general much simpler than those in normal gravity with only three main regimes (namely bubbly, slug and annular flows) being observed. Each of these three regimes is then reviewed, with particular reference to identification of areas of study where investigation of flows at microgravity might not only be interesting in themselves, but also throw light on mechanisms at normal earth gravity. In bubbly flow, the main area of interest seems to be that of bubble coalescence. In slug flow, the extension of simple displacement experiments to the zero gravity case would appear to be a useful option, supplemented by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies. For annular flow, the most interesting area appears to be the study of the mechanisms of disturbance waves; it should be possible to extend the region of investigation of the onset and behavior of these waves to much low gas velocities where measurements are clearly much easier.
Experimental and computational analysis of pressure response in a multiphase flow loop
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morshed, Munzarin; Amin, Al; Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Imtiaz, Syed
2016-07-01
The characteristics of multiphase fluid flow in pipes are useful to understand fluid mechanics encountered in the oil and gas industries. In the present day oil and gas exploration is successively inducing subsea operation in the deep sea and arctic condition. During the transport of petroleum products, understanding the fluid dynamics inside the pipe network is important for flow assurance. In this case the information regarding static and dynamic pressure response, pressure loss, optimum flow rate, pipe diameter etc. are the important parameter for flow assurance. The principal aim of this research is to represents computational analysis and experimental analysis of multi-phase (L/G) in a pipe network. This computational study considers a two-phase fluid flow through a horizontal flow loop with at different Reynolds number in order to determine the pressure distribution, frictional pressure loss profiles by volume of fluid (VOF) method. However, numerical simulations are validated with the experimental data. The experiment is conducted in 76.20 mm ID transparent circular pipe using water and air in the flow loop. Static pressure transducers are used to measure local pressure response in multiphase pipeline.
Considerations for developing models of multiphase flow in deformable porous media.
Martinez, Mario J.; Stone, Charles Michael
2008-09-01
This document summarizes research and planning for the development of a numerical simulation capability for nonisothermal multiphase, multicomponent transport in heterogeneous deformable porous materials. Particular attention is given to describing a mathematical formulation for flow in deformable media and for numerical techniques for dealing with phase transitions. A development plan is formulated to provide a computational capability motivated by current and future needs in geosystems management for energy security.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, Bhim S.
2003-01-01
NASA is preparing to undertake science-driven exploration missions. The NASA Exploration Team's vision is a cascade of stepping stones. The stepping-stone will build the technical capabilities needed for each step with multi-use technologies and capabilities. An Agency-wide technology investment and development program is necessary to implement the vision. The NASA Exploration Team has identified a number of areas where significant advances are needed to overcome all engineering and medical barriers to the expansion of human space exploration beyond low-Earth orbit. Closed-loop life support systems and advanced propulsion and power technologies are among the areas requiring significant advances from the current state-of-the-art. Studies conducted by the National Academy of Science's National Research Council and Workshops organized by NASA have shown that multiphase flow and phase change play a crucial role in many of these advanced technology concepts. Lack of understanding of multiphase flow, phase change, and interfacial phenomena in the microgravity environment has been a major hurdle. An understanding of multiphase flow and phase change in microgravity is, therefore, critical to advancing many technologies needed. Recognizing this, the Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) has initiated a strategic research thrust to augment the ongoing fundamental research in fluid physics and transport phenomena discipline with research especially aimed at understanding key multiphase flow related issues in propulsion, power, thermal control, and closed-loop advanced life support systems. A plan for integrated theoretical and experimental research that has the highest probability of providing data, predictive tools, and models needed by the systems developers to incorporate highly promising multiphase-based technologies is currently in preparation. This plan is being developed with inputs from scientific community, NASA mission planners and industry personnel
Multiphase Flow Modeling of Biofuel Production Processes
D. Gaston; D. P. Guillen; J. Tester
2011-06-01
As part of the Idaho National Laboratory's (INL's) Secure Energy Initiative, the INL is performing research in areas that are vital to ensuring clean, secure energy supplies for the future. The INL Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory is being established to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective to safeguard U.S. Energy Security by reducing dependence on foreign petroleum. HYTEST involves producing liquid fuels in a Hybrid Energy System (HES) by integrating carbon-based (i.e., bio-mass, oil-shale, etc.) with non-carbon based energy sources (i.e., wind energy, hydro, geothermal, nuclear, etc.). Advances in process development, control and modeling are the unifying vision for HES. This paper describes new modeling tools and methodologies to simulate advanced energy processes. Needs are emerging that require advanced computational modeling of multiphase reacting systems in the energy arena, driven by the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act, which requires production of 36 billion gal/yr of biofuels by 2022, with 21 billion gal of this as advanced biofuels. Advanced biofuels derived from microalgal biomass have the potential to help achieve the 21 billion gal mandate, as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Production of biofuels from microalgae is receiving considerable interest due to their potentially high oil yields (around 600 gal/acre). Microalgae have a high lipid content (up to 50%) and grow 10 to 100 times faster than terrestrial plants. The use of environmentally friendly alternatives to solvents and reagents commonly employed in reaction and phase separation processes is being explored. This is accomplished through the use of hydrothermal technologies, which are chemical and physical transformations in high-temperature (200-600 C), high-pressure (5-40 MPa) liquid or supercritical water. Figure 1 shows a simplified diagram of the production of biofuels from algae. Hydrothermal processing has significant
Chen, Li; Kang, Qinjun; Robinson, Bruce A; He, Ya-Ling; Tao, Wen-Quan
2013-04-01
A pore-scale model based on the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method is developed for multiphase reactive transport with phase transitions and dissolution-precipitation processes. The model combines the single-component multiphase Shan-Chen LB model [X. Shan and H. Chen, Phys. Rev. E 47, 1815 (1993)], the mass transport LB model [S. P. Sullivan et al., Chem. Eng. Sci. 60, 3405 (2005)], and the dissolution-precipitation model [Q. Kang et al., J. Geophys. Res. 111, B05203 (2006)]. Care is taken to handle information on computational nodes undergoing solid-liquid or liquid-vapor phase changes to guarantee mass and momentum conservation. A general LB concentration boundary condition is proposed that can handle various concentration boundaries including reactive and moving boundaries with complex geometries. The pore-scale model can capture coupled nonlinear multiple physicochemical processes including multiphase flow with phase separations, mass transport, chemical reactions, dissolution-precipitation processes, and dynamic evolution of the pore geometries. The model is validated using several multiphase flow and reactive transport problems and then used to study the thermal migration of a brine inclusion in a salt crystal. Multiphase reactive transport phenomena with phase transitions between liquid-vapor phases and dissolution-precipitation processes of the salt in the closed inclusion are simulated and the effects of the initial inclusion size and temperature gradient on the thermal migration are investigated.
Multiphase Flow and Cavern Abandonment in Salt
Ehgartner, Brian; Tidwell, Vince
2001-02-13
This report will explore the hypothesis that an underground cavity in gassy salt will eventually be gas filled as is observed on a small scale in some naturally occurring salt inclusions. First, a summary is presented on what is known about gas occurrences, flow mechanisms, and cavern behavior after abandonment. Then, background information is synthesized into theory on how gas can fill a cavern and simultaneously displace cavern fluids into the surrounding salt. Lastly, two-phase (gas and brine) flow visualization experiments are presented that demonstrate some of the associated flow mechanisms and support the theory and hypothesis that a cavity in salt can become gas filled after plugging and abandonment
Multiphase flow in fractured porous media
Firoozabadi, A.
1995-02-01
The major goal of this research project was to improve the understanding of the gas-oil two-phase flow in fractured porous media. In addition, miscible displacement was studied to evaluate its promise for enhanced recovery.
Modeling non-isothermal multiphase multi-species reactive chemical transport in geologic media
Tianfu Xu; Gerard, F.; Pruess, K.; Brimhall, G.
1997-07-01
The assessment of mineral deposits, the analysis of hydrothermal convection systems, the performance of radioactive, urban and industrial waste disposal, the study of groundwater pollution, and the understanding of natural groundwater quality patterns all require modeling tools that can consider both the transport of dissolved species as well as their interactions with solid (or other) phases in geologic media and engineered barriers. Here, a general multi-species reactive transport formulation has been developed, which is applicable to homogeneous and/or heterogeneous reactions that can proceed either subject to local equilibrium conditions or kinetic rates under non-isothermal multiphase flow conditions. Two numerical solution methods, the direct substitution approach (DSA) and sequential iteration approach (SIA) for solving the coupled complex subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes, are described. An efficient sequential iteration approach, which solves transport of solutes and chemical reactions sequentially and iteratively, is proposed for the current reactive chemical transport computer code development. The coupled flow (water, vapor, air and heat) and solute transport equations are also solved sequentially. The existing multiphase flow code TOUGH2 and geochemical code EQ3/6 are used to implement this SIA. The flow chart of the coupled code TOUGH2-EQ3/6, required modifications of the existing codes and additional subroutines needed are presented.
Experimental and numerical investigation of multiphase flow in disordered media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riaz, Amir; Tchelepi, Hamdi; Cinar, Yildiray
2008-11-01
We present laboratory scale experiments and network simulations to investigate the influence of capillary, gravitational and viscous forces on multiphase flow in disordered microscopic media. Two-dimensional experiments, which are performed in a vertical glass bead pack to understand microscopic behavior, demonstrate the existence of small scale instability that is analyzed with the theory of invasion percolation. Numerical simulations based on pore networks are carried out to help investigate the possibility of developing effective conservation laws at the macroscopic scale.
Advanced material distribution measurement in multiphase flows: A case study
George, D.L.; Ceccio, S.L.; O`Hern, T.J.; Shollenberger, K.A.; Torczynski, J.R.
1998-08-01
A variety of tomographic techniques that have been applied to multiphase flows are described. The methods discussed include electrical impedance tomography (EIT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), gamma-densitometry tomography (GDT), radiative particle tracking (RDT), X-ray imaging, and acoustic tomography. Also presented is a case study in which measurements were made with EIT and GDT in two-phase flows. Both solid-liquid and gas-liquid flows were examined. EIT and GDT were applied independently to predict mean and spatially resolved phase volume fractions. The results from the two systems compared well.
Vorticity generation in compressible multiphase flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ballil, A.; Nowakowski, A. F.; Jolgam, S.; Nicolleau, F. C. G. A.
2014-08-01
The simulations of flows in inhomogeneous media of various physical regimes leading to shock-bubble interactions were performed using a developed numerical code based on a multi-component flow model. The numerical method which considers interfaces represented by contact discontinuities as numerically diffused zones, has been applied to simulate compressible two-phase flows. The approach takes advantage of the inherent numerical diffusion present in solutions. The mathematical formulation of the presented method is obtained after an averaging process of the single phase Navier-Stokes equations and contains the non-conservative equations and non-conservative terms that exist in the model to fulfill the interface condition. The finite volume Godunov-type computational technique, equipped with an approximate Riemann solver for calculating fluxes, is applied to simulate flows in two space dimensions. The approach accounts for pressure non-equilibrium. It resolves interfaces separating compressible fluids and captures the baroclinic source of vorticity generation. A numerically challenging shock bubble interaction problem is investigated to evaluate the effect of the Atwood number and shock wave intensity (various Mach numbers) on the interface evolution and vorticity generation.
Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchanges
Syamlal, Madhava; Rogers, William; O'Brien, Thomas J.
1995-03-01
MFIX is a general-purpose hydrodynamic model that describes chemical reactions and heat transfer in dense or dilute fluid-solids flows, flows typically occurring in energy conversion and chemical processing reactors. With such information, the engineer can visualize the conditions in the reactor, conduct parametric studies and what-if experiments, and, thereby, assist in the design process. MFIX has the following modeling capabilities: mass and momentum balance equations for gas and multiple solids phases; a gas phase and two solids phase energy equation; an arbitrary number of species balance equations for each of the phases; granular stress equations based on kinetic theory and frictional flow theory; a user-defined chemistry subroutine; three-dimensional Cartesin or cylindrical coordinate systems; nonuniform mesh size; impermeable and semi-permeable internal surfaces; user-friendly input data file; multiple, single-precision, binary direct-access output files that minimize disk storage and accelerate data retrieval; extensive error reporting; post-processors for creating animations and for extracting and manipulating output data.
Numerical Simulation of Multiphase Flow in Solid Rocket Motors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Attili, A.; Favini, B.; Di Giacinto, M.; Serraglia, F.
2009-01-01
In the paper a general mathematical description of the flow in the internal chamber of solid rocket motors is presented. The formulation adopted take into account the multi-species and multiphase, reactive, multidimensional characteristics of the flow. The grain combustion is described by a pressure dependent law; aluminum droplet are modelled by a Lagrangian approach, coupled with the Eulerian formulation adopted for the gas phase. The mathematical model has been implemented in a simulation code and several simulations have been performed; in particular in the paper the re- sults for two geometries are described: a simple cylindrical port-area rocket and the Zefiro 9 SRM.
Preconditioning methods for ideal and multiphase fluid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Ashish
The objective of this study is to develop a preconditioning method for ideal and multiphase multispecies compressible fluid flow solver using homogeneous equilibrium mixture model. The mathematical model for fluid flow going through phase change uses density and temperature in the formulation, where the density represents the multiphase mixture density. The change of phase of the fluid is then explicitly determined using the equation of state of the fluid, which only requires temperature and mixture density. The method developed is based on a finite-volume framework in which the numerical fluxes are computed using Roe's approximate Riemann solver and the modified Harten, Lax and Van-leer scheme (HLLC). All speed Roe and HLLC flux based schemes have been developed either by using preconditioning or by directly modifying dissipation to reduce the effect of acoustic speed in its numerical dissipation when Mach number decreases. Preconditioning proposed by Briley, Taylor and Whitfield, Eriksson and Turkel are studied in this research, where as low dissipation schemes proposed by Rieper and Thornber, Mosedale, Drikakis, Youngs and Williams are also considered. Various preconditioners are evaluated in terms of development, performance, accuracy and limitations in simulations at various Mach numbers. A generalized preconditioner is derived which possesses well conditioned eigensystem for multiphase multispecies flow simulations. Validation and verification of the solution procedure are carried out on several small model problems with comparison to experimental, theoretical, and other numerical results. Preconditioning methods are evaluated using three basic geometries; 1) bump in a channel 2) flow over a NACA0012 airfoil and 3) flow over a cylinder, which are then compared with theoretical and numerical results. Multiphase capabilities of the solver are evaluated in cryogenic and non-cryogenic conditions. For cryogenic conditions the solver is evaluated by predicting
Multiphase Flow in Micro-fracture Junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basagaoglu, H.; Meakin, P.; Succi, S.; Wildenschild, D.
2005-12-01
A two-dimensional two-phase lattice-Boltzmann model was used to simulate immiscible fluid flow in four micro-fracture geometries closely related to geological fractured systems: (1) a fracture junction with fractal surfaces embedded in a non-porous matrix; (2) a fracture junction embedded in a heterogeneous porous matrix; (3) a heterogeneous porous medium overlying a fracture with fractal surfaces; and (4) a fracture network with fractal surfaces enclosed by a non-porous medium. The spatio-temporal distributions of fluids in fracture junctions were controlled by interplays between velocity-dependent contact angle dynamics, mediated by surface roughness, and pore-scale gravitational, viscous, and capillary forces. All simulations were conducted with actual physical units. Sensitivities of lateral and vertical spreads of fluids in the fracture junctions to the orientation of fracture junctions (tilted vs. vertical) and the wetting strength of fluids were analyzed via temporal moment analyses for the first two geometries. The simulation results revealed that the receding and advancing contact angles varied strongly with the transient fluid velocity. The patterns and distributions of thin films (continuous vs. discontinuous) on rough fracture walls were largely controlled by the wetting strength of the fluids. The spatio-temporal distributions of fluids were highly sensitive to the domain size and boundary conditions (periodic, no-flow, constant density, and flux-type). Single- and two-sided wetting of fracture aperture walls and long-term entrapment of a nonwetting less-dense fluid by a wetting dense fluid were observed in the simulations. These numerical results are useful for the design of experiments and for analyzing the relative strengths of pore-scale processes in more complex and realistic fracture systems such as those encountered at the Yucca Mountain and Idaho National Laboratory sites.
Investigation on Online Multiphase Flow Meter in oilfield Based on Open Channel Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, L. Y.; Wang, W. C.; Li, Y. X.; Zhang, J.; Dong, S. P.
2010-03-01
Flow metering of multiphase pipeline is an urgently problem needed to be solved in oilfield producing in China. Based on the principle of multiphase oil and gas flow in the open channel, four liquid metering models(Falling Model I, Falling Model II, Open Channel Model and Element Resistance Model) and one gas model were obtained to calculate the gas and liquid flow rate, in which the water cut was measured by the differential pressure. And then a new type of multiphase meter system was developed based on these models and neural networks were developed to improve the estimating results of gas and liquid flow rate with the new metering system. At last a lot of experiments of multiphase metering were finished in lab and field. According to the experiments, the results of the metering system show that the liquid flow rate error was no more than 10%, and gas flow rate error was no more than 15%, which can meet the demand of the field flow rate measurement. Furthermore the relationship between liquid and gas flow rate and characteristic signals was found out through the experiments so as to deepening the study on multiphase flow metering technology.
Interface effects on multiphase flows in porous media
Zhang, Duan Z
2008-01-01
Most models for multiphase flows in a porous medium are based on the straightforward extension of Darcy's law, in which each fluid phase is driven by its own pressure gradient. The pressure difference between the phases is thought to be an effect of surface tension and is called capillary pressure. Independent of Darcy's law, for liquid imbibition processes in a porous material, diffusion models are sometime used. In this paper, an ensemble phase averaging technique for continuous multi phase flows is applied to derive averaged equations and to examine the validity of the commonly used models. The closure for the averaged equations is quite complicated for general multiphase flows in a porous material. For flows with a small ratio of the characteristic length of the phase interfaces to the macroscopic length, the closure relations can be simplified significantly by an approximation with a second order error in the length ratio. The approximation reveals the information of the length scale separation obscured during the ensemble averaging process, and leads to an equation system similar to Darcy's law, but with additional terms. Based on interactions on phase interfaces, relations among closure quantities are studied.
Intrusive Method for Uncertainty Quantification in a Multiphase Flow Solver
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turnquist, Brian; Owkes, Mark
2016-11-01
Uncertainty quantification (UQ) is a necessary, interesting, and often neglected aspect of fluid flow simulations. To determine the significance of uncertain initial and boundary conditions, a multiphase flow solver is being created which extends a single phase, intrusive, polynomial chaos scheme into multiphase flows. Reliably estimating the impact of input uncertainty on design criteria can help identify and minimize unwanted variability in critical areas, and has the potential to help advance knowledge in atomizing jets, jet engines, pharmaceuticals, and food processing. Use of an intrusive polynomial chaos method has been shown to significantly reduce computational cost over non-intrusive collocation methods such as Monte-Carlo. This method requires transforming the model equations into a weak form through substitution of stochastic (random) variables. Ultimately, the model deploys a stochastic Navier Stokes equation, a stochastic conservative level set approach including reinitialization, as well as stochastic normals and curvature. By implementing these approaches together in one framework, basic problems may be investigated which shed light on model expansion, uncertainty theory, and fluid flow in general. NSF Grant Number 1511325.
Experimental research of multiphase flow with cavitation in the nozzle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozubkova, Milada; Bojko, Marian; Jablonska, Jana; Homa, Dorota; Tůma, Jiří
2016-03-01
The paper deals with the problems of cavitation in water flow in the nozzle. The area of research is divided into two directions (experimental and numerical research). During the experimental research the equipment with the nozzle is under the measurement and basic physical quantities such as pressure and volume flow rate are recorded. In the following phase measuring of noise which is generated during flow through the nozzle in the area of cavitation is measured at various operating conditions of the pump. In the second part the appropriate multiphase mathematical model including the consideration of cavitation is defined. Boundary conditions for numerical simulation are defined on the basis of experimental measurements. Undissolved air in the flow is taken into account to obtain pressure distribution in accordance to measured one. Results of the numerical simulation are presented by means of basic current quantities such as pressure, velocity and volume fractions of each phase. The conclusions obtained from experimental research of cavitation were applied to modify the multiphase mathematical model.
Direct Numerical Simulation of Multiphase Flows with Unstable Interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schillaci, Eugenio; Lehmkuhl, Oriol; Antepara, Oscar; Oliva, Assensi
2016-09-01
This paper presents a numerical model that intends to simulate efficiently the surface instability that arise in multiphase flows, typically liquid-gas, both for laminar or turbulent regimes. The model is developed on the in-house computing platform TermoFluids, and operates the finite-volume, direct numerical simulation (DNS) of multiphase flows by means of a conservative level-set method for the interface-capturing. The mesh size is optimized by means of an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) strategy, that allows the dynamic re-concentration of the mesh in the vicinity of the interfaces between fluids, in order to correctly represent the diverse structures (as ligaments and droplets) that may rise from unstable phenomena. In addition, special attention is given to the discretization of the various terms of the momentum equations, to ensure stability of the flow and correct representation of turbulent vortices. As shown, the method is capable of truthfully simulate the interface phenomena as the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and the Plateau-Rayleigh instability, both in the case of 2-D and 3-D configurations. Therefore it is suitable for the simulation of complex phenomena such as simulation of air-blast atomization, with several important application in the field of automotive and aerospace engines. A prove is given by our preliminary study of the 3-D coaxial liquid-gas jet.
Equations and simulations for multiphase compressible gas-dust flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oran, Elaine; Houim, Ryan
2014-11-01
Dust-gas multiphase flows are important in physical scenarios such as dust explosions in coal mines, asteroid impact disturbing lunar regolith, and soft aircraft landings dispersing desert or beach sand. In these cases, the gas flow regime can range from highly subsonic and nearly incompressible to supersonic and shock-laden flow, the grain packing can range from fully packed to completely dispersed, and both the gas and the dust can range from chemically inert to highly exothermic. To cover the necessary parameter range in a single model, we solve coupled sets of Navier-Stokes equations describing the background gas and the dust. As an example, a reactive-dust explosion that results in a type of shock-flame complex is described and discussed. Sponsored by the University of Maryland through Minta Martin Endowment Funds in the Department of Aerospace Engineering, and through the Glenn L. Martin Institute Chaired Professorship at the A. James Clark School of Engineering.
Impact Detection for Characterization of Complex Multiphase Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, Wai Hong Ronald; Urzay, Javier; Mani, Ali; Moin, Parviz
2016-11-01
Multiphase flows often involve a wide range of impact events, such as liquid droplets impinging on a liquid pool or gas bubbles coalescing in a liquid medium. These events contribute to a myriad of large-scale phenomena, including breaking waves on ocean surfaces. As impacts between surfaces necessarily occur at isolated points, numerical simulations of impact events will require the resolution of molecular scales near the impact points for accurate modeling. This can be prohibitively expensive unless subgrid impact and breakup models are formulated to capture the effects of the interactions. The first step in a large-eddy simulation (LES) based computational methodology for complex multiphase flows like air-sea interactions requires effective detection of these impact events. The starting point of this work is a collision detection algorithm for structured grids on a coupled level set / volume of fluid (CLSVOF) solver adapted from an earlier algorithm for cloth animations that triangulates the interface with the marching cubes method. We explore the extension of collision detection to a geometric VOF solver and to unstructured grids. Supported by ONR/A*STAR. Agency of Science, Technology and Research, Singapore; Office of Naval Research, USA.
Modeling oceanic multiphase flow by using Lagrangian particle tracking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumura, Y.
2014-12-01
While the density of seawater is basically determined by its temperature, salinity and pressure, the effective density becomes higher when the water mass contains suspended sediment. On the other hands, effective density declines when water mass contains fine scale materials of lower density such as bubbles and ice crystals. Such density anomaly induced by small scale materials suspended in water masses sometimes plays important roles in the sub-mesoscale ocean physics. To simulate these small scale oceanic multiphase flow, a new modeling framework using an online Lagrangian particle tracking method is developed. A Lagrangian particle tracking method has substantial advantages such as an explicit treatment of buoyancy force acting on each individual particle, no numerical diffusion and dissipation, high dynamic range and an ability to track the history and each individual particle. However, its numerical cost causes difficulty when we try to simulate a large number of particles. In the present study we implement a numerically efficient particle tracking scheme using linked-list data structure, which is coupled with a nonhydrostatic dynamical core. This newly developed model successfully reproduces characteristics of some interesting small scale multiphase processes, for example hyperpycnal flow (a sediment-rich river water plume trapped at ocean floor) and grease ice cover (a slurry mixture of frazil ice crystals and seawater).
Advanced tomographic flow diagnostics for opaque multiphase fluids
Torczynski, J.R.; O`Hern, T.J.; Adkins, D.R.; Jackson, N.B.; Shollenberger, K.A.
1997-05-01
This report documents the work performed for the ``Advanced Tomographic Flow Diagnostics for Opaque Multiphase Fluids`` LDRD (Laboratory-Directed Research and Development) project and is presented as the fulfillment of the LDRD reporting requirement. Dispersed multiphase flows, particularly gas-liquid flows, are industrially important to the chemical and applied-energy industries, where bubble-column reactors are employed for chemical synthesis and waste treatment. Due to the large range of length scales (10{sup {minus}6}-10{sup 1}m) inherent in real systems, direct numerical simulation is not possible at present, so computational simulations are forced to use models of subgrid-scale processes, the accuracy of which strongly impacts simulation fidelity. The development and validation of such subgrid-scale models requires data sets at representative conditions. The ideal measurement techniques would provide spatially and temporally resolved full-field measurements of the distributions of all phases, their velocity fields, and additional associated quantities such as pressure and temperature. No technique or set of techniques is known that satisfies this requirement. In this study, efforts are focused on characterizing the spatial distribution of the phases in two-phase gas-liquid flow and in three-phase gas-liquid-solid flow. Due to its industrial importance, the bubble-column geometry is selected for diagnostics development and assessment. Two bubble-column testbeds are utilized: one at laboratory scale and one close to industrial scale. Several techniques for measuring the phase distributions at conditions of industrial interest are examined: level-rise measurements, differential-pressure measurements, bulk electrical impedance measurements, electrical bubble probes, x-ray tomography, gamma-densitometry tomography, and electrical impedance tomography.
Modeling studies for multiphase fluid and heat flow processes in nuclear waste isolation
Pruess, K.
1988-07-01
Multiphase fluid and heat flow plays an important role in many problems relating to the disposal of nuclear wastes in geologic media. Examples include boiling and condensation processes near heat-generating wastes, flow of water and formation gas in partially saturated formations, evolution of a free gas phase from waste package corrosion in initially water-saturated environments, and redistribution (dissolution, transport, and precipitation) of rock minerals in non-isothermal flow fields. Such processes may strongly impact upon waste package and repository design considerations and performance. This paper summarizes important physical phenomena occurring in multiphase and nonisothermal flows, as well as techniques for their mathematical modeling and numerical simulation. Illustrative applications are given for a number of specific fluid and heat flow problems, including: thermohydrologic conditions near heat-generating waste packages in the unsaturated zone; repository-wide convection effects in the unsaturated zone; effects of quartz dissolution and precipitation for disposal in the saturated zone; and gas pressurization and flow corrosion of low-level waste packages. 34 refs; 7 figs; 2 tabs.
Paradigm for Subgrid Scale Closure Modeling in Multiphase Geophysical Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calantoni, J.; Simeonov, J.; Penko, A. M.; Bateman, S. P.; Palmsten, M. L.; Holland, K.
2012-12-01
We present a new paradigm for modeling multiphase geophysical flows to produce highly accurate and highly efficient forecasting of the complexity of the natural environment across the full range of relevant length and time scales. The assumption that computing technology will never allow us to perform direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the natural environment often limits our ambition in forward thinking model development and produces only incremental improvements in the state-of-the-art technology. Regional and global forecasting models for earth, ocean, and atmospheric processes based on averaged equations (e.g. RANS) must advance beyond simple closures relations obtained for single-phase fluid turbulence (e.g., k-epsilon, k-omega, and Mellor-Yamada). We propose using a hierarchy of computationally intensive, high fidelity simulations to resolve subgrid processes across a range of cascading length and time scales in the model domain to generate numerical interpolations for the unresolved physical processes. Further, we believe that it is possible to use the cumulative results of these subgrid scale simulations to develop a Bayesian network, for example, which may eventually replace the computationally intensive simulations with a highly efficient probabilistic closure model for the unresolved physical processes. The success of our approach will be greatly enhanced through rigorous validation of our subgrid scale models using three-dimensional laboratory and field measurements of fluid-particle turbulence at the scales of interest. Recent advances in optical imaging techniques have made it possible to make highly resolved three-dimensional measurements of fluid-particle turbulent interactions in the laboratory with spatial and temporal resolutions at or near the Kolmogorov scales. Additional work must be done to transition these technologies for use in the field. As a pilot test case we introduce our new paradigm using a hierarchy of models we have developed
A second order Lagrangian Eulerian momentum bounded method for multiphase flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Chenadec, Vincent; Pitsch, Heinz
2011-11-01
A Lagrangian Eulerian framework relying on both Level Set and Volume of Fluid methods is presented in the context of multiphase flow computations. The resulting interface capturing scheme is shown to preserve planarity, and to conserve mass exactly for solenoidal and linear velocity fields. A novel fractional step approach for the incompressible Navier Stokes equation is also presented. The proposed scheme relies on a consistent transport of volume fraction and momentum fields, which also preserves velocity boundedness. A sharp interface projection step is derived accordingly. The algorithm is shown to conserve momentum exactly for solenoidal linear velocity, and to lead to robust computations. Supported by NASA under Subsonic Fixed Wing project.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsai, C.; Yeh, G.
2011-12-01
In this investigation, newly proposed constitutive retentions are implemented to a fractional-flow based compressible multiphase-phase flow model. With the new model, a compressible three-phase (water, non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) and air) flow problem is simulated. In fractional-flow approaches, the three mass balance equations written in terms of three phase pressures are transformed to those in terms of the total pressure, saturation of water, and saturation of total liquid. These three governing equations are discretized with the Galerkin finite element method (FEM). The resulted matrix equation is solved with Bi-CGSTAB. Several numerical experiments are presented to examine the accuracy and robustness of the proposed model. The results show the presented fractional-flow based multiphase flow model is feasible and yields physically realistic solutions for compressible three-phase flow problems in porous media.
Multicomponent, multiphase flow in porous media with temperature variation
Wingard, J.S.; Orr, F.M. Jr.
1990-10-01
Recovery of hydrocarbons from porous media is an ongoing concern. Advanced techniques augment conventional recovery methods by injecting fluids that favorably interact with the oil. These fluids interact with the oil by energy transfer, in the case of steam injection, or by mass transfer, as in a miscible gas flood. Often both thermal and compositional considerations are important. An understanding of these injection methods requires knowledge of how temperature variations, phase equilibrium and multiphase flow in porous media interact. The material balance for each component and energy balance are cast as a system of non-strictly hyperbolic partial differential equations. This system of equations is solved using the method of characteristics. The model takes into account the phase behavior by using the Peng-Robinson equation of state to partition the individual components into different phases. Temperature effects are accounted for by the energy balance. Flow effects are modelled by using fractional flow curves and a Stone's three phase relative permeability model. Three problems are discussed. The first problem eliminates the phase behavior aspect of the problem by studying the flow of a single component as it undergoes an isothermal phase change. The second couples the effects of temperature and flow behavior by including a second component that is immiscible with the original component. Phase behavior is added by using a set of three partially miscible components that partition into two or three separate phases. 66 refs., 54 figs., 14 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohnke, O.; Ahrenholz, B.
2011-12-01
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a useful tool for analyzing gas (methane) and fluids (water, oil) in rock formations in order to derive transport and storage properties such as pore-size distributions or relative permeability. Even though there is considerable NMR data available about hydraulic properties of rock formations, this information is only empirical. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present joint NMR and multi-phase flow simulations in micro-scale pore systems derived from micro-CT images to quantify relationships between NMR parameters and transport and storage properties of partially saturated rocks. Hereby, the NMR differential equations were implemented using an advection/diffusion lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) where the flow field is computed by a coupled LBM CFD solver. The results of numerical imbibition and drainage experiments quantitatively agree with laboratory experiments with regard to frequently found peak shifts and bimodal NMR decay time distributions related to residual water in films and corners as well as to fluids/gases trapped in large pores. This numerical framework enables one to quantitatively describe NMR surface and bulk relaxation processes, diffusive coupling along with the multi-phase flow properties of partially saturated porous systems. Furthermore, it is a viable alternative to the more time-consuming and less controllable laboratory experiments. Such virtual experimental setups can considerably help to benchmark and validate statistical network models to better understand hydraulic properties of partially saturated rocks by using experimentally obtained NMR data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shao, H.; Huang, Y.; Kolditz, O.
2015-12-01
Multiphase flow problems are numerically difficult to solve, as it often contains nonlinear Phase transition phenomena A conventional technique is to introduce the complementarity constraints where fluid properties such as liquid saturations are confined within a physically reasonable range. Based on such constraints, the mathematical model can be reformulated into a system of nonlinear partial differential equations coupled with variational inequalities. They can be then numerically handled by optimization algorithms. In this work, two different approaches utilizing the complementarity constraints based on persistent primary variables formulation[4] are implemented and investigated. The first approach proposed by Marchand et.al[1] is using "local complementary constraints", i.e. coupling the constraints with the local constitutive equations. The second approach[2],[3] , namely the "global complementary constrains", applies the constraints globally with the mass conservation equation. We will discuss how these two approaches are applied to solve non-isothermal componential multiphase flow problem with the phase change phenomenon. Several benchmarks will be presented for investigating the overall numerical performance of different approaches. The advantages and disadvantages of different models will also be concluded. References[1] E.Marchand, T.Mueller and P.Knabner. Fully coupled generalized hybrid-mixed finite element approximation of two-phase two-component flow in porous media. Part I: formulation and properties of the mathematical model, Computational Geosciences 17(2): 431-442, (2013). [2] A. Lauser, C. Hager, R. Helmig, B. Wohlmuth. A new approach for phase transitions in miscible multi-phase flow in porous media. Water Resour., 34,(2011), 957-966. [3] J. Jaffré, and A. Sboui. Henry's Law and Gas Phase Disappearance. Transp. Porous Media. 82, (2010), 521-526. [4] A. Bourgeat, M. Jurak and F. Smaï. Two-phase partially miscible flow and transport modeling in
TOUGH2: A general-purpose numerical simulator for multiphase nonisothermal flows
Pruess, K.
1991-06-01
Numerical simulators for multiphase fluid and heat flows in permeable media have been under development at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for more than 10 yr. Real geofluids contain noncondensible gases and dissolved solids in addition to water, and the desire to model such `compositional` systems led to the development of a flexible multicomponent, multiphase simulation architecture known as MULKOM. The design of MULKOM was based on the recognition that the mass-and energy-balance equations for multiphase fluid and heat flows in multicomponent systems have the same mathematical form, regardless of the number and nature of fluid components and phases present. Application of MULKOM to different fluid mixtures, such as water and air, or water, oil, and gas, is possible by means of appropriate `equation-of-state` (EOS) modules, which provide all thermophysical and transport parameters of the fluid mixture and the permeable medium as a function of a suitable set of primary thermodynamic variables. Investigations of thermal and hydrologic effects from emplacement of heat-generating nuclear wastes into partially water-saturated formations prompted the development and release of a specialized version of MULKOM for nonisothermal flow of water and air, named TOUGH. TOUGH is an acronym for `transport of unsaturated groundwater and heat` and is also an allusion to the tuff formations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The TOUGH2 code is intended to supersede TOUGH. It offers all the capabilities of TOUGH and includes a considerably more general subset of MULKOM modules with added capabilities. The paper briefly describes the simulation methodology and user features.
Multiphase Flow Technology Impacts on Thermal Control Systems for Exploration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McQuillen, John; Sankovic, John; Lekan, Jack
2006-01-01
The Two-Phase Flow Facility (TPHIFFy) Project focused on bridging the critical knowledge gap by developing and demonstrating critical multiphase fluid products for advanced life support, thermal management and power conversion systems that are required to enable the Vision for Space Exploration. Safety and reliability of future systems will be enhanced by addressing critical microgravity fluid physics issues associated with flow boiling, condensation, phase separation, and system stability. The project included concept development, normal gravity testing, and reduced gravity aircraft flight campaigns, in preparation for the development of a space flight experiment implementation. Data will be utilized to develop predictive models that could be used for system design and operation. A single fluid, two-phase closed thermodynamic loop test bed was designed, assembled and tested. The major components in this test bed include: a boiler, a condenser, a phase separator and a circulating pump. The test loop was instrumented with flow meters, thermocouples, pressure transducers and both high speed and normal speed video cameras. A low boiling point surrogate fluid, FC-72, was selected based on scaling analyses using preliminary designs for operational systems. Preliminary results are presented which include flow regime transitions and some observations regarding system stability.
Upscaling Multiphase Fluid Flow in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matthai, S.; Maghami-Nick, H.; Belayneh, M.; Geiger, S.
2009-04-01
Hydrocarbon recovery from fractured porous reservoirs is difficult to predict as it depends on the focusing of the flow and the local balance of viscous, gravitational, and capillary forces. Hecto-metre scale sub-volumes of fractured oil reservoirs contain thousands of fractures with highly variable flow properties, dimensions and orientations. This complexity precludes direct geometric incorporation into field scale multiphase flow models. Macroscopic laws of their integral effects on multiphase flow are required. These can be investigated by DFM (discrete fracture and matrix) numerical simulations based on discrete fracture models representing fractured reservoir analogues. Here we present DFM results indicating that hecto-metre-scale relative permeability, the time to water breakthrough, and the subsequent water cut primarily depend on the fracture-to-rock matrix flux ratio, qf/qm, quantifying the proportion of the cross-sectional flux that occurs through the fractures. Relative permeability during imbibition runs is best approximated by a rate-dependent new model taking into account capillary fracture-matrix transfer. The up-scaled fractional flow function fo(sw) derived from this new kri formulation is convex with a near-infinity slope at the residual water saturation. This implies that the hector-metre scale spatially averaged Buckley-Leverett equation for fractured porous media does not contain a shock, but a long leading edge in the averaged profile of the invading phase. This dispersive behaviour marks the progressively widening saturation front and an early water breakthrough observed in the discrete fracture reservoir analogues. Since fracture porosity φf is usually only a fraction of a percent, a cross-over from krw < kro to krw/kro ≈ qf/qm occurs after the first few percent of recovery, and because qf/qm ranges between 10-1,000, sweep efficiency ignoring the positive influence of counter-current imbibition is extremely low. The accuracy of reservoir
Towards a Modern Theory of Multiphase Filtration Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buyevich, Yu A.; Webbon, Bruce W. (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
An alternative theoretical model of joint filtration flow of immiscible incompressible fluids is presented. The model takes into account relaxation processes due to the interchange of the fluids between pores of difference sizes which is driven by capillary forces. The fluids occupy connected regions in a four-dimensional space formed by three coordinates and the pore length scale. When the fluid exchange between pores of given sizes is effected by way of successive flow through pores of all the intermediate sizes, the pressure within each region is governed by a hyperbolic equation, the role of time being played by the pore linear scale. Pressure jumps across hypersurfaces separating the regions equal corresponding values of the capillary pressure. A supplementary condition at any such hypersurface requires the speed of its displacement in the four-dimensional space to coincide with the normal velocity components of both the adjoining fluids. As a result, a principally new statement of multiphase filtration flow problems is gained with allowance for capillary relaxation in the porous space.
Multiphase ferrofluid flows for micro-particle focusing and separation.
Zhou, Ran; Wang, Cheng
2016-05-01
Ferrofluids have demonstrated great potential for a variety of manipulations of diamagnetic (or non-magnetic) micro-particles/cells in microfluidics, including sorting, focusing, and enriching. By utilizing size dependent magnetophoresis velocity, most of the existing techniques employ single phase ferrofluids to push the particles towards the channel walls. In this work, we demonstrate a novel strategy for focusing and separating diamagnetic micro-particles by using the laminar fluid interface of two co-flowing fluids-a ferrofluid and a non-magnetic fluid. Next to the microfluidic channel, microscale magnets are fabricated to generate strong localized magnetic field gradients and forces. Due to the magnetic force, diamagnetic particles suspended in the ferrofluid phase migrate across the ferrofluid stream at the size-dependent velocities. Because of the low Reynolds number and high Péclet number associated with the flow, the fluid interface is sharp and stable. When the micro-particles migrate to the interface, they are accumulated near the interface, resulting in effective focusing and separation of particles. We investigated several factors that affect the focusing and separation efficiency, including susceptibility of the ferrofluid, distance between the microfluidic channel and microscale magnet, and width of the microfluidic channel. This concept can be extended to multiple fluid interfaces. For example, a complete separation of micro-particles was demonstrated by using a three-stream multiphase flow configuration.
Rheological flow laws for multiphase magmas: An empirical approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pistone, Mattia; Cordonnier, Benoît; Ulmer, Peter; Caricchi, Luca
2016-07-01
The physical properties of magmas play a fundamental role in controlling the eruptive dynamics of volcanoes. Magmas are multiphase mixtures of crystals and gas bubbles suspended in a silicate melt and, to date, no flow laws describe their rheological behaviour. In this study we present a set of equations quantifying the flow of high-viscosity (> 105 Pa·s) silica-rich multiphase magmas, containing both crystals (24-65 vol.%) and gas bubbles (9-12 vol.%). Flow laws were obtained using deformation experiments performed at high temperature (673-1023 K) and pressure (200-250 MPa) over a range of strain-rates (5 · 10- 6 s- 1 to 4 · 10- 3 s- 1), conditions that are relevant for volcanic conduit processes of silica-rich systems ranging from crystal-rich lava domes to crystal-poor obsidian flows. We propose flow laws in which stress exponent, activation energy, and pre-exponential factor depend on a parameter that includes the volume fraction of weak phases (i.e. melt and gas bubbles) present in the magma. The bubble volume fraction has opposing effects depending on the relative crystal volume fraction: at low crystallinity bubble deformation generates gas connectivity and permeability pathways, whereas at high crystallinity bubbles do not connect and act as ;lubricant; objects during strain localisation within shear bands. We show that such difference in the evolution of texture is mainly controlled by the strain-rate (i.e. the local stress within shear bands) at which the experiments are performed, and affect the empirical parameters used for the flow laws. At low crystallinity (< 44 vol.%) we observe an increase of viscosity with increasing strain-rate, while at high crystallinity (> 44 vol.%) the viscosity decreases with increasing strain-rate. Because these behaviours are also associated with modifications of sample textures during the experiment and, thus, are not purely the result of different deformation rates, we refer to ;apparent shear-thickening; and
Laser velocimeter measurements of multiphase flow of solids
Kadambi, J.R.; Chen, R.C.; Bhunia, S.
1989-01-01
A unique refractive index matched facility for studying solid-liquid multiphase flow has been developed. The refractive index matching of the solid and the liquid allows the use of non-intrusive Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) to measure the solid and the liquid velocities. These measurements will be useful in developing a better understanding of solid-liquid flows, especially solid-liquid and solid-solid interactions. Silica gel and 50% sodium iodide solution in water (refractive index {approx}1.443) are used as the refractive index matched solid and liquid respectively. A two color back scatter mode LDV is used for making velocity measurements. Tests were conducted in solid-liquid slurries with volumetric solid concentration levels of 5% and 15% in the Reynolds number (Re) range of 400 to 9200. Silica gel particles of mean diameter 40 microns were used. Measurements included mapping of the solid and liquid velocities and obtaining the pressure drop data. Signal processing technique utilizing histogram of velocity measurements made at a point and signal amplitude discrimination was successfully used for differentiating between solid and liquid velocities. 34 refs., 61 figs., 5 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cusini, Matteo; van Kruijsdijk, Cor; Hajibeygi, Hadi
2016-06-01
This paper presents the development of an algebraic dynamic multilevel method (ADM) for fully implicit simulations of multiphase flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media. Built on the fine-scale fully implicit (FIM) discrete system, ADM constructs a multilevel FIM system describing the coupled process on a dynamically defined grid of hierarchical nested topology. The multilevel adaptive resolution is determined at each time step on the basis of an error criterion. Once the grid resolution is established, ADM employs sequences of restriction and prolongation operators in order to map the FIM system across the considered resolutions. Several choices can be considered for prolongation (interpolation) operators, e.g., constant, bilinear and multiscale basis functions, all of which form partition of unity. The adaptive multilevel restriction operators, on the other hand, are constructed using a finite-volume scheme. This ensures mass conservation of the ADM solutions, and as such, the stability and accuracy of the simulations with multiphase transport. For several homogeneous and heterogeneous test cases, it is shown that ADM applies only a small fraction of the full FIM fine-scale grid cells in order to provide accurate solutions. The sensitivity of the solutions with respect to the employed fraction of grid cells (determined automatically based on the threshold value of the error criterion) is investigated for all test cases. ADM is a significant step forward in the application of dynamic local grid refinement methods, in the sense that it is algebraic, allows for systematic mapping across different scales, and applicable to heterogeneous test cases without any upscaling of fine-scale high resolution quantities. It also develops a novel multilevel multiscale method for FIM multiphase flow simulations in natural subsurface formations.
Azo Dyes and Their Interfacial Activity: Implications for Multiphase Flow Experiments
Tuck, D.M.
1999-04-21
Interfacial effects play an important role in governing multiphase fluid behavior in porous media (Neustadter 1984; Tuck et al. 1988). For instance, several dimensionless numbers have been developed to express important force ratios applicable to multiphase flow in porous media (Morrow and Songkran 1981; Chatzis and Morrow 1984; Wardlaw 1988; Pennell et al. 1996; Dawson and Roberts 1997). These force ratios emphasize the importance of interfacial properties. Our objectives are to provide chemical information regarding the dyes commonly used in multiphase flow visualization studies and to show the surface chemistry effects of the most commonly used dye, Sudan IV, in the tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-water-glass system
Reduced Order Modeling Of Multiphase Flow In Fractured Formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pau, G. S. H.; Finsterle, S.; Zhang, Y.
2015-12-01
The success of a thermal water flood for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) depends on (1) accurate modeling of the nonlinear multiphase flow processes, and (2) detailed representation of the geometrical and hydraulic details of the fracture network. The resulting high-resolution numerical model is typically computationally demanding. Here, we compare two methods for approximating high-resolution solutions: the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) Mapping method, and the POD-Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) method. The POD Mapping method utilizes an efficient low-resolution model for prediction after training a reduced order model (ROM) using high- and low-resolution solutions. On the other hand, the POD-GPR method constructs a statistical ROM that directly maps the input parameters to the high-resolution solutions. The approximation error can be quantified either through an error estimator (POD Mapping method) or a variance estimate (POD-GPR method). Initial results indicate that the POD Mapping method is more accurate than the POD-GPR method when the same set of training data is used. This work was supported, in part, by the U.S. Dept. of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.
Constitutive Relationships and Models in Continuum Theories of Multiphase Flows. [conferences
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Decker, Rand (Editor)
1989-01-01
In April, 1989, a workshop on constitutive relationships and models in continuum theories of multiphase flows was held at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Topics of constitutive relationships for the partial or per phase stresses, including the concept of solid phase pressure are discussed. Models used for the exchange of mass, momentum, and energy between the phases in a multiphase flow are also discussed. The program, abstracts, and texts of the presentations from the workshop are included.
Multiphase flow modeling based on the hyperbolic thermodynamically compatible systems theory
Romenski, E.
2015-03-10
An application of the theory of thermodynamically compatible hyperbolic systems to design a multiphase compressible flow models is discussed. With the use of such approach the governing equations are derived from the first principles, formulated in a divergent form and can be transformed to a symmetric hyperbolic system in the sense of Friedrichs. A usage of the proposed approach is described for the development of multiphase compressible fluid models, including two-phase flow models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larson, T.; Sathaye, K.
2014-12-01
A dramatic expansion of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling for natural gas in unconventional reserves is underway. This expansion is fueling considerable public concern, however, that extracted natural gas, reservoir brines and associated fracking fluids may infiltrate to and contaminate shallower (< 500m depth) groundwater reservoirs, thereby posing a health threat. Attributing methane found in shallow groundwater to either deep thermogenic 'fracking' operations or locally-derived shallow microbial sources utilizes geochemical methods including alkane wetness and stable carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios of short chain (C1-C5) hydrocarbons. Compared to shallow microbial gas, thermogenic gas is wetter and falls within a different range of δ13C and δD values. What is not clear, however, is how the transport of natural gas through water saturated geological media may affect its compositional and stable isotope values. What is needed is a means to differentiate potential flow paths of natural gas including 'fast paths' along preexisting fractures and drill casings vs. 'slow paths' through low permeability rocks. In this study we attempt quantify transport-related effects using experimental 1-dimensional two-phase column experiments and analytical solutions to multi-phase gas injection equations. Two-phase experimental results for an injection of natural gas into a water saturated column packed with crushed illite show that the natural gas becomes enriched in methane compared to ethane and propane during transport. Carbon isotope measurements are ongoing. Results from the multi-phase gas injection equations that include methane isotopologue solubility and diffusion effects predict the development of a 'bank' of methane depleted in 13C relative to 12C at the front of a plume of fugitive natural gas. These results, therefore, suggest that transport of natural gas through water saturated geological media may complicate attribution methods needed to distinguish
Application of two-fluid model in the unsteady flow simulation for a multiphase rotodynamic pump
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Y Yu, Z.; Zhu, B. S.; Cao, S. L.; Y Wang, G.
2013-12-01
Based on the assumption of tiny bubbly flow, the gas-liquid two-phase unsteady flow in a multiphase rotodynamic pump was numerically simulated with two-fluid model. The two-phase transport process and the evolution characteristic of the pump head were analyzed. In the working conditions, the liquid flow rate was constant, and the IGVF (inlet gas volume fraction) was 0.05, 0.15 and 0.25, respectively. The k ω- based SST model was used for turbulence; the drag force and the added mass force were accounted for in the interfacial momentum transfer terms. Because the wrap angle of the blade was large, the hybrid mesh was adopted to guarantee high mesh quality. The simulation results demonstrate that two-fluid model can more reasonably capture the transport process than the homogeneous model; and the drag law should be corrected based on the mixture viscosity in high gas volume fraction conditions. If the liquid flow rate is constant, the increase of IGVF can raise the pressure in the inlet extended region, while the pressure in the outlet extended region will not be affected much, thus the pump head will go down. In addition, due to the fluctuation of gas volume fraction field, the pump head will also fluctuate around a stable value in the transport process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Qinzhuo; Zhang, Dongxiao; Tchelepi, Hamdi
2017-02-01
A new computational method is proposed for efficient uncertainty quantification of multiphase flow in porous media with stochastic permeability. For pressure estimation, it combines the dimension-adaptive stochastic collocation method on Smolyak sparse grids and the Kronrod-Patterson-Hermite nested quadrature formulas. For saturation estimation, an additional stage is developed, in which the pressure and velocity samples are first generated by the sparse grid interpolation and then substituted into the transport equation to solve for the saturation samples, to address the low regularity problem of the saturation. Numerical examples are presented for multiphase flow with stochastic permeability fields to demonstrate accuracy and efficiency of the proposed two-stage adaptive stochastic collocation method on nested sparse grids.
Compact high-resolution gamma-ray computed tomography system for multiphase flow studies
Bieberle, A.; Nehring, H.; Berger, R.; Arlit, M.; Haerting, H.-U.; Schubert, M.; Hampel, U.
2013-03-15
In this paper, a compact high-resolution gamma-ray Computed Tomography (CompaCT) measurement system for multiphase flow studies and tomographic imaging of technical objects is presented. Its compact and robust design makes it particularly suitable for studies on industrial facilities and outdoor applications. Special care has been given to thermal ruggedness, shock resistance, and radiation protection. Main components of the system are a collimated {sup 137}Cs isotopic source, a thermally stabilised modular high-resolution gamma-ray detector arc with 112 scintillation detector elements, and a transportable rotary unit. The CompaCT allows full CT scans of objects with a diameter of up to 130 mm and can be operated with any tilting angle from 0 Degree-Sign (horizontal) to 90 Degree-Sign (vertical).
Gray, W.G.; Tompson, A.; Soll, W.E.
1998-06-01
'Improved capabilities for modeling multiphase flow in the subsurface requires that several aspects of the system which impact the flow and transport processes be more properly accounted for. A distinguishing feature of multiphase flow in comparison to single phase flow is the existence of interfaces between fluids. At the microscopic (pore) scale, these interfaces are known to influence system behavior by supporting non-zero stresses such that the pressures in adjacent phases are not equal. In problems of interphase transport at the macroscopic (core) scale, knowledge of the total amount of interfacial area in the system provides a clue to the effectiveness of the communication between phases. Although interfacial processes are central to multiphase flow physics, their treatment in traditional porous-media theories has been implicit rather than explicit; and no attempts have been made to systematically account for the evolution of the interfacial area in dynamic systems or to include the dependence of constitutive functions, such as capillary pressure, on the interfacial area. This project implements a three-pronged approach to assessing the importance of various features of multiphase flow to its description. The research contributes to the improved understanding and precise physical description of multiphase subsurface flow by combining: (1) theoretical derivation of equations, (2) lattice Boltzmann modeling of hydrodynamics to identify characteristics and parameters, and (3) solution of the field-scale equations using a discrete numerical method to assess the advantages and disadvantages of the complete theory. This approach includes both fundamental scientific inquiry and a path for inclusion of the scientific results obtained in a technical tool that will improve assessment capabilities for multiphase flow situations that have arisen due to the introduction of organic materials in the natural environment. This report summarizes work after 1.5 years of a 3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McPherson, Brian J. O. L.; Han, Weon Shik; Cole, Barret S.
2008-05-01
The purpose of the study presented in this manuscript is to describe and make available two equation-of-state (EOS) algorithms assembled for multiphase flow and transport of carbon dioxide (CO2). The algorithms presented here calculate solubility, compressibility factor, density, viscosity, fugacity, and enthalpy of CO2 in gaseous and supercritical phases, and mixtures or solutions of CO2 in water, as functions of pressure and temperature. Several features distinguish the two algorithms, but the primary distinction concerns treatment of supercritical/gas-phase CO2: one EOS we assembled is based on Redlich and Kwong's original algorithm developed in 1949, and the other is based on an algorithm developed by Span and Wagner in 1996. Both were modified for application to sedimentary basin studies of multiphase CO2 flow processes, including carbon sequestration applications. We present a brief comparison of these two EOS algorithms. Source codes for both algorithms are provided, including "stand-alone" Matlab © scripts for the interactive calculation of fluid properties at specified P-T conditions and FORTRAN subroutines for inclusion in existing FORTRAN multiphase fluid simulation packages. These routines are intended for fundamental analyses of CO2 sequestration and the like; more advanced studies, such as brine processes and reactive transport, require more advanced EOS algorithms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Alej, M.; Mba, D.; Yeung, H.
2014-04-01
The monitoring of multiphase flow is an established process that has spanned several decades. This paper demonstrates the use of acoustic emission (AE) technology to investigate sand transport characteristic in three-phase (air-water-sand) flow in a horizontal pipe where the superficial gas velocity (VSG) had a range of between 0.2 ms-1 to 2.0 ms-1 and superficial liquid velocity (VSL) had a range of between 0.2 ms-1 to 1.0 ms-1. The experimental findings clearly show a correlation exists between AE energy levels, sand concentration, superficial gas velocity (VSG) and superficial liquid velocity (VSL).
MSTS. Multiphase Subsurface Transport Simulator User`s Guide and Reference
Nichols, W.E.; White, M.D.
1993-05-01
This User`s Guide and Reference provides information and instructions on the use of the Multiphase Subsurface Transport Simulator (MSTS) code and the associated MSTS Graphical Input. The MSTS code is used to simulate water flow, air flow, heat transfer, and dilute species mass transport in variably saturated geologic media for one, two, or three dimensions using an integrated finite-difference numerical scheme. Any or all of these processes may be simulated in a fully coupled manner. MSTS is a two-phase, two-component code with secondary processes that include binary diffusion and vapor pressure lowering. The geologic media may be homogeneous or heterogeneous, isotropic or anisotropic, and unfractured or highly fractured. A problem geometry may be described by either Cartesian or cylindrical coordinates. MSTS is written in FORTRAN 77, following the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards, and is machine-independent with the exception of some time and date calls required for quality control (provisions are made in the code for relatively easy adoption to a number of machines for these calls).
Multiphase flow modeling: A tool to aid in scale up of processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nandakumar, Krishnaswamy
2010-10-01
Multiphase flows are ubiquitous in chemical processing industries. Traditional approach has been to ignore fluid dynamical effects by invoking simplifying assumptions of homogeneity, but pay the price during scale-up of processes. The question that I address is ``Can Multiphase flow modeling come to our rescue in minimizing the need for pilot scale experiments?'' On the fundamental side, we have developed algorithms for direct numerical simulation of multiphase flows. For dispersed rigid particles as in suspension flows, sedimentation etc, we couple the Navier-Stokes equations with the rigid body dynamics in a rigorous fashion to track the particle motion in a fluid. For deformable bubbles/droplets dispersed in another fluid, we also track their motion in an Eulerian grid. The two classes of algorithms show great promise in attempting direct simulation of multiphase flows, from which we can extract statistically meaningful average behavior of suspensions or bubbly flows. On the other hand, there is an immediate need to study flow of complex fluids of industrial importance. Such cases include polymer blending processes, erosion in pipelines and process vessels and mass transfer in packed beds. In such studies we use volume averaged equations as the basis of flow models coupled with experimental validation of such predictions in an effort to develop scale invariant closure models that are needed as part of the volume averaged flow models.
Gel, Aytekin; Pannala, Sreekanth; Syamlal, M; O'Brien, T. J.; Gel, Esma
2007-01-01
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations have emerged as a powerful tool for understanding multiphase flows that occur in a wide range of engineering applications and natural processes. A multiphase CFD code called MFIX has been under development at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) since the 1980s for modeling multiphase flows that occur in fossil fuel reactors. CFD codes such as MFIX are equipped with a number of numerical algorithms to solve a large set of coupled partial differential equations over three-dimensional grids consisting of hundreds of thousands of cells on parallel computers. Currently, the next generation version of MFIX is under development with the goal of building a multiphase problem solving environment (PSE) that would facilitate the simple reuse of modern software components by application scientists. Several open-source frameworks were evaluated to identify the best-suited framework for the multiphase PSE. There are many requirements for the multiphase PSE, and each of these open-source frameworks offers functionalities that satisfy the requirements to varying extents. Therefore, matching the requirements and the functionalities is not a simple task and requires a systematic and quantitative decision making procedure. We present a multi-criteria decision making approach to determining a major system design decision, and demonstrate its application on the framework selection problem.
Numerical Simulation of the Multiphase Flow in the Rheinsahl-Heraeus (RH) System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geng, Dian-Qiao; Lei, Hong; He, Ji-Cheng
2010-02-01
Knowledge of gas-liquid multiphase flow behavior in the Rheinsahl-Heraeus (RH) system is of great significance to clarify the circulation flow rate, decarburization, and inclusion removal with a reliable description. Thus, based on the separate model of injecting gas behavior, a novel mathematical model of multiphase flow has been developed to give the distribution of gas holdup in the RH system. The numerical results show that the predicted circulation flow rates, the predicted flow velocities, and the predicted mixing times agree with the measured results in a water model and that the predicted tracer concentration curve agrees with the results obtained in an actual RH system. With a lower lifting gas flow rate, the rising gas bubbles are concentrated near the wall; with a higher lifting gas flow rate, gas bubbles can reach the center of the up-snorkel. A critical lifting gas flow rate is used to obtain the maximum circulation flow rate.
Asensio, C.M.; Seyed-Yagoobi, J.
1999-07-01
A fundamental model of multi-phase flow in deformable, hygroscopic porous media has been developed through application of macroscopic energy and mass conservation equations. Microscopic effects are included via volume-averaging techniques for the three phases present in the porous media: liquid, gas, and solid. The model includes convective and capillary transport of free water, convective and diffusive transport of water vapor and air, and diffusive transport of bound water. Porosity variations in deformable media have been included during development of the governing equations. The model is applied to convective drying of lumber via appropriate boundary conditions and transport parameters which are available in the literature. The governing coupled, non-linear equations are rewritten and solved in terms of three governing variables: moisture content, temperature, and gas phase pressure. The conservation equations presented in vector notation have been simplified to one spatial dimension for solution here. Control-volume formulations are used to discretize the governing partial differential equations and boundary conditions with a power-law scheme used to proportion the diffusive and convective flux contributions across the control volume interfaces. An uncoupled solution strategy is employed although each conservation equation is solved implicitly. Presented model results include predictions of moisture, temperature, and gas phase pressure during drying both as averages over time for convective drying at two different ambient conditions and as distributions within the board at any time for high temperature air drying. Flows of individual moisture species (liquid/free water, water vapor, and bound water) within the board are also presented.
Modeling hyperelasticity in non-equilibrium multiphase flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hank, Sarah; Favrie, Nicolas; Massoni, Jacques
2017-02-01
The aim of this article is the construction of a multiphase hyperelastic model. The Eulerian formulation of the hyperelasticity represents a system of 14 conservative partial differential equations submitted to stationary differential constraints. This model is constructed with an elegant approach where the specific energy is given in separable form. The system admits 14 eigenvalues with 7 characteristic eigenfields. The associated Riemann problem is not easy to solve because of the presence of 7 waves. The shear waves are very diffusive when dealing with the full system. In this paper, we use a splitting approach to solve the whole system using 3 sub-systems. This method reduces the diffusion of the shear waves while allowing to use a classical approximate Riemann solver. The multiphase model is obtained by adapting the discrete equations method. This approach involves an additional equation governing the evolution of a phase function relative to the presence of a phase in a cell. The system is integrated over a multiphase volume control. Finally, each phase admits its own equations system composed of three sub-systems. One and three dimensional test cases are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amooie, Mohammad Amin; Soltanian, Mohammad Reza; Moortgat, Joachim
2016-11-01
Fluid mixing and its interplay with viscous fingering as well as flow channeling through heterogeneous media have been traditionally studied for fully (im)miscible conditions in which a (two-) single-phase system is represented by two components, e.g. a solvent and a solute, with (zero) infinite mutual solubility. However, many subsurface problems, e.g. gas injection/migration in hydrocarbon reservoirs, involve multiple species transfer. Multicomponent fluid properties behave non-linearly, through an equation of state, as a function of temperature, pressure, and compositions. Depending on the minimum miscibility pressure, a two-phase region with finite, non-zero mutual solubility may develop, e.g. in a partially-miscible system. Here we study mixing of fluids with partial mutual solubility, induced by viscous flow fingering, channeling, and species transport within and between phases. We uncover non-linear mixing dynamics of a finite-size slug of a less viscous fluid attenuated by a carrier fluid during rectilinear displacement. We perform accurate numerical simulations that are thermodynamically-consistent to capture fingering patterns and complex phase behavior of mixtures. The results provide a broad perspective into how multiphase flow can alter fluid mixing in porous media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahraeeni, E.; Firoozabadi, A.
2012-12-01
We present a 3D model for fully compositional multi-phase multi-component flow in porous media with species transfer between the phases. Phase properties are modeled with the Peng-Robinson equation of state. Because phase properties may exhibit strong discontinuities, we approximate the mass transport update by the means of discontinuous Galerkin method. Pressure and velocity fields are continuous across the whole domain of solution, which is guaranteed by using the mixed hybrid finite element method. Complexity of the flow necessitates the use of either very fine mesh or higher-order schemes. The use of higher-order finite element methods significantly reduces numerical dispersion and grid orientation effects that plague traditional finite difference methods. We have shown that in 3D the convergence rate of our scheme is twice as first order method and the CPU time may improve up to three orders of magnitude for the same level of accuracy. Our numerical model facilitates accurate simulation of delicate feature of compositional flow like fingering and CO2 injection in complex reservoirs for a broad range of applications, including CO2 sequestration in finite aquifer and water flooded reservoirs with transfer of all species between the phases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, G.
2012-12-01
Multiphase flow modeling is an important numerical tool for a better understanding of transport processes in the fields including, but not limited to, petroleum reservoir engineering, remedy of ground water contamination, and risk evaluation of greenhouse gases such as CO2 injected into deep saline reservoirs. However, accurate numerical modeling for multiphase flow remains many challenges that arise from the inherent tight coupling and strong non-linear nature of the governing equations and the highly heterogeneous media. The existence of counter current flow which is caused by the effect of adverse relative mobility contrast and gravitational and capillary forces will introduce additional numerical instability. Recently multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) has become a subject of extensive research and has been demonstrated with great success in reducing considerable grid orientation effects compared to the conventional single point upstream (SPU) weighting scheme, especially in higher dimensions. However, the present available MPFA schemes are mathematically targeted to certain types of grids in two dimensions, a more general form of MPFA scheme is needed for both 2-D and 3-D problems. In this work a new upstream weighting scheme based on multipoint directional incoming fluxes is proposed which incorporates full permeability tensor to account for the heterogeneity of the porous media. First, the multiphase governing equations are decoupled into an elliptic pressure equation and a hyperbolic or parabolic saturation depends on whether the gravitational and capillary pressures are presented or not. Next, a dual secondary grid (called finite volume grid) is formulated from a primary grid (called finite element grid) to create interaction regions for each grid cell over the entire simulation domain. Such a discretization must ensure the conservation of mass and maintain the continuity of the Darcy velocity across the boundaries between neighboring interaction regions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Juanes, R.; Jha, B.
2014-12-01
The coupling between subsurface flow and geomechanical deformation is critical in the assessment of the environmental impacts of groundwater use, underground liquid waste disposal, geologic storage of carbon dioxide, and exploitation of shale gas reserves. In particular, seismicity induced by fluid injection and withdrawal has emerged as a central element of the scientific discussion around subsurface technologies that tap into water and energy resources. Here we present a new computational approach to model coupled multiphase flow and geomechanics of faulted reservoirs. We represent faults as surfaces embedded in a three-dimensional medium by using zero-thickness interface elements to accurately model fault slip under dynamically evolving fluid pressure and fault strength. We incorporate the effect of fluid pressures from multiphase flow in the mechanical stability of faults and employ a rigorous formulation of nonlinear multiphase geomechanics that is capable of handling strong capillary effects. We develop a numerical simulation tool by coupling a multiphase flow simulator with a mechanics simulator, using the unconditionally stable fixed-stress scheme for the sequential solution of two-way coupling between flow and geomechanics. We validate our modeling approach using several synthetic, but realistic, test cases that illustrate the onset and evolution of earthquakes from fluid injection and withdrawal. We also present the application of the coupled flow-geomechanics simulation technology to the post mortem analysis of the Mw=5.1, May 2011 Lorca earthquake in south-east Spain, and assess the potential that the earthquake was induced by groundwater extraction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Y.; Kazemifar, F.; Blois, G.; Christensen, K. T.
2015-12-01
Multiphase flow of water and supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in porous media is central to geological sequestration of CO2 into saline aquifers. However, our fundamental understanding of the coupled flow dynamics of CO2 and water in complex geologic media still remains limited, especially at the pore scale. Recently, studies have been carried out in 2D homogeneous models with the micro-PIV technique, yielding very interesting observations of pore-scale flow transport. The primary aim of this work is to leverage this experimental protocol to quantify the pore-scale flow of water and liquid/supercritical CO2 in 2D heterogeneous porous micromodels under reservoir-relevant conditions. The goal is to capture the dynamics of this multi-phase flow in a porous matrix that mimics the heterogeneity of natural rock. Fluorescent microscopy and the micro-PIV technique are employed to simultaneously measure the spatially-resolved instantaneous velocity field in the water and quantify the instantaneous spatial configuration of both phases. The results for heterogeneous micromodels will be presented and compared with those for homogeneous micromodels, yielding valuable insight into flow processes at the pore scale in natural rock.
Juncosa Rivera, Ricardo; Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, Karsten
2001-01-01
FADES-CORE and TOUGHREACT are codes used to model the non-isothermal multiphase flow with multicomponent reactive transport in porous media. Different flow and reactive transport problems were used to compare the FADES-CORE and TOUGHREACT codes. These problems take into account the different cases of multiphase flow with and without heat transport, conservative transport, and reactive transport. Consistent results were obtained from both codes, which use different numerical methods to solve the differential equations resulting from the various physicochemical processes. Here we present the results obtained from both codes for various cases. Some results are slightly different with minor discrepancies, which have been remedied, so that both codes would be able to reproduce the same processes using the same parameters. One of the discrepancies found is related to the different calculation for thermal conductivity in heat transport, which affects the calculation of the temperatures, as well as the pH of the reaction of calcite dissolution problem modeled. Therefore it is possible to affirm that the pH is highly sensitive to temperature. Generally speaking, the comparison was concluded to be highly satisfactory, leading to the complete verification of the FADES-CORE code. However, we must keep in mind that, as there are no analytical solutions available with which to verify the codes, the TOUGHREACT code has been thoroughly corroborated, given that the only possible way to prove that the code simulation is correct, is by comparing the results obtained with both codes for the identical problems, or to validate the simulation results with actual measured data.
Experimental and Computational Study of Multiphase Flow Hydrodynamics in 2D Trickle Bed Reactors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nadeem, H.; Ben Salem, I.; Kurnia, J. C.; Rabbani, S.; Shamim, T.; Sassi, M.
2014-12-01
Trickle bed reactors are largely used in the refining processes. Co-current heavy oil and hydrogen gas flow downward on catalytic particle bed. Fine particles in the heavy oil and/or soot formed by the exothermic catalytic reactions deposit on the bed and clog the flow channels. This work is funded by the refining company of Abu Dhabi and aims at mitigating pressure buildup due to fine deposition in the TBR. In this work, we focus on meso-scale experimental and computational investigations of the interplay between flow regimes and the various parameters that affect them. A 2D experimental apparatus has been built to investigate the flow regimes with an average pore diameter close to the values encountered in trickle beds. A parametric study is done for the development of flow regimes and the transition between them when the geometry and arrangement of the particles within the porous medium are varied. Liquid and gas flow velocities have also been varied to capture the different flow regimes. Real time images of the multiphase flow are captured using a high speed camera, which were then used to characterize the transition between the different flow regimes. A diffused light source was used behind the 2D Trickle Bed Reactor to enhance visualizations. Experimental data shows very good agreement with the published literature. The computational study focuses on the hydrodynamics of multiphase flow and to identify the flow regime developed inside TBRs using the ANSYS Fluent Software package. Multiphase flow inside TBRs is investigated using the "discrete particle" approach together with Volume of Fluid (VoF) multiphase flow modeling. The effect of the bed particle diameter, spacing, and arrangement are presented that may be used to provide guidelines for designing trickle bed reactors.
An experimental investigation of the multiphase flows in a photobioreactor for algae cultivation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Zifeng; Hu, Hui; Del Ninno, Matteo; Wen, Zhiyou
2011-11-01
Algal biomass is a promising feedstock for biofuels production, with photobioreactors being one of the major cultivation systems for algal cells. Light absorption, fluid dynamics, and algal metabolism are three key factors in determining the overall performance of a photobioreactor. The behavior of the multiphase flow (i.e., liquid phase - water, gas phase - CO2 and O2, and solid phase - algal cells) and turbulent mixing inside the reactor are the core connecting the three factors together. One of the major challenges in the optimal design of photobioreactors for algae cultivation is the lack of in-depth understanding of the characteristics of the multiphase flows and turbulent mixing. In this study, we present a comprehensive experimental study to investigate the effects of turbulent mixing in photobioreactors on the performance of a photobioreactor for algae cultivation. A high-resolution particle image velocity (PIV) system is used to achieve time-resolved, in-situ flow field measurements to quantify the turbulent mixing of the multiphase flows inside the bioreactor, while algal cultures are also grown in the same reactor with the same experimental settings. The mixing characteristics of the multiphase flow are correlated with the algal growth performance in the bioreactors to elucidate the underlying physics to explore/optimize design paradigms for the optimization of photobioreactor designs for algae cultivation.
Horizontal multiphase flow correlations for large diameter pipes and high flow rates
Al-Ne`aim, S.A.; Aggour, M.A.; Al-Yousef, H.Y.
1995-10-01
The most widely used horizontal multiphase flow correlations have been tested against field measurements in order to determine the best correlation(s) for Saudi Arabian field conditions. A total of 450 field data points covering pipe sizes from 6 in. to 10 in., oil flow rates form 2200 to 25600 STB/D, water cut up to 60% and GOR up to 984 SCF/STB were used in this study. The standard Beggs and Brill correlation provided the best prediction considering all data combined. However, Dukler Case II correlation provided better prediction for the 6 in. pipes; and Beggs and Brill correlation was the best for the 8 in. and 10 in. pipes.
R. A. Berry; R. Saurel; F. Petitpas; E. Daniel; O. Le Metayer; S. Gavrilyuk; N. Dovetta
2008-10-01
In nuclear reactor safety and optimization there are key issues that rely on in-depth understanding of basic two-phase flow phenomena with heat and mass transfer. Within the context of multiphase flows, two bubble-dynamic phenomena – boiling (heterogeneous) and flashing or cavitation (homogeneous boiling), with bubble collapse, are technologically very important to nuclear reactor systems. The main difference between boiling and flashing is that bubble growth (and collapse) in boiling is inhibited by limitations on the heat transfer at the interface, whereas bubble growth (and collapse) in flashing is limited primarily by inertial effects in the surrounding liquid. The flashing process tends to be far more explosive (and implosive), and is more violent and damaging (at least in the near term) than the bubble dynamics of boiling. However, other problematic phenomena, such as crud deposition, appear to be intimately connecting with the boiling process. In reality, these two processes share many details.
Modelling of multiphase flow in evaporation tests in concrete columns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaparro, M. Carme; Saaltink, Maarten W.; Villar, M. Victoria
2013-04-01
In order to characterize better the thermo-hydraulic properties and processes in concrete from a Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at El Cabril (Spain), evaporation tests in columns have been analysed by means of numerical models. The tests consisted of letting water evaporate from the top of the column while monitoring water loss by weighing the column, and monitoring temperature and relative humidity by means of sensors placed within the column. Both non-isothermal (by heating the column with a lamp) and isothermal tests (without heating) were performed. The conceptual model considers unsaturated liquid flow and transport of vapour and heat. Some models also take into account the salinity in order to study its effect on vapour pressure and evaporation. A retention curve has been obtained from relative humidity and gravimetric water content measured after dismantling the columns. The models have been calibrated by fitting permeability and a tortuosity factor for vapour diffusion to the measured water loss, relative humidity and (in the case of the non-isothermal test) temperature. Results show that vapour diffusion is dominant above an evaporation front, and liquid advection is the dominant water transport process underneath this front. The salinity slightly reduces the evaporation with a factor of at most 5%. The tortuosity factor estimated from the isothermal test is lower than that of the non-isothermal test. This can be explained by the evaporation and condensation together with the heat transport that take place at pore scale under non-isothermal conditions, which are not taken into account by the model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Lucia, Marco; Kempka, Thomas; Afanasyev, Andrey; Melnik, Oleg; Kühn, Michael
2016-04-01
Coupled reactive transport simulations, especially in heterogeneous settings considering multiphase flow, are extremely time consuming and suffer from significant numerical issues compared to purely hydrodynamic simulations. This represents a major hurdle in the assessment of geological subsurface utilization, since it constrains the practical application of reactive transport modelling to coarse spatial discretization or oversimplified geological settings. In order to overcome such limitations, De Lucia et al. [1] developed and validated a one-way coupling approach between geochemistry and hydrodynamics, which is particularly well suited for CO2 storage simulations, while being of general validity. In the present study, the models used for the validation of the one-way coupling approach introduced by De Lucia et al. (2015), and originally performed with the TOUGHREACT simulator, are transferred to and benchmarked against the multiphase reservoir simulator MUFITS [2]. The geological model is loosely inspired by an existing CO2 storage site. Its grid comprises 2,950 elements enclosed in a single layer, but reflecting a realistic three-dimensional anticline geometry. For the purpose of this comparison, homogeneous and heterogeneous scenarios in terms of porosity and permeability were investigated. In both cases, the results of the MUFITS simulator are in excellent agreement with those produced with the fully-coupled TOUGHREACT simulator, while profiting from significantly higher computational performance. This study demonstrates how a computationally efficient simulator such as MUFITS can be successfully included in a coupled process simulation framework, and also suggests ameliorations and specific strategies for the coupling of chemical processes with hydrodynamics and heat transport, aiming at tackling geoscientific problems beyond the storage of CO2. References [1] De Lucia, M., Kempka, T., and Kühn, M. A coupling alternative to reactive transport simulations
Evans, R.D.; Civan, F.
1992-12-31
The objectives of this research are: Develop a proper theoretical model for characterizing non-Darcy multi-phase flow in petroleum bearing formations. Develop an experimental technique for measuring non-Darcy flow coefficients under multiphase flow at insitu reservoir conditions. Develop dimensional consistent correlations to express the non-Darcy flow coefficient as a function of rock and fluid properties for consolidated and unconsolidated porous media. The research accomplished during the period May 1991--May 1992 focused upon theoretical and experimental studies of multiphase non-Darcy flow in porous media.
Lattice-Boltzmann Simulations of Multiphase Flows in Gas-Diffusion-Layer (GDL) of a PEM Fuel Cell
Mukherjeea, Shiladitya; Cole, J Vernon; Jainb, Kunal; Gidwania, Ashok
2008-11-01
Improved power density and freeze-thaw durability in automotive applications of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) requires effective water management at the membrane. This is controlled by a porous hydrophobic gas-diffusion-layer (GDL) inserted between the membrane catalyst layer and the gas reactant channels. The GDL distributes the incoming gaseous reactants on the catalyst surface and removes excess water by capillary action. There is, however, limited understanding of the multiphase, multi-component transport of liquid water, vapor and gaseous reactants within these porous materials. This is due primarily to the challenges of in-situ diagnostics for such thin (200 - 300 {microns}), optically opaque (graphite) materials. Transport is typically analyzed by fitting Darcy's Law type expressions for permeability, in conjunction with capillary pressure relations based on formulations derived for media such as soils. Therefore, there is significant interest in developing predictive models for transport in GDLs and related porous media. Such models could be applied to analyze and optimize systems based on the interactions between cell design, materials, and operating conditions, and could also be applied to evaluating material design concepts. Recently, the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) has emerged as an effective tool in modeling multiphase flows in general, and flows through porous media in particular. This method is based on the solution of a discrete form of the well-known Boltzmann Transport Equation (BTE) for molecular distribution, tailored to recover the continuum Navier-Stokes flow. The kinetic theory basis of the method allows simple implementation of molecular forces responsible for liquid-gas phase separation and capillary effects. The solution advances by a streaming and collision type algorithm that makes it suitable to implement for domains with complex boundaries. We have developed both single and multiphase LB models and applied them to
Some Specific CASL Requirements for Advanced Multiphase Flow Simulation of Light Water Reactors
R. A. Berry
2010-11-01
Because of the diversity of physical phenomena occuring in boiling, flashing, and bubble collapse, and of the length and time scales of LWR systems, it is imperative that the models have the following features: • Both vapor and liquid phases (and noncondensible phases, if present) must be treated as compressible. • Models must be mathematically and numerically well-posed. • The models methodology must be multi-scale. A fundamental derivation of the multiphase governing equation system, that should be used as a basis for advanced multiphase modeling in LWR coolant systems, is given in the Appendix using the ensemble averaging method. The remainder of this work focuses specifically on the compressible, well-posed, and multi-scale requirements of advanced simulation methods for these LWR coolant systems, because without these are the most fundamental aspects, without which widespread advancement cannot be claimed. Because of the expense of developing multiple special-purpose codes and the inherent inability to couple information from the multiple, separate length- and time-scales, efforts within CASL should be focused toward development of a multi-scale approaches to solve those multiphase flow problems relevant to LWR design and safety analysis. Efforts should be aimed at developing well-designed unified physical/mathematical and high-resolution numerical models for compressible, all-speed multiphase flows spanning: (1) Well-posed general mixture level (true multiphase) models for fast transient situations and safety analysis, (2) DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation)-like models to resolve interface level phenmena like flashing and boiling flows, and critical heat flux determination (necessarily including conjugate heat transfer), and (3) Multi-scale methods to resolve both (1) and (2) automatically, depending upon specified mesh resolution, and to couple different flow models (single-phase, multiphase with several velocities and pressures, multiphase with single
Martinez, M.J.; Hopkins, P.L.; Shadid, J.N.
1997-07-01
This document reports on the accomplishments of a laboratory-directed research and development (LDRD) project whose objective was to initiate a research program for developing a fundamental understanding of multiphase multicomponent subsurface transport in heterogeneous porous media and to develop parallel processing computational tools for numerical simulation of such problems. The main achievement of this project was the successful development of a general-purpose, unstructured grid, multiphase thermal simulator for subsurface transport in heterogeneous porous media implemented for use on massively parallel (MP) computers via message-passing and domain decomposition techniques. The numerical platform provides an excellent base for new and continuing project development in areas of current interest to SNL and the DOE complex including, subsurface nuclear waste disposal and cleanup, groundwater availability and contamination studies, fuel-spill transport for accident analysis, and DNAPL transport and remediation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afanasyev, A.
2011-12-01
Multiphase flows in porous media with a transition between sub- and supercritical thermodynamic conditions occur in many natural and technological processes (e.g. in deep regions of geothermal reservoirs where temperature reaches critical point of water or in gas-condensate fields where subject to critical conditions retrograde condensation occurs and even in underground carbon dioxide sequestration processes at high formation pressure). Simulation of these processes is complicated due to degeneration of conservation laws under critical conditions and requires non-classical mathematical models and methods. A new mathematical model is proposed for efficient simulation of binary mixture flows in a wide range of pressures and temperatures that includes critical conditions. The distinctive feature of the model lies in the methodology for mixture properties determination. Transport equations and Darcy law are solved together with calculation of the entropy maximum that is reached in thermodynamic equilibrium and determines mixture composition. To define and solve the problem only one function - mixture thermodynamic potential - is required. Such approach allows determination not only single-phase states and two-phase states of liquid-gas type as in classical models but also two-phase states of liquid-liquid type and three-phase states. The proposed mixture model was implemented in MUFITS (Multiphase Filtration Transport Simulator) code for hydrodynamic simulations. As opposed to classical approaches pressure, enthalpy and composition variables together with fully implicit method and cascade procedure are used. The code is capable of unstructured grids, heterogeneous porous media, relative permeability and capillary pressure dependence on temperature and pressure, multiphase diffusion, optional number of sink and sources, etc. There is an additional module for mixture properties specification. The starting point for the simulation is a cubic equation of state that is
Modelling of fluid-structure interaction with multiphase viscous flows using an immersed-body method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, P.; Xiang, J.; Fang, F.; Pavlidis, D.; Latham, J.-P.; Pain, C. C.
2016-09-01
An immersed-body method is developed here to model fluid-structure interaction for multiphase viscous flows. It does this by coupling a finite element multiphase fluid model and a combined finite-discrete element solid model. A coupling term containing the fluid stresses is introduced within a thin shell mesh surrounding the solid surface. The thin shell mesh acts as a numerical delta function in order to help apply the solid-fluid boundary conditions. When used with an advanced interface capturing method, the immersed-body method has the capability to solve problems with fluid-solid interfaces in the presence of multiphase fluid-fluid interfaces. Importantly, the solid-fluid coupling terms are treated implicitly to enable larger time steps to be used. This two-way coupling method has been validated by three numerical test cases: a free falling cylinder in a fluid at rest, elastic membrane and a collapsing column of water moving an initially stationary solid square. A fourth simulation example is of a water-air interface with a floating solid square being moved around by complex hydrodynamic flows including wave breaking. The results show that the immersed-body method is an effective approach for two-way solid-fluid coupling in multiphase viscous flows.
O`Hern, T.J.; Torczynski, J.R.; Shagam, R.N.; Blanchat, T.K.; Chu, T.Y.; Tassin-Leger, A.L.; Henderson, J.A.
1997-01-01
This report summarizes the work performed under the Sandia Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project ``Optical Diagnostics for Turbulent and Multiphase Flows.`` Advanced optical diagnostics have been investigated and developed for flow field measurements, including capabilities for measurement in turbulent, multiphase, and heated flows. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) includes several techniques for measurement of instantaneous flow field velocities and associated turbulence quantities. Nonlinear photorefractive optical materials have been investigated for the possibility of measuring turbulence quantities (turbulent spectrum) more directly. The two-dimensional PIV techniques developed under this LDRD were shown to work well, and were compared with more traditional laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV). Three-dimensional PIV techniques were developed and tested, but due to several experimental difficulties were not as successful. The photorefractive techniques were tested, and both potential capabilities and possible problem areas were elucidated.
Preface: Recent Advances in Modeling Multiphase Flow and Transportwith the TOUGH Family of Codes
Liu, Hui-Hai; Illangasekare, Tissa H.
2007-11-15
A symposium on research carried out using the TOUGH family of numerical codes was held from May 15 to 17, 2006, at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This special issue of the 'Vadose Zone Journal' contains revised and expanded versions of a selected set of papers presented at this symposium (TOUGH Symposium 2006; http://esd.lbl.gov/TOUGHsymposium), all of which focus on multiphase flow, including flow in the vadose zone.
Proper Orthogonal Decomposition on Experimental Multi-phase Flow in a Pipe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viggiano, Bianca; Tutkun, Murat; Cal, Raúl Bayoán
2016-11-01
Multi-phase flow in a 10 cm diameter pipe is analyzed using proper orthogonal decomposition. The data were obtained using X-ray computed tomography in the Well Flow Loop at the Institute for Energy Technology in Kjeller, Norway. The system consists of two sources and two detectors; one camera records the vertical beams and one camera records the horizontal beams. The X-ray system allows measurement of phase holdup, cross-sectional phase distributions and gas-liquid interface characteristics within the pipe. The mathematical framework in the context of multi-phase flows is developed. Phase fractions of a two-phase (gas-liquid) flow are analyzed and a reduced order description of the flow is generated. Experimental data deepens the complexity of the analysis with limited known quantities for reconstruction. Comparison between the reconstructed fields and the full data set allows observation of the important features. The mathematical description obtained from the decomposition will deepen the understanding of multi-phase flow characteristics and is applicable to fluidized beds, hydroelectric power and nuclear processes to name a few.
An SPH model for multiphase flows with complex interfaces and large density differences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Z.; Zong, Z.; Liu, M. B.; Zou, L.; Li, H. T.; Shu, C.
2015-02-01
In this paper, an improved SPH model for multiphase flows with complex interfaces and large density differences is developed. The multiphase SPH model is based on the assumption of pressure continuity over the interfaces and avoids directly using the information of neighboring particles' densities or masses in solving governing equations. In order to improve computational accuracy and to obtain smooth pressure fields, a corrected density re-initialization is applied. A coupled dynamic solid boundary treatment (SBT) is implemented both to reduce numerical oscillations and to prevent unphysical particle penetration in the boundary area. The density correction and coupled dynamics SBT algorithms are modified to adapt to the density discontinuity on fluid interfaces in multiphase simulation. A cut-off value of the particle density is set to avoid negative pressure, which can lead to severe numerical difficulties and may even terminate the simulations. Three representative numerical examples, including a Rayleigh-Taylor instability test, a non-Boussinesq problem and a dam breaking simulation, are presented and compared with analytical results or experimental data. It is demonstrated that the present SPH model is capable of modeling complex multiphase flows with large interfacial deformations and density ratios.
Development of multiphase CFD flow solver in OpenFOAM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rollins, Chad; Luo, Hong; Dinh, Nam
2016-11-01
We are developing a pressure-based multiphase (Eulerian) CFD solver using OpenFOAM with Reynolds-averaged turbulence stress modeling. Our goal is the evaluation and improvement of the current OpenFOAM two-fluid (Eulerian) solver in boiling channels with a motivation to produce a more consistent modeling and numerics treatment. The difficulty lies in the prescense of the many forces and models that are tightly non-linearly coupled in the solver. Therefore, the solver platform will allow not only the modeling, but the tracking as well, of the effects of the individual components (various interfacial forces/heat transfer models) and their interactions. This is essential for the development of a robust and efficient solution method. There has be a lot of work already performed in related areas that generally indicates a lack of robustness of the solution methods. The objective here is therefore to identify and develop remedies for numerical/modeling issues through a systematic approach to verification and validation, taking advantage of the open source nature of OpenFOAM. The presentation will discuss major findings, and suggest strategies for robust and consistent modeling (probably, a more consistent treatment of heat transfer models with two-fluid models in the near-wall cells).
KIVA-hpFE. Predictive turbulent reactive and multiphase flow in engines - An Overview
Carrington, David Bradley
2016-05-23
Research and development of KIVA-hpFE for turbulent reactive and multiphase flow particularly as related to engine modeling program has relevance to National energy security and climate change. Climate change is a source problem, and energy national security is consumption of petroleum products problem. Accurately predicting engine processes leads to, lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, where engines in the transportation sector currently account for 26% of the U.S. GHG emissions. Less dependence on petroleum products leads to greater energy security. By Environmental Protection Agency standards, some vehicles are now reaching 42 to the 50 mpg mark. These are conventional gasoline engines. Continued investment and research into new technical innovations, the potential exists to save more than 4 million barrels of oil per day or approximately $200 to $400 million per day. This would be a significant decrease in emission and use of petroleum and a very large economic stimulus too! It is estimated with further advancements in combustion, the current emissions can be reduced up to 40%. Enabling better understanding of fuel injection and fuel-air mixing, thermodynamic combustion losses, and combustion/emission formation processes enhances our ability to help solve both problems. To provide adequate capability for accurately simulating these processes, minimize time and labor for development of engine technology, are the goals of our KIVA development program.
Nonequilibrium Physics and Phase-Field Modeling of Multiphase Flow in Porous Media
Juanes, Ruben
2016-09-01
The overarching goal of this project was to develop a new continuum theory of multiphase flow in porous media. The theory follows a phase-field modeling approach, and therefore has a sound thermodynamical basis. It is a phenomenological theory in the sense that its formulation is driven by macroscopic phenomena, such as viscous instabilities during multifluid displacement. The research agenda was organized around a set of hypothesis on hitherto unexplained behavior of multiphase flow. All these hypothesis are nontrivial, and testable. Indeed, a central aspect of the project was testing each hypothesis by means of carefully-designed laboratory experiments, therefore probing the validity of the proposed theory. The proposed research places an emphasis on the fundamentals of flow physics, but is motivated by important energy-driven applications in earth sciences, as well as microfluidic technology.
Modeling and simulation challenges in Eulerian-Lagrangian computations of multiphase flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diggs, Angela; Balachandar, S.
2017-01-01
The present work addresses the numerical methods required for particle-gas and particle-particle interactions in Eulerian-Lagrangian simulations of multiphase flow. Local volume fraction as seen by each particle is the quantity of foremost importance in modeling and evaluating such interactions. We consider a general multiphase flow with a distribution of particles inside a fluid flow discretized on an Eulerian grid. Particle volume fraction is needed both as a Lagrangian quantity associated with each particle and also as an Eulerian quantity associated with the flow. In Grid-Based (GB) methods, the volume fraction is first obtained within each cell as an Eulerian quantity and then interpolated to each particle. In Particle-Based (PB) methods, the particle volume fraction is obtained at each particle and then projected onto the Eulerian grid. Traditionally, GB methods are used in multiphase flow, but sub-grid resolution can be obtained through use of PB methods. By evaluating the total error and its components we compare the performance of GB and PB methods. The standard von Neumann error analysis technique has been adapted for rigorous evaluation of rate of convergence. The methods presented can be extended to obtain accurate field representations of other Lagrangian quantities.
Benchmark initiative on coupled multiphase flow and geomechanical processes during CO2 injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benisch, K.; Annewandter, R.; Olden, P.; Mackay, E.; Bauer, S.; Geiger, S.
2012-12-01
CO2 injection into deep saline aquifers involves multiple strongly interacting processes such as multiphase flow and geomechanical deformation, which threat to the seal integrity of CO2 repositories. Coupled simulation codes are required to establish realistic prognoses of the coupled process during CO2 injection operations. International benchmark initiatives help to evaluate, to compare and to validate coupled simulation results. However, there is no published code comparison study so far focusing on the impact of coupled multiphase flow and geomechanics on the long-term integrity of repositories, which is required to obtain confidence in the predictive capabilities of reservoir simulators. We address this gap by proposing a benchmark study. A wide participation from academic and industrial institutions is sought, as the aim of building confidence in coupled simulators become more plausible with many participants. Most published benchmark studies on coupled multiphase flow and geomechanical processes have been performed within the field of nuclear waste disposal (e.g. the DECOVALEX project), using single-phase formulation only. As regards CO2 injection scenarios, international benchmark studies have been published comparing isothermal and non-isothermal multiphase flow processes such as the code intercomparison by LBNL, the Stuttgart Benchmark study, the CLEAN benchmark approach and other initiatives. Recently, several codes have been developed or extended to simulate the coupling of hydraulic and geomechanical processes (OpenGeoSys, ELIPSE-Visage, GEM, DuMuX and others), which now enables a comprehensive code comparison. We propose four benchmark tests of increasing complexity, addressing the coupling between multiphase flow and geomechanical processes during CO2 injection. In the first case, a horizontal non-faulted 2D model consisting of one reservoir and one cap rock is considered, focusing on stress and strain regime changes in the storage formation and the
Xu, Tianfu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Spycher, Nicolas; Pruess, Karsten
2004-12-07
TOUGHREACT is a numerical simulation program for chemically reactive non-isothermal flows of multiphase fluids in porous and fractured media. The program was written in Fortran 77 and developed by introducing reactive geochemistry into the multiphase fluid and heat flow simulator TOUGH2. A variety of subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes are considered under a wide range of conditions of pressure, temperature, water saturation, ionic strength, and pH and Eh. Interactions between mineral assemblages and fluids can occur under local equilibrium or kinetic rates. The gas phase can be chemically active. Precipitation and dissolution reactions can change formation porosity and permeability. The program can be applied to many geologic systems and environmental problems, including geothermal systems, diagenetic and weathering processes, subsurface waste disposal, acid mine drainage remediation, contaminant transport, and groundwater quality. Here we present two examples to illustrate applicability of the program: (1) injectivity effects of mineral scaling in a fractured geothermal reservoir and (2) CO2 disposal in a deep saline aquifer.
The application of single particle hydrodynamics in continuum models of multiphase flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Decker, Rand
1988-01-01
A review of the application of single particle hydrodynamics in models for the exchange of interphase momentum in continuum models of multiphase flow is presented. Considered are the equations of motion for a laminar, mechanical two phase flow. Inherent to this theory is a model for the interphase exchange of momentum due to drag between the dispersed particulate and continuous fluid phases. In addition, applications of two phase flow theory to de-mixing flows require the modeling of interphase momentum exchange due to lift forces. The applications of single particle analysis in deriving models for drag and lift are examined.
Transport Phenomena and Interfacial Kinetics in Multiphase Combustion Systems
1991-02-01
Even for particles small enough to be characterized by small (subcritical) Stokes numbers (Stk<<l), large inertial effects on convective - phoretic mass...function of radiative/ convective energy flux ratio and carbonaceous particle size for laminar boundary layer flow past a cooled solid surface. Large effects ...the spheres are small. Conse- phoresis and photophoresis (9). The existence quently, energy and momentum convection of such effects has indeed been
Advanced Multi-Phase Flow CFD Model Development for Solid Rocket Motor Flowfield Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liaw, Paul; Chen, Y. S.; Shang, H. M.; Doran, Denise
1993-01-01
It is known that the simulations of solid rocket motor internal flow field with AL-based propellants require complex multi-phase turbulent flow model. The objective of this study is to develop an advanced particulate multi-phase flow model which includes the effects of particle dynamics, chemical reaction and hot gas flow turbulence. The inclusion of particle agglomeration, particle/gas reaction and mass transfer, particle collision, coalescence and breakup mechanisms in modeling the particle dynamics will allow the proposed model to realistically simulate the flowfield inside a solid rocket motor. The Finite Difference Navier-Stokes numerical code FDNS is used to simulate the steady-state multi-phase particulate flow field for a 3-zone 2-D axisymmetric ASRM model and a 6-zone 3-D ASRM model at launch conditions. The 2-D model includes aft-end cavity and submerged nozzle. The 3-D model represents the whole ASRM geometry, including additional grain port area in the gas cavity and two inhibitors. FDNS is a pressure based finite difference Navier-Stokes flow solver with time-accurate adaptive second-order upwind schemes, standard and extended k-epsilon models with compressibility corrections, multi zone body-fitted formulations, and turbulence particle interaction model. Eulerian/Lagrangian multi-phase solution method is applied for multi-zone mesh. To simulate the chemical reaction, penalty function corrected efficient finite-rate chemistry integration method is used in FDNS. For the AL particle combustion rate, the Hermsen correlation is employed. To simulate the turbulent dispersion of particles, the Gaussian probability distribution with standard deviation equal to (2k/3)(exp 1/2) is used for the random turbulent velocity components. The computational results reveal that the flow field near the juncture of aft-end cavity and the submerged nozzle is very complex. The effects of the turbulent particles affect the flow field significantly and provide better
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, J.; Zha, H. B.; Zhang, X. H.; Zhang, D. H.
2012-11-01
A novel scroll type multiphase pump was proposed to transport gas-liquid two-phase mixture. There is a pressure unloading gap from compression chambers to the discharge port by constructing scroll wrap profile with variational meshing clearance in this scroll multiphase pump. In the working process when the volume of working chamber decreases, the pressure of gas-liquid mixtures increases gradually, at the same time small amounts of gas-liquid mixture are pushed to the discharge port from compression chambers through the pressure unloading gap. Therefore, this multiphase pump has an advantage of unloading pressure method automatically, and the frequently problem of liquid impacting in volume multiphase pump is solved. The safety and reliability of volumetric multiphase pump are improved, and the scope of multiphase pump of the gas-liquid ratio is expanded. The working process and the performance characteristics of scroll multiphase pump were analyzed too, and the generation method of scroll wrap profile with variational meshing clearance was investigated. The equations of the profile were obtained, and the changing principle of the working volume and the meshing clearance were analyzed. The geometric theory of scroll multiphase pump was formed. All of that lay the theoretical foundation for engineering design of this novel scroll.
Recent Updates of A Multi-Phase Transport (AMPT) Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Zi-Wei
2008-10-01
We will present recent updates to the AMPT model, a Monte Carlo transport model for high energy heavy ion collisions, since its first public release in 2004 and the corresponding detailed descriptions in Phys. Rev. C 72, 064901 (2005). The updates often result from user requests. Some of these updates expand the physics processes or descriptions in the model, while some updates improve the usability of the model such as providing the initial parton distributions or help avoid crashes on some operating systems. We will also explain how the AMPT model is being maintained and updated.
Noninvasive characterization of a flowing multiphase fluid using ultrasonic interferometry
Sinha, Dipen N.
2003-11-11
An apparatus for noninvasively monitoring the flow and/or the composition of a flowing liquid using ultrasound is described. The position of the resonance peaks for a fluid excited by a swept-frequency ultrasonic signal have been found to change frequency both in response to a change in composition and in response to a change in the flow velocity thereof. Additionally, the distance between successive resonance peaks does not change as a function of flow, but rather in response to a change in composition. Thus, a measurement of both parameters (resonance position and resonance spacing), once calibrated, permits the simultaneous determination of flow rate and composition using the apparatus and method of the present invention.
Noninvasive Characterization Of A Flowing Multiphase Fluid Using Ultrasonic Interferometry
Sinha, Dipen N.
2005-05-10
An apparatus for noninvasively monitoring the flow and/or the composition of a flowing liquid using ultrasound is described. The position of the resonance peaks for a fluid excited by a swept-frequency ultrasonic signal have been found to change frequency both in response to a change in composition and in response to a change in the flow velocity thereof. Additionally, the distance between successive resonance peaks does not change as a function of flow, but rather in response to a change in composition. Thus, a measurement of both parameters (resonance position and resonance spacing), once calibrated, permits the simultaneous determination of flow rate and composition using the apparatus and method of the present invention.
Noninvasive characterization of a flowing multiphase fluid using ultrasonic interferometry
Sinha, Dipen N.
2007-06-12
An apparatus for noninvasively monitoring the flow and/or the composition of a flowing liquid using ultrasound is described. The position of the resonance peaks for a fluid excited by a swept-frequency ultrasonic signal have been found to change frequency both in response to a change in composition and in response to a change in the flow velocity thereof. Additionally, the distance between successive resonance peaks does not change as a function of flow, but rather in response to a change in composition. Thus, a measurement of both parameters (resonance position and resonance spacing), once calibrated, permits the simultaneous determination of flow rate and composition using the apparatus and method of the present invention.
Experimental and Numerical Study of Pore-Scale Multi-Phase Flow Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tartakovsky, A. M.; Ling, B.; Oostrom, M.; Bao, J.; Kim, K.; Trask, N.; Battiato, I.
2015-12-01
Understanding multiphase fluid flow is critical for many applications, including CO2 sequestration, bioremediation, and oil recovery. Micro-fluidic experiments and pore-scale simulations become important tools in studying multiphase flow in porous media. At the same time, many pore-scale numerical models lack rigorous validation and verification, and micro-fluidic experiments are hard to reproduce due to physical instabilities and challenges in precisely controlling the experiments. We performed a set of microcell experiments and determined conditions necessary to obtain reproducible pore-scale evolution of the fluid-fluid interfaces during both infiltration and drainage phases. Next, we modeled the experiments using Finite Volume and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics codes. The point-by-point comparison of the experimental results and numerical simulations revealed advantages and disadvantages of these two methods in capturing the overall behavior and pore-scale phenomena, including residual saturations, formation of thin films, fluid bridges and various fluid trapping mechanisms.
Laboratory setup and results of experiments on two-dimensional multiphase flow in porous media
McBride, J.F. ); Graham, D.N.; Schiegg, H.O. )
1990-10-01
In the event of an accidental release into earth's subsurface of an immiscible organic liquid, such as a petroleum hydrocarbon or chlorinated organic solvent, the spatial and temporal distribution of the organic liquid is of great interest when considering efforts to prevent groundwater contamination or restore contaminated groundwater. An accurate prediction of immiscible organic liquid migration requires the incorporation of relevant physical principles in models of multiphase flow in porous media; these physical principles must be determined from physical experiments. This report presents a series of such experiments performed during the 1970s at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich, Switzerland. The experiments were designed to study the transient, two-dimensional displacement of three immiscible fluids in a porous medium. This experimental study appears to be the most detailed published to date. The data obtained from these experiments are suitable for the validation and test calibration of multiphase flow codes. 73 refs., 140 figs.
El-Alej, M. Mba, D. Yeung, H.
2014-04-11
The monitoring of multiphase flow is an established process that has spanned several decades. This paper demonstrates the use of acoustic emission (AE) technology to investigate sand transport characteristic in three-phase (air-water-sand) flow in a horizontal pipe where the superficial gas velocity (VSG) had a range of between 0.2 ms{sup −1} to 2.0 ms{sup −1} and superficial liquid velocity (VSL) had a range of between 0.2 ms{sup −1} to 1.0 ms{sup −1}. The experimental findings clearly show a correlation exists between AE energy levels, sand concentration, superficial gas velocity (VSG) and superficial liquid velocity (VSL)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alahyari Beig, Shahaboddin; Johnsen, Eric
2015-12-01
An accurate treatment of material interfaces in compressible multiphase flows poses important challenges for high-resolution numerical methods. Although high-order interface-capturing schemes have been used to accurately simulate gas/liquid interfaces with the Euler equations, these methods can result in temperature spikes at material discontinuities. While this phenomenon is not problematic for Euler simulations, it gives rise to numerical errors when heat conduction is included. In this work, we identify the source of these errors and propose a methodology to prevent their occurrence for various models used to represent gas/liquid interfaces in compressible flows based on a ;single-fluid; formulation, in which interfaces are represented by discontinuities in the material properties. Our focus lies in materials (gases and liquids primarily, but also solids) that can be described by a stiffened equation of state, though our approach is generalizable to other equations. We show that numerical approaches that prevent pressure oscillations at interfaces may generate temperature errors, which affect the energy (and pressure) through the heat conduction term. We demonstrate that the material properties entering the equation of state must be computed according to suitable transport equations in conservative or non-conservative forms; the pressure and temperature must be calculated based on the appropriate properties. To verify the analysis and compute problems with gas/liquid interfaces of relevance, we develop a three-dimensional, high-order accurate, solution-adaptive finite difference framework. In particular, we show that temperatures and pressures may be significantly overestimated in calculations of shock-induced bubble collapse in water if temperature errors are not prevented.
Modelling of multiphase flow in ironmaking blast furnace
Dong, X.F.; Yu, A.B.; Burgess, J.M.; Pinson, D.; Chew, S.; Zulli, P.
2009-01-15
A mathematical model for the four-phase (gas, powder, liquid, and solids) flow in a two-dimensional ironmaking blast furnace is presented by extending the existing two-fluid flow models. The model describes the motion of gas, solid, and powder phases, based on the continuum approach, and implements the so-called force balance model for the flow of liquids, such as metal and slag in a blast furnace. The model results demonstrate a solid stagnant zone and dense powder hold-up region, as well as a dense liquid flow region that exists in the lower part of a blast furnace, which are consistent with the experimental observations reported in the literature. The simulation is extended to investigate the effects of packing properties and operational conditions on the flow and the volume fraction distribution of each phase in a blast furnace. It is found that solid movement has a significant effect on powder holdup distribution. Small solid particles and low porosity distribution are predicted to affect the fluid flow considerably, and this can cause deterioration in bed permeability. The dynamic powder holdup in a furnace increases significantly with the increase of powder diameter. The findings should be useful to better understand and control blast furnace operations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balakin, B. V.; Adamsen, T. C. H.; Chang, Y.-F.; Kosinski, P.; Hoffmann, A. C.
2017-01-01
Positron emission particle tracking (PEPT) is a novel experimental technique for non-invasive inspection of industrial fluid/particle flows. The method is based on the dynamic positioning of a positron-emitting, flowing object (particle) performed through the sensing of annihilation events and subsequent numerical treatment to determine the particle position. The present paper shows an integrated overview of PEPT studies which were carried out using a new PET scanner in the Bergen University Hospital to study multiphase flows in different geometric configurations.
Sampling device for withdrawing a representative sample from single and multi-phase flows
Apley, Walter J.; Cliff, William C.; Creer, James M.
1984-01-01
A fluid stream sampling device has been developed for the purpose of obtaining a representative sample from a single or multi-phase fluid flow. This objective is carried out by means of a probe which may be inserted into the fluid stream. Individual samples are withdrawn from the fluid flow by sampling ports with particular spacings, and the sampling parts are coupled to various analytical systems for characterization of the physical, thermal, and chemical properties of the fluid flow as a whole and also individually.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konyukhov, A. V.; Zavialov, I. N.
2016-11-01
Self-oscillating mode of reaction front propagation in multiphase flow in the porous medium with chemically active skeleton is investigated numerically. The considered flow represents an immiscible displacement process, such that the displacing fluid and the skeleton of the porous medium have chemically active components which react with production of gaseous phase. The calculations have demonstrated strong influence of the reaction kinetics on stability of the reactive flow. The presence of a time delay between the change of concentration of the reactants and the change of the reaction rate is shown to stimulate transition of the reaction front propagation to the oscillatory mode.
Method and system for measuring multiphase flow using multiple pressure differentials
Fincke, James R.
2001-01-01
An improved method and system for measuring a multiphase flow in a pressure flow meter. An extended throat venturi is used and pressure of the multiphase flow is measured at three or more positions in the venturi, which define two or more pressure differentials in the flow conduit. The differential pressures are then used to calculate the mass flow of the gas phase, the total mass flow, and the liquid phase. The method for determining the mass flow of the high void fraction fluid flow and the gas flow includes certain steps. The first step is calculating a gas density for the gas flow. The next two steps are finding a normalized gas mass flow rate through the venturi and computing a gas mass flow rate. The following step is estimating the gas velocity in the venturi tube throat. The next step is calculating the pressure drop experienced by the gas-phase due to work performed by the gas phase in accelerating the liquid phase between the upstream pressure measuring point and the pressure measuring point in the venturi throat. Another step is estimating the liquid velocity in the venturi throat using the calculated pressure drop experienced by the gas-phase due to work performed by the gas phase. Then the friction is computed between the liquid phase and a wall in the venturi tube. Finally, the total mass flow rate based on measured pressure in the venturi throat is calculated, and the mass flow rate of the liquid phase is calculated from the difference of the total mass flow rate and the gas mass flow rate.
Development of an Efficient Meso- scale Multi-phase Flow Solver in Nuclear Applications
Lee, Taehun
2015-10-20
The proposed research aims at formulating a predictive high-order Lattice Boltzmann Equation for multi-phase flows relevant to nuclear energy related application - namely, saturated and sub-cooled boiling in reactors, and liquid- liquid mixing and extraction for fuel cycle separation. An efficient flow solver will be developed based on the Finite Element based Lattice Boltzmann Method (FE- LBM), accounting for phase-change heat transfer and capable of treating multiple phases over length scales from the submicron to the meter. A thermal LBM will be developed in order to handle adjustable Prandtl number, arbitrary specific heat ratio, a wide range of temperature variations, better numerical stability during liquid-vapor phase change, and full thermo-hydrodynamic consistency. Two-phase FE-LBM will be extended to liquid–liquid–gas multi-phase flows for application to high-fidelity simulations building up from the meso-scale up to the equipment sub-component scale. While several relevant applications exist, the initial applications for demonstration of the efficient methods to be developed as part of this project include numerical investigations of Critical Heat Flux (CHF) phenomena in nuclear reactor fuel bundles, and liquid-liquid mixing and interfacial area generation for liquid-liquid separations. In addition, targeted experiments will be conducted for validation of this advanced multi-phase model.
A lattice Boltzmann model for multiphase flows interacting with deformable bodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Rosis, Alessandro
2014-11-01
In this paper, a numerical model to simulate a multiphase flow interacting with deformable solid bodies is proposed. The fluid domain is modeled through the lattice Boltzmann method and the Shan-Chen model is adopted to handle the multiphase feature. The interaction of the flow with immersed solid bodies is accounted for by using the Immersed Boundary method. Corotational beam finite elements are used to model the deformable bodies and non-linear structure dynamics is predicted through the Time Discontinuous Galerkin method. A numerical campaign is carried out in order to assess the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed modeling by involving different scenarios. In particular, the model is validated by performing the bubble test and by comparing present results with the ones from a numerical commercial software. Moreover, the properties in terms of convergence are discussed. In addition, the effectiveness of the proposed methodology is evaluated by computing the error in terms of the energy that is artificially introduced in the system at the fluid-solid interface. Present findings show that the proposed approach is robust, accurate and suitable of being applied to a lot of practical applications involving the interaction between multiphase flows and deformable solid bodies.
The magnitude of basset forces in unsteady multiphase flow computations
Li, L.; Michaelides, E.E. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)
1992-09-01
This paper reports on the equation of motion of a small spherical particle moving in a fluid which is solved numerically with the radius of the sphere and the ratio of fluid to particle densities being parameters. The Basset force term is computed and compared to the total force on the particle for the case of turbulent flow in a duct. It is found that the Basset force may be neglected in the equation of motion of the particle only when the fluid to particle density ratio is very high and the particle diameter is greater than 1[mu]m. A dimensional analysis is also performed for the case when the particle size and the characteristic flow dimension are of the same order of magnitude. In the latter case, it is deduced that the Basset force is significant whenever the flow Reynolds number is greater than one.
Simulation of Inviscid Compressible Multi-Phase Flow with Condensation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelleners, Philip
2003-01-01
Condensation of vapours in rapid expansions of compressible gases is investigated. In the case of high temperature gradients the condensation will start at conditions well away from thermodynamic equilibrium of the fluid. In those cases homogeneous condensation is dominant over heterogeneous condensation. The present work is concerned with development of a simulation tool for computation of high speed compressible flows with homogeneous condensation. The resulting ow solver should preferably be accurate and robust to be used for simulation of industrial flows in general geometries.
Simulation of Nonisothermal Multiphase Flows of Binary Mixtures in a Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afanasyev, A. A.
2010-12-01
Hydrodynamic simulation of processes in a geothermal system is complicated due to a wide ranges of pressure and temperature in the flows. In deep regions of a system pressure and temperature can be above critical point of water while near the surface normal conditions take place. The transition from a supercritical fluid to a subcritical water and vapor in the flows strongly complicates hydrodynamic simulations. In the case when a geothermal system is saturated with a binary mixture the simulation is much more complex because instead of a single critical point there exist critical lines in a space of thermodynamic parameters of the mixture. Moreover in general case the mixture can split not only in two phases of liquid and gaseous types but also in two dense phases of liquid type and even in three phases. A new approach is proposed for effective simulation of hydrodynamic processes in sub- and supercritical conditions. As opposed to classical thermodynamic phase equilibrium of the mixture is determined via pressure, enthalpy and composition. These variables help to avoid mathematical singularities at critical conditions and allow to determine three phase states. In classical methods a cubic equation of state is used to calculate properties of a mixture for hydrodynamic simulations. In the proposed approach this equation is used prior to hydrodynamic to calculate thermodynamic potential of the mixture in pressure, enthalpy and composition variables. This allows to perform once all complex calculations of the properties prior to hydrodynamic simulations and results in sufficient acceleration of calculations. The potential is used in a problem of conditional extremum for mixture multiphase equilibrium determination in hydrodynamic simulations. This problem of conditional extremum closes transport equations. The approach is applied to simulations of high-temperature water-carbon dioxide mixture flows in a porous media. The mixture phase diagram is analyzed and zones of
Study on electrodynamic sensor of multi-modality system for multiphase flow measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Xiang; Chen, Dixiang; Yang, Wuqiang
2011-12-01
Accurate measurement of multiphase flows, including gas/solids, gas/liquid, and liquid/liquid flows, is still challenging. In principle, electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) can be used to measure the concentration of solids in a gas/solids flow and the liquid (e.g., oil) fraction in a gas/liquid flow, if the liquid is non-conductive. Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) can be used to measure a gas/liquid flow, if the liquid is conductive. It has been attempted to use a dual-modality ECT/ERT system to measure both the concentration profile and the velocity profile by pixel-based cross correlation. However, this approach is not realistic because of the dynamic characteristics and the complexity of multiphase flows and the difficulties in determining the velocities by cross correlation. In this paper, the issues with dual modality ECT/ERT and the difficulties with pixel-based cross correlation will be discussed. A new adaptive multi-modality (ECT, ERT and electro-dynamic) sensor, which can be used to measure a gas/solids or gas/liquid flow, will be described. Especially, some details of the electrodynamic sensor of multi-modality system such as sensing electrodes optimum design, electrostatic charge amplifier, and signal processing will be discussed. Initial experimental results will be given.
Study on electrodynamic sensor of multi-modality system for multiphase flow measurement.
Deng, Xiang; Chen, Dixiang; Yang, Wuqiang
2011-12-01
Accurate measurement of multiphase flows, including gas/solids, gas/liquid, and liquid/liquid flows, is still challenging. In principle, electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) can be used to measure the concentration of solids in a gas/solids flow and the liquid (e.g., oil) fraction in a gas/liquid flow, if the liquid is non-conductive. Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) can be used to measure a gas/liquid flow, if the liquid is conductive. It has been attempted to use a dual-modality ECT/ERT system to measure both the concentration profile and the velocity profile by pixel-based cross correlation. However, this approach is not realistic because of the dynamic characteristics and the complexity of multiphase flows and the difficulties in determining the velocities by cross correlation. In this paper, the issues with dual modality ECT/ERT and the difficulties with pixel-based cross correlation will be discussed. A new adaptive multi-modality (ECT, ERT and electro-dynamic) sensor, which can be used to measure a gas/solids or gas/liquid flow, will be described. Especially, some details of the electrodynamic sensor of multi-modality system such as sensing electrodes optimum design, electrostatic charge amplifier, and signal processing will be discussed. Initial experimental results will be given.
Modification of Fracture Apertures by Reactive Multiphase Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Z.; Sheets, J.; Li, Q.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Cole, D. R.; Jun, Y. S.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.
2015-12-01
Geochemical interactions during the withdrawal/injection of fluids into the subsurface can modify fracture apertures through dissolution and/or precipitation of minerals. Modification of fracture apertures during reactive flow is strongly affected by non-reactive, non-wetting fluids that limit the fracture surface area and void volume that can be affected by reactive phases. We present results on the effect of a non-reactive, non-wetting phase during reactive flow on the distribution of precipitates and channelization caused by dissolution in fractures. Transparent acrylic casts of a fracture in Austin chalk were used to image mineral precipitation during reactive flow. Initially, the fracture was saturated with a solution of 0.6mol/L NaHCO3 and 0.00085mol/L NaCl. Then, both the aqueous NaHCO3 - NaCl and a solution containing 3mol/L CaCl2 were pumped into the sample (0.5 ml/min) for 2 hrs. When the two solutions mix inside the fracture, CaCO3 precipitates form and CO2 bubbles are generated. CO2 bubbles affect the amount of precipitation. X-ray CT data show that precipitate thickness varies within the fracture, occurs on both fracture surfaces and also bridges the surfaces. In the test, where a CO2 bubble filled a void, precipitation did not occur. If the CO2 bubble was smaller than the pore, thin films of precipitates occurred on the fracture surfaces above and below the bubble. While fracture apertures controlled the mixing of the fluids, CO2 bubbles affected the thickness and distribution of the precipitates. From our numerical study, channelization in a fracture is affected by the presence of a non-wetting non-reactive phase (e.g. gas) during dissolution. A modified Navier-Stokes approach was used to calculate fluxes through spatially correlated aperture distributions as a function of gas saturation. Dissolution was taken to be proportional to flux. For gas saturations < 15%, channelization occurred along the dominant flow path. However, for gas saturations >25
Frictional Fluid Dynamics and Plug Formation in Multiphase Millifluidic Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dumazer, Guillaume; Sandnes, Bjørnar; Ayaz, Monem; Mâløy, Knut Jørgen; Flekkøy, Eirik Grude
2016-07-01
We study experimentally the flow and patterning of a granular suspension displaced by air inside a narrow tube. The invading air-liquid interface accumulates a plug of granular material that clogs the tube due to friction with the confining walls. The gas percolates through the static plug once the gas pressure exceeds the pore capillary entry pressure of the packed grains, and a moving accumulation front is reestablished at the far side of the plug. The process repeats, such that the advancing interface leaves a trail of plugs in its wake. Further, we show that the system undergoes a fluidization transition—and complete evacuation of the granular suspension—when the liquid withdrawal rate increases beyond a critical value. An analytical model of the stability condition for the granular accumulation predicts the flow regime.
Optimal Spatial Scale for Curvature Calculations in Multiphase Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Senecal, Jacob; Owkes, Mark
2016-11-01
In gas-liquid flows, the surface tension force often controls the dynamics of the flow and an accurate calculation of this force is necessary for predictive simulations. The surface tension force is directly proportional to the curvature of the gas-liquid interface, making accurate curvature calculations an essential consideration. Multiple methods have been developed to calculate the curvature of volume of fluid (VoF) interface capturing schemes, such as the height function method. These methods have been extensively tested. However, the impact of the scale or size of computational stencil on which the curvature is computed, has not been correlated with the rate at which interface perturbations relax under the surface tension force. In this work, the effect of varying the scale on which the curvature is computed has been tested and quantified. An optimal curvature scale is identified that leads to accurate and converging curvatures, and accurate timescales for surface tension induced, interface dynamics.
Multiphase ferrofluid flows for micro-particle sorting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Ran; Wang, Cheng
2015-11-01
Utilizing negative magnetophoresis, ferrofluids have demonstrated great potential for sorting nonmagnetic micro-particles by size. Most of the existing techniques use single phase ferrofluids by pushing micro-particles to channel walls; the sorting speed is thus hindered. We demonstrate a novel sorting strategy by co-flowing a ferrofluid and a non-magnetic fluid in microchannels. Due to the magnetic force, the particles migrate across the ferrofluid stream at size-dependent velocities as they travel downstream. The laminar interface between the two fluids functions as a virtual boundary to accumulate particles, resulting in effective separation of particles. A stable and sharp interface is important to the success of this sorting technique. We investigate several factors that affect sorting efficiency, including magnetic field, susceptibility difference of the fluids, flow velocity, and channel geometry.
A cell-centered ICE method for multiphase flow simulations
Kashiwa, B.A.; Padial, N.T.; Rauenzahn, R.M.; VanderHeyden, W.B.
1993-12-01
The Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian (ICE) method is a finite-volume scheme that is stable for any value of the Courant number based on the sound speed. In the incompressible limit, the ICE method becomes essentially identical to the Marker and Cell (MAC) method, so the two schemes are closely related. In this article, the classical ICE method is extended to multiple interpenetrating phases, and employed with a single control volume (nonstaggered) mesh framework. The incompressible limit is preserved, so that problems involving equations of state, or those exhibiting constant material densities, can be addressed with the same computer code. The scheme reduces properly to a single-fluid method, enabling benchmarking using well-known test cases. Thus, the numerical issues focus only on those aspects unique to problems having multiple density, velocity and temperature fields. The discussion begins with a derivation of the exact, ensemble-averaged equations. Examples of the most basic closures axe given, and the well-posedness of the equations is demonstrated. The numerical method is described in operator notation, and the discretization is sketched. The flow patterns in a bubble column are computed as an incompressible flow example. For a compressible flow example, the expansion and compression of a bubble formed by high-explosive gases under water is shown. In each case, comparison to experimental data is made.
Stochastic Rotation Dynamics simulations of wetting multi-phase flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hiller, Thomas; Sanchez de La Lama, Marta; Brinkmann, Martin
2016-06-01
Multi-color Stochastic Rotation Dynamics (SRDmc) has been introduced by Inoue et al. [1,2] as a particle based simulation method to study the flow of emulsion droplets in non-wetting microchannels. In this work, we extend the multi-color method to also account for different wetting conditions. This is achieved by assigning the color information not only to fluid particles but also to virtual wall particles that are required to enforce proper no-slip boundary conditions. To extend the scope of the original SRDmc algorithm to e.g. immiscible two-phase flow with viscosity contrast we implement an angular momentum conserving scheme (SRD+mc). We perform extensive benchmark simulations to show that a mono-phase SRDmc fluid exhibits bulk properties identical to a standard SRD fluid and that SRDmc fluids are applicable to a wide range of immiscible two-phase flows. To quantify the adhesion of a SRD+mc fluid in contact to the walls we measure the apparent contact angle from sessile droplets in mechanical equilibrium. For a further verification of our wettability implementation we compare the dewetting of a liquid film from a wetting stripe to experimental and numerical studies of interfacial morphologies on chemically structured surfaces.
An adaptive solution domain algorithm for solving multiphase flow equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katyal, A. K.; Parker, J. C.
1992-01-01
An adaptive solution domain (ASD) finite-element model for simulating hydrocarbon spills has been developed that is computationally more efficient than conventional numerical methods. Coupled flow of water and oil with an air phase at constant pressure is considered. In the ASD formulation, the solution domain for water- and oil-flow equations is restricted by eliminating elements from the global matrix assembly which are not experiencing significant changes in fluid saturations or pressures. When any nodes of an element exhibit changes in fluid pressures more than a stipulated tolerance τ, or changes in fluid saturations greater than tolerance τ 2 during the current time step, it is labeled active and included in the computations for the next iteration. This formulation achieves computational efficiency by solving the flow equations for only the part of the domain where changes in fluid pressure or the saturations take place above stipulated tolerances. Examples involving infiltration and redistribution of oil in 1- and 2-D spatial domains are described to illustrate the application of the ASD method and the savings in the processor time achieved by this formulation. Savings in the computational effort up to 84% during infiltration and 63% during redistribution were achieved for the 2-D example problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, G.; Pashin, J. C.
2014-12-01
Ensuring safe and permanent storage of sequestered CO2in naturally fractured geological media is vital for the success of geologic storage projects. Critical needs exist to develop advanced techniques to characterize and model fluid transport in naturally fractured reservoirs and seals. We have developed a scale-independent 3-D stochastic fracture permeability characterization workflow that employs multiple discrete fracture network (DFN) realizations. The workflow deploys a multidirectional flux-based upwind weighting scheme that is capable of modeling multiphase flow in highly heterogeneous fractured media. The techniques employed herein show great promise for increasing the accuracy of capacity determinations and the prediction of pressure footprints associated with injected CO2 plumes. The proposed workflow has been conducted in a simulation study of flow transport and risk assessment of CO2 injection into a deep fractured saline formation using geological parameters from Knox Group carbonate and Red Mountain shale rocks in central Alabama. A 3-D fracture permeability map was generated from multiple realizations of DFN models. A multiphase flow model composed of supercritical CO2 and saline water was applied to simulate CO2 plume evolution during and after injection. Injection simulation reveals significant permeability anisotropy that favors development of northeast-elongate CO2 plumes. The spreading front of the CO2 plume shows strong viscous fingering effects. Post-injection simulation indicates significant lateral spreading of CO2 near the top of the fractured formations because of the buoyancy of injectate in rock matrix and strata-bound vertical fractures. Risk assessment shows that although pressure drops faster in the fractured formations than in those lacking fractures, lateral movement of CO2 along natural fractures necessitates that the injectate be confined by widespread seals with high integrity.
Lei, Huan; Baker, Nathan A.; Wu, Lei; Schenter, Gregory K.; Mundy, Christopher J.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.
2016-08-05
Thermal fluctuations cause perturbations of fluid-fluid interfaces and highly nonlinear hydrodynamics in multiphase flows. In this work, we develop a novel multiphase smoothed dissipative particle dynamics model. This model accounts for both bulk hydrodynamics and interfacial fluctuations. Interfacial surface tension is modeled by imposing a pairwise force between SDPD particles. We show that the relationship between the model parameters and surface tension, previously derived under the assumption of zero thermal fluctuation, is accurate for fluid systems at low temperature but overestimates the surface tension for intermediate and large thermal fluctuations. To analyze the effect of thermal fluctuations on surface tension, we construct a coarse-grained Euler lattice model based on the mean field theory and derive a semi-analytical formula to directly relate the surface tension to model parameters for a wide range of temperatures and model resolutions. We demonstrate that the present method correctly models the dynamic processes, such as bubble coalescence and capillary spectra across the interface.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Espinet, Antoine J.; Shoemaker, Christine A.
2013-04-01
Optimization of multi-phase transport models is important both for calibrating model parameters to observed data and for analyzing management options. We focus on examples of geological carbon sequestration (GCS) process-based multi-phase models. Realistic GCS models can be very computationally expensive not only due to the spatial distribution of the model but also because of the complex nonlinear multi-phase and multi-component transport equations to be solved. As a result we need to have optimization methods that get accurate answers with relatively few simulations. In this analysis we compare a variety of different types of optimization algorithms to understand the best type of algorithms to use for different types of problems. This includes an analysis of which characteristics of the problem are important in choice of algorithm. The goal of this paper is to evaluate which optimization algorithms are the most efficient in a given situation, taking into account shape of the optimization problem (e.g. uni- or multi-modal) and the number of simulations that can be done. The algorithms compared are the widely used derivative-based PEST optimization algorithm, the derivative-based iTOUGH2, the Kriging response surface algorithm EGO, the heuristics-based DDS (Dynamically Dimensioned Search), and the Radial Basis Function surrogate response surface based global optimization algorithms 'GORBIT' and 'Stochastic RBF'. We calibrate a simple homogeneous model '3hom' and two more realistic models '20layer' and '6het'. The latter takes 2 h per simulation. Using rigorous statistical tests, we show that while the derivative-based algorithms of PEST are efficient on the simple 3hom model, it does poorly in comparison to surrogate optimization methods Stochastic RBF and GORBIT on the more realistic models. We then identify the shapes of the optimization surface of the three models using enumerative simulations and discover that 3hom is smooth and unimodal and the more realistic
Coherent Structures and Extreme Events in Rotating Multiphase Turbulent Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biferale, L.; Bonaccorso, F.; Mazzitelli, I. M.; van Hinsberg, M. A. T.; Lanotte, A. S.; Musacchio, S.; Perlekar, P.; Toschi, F.
2016-10-01
By using direct numerical simulations (DNS) at unprecedented resolution, we study turbulence under rotation in the presence of simultaneous direct and inverse cascades. The accumulation of energy at large scale leads to the formation of vertical coherent regions with high vorticity oriented along the rotation axis. By seeding the flow with millions of inertial particles, we quantify—for the first time—the effects of those coherent vertical structures on the preferential concentration of light and heavy particles. Furthermore, we quantitatively show that extreme fluctuations, leading to deviations from a normal-distributed statistics, result from the entangled interaction of the vertical structures with the turbulent background. Finally, we present the first-ever measurement of the relative importance between Stokes drag, Coriolis force, and centripetal force along the trajectories of inertial particles. We discover that vortical coherent structures lead to unexpected diffusion properties for heavy and light particles in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the rotation axis.
A lattice Boltzmann model for multiphase flows with large density ratio
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, H. W.; Shu, C.; Chew, Y. T.
2006-10-01
A lattice Boltzmann model for simulating multiphase flows with large density ratios is described in this paper. The method is easily implemented. It does not require solving the Poisson equation and does not involve the complex treatments of derivative terms. The interface capturing equation is recovered without any additional terms as compared to other methods [M.R. Swift, W.R. Osborn, J.M. Yeomans, Lattice Boltzmann simulation of liquid-gas and binary fluid systems, Phys. Rev. E 54 (1996) 5041-5052; T. Inamuro, T. Ogata, S. Tajima, N. Konishi, A lattice Boltzmann method for incompressible two-phase flows with large density differences, J. Comput. Phys. 198 (2004) 628-644; T. Lee, C.-L. Lin, A stable discretization of the lattice Boltzmann equation for simulation of incompressible two-phase flows at high density ratio, J. Comput. Phys. 206 (2005) 16-47]. Besides, it requires less discrete velocities. As a result, its efficiency could be greatly improved, especially in 3D applications. It is validated by several cases: a bubble in a stationary flow and the capillary wave. The numerical surface tension obtained from the Laplace law and the interface profile agrees very well with the respective analytical solution. The method is further verified by its application to capillary wave and the bubble rising under buoyancy with comparison to other methods. All the numerical experiments show that the present approach can be used to model multiphase flows with large density ratios.
Numerical Simulation of Compressible Multi-phase flows using HLLC extension of AUSM +-up Scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dhir, Gaurav; Bodi, Kowsik
2016-11-01
Solving Multi-fluid equations has always required an onerous effort from researchers with regards to implementing an appropriate numerical scheme which could capture the various facets of such type of flows along with the interaction between the various phases present. Additionally, multi-phase flows bring with them peculiar mathematical properties such as non-hyperbolicity and non-conservativeness which further increases the complexity involved. Our presentation shall present an insight into the advantages and limitations of several numerical schemes proposed in the past and propose to use the HLLC extension of AUSM +-up approach to model such type of flows. We use the single pressure based stratified flow concept and by presenting several test cases, we prove that our method robustly computes multi-phase flow involving discontinuities, such as shock waves and fluid interfaces. Additionally, we present a formulation to incorporate phase transition within multi-fluid equations and establish the validity of this method by presenting several two dimensional test cases such as the Shock-Water Column Interaction problem, the Water-Shock/Air Bubble Interaction problem and the 2D Underwater Explosion problem. Industrial Research and Consultancy Centre, IIT Bombay.
Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Multiphase Transport in Nanostructured PEM Fuel Cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stiles, Christopher D.
As the fossil fuel crisis becomes more critical, it is imperative to develop renewable sources of power generation. Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are considered a viable option. However, the cost of the platinum catalyst has hindered their commercialization. PEM fuel cells with platinum loading of >0.4 mg cm2 are common. Efforts towards further reducing this loading are currently underway utilizing nanostructured electrodes. A consequence of increased platinum utilization per unit area and thinner nanostructured electrodes is flooding, which is detrimental to fuel cell performance. Flooding causes a two-fold impact on cell performance: a drop in cell voltage and a rise in parasitic pumping power to overcome the increased pressure drop, which together result in a significant reduction in system efficiency. Proper water management is therefore crucial for optimum performance of the fuel cell and also for enhancing membrane durability. The goal of this thesis is to simulate the multiphase fluid transport in the nanostructured PEMFC of H2O in air with realistic density ratios. In order to pursue this goal, the ability of the pseudopotential based multiphase lattice Boltzmann method to realistically model the coexistence of the gas and liquid phases of H2O at low temperatures is explored. This method is expanded to include a gas mixture of O2 and N 2 into the multiphase H2O systems. Beginning with the examination of the phase transition region described by the current implementation of the multiphase pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann model. Following this, a modified form of the pressure term with the use of a scalar multiplier kappa for the Peng-Robinson equation of state is thoroughly investigated. This method proves to be very effective at enabling numerically stable simulations at low temperatures with large density ratios. It is found that for decreasing values of kappa, this model leads to an increase in multiphase interface thickness and a
Nourgaliev R.; Knoll D.; Mousseau V.; Berry R.
2007-04-01
The state-of-the-art for Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of boiling multiphase flows is reviewed, focussing on potential of available computational techniques, the level of current success for their applications to model several basic flow regimes (film, pool-nucleate and wall-nucleate boiling -- FB, PNB and WNB, respectively). Then, we discuss multiphysics and multiscale nature of practical boiling flows in LWR reactors, requiring high-fidelity treatment of interfacial dynamics, phase-change, hydrodynamics, compressibility, heat transfer, and non-equilibrium thermodynamics and chemistry of liquid/vapor and fluid/solid-wall interfaces. Finally, we outline the framework for the {\\sf Fervent} code, being developed at INL for DNS of reactor-relevant boiling multiphase flows, with the purpose of gaining insight into the physics of multiphase flow regimes, and generating a basis for effective-field modeling in terms of its formulation and closure laws.
Zhang, Shuo; DePaolo, Donald J.; Zheng, Liange; Mayer, Bernhard
2014-12-31
Carbon stable isotopes can be used in characterization and monitoring of CO_{2} sequestration sites to track the migration of the CO_{2} plume and identify leakage sources, and to evaluate the chemical reactions that take place in the CO_{2}-water-rock system. However, there are few tools available to incorporate stable isotope information into flow and transport codes used for CO_{2} sequestration problems. We present a numerical tool for modeling the transport of stable carbon isotopes in multiphase reactive systems relevant to geologic carbon sequestration. The code is an extension of the reactive transport code TOUGHREACT. The transport module of TOUGHREACT was modified to include separate isotopic species of CO_{2} gas and dissolved inorganic carbon (CO_{2}, CO_{3}^{2-}, HCO_{3}^{-},…). Any process of transport or reaction influencing a given carbon species also influences its isotopic ratio. Isotopic fractionation is thus fully integrated within the dynamic system. The chemical module and database have been expanded to include isotopic exchange and fractionation between the carbon species in both gas and aqueous phases. The performance of the code is verified by modeling ideal systems and comparing with theoretical results. Efforts are also made to fit field data from the Pembina CO_{2} injection project in Canada. We show that the exchange of carbon isotopes between dissolved and gaseous carbon species combined with fluid flow and transport, produce isotopic effects that are significantly different from simple two-component mixing. These effects are important for understanding the isotopic variations observed in field demonstrations.
Zhang, Shuo; DePaolo, Donald J.; Zheng, Liange; ...
2014-12-31
Carbon stable isotopes can be used in characterization and monitoring of CO2 sequestration sites to track the migration of the CO2 plume and identify leakage sources, and to evaluate the chemical reactions that take place in the CO2-water-rock system. However, there are few tools available to incorporate stable isotope information into flow and transport codes used for CO2 sequestration problems. We present a numerical tool for modeling the transport of stable carbon isotopes in multiphase reactive systems relevant to geologic carbon sequestration. The code is an extension of the reactive transport code TOUGHREACT. The transport module of TOUGHREACT was modifiedmore » to include separate isotopic species of CO2 gas and dissolved inorganic carbon (CO2, CO32-, HCO3-,…). Any process of transport or reaction influencing a given carbon species also influences its isotopic ratio. Isotopic fractionation is thus fully integrated within the dynamic system. The chemical module and database have been expanded to include isotopic exchange and fractionation between the carbon species in both gas and aqueous phases. The performance of the code is verified by modeling ideal systems and comparing with theoretical results. Efforts are also made to fit field data from the Pembina CO2 injection project in Canada. We show that the exchange of carbon isotopes between dissolved and gaseous carbon species combined with fluid flow and transport, produce isotopic effects that are significantly different from simple two-component mixing. These effects are important for understanding the isotopic variations observed in field demonstrations.« less
Simulation of three-component fluid flows using the multiphase lattice Boltzmann flux solver
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Y.; Tang, G. H.; Wang, Y.
2016-06-01
In this work, we extend the multiphase lattice Boltzmann flux solver, which was proposed in [1] for simulating incompressible flows of binary fluids based on two-component Cahn-Hilliard model, to three-component fluid flows. In the present method, the multiphase lattice Boltzmann flux solver is applied to solve for the flow field and the three-component Cahn-Hilliard model is used to predict the evolution of the interfaces. The proposed method is first validated through the classical problem of simulation of partial spreading of a liquid lens between the other two components. Numerical results of interface shapes and contact angles agree well with theoretical solutions. After that, to further demonstrate the capability of the present method, several numerical examples of three-component fluid flows are presented, including a bubble rising across a fluid-fluid interface, single droplet falling through a fluid-fluid interface, the collision-coalescence of two droplets, and the non-contact collision of two droplets. It is shown that the present method can successfully handle complex interactions among three components.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yu-Shu; Forsyth, Peter A.
2001-04-01
Selecting the proper primary variables is a critical step in efficiently modeling the highly nonlinear problem of multiphase subsurface flow in a heterogeneous porous-fractured media. Current simulation and ground modeling techniques consist of (1) spatial discretization of mass and/or heat conservation equations using finite difference or finite element methods; (2) fully implicit time discretization; (3) solving the nonlinear, discrete algebraic equations using a Newton iterative scheme. Previous modeling efforts indicate that the choice of primary variables for a Newton iteration not only impacts computational performance of a numerical code, but may also determine the feasibility of a numerical modeling study in many field applications. This paper presents an analysis and general recommendations for selecting primary variables in simulating multiphase, subsurface flow for one-active phase (Richards' equation), two-phase (gas and liquid) and three-phase (gas, water and nonaqueous phase liquid or NAPL) conditions. In many cases, a dynamic variable switching or variable substitution scheme may have to be used in order to achieve optimal numerical performance and robustness. The selection of primary variables depends in general on the sensitivity of the system of equations to the variables selected at given phase and flow conditions. We will present a series of numerical tests and large-scale field simulation examples, including modeling one (active)-phase, two-phase and three-phase flow problems in multi-dimensional, porous-fractured subsurface systems.
Wu, Y S; Forsyth, P A
2001-04-01
Selecting the proper primary variables is a critical step in efficiently modeling the highly nonlinear problem of multiphase subsurface flow in a heterogeneous porous-fractured media. Current simulation and ground modeling techniques consist of (1) spatial discretization of mass and/or heat conservation equations using finite difference or finite element methods; (2) fully implicit time discretization; (3) solving the nonlinear, discrete algebraic equations using a Newton iterative scheme. Previous modeling efforts indicate that the choice of primary variables for a Newton iteration not only impacts computational performance of a numerical code, but may also determine the feasibility of a numerical modeling study in many field applications. This paper presents an analysis and general recommendations for selecting primary variables in simulating multiphase, subsurface flow for one-active phase (Richards' equation), two-phase (gas and liquid) and three-phase (gas, water and nonaqueous phase liquid or NAPL) conditions. In many cases, a dynamic variable switching or variable substitution scheme may have to be used in order to achieve optimal numerical performance and robustness. The selection of primary variables depends in general on the sensitivity of the system of equations to the variables selected at given phase and flow conditions. We will present a series of numerical tests and large-scale field simulation examples, including modeling one (active)-phase, two-phase and three-phase flow problems in multi-dimensional, porous-fractured subsurface systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pendota, Premchand
Many physical phenomena and industrial applications involve multiphase fluid flows and hence it is of high importance to be able to simulate various aspects of these flows accurately. The Dynamic Contact Angles (DCA) and the contact lines at the wall boundaries are a couple of such important aspects. In the past few decades, many mathematical models were developed for predicting the contact angles of the inter-face with the wall boundary under various flow conditions. These models are used to incorporate the physics of DCA and contact line motion in numerical simulations using various interface capturing/tracking techniques. In the current thesis, a simple approach to incorporate the static and dynamic contact angle boundary conditions using the level set method is developed and implemented in multiphase CFD codes, LIT (Level set Interface Tracking) (Herrmann (2008)) and NGA (flow solver) (Desjardins et al (2008)). Various DCA models and associated boundary conditions are reviewed. In addition, numerical aspects such as the occurrence of a stress singularity at the contact lines and grid convergence of macroscopic interface shape are dealt with in the context of the level set approach.
The Impact of Mineral Dissolution on Multiphase Flow in Permeable Carbonates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krevor, S. C.; Niu, B.
2015-12-01
Carbon dioxide injection into deep saline aquifers is governed by a number of physicochemical processes at a broad range of spatial scales including mineral dissolution and precipitation, fluid flow, and capillary trapping. Past efforts have mostly focused on measuring the multiphase flow properties, capillarity, relative permeability, and residual trapping. However, the impact of fluid-rock interaction on these properties is less well understood. In this work we have made a series of measurements characterizing the impact of rock mineral dissolution on multiphase flow in three carbonate rocks. We used core flooding techniques to mimic reactive conditions representative of the near the well bore and far field regions of a carbonate reservoir CO2 injection project. Tests sequentially induced mineral dissolution and characterized the impacts on multiphase flow properties. Temperature retarded acid was used to uniformly dissolve calcite in Ketton, Estaillades, and Edward Brown rock cores. A single dissolution stages removed approximately 0.5% of the mass of the rocks and measurements of relative permeability and residual trapping were made after each stage along with mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) to quantify the variation of in the pore size distribution. Three Stages were performed on each of carbonates rocks. Imaging with x-ray micro-CT and medical CT were used to quantify the porosity variation and observe the changes in pore structure and multiphase flow properties at scales from the um to the cm. The pore size distribution of the rocks was observed to both increase and become less uniform with progressive dissolution, as shown in Figure 1. For Ketton, the micro-pores, with size range from 0.01 um to 0.1um, have less been involved in the reaction than the macro-pores (10 um to 100 um). A larger spread in capillary trapping was seen around a characteristic initial-residual curve. Relative permeability changes with progressive dissolution was not well
Density and Cavitating Flow Results from a Full-Scale Optical Multiphase Cryogenic Flowmeter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Korman, Valentin
2007-01-01
Liquid propulsion systems are hampered by poor flow measurements. The measurement of flow directly impacts safe motor operations, performance parameters as well as providing feedback from ground testing and developmental work. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, in an effort to improve propulsion sensor technology, has developed an all optical flow meter that directly measures the density of the fluid. The full-scale sensor was tested in a transient, multiphase liquid nitrogen fluid environment. Comparison with traditional density models shows excellent agreement with fluid density with an error of approximately 0.8%. Further evaluation shows the sensor is able to detect cavitation or bubbles in the flow stream and separate out their resulting effects in fluid density.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henry de Frahan, Marc T.; Varadan, Sreenivas; Johnsen, Eric
2015-01-01
Although the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method has seen widespread use for compressible flow problems in a single fluid with constant material properties, it has yet to be implemented in a consistent fashion for compressible multiphase flows with shocks and interfaces. Specifically, it is challenging to design a scheme that meets the following requirements: conservation, high-order accuracy in smooth regions and non-oscillatory behavior at discontinuities (in particular, material interfaces). Following the interface-capturing approach of Abgrall [1], we model flows of multiple fluid components or phases using a single equation of state with variable material properties; discontinuities in these properties correspond to interfaces. To represent compressible phenomena in solids, liquids, and gases, we present our analysis for equations of state belonging to the Mie-Grüneisen family. Within the DG framework, we propose a conservative, high-order accurate, and non-oscillatory limiting procedure, verified with simple multifluid and multiphase problems. We show analytically that two key elements are required to prevent spurious pressure oscillations at interfaces and maintain conservation: (i) the transport equation(s) describing the material properties must be solved in a non-conservative weak form, and (ii) the suitable variables must be limited (density, momentum, pressure, and appropriate properties entering the equation of state), coupled with a consistent reconstruction of the energy. Further, we introduce a physics-based discontinuity sensor to apply limiting in a solution-adaptive fashion. We verify this approach with one- and two-dimensional problems with shocks and interfaces, including high pressure and density ratios, for fluids obeying different equations of state to illustrate the robustness and versatility of the method. The algorithm is implemented on parallel graphics processing units (GPU) to achieve high speedup.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fazeli, Mohammadreza
In this thesis, pore network modeling was used to study how the microstructure of the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell gas diffusion layer (GDL) influences multiphase transport within the composite layer. An equivalent pore network of a GDL was used to study the effects of GDL/catalyst layer condensation points and contact quality on the spatial distribution of liquid water in the GDL. Next, pore networks extracted from synchrotron-based micro-computed tomography images of compressed GDLs were employed to simulate liquid water transport in GDL materials over a range of compression pressures, and favorable GDL compression values for preferred liquid water distributions were found for two commercially available GDL materials. Finally, a technique was developed for calculating the oxygen diffusivity in carbon paper substrates with a microporous layer (MPL) coating through pore network modeling. A hybrid network was incorporated into the pore network model, and effective diffusivity predictions of MPL coated GDL materials were obtained.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Holtsnider, John T.; Dahl, Roger W.; Deeks, Dalton; Javanovic, Goran N.; Parker, James M.; Ehlert, Jim
2013-01-01
Advances in the understanding of multiphase flow characteristics under variable gravity conditions will ultimately lead to improved and as of yet unknown process designs for advanced space missions. Such novel processes will be of paramount importance to the success of future manned space exploration as we venture into our solar system and beyond. In addition, because of the ubiquitous nature and vital importance of biological and environmental processes involving airwater mixtures, knowledge gained about fundamental interactions and the governing properties of these mixtures will clearly benefit the quality of life here on our home planet. The techniques addressed in the current research involving multiphase transport in porous media and gas-liquid phase separation using capillary pressure gradients are also a logical candidate for a future International Space Station (ISS) flight experiment. Importantly, the novel and potentially very accurate Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) modeling of multiphase transport in porous media developed in this work offers significantly improved predictions of real world fluid physics phenomena, thereby promoting advanced process designs for both space and terrestrial applications.This 3-year research effort has culminated in the design and testing of a zero-g demonstration prototype. Both the hydrophilic (glass) and hydrophobic (Teflon) media Capillary Pressure Gradient (CPG) cartridges prepared during the second years work were evaluated. Results obtained from ground testing at 1-g were compared to those obtained at reduced gravities spanning Martian (13-g), Lunar (16-g) and zero-g. These comparisons clearly demonstrate the relative strength of the CPG phenomena and the efficacy of its application to meet NASAs unique gas-liquid separation (GLS) requirements in non-terrestrial environments.LB modeling software, developed concurrently with the zero-g test effort, was shown to accurately reproduce observed CPG driven gas-liquid separation
Large Eddy Simulation of a Cavitating Multiphase Flow for Liquid Injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cailloux, M.; Helie, J.; Reveillon, J.; Demoulin, F. X.
2015-12-01
This paper presents a numerical method for modelling a compressible multiphase flow that involves phase transition between liquid and vapour in the context of gasoline injection. A discontinuous compressible two fluid mixture based on the Volume of Fluid (VOF) implementation is employed to represent the phases of liquid, vapour and air. The mass transfer between phases is modelled by standard models such as Kunz or Schnerr-Sauer but including the presence of air in the gas phase. Turbulence is modelled using a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach to catch instationnarities and coherent structures. Eventually the modelling approach matches favourably experimental data concerning the effect of cavitation on atomisation process.
Hutnak, M.; Hurwitz, S.; Ingebritsen, S.E.; Hsieh, P.A.
2009-01-01
Ground surface displacement (GSD) in large calderas is often interpreted as resulting from magma intrusion at depth. Recent advances in geodetic measurements of GSD, notably interferometric synthetic aperture radar, reveal complex and multifaceted deformation patterns that often require complex source models to explain the observed GSD. Although hydrothermal fluids have been discussed as a possible deformation agent, very few quantitative studies addressing the effects of multiphase flow on crustal mechanics have been attempted. Recent increases in the power and availability of computing resources allow robust quantitative assessment of the complex time-variant thermal interplay between aqueous fluid flow and crustal deformation. We carry out numerical simulations of multiphase (liquid-gas), multicomponent (H 2O-CO2) hydrothermal fluid flow and poroelastic deformation using a range of realistic physical parameters and processes. Hydrothermal fluid injection, circulation, and gas formation can generate complex, temporally and spatially varying patterns of GSD, with deformation rates, magnitudes, and geometries (including subsidence) similar to those observed in several large calderas. The potential for both rapid and gradual deformation resulting from magma-derived fluids suggests that hydrothermal fluid circulation may help explain deformation episodes at calderas that have not culminated in magmatic eruption.
A Numerical Study of Mesh Adaptivity in Multiphase Flows with Non-Newtonian Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Percival, James; Pavlidis, Dimitrios; Xie, Zhihua; Alberini, Federico; Simmons, Mark; Pain, Christopher; Matar, Omar
2014-11-01
We present an investigation into the computational efficiency benefits of dynamic mesh adaptivity in the numerical simulation of transient multiphase fluid flow problems involving Non-Newtonian fluids. Such fluids appear in a range of industrial applications, from printing inks to toothpastes and introduce new challenges for mesh adaptivity due to the additional ``memory'' of viscoelastic fluids. Nevertheless, the multiscale nature of these flows implies huge potential benefits for a successful implementation. The study is performed using the open source package Fluidity, which couples an unstructured mesh control volume finite element solver for the multiphase Navier-Stokes equations to a dynamic anisotropic mesh adaptivity algorithm, based on estimated solution interpolation error criteria, and conservative mesh-to-mesh interpolation routine. The code is applied to problems involving rheologies ranging from simple Newtonian to shear-thinning to viscoelastic materials and verified against experimental data for various industrial and microfluidic flows. This work was undertaken as part of the EPSRC MEMPHIS programme grant EP/K003976/1.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moortgat, Joachim; Firoozabadi, Abbas
2016-06-01
Problems of interest in hydrogeology and hydrocarbon resources involve complex heterogeneous geological formations. Such domains are most accurately represented in reservoir simulations by unstructured computational grids. Finite element methods accurately describe flow on unstructured meshes with complex geometries, and their flexible formulation allows implementation on different grid types. In this work, we consider for the first time the challenging problem of fully compositional three-phase flow in 3D unstructured grids, discretized by any combination of tetrahedra, prisms, and hexahedra. We employ a mass conserving mixed hybrid finite element (MHFE) method to solve for the pressure and flux fields. The transport equations are approximated with a higher-order vertex-based discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization. We show that this approach outperforms a face-based implementation of the same polynomial order. These methods are well suited for heterogeneous and fractured reservoirs, because they provide globally continuous pressure and flux fields, while allowing for sharp discontinuities in compositions and saturations. The higher-order accuracy improves the modeling of strongly non-linear flow, such as gravitational and viscous fingering. We review the literature on unstructured reservoir simulation models, and present many examples that consider gravity depletion, water flooding, and gas injection in oil saturated reservoirs. We study convergence rates, mesh sensitivity, and demonstrate the wide applicability of our chosen finite element methods for challenging multiphase flow problems in geometrically complex subsurface media.
Using statistical learning to close two-fluid multiphase flow equations for a simple bubbly system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Ming; Lu, Jiacai; Tryggvason, Gretar
2015-09-01
Direct numerical simulations of bubbly multiphase flows are used to find closure terms for a simple model of the average flow, using Neural Networks (NNs). The flow considered consists of several nearly spherical bubbles rising in a periodic domain where the initial vertical velocity and the average bubble density are homogeneous in two directions but non-uniform in one of the horizontal directions. After an initial transient motion the average void fraction and vertical velocity become approximately uniform. The NN is trained on a dataset from one simulation and then used to simulate the evolution of other initial conditions. Overall, the resulting model predicts the evolution of the various initial conditions reasonably well.
DENSE MULTIPHASE FLOW SIMULATION: CONTINUUM MODEL FOR POLY-DISPERSED SYSTEMS USING KINETIC THEORY
Moses Bogere
2011-08-31
The overall objective of the project was to verify the applicability of the FCMOM approach to the kinetic equations describing the particle flow dynamics. For monodispersed systems the fundamental equation governing the particle flow dynamics is the Boltzmann equation. During the project, the FCMOM was successfully applied to several homogeneous and in-homogeneous problems in different flow regimes, demonstrating that the FCMOM has the potential to be used to solve efficiently the Boltzmann equation. However, some relevant issues still need to be resolved, i.e. the homogeneous cooling problem (inelastic particles cases) and the transition between different regimes. In this report, the results obtained in homogeneous conditions are discussed first. Then a discussion of the validation results for in-homogeneous conditions is provided. And finally, a discussion will be provided about the transition between different regimes. Alongside the work on development of FCMOM approach studies were undertaken in order to provide insights into anisotropy or particles kinetics in riser hydrodynamics. This report includes results of studies of multiphase flow with unequal granular temperatures and analysis of momentum re-distribution in risers due to particle-particle and fluid-particle interactions. The study of multiphase flow with unequal granular temperatures entailed both simulation and experimental studies of two particles sizes in a riser and, a brief discussion of what was accomplished will be provided. And finally, a discussion of the analysis done on momentum re-distribution of gas-particles flow in risers will be provided. In particular a discussion of the remaining work needed in order to improve accuracy and predictability of riser hydrodynamics based on two-fluid models and how they can be used to model segregation in risers.
Application of partially-coupled hydro-mechanical schemes to multiphase flow problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tillner, Elena; Kempka, Thomas
2016-04-01
Utilization of subsurface reservoirs by fluid storage or production generally triggers pore pressure changes and volumetric strains in reservoirs and cap rocks. The assessment of hydro-mechanical effects can be undertaken using different process coupling strategies. The fully-coupled geomechanics and flow simulation, constituting a monolithic system of equations, is rarely applied for simulations involving multiphase fluid flow due to the high computational efforts required. Pseudo-coupled simulations are driven by static tabular data on porosity and permeability changes as function of pore pressure or mean stress, resulting in a rather limited flexibility when encountering complex subsurface utilization schedules and realistic geological settings. Partially-coupled hydro-mechanical simulations can be distinguished into one-way and iterative two-way coupled schemes, whereby the latter one is based on calculations of flow and geomechanics, taking into account the iterative exchange of coupling parameters between the two respective numerical simulators until convergence is achieved. In contrast, the one-way coupling scheme is determined by the provision of pore pressure changes calculated by the flow simulator to the geomechanical simulator neglecting any feedback. In the present study, partially-coupled two-way schemes are discussed in view of fully-coupled single-phase flow and geomechanics, and their applicability to multiphase flow simulations. For that purpose, we introduce a comparison study between the different coupling schemes, using selected benchmarks to identify the main requirements for the partially-coupled approach to converge with the numerical solution of the fully-coupled one.
Monte Carlo simulations of multiphase flow incorporating spatial variability of hydraulic properties
Essaid, Hedeff I.; Hess, Kathryn M.
1993-01-01
To study the effect of spatial variability of sediment hydraulic properties on multiphase flow, oil infiltration into a hypothetical glacial outwash aquifer, followed by oil extraction, was simulated using a cross-sectional multiphase flow model. The analysis was simplified by neglecting capillary hysteresis. The first simulation used a uniform mean permeability and mean retention curve. This was followed by 50 Monte Carlo simulations conducted using 50 spatially variable permeability realizations and corresponding spatially variable retention curves. For the type of correlation structure considered in this study, which is similar to that of glacial outwash deposits, use of mean hydraulic properties reproduces the ensemble average oil saturation distribution obtained from the Monte Carlo simulations. However, spatial variability causes the oil saturation distribution in an individual oil lens to differ significantly from that of the mean lens. Oil saturations at a given location may be considerably higher than would be predicted using uniform mean properties. During cleanup by oil extraction from a well, considerably more oil may remain behind in the heterogeneous case than in the spatially uniform case.
Multiphase flow microfluidics for the production of single or multiple emulsions for drug delivery.
Zhao, Chun-Xia
2013-11-01
Considerable effort has been directed towards developing novel drug delivery systems. Microfluidics, capable of generating monodisperse single and multiple emulsion droplets, executing precise control and operations on these droplets, is a powerful tool for fabricating complex systems (microparticles, microcapsules, microgels) with uniform size, narrow size distribution and desired properties, which have great potential in drug delivery applications. This review presents an overview of the state-of-the-art multiphase flow microfluidics for the production of single emulsions or multiple emulsions for drug delivery. The review starts with a brief introduction of the approaches for making single and multiple emulsions, followed by presentation of some potential drug delivery systems (microparticles, microcapsules and microgels) fabricated in microfluidic devices using single or multiple emulsions as templates. The design principles, manufacturing processes and properties of these drug delivery systems are also discussed and compared. Furthermore, drug encapsulation and drug release (including passive and active controlled release) are provided and compared highlighting some key findings and insights. Finally, site-targeting delivery using multiphase flow microfluidics is also briefly introduced.
Multiphase pumping - operation & control
Salis, J. de; Marolies, C. de; Falcimaigne, J.
1996-12-31
This paper reviews field issues related to the planning, installation and operation of the helico-axial multiphase pumps. Interest for multiphase production, which leads to simpler and smaller in-field installations, is primarily dictated by the need for more a cost effective production system. Multiphase pumping is essentially a means of adding energy to the unprocessed effluent which enables the liquid/gas mixture to be transported over long distances without the need for prior separation. The Poseidon helico-axial pumps, under normal operating conditions, are largely unaffected by process fluctuations at pump inlet (changes in pressure, liquid or gas flow rate). They have demonstrated a stable behavior (self-adaptive capability with regards to instantaneous changes). A multiphase pump set is designed to operate under changing/fluctuating process conditions. An important issue related to pump operability and flexibility has to do with the driver selection: fixed speed vs. variable speed. In some cases a fixed speed drive provides sufficient operational flexibility. In other cases variable speed can be chosen. Pump operation & control strategies are presented and discussed.
Fast high-resolution prediction of multi-phase flow in fractured formations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pau, George Shu Heng; Finsterle, Stefan; Zhang, Yingqi
2016-02-01
The success of a thermal water flood for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) depends on a detailed representation of the geometrical and hydraulic properties of the fracture network, which induces discrete, channelized flow behavior. The resulting high-resolution model is typically computationally very demanding. Here, we use the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Mapping Method to reconstruct high-resolution solutions based on efficient low-resolution solutions. The method requires training a reduced order model (ROM) using high- and low-resolution solutions determined for a relatively short simulation time. For a cyclic EOR operation, the oil production rate and the heterogeneous structure of the oil saturation are accurately reproduced even after 105 cycles, reducing the computational cost by at least 85%. The method described is general and can be potentially utilized with any multiphase flow model.
Dripping and jetting in microfluidic multiphase flows applied to particle and fiber synthesis
Nunes, J K; Tsai, S S H; Wan, J; Stone, H A
2013-01-01
Dripping and jetting regimes in microfluidic multiphase flows have been investigated extensively, and this review summarizes the main observations and physical understandings in this field to date for three common device geometries: coaxial, flow-focusing and T-junction. The format of the presentation allows for simple and direct comparison of the different conditions for drop and jet formation, as well as the relative ease and utility of forming either drops or jets among the three geometries. The emphasis is on the use of drops and jets as templates for microparticle and microfiber syntheses, and a description is given of the more common methods of solidification and strategies for achieving complex multicomponent microparticles and microfibers. PMID:23626378
Hornung, R.D.
1996-12-31
An adaptive local mesh refinement (AMR) algorithm originally developed for unsteady gas dynamics is extended to multi-phase flow in porous media. Within the AMR framework, we combine specialized numerical methods to treat the different aspects of the partial differential equations. Multi-level iteration and domain decomposition techniques are incorporated to accommodate elliptic/parabolic behavior. High-resolution shock capturing schemes are used in the time integration of the hyperbolic mass conservation equations. When combined with AMR, these numerical schemes provide high resolution locally in a more efficient manner than if they were applied on a uniformly fine computational mesh. We will discuss the interplay of physical, mathematical, and numerical concerns in the application of adaptive mesh refinement to flow in porous media problems of practical interest.
Energetics of the multi-phase fluid flow in a narrow kerf in laser cutting conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golyshev, A. A.; Orishich, A. M.; Shulyatyev, V. B.
2016-10-01
The energy balance of the multi-phase medium flow is studied experimentally under the laser cutting. Experimental data are generalized due to the condition of minimal roughness of the created surface used as a quality criterion of the melt flow, and also due to the application of dimensionless parameters: Peclet number and dimensionless absorbed laser power. For the first time ever it is found that, regardless the assistant gas (oxygen or nitrogen), laser type (the fiber one with the wavelength of 1.07 µm or CO2-laser with the wavelength of 10.6 µm), the minimal roughness is provided at a certain energy input in a melt unit, about 26 J/mm3. With oxygen, 50% of this input is provided by the radiation, the other 50% - by the exothermic reaction of iron oxidation.
Simulation of Multiphase Water-Carbon Dioxide Mixture Flows in Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afanasyev, A. A.
2012-04-01
Two-phase models are widely used for simulation of CO2 storage in saline aquifers. These models support gaseous phase mainly saturated with CO2 and liquid phase mainly saturated with H2O (e.g. TOUGH2 code). For deep aquifers where CO2 injection may result a plume of supercritical CO2 compositional simulation approach must be applied. This approach originated from petrol reservoir simulation studies is based on a cubic equation of state and is also capable only of single-phase states and two-phase states of liquid-gas type. The goal of the present study lies in development of a new mathematical approach for compositional simulation of carbon sequestration processes. The approach is supposed to be capable both of single-phase and two-phase states of liquid-gas type as in classical models and also of two-phase states of liquid-liquid type and three-phase states at high pressure. The liquid-liquid states are formed by two liquids. The first liquid is mainly saturated with water while the second is mainly saturated with CO2. These thermodynamic equilibriums with liquefied CO2 phase can be detected experimentally (Takenouchi et. al., 1964). The three-phase states represent a composition of the two-phase states of liquid-gas and liquid-liquid types. The three phases are water and CO2 in liquid and gaseous states. As liquefied CO2 is negatively buoyant at high pressure the described states can result in non-classical hydrodynamic effects in the aquifer with CO2 sinking and consequently in non-classical structural trapping scenarios. The distinctive feature of the proposed approach lies in the methodology for mixture properties determination. Transport equations and Darcy law are solved together with calculation of the entropy maximum that is reached in thermodynamic equilibrium and determines the mixture composition. To define and solve the problem only one function - mixture thermodynamic potential - is required. The proposed approach was implemented in MUFITS (Multiphase
Glenn E. McCreery; Robert D. Stedtfeld; Alan T. Stadler; Daphne L. Stoner; Paul Meakin
2005-09-01
A geotechnical centrifuge was used to investigate unsaturated multiphase fluid flow in synthetic fracture apertures under a variety of flow conditions. The geocentrifuge subjected the fluids to centrifugal forces allowing the Bond number to be systematically changed without adjusting the fracture aperture of the fluids. The fracture models were based on the concept that surfaces generated by the fracture of brittle geomaterials have a self-affine fractal geometry. The synthetic fracture surfaces were fabricated from a transparent epoxy photopolymer using sterolithography, and fluid flow through the transparent fracture models was monitored by an optical image acquisition system. Aperture widths were chosen to be representative of the wide range of geological fractures in the vesicular basalt that lies beneath the Idaho Nation Laboratory (INL). Transitions between different flow regimes were observed as the acceleration was changed under constant flow conditions. The experiments showed the transition between straight and meandering rivulets in smooth walled apertures (aperture width = 0.508 mm), the dependence of the rivulet width on acceleration in rough walled fracture apertures (average aperture width = 0.25 mm), unstable meandering flow in rough walled apertures at high acceleration (20g) and the narrowing of the wetted region with increasing acceleration during the penetration of water into an aperture filled with wetted particles (0.875 mm diameter glass spheres).
Multiphase flow modelling of explosive volcanic eruptions using adaptive unstructured meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobs, Christian T.; Collins, Gareth S.; Piggott, Matthew D.; Kramer, Stephan C.
2014-05-01
Explosive volcanic eruptions generate highly energetic plumes of hot gas and ash particles that produce diagnostic deposits and pose an extreme environmental hazard. The formation, dispersion and collapse of these volcanic plumes are complex multiscale processes that are extremely challenging to simulate numerically. Accurate description of particle and droplet aggregation, movement and settling requires a model capable of capturing the dynamics on a range of scales (from cm to km) and a model that can correctly describe the important multiphase interactions that take place. However, even the most advanced models of eruption dynamics to date are restricted by the fixed mesh-based approaches that they employ. The research presented herein describes the development of a compressible multiphase flow model within Fluidity, a combined finite element / control volume computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, for the study of explosive volcanic eruptions. Fluidity adopts a state-of-the-art adaptive unstructured mesh-based approach to discretise the domain and focus numerical resolution only in areas important to the dynamics, while decreasing resolution where it is not needed as a simulation progresses. This allows the accurate but economical representation of the flow dynamics throughout time, and potentially allows large multi-scale problems to become tractable in complex 3D domains. The multiphase flow model is verified with the method of manufactured solutions, and validated by simulating published gas-solid shock tube experiments and comparing the numerical results against pressure gauge data. The application of the model considers an idealised 7 km by 7 km domain in which the violent eruption of hot gas and volcanic ash high into the atmosphere is simulated. Although the simulations do not correspond to a particular eruption case study, the key flow features observed in a typical explosive eruption event are successfully captured. These include a shock wave resulting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostrowski, Z.; Melka, B.; Adamczyk, W.; Rojczyk, M.; Golda, A.; Nowak, A. J.
2016-09-01
In the research a numerical Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the pulsatile blood flow was created and analyzed. A real geometry of aorta and its thoracic branches of 8-year old patient diagnosed with a congenital heart defect - coarctation of aorta was used. The inlet boundary condition were implemented as the User Define Function according to measured values of volumetric blood flow. The blood flow was treated as multiphase: plasma, set as the primary fluid phase, was dominant with volume fraction of 0.585 and morphological elements of blood were treated in Euler-Euler approach as dispersed phases (with 90% Red Blood Cells and White Blood Cells as remaining solid volume fraction).
Coupled multiphase flow and geomechanics analysis of the 2011 Lorca earthquake
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jha, B.; Hager, B. H.; Juanes, R.; Bechor, N.
2013-12-01
We present a new approach for modeling coupled multiphase flow and geomechanics of faulted reservoirs. We couple a flow simulator with a mechanics simulator using the unconditionally stable fixed-stress sequential solution scheme [Kim et al, 2011]. We model faults as surfaces of discontinuity using interface elements [Aagaard et al, 2008]. This allows us to model stick-slip behavior on the fault surface for dynamically evolving fault strength. We employ a rigorous formulation of nonlinear multiphase geomechanics [Coussy, 1995], which is based on the increment in mass of fluid phases instead of the traditional, and less accurate, scheme based on the change in porosity. Our nonlinear formulation is capable of handling strong capillarity and large changes in saturation in the reservoir. To account for the effect of surface stresses along fluid-fluid interfaces, we use the equivalent pore pressure in the definition of the multiphase effective stress [Coussy et al, 1998; Kim et al, 2013]. We use our simulation tool to study the 2011 Lorca earthquake [Gonzalez et al, 2012], which has received much attention because of its potential anthropogenic triggering (long-term groundwater withdrawal leading to slip along the regional Alhama de Murcia fault). Our coupled fluid flow and geomechanics approach to model fault slip allowed us to take a fresh look at this seismic event, which to date has only been analyzed using simple elastic dislocation models and point source solutions. Using a three-dimensional model of the Lorca region, we simulate the groundwater withdrawal and subsequent unloading of the basin over the period of interest (1960-2010). We find that groundwater withdrawal leads to unloading of the crust and changes in the stress across the impermeable fault plane. Our analysis suggests that the combination of these two factors played a critical role in inducing the fault slip that ultimately led to the Lorca earthquake. Aagaard, B. T., M. G. Knepley, and C. A
Theoretical analysis of multiphase flow during oil-well drilling by a conservative model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nicolas-Lopez, Ruben
2005-11-01
In order to decrease cost and improve drilling operations is necessary a better understood of the flow mechanisms. Therefore, it was carried out a multiphase conservative model that includes three mass equations and a momentum equation. Also, the measured geothermal gradient is utilized by state equations for estimating physical properties of the phases flowing. The mathematical model is solved by numerical conservative schemes. It is used to analyze the interaction among solid-liquid-gas phases. The circulating system consists as follow, the circulating fluid is pumped downward into the drilling pipe until the bottom of the open hole then it flows through the drill bit, and at this point formation cuttings are incorporated to the circulating fluid and carried upward to the surface. The mixture returns up to the surface by an annular flow area. The real operational conditions are fed to conservative model and the results are matched up to field measurements in several oil wells. Mainly, flow rates, drilling rate, well and tool geometries are data to estimate the profiles of pressure, mixture density, equivalent circulating density, gas fraction and solid carrying capacity. Even though the problem is very complex, the model describes, properly, the hydrodynamics of drilling techniques applied at oil fields. *Authors want to thank to Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo and Petroleos Mexicanos for supporting this research.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pawar, R.; Dash, Z.; Sakaki, T.; Plampin, M. R.; Lassen, R. N.; Illangasekare, T. H.; Zyvoloski, G.
2011-12-01
One of the concerns related to geologic CO2 sequestration is potential leakage of CO2 and its subsequent migration to shallow groundwater resources leading to geochemical impacts. Developing approaches to monitor CO2 migration in shallow aquifer and mitigate leakage impacts will require improving our understanding of gas phase formation and multi-phase flow subsequent to CO2 leakage in shallow aquifers. We are utilizing an integrated approach combining laboratory experiments and numerical simulations to characterize the multi-phase flow of CO2 in shallow aquifers. The laboratory experiments involve a series of highly controlled experiments in which CO2 dissolved water is injected in homogeneous and heterogeneous soil columns and tanks. The experimental results are used to study the effects of soil properties, temperature, pressure gradients and heterogeneities on gas formation and migration. We utilize the Finite Element Heat and Mass (FEHM) simulator (Zyvoloski et al, 2010) to numerically model the experimental results. The numerical models capture the physics of CO2 exsolution, multi-phase fluid flow as well as sand heterogeneity. Experimental observations of pressure, temperature and gas saturations are used to develop and constrain conceptual models for CO2 gas-phase formation and multi-phase CO2 flow in porous media. This talk will provide details of development of conceptual models based on experimental observation, development of numerical models for laboratory experiments and modelling results.
Gray, W.G.
2001-01-25
This project has contributed to the improved understanding and precise physical description of multiphase subsurface flow by combining theoretical derivation of equations, lattice Boltzmann modeling of hydrodynamics to identify characteristics and parameters, and simplification of field-scale equations to assess the advantages and disadvantages of the complete theory.
TOUGH2: A general-purpose numerical simulator for multiphase fluid and heat flow
Pruess, K.
1991-05-01
TOUGH2 is a numerical simulation program for nonisothermal flows of multicomponent, multiphase fluids in porous and fractured media. The chief applications for which TOUGH2 is designed are in geothermal reservoir engineering, nuclear waste disposal, and unsaturated zone hydrology. A successor to the TOUGH program, TOUGH2 offers added capabilities and user features, including the flexibility to handle different fluid mixtures, facilities for processing of geometric data (computational grids), and an internal version control system to ensure referenceability of code applications. This report includes a detailed description of governing equations, program architecture, and user features. Enhancements in data inputs relative to TOUGH are described, and a number of sample problems are given to illustrate code applications. 46 refs., 29 figs., 12 tabs.
Lattice Boltzmann Simulations for High Density Ratio Flows of Multiphase Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Yikun; Qian, Yuehong
2010-11-01
In the present communication, we will show that the compression effect of the Redlich-Kwong equation of state(EOS) is lower than that of the van der Waals (vdW) EOS. The Redlich-Kwong equation of state has a better agreement with experimental data for the coexistence curve than the van derWaals (vdW) EOS. We implement the Redlich-Kwong EOS in the lattice Boltzmann simulations via a pseudo-potential. As a result, multi-phase flows with large density ratios may be simulated, thus many real applications in engineering problems can be applied. Acknowledgement: This research is supported in part by Ministry of Education in China via project IRT0844 and NSFC project 10625210 and Shanghai Sci and Tech. Com. Project 08ZZ43
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Percival, James; Xie, Zhihua; Pavlidis, Dimitrios; Gomes, Jefferson; Pain, Christopher; Matar, Omar
2013-11-01
We present results from a new formulation of a numerical model for direct simulation of bed fluidization and multiphase granular flow. The model is based on a consistent application of continuous-discontinuous mixed control volume finite element methods applied to fully unstructured meshes. The unstructured mesh framework allows for both a mesh adaptive capability, modifying the computational geometry in order to bound the error in the numerical solution while maximizing computational efficiency, and a simple scripting interface embedded in the model which allows fast prototyping of correlation models and parameterizations in intercomparison experiments. The model is applied to standard test problems for fluidized beds. EPSRC Programme Grant EP/K003976/1.
Particle methods for simulation of subsurface multiphase fluid flow and biogeological processes
Paul Meakin; Alexandre Tartakovsky; Tim Scheibe; Daniel Tartakovsky; Georgr Redden; Philip E. Long; Scott C. Brooks; Zhijie Xu
2007-06-01
A number of particle models that are suitable for simulating multiphase fluid flow and biogeological processes have been developed during the last few decades. Here we discuss three of them: a microscopic model - molecular dynamics; a mesoscopic model - dissipative particle dynamics; and a macroscopic model - smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Particle methods are robust and versatile, and it is relatively easy to add additional physical, chemical and biological processes into particle codes. However, the computational efficiency of particle methods is low relative to continuum methods. Multiscale particle methods and hybrid (particle–particle and particle–continuum) methods are needed to improve computational efficiency and make effective use of emerging computational capabilities. These new methods are under development.
Particle methods for simulation of subsurface multiphase fluid flow and biogeological processes
Meakin, Paul; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Redden, George; Long, Philip E.; Brooks, Scott C.; Xu, Zhijie
2007-08-01
A number of particle models that are suitable for simulating multiphase fluid flow and biogeological processes have been developed during the last few decades. Here we discuss three of them: a microscopic model - molecular dynamics; a mesoscopic model - dissipative particle dynamics; and a macroscopic model - smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Particle methods are robust and versatile, and it is relatively easy to add additional physical, chemical and biological processes into particle codes. However, the computational efficiency of particle methods is low relative to continuum methods. Multiscale particle methods and hybrid (particle–particle and particle–continuum) methods are needed to improve computational efficiency and make effective use of emerging computational capabilities. These new methods are under development.
A minimally diffusive interface function steepening approach for compressible multiphase flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Regele, Jonathan
2015-11-01
Interface capturing methods for contacts and shocks are commonly used in compressible multiphase flows. Artificial diffusion is inherently necessary to stabilize jump discontinuities across shocks and contacts. Contacts suffer from diffusion more severely than shock waves because their characteristics are not convergent like shocks. Interface steepening procedures are commonly used to counteract numerical diffusion necessary to maintain a sharp interface function. In this work, a modification to the sharpening approach used in Shukla, Pantano, and Freund [J. Comp. Phys, 229, 2010] is developed that minimizes the artificial diffusion across the interface while maintaining a monotonic interface function. The method requires fewer iterations for convergence and provides a steeper interface function. Examples in one and two dimensions demonstrate the method's performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stranne, C.; O'Regan, M.; Jakobsson, M.
2016-08-01
Continental margins host large quantities of methane stored partly as hydrates in sediments. Release of methane through hydrate dissociation is implicated as a possible feedback mechanism to climate change. Large-scale estimates of future warming-induced methane release are commonly based on a hydrate stability approach that omits dynamic processes. Here we use the multiphase flow model TOUGH + hydrate (T + H) to quantitatively investigate how dynamic processes affect dissociation rates and methane release. The simulations involve shallow, 20-100 m thick hydrate deposits, forced by a bottom water temperature increase of 0.03°C yr-1 over 100 years. We show that on a centennial time scale, the hydrate stability approach can overestimate gas escape quantities by orders of magnitude. Our results indicate a time lag of > 40 years between the onset of warming and gas escape, meaning that recent climate warming may soon be manifested as widespread gas seepages along the world's continental margins.
Arbabi, Vahid; Pouran, Behdad; Weinans, Harrie; Zadpoor, Amir A
2016-06-14
Charged and uncharged solutes penetrate through cartilage to maintain the metabolic function of chondrocytes and to possibly restore or further breakdown the cartilage tissue in different stages of osteoarthritis. In this study the transport of charged solutes across the various zones of cartilage was quantified, taken into account the physicochemical interactions between the solute and the cartilage constituents. A multiphasic finite-bath finite element (FE) model was developed to simulate equine cartilage diffusion experiments that used a negatively charged contrast agent (ioxaglate) in combination with serial micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to measure the diffusion. By comparing the FE model with the experimental data both the diffusion coefficient of ioxaglate and the fixed charge density (FCD) were obtained. In the multiphasic model, cartilage was divided into multiple (three) zones to help understand how diffusion coefficient and FCD vary across cartilage thickness. The direct effects of charged solute-FCD interaction on diffusion were investigated by comparing the diffusion coefficients derived from the multiphasic and biphasic-solute models. We found a relationship between the FCD obtained by the multiphasic model and ioxaglate partitioning obtained from micro-CT experiments. Using our multi-zone multiphasic model, diffusion coefficient of the superficial zone was up to ten-fold higher than that of the middle zone, while the FCD of the middle zone was up to almost two-fold higher than that of the superficial zone. In conclusion, the developed finite-bath multiphasic model provides us with a non-destructive method by which we could obtain both diffusion coefficient and FCD of different cartilage zones. The outcomes of the current work will also help understand how charge of the bath affects the diffusion of a charged molecule and also predict the diffusion behavior of a charged solute across articular cartilage.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, R. M.; Nicolas, A. N.
2003-04-01
A modeling approach of gas solid flow, taking into account different physical phenomena such as gas turbulence and inter-particle interactions is presented. Moment transport equations are derived for the second order fluctuating velocity tensor which allow to involve practical closures based on single phase turbulence modeling on one hand and kinetic theory of granular media on the other hand. The model is applied to fluid catalytic cracking processes and explosive volcanism. In the industry as well as in the geophysical community, multiphase flows are modeled using a finite volume approach and a multicorrector algorithm in time in order to determine implicitly the pressures, velocities and volume fractions for each phase. Pressures, and velocities are generally determined at mid-half mesh step from each other following the staggered grid approach. This ensures stability and prevents oscillations in pressure. It allows to treat almost all the Reynolds number ranges for all speeds and viscosities. The disadvantages appear when we want to treat more complex geometries or if a generalized curvilinear formulation of the conservation equations is considered. Too many interpolations have to be done and accuracy is then lost. In order to overcome these problems, we use here a similar algorithm in time and a Rhie and Chow interpolation (1983) of the collocated variables and essentially the velocities at the interface. The Rhie and Chow interpolation of the velocities at the finite volume interfaces allows to have no oscillations of the pressure without checkerboard effects and to stabilize all the algorithm. In a first predictor step, fluxes at the interfaces of the finite volumes are then computed using 2nd and 3rd order shock capturing schemes of MUSCL/TVD or Van Leer type, and the orthogonal stress components are treated implicitly while cross viscous/diffusion terms are treated explicitly. Pentadiagonal linear systems are solved in each geometrical direction (the so
Gray free-energy multiphase lattice Boltzmann model with effective transport and wetting properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zalzale, Mohamad; Ramaioli, M.; Scrivener, K. L.; McDonald, P. J.
2016-11-01
The paper shows that it is possible to combine the free-energy lattice Boltzmann approach to multiphase modeling of fluids involving both liquid and vapor with the partial bounce back lattice Boltzmann approach to modeling effective media. Effective media models are designed to mimic the properties of porous materials with porosity much finer than the scale of the simulation lattice. In the partial bounce-back approach, an effective media parameter or bounce-back fraction controls fluid transport. In the combined model, a wetting potential is additionally introduced that controls the wetting properties of the fluid with respect to interfaces between free space (white nodes), effective media (gray nodes), and solids (black nodes). The use of the wetting potential combined with the bounce-back parameter gives the model the ability to simulate transport and sorption of a wide range of fluid in material systems. Results for phase separation, permeability, contact angle, and wicking in gray media are shown. Sorption is explored in small sections of model multiscale porous systems to demonstrate two-step desorption, sorption hysteresis, and the ink-bottle effect.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leal, Allan; Saar, Martin
2016-04-01
Computational methods for geochemical and reactive transport modeling are essential for the understanding of many natural and industrial processes. Most of these processes involve several phases and components, and quite often requires chemical equilibrium and kinetics calculations. We present an overview of novel methods for multiphase equilibrium calculations, based on both the Gibbs energy minimization (GEM) approach and on the solution of the law of mass-action (LMA) equations. We also employ kinetics calculations, assuming partial equilibrium (e.g., fluid species in equilibrium while minerals are in disequilibrium) using automatic time stepping to improve simulation efficiency and robustness. These methods are developed specifically for applications that are computationally expensive, such as reactive transport simulations. We show how efficient the new methods are, compared to other algorithms, and how easy it is to use them for geochemical modeling via a simple script language. All methods are available in Reaktoro, a unified open-source framework for modeling chemically reactive systems, which we also briefly describe.
Evolution of natural gas composition: Predictive multi-phase reaction-transport modeling
Ortoleva, P.J.; Chang, K.A.; Maxwell, J.M.
1995-12-31
A computational modeling approach is used to investigate reaction and transport processes affecting natural gas composition over geological time. Three basic stages are integrated -- gas generation from organic solids or liquids, interactions during source rock expulsion to the reservoir and reactions within the reservoir. Multi-phase dynamics is handled by solving the fully coupled problem of phase-to-phase transfer, intra-phase organic and inorganic reactions and redox and other reactions between fluid phase molecules and minerals. Effects of capillarity and relative permeability are accounted for. Correlations will be determined between gas composition, temperature history, the mineralogy of rocks with which the gas was in contact and the composition of source organic phases. Questions of H{sub 2}S scavenging by oxidizing minerals and the production or removal of CO{sub 2} are focused upon. Our three spatial dimensional, reaction-transport simulation approach has great promise for testing general concepts and as a practical tool for the exploration and production of natural gas.
Multiphase flow simulations of a moving fluidized bed regenerator in a carbon capture unit
Sarkar, Avik; Pan, Wenxiao; Suh, Dong-Myung; Huckaby, E. D.; Sun, Xin
2014-10-01
To accelerate the commercialization and deployment of carbon capture technologies, computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based tools may be used to model and analyze the performance of carbon capture devices. This work presents multiphase CFD-based flow simulations for the regeneration device responsible for extracting CO_{2} from CO_{2}-loaded sorbent particles before the particles are recycled. The use of solid particle sorbents in this design is a departure from previously reported systems, where aqueous sorbents are employed. Another new feature is the inclusion of a series of perforated plates along the regenerator height. The influence of these plates on sorbent distribution is examined for varying sorbent holdup, fluidizing gas velocity, and particle size. The residence time distribution of sorbents is also measured to classify the low regime as plug flow or well-mixed flow. The purpose of this work is to better understand the sorbent flow characteristics before reaction kinetics of CO_{2} desorption can be implemented.
Yu, G.S.; Ni, J.J.; Liang, Q.F.; Guo, Q.H.; Zhou, Z.J.
2009-11-15
A comprehensive model has been developed to analyze the multiphase flow and heat transfer in the radiant syngas cooler (RSC) of an industrial-scale entrained-flow coal gasification. The three-dimensional multiphase flow field and temperature field were reconstructed. The realizable {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model is applied to calculate the gas flow field, while the discrete random walk model is applied to trace the particles, and the interaction between the gas and the particle is considered using a two-way coupling model. The radiative properties of syngas mixture are calculated by weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model (WSGGM). The Ranz-Marshall correlation for the Nusselt number is used to account for convection heat transfer between the gas phase and the particles. The discrete ordinate model is applied to model the radiative heat transfer, and the effect of ash/slag particles on radiative heat transfer is considered. The model was successfully validated by comparison with the industrial plant measurement data, which demonstrated the ability of the model to optimize the design. The results show that a torch shape inlet jet was formed in the RSC, and its length increased with the diameter of the central channel. The recirculation zones appeared around the inlet jet, top, and bottom of the RSC. The overall temperature decreased with the heat-transfer surface area of the fins. The concentration distribution, velocity distribution, residence time distribution, and temperature distribution of particles with different diameters have been discussed. Finally, the slag/ash particles size distribution and temperature profile at the bottom of the RSC have been presented.
Exact regularized point particle method for multiphase flows in the two-way coupling regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gualtieri, P.; Picano, F.; Sardina, G.; Casciola, C. M.
2015-06-01
Particulate flows have been largely studied under the simplifying assumptions of one-way coupling regime where the disperse phase do not react-back on the carrier fluid. In the context of turbulent flows, many non trivial phenomena such as small scales particles clustering or preferential spatial accumulation have been explained and understood. A more complete view of multiphase flows can be gained calling into play two-way coupling effects, i.e. by accounting for the inter-phase momentum exchange between the carrier and the suspended phase, certainly relevant at increasing mass loading. In such regime, partially investigated in the past by the so-called Particle In Cell (PIC) method, much is still to be learned about the dynamics of the disperse phase and the ensuing alteration of the carrier flow. In this paper we present a new methodology rigorously designed to capture the inter-phase momentum exchange for particles smaller than the smallest hydrodynamical scale, e.g. the Kolmogorov scale in a turbulent flow. In fact, the momentum coupling mechanism exploits the unsteady Stokes flow around a small rigid sphere where the transient disturbance produced by each particle is evaluated in a closed form. The particles are described as lumped, point masses which would lead to the appearance of singularities. A rigorous regularization procedure is conceived to extract the physically relevant interactions between particles and fluid which avoids any "ah hoc" assumption. The approach is suited for high efficiency implementation on massively parallel machines since the transient disturbance produced by the particles is strongly localized in space around the actual particle position. As will be shown, hundred thousands particles can therefore be handled at an affordable computational cost as demonstrated by a preliminary application to a particle laden turbulent shear flow.
Trangenstein, J.A.
1993-03-15
This is the first year in the proposed three-year effort to develop high-resolution numerical methods for multi-phase flow in hierarchical porous media. The issues being addressed in this research are: Computational efficiency: Field-scale simulation of enhanced oil recovery, whether for energy production or aquifer remediation, is typically highly under-resolved. This is because rock transport properties vary on many scales, and because current numerical methods have low resolution. Effective media properties: Since porous media are formed through complex geologic processes, they involve significant uncertainty and scale-dependence. Given this uncertainty, knowledge of ensemble averages of flow in porous media can be preferable to knowledge of flow in specific realizations of the reservoir. However, current models of effective properties do not represent the observed behavior very well. Relative permeability models present a good example of this problem. In practice, these models seldom provide realistic representations of hysteresis, interfacial tension effects or three-phase flow; there are no models that represent well all three effects simultaneously. Wave propagation: It is common in the petroleum industry to assume that the models have the same well-posedness properties as the physical system. An example of this fallacy is given by the three-phase relative permeability models; they were widely assumed by the petroleum community to produce hyperbolic systems for the Buckley-Leverett equations, but later the mathematics community proved that these models inherently produce local elliptic regions. Since numerical methods must use the models for computations, oscillations that develop could erroneously be attributed to numerical error rather than modeling difficulties. During this year, we have made significant progress on several tasks aimed at addressing these issues.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bellan, J.; Lathouwers, D.
2000-01-01
A novel multiphase flow model is presented for describing the pyrolysis of biomass in a 'bubbling' fluidized bed reactor. The mixture of biomass and sand in a gaseous flow is conceptualized as a particulate phase composed of two classes interacting with the carrier gaseous flow. The solid biomass is composed of three initial species: cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. From each of these initial species, two new solid species originate during pyrolysis: an 'active' species and a char, thus totaling seven solid-biomass species. The gas phase is composed of the original carrier gas (steam), tar and gas; the last two species originate from the volumetric pyrolysis reaction. The conservation equations are derived from the Boltzmann equations through ensemble averaging. Stresses in the gaseous phase are the sum of the Newtonian and Reynolds (turbulent) contributions. The particulate phase stresses are the sum of collisional and Reynolds contributions. Heat transfer between phases, and heat transfer between classes in the particulate phase is modeled, the last resulting from collisions between sand and biomass. Closure of the equations must be performed by modeling the Reynolds stresses for both phases. The results of a simplified version (first step) of the model are presented.
Numerical analysis for the multi-phase flow of pulverized coal injection inside blast furnace tuyere
Chen, C.W.
2005-09-01
The pulverized coal injection (PCI) system was modified from single lance injection into double lance injection at No. 3 Blast Furnace of CSC. It is beneficial to reduce the cost of coke. However, the injected coal was found very close to the inner wall of the tuyere during the operation, such as to cause the possibility of erosion for the tuyere. In this study a three-dimensional mathematical model has been developed based on a computational fluid dynamics software PHOENICS to simulate the fluid flow phenomena inside blast furnace tuyere. The model was capable of handling steady-state, three-dimensional multi-phase flow of pulverized coal injection. The model was applied to simulate the flow patterns of the injection coal inside the tuyere with two kinds of lance design for the PCI system. The distribution of injection coal was simulated such as to estimate the possibility of erosion for the tuyere. The calculated results agreed with the operating experience of CSC plant and the optimum design of double lance was suggested. The model was also applied to simulate the oxygen concentration distribution with these different oxygen enrichments for the coal/oxygen lance system. The calculated results agreed with the experimental measurement. These test results demonstrate that the model is both reasonably reliable and efficient.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakamoto, Yasuhide; Nishiwaki, Junko; Hara, Junko; Kawabe, Yoshishige; Sugai, Yuichi; Komai, Takeshi
In late years, soil contamination due to mineral oil in vacant lots of oil factory and oil field has become obvious. Measure for soil contamina tion and risk assessment are neces sary for sustainable development of industrial activity. Especially, in addition to contaminated sites, various exposure paths for human body such as well water, soil and farm crop are supposed. So it is very important to comprehend the transport phenomena of contaminated material under the environments of soil and ground water. In this study, mineral oil as c ontaminated material consisting of mu lti-component such as aliphatic and aromatic series was modeled. Then numerical mode l for transport phenomena in surface soil and aquifer was constructed. On the basis of modeling for mineral oil, our numerical model consists of three-phase (oil, water and gas) forty three-component. This numerical model becomes base program for risk assessment system on soil contamination due to mineral oil. Using this numerical model, we carried out some numerical simulation for a laboratory-scale experiment on oil-water multi-phase flow. Relative permeability that dominate flow behavior in multi-phase condition was formulated and the validity of the numerical model developed in this study was considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mason, Lachlan; Gebauer, Felix; Bart, Hans-Jörg; Stevens, Geoffrey; Harvie, Dalton
2016-11-01
Understanding the physics of emulsion coalescence is critical for the robust simulation of industrial solvent extraction processes, in which loaded organic and raffinate phases are separated via the coalescence of dispersed droplets. At the droplet scale, predictive collision-outcome models require an accurate description of the repulsive surface forces arising from electrical-double-layer interactions. The conventional disjoining-pressure treatment of double-layer forces, however, relies on assumptions which do not hold generally for deformable droplet collisions: namely, low interfacial curvature and negligible advection of ion species. This study investigates the validity bounds of the disjoining pressure approximation for low-inertia droplet interactions. A multiphase ion-transport model, based on a coupling of droplet-scale Nernst-Planck and Navier-Stokes equations, predicts ion-concentration fields that are consistent with the equilibrium Boltzmann distribution; indicating that the disjoining-pressure approach is valid for both static and dynamic interactions in low-Reynolds-number settings. The present findings support the development of coalescence kernels for application in macro-scale population balance modelling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jain, A. K.; Juanes, R.
2009-08-01
We present a discrete element model for simulating, at the grain scale, gas migration in brine-saturated deformable media. We rigorously account for the presence of two fluids in the pore space by incorporating forces on grains due to pore fluid pressures and surface tension between fluids. This model, which couples multiphase fluid flow with sediment mechanics, permits investigation of the upward migration of gas through a brine-filled sediment column. We elucidate the ways in which gas migration may take place: (1) by capillary invasion in a rigid-like medium and (2) by initiation and propagation of a fracture. We find that grain size is the main factor controlling the mode of gas transport in the sediment, and we show that coarse-grain sediments favor capillary invasion, whereas fracturing dominates in fine-grain media. The results have important implications for understanding vent sites and pockmarks in the ocean floor, deep subseabed storage of carbon dioxide, and gas hydrate accumulations in ocean sediments and permafrost regions. Our results predict that in fine sediments, hydrate will likely form in veins following a fracture network pattern, and the hydrate concentration will likely be quite low. In coarse sediments, the buoyant methane gas is likely to invade the pore space more uniformly, in a process akin to invasion percolation, and the overall pore occupancy is likely to be much higher than for a fracture-dominated regime. These implications are consistent with laboratory experiments and field observations of methane hydrates in natural systems.
Shankar Subramaniam
2009-04-01
This final project report summarizes progress made towards the objectives described in the proposal entitled “Developing New Mathematical Models for Multiphase Flows Based on a Fundamental Probability Density Function Approach”. Substantial progress has been made in theory, modeling and numerical simulation of turbulent multiphase flows. The consistent mathematical framework based on probability density functions is described. New models are proposed for turbulent particle-laden flows and sprays.
Subsecond pore-scale displacement processes and relaxation dynamics in multiphase flow
Armstrong, Ryan T; Ott, Holger; Georgiadis, Apostolos; Rücker, Maja; Schwing, Alex; Berg, Steffen
2014-01-01
With recent advances at X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT) synchrotron beam lines, it is now possible to study pore-scale flow in porous rock under dynamic flow conditions. The collection of four-dimensional data allows for the direct 3-D visualization of fluid-fluid displacement in porous rock as a function of time. However, even state-of-the-art fast-μCT scans require between one and a few seconds to complete and the much faster fluid movement occurring during that time interval is manifested as imaging artifacts in the reconstructed 3-D volume. We present an approach to analyze the 2-D radiograph data collected during fast-μCT to study the pore-scale displacement dynamics on the time scale of 40 ms which is near the intrinsic time scale of individual Haines jumps. We present a methodology to identify the time intervals at which pore-scale displacement events in the observed field of view occur and hence, how reconstruction intervals can be chosen to avoid fluid-movement-induced reconstruction artifacts. We further quantify the size, order, frequency, and location of fluid-fluid displacement at the millisecond time scale. We observe that after a displacement event, the pore-scale fluid distribution relaxes to (quasi-) equilibrium in cascades of pore-scale fluid rearrangements with an average relaxation time for the whole cascade between 0.5 and 2.0 s. These findings help to identify the flow regimes and intrinsic time and length scales relevant to fractional flow. While the focus of the work is in the context of multiphase flow, the approach could be applied to many different μCT applications where morphological changes occur at a time scale less than that required for collecting a μCT scan. PMID:25745271
Composite multiphase groundwater model
Kim, Joon Hyun.
1989-01-01
A general comprehensive mathematical model using the composite multi-phase approach to describe groundwater flow and pollution was developed. The comprehensive governing equation was derived from the simple mass balance of chemical species over all the phases in schematic elementary volume, and traditional ground water governing equations are explained from it. An attempt was made to include the complicated aspects of physical chemical and biological processes such as mass fraction, compressibility, capillarity, dispersion, gravity, relative permeability, viscosity, sorption, interfacial mass change and chemical and biological reactions. To make the analysis possible, assumptions have been made for continuous flow of each phase and instantaneous equilibrium for partition. The resulting system of nonlinear governing and constitutive equations was solved numerically. To handle the irregular geometry, complex boundary conditions and many different governing equations with simple modifications, the upstream weighted finite element method was adopted. By using the dynamic allocation of arrays, the code is flexible to work on an IBM 3090 Vector Facility, workstations and PC's for one, two and three dimensional problems. To reduce the computation time and storage requirements, decoupling of the system equations, banded global matrix and vector and parallel processing were used. The program was structured to facilitate inclusion of additional future constitutive equations. To demonstrate the model's versatility, several hypothetical problems were simulated: unsaturated flow through an embankment; one and two dimensional solute transport; one, two, three dimensional multiphase flow; composite multiphase flow and contaminant migration. The instability and convergence criteria of the nonlinear problems were studied. Parameter dependency of the model was also studied.
Mukhopadhyay, S.; Tsang, Y.; Finsterle, S.
2009-01-15
A simple conceptual model has been recently developed for analyzing pressure and temperature data from flowing fluid temperature logging (FFTL) in unsaturated fractured rock. Using this conceptual model, we developed an analytical solution for FFTL pressure response, and a semianalytical solution for FFTL temperature response. We also proposed a method for estimating fracture permeability from FFTL temperature data. The conceptual model was based on some simplifying assumptions, particularly that a single-phase airflow model was used. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive numerical model of multiphase flow and heat transfer associated with FFTL. Using this numerical model, we perform a number of forward simulations to determine the parameters that have the strongest influence on the pressure and temperature response from FFTL. We then use the iTOUGH2 optimization code to estimate these most sensitive parameters through inverse modeling and to quantify the uncertainties associated with these estimated parameters. We conclude that FFTL can be utilized to determine permeability, porosity, and thermal conductivity of the fracture rock. Two other parameters, which are not properties of the fractured rock, have strong influence on FFTL response. These are pressure and temperature in the borehole that were at equilibrium with the fractured rock formation at the beginning of FFTL. We illustrate how these parameters can also be estimated from FFTL data.
Thickness-based adaptive mesh refinement methods for multi-phase flow simulations with thin regions
Chen, Xiaodong; Yang, Vigor
2014-07-15
In numerical simulations of multi-scale, multi-phase flows, grid refinement is required to resolve regions with small scales. A notable example is liquid-jet atomization and subsequent droplet dynamics. It is essential to characterize the detailed flow physics with variable length scales with high fidelity, in order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. In this paper, two thickness-based mesh refinement schemes are developed based on distance- and topology-oriented criteria for thin regions with confining wall/plane of symmetry and in any situation, respectively. Both techniques are implemented in a general framework with a volume-of-fluid formulation and an adaptive-mesh-refinement capability. The distance-oriented technique compares against a critical value, the ratio of an interfacial cell size to the distance between the mass center of the cell and a reference plane. The topology-oriented technique is developed from digital topology theories to handle more general conditions. The requirement for interfacial mesh refinement can be detected swiftly, without the need of thickness information, equation solving, variable averaging or mesh repairing. The mesh refinement level increases smoothly on demand in thin regions. The schemes have been verified and validated against several benchmark cases to demonstrate their effectiveness and robustness. These include the dynamics of colliding droplets, droplet motions in a microchannel, and atomization of liquid impinging jets. Overall, the thickness-based refinement technique provides highly adaptive meshes for problems with thin regions in an efficient and fully automatic manner.
An incompressible two-dimensional multiphase particle-in-cell model for dense particle flows
Snider, D.M.; O`Rourke, P.J.; Andrews, M.J.
1997-06-01
A two-dimensional, incompressible, multiphase particle-in-cell (MP-PIC) method is presented for dense particle flows. The numerical technique solves the governing equations of the fluid phase using a continuum model and those of the particle phase using a Lagrangian model. Difficulties associated with calculating interparticle interactions for dense particle flows with volume fractions above 5% have been eliminated by mapping particle properties to a Eulerian grid and then mapping back computed stress tensors to particle positions. This approach utilizes the best of Eulerian/Eulerian continuum models and Eulerian/Lagrangian discrete models. The solution scheme allows for distributions of types, sizes, and density of particles, with no numerical diffusion from the Lagrangian particle calculations. The computational method is implicit with respect to pressure, velocity, and volume fraction in the continuum solution thus avoiding courant limits on computational time advancement. MP-PIC simulations are compared with one-dimensional problems that have analytical solutions and with two-dimensional problems for which there are experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kootiani, Reza Cheraghi; Chehrehgosha, Soroush; Mirali, Sasan; Samsuri, Ariffin Bin
2014-10-01
The analytical model for predicting the pressure at any point in a flow string is essential in determining optimum production string dimension and in the design of gas-lift installations. This information is also invaluable in predicting bottom-hole pressure in flowing wells. A variety of model on bottom-hole pressure in flowing wells have been reported in the literatures. Most of the early models on pressure drop in the flowing wells were based on single phase flowing wells, even the recent investigators treated the multiphase (liquid and gas phase) as a homogenous single phase flow without accounting for dissolved gas in oil. This paper present a modification of previous models for single phase flowing gas wells and the model was adapted to predict the pressure drop in multiphase flowing wells. In this paper, we can solve numerically to obtain the pressure upstream of the nozzle in two phase flow. The key operational and fluid/ pipe parameters which influence the degree of pressure drop in flowing wells are identified through the modification.
Multiphase flow of carbon dioxide and brine in dual porosity carbonates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pentland, Christopher; Oedai, Sjaam; Ott, Holger
2014-05-01
The storage of carbon dioxide in subsurface formations presents a challenge in terms of multiphase flow characterisation. Project planning requires an understanding of multiphase flow characteristics such as the relationship between relative permeability and saturation. At present there are only a limited number of relative permeability relations for carbon dioxide-brine fluid systems, most of which are measured on sandstone rocks. In this study coreflood experiments are performed to investigate the relative permeability of carbon dioxide and brine in two dual porosity carbonate systems. Carbon dioxide is injected into the brine saturated rocks in a primary drainage process. The rock fluid system is pre-equilibrated to avoid chemical reactions and physical mass transfer between phases. The pressure drop across the samples, the amount of brine displaced and the saturation distribution within the rocks are measured. The experiments are repeated on the same rocks for the decane-brine fluid system. The experimental data is interpreted by simulating the experiments with a continuum scale Darcy solver. Selected functional representations of relative permeability are investigated, the parameters of which are chosen such that a least squares objective function is minimised (i.e. the difference between experimental observations and simulated response). The match between simulation and measurement is dependent upon the form of the functional representations. The best agreement is achieved with the Corey [Brooks and Corey, 1964] or modified Corey [Masalmeh et al., 2007] functions which best represent the relative permeability of brine at low brine saturations. The relative permeability of carbon dioxide is shown to be lower than the relative permeability of decane over the saturation ranges investigated. The relative permeability of the brine phase is comparable for the two fluid systems. These observations are consistent with the rocks being water-wet. During the experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Gujun; He, Shengping; Li, Yugang; Guo, Yintao; Wang, Qian
2016-08-01
In the present work, a mathematical model was developed to understand the multiphase flow behavior in a Rheinsahl-Heraeus (RH) reactor by using the Euler-Euler approach, and the effects of initial bubble diameter, nonequilibrium expansion of bubble caused by sudden thermal effect and sharp pressure drop, and various interphase forces were considered and clarified. The simulation results of mixing time, liquid circulation rate, and local liquid velocity in RH agree well with the measured results. The result indicates that the initial bubble diameter has a weak impact on the multiphase flow but that the bubble expansion has a tremendous impact on it for an actual RH. Meanwhile, the drag force and turbulent dispersion force strongly influence the multiphase flow, whereas the lift force and virtual mass force only have negligible influence on it. Furthermore, the turbulent dispersion force should be responsible for reasonable prediction of multiphase flow behavior in the RH reactor.
Groundwater flow and transport modeling
Konikow, L.F.; Mercer, J.W.
1988-01-01
Deterministic, distributed-parameter, numerical simulation models for analyzing groundwater flow and transport problems have come to be used almost routinely during the past decade. A review of the theoretical basis and practical use of groundwater flow and solute transport models is used to illustrate the state-of-the-art. Because of errors and uncertainty in defining model parameters, models must be calibrated to obtain a best estimate of the parameters. For flow modeling, data generally are sufficient to allow calibration. For solute-transport modeling, lack of data not only limits calibration, but also causes uncertainty in process description. Where data are available, model reliability should be assessed on the basis of sensitivity tests and measures of goodness-of-fit. Some of these concepts are demonstrated by using two case histories. ?? 1988.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrea, P.; Huber, C.; Bachmann, O.; Chopard, B.
2010-12-01
Multiphase reactive flows occur naturally in various environments in the shallow subsurface, e.g. CO2 injections in saturated reservoirs, exsolved methane flux in shallow sediments and H20-CO2 volatiles in magmatic systems. Because of their multiphase nature together with the nonlinear feedbacks between reactions (dissolution/melting or precipitation) and the flow field at the pore-scale, the study of these dynamical processes remains a great challenge. In this study we focus on the injection of buoyant hot volatiles exsolved from a magmatic intrusion underplating a crystal-rich magma (porous medium). We use some simple theoretical models and a pore-scale multiphase reactive lattice Boltzmann model to investigate how the heat carried by the volatile phase affects the evolution of the porous medium spatially and temporally. We find that when the reaction rate is relatively slow and when the injection rate of volatiles is large (high injection Capillary number), the dissolution of the porous medium can be described by a local Peclet number (ratio of advective to diffusive flux of heat/reactant in the main gas channel). When the injection rate of volatile is reduced, or when the reaction rate is large, the dynamics transition to more complex regimes, where subvertical gas channels are no longer stable and can break into disconnected gas slugs. For the case of the injection of hot volatiles in crystal-rich magmatic systems, we find that the excess enthalpy advected by buoyant volatiles penetrates the porous medium over distances ~r Pe, where r is the average radius of the volatile channel (~pore size). The transport of heat by buoyant gases through a crystal mush is therefore in most cases limited to distances < meters. Our results also suggest that buoyant volatiles can carry chemical species (Li,F, Cl) far into a mush as their corresponding local Peclet number is several orders of magnitude greater than that for heat, owing to their low diffusion coefficients.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De'Michieli Vitturi, M.; Neri, A.; La Spina, G.; Clarke, A. B.
2013-12-01
The study of deposits produced by explosive eruptions of Campi Flegrei and Vesuvio suggests that important phases of these events have been characterized by a significant interaction of magma with external water. Despite that, the influence of external water on eruption dynamics and its potential hazard have not been studied in depth. In this work we adopted a 1D non-isothermal multi-phase flow model describing the dynamics of magma ascent inside a volcanic conduit. The new model is based on the theory of thermodynamically compatible systems that allows formulation of the governing transport equations as a hyperbolic system of partial differential equations in conservative form. The model represents a significant advance with respect to previous simplified descriptions of the magma ascent dynamics in that it: 1) is capable of treating both dilute and dense flow regimes; 2) describes flow above and below the fragmentation level in a coupled and consistent way; 3) quantifies the interaction between the two phases forming the magmatic mixture (both in the bubbly-flow and gas-particle regimes) with two distinct pressures and velocities; 4) accounts for disequilibrium crystallization and degassing; 5) treats the dissolved water as a separate phase with its own equation of state and; 6) allows for instantaneous or delayed vaporization of the external water from an aquifer. Here we investigate, through a sensitivity analysis, the role of different system parameters, in particular those related to the inflow of non-magmatic volatiles, in controlling vent conditions and eruptive style for conditions representative of Plinian (e.g. Agnano Monte Spina) eruptions at Campi Flegrei. Model results show that mass flux at the vent is primarily controlled by the quantity of engulfed external water, when this inflow occurs below the fragmentation level, whereas small changes in mass flux are produced when the interaction occurs above the fragmentation level. In particular it is worth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobs, C. T.; Collins, G. S.; Piggott, M. D.; Kramer, S. C.; Wilson, C. R. G.
2013-02-01
Small-scale experiments of volcanic ash particle settling in water have demonstrated that ash particles can either settle slowly and individually, or rapidly and collectively as a gravitationally unstable ash-laden plume. This has important implications for the emplacement of tephra deposits on the seabed. Numerical modelling has the potential to extend the results of laboratory experiments to larger scales and explore the conditions under which plumes may form and persist, but many existing models are computationally restricted by the fixed mesh approaches that they employ. In contrast, this paper presents a new multiphase flow model that uses an adaptive unstructured mesh approach. As a simulation progresses, the mesh is optimized to focus numerical resolution in areas important to the dynamics and decrease it where it is not needed, thereby potentially reducing computational requirements. Model verification is performed using the method of manufactured solutions, which shows the correct solution convergence rates. Model validation and application considers 2-D simulations of plume formation in a water tank which replicate published laboratory experiments. The numerically predicted settling velocities for both individual particles and plumes, as well as instability behaviour, agree well with experimental data and observations. Plume settling is clearly hindered by the presence of a salinity gradient, and its influence must therefore be taken into account when considering particles in bodies of saline water. Furthermore, individual particles settle in the laminar flow regime while plume settling is shown (by plume Reynolds numbers greater than unity) to be in the turbulent flow regime, which has a significant impact on entrainment and settling rates. Mesh adaptivity maintains solution accuracy while providing a substantial reduction in computational requirements when compared to the same simulation performed using a fixed mesh, highlighting the benefits of an
Modest, Michael
2013-11-15
The effects of radiation in particle-laden flows were the object of the present research. The presence of particles increases optical thickness substantially, making the use of the “optically thin” approximation in most cases a very poor assumption. However, since radiation fluxes peak at intermediate optical thicknesses, overall radiative effects may not necessarily be stronger than in gas combustion. Also, the spectral behavior of particle radiation properties is much more benign, making spectral models simpler (and making the assumption of a gray radiator halfway acceptable, at least for fluidized beds when gas radiation is not large). On the other hand, particles scatter radiation, making the radiative transfer equation (RTE) much more di fficult to solve. The research carried out in this project encompassed three general areas: (i) assessment of relevant radiation properties of particle clouds encountered in fluidized bed and pulverized coal combustors, (ii) development of proper spectral models for gas–particulate mixtures for various types of two-phase combustion flows, and (iii) development of a Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) solution module for such applications. The resulting models were validated against artificial cases since open literature experimental data were not available. The final models are in modular form tailored toward maximum portability, and were incorporated into two research codes: (i) the open-source CFD code OpenFOAM, which we have extensively used in our previous work, and (ii) the open-source multi-phase flow code MFIX, which is maintained by NETL.
A Multiphase Flow in the Antroduodenal Portion of the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Mathematical Model
Trusov, P. V.
2016-01-01
A group of authors has developed a multilevel mathematical model that focuses on functional disorders in a human body associated with various chemical, physical, social, and other factors. At this point, the researchers have come up with structure, basic definitions and concepts of a mathematical model at the “macrolevel” that allow describing processes in a human body as a whole. Currently we are working at the “mesolevel” of organs and systems. Due to complexity of the tasks, this paper deals with only one meso-fragment of a digestive system model. It describes some aspects related to modeling multiphase flow in the antroduodenal portion of the gastrointestinal tract. Biochemical reactions, dissolution of food particles, and motor, secretory, and absorbing functions of the tract are taken into consideration. The paper outlines some results concerning influence of secretory function disorders on food dissolution rate and tract contents acidity. The effect which food density has on inflow of food masses from a stomach to a bowel is analyzed. We assume that the future development of the model will include digestive enzymes and related reactions of lipolysis, proteolysis, and carbohydrates breakdown. PMID:27413393
Unstructured LES of Reacting Multiphase Flows in Realistic Gas Turbine Combustors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ham, Frank; Apte, Sourabh; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Wu, Xiao-Hua; Herrmann, Marcus; Constantinescu, George; Mahesh, Krishnan; Moin, Parviz
2003-01-01
As part of the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) program, an accurate and robust simulation tool is being developed to perform high-fidelity LES studies of multiphase, multiscale turbulent reacting flows in aircraft gas turbine combustor configurations using hybrid unstructured grids. In the combustor, pressurized gas from the upstream compressor is reacted with atomized liquid fuel to produce the combustion products that drive the downstream turbine. The Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach is used to simulate the combustor because of its demonstrated superiority over RANS in predicting turbulent mixing, which is central to combustion. This paper summarizes the accomplishments of the combustor group over the past year, concentrating mainly on the two major milestones achieved this year: 1) Large scale simulation: A major rewrite and redesign of the flagship unstructured LES code has allowed the group to perform large eddy simulations of the complete combustor geometry (all 18 injectors) with over 100 million control volumes; 2) Multi-physics simulation in complex geometry: The first multi-physics simulations including fuel spray breakup, coalescence, evaporation, and combustion are now being performed in a single periodic sector (1/18th) of an actual Pratt & Whitney combustor geometry.
A Multiphase Flow in the Antroduodenal Portion of the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Mathematical Model.
Trusov, P V; Zaitseva, N V; Kamaltdinov, M R
2016-01-01
A group of authors has developed a multilevel mathematical model that focuses on functional disorders in a human body associated with various chemical, physical, social, and other factors. At this point, the researchers have come up with structure, basic definitions and concepts of a mathematical model at the "macrolevel" that allow describing processes in a human body as a whole. Currently we are working at the "mesolevel" of organs and systems. Due to complexity of the tasks, this paper deals with only one meso-fragment of a digestive system model. It describes some aspects related to modeling multiphase flow in the antroduodenal portion of the gastrointestinal tract. Biochemical reactions, dissolution of food particles, and motor, secretory, and absorbing functions of the tract are taken into consideration. The paper outlines some results concerning influence of secretory function disorders on food dissolution rate and tract contents acidity. The effect which food density has on inflow of food masses from a stomach to a bowel is analyzed. We assume that the future development of the model will include digestive enzymes and related reactions of lipolysis, proteolysis, and carbohydrates breakdown.
Entropic lattice Boltzmann method for multiphase flows: Fluid-solid interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazloomi M., Ali; Chikatamarla, Shyam S.; Karlin, Iliya V.
2015-08-01
The recently introduced entropic lattice Boltzmann model (ELBM) for multiphase flows [A. Mazloomi M., S. S. Chikatamarla, and I. V. Karlin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 174502 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.174502] is extended to the simulation of dynamic fluid-solid interface problems. The thermodynamically consistent, nonlinearly stable ELBM together with a polynomial representation of the equation of state enables us to investigate the dynamics of the contact line in a wide range of applications, from capillary filling to liquid drop impact onto a flat surfaces with different wettability. The static interface behavior is tested by means of the liquid column in a channel to verify the Young-Laplace law. The numerical results of a capillary filling problem in a channel with wettability gradient show an excellent match with the existing analytical solution. Simulations of drop impact onto both wettable and nonwettable surfaces show that the ELBM reproduces the experimentally observed drop behavior in a quantitative manner. Results reported herein demonstrate that the present model is a promising alternative for studying the vapor-liquid-solid interface dynamics.
Sub-grid drag models for horizontal cylinder arrays immersed in gas-particle multiphase flows
Sarkar, Avik; Sun, Xin; Sundaresan, Sankaran
2013-09-08
Immersed cylindrical tube arrays often are used as heat exchangers in gas-particle fluidized beds. In multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of large fluidized beds, explicit resolution of small cylinders is computationally infeasible. Instead, the cylinder array may be viewed as an effective porous medium in coarse-grid simulations. The cylinders' influence on the suspension as a whole, manifested as an effective drag force, and on the relative motion between gas and particles, manifested as a correction to the gas-particle drag, must be modeled via suitable sub-grid constitutive relationships. In this work, highly resolved unit-cell simulations of flow around an array of horizontal cylinders, arranged in a staggered configuration, are filtered to construct sub-grid, or `filtered', drag models, which can be implemented in coarse-grid simulations. The force on the suspension exerted by the cylinders is comprised of, as expected, a buoyancy contribution, and a kinetic component analogous to fluid drag on a single cylinder. Furthermore, the introduction of tubes also is found to enhance segregation at the scale of the cylinder size, which, in turn, leads to a reduction in the filtered gas-particle drag.
Yang, Dali; Zhang, Duan; Currier, Robert
2008-01-01
A bundle-of-tubes construct is used as a model system to study ensemble averaged equations for multiphase flow in a porous material. Momentum equations for the fluid phases obtained from the method are similar to Darcy's law, but with additional terms. We study properties of the additional terms, and the conditions under which the averaged equations can be approximated by the diffusion model or the extended Darcy's law as often used in models for multiphase flows in porous media. Although the bundle-of-tubes model is perhaps the simplest model for a porous material, the ensemble averaged equation technique developed in this paper assumes the very same form in more general treatments described in Part 2 of the present work (Zhang 2009). Any model equation system intended for the more general cases must be understood and tested first using simple models. The concept of ensemble phase averaging is dissected here in physical terms, without involved mathematics through its application to the idealized bundle-of-tubes model for multiphase flow in porous media.
Bubble transport in subcooled flow boiling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owoeye, Eyitayo James
Understanding the behavior of bubbles in subcooled flow boiling is important for optimum design and safety in several industrial applications. Bubble dynamics involve a complex combination of multiphase flow, heat transfer, and turbulence. When a vapor bubble is nucleated on a vertical heated wall, it typically slides and grows along the wall until it detaches into the bulk liquid. The bubble transfers heat from the wall into the subcooled liquid during this process. Effective control of this transport phenomenon is important for nuclear reactor cooling and requires the study of interfacial heat and mass transfer in a turbulent flow. Three approaches are commonly used in computational analysis of two-phase flow: Eulerian-Lagrangian, Eulerian-Eulerian, and interface tracking methods. The Eulerian- Lagrangian model assumes a spherical non-deformable bubble in a homogeneous domain. The Eulerian-Eulerian model solves separate conservation equations for each phase using averaging and closure laws. The interface tracking method solves a single set of conservation equations with the interfacial properties computed from the properties of both phases. It is less computationally expensive and does not require empirical relations at the fluid interface. Among the most established interface tracking techniques is the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method. VOF is accurate, conserves mass, captures topology changes, and permits sharp interfaces. This work involves the behavior of vapor bubbles in upward subcooled flow boiling. Both laminar and turbulent flow conditions are considered with corresponding pipe Reynolds number of 0 -- 410,000 using a large eddy simulation (LES) turbulence model and VOF interface tracking method. The study was performed at operating conditions that cover those of boiling water reactors (BWR) and pressurized water reactors (PWR). The analysis focused on the life cycle of vapor bubble after departing from its nucleation site, i.e. growth, slide, lift-off, rise
Inter-phase heat transfer and energy coupling in turbulent dispersed multiphase flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ling, Y.; Balachandar, S.; Parmar, M.
2016-03-01
The present paper addresses important fundamental issues of inter-phase heat transfer and energy coupling in turbulent dispersed multiphase flows through scaling analysis. In typical point-particle or two-fluid approaches, the fluid motion and convective heat transfer at the particle scale are not resolved and the momentum and energy coupling between fluid and particles are provided by proper closure models. By examining the kinetic energy transfer due to the coupling forces from the macroscale to microscale fluid motion, closure models are obtained for the contributions of the coupling forces to the energy coupling. Due to the inviscid origin of the added-mass force, its contribution to the microscale kinetic energy does not contribute to dissipative transfer to fluid internal energy as was done by the quasi-steady force. Time scale analysis shows that when the particle is larger than a critical diameter, the diffusive-unsteady kernel decays at a time scale that is smaller than the Kolmogorov time scale. As a result, the computationally costly Basset-like integral form of diffusive-unsteady heat transfer can be simplified to a non-integral form. Conventionally, the fluid-to-particle volumetric heat capacity ratio is used to evaluate the relative importance of the unsteady heat transfer to the energy balance of the particles. Therefore, for gas-particle flows, where the fluid-to-particle volumetric heat capacity ratio is small, unsteady heat transfer is usually ignored. However, the present scaling analysis shows that for small fluid-to-particle volumetric heat capacity ratio, the importance of the unsteady heat transfer actually depends on the ratio between the particle size and the Kolmogorov scale. Furthermore, the particle mass loading multiplied by the heat capacity ratio is usually used to estimate the importance of the thermal two-way coupling effect. Through scaling argument, improved estimates are established for the energy coupling parameters of each
Multiphase flow modeling of a crude-oil spill site with a bimodal permeability distribution
Dillard, L.A.; Essaid, H.I.; Herkelrath, W.N.
1997-01-01
Fluid saturation, particle-size distribution, and porosity measurements were obtained from 269 core samples collected from six boreholes along a 90-m transect at a subregion of a crude-oil spill site, the north pool, near Bemidji, Minnesota. The oil saturation data, collected 11 years after the spill, showed an irregularly shaped oil body that appeared to be affected by sediment spatial variability. The particle-size distribution data were used to estimate the permeability (k) and retention curves for each sample. An additional 344 k estimates were obtained from samples previously collected at the north pool. The 613 k estimates were distributed bimodal log normally with the two population distributions corresponding to the two predominant lithologies: a coarse glacial outwash deposit and fine-grained interbedded lenses. A two-step geostatistical approach was used to generate a conditioned realization of k representing the bimodal heterogeneity. A cross-sectional multiphase flow model was used to simulate the flow of oil and water in the presence of air along the north pool transect for an 11-year period. The inclusion of a representation of the bimodal aquifer heterogeneity was crucial for reproduction of general features of the observed oil body. If the bimodal heterogeneity was characterized, hysteresis did not have to be incorporated into the model because a hysteretic effect was produced by the sediment spatial variability. By revising the relative permeability functional relation, an improved reproduction of the observed oil saturation distribution was achieved. The inclusion of water table fluctuations in the model did not significantly affect the simulated oil saturation distribution.
Effect of wettability on scale-up of multiphase flow from core-scale to reservoir fine-grid-scale
Chang, Y.C.; Mani, V.; Mohanty, K.K.
1997-08-01
Typical field simulation grid-blocks are internally heterogeneous. The objective of this work is to study how the wettability of the rock affects its scale-up of multiphase flow properties from core-scale to fine-grid reservoir simulation scale ({approximately} 10{prime} x 10{prime} x 5{prime}). Reservoir models need another level of upscaling to coarse-grid simulation scale, which is not addressed here. Heterogeneity is modeled here as a correlated random field parameterized in terms of its variance and two-point variogram. Variogram models of both finite (spherical) and infinite (fractal) correlation length are included as special cases. Local core-scale porosity, permeability, capillary pressure function, relative permeability functions, and initial water saturation are assumed to be correlated. Water injection is simulated and effective flow properties and flow equations are calculated. For strongly water-wet media, capillarity has a stabilizing/homogenizing effect on multiphase flow. For small variance in permeability, and for small correlation length, effective relative permeability can be described by capillary equilibrium models. At higher variance and moderate correlation length, the average flow can be described by a dynamic relative permeability. As the oil wettability increases, the capillary stabilizing effect decreases and the deviation from this average flow increases. For fractal fields with large variance in permeability, effective relative permeability is not adequate in describing the flow.
Micro-Ct Imaging of Multi-Phase Flow in Carbonates and Sandstones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrew, M. G.; Bijeljic, B.; Blunt, M. J.
2013-12-01
One of the most important mechanisms that limits the escape of CO2 when injected into the subsurface for the purposes of carbon storage is capillary trapping, where CO2 is stranded as pore-scale droplets (ganglia). Prospective storage sites are aquifers or reservoirs that tend to be at conditions where CO2 will reside as a super-critical phase. In order to fully describe physical mechanisms characterising multi-phase flow during and post CO2 injection, experiments need to be conducted at these elevated aquifer/reservoir conditions - this poses a considerable experimental challenge. A novel experimental apparatus has been developed which uses μCT scanning for the non-invasive imaging of the distribution of CO2 in the pore space of rock with resolutions of 7μm at temperatures and pressures representative of the conditions present in prospective saline aquifer CO2 storage sites. The fluids are kept in chemical equilibrium with one-another and with the rock into which they are injected. This is done to prevent the dissolution of the CO2 in the brine to form carbonic acid, which can then react with the rock, particularly carbonates. By eliminating reaction we study the fundamental mechanisms of capillary trapping for an unchanging pore structure. In this study we present a suite of results from three carbonate and two sandstone rock types, showing that, for both cases the CO2 acts as the non-wetting phase and significant quantities of CO2 is trapped. The carbonate examined represent a wide variety of pore topologies with one rock with a very well connected, high porosity pore space (Mt Gambier), one with a lower porosity, poorly connected pore space (Estaillades) and one with a cemented bead pack type pore space (Ketton). Both sandstones (Doddington and Bentheimer) were high permeability granular quartzites. CO2 was injected into each rock, followed by brine injection. After brine injection the entire length of the rock core was scanned, processed and segmented into
Hybrid dynamic radioactive particle tracking (RPT) calibration technique for multiphase flow systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khane, Vaibhav; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna H.
2017-04-01
The radioactive particle tracking (RPT) technique has been utilized to measure three-dimensional hydrodynamic parameters for multiphase flow systems. An analytical solution to the inverse problem of the RPT technique, i.e. finding the instantaneous tracer positions based upon instantaneous counts received in the detectors, is not possible. Therefore, a calibration to obtain a counts-distance map is needed. There are major shortcomings in the conventional RPT calibration method due to which it has limited applicability in practical applications. In this work, the design and development of a novel dynamic RPT calibration technique are carried out to overcome the shortcomings of the conventional RPT calibration method. The dynamic RPT calibration technique has been implemented around a test reactor with 1foot in diameter and 1 foot in height using Cobalt-60 as an isotopes tracer particle. Two sets of experiments have been carried out to test the capability of novel dynamic RPT calibration. In the first set of experiments, a manual calibration apparatus has been used to hold a tracer particle at known static locations. In the second set of experiments, the tracer particle was moved vertically downwards along a straight line path in a controlled manner. The obtained reconstruction results about the tracer particle position were compared with the actual known position and the reconstruction errors were estimated. The obtained results revealed that the dynamic RPT calibration technique is capable of identifying tracer particle positions with a reconstruction error between 1 to 5.9 mm for the conditions studied which could be improved depending on various factors outlined here.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lim, Ho-Joon; Chang, Kuang-An; Su, Chin B.; Chen, Chi-Yueh
2008-12-01
A fiber optic reflectometer (FOR) technique featuring a single fiber probe is investigated for its feasibility of measuring the bubble velocity, diameter, and void fraction in a multiphase flow. The method is based on the interference of the scattered signal from the bubble surface with the Fresnel reflection signal from the tip of the optical fiber. Void fraction is obtained with a high accuracy if an appropriate correction is applied to compensate the underestimated measurement value. Velocity information is accurately obtained from the reflected signals before the fiber tip touches the bubble surface so that several factors affecting the traditional dual-tip probes such as blinding, crawling, and drifting effects due to the interaction between the probe and bubbles can be prevented. The coherent signals reflected from both the front and rear ends of a bubble can provide velocity information. Deceleration of rising bubbles and particles due to the presence of the fiber probe is observed when they are very close to the fiber tip. With the residence time obtained, the bubble chord length can be determined by analyzing the coherent signal for velocity determination before the deceleration starts. The bubble diameters are directly obtained from analyzing the signals of the bubbles that contain velocity information. The chord lengths of these bubbles measured by FOR represent the bubble diameters when the bubble shape is spherical or represent the minor axes when the bubble shape is ellipsoidal. The velocity and size of bubbles obtained from the FOR measurements are compared with those obtained simultaneously using a high speed camera.
Third-order analysis of pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann model for multiphase flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Rongzong; Wu, Huiying
2016-12-01
In this work, a third-order Chapman-Enskog analysis of the multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for multiphase flow is performed for the first time. The leading terms on the interaction force, consisting of an anisotropic and an isotropic term, are successfully identified in the third-order macroscopic equation recovered by the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE), and then new mathematical insights into the pseudopotential LB model are provided. For the third-order anisotropic term, numerical tests show that it can cause the stationary droplet to become out-of-round, which suggests the isotropic property of the LBE needs to be seriously considered in the pseudopotential LB model. By adopting the classical equilibrium moment or setting the so-called "magic" parameter to 1/12, the anisotropic term can be eliminated, which is found from the present third-order analysis and also validated numerically. As for the third-order isotropic term, when and only when it is considered, accurate continuum form pressure tensor can be definitely obtained, by which the predicted coexistence densities always agree well with the numerical results. Compared with this continuum form pressure tensor, the classical discrete form pressure tensor is accurate only when the isotropic term is a specific one. At last, in the framework of the present third-order analysis, a consistent scheme for third-order additional term is proposed, which can be used to independently adjust the coexistence densities and surface tension. Numerical tests are subsequently carried out to validate the present scheme.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rothe, Paul H.; Martin, Christine; Downing, Julie
1994-01-01
Adiabatic two-phase flow is of interest to the design of multiphase fluid and thermal management systems for spacecraft. This paper presents original data and unifies existing data for capillary tubes as a step toward assessing existing multiphase flow analysis and engineering software. Comparisons of theory with these data once again confirm the broad accuracy of the theory. Due to the simplicity and low cost of the capillary tube experiments, which were performed on earth, we were able to closely examine for the first time a flow situation that had not previously been examined appreciably by aircraft tests. This is the situation of a slug flow at high quality, near transition to annular flow. Our comparison of software calculations with these data revealed overprediction of pipeline pressure drop by up to a factor of three. In turn, this finding motivated a reexamination of the existing theory, and then development of a new analytical and is in far better agreement with the data. This sequence of discovery illustrates the role of inexpensive miniscale modeling on earth to anticipate microgravity behavior in space and to complete and help define needs for aircraft tests.
An update on subsea multiphase pumping
Colombi, P.; De Donno, S.
1996-02-01
Agip SpA anticipates that subsea multiphase production, based on long-distance transportation of untreated oilwell fluids--namely, oil, water, and gas, will be an efficient tool for the exploitation of deepwater and marginal fields. In 1990, at the Trecate onshore oil field, Agip completed long-term testing of a multiphase screw pump, which confirmed commercial surface applications. Agip then integrated a subsea version of an improved multiphase twin-screw pump into a subsea multiphase boosting unit that was installed at the Prezioso field, offshore Sicily, in 1994 That was the first subsea installation of an electrically driven multi-phase pump operating with live oil. Agip began endurance testing of the pumping system in January 1995 and by last November, the cumulated period of running reached 3,500 hours with no evidence of pump-capacity reduction. Testing focused on boosting at high gas-void fraction and oil viscosity, operation at variable motor speed for pump control, pump control by means of throttling valves, direct interaction of the pumping system with both wells and the multiphase export line, variation of the lube-oil pressure across seals and bearings, and the evaluation of any degradation effect on the pump flow capacity over time. This paper reviews the design and performance of this pump and applicability to other offshore projects.
Thermodynamics and Mass Transport in Multicomponent, Multiphase H2O Systems of Planetary Interest
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Xinli; Kieffer, Susan W.
2009-05-01
Heat and mass transport in low-temperature, low-pressure H2O systems are important processes on Earth, and on a number of planets and moons in the Solar System. In most occurrences, these systems will contain other components, the so-called noncondensible gases, such as CO2, CO, SO2, CH4, and N2. The presence of the noncondensible components can greatly alter the thermodynamic properties of the phases and their flow properties as they move in and on the planets. We review various forms of phase diagrams that give information about pressure-temperature-volume-entropy-enthalpy-composition conditions in these complex systems. Fluid dynamic models must be coupled to the thermodynamics to accurately describe flow in gas-driven liquid and solid systems. The concepts are illustrated in detail by considering flow and flow instabilities such as geysering in modern geothermal systems on Earth, paleofluid systems on Mars, and cryogenic ice-gas systems on Mars and Enceladus. We emphasize that consideration of single-component end-member systems often leads to conclusions that exclude many qualitatively and quantitatively important phenomena.
Stochastic Simulation of Lagrangian Particle Transport in Turbulent Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Guangyuan
This dissertation presents the development and validation of the One Dimensional Turbulence (ODT) multiphase model in the Lagrangian reference frame. ODT is a stochastic model that captures the full range of length and time scales and provides statistical information on fine-scale turbulent-particle mixing and transport at low computational cost. The flow evolution is governed by a deterministic solution of the viscous processes and a stochastic representation of advection through stochastic domain mapping processes. The three algorithms for Lagrangian particle transport are presented within the context of the ODT approach. The Type-I and -C models consider the particle-eddy interaction as instantaneous and continuous change of the particle position and velocity, respectively. The Type-IC model combines the features of the Type-I and -C models. The models are applied to the multi-phase flows in the homogeneous decaying turbulence and turbulent round jet. Particle dispersion, dispersion coefficients, and velocity statistics are predicted and compared with experimental data. The models accurately reproduces the experimental data sets and capture particle inertial effects and trajectory crossing effect. A new adjustable particle parameter is introduced into the ODT model, and sensitivity analysis is performed to facilitate parameter estimation and selection. A novel algorithm of the two-way momentum coupling between the particle and carrier phases is developed in the ODT multiphase model. Momentum exchange between the phases is accounted for through particle source terms in the viscous diffusion. The source term is implemented in eddy events through a new kernel transformation and an iterative procedure is required for eddy selection. This model is applied to a particle-laden turbulent jet flow, and simulation results are compared with experimental measurements. The effect of particle addition on the velocities of the gas phase is investigated. The development of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li-hui, Zheng; Xiao-qing, He; Li-xia, Fu; Xiang-chun, Wang
2009-02-01
Water-based micro-bubble drilling fluid, which is used to exploit depleted reservoirs, is a complicated multiphase flow system that is composed of gas, water, oil, polymer, surfactants and solids. The gas phase is separate from bulk water by two layers and three membranes. They are "surface tension reducing membrane", "high viscosity layer", "high viscosity fixing membrane", "compatibility enhancing membrane" and "concentration transition layer of liner high polymer (LHP) & surfactants" from every gas phase centre to the bulk water. "Surface tension reducing membrane", "high viscosity layer" and "high viscosity fixing membrane" bond closely to pack air forming "air-bag", "compatibility enhancing membrane" and "concentration transition layer of LHP & surfactants" absorb outside "air-bag" to form "incompact zone". From another point of view, "air-bag" and "incompact zone" compose micro-bubble. Dynamic changes of "incompact zone" enable micro-bubble to exist lonely or aggregate together, and lead the whole fluid, which can wet both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface, to possess very high viscosity at an extremely low shear rate but to possess good fluidity at a higher shear rate. When the water-based micro-bubble drilling fluid encounters leakage zones, it will automatically regulate the sizes and shapes of the bubbles according to the slot width of fracture, the height of cavern as well as the aperture of openings, or seal them by making use of high viscosity of the system at a very low shear rate. Measurements of the rheological parameters indicate that water-based micro-bubble drilling fluid has very high plastic viscosity, yield point, initial gel, final gel and high ratio of yield point and plastic viscosity. All of these properties make the multiphase flow system meet the requirements of petroleum drilling industry. Research on interface between gas and bulk water of this multiphase flow system can provide us with information of synthesizing effective agents to
Johnson, Raymond H; Poeter, Eileen P
2007-01-05
Perchloroethylene (PCE) saturations determined from GPR surveys were used as observations for inversion of multiphase flow simulations of a PCE injection experiment (Borden 9 m cell), allowing for the estimation of optimal bulk intrinsic permeability values. The resulting fit statistics and analysis of residuals (observed minus simulated PCE saturations) were used to improve the conceptual model. These improvements included adjustment of the elevation of a permeability contrast, use of the van Genuchten versus Brooks-Corey capillary pressure-saturation curve, and a weighting scheme to account for greater measurement error with larger saturation values. A limitation in determining PCE saturations through one-dimensional GPR modeling is non-uniqueness when multiple GPR parameters are unknown (i.e., permittivity, depth, and gain function). Site knowledge, fixing the gain function, and multiphase flow simulations assisted in evaluating non-unique conceptual models of PCE saturation, where depth and layering were reinterpreted to provide alternate conceptual models. Remaining bias in the residuals is attributed to the violation of assumptions in the one-dimensional GPR interpretation (which assumes flat, infinite, horizontal layering) resulting from multidimensional influences that were not included in the conceptual model. While the limitations and errors in using GPR data as observations for inverse multiphase flow simulations are frustrating and difficult to quantify, simulation results indicate that the error and bias in the PCE saturation values are small enough to still provide reasonable optimal permeability values. The effort to improve model fit and reduce residual bias decreases simulation error even for an inversion based on biased observations and provides insight into alternate GPR data interpretations. Thus, this effort is warranted and provides information on bias in the observation data when this bias is otherwise difficult to assess.
Johnson, R.H.; Poeter, E.P.
2007-01-01
Perchloroethylene (PCE) saturations determined from GPR surveys were used as observations for inversion of multiphase flow simulations of a PCE injection experiment (Borden 9??m cell), allowing for the estimation of optimal bulk intrinsic permeability values. The resulting fit statistics and analysis of residuals (observed minus simulated PCE saturations) were used to improve the conceptual model. These improvements included adjustment of the elevation of a permeability contrast, use of the van Genuchten versus Brooks-Corey capillary pressure-saturation curve, and a weighting scheme to account for greater measurement error with larger saturation values. A limitation in determining PCE saturations through one-dimensional GPR modeling is non-uniqueness when multiple GPR parameters are unknown (i.e., permittivity, depth, and gain function). Site knowledge, fixing the gain function, and multiphase flow simulations assisted in evaluating non-unique conceptual models of PCE saturation, where depth and layering were reinterpreted to provide alternate conceptual models. Remaining bias in the residuals is attributed to the violation of assumptions in the one-dimensional GPR interpretation (which assumes flat, infinite, horizontal layering) resulting from multidimensional influences that were not included in the conceptual model. While the limitations and errors in using GPR data as observations for inverse multiphase flow simulations are frustrating and difficult to quantify, simulation results indicate that the error and bias in the PCE saturation values are small enough to still provide reasonable optimal permeability values. The effort to improve model fit and reduce residual bias decreases simulation error even for an inversion based on biased observations and provides insight into alternate GPR data interpretations. Thus, this effort is warranted and provides information on bias in the observation data when this bias is otherwise difficult to assess. ?? 2006 Elsevier B
Sneddon, Kristen W.; Powers, Michael H.; Johnson, Raymond H.; Poeter, Eileen P.
2002-01-01
Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) are a pervasive and persistent category of groundwater contamination. In an effort to better understand their unique subsurface behavior, a controlled and carefully monitored injection of PCE (perchloroethylene), a typical DNAPL, was performed in conjunction with the University of Waterloo at Canadian Forces Base Borden in 1991. Of the various geophysical methods used to monitor the migration of injected PCE, the U.S. Geological Survey collected 500-MHz ground penetrating radar (GPR) data. These data are used in determining calibration parameters for a multiphase flow simulation. GPR data were acquired over time on a fixed two-dimensional surficial grid as the DNAPL was injected into the subsurface. Emphasis is on the method of determining DNAPL saturation values from this time-lapse GPR data set. Interactive full-waveform GPR modeling of regularized field traces resolves relative dielectric permittivity versus depth profiles for pre-injection and later-time data. Modeled values are end members in recursive calculations of the Bruggeman-Hanai-Sen (BHS) mixing formula, yielding interpreted pre-injection porosity and post-injection DNAPL saturation values. The resulting interpreted physical properties of porosity and DNAPL saturation of the Borden test cell, defined on a grid spacing of 50 cm with 1-cm depth resolution, are used as observations for calibration of a 3-D multiphase flow simulation. Calculated values of DNAPL saturation in the subsurface at 14 and 22 hours after the start of injection, from both the GPR and the multiphase flow modeling, are interpolated volumetrically and presented for visual comparison.
Donna Post Guillen; Tami Grimmett; Anastasia M. Gribik; Steven P. Antal
2010-09-01
The Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory is being established at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective to safeguard U.S. Energy Security by reducing dependence on foreign petroleum. A central component of the HYTEST is the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) in which the gas-to-liquid reactions will be performed to synthesize transportation fuels using the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process. SBCRs are cylindrical vessels in which gaseous reactants (for example, synthesis gas or syngas) is sparged into a slurry of liquid reaction products and finely dispersed catalyst particles. The catalyst particles are suspended in the slurry by the rising gas bubbles and serve to promote the chemical reaction that converts syngas to a spectrum of longer chain hydrocarbon products, which can be upgraded to gasoline, diesel or jet fuel. These SBCRs operate in the churn-turbulent flow regime which is characterized by complex hydrodynamics, coupled with reacting flow chemistry and heat transfer, that effect reactor performance. The purpose of this work is to develop a computational multiphase fluid dynamic (CMFD) model to aid in understanding the physico-chemical processes occurring in the SBCR. Our team is developing a robust methodology to couple reaction kinetics and mass transfer into a four-field model (consisting of the bulk liquid, small bubbles, large bubbles and solid catalyst particles) that includes twelve species: (1) CO reactant, (2) H2 reactant, (3) hydrocarbon product, and (4) H2O product in small bubbles, large bubbles, and the bulk fluid. Properties of the hydrocarbon product were specified by vapor liquid equilibrium calculations. The absorption and kinetic models, specifically changes in species concentrations, have been incorporated into the mass continuity equation. The reaction rate is determined based on the macrokinetic model for a cobalt catalyst developed by Yates and Satterfield [1]. The
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ezzedine, S. M.
2015-12-01
Leakage to the atmosphere of a significant fraction of injected CO2 would constitute a failure of a geological CO2 storage project from a greenhouse gas mitigation perspective. We present a numerical model that simulates flow and transport of CO2 into heterogeneous subsurface systems. The model, StoTran, is a flexible numerical environment that uses state-of-the-art finite element and finite volume methods and unstructured adaptive mesh refinement scheme implemented using MPI and OpenMP protocols. Multiphase flow equations and the geomechanical equations are implicitly solved and either fully or sequentially coupled. StoTran can address inverse and forward problems under deterministic or stochastic conditions. For the current study, StoTran has been used to simulate several scenarios spanning from a homogeneous single layered reservoir to heterogeneous multi-layered systems, which including cap-rock with embedded fractures, have been simulated under different operations of CO2 injection and CO2 leakages conditions. Results show the impact of the injection and leakage rates on the time evolution of the spread of the CO2 plume, its interception of the fractured cap-rock and the risk associated with the contamination of the overlaying aquifer. Spatial and temporal moments have been calculated for different, deterministic of stochastic, subsurface physical and chemical properties. Spatial moments enable assessing the extent of the region of investigation under conditions of uncertainty. Furthermore, several leakage scenarios show the intermittence behavior and development of the CO2 plume in the subsurface; its first interception with the fractures located further far from the injection well then, at a second stage, its interception with the fracture within the immediate vicinity of the injection well. We will present a remedy to CO2 leakages from the reservoir in order to enhance a long term containment of the injected CO2. This work performed under the auspices of
Xu, Tianfu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Spycher, Nicolas; Pruess, Karsten
2008-09-29
Coupled modeling of subsurface multiphase fluid and heat flow, solute transport, and chemical reactions can be applied to many geologic systems and environmental problems, including geothermal systems, diagenetic and weathering processes, subsurface waste disposal, acid mine drainage remediation, contaminant transport, and groundwater quality. TOUGHREACT has been developed as a comprehensive non-isothermal multi-component reactive fluid flow and geochemical transport simulator to investigate these and other problems. A number of subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes are considered under various thermohydrological and geochemical conditions of pressure, temperature, water saturation, and ionic strength. TOUGHREACT can be applied to one-, two- or three-dimensional porous and fractured media with physical and chemical heterogeneity. The code can accommodate any number of chemical species present in liquid, gas and solid phases. A variety of equilibrium chemical reactions are considered, such as aqueous complexation, gas dissolution/exsolution, and cation exchange. Mineral dissolution/precipitation can take place subject to either local equilibrium or kinetic controls, with coupling to changes in porosity and permeability and capillary pressure in unsaturated systems. Chemical components can also be treated by linear adsorption and radioactive decay. The first version of the non-isothermal reactive geochemical transport code TOUGHREACT was developed (Xu and Pruess, 1998) by introducing reactive geochemistry into the framework of the existing multi-phase fluid and heat flow code TOUGH2 (Pruess, 1991). TOUGHREACT was further enhanced with the addition of (1) treatment of mineral-water-gas reactive-transport under boiling conditions, (2) an improved HKF activity model for aqueous species, (3) gas species diffusion coefficients calculated as a function of pressure, temperature, and molecular properties, (4) mineral reactive surface area formulations for fractured
Modeling axisymmetric flow and transport
Langevin, C.D.
2008-01-01
Unmodified versions of common computer programs such as MODFLOW, MT3DMS, and SEAWAT that use Cartesian geometry can accurately simulate axially symmetric ground water flow and solute transport. Axisymmetric flow and transport are simulated by adjusting several input parameters to account for the increase in flow area with radial distance from the injection or extraction well. Logarithmic weighting of interblock transmissivity, a standard option in MODFLOW, can be used for axisymmetric models to represent the linear change in hydraulic conductance within a single finite-difference cell. Results from three test problems (ground water extraction, an aquifer push-pull test, and upconing of saline water into an extraction well) show good agreement with analytical solutions or with results from other numerical models designed specifically to simulate the axisymmetric geometry. Axisymmetric models are not commonly used but can offer an efficient alternative to full three-dimensional models, provided the assumption of axial symmetry can be justified. For the upconing problem, the axisymmetric model was more than 1000 times faster than an equivalent three-dimensional model. Computational gains with the axisymmetric models may be useful for quickly determining appropriate levels of grid resolution for three-dimensional models and for estimating aquifer parameters from field tests.
Modeling axisymmetric flow and transport.
Langevin, Christian D
2008-01-01
Unmodified versions of common computer programs such as MODFLOW, MT3DMS, and SEAWAT that use Cartesian geometry can accurately simulate axially symmetric ground water flow and solute transport. Axisymmetric flow and transport are simulated by adjusting several input parameters to account for the increase in flow area with radial distance from the injection or extraction well. Logarithmic weighting of interblock transmissivity, a standard option in MODFLOW, can be used for axisymmetric models to represent the linear change in hydraulic conductance within a single finite-difference cell. Results from three test problems (ground water extraction, an aquifer push-pull test, and upconing of saline water into an extraction well) show good agreement with analytical solutions or with results from other numerical models designed specifically to simulate the axisymmetric geometry. Axisymmetric models are not commonly used but can offer an efficient alternative to full three-dimensional models, provided the assumption of axial symmetry can be justified. For the upconing problem, the axisymmetric model was more than 1000 times faster than an equivalent three-dimensional model. Computational gains with the axisymmetric models may be useful for quickly determining appropriate levels of grid resolution for three-dimensional models and for estimating aquifer parameters from field tests.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, J.; Li, X.
The gas diffusion layer of a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is a porous medium generally made of carbon cloth or paper. The gas diffusion layer has been modeled conventionally as a homogeneous porous medium with a constant permeability in the literature of PEM fuel cell. However, in fact, the permeability of such fibrous porous medium is strongly affected by the fiber orientation having non-isotropic permeability. In this work, the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method is applied to the multi-phase flow phenomenon in the inhomogeneous gas diffusion layer of a PEM fuel cell. The inhomogeneous porous structure of the carbon cloth and carbon paper has been modeled as void space and porous area using Stokes/Brinkman formulation and void space and impermeable fiber distributions obtained from various microscopic images. The permeability of the porous medium is calculated and compared to the experimental measurements in literature showing a good agreement. Simulation results for various fiber distributions indicate that the permeability of the medium is strongly influenced by the effect of fiber orientation. Present lattice Boltzmann flow models are applied to the multi-phase flow simulations by incorporating multi-component LB model with inter-particle interaction forces. The model successfully simulates the complicated unsteady behaviors of liquid droplet motion in the porous medium providing a useful tool to investigate the mechanism of liquid water accumulation/removal in a gas diffusion layer of a PEM fuel cell.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Archer, Philip J.; Bai, Wei
2015-02-01
A novel non-overlapping concept is augmented to the Hybrid Particle Level Set (HPLS) method to improve its accuracy and suitability for the modelling of multi-phase fluid flows. The concept addresses shortcomings in the reseeding algorithm, which maintains resolution of the surface at runtime. These shortcomings result in the misplacement of newly seeded particles in the opposite signed domain and necessitate a restriction on the distance that a particle can escape without deletion, which reduces the effectiveness of the method. The non-overlapping concept judges the suitability of potential new particles based on information already contained within the particle representation of the surface. By preventing the misplacement of particles it is possible to significantly relax the distance restriction thereby increasing the accuracy of the HPLS method in multi-phase flows. To demonstrate its robustness and efficiency, the concept is examined with a number of challenging test cases, including both level-set-only simulations and two-phase fluid flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krevor, S. C.; Reynolds, C. A.; Al-Menhali, A.; Niu, B.
2015-12-01
Capillary strength and multiphase flow are key for modeling CO2 injection for CO2 storage. Past observations of multiphase flow in this system have raised important questions about the impact of reservoir conditions on flow through effects on wettability, interfacial tension and fluid-fluid mass transfer. In this work we report the results of an investigation aimed at resolving many of these outstanding questions for flow in sandstone rocks. The drainage capillary pressure, drainage and imbibition relative permeability, and residual trapping [1] characteristic curves have been characterized in Bentheimer and Berea sandstone rocks across a pressure range 5 - 20 MPa, temperatures 25 - 90 C and brine salinities 0-5M NaCl. Over 30 reservoir condition core flood tests were performed using techniques including the steady state relative permeability test, the semi-dynamic capillary pressure test, and a new test for the construction of the residual trapping initial-residual curve. Test conditions were designed to isolate effects of interfacial tension, viscosity ratio, density ratio, and salinity. The results of the tests show that, in the absence of rock heterogeneity, reservoir conditions have little impact on flow properties, consistent with continuum scale multiphase flow theory for water wet systems. The invariance of the properties is observed, including transitions of the CO2 from a gas to a liquid to a supercritical fluid, and in comparison with N2-brine systems. Variations in capillary pressure curves are well explained by corresponding changes in IFT although some variation may reflect small changes in wetting properties. The low viscosity of CO2at certain conditions results in sensitivity to rock heterogeneity. We show that (1) heterogeneity is the likely source of uncertainty around past relative permeability observations and (2) that appropriate scaling of the flow potential by a quantification of capillary heterogeneity allows for the selection of core flood
Modeling and Measurements of Multiphase Flow and Bubble Entrapment in Steel Continuous Casting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Kai; Thomas, Brian G.; Ruan, Xiaoming
2016-02-01
In steel continuous casting, argon gas is usually injected to prevent clogging, but the bubbles also affect the flow pattern, and may become entrapped to form defects in the final product. To investigate this behavior, plant measurements were conducted, and a computational model was applied to simulate turbulent flow of the molten steel and the transport and capture of argon gas bubbles into the solidifying shell in a continuous slab caster. First, the flow field was solved with an Eulerian k- ɛ model of the steel, which was two-way coupled with a Lagrangian model of the large bubbles using a discrete random walk method to simulate their turbulent dispersion. The flow predicted on the top surface agreed well with nailboard measurements and indicated strong cross flow caused by biased flow of Ar gas due to the slide-gate orientation. Then, the trajectories and capture of over two million bubbles (25 μm to 5 mm diameter range) were simulated using two different capture criteria (simple and advanced). Results with the advanced capture criterion agreed well with measurements of the number, locations, and sizes of captured bubbles, especially for larger bubbles. The relative capture fraction of 0.3 pct was close to the measured 0.4 pct for 1 mm bubbles and occurred mainly near the top surface. About 85 pct of smaller bubbles were captured, mostly deeper down in the caster. Due to the biased flow, more bubbles were captured on the inner radius, especially near the nozzle. On the outer radius, more bubbles were captured near to narrow face. The model presented here is an efficient tool to study the capture of bubbles and inclusion particles in solidification processes.
Trangenstein, J.A.
1994-03-15
This is the second year in the proposed three-year effort to develop high-resolution numerical methods for multi-phase flow in hierarchical porous media. The issues being addressed in this research are: Computational efficiency: Field-scale simulation of enhanced oil recovery, whether for energy production or aquifer remediation, is typically highly under-resolved. This is because rock transport properties vary on many scales, and because current numerical methods have low resolution. Effective media properties: Since porous media are formed through complex geologic processes, they involve significant uncertainty and scale-dependence. Given this uncertainty, knowledge of ensemble averages of flow in porous media can be preferable to knowledge of flow in specific realizations of the reservoir. However, current models of effective properties do not represent the observed behavior very well. Relative permeability models present a good example of this problem. In practice, these models seldom provide realistic representations of hysteresis, interfacial tension effects or three-phase flow; there are no models that represent well all three effects simultaneously.
Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt gradual bend
Ortiz, M.G.
1998-02-10
A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having an abrupt bend. The system includes pressure transducers, one disposed in the conduit at the inside of the bend and one or more disposed in the conduit at the outside of the bend but spaced a distance therefrom. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow. 1 fig.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutta, Sourav; Daripa, Prabir; Fluids Team
2015-11-01
One of the most important methods of chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) involves the use of complex flooding schemes comprising of various layers of fluids mixed with suitable amounts of polymer or surfactant or both. The fluid flow is characterized by the spontaneous formation of complex viscous fingering patterns which is considered detrimental to oil recovery. Here we numerically study the physics of such EOR processes using a modern, hybrid method based on a combination of a discontinuous, multiscale finite element formulation and the method of characteristics. We investigate the effect of different types of heterogeneity on the fingering mechanism of these complex multiphase flows and determine the impact on oil recovery. We also study the effect of surfactants on the dynamics of the flow via reduction of capillary forces and increase in relative permeabilities. Supported by the grant NPRP 08-777-1-141 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of The Qatar Foundation).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Redapangu, Prasanna R.; Sahu, Kirti Chandra; Vanka, S. P.
2013-11-01
A three-dimensional multiphase lattice Boltzmann approach is used to study the pressure-driven displacement flow of two immiscible liquids of different densities and viscosities in an inclined square duct. A three-dimensional-fifteen-velocity (D3Q15) lattice model is used. The simulations are performed on a graphics processing unit (GPU) based machine. The effects of channel inclination, viscosity and density contrasts are investigated. The contours of the density and the average viscosity profiles in different planes are plotted and compared with two dimensional simulations. We demonstrate that the flow dynamics in three-dimensional channel is quite different as compared to that of two-dimensional channel. In particular, we found that the flow is relatively more coherent in three-dimensional channel than that in two-dimensional channel. A new screw-type instability is seen in the three-dimensional channel which cannot be observed in two-dimensional simulations.
Chuan Lu; CHI Zhang; Hai Hanag; Timothy C. Johnson
2014-04-01
Successful geological storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) require efficient monitoring of the migration of CO2 plume during and after large-scale injection in order to verify the containment of the injected CO2 within the target formation and to evaluate potential leakage risk. Field studies have shown that surface and cross-borehole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can be a useful tool in imaging and characterizing solute transport in heterogeneous subsurface. In this synthetic study, we have coupled a 3-D multiphase flow model with a parallel 3-D time-lapse ERT inversion code to explore the feasibility of using time-lapse ERT for simultaneously monitoring the migration of CO2 plume in deep saline formation and potential brine intrusion into shallow fresh water aquifer. Direct comparisons of the inverted CO2 plumes resulting from ERT with multiphase flow simulation results indicate the ERT could be used to delineate the migration of CO2 plume. Detailed comparisons on the locations, sizes and shapes of CO2 plume and intruded brine plumes suggest that ERT inversion tends to underestimate the area review of the CO2 plume, but overestimate the thickness and total volume of the CO2 plume. The total volume of intruded brine plumes is overestimated as well. However, all discrepancies remain within reasonable ranges. Our study suggests that time-lapse ERT is a useful monitoring tool in characterizing the movement of injected CO2 into deep saline aquifer and detecting potential brine intrusion under large-scale field injection conditions.
Wilson, J.L.
1997-01-01
Pore level laboratory experiments using microscopy permit the in situ visualization of flow and transport phenomena, that can be recorded on film or videotape. One of the principal tools for visualization is the etched glass micromodel, which is composed of a transparent two dimensional network of three dimensional pores. The spatial scale of interest in these models extends from the individual pore, up to a network of pores, perhaps with small scale heterogeneities. Micromodels are best used to help validate concepts and assumptions, and to elucidate new, previously unrecognized phenomena for further study. They are not quantitative tools, but should be used in combination with quantitative tools such as column studies or mathematical models. There are three applications: multi-phase flow, colloid transport, and bacterial transport and colonization. Specifically the authors have examined behavior of relevance to liquid-liquid mass transfer (solubilization of capillary trapped organic liquids); liquid-gas mass transfer (in situ volatilization); mathematical models of multi-phase pressure-saturation relationships; colloid movement, attachment and detachment in the presence of fluid-fluid interfaces, clay interference with multi-phase flow; and heterogeneity effects on multi-phase flow and colloid movement.
A modelling study of the multiphase leakage flow from pressurised CO2 pipeline.
Zhou, Xuejin; Li, Kang; Tu, Ran; Yi, Jianxin; Xie, Qiyuan; Jiang, Xi
2016-04-05
The accidental leakage is one of the main risks during the pipeline transportation of high pressure CO2. The decompression process of high pressure CO2 involves complex phase transition and large variations of the pressure and temperature fields. A mathematical method based on the homogeneous equilibrium mixture assumption is presented for simulating the leakage flow through a nozzle in a pressurised CO2 pipeline. The decompression process is represented by two sub-models: the flow in the pipe is represented by the blowdown model, while the leakage flow through the nozzle is calculated with the capillary tube assumption. In the simulation, two kinds of real gas equations of state were employed in this model instead of the ideal gas equation of state. Moreover, results of the flow through the nozzle and measurement data obtained from laboratory experiments of pressurised CO2 pipeline leakage were compared for the purpose of validation. The thermodynamic processes of the fluid both in the pipeline and the nozzle were described and analysed.
Rockhold, M L
1993-02-01
A field-scale, unsaturated flow and solute transport experiment at the Las Cruces trench site in New Mexico was simulated as part of a blind'' modeling exercise to demonstrate the ability or inability of uncalibrated models to predict unsaturated flow and solute transport in spatially variable porous media. Simulations were conducted using a recently developed multiphase flow and transport simulator. Uniform and heterogeneous soil models were tested, and data from a previous experiment at the site were used with an inverse procedure to estimate water retention parameters. A spatial moment analysis was used to provide a quantitative basis for comparing the mean observed and simulated flow and transport behavior. The results of this study suggest that defensible predictions of waste migration and fate at low-level waste sites will ultimately require site-specific data for model calibration.
Simulating Subsurface Flow and Transport on Ultrascale Computers using PFLOTRAN
Mills, Richard T; Lu, Chuan; Hammond, Glenn; Lichtner, Peter
2007-01-01
We describe PFLOTRAN, a recently developed code for modeling multi-phase, multicomponent subsurface flow and reactive transport using massively parallel computers. PFLOTRAN is built on top of PETSc, the Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation. Leveraging PETSc has allowed us to develop--with a relatively modest investment in development effort--a code that exhibits excellent performance on the largest-scale supercomputers. Very significant enhancements to the code are planned during our SciDAC-2 project. Here we describe the current state of the code, present an example of its use on Jaguar, the Cray XT3/4 system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory consisting of 11706 dual-core Opteron processor nodes, and briefly outline our future plans for the code.
Simulating subsurface flow and transport on ultrascale computers using PFLOTRAN
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tran Mills, Richard; Lu, Chuan; Lichtner, Peter C.; Hammond, Glenn E.
2007-07-01
We describe PFLOTRAN, a recently developed code for modeling multi-phase, multi-component subsurface flow and reactive transport using massively parallel computers. PFLOTRAN is built on top of PETSc, the Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation. Leveraging PETSc has allowed us to develop—with a relatively modest investment in development effort—a code that exhibits excellent performance on the largest-scale supercomputers. Very significant enhancements to the code are planned during our SciDAC-2 project. Here we describe the current state of the code, present an example of its use on Jaguar, the Cray XT3/4 system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory consisting of 11706 dual-core Opteron processor nodes, and briefly outline our future plans for the code.
A mass and momentum conserving unsplit semi-Lagrangian framework for simulating multiphase flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owkes, Mark; Desjardins, Olivier
2017-03-01
In this work, we present a computational methodology for convection and advection that handles discontinuities with second order accuracy and maintains conservation to machine precision. This method can transport a variety of discontinuous quantities and is used in the context of an incompressible gas-liquid flow to transport the phase interface, momentum, and scalars. The proposed method provides a modification to the three-dimensional, unsplit, second-order semi-Lagrangian flux method of Owkes & Desjardins (JCP, 2014). The modification adds a refined grid that provides consistent fluxes of mass and momentum defined on a staggered grid and discrete conservation of mass and momentum, even for flows with large density ratios. Additionally, the refined grid doubles the resolution of the interface without significantly increasing the computational cost over previous non-conservative schemes. This is possible due to a novel partitioning of the semi-Lagrangian fluxes into a small number of simplices. The proposed scheme is tested using canonical verification tests, rising bubbles, and an atomizing liquid jet.
A computer code for multiphase all-speed transient flows in complex geometries. MAST version 1.0
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, C. P.; Jiang, Y.; Kim, Y. M.; Shang, H. M.
1991-01-01
The operation of the MAST code, which computes transient solutions to the multiphase flow equations applicable to all-speed flows, is described. Two-phase flows are formulated based on the Eulerian-Lagrange scheme in which the continuous phase is described by the Navier-Stokes equation (or Reynolds equations for turbulent flows). Dispersed phase is formulated by a Lagrangian tracking scheme. The numerical solution algorithms utilized for fluid flows is a newly developed pressure-implicit algorithm based on the operator-splitting technique in generalized nonorthogonal coordinates. This operator split allows separate operation on each of the variable fields to handle pressure-velocity coupling. The obtained pressure correction equation has the hyperbolic nature and is effective for Mach numbers ranging from the incompressible limit to supersonic flow regimes. The present code adopts a nonstaggered grid arrangement; thus, the velocity components and other dependent variables are collocated at the same grid. A sequence of benchmark-quality problems, including incompressible, subsonic, transonic, supersonic, gas-droplet two-phase flows, as well as spray-combustion problems, were performed to demonstrate the robustness and accuracy of the present code.
Galactic Winds and Cosmic Ray Transport in a Multiphase Interstellar Medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farber, Ryan; Ruszkowski, Mateusz; Hsiang-Yi, Karen; Gould Zweibel, Ellen
2017-01-01
Making up roughly one third the pressure budget of the ISM, cosmic rays are likely to play a fundamental role in galaxy evolution. Recent 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations have shown that advected cosmic rays puff up galactic disks and suppress star formation. Additionally, cosmic rays diffusing away from the galactic midplane can drive gas out of the galaxy with mass loss rates comparable to the star formation rate, thus regulating star formation. Yet, the impact of cosmic rays decoupling from cold, neutral gas in a multiphase interstellar medium has hithertofore not been studied. Preliminary work suggests that cosmic ray decoupling produces significantly more explosive feedback, dramatically affecting the evolution of the ISM and the efficiency of cosmic ray driven outflows.
Analysis of acid transport through multi-phase epoxy mortars for wastewater structures.
Valix, M
2015-01-01
The characteristics of acid migration through epoxy mortars were examined. Diffusion coefficients of typical sewer bio-metabolised acids: sulphuric, nitric, citric and oxalic acids were determined by gravimetric sorption method and fitted to the multi-phase Jacob-Jones model. Acid permeation was characterised by hindered pore diffusion with the extent being determined by the polarity of the acid and epoxy, and by the microstructure of the epoxy. Epoxy with higher polarity was able to reduce the diffusion coefficients by 49, while dense phases of the coating reduced the diffusion coefficient by 5,100. These results reflect the relative influence of epoxy polarity and microstructure on their performance as protective liners in sewers.
Multiphase Carbon-14 Transport in a Near-Field-Scale Unsaturated Column of Natural Sediments
D. T. Fox; Mitchell A. Plummer; Larry C. Hull; D. Craig Cooper
2004-03-01
Wastes buried at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory include activated metals that release radioactive carbon-14 (14C) as they corrode. To better understand 14C phase partitioning and transport in the SDA sediments, we conducted a series of transport experiments using 14C (radio-labeled sodium carbonate) and nonreactive gas (sulfur hexafluoride) and aqueous (bromide and tritiated water) tracers in a large (2.6-m high by 0.9-m diameter) column of sediments similar to those used as cover material at the SDA. We established steady-state unsaturated flow prior to injecting tracers into the column. Tracer migration was monitored using pore-water and pore-gas samples taken from co-located suction lysimeters and gas ports inserted at ~0.3-m intervals along the column’s length. Measurements of 14C discharged from the sediment to the atmosphere (i.e., 14CO2 flux) indicate a positive correlation between CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) in the column and changes in 14CO2 flux. Though 14CO2 diffusion is expected to be independent of pCO2, changes of pCO2 affect pore water chemistry sufficiently to affect aqueous/gas phase 14C partitioning and consequently 14C2 flux. Pore-water and -gas 14C activity measurements provide an average aqueous/gas partitioning ratio, Kag, of 4.5 (±0.3). This value is consistent with that calculated using standard carbonate equilibrium expressions with measured pH, suggesting the ability to estimate Kag from carbonate equilibrium. One year after the 14C injection, the column was cored and solid-phase 14C activity was measured. The average aqueous/solid partition coefficient, Kd, (1.6 L kg-1) was consistent with those derived from small-scale and short-term batch and column experiments using SDA sediments, suggesting that bench-scale measurements are a valid means of estimating aqueous/solid partitioning at the much larger spatial scale considered in these meso-scale experiments. However
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, G.
2015-12-01
Subsurface storage of carbon dioxide in geological formations is widely regarded as a promising tool for reducing global atmospheric CO2 emissions. Successful geologic storage for sequestrated carbon dioxides must prove to be safe by means of risk assessments including post-injection analysis of injected CO2 plumes. Because fractured reservoirs exhibit a higher degree of heterogeneity, it is imperative to conduct such simulation studies in order to reliably predict the geometric evolution of plumes and risk assessment of post CO2injection. The research has addressed the pressure footprint of CO2 plumes through the development of new techniques which combine discrete fracture network and stochastic continuum modeling of multiphase flow in fractured geologic formations. A subsequent permeability tensor map in 3-D, derived from our preciously developed method, can accurately describe the heterogeneity of fracture reservoirs. A comprehensive workflow integrating the fracture permeability characterization and multiphase flow modeling has been developed to simulate the CO2plume migration and risk assessments. A simulated fractured reservoir model based on high-priority geological carbon sinks in central Alabama has been employed for preliminary study. Discrete fracture networks were generated with an NE-oriented regional fracture set and orthogonal NW-fractures. Fracture permeability characterization revealed high permeability heterogeneity with an order of magnitude of up to three. A multiphase flow model composed of supercritical CO2 and saline water was then applied to predict CO2 plume volume, geometry, pressure footprint, and containment during and post injection. Injection simulation reveals significant permeability anisotropy that favors development of northeast-elongate CO2 plumes, which are aligned with systematic fractures. The diffusive spreading front of the CO2 plume shows strong viscous fingering effects. Post-injection simulation indicates significant
Pak, Tannaz; Butler, Ian B.; Geiger, Sebastian; van Dijke, Marinus I. J.; Sorbie, Ken S.
2015-01-01
Using X-ray computed microtomography, we have visualized and quantified the in situ structure of a trapped nonwetting phase (oil) in a highly heterogeneous carbonate rock after injecting a wetting phase (brine) at low and high capillary numbers. We imaged the process of capillary desaturation in 3D and demonstrated its impacts on the trapped nonwetting phase cluster size distribution. We have identified a previously unidentified pore-scale event during capillary desaturation. This pore-scale event, described as droplet fragmentation of the nonwetting phase, occurs in larger pores. It increases volumetric production of the nonwetting phase after capillary trapping and enlarges the fluid−fluid interface, which can enhance mass transfer between the phases. Droplet fragmentation therefore has implications for a range of multiphase flow processes in natural and engineered porous media with complex heterogeneous pore spaces. PMID:25646491
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sin, Irina; Lagneau, Vincent; Corvisier, Jérôme
2017-02-01
This work aims to incorporate compressible multiphase flow into the conventional reactive transport framework using an operator splitting approach. This new approach would allow us to retain the general paradigm of the flow module independent of the geochemical processes and to model complex multiphase chemical systems, conserving the versatile structure of conventional reactive transport. The phase flow formulation is employed to minimize the number of mass conservation nonlinear equations arising from the flow module. Applying appropriate equations of state facilitated precise descriptions of the compressible multicomponent phases, their thermodynamic properties and relevant fluxes. The proposed flow coupling method was implemented in the reactive transport software HYTEC. The entire framework preserves its flexibility for further numerical developments. The verification of the coupling was achieved by modeling a problem with a self-similar solution. The simulation of a 2D CO2-injection problem demonstrates the pertinent physical results and computational efficiency of this method. The coupling method was employed for modeling injection of acid gas mixture in carbonated reservoir.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Y.; Shu, C.; Yang, L. M.
2015-12-01
An improved multiphase lattice Boltzmann flux solver (MLBFS) is proposed in this work for effective simulation of three-dimensional (3D) multiphase flows with large density ratio and high Reynolds number. As a finite volume scheme, the MLBFS originally proposed in [27] applies the finite volume method to solve for macroscopic flow variables directly. The fluxes are reconstructed locally at each cell interface by using the standard LBM solutions. Due to the modeling error of the standard LBM, the reconstructed fluxes deviate from those in the Navier-Stokes equations; and to compensate this error, a complex tensor is introduced in the original MLBFS. However, the computation of the tensor introduces additional complexity and usually needs a relatively thicker interface thickness to maintain numerical stability, which makes the solver be complex and inefficient in the 3D case. To remove this drawback, in this work, a theoretical analysis to the formulations obtained from the Chapman-Enskog expansion is conducted. It is shown that the modeling error can be effectively removed by modifying the computation of the equilibrium density distribution function. With this improvement, the proposed 3D MLBFS not only avoids the calculation of the compensation tensor but also is able to maintain numerical stability with very thin interface thickness. Several benchmark cases, including the challenging droplet impacting on a dry surface, head-on collisions of binary droplets and droplet splashing on a thin film with density ratio 1000 and Reynolds number up to 3000, are studied to validate the proposed solver. The obtained results agree well with the published data.
Freeze, G.A.; Larson, K.W.; Davies, P.B.
1995-10-01
Eight alternative methods for approximating salt creep and disposal room closure in a multiphase flow model of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were implemented and evaluated: Three fixed-room geometries three porosity functions and two fluid-phase-salt methods. The pressure-time-porosity line interpolation method is the method used in current WIPP Performance Assessment calculations. The room closure approximation methods were calibrated against a series of room closure simulations performed using a creep closure code, SANCHO. The fixed-room geometries did not incorporate a direct coupling between room void volume and room pressure. The two porosity function methods that utilized moles of gas as an independent parameter for closure coupling. The capillary backstress method was unable to accurately simulate conditions of re-closure of the room. Two methods were found to be accurate enough to approximate the effects of room closure; the boundary backstress method and pressure-time-porosity line interpolation. The boundary backstress method is a more reliable indicator of system behavior due to a theoretical basis for modeling salt deformation as a viscous process. It is a complex method and a detailed calibration process is required. The pressure lines method is thought to be less reliable because the results were skewed towards SANCHO results in simulations where the sequence of gas generation was significantly different from the SANCHO gas-generation rate histories used for closure calibration. This limitation in the pressure lines method is most pronounced at higher gas-generation rates and is relatively insignificant at lower gas-generation rates. Due to its relative simplicity, the pressure lines method is easier to implement in multiphase flow codes and simulations have a shorter execution time.
Multiphase Fluid Flow in Deformable Variable-Aperture Fractures - Final Report
Detwiler, Russell
2014-04-30
capillary forces and redistribution of fluids. These coupled processes enhance channel formation and the potential for development of fast flow paths through fractures. (2) Dissolution in fractures subjected to normal stress can result in behaviors ranging from development of dissolution channels and rapid permeability increases to fracture healing and significant permeability decreases. The timescales associated with advective transport of dissolved ions in the fracture, mineral dissolution rates, and diffusion within the adjacent porous matrix dictate the sign and magnitude of the resulting permeability changes. Furthermore, a high--resolution mechanistic model that couples elastic deformation of contacts and aperture-dependent dissolution rates predicts the range of observed behaviors reasonably well. (3) ERT has potential as a tool for monitoring gas leakage in deep formations. Using probabilistic inversion methods further enhances the results by providing uncertainty estimates of inverted parameters.
A discontinuous Galerkin conservative level set scheme for interface capturing in multiphase flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owkes, Mark; Desjardins, Olivier
2013-09-01
The accurate conservative level set (ACLS) method of Desjardins et al. [O. Desjardins, V. Moureau, H. Pitsch, An accurate conservative level set/ghost fluid method for simulating turbulent atomization, J. Comput. Phys. 227 (18) (2008) 8395-8416] is extended by using a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization. DG allows for the scheme to have an arbitrarily high order of accuracy with the smallest possible computational stencil resulting in an accurate method with good parallel scaling. This work includes a DG implementation of the level set transport equation, which moves the level set with the flow field velocity, and a DG implementation of the reinitialization equation, which is used to maintain the shape of the level set profile to promote good mass conservation. A near second order converging interface curvature is obtained by following a height function methodology (common amongst volume of fluid schemes) in the context of the conservative level set. Various numerical experiments are conducted to test the properties of the method and show excellent results, even on coarse meshes. The tests include Zalesak’s disk, two-dimensional deformation of a circle, time evolution of a standing wave, and a study of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. Finally, this novel methodology is employed to simulate the break-up of a turbulent liquid jet.
A discontinuous Galerkin conservative level set scheme for interface capturing in multiphase flows
Owkes, Mark Desjardins, Olivier
2013-09-15
The accurate conservative level set (ACLS) method of Desjardins et al. [O. Desjardins, V. Moureau, H. Pitsch, An accurate conservative level set/ghost fluid method for simulating turbulent atomization, J. Comput. Phys. 227 (18) (2008) 8395–8416] is extended by using a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization. DG allows for the scheme to have an arbitrarily high order of accuracy with the smallest possible computational stencil resulting in an accurate method with good parallel scaling. This work includes a DG implementation of the level set transport equation, which moves the level set with the flow field velocity, and a DG implementation of the reinitialization equation, which is used to maintain the shape of the level set profile to promote good mass conservation. A near second order converging interface curvature is obtained by following a height function methodology (common amongst volume of fluid schemes) in the context of the conservative level set. Various numerical experiments are conducted to test the properties of the method and show excellent results, even on coarse meshes. The tests include Zalesak’s disk, two-dimensional deformation of a circle, time evolution of a standing wave, and a study of the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability. Finally, this novel methodology is employed to simulate the break-up of a turbulent liquid jet.
S. Dartevelle
2005-09-05
The objective of this manuscript is to fully derive a geophysical multiphase model able to ''accommodate'' different multiphase turbulence approaches; viz., the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), the Large Eddy Simulation (LES), or hybrid RANSLES. This manuscript is the first part of a larger geophysical multiphase project--lead by LANL--that aims to develop comprehensive modeling tools for large-scale, atmospheric, transient-buoyancy dusty jets and plume (e.g., plinian clouds, nuclear ''mushrooms'', ''supercell'' forest fire plumes) and for boundary-dominated geophysical multiphase gravity currents (e.g., dusty surges, diluted pyroclastic flows, dusty gravity currents in street canyons). LES is a partially deterministic approach constructed on either a spatial- or a temporal-separation between the large and small scales of the flow, whereas RANS is an entirely probabilistic approach constructed on a statistical separation between an ensemble-averaged mean and higher-order statistical moments (the so-called ''fluctuating parts''). Within this specific multiphase context, both turbulence approaches are built up upon the same phasic binary-valued ''function of presence''. This function of presence formally describes the occurrence--or not--of any phase at a given position and time and, therefore, allows to derive the same basic multiphase Navier-Stokes model for either the RANS or the LES frameworks. The only differences between these turbulence frameworks are the closures for the various ''turbulence'' terms involving the unknown variables from the fluctuating (RANS) or from the subgrid (LES) parts. Even though the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic models for RANS and LES have the same set of Partial Differential Equations, the physical interpretations of these PDEs cannot be the same, i.e., RANS models an averaged field, while LES simulates a filtered field. In this manuscript, we also demonstrate that this multiphase model fully fulfills the second law of
Numerical Simulation of Liquid Sheet Instability in a Multiphase Flow Domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souvick, Chatterjee; Mahapatra, Soumik; Mukhopadhyay, Achintya; Sen, Swarnendu
2013-11-01
Instability of a liquid sheet leading to the formation of droplets is a classical problem finding a wide range of multi-scale applications like gas turbine engines and inkjet printers. Numerical simulation of such a phenomenon is crucial because of its cost and time effective nature. In this work, the hydrodynamics in a custom designed nozzle is analyzed using Volume of Fluid method in Ansys Fluent. This innovative nozzle design includes an annular liquid sheet sandwiched between two air streams such that the inner air channel is recessed to a certain length. Such a recession leads to interaction between the two multiphase streams inside the atomizer resulting to an increased shear layer instability which augments the disintegration process. The numerical technique employed in this work couples Navier Stokes equation with VoF surface tracking technique. A parametric study with the hydrodynamic parameters involved in the problem, as well as the recession length, is performed while monitoring the axial and tangential exit velocities along with the spray cone angle. Comparison between the full 3D model and two different equivalent 2D axisymmetric models have been shown. The two axisymmetric models vary based on conserving different physical parameters between the 2D and 3D cases.
Yu Meiling; Du Jiaxin; Liu Lianshou
2006-10-15
The hadronization scheme for parton transport in relativistic heavy ion collisions is considered in detail. It is pointed out that the traditional scheme for particles being freezed out one by one leads to serious problem on unreasonable long lifetime of partons. A collective phase transition following a supercooling is implemented in a simple way. It turns out that the modified model with a sudden phase transition is able to reproduce the experimental longitudinal distributions of final state particles better than the original one does. The encouraging results indicate that equilibrium phase transition should be taken into proper account in parton transport models for relativistic heavy ion collisions.
Lan, Wenjie; Li, Shaowei; Lu, Yangcheng; Xu, Jianhong; Luo, Guangsheng
2009-11-21
This article describes a simple method for the fabrication of microscale polymer tubes. A double co-axial microchannel device was designed and fabricated. Liquid/liquid/liquid multiphase co-laminar flows were realized in a microchannel by choosing working systems. Three kinds of polymeric solutions were selected as the middle phase while a polyethyleneglycol aqueous solution was used as the inner and outer phases in the microfluidic process. The outer and inner phases acted as extractants of the polymer solvent. A stable double core-annular flow was formed by optimizing the composition of the outer and inner phases, and highly uniform tubes were successfully fabricated by the solvent extraction method. Both the outer diameter of the tubes and the wall thickness could be adjusted from 300 microm to 900 microm and from 40 microm to 150 microm by varying the flux of the fluids and the rolling velocity of the collection roller. In addition, titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were successfully encapsulated into the polymer tubes with this technique. This technology has the potential to generate hollow fiber membranes for applications in separation and reaction processes.
Advanced Multi-phase Flow CFD Model Development for Solid Rocket Motor Flowfield Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liaw, Paul; Chen, Yen-Sen
1995-01-01
A Navier-Stokes code, finite difference Navier-Stokes (FDNS), is used to analyze the complicated internal flowfield of the SRM (solid rocket motor) to explore the impacts due to the effects of chemical reaction, particle dynamics, and slag accumulation on the solid rocket motor (SRM). The particulate multi-phase flowfield with chemical reaction, particle evaporation, combustion, breakup, and agglomeration models are included in present study to obtain a better understanding of the SRM design. Finite rate chemistry model is applied to simulate the chemical reaction effects. Hermsen correlation model is used for the combustion simulation. The evaporation model introduced by Spalding is utilized to include the heat transfer from the particulate phase to the gase phase due to the evaporation of the particles. A correlation of the minimum particle size for breakup expressed in terms of the Al/Al2O3 surface tension and shear force was employed to simulate the breakup of particles. It is assumed that the breakup occurs when the Weber number exceeds 6. A simple L agglomeration model is used to investigate the particle agglomeration. However, due to the large computer memory requirements for the agglomeration model, only 2D cases are tested with the agglomeration model. The VOF (Volume of Fluid) method is employed to simulate the slag buildup in the aft-end cavity of the redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM). Monte Carlo method is employed to calculate the turbulent dispersion effect of the particles. The flowfield analysis obtained using the FDNS code in the present research with finite rate chemical reaction, particle evaporation, combustion, breakup, agglomeration, and VOG models will provide a design guide for the potential improvement of the SRM including the use of materials and the shape of nozzle geometry such that a better performance of the SRM can be achieved. The simulation of the slag buildup in the aft-end cavity can assist the designer to improve the design of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esposti Ongaro, Tomaso; Cerminara, Matteo
2016-10-01
In the framework of the IAVCEI (International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth Interior) initiative on volcanic plume models intercomparison, we discuss three-dimensional numerical simulations performed with the multiphase flow model PDAC (Pyroclastic Dispersal Analysis Code). The model describes the dynamics of volcanic and atmospheric gases (in absence of wind) and two pyroclastic phases by adopting a non-equilibrium Eulerian-Eulerian formulation. Accordingly, gas and particulate phases are treated as interpenetrating fluids, interacting with each other through momentum (drag) and heat exchange. Numerical results describe the time-wise and spatial evolution of weak (mass eruption rate: 1.5 × 106 kg/s) and strong (mass eruption rate: 1.5 × 109 kg/s) plumes. The two tested cases display a remarkably different phenomenology, associated with the different roles of atmospheric stratification, compressibility and mechanism of buoyancy reversal, reflecting in a different structure of the plume, of the turbulent eddies and of the atmospheric circulation. This also brings about different rates of turbulent mixing and atmospheric air entrainment. The adopted multiphase flow model allows to quantify temperature and velocity differences between the gas and particles, including settling, preferential concentration by turbulence and thermal non-equilibrium, as a function of their Stokes number, i.e., the ratio between their kinetic equilibrium time and the characteristic large-eddy turnover time of the turbulent plume. As a result, the spatial and temporal distribution of coarse ash in the atmosphere significantly differs from that of the fine ash, leading to a modification of the plume shape. Finally, three-dimensional numerical results have been averaged in time and across horizontal slices in order to obtain a one-dimensional picture of the plume in a stationary regime. For the weak plume, the results are consistent with one-dimensional models, at
Modeling Plasma Flow in Solid Propellant Charges Using the NGEN Multiphase CFD Code
2006-04-01
using these equations derived by a formal averaging technique applied to the microscopic flow. These equations require a number of constitutive laws...disk (dimensions shown are from Chang and Howard [32]). acrylic, that allows cinematography of plasma flows and ignition events along the propellant
Quantitative 'real-time' imaging of multi-phase flow in ceramic monoliths.
Sederman, A J; Mantle, M D; Gladden, L F
2003-01-01
An extension of the RARE technique has been developed which acquires multiple images from a single radio-frequency excitation. This pulse sequence has been used to image, in real-time, gas flow through stagnant liquid within parallel-channel ceramic monoliths. From these images, gas-phase volume fractions, and distributions of gas bubble length and velocity as a function of gas flow rate (50-300 cm3 min(-1)) and channel size (300 and 400 channels per square inch, cpsi) are obtained directly. Increasing the gas flow rate increased the number of large bubbles and the average bubble velocity. A bimodal distribution in the bubble velocities was observed for flow within the larger channel size (300 cpsi) in contrast to a broad unimodal distribution characterizing two-phase flow within the smaller channel size (400 cpsi).
Non-Invasive Characterization Of A Flowing Multi-Phase Fluid Using Ultrasonic Interferometry
Sinha, Dipen N.
2005-11-01
An apparatus for noninvasively monitoring the flow and/or the composition of a flowing liquid using ultrasound is described. The position of the resonance peaks for a fluid excited by a swept-frequency ultrasonic signal have been found to change frequency both in response to a change in composition and in response to a change in the flow velocity thereof. Additionally, the distance between successive resonance peaks does not change as a function of flow, but rather in response to a change in composition. Thus, a measurement of both parameters (resonance position and resonance spacing), once calibrated, permits the simultaneous determination of flow rate and composition using the apparatus and method of the present invention.
Sediment transport in shallow overland flow
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Soil erosion is a highly complicated phenomenon consisting of many component processes. On upland areas, these processes are usually thought of as detachment and transport of soil particles by rainfall and surface flow. One of the most difficult processes to quantify is sediment transport. This proc...
Multiphase flow of the late Wisconsinan Cordilleran ice sheet in Western Canada
Stumpf, A.J.; Broster, B.E.; Levson, V.M.
2000-01-01
In central British Columbia, ice flow during the late Wisconsinan Fraser glaciation (ca. 25-10 ka) occurred in three phases. The ice expansion phase occurred during an extended period when glaciers flowed westward to the Pacific Ocean and east-southeastward onto the Nechako Plateau from ice centers in the Skeena, Hazelton, Coast, and Omineca Mountains. Initially, glacier flow was confined by topography along major valleys, but eventually piedmont and montane glaciers coalesced to form an integrated glacier system, the Cordilleran ice sheet. In the maximum phase, a Cordilleran ice divide developed over the Nechako Plateau to 300 km inland from the Pacific coast. At this time, the surface of the ice sheet extended well above 2500 m above sea level, and flowed westward over the Skeena, Hazelton, and Coast Mountains onto the continental shelf, and eastward across the Rocky Mountains into Alberta. In the late glacial phase, a rapid rise of the equilibrium line caused ice lobes to stagnate in valleys, and restricted accumulation centers to high mountains. Discordant directions in ice flow are attributed to fluctuations of the ice divide representing changes in the location of accumulation centers and ice thickness. Ice centers probably shifted in response to climate, irregular growth in the ice sheet, rapid calving, ice streaming, and drainage of proglacial and subglacial water bodies. Crosscutting ice-flow indicators and preservation of early (valley parallel) flow features in areas exposed to later (cross-valley) glacier erosion indicate that the ice expansion phase was the most erosive and protracted event.
Investigation of Multiphase Flow in a Packed Bed Reactor Under Microgravity Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lian, Yongsheng; Motil, Brian; Rame, Enrique
2016-01-01
In this paper we study the two-phase flow phenomena in a packed bed reactor using an integrated experimental and numerical method. The cylindrical bed is filled with uniformly sized spheres. In the experiment water and air are injected into the bed simultaneously. The pressure distribution along the bed will be measured. The numerical simulation is based on a two-phase flow solver which solves the Navier-Stokes equations on Cartesian grids. A novel coupled level set and moment of fluid method is used to construct the interface. A sequential method is used to position spheres in the cylinder. Preliminary experimental results showed that the tested flow rates resulted in pulse flow. The numerical simulation revealed that air bubbles could merge into larger bubbles and also could break up into smaller bubbles to pass through the pores in the bed. Preliminary results showed that flow passed through regions where the porosity is high. Comparison between the experimental and numerical results in terms of pressure distributions at different flow injection rates will be conducted. Comparison of flow phenomena under terrestrial gravity and microgravity will be made.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Y.; Shu, C.; Shao, J. Y.; Wu, J.; Niu, X. D.
2015-06-01
In this work a mass-conserved diffuse interface method is proposed for simulating incompressible flows of binary fluids with large density ratio. In the method, a mass correction term is introduced into the Cahn-Hilliard equation to compensate the mass losses or offset the mass increases caused by the numerical and modeling diffusion. Since the mass losses or increases are through the phase interfaces and at each time step, their values are very small, to keep mass conservation, mass sources or sinks are introduced and uniformly distributed in the volume of diffuse layer. With the uniform distribution, the mass correction term representing mass sources or sinks is derived analytically by applying mass conservation principle. By including the mass correction, the modified Cahn-Hilliard equation is solved by the fifth-order upwind scheme to capture the phase field of the bindery fluids. The flow field is simulated by the newly-developed multiphase lattice Boltzmann flux solver [20]. The proposed approach is validated by simulating the Laplace law, the merging of two bubbles, Rayleigh-Taylor instability and bubble rising under gravity with density ratio of 1000 and viscosity ratio of 100. Numerical results of interface shapes and flow properties agree well with both analytical solutions and benchmark data in the literature. Numerical results also show that the mass is well-conserved in all cases considered. In addition, it is demonstrated that the mass correction term at each time step is in the order of 10-4 ∼10-5, which is a small number compared with the magnitude of order parameter.
Braun, Frank; Schwolow, Sebastian; Seltenreich, Julia; Kockmann, Norbert; Röder, Thorsten; Gretz, Norbert; Rädle, Matthias
2016-10-04
In process analytics, the applicability of Raman spectroscopy is restricted by high excitation intensities or the long integration times required. In this work, a novel Raman system was developed to minimize photon flux losses. It allows specific reduction of spectral resolution to enable the use of Raman spectroscopy for real-time analytics when strongly increased sensitivity is required. The performance potential of the optical setup was demonstrated in two exemplary applications: First, a fast exothermic reaction (Michael addition) was monitored with backscattering fiber optics under strongly attenuated laser power (7 mW). Second, high-speed scanning of a segmented multiphase flow (water/toluene) with submicroliter droplets was achieved by aligning the focus of a coaxial Raman probe with long focal length directly into a perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) capillary. With an acquisition rate of 333 Raman spectra per second, chemical information was obtained separately for both of the rapidly alternating phases. The experiment with reduced laser power demonstrates that the technique described in this paper is applicable in chemical production processes, especially in hazardous environments. Further potential uses can be envisioned in medical or biological applications with limited power input. The realization of high-speed measurements shows new possibilities for analysis of heterogeneous phase systems and of fast reactions or processes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Ping; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.
2017-03-01
Mixing of partially miscible fluids plays an important role in many physical and chemical processes. The modeling complexities lie in the tight coupling of the multiphase flow, heat transfer and multicomponent mass transfer, as well as diffusions across the phase interface. We present a sharp interface method for modeling such process. The non-ideal equation of state is used to compute the fluid properties such as density, fugacity and enthalpy, and to predict phase equilibrium composition. The phase interface location is tracked using the phase propagation velocity. A third-order one-sided finite difference scheme using a variable grid size according to the interface location is utilized to discretize the partial derivatives immediately next to the interface, while a second-order central scheme is used for the bulk of fluids. An optimization method, the Nelder-Mead method, is applied to search for (1) the phase compositions on both sides of the interface, and (2) the phase propagation velocity based on the coupling of the multicomponent phase equilibrium and the species' balance across the interface. The temperature at the interface is determined by the energy balance. Numerical results are used to demonstrate the convergence of our method and show its capability to simulate the mixing of multicomponent partially miscible fluids.
Dual FIB-SEM 3D imaging and lattice boltzmann modeling of porosimetry and multiphase flow in chalk.
Rinehart, Alex; Petrusak, Robin; Heath, Jason E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Yoon, Hongkyu
2010-12-01
Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) is an often-applied technique for determining pore throat distributions and seal analysis of fine-grained rocks. Due to closure effects, potential pore collapse, and complex pore network topologies, MIP data interpretation can be ambiguous, and often biased toward smaller pores in the distribution. We apply 3D imaging techniques and lattice-Boltzmann modeling in interpreting MIP data for samples of the Cretaceous Selma Group Chalk. In the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, the Selma Chalk is the apparent seal for oil and gas fields in the underlying Eutaw Fm., and, where unfractured, the Selma Chalk is one of the regional-scale seals identified by the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership for CO2 injection sites. Dual focused ion - scanning electron beam and laser scanning confocal microscopy methods are used for 3D imaging of nanometer-to-micron scale microcrack and pore distributions in the Selma Chalk. A combination of image analysis software is used to obtain geometric pore body and throat distributions and other topological properties, which are compared to MIP results. 3D data sets of pore-microfracture networks are used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations of drainage (wetting fluid displaced by non-wetting fluid via the Shan-Chen algorithm), which in turn are used to model MIP procedures. Results are used in interpreting MIP results, understanding microfracture-matrix interaction during multiphase flow, and seal analysis for underground CO2 storage.
J. Rutqvist; C.F. Tsang; Y. Tsang
2005-05-17
A numerical simulation of coupled multiphase fluid flow, heat transfer, and mechanical deformation was carried out to study coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test (DST) and for validation of a coupled THM numerical simulator. The ability of the numerical simulator to model relevant coupled THM processes at the DST was evaluated by comparison of numerical results to in situ measurements of temperature, water saturation, displacement, and fracture permeability. Of particular relevance for coupled THM processes are thermally induced rock-mass stress and deformations, with associated changes in fracture aperture and fractured rock permeability. Thermally induced rock-mass deformation and accompanying changes in fracture permeability were reasonably well predicted using a continuum elastic model, although some individual measurements of displacement and permeability indicate inelastic mechanical responses. It is concluded that fracture closure/opening caused by a change in thermally induced normal stress across fractures is an important mechanism for changes in intrinsic fracture permeability at the DST, whereas fracture shear dilation appears to be less significant. Observed and predicted maximum permeability changes at the DST are within one order of magnitude. These data are important for bounding model predictions of potential changes in rock-mass permeability at a future repository in Yucca Mountain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, B.; Garven, G.; Boles, J. R.
2011-12-01
Major fault systems play a first-order role in controlling fluid migration in the Earth's crust, and also in the genesis/preservation of hydrocarbon reservoirs in young sedimentary basins undergoing deformation, and therefore understanding the geohydrology of faults is essential for the successful exploration of energy resources. For actively deforming systems like the Santa Barbara Basin and Los Angeles Basin, we have found it useful to develop computational geohydrologic models to study the various coupled and nonlinear processes affecting multiphase fluid migration, including relative permeability, anisotropy, heterogeneity, capillarity, pore pressure, and phase saturation that affect hydrocarbon mobility within fault systems and to search the possible hydrogeologic conditions that enable the natural sequestration of prolific hydrocarbon reservoirs in these young basins. Subsurface geology, reservoir data (fluid pressure-temperature-chemistry), structural reconstructions, and seismic profiles provide important constraints for model geometry and parameter testing, and provide critical insight on how large-scale faults and aquifer networks influence the distribution and the hydrodynamics of liquid and gas-phase hydrocarbon migration. For example, pore pressure changes at a methane seepage site on the seafloor have been carefully analyzed to estimate large-scale fault permeability, which helps to constrain basin-scale natural gas migration models for the Santa Barbara Basin. We have developed our own 2-D multiphase finite element/finite IMPES numerical model, and successfully modeled hydrocarbon gas/liquid movement for intensely faulted and heterogeneous basin profiles of the Los Angeles Basin. Our simulations suggest that hydrocarbon reservoirs that are today aligned with the Newport-Inglewood Fault Zone were formed by massive hydrocarbon flows from deeply buried source beds in the central synclinal region during post-Miocene time. Fault permeability, capillarity
Experimental Characterization of Interchannel Mixing of Multiphase Flow Through a Narrow Gap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mäkiharju, Simo A.; Gose, James W.; Buchanan, John R., Jr.; Mychkovsky, Alexander G.; Lowe, Kirk T.; Ceccio, Steven L.
2016-11-01
Two-phase mass transfer through a gap connecting two adjacent channels was investigated as a function of gap geometry and flow conditions. An experiment with a simplified geometry was conducted to aid in the physical understanding and to provide data for validation of numerical computations. The flow loop consisted of two (127 mm)2 channels connected by a 1,219 mm (L) x 229 mm (W) gap, the height of which could be adjusted from 0 to 50 mm. The inlet Reynolds number in each channel could be independently varied from 4x104 - 1x105. During previous experiments, the single phase mixing was extensively investigated. The inlet void fraction was varied from 1 to 20%. Gas was injected as nominally monodisperse bubbles with diameter O(5 mm). The mass transfer through the gap was determined from measurements of the flow rates of water and air, and tracer concentration taken at channel inlets/outlets. The void fraction, bubble diameter distribution and gas flux was determined at the inlets based on flow rate measurements prior to gas injection, optical probes and Wire Mesh Sensor (WMS) data. At the outlets the gas fluxes were based on WMS measurements and the liquid phase mixing was determined based on measurement of the tracer concentration and liquid flow rate after separation of gas. Imaging of fluorescent tracer dye was utilized for select conditions to examine the dynamics of the mixing.
Transport in EHD flows distinct from HD and MHD flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kikuchi, H.
2003-04-01
EHD flows are typically composed of a charged (positively or negatively) fluid, though not all, that may be an electron fluid, an ion fluid or a dust fluid for a single fluid, or their mixtures for multi-component fluids in contrast to nonionized HD or plasma MHD flows. Electric or ponderomotive forces are newly exerted on EHD flows in addition to mechanical, viscous, and magnetic forces on HD and MHD flows. Accordingly, EHD flows hold electric pressure in addition to gas or plasma and magnetic pressure in HD and MHD flows. EHD flows hold space charge and displacement currents and are regarded as a dielectric or semiconducting fluid in contrast to nonionized HD flows or conducting plasma MHD flows. EHD flows are governed by a new equation of electric field transport in addition to fluid vortex transport (HD) and magnetic field transport (MHD), though their equations have to be supplemented by additional terms involving effects of space charge and electric fields, and are characterized by a new electric Reynolds number, R_E with spatial and temporal factors in addition to the fluid Reynolds number, R (spatial) and the magnetic Reynolds number, R_M (spatial) for HD and MHD flows. When R_E >> 1, however, the equation of electric field transport for EHD flows is reduced to the so-called Kelvin-Helmholtz equation just like equations of fluid vortex and magnetic field transport for R >> 1 for HD flows and R_M >> 1 for MHD flows. Accordingly, the EHD relation, H^* = H + v × .D ≈ 0 holds, analogous to the so-called MHD relation, E^* = E + v ×.B ≈ 0. In EHD flows, electric cusp or electrically neutral point can be formed as a bifurcation point of equipotential line or surface, analogous to a stagnation point in HD flows and magnetic cusp or separatrix in MHD flows. Accordingly, electric reconnection or space-charge related electric field line merging with particle acceleration or ionization due to critical velocity effects is possible in EHD flows, analogous to fluid
Miller, J.D.
1994-08-10
During this quarter of the DOE project, ``Characterization of Multiphase Fluid Flow During Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone Flotation``, the x-ray CT measurements were correlated with the results from the flotation experiments reported in the 13th quarterly report. In this regard the axial view of the flow regimes in the ASH during steady state operation were constructed from the radial density profiles as revealed by x-ray CT measurements. Construction of the axial view of the flow regimes was explained in the last quarterly report. By studying the characteristics of the flow regimes from these axial views and relating them with flotation recovery data, a phenomenological description of ASH flotation was possible. The effect of two operating variables, inlet pressure and dimensionless flow rate ratio (A* = air flow rate/slurry flow rate), are reported in this quarterly report.
Benchmarking transport solvers for fracture flow problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olkiewicz, Piotr; Dabrowski, Marcin
2015-04-01
Fracture flow may dominate in rocks with low porosity and it can accompany both industrial and natural processes. Typical examples of such processes are natural flows in crystalline rocks and industrial flows in geothermal systems or hydraulic fracturing. Fracture flow provides an important mechanism for transporting mass and energy. For example, geothermal energy is primarily transported by the flow of the heated water or steam rather than by the thermal diffusion. The geometry of the fracture network and the distribution of the mean apertures of individual fractures are the key parameters with regard to the fracture network transmissivity. Transport in fractures can occur through the combination of advection and diffusion processes like in the case of dissolved chemical components. The local distribution of the fracture aperture may play an important role for both flow and transport processes. In this work, we benchmark various numerical solvers for flow and transport processes in a single fracture in 2D and 3D. Fracture aperture distributions are generated by a number of synthetic methods. We examine a single-phase flow of an incompressible viscous Newtonian fluid in the low Reynolds number limit. Periodic boundary conditions are used and a pressure difference is imposed in the background. The velocity field is primarly found using the Stokes equations. We systematically compare the obtained velocity field to the results obtained by solving the Reynolds equation. This allows us to examine the impact of the aperture distribution on the permeability of the medium and the local velocity distribution for two different mathematical descriptions of the fracture flow. Furthermore, we analyse the impact of aperture distribution on the front characteristics such as the standard deviation and the fractal dimension for systems in 2D and 3D.
Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit using an elbow flow meter
Ortiz, M.G.; Boucher, T.J.
1997-06-24
A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit. The system utilizes pressure transducers disposed generally in line upstream and downstream of the flow of fluid in a bend in the conduit. Data from the pressure transducers is transmitted to a microprocessor or computer. The pressure differential measured by the pressure transducers is then used to calculate the fluid flow rate in the conduit. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to control flow, total fluid dispersed, (in, for example, an irrigation system), area of dispersal or other desired effect based on the fluid flow in the conduit. 2 figs.
Device and method for measuring multi-phase fluid flow in a conduit using an elbow flow meter
Ortiz, Marcos G.; Boucher, Timothy J.
1997-01-01
A system for measuring fluid flow in a conduit. The system utilizes pressure transducers disposed generally in line upstream and downstream of the flow of fluid in a bend in the conduit. Data from the pressure transducers is transmitted to a microprocessor or computer. The pressure differential measured by the pressure transducers is then used to calculate the fluid flow rate in the conduit. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to control flow, total fluid dispersed, (in, for example, an irrigation system), area of dispersal or other desired effect based on the fluid flow in the conduit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cerminara, Matteo; Esposti Ongaro, Tomaso; Carlo Berselli, Luigi
2014-05-01
We have developed a compressible multiphase flow model to simulate the three-dimensional dynamics of turbulent volcanic ash plumes. The model describes the eruptive mixture as a polydisperse fluid, composed of different types of gases and particles, treated as interpenetrating Eulerian phases. Solid phases represent the discrete ash classes into which the total granulometric spectrum is discretized, and can differ by size and density. The model is designed to quickly and accurately resolve important physical phenomena in the dynamics of volcanic ash plumes. In particular, it can simulate turbulent mixing (driving atmospheric entrainment and controlling the heat transfer), thermal expansion (controlling the plume buoyancy), the interaction between solid particles and volcanic gas (including kinetic non-equilibrium effects) and the effects of compressibility (over-pressured eruptions and infrasonic measurements). The model is based on the turbulent dispersed multiphase flow theory for dilute flows (volume concentration <0.001, implying that averaged inter-particle distance is larger than 10 diameters) where particle collisions are neglected. Moreover, in order to speed up the code without losing accuracy, we make the hypothesis of fine particles (Stokes number <0.2 , i.e., volcanic ash particles finer then a millimeter), so that we are able to consider non-equilibrium effects only at the first order. We adopt LES formalism (which is preferable in transient regimes) for compressible flows to model the non-linear coupling between turbulent scales and the effect of sub-grid turbulence on the large-scale dynamics. A three-dimensional numerical code has been developed basing on the OpenFOAM computational framework, a CFD open source parallel software package. Numerical benchmarks demonstrate that the model is able to capture important non-equilibrium phenomena in gas-particle mixtures, such as particle clustering and ejection from large-eddy turbulent structures, as well
Error handling strategies in multiphase inverse modeling
Finsterle, S.; Zhang, Y.
2010-12-01
Parameter estimation by inverse modeling involves the repeated evaluation of a function of residuals. These residuals represent both errors in the model and errors in the data. In practical applications of inverse modeling of multiphase flow and transport, the error structure of the final residuals often significantly deviates from the statistical assumptions that underlie standard maximum likelihood estimation using the least-squares method. Large random or systematic errors are likely to lead to convergence problems, biased parameter estimates, misleading uncertainty measures, or poor predictive capabilities of the calibrated model. The multiphase inverse modeling code iTOUGH2 supports strategies that identify and mitigate the impact of systematic or non-normal error structures. We discuss these approaches and provide an overview of the error handling features implemented in iTOUGH2.
Study of multi-phase flow characteristics in an MHD power train
Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Bouillard, J.X.; Petrick, M.
1993-08-01
Computer simulation was used to predict two-phase flow processes in the CDIF MHD power train system. The predictions were used to evaluate the effects of operating and design parameters on the performance of the system and a parametric evaluation provides information to enhance the performance of the system. Major components of the system under investigation are the two-stage combustor, the converging/diverging nozzle, the supersonic MHD channel, and the diffuser. Flow in each component was simulated using a computer code. Integrating the computer codes, the two-phase flow processes in the system was calculated. Recently, the computer codes were used to investigate problems of nozzle erosion and the non-uniform iron oxide coverage on the cathode wall in the channel. A limited parametric study was conducted. The results indicated that (1) among the three nozzle geometries under investigation a {number_sign}5 nozzle has the smoothest flow development in the nozzle and has the lowest droplet deposition on wall and (2) smaller particle size and lower injection velocity tend to disperse the iron oxide particles more uniformly in the nozzle.
Small scale laboratory studies of flow and transport phenonmena in pores and fractures, Phase II
Wilson, J.L.
1993-04-01
Small scale laboratory experiments, equipped with an ability to actually observe behavior on the pore level using microscopy, provide an economical and easily understood scientific tool to help us validateconcepts and assumptions about the transport of contaminants, and offers the propensity to discover heretofore unrecognized phenomena or behavior. The main technique employs etched glass micromodels, composed of two etched glass plates, sintered together, to form a two dimensional network of three dimensional pores. Flow and transport behavior is observed on a pore or pore network level, and recorded on film and video tape. This technique is coupled with related column studies. Specifically we're examining multiphase flow behavior of relevance, for example, to liquid-liquid mass transfer (solubilization of capillary trapped organic liquids); liquid-gas mass transfer (in situ volatilization); colloid movement, attachment and detachment in the presence of fluid-fluid interfaces; bacteria colonization and motility in porous systems; and heterogeneity effects on multi-phase flow, colloid movement and bacteria behavior.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cianci, J. A.; Hwang, S. I.; Powers, S. E.
2001-05-01
The mechanics of mobilization and dynamics that affect the path and fate of the DNAPL in the subsurface are not fully understood. Dynamics such as fingering may short-circuit and ultimately lead to trapped pockets of DNAPL in the subsurface. These physical flow phenomena can be changed by adjusting chemical conditions of the NAPL/water interface, wettability properties of the subsurface particles, or by the introduction of biosurfactants to the subsurface system. This research focuses on multiphase flow phenomena in glass bead micromodels as effected by surface tension and wettability changes. Two-dimensional glass bead micromodels are constructed with 0.5-mm glass beads with, water wetting and NAPL wetting capillary barriers. Images are captured on a streaming video feed and analyzed using integrated computer capture and analysis software. Under initially water-saturated conditions, transient conditions are characterized by overall model drainage dynamics, fingering dynamics, and pressure-saturation comparisons. Steady state attributes are qualified by spatial distribution of residual saturation, and quantified by size and shape analysis of the capturing pores, and blob analysis of the residual NAPL. Micro scale analysis is being performed to evaluate changes in curvature of liquid/bead interfaces. The micromodels have been performing according to our expectations. Systems with lower interfacial tensions are characterized by lower capillary entry pressures and wider fingers, which are not easily short-circuited to form residual NAPL pockets. Residual blob sizes are smaller than in the system with a higher interfacial tension. It is anticipated by understanding differences in these pore scale processes, we can produce conditions such that the fingering dynamics of the system can be altered and, ultimately, the trapped pockets of residual NAPL can be minimized.
Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Panchenko, Alexander
2016-01-01
We present a novel formulation of the Pairwise Force Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Model (PF-SPH) and use it to simulate two- and three-phase flows in bounded domains. In the PF-SPH model, the Navier-Stokes equations are discretized with the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method and the Young-Laplace boundary condition at the fluid-fluid interface and the Young boundary condition at the fluid-fluid-solid interface are replaced with pairwise forces added into the Navier-Stokes equations. We derive a relationship between the parameters in the pairwise forces and the surface tension and static contact angle. Next, we demonstrate the accuracy of the model under static and dynamic conditions. Finally, to demonstrate the capabilities and robustness of the model we use it to simulate flow of three fluids in a porous material.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Panchenko, Alexander
2016-01-01
We present a novel formulation of the Pairwise Force Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (PF-SPH) model and use it to simulate two- and three-phase flows in bounded domains. In the PF-SPH model, the Navier-Stokes equations are discretized with the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method, and the Young-Laplace boundary condition at the fluid-fluid interface and the Young boundary condition at the fluid-fluid-solid interface are replaced with pairwise forces added into the Navier-Stokes equations. We derive a relationship between the parameters in the pairwise forces and the surface tension and static contact angle. Next, we demonstrate the model's accuracy under static and dynamic conditions. Finally, we use the Pf-SPH model to simulate three phase flow in a porous medium.
Characterization of multiphase fluid flow during air-sparged hydrocyclone flotation by x-ray CT
Miller, J.D.
1993-03-01
During this quarter a new set of experiments was carried out with and without collector in order to understand the flow patterns inside the ASH unit for both hydrophilic and hydrophobic particles. These tests were designed to study the effects of percent solids in the feed, A* - the nondimensional ratio of overflow opening area to underflow opening area, and the effect of collector addition on the flow characteristics. These experiments were done with 0%, 5% and 15% solids in the feed. The latter two cases were studied for three different A* values and also with and without the addition of collector. The value of Q*, the dimensionless ratio of air f low rate and slurry flow rate was maintained at the same level (Q* 4.55). Quartz particles of size [minus]100 +200 mesh were used for this study rather than coal particles because they did not abrade and were of a higher density. The reagents and their dosages used were 40 ppm (water basis) of frother (MIBC) and 800 g of collector (dodecyl amine) per ton of solids in the suspension. At room temperature, quartz is intrinsically hydrophilic while addition of the amine collector renders the quartz particles hydrophobic. The absence of collector will be referred to as the hydrophilic case and the presence of collector will be referred to as the hydrophobic case.A total of 11 scans was taken over the entire length of the ASH unit. Software has now been developed to analyze the CT images obtained from these tests and is able to account for any offset of the air core from the axis of the ASH. In this way, the image is reconstructed and a radial density profile of the time averaged flow is generated. Some experimental results are presented graphically in Figures 1 through 4 at 0% and 5% solids in the suspension for both hydrophilic and hydrophobic cases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Annamalai, Subramanian; Balachandar, S.; Sridharan, P.; Jackson, T. L.
2017-02-01
An analytical expression describing the unsteady pressure evolution of the dispersed phase driven by variations in the carrier phase is presented. In this article, the term "dispersed phase" represents rigid particles, droplets, or bubbles. Letting both the dispersed and continuous phases be inhomogeneous, unsteady, and compressible, the developed pressure equation describes the particle response and its eventual equilibration with that of the carrier fluid. The study involves impingement of a plane traveling wave of a given frequency and subsequent volume-averaged particle pressure calculation due to a single wave. The ambient or continuous fluid's pressure and density-weighted normal velocity are identified as the source terms governing the particle pressure. Analogous to the generalized Faxén theorem, which is applicable to the particle equation of motion, the pressure expression is also written in terms of the surface average of time-varying incoming flow properties. The surface average allows the current formulation to be generalized for any complex incident flow, including situations where the particle size is comparable to that of the incoming flow. Further, the particle pressure is also found to depend on the dispersed-to-continuous fluid density ratio and speed of sound ratio in addition to dynamic viscosities of both fluids. The model is applied to predict the unsteady pressure variation inside an aluminum particle subjected to normal shock waves. The results are compared against numerical simulations and found to be in good agreement. Furthermore, it is shown that, although the analysis is conducted in the limit of negligible flow Reynolds and Mach numbers, it can be used to compute the density and volume of the dispersed phase to reasonable accuracy. Finally, analogous to the pressure evolution expression, an equation describing the time-dependent particle radius is deduced and is shown to reduce to the Rayleigh-Plesset equation in the linear limit.
Real time three-dimensional electrical impedance tomography applied in multiphase flow imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heikkinen, L. M.; Kourunen, J.; Savolainen, T.; Vauhkonen, P. J.; Kaipio, J. P.; Vauhkonen, M.
2006-08-01
In many industrial applications the aim is to obtain information on three-dimensional (3D) material distribution within the process vessels. With standard two-dimensional (2D) techniques only vague cross-sectional information can be obtained. It could be possible to carry out several 2D reconstructions on different layers and in this way to obtain 3D information. However, in this approach errors are induced since no real 3D information is utilized in the image reconstruction. In this paper we describe an approach to measure, reconstruct and visualize three-dimensional electrical impedance tomography images in real time. The reconstruction is based on a difference imaging scheme. An efficient current injection and voltage measurement protocol is used in order to increase the sensitivity and reduce the data collection time. The proposed approach can produce and visualize up to 15 3D EIT images per second when 80 measurement electrodes are used. Imaging results from a stirred vessel and a flow loop will be shown. The reconstructions show, for example, that 3D air/liquid distribution in the stirred vessel can reliably be visualized in real time and material flow can be monitored in a 3D section of the flow loop. Reconstructions can be visualized and analysed in many different ways in order to produce essential information on the behaviour of the processes.
Lattice Boltzmann Model of 3D Multiphase Flow in Artery Bifurcation Aneurysm Problem.
Abas, Aizat; Mokhtar, N Hafizah; Ishak, M H H; Abdullah, M Z; Ho Tian, Ang
2016-01-01
This paper simulates and predicts the laminar flow inside the 3D aneurysm geometry, since the hemodynamic situation in the blood vessels is difficult to determine and visualize using standard imaging techniques, for example, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three different types of Lattice Boltzmann (LB) models are computed, namely, single relaxation time (SRT), multiple relaxation time (MRT), and regularized BGK models. The results obtained using these different versions of the LB-based code will then be validated with ANSYS FLUENT, a commercially available finite volume- (FV-) based CFD solver. The simulated flow profiles that include velocity, pressure, and wall shear stress (WSS) are then compared between the two solvers. The predicted outcomes show that all the LB models are comparable and in good agreement with the FVM solver for complex blood flow simulation. The findings also show minor differences in their WSS profiles. The performance of the parallel implementation for each solver is also included and discussed in this paper. In terms of parallelization, it was shown that LBM-based code performed better in terms of the computation time required.
Lattice Boltzmann Model of 3D Multiphase Flow in Artery Bifurcation Aneurysm Problem
Abas, Aizat; Mokhtar, N. Hafizah; Ishak, M. H. H.; Abdullah, M. Z.; Ho Tian, Ang
2016-01-01
This paper simulates and predicts the laminar flow inside the 3D aneurysm geometry, since the hemodynamic situation in the blood vessels is difficult to determine and visualize using standard imaging techniques, for example, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three different types of Lattice Boltzmann (LB) models are computed, namely, single relaxation time (SRT), multiple relaxation time (MRT), and regularized BGK models. The results obtained using these different versions of the LB-based code will then be validated with ANSYS FLUENT, a commercially available finite volume- (FV-) based CFD solver. The simulated flow profiles that include velocity, pressure, and wall shear stress (WSS) are then compared between the two solvers. The predicted outcomes show that all the LB models are comparable and in good agreement with the FVM solver for complex blood flow simulation. The findings also show minor differences in their WSS profiles. The performance of the parallel implementation for each solver is also included and discussed in this paper. In terms of parallelization, it was shown that LBM-based code performed better in terms of the computation time required. PMID:27239221
Modeling Unsaturated Flow and Transport Processes in Fractured Tuffs of Yucca Mountain
Wu, Yu-Shu; Lu, Guoping; Zhang, Keni; Bodvarsson, G.S.
2003-07-15
This paper presents a field modeling study characterizing fluid flow and tracer transport in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a proposed underground repository for storing high-level radioactive waste. The 500 to 700 meter thick unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain consists of highly heterogeneous layers of anisotropic, fractured ash flow and air fall tuffs. Characterization of fluid flow and heat transfer through such a system has been a challenge due to the heterogeneities prevalent on various scales. Quantitative evaluation of water, gas, and heat flow by means of numerical simulation is essential for design and performance assessment of the repository. A three-dimensional numerical flow and transport model will be discussed. The model has been calibrated against field-measured data and takes into account the coupled processes of unsaturated flow and tracer transport in the highly heterogeneous, unsaturated fractured porous rock. The modeling approach of the model is based on a dual-continuum formulation of coupled multiphase fluid and tracer transport through fractured porous rock. As application examples, effects of current and future climates on the unsaturated zone processes are evaluated to aid in the assessment of the proposed repository's system performance.
A coke/soot formation model for multiphase reacting flow simulation
Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Petrick, M.; Zhou, C.Q. |
1997-03-01
Coke is a by-product in petroleum fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) processes. The concentration of coke in an FCC riser reactor is a critical parameter used to evaluate the riser performance. A coke formation and transport model was developed. It was incorporated into a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) computer code, ICRKFLO, to simulate the coke formation processes in an FCC riser reactor. Based on a similar process, a soot formation model can be derived from the coke formation model and used for diesel combustion processes, where soot is emitted as one of the primary pollutants.
Miller, J.D.
1994-10-18
Air sparged hydrocyclone (ASH) flotation is a new particle separation technology that has been developed at the University of Utah. This technology combines froth flotation principles with the flow characteristics of a hydrocyclone such that the ASH system can perform flotation separations in less than a second. This feature provides the ASH with a high specific capacity, 100 to 600 times greater than the specific capacity of conventional flotation machines. In an effort to develop a more detailed understanding of ASH flotation, multiphase flow characteristics of the air sparged hydrocyclone were studied and the relationship of these characteristics with flotation performance was investigated. This investigation was divided into four phases. In the first phase, the time-averaged multiphase flow characteristics of the ASH during its steady state operation were studied using x-ray computed tomography (x-ray CT). In this regard, a model system, mono-sized quartz flotation with dodecyl amine as collector, using a 2 in. diameter ASH unit (ASH-2C), was selected for study. Various flow regimes, namely, the air core, the froth phase, and the swirl layer, were identified and their spatial extent established for different experimental conditions by x-ray CT analysis. In the second phase, a detailed parametric study of flotation response of the ASH for the same system was carried out in order to establish the effect of various operating variables on flotation response. The findings of this phase of investigation were then correlated with the multiphase flow characteristics as revealed by x-ray CT in the first phase. Thus, the impact of various operating variables on the flow regimes, and hence, on flotation response was established.
Symposium on unsaturated flow and transport modeling
Arnold, E.M.; Gee, G.W.; Nelson, R.W.
1982-09-01
This document records the proceedings of a symposium on flow and transport processes in partially saturated groundwater systems, conducted at the Battelle Seattle Research Center on March 22-24, 1982. The symposium was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of assessing the state-of-the-art of flow and transport modeling for use in licensing low-level nuclear waste repositories in partially saturated zones. The first day of the symposium centered around research in flow through partially saturated systems. Papers were presented with the opportunity for questions following each presentation. In addition, after all the talks, a formal panel discussion was held during which written questions were addressed to the panel of the days speakers. The second day of the Symposium was devoted to solute and contaminant transport in partially saturated media in an identical format. Individual papers are abstracted.
Unravelling the multiphase run-out conditions of a slide-flow mass movement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Asch, Th. W. J.; Xu, Q.; Dong, X. J.
2015-02-01
In this paper an attempt is made to unravel the run-out characteristics of a mass movement in the Sichuan Province, SW China by means of 1D numerical modelling and calibration on the topography of run-out profiles. The Dagou mass movement started as a rockslide with an initial volume of 480,000 m3, which transformed into a debris flow, increasing in volume due to entrainment of loose material in the upper part of the travelling track. The rapid mass movement had a run-out distance of 1380 m and a run-out time of about 50 s. Numerical calculations were conducted with the depth average shallow water equation to explain the variation in thickness of the debris flow deposits along the run-out track. For the calibration of the first run-out phase, three rheological models were applied, namely the Bingham, Voellmy and Quadratic rheology. Calibration was done on 1) the run-out distance, 2) the run-out time and 3) the goodness of fit with the thickness of the deposits along the track. In addition the erosion constant in the entrainment equation was calibrated on the observed versus calculated run-out volumes. Sensitivity analyses of the resistance parameters for the different rheologies showed that the viscosity, the basal friction, the turbulence term and the resistance factor are the most sensitive ones. It appeared that the variation in thickness along the run-out track can be explained by entrainment of material in the upper part of the track and a change in parametric values during the run-out process. The three rheologies produced a reasonable fit with the observed geometry of the run-out profile, run-out time and run-out volume. It was argued that the Voellmy rheology seems to give the most appropriate explanation for the difference in resistance along the run-out path. The main problem in the simulation was to stop the debris flow on a slope with a gradient around 22°. A reactivation of the mass movement by frictional sliding of the material half way the run
Akin, Serhat; Castanier, Louis M.; German, Edgar Rene Rangel
1999-08-09
The fluid transfer parameters between rock matrix and fracture are not well known. Consequently, simulation of fractured reservoirs uses, in general, very crude and unproven hypotheses such as zero capillary pressure in the fracture and/or relative permeability linear with saturation. In order to improve the understanding of flow in fractured media, an experimental study was conducted and numerical simulations of the experiments were made. A laboratory flow apparatus was built to obtain data on water- air imbibition and oil-water drainage displacements in horizontal single-fractured block systems. For this purpose, two configurations have been used: a two-block system with a 1 mm spacer between the blocks, and a two-block system with no spacer. During the experiments, porosity and saturation measurements along the cores have been made utilizing an X-ray Computerized Tomography (CT) scanner. Saturation images were reconstructed in 3-D to observe matrix-fracture interactions. Differences in fluid saturations and relative permeabilities caused by changes in fracture width have also been analyzed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liter, S. G.; Torczynski, J. R.; Shollenberger, K. A.; Ceccio, S. L.
2001-11-01
An implementation of resistive electrical-impedance tomography (EIT) for measuring material distributions of two-phase flows in vessels with electrically conducting walls is presented. A thin nonconducting rod, with N-1 ring electrodes wrapped around its exterior at equally-spaced axial positions, is inserted into the vessel (i.e., into the interior of the flow). The vessel wall is grounded and serves as the N-th electrode. Current is injected from a ring electrode and exits to the vessel wall, and the resulting voltages at all ring electrodes are recorded. Each ring electrode is used in turn for current injection, and the collection of all measured voltages comprises a data set. Multiple data sets are used to numerically reconstruct the time-averaged impedance distribution within the vessel, from which the material distribution is inferred. Design issues, including the size, spacing, and number of the ring electrodes, are considered. An experiment in which the rod is inserted coaxially into a vertical pipe is presented, and bubble-column applications are discussed. *Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Gullfaks multiphase booster project
Vangen, G.; Carstensen, C.; Bakken, L.E.
1995-12-31
A Poseidon Multiphase Pump has been Installed and is presently running on Statoil`s Gullfaks A platform in the North Sea, giving additional pressure to one of the wells. The main objective of this work has been to qualify the Poseidon Booster Technology, technically and operationally, and to provide a reliable and industrialized tool for multiphase boosting, either sub sea or installed topside a platform. The paper gives a brief summary of the project and describes the Poseidon pump, the platform installation and outlines the experience and results from the ongoing qualification test. The Gullfaks booster, as delivered by Framo Engineering AS, has up to January 1995 accumulated 2,400 running hours. The booster is fully integrated into the production systems on the platform. The daily operations are carried out from the central control room by the ordinary platform staff. The objectives of the test program have so far been successfully fulfilled. Multiphase booster technology combined with progress in multiphase flow technology will have a significant impact on development and production of smaller oil and gas fields that today are assumed to be non-profitable.
Shear-slip analysis in multiphase fluid-flow reservoir engineeringap plications using TOUGH-FLAC
Rutqvist, Jonny; Birkholzer, Jens; Cappa, Frederic; Oldenburg,Curt; Tsang, Chin-Fu
2006-01-15
This paper describes and demonstrates the use of the coupledTOUGH-FLAC simulator for geomechanical shear-slip (failure) analysis inmultiphase fluid-flow reservoir-engineering applications. Two approachesfor analyzing shear-slip are described, one using continuum stress-strainanalysis and another using discrete fault analysis. The use of shear-slipanalysis in TOUGH-FLAC is demonstrated on application examples related toCO2 sequestration and geothermal energy extraction. In the case of CO2sequestration, the shear-slip analysis is used to evaluate maximumsustainable CO2-injection pressure under increasing reservoir pressure,whereas in the case of geothermal energy extraction, the shear-slipanalysis is used to study induced seismicity during steam productionunder decreasing reservoir pressure and temperature.
Dual FIB-SEM 3D Imaging and Lattice Boltzmann Modeling of Porosimetry and Multiphase Flow in Chalk
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rinehart, A. J.; Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.; Heath, J. E.; Petrusak, R.
2010-12-01
Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) is an often-applied technique for determining pore throat distributions and seal analysis of fine-grained rocks. Due to closure effects, potential pore collapse, and complex pore network topologies, MIP data interpretation can be ambiguous, and often biased toward smaller pores in the distribution. We apply 3D imaging techniques and lattice-Boltzmann modeling in interpreting MIP data for samples of the Cretaceous Selma Group Chalk. In the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, the Selma Chalk is the apparent seal for oil and gas fields in the underlying Eutaw Fm., and, where unfractured, the Selma Chalk is one of the regional-scale seals identified by the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership for CO2 injection sites. Dual focused ion - scanning electron beam and laser scanning confocal microscopy methods are used for 3D imaging of nanometer-to-micron scale microcrack and pore distributions in the Selma Chalk. A combination of image analysis software is used to obtain geometric pore body and throat distributions and other topological properties, which are compared to MIP results. 3D data sets of pore-microfracture networks are used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations of drainage (wetting fluid displaced by non-wetting fluid via the Shan-Chen algorithm), which in turn are used to model MIP procedures. Results are used in interpreting MIP results, understanding microfracture-matrix interaction during multiphase flow, and seal analysis for underground CO2 storage. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences as part of an Energy Frontier Research Center. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Sap flow and sugar transport in plants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jensen, K. H.; Berg-Sørensen, K.; Bruus, H.; Holbrook, N. M.; Liesche, J.; Schulz, A.; Zwieniecki, M. A.; Bohr, T.
2016-07-01
Green plants are Earth's primary solar energy collectors. They harvest the energy of the Sun by converting light energy into chemical energy stored in the bonds of sugar molecules. A multitude of carefully orchestrated transport processes are needed to move water and minerals from the soil to sites of photosynthesis and to distribute energy-rich sugars throughout the plant body to support metabolism and growth. The long-distance transport happens in the plants' vascular system, where water and solutes are moved along the entire length of the plant. In this review, the current understanding of the mechanism and the quantitative description of these flows are discussed, connecting theory and experiments as far as possible. The article begins with an overview of low-Reynolds-number transport processes, followed by an introduction to the anatomy and physiology of vascular transport in the phloem and xylem. Next, sugar transport in the phloem is explored with attention given to experimental results as well as the fluid mechanics of osmotically driven flows. Then water transport in the xylem is discussed with a focus on embolism dynamics, conduit optimization, and couplings between water and sugar transport. Finally, remarks are given on some of the open questions of this research field.
Towards an integrated petrophysical tool for multiphase flow properties of core samples
Lenormand, R.
1997-08-01
This paper describes the first use of an Integrated Petrophysical Tool (IPT) on reservoir rock samples. The IPT simultaneously measures the following petrophysical properties: (1) Complete capillary pressure cycle: primary drainage, spontaneous and forced imbibitions, secondary drainage (the cycle leads to the wettability of the core by using the USBM index); End-points and parts of the relative permeability curves; Formation factor and resistivity index. The IPT is based on the steady-state injection of one fluid through the sample placed in a Hassler cell. The experiment leading to the whole Pc cycle on two reservoir sandstones consists of about 30 steps at various oil or water flow rates. It takes about four weeks and is operated at room conditions. Relative permeabilities are in line with standard steady-state measurements. Capillary pressures are in accordance with standard centrifuge measurements. There is no comparison for the resistivity index, but the results are in agreement with literature data. However, the accurate determination of saturation remains the main difficulty and some improvements are proposed. In conclusion, the Integrated Petrophysical Tool is as accurate as standard methods and has the advantage of providing the various parameters on the same sample and during a single experiment. The FIT is easy to use and can be automated. In addition, it can be operated in reservoir conditions.
Characterization of multiphase fluid flow during air-sparged hydrocyclone flotation by x-ray CT
Miller, J.D.
1992-08-17
The effect of A* (the dimensionless ratio of overflow opening area to underflow opening area) on the fluid flow behavior of the 2 inch ASH-2C unit was studied for different percentage of solids in the suspension. Limestone, a hydrophilic solid was chosen for study. The particle size of the solids was taken as [minus]100 [plus]200 mesh. Three different concentrations of solids in the suspension were considered, 5, 10 and 20% by weight. The corresponding pulp densities of the feed suspension for these three cases are 1.09, 1.18 and 1.36 g/cc respectively. Since no collector was added to the suspension, all the solids are expected to report to the underflow. For all these studies the Q* value was maintained at the same level (Q* = 2.28). Reconstructed images from the CT scanner were analyzed using the graphics software developed at the University of Utah. Assuming the air core to be cylindrical in shape and using the previously generated calibration curve, the average density of the swirl layer and its average thickness were estimated for each slice. These results are presented graphically in the accompanying figures along the axis of the ASH unit from bottom to top.
Computer assisted gamma and X-ray tomography: Applications to multiphase flow systems
Kumar, S.B.; Dudukovic, M.
1998-01-01
In process vessels, involving two or three phases it is often important not only to know the volume fraction (holdup) of each phase but also the spatial distribution of such holdups. This information is needed in control, trouble shooting and assessment of flow patterns and can be observed noninvasively by the application of Computed Tomography (CT). This report presents a complete overview of X-ray and gamma ray transmission tomography principles, equipment design to specific tasks and application in process industry. The fundamental principles of tomography, the algorithms for image reconstruction, the measurement method and the possible sources of error are discussed in detail. A case study highlights the methodology involved in designing a scanning system for the study of a given process unit, e.g., reactor, separations column etc. Results obtained in the authors` laboratory for the gas holdup distribution in bubble columns are also presented. Recommendations are made for the Advanced Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) in LaPorte, TX.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pradeep, Chaminda; Yan, Ru; Vestøl, Sondre; Melaaen, Morten C.; Mylvaganam, Saba
2014-07-01
The electrical capacitance tomographic (ECT) approach is increasingly seen as attractive for measurement and control applications in the process industries. Recently, there is increased interest in using the tomographic details from ECT for comparing with and validating and tuning CFD models of multiphase flow. Collaboration with researchers working in the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of multiphase flows gives valuable information for both groups of researchers in the field of ECT and CFD. By studying the ECT tomograms of multiphase flows under carefully monitored inflow conditions of the different media and by obtaining the capacitance values, C(i, j, t) with i = 1…N, j = 1, 2,…N and i ≠ j obtained from ECT modules with N electrodes, it is shown how the interface heights in a pipe with stratified flow of oil and air can be fruitfully compared to the values of those obtained from ECT and gamma radiation meter (GRM) for improving CFD modeling. Monitored inflow conditions in this study are flow rates of air, water and oil into a pipe which can be positioned at varying inclinations to the horizontal, thus emulating the pipelines laid in subsea installations. It is found that ECT-based tomograms show most of the features seen in the GRM-based visualizations with nearly one-to-one correspondence to interface heights obtained from these two methods, albeit some anomalies at the pipe wall. However, there are some interesting features the ECT manages to capture: features which the GRM or the CFD modeling apparently do not show, possibly due to parameters not defined in the inputs to the CFD model or much slower response of the GRM. Results presented in this paper indicate that a combination of ECT and GRM and preferably with other modalities with enhanced data fusion and analysis combined with CFD modeling can help to improve the modeling, measurement and control of multiphase flow in the oil and gas industries and in the process industries
Miller, Aubrey L.
2005-07-01
This work was carried out to understand the behavior of the solid and gas phases in a CFB riser. Only the riser is modeled as a straight pipe. A model with linear algebraic approximation to solids viscosity of the form, {musubs} = 5.34{epsisubs}, ({espisubs} is the solids volume fraction) with an appropriate boundary condition at the wall obtained by approximate momentum balance solution at the wall to acount for the solids recirculation is tested against experimental results. The work done was to predict the flow patterns in the CFB risers from available experimental data, including data from a 7.5-cm-ID CFB riser at the Illinois Institute of Technology and data from a 20.0-cm-ID CFB riser at the Particulate Solid Research, Inc., facility. This research aims at modeling the removal of hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas using zinc oxide as the sorbent in a circulating fluidized bed and in the process indentifying the parameters that affect the performance of the sulfidation reactor. Two different gas-solid reaction models, the unreacted shrinking core (USC) and the grain model were applied to take into account chemical reaction resistances. Also two different approaches were used to affect the hydrodynamics of the process streams. The first model takes into account the effect of micro-scale particle clustering by adjusting the gas-particle drag law and the second one assumes a turbulent core with pseudo-steady state boundary condition at the wall. A comparison is made with experimental results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, Kevin Young-jin
High-repetition-rate (5 kHz, 10 kHz) OH planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used to investigate the combustion of liquid, gelled, and solid propellants. For the liquid monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) droplet combustion experiment in N2O/N2 using 5 kHz OH PLIF and visible imaging system, the OH profile and the droplet diameter were measured. The N2O partial pressure was varied by 20% and 40%, and the total pressure was varied by 103, 172, 276, 414, 552 kPa. The OH location indicated that the oxidation flame front is between the visible dual flame fronts. The results showed thicker flame sheet and higher burning rate for increased N2O concentration for a given pressure. The burning rate increased with increased pressure at 20% partial pressure N2O, and the burning rate decreased with increased pressure at 40% partial pressure N2O. This work provides experimental data for validating chemical kinetics models. For the gelled droplet combustion experiment using a 5 kHz OH PLIF system, speeds and locations of fuel jets emanating from the burning gelled droplets were quantified for the first time. MMH was gelled with organic gellant HPC at 3 wt.% and 6 wt.%, and burned in air at 35, 103, 172, 276, and 414 kPa. Different types of interaction of vapor jets and flame front were distinguished for the first time. For high jet speed, local extinction of the flame was observed. By analyzing the jet speed statistics, it was concluded that pressure and jet speed had an inverse relationship and gellant concentration and jet speed had a direct relationship. This work provides more fundamental insight into the physics of gelled fuel droplet combustion. A 3D OH PLIF system was assembled and demonstrated using a 10 kHz OH PLIF system and a galvanometric scanning mirror. This is the first time that a reacting flow field was imaged with a 3D optical technique using OH PLIF. A 3D scan time of 1 ms was achieved, with ten slices generated per sweep with 1000 Hz scan rate. Alternatively
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ross, Pierre-Simon; White, James D. L.; Zimanowski, Bernd; Büttner, Ralf
2008-11-01
Discrete explosive bursts are known from many volcanic eruptions. In maar-diatreme eruptions, they have occurred in debris-filled volcanic vents when magma interacted with groundwater, implying that material mobilized by such explosions passed through the overlying and enclosing debris to reach the surface. Although other studies have addressed the form and characteristics of craters formed by discrete explosions in unconsolidated material, no details are available regarding the structure of the disturbed debris between the explosion site and the surface. Field studies of diatreme deposits reveal cross-cutting, steep-sided zones of non-bedded volcaniclastic material that have been inferred to result from sedimentation of material transported by "debris jets" driven by explosions. In order to determine the general processes and deposit geometry resulting from discrete, explosive injections of entrained particles through a particulate host, we ran a series of analogue experiments. Specific volumes of compressed (0.5-2.5 MPa) air were released in bursts that drove gas-particle dispersions through a granular host. The air expanded into and entrained coloured particles in a small crucible before moving upward into the host (white particles). Each burst drove into the host an expanding cavity containing air and coloured particles. Total duration of each run, recorded with high-speed video, was approximately 0.5-1 s. The coloured beads sedimented into the transient cavity. This same behaviour was observed even in runs where there was no breaching of the surface, and no coloured beads ejected. A steep-sided body of coloured beads was left that is similar to the cross-cutting pipes observed in deposits filling real volcanic vents, in which cavity collapse can result not only from gas escape through a granular host as in the experiments, but also through condensation of water vapour. A key conclusion from these experiments is that the geometry of cross-cutting volcaniclastic
Uncertainty quantification tools for multiphase gas-solid flow simulations using MFIX
Fox, Rodney O.; Passalacqua, Alberto
2016-02-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been widely studied and used in the scientific community and in the industry. Various models were proposed to solve problems in different areas. However, all models deviate from reality. Uncertainty quantification (UQ) process evaluates the overall uncertainties associated with the prediction of quantities of interest. In particular it studies the propagation of input uncertainties to the outputs of the models so that confidence intervals can be provided for the simulation results. In the present work, a non-intrusive quadrature-based uncertainty quantification (QBUQ) approach is proposed. The probability distribution function (PDF) of the system response can be then reconstructed using extended quadrature method of moments (EQMOM) and extended conditional quadrature method of moments (ECQMOM). The report first explains the theory of QBUQ approach, including methods to generate samples for problems with single or multiple uncertain input parameters, low order statistics, and required number of samples. Then methods for univariate PDF reconstruction (EQMOM) and multivariate PDF reconstruction (ECQMOM) are explained. The implementation of QBUQ approach into the open-source CFD code MFIX is discussed next. At last, QBUQ approach is demonstrated in several applications. The method is first applied to two examples: a developing flow in a channel with uncertain viscosity, and an oblique shock problem with uncertain upstream Mach number. The error in the prediction of the moment response is studied as a function of the number of samples, and the accuracy of the moments required to reconstruct the PDF of the system response is discussed. The QBUQ approach is then demonstrated by considering a bubbling fluidized bed as example application. The mean particle size is assumed to be the uncertain input parameter. The system is simulated with a standard two-fluid model with kinetic theory closures for the particulate phase implemented into
Miller, J.D.
1994-08-10
During this quarter of the DOE project, ``Characterization of Multiphase Fluid Flow During Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone Flotation``, efforts were made to correlate the x-ray CT measurements with the flotation experiments reported in the last. quarterly report. In this regard the axial view of the flow regimes in the ASH during steady state operation were constructed from the radial density profiles as revealed by x-ray CT measurements. By studying the characteristics of the flow regimes from these axial views and relating them with flotation recovery data, a more detailed understanding of ASH flotation was possible. Construction of the axial view of the flow regimes and the effect of two operating variables, dimensionless area ratio (A* = overflow opening area/underflow opening area) and percent solids in the feed, are reported in this quarterly report.
Optimizing multiphase aquifer remediation using ITOUGH2
Finsterle, S.; Pruess, K.
1994-06-01
The T2VOC computer model for simulating the transport of organic chemical contaminants in non-isothermal multiphase systems has been coupled to the ITOUGH2 code which solves parameter optimization problems. This allows one to use nonlinear programming and simulated annealing techniques to solve groundwater management problems, i.e. the optimization of multiphase aquifer remediation. This report contains three illustrative examples to demonstrate the optimization of remediation operations by means of simulation-minimization techniques. The code iteratively determines an optimal remediation strategy (e.g. pumping schedule) which minimizes, for instance, pumping and energy costs, the time for cleanup, and residual contamination. While minimizing the objective function is straightforward, the relative weighting of different performance measures--e.g. pumping costs versus cleanup time versus residual contaminant content--is subject to a management decision process. The intended audience of this report is someone who is familiar with numerical modeling of multiphase flow of contaminants, and who might actually use T2VOC in conjunction with ITOUGH2 to optimize the design of aquifer remediation operations.
Multiphase fluid characterization system
Sinha, Dipen N.
2014-09-02
A measurement system and method for permitting multiple independent measurements of several physical parameters of multiphase fluids flowing through pipes are described. Multiple acoustic transducers are placed in acoustic communication with or attached to the outside surface of a section of existing spool (metal pipe), typically less than 3 feet in length, for noninvasive measurements. Sound speed, sound attenuation, fluid density, fluid flow, container wall resonance characteristics, and Doppler measurements for gas volume fraction may be measured simultaneously by the system. Temperature measurements are made using a temperature sensor for oil-cut correction.
TORAC. Tornado-Induced Flow Material Transport
Andrae, R.W.; Gregory, W.S.; Martin, R.A.; Tang, P.K.
1992-01-13
TORAC models tornado-induced flows, pressures, and material transport within structures. Its use is directed toward nuclear fuel cycle facilities and their primary release pathway, the ventilation system. However, it is applicable to other structures and can model other airflow pathways within a facility. In a nuclear facility, this network system could include process cells, canyons, laboratory offices, corridors, and offgas systems. TORAC predicts flow through a network system that also includes ventilation system components such as filters, dampers, ducts, and blowers. These ventilation system components are connected to the rooms and corridors of the facility to form a complete network for moving air through the structure and, perhaps, maintaining pressure levels in certain areas. The material transport capability in TORAC is very basic and includes convection, depletion, entrainment, and filtration of material.
Ortiz, Marcos German; Boucher, Timothy J.
1998-01-01
A system for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the conduit on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the conduit in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow.
Ortiz, M.G.; Boucher, T.J.
1998-10-27
A system is described for measuring fluid flow in a conduit having a gradual bend or arc, and a straight section. The system includes pressure transducers, one or more disposed in the conduit on the outside of the arc, and one disposed in the conduit in a straight section thereof. The pressure transducers measure the pressure of fluid in the conduit at the locations of the pressure transducers and this information is used by a computational device to calculate fluid flow rate in the conduit. For multi-phase fluid, the density of the fluid is measured by another pair of pressure transducers, one of which is located in the conduit elevationally above the other. The computation device then uses the density measurement along with the fluid pressure measurements, to calculate fluid flow. 1 fig.
Interfacial area transport in bubbly flow
Ishii, M.; Wu, Q.; Revankar, S.T.
1997-12-31
In order to close the two-fluid model for two-phase flow analyses, the interfacial area concentration needs to be modeled as a constitutive relation. In this study, the focus was on the investigation of the interfacial area concentration transport phenomena, both theoretically and experimentally. The interfacial area concentration transport equation for air-water bubbly up-flow in a vertical pipe was developed, and the models for the source and sink terms were provided. The necessary parameters for the experimental studies were identified, including the local time-averaged void fraction, interfacial area concentration, bubble interfacial velocity, liquid velocity and turbulent intensity. Experiments were performed with air-water mixture at atmospheric pressure. Double-sensor conductivity probe and hot-film probe were employed to measure the identified parameters. With these experimental data, the preliminary model evaluation was carried out for the simplest form of the developed interfacial area transport equation, i.e., the one-dimensional transport equation.
Natural laminar flow application to transport aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gratzer, Louis B.
1990-01-01
A major goal of NASA during the last 15 years has been the development of laminar flow technology for aircraft drag reduction. Of equal importance is achieving a state of readiness that will allow the successful application of this technology by industry to large, long-range aircraft. Recent progress in achieving extensive laminar flow with limited suction on the Boeing 757 has raised the prospects from practical application of the hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) concept to subsonic aircraft. Also, better understanding of phenomena affecting laminar flow stability and response to disturbances has encouraged consideration of natural laminar flow (NLF), obtained without suction or active mechanical means, for application to transport aircraft larger than previously thought feasible. These ideas have inspired the current NASA/ASEE project with goals as follows: explore the feasibility of extensive NLF for aircraft at high Reynolds number under realistic flight conditions; determine the potential applications of NLF technology and the conditions under which they may be achieved; and identify existing aircraft that could be adapted to carry out flight experiments to validate NLF technology application. To achieve these objectives, understanding of the physical limits to natural laminar flow and possible ways to extend these limits was sought. The primary factors involved are unit Reynolds number, Mach number, wing sweep, thickness, and lift coefficients as well as surface pressure gradients and curvature. Based on previous and ongoing studies using laminar boundary layer stability theory, the interplay of the above factors and the corresponding transition limits were postulated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dartevelle, S.
2006-12-01
Large-scale volcanic eruptions are inherently hazardous events, hence cannot be described by detailed and accurate in situ measurements; hence, volcanic explosive phenomenology is inadequately constrained in terms of initial and inflow conditions. Consequently, little to no real-time data exist to Verify and Validate computer codes developed to model these geophysical events as a whole. However, code Verification and Validation remains a necessary step, particularly when volcanologists use numerical data for mitigation of volcanic hazards as more often performed nowadays. The Verification and Validation (V&V) process formally assesses the level of 'credibility' of numerical results produced within a range of specific applications. The first step, Verification, is 'the process of determining that a model implementation accurately represents the conceptual description of the model', which requires either exact analytical solutions or highly accurate simplified experimental data. The second step, Validation, is 'the process of determining the degree to which a model is an accurate representation of the real world', which requires complex experimental data of the 'real world' physics. The Verification step is rather simple to formally achieve, while, in the 'real world' explosive volcanism context, the second step, Validation, is about impossible. Hence, instead of validating computer code against the whole large-scale unconstrained volcanic phenomenology, we rather suggest to focus on the key physics which control these volcanic clouds, viz., momentum-driven supersonic jets and multiphase turbulence. We propose to compare numerical results against a set of simple but well-constrained analog experiments, which uniquely and unambiguously represent these two key-phenomenology separately. Herewith, we use GMFIX (Geophysical Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchange, v1.62), a set of multiphase- CFD FORTRAN codes, which have been recently redeveloped to meet the strict
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fourtakas, G.; Rogers, B. D.
2016-06-01
A two-phase numerical model using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is applied to two-phase liquid-sediments flows. The absence of a mesh in SPH is ideal for interfacial and highly non-linear flows with changing fragmentation of the interface, mixing and resuspension. The rheology of sediment induced under rapid flows undergoes several states which are only partially described by previous research in SPH. This paper attempts to bridge the gap between the geotechnics, non-Newtonian and Newtonian flows by proposing a model that combines the yielding, shear and suspension layer which are needed to predict accurately the global erosion phenomena, from a hydrodynamics prospective. The numerical SPH scheme is based on the explicit treatment of both phases using Newtonian and the non-Newtonian Bingham-type Herschel-Bulkley-Papanastasiou constitutive model. This is supplemented by the Drucker-Prager yield criterion to predict the onset of yielding of the sediment surface and a concentration suspension model. The multi-phase model has been compared with experimental and 2-D reference numerical models for scour following a dry-bed dam break yielding satisfactory results and improvements over well-known SPH multi-phase models. With 3-D simulations requiring a large number of particles, the code is accelerated with a graphics processing unit (GPU) in the open-source DualSPHysics code. The implementation and optimisation of the code achieved a speed up of x58 over an optimised single thread serial code. A 3-D dam break over a non-cohesive erodible bed simulation with over 4 million particles yields close agreement with experimental scour and water surface profiles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsuji, T.; Jiang, F.; Christensen, K. T.
2015-12-01
Microscopic two-phase fluid behavior in porous media is influenced by reservoir temperature, interfacial tension, pore structure, and porous medium characteristics (e.g., wettability), which vary significantly from one reservoir to the next. Pore-scale interfacial instabilities, such as snap-off and fingering phenomena, influence the stability, injectivity, mobility, and saturation within the reservoir. Therefore, understanding microscopic multiphase flow in porous media is crucial to estimating critical reservoir-scale characteristics, including storage capacity, leakage risk, and storage efficiency. Here we calculated fluid displacements within 3D pore spaces of natural sandstone using two-phase lattice Boltzmann (LB) simulation and characterized the influence of reservoir conditions upon multiphase flow. We classified the two-phase flow behavior that occurred under various conditions into three typical fluid displacement patterns on the diagram of capillary number (Ca) and viscosity ratio of the two fluids (M). Then the saturation of the nonwetting phase was calculated and mapped on the Ca-M diagram. The saturation map is useful to investigate suitable conditions in CCS and EOR. We further characterized dynamic pore-filling events (i.e., Haines jumps) from the fluid pressure variation. The results revealed the onset of capillary fingering in natural rock at a higher Ca than previously reported for homogeneous porous media, with the crossover region between typical displacement patterns much broader than in a homogeneous granular model. These differences between two-phase flow in natural rock and in a homogeneous porous structure could be the result of the heterogeneity of the natural rock.
Pdf - Transport equations for chemically reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kollmann, W.
1989-01-01
The closure problem for the transport equations for pdf and the characteristic functions of turbulent, chemically reacting flows is addressed. The properties of the linear and closed equations for the characteristic functional for Eulerian and Lagrangian variables are established, and the closure problem for the finite-dimensional case is discussed for pdf and characteristic functions. It is shown that the closure for the scalar dissipation term in the pdf equation developed by Dopazo (1979) and Kollmann et al. (1982) results in a single integral, in contrast to the pdf, where double integration is required. Some recent results using pdf methods obtained for turbulent flows with combustion, including effects of chemical nonequilibrium, are discussed.
Massively parallel simulation of flow and transport in variably saturated porous and fractured media
Wu, Yu-Shu; Zhang, Keni; Pruess, Karsten
2002-01-15
This paper describes a massively parallel simulation method and its application for modeling multiphase flow and multicomponent transport in porous and fractured reservoirs. The parallel-computing method has been implemented into the TOUGH2 code and its numerical performance is tested on a Cray T3E-900 and IBM SP. The efficiency and robustness of the parallel-computing algorithm are demonstrated by completing two simulations with more than one million gridblocks, using site-specific data obtained from a site-characterization study. The first application involves the development of a three-dimensional numerical model for flow in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The second application is the study of tracer/radionuclide transport through fracture-matrix rocks for the same site. The parallel-computing technique enhances modeling capabilities by achieving several-orders-of-magnitude speedup for large-scale and high resolution modeling studies. The resulting modeling results provide many new insights into flow and transport processes that could not be obtained from simulations using the single-CPU simulator.
Freeze, G.A.; Larson, K.W.; Davies, P.B.
1995-10-01
A long-term assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository performance must consider the impact of gas generation resulting from the corrosion and microbial degradation of the emplaced waste. A multiphase fluid flow code, TOUGH2/EOS8, was adapted to model the processes of gas generation, disposal room creep closure, and multiphase (brine and gas) fluid flow, as well as the coupling between the three processes. System response to gas generation was simulated with a single, isolated disposal room surrounded by homogeneous halite containing two anhydrite interbeds, one above and one below the room. The interbeds were assumed to have flow connections to the room through high-permeability, excavation-induced fractures. System behavior was evaluated by tracking four performance measures: (1) peak room pressure; (2) maximum brine volume in the room; (3) total mass of gas expelled from the room; and (4) the maximum gas migration distance in an interbed. Baseline simulations used current best estimates of system parameters, selected through an evaluation of available data, to predict system response to gas generation under best-estimate conditions. Sensitivity simulations quantified the effects of parameter uncertainty by evaluating the change in the performance measures in response to parameter variations. In the sensitivity simulations, a single parameter value was varied to its minimum and maximum values, representative of the extreme expected values, with all other parameters held at best-estimate values. Sensitivity simulations identified the following parameters as important to gas expulsion and migration away from a disposal room: interbed porosity; interbed permeability; gas-generation potential; halite permeability; and interbed threshold pressure. Simulations also showed that the inclusion of interbed fracturing and a disturbed rock zone had a significant impact on system performance.
Stratigraphic control of flow and transport characteristics.
Edington, Dwaine; Poeter, Eileen
2007-01-01
Ground water flow and travel time are dependent on stratigraphic architecture, which is governed by competing processes that control the spatial and temporal distribution of accommodation and sediment supply. Accommodation is the amount of space in which sediment may accumulate as defined by the difference between the energy gradient and the topographic surface. The temporal and spatial distribution of accommodation is affected by processes that change the distribution of energy (e.g., sea level or subsidence). Fluvial stratigraphic units, generated by FLUVSIM (a stratigraphic simulator based on accommodation and sediment supply), with varying magnitudes and causes of accommodation, were incorporated into a hydraulic regime using MODFLOW (a ground water flow simulator), and particles were tracked using MODPATH (a particle-tracking algorithm). These experiments illustrate that the dominant type of accommodation process influences the degree of continuity of stratigraphic units and thus affects ground water flow and transport. When the hydraulic gradient is parallel to the axis of the fluvial system in the depositional environment, shorter travel times occur in low-total accommodation environments and longer travel times in high-total accommodation environments. Given the same total accommodation, travel times are longer when sea-level change is the dominant process than those in systems dominated by subsidence.
Wilson, J.L.
1993-04-01
Small scale laboratory experiments, equipped with an ability to actually observe behavior on the pore level using microscopy, provide an economical and easily understood scientific tool to help us validateconcepts and assumptions about the transport of contaminants, and offers the propensity to discover heretofore unrecognized phenomena or behavior. The main technique employs etched glass micromodels, composed of two etched glass plates, sintered together, to form a two dimensional network of three dimensional pores. Flow and transport behavior is observed on a pore or pore network level, and recorded on film and video tape. This technique is coupled with related column studies. Specifically we`re examining multiphase flow behavior of relevance, for example, to liquid-liquid mass transfer (solubilization of capillary trapped organic liquids); liquid-gas mass transfer (in situ volatilization); colloid movement, attachment and detachment in the presence of fluid-fluid interfaces; bacteria colonization and motility in porous systems; and heterogeneity effects on multi-phase flow, colloid movement and bacteria behavior.
Transport Of Passive Scalars In A Turbulent Channel Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, John; Moin, Parviz
1990-01-01
Computer simulation of transport of passive scalars in turbulent channel flow described in report. Shows flow structures and statistical properties. As used here, "passive scalars" means scalar quantities like fluctuations in temperature or concentrations of contaminants that do not disturb flow appreciably. Examples include transport of heat in heat exchangers, gas turbines, and nuclear reactors and dispersal of pollution in atmosphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adam, A.; Pavlidis, D.; Percival, J. R.; Salinas, P.; Xie, Z.; Fang, F.; Pain, C. C.; Muggeridge, A. H.; Jackson, M. D.
2016-09-01
A general, higher-order, conservative and bounded interpolation for the dynamic and adaptive meshing of control-volume fields dual to continuous and discontinuous finite element representations is presented. Existing techniques such as node-wise interpolation are not conservative and do not readily generalise to discontinuous fields, whilst conservative methods such as Grandy interpolation are often too diffusive. The new method uses control-volume Galerkin projection to interpolate between control-volume fields. Bounded solutions are ensured by using a post-interpolation diffusive correction. Example applications of the method to interface capturing during advection and also to the modelling of multiphase porous media flow are presented to demonstrate the generality and robustness of the approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamon, F. P.; Mallison, B.; Tchelepi, H.
2015-12-01
The systems of algebraic equations arising from implicit (backward-Euler) finite-volume discretization of the conservation laws governing multiphase flow in porous media are quite challenging for nonlinear solvers. In the presence of counter-current flow due to buoyancy, the coupling between flow (pressure) and transport (saturations) is often the cause of nonlinear problems when single-point Phase-Potential Upwinding (PPU) is used. To overcome such convergence problems in practice, the time step is reduced and Newton's method is restarted from the solution at the previous converged time step. Here, we generalize the work of Lee, Efendiev and Tchelepi [Advances in Water Resources, 2015] to propose an Implicit Hybrid Upwinding (IHU) scheme for coupled flow and transport. In the pure transport problem, we show that the numerical flux obtained with IHU is differentiable, monotone and consistent for two and three-phase flow. For coupled flow and transport, we prove saturation physical bounds as well as the existence of a solution to our scheme. Challenging two- and three-phase heterogeneous multi-dimensional numerical tests confirm that the new scheme is non-oscillatory and convergent, and illustrate the superior convergence rate of our IHU-based Newton solver for large time steps.
Toward a laminar-flow-control transport
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sturgeon, R. F.
1978-01-01
Analyses were conducted to define a practical design for an advanced technology laminar flow control (LRC) transport for initial passenger operation in the early 1990's. Mission requirements, appropriate design criteria, and level of technology for the study aircraft were defined. The characteristics of the selected configuration were established, aircraft and LFC subsystems compatible with the mission requirements were defined, and the aircraft was evaluated in terms of fuel efficiency. A wing design integrating the LFC ducting and metering system into advanced composite wing structure was developed, manufacturing procedures for the surface panel design were established, and environmental and structural testing of surface panel components were conducted. Test results revealed a requirement for relatively minor changes in the manufacturing procedures employed, but have shown the general compatibility of both the selected design and the use of composite materials with the requirements of LFC wing surface panels.
Subsurface Flow and Transport: A Stochastic Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Desbarats, Alexandre
Anyone who has examined core or petrophysical logs from well bores has wondered at the rhythmic successions of sedimentary fades and has puzzled at their sudden disruption or reappearance. Such wonderment is no doubt shared by those who have stood at a quarry face gazing up at the intricate hierarchy of depositional patterns and the varied textures of sediments. A fortunate few have even slogged along a mine drift and observed at close hand the perplexing relationship between the geological fabric of a rock mass and occurrences of groundwater inflow. Happily, the heterogeneity of geological materials is now widely recognized and efforts over the last 20 years have been concerned with its incorporation into models of fluid flow and solute transport in the subsurface. These research efforts are, at least in part, driven by acute societal concerns over the contamination of groundwater resources and proposed plans for the disposal of nuclear and other toxic wastes in the subsurface.
Multiphase-flow numerical modeling of the 18 May 1980 lateral blast at Mount St. Helens, USA
Ongaro, T.E.; Widiwijayanti, C.; Clarke, A.B.; Voight, B.; Neri, A.
2011-01-01
Volcanic lateral blasts are among the most spectacular and devastating of natural phenomena, but their dynamics are still poorly understood. Here we investigate the best documented and most controversial blast at Mount St. Helens (Washington State, United States), on 18 May 1980. By means of three-dimensional multiphase numerical simulations we demonstrate that the blast front propagation, fi nal runout, and damage can be explained by the emplacement of an unsteady, stratifi ed pyroclastic density current, controlled by gravity and terrain morphology. Such an interpretation is quantitatively supported by large-scale observations at Mount St. Helens and will infl uence the defi nition and predictive mapping of hazards on blast-dangerous volcanoes worldwide. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.
Miller, J.D.
1993-11-16
The research activities during this quarter of the DOE project, {open_quotes}Characterization of Multiphase Fluid Flow During Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone Flotation{close_quotes}, involved a detailed parametric study of the flotation response of the ASH, establishing an empirical correlation between flotation response and operating variables, and development of a phenomenological description of the observed responses. In these experiments with quartz particles, flotation response is essentially characterized by recovery of the solids to the overflow. Dimensionless variables such as the ratio of overflow opening area to underflow opening area, the ratio of air flow rate to slurry flow rate, percent solids in the feed suspension, particle size, inlet velocity (i.e. slurry pressure) are all of paramount importance. A series of experiments were designed to systematically study the effects of these variables on the flotation response. The radial density distribution profiles obtained from x-ray CT measurements (presented in earlier quarterly reports) reflect the fluid flow behavior of the ASH to a great extent. Based on the results of the experimental tests an empirical model has been developed correlating recovery with the operating variables.
Liu, Jianchun; Sonnenthal, Eric L.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.
2002-09-01
In this study, porewater chloride data from Yucca Mountain, Nevada, are analyzed and modeled by 3-D chemical transport simulations and analytical methods. The simulation modeling approach is based on a continuum formulation of coupled multiphase fluid flow and tracer transport processes through fractured porous rock, using a dual-continuum concept. Infiltration-rate calibrations were using the pore water chloride data. Model results of chloride distributions were improved in matching the observed data with the calibrated infiltration rates. Statistical analyses of the frequency distribution for overall percolation fluxes and chloride concentration in the unsaturated zone system demonstrate that the use of the calibrated infiltration rates had insignificant effect on the distribution of simulated percolation fluxes but significantly changed the predicated distribution of simulated chloride concentrations. An analytical method was also applied to model transient chloride transport. The method was verified by 3-D simulation results as able to capture major chemical transient behavior and trends. Effects of lateral flow in the Paintbrush nonwelded unit on percolation fluxes and chloride distribution were studied by 3-D simulations with increased horizontal permeability. The combined results from these model calibrations furnish important information for the UZ model studies, contributing to performance assessment of the potential repository.
Micro-CT imaging of reservoir condition CO2 during multi-phase flow in natural rock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrew, M. G.; Bijeljic, B.; Menke, H. P.; Blunt, M. J.
2014-12-01
Micron-resolution X-ray microtomography has allowed researchers to examine the processes controlling fluid flow behaviour at the pore scale, offering the promise of a transformation in our understanding of flow and transport in porous media. Until recently wettability has only been directly accessible in extremely simplified systems. A new method is presented for the measurement of the contact angle and capillary pressure of multiple immiscible fluids at the pore scale at reservoir conditions in the scCO2-brine-carbonate system. Contact angle is found by resampling the micro-CT data onto planes orthogonal to the contact lines, allowing for vectors to be traced along the grain surface and the scCO2 - brine interface. A distribution of contact angles ranging from 35o to 55o is observed. This distribution can be understood as the result of contact angle hysteresis and surface heterogeneity on a range of length scales. Ganglion capillary pressure for each ganglion was found by measuring the curvature of the CO2-brine interface, while the pore structure was parameterised using distance maps of the pore-space. The formation of the residual clusters by snap-off was examined by comparing the ganglion capillary pressure to local pore topography. The capillary pressure was found to be inversely proportional to the radius of the largest restriction (throat) surrounding the ganglion, which validates the imbibition mechanisms used in pore-network modelling. The potential mobilization of residual ganglia was assessed using a new formulation of both the capillary and Bond numbers, rigorously based on a balance of pore-scale forces, with the majority of ganglia remobilized at Ncmacro around 1. By the use of synchrotron tomography it is possible to create high quality 4D images of dynamic processes involving the flow of multiple fluid phases. We show how the drainage process take place as a series of discreet Haines jumps. Two different types of Haines jumps were seen, one where CO
Detwiler, Russell L.; Glass, Robert J.; Pringle, Scott E.
1999-05-06
Understanding of single and multi-phase flow and transport in fractures can be greatly enhanced through experimentation in transparent systems (analogs or replicas) where light transmission techniques yield quantitative measurements of aperture, solute concentration, and phase saturation fields. Here we quanti@ aperture field measurement error and demonstrate the influence of this error on the results of flow and transport simulations (hypothesized experimental results) through saturated and partially saturated fractures. find that precision and accuracy can be balanced to greatly improve the technique and We present a measurement protocol to obtain a minimum error field. Simulation results show an increased sensitivity to error as we move from flow to transport and from saturated to partially saturated conditions. Significant sensitivity under partially saturated conditions results in differences in channeling and multiple-peaked breakthrough curves. These results emphasize the critical importance of defining and minimizing error for studies of flow and transpoti in single fractures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Boxiao; Tchelepi, Hamdi A.
2015-09-01
Nonlinear convergence problems in numerical reservoir simulation can lead to unacceptably large computational time and are often the main impediment to performing simulation studies of large-scale problems. We analyze the nonlinearity of the discrete transport (mass conservation) equation for immiscible, incompressible, two-phase flow in porous media in the presence of viscous, buoyancy, and capillary forces. Although simulation problems are multi-dimensional with large numbers of cells and variables, we find that the essence of the nonlinear behavior can be understood by studying the discretized (numerical) flux function for the interface between two cells. The numerical flux is expressed in terms of the saturations of the two cells. Discontinuities in the first-order derivative of the flux function (referred to as kinks) and inflection lines are identified as the cause of convergence difficulty. These critical features (kinks and inflections) change the curvature of the numerical flux function abruptly, and can lead to overshoots, oscillations, or divergence in Newton iterations. Based on our understanding of the nonlinearity, a nonlinear solver is developed, referred to as the Numerical Trust Region (NTR) solver. The solver is able to guide the Newton iterations safely and efficiently through the different saturation 'trust-regions' delineated by the kinks and inflections. Specifically, overshoots and oscillations that often lead to convergence failure are avoided. Numerical examples demonstrate that our NTR solver has superior convergence performance compared with existing methods. In particular, convergence is achieved for a wide range of timestep sizes and Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) numbers spanning several orders of magnitude. In addition, a discretization scheme is proposed for handling heterogeneities in capillary-pressure-saturation relationship. The scheme has less degree of nonlinearity compared with the standard Single-point Phase-based Upstream
Kumar, P; Coronel, P; Simunovic, J; Sandeep, K P
2007-04-01
Aseptic processing of a low-acid multiphase food product using a continuous flow microwave heating system can combine the advantages of an aseptic process along with those of microwave heating. Dielectric properties of 2 different brands of 1 such product (salsa con queso) were measured under continuous flow conditions at a temperature range of 20 to 130 degrees C. At 915 MHz, the dielectric constant ranged from 58.7 at 20 degrees C to 41.3 at 130 degrees C with dielectric loss factor ranging from 41.0 at 20 degrees C to 145.5 at 130 degrees C. The loss tangent at 915 MHz ranged from 0.61 at 20 degrees C to 3.52 at 130 degrees C. The temperature profiles at the outlet during processing of salsa con queso in a 5-kW microwave unit showed a narrow temperature distribution between the center and the wall of the tube. The study showed the feasibility of aseptic processing of salsa con queso using a continuous flow microwave system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leal, Allan M. M.; Kulik, Dmitrii A.; Kosakowski, Georg; Saar, Martin O.
2016-10-01
We present an extended law of mass-action (xLMA) method for multiphase equilibrium calculations and apply it in the context of reactive transport modeling. This extended LMA formulation differs from its conventional counterpart in that (i) it is directly derived from the Gibbs energy minimization (GEM) problem (i.e., the fundamental problem that describes the state of equilibrium of a chemical system under constant temperature and pressure); and (ii) it extends the conventional mass-action equations with Lagrange multipliers from the Gibbs energy minimization problem, which can be interpreted as stability indices of the chemical species. Accounting for these multipliers enables the method to determine all stable phases without presuming their types (e.g., aqueous, gaseous) or their presence in the equilibrium state. Therefore, the here proposed xLMA method inherits traits of Gibbs energy minimization algorithms that allow it to naturally detect the phases present in equilibrium, which can be single-component phases (e.g., pure solids or liquids) or non-ideal multi-component phases (e.g., aqueous, melts, gaseous, solid solutions, adsorption, or ion exchange). Moreover, our xLMA method requires no technique that tentatively adds or removes reactions based on phase stability indices (e.g., saturation indices for minerals), since the extended mass-action equations are valid even when their corresponding reactions involve unstable species. We successfully apply the proposed method to a reactive transport modeling problem in which we use PHREEQC and GEMS as alternative backends for the calculation of thermodynamic properties such as equilibrium constants of reactions, standard chemical potentials of species, and activity coefficients. Our tests show that our algorithm is efficient and robust for demanding applications, such as reactive transport modeling, where it converges within 1-3 iterations in most cases. The proposed xLMA method is implemented in Reaktoro, a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gable, C. W.; Hyman, J.; Karra, S.; Makedonska, N.; Painter, S. L.; Viswanathan, H. S.
2015-12-01
dfnWorks generates discrete fracture networks (DFN) of planar polygons, creates a high quality conforming Delaunay triangulation of the intersecting DFN polygons, assigns properties (aperture, permeability) using geostatistics, sets boundary and initial conditions, solves pressure/flow in single or multi-phase fluids (water, air, CO2) using the parallel PFLOTRAN or serial FEHM, and solves for transport using Lagrangian particle tracking. We outline the dfnWorks workflow and present applications from a range of fractured rock systems. dfnWorks (http://www.lanl.gov/expertise/teams/view/dfnworks) is composed of three main components, all of which are freely available. dfnGen generates a distribution of fracture polygons from site characterization data (statistics or deterministic fractures) and utilizes the FRAM (Feature Rejection Algorithm for Meshing) to guarantee the mesh generation package LaGriT (lagrit.lanl.gov) will generate a high quality conforming Delaunay triangular mesh. dfnWorks links the mesh to either PFLOTRAN (pflotran.org) or FEHM (fehm.lanl.gov) for solving flow and transport. The various physics options available in FEHM and PFLOTRAN such as single and multi-phase flow and reactive transport are all available with appropriate initial and boundary conditions and material property models. dfnTrans utilizes explicit Lagrangian particle tracking on the DFN using a velocity field reconstructed from the steady state pressure/flow field solution obtained in PFLOTRAN or FEHM. Applications are demonstrated for nuclear waste repository in fractured granite, CO2 sequestration and extraction of unconventional hydrocarbon resources.
PFLOTRAN: Reactive Flow & Transport Code for Use on Laptops to Leadership-Class Supercomputers
Hammond, Glenn E.; Lichtner, Peter C.; Lu, Chuan; Mills, Richard T.
2012-04-18
PFLOTRAN, a next-generation reactive flow and transport code for modeling subsurface processes, has been designed from the ground up to run efficiently on machines ranging from leadership-class supercomputers to laptops. Based on an object-oriented design, the code is easily extensible to incorporate additional processes. It can interface seamlessly with Fortran 9X, C and C++ codes. Domain decomposition parallelism is employed, with the PETSc parallel framework used to manage parallel solvers, data structures and communication. Features of the code include a modular input file, implementation of high-performance I/O using parallel HDF5, ability to perform multiple realization simulations with multiple processors per realization in a seamless manner, and multiple modes for multiphase flow and multicomponent geochemical transport. Chemical reactions currently implemented in the code include homogeneous aqueous complexing reactions and heterogeneous mineral precipitation/dissolution, ion exchange, surface complexation and a multirate kinetic sorption model. PFLOTRAN has demonstrated petascale performance using 2{sup 17} processor cores with over 2 billion degrees of freedom. Accomplishments achieved to date include applications to the Hanford 300 Area and modeling CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep geologic formations.
Conceptual and Numerical Models for UZ Flow and Transport
H. Liu
2000-03-03
The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the conceptual and numerical models used for modeling of unsaturated zone (UZ) fluid (water and air) flow and solute transport processes. This is in accordance with ''AMR Development Plan for U0030 Conceptual and Numerical Models for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Processes, Rev 00''. The conceptual and numerical modeling approaches described in this AMR are used for models of UZ flow and transport in fractured, unsaturated rock under ambient and thermal conditions, which are documented in separate AMRs. This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR), the Near Field Environment PMR, and the following models: Calibrated Properties Model; UZ Flow Models and Submodels; Mountain-Scale Coupled Processes Model; Thermal-Hydrologic-Chemical (THC) Seepage Model; Drift Scale Test (DST) THC Model; Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA); and UZ Radionuclide Transport Models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santini, Maurizio
2015-11-01
X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a well-known technique nowadays, since its first practical application by Sir. G. Hounsfield (Nobel price for medicine 1979) has continually benefited from optimising improvements, especially in medical applications. Indeed, also application of CT in various engineering research fields provides fundamental informations on a wide range of applications, considering that the technique is not destructive, allowing 3D visualization without perturbation of the analysed material. Nowadays, it is technologically possible to design and realize an equipment that achieve a micrometric resolution and even improve the sensibility in revealing differences in materials having very radiotransparency, allowing i.e. to distinguish between different fluids (with different density) or states of matter (like with two-phase flows). At the University of Bergamo, a prototype of an X-ray microCT system was developed since 2008, so being fully operative from 2012, with specific customizations for investigations in thermal-fluid dynamics and multiphase flow researches. A technical session held at the UIT International Conference in L'Aquila (Italy), at which this paper is referring, has presented some microCT fundamentals, to allow the audience to gain basics to follow the “fil-rouge” that links all the instrumentation developments, till the recent applications. Hereinafter are reported some applications currently developed at Bergamo University at the X-ray computed micro-tomography laboratory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salinas, Pablo; Pavlidis, Dimitrios; Percival, James; Adam, Alexander; Xie, Zhihua; Pain, Christopher; Jackson, Matthew
2015-11-01
We present a new, high-order, control-volume-finite-element (CVFE) method with discontinuous representation for pressure and velocity to simulate multiphase flow in heterogeneous porous media. Time is discretized using an adaptive, fully implicit method. Heterogeneous geologic features are represented as volumes bounded by surfaces. Our approach conserves mass and does not require the use of CVs that span domain boundaries. Computational efficiency is increased by use of dynamic mesh optimization. We demonstrate that the approach, amongst other features, accurately preserves sharp saturation changes associated with high aspect ratio geologic domains, allowing efficient simulation of flow in highly heterogeneous models. Moreover, accurate solutions are obtained at lower cost than an equivalent fine, fixed mesh and conventional CVFE methods. The use of implicit time integration allows the method to efficiently converge using highly anisotropic meshes without having to reduce the time-step. The work is significant for two key reasons. First, it resolves a long-standing problem associated with the use of classical CVFE methods. Second, it reduces computational cost/increases solution accuracy through the use of dynamic mesh optimization and time-stepping with large Courant number. Funding for Dr P. Salinas from ExxonMobil is gratefully acknowledged.
Mathematical modelling of flow and transport processes in tissue engineering bioreactors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waters, Sarah; Pearson, Natalie; Oliver, James; Shipley, Rebecca
2014-11-01
To artificially engineer tissues numerous biophysical and biochemical processes must be integrated to produce tissues with the desired in vivo properties. Tissue engineering bioreactors are cell culture systems which aim to mimic the in vivo environment. We consider a hollow fibre membrane bioreactor (HFMB), which utilises fluid flow to enhance the delivery of growth factors and nutrients to, and metabolite removal from, the cells, as well as provide appropriate mechanical stimuli to the cells. Biological tissues comprise a wide variety of interacting components, and multiphase models provide a natural framework to investigate such interactions. We present a suite of mathematical models (capturing different experimental setups) which consider the fluid flow, solute transport, and cell yield and distribution within a HFMB. The governing equations are simplified by exploiting the slender geometry of the bioreactor system, so that, e.g., lubrication theory may be used to describe flow in the lumen. We interrogate the models to illustrate typical behaviours of each setup in turn, and highlight the dependence of results on key experimentally controllable parameter values. Once validated, such models can be used to inform and direct future experiments.
Parkhurst, David L.; Kipp, Kenneth L.; Charlton, Scott R.
2010-01-01
The computer program PHAST (PHREEQC And HST3D) simulates multicomponent, reactive solute transport in three-dimensional saturated groundwater flow systems. PHAST is a versatile groundwater flow and solute-transport simulator with capabilities to model a wide range of equilibrium and kinetic geochemical reactions. The flow and transport calculations are based on a modified version of HST3D that is restricted to constant fluid density and constant temperature. The geochemical reactions are simulated with the geochemical model PHREEQC, which is embedded in PHAST. Major enhancements in PHAST Version 2 allow spatial data to be defined in a combination of map and grid coordinate systems, independent of a specific model grid (without node-by-node input). At run time, aquifer properties are interpolated from the spatial data to the model grid; regridding requires only redefinition of the grid without modification of the spatial data. PHAST is applicable to the study of natural and contaminated groundwater systems at a variety of scales ranging from laboratory experiments to local and regional field scales. PHAST can be used in studies of migration of nutrients, inorganic and organic contaminants, and radionuclides; in projects such as aquifer storage and recovery or engineered remediation; and in investigations of the natural rock/water interactions in aquifers. PHAST is not appropriate for unsaturated-zone flow, multiphase flow, or density-dependent flow. A variety of boundary conditions are available in PHAST to simulate flow and transport, including specified-head, flux (specified-flux), and leaky (head-dependent) conditions, as well as the special cases of rivers, drains, and wells. Chemical reactions in PHAST include (1) homogeneous equilibria using an ion-association or Pitzer specific interaction thermodynamic model; (2) heterogeneous equilibria between the aqueous solution and minerals, ion exchange sites, surface complexation sites, solid solutions, and gases; and
Multiphase problems related to safety studies in the process industries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baron, R. Grollier
Safety risk and analysis, particularly in the petrochemical industry, are discussed. Multiphase flow problems resulting from loss of confinement are described: rupture of long pipes used for transporting liquefied gas; rupture of short pipes and branch connections in an installation; rupture of a container holding liquefied gas or another liquid at a temperature higher than its normal boiling temperature; and rupture of a container holding gas in the supercritical state. Operation of valves and rupture disks during reaction runaway; and artificial dispersion of gas layers are considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nasim, Md.; Esha, Roli; Huang, Huan Zhong
2016-04-01
A systematic study of the pseudorapidity dependence of elliptic flow parameter using transport models (e.g., a multiphase transport model, AMPT, and ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics, UrQMD) has been presented. We have observed that while at mid-pseudorapidity the elliptic flow measured using the event-plane method differs significantly from that measured by actual reaction plane method, both the event-plane and reaction-plane methods give the same elliptic flow for far forward and backward pseudorapidity. This indicates that the magnitude of measured v2 around midrapidity strongly depends on the analysis method. Therefore, one should use the same procedure (as used in data analysis) in model calculations while comparing model results and experimental data. We find the shape of v2(η ) measured by the PHOBOS experiment is not reproduced by using actual v2 (i.e., measured with respect to the reaction plane) from AMPT and UrQMD models. The shape and magnitude of measured v2(η ) can be explained by the AMPT model with string-melting mode only if one uses the same procedure as used in data analysis. Magnitude of elliptic flow can be reproduced for all pseudorapidity range by taking the parton-parton interaction cross section to be 3 mb at √{sN N}=62.4 and 200 GeV. This implies that the partonic interactions are necessary to reproduce data at √{sN N}=62.4 and 200 GeV and the strength of partonic interactions at far forward and backward rapidity is as strong as at midrapidity. Both UrQMD and AMPT with default mode fail to explain the data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joun, W.; Lee, K.
2013-12-01
In many countries, groundwater is threatened by contamination from Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids such as chlorinated solvents (e.g. TCE). Existing as a residual or trapped source in the unsaturated zone, NAPLs remain in a continuous contamination source to groundwater even after groundwater itself was remediated because the residual NAPL source could be dissolved into the groundwater intermittently. In this study, 1-D and 2-D experiments were conducted. For 1-D experiment, a column (1 m) packed with well-sorted sand was used for developing the hydraulic properties in VOC transport. In 2-D experiment, hydraulic and contaminant properties in unsaturated condition were investigated including gas-phase concentration of a volatile organic compound (trichloroethylene, TCE) originated from residual or trapped NAPLs with different distances between an extraction well and source point, with different extraction rates and with different extraction intervals. While extracting air from the sand-tank (50 x 30 x 5 cm), temperature, humidity and pressure data were compiled with logging sensors. One and two-dimensional STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) simulator were used to simulate the experimental conditions. The experimental and simulation results can be used to estimate distances from extraction wells to source locations of residual NAPLs.
Thaw flow control for liquid heat transport systems
Kirpich, Aaron S.
1989-01-01
In a liquid metal heat transport system including a source of thaw heat for use in a space reactor power system, the thaw flow throttle or control comprises a fluid passage having forward and reverse flow sections and a partition having a plurality of bleed holes therein to enable fluid flow between the forward and reverse sections. The flow throttle is positioned in the system relatively far from the source of thaw heat.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miao, Sha; Hendrickson, Kelli; Liu, Yuming; Subramani, Hariprasad
2015-11-01
This work presents a novel and efficient Cartesian-grid based simulation capability for the study of an incompressible, turbulent gas layer over a liquid flow with disparate Reynolds numbers in two phases. This capability couples a turbulent gas-flow solver and a liquid-layer based on a second-order accurate Boundary Data Immersion Method (BDIM) at the deformable interface. The turbulent gas flow solver solves the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations via direct numerical simulation or through turbulence closure (unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Models) for Reynolds numbers O(106). In this application, a laminar liquid layer solution is obtained from depth-integrated Navier-Stokes equations utilizing shallow water wave assumptions. The immersed boundary method (BDIM) enforces the coupling at the deformable interface, the boundary conditions to turbulence closure equations and defines the domain geometry on the Cartesian grid. Validations are made for the turbulent gas channel flow over high-viscosity liquid. This simulation capability can be applied to problems in the oil and industrial sector such as channel and pipe flows with heavy oils as well as wind wave generation in shallow waters. Sponsored by the Chevron Energy Technology Company.
Parkhurst, David L.; Kipp, Kenneth L.; Engesgaard, Peter; Charlton, Scott R.
2004-01-01
The computer program PHAST simulates multi-component, reactive solute transport in three-dimensional saturated ground-water flow systems. PHAST is a versatile ground-water flow and solute-transport simulator with capabilities to model a wide range of equilibrium and kinetic geochemical reactions. The flow and transport calculations are based on a modified version of HST3D that is restricted to constant fluid density and constant temperature. The geochemical reactions are simulated with the geochemical model PHREEQC, which is embedded in PHAST. PHAST is applicable to the study of natural and contaminated ground-water systems at a variety of scales ranging from laboratory experiments to local and regional field scales. PHAST can be used in studies of migration of nutrients, inorganic and organic contaminants, and radionuclides; in projects such as aquifer storage and recovery or engineered remediation; and in investigations of the natural rock-water interactions in aquifers. PHAST is not appropriate for unsaturated-zone flow, multiphase flow, density-dependent flow, or waters with high ionic strengths. A variety of boundary conditions are available in PHAST to simulate flow and transport, including specified-head, flux, and leaky conditions, as well as the special cases of rivers and wells. Chemical reactions in PHAST include (1) homogeneous equilibria using an ion-association thermodynamic model; (2) heterogeneous equilibria between the aqueous solution and minerals, gases, surface complexation sites, ion exchange sites, and solid solutions; and (3) kinetic reactions with rates that are a function of solution composition. The aqueous model (elements, chemical reactions, and equilibrium constants), minerals, gases, exchangers, surfaces, and rate expressions may be defined or modified by the user. A number of options are available to save results of simulations to output files. The data may be saved in three formats: a format suitable for viewing with a text editor; a
Joyce, E.L.
1997-03-01
The Virtual Center For Multiphase Dynamics (VCMD) integrates and develops the resources of industry, government, academia, and professional societies to enable reliable analysis in multiphase computational fluid dynamics. The primary means of the VCMD focus will be by the creation, support, and validation of a computerized simulation capability for multiphase flow and multiphase flow applications. This paper briefly describes the capabilities of the National Laboratories in this effort.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, J.; Mills, R. T.; Lichtner, P. C.; Hammond, G. E.
2010-12-01
Fracture dominated flows occur in numerous subsurface geochemical processes and at many different scales in rock pore structures, micro-fractures, fracture networks and faults. Fractured porous media can be modeled as multiple interacting continua which are connected to each other through transfer terms that capture the flow of mass and energy in response to pressure, temperature and concentration gradients. However, the analysis of large-scale transient problems using the multiple interacting continuum approach presents an algorithmic and computational challenge for problems with very large numbers of degrees of freedom. A generalized dual porosity model based on the Dual Continuum Disconnected Matrix approach has been implemented within a massively parallel multiphysics-multicomponent-multiphase subsurface reactive flow and transport code PFLOTRAN. Developed as part of the Department of Energy's SciDAC-2 program, PFLOTRAN provides subsurface simulation capabilities that can scale from laptops to ultrascale supercomputers, and utilizes the PETSc framework to solve the large, sparse algebraic systems that arises in complex subsurface reactive flow and transport problems. It has been successfully applied to the solution of problems composed of more than two billions degrees of freedom, utilizing up to 131,072 processor cores on Jaguar, the Cray XT5 system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that is the world’s fastest supercomputer. Building upon the capabilities and computational efficiency of PFLOTRAN, we will present an implementation of the multiple interacting continua formulation for fractured porous media along with an application case study.
Using TRINET for simulating flow and transport in porous media
Najita, J.; Doughty, C.
1998-08-01
The finite element model TRINET calculates transient or steady-state fluid flow and solute transport on a lattice composed of one-dimensional finite elements (i.e., pipes) of porous medium. TRINET incorporates an adaptive gridding algorithm to minimize numerical dispersion for transport calculations. Although TRINET was originally developed to study fracture networks, the primary interest here is in applying TRINET more generally to simulate transport in porous media (or a fractured medium being treated as an effective continuum). This requires developing expressions to relate TRINET inputs to equivalent parameters used to describe flow and transport in homogeneous porous media. In this report, the authors briefly describe the basic TRINET formulation for flow and transport, present TRINET equivalences for porous medium parameters, and compare TRINET to analytical solutions using the proposed porous medium equivalents.
Multiphase pumping: indoor performance test and oilfield application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, Xiangling; Zhu, Hongwu; Zhang, Shousen; Li, Jifeng
2010-03-01
Multiphase pumping is essentially a means of adding energy to the unprocessed effluent which enables the liquid and gas mixture to be transported over a long distances without prior separation. A reduction, consolidation, or elimination of the production infrastructure, such as separation equipments and offshore platforms can be developed more economically. Also it successfully lowed the backpressure of wells, revived dead wells and improved the production and efficiency of oilfield. This paper reviews the issues related to indoor performance test and an oilfield application of the helico-axial multiphase pump designed by China University of Petroleum (Beijing). Pump specification and its hydraulic design are given. Results of performance testing under different condition, such as operational speed and gas volume fraction (GVF) etc are presented. Experimental studies on combination of theoretical analysis showed the multiphase pump satisfies the similitude rule, which can be used in the development of new MPP design and performance prediction. Test results showed that rising the rotation speed and suction pressure could better its performance, pressure boost improved, high efficiency zone expanding and the flow rate related to the optimum working condition increased. The pump worked unstable as GVF increased to a certain extent and slip occurred between two phases in the pump, creating surging and gas lock at a high GVF. A case of application in Nanyang oilfield is also studied.
Multiphase pumping: indoor performance test and oilfield application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, Xiangling; Zhu, Hongwu; Zhang, Shousen; Li, Jifeng
2009-12-01
Multiphase pumping is essentially a means of adding energy to the unprocessed effluent which enables the liquid and gas mixture to be transported over a long distances without prior separation. A reduction, consolidation, or elimination of the production infrastructure, such as separation equipments and offshore platforms can be developed more economically. Also it successfully lowed the backpressure of wells, revived dead wells and improved the production and efficiency of oilfield. This paper reviews the issues related to indoor performance test and an oilfield application of the helico-axial multiphase pump designed by China University of Petroleum (Beijing). Pump specification and its hydraulic design are given. Results of performance testing under different condition, such as operational speed and gas volume fraction (GVF) etc are presented. Experimental studies on combination of theoretical analysis showed the multiphase pump satisfies the similitude rule, which can be used in the development of new MPP design and performance prediction. Test results showed that rising the rotation speed and suction pressure could better its performance, pressure boost improved, high efficiency zone expanding and the flow rate related to the optimum working condition increased. The pump worked unstable as GVF increased to a certain extent and slip occurred between two phases in the pump, creating surging and gas lock at a high GVF. A case of application in Nanyang oilfield is also studied.
Modeling particle transport in downward and upward flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basha, H. A.; Culligan, P. J.
2010-07-01
Experimental data obtained for particle transport in downward and upward flows in smooth and rough porous media are analyzed at various flow rates. The data analysis and interpretation are aided through an analytical model with linear kinetics that assumes two sites for particle deposition within a medium, namely, reversible and irreversible, together with a dual mode of irreversible deposition. The bimodal particle transport model is obtained using the Green's function method and is capable of fitting, with reasonable accuracy, the observed transport and deposition behavior of particles. Approximations for advection-dominated flows are also obtained that could represent a simplified modeling tool. Expressions of the temporal moments are developed and algebraic equations are derived that express the model parameters in terms of the moments of the measured particle concentration distributions. The transport models helped define the relationship of the modeled parameters to flow velocity and media roughness. The fitting results show that the parameters for rough and smooth media vary in a systematic way with the pore fluid velocity. The results also reveal that flow direction has a significant influence on the mode and magnitude of irreversible particle deposition for the conditions investigated. For the same seepage velocity, the rate of particle deposition is greater for upward flows than for downward flows. Moreover, roughness effects increase the irreversible particle deposition in downward flows but have little effect in upward flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Y.; Ye, S.; Wu, J.
2013-12-01
Immiscible two-phase flows in fractured media are encountered in many engineering processes such as recovery of oil and gas, exploitation of geothermal energy, and groundwater contamination by immiscible chemicals. A two-dimensional rough wall parallel plate fracture model was set up and light transmission method (LTM) was applied to study two-phase flow system in fractured media. The fracture model stood with up and bottom flow and no flow on other two sides. A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera was used to monitor the migration of DNAPL and gas bubbles in the fracture model. To simulate two-phase system in fracture media, air was injected into the water saturated cell (C1) through the middle of the bottom and NAPL was injected into another water saturated cell (C2) through the middle of the top of the cell. The results show LTM was an effective way in monitoring the migration of DNAPL and gas bubbles in the fracture models. Gas moved upwards quickly to the top of C1 in the way of air bubbles generated at the injection position and formed a continuous distribution. The migration of TCE was controlled by its own weight and fracture aperture. TCE migrated to large aperture firstly when moving downwards, and intruded into smaller one with accumulation of TCE. Light Intensity-Saturation Models (LISMs) were developed to estimate the gas or NAPL saturation in two-phase system. The volume amount of infiltration of gas bubbles or NAPL could be estimated from light intensities by LISMs. There were strong correlations between the added and calculated amounts of gas or TCE. It is feasible to use the light transmission method to characterize the movement and spatial distribution of gas or NAPL in fractured media.
A phenomenological study of sediment transport in shallow overland flow
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Soil erosion is a highly complicated phenomenon consisting of many component processes. On upland areas, these processes are usually thought of as detachment and transport of soil particles by rainfall and surface flow. One of the most difficult processes to quantify is sediment transport. This proc...
Modeling flow and solute transport in irrigation furrows
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
This paper presents an internally coupled flow and solute transport model for free-draining irrigation furrows. Furrow hydraulics is simulated with a numerical zero-inertia model and solute transport is computed with a model based on a numerical solution of the cross-section averaged advection-dispe...
Simulating unsteady flow and sediment transport in vegetated channel network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Yang; Duan, Jennifer G.
2014-07-01
This paper presents a one-dimensional model for simulating flood routing and sediment transport over mobile alluvium in a vegetated channel network. The modified St. Venant equations together with the governing equations for suspended sediment and bed load transport were solved simultaneously to obtain flow properties and sediment transport rate. The Godunov-type finite volume method is employed to discretize the governing equations. Then, the Exner equation was solved for bed elevation change. Since sediment transport is non-equilibrium when bed is degrading or aggrading, a recovery coefficient for suspended sediment and an adaptation length for bed load transport were used to quantify the differences between equilibrium and non-equilibrium sediment transport rate. The influence of vegetation on floodplain and main channel was accounted for by adjusting resistance terms in the momentum equations for flow field. A procedure to separate the grain resistance from the total resistance was proposed and implemented to calculate sediment transport rate. The model was tested by a flume experiment case and an unprecedented flood event occurred in the Santa Cruz River, Tucson, Arizona, in July 2006. Simulated results of flow discharge and bed elevation changes showed satisfactory agreements with the measurements. The impacts of vegetation density on sediment transport and significance of non-equilibrium sediment transport model were discussed.
CMT for transport in porous media
Schwartz, L.
1997-02-01
This session is comprised of an outline of uses for x-ray microtomography in the field of petroleum geology. Calculations, diagrams, and color photomicrographs depict the many applications of synchrotron x-ray microtomograpy in determining transport properties and fluid flow characteristics of reservoir rocks, micro-porosity in carbonates, and aspects of multi-phase transport.
Features, Events, and Processes in UZ Flow and Transport
J.E. Houseworth
2001-04-10
Unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and radionuclide transport is a component of the natural barriers that affects potential repository performance. The total system performance assessment (TSPA) model, and underlying process models, of this natural barrier component capture some, but not all, of the associated features, events, and processes (FEPs) as identified in the FEPs Database (Freeze, et al. 2001 [154365]). This analysis and model report (AMR) discusses all FEPs identified as associated with UZ flow and radionuclide transport. The purpose of this analysis is to give a comprehensive summary of all UZ flow and radionuclide transport FEPs and their treatment in, or exclusion from, TSPA models. The scope of this analysis is to provide a summary of the FEPs associated with the UZ flow and radionuclide transport and to provide a reference roadmap to other documentation where detailed discussions of these FEPs, treated explicitly in TSPA models, are offered. Other FEPs may be screened out from treatment in TSPA by direct regulatory exclusion or through arguments concerning low probability and/or low consequence of the FEPs on potential repository performance. Arguments for exclusion of FEPs are presented in this analysis. Exclusion of specific FEPs from the UZ flow and transport models does not necessarily imply that the FEP is excluded from the TSPA. Similarly, in the treatment of included FEPs, only the way in which the FEPs are included in the UZ flow and transport models is discussed in this document. This report has been prepared in accordance with the technical work plan for the unsaturated zone subproduct element (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153447]). The purpose of this report is to document that all FEPs are either included in UZ flow and transport models for TSPA, or can be excluded from UZ flow and transport models for TSPA on the basis of low probability or low consequence. Arguments for exclusion are presented in this analysis. Exclusion of specific FEPs from UZ flow and
Diapiric flow at subduction zones: a recipe for rapid transport.
Hall, P S; Kincaid, C
2001-06-29
Recent geochemical studies of uranium-thorium series disequilibrium in rocks from subduction zones require magmas to be transported through the mantle from just above the subducting slab to the surface in as little as approximately 30,000 years. We present a series of laboratory experiments that investigate the characteristic time scales and flow patterns of the diapiric upwelling model of subduction zone magmatism. Results indicate that the interaction between buoyantly upwelling diapirs and subduction-induced flow in the mantle creates a network of low-density, low-viscosity conduits through which buoyant flow is rapid, yielding transport times commensurate with those indicated by uranium-thorium studies.
Bottom-slope-induced net sheet-flow sediment transport rate under sinusoidal oscillatory flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Jing; Li, Zhiwei; Madsen, O. S.
2017-01-01
It is generally believed that the slope of beaches can lead to a net downslope (usually offshore) sediment transport rate under shoaling waves, but very few high-quality measurements have been reported for a quantitative understanding of this phenomenon. In this study, full-scale (1:1) experiments of bottom-slope-induced net sheet-flow sediment transport rate under sinusoidal oscillatory flows are conducted using a tilting oscillatory water tunnel. The tests cover a variety of flow-sediment conditions on bottom slopes up to 2.6°. A laser-based bottom profiler system is developed for measuring net transport rate based on the principle of mass conservation. Experimental results suggest that for a given flow-sediment condition the net transport rate is in the downslope direction and increases linearly with bottom slope. A conceptual model is presented based on the idea that gravity helps bottom shear stress drive bedload transport and consequently enhances (reduces) bedload transport and suspension when the flow is in the downslope (up-slope) direction. The model predicts both the measured net sediment transport rates and the experimental linear relationship between net transport rates and bottom slope with an accuracy generally better than a factor of 2. Some measured net transport rates in this study are comparable to those due to flow skewness obtained in similar sheet-flow studies, despite that our maximum slope could be milder than the actual bottom slope in surf zones, where sheet-flow conditions usually occur. This shows that the slope effect may be as important as wave nonlinearity in producing net cross-shore sheet-flow sediment transport.
Malone, Kevin F.; Xu, Bao H.; Fairweather, Michael
2007-07-01
Many of the highly active waste liquors that result from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel contain particulate solids of various materials. Operations for safe processing, handling and intermediate storage of these wastes often pose significant technical challenges due to the need for effective cooling systems to remove the heat generated by the radioactive solids. The multi-scale complexity of liquid-particle flow systems is such that investigation and prediction of their heat transfer characteristics based on experimental studies is a difficult task. Fortunately, the increasing availability of cheap computing power means that predictive simulation tools may be able to provide a means to investigate these systems without the need for expensive pilot studies. In this work we describe the development of a Combined Continuum and Discrete Model (CCDM) for predicting the heat transfer behaviour of systems of particles suspended in liquids. (authors)
Mozley, Peter S.; Heath, Jason E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Bauer, Stephen J.
2016-01-01
The Mount Simon Sandstone and Eau Claire Formation represent a principal reservoir - caprock system for wastewater disposal, geologic CO_{2} storage, and compressed air energy storage (CAES) in the Midwestern United States. Of primary concern to site performance is heterogeneity in flow properties that could lead to non-ideal injectivity and distribution of injected fluids (e.g., poor sweep efficiency). Using core samples from the Dallas Center Structure, Iowa, we investigate pore structure that governs flow properties of major lithofacies of these formations. Methods include gas porosimetry and permeametry, mercury intrusion porosimetry, thin section petrography, and X-ray diffraction. The lithofacies exhibit highly variable intra- and inter-informational distributions of pore throat and body sizes. Based on pore-throat size, samples fall into four distinct groups. Micropore-throat dominated samples are from the Eau Claire Formation, whereas the macropore-, mesopore-, and uniform-dominated samples are from the Mount Simon Sandstone. Complex paragenesis governs the high degree of pore and pore-throat size heterogeneity, due to an interplay of precipitation, non-uniform compaction, and later dissolution of cements. Furthermore, the cement dissolution event probably accounts for much of the current porosity in the unit. The unusually heterogeneous nature of the pore networks in the Mount Simon Sandstone indicates that there is a greater-than-normal opportunity for reservoir capillary trapping of non-wetting fluids — as quantified by CO_{2} and air column heights — which should be taken into account when assessing the potential of the reservoir-caprock system for CO_{2} storage and CAES.
Mozley, Peter S.; Heath, Jason E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; ...
2016-01-01
The Mount Simon Sandstone and Eau Claire Formation represent a principal reservoir - caprock system for wastewater disposal, geologic CO2 storage, and compressed air energy storage (CAES) in the Midwestern United States. Of primary concern to site performance is heterogeneity in flow properties that could lead to non-ideal injectivity and distribution of injected fluids (e.g., poor sweep efficiency). Using core samples from the Dallas Center Structure, Iowa, we investigate pore structure that governs flow properties of major lithofacies of these formations. Methods include gas porosimetry and permeametry, mercury intrusion porosimetry, thin section petrography, and X-ray diffraction. The lithofacies exhibit highlymore » variable intra- and inter-informational distributions of pore throat and body sizes. Based on pore-throat size, samples fall into four distinct groups. Micropore-throat dominated samples are from the Eau Claire Formation, whereas the macropore-, mesopore-, and uniform-dominated samples are from the Mount Simon Sandstone. Complex paragenesis governs the high degree of pore and pore-throat size heterogeneity, due to an interplay of precipitation, non-uniform compaction, and later dissolution of cements. Furthermore, the cement dissolution event probably accounts for much of the current porosity in the unit. The unusually heterogeneous nature of the pore networks in the Mount Simon Sandstone indicates that there is a greater-than-normal opportunity for reservoir capillary trapping of non-wetting fluids — as quantified by CO2 and air column heights — which should be taken into account when assessing the potential of the reservoir-caprock system for CO2 storage and CAES.« less
Flow resistance under conditions of intense gravel transport
Pitlick, John
1992-01-01
A study of flow resistance was undertaken in a channelized reach of the North Fork Toutle River, downstream of Mount St. Helens, Washington. Hydraulic and sediment transport data were collected in flows with velocities up to 3 m/s and shear stresses up to 7 times the critical value needed for bed load transport. Details of the flow structure as revealed in vertical velocity profiles indicate that weak bed load transport over a plane gravel bed has little effect on flow resistance. The plane gravel bed persists up to stresses ∼3 times critical, at which point, irregular bed forms appear. Bed forms greatly increase flow resistance and cause velocity profiles to become distorted. The latter arises as an effect of flows becoming depth-limited as bed form amplitude increases. At very high rates of bed load transport, an upper stage plane bed appeared. Velocity profiles measured in these flows match the law of the wall closely, with the equivalent roughness being well represented by ks = 3D84 of the bed load. The effects noted here will be important in very large floods or in rivers that are not free to widen, such as those cut into bedrock.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Juanes, R.; Jain, A. K.
2008-12-01
We present a discrete element model for the simulation, at the grain scale, of gas migration in brine- saturated deformable media. We account rigorously for the presence of two fluids in the pore space by incorporating grain forces due to pore fluid pressures, and surface tension between fluids. The coupled model permits investigating an essential process that takes place at the base of the hydrate stability zone: the upward migration of methane in its own free gas phase. We elucidate the way in which gas migration may take place: (1) by capillary invasion in a rigid-like medium; and (2) by initiation and propagation of a fracture. We find that the main factor controlling the mode of gas transport in the sediment is the grain size, and show that coarse-grain sediments favor capillary invasion, whereas fracturing dominates in fine-grain media. The results have important implications for understanding hydrates in natural systems. Our results predict that, in fine sediments, hydrate will likely form in veins that follow a fracture-network pattern, and the hydrate concentration in this type of accumulations will likely be quite low. In coarse sediments, the buoyant methane gas is likely to invade the pore space more uniformly, in a process akin to invasion percolation, and the overall pore occupancy is likely to be much higher than for a fracture-dominated regime. These implications are consistent with field observations of methane hydrates in natural systems.
Flow and transport in single fracture with roughness.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olkiewicz, Piotr; Dabrowski, Marcin
2016-04-01
Fracture flow may dominate in rocks with low porosity and it can accompany both industrial and natural processes. Typical examples of such processes are natural flows in crystalline rocks and industrial flows in geothermal systems or hydraulic fracturing. Fracture flow provides an important mechanism for transporting mass and energy. For example, geothermal energy is primarily transported by the flow of the heated water or steam rather than by the thermal diffusion. The geometry of the fracture network and the distribution of the mean apertures of individual fractures are the key parameters with regard to the fracture network transmissivity. Transport in fractures can occur through the combination of advection and diffusion processes like in the case of dissolved chemical components. The local distribution of the fracture aperture may play an important role for both flow and transport processes. In this work, we compare numerical solution for flow and transport processes in a single fracture in 2D and 3D. Fracture aperture distributions are generated by random correlated field method. We examine a single-phase flow of an incompressible viscous Newtonian fluid in the low Reynolds number limit. The velocity field is found using the Stokes equations with periodic boundary condition and a gravity force is imposed in the background. We systematically compare the obtained velocity field to the results obtained by solving the Reynolds equation, where pressure difference is imposed in the background. This allows us to examine the impact of the aperture distribution on the permeability of the medium and the local velocity distribution for two different mathematical descriptions of the fracture flow. Furthermore, we analyse the impact of aperture distribution on the front characteristics.
Development of numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling
P. Dobson
2004-08-31
This report describes the methods used to develop numerical grids of the unsaturated hydrogeologic system beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Numerical grid generation is an integral part of the development of the unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport model, a complex, three-dimensional (3-D) model of Yucca Mountain. This revision contains changes made to improve the clarity of the description of grid generation. The numerical grids, developed using current geologic, hydrogeologic, and mineralogic data, provide the necessary framework to: (1) develop calibrated hydrogeologic property sets and flow fields, (2) test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport, and (3) predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions. The technical scope, content, and management for the current revision of this report are described in the planning document ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 2). Grids generated and documented in this report supersede those documented in Revision 00 of this report, ''Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 159356]). The grids presented in this report are the same as those developed in Revision 01 (BSC 2003 [DIRS 160109]); however, the documentation of the development of the grids in Revision 02 has been updated to address technical inconsistencies and achieve greater transparency, readability, and traceability. The constraints, assumptions, and limitations associated with this report are discussed in the appropriate sections that follow.
Dynamic Flow Management Problems in Air Transportation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patterson, Sarah Stock
1997-01-01
In 1995, over six hundred thousand licensed pilots flew nearly thirty-five million flights into over eighteen thousand U.S. airports, logging more than 519 billion passenger miles. Since demand for air travel has increased by more than 50% in the last decade while capacity has stagnated, congestion is a problem of undeniable practical significance. In this thesis, we will develop optimization techniques that reduce the impact of congestion on the national airspace. We start by determining the optimal release times for flights into the airspace and the optimal speed adjustment while airborne taking into account the capacitated airspace. This is called the Air Traffic Flow Management Problem (TFMP). We address the complexity, showing that it is NP-hard. We build an integer programming formulation that is quite strong as some of the proposed inequalities are facet defining for the convex hull of solutions. For practical problems, the solutions of the LP relaxation of the TFMP are very often integral. In essence, we reduce the problem to efficiently solving large scale linear programming problems. Thus, the computation times are reasonably small for large scale, practical problems involving thousands of flights. Next, we address the problem of determining how to reroute aircraft in the airspace system when faced with dynamically changing weather conditions. This is called the Air Traffic Flow Management Rerouting Problem (TFMRP) We present an integrated mathematical programming approach for the TFMRP, which utilizes several methodologies, in order to minimize delay costs. In order to address the high dimensionality, we present an aggregate model, in which we formulate the TFMRP as a multicommodity, integer, dynamic network flow problem with certain side constraints. Using Lagrangian relaxation, we generate aggregate flows that are decomposed into a collection of flight paths using a randomized rounding heuristic. This collection of paths is used in a packing integer
Prang, A.J.
1997-02-01
Multiphase pumps in petroleum applications today must handle liquid products containing large amounts of gas, and often including water and sand as well. In the past, gas was commonly separated and flared off at the well head, and only liquid product was piped along for further processing. Using this setup, processing the gas as well as the liquid requires separators, compressors and dual pipelines. Rotary two-screw units are ideal for multiphase use, as they can pump any product that can be introduced into the suction passages of their screws. These devices also effectively handle heat generation from compressed gases. To select units for multiphase applications, an engineer should be familiar with these pumps and how they work. This article discusses rotary-screw pumps and how to effectively select a unit for multiphase service.
Solute Transport in Soils Under Conditions of Variable Flow Velocities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Liwang; Selim, H. M.
1996-11-01
Temporal and spatial variabilities of flow distribution significantly influence solute transport in soils. This laboratory study was designed to investigate the effects of temporal variation in flow velocity on pesticide transport in soils. Two pesticides, metribuzin (weakly adsorbed) and atrazine (moderately adsorbed), were chosen along with the following two soils: Cecil (<2 mm) and Sharkey (2-4 mm). Several tritium pulses were introduced into packed soil columns (15 or 30 cm in length) under different flow velocities to obtain velocity-dependent dispersion coefficients (D). Subsequently, several atrazine and metribuzin pulses were introduced under conditions of constant and variable velocities. For each experiment, changes in flow velocity were stepwise using a piston flow pump and were carried out during pulse application and leaching. For constant and variable flow velocity experiments, approximately similar pulse volumes and average flow velocities were maintained. Values of D versus pore water velocity (ν) from tritium breakthrough curves (BTCs) were well described using a linear equation for both soils. Identical BTCs for metribuzin were observed under conditions of constant or variable flow velocities in the Cecil soil column. However, metribuzin transport in the Sharkey soil was significantly influenced by velocity variations. Atrazine transport in the Sharkey soil was also significantly affected by variations in flow velocity. We further examined the error when an average rather than actual velocity distribution was used in BTC representation. The resulting experimental BTCs (concentration versus velocity-averaged pore volume) exhibited early arrival and the appearance of multiple peaks. Moreover, predictions of such BTCs based on the convective-dispersive equation were not successful. We concluded that actual water velocity distributions should be used in BTC representation, and, whenever possible, the use of an average velocity should be avoided.
Guide to the Revised Ground-Water Flow and Heat Transport Simulator: HYDROTHERM - Version 3
Kipp, Kenneth L.; Hsieh, Paul A.; Charlton, Scott R.
2008-01-01
The HYDROTHERM computer program simulates multi-phase ground-water flow and associated thermal energy transport in three dimensions. It can handle high fluid pressures, up to 1 ? 109 pascals (104 atmospheres), and high temperatures, up to 1,200 degrees Celsius. This report documents the release of Version 3, which includes various additions, modifications, and corrections that have been made to the original simulator. Primary changes to the simulator include: (1) the ability to simulate unconfined ground-water flow, (2) a precipitation-recharge boundary condition, (3) a seepage-surface boundary condition at the land surface, (4) the removal of the limitation that a specified-pressure boundary also have a specified temperature, (5) a new iterative solver for the linear equations based on a generalized minimum-residual method, (6) the ability to use time- or depth-dependent functions for permeability, (7) the conversion of the program code to Fortran 90 to employ dynamic allocation of arrays, and (8) the incorporation of a graphical user interface (GUI) for input and output. The graphical user interface has been developed for defining a simulation, running the HYDROTHERM simulator interactively, and displaying the results. The combination of the graphical user interface and the HYDROTHERM simulator forms the HYDROTHERM INTERACTIVE (HTI) program. HTI can be used for two-dimensional simulations only. New features in Version 3 of the HYDROTHERM simulator have been verified using four test problems. Three problems come from the published literature and one problem was simulated by another partially saturated flow and thermal transport simulator. The test problems include: transient partially saturated vertical infiltration, transient one-dimensional horizontal infiltration, two-dimensional steady-state drainage with a seepage surface, and two-dimensional drainage with coupled heat transport. An example application to a hypothetical stratovolcano system with unconfined
Glymphatic solute transport does not require bulk flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asgari, Mahdi; de Zélicourt, Diane; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan
2016-12-01
Observations of fast transport of fluorescent tracers in mouse brains have led to the hypothesis of bulk water flow directed from arterial to venous paravascular spaces (PVS) through the cortical interstitium. At the same time, there is evidence for interstitial solute transport by diffusion rather than by directed bulk fluid motion. It has been shown that the two views may be consolidated by intracellular water flow through astrocyte networks combined with mainly diffusive extracellular transport of solutes. This requires the presence of a driving force that has not been determined to date, but for which arterial pulsation has been suggested as the origin. Here we show that arterial pulsation caused by pulse wave propagation is an unlikely origin of this hypothetical driving force. However, we further show that such pulsation may still lead to fast para-arterial solute transport through dispersion, that is, through the combined effect of local mixing and diffusion in the para-arterial space.
Glymphatic solute transport does not require bulk flow
Asgari, Mahdi; de Zélicourt, Diane; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan
2016-01-01
Observations of fast transport of fluorescent tracers in mouse brains have led to the hypothesis of bulk water flow directed from arterial to venous paravascular spaces (PVS) through the cortical interstitium. At the same time, there is evidence for interstitial solute transport by diffusion rather than by directed bulk fluid motion. It has been shown that the two views may be consolidated by intracellular water flow through astrocyte networks combined with mainly diffusive extracellular transport of solutes. This requires the presence of a driving force that has not been determined to date, but for which arterial pulsation has been suggested as the origin. Here we show that arterial pulsation caused by pulse wave propagation is an unlikely origin of this hypothetical driving force. However, we further show that such pulsation may still lead to fast para-arterial solute transport through dispersion, that is, through the combined effect of local mixing and diffusion in the para-arterial space. PMID:27929105
Depth resolved granular transport driven by shearing fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allen, Benjamin; Kudrolli, Arshad
2017-02-01
We investigate granular transport by a fluid flow under steady-state driving conditions, from the bed-load regime to the suspension regime, with an experimental system based on a conical rheometer. The mean granular volume fraction ϕg, the mean granular velocity ug, and the fluid velocity uf are obtained as a function of depth inside the bed using refractive index matching and particle-tracking techniques. A torque sensor is utilized to measure the applied shear stress to complement estimates obtained from measured strain rates high above the bed where ϕg≈0 . The flow is found to be transitional at the onset of transport and the shear stress required to transport grains rises sharply as grains are increasingly entrained by the fluid flow. A significant slip velocity between the fluid and the granular phases is observed at the bed surface before the onset of transport as well as in the bed-load transport regime. We show that ug decays exponentially deep into the bed for ϕg>0.45 with a decay constant which is described by a nonlocal rheology model of granular flow that neglects fluid stress. Further, we show that uf and ug can be described using the applied shear stress and the Krieger-Dougherty model for the effective viscosity in the suspension regime, where 0 <ϕg<0.45 and where ug≈uf .
Swimming and transport of bacteria in time-periodic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winter, Rebecca; Patteson, Alison; Gagnon, David; Arratia, Paulo
The transport of bacteria can be highly influenced by external flows in oceans, rivers, and intestinal tracts. This has implications in biological systems for the performance of major biological processes, such as biofilm formation. In this study, we experimentally investigate the aggregation and transport of swimming Vibrio cholerae bacteria in time-periodic flows. Bacteria are placed in a well-characterized flow, and bacterial concentrations are recorded for a range of Reynolds numbers (Re) that spans two orders of magnitude, from 0.1 to 10. It is generally found that bacteria deplete from regions of high deformation rate and accumulate near vortices. This phenomenon seems to be dictated by a combination of bacterial activity and background flow vorticity. R.W. supported by NSF-GRFP.
The structure of turbulent channel flow with passive scalar transport
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guezennec, Y.; Stretch, D.; Kim, J.
1990-01-01
The simulation of turbulent channel flow, with various passive markers, was examined to investigate the local mechanisms of passive scalar transport. We found significant differences between the local transport of heat and momentum, even when the molecular and turbulent Prandtl numbers are of order one. These discrepancies can be attributed to the role of the pressure. We also found that the heat is a poor marker of the vorticity field outside of the near wall region and that scalar transport over significant distances results from the aggregate effect of many turbulent eddies.
Multiphase pumps make field wells more economic
Morrow, M.; Mabes, T.
1995-11-01
While proposed applications of multiphase (MP) pumps in subsea developments have generated much publicity, particularly in Europe, applications on a smaller scale in several remote and/or marginal well situations have been quietly improving producing operations. This short article describes one such application in Alberta, Canada, in which a simple, screw-type multiphase pump installation solved well flow problems for Imperial Oil Resources. Bornemann Pumps Inc., supplier for equipment for this application says more than 40 such pumps have been delivered for various field problem solutions in eight countries. Basic design and function of the rotary screw type MP pump used in these applications are overviewed below.
Upscaling flow and transport properties in synthetic porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jasinski, Lukasz; Dabrowski, Marcin
2015-04-01
Flow and transport through the porous media has instances in nature and industry: contaminant migration in geological formations, gas/oil extraction from proppant filled hydraulic fractures and surrounding porous matrix, underground carbon dioxide sequestration and many others. We would like to understand the behavior of propagating solute front in such medium, mainly flow preferential pathways and the solute dispersion due to the porous medium geometry. The motivation of our investigation is to find connection between the effective flow and transport properties and porous media geometry in 2D and 3D for large system sizes. The challenge is to discover a good way of upscaling flow and transport processes to obtain results comparable to these calculated on pore-scale in much faster way. We study synthetic porous media made of densely packed poly-disperse disk-or spherical-shaped grains in 2D and 3D, respectively. We use various protocols such as the random sequential addition (RSA) algorithm to generate densely packed grains. Imposed macroscopic pressure gradient invokes fluid flow through the pore space of generated porous medium samples. As the flow is considered in the low Reynolds number regime, a stationary velocity field is obtained by solving the Stokes equations by means of finite element method. Void space between the grains is accurately discretized by using body-fitting triangular or tetrahedral mesh. Finally, pure advection of a front carried by the velocity field is studied. Periodicity in all directions is applied to microstructure, flow and transport processes. Effective permeability of the media can be calculated by integrating the velocity field on cross sections, whereas effective dispersion coefficient is deduced by application of centered moment methods on the concentration field of transported solute in time. The effective parameters are investigated as a function of geometrical parameters of the media, such as porosity, specific surface area
Flow dynamics and solute transport in unsaturated rock fractures
Su, Grace Woan-chee
1999-10-01
Rock fractures play an important role in flow and contaminant transport in fractured aquifers, production of oil from petroleum reservoirs, and steam generation from geothermal reservoirs. In this dissertation, phenomenological aspects of flow in unsaturated fractures were studied in visualization experiments conducted on a transparent replica of a natural, rough-walled rock fracture for inlet conditions of constant pressure and flow rate over a range of angles of inclination. The experiments demonstrated that infiltrating liquid proceeds through unsaturated rock fractures along non-uniform, localized preferential flow paths. Even in the presence of constant boundary conditions, intermittent flow was a persistent flow feature observed, where portions of the flow channel underwent cycles of snapping and reforming. Two modes of intermittent flow were observed, the pulsating blob mode and the rivulet snapping mode. A conceptual model for the rivulet snapping mode was proposed and examined using idealized, variable-aperture fractures. The frequency of intermittent flow events was measured in several experiments and related to the capillary and Bond numbers to characterize this flow behavior.
Direction of scalar transport in turbulent channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srinivasan, Chiranth; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V.
2011-11-01
The concept of reverse diffusion, introduced by Corrsin to describe the motion of particles as they move towards a location in the flow field, is fundamental to the understanding of mixing. In this work, direct numerical simulations in conjunction with the tracking of scalar markers are utilized in infinitely long channels to study the principal direction of transport of heat (or mass) for both forwards and backwards single particle dispersion. The viscous sub-layer, the transition region (between the viscous sub-layer and the logarithmic region), and the logarithmic region of a Poiseuille flow and a plane Couette flow channel are studied. Fluctuating velocities of scalar markers captured in these regions are used to obtain the full autocorrelation coefficient tensor forwards and backwards with time. The highest eigenvalue of the velocity correlation coefficient tensor quantifies the highest amount of turbulent heat transport, while the corresponding eigenvector points to the main direction of transport. Different Prandtl number, Pr, fluids are simulated for the two types of flow. It is found that the highest eigenvalues are higher in the case of backwards dispersion compared to the case of forwards dispersion for any Pr, in both flow cases. The principal direction for backwards and forwards dispersion is different than for forwards dispersion, for all Pr, and in all flow regions for both flows. Fluids with lower Pr behave different than the higher Pr fluids because of increased molecular diffusion effects. The current study also establishes an interesting analogy of turbulent dispersion to optics defining the turbulent dispersive ratio, a parameter that can be used to identify the differences in the direction of turbulent heat transport between forwards and backwards dispersion. A spectral analysis of the auto-correlation coefficient for both forwards and backwards dispersion shows a universal behavior with slope of -1 at intermediate frequencies.
Multiphase flow in porous media
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adler, Pierre M.; Brenner, Howard
1988-01-01
A development history and current status evaluation are presented for the theory of permeability and percolation. The microscale phenomena treated in this field have proven difficult to analyze due both to their tortuous geometry and the influence of capilarity. Capilary effects may be not only important but predominant, and are differentiated into those at the fluid-fluid interface, and those involving the existence of a contact line between the solid substrate and this interface. Percolation theory has been borrowed from physics and adapted to the two-phase engineering context.
Biphilicity and Superbiphilicity for Wettability Control of Multiphase Heat Transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Attinger, Daniel; Betz, Amy Rachel; Schutzius, T. M.; Jenkins, J.; Kim, C.-J.; Megaridis, C. M.
2012-11-01
Multiphase energy transport, such as in boiling, suggests contradictory requirements on the wettability of the solid surfaces coming into contact with the working fluid. On the one hand, a hydrophobic wall promotes nucleation. On the other hand, a hydrophilic wall promotes water contact and enhances the critical heat flux. An analogous situation appears in the opposite thermodynamic process, i.e. condensation. These apparently contradictory requirements can be accommodated with biphilic surfaces, which juxtapose hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. Biphilic surfaces were first manufactured in 1964 by Young and Hummel, who sprayed Teflon drops onto a smooth steel surface: they showed enhanced heat transfer coefficient during boiling of water. Our recent work has revisited the manufacturing of biphilic surfaces using micro- and nanofabrication processes (Betz et al. 2010, Schutzius et al. 2012); for instance, we fabricated the first superbiphilic surfaces, which juxtapose superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic areas. Using these surfaces, we measured significant enhancement during pool boiling of both the heat transfer coefficient and the critical heat flux. This enhanced performance can be explained by the inherent ability of the surfaces to control multiphase flow, decreasing nucleation energies and shaping drops, bubbles and jets, to maximize transport and prevent instabilities.
Modeling Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport in Fractured Aquifers
2005-03-01
1987. Wu, Yu-Shu, H.H. Liu, and G.S. Bodvarsson . "Effect of small-scale fractures on flow and transport processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada...34 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Paper LBNL-51848 (December 5, 2002). Wu, Y.S., H.H. Liu, and G.S. Bodvarsson . “A triple-continuum approach for
Turbulent flow and sand transport over a cobble bed
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The turbulence structure of flow over rough beds and its interaction with fine sediments in the bed are important for efforts to predict sediment transport downstream of dams. The advanced age and impending decommissioning of many dams have brought increased attention to the fate of sediments stored...
Interfacial Chemical Reactions and Transport Phenomena in Flow Systems.
1982-01-01
CONVESTIVE DIFFUSION ENERGY TRANSFER COMBUSTION THERMAL DIFFUSION FOULING INERTIAL IMPACTION THERMOPHORESIS LLJ HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS FLOW REACTORS...i) the influence of particle thermophoresis on mass transport across ,onisothermal boundary layers, and iiI) inertial effects on particle deposi- tion...Approach: We are currently developing theoretical methods to generalize the laws of convective mass and energy transfer to include thermophoresis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seers, Thomas; Andrew, Matthew; Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin; Dobson, Kate; Hodgetts, David; Lee, Peter; Menke, Hannah; Singh, Kamaljit; Parsons, Aaron
2015-04-01
Applied shear stresses within high porosity granular rocks result in characteristic deformation responses (rigid grain reorganisation, dilation, isovolumetric strain, grain fracturing and/or crushing) emanating from elevated stress concentrations at grain contacts. The strain localisation features produced by these processes are generically termed as microfaults (also shear bands), which occur as narrow tabular regions of disaggregated, rotated and/or crushed grains. Because the textural priors that favour microfault formation make their host rocks (esp. porous sandstones) conducive to the storage of geo-fluids, such structures are often abundant features within hydrocarbon reservoirs, aquifers and potential sites of CO2 storage (i.e. sandstone saline aquifers). The porosity collapse which accompanies microfault formation typically results in localised permeability reduction, often encompassing several orders of magnitude. Given that permeability is the key physical parameter that governs fluid circulation in the upper crust, this petrophysical degradation implicates microfaults as being flow impeding structures which may act as major baffles and/or barriers to fluid flow within the subsurface. Such features therefore have the potential to negatively impact upon hydrocarbon production or CO2 injection, making their petrophysical characterisation of considerable interest. Despite their significance, little is known about the pore-scale processes involved in fluid trapping and transfer within microfaults, particularly in the presence of multiphase flow analogous to oil accumulation, production and CO2 injection. With respect to the geological storage of CO2 within sandstone saline aquifers it has been proposed that even fault rocks with relatively low phyllosilicate content or minimal quartz cementation may act as major baffles or barriers to migrating CO2 plume. Alternatively, as ubiquitous intra-reservoir heterogeneities, micro-faults also have the potential to
Scaling of flow and transport behavior in heterogeneous groundwater systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scheibe, Timothy; Yabusaki, Steven
1998-11-01
Three-dimensional numerical simulations using a detailed synthetic hydraulic conductivity field developed from geological considerations provide insight into the scaling of subsurface flow and transport processes. Flow and advective transport in the highly resolved heterogeneous field were modeled using massively parallel computers, providing a realistic baseline for evaluation of the impacts of parameter scaling. Upscaling of hydraulic conductivity was performed at a variety of scales using a flexible power law averaging technique. A series of tests were performed to determine the effects of varying the scaling exponent on a number of metrics of flow and transport behavior. Flow and transport simulation on high-performance computers and three-dimensional scientific visualization combine to form a powerful tool for gaining insight into the behavior of complex heterogeneous systems. Many quantitative groundwater models utilize upscaled hydraulic conductivity parameters, either implicitly or explicitly. These parameters are designed to reproduce the bulk flow characteristics at the grid or field scale while not requiring detailed quantification of local-scale conductivity variations. An example from applied groundwater modeling is the common practice of calibrating grid-scale model hydraulic conductivity or transmissivity parameters so as to approximate observed hydraulic head and boundary flux values. Such parameterizations, perhaps with a bulk dispersivity imposed, are then sometimes used to predict transport of reactive or non-reactive solutes. However, this work demonstrates that those parameters that lead to the best upscaling for hydraulic conductivity and head do not necessarily correspond to the best upscaling for prediction of a variety of transport behaviors. This result reflects the fact that transport is strongly impacted by the existence and connectedness of extreme-valued hydraulic conductivities, in contrast to bulk flow which depends more strongly on
Bed load transport formulas in dam break flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nicolás Cantero-Chinchilla, Francisco; Castro-Orgaz, Oscar; Ayuso-Muñoz, Jose Luis
2015-04-01
Classic formulas for bed load transport have been widely applied to river and channel dynamics with satisfactory results. Most of these equations were developed under ideal or steady flow conditions, which make them relevant for studying sediment transport processes in natural streams. However, they are not suitable in situations of dam break flows. In these cases, sediment concentration in lower layers of the flow is very high and could be nearly the same as that of bed material [1]. In order to account this phenomenon in the formulation, Wu and Wang [2] introduce the correction factor kt for the transport stage number. This correction factor does not only recover sediment concentration features in lower layers, but also dynamic pressure characteristics of the flow, which are mainly present in the dam break wavefront. By an iterative solution procedure, the kt value was developed for the Taipei and Louvain-la-Neuve tests, and it was used to address the sediment transport process with the Van Rijn formulas [3]. Nevertheless, albeit the results from Wu and Wang were acceptable, there was no research in the type of bed load transport formula applied from those existing in the literature. Although suspended load is of a greater importance, the bed load regulates the bed profiles in sediment transport processes. Bed material profiles also induce changes in the free surface flow. The longitudinal bed gradient infers in velocity changes and even can provoke dynamic pressure. Consequently, choosing a proper bed load formula is essential, since a wrong choice could imply including undesirable secondary effects in the flow. In this regard, for the sake of clarity, a comparison between the classic bed load transport formulas performance is done in this work. As a framework the Taipei and Louvain-la-Neuve test cases are considered. The transport stage number can be rearranged in each of the traditional equations [4,5], so the newfangled correction proposed by Wu and Wang can
Spatially-Averaged Diffusivities for Pollutant Transport in Vegetated Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Chua, Vivien P.
2016-06-01
Vegetation in wetlands can create complicated flow patterns and may provide many environmental benefits including water purification, flood protection and shoreline stabilization. The interaction between vegetation and flow has significant impacts on the transport of pollutants, nutrients and sediments. In this paper, we investigate pollutant transport in vegetated flows using the Delft3D-FLOW hydrodynamic software. The model simulates the transport of pollutants with the continuous release of a passive tracer at mid-depth and mid-width in the region where the flow is fully developed. The theoretical Gaussian plume profile is fitted to experimental data, and the lateral and vertical diffusivities are computed using the least squares method. In previous tracer studies conducted in the laboratory, the measurements were obtained at a single cross-section as experimental data is typically collected at one location. These diffusivities are then used to represent spatially-averaged values. With the numerical model, sensitivity analysis of lateral and vertical diffusivities along the longitudinal direction was performed at 8 cross-sections. Our results show that the lateral and vertical diffusivities increase with longitudinal distance from the injection point, due to the larger size of the dye cloud further downstream. A new method is proposed to compute diffusivities using a global minimum least squares method, which provides a more reliable estimate than the values obtained using the conventional method.
Modeling field scale unsaturated flow and transport processes
Gelhar, L.W.; Celia, M.A.; McLaughlin, D.
1994-08-01
The scales of concern in subsurface transport of contaminants from low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities are in the range of 1 to 1,000 m. Natural geologic materials generally show very substantial spatial variability in hydraulic properties over this range of scales. Such heterogeneity can significantly influence the migration of contaminants. It is also envisioned that complex earth structures will be constructed to isolate the waste and minimize infiltration of water into the facility. The flow of water and gases through such facilities must also be a concern. A stochastic theory describing unsaturated flow and contamination transport in naturally heterogeneous soils has been enhanced by adopting a more realistic characterization of soil variability. The enhanced theory is used to predict field-scale effective properties and variances of tension and moisture content. Applications illustrate the important effects of small-scale heterogeneity on large-scale anisotropy and hysteresis and demonstrate the feasibility of simulating two-dimensional flow systems at time and space scales of interest in radioactive waste disposal investigations. Numerical algorithms for predicting field scale unsaturated flow and contaminant transport have been improved by requiring them to respect fundamental physical principles such as mass conservation. These algorithms are able to provide realistic simulations of systems with very dry initial conditions and high degrees of heterogeneity. Numerical simulation of the movement of water and air in unsaturated soils has demonstrated the importance of air pathways for contaminant transport. The stochastic flow and transport theory has been used to develop a systematic approach to performance assessment and site characterization. Hypothesis-testing techniques have been used to determine whether model predictions are consistent with observed data.
Wilson, J.L.
1994-05-01
Small scale laboratory experiments, equipped with an ability to actually observe behavior on the pore level using microscopy, provide an economical and easily understood scientific tool to help us validate concepts and assumptions about the transport of contaminants, and offers the propensity to discover heretofore unrecognized phenomena or behavior. The main technique employs etched glass micromodels, composed of two etched glass plates, sintered together, to form a two dimensional network of three dimensional pores. Flow and transport behavior is observed on a pore or pore network level, and recorder on film and video tape. This technique is coupled with related column studies. These techniques have been used to study multiphase flow, colloid transport and most recently bacteria transport. The project has recently moved to the Bacteria Transport Subprogram, and efforts have been redirected to support that Subprogram and its collaborative field experiment. We proposed to study bacteria transport factors of relevance to the field experiment, using micromodels and other laboratory techniques. Factors that may be addressed include bacteria characteristics (eg, hydrophobicity), pore size and shape, permeability heterogeneity, surface chemistry (eg, iron oxide coatings), surface chemistry heterogeneity, active versus resting cell bacteria, and mixed bacteria populations. In other work we will continue to examine the effects of fluid-fluid interfaces on bacteria transport, and develop a new assay for bacteria hydrophobicity. Finally we will collaborate on characterization of the field site, and the design, operation, and interpretation of the field experiment.
The effect of flow and mass transport in thrombogenesis.
Basmadjian, D
1990-01-01
The paper presents a mathematical analysis of the contributions of flow and mass transport to a single reactive event at a blood vessel wall. The intent is to prepare the ground for a comprehensive study of the intertwining of these contributions with the reaction network of the coagulation cascade. We show that in all vessels with local mural activity, or in "large" vessels (d greater than 0.1 mm) with global reactivity, events at the tubular wall can be rigorously described by algebraic equations under steady conditions, or by ordinary differential forms (ODEs) during transient conditions. This opens up important ways for analyzing the combined roles of flow, transport, and coagulation reactions in thrombosis, a task hitherto considered to be completely intractable. We report extensively on the dependence of transport coefficient kL and mural coagulant concentration Cw on flow, vessel geometry, and reaction kinetics. It is shown that for protein transport, kL varies only weakly with shear rate gamma in large vessels, and not at all in the smaller tubes (d less than 10(-2) mm). For a typical protein, kL approximately 10(-3) cm s-1 within a factor of 3 in most geometries, irrespective of the mural reaction kinetics. Significant reductions in kL (1/10-1/1,000) leading to high-coagulant accumulation are seen mainly in stagnant zones vicinal to abrupt expansions and in small elliptical tubules. This is in accord with known physical observations. More unexpected are the dramatic increases in accumulation which can come about through the intervention of an autocatalytic reaction step, with Cw rising sharply toward infinity as the ratio of reaction to transport coefficient approaches unity. Such self-catalyzed reactions have the ability to act as powerful amplifiers of an otherwise modest influence of flow and transport on coagulant concentration. The paper considers as well the effect on mass transport of transient conditions occasioned by coagulation initiation or
Using hydraulic equivalences to discriminate transport processes of volcanic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burgisser, Alain; Gardner, James E.
2006-03-01
We characterized stratified deposits from the Upper Toluca Pumice at Toluca volcano, Mexico, to distinguish the various modes of transport at play in their genesis. Using the concept of hydraulic equivalence, we determined that deposits resulted from a combination of suspended-load fallout, saltation, and rolling. In particular, some well-sorted coarse stratified beds have a single pumice mode most likely indicative of clasts having traveled through both the transport system and the traction bed. Such beds are likely remnants of the sorting operated within the large-scale transport system. Other coarse beds have pumice and lithic modes suggesting rolling in the traction bed. We propose that boundary layer processes control the sorting of those beds and all finer beds. By helping to discriminate between transport mechanisms, hydraulic equivalences have a general applicability in geophysical flows involving clasts of contrasted densities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Yaqing; Durlofsky, Louis J.; Tchelepi, Hamdi A.
2012-06-01
A numerical simulation framework for coupled multiphase flow, multicomponent transport and geochemical reactions in porous media is presented. The approach is an element-based formulation that combines the compositional modeling capabilities used in oil reservoir simulation with the treatment of chemical reactions used in groundwater modeling. The procedure employs a conservative finite-volume method with a fully-implicit treatment in time in order to preserve the nonlinear coupling of flow, transport, reactions, and mass transfer across phases. Phase behavior is described using cubic equations of state. In this framework, all the governing equations and associated constraints are cast in discrete residual form, such that any variable, or coefficient, can depend on any other variable in the problem. Prior to linearization, which is applied to construct the Jacobian matrix, no algebraic or analytic manipulation need be performed to reduce the nonlinear sets of equations and unknowns. Once the complete Jacobian matrix is assembled, a series of algebraic reductions (Schur complements), of the type used in compositional reservoir simulation, are performed to reduce the number of discrete equations that must be solved simultaneously. A GMRES solution strategy with CPR (Constrained Pressure Residual) preconditioning is applied to solve the reduced linear system. We demonstrate the formulation using two CO2 sequestration problems, one of which involves chemical reactions. The simulations demonstrate the efficiency and applicability of the overall procedure for modeling the long-term fate of sequestered CO2.
Free-surface turbulent flow and contaminants transport modeling
Wang, S.S.Y.
1994-12-31
The requirement of maintaining the environmental quality and ecological balance of the surface water systems at the acceptable level both now and in the future has accelerated the development and refinement of a cost-effective engineering analysis and design tool--Computational Modeling. This paper presents the progress of an on-going study to develop and refine computational models to simulate the free-surface turbulent flows and contaminants transport phenomena. New developments include: the efficient Element Method, which adopts the advantages of both Finite Element and Finite Difference; the most effective up-winding and/or characteristic-path integration; the prescribed solution forcing to conduct modeling verification studies of this correctness and capabilities in prediction of nonlinear effects; among others. The newly refined computational models have been applied to simulate unsteady, three-dimensional, turbulent, free-surface flows and pollutant transport in lakes, reservoirs, streams, rivers, estuaries, and coastal waters with natural (highly-irregular) geometric configurations. They have been verified in some cases to be able to predict basic physical characteristics of the free surface flows including boundary layer separations and re-attachments, wake flow and vortex shedding, corner separation and re-circulation, etc. They are also capable of simulating the transport of solute substances, solid particles and heat energy in these waters. Results can be displayed in stationary (snapshots) color graphics and in animation (motion pictures) recorded on video cassettes.
Solute transport along preferential flow paths in unsaturated fractures
Su, G.W.; Geller, J.T.; Pruess, K.; Hunt, J.R.
2001-01-01
Laboratory experiments were conducted to study solute transport along preferential flow paths in unsaturated, inclined fractures. Qualitative aspects of solute transport were identified in a miscible dye tracer experiment conducted in a transparent replica of a natural granite fracture. Additional experiments were conducted to measure the breakthrough curves of a conservative tracer introduced into an established preferential flow path in two different fracture replicas and a rock-replica combination. The influence of gravity was investigated by varying fracture inclination. The relationship between the travel times of the solute and the relative influence of gravity was substantially affected by two modes of intermittent flow that occurred: the snapping rivulet and the pulsating blob modes. The measured travel times of the solute were evaluated with three transfer function models: the axial dispersion, the reactors-in-series, and the lognormal models. The three models described the solute travel times nearly equally well. A mechanistic model was also formulated to describe transport when the pulsating blob mode occurred which assumed blobs of water containing solute mixed with residual pools of water along the flow path.
Pulsatile Flow and Transport of Blood past a Cylinder: Basic Transport for an Artificial Lung.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zierenberg, Jennifer R.
2005-11-01
The fluid mechanics and transport for flow of blood past a single cylinder is investigated using CFD. This work refers to an artificial lung in which oxygen travels through fibers oriented perpendicularly to the incoming blood flow. A pulsatile blood flow was considered: Ux=U0[ 1+A( φt ) ], where Ux is the velocity far from the cylinder. The Casson equation was used to describe the shear thinning and yield stress properties of blood. The presence of hemoglobin (i.e. facilitated diffusion) was considered. We examined the effect of A, U0 and φ on the flow and transport by varying the dimensionless parameters: A; Reynolds number, Re; and Womersley parameter, α. Two different feed gases were considered: pure O2 and air. The flow and concentration fields were computed for Re = 5, 10, and 40, 0 <=A<= 0.75, α = 0.25, 0.4, and Schmidt number, Sc = 1000. Vortices attached downstream of the cylinder are found to oscillate in size and strength as α and A are varied. Mass transport is found to primarily depend on Re and to increase with increasing Re, α and decreasing A. The presence of hemoglobin increases mass transport. Supported by NIH HL69420, NSF Fellowship
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassan, Kazi; Allen, Deonie; Haynes, Heather
2016-04-01
This paper considers 1D hydraulic model data on the effect of high flow clusters and sequencing on sediment transport. Using observed flow gauge data from the River Caldew, England, a novel stochastic modelling approach was developed in order to create alternative 50 year flow sequences. Whilst the observed probability density of gauge data was preserved in all sequences, the order in which those flows occurred was varied using the output from a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) with generalised Pareto distribution (GP). In total, one hundred 50 year synthetic flow series were generated and used as the inflow boundary conditions for individual flow series model runs using the 1D sediment transport model HEC-RAS. The model routed graded sediment through the case study river reach to define the long-term morphological changes. Comparison of individual simulations provided a detailed understanding of the sensitivity of channel capacity to flow sequence. Specifically, each 50 year synthetic flow sequence was analysed using a 3-month, 6-month or 12-month rolling window approach and classified for clusters in peak discharge. As a cluster is described as a temporal grouping of flow events above a specified threshold, the threshold condition used herein is considered as a morphologically active channel forming discharge event. Thus, clusters were identified for peak discharges in excess of 10%, 20%, 50%, 100% and 150% of the 1 year Return Period (RP) event. The window of above-peak flows also required cluster definition and was tested for timeframes 1, 2, 10 and 30 days. Subsequently, clusters could be described in terms of the number of events, maximum peak flow discharge, cumulative flow discharge and skewness (i.e. a description of the flow sequence). The model output for each cluster was analysed for the cumulative flow volume and cumulative sediment transport (mass). This was then compared to the total sediment transport of a single flow event of equivalent flow volume
Lattice gas automata for flow and transport in geochemical systems
Janecky, D.R.; Chen, S.; Dawson, S.; Eggert, K.C.; Travis, B.J.
1992-01-01
Lattice gas automata models are described, which couple solute transport with chemical reactions at mineral surfaces within pore networks. Diffusion in a box calculations are illustrated, which compare directly with Fickian diffusion. Chemical reactions at solid surfaces, including precipitation/dissolution, sorption, and catalytic reaction, can be examined with the model because hydrodynamic transport, solute diffusion and mineral surface processes are all treated explicitly. The simplicity and flexibility of the approach provides the ability to study the interrelationship between fluid flow and chemical reactions in porous materials, at a level of complexity that has not previously been computationally possible.
Lattice gas automata for flow and transport in geochemical systems
Janecky, D.R.; Chen, S.; Dawson, S.; Eggert, K.C.; Travis, B.J.
1992-05-01
Lattice gas automata models are described, which couple solute transport with chemical reactions at mineral surfaces within pore networks. Diffusion in a box calculations are illustrated, which compare directly with Fickian diffusion. Chemical reactions at solid surfaces, including precipitation/dissolution, sorption, and catalytic reaction, can be examined with the model because hydrodynamic transport, solute diffusion and mineral surface processes are all treated explicitly. The simplicity and flexibility of the approach provides the ability to study the interrelationship between fluid flow and chemical reactions in porous materials, at a level of complexity that has not previously been computationally possible.
Visualization tools for vorticity transport analysis in incompressible flow.
Sadlo, Filip; Peikert, Ronald; Sick, Mirjam
2006-01-01
Vortices are undesirable in many applications while indispensable in others. It is therefore of common interest to understand their mechanisms of creation. This paper aims at analyzing the transport of vorticity inside incompressible flow. The analysis is based on the vorticity equation and is performed along pathlines which are typically started in upstream direction from vortex regions. Different methods for the quantitative and explorative analysis of vorticity transport are presented and applied to CFD simulations of water turbines. Simulation quality is accounted for by including the errors of meshing and convergence into analysis and visualization. The obtained results are discussed and interpretations with respect to engineering questions are given.
Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Tonkin, Matthew J.; Zachara, John M.
2011-04-01
Correct interpretation of tracer test data is critical for understanding transport processes in the subsurface. This task can be greatly complicated by the presence of intraborehole flows in a highly dynamic flow environment. At a new tracer test site (Hanford IFRC) a dynamic flow field created by changes in the stage of the adjacent Columbia River, coupled with a heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity distribution, leads to considerable variations in vertical hydraulic gradients. These variations, in turn, create intraborehole flows in fully-screened (6.5 m) observation wells with frequently alternating upward and downward movement. This phenomenon, in conjunction with a highly permeable aquifer formation and small horizontal hydraulic gradients, makes modeling analysis and model calibration a formidable challenge. Groundwater head data alone were insufficient to define the flow model boundary conditions, and the movement of the tracer was highly sensitive to the dynamics of the flow field. This study shows that model calibration can be significantly improved by explicitly considering (a) dynamic flow model boundary conditions and (b) intraborehole flow. The findings from this study underscore the difficulties in interpreting tracer tests and understanding solute transport under highly dynamic flow conditions.
Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Tonkin, Matt; Zachara, John M
2011-04-01
Correct interpretation of tracer test data is critical for understanding transport processes in the subsurface. This task can be greatly complicated by the presence of intraborehole flows in a highly dynamic flow environment. At a new tracer test site (Hanford IFRC) a dynamic flow field created by changes in the stage of the adjacent Columbia River, coupled with a heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity distribution, leads to considerable variations in vertical hydraulic gradients. These variations, in turn, create intraborehole flows in fully-screened (6.5m) observation wells with frequently alternating upward and downward movement. This phenomenon, in conjunction with a highly permeable aquifer form