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Sample records for multiple antibiotic resistant

  1. Indirect Selection for Antibiotic Resistance in Multiple Stream Microhabitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, M. S.; Peltier, G. L.; McArthur, J.

    2005-05-01

    One aspect challenging public health efforts to minimize the spread of antibiotic resistance (AR) is the prevalence of resistant bacteria in the environment. Anthropogenic-derived sources of selection are typically implicated as mechanisms for maintaining AR in the environment. Here we report an additional mechanism for maintaining AR in the environment through co- or cross-resistance to heavy metals. Using culture-independent techniques, bacteria isolated from heavy-metal contaminated sites were more tolerant of antibiotics and metals compared to those bacteria from a reference site. This evidence supports our hypothesis that metal contamination directly selects for metal tolerant bacteria while indirectly selecting for antibiotic tolerant bacteria. Additionally, to assess how antibiotic- and metal-tolerance may be transported through a stream network, we studied antibiotic and metal-tolerance patterns over four months in bacteria collected from multiple stream microhabitats including water column, biofilm, sediment, and Corbicula fluminea (Asiatic clam) digestive tracts. Sediment bacteria were the most tolerant to antibiotics and metals, while bacteria from Corbicula were the least tolerant. Differences between these microhabitats may be important for predicting antibiotic resistance transfer and transport in stream environments. Further, temporal dynamics suggest that tolerance patterns within microhabitats are linked to physico-chemical characteristics of the stream.

  2. [Multiple antibiotic resistance of associative microflora during urogenital pathology].

    PubMed

    Akaeva, F S; Omarova, S M; Adieva, A A; Medzhidov, M M

    2008-01-01

    Susceptibility of associative microflora isolated from patients with inflammatory diseases of urogenital tract was investigated. Etiologic structure of the diseases and cross-resistance to antibiotics of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcusaureus, and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from women with endocervicitis and men with urethritiswas assessed. Ciprofloxacin and gentamycin had the highest activity, whereas beta-lactam antibiotics were mildly active. Isolated strainswere resistant to macrolides, penicillines and imipenem. Main types of multidrug resistance to antibiotics were presented in strains circulated in Dagestan.

  3. Multiple antibiotic resistance among gram negative bacteria isolated from poultry.

    PubMed

    Ansari, F A; Khatoon, H

    1994-03-01

    Gram negative bacteria, including species of Salmonella, Escherichia, Pseudomonas and Klebsiella, isolated from poultry, were screened for their resistance to the commonly used antibiotics: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamycin, kanamycin, neomycin, polymyxin B, streptomycin and tetracycline. Of the 500 bacteria screened, 351 were found to be resistant to one or more antibiotics at the level of 50 micrograms/ml. Various patterns of antibiotic resistance observed during these studies have been reported.

  4. Resistance-resistant antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Eric; Feng, Xinxin

    2014-12-01

    New antibiotics are needed because drug resistance is increasing while the introduction of new antibiotics is decreasing. We discuss here six possible approaches to develop 'resistance-resistant' antibiotics. First, multitarget inhibitors in which a single compound inhibits more than one target may be easier to develop than conventional combination therapies with two new drugs. Second, inhibiting multiple targets in the same metabolic pathway is expected to be an effective strategy owing to synergy. Third, discovering multiple-target inhibitors should be possible by using sequential virtual screening. Fourth, repurposing existing drugs can lead to combinations of multitarget therapeutics. Fifth, targets need not be proteins. Sixth, inhibiting virulence factor formation and boosting innate immunity may also lead to decreased susceptibility to resistance. Although it is not possible to eliminate resistance, the approaches reviewed here offer several possibilities for reducing the effects of mutations and, in some cases, suggest that sensitivity to existing antibiotics may be restored in otherwise drug-resistant organisms.

  5. Multiple antibiotic resistance genes distribution in ten large-scale membrane bioreactors for municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanmei; Shen, Yue-Xiao; Liang, Peng; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng; Huang, Xia

    2016-12-01

    Wastewater treatment plants are thought to be potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes. In this study, GeoChip was used for analyzing multiple antibiotic resistance genes, including four multidrug efflux system gene groups and three β-lactamase genes in ten large-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for municipal wastewater treatment. Results revealed that the diversity of antibiotic genes varied a lot among MBRs, but about 40% common antibiotic resistance genes were existent. The average signal intensity of each antibiotic resistance group was similar among MBRs, nevertheless the total abundance of each group varied remarkably and the dominant resistance gene groups were different in individual MBR. The antibiotic resistance genes majorly derived from Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. Further study indicated that TN, TP and COD of influent, temperature and conductivity of mixed liquor were significant (P<0.05) correlated to the multiple antibiotic resistance genes distribution in MBRs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Stochastic expression of a multiple antibiotic resistance activator confers transient resistance in single cells.

    PubMed

    El Meouche, Imane; Siu, Yik; Dunlop, Mary J

    2016-01-13

    Transient resistance can allow microorganisms to temporarily survive lethal concentrations of antibiotics. This can be accomplished through stochastic mechanisms, where individual cells within a population display diverse phenotypes to hedge against the appearance of an antibiotic. To date, research on transient stochastic resistance has focused primarily on mechanisms where a subpopulation of cells enters a dormant, drug-tolerant state. However, a fundamental question is whether stochastic gene expression can also generate variable resistance levels among growing cells in a population. We hypothesized that stochastic expression of antibiotic-inducible resistance mechanisms might play such a role. To investigate this, we focused on a prototypical example of such a system: the multiple antibiotic resistance activator MarA. Previous studies have shown that induction of MarA can lead to a multidrug resistant phenotype at the population level. We asked whether MarA expression also has a stochastic component, even when uninduced. Time lapse microscopy showed that isogenic cells express heterogeneous, dynamic levels of MarA, which were correlated with transient antibiotic survival. This finding has important clinical implications, as stochastic expression of resistance genes may be widespread, allowing populations to hedge against the sudden appearance of an antibiotic.

  7. A Hybrid Drug Limits Resistance by Evading the Action of the Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kathy K.; Stone, Laura K.; Lieberman, Tami D.; Shavit, Michal; Baasov, Timor; Kishony, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid drugs are a promising strategy to address the growing problem of drug resistance, but the mechanism by which they modulate the evolution of resistance is poorly understood. Integrating high-throughput resistance measurements and genomic sequencing, we compared Escherichia coli populations evolved in a hybrid antibiotic that links ciprofloxacin and neomycin B with populations evolved in combinations of the component drugs. We find that populations evolved in the hybrid gain less resistance than those evolved in an equimolar mixture of the hybrid’s components, in part because the hybrid evades resistance mediated by the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) operon. Furthermore, we find that the ciprofloxacin moiety of the hybrid inhibits bacterial growth whereas the neomycin B moiety diminishes the effectiveness of mar activation. More generally, comparing the phenotypic and genotypic paths to resistance across different drug treatments can pinpoint unique properties of new compounds that limit the emergence of resistance. PMID:26538141

  8. Simultaneous breakdown of multiple antibiotic resistance mechanisms in S. aureus.

    PubMed

    Kaneti, Galoz; Sarig, Hadar; Marjieh, Ibrahim; Fadia, Zaknoon; Mor, Amram

    2013-12-01

    In previous studies, the oligo-acyl-lysyl (OAK) C12(ω7)K-β12 added to cultures of gram-positive bacteria exerted a bacteriostatic activity that was associated with membrane depolarization, even at high concentrations. Here, we report that multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, unlike other gram-positive species, have reverted to the sensitive phenotype when exposed to subminimal inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of the OAK, thereby increasing antibiotics potency by up to 3 orders of magnitude. Such chemosensitization was achieved using either cytoplasm or cell-wall targeting antibiotics. Moreover, eventual emergence of resistance to antibiotics was significantly delayed. Using the mouse peritonitis-sepsis model, we show that on single-dose administration of oxacillin and OAK combinations, death induced by a lethal staphylococcal infection was prevented in a synergistic manner, thereby supporting the likelihood for synergism to persist under in vivo conditions. Toward illuminating the molecular basis for these observations, we present data arguing that sub-MIC OAK interactions with the plasma membrane can inhibit proton-dependent signal transduction responsible for expression and export of resistance factors, as demonstrated for β-lactamase and PBP2a. Collectively, the data reveal a potentially useful approach for overcoming antibiotic resistance and for preventing resistance from emerging as readily as when bacteria are exposed to an antibiotic alone.

  9. Emergence of a Potent Multidrug Efflux Pump Variant That Enhances Campylobacter Resistance to Multiple Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hong; Shen, Zhangqi; Wang, Yang; Deng, Fengru; Liu, Dejun; Naren, Gaowa; Dai, Lei; Su, Chih-Chia; Wang, Bing; Wang, Shaolin; Wu, Congming; Yu, Edward W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial antibiotic efflux pumps are key players in antibiotic resistance. Although their role in conferring multidrug resistance is well documented, the emergence of “super” efflux pump variants that enhance bacterial resistance to multiple drugs has not been reported. Here, we describe the emergence of a resistance-enhancing variant (named RE-CmeABC) of the predominant efflux pump CmeABC in Campylobacter, a major zoonotic pathogen whose resistance to antibiotics is considered a serious antibiotic resistance threat in the United States. Compared to the previously characterized CmeABC transporters, RE-CmeABC is much more potent in conferring Campylobacter resistance to antibiotics, which was shown by increased MICs and reduced intracellular accumulation of antibiotics. Structural modeling suggests that sequence variations in the drug-binding pocket of CmeB possibly contribute to the enhanced efflux function. Additionally, RE-CmeABC expands the mutant selection window of ciprofloxacin, enhances the emergence of antibiotic-resistant mutants, and confers exceedingly high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones, an important class of antibiotics for clinical therapy of campylobacteriosis. Furthermore, RE-CmeABC is horizontally transferable, shifts antibiotic MIC distribution among clinical isolates, and is increasingly prevalent in Campylobacter jejuni isolates, suggesting that it confers a fitness advantage under antimicrobial selection. These findings reveal a new mechanism for enhanced multidrug resistance and an effective strategy utilized by bacteria for adaptation to selection from multiple antibiotics. PMID:27651364

  10. Antibiotic Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... are even stronger. Bacteria and Viruses Questions about Antibiotic Resistance Bacteria and Viruses Bacteria and viruses are the two ... even help us to digest food. But other bacteria cause bad diseases like TB and lyme disease. Questions about Antibiotic Resistance Does this affect me? If you have a ...

  11. Mathematical modeling on bacterial resistance to multiple antibiotics caused by spontaneous mutations.

    PubMed

    Ibargüen-Mondragón, Eduardo; Mosquera, Saulo; Cerón, Miller; Burbano-Rosero, Edith Mariela; Hidalgo-Bonilla, Sandra P; Esteva, Lourdes; Romero-Leitón, Jhoana P

    2014-03-01

    We formulate a mathematical model that describes the population dynamics of bacteria exposed to multiple antibiotics simultaneously, assuming that acquisition of resistance is through mutations due to antibiotic exposure. Qualitative analysis reveals the existence of a free-bacteria equilibrium, resistant-bacteria equilibrium and an endemic equilibrium where both bacteria coexist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Emergence of a Potent Multidrug Efflux Pump Variant That Enhances Campylobacter Resistance to Multiple Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong; Shen, Zhangqi; Wang, Yang; Deng, Fengru; Liu, Dejun; Naren, Gaowa; Dai, Lei; Su, Chih-Chia; Wang, Bing; Wang, Shaolin; Wu, Congming; Yu, Edward W; Zhang, Qijing; Shen, Jianzhong

    2016-09-20

    Bacterial antibiotic efflux pumps are key players in antibiotic resistance. Although their role in conferring multidrug resistance is well documented, the emergence of "super" efflux pump variants that enhance bacterial resistance to multiple drugs has not been reported. Here, we describe the emergence of a resistance-enhancing variant (named RE-CmeABC) of the predominant efflux pump CmeABC in Campylobacter, a major zoonotic pathogen whose resistance to antibiotics is considered a serious antibiotic resistance threat in the United States. Compared to the previously characterized CmeABC transporters, RE-CmeABC is much more potent in conferring Campylobacter resistance to antibiotics, which was shown by increased MICs and reduced intracellular accumulation of antibiotics. Structural modeling suggests that sequence variations in the drug-binding pocket of CmeB possibly contribute to the enhanced efflux function. Additionally, RE-CmeABC expands the mutant selection window of ciprofloxacin, enhances the emergence of antibiotic-resistant mutants, and confers exceedingly high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones, an important class of antibiotics for clinical therapy of campylobacteriosis. Furthermore, RE-CmeABC is horizontally transferable, shifts antibiotic MIC distribution among clinical isolates, and is increasingly prevalent in Campylobacter jejuni isolates, suggesting that it confers a fitness advantage under antimicrobial selection. These findings reveal a new mechanism for enhanced multidrug resistance and an effective strategy utilized by bacteria for adaptation to selection from multiple antibiotics. Bacterial antibiotic efflux pumps are ubiquitously present in bacterial organisms and protect bacteria from the antibacterial effects of antimicrobials and other toxic compounds by extruding them out of cells. Thus, these efflux transporters represent an important mechanism for antibiotic resistance. In this study, we discovered the emergence and increasing

  13. Resistance-Resistant Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Oldfield, Eric; Feng, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    New antibiotics are needed because as drug resistance is increasing, the introduction of new antibiotics is decreasing. Here, we discuss six possible approaches to develop ‘resistance-resistant’ antibiotics. First, multi-target inhibitors in which a single compound inhibits more than one target may be easier to develop than conventional combination therapies with two new drugs. Second, inhibiting multiple targets in the same metabolic pathway is expected to be an effective strategy due to synergy. Third, discovering multiple-target inhibitors should be possible by using sequential virtual screening. Fourth, re-purposing existing drugs can lead to combinations of multi-target therapeutics. Fifth, targets need not be proteins. Sixth, inhibiting virulence factor formation and boosting innate immunity may also lead to decreased susceptibility to resistance. Although it is not possible to eliminate resistance, the approaches reviewed here offer several possibilities for reducing the effects of mutations and in some cases suggest that sensitivity to existing antibiotics may be restored, in otherwise drug resistant organisms. PMID:25458541

  14. Antibiotic Application and Emergence of Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) in Global Catfish Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Chuah, Li-Oon; Effarizah, M E; Goni, Abatcha Mustapha; Rusul, Gulam

    2016-06-01

    Catfish is one of the most cultivated species worldwide. Antibiotics are usually used in catfish farming as therapeutic and prophylactic agents. In the USA, only oxytetracycline, a combination of sulfadimethoxine and ormetoprim, and florfenicol are approved by the Food Drug Administration for specific fish species (e.g., catfish and salmonids) and their specific diseases. Misuse of antibiotics as prophylactic agents in disease prevention, however, is common and contributes in the development of antibiotic resistance. Various studies had reported on antibiotic residues and/or resistance in farmed species, feral fish, water column, sediments, and, in a lesser content, among farm workers. Ninety percent of the world aquaculture production is carried out in developing countries, which lack regulations and enforcement on the use of antibiotics. Hence, efforts are needed to promote the development and enforcement of such a regulatory structure. Alternatives to antibiotics such as antibacterial vaccines, bacteriophages and their lysins, and probiotics have been applied to curtail the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to the imprudent application of antibiotics in aquaculture.

  15. A Hybrid Drug Limits Resistance by Evading the Action of the Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kathy K; Stone, Laura K; Lieberman, Tami D; Shavit, Michal; Baasov, Timor; Kishony, Roy

    2016-02-01

    Hybrid drugs are a promising strategy to address the growing problem of drug resistance, but the mechanism by which they modulate the evolution of resistance is poorly understood. Integrating high-throughput resistance measurements and genomic sequencing, we compared Escherichia coli populations evolved in a hybrid antibiotic that links ciprofloxacin and neomycin B with populations evolved in combinations of the component drugs. We find that populations evolved in the hybrid gain less resistance than those evolved in an equimolar mixture of the hybrid's components, in part because the hybrid evades resistance mediated by the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) operon. Furthermore, we find that the ciprofloxacin moiety of the hybrid inhibits bacterial growth whereas the neomycin B moiety diminishes the effectiveness of mar activation. More generally, comparing the phenotypic and genotypic paths to resistance across different drug treatments can pinpoint unique properties of new compounds that limit the emergence of resistance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Multiple resistance to betalactam antibiotics, azithromycin or moxifloxacin in implant associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Karbach, Julia; Callaway, Angelika S; Willershausen, Brita; Wagner, Wilfried; Al-Nawas, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotics are more and more frequently prescribed in dentistry for prevention and treatment of oral diseases. Bacterial resistance to these agents is clearly increasing, including even previously susceptible micro-organisms and true pathogens. The aim of the present investigation was to examine resistant bacterial strains with respect to possible multiple antibiotic resistance. In a previous investigation, implant-associated bacteria were tested first as mixed cultures and again as pure isolates (n = 138) for resistance to one of five antibiotics (ampicillin/AM, ampicillin + sulbactam/AB, azithromycin/AZ, penicillin/PG, moxifloxacin/MX) using the Etest. The resistance of most of the pure isolates was lower than in mixed culture, but 31.2% had retained their original resistance. Subsequently, all 138 isolates were tested for resistance or susceptibility to the other four antibiotics, again using the Etest. 27.6% (38/138) of the isolates retained their original antibiotic resistance and were resistant to at least one other antibiotic (MIC > or = 128 microg/mL for AB, AM or AZ, > or = 32 microg/mL PG, > or = 24 microg/mL MX). 2.2% (3/138) strains had lost their original antibiotic resistance, but were resistant to at least one other antibiotic (MIC > 128 microg/mL for AB, AM, or AZ, > or = 32 microg/mL PG, > or = 24 microg/mL MX). Some of the isolates belonging to the implant-associated microflora were multi-resistant, even though the patients had not received any antibiotics six weeks prior to the sampling. The exact mechanisms that lead to multiple resistance need to be examined in further studies.

  17. Novel homologs of the multiple resistance regulator marA in antibiotic-contaminated environments.

    PubMed

    Castiglioni, Sara; Pomati, Francesco; Miller, Kristin; Burns, Brendan P; Zuccato, Ettore; Calamari, Davide; Neilan, Brett A

    2008-10-01

    Antibiotics are commonly detected in the environment as contaminants. Exposure to antibiotics may induce antimicrobial-resistance, as well as the horizontal transfer of resistance genes in bacterial populations. We selected the resistance gene marA, mediating resistance to multiple antibiotics, and explored its distribution in sediment and water samples from surface and sewage treatment waters. Ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin (fluoroquinolones), sulphamethoxazole (sulphonamide), erythromycin, clarythromycin, and spiramycin (macrolides), lincomycin (lincosamide), and oxytetracycline (tetracycline) were measured in the same samples to determine antibiotic contamination. Bacterial populations from environmental samples were challenged with antibiotics to identify resistant isolates. The gene marA was found in almost all environmental samples and was confirmed by PCR amplification in antibiotic-resistant colonies. 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that the majority of resistant isolates belonged to the Gram-positive genus Bacillus, not previously known to possess the regulator marA. We assayed the incidence of marA in environmental bacterial populations of Escherichia coli and Bacillus by quantitative real-time PCR in correlation with the levels of antibiotics. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the possible lateral acquisition of marA by Bacillus from Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae revealing a novel marA homolog in Bacillus. Quantitative PCR assays indicate that the frequency of this gene in antropised environments seems to be related to bacterial exposure to water-borne antibiotics.

  18. Multiple antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli from a tropical rain forest stream

    SciTech Connect

    Carrasco, C.E.; Alvarez, H.J.; Ortiz, N.; Bisbal, M.; Arias, W.; Baerga, C.; Hazen, T.C.

    1988-12-31

    High densities of fecal coliforms were obtained from a pristine site and sewage contaminated site in a tropical rain forest watershed in Puerto Rico. Confirmation of fecal coliform isolates as Escherichia coli was significantly lower than for temperate waters. Antibiotic resistance and multiple antibiotic resistance were common for isolates at both sites; however, the site receiving sewage effluent had a greater proportion of multiple antibiotic resistant isolates. R. plasmids were recovered from 4 MAR isolates, 2 from each site. All recovered plasmids were approximately 1 kilobase. The recovered plasmid were also capable of transforming E. coli HB101 in vitro. The high concentrations of enterobacteriaceae, small R-plasmid size, R-plasmid transformability, and long term survival of fecal origin bacteria in tropical freshwater environments give increasing importance to adequate sewage treatment, and better indicator monitoring methods for tropical areas.

  19. Mathematical modelling of bacterial resistance to multiple antibiotics and immune system response.

    PubMed

    Daşbaşı, Bahatdin; Öztürk, İlhan

    2016-01-01

    Resistance of developed bacteria to antibiotic treatment is a very important issue, because introduction of any new antibiotic is after a little while followed by the formation of resistant bacterial isolates in the clinic. The significant increase in clinical resistance to antibiotics is a troubling situation especially in nosocomial infections, where already defenseless patients can be unsuccessful to respond to treatment, causing even greater health issue. Nosocomial infections can be identified as those happening within 2 days of hospital acceptance, 3 days of discharge or 1 month of an operation. They influence 1 out of 10 patients admitted to hospital. Annually, this outcomes in 5000 deaths only in UK with a cost to the National Health Service of a billion pounds. Despite these problems, antibiotic therapy is still the most common method used to treat bacterial infections. On the other hand, it is often mentioned that immune system plays a major role in the progress of infections. In this context, we proposed a mathematical model defining population dynamics of both the specific immune cells produced according to the properties of bacteria by host and the bacteria exposed to multiple antibiotics synchronically, presuming that resistance is gained through mutations due to exposure to antibiotic. Qualitative analysis found out infection-free equilibrium point and other equilibrium points where resistant bacteria and immune system cells exist, only resistant bacteria exists and sensitive bacteria, resistant bacteria and immune system cells exist. As a result of this analysis, our model highlights the fact that when an individual's immune system weakens, he/she suffers more from the bacterial infections which are believed to have been confined or terminated. Also, these results was supported by numerical simulations.

  20. Targeting Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Chellat, Mathieu F.; Raguž, Luka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Finding strategies against the development of antibiotic resistance is a major global challenge for the life sciences community and for public health. The past decades have seen a dramatic worldwide increase in human‐pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to one or multiple antibiotics. More and more infections caused by resistant microorganisms fail to respond to conventional treatment, and in some cases, even last‐resort antibiotics have lost their power. In addition, industry pipelines for the development of novel antibiotics have run dry over the past decades. A recent world health day by the World Health Organization titled “Combat drug resistance: no action today means no cure tomorrow” triggered an increase in research activity, and several promising strategies have been developed to restore treatment options against infections by resistant bacterial pathogens. PMID:27000559

  1. Multiple Antibiotic-Resistant, Extended Spectrum-β-Lactamase (ESBL)-Producing Enterobacteria in Fresh Seafood.

    PubMed

    Sanjit Singh, Asem; Lekshmi, Manjusha; Prakasan, Sreepriya; Nayak, Binaya Bhusan; Kumar, Sanath

    2017-08-30

    Members of the family Enterobacteriaceae include several human pathogens that can be acquired through contaminated food and water. In this study, the incidence of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing enterobacteria was investigated in fresh seafood sold in retail markets. The ESBL-positive phenotype was detected in 169 (78.60%) isolates, with Escherichia coli being the predominant species (53), followed by Klebsiella oxytoca (27), and K. pneumoniae (23). More than 90% of the isolates were resistant to third generation cephalosporins, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and cefpodoxime. Sixty-five percent of the isolates were resistant to the monobactam drug aztreonam, 40.82% to ertapenem, and 31.36% to meropenem. Resistance to at least five antibiotics was observed in 38.46% of the isolates. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analysis of ESBL-encoding genes detected blaCTX, blaSHV, and blaTEM genes in 76.92%, 63.3%, and 44.37% of the isolates, respectively. Multiple ESBL genes were detected in majority of the isolates. The recently discovered New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase gene (blaNDM-1) was detected in two ESBL⁺ isolates. Our study shows that secondary contamination of fresh seafood with enteric bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics may implicate seafood as a potential carrier of antibiotic resistant bacteria and emphasizes an urgent need to prevent environmental contamination and dissemination of such bacteria.

  2. Antimicrobial effect of crude extracts of Nigella sativa on multiple antibiotics-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Morsi, N M

    2000-01-01

    Different crude extracts of Nigella sativa were tested for antimicrobial effectiveness against different bacterial isolates. These isolates comprised 16 gramnegative and 6 grampositive representatives. They showed multiple resistance against antibiotics, specially the gramnegative ones. Crude extracts of Nigella saliva showed a promising effect against some of the test organisms. The most effective extracts were the crude alkaloid and water extracts. Gramnegative isolates were affected more than the grampositive ones.

  3. The multiple antibiotic resistance regulator MarR is a copper sensor in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hao, Ziyang; Lou, Hubing; Zhu, Rongfeng; Zhu, Jiuhe; Zhang, Dianmu; Zhao, Boxuan Simen; Zeng, Shizhe; Chen, Xing; Chan, Jefferson; He, Chuan; Chen, Peng R

    2014-01-01

    The widely conserved multiple antibiotic resistance regulator (MarR) family of transcription factors modulates bacterial detoxification in response to diverse antibiotics, toxic chemicals or both. The natural inducer for Escherichia coli MarR, the prototypical transcription repressor within this family, remains unknown. Here we show that copper signaling potentiates MarR derepression in E. coli. Copper(II) oxidizes a cysteine residue (Cys80) on MarR to generate disulfide bonds between two MarR dimers, thereby inducing tetramer formation and the dissociation of MarR from its cognate promoter DNA. We further discovered that salicylate, a putative MarR inducer, and the clinically important bactericidal antibiotics norfloxacin and ampicillin all stimulate intracellular copper elevation, most likely through oxidative impairment of copper-dependent envelope proteins, including NADH dehydrogenase-2. This membrane-associated copper oxidation and liberation process derepresses MarR, causing increased bacterial antibiotic resistance. Our study reveals that this bacterial transcription regulator senses copper(II) as a natural signal to cope with stress caused by antibiotics or the environment.

  4. Analysis of plasmids in nosocomial strains of multiple-antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, B R; May, J W; Skurray, R A

    1983-01-01

    Nosocomial infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus strains resistant to methicillin and multiple antibiotics have reached epidemic proportions in Melbourne, Australia, over the past 5 years. Plasmid analysis of representative clinical isolates demonstrated the presence of three classes of plasmid DNA in most strains. Resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin, and tobramycin was usually mediated by an 18-megadalton plasmid but could also be encoded by a related 22-megadalton plasmid. Two distinguishable plasmids of 3 megadaltons each endowed resistance to chloramphenicol, and the third class consisted of small plasmids, each approximately 1 megadalton in size, with no attributable function. An extensive array of resistance determinants, including some which have usually been associated with a plasmid locus, were found to exist on the chromosome. Evidence that resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin, and tobramycin is chromosomally encoded in some clinical isolates suggests that this determinant may have undergone genetic translocation onto the staphylococcal chromosome. Images PMID:6311086

  5. Pneumococcal resistance to antibiotics.

    PubMed Central

    Klugman, K P

    1990-01-01

    The geographic distribution of pneumococci resistant to one or more of the antibiotics penicillin, erythromycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline appears to be expanding, and there exist foci of resistance to chloramphenicol and rifampin. Multiply resistant pneumococci are being encountered more commonly and are more often community acquired. Factors associated with infection caused by resistant pneumococci include young age, duration of hospitalization, infection with a pneumococcus of serogroup 6, 19, or 23 or serotype 14, and exposure to antibiotics to which the strain is resistant. At present, the most useful drugs for the management of resistant pneumococcal infections are cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, vancomycin, and rifampin. If the strains are susceptible, chloramphenicol may be useful as an alternative, less expensive agent. Appropriate interventions for the control of resistant pneumococcal outbreaks include investigation of the prevalence of resistant strains, isolation of patients, possible treatment of carriers, and reduction of usage of antibiotics to which the strain is resistant. The molecular mechanisms of penicillin resistance are related to the structure and function of penicillin-binding proteins, and the mechanisms of resistance to other agents involved in multiple resistance are being elucidated. Recognition is increasing of the standard screening procedure for penicillin resistance, using a 1-microgram oxacillin disk. PMID:2187594

  6. Viability of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria in distribution lines of treated sewage effluent used for irrigation.

    PubMed

    Al-Bahry, S N; Mahmoud, I Y; Al-Khaifi, A; Elshafie, A E; Al-Harthy, A

    2009-01-01

    Viability of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria (MARB) in tertiary treated sewage effluent (TTSE) used for irrigation, was investigated at the Sultan Qaboos University sewage treatment plant (STP). This water recycle system is used here as a model for the systems commonly used throughout Oman and the Gulf region. Samples of TTSE were collected weekly from four sites, 1.5 km from each other. Chlorine levels declined gradually at the three sites with increasing distance from the STP. Viable bacteria, coliforms and nitrate concentrations increased significantly while biological oxygen demand (BOD) declined after STP chlorination. Mean values of turbidity changed slightly. Trace elements values were insignificant. A total of 336 bacteria from 8 genera revealed that the dominant isolates were Enterobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Aeromonas spp. Among the isolates 59.8% were multiply resistant to several antibiotics. Resistance was higher to ampicillin followed by sulphamethoxazole, carbenicillin, streptomycine and minocycline. Frequency of resistance to the 14 antibiotics varied among the isolates. The present system related to the viability of MARB in TTSE used for irrigation may have serious implications for public health and wildlife. Results of this investigation will be of value in modifying current STPs systems and thus avoiding serious health issues.

  7. Combating Antibiotic Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Combating Antibiotic Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... however, have contributed to a phenomenon known as antibiotic resistance. This resistance develops when potentially harmful bacteria change ...

  8. Inhibition of the virulence, antibiotic resistance, and fecal shedding of multiple antibiotic-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium in broilers fed Original XPC™

    PubMed Central

    Feye, K. M.; Anderson, K. L.; Scott, M. F.; McIntyre, D. R.; Carlson, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella carriage is an insidious problem for the poultry industry. While most Salmonella serotypes are avirulent in poultry, these bacteria can contaminate chicken meat during processing, leading to one of the most important food safety hazards. In this study, we examined the anti-Salmonella effects of Diamond V Original XPC™ (XPC) included in the finisher diet fed to commercial broilers. On 3 occasions between day one (D1) and D20, broilers were experimentally infected with multiple antibiotic-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium. After confirming that the chicks were shedding Salmonella in the feces on D21, broiler chicks were fed a diet containing XPC (n = 57 birds; 1.25 kg/MT) or an XPC-free control diet (CON) (n = 57 birds) to D49. Fecal samples were obtained weekly and subjected to selective culture for enumerating and determining the antibiotic resistance of the Salmonella. Salmonella isolates were then subjected to an in vitro virulence assay, which predicts the ability of Salmonella to cause illness in a mammalian host. Broilers were euthanized on D49 and a segment of the large intestine was removed and subjected to the same assays used for the fecal samples. When compared to the birds fed the CON diet, Salmonella fecal shedding, virulence (invasion and invasion gene expression), and antibiotic resistance were significantly decreased in birds fed XPC (5-fold, 7.5-fold, 6-fold, and 5.3-fold decreases, respectively). Birds fed XPC exhibited heavier body weight (BW) and greater BW gains than those fed the CON diet. The decrease in virulence was associated with a decreased expression of a genetic regulator of Salmonella invasion into cells (hilA), while the decrease in antibiotic resistance was due to a loss of an integron (SGI1) from the input strain. This study revealed that Original XPC™ inhibits the shedding, downstream virulence, and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella residing in broilers. PMID:27566726

  9. Antibiotic resistance in Chlamydiae.

    PubMed

    Sandoz, Kelsi M; Rockey, Daniel D

    2010-09-01

    There are few documented reports of antibiotic resistance in Chlamydia and no examples of natural and stable antibiotic resistance in strains collected from humans. While there are several reports of clinical isolates exhibiting resistance to antibiotics, these strains either lost their resistance phenotype in vitro, or lost viability altogether. Differences in procedures for chlamydial culture in the laboratory, low recovery rates of clinical isolates and the unknown significance of heterotypic resistance observed in culture may interfere with the recognition and interpretation of antibiotic resistance. Although antibiotic resistance has not emerged in chlamydiae pathogenic to humans, several lines of evidence suggest they are capable of expressing significant resistant phenotypes. The adept ability of chlamydiae to evolve to antibiotic resistance in vitro is demonstrated by contemporary examples of mutagenesis, recombination and genetic transformation. The isolation of tetracycline-resistant Chlamydia suis strains from pigs also emphasizes their adaptive ability to acquire antibiotic resistance genes when exposed to significant selective pressure.

  10. High prevalence of multiple resistance to antibiotics in Salmonella serovars isolated from a poultry slaughterhouse in Spain.

    PubMed

    Carramiñana, Juan J; Rota, Carmina; Agustín, I; Herrera, Antonio

    2004-11-30

    Salmonellosis is a major foodborne infection in Spain, and strains that are resistant to a great variety of antibiotics have become a major public health concern. The aim of this study was to determine the level of antibiotic resistance in 133 Salmonella isolates obtained from a poultry slaughterhouse in Zaragoza (NE Spain). Antimicrobial resistance testing was performed by disk diffusion method using 19 antibiotics. Results were interpreted following the NCCLS criteria. Overall, the highest percentage of resistance was found to the following antimicrobial agents: sulfadiazine (96.2%), neomycin (53.4%), tetracycline (21.8%), and streptomycin (11.3%). All isolates were found to be resistant to one or more of the antibiotics tested. Multiple resistance was observed in 87 strains (65.4%). We found 23 different patterns of resistance in Salmonella Enteritidis. Resistance to sulfadiazine was the most common single resistance. The most frequent patterns of multiresistant strains were neomycin+sulfadiazine and neomycin+tetracycline+sulfadiazine. S. 4,5,12:b: showed the highest percentages of resistance to the tested drugs, with five different resistance patterns found. Ampicillin+chloramphenicol+streptomycin+sulphonamides+tetracycline (ACSSuT) resistance pattern, commonly associated with S. Typhimurium DT 104, was not detected in strains of the same phage type from broilers. The appearance of substantial multiresistance in foodborne Salmonella isolates suggests the need for more prudent use of antibiotics by farmers, veterinarians, and physicians.

  11. High prevalence of multiple-antibiotic-resistant (MAR) Escherichia coli in river bed sediments of the Apies River, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Abia, Akebe Luther King; Ubomba-Jaswa, Eunice; Momba, Maggy Ndombo Benteke

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed at investigating the presence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in river bed sediments of the Apies River, Gauteng, South Africa, in order to better inform health management decisions designed to protect users of the river. Overall, 180 water and sediment samples were collected at 10 sites along the Apies River from January to February 2014. E. coli was enumerated using the Colilert® 18/Quanti-Tray® 2000 (IDEXX). Isolates were purified by streaking on eosin methylene blue agar followed by the indole test. Pure E. coli isolates were tested for resistance to nine antibiotics by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Over 98% of the isolates were resistant to at least one of the antibiotics tested. The highest resistance was observed against nitrofurantoin (sediments) and ampicillin (water). Over 80% of all resistant isolates showed multiple antibiotic resistance (resistance to ≥3 antibiotics). The abundance of E. coli in the sediments not only adds to the evidence that sediments are a reservoir for bacteria and possibly other pathogens including antibiotic-resistant bacteria but also suggests that antibiotic-resistant genes could be transferred to pathogens due to the high prevalence of multiple-antibiotic-resistant (MAR) strains of E. coli observed in the sediment. Using untreated water from the Apies River following resuspension for drinking and other household purposes could pose serious health risks for users. Our results suggest that river bed sediments could serve as reservoirs for MAR bacteria including pathogens under different climatic conditions and their analysis could provide information of public health concerns.

  12. Molecular structure and translocation of a multiple antibiotic resistance region of a Psychrobacter psychrophilus permafrost strain.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Mayya; Gorlenko, Zhosephine; Mindlin, Sofia

    2009-06-01

    A Psychrobacter psychrophilus strain resistant to tetracycline and streptomycin was isolated from a 15,000-35,000-year-old permafrost subsoil sediment sampled from the coast of the Eastern-Siberian Sea. The genes conferring antibiotic resistance were localized on an c. 30-kb pKLH80 plasmid. It was shown that the antibiotic resistance region of this plasmid has a mosaic structure and contains closely linked streptomycin resistance (strA-strB) and tetracycline resistance [tetR-tet(H)] genes, followed by a novel IS element (ISPpy1) belonging to the IS3 family. Both the strA-strB and tetR-tet(H) genes of pKLH80 were highly similar to those found in modern clinical bacterial isolates. It was shown that the ISPpy1 element of pKLH80 can direct translocation of the adjacent antibiotic resistance genes to different target plasmids, either by one-ended transposition or by formation of a composite transposon resulting from the insertion of the ISPpy1 second copy at the other side of the antibiotic resistance region. Thus, our data demonstrate that clinically important antibiotic resistance genes originated long before the introduction of antibiotics into clinical practice and confirm an important role of horizontal gene transfer in the distribution of these genes in natural bacterial populations.

  13. Multiple-antibiotic-resistant Helicobacter pylori infection eradicated with a tailor-made quadruple therapy.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Shigemi; Inoue, Hisayuki; Inoue, Tetsuya; Maruoka, Yuri

    2012-04-01

    In 2008, a 44-year-old woman with mild epigastralgia diagnosed as having Helicobacter pylori-positive chronic gastritis without peptic ulcer underwent eradication therapy with lansoprazole (LPZ), amoxicillin (AMPC) and clarithromycin (CAM) for 7 days, but it failed, so treatment with rabeprazole, AMPC, and metronidazole (MNZ) for another 7 days was given, but it also failed. She was then prescribed a modified, 14-day sequential therapy of LPZ and AMPC with an increased dose of CAM followed by MNZ supplement, but the infection was still not eradicated. The H. pylori was cultured and examined for antibiotic susceptibility with the agar dilution method and was found to be resistant to CAM, MNZ, and levofloxacin, and non-sensitive to AMPC, namely multiple-antibiotic-resistant, although sensitive to minocycline. The CYP2C19 genotype of the patient was an extensive metabolizer (G681A: G/A, G636A: G/G). In 2010, she gave informed consent for a 14-day, tailor-made, modified classical (or modified high-dose PPI + AMPC) quadruple therapy comprising 30 mg LPZ, 500 mg AMPC and 500 mg bismuth subnitrate, qid, and 100 mg minocycline, bid. Two months later, her urea breath test was negative. Histology and bacterial culture were still negative 1 year after the therapy. She did not have any adverse events during or after the novel therapy, nor did she feel any further epigastralgia.

  14. Multiple Antibiotic Resistance of Vibrio cholerae Serogroup O139 in China from 1993 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruibai; Lou, Jing; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Jie; Bi, Zhenqiang; Kan, Biao

    2012-01-01

    Regarded as an emerging diarrheal micropathogen, Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139 was first identified in 1992 and has become an important cause of cholera epidemics over the last two decades. O139 strains have been continually isolated since O139 cholera appeared in China in 1993, from sporadic cases and dispersed foodborne outbreaks, which are the common epidemic types of O139 cholera in China. Antibiotic resistance profiles of these epidemic strains are required for development of clinical treatments, epidemiological studies and disease control. In this study, a comprehensive investigation of the antibiotic resistance of V. cholerae O139 strains isolated in China from 1993 to 2009 was conducted. The initial O139 isolates were resistant to streptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and polymyxin B only, while multidrug resistance increased suddenly and became common in strains isolated after 1998. Different resistance profiles were observed in the isolates from different years. In contrast, most V. cholerae O1 strains isolated in the same period were much less resistant to these antibiotics and no obvious multidrug resistance patterns were detected. Most of the non-toxigenic strains isolated from the environment and seafood were resistant to four antibiotics or fewer, although a few multidrug resistant strains were also identified. These toxigenic O139 strains exhibited a high prevalence of the class I integron and the SXT element, which were rare in the non-toxigenic strains. Molecular subtyping of O139 strains showed highly diverse pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, which may correspond to the epidemic state of sporadic cases and small-scale outbreaks and complex resistance patterns. Severe multidrug resistance, even resistance transfers based on mobile antibiotic resistance elements, increases the probability of O139 cholera as a threat to public health. Therefore, continual epidemiological and antibiotic sensitivity surveillance should focus on the

  15. Multiple antibiotic resistance of Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139 in China from 1993 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Zhou, Yanyan; Wang, Ruibai; Lou, Jing; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Jie; Bi, Zhenqiang; Kan, Biao

    2012-01-01

    Regarded as an emerging diarrheal micropathogen, Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139 was first identified in 1992 and has become an important cause of cholera epidemics over the last two decades. O139 strains have been continually isolated since O139 cholera appeared in China in 1993, from sporadic cases and dispersed foodborne outbreaks, which are the common epidemic types of O139 cholera in China. Antibiotic resistance profiles of these epidemic strains are required for development of clinical treatments, epidemiological studies and disease control. In this study, a comprehensive investigation of the antibiotic resistance of V. cholerae O139 strains isolated in China from 1993 to 2009 was conducted. The initial O139 isolates were resistant to streptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and polymyxin B only, while multidrug resistance increased suddenly and became common in strains isolated after 1998. Different resistance profiles were observed in the isolates from different years. In contrast, most V. cholerae O1 strains isolated in the same period were much less resistant to these antibiotics and no obvious multidrug resistance patterns were detected. Most of the non-toxigenic strains isolated from the environment and seafood were resistant to four antibiotics or fewer, although a few multidrug resistant strains were also identified. These toxigenic O139 strains exhibited a high prevalence of the class I integron and the SXT element, which were rare in the non-toxigenic strains. Molecular subtyping of O139 strains showed highly diverse pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, which may correspond to the epidemic state of sporadic cases and small-scale outbreaks and complex resistance patterns. Severe multidrug resistance, even resistance transfers based on mobile antibiotic resistance elements, increases the probability of O139 cholera as a threat to public health. Therefore, continual epidemiological and antibiotic sensitivity surveillance should focus on the

  16. Control of infection with multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria in a hospital renal unit: the value of plasmid characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Reed, C. S.; Barrett, S. P.; Threlfall, E. J.; Cheasty, T.

    1995-01-01

    An outbreak of infections due to multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria took place over a period of approximately 18 months in a renal unit. Strains of Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were involved, and a variety of antibiotic resistances was encountered. Closely related plasmids encoding resistance to aztreonam, ceftazidime and piperacillin, possibly derived from an archetypal plasmid of 105 kb were found in the majority of isolates examined. After limiting the use of aztreonam the incidence of new patient isolates of multiple-resistant organisms was greatly reduced. This study demonstrated how molecular studies can contribute to the control of an outbreak situation in a hospital unit by providing an impetus to reduce the use of specific antibiotics. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7641839

  17. Customized Regulation of Diverse Stress Response Genes by the Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Activator MarA.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Nicholas A; Dunlop, Mary J

    2017-01-01

    Stress response networks frequently have a single upstream regulator that controls many downstream genes. However, the downstream targets are often diverse, therefore it remains unclear how their expression is specialized when under the command of a common regulator. To address this, we focused on a stress response network where the multiple antibiotic resistance activator MarA from Escherichia coli regulates diverse targets ranging from small RNAs to efflux pumps. Using single-cell experiments and computational modeling, we showed that each downstream gene studied has distinct activation, noise, and information transmission properties. Critically, our results demonstrate that understanding biological context is essential; we found examples where strong activation only occurs outside physiologically relevant ranges of MarA and others where noise is high at wild type MarA levels and decreases as MarA reaches its physiological limit. These results demonstrate how a single regulatory protein can maintain specificity while orchestrating the response of many downstream genes.

  18. Customized Regulation of Diverse Stress Response Genes by the Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Activator MarA

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Stress response networks frequently have a single upstream regulator that controls many downstream genes. However, the downstream targets are often diverse, therefore it remains unclear how their expression is specialized when under the command of a common regulator. To address this, we focused on a stress response network where the multiple antibiotic resistance activator MarA from Escherichia coli regulates diverse targets ranging from small RNAs to efflux pumps. Using single-cell experiments and computational modeling, we showed that each downstream gene studied has distinct activation, noise, and information transmission properties. Critically, our results demonstrate that understanding biological context is essential; we found examples where strong activation only occurs outside physiologically relevant ranges of MarA and others where noise is high at wild type MarA levels and decreases as MarA reaches its physiological limit. These results demonstrate how a single regulatory protein can maintain specificity while orchestrating the response of many downstream genes. PMID:28060821

  19. Inhibition of the virulence, antibiotic resistance, and fecal shedding of multiple antibiotic-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium in broilers fed Original XPC™.

    PubMed

    Feye, K M; Anderson, K L; Scott, M F; McIntyre, D R; Carlson, S A

    2016-12-01

    Salmonella carriage is an insidious problem for the poultry industry. While most Salmonella serotypes are avirulent in poultry, these bacteria can contaminate chicken meat during processing, leading to one of the most important food safety hazards. In this study, we examined the anti-Salmonella effects of Diamond V Original XPC(™) (XPC) included in the finisher diet fed to commercial broilers. On 3 occasions between day one (D1) and D20, broilers were experimentally infected with multiple antibiotic-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium. After confirming that the chicks were shedding Salmonella in the feces on D21, broiler chicks were fed a diet containing XPC (n = 57 birds; 1.25 kg/MT) or an XPC-free control diet (CON) (n = 57 birds) to D49. Fecal samples were obtained weekly and subjected to selective culture for enumerating and determining the antibiotic resistance of the Salmonella Salmonella isolates were then subjected to an in vitro virulence assay, which predicts the ability of Salmonella to cause illness in a mammalian host. Broilers were euthanized on D49 and a segment of the large intestine was removed and subjected to the same assays used for the fecal samples. When compared to the birds fed the CON diet, Salmonella fecal shedding, virulence (invasion and invasion gene expression), and antibiotic resistance were significantly decreased in birds fed XPC (5-fold, 7.5-fold, 6-fold, and 5.3-fold decreases, respectively). Birds fed XPC exhibited heavier body weight (BW) and greater BW gains than those fed the CON diet. The decrease in virulence was associated with a decreased expression of a genetic regulator of Salmonella invasion into cells (hilA), while the decrease in antibiotic resistance was due to a loss of an integron (SGI1) from the input strain. This study revealed that Original XPC(™) inhibits the shedding, downstream virulence, and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella residing in broilers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press

  20. Multiple antibiotic resistance patterns of rhizospheric bacteria isolated from Phragmites australis growing in constructed wetland for distillery effluent treatment.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Sonal; Chandra, Ram; Rai, Vibhuti

    2008-01-01

    Susceptibility patterns of 12 different antibiotics were investigated against rhizospheric bacteria isolated from Phragmites australis from three different zones i.e. upper (0-5 cm), middle (5-10 cm), lower (10-15 cm) in constructed wetland system with and without distillery effluent. The major pollutants of distillery effluent were phenols, sulphide, heavy metals, and higher levels of biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) etc. The antibiotic resistance properties of bacteria were correlated with the heavy metal tolerance (one of distillery pollutant). Twenty-two species from contaminated and seventeen species from non-contaminated site were tested by agar disc-diffusion method. The results revealed that more than 63% of total isolates were resistance towards one or more antibiotics tested from all the three different zones of contaminated sites. The multiple-drug resistance property was shown by total 8 isolates from effluent contaminated region out of which 3 isolates were from upper zone, 3 isolates from middle zone and 2 isolates were from lower zone. Results indicated that isolates from contaminated rhizosphere were found more resistant to antibiotics than isolates from non-contaminated rhizosphere. Further this study produces evidence suggesting that tolerance to antibiotics was acquired by isolates for the adaptation and detoxification of all the pollutants present in the effluent at contaminated site. This consequently facilitated the phytoremediation of effluent, which emerges the tolerance and increases resistance to antibiotics.

  1. [Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance].

    PubMed

    Mühlemann, K

    2002-01-01

    Antibiotics interfere with structural and regulatory elements of bacterial cells leading to growth arrest or cell death. Bacteria have evolved a variety of strategies to overcome the effects of antibiotics. Examples are enzymatic destruction, alteration of the target, efflux and permeability changes. Resistance towards the same substance can be mediated by several mechanisms. Efflux pumps can probably act as mediators of higher resistance development. Alteration of common targets can lead to cross-resistance against several classes of antibiotics. Genetic events, such as point mutations, transfer of plasmids and gen regulation, can mediate a rapid emergence of resistance. Therefore, substances like rifampicin should be only used in combination with other drugs. Accumulation of resistance genes under common regulatory control in integrons induces co-resistance against substances of different specificity. Detailed knowledge of resistance mechanisms, their evolution and dynamics is important for a rational use of antibiotics and other strategies against antibiotic resistance.

  2. Multiple antibiotic resistances of Enterococcus isolates from raw or sand-filtered sewage.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junyi; Gallert, Claudia; Winter, Josef

    2007-02-01

    Fifty antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus strains were isolated from raw sewage of a wastewater treatment plant and from the same sewage after trickling through a 25-cm sand column, which retained >99% of the initial population. All 50 Enterococcus isolates were resistant against triple sulfa and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and none were resistant against vancomycin. Most of the isolates from raw sewage were resistant to more antibiotics than the isolates from sand column effluent. One Enterococcus isolate from raw sewage (no. 61) and one Enterococcus isolate from sand column effluent (no. 95) had ten antibiotic resistances each. Isolate no. 95 maintained its resistances in the absence of antibiotics during the whole study. It was compared with isolate no. 70, which was one of the isolates, being resistant only against the two sulfonamides. Phenotypically and biochemically, the two organisms were strains of Enterococcus faecalis. Sequence analysis of partical 16S rDNA allowed alignment of isolate no. 95 as a strain of Enterococcus faecium and of isolate no. 70 as a strain of E. faecalis. E. faecium strain no. 95 carried at least six different plasmids, whereas for E. faecalis strain no. 70, no discrete plasmid band was seen on the gels.

  3. A Multiple Antibiotic-Resistant Enterobacter cloacae Strain Isolated from a Bioethanol Fermentation Facility

    PubMed Central

    Murphree, Colin A.; Li, Qing; Heist, E. Patrick; Moe, Luke A.

    2014-01-01

    An Enterobacter cloacae strain (E. cloacae F3S3) that was collected as part of a project to assess antibiotic resistance among bacteria isolated from bioethanol fermentation facilities demonstrated high levels of resistance to antibiotics added prophylactically to bioethanol fermentors. PCR assays revealed the presence of canonical genes encoding resistance to penicillin (ampC) and erythromycin (ermG). Assays measuring biofilm formation under antibiotic stress indicated that erythromycin induced biofilm formation in E. cloacae F3S3. Planktonic growth and biofilm formation were observed at a high ethanol content, indicating E. cloacae F3S3 can persist in a bioethanol fermentor under the highly variable environmental conditions found in fermentors. PMID:24941895

  4. Multiple Resistance at No Cost: Rifampicin and Streptomycin a Dangerous Liaison in the Spread of Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Durão, Paulo; Trindade, Sandra; Sousa, Ana; Gordo, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is mounting that epistasis is widespread among mutations. The cost of carrying two deleterious mutations, or the advantage of acquiring two beneficial alleles, is typically lower that the sum of their individual effects. Much less is known on epistasis between beneficial and deleterious mutations, even though this is key to the amount of genetic hitchhiking that may occur during evolution. This is particularly important in the context of antibiotic resistance: Most resistances are deleterious, but some can be beneficial and remarkably rifampicin resistance can emerge de novo in populations evolving without antibiotics. Here we show pervasive positive pairwise epistasis on Escherichia coli fitness between beneficial mutations, which confer resistance to rifampicin, and deleterious mutations, which confer resistance to streptomycin. We find that 65% of double resistant strains outcompete sensitive bacteria in an environment devoid of antibiotics. Weak beneficial mutations may therefore overcome strong deleterious mutations and can even render double mutants strong competitors. PMID:26130082

  5. Genetic and functional analysis of the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) locus in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, S P; Hächler, H; Levy, S B

    1993-01-01

    A 7.8-kbp fragment of chromosomal DNA from a region controlling multiple antibiotic resistance (Mar) in Escherichia coli has been sequenced. Within the fragment is a potential divergent promoter region including marO, which contains two pairs of direct repeats, suggesting possible operator-regulatory sites. To the left of marO (region I) are one or two transcriptional units with three putative open reading frames (ORFs) encoding 64, 157, and 70 amino acids. To the right (region II) is a transcriptional unit containing three putative ORFs (ORF125/144, ORF129, and ORF72). Of six independent Mar mutants, four had mutations within the ORF encoding the first putative protein (ORF125/144) downstream of marO, including three different single-point mutations and an IS2 insertion. One of the other mutations occurred in marO (20-bp duplication), and the other occurred in a site in marO or ORF144 (a 1-bp change). All six mutations led to increased transcription of the region II transcript. High-copy-number plasmids containing marO and the adjacent ORF125/144 region from a wild-type source but not from a Mar mutant reduced the antibiotic resistance of a Mar mutant to levels comparable to those of wild-type cells. High-copy-number plasmids containing wild-type marO alone caused an increase in resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and norfloxacin in a wild-type strain. The nature of the Mar mutations and the results of the complementation studies suggest that ORF125/144 encodes a repressor (designated MarR) which acts at marO. The second ORF (ORF129), designated marA, would encode a protein, MarA, whose sequence shows strong similarity to those of a family of positive transcriptional regulators. A Tn5 insertion in marA inactivated the multiresistance phenotype of Mar mutants. The function of ORF72, designated marB, encoding the third putative protein in the operon, and that of other ORFs detected within the 7.8-kb fragment have not yet been determined. Images PMID:8383113

  6. Overexpression of the MarA positive regulator is sufficient to confer multiple antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Gambino, L; Gracheck, S J; Miller, P F

    1993-01-01

    A genetic approach was undertaken to identify normal bacterial genes whose products function to limit the effective concentration of antibiotics. In this approach, a multicopy plasmid library containing cloned Escherichia coli chromosomal sequences was screened for transformants that showed increased resistance to a number of unrelated antibiotics. Three such plasmids were identified, and all contained sequences originating from the mar locus. DNA sequence analysis of the minimal complementation unit revealed that the resistance phenotype was associated with the presence of the marA gene on the plasmids. The putative marA gene product is predicted to contain a helix-turn-helix DNA binding domain that is very similar to analogous domains found in three other E. coli proteins. One such similarity was to the SoxS gene product, the elevated expression of which has previously been associated with the multiple antibiotic resistance (Mar) phenotype. Constitutive expression of marA conferred antibiotic resistance even in cells carrying a deletion of the chromosomal mar locus. We have also found that transformants bearing marA plasmids show a significant reduction in ompF translation but not transcription, similar to previously described mar mutants. However, this reduction in ompF expression plays only a minor role in the resistance mechanism, suggesting that functions encoded by genes unlinked to mar must be affected by marA. These results suggest that activation of marA is the ultimate event that occurs at the mar locus during the process that results in multiple antibiotic resistance. PMID:8491710

  7. Antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants against multiple antibiotic resistant uropathogens: a study from Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, A S; Raja, S S S; Ponmurugan, K; Kandekar, S C; Natarajaseenivasan, K; Maripandi, A; Mandeel, Q A

    2011-09-01

    The increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens necessitates medicinal plants as an alternate therapy in restricting the resistant infectious organisms. In this primitive study, the antibiotic resistance of organisms isolated from urinary tract infected patients was evaluated using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) method and Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index values, and the MAR values was also calculated for plant extracts. The 10 common medicinal plants collected from Kolli hills, Namakkal, south India were extracted using the chloroform, methanol, acetone, ethanol and saponification procedure. The efficacy of the extracts on the uropathogens was tested by agar disc diffusion method in order to analyse the inhibitory activity of plant extract on the organisms. Azadiracta indica A. Juss., Tinospora cordifolia (Wild.) and Euphorbia hirta Linn. exhibited high inhibitory activity against most of the 11 tested organisms followed by Cassia javanica Linn. and Phyllanthus niruri Linn. The maximum zone size of 46.3 mm was exhibited by methanol extract of P. niruri Linn. against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Asparagus racemosus Willd. and Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl had the least activity against resistant pathogens. Saponified lipids of most of the plants exhibited maximum antibacterial activity. Among the tested organisms, P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the most susceptible and Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloaceae, Citrobacter koseri, and Citrobacter freundii were the least inhibited by most of the extracts of medicinal plants. It is concluded that revised antibiotic policies and more importantly the development of herbal medicine as an alternative may be incorporated in urological practice.

  8. Evolution of antibiotic resistance without antibiotic exposure.

    PubMed

    Knöppel, Anna; Näsvall, Joakim; Andersson, Dan I

    2017-09-11

    Antibiotic use is the main driver in the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Another unexplored possibility is that resistance evolves coincidentally in response to other selective pressures. We show that selection in the absence of antibiotics can co-select for decreased susceptibility to several antibiotics. Thus, genetic adaptation of bacteria to natural environments may drive resistance evolution by generating a pool of resistance mutations that selection could act on to enrich resistant mutants when antibiotic exposure occurs. Copyright © 2017 Knöppel et al.

  9. High level multiple antibiotic resistance among fish surface associated bacterial populations in non-aquaculture freshwater environment.

    PubMed

    Ozaktas, Tugba; Taskin, Bilgin; Gozen, Ayse G

    2012-12-01

    Freshwater fish, Alburnus alburnus (bleak), were captured from Lake Mogan, situated in Ankara, during spring. The surface mucus of the fish was collected and associated bacteria were cultured and isolated. By sequencing PCR-amplified 16S RNA encoding genes, the isolates were identified as members of 12 different genera: Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Bacillus, Brevundimonas, Gordonia, Kocuria, Microbacterium, Mycobacterium, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, and Staphylococcus, in addition to one strain that was unidentified. The mucus-dwelling bacterial isolates were tested for resistance against ampicillin, kanamycin, streptomycin and chloramphenicol. About 95% of the isolates were found to be resistant to ampicillin, 93% to chloramphenicol, and 88% to kanamycin and streptomycin. A Microbacterium oxydans and the unidentified environmental isolate were resistant to all four antibiotics tested at very high levels (>1600 μg/ml ampicillin and streptomycin; >1120 μg/ml kanamycin; >960 μg/ml chloramphenicol). Only a Kocuria sp. was sensitive to all four antibiotics at the lowest concentrations tested (3.10 μg/ml ampicillin and streptomycin; 2.15 μg/ml kanamycin; 1.85 μg/ml chloramphenicol). The rest of the isolates showed different resistance levels. Plasmid isolations were carried out to determine if the multiple antibiotic resistance could be attributed to the presence of plasmids. However, no plasmid was detected in any of the isolates. The resistance appeared to be mediated by chromosome-associated functions. This study indicated that multiple antibiotic resistance at moderate to high levels is common among the current phenotypes of the fish mucus-dwelling bacterial populations in this temperate, shallow lake which has not been subjected to any aquaculturing so far but under anthropogenic effect being in a recreational area.

  10. Genome Sequence of a Novel Multiple-Antibiotic-Resistant Member of the Erysipelotrichaceae Family Isolated from a Swine Manure Storage Pit.

    PubMed

    Haley, Bradd J; Kim, Seon Woo; Whitehead, Terence R

    2016-09-22

    The swine gastrointestinal tract and stored swine manure may serve as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes, as well as sources of novel bacteria. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a novel taxon in the Erysipelotrichaceae family, isolated from a swine manure storage pit that is resistant to multiple antibiotics.

  11. The Transmission and Antibiotic Resistance Variation in a Multiple Drug Resistance Clade of Vibrio cholerae Circulating in Multiple Countries in Asia.

    PubMed

    Pang, Bo; Du, Pengcheng; Zhou, Zhemin; Diao, Baowei; Cui, Zhigang; Zhou, Haijian; Kan, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae has caused massive outbreaks and even trans-continental epidemics. In 2008 and 2010, at least 3 remarkable cholera outbreaks occurred in Hainan, Anhui and Jiangsu provinces of China. To address the possible transmissions and the relationships to the 7th pandemic strains of those 3 outbreaks, we sequenced the whole genomes of the outbreak isolates and compared with the global isolates from the 7th pandemic. The three outbreaks in this study were caused by a cluster of V. cholerae in clade 3.B which is parallel to the clade 3.C that was transmitted from Nepal to Haiti and caused an outbreak in 2010. Pan-genome analysis provided additional evolution information on the mobile element and acquired multiple antibiotic resistance genes. We suggested that clade 3.B should be monitored because the multiple antibiotic resistant characteristics of this clade and the 'amplifier' function of China in the global transmission of current Cholera pandemic. We also show that dedicated whole genome sequencing analysis provided more information than the previous techniques and should be applied in the disease surveillance networks.

  12. The Transmission and Antibiotic Resistance Variation in a Multiple Drug Resistance Clade of Vibrio cholerae Circulating in Multiple Countries in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhemin; Diao, Baowei; Cui, Zhigang; Zhou, Haijian; Kan, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae has caused massive outbreaks and even trans-continental epidemics. In 2008 and 2010, at least 3 remarkable cholera outbreaks occurred in Hainan, Anhui and Jiangsu provinces of China. To address the possible transmissions and the relationships to the 7th pandemic strains of those 3 outbreaks, we sequenced the whole genomes of the outbreak isolates and compared with the global isolates from the 7th pandemic. The three outbreaks in this study were caused by a cluster of V. cholerae in clade 3.B which is parallel to the clade 3.C that was transmitted from Nepal to Haiti and caused an outbreak in 2010. Pan-genome analysis provided additional evolution information on the mobile element and acquired multiple antibiotic resistance genes. We suggested that clade 3.B should be monitored because the multiple antibiotic resistant characteristics of this clade and the ‘amplifier’ function of China in the global transmission of current Cholera pandemic. We also show that dedicated whole genome sequencing analysis provided more information than the previous techniques and should be applied in the disease surveillance networks. PMID:26930352

  13. Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longenecker, Nevin E.; Oppenheimer, Dan

    1982-01-01

    A study conducted by high school advanced bacteriology students appears to confirm the hypothesis that the incremental administration of antibiotics on several species of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermis, Bacillus sublitus, Bacillus megaterium) will allow for the development of antibiotic-resistant strains. (PEB)

  14. Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longenecker, Nevin E.; Oppenheimer, Dan

    1982-01-01

    A study conducted by high school advanced bacteriology students appears to confirm the hypothesis that the incremental administration of antibiotics on several species of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermis, Bacillus sublitus, Bacillus megaterium) will allow for the development of antibiotic-resistant strains. (PEB)

  15. Natural Hot Spots for Gain of Multiple Resistances: Arsenic and Antibiotic Resistances in Heterotrophic, Aerobic Bacteria from Marine Hydrothermal Vent Fields

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Pedro; Espírito Santo, Christophe; Branco, Rita; Francisco, Romeu; Santos, Susana; Hansen, Lars; Sorensen, Soren

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms are responsible for multiple antibiotic resistances that have been associated with resistance/tolerance to heavy metals, with consequences to public health. Many genes conferring these resistances are located on mobile genetic elements, easily exchanged among phylogenetically distant bacteria. The objective of the present work was to isolate arsenic-, antimonite-, and antibiotic-resistant strains and to determine the existence of plasmids harboring antibiotic/arsenic/antimonite resistance traits in phenotypically resistant strains, in a nonanthropogenically impacted environment. The hydrothermal Lucky Strike field in the Azores archipelago (North Atlantic, between 11°N and 38°N), at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, protected under the OSPAR Convention, was sampled as a metal-rich pristine environment. A total of 35 strains from 8 different species were isolated in the presence of arsenate, arsenite, and antimonite. ACR3 and arsB genes were amplified from the sediment's total DNA, and 4 isolates also carried ACR3 genes. Phenotypic multiple resistances were found in all strains, and 7 strains had recoverable plasmids. Purified plasmids were sequenced by Illumina and assembled by EDENA V3, and contig annotation was performed using the “Rapid Annotation using the Subsystems Technology” server. Determinants of resistance to copper, zinc, cadmium, cobalt, and chromium as well as to the antibiotics β-lactams and fluoroquinolones were found in the 3 sequenced plasmids. Genes coding for heavy metal resistance and antibiotic resistance in the same mobile element were found, suggesting the possibility of horizontal gene transfer and distribution of theses resistances in the bacterial population. PMID:25636836

  16. Natural hot spots for gain of multiple resistances: arsenic and antibiotic resistances in heterotrophic, aerobic bacteria from marine hydrothermal vent fields.

    PubMed

    Farias, Pedro; Espírito Santo, Christophe; Branco, Rita; Francisco, Romeu; Santos, Susana; Hansen, Lars; Sorensen, Soren; Morais, Paula V

    2015-04-01

    Microorganisms are responsible for multiple antibiotic resistances that have been associated with resistance/tolerance to heavy metals, with consequences to public health. Many genes conferring these resistances are located on mobile genetic elements, easily exchanged among phylogenetically distant bacteria. The objective of the present work was to isolate arsenic-, antimonite-, and antibiotic-resistant strains and to determine the existence of plasmids harboring antibiotic/arsenic/antimonite resistance traits in phenotypically resistant strains, in a nonanthropogenically impacted environment. The hydrothermal Lucky Strike field in the Azores archipelago (North Atlantic, between 11°N and 38°N), at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, protected under the OSPAR Convention, was sampled as a metal-rich pristine environment. A total of 35 strains from 8 different species were isolated in the presence of arsenate, arsenite, and antimonite. ACR3 and arsB genes were amplified from the sediment's total DNA, and 4 isolates also carried ACR3 genes. Phenotypic multiple resistances were found in all strains, and 7 strains had recoverable plasmids. Purified plasmids were sequenced by Illumina and assembled by EDENA V3, and contig annotation was performed using the "Rapid Annotation using the Subsystems Technology" server. Determinants of resistance to copper, zinc, cadmium, cobalt, and chromium as well as to the antibiotics β-lactams and fluoroquinolones were found in the 3 sequenced plasmids. Genes coding for heavy metal resistance and antibiotic resistance in the same mobile element were found, suggesting the possibility of horizontal gene transfer and distribution of theses resistances in the bacterial population.

  17. Prevalence of multiple antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria on bagged, ready-to-eat baby spinach.

    PubMed

    Walia, Sandeep; Rana, Sonia W; Maue, Daniel; Rana, Jatin; Kumar, Ashok; Walia, Satish K

    2013-01-01

    In this study, multiple antibiotic-resistant (MAR) Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) were isolated from triple-washed, bagged, ready-to-eat (RTE) baby spinach. Biochemical identification of randomly selected bacterial colonies showed the predominance of cytochrome oxidase-positive Pseudomonas species. Among the GNB, a higher prevalence of resistance was observed against cefoxitin (93.1%) followed by ampicillin (79.4%), chloramphenicol (72.6%), ceftizoxime (65.7%), aztreonam (64.9%), cefotaxime (53.6%), imipenem (38.3%), ceftazidime (33.5%), gentamicin (32.6%), tetracycline (22.2%), and ciprofloxacin (19.8%). Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) linked to two or more antibiotics was found in 95.3% of isolates, and resistance was transferable in the strains tested. These findings confirm the presence of MAR bacteria on RTE baby spinach and suggest that human consumption of this produce would amplify the MAR gene pool via conjugal transfer of MAR genes to commensal gut microflora and bacterial pathogens.

  18. Quantitative proteome analysis of an antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli exposed to tetracycline reveals multiple affected metabolic and peptidoglycan processes.

    PubMed

    Jones-Dias, Daniela; Carvalho, Ana Sofia; Moura, Inês Barata; Manageiro, Vera; Igrejas, Gilberto; Caniça, Manuela; Matthiesen, Rune

    2017-03-06

    Tetracyclines are among the most commonly used antibiotics administrated to farm animals for disease treatment and prevention, contributing to the worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance in animal and human pathogens. Although tetracycline mechanisms of resistance are well known, the role of metabolism in bacterial reaction to antibiotic stress is still an important assignment and could contribute to the understanding of tetracycline related stress response. In this study, spectral counts-based label free quantitative proteomics has been applied to study the response to tetracycline of the environmental-borne Escherichia coli EcAmb278 isolate soluble proteome. A total of 1484 proteins were identified by high resolution mass spectrometry at a false discovery rate threshold of 1%, of which 108 were uniquely identified under absence of tetracycline whereas 126 were uniquely identified in presence of tetracycline. These proteins revealed interesting difference in e.g. proteins involved in peptidoglycan-based cell wall proteins and energy metabolism. Upon treatment, 12 proteins were differentially regulated showing more than 2-fold change and p<0.05 (p value corrected for multiple testing). This integrated study using high resolution mass spectrometry based label-free quantitative proteomics to study tetracycline antibiotic response in the soluble proteome of resistant E. coli provides novel insight into tetracycline related stress.

  19. Multiple antibiotic resistance indexing of Escherichia coli to identify high-risk sources of faecal contamination of water.

    PubMed

    Titilawo, Yinka; Sibanda, Timothy; Obi, Larry; Okoh, Anthony

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the antibiogram profile of Escherichia coli (n = 300) isolated from selected rivers in Osun State, Nigeria. The identities of the E. coli isolates were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Susceptibility of the isolates to 20 antibiotics conventionally used in clinical cases was assessed in vitro by the standardized agar disc-diffusion method. All the isolates were susceptible to imipenem, meropenem, amikacin and gatilofloxacin. The isolates were variously susceptible to the other antibiotics as follows: ciprofloxacin (96 %), kanamycin (95 %), neomycin (92 %), streptomycin (84 %), chloramphenicol (73 %), nalidixic acid (66 %), nitrofurantoin (64 %), gentamycin (63 %), doxycycline (58 %), cefepime (57 %), tetracycline (49 %) and cephalothin (42 %). The multiple antibiotic resistance indexing ranged from 0.50 to 0.80 for all the sampling locations and exceeded the threshold value of 0.2, suggesting the origin of the isolates to be of high antimicrobial usage. Our findings signify an increase in the incidence of antimicrobial resistance of E. coli towards conventionally used antibiotics necessitating proper surveillance programmes towards the monitoring of antimicrobial resistance determinants in water bodies.

  20. Antibiotic Resistance in Acne Treatment.

    PubMed

    Adler, Brandon L; Kornmehl, Heather; Armstrong, April W

    2017-08-01

    What is the evidence for antibiotic resistance in acne, and how does resistance affect treatment? Use of topical and systemic antibiotics for acne is associated with formation of resistance in Propionibacterium acnes and other bacteria, with clinical consequences. Guidelines recommend resistance reduction strategies including avoidance of antibiotic monotherapy, combination treatment with topical modalities, and limiting the duration of oral antibiotic use.

  1. Multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria on fluted pumpkin leaves, a herb of therapeutic value.

    PubMed

    Igbeneghu, Oluwatoyin A; Abdu, Abdulrasheed B

    2014-06-01

    Fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) is a minimally-processed green leafy vegetable traditionally used for its antianaemic properties in the form of leaf juice without a heating or inactivation step before consumption. The aim of the study was to assess the presence of surface microbiota on T. occidentalis leaves and also to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated organisms. Bacterial contaminants on 50 samples of T. occidentalis leaves were isolated and characterized using standard biochemical methods and the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated organisms was determined using the antibiotic disc diffusion assay. The results obtained show that the leaves of T. occidentalis is contaminated with organisms which included Enterobacter agglomerans (25.9%), Proteus vulgaris (24.9%), Klebsiella spp. (2.6%), and Serratia liquefaciens (2.1%). Other bacterial isolates recovered in order of frequency included: Staphylococcus spp. (33.7%), Bacillus spp. (8.3%), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (2.6%). Of the 193 bacterial isolates from the leaves of T. occidentalis samples tested for antimicrobial resistance, all (100%) were found to be resistant to ampicillin, cloxacillin, augmentin, erythromycin, and tetracycline while 96% of the isolates were resistant to cephalothin. Resistance to trimethoprim (93%) and gentamicin (83%) was also observed. Approximately, 22% of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin; however, only 11 (5.8%) were resistant to ofloxacin. Thus, uncooked T. occidentalis is a potential source of highly-resistant epiphytic bacteria which could be opportunistic pathogens in consumers.

  2. Multiple Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria on Fluted Pumpkin Leaves, a Herb of Therapeutic Value

    PubMed Central

    Abdu, Abdulrasheed B.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) is a minimally-processed green leafy vegetable traditionally used for its antianaemic properties in the form of leaf juice without a heating or inactivation step before consumption. The aim of the study was to assess the presence of surface microbiota on T. occidentalis leaves and also to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated organisms. Bacterial contaminants on 50 samples of T. occidentalis leaves were isolated and characterized using standard biochemical methods and the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated organisms was determined using the antibiotic disc diffusion assay. The results obtained show that the leaves of T. occidentalis is contaminated with organisms which included Enterobacter agglomerans (25.9%), Proteus vulgaris (24.9%), Klebsiella spp. (2.6%), and Serratia liquefaciens (2.1%). Other bacterial isolates recovered in order of frequency included: Staphylococcus spp. (33.7%), Bacillus spp. (8.3%), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (2.6%). Of the 193 bacterial isolates from the leaves of T. occidentalis samples tested for antimicrobial resistance, all (100%) were found to be resistant to ampicillin, cloxacillin, augmentin, erythromycin, and tetracycline while 96% of the isolates were resistant to cephalothin. Resistance to trimethoprim (93%) and gentamicin (83%) was also observed. Approximately, 22% of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin; however, only 11 (5.8%) were resistant to ofloxacin. Thus, uncooked T. occidentalis is a potential source of highly-resistant epiphytic bacteria which could be opportunistic pathogens in consumers. PMID:25076655

  3. CmeABC multidrug efflux pump contributes to antibiotic resistance and promotes Campylobacter jejuni survival and multiplication in Acanthamoeba polyphaga.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Ana; Ramesh, Amritha; Seddon, Alan M; Karlyshev, Andrey V

    2017-09-15

    Campylobacter jejuni is a foodborne pathogen recognized as the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis. The wide use of antibiotics in medicine and in animal husbandry has led to an increased incidence of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter In addition to a role in multidrug resistance, the Campylobacter CmeABC RND-type efflux pump, which is associated with multidrug resistance (MDR), may also be involved in virulence. As a vehicle of pathogenic microorganisms, the protozoan Acanthamoeba is a good model for the investigation of bacterial survival in the environment and molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity. The interaction between C. jejuni 81-176 and A. polyphaga was investigated in this study by using a modified gentamicin protection assay. In addition, a possible role for the CmeABC MDR pump in this interaction was explored. Here we report that this MDR pump is beneficial for the intracellular survival and multiplication of C. jejuni in A. polyphaga, but is dispensable for biofilm formation and motility.Importance The endosymbiotic relationship between amoebae and microbial pathogens may contribute to persistence and spreading of the latter in the environment, which has significant implications to human health. In this study we found that Campylobacter jejuni was able to survive and multiply inside Acanthamoeba. polyphaga Since these microorganisms can co-exist in the same environment (e.g. in poultry farms), the latter may increase the risk of infection with Campylobacter Our data suggests that, in addition to its role in antibiotic resistance, the CmeABC MDR efflux pump also plays a role in bacterial survival within amoebae. Furthermore, we demonstrated a synergistic effect of the CmeABC MDR efflux pump and TetO on bacterial resistance to tetracycline. Due to its role both in antibiotic resistance and virulence of C. jejuni, the CmeABC MDR efflux pump could be considered as a good target for the development of antibacterial drugs against this

  4. Resistance to Antibiotics Mediated by Target Alterations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spratt, Brian G.

    1994-04-01

    The development of resistance to antibiotics by reductions in the affinities of their enzymatic targets occurs most rapidly for antibiotics that inactivate a single target and that are not analogs of substrate. In these cases of resistance (for example, resistance to rifampicin), numerous single amino acid substitutions may provide large decreases in the affinity of the target for the antibiotic, leading to clinically significant levels of resistance. Resistance due to target alterations should occur much more slowly for those antibiotics (penicillin, for example) that inactivate multiple targets irreversibly by acting as close analogs of substrate. Resistance to penicillin because of target changes has emerged, by unexpected mechanisms, only in a limited number of species. However, inactivating enzymes commonly provide resistance to antibiotics that, like penicillin, are derived from natural products, although such enzymes have not been found for synthetic antibiotics. Thus, the ideal antibiotic would be produced by rational design, rather than by the modification of a natural product.

  5. Tn6026 and Tn6029 are found in complex resistance regions mobilised by diverse plasmids and chromosomal islands in multiple antibiotic resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Reid, Cameron J; Roy Chowdhury, Piklu; Djordjevic, Steven P

    2015-07-01

    Transposons flanked by direct copies of IS26 are important contributors to the evolution of multiple antibiotic resistance. Tn6029 and Tn6026 are examples of composite transposons that have become widely disseminated on small and large plasmids with different incompatibility markers in pathogenic and commensal Escherichia coli and various serovars of Salmonella enterica. Some of the plasmids that harbour these transposons also carry combinations of virulence genes. Recently, Tn6029 and Tn6026 and derivatives thereof have been found on chromosomal islands in both established and recently emerged pathogens. While Tn6029 and Tn6026 carry genes encoding resistance to older generation antibiotics, they also provide a scaffold for the introduction of genes encoding resistance to a wide variety of clinically relevant antibiotics that are mobilised by IS26. As a consequence, Tn6029 and Tn6026 or variants are likely to increasingly feature in complex resistance regions in multiple antibiotic resistant Enterobacteriaceae that threaten the health of humans and food production animals.

  6. Origins and Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Julian; Davies, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Antibiotics have always been considered one of the wonder discoveries of the 20th century. This is true, but the real wonder is the rise of antibiotic resistance in hospitals, communities, and the environment concomitant with their use. The extraordinary genetic capacities of microbes have benefitted from man's overuse of antibiotics to exploit every source of resistance genes and every means of horizontal gene transmission to develop multiple mechanisms of resistance for each and every antibiotic introduced into practice clinically, agriculturally, or otherwise. This review presents the salient aspects of antibiotic resistance development over the past half-century, with the oft-restated conclusion that it is time to act. To achieve complete restitution of therapeutic applications of antibiotics, there is a need for more information on the role of environmental microbiomes in the rise of antibiotic resistance. In particular, creative approaches to the discovery of novel antibiotics and their expedited and controlled introduction to therapy are obligatory. PMID:20805405

  7. Origins and evolution of antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Davies, Julian; Davies, Dorothy

    2010-09-01

    Antibiotics have always been considered one of the wonder discoveries of the 20th century. This is true, but the real wonder is the rise of antibiotic resistance in hospitals, communities, and the environment concomitant with their use. The extraordinary genetic capacities of microbes have benefitted from man's overuse of antibiotics to exploit every source of resistance genes and every means of horizontal gene transmission to develop multiple mechanisms of resistance for each and every antibiotic introduced into practice clinically, agriculturally, or otherwise. This review presents the salient aspects of antibiotic resistance development over the past half-century, with the oft-restated conclusion that it is time to act. To achieve complete restitution of therapeutic applications of antibiotics, there is a need for more information on the role of environmental microbiomes in the rise of antibiotic resistance. In particular, creative approaches to the discovery of novel antibiotics and their expedited and controlled introduction to therapy are obligatory.

  8. Resistance diagnosis and the changing epidemiology of antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    McAdams, David

    2017-01-01

    Widespread adoption of point-of-care resistance diagnostics (POCRD) reduces ineffective antibiotic use but could increase overall antibiotic use. Indeed, in the context of a standard susceptible-infected epidemiological model with a single antibiotic, POCRD accelerates the rise of resistance in the disease-causing bacterial population. When multiple antibiotics are available, however, POCRD may slow the rise of resistance even as more patients receive antibiotic treatment, belying the conventional wisdom that antibiotics are "exhaustible resources" whose increased use necessarily promotes the rise of resistance. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Munita, Jose M.; Arias, Cesar A.

    2015-01-01

    Emergence of resistance among the most important bacterial pathogens is recognized as a major public health threat affecting humans worldwide. Multidrug-resistant organisms have emerged not only in the hospital environment but are now often identified in community settings, suggesting that reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are present outside the hospital. The bacterial response to the antibiotic “attack” is the prime example of bacterial adaptation and the pinnacle of evolution. “Survival of the fittest” is a consequence of an immense genetic plasticity of bacterial pathogens that trigger specific responses that result in mutational adaptations, acquisition of genetic material or alteration of gene expression producing resistance to virtually all antibiotics currently available in clinical practice. Therefore, understanding the biochemical and genetic basis of resistance is of paramount importance to design strategies to curtail the emergence and spread of resistance and devise innovative therapeutic approaches against multidrug-resistant organisms. In this chapter, we will describe in detail the major mechanisms of antibiotic resistance encountered in clinical practice providing specific examples in relevant bacterial pathogens. PMID:27227291

  10. Predicting antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Martínez, José L; Baquero, Fernando; Andersson, Dan I

    2007-12-01

    The treatment of bacterial infections is increasingly complicated because microorganisms can develop resistance to antimicrobial agents. This article discusses the information that is required to predict when antibiotic resistance is likely to emerge in a bacterial population. Indeed, the development of the conceptual and methodological tools required for this type of prediction represents an important goal for microbiological research. To this end, we propose the establishment of methodological guidelines that will allow researchers to predict the emergence of resistance to a new antibiotic before its clinical introduction.

  11. Tetracycline Antibiotics and Resistance.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Trudy H

    2016-04-01

    Tetracyclines possess many properties considered ideal for antibiotic drugs, including activity against Gram-positive and -negative pathogens, proven clinical safety, acceptable tolerability, and the availability of intravenous (IV) and oral formulations for most members of the class. As with all antibiotic classes, the antimicrobial activities of tetracyclines are subject to both class-specific and intrinsic antibiotic-resistance mechanisms. Since the discovery of the first tetracyclines more than 60 years ago, ongoing optimization of the core scaffold has produced tetracyclines in clinical use and development that are capable of thwarting many of these resistance mechanisms. New chemistry approaches have enabled the creation of synthetic derivatives with improved in vitro potency and in vivo efficacy, ensuring that the full potential of the class can be explored for use against current and emerging multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens, including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, MDR Acinetobacter species, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  12. AdeIJK, a Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division Pump Effluxing Multiple Antibiotics in Acinetobacter baumannii▿

    PubMed Central

    Damier-Piolle, Laurence; Magnet, Sophie; Brémont, Sylvie; Lambert, Thierry; Courvalin, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    We have identified a second resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type efflux pump, AdeIJK, in clinical isolate Acinetobacter baumannii BM4454. The adeI, adeJ, and adeK genes encode, respectively, the membrane fusion, RND, and outer membrane components of the pump. AdeJ belongs to the AcrB protein family (57% identity with AcrB from Escherichia coli). mRNA analysis by Northern blotting and reverse transcription-PCR indicated that the genes were cotranscribed. Overexpression of the cloned adeIJK operon was toxic in both E. coli and Acinetobacter. The adeIJK genes were detected in all of the 60 strains of A. baumannii tested. The two latter observations suggest that the AdeIJK complex might contribute to intrinsic but not to acquired antibiotic resistance in Acinetobacter. To characterize the substrate specificity of the pump, we have constructed derivatives of BM4454 in which adeIJK (strain BM4579), adeABC (strain BM4561), or both groups of genes (strain BM4652) were inactivated by deletion-insertion. Determination of the antibiotic susceptibility of these strains and of BM4652 and BM4579, in which the adeIJK operon was provided in trans, indicated that the AdeIJK pump contributes to resistance to β-lactams, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, erythromycin, lincosamides, fluoroquinolones, fusidic acid, novobiocin, rifampin, trimethoprim, acridine, safranin, pyronine, and sodium dodecyl sulfate. The chemical structure of these molecules suggests that amphiphilic compounds are the preferred substrates. The AdeABC and AdeIJK efflux systems contributed in a more than additive fashion to tigecycline resistance. PMID:18086852

  13. Activation of Multiple Antibiotic Resistance in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains by Aryloxoalcanoic Acid Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Balagué, Claudia; Véscovi, Eleonora García

    2001-01-01

    Clofibric and ethacrynic acids are prototypical pharmacological agents administered in the treatment of hypertrigliceridemia and as a diuretic agent, respectively. They share with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (the widely used herbicide known as 2,4-D) a chlorinated phenoxy structural moiety. These aryloxoalcanoic agents (AOAs) are mainly excreted by the renal route as unaltered or conjugated active compounds. The relatedness of these agents at the structural level and their potential effect on therapeutically treated or occupationally exposed individuals who are simultaneously undergoing a bacterial urinary tract infection led us to analyze their action on uropathogenic, clinically isolated Escherichia coli strains. We found that exposure to these compounds increases the bacterial resistance to an ample variety of antibiotics in clinical isolates of both uropathogenic and nonpathogenic E. coli strains. We demonstrate that the AOAs induce an alteration of the bacterial outer membrane permeability properties by the repression of the major porin OmpF in a micF-dependent process. Furthermore, we establish that the antibiotic resistance phenotype is primarily due to the induction of the MarRAB regulatory system by the AOAs, while other regulatory pathways that also converge into micF modulation (OmpR/EnvZ, SoxRS, and Lrp) remained unaltered. The fact that AOAs give rise to uropathogenic strains with a diminished susceptibility to antimicrobials highlights the impact of frequently underestimated or ignored collateral effects of chemical agents. PMID:11353631

  14. Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea (ARG)

    MedlinePlus

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Gonorrhea Antibiotic Resistance Basic Information Laboratory Information Resources & References Combating the ... Page Surveillance Trends and Treatment Challenges Laboratory Issues Antibiotic resistance (AR) is the ability of bacteria to resist ...

  15. Multiple strategies to activate gold nanoparticles as antibiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuyun; Jiang, Xingyu

    2013-08-01

    Widespread antibiotic resistance calls for new strategies. Nanotechnology provides a chance to overcome antibiotic resistance by multiple antibiotic mechanisms. This paper reviews the progress in activating gold nanoparticles with nonantibiotic or antibiotic molecules to combat bacterial resistance, analyzes the gap between experimental achievements and real clinical application, and suggests some potential directions in developing antibacterial nanodrugs.

  16. Multiple antibiotic resistance of heterotrophic bacteria in the littoral zone of Lake Shira as an indicator of human impact on the ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Lobova, Tatiana I; Barkhatov, Yuri V; Salamatina, Ol'ga V; Popova, Lyudmila Yu

    2008-01-01

    Resistance to Ampicillin and Kanamycin displayed by heterotrophic bacteria isolated in Summer and in Spring from the littoral and the central parts of Lake Shira (a therapeutic lake in the Khakasia Republic, Russia) has been investigated. It has been found that in Summer, human and animal microflora featuring multiple antibiotic resistance (to Ampicillin and Kanamycin) predominates in all the studied stations of the littoral zone of the lake. In Spring, concentrations of bacteria featuring multiple antibiotic resistance decrease significantly and bacteria sensitive to antibiotics predominate in the lake. Emergence of multiple antibiotic resistance in bacteria of Lake Shira is caused by the input of allochthonous bacteria into the lake; this feature of heterotrophic bacteria of Lake Shira can be used to monitor the impact on the ecosystem made by health resorts.

  17. Tackling antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Karen; Courvalin, Patrice; Dantas, Gautam; Davies, Julian; Eisenstein, Barry; Huovinen, Pentti; Jacoby, George A.; Kishony, Roy; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Kutter, Elizabeth; Lerner, Stephen A.; Levy, Stuart; Lewis, Kim; Lomovskaya, Olga; Miller, Jeffrey H.; Mobashery, Shahriar; Piddock, Laura J. V.; Projan, Steven; Thomas, Christopher M.; Tomasz, Alexander; Tulkens, Paul M.; Walsh, Timothy R.; Watson, James D.; Witkowski, Jan; Witte, Wolfgang; Wright, Gerry; Yeh, Pamela; Zgurskaya, Helen I.

    2014-01-01

    The development and spread of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a universal threat to both humans and animals that is generally not preventable, but can nevertheless be controlled and must be tackled in the most effective ways possible. To explore how the problem of antibiotic resistance might best be addressed, a group of thirty scientists from academia and industry gathered at the Banbury Conference Centre in Cold Spring Harbor, New York, May 16-18, 2011. From these discussions emerged a priority list of steps that need to be taken to resolve this global crisis. PMID:22048738

  18. [Resistance to antibiotics].

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jesús Silva

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a major public health problem around the world causing high rates of morbi-mortality and economic problems in hospital settings. Major bacterial causing nosocomial infections are: extended-spectrum beta-lactameses (ESBL) producing enterobacteria, methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, metallo fl-lactamases (MBL) producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus spp, Acinetobacter baumani. This last bacteria is not very often isolated in hospital settings yet, but it is multi-resistance pathogen causing high mortality. Helicobacter pylori, which is not a nosocomial pathogen but is associated to gastric diseases (from gastritis to gastric cancer). Infections prevention, to obtain an accuracy diagnostic and effective treatment, use antibiotic wisely and pathogen dissemination prevention (hand washing), are important steps to control the bacterial resistance.

  19. Characterization of lead-resistant river isolate Enterococcus faecalis and assessment of its multiple metal and antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Aktan, Yasin; Tan, Sema; Icgen, Bulent

    2013-06-01

    Contamination of surface waters has a direct impact on the public health of entire communities. Microorganisms inhabiting contaminated surface waters have developed mechanisms of coping with a variety of toxic metals and drugs. Investigations were carried out to isolate and identify lead-resistant bacteria from the river Kızılırmak along the city of Kırıkkale, Turkey. Of the 33 lead-resistant isolates, one isolate with a minimal inhibitory concentration of 1,200 mg L(-1) was isolated and identified as Enterococcus faecalis by using biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequencing. Lead-resistant E. faecalis isolate was found out to be resistant to other heavy metals like aluminum, lithium, barium, chromium, iron, silver, tin, nickel, zinc, and strontium and to drugs like amikacin, aztreonam, and gentamicin. E. faecalis harbored four plasmids with the molecular sizes of 1.58, 3.06, 22.76, and 28.95 kb. Plasmid profile analyses of cured derivatives revealed that the lead resistance ability of E. faecalis was still existing despite the elimination of all the plasmids. Moreover, the antibiotic resistance pattern of the cured derivatives did not demonstrate any change from the parental strain. Our findings indicated that the lead resistance genes of E. faecalis were located on the chromosomal DNA rather than the plasmid.

  20. Genome sequence of a novel multiple antibiotic resistant member of Erysipelotrichaceae family isolated from a swine manure storage pit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The swine gastro intestinal (GI) tract and stored manure may serve as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes as well as sources of novel bacteria. We report the draft genome sequence of “Cottaibacterium suis” strain MTC7, a novel antibiotic resistant bacterium. The strain was isolated from a swin...

  1. Investigating the Antibiotic Resistance Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Michael; Lawson, Amy L.

    1998-01-01

    Seeks to give teachers useful information on the extent of the problem of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, mechanisms bacteria use to resist antibiotics, the causes of the emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms, and practices that can prevent or reverse this trend. Contains 19 references. (DDR)

  2. Investigating the Antibiotic Resistance Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Michael; Lawson, Amy L.

    1998-01-01

    Seeks to give teachers useful information on the extent of the problem of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, mechanisms bacteria use to resist antibiotics, the causes of the emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms, and practices that can prevent or reverse this trend. Contains 19 references. (DDR)

  3. Strategies to Minimize Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Ro; Cho, Ill Hwan; Jeong, Byeong Chul; Lee, Sang Hee

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance can be reduced by using antibiotics prudently based on guidelines of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) and various data such as pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties of antibiotics, diagnostic testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), clinical response, and effects on the microbiota, as well as by new antibiotic developments. The controlled use of antibiotics in food animals is another cornerstone among efforts to reduce antibiotic resistance. All major resistance-control strategies recommend education for patients, children (e.g., through schools and day care), the public, and relevant healthcare professionals (e.g., primary-care physicians, pharmacists, and medical students) regarding unique features of bacterial infections and antibiotics, prudent antibiotic prescribing as a positive construct, and personal hygiene (e.g., handwashing). The problem of antibiotic resistance can be minimized only by concerted efforts of all members of society for ensuring the continued efficiency of antibiotics. PMID:24036486

  4. Strategies to minimize antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Ro; Cho, Ill Hwan; Jeong, Byeong Chul; Lee, Sang Hee

    2013-09-12

    Antibiotic resistance can be reduced by using antibiotics prudently based on guidelines of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) and various data such as pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties of antibiotics, diagnostic testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), clinical response, and effects on the microbiota, as well as by new antibiotic developments. The controlled use of antibiotics in food animals is another cornerstone among efforts to reduce antibiotic resistance. All major resistance-control strategies recommend education for patients, children (e.g., through schools and day care), the public, and relevant healthcare professionals (e.g., primary-care physicians, pharmacists, and medical students) regarding unique features of bacterial infections and antibiotics, prudent antibiotic prescribing as a positive construct, and personal hygiene (e.g., handwashing). The problem of antibiotic resistance can be minimized only by concerted efforts of all members of society for ensuring the continued efficiency of antibiotics.

  5. Nanoparticles Functionalized with Ampicillin Destroy Multiple-Antibiotic-Resistant Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogenes and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ashley N.; Smith, Kathryn; Samuels, Tova A.; Lu, Jiangrui; Obare, Sherine O.

    2012-01-01

    We show here that silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were intrinsically antibacterial, whereas gold nanoparticles (AuNP) were antimicrobial only when ampicillin was bound to their surfaces. Both AuNP and AgNP functionalized with ampicillin were effective broad-spectrum bactericides against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Most importantly, when AuNP and AgNP were functionalized with ampicillin they became potent bactericidal agents with unique properties that subverted antibiotic resistance mechanisms of multiple-drug-resistant bacteria. PMID:22286985

  6. Nanoparticles functionalized with ampicillin destroy multiple-antibiotic-resistant isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogenes and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ashley N; Smith, Kathryn; Samuels, Tova A; Lu, Jiangrui; Obare, Sherine O; Scott, Maria E

    2012-04-01

    We show here that silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were intrinsically antibacterial, whereas gold nanoparticles (AuNP) were antimicrobial only when ampicillin was bound to their surfaces. Both AuNP and AgNP functionalized with ampicillin were effective broad-spectrum bactericides against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Most importantly, when AuNP and AgNP were functionalized with ampicillin they became potent bactericidal agents with unique properties that subverted antibiotic resistance mechanisms of multiple-drug-resistant bacteria.

  7. Molecular mechanisms of antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Blair, Jessica M A; Webber, Mark A; Baylay, Alison J; Ogbolu, David O; Piddock, Laura J V

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria that are difficult or impossible to treat are becoming increasingly common and are causing a global health crisis. Antibiotic resistance is encoded by several genes, many of which can transfer between bacteria. New resistance mechanisms are constantly being described, and new genes and vectors of transmission are identified on a regular basis. This article reviews recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which bacteria are either intrinsically resistant or acquire resistance to antibiotics, including the prevention of access to drug targets, changes in the structure and protection of antibiotic targets and the direct modification or inactivation of antibiotics.

  8. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Alan P.

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance involves the collection and analysis of data for the detection and monitoring of threats to public health. Surveillance should also inform as to the epidemiology of the threat and its burden in the population. A further key component of surveillance is the timely feedback of data to stakeholders with a view to generating action aimed at reducing or preventing the public health threat being monitored. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance involves the collection of antibiotic susceptibility test results undertaken by microbiology laboratories on bacteria isolated from clinical samples sent for investigation. Correlation of these data with demographic and clinical data for the patient populations from whom the pathogens were isolated gives insight into the underlying epidemiology and facilitates the formulation of rational interventions aimed at reducing the burden of resistance. This article describes a range of surveillance activities that have been undertaken in the UK over a number of years, together with current interventions being implemented. These activities are not only of national importance but form part of the international response to the global threat posed by antibiotic resistance. PMID:25918439

  9. Endless Resistance. Endless Antibiotics?

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jed F.; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2016-01-01

    The practice of medicine was profoundly transformed by the introduction of the antibiotics (compounds isolated from Nature) and the antibacterials (compounds prepared by synthesis) for the control of bacterial infection. As a result of the extraordinary success of these compounds over decades of time, a timeless biological activity for these compounds has been presumed. This presumption is no longer. The inexorable acquisition of resistance mechanisms by bacteria is retransforming medical practice. Credible answers to this dilemma are far better recognized than they are being implemented. In this perspective we examine (and in key respects, reiterate) the chemical and biological strategies being used to address the challenge of bacterial resistance. PMID:27746889

  10. Update on the antibiotic resistance crisis.

    PubMed

    Rossolini, Gian Maria; Arena, Fabio; Pecile, Patrizia; Pollini, Simona

    2014-10-01

    Antibiotics tend to lose their efficacy over time due to the emergence and dissemination of resistance among bacterial pathogens. Strains with resistance to multiple antibiotic classes have emerged among major Gram-positive and Gram-negative species including Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. Enterobacteriaceae, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. With some Gram-negatives, resistance may involve most or even all the available antimicrobial options, resulting in extremely drug-resistant or totally drug-resistant phenotypes. This so-called 'antibiotic resistance crisis' has been compounded by the lagging in antibiotic discovery and development programs occurred in recent years, and is jeopardizing the essential role played by antibiotics in current medical practices.

  11. Addressing antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Kalpana

    2002-07-08

    Management of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) has traditionally been based on 2 important principles: the spectrum of organisms causing acute UTI is highly predictable (Escherichia coli accounts for 75% to 90% and Staphylococcus saprophyticus accounts for 5% to 15% of isolates), and the susceptibility patterns of these organisms have also been relatively predictable. As a result, empiric therapy with short-course trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) has been a standard management approach for uncomplicated cystitis.However, antibiotic resistance is now becoming a major factor not only in nosocomial complicated UTIs, but also in uncomplicated community-acquired UTIs. Resistance to TMP-SMX now approaches 18% to 22% in some regions of the United States, and nearly 1 in 3 bacterial strains causing cystitis or pyelonephritis demonstrate resistance to amoxicillin. Fortunately, resistance to other agents, such as nitrofurantoin and the fluoroquinolones, has remained low, at approximately 2%. Preliminary data suggest that the increase in TMP-SMX resistance is associated with poorer bacteriologic and clinical outcomes when TMP-SMX is used for therapy. As a result, these trends have necessitated a change in the management approach to community-acquired UTI. The use of TMP-SMX as a first-line agent for empiric therapy of uncomplicated cystitis is only appropriate in areas where TMP-SMX resistance prevalence is <10% to 20%. In areas where resistance to TMP-SMX exceeds this rate, alternative agents need to be considered.

  12. Addressing antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Kalpana

    2003-02-01

    Management of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) has traditionally been based on 2 important principles: the spectrum of organisms causing acute UTI is highly predictable (Escherichia coli accounts for 75% to 90% and Staphylococcus saprophyticus accounts for 5% to 15% of isolates), and the susceptibility patterns of these organisms have also been relatively predictable. As a result, empiric therapy with short-course trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) has been a standard management approach for uncomplicated cystitis.However, antibiotic resistance is now becoming a major factor not only in nosocomial complicated UTIs, but also in uncomplicated community-acquired UTIs. Resistance to TMP-SMX now approaches 18% to 22% in some regions of the United States, and nearly 1 in 3 bacterial strains causing cystitis or pyelonephritis demonstrate resistance to amoxicillin. Fortunately, resistance to other agents, such as nitrofurantoin and the fluoroquinolones, has remained low, at approximately 2%. Preliminary data suggest that the increase in TMP-SMX resistance is associated with poorer bacteriologic and clinical outcomes when TMP-SMX is used for therapy. As a result, these trends have necessitated a change in the management approach to community-acquired UTI. The use of TMP-SMX as a first-line agent for empiric therapy of uncomplicated cystitis is only appropriate in areas where TMP-SMX resistance prevalence is <10% to 20%. In areas where resistance to TMP-SMX exceeds this rate, alternative agents need to be considered.

  13. Bacterial cheating limits antibiotic resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao Chao, Hui; Yurtsev, Eugene; Datta, Manoshi; Artemova, Tanya; Gore, Jeff

    2012-02-01

    The widespread use of antibiotics has led to the evolution of resistance in bacteria. Bacteria can gain resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin by acquiring a plasmid carrying the gene beta-lactamase, which inactivates the antibiotic. This inactivation may represent a cooperative behavior, as the entire bacterial population benefits from removing the antibiotic. The cooperative nature of this growth suggests that a cheater strain---which does not contribute to breaking down the antibiotic---may be able to take advantage of cells cooperatively inactivating the antibiotic. Here we find experimentally that a ``sensitive'' bacterial strain lacking the plasmid conferring resistance can invade a population of resistant bacteria, even in antibiotic concentrations that should kill the sensitive strain. We observe stable coexistence between the two strains and find that a simple model successfully explains the behavior as a function of antibiotic concentration and cell density. We anticipate that our results will provide insight into the evolutionary origin of phenotypic diversity and cooperative behaviors.

  14. Concurrence of cat and tet genes in multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from a sea cucumber and sea urchin mariculture farm in China.

    PubMed

    Dang, Hongyue; Song, Linsheng; Chen, Mingna; Chang, Yaqing

    2006-11-01

    A basic understanding of abundance and diversity of antibiotic-resistant microbes and their genetic determinants is necessary for finding a way to prevent and control the spread of antibiotic resistance. For this purpose, chloramphenicol and multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria were screened from a mariculture farm in northern China. Both sea cucumber and sea urchin rearing ponds were populated with abundant antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially marine vibrios. Sixty-five percent chloramphenicol-resistant isolates from sea cucumber harbored a cat gene, either cat IV or cat II, whereas 35% sea urchin isolates harbored a cat gene, actually cat II. The predominant resistance determinant cat IV gene mainly occurred in isolates related to Vibrio tasmaniensis or Pseudoalteromonas atlantica, and the cat II gene mainly occurred in Vibrio splendidus-like isolates. All the cat-positive isolates also harbored one or two of the tet genes, tet(D), tet(B), or tet(A). As no chloramphenicol-related antibiotic was ever used, coselection of the cat genes by other antibiotics, especially oxytetracycline, might be the cause of the high incidence of cat genes in the mariculture farm studied.

  15. Selection of multiple-antibiotic-resistant (mar) mutants of Escherichia coli by using the disinfectant pine oil: roles of the mar and acrAB loci.

    PubMed Central

    Moken, M C; McMurry, L M; Levy, S B

    1997-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli selected for resistance to the disinfectant pine oil or to a household product containing pine oil also showed resistance to multiple antibiotics (tetracycline, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and nalidixic acid) and overexpressed the marA gene. Likewise, antibiotic-selected Mar mutants, which also overexpress marA, were resistant to pine oil. Deletion of the mar or acrAB locus, the latter encoding a multidrug efflux pump positively regulated in part by MarA, increased the susceptibility of wild-type and mutant strains to pine oil. PMID:9420057

  16. Antibiotic adjuvants - A strategy to unlock bacterial resistance to antibiotics.

    PubMed

    González-Bello, Concepción

    2017-09-15

    Resistance to available antibiotics in pathogenic bacteria is currently a global challenge since the number of strains that are resistant to multiple types of antibiotics has increased dramatically each year and has spread worldwide. To unlock this problem, the use of an 'antibiotic adjuvant' in combination with an antibiotic is now being exploited. This approach enables us to prolong the lifespan of these life-saving drugs. This digests review provides an overview of the main types of antibiotic adjuvants, the basis of their operation and the remaining issues to be tackled in this field. Particular emphasis is placed on those compounds that are already in clinical development, namely β-lactamase inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. [Antibiotic therapy: impact and resistance].

    PubMed

    Weiler, S; Corti, N

    2014-04-01

    Many achievements in modern medicine, such as in transplantation medicine, cancer therapy, surgery, and intensive care medicine would have been impossible without effective treatment of bacterial infections. Antibiotic resistance is on the rise; the reasons for this are complex and vary greatly. Knowledge about the impact of antibiotics and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, which are the cornerstones of calculated and targeted antibiotic therapy, is imperative. This review describes the pharmacodynamics of relevant antibiotics in emergency and intensive care medicine. Commonly resistant bacteria with clinical relevance and the respective mechanisms of resistance are highlighted. Furthermore, the use of antiinfectives for reserve treatment of severe infections is discussed. Understanding the mechanisms of resistance and effects of antibiotics are fundamental for efficient and successful treatment of bacterial infections and for the reduction of resistant species.

  18. Phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of multiple antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus exposed to subinhibitory levels of oxacillin and levofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Jo, Ara; Ahn, Juhee

    2016-07-29

    The emergence and spread of multidrug resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MDR-MRSA) has serious health consequences in the presence of sub-MIC antibiotics. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate β-lactamase activity, efflux activity, biofilm formation, and gene expression pattern in Staphylococcus aureus KACC 10778, S. aureus ATCC 15564, and S. aureus CCARM 3080 exposed to sublethal concentrations of levofloxacin and oxacillin. The decreased MICs were observed in S. aureus KACC and S. aureus ATCC when exposed to levofloxacin and oxacillin, while and S. aureus CCARM remained resistance to streptomycin (512 μg/mL) in the presence of levofloxacin and imipenem (>512 μg/mL) in the presence of oxacillin. The considerable increase in extracellular and membrane-bound β-lactamase activities was observed in S. aureus ATCC exposed to oxacillin (>26 μmol/min/mL). The antibiotic susceptibility of all strains exposed to EPIs (CCCP and PAβN) varied depending on the classes of antibiotics. The relative expression levels of adhesion-related genes (clfA, clfB, fnbA, fnnB, and icaD), efflux-related genes (norB, norC, and qacA/B), and enterotoxin gene (sec) were increased more than 5-fold in S. aureus CCARM. The eno and qacA/B genes were highly overexpressed by more than 12- and 9-folds, respectively, in S. aureus CCARM exposed to levofloxacin. The antibiotic susceptibility, lactamase activity, biofilm-forming ability, efflux activity, and gene expression pattern varied with the intrinsic antibiotic resistance of S. aureus KACC, S. aureus ATCC, and S. aureus CCARM exposed to levofloxacin and oxacillin. This study would provide useful information for better understating of combination therapy related to antibiotic resistance mechanisms and open the door for designing effective antibiotic treatment protocols to prevent excessive use of antibiotics in clinical practice.

  19. A multiple antibiotic and serum resistant oligotrophic strain, Klebsiella pneumoniae MB45 having novel dfrA30, is sensitive to ZnO QDs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to describe a novel trimethoprim resistance gene cassette, designated dfrA30, within a class 1 integron in a facultatively oligotrophic, multiple antibiotic and human serum resistant test strain, MB45, in a population of oligotrophic bacteria isolated from the river Mahananda; and to test the efficiency of surface bound acetate on zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO QDs) as bactericidal agent on MB45. Methods Diluted Luria broth/Agar (10-3) media was used to cultivate the oligotrophic bacteria from water sample. Multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria were selected by employing replica plate method. A rapid assay was performed to determine the sensitivity/resistance of the test strain to human serum. Variable region of class 1 integron was cloned, sequenced and the expression of gene coding for antibiotic resistance was done in Escherichia coli JM 109. Identity of culture was determined by biochemical phenotyping and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on representative trimethoprim resistance-mediating DfrA proteins retrieved from GenBank. Growth kinetic studies for the strain MB45 were performed in presence of varied concentrations of ZnO QDs. Results and conclusions The facultatively oligotrophic strain, MB45, resistant to human serum and ten antibiotics trimethoprim, cotrimoxazole, ampicillin, gentamycin, netilmicin, tobramycin, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime, kanamycin and streptomycin, has been identified as a new strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae. A novel dfr gene, designated as dfrA30, found integrated in class 1 integron was responsible for resistance to trimethoprim in Klebsiella pneumoniae strain MB45. The growth of wild strain MB45 was 100% arrested at 500 mg/L concentration of ZnO QDs. To our knowledge this is the first report on application of ZnO quantum dots to kill multiple antibiotics and serum resistant K. pneumoniae strain. PMID:21595893

  20. Co-selection of Mercury and Multiple Antibiotic Resistances in Bacteria Exposed to Mercury in the Fundulus heteroclitus Gut Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Nicole A; Janssen, Sarah E; Reinfelder, John R; Barkay, Tamar

    2016-12-01

    The emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria is currently one of the most serious challenges to human health. To combat this problem, it is critical to understand the processes and pathways that result in the creation of antibiotic resistance gene pools in the environment. In this study, we examined the effects of mercury (Hg) exposure on the co-selection of Hg and antibiotic-resistant bacteria that colonize the gastrointestinal tract of the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus), a small, estuarine fish. We examined this connection in two experimental systems: (i) a short-term laboratory exposure study where fish were fed Hg-laced food for 15 days and (ii) an examination of environmental populations from two sites with very different levels of Hg contamination. In the lab exposure study, fish muscle tissue accumulation of Hg was proportional to food Hg concentration (R (2) = 0.99; P < 0.0001). In the environmental study, fish from the contaminated site contained threefold more Hg compared to fish from the reference site (P < 0.05). Further, abundance of the Hg resistance gene mercuric reductase was more than eightfold higher (P < 0.0001) in DNA extracts of ingesta of fish from the contaminated site, suggesting adaptation to Hg. Finally, resistance to three or more antibiotics was more common in Hg-resistant as compared to Hg-sensitive bacterial colonies that were isolated from fish ingesta (P < 0.001) demonstrating co-selection of Hg and antibiotic resistances. Together, our results highlight the possibility for the creation of antibiotic resistance gene pools as a result of exposure to Hg in contaminated environments.

  1. Antibiotic and Antimicrobial Resistance: Threat Report 2013

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria [page 18] Assessment of Domestic Antibiotic-Resistant Threats [page 20] Running Out of ... Preventing the Spread of Resistance [page 32] CDC's Work to Prevent Infections and Antibiotic Resistance in Healthcare ...

  2. Multiple-Antibiotic Resistance of Enterococcus spp. Isolated from Commercial Poultry Production Environments

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Joshua R.; English, Linda L.; Carr, Lewis E.; Wagner, David D.; Joseph, Sam W.

    2004-01-01

    The potential impact of food animals in the production environment on the bacterial population as a result of antimicrobial drug use for growth enhancement continues to be a cause for concern. Enterococci from 82 farms within a poultry production region on the eastern seaboard were isolated to establish a baseline of susceptibility profiles for a number of antimicrobials used in production as well as clinical environments. Of the 541 isolates recovered, Enterococcus faecalis (53%) and E. faecium (31%) were the predominant species, while multiresistant antimicrobial phenotypes were observed among all species. The prevalence of resistance among isolates of E. faecalis was comparatively higher among lincosamide, macrolide, and tetracycline antimicrobials, while isolates of E. faecium were observed to be more frequently resistant to fluoroquinolones and penicillins. Notably, 63% of the E. faecium isolates were resistant to the streptogramin quinupristin-dalfopristin, while high-level gentamicin resistance was observed only among the E. faecalis population, of which 7% of the isolates were resistant. The primary observations are that enterococci can be frequently isolated from the poultry production environment and can be multiresistant to antimicrobials used in human medicine. The high frequency with which resistant enterococci are isolated from this environment suggests that these organisms might be useful as sentinels to monitor the development of resistance resulting from the usage of antimicrobial agents in animal production. PMID:15466544

  3. Dual regulation of inaA by the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) and superoxide (soxRS) stress response systems of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Rosner, J L; Slonczewski, J L

    1994-01-01

    The roles of the marRAB (multiple antibiotic resistance) operon and soxRS (superoxide response) genes in the regulation of inaA, an unlinked weak-acid-inducible gene, were studied. inaA expression was estimated from the beta-galactosidase activity of a chromosomal inaA1::lacZ transcriptional fusion. marR mutations that elevate marRAB transcription and engender multiple antibiotic resistance elevated inaA expression by 10- to 20-fold over that of the wild-type. Similarly, one class of inaA constitutive mutants that mapped to the mar region were multiply antibiotic resistant. Overexpression of marA alone on a multicopy plasmid caused high constitutive expression of inaA in a strain with an extensive (39-kbp) marRAB deletion. Salicylate, an inducer of marRAB and of an unidentified mar-independent antibiotic resistance system, induced inaA by 6-fold. A portion of this induction was also mar independent. Two soxRS constitutive mutants that were tested showed elevated levels of inaA. Paraquat, an inducer of the soxRS system, elevated inaA expression by 6- to 9-fold. This induction was soxRS dependent and not mar dependent, whereas induction of inaA by salicylate was not dependent on soxRS. Paraquat induced resistance to norfloxacin in the mar-deleted strain but not in a soxRS-deleted strain. Thus, induction of multiple antibiotic resistance and inaA by salicylate occurs via mar and an unidentified pathway, while induction by paraquat occurs via soxRS. PMID:7928997

  4. Fighting antibiotic resistance in the intensive care unit using antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Plantinga, Nienke L; Wittekamp, Bastiaan H J; van Duijn, Pleun J; Bonten, Marc J M

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a global and increasing problem that is not counterbalanced by the development of new therapeutic agents. The prevalence of antibiotic resistance is especially high in intensive care units with frequently reported outbreaks of multidrug-resistant organisms. In addition to classical infection prevention protocols and surveillance programs, counterintuitive interventions, such as selective decontamination with antibiotics and antibiotic rotation have been applied and investigated to control the emergence of antibiotic resistance. This review provides an overview of selective oropharyngeal and digestive tract decontamination, decolonization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and antibiotic rotation as strategies to modulate antibiotic resistance in the intensive care unit.

  5. Therapeutic strategies to combat antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Benjamin D; Brooks, Amanda E

    2014-11-30

    With multidrug resistant bacteria on the rise, new antibiotic approaches are required. Although a number of new small molecule antibiotics are currently in the development pipeline with many more in preclinical development, the clinical options and practices for infection control must be expanded. Biologics and non-antibiotic adjuvants offer this opportunity for expansion. Nevertheless, to avoid known mechanisms of resistance, intelligent combination approaches for multiple simultaneous and complimentary therapies must be designed. Combination approaches should extend beyond biologically active molecules to include smart controlled delivery strategies. Infection control must integrate antimicrobial stewardship, new antibiotic molecules, biologics, and delivery strategies into effective combination therapies designed to 1) fight the infection, 2) avoid resistance, and 3) protect the natural microbiome. This review explores these developing strategies in the context of circumventing current mechanisms of resistance.

  6. Antibiotic resistant in microorganisms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antimicrobial agents are necessary for use in veterinary medicine including the production of food producing animals. Antibiotic use is indicated for the treatment of bacterial target organisms and/or disease for which the antibiotic was developed. However, an unintended consequence of antibiotic ...

  7. Molecular mechanisms of antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Wright, Gerard D

    2011-04-14

    Over the past decade, resistance to antibiotics has emerged as a crisis of global proportion. Microbes resistant to many and even all clinically approved antibiotics are increasingly common and easily spread across continents. At the same time there are fewer new antibiotic drugs coming to market. We are reaching a point where we are no longer able to confidently treat a growing number of bacterial infections. The molecular mechanisms of drug resistance provide the essential knowledge on new drug development and clinical use. These mechanisms include enzyme catalyzed antibiotic modifications, bypass of antibiotic targets and active efflux of drugs from the cell. Understanding the chemical rationale and underpinnings of resistance is an essential component of our response to this clinical challenge.

  8. Cloning, expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a putative multiple antibiotic resistance repressor protein (MarR) from Xanthomonas campestris

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, Zhi-Le; Li, Juo-Ning; Chin, Ko-Hsin; Chou, Chia-Cheng; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Shr, Hui-Lin; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Gao, Fei Philip; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Chou, Shan-Ho

    2005-07-01

    A putative repressor for the multiple antibiotic resistance operon from a plant pathogen X. campestris pv. campestris has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 2.3 Å with good quality. The multiple antibiotic resistance operon (marRAB) is a member of the multidrug-resistance system. When induced, this operon enhances resistance of bacteria to a variety of medically important antibiotics, causing a serious global health problem. MarR is a marR-encoded protein that represses the transcription of the marRAB operon. Through binding with salicylate and certain antibiotics, however, MarR can derepress and activate the marRAB operon. In this report, the cloning, expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of XC1739, a putative MarR repressor protein present in the Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, a Gram-negative bacterium causing major worldwide disease of cruciferous crops, are described. The XC1739 crystals diffracted to a resolution of at least 1.8 Å. They are orthorhombic and belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 39.5, b = 54.2 and c = 139.5 Å, respectively. They contain two molecules in the asymmetric unit from calculation of the self-rotation function.

  9. Antibiotic Resistance: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Tests Susceptibility Testing (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Prevention and Risk Factors Antibiotic Resistance (Food and Drug Administration) Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the ...

  10. Evolutionary Trajectories to Antibiotic Resistance.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Diarmaid; Andersson, Dan I

    2017-09-08

    The ability to predict the evolutionary trajectories of antibiotic resistance would be of great value in tailoring dosing regimens of antibiotics so as to maximize the duration of their usefulness. Useful prediction of resistance evolution requires information about (a) the mutation supply rate, (b) the level of resistance conferred by the resistance mechanism, (c) the fitness of the antibiotic-resistant mutant bacteria as a function of drug concentration, and (d) the strength of selective pressures. In addition, processes including epistatic interactions and compensatory evolution, coselection of drug resistances, and population bottlenecks and clonal interference can strongly influence resistance evolution and thereby complicate attempts at prediction. Currently, the very limited quantitative data on most of these parameters severely limit attempts to accurately predict trajectories of resistance evolution.

  11. Tunable Stochastic Pulsing in the Escherichia coli Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Network from Interlinked Positive and Negative Feedback Loops

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Bernardo, Javier; Dunlop, Mary J.

    2013-01-01

    Cells live in uncertain, dynamic environments and have many mechanisms for sensing and responding to changes in their surroundings. However, sudden fluctuations in the environment can be catastrophic to a population if it relies solely on sensory responses, which have a delay associated with them. Cells can reconcile these effects by using a tunable stochastic response, where in the absence of a stressor they create phenotypic diversity within an isogenic population, but use a deterministic response when stressors are sensed. Here, we develop a stochastic model of the multiple antibiotic resistance network of Escherichia coli and show that it can produce tunable stochastic pulses in the activator MarA. In particular, we show that a combination of interlinked positive and negative feedback loops plays an important role in setting the dynamics of the stochastic pulses. Negative feedback produces a pulsatile response that is tunable, while positive feedback serves to amplify the effect. Our simulations show that the uninduced native network is in a parameter regime that is of low cost to the cell (taxing resistance mechanisms are expressed infrequently) and also elevated noise strength (phenotypic variability is high). The stochastic pulsing can be tuned by MarA induction such that variability is decreased once stresses are sensed, avoiding the detrimental effects of noise when an optimal MarA concentration is needed. We further show that variability in the expression of MarA can act as a bet hedging mechanism, allowing for survival in time-varying stress environments, however this effect is tunable to allow for a fully induced, deterministic response in the presence of a stressor. PMID:24086119

  12. Tunable stochastic pulsing in the Escherichia coli multiple antibiotic resistance network from interlinked positive and negative feedback loops.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Bernardo, Javier; Dunlop, Mary J

    2013-01-01

    Cells live in uncertain, dynamic environments and have many mechanisms for sensing and responding to changes in their surroundings. However, sudden fluctuations in the environment can be catastrophic to a population if it relies solely on sensory responses, which have a delay associated with them. Cells can reconcile these effects by using a tunable stochastic response, where in the absence of a stressor they create phenotypic diversity within an isogenic population, but use a deterministic response when stressors are sensed. Here, we develop a stochastic model of the multiple antibiotic resistance network of Escherichia coli and show that it can produce tunable stochastic pulses in the activator MarA. In particular, we show that a combination of interlinked positive and negative feedback loops plays an important role in setting the dynamics of the stochastic pulses. Negative feedback produces a pulsatile response that is tunable, while positive feedback serves to amplify the effect. Our simulations show that the uninduced native network is in a parameter regime that is of low cost to the cell (taxing resistance mechanisms are expressed infrequently) and also elevated noise strength (phenotypic variability is high). The stochastic pulsing can be tuned by MarA induction such that variability is decreased once stresses are sensed, avoiding the detrimental effects of noise when an optimal MarA concentration is needed. We further show that variability in the expression of MarA can act as a bet hedging mechanism, allowing for survival in time-varying stress environments, however this effect is tunable to allow for a fully induced, deterministic response in the presence of a stressor.

  13. Class 1 Integron-Borne, Multiple-Antibiotic Resistance Encoded by a 150-Kilobase Conjugative Plasmid in Epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1 Strains Isolated in Guinea-Bissau

    PubMed Central

    Dalsgaard, Anders; Forslund, Anita; Petersen, Andreas; Brown, Derek J.; Dias, Francisco; Monteiro, Serifo; Mølbak, Kåre; Aaby, Peter; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Sandström, Anita

    2000-01-01

    In the 1996–1997 cholera epidemic in Guinea-Bissau, surveillance for antimicrobial resistance showed the emergence of a multidrug-resistant strain of Vibrio cholerae O1 during the course of the epidemic. The strain was resistant to ampicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, furazolidone, aminoglycosides, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole. Concomitant with the emergence of this strain, we observed a resurgence in the number of registered cholera cases as well as an increase in the case fatality rate from 1.0% before the emergence of the multiple-drug-resistant strain to 5.3% after the emergence of the strain. Our study shows that the strain contained a 150-kb conjugative multiple-antibiotic resistance plasmid with class 1 integron-borne gene cassettes encoding resistance to trimethoprim (dhfrXII) and aminoglycosides [ant(3")-1a]). The finding of transferable resistance to almost all of the antibiotics commonly used to treat cholera is of great public health concern. Studies should be carried out to determine to what extent the strain or its resistance genes have been spread to other areas where cholera is endemic. PMID:11015401

  14. DNA gyrase from the albicidin producer Xanthomonas albilineans has multiple-antibiotic-resistance and unusual enzymatic properties.

    PubMed

    Hashimi, Saeed M; Huang, Guozhong; Maxwell, Anthony; Birch, Robert G

    2008-04-01

    The sugarcane pathogen Xanthomonas albilineans produces a family of antibiotics and phytotoxins termed albicidins, which inhibit plant and bacterial DNA gyrase supercoiling activity, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (50 nM) comparable to those of coumarins and quinolones. Here we show that X. albilineans has an unusual, antibiotic-resistant DNA gyrase. The X. albilineans gyrA and gyrB genes are not clustered with previously described albicidin biosynthesis and self-protection genes. The GyrA and GyrB products differ from Escherichia coli homologues through several insertions and through changes in several amino acid residues implicated in quinolone and coumarin resistance. Reconstituted X. albilineans DNA gyrase showed 20- to 25-fold-higher resistance than E. coli DNA gyrase to albicidin and ciprofloxacin and 8-fold-higher resistance to novobiocin in the supercoiling assay. The X. albilineans DNA gyrase is unusual in showing a high degree of distributive supercoiling and little DNA relaxation activity. X. albilineans GyrA (XaA) forms a functional gyrase heterotetramer with E. coli GyrB (EcB) and can account for albicidin and quinolone resistance and low levels of relaxation activity. XaB probably contributes to both coumarin resistance and the distributive supercoiling pattern. Although XaB shows fewer apparent changes relative to EcB, the EcA.XaB hybrid relaxed DNA in the presence or absence of ATP and was unable to supercoil. A fuller understanding of structural differences between albicidin-sensitive and -resistant gyrases may provide new clues into features of the enzyme amenable to interference by novel antibiotics.

  15. DNA Gyrase from the Albicidin Producer Xanthomonas albilineans Has Multiple-Antibiotic-Resistance and Unusual Enzymatic Properties▿

    PubMed Central

    Hashimi, Saeed M.; Huang, Guozhong; Maxwell, Anthony; Birch, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    The sugarcane pathogen Xanthomonas albilineans produces a family of antibiotics and phytotoxins termed albicidins, which inhibit plant and bacterial DNA gyrase supercoiling activity, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (50 nM) comparable to those of coumarins and quinolones. Here we show that X. albilineans has an unusual, antibiotic-resistant DNA gyrase. The X. albilineans gyrA and gyrB genes are not clustered with previously described albicidin biosynthesis and self-protection genes. The GyrA and GyrB products differ from Escherichia coli homologues through several insertions and through changes in several amino acid residues implicated in quinolone and coumarin resistance. Reconstituted X. albilineans DNA gyrase showed 20- to 25-fold-higher resistance than E. coli DNA gyrase to albicidin and ciprofloxacin and 8-fold-higher resistance to novobiocin in the supercoiling assay. The X. albilineans DNA gyrase is unusual in showing a high degree of distributive supercoiling and little DNA relaxation activity. X. albilineans GyrA (XaA) forms a functional gyrase heterotetramer with E. coli GyrB (EcB) and can account for albicidin and quinolone resistance and low levels of relaxation activity. XaB probably contributes to both coumarin resistance and the distributive supercoiling pattern. Although XaB shows fewer apparent changes relative to EcB, the EcA·XaB hybrid relaxed DNA in the presence or absence of ATP and was unable to supercoil. A fuller understanding of structural differences between albicidin-sensitive and -resistant gyrases may provide new clues into features of the enzyme amenable to interference by novel antibiotics. PMID:18268084

  16. Expanding multiple antibiotic resistance among clinical strains of Vibrio cholerae isolated from 1992-7 in Calcutta, India.

    PubMed Central

    Garg, P.; Chakraborty, S.; Basu, I.; Datta, S.; Rajendran, K.; Bhattacharya, T.; Yamasaki, S.; Bhattacharya, S. K.; Takeda, Y.; Nair, G. B.; Ramamurthy, T.

    2000-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Vibrio cholerae strains isolated from cholera patients admitted to the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Calcutta, India for 6 years were analysed to determine the changing trends; 840 V. cholerae strains isolated in 1992-1997 were included in this study. Among V. cholerae serogoup O1 and O139, ampicillin resistance increased from 1992 (35 and 70%, respectively) to 1997 (both serogroups 100%). Resistance to furazolidone and streptomycin was constantly high among V. cholerae O1 strains with gradual increase in resistance to other drugs such as ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, neomycin and nalidixic acid. V. cholerae O139 strains exhibited susceptibilities to furazolidone and streptomycin comparable with those of O1 strains. However, after initial increase in resistance to chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole, all the V. cholerae O139 strains became susceptible to these two drugs from 1995 onwards. Both V. cholerae O1 and O139 remained largely susceptible to gentamicin and tetracycline. V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 strains, in contrast, exhibited high levels of resistance to virtually every class of antimicrobial agents tested in this study especially from 1995. Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis showed that V. cholerae O1 Ogawa serogroup exhibited significant yearly increase in resistance to nine antibiotics followed by non-O1 non-O139 and O139 strains to six antibiotics and two antibiotics respectively. Interesting observation encountered in this study was the dissipation of some of the resistant patterns commonly found among V. cholerae non-O1 non-O139 or O1 serogroups to the O139 serogroup and vice versa during the succeeding years. PMID:10982062

  17. Antibiotic-Resistant Vibrios in Farmed Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque Costa, Renata; Araújo, Rayza Lima; Souza, Oscarina Viana; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined in 100 strains of Vibrio isolated from the Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp and identified phenotypically. A high antibiotic-resistance index (75%) was observed, with the following phenotypic profiles: monoresistance (n = 42), cross-resistance to β-lactams (n = 20) and multiple resistance (n = 13). Plasmid resistance was characterized for penicillin (n = 11), penicillin + ampicillin (n = 1), penicillin + aztreonam (n = 1), and ampicillin (n = 1). Resistance to antimicrobial drugs by the other strains (n = 86) was possibly mediated by chromosomal genes. The findings of this study support the conclusion that the cultured shrimps can be vehicles of vibrios resistant to β-lactam and tetracycline. PMID:25918714

  18. The role of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in nature.

    PubMed

    Aminov, Rustam I

    2009-12-01

    Investigations of antibiotic resistance from an environmental prospective shed new light on a problem that was traditionally confined to a subset of clinically relevant antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens. It is clear that the environmental microbiota, even in apparently antibiotic-free environments, possess an enormous number and diversity of antibiotic resistance genes, some of which are very similar to the genes circulating in pathogenic microbiota. It is difficult to explain the role of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in natural environments from an anthropocentric point of view, which is focused on clinical aspects such as the efficiency of antibiotics in clearing infections and pathogens that are resistant to antibiotic treatment. A broader overview of the role of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in nature from the evolutionary and ecological prospective suggests that antibiotics have evolved as another way of intra- and inter-domain communication in various ecosystems. This signalling by non-clinical concentrations of antibiotics in the environment results in adaptive phenotypic and genotypic responses of microbiota and other members of the community. Understanding the complex picture of evolution and ecology of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance may help to understand the processes leading to the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance and also help to control it, at least in relation to the newer antibiotics now entering clinical practice.

  19. [Mobile ISCR elements: structure, functions, and role in the emergence, increasing and spreading of blocks of bacterial genes of multiple antibiotic resistance].

    PubMed

    Il'ina, T S

    2012-01-01

    The recently discovered method of horizontal distribution of bacterial genes with atypical ISCR sequences is reviewed using an example of drug resistance genes. The adjacent DNA segment mobilization is provided by the transposition of such elements, including rolling circle replication, formation of autonomous nonreplicable circular structures, and homological recombination. The gene distribution capacity with the ISCR elements is more significant than the capacity of transposons and integrons, thereby providing formation of groups of mobile genes, including antibiotic-resistance genes of pathogenic bacteria. The structure and functions of the ISCR elements were discussed together with their similarity and dissimilarity with the group of IS91-similar elements and their role in the emergence of blocks of bacterial genes encoding of multiple antibiotic resistance and their contribution to evolution of bacterial and plasmid genes.

  20. An enumeration method and sampling plan for mapping the number and distribution of a multiple antibiotic resistant strain (ATCC 700408) of Salmonella typhimurium DT104 on the carcass of Cornish game hens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mapping the number and distribution of Salmonella on the chicken carcass will help guide better design of processing procedures to reduce or eliminate this human pathogen from chicken. A selective plating media with multiple antibiotics (XLH-CATS) and a multiple antibiotic resistant strain (ATCC 70...

  1. Antibiotic resistance: An ethical challenge.

    PubMed

    Littmann, Jasper; Buyx, Alena; Cars, Otto

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we argue that antibiotic resistance (ABR) raises a number of ethical problems that have not yet been sufficiently addressed. We outline four areas in which ethical issues that arise in relation to ABR are particularly pressing. First, the emergence of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant infections exacerbates traditional ethical challenges of infectious disease control, such as the restriction of individual liberty for the protection of the public's health. Second, ABR raises issues of global distributive justice, both with regard to the overuse and lack of access to antibiotics. Third, the use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine raises serious concerns for animal welfare and sustainable farming practices. Finally, the diminishing effectiveness of antibiotics leads to questions about intergenerational justice and our responsibility for the wellbeing of future generations. We suggest that current policy discussions should take ethical conflicts into account and engage openly with the challenges that we outline in this paper.

  2. Antibiotics and Resistance: Glossary

    MedlinePlus

    ... bacteria are stained dark purple. Cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are more permeable - they do not retain much of the dye, and so their cell walls do not show much stain. Growth promoters A class of substances, usually antibiotics, ...

  3. Multiple Genetic Analysis System-Based Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing in Helicobacter pylori and High Eradication Rate With Phenotypic Resistance-Guided Quadruple Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Fangyuan; Ji, Danian; Huang, Renxiang; Zhang, Fan; Huang, Yiqin; Xiang, Ping; Kong, Mimi; Nan, Li; Zeng, Xianping; Wu, Yong; Bao, Zhijun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Antibiotics resistance in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major factor for eradication failure. Molecular tests including fluorescence in situ hybridization, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and dual priming oligonucleotide-PCR (DPO-PCR) play critical roles in the detection of antibiotic susceptibility; however, limited knowledge is known about application of multiple genetic analysis system (MGAS) in the area of H. pylori identification and antibiotics resistance detection. The aim of this study is to determine the antibiotics resistance using different molecular tests and evaluate the treatment outcomes of E-test-based genotypic resistance. A total of 297 patients with dyspepsia complaint were recruited for gastroscopies. Ninety patients with H. pylori culture positive were randomly divided into 2 groups (test group and control group). E-test, general PCR, and MGAS assay were performed in test group. Patients in control group were treated with empirical therapy (rabeprazole + bismuth potassium citrate + amoxicillin [AMX] + clarithromycin [CLR]), whereas patients in test group received quadruple therapy based on E-test results twice daily for 14 consecutive days. The eradication effect of H. pylori was confirmed by 13C-urea breath test after at least 4 weeks when treatment was finished. Rapid urease test showed 46.5% (128/297) patients with H. pylori infection, whereas 30.3% (90/297) patients were H. pylori culture positive. E-test showed that H. pylori primary resistance rate to CLR, AMX, metronidazole, tetracycline, and levofloxacin (LVX) was 40.0% (18/45), 4.4% (2/45), 53.3% (24/45), 0% (0/45), and 55.6% (25/45), respectively. In addition, there are many multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes, and the MDR strains have higher minimum inhibitory concentration than their single-drug resistant counterparts. Considering E-test as the reference test, the sensitivities of general PCR and MGAS in detecting CLR resistance were 83.3% (15

  4. Multiple Genetic Analysis System-Based Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing in Helicobacter pylori and High Eradication Rate With Phenotypic Resistance-Guided Quadruple Therapy.

    PubMed

    Dong, Fangyuan; Ji, Danian; Huang, Renxiang; Zhang, Fan; Huang, Yiqin; Xiang, Ping; Kong, Mimi; Nan, Li; Zeng, Xianping; Wu, Yong; Bao, Zhijun

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotics resistance in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major factor for eradication failure. Molecular tests including fluorescence in situ hybridization, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and dual priming oligonucleotide-PCR (DPO-PCR) play critical roles in the detection of antibiotic susceptibility; however, limited knowledge is known about application of multiple genetic analysis system (MGAS) in the area of H. pylori identification and antibiotics resistance detection.The aim of this study is to determine the antibiotics resistance using different molecular tests and evaluate the treatment outcomes of E-test-based genotypic resistance.A total of 297 patients with dyspepsia complaint were recruited for gastroscopies. Ninety patients with H. pylori culture positive were randomly divided into 2 groups (test group and control group). E-test, general PCR, and MGAS assay were performed in test group. Patients in control group were treated with empirical therapy (rabeprazole + bismuth potassium citrate + amoxicillin [AMX] + clarithromycin [CLR]), whereas patients in test group received quadruple therapy based on E-test results twice daily for 14 consecutive days. The eradication effect of H. pylori was confirmed by C-urea breath test after at least 4 weeks when treatment was finished.Rapid urease test showed 46.5% (128/297) patients with H. pylori infection, whereas 30.3% (90/297) patients were H. pylori culture positive. E-test showed that H. pylori primary resistance rate to CLR, AMX, metronidazole, tetracycline, and levofloxacin (LVX) was 40.0% (18/45), 4.4% (2/45), 53.3% (24/45), 0% (0/45), and 55.6% (25/45), respectively. In addition, there are many multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes, and the MDR strains have higher minimum inhibitory concentration than their single-drug resistant counterparts. Considering E-test as the reference test, the sensitivities of general PCR and MGAS in detecting CLR resistance were 83.3% (15/18) and 94.4% (17

  5. Antibiotic resistance in probiotic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Gueimonde, Miguel; Sánchez, Borja; G. de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara; Margolles, Abelardo

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. The main probiotic bacteria are strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, although other representatives, such as Bacillus or Escherichia coli strains, have also been used. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are two common inhabitants of the human intestinal microbiota. Also, some species are used in food fermentation processes as starters, or as adjunct cultures in the food industry. With some exceptions, antibiotic resistance in these beneficial microbes does not constitute a safety concern in itself, when mutations or intrinsic resistance mechanisms are responsible for the resistance phenotype. In fact, some probiotic strains with intrinsic antibiotic resistance could be useful for restoring the gut microbiota after antibiotic treatment. However, specific antibiotic resistance determinants carried on mobile genetic elements, such as tetracycline resistance genes, are often detected in the typical probiotic genera, and constitute a reservoir of resistance for potential food or gut pathogens, thus representing a serious safety issue. PMID:23882264

  6. Antibiotic resistance: A current epilogue.

    PubMed

    Dodds, David R

    2017-06-15

    The history of the first commercial antibiotics is briefly reviewed, together with data from the US and WHO, showing the decrease in death due to infectious diseases over the 20th century, from just under half of all deaths, to less than 10%. The second half of the 20th century saw the new use of antibiotics as growth promoters for food animals in the human diet, and the end of the 20th century and beginning of the 21st saw the beginning and rapid rise of advanced microbial resistance to antibiotics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Antibiotic Resistance, RAPD- PCR Typing of Multiple Drug Resistant Strains of Escherichia Coli From Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

    PubMed Central

    Marialouis, Xavier Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Global spreading of multidrug resistant strains of Escherichia coli is responsible for Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) which is a major health problem in of concern. Among the gram negative bacteria, the major contributors for UTI belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae, which includes E. coli, Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Proteus. However, E. coli accounts for the major cause of Urinary tract infections (UTIs) and accounts for 75% to 90% of UTI isolates. Aim The main aim of this study is to analyse the phylogenetic grouping of clinical isolates of UTI E. coli. Materials and Methods In this study nearly 58 E. coli strains were isolated and confirmed through microbiological, biochemical characterization. The urine samples were collected from outpatients having symptoms of UTI, irrespective of age and sex in Tamil Nadu, India. The isolates were subjected to analyse for ESBL and AmpC β-lactamase production. To understand its genetic correlation, molecular typing was carried out using RAPD-PCR method. Results Here we noted phenotypically twenty seven isolates were positive for ESBL and seven for AmpC β-lactamase production. However, among the ESBL isolates higher sensitivity was noted for Nitrofurantoin and Cefoxitin. It is worth to note that the prevalence of UTIs was more common among female and elderly male. Phylogenetic grouping revealed the presence of 24 isolates belonged to B2 group followed by 19 isolates to group A, eight isolates to group B1 and Seven isolates to group D. Conclusion Phenotypically most of the strains were positive for ESBL and showed high sensitivity for Nitrofurantoin and cefoxitin. PMID:27134870

  8. Antibiotic Resistance, RAPD- PCR Typing of Multiple Drug Resistant Strains of Escherichia Coli From Urinary Tract Infection (UTI).

    PubMed

    Marialouis, Xavier Alexander; Santhanam, Amutha

    2016-03-01

    Global spreading of multidrug resistant strains of Escherichia coli is responsible for Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) which is a major health problem in of concern. Among the gram negative bacteria, the major contributors for UTI belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae, which includes E. coli, Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Proteus. However, E. coli accounts for the major cause of Urinary tract infections (UTIs) and accounts for 75% to 90% of UTI isolates. The main aim of this study is to analyse the phylogenetic grouping of clinical isolates of UTI E. coli. In this study nearly 58 E. coli strains were isolated and confirmed through microbiological, biochemical characterization. The urine samples were collected from outpatients having symptoms of UTI, irrespective of age and sex in Tamil Nadu, India. The isolates were subjected to analyse for ESBL and AmpC β-lactamase production. To understand its genetic correlation, molecular typing was carried out using RAPD-PCR method. Here we noted phenotypically twenty seven isolates were positive for ESBL and seven for AmpC β-lactamase production. However, among the ESBL isolates higher sensitivity was noted for Nitrofurantoin and Cefoxitin. It is worth to note that the prevalence of UTIs was more common among female and elderly male. Phylogenetic grouping revealed the presence of 24 isolates belonged to B2 group followed by 19 isolates to group A, eight isolates to group B1 and Seven isolates to group D. Phenotypically most of the strains were positive for ESBL and showed high sensitivity for Nitrofurantoin and cefoxitin.

  9. The multifaceted roles of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in nature

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Saswati; Chattopadhyay, Madhab K.; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotics are chemotherapeutic agents, which have been a very powerful tool in the clinical management of bacterial diseases since the 1940s. However, benefits offered by these magic bullets have been substantially lost in subsequent days following the widespread emergence and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant strains. While it is obvious that excessive and imprudent use of antibiotics significantly contributes to the emergence of resistant strains, antibiotic resistance is also observed in natural bacteria of remote places unlikely to be impacted by human intervention. Both antibiotic biosynthetic genes and resistance-conferring genes have been known to evolve billions of years ago, long before clinical use of antibiotics. Hence it appears that antibiotics and antibiotics resistance determinants have some other roles in nature, which often elude our attention because of overemphasis on the therapeutic importance of antibiotics and the crisis imposed by the antibiotic resistance in pathogens. In the natural milieu, antibiotics are often found to be present in sub-inhibitory concentrations acting as signaling molecules supporting the process of quorum sensing and biofilm formation. They also play an important role in the production of virulence factors and influence host–parasite interactions (e.g., phagocytosis, adherence to the target cell, and so on). The evolutionary and ecological aspects of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in the naturally occurring microbial community are little understood. Therefore, the actual role of antibiotics in nature warrants in-depth investigations. Studies on such an intriguing behavior of the microorganisms promise insight into the intricacies of the microbial physiology and are likely to provide some lead in controlling the emergence and subsequent dissemination of antibiotic resistance. This article highlights some of the recent findings on the role of antibiotics and the genes that confer resistance to antibiotics

  10. The determinants of the antibiotic resistance process

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Beatriz Espinosa; Altagracia Martínez, Marina; Sánchez Rodríguez, Martha A; Wertheimer, Albert I

    2009-01-01

    Background: The use of antibiotic drugs triggers a complex interaction involving many biological, sociological, and psychological determinants. Resistance to antibiotics is a serious worldwide problem which is increasing and has implications for morbidity, mortality, and health care both in hospitals and in the community. Objectives: To analyze current research on the determinants of antibiotic resistance and comprehensively review the main factors in the process of resistance in order to aid our understanding and assessment of this problem. Methods: We conducted a MedLine search using the key words “determinants”, “antibiotic”, and “antibiotic resistance” to identify publications between 1995 and 2007 on the determinants of antibiotic resistance. Publications that did not address the determinants of antibiotic resistance were excluded. Results: The process and determinants of antibiotic resistance are described, beginning with the development of antibiotics, resistance and the mechanisms of resistance, sociocultural determinants of resistance, the consequences of antibiotic resistance, and alternative measures proposed to combat antibiotic resistance. Conclusions: Analysis of the published literature identified the main determinants of antibiotic resistance as irrational use of antibiotics in humans and animal species, insufficient patient education when antibiotics are prescribed, lack of guidelines for treatment and control of infections, lack of scientific information for physicians on the rational use of antibiotics, and lack of official government policy on the rational use of antibiotics in public and private hospitals. PMID:21694883

  11. Advances in pneumococcal antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae-Hoon

    2013-10-01

    Antimicrobial resistance and serotypes in Streptococcus pneumoniae have been evolving with the widespread use of antibiotics and the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV). Particularly, among various types of antimicrobial resistance, macrolide resistance has most remarkably increased in many parts of the world, which has been reported to be >70% among clinical isolates from Asian countries. Penicillin resistance has dramatically decreased among nonmeningeal isolates due to the changes in resistance breakpoints, although resistance to other β-lactams such as cefuroxime has increased. Multidrug resistance became a serious concern in the treatment of invasive pneumococcal diseases, especially in Asian countries. After PCV7 vaccination, serotype 19A has emerged as an important cause of invasive pneumococcal diseases which was also associated with increasing prevalence of multidrug resistance in pneumococci. Widespread use of PCV13, which covers additional serotypes 3, 6A and 19A, may contribute to reduce the clonal spread of drug-resistant 19A pneumococci.

  12. Selection of antibiotic resistance at very low antibiotic concentrations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Human use of antibiotics has driven the selective enrichment of pathogenic bacteria resistant to clinically used drugs. Traditionally, the selection of resistance has been considered to occur mainly at high, therapeutic levels of antibiotics, but we are now beginning to understand better the importance of selection of resistance at low levels of antibiotics. The concentration of an antibiotic varies in different body compartments during treatment, and low concentrations of antibiotics are found in sewage water, soils, and many water environments due to natural production and contamination from human activities. Selection of resistance at non-lethal antibiotic concentrations (below the wild-type minimum inhibitory concentration) occurs due to differences in growth rate at the particular antibiotic concentration between cells with different tolerance levels to the antibiotic. The minimum selective concentration for a particular antibiotic is reached when its reducing effect on growth of the susceptible strain balances the reducing effect (fitness cost) of the resistance determinant in the resistant strain. Recent studies have shown that resistant bacteria can be selected at concentrations several hundred-fold below the lethal concentrations for susceptible cells. Resistant mutants selected at low antibiotic concentrations are generally more fit than those selected at high concentrations but can still be highly resistant. The characteristics of selection at low antibiotic concentrations, the potential clinical problems of this mode of selection, and potential solutions will be discussed. PMID:24694026

  13. Selection of antibiotic resistance at very low antibiotic concentrations.

    PubMed

    Sandegren, Linus

    2014-05-01

    Human use of antibiotics has driven the selective enrichment of pathogenic bacteria resistant to clinically used drugs. Traditionally, the selection of resistance has been considered to occur mainly at high, therapeutic levels of antibiotics, but we are now beginning to understand better the importance of selection of resistance at low levels of antibiotics. The concentration of an antibiotic varies in different body compartments during treatment, and low concentrations of antibiotics are found in sewage water, soils, and many water environments due to natural production and contamination from human activities. Selection of resistance at non-lethal antibiotic concentrations (below the wild-type minimum inhibitory concentration) occurs due to differences in growth rate at the particular antibiotic concentration between cells with different tolerance levels to the antibiotic. The minimum selective concentration for a particular antibiotic is reached when its reducing effect on growth of the susceptible strain balances the reducing effect (fitness cost) of the resistance determinant in the resistant strain. Recent studies have shown that resistant bacteria can be selected at concentrations several hundred-fold below the lethal concentrations for susceptible cells. Resistant mutants selected at low antibiotic concentrations are generally more fit than those selected at high concentrations but can still be highly resistant. The characteristics of selection at low antibiotic concentrations, the potential clinical problems of this mode of selection, and potential solutions will be discussed.

  14. Suppression of antibiotic resistance acquisition by combined use of antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shingo; Horinouchi, Takaaki; Furusawa, Chikara

    2015-10-01

    We analyzed the effect of combinatorial use of antibiotics with a trade-off relationship of resistance, i.e., resistance acquisition to one drug causes susceptibility to the other drug, and vice versa, on the evolution of antibiotic resistance. We demonstrated that this combinatorial use of antibiotics significantly suppressed the acquisition of resistance. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Antibiotic resistance: A global crisis].

    PubMed

    Alós, Juan-Ignacio

    2015-12-01

    The introduction of antibiotics into clinical practice represented one of the most important interventions for the control of infectious diseases. Antibiotics have saved millions of lives and have also brought a revolution in medicine. However, an increasing threat has deteriorated the effectiveness of these drugs, that of bacterial resistance to antibiotics, which is defined here as the ability of bacteria to survive in antibiotic concentrations that inhibit/kill others of the same species. In this review some recent and important examples of resistance in pathogens of concern for mankind are mentioned. It is explained, according to present knowledge, the process that led to the current situation in a short time, evolutionarily speaking. It begins with the resistance genes, continues with clones and genetic elements involved in the maintenance and dissemination, and ends with other factors that contribute to its spread. Possible responses to the problem are also reviewed, with special reference to the development of new antibiotics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  16. Antibiotic resistance in Burkholderia species.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Katherine A; Schweizer, Herbert P

    2016-09-01

    The genus Burkholderia comprises metabolically diverse and adaptable Gram-negative bacteria, which thrive in often adversarial environments. A few members of the genus are prominent opportunistic pathogens. These include Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei of the B. pseudomallei complex, which cause glanders and melioidosis, respectively. Burkholderia cenocepacia, Burkholderia multivorans, and Burkholderia vietnamiensis belong to the Burkholderia cepacia complex and affect mostly cystic fibrosis patients. Infections caused by these bacteria are difficult to treat because of significant antibiotic resistance. The first line of defense against antimicrobials in Burkholderia species is the outer membrane penetration barrier. Most Burkholderia contain a modified lipopolysaccharide that causes intrinsic polymyxin resistance. Contributing to reduced drug penetration are restrictive porin proteins. Efflux pumps of the resistance nodulation cell division family are major players in Burkholderia multidrug resistance. Third and fourth generation β-lactam antibiotics are seminal for treatment of Burkholderia infections, but therapeutic efficacy is compromised by expression of several β-lactamases and ceftazidime target mutations. Altered DNA gyrase and dihydrofolate reductase targets cause fluoroquinolone and trimethoprim resistance, respectively. Although antibiotic resistance hampers therapy of Burkholderia infections, the characterization of resistance mechanisms lags behind other non-enteric Gram-negative pathogens, especially ESKAPE bacteria such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  17. Antibiotic Resistance in Burkholderia Species

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Katherine A.; Schweizer, Herbert P.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Burkholderia comprises metabolically diverse and adaptable Gram-negative bacteria, which thrive in often adversarial environments. A few members of the genus are prominent opportunistic pathogens. These include B. mallei and B. pseudomallei of the B. pseudomallei complex, which cause glanders and melioidosis, respectively. B. cenocepacia, B. multivorans, and B. vietnamiensis belong to the B. cepacia complex and affect mostly cystic fibrosis patients. Infections caused by these bacteria are difficult to treat because of significant antibiotic resistance. The first line of defense against antimicrobials in Burkholderia species is the outer membrane penetration barrier. Most Burkholderia contain a modified lipopolysaccharide that causes intrinsic polymyxin resistance. Contributing to reduced drug penetration are restrictive porin proteins. Efflux pumps of the resistance nodulation cell division family are major players in Burkholderia multidrug resistance. Third and fourth generation β-lactam antibiotics are seminal for treatment of Burkholderia infections, but therapeutic efficacy is compromised by expression of several β-lactamases and ceftazidime target mutations. Altered DNA gyrase and dihydrofolate reductase targets cause fluoroquinolone and trimethoprim resistance, respectively. Although antibiotic resistance hampers therapy of Burkholderia infections, the characterization of resistance mechanisms lags behind other non-enteric Gram-negative pathogens, especially ESKAPE bacteria such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:27620956

  18. Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in agroecosystems: State of the science

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We propose a simple causal model depicting relationships involved in dissemination of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in agroecosystems and potential effects on human health, functioning of natural ecosystems, and agricultural productivity. Available evidence for each causal link is briefly su...

  19. Multiple antibiotic resistances among Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli O157 in feces of dairy cattle farms in Eastern Cape of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Iweriebor, Benson C; Iwu, Chinwe J; Obi, Larry C; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Okoh, Anthony I

    2015-10-16

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 is a well-recognized cause of bloody diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). The ability of STEC strains to cause human disease is due to the production of Shiga toxins. The objectives of this study were to determinate the prevalence, serotypes, antibiotic susceptibility patterns and the genetic capability for Shiga toxin production in Escherichia coli (STEC) strains isolated from dairy cattle farms in two rural communities in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Fecal samples were collected between March and May 2014, from individual cattle (n=400) in two commercial dairy farms having 800 and 120 cattle each. Three hundred presumptive isolates obtained were subjected to polymerase chain reactions (PCR) for identification of O157 serogroup and Shiga toxin producing genes (stx1, stx2) on genomic DNA extracted by boiling method. Susceptibility of the isolates to 17 antibiotics was carried out in vitro by the standardized agar disc-diffusion method. Based on direct PCR detection, 95 (31.7%) isolates were identified as O157 serogroup. The genetic repertoire for Shiga toxin production was present in 84 (88.42%) isolates distributed as stx1 (37), stx2 (38) and stx1/2 (9) respectively while 11 of the isolates did not harbor Shiga toxin producing genes. Multiple antibiotic resistances were observed among the isolates and genetic profiling of resistance genes identified bla ampC 90%, blaCMY 70%, blaCTX-M 65%, blaTEM 27% and tetA 70% and strA 80% genes among the antimicrobial resistance determinants examined. We conclude that dairy cattle farms in the Eastern Cape Province are potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance determinants in the province.

  20. Antibiotic resistance in human chronic periodontitis microbiota.

    PubMed

    Rams, Thomas E; Degener, John E; van Winkelhoff, Arie J

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) may yield multiple species of putative periodontal bacterial pathogens that vary in their antibiotic drug susceptibility. This study determines the occurrence of in vitro antibiotic resistance among selected subgingival periodontal pathogens in patients with CP. Subgingival biofilm specimens from inflamed deep periodontal pockets were removed before treatment from 400 adults with CP in the United States. The samples were cultured, and selected periodontal pathogens were tested in vitro for susceptibility to amoxicillin at 8 mg/L, clindamycin at 4 mg/L, doxycycline at 4 mg/L, and metronidazole at 16 mg/L, with a post hoc combination of data for amoxicillin and metronidazole. Gram-negative enteric rods/pseudomonads were subjected to ciprofloxacin disk-diffusion testing. Overall, 74.2% of the patients with CP revealed subgingival periodontal pathogens resistant to at least one of the test antibiotics. One or more test species, most often Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens, Streptococcus constellatus, or Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, were resistant in vitro to doxycycline, amoxicillin, metronidazole, or clindamycin, in 55%, 43.3%, 30.3%, and 26.5% of the patients with CP, respectively. Fifteen percent of patients harbored subgingival periodontal pathogens resistant to both amoxicillin and metronidazole, which were mostly either S. constellatus (45 individuals) or ciprofloxacin-susceptible strains of Gram-negative enteric rods/pseudomonads (nine individuals). Patients with CP in the United States frequently yielded subgingival periodontal pathogens resistant in vitro to therapeutic concentrations of antibiotics commonly used in clinical periodontal practice. The wide variability found in periodontal pathogen antibiotic-resistance patterns should concern clinicians empirically selecting antibiotic treatment regimens for patients with CP.

  1. Development of Multiple Antibiotic Resistance in Bacillus subtilis Cells Exposed to Microgravity: the BRIC-18 Experiment to the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Moeller, Ralf; Nicholson, Wayne; Narvel, Raed

    Increased pathogenicity of opportunistic bacteria during long-term spaceflight is considered an astronaut risk. Because only a limited pharmacy can be carried on long-duration missions, the development of resistance to multiple antibiotics is a concern for mission planning. In support of the BRIC-18 experiment to the ISS, we have performed ground-based experiments to address the question whether simulated microgravity affects the frequency of resistance to the model antibiotics rifampicin (RFM) and trimethoprim (TMP). In these experiments, the model bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis were cultivated for 6 days at ISS ambient temperature in 10-ml High Aspect Ratio Vessels (HARVs) on two 4-place clinostats (Synthecon) oriented either vertically (V) or horizontally (H). Cells were harvested, enumerated and plated onto medium containing RFM (5 micrograms/ml). The frequency of mutation to RFM resistance was calculated, and RFM-resistant mutants were plated onto medium containing the second antibiotic, TMP (5 micrograms/ml) to determine the frequency of mutation to double (RFM+TMP) resistance. After 6 days of cultivation, V-cultures showed higher cell densities and than H-cultures for both bacteria. However, only in B. subtilis did V-cultures show higher frequencies of mutation to RFM resistance than H-cultures. Launch of BRIC-18 to the ISS is currently scheduled for March 16, 2014 and return 30 days later. Results from both the spaceflight and ground control experiments will be presented. Supported by NASA-SAIP fellowship to R.N. and NASA grant (NNX12AN70G) to P.F.-C., R.M., and W.L.N.

  2. Spatial mapping of antibiotic resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A serious concern for modern animal production is the fear that feed antimicrobials, such as monensin, increase the potential for high levels of antibiotic resistant (AR) gene prevalence in the manure, which may subsequently be shared with soil communities and eventually be taken up by human pathoge...

  3. Antibiotic resistance: a geopolitical issue.

    PubMed

    Carlet, J; Pulcini, C; Piddock, L J V

    2014-10-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), associated with a lack of new antibiotics, is a major threat. Some countries have been able to contain resistance, but in most countries the numbers of antibiotic-resistant bacteria continue to increase, along with antibiotic consumption by humans and animals. AMR is a global issue, and concerns all decision-makers worldwide. Some initiatives have been undertaken in the last 15 years, in particular by the WHO, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, and the CDC, but those initiatives were partial and poorly implemented, without coordination. Very recently, some important initiatives have been implemented by the WHO. Since 2009, a US and European joint task force, the Trans-Atlantic Task Force on Antibiotic Resistance, has been working on common recommendations. At a national level, some important initiatives have been implemented, in particular in European countries and in the USA. The Chennai declaration, in India, is also a good example of a multidisciplinary and national initiative that was highly political. Finally, several non-governmental non-profit organizations are also very active, and have helped to raise awareness about the problem of AMR. In the future, this global issue will need political involvement and strong cooperation between countries and between international agencies.

  4. Sinorhizobium morelense sp. nov., a Leucaena leucocephala-associated bacterium that is highly resistant to multiple antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Wang, En Tao; Tan, Zhi Yuan; Willems, Anne; Fernández-López, Manuel; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2002-09-01

    Sinorhizobium morelense sp. nov. is described to designate a group of bacteria isolated from root nodules of Leucaena leucocephala. S. morelense shows 98% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to some Sinorhizobium species and to Ensifer adhaerens. This novel species is distinguished from other Sinorhizobium species and from E. adhaerens by DNA-DNA hybridization, 165 rRNA gene restriction fragments and sequence and some distinctive phenotypic features. Strains of this species are highly resistant to some antibiotics, such as carbenicillin (1 mg ml(-1)), kanamycin (500 microg ml(-1)) and erythromycin (300 microg ml(-1)). They do not form nodules, but a nodulating strain, Lc57, is closely related to the novel species. Strain Lc04T (= LMG 21331T = CFN E1007T) is designated as the type strain of this novel species.

  5. Persistence of Antibiotic Resistance Plasmids in Biofilms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    useful in the care of patients with combat-related wound infections. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Antibiotic resistance, plasmid, biofilm, coevolution , bacteria...Antibiotic!resistance,!plasmid,!biofilm,! coevolution ,!bacteria,!wound!infections! ! ! ! 3! 3. OVERALL PROJECT SUMMARY: The! successful! persistence

  6. [Antibiotic-resistant bacteria and new directions of antimicrobial chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Tateda, Kazuhiro

    2012-05-01

    The emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant organisms are becoming more and more serious and are a worldwide problem. Recent trends in new antibiotic-resistant organisms include multiple-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP), MDR-Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB) and New Deli metallo beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) -producing bacteria. Antibiotic combination therapy is an option to overcome these MDR organisms. A breakpoint checkerboard plate was created to measure antibiotic combination effects at breakpoint concentrations, making it possible to evaluate the synergy of antibiotic combination within 24 hours. In this article, recent topics regarding antibiotic-resistant organisms are briefly reviewed and the directions of antibiotic chemotherapy against these organisms are discussed.

  7. Evolutionary Genetic Analysis Uncovers Multiple Species with Distinct Habitat Preferences and Antibiotic Resistance Phenotypes in the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Complex.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Sánchez, Luz E; Vinuesa, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    more susceptible to antibiotics than S. maltophilia. We demonstrate that the sympatric lineages recovered display significantly differentiated habitat preferences, antibiotic resistance profiles and β-lactamase expression phenotypes, as shown by diverse multivariate analyses and robust univariate statistical tests. We discuss our data in light of current models of bacterial speciation, which fit these data well, stressing the implications of species delimitation in ecological, evolutionary and clinical research.

  8. Mathematical analysis of multi-antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-09-15

    Multi-antibiotic resistance in bacterial infections is a growing threat to public health. Some experiments were carried out to study the multi-antibiotic resistance. The changes of the multi-antibiotic resistance with time were achieved by numerical simulations and the mathematical models, with the calculated temperature field, velocity field, and the antibiotic concentration field. The computed results and experimental results are compared. Both numerical simulations and the analytic models suggest that minor low concentrations of antibiotics could induce antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Alba, Claudio; Blanco, Ana; Alarcón, Teresa

    2017-10-01

    Treatment of Helicobacter pylori is difficult nowadays because of its high resistance. The prevalence and mechanism of resistance, the different methods to detect it and the clinical implication of resistance were addressed in several research papers last year. Clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori has been recognized by the WHO as 'high priority', for which new antibiotics are needed. Moreover, the Maastricht consensus recommended, in areas with high resistance, that susceptibility tests should be performed, at least after a treatment failure. Metronidazole and clarithromycin resistance rates are alarming although they vary among populations. Tetracycline and amoxicillin-resistance are very low in most countries. H. pylori resistance can be detected by phenotypic or by molecular methods. Different break points may be used when performing an antimicrobial susceptibility test, so comparing resistance among different populations is challenging. Genomic techniques open new possibilities in the diagnosis of H. pylori, and the detection of H. pylori and its antimicrobial resistance in faeces is an interesting approach. Eradication rates are dependent on the susceptibility of the strain to metronidazole and clarithromycin, being lower in patients infected with a resistant strain.

  10. Environmental and Public Health Implications of Water Reuse: Antibiotics, Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, and Antibiotic Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Pei-Ying; Al-Jassim, Nada; Ansari, Mohd Ikram; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2013-01-01

    Water scarcity is a global problem, and is particularly acute in certain regions like Africa, the Middle East, as well as the western states of America. A breakdown on water usage revealed that 70% of freshwater supplies are used for agricultural irrigation. The use of reclaimed water as an alternative water source for agricultural irrigation would greatly alleviate the demand on freshwater sources. This paradigm shift is gaining momentum in several water scarce countries like Saudi Arabia. However, microbial problems associated with reclaimed water may hinder the use of reclaimed water for agricultural irrigation. Of particular concern is that the occurrence of antibiotic residues in the reclaimed water can select for antibiotic resistance genes among the microbial community. Antibiotic resistance genes can be associated with mobile genetic elements, which in turn allow a promiscuous transfer of resistance traits from one bacterium to another. Together with the pathogens that are present in the reclaimed water, antibiotic resistant bacteria can potentially exchange mobile genetic elements to create the “perfect microbial storm”. Given the significance of this issue, a deeper understanding of the occurrence of antibiotics in reclaimed water, and their potential influence on the selection of resistant microorganisms would be essential. In this review paper, we collated literature over the past two decades to determine the occurrence of antibiotics in municipal wastewater and livestock manure. We then discuss how these antibiotic resistant bacteria may impose a potential microbial risk to the environment and public health, and the knowledge gaps that would have to be addressed in future studies. Overall, the collation of the literature in wastewater treatment and agriculture serves to frame and identify potential concerns with respect to antibiotics, antibiotic resistant bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes in reclaimed water. PMID:27029309

  11. Antibiotic resistance profiles among mesophilic aerobic bacteria in Nigerian chicken litter and associated antibiotic resistance genes1.

    PubMed

    Olonitola, Olayeni Stephen; Fahrenfeld, Nicole; Pruden, Amy

    2015-05-01

    The effect of global antibiotic use practices in livestock on the emergence of antibiotic resistant pathogens is poorly understood. There is a paucity of data among African nations, which suffer from high rates of antibiotic resistant infections among the human population. Escherichia (29.5%), Staphylococcus (15.8%), and Proteus (15.79%) were the dominant bacterial genera isolated from chicken litter from four different farms in Zaria, Nigeria, all of which contain human pathogenic members. Escherichia isolates were uniformly susceptible to augmentin and cefuroxime, but resistant to sulfamethoxazole (54.5%), ampicillin (22.7%), ciprofloxacin (18.2%), cephalothin (13.6%) and gentamicin (13.6%). Staphylococcus isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and sulfamethoxazole, but resistant to tetracycline (86.7%), erythromycin (80%), clindamycin (60%), and penicillin (33.3%). Many of the isolates (65.4%) were resistant to multiple antibiotics, with a multiple antibiotic resistance index (MARI) ≥ 0.2. sul1, sul2, and vanA were the most commonly detected antibiotic resistance genes among the isolates. Chicken litter associated with antibiotic use and farming practices in Nigeria could be a public health concern given that the antibiotic resistant patterns among genera containing pathogens indicate the potential for antibiotic treatment failure. However, the MARI values were generally lower than reported for Escherichia coli from intensive poultry operations in industrial nations. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Antibiotic Resistance of Diverse Bacteria from Aquaculture in Borneo

    PubMed Central

    Kathleen, M. M.; Felecia, C.; Reagan, E. L.; Kasing, A.; Lesley, M.; Toh, S. C.

    2016-01-01

    The administration of antimicrobials in aquaculture provides a selective pressure creating a reservoir of multiple resistant bacteria in the cultured fish and shrimps as well as the aquaculture environment. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of antibiotic resistance in aquaculture products and aquaculture's surrounding environment in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Ninety-four identified bacterial isolates constituted of 17 genera were isolated from sediment, water, and cultured organisms (fish and shrimp) in selected aquaculture farms. These isolates were tested for their antibiotic resistance against 22 antibiotics from several groups using the disk diffusion method. The results show that the highest resistance was observed towards streptomycin (85%, n = 20), while the lowest resistance was towards gentamicin (1.1%, n = 90). The multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) index of the isolates tested ranged between 0 and 0.63. It was suggested that isolates with MAR index > 0.2 were recovered from sources with high risk of antibiotic resistant contamination. This study revealed low level of antibiotic resistance in the aquaculture bacterial isolates except for streptomycin and ampicillin (>50% resistance, n = 94) which have been used in the aquaculture industry for several decades. Antibiotic resistant patterns should be continuously monitored to predict the emergence and widespread of MAR. Effective action is needed to keep the new resistance from further developing and spreading. PMID:27746817

  13. Antibiotic resistance in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Gudiol, Carlota; Carratalà, Jordi

    2014-08-01

    Bacterial infection is one of the most frequent complications in cancer patients and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. In recent years, the emergence of antimicrobial resistance has become a significant problem worldwide, and cancer patients are among those affected. Treatment of infections due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria represents a clinical challenge, especially in the case of Gram-negative bacilli, since the therapeutic options are often very limited. As the antibiotics active against MDR bacteria present several disadvantages (limited clinical experience, higher incidence of adverse effects, and less knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of the drug), a thorough acquaintance with the main characteristics of these drugs is mandatory in order to provide safe treatment to cancer patients with MDR bacterial infections. Nevertheless, the implementation of antibiotic stewardship programs and infection control measures is the cornerstone for controlling the development and spread of these MDR pathogens.

  14. Carriage by the German cockroach (Blattella germanica) of multiple-antibiotic-resistant bacteria that are potentially pathogenic to humans, in hospitals and households in Tripoli, Libya.

    PubMed

    Elgderi, R M; Ghenghesh, K S; Berbash, N

    2006-01-01

    Using standard bacteriological procedures, 403 cockroaches (Blattella germanica) collected in Tripoli, from hospitals or the households surrounding the hospitals, were examined for bacteria that are potentially pathogenic to humans. Almost all of the cockroaches (96.1% of the 253 from hospitals and 98.7% of the 150 from households) were found to be carrying potentially pathogenic bacteria, with similar mean burdens of 3.2 x 10(5) colony-forming units (cfu) (range=0-1.4 x 10(7)) for each hospital cockroach and 1.9 x 10(5) cfu (range=0-3.1 x 10(6)) for each household cockroach (P>0.05). Overall, 27 and 25 species of potential pathogen were isolated from the hospital and household cockroaches, respectively, with Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia and Streptococcus predominant. Carriage of species of Serratia was significantly more common among the hospital cockroaches than among the household cockroaches, whereas carriage of Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter and Aeromonas was significantly more common among the household cockroaches than among the hospital. Multiple resistance, to at least six different antibiotics, was more commonly observed among the enteric bacteria isolated from the hospital cockroaches than among those recovered from the household cockroaches. Overall, >30% of the isolates of Enterobacteria recovered were each resistant to at least four antimicrobial agents, and 95% of the Pseudomonas isolates were each resistant to at least eight such agents. Cockroaches may play an important role in the spread of multiple-antibiotic-resistant, bacterial pathogens within the hospitals and surrounding communities of Tripoli and other, similar cities. The local health and environmental authorities need to be encouraged to treat B. germanica infestations seriously and to control them quickly and effectively.

  15. The relationship between pneumococcal serotypes and antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae-Hoon; Dagan, Ron; Klugman, Keith P; Fritzell, Bernard

    2012-04-05

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) causes significant burden of disease, including invasive pneumococcal disease and noninvasive diseases such as pneumonia and acute otitis media. SP has at least 93 different capsular serotypes, with the various serotypes having different propensities for producing disease or developing antibiotic resistance. An increase in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant SP serotypes has been observed globally. The objective of this paper was to examine the relationship between antibiotic resistance and SP serotypes, with a primary focus on studies published in the past 10 years. Changing trends in antibiotic resistance and serotype distribution during this time, including those before and after the introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), were analyzed. Factors that influence the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant serotypes include antibiotic selection pressure, the use of PCV7, and the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant clones. The emergence of multidrug resistant serotype 19A is of particular concern. Antibiotic-resistant SP is a global problem that must be addressed through multiple strategies, including national vaccination programs, antibiotic control programs, and ongoing surveillance.

  16. Probiotic approach to prevent antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Ouwehand, Arthur C; Forssten, Sofia; Hibberd, Ashley A; Lyra, Anna; Stahl, Buffy

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms, mainly belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, although also strain of other species are commercialized, that have a beneficial effect on the host. From the perspective of antibiotic use, probiotics have been observed to reduce the risk of certain infectious disease such as certain types of diarrhea and respiratory tract infection. This may be accompanied with a reduced need of antibiotics for secondary infections. Antibiotics tend to be effective against most common diseases, but increasingly resistance is being observed among pathogens. Probiotics are specifically selected to not contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance and not carry transferable antibiotic resistance. Concomitant use of probiotics with antibiotics has been observed to reduce the incidence, duration and/or severity of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. This contributes to better adherence to the antibiotic prescription and thereby reduces the evolution of resistance. To what extent probiotics directly reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance is still much under investigation; but maintaining a balanced microbiota during antibiotic use may certainly provide opportunities for reducing the spread of resistances. Key messages Probiotics may reduce the risk for certain infectious diseases and thereby reduce the need for antibiotics. Probiotics may reduce the risk for antibiotic-associated diarrhea Probiotics do not contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance and may even reduce it.

  17. Rationalizing antibiotic use to limit antibiotic resistance in India.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Nirmal K; Arora, N K; Chandy, Sujith J; Fairoze, Mohamed Nadeem; Gill, J P S; Gupta, Usha; Hossain, Shah; Joglekar, Sadhna; Joshi, P C; Kakkar, Manish; Kotwani, Anita; Rattan, Ashok; Sudarshan, H; Thomas, Kurien; Wattal, Chand; Easton, Alice; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2011-09-01

    Antibiotic resistance, a global concern, is particularly pressing in developing nations, including India, where the burden of infectious disease is high and healthcare spending is low. The Global Antibiotic Resistance Partnership (GARP) was established to develop actionable policy recommendations specifically relevant to low- and middle-income countries where suboptimal access to antibiotics - not a major concern in high-income countries - is possibly as severe a problem as is the spread of resistant organisms. This report summarizes the situation as it is known regarding antibiotic use and growing resistance in India and recommends short and long term actions. Recommendations aim at (i) reducing the need for antibiotics; (ii) lowering resistance-enhancing drug pressure through improved antibiotic targeting, and (iii) eliminating antibiotic use for growth promotion in agriculture. The highest priority needs to be given to (i) national surveillance of antibiotic resistance and antibiotic use - better information to underpin decisions on standard treatment guidelines, education and other actions, as well as to monitor changes over time; (ii) increasing the use of diagnostic tests, which necessitates behavioural changes and improvements in microbiology laboratory capacity; (iii) setting up and/or strengthening infection control committees in hospitals; and (iv) restricting the use of antibiotics for non-therapeutic uses in agriculture. These interventions should help to reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance, improve public health directly, benefit the populace and reduce pressure on the healthcare system. Finally, increasing the types and coverage of childhood vaccines offered by the government would reduce the disease burden enormously and spare antibiotics.

  18. Rationalizing antibiotic use to limit antibiotic resistance in India+

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance, a global concern, is particularly pressing in developing nations, including India, where the burden of infectious disease is high and healthcare spending is low. The Global Antibiotic Resistance Partnership (GARP) was established to develop actionable policy recommendations specifically relevant to low- and middle-income countries where suboptimal access to antibiotics - not a major concern in high-income countries - is possibly as severe a problem as is the spread of resistant organisms. This report summarizes the situation as it is known regarding antibiotic use and growing resistance in India and recommends short and long term actions. Recommendations aim at (i) reducing the need for antibiotics; (ii) lowering resistance-enhancing drug pressure through improved antibiotic targeting, and (iii) eliminating antibiotic use for growth promotion in agriculture. The highest priority needs to be given to (i) national surveillance of antibiotic resistance and antibiotic use - better information to underpin decisions on standard treatment guidelines, education and other actions, as well as to monitor changes over time; (ii) increasing the use of diagnostic tests, which necessitates behavioural changes and improvements in microbiology laboratory capacity; (iii) setting up and/or strengthening infection control committees in hospitals; and (iv) restricting the use of antibiotics for non-therapeutic uses in agriculture. These interventions should help to reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance, improve public health directly, benefit the populace and reduce pressure on the healthcare system. Finally, increasing the types and coverage of childhood vaccines offered by the government would reduce the disease burden enormously and spare antibiotics. PMID:21985810

  19. Occurrence and Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Non-fermentative Gram-Negative Microflora in Five Brands of Non-carbonated French Bottled Spring Water.

    PubMed

    Mary; Defives; Hornez

    2000-05-01

    Five brands of French bottled mineral water were analyzed by heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) and for the presence of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria. HPC at 22 degrees C were around 10(4) colony forming units ml(-1) on R2A medium. Enumeration on PCA/10, MH, and especially PCA and King B media was less efficient. At 37 degrees C, HPC were two to three orders of magnitude less than at 22 degrees C. Moreover, phenotypic diversity (7 to 15 phenotypes) was optimal on R2A incubated at 22 degrees C. All isolates were identified as non-fermentative Gram-negative rods and 75% were non-identifiable with the API 20NE system. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and fluorescent Pseudomonas were isolated on VIA and CFC selective agar media, respectively. Burkholderia cepacia strains were not isolated on BCSA medium. The species S. maltophilia was found in 33%, 28%, and 11% of sample from springs A, D, and E, respectively. Independent of brand, isolates from HPC media were less efficient to achieve confluent growth in 18 h on MH at 30 or 37 degrees C (0 to 40%) than isolates from selective media (28 to 63%). Seventy percent of the total isolates from dominant microflora (1-5 x 10(3) CFU ml(-1) on HPC media) were resistant against two or four antibiotics. The antibiotics concerned were principally aztreonam, ampicillin, and nalidixic acid. The remaining dominant bacteria showed a 6-9 multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) pattern. All isolates were susceptible to newer antimicrobial agents. Owing to their low nutrient and temperature requirements, these isolates are unlikely to cause concern to public heath. Fifty percent of strains isolated from selective media (non-dominant microflora, 4-40 CFU l(-1)) showed a 10-18 MAR pattern and 33%, identified as S. maltophilia, a 20-27 MAR pattern. However, minocycline was effective against all isolates. Owing to its low concentration, colonization of human intestine by MAR S. maltophilia is unlikely.

  20. Diverse antibiotic resistance genes in dairy cow manure.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Fabienne; Udikovic-Kolic, Nikolina; Andrew, Sheila; Handelsman, Jo

    2014-04-22

    Application of manure from antibiotic-treated animals to crops facilitates the dissemination of antibiotic resistance determinants into the environment. However, our knowledge of the identity, diversity, and patterns of distribution of these antibiotic resistance determinants remains limited. We used a new combination of methods to examine the resistome of dairy cow manure, a common soil amendment. Metagenomic libraries constructed with DNA extracted from manure were screened for resistance to beta-lactams, phenicols, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines. Functional screening of fosmid and small-insert libraries identified 80 different antibiotic resistance genes whose deduced protein sequences were on average 50 to 60% identical to sequences deposited in GenBank. The resistance genes were frequently found in clusters and originated from a taxonomically diverse set of species, suggesting that some microorganisms in manure harbor multiple resistance genes. Furthermore, amid the great genetic diversity in manure, we discovered a novel clade of chloramphenicol acetyltransferases. Our study combined functional metagenomics with third-generation PacBio sequencing to significantly extend the roster of functional antibiotic resistance genes found in animal gut bacteria, providing a particularly broad resource for understanding the origins and dispersal of antibiotic resistance genes in agriculture and clinical settings. IMPORTANCE The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance among bacteria is one of the most intractable challenges in 21st-century public health. The origins of resistance are complex, and a better understanding of the impacts of antibiotics used on farms would produce a more robust platform for public policy. Microbiomes of farm animals are reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes, which may affect distribution of antibiotic resistance genes in human pathogens. Previous studies have focused on antibiotic resistance genes in manures of animals subjected

  1. Insights into antibiotic resistance through metagenomic approaches.

    PubMed

    Schmieder, Robert; Edwards, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The consequences of bacterial infections have been curtailed by the introduction of a wide range of antibiotics. However, infections continue to be a leading cause of mortality, in part due to the evolution and acquisition of antibiotic-resistance genes. Antibiotic misuse and overprescription have created a driving force influencing the selection of resistance. Despite the problem of antibiotic resistance in infectious bacteria, little is known about the diversity, distribution and origins of resistance genes, especially for the unculturable majority of environmental bacteria. Functional and sequence-based metagenomics have been used for the discovery of novel resistance determinants and the improved understanding of antibiotic-resistance mechanisms in clinical and natural environments. This review discusses recent findings and future challenges in the study of antibiotic resistance through metagenomic approaches.

  2. The global problem of antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Gootz, Thomas D

    2010-01-01

    Amid the recent attention justly focused on the potential problem of microbial sources for weapons of bioterrorism, it is also apparent that human pathogens frequently isolated from infections in patients from community and hospital sources have been growing more resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Much of the growth of multiple-drug-resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens can be contributed to the overuse of broad-spectrum antimicrobial products. However, an equally troubling and often overlooked component of the problem involves the elegant ways in which pathogenic bacteria continually evolve complex genetic systems for acquiring and regulating an endless array of antibiotic-resistance mechanisms. Efforts to develop new antimicrobials have over the past two decades been woefully behind the rapid evolution of resistance genes developing among both gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens. Several new agents that are best suited for use in the hospital environment have been developed to combat staphylococci resistant to beta-lactam antimicrobials following acquisition of the mecA gene. However, the dramatic spread in the US of the now common community strain of Staphylococcus aureus USA300 has shifted the therapeutic need for new antibiotics useful against MRSA to the community. As the pharmaceutical industry focused on discovering new agents for use against MRSA, hospitals in many parts of the world have seen the emergence of gram-negative pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae that are clinically resistant to almost all available antimicrobials. Such MDR isolates usually contain multiple-resistance determinants, including loss of outer membrane porins via gene inactivation by chromosomally encoded insertion sequences, up-regulation of inate efflux pumps, as well as acquisition of drug-inactivating enzymes whose genes are encoded on self-transmissible plasmids, integrons, and complex transposable elements

  3. Oral cavities of healthy infants harbour high proportions of Streptococcus salivarius strains with phenotypic and genotypic resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Palma, Thaís H; Harth-Chú, Erika N; Scott, Jodie; Stipp, Rafael N; Boisvert, Heike; Salomão, Mariana F; Theobaldo, Jéssica D; Possobon, Rosana F; Nascimento, Leandro C; McCafferty, Jonathan W; Faller, Lina; Duncan, Margaret J; Mattos-Graner, Renata O

    2016-12-01

    Emerging antibiotic resistance in the oropharyngeal microbiota, of which Streptococcus salivarius is a prominent species, represents a challenge for treating paediatric populations. In this study, we investigated the role of Streptococcussalivarius as a reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in the oral microbiota by analysing 95 Streptococcussalivarius isolates from 22 healthy infants (2-16 months of age). MICs of penicillin G, amoxicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, doxycycline and streptomycin were determined. ARG profiles were assessed in a subset of 21 strains by next-generation sequencing of genomes, followed by searches of assembled reads against the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database. Strains resistant to erythromycin, penicillins and tetracyclines were isolated from 83.3, 33.3 and 16.6 %, respectively, of infants aged 2 to 8 months with no prior antibiotic treatment. These percentages were100.0, 66.6 and 50.0 %, by 13 to 16 months of age. ARG or polymorphisms associated with antibiotic resistance were the most prevalent and involved genes for macrolide efflux (mel, mefA/E and macB), ribosomal protection [erm(B), tet(M) and tet(O)] and β-lactamase-like proteins. Phylogenetically related strains showing multidrug-resistant phenotypes harboured multidrug efflux ARG. Polymorphic genes associated with antibiotic resistance to drugs affecting DNA replication, folate synthesis, RNA/protein synthesis and regulators of antibiotic stress responses were detected. These data imply that Streptococcussalivarius strains established during maturation of the oral microbiota harbour a diverse array of functional ARG, even in the absence of antibiotic selective pressures, highlighting a potential role for this species in shaping antibiotic susceptibility profiles of oropharyngeal communities.

  4. Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli Serotypes from Cochin Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, Divya P.; Durairaj, Srinivasan; Abdulla, Mohamed Hatha

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at detecting the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant serotypes of Escherichia coli in Cochin estuary, India. E. coli strains were isolated during the period January 2010–December 2011 from five different stations set at Cochin estuary. Water samples from five different stations in Cochin estuary were collected on a monthly basis for a period of two years. Isolates were serotyped, antibiogram-phenotyped for twelve antimicrobial agents, and genotyped by polymerase chain reaction for uid gene that codes for β-D-glucuronidase. These E. coli strains from Cochin estuary were tested against twelve antibiotics to determine the prevalence of multiple antibiotic resistance among them. The results revealed that more than 53.33% of the isolates were multiple antibiotic resistant. Thirteen isolates showed resistance to sulphonamides and two of them contained the sul 1 gene. Class 1 integrons were detected in two E. coli strains which were resistant to more than seven antibiotics. In the present study, O serotyping, antibiotic sensitivity, and polymerase chain reaction were employed with the purpose of establishing the present distribution of multiple antibiotic-resistant serotypes, associated with E. coli isolated from different parts of Cochin estuary. PMID:23008708

  5. Tackling antibiotic resistance: the environmental framework.

    PubMed

    Berendonk, Thomas U; Manaia, Célia M; Merlin, Christophe; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Cytryn, Eddie; Walsh, Fiona; Bürgmann, Helmut; Sørum, Henning; Norström, Madelaine; Pons, Marie-Noëlle; Kreuzinger, Norbert; Huovinen, Pentti; Stefani, Stefania; Schwartz, Thomas; Kisand, Veljo; Baquero, Fernando; Martinez, José Luis

    2015-05-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a threat to human and animal health worldwide, and key measures are required to reduce the risks posed by antibiotic resistance genes that occur in the environment. These measures include the identification of critical points of control, the development of reliable surveillance and risk assessment procedures, and the implementation of technological solutions that can prevent environmental contamination with antibiotic resistant bacteria and genes. In this Opinion article, we discuss the main knowledge gaps, the future research needs and the policy and management options that should be prioritized to tackle antibiotic resistance in the environment.

  6. General principles of antibiotic resistance in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Jose L

    2014-03-01

    Given the impact of antibiotic resistance on human health, its study is of great interest from a clinical view- point. In addition, antibiotic resistance is one of the few examples of evolution that can be studied in real time. Knowing the general principles involved in the acquisition of antibiotic resistance is therefore of interest to clinicians, evolutionary biologists and ecologists. The origin of antibiotic resistance genes now possessed by human pathogens can be traced back to environmental microorganisms. Consequently, a full understanding of the evolution of antibiotic resistance requires the study of natural environments as well as clinical ecosystems. Updated information on the evolutionary mechanisms behind resistance, indicates that ecological connectivity, founder effect and fitness costs are important bottle- necks that modulate the transfer of resistance from environmental microorganisms to pathogens.

  7. Antibiotic resistance among autochthonous aquatic environmental bacteria.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Christiane; Kistemann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in both human and veterinary medicine and antibiotic-resistant bacteria cause problems in antibiotic therapy. The current study was conducted in the catchment area of the river Swist (Germany) and focuses on the resistance of environmental Rhodospirillaceae to antibiotics used in human medicine. The samples collected reflect different levels of human impact on the environment. In total, 614 isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility. About half of these isolates were susceptible to all substances tested. Oxacillin resistance was observed most frequently (41%). Resistant Rhodospirillaceae were detected in wastewater effluent from a municipal sewage treatment plant, as well as in non-polluted upper reaches. The highest multi-resistance level was detected in small tributaries and it surprisingly decreased with an increasing influence of municipal wastewater. It could be shown that the detected resistances were acquired rather than intrinsic. Besides natural occurrence of multi-resistance among non-sulphur purple bacteria, horizontal gene transfer and acquired cross-resistance against veterinary antibiotics are assumed to be important factors. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study investigating the potential of Rhodospirillaceae as a reservoir for resistance to antibiotics used in human medicine. The consequence for resistance prevalence in human pathogens and for their antibiotic therapy needs evaluation.

  8. Addressing resistance to antibiotics in systematic reviews of antibiotic interventions.

    PubMed

    Leibovici, Leonard; Paul, Mical; Garner, Paul; Sinclair, David J; Afshari, Arash; Pace, Nathan Leon; Cullum, Nicky; Williams, Hywel C; Smyth, Alan; Skoetz, Nicole; Del Mar, Chris; Schilder, Anne G M; Yahav, Dafna; Tovey, David

    2016-09-01

    Antibiotics are among the most important interventions in healthcare. Resistance of bacteria to antibiotics threatens the effectiveness of treatment. Systematic reviews of antibiotic treatments often do not address resistance to antibiotics even when data are available in the original studies. This omission creates a skewed view, which emphasizes short-term efficacy and ignores the long-term consequences to the patient and other people. We offer a framework for addressing antibiotic resistance in systematic reviews. We suggest that the data on background resistance in the original trials should be reported and taken into account when interpreting results. Data on emergence of resistance (whether in the body reservoirs or in the bacteria causing infection) are important outcomes. Emergence of resistance should be taken into account when interpreting the evidence on antibiotic treatment in randomized controlled trials or systematic reviews. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Antibiotic Resistance Spreads Internationally Across Borders.

    PubMed

    Barlam, Tamar F; Gupta, Kalpana

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant (ABR) bacteria develop when bacteria are exposed to antibiotics either during treatments in humans or animals or through environmental sources contaminated with antibiotic residues. Resistant bacteria selected by medical, agricultural, and industrial use spread globally through international travel, the export of animals and retail products, and the environment. It is essential that nations work together to identify how to reduce emergence and amplification of resistant bacteria through sensible antibiotic treatment guidelines and restrictions, concerted efforts for surveillance, and infection control. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  10. Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance in Agroecosystems: State of the Science.

    PubMed

    Williams-Nguyen, Jessica; Sallach, J Brett; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Boxall, Alistair B; Durso, Lisa M; McLain, Jean E; Singer, Randall S; Snow, Daniel D; Zilles, Julie L

    2016-03-01

    We propose a simple causal model depicting relationships involved in dissemination of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in agroecosystems and potential effects on human health, functioning of natural ecosystems, and agricultural productivity. Available evidence for each causal link is briefly summarized, and key knowledge gaps are highlighted. A lack of quantitative estimates of human exposure to environmental bacteria, in general, and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, specifically, is a significant data gap hindering the assessment of effects on human health. The contribution of horizontal gene transfer to resistance in the environment and conditions that might foster the horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes into human pathogens also need further research. Existing research has focused heavily on human health effects, with relatively little known about the effects of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance on natural and agricultural ecosystems. The proposed causal model is used to elucidate gaps in knowledge that must be addressed by the research community and may provide a useful starting point for the design and analysis of future research efforts. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. Antibiotic resistance: a physicist’s view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Rosalind; Waclaw, Bartłomiej

    2016-08-01

    The problem of antibiotic resistance poses challenges across many disciplines. One such challenge is to understand the fundamental science of how antibiotics work, and how resistance to them can emerge. This is an area where physicists can make important contributions. Here, we highlight cases where this is already happening, and suggest directions for further physics involvement in antimicrobial research.

  12. Antibiotic resistance: a physicist’s view

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Rosalind; Waclaw, Bartłomiej

    2016-01-01

    The problem of antibiotic resistance poses challenges across many disciplines. One such challenge is to understand the fundamental science of how antibiotics work, and how resistance to them can emerge. This is an area where physicists can make important contributions. Here, we highlight cases where this is already happening, and suggest directions for further physics involvement in antimicrobial research. PMID:27510596

  13. Background antibiotic resistance patterns in antibiotic-free pastured poultry production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is a significant public health issue, and agroecosystems are often viewed as major environmental sources of antibiotic resistant foodborne pathogens. While the use of antibiotics in agroecosystems can potentially increase AR, appropriate background resistance levels in th...

  14. Multiple Discharges of Treated Municipal Wastewater Have a Small Effect on the Quantities of Numerous Antibiotic Resistance Determinants in the Upper Mississippi River.

    PubMed

    LaPara, Timothy M; Madson, Matthew; Borchardt, Spencer; Lang, Kevin S; Johnson, Timothy J

    2015-10-06

    This study evaluated multiple discharges of treated wastewater on the quantities of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the Upper Mississippi River. Surface water and treated wastewater samples were collected along the Mississippi River during three different periods of 4 days during the summer of 2012, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to enumerate several ARGs and related targets. Even though the wastewater effluents contained 75- to 831-fold higher levels of ARGs than the river water, the quantities of ARGs in the Mississippi River did not increase with downstream distance. Plasmids from the incompatibility group A/C were detected at low levels in the wastewater effluents but not in the river water; synthetic DNA containing an ampicillin resistance gene (bla) from cloning vectors was not detected in either the wastewater effluent or river samples. A simple 1D model suggested that the primary reason for the small impact of the wastewater discharges on ARG levels was the large flow rate of the Mississippi River compared to that of the wastewater discharges. Furthermore, this model generally overpredicted the ARG levels in the Mississippi River, suggesting that substantial loss mechanisms (e.g., decay or deposition) were occurring in the river.

  15. Prevalence of Multiple Antibiotics Resistant (MAR) Pseudomonas Species in the Final Effluents of Three Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Odjadjare, Emmanuel E.; Igbinosa, Etinosa O.; Mordi, Raphael; Igere, Bright; Igeleke, Clara L.; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2012-01-01

    The final effluents of three (Alice, Dimbaza, and East London) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were evaluated to determine their physicochemical quality and prevalence of multiple antibiotics resistant (MAR) Pseudomonas species, between August 2007 and July 2008. The annual mean total Pseudomonas count (TPC) was 1.20 × 104 (cfu/100 mL), 1.08 × 104 (cfu/100 mL), and 2.66 × 104 (cfu/100 mL), for the Alice, Dimbaza, and East London WWTPs respectively. The effluents were generally compliant with recommended limits for pH, temperature, TDS, DO, nitrite and nitrate; but fell short of target standards for turbidity, COD, and phosphate. The tested isolates were highly sensitive to gentamicin (100%), ofloxacin (100%), clindamycin (90%), erythromycin (90%) and nitrofurantoin (80%); whereas high resistance was observed against the penicillins (90–100%), rifampin (90%), sulphamethoxazole (90%) and the cephems (70%). MAR index ranged between 0.26 and 0.58. The study demonstrated that MAR Pseudomonas species were quite prevalent in the final effluents of WWTPs in South Africa; and this can lead to serious health risk for communities that depend on the effluent-receiving waters for sundry purposes. PMID:22829792

  16. Water Disinfection Byproducts Induce Antibiotic Resistance-Role of Environmental Pollutants in Resistance Phenomena.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Zeng, Siyu; He, Miao; Gu, April Z

    2016-03-15

    The spread of antibiotic resistance represents a global threat to public health, and has been traditionally attributed to extensive antibiotic uses in clinical and agricultural applications. As a result, researchers have mostly focused on clinically relevant high-level resistance enriched by antibiotics above the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Here, we report that two common water disinfection byproducts (chlorite and iodoacetic acid) had antibiotic-like effects that led to the evolution of resistant E. coli strains under both high (near MICs) and low (sub-MIC) exposure concentrations. The subinhibitory concentrations of DBPs selected strains with resistance higher than those evolved under above-MIC exposure concentrations. In addition, whole-genome analysis revealed distinct mutations in small sets of genes known to be involved in multiple drug and drug-specific resistance, as well as in genes not yet identified to play role in antibiotic resistance. The number and identities of genetic mutations were distinct for either the high versus low sub-MIC concentrations exposure scenarios. This study provides evidence and mechanistic insight into the sub-MIC selection of antibiotic resistance by antibiotic-like environmental pollutants such as disinfection byproducts in water, which may be important contributors to the spread of global antibiotic resistance. The results from this study open an intriguing and profound question on the roles of large amount and various environmental contaminants play in selecting and spreading the antibiotics resistance in the environment.

  17. Counteracting selection for antibiotic-resistant bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yosef, Ido; Manor, Miriam; Qimron, Udi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens is on the rise because antibiotics exert selection pressure that kills only the antibiotic-sensitive pathogens. Sanitation and cleansing of hospital surfaces and the skin of medical personnel do not counteract this selective pressure, but rather indiscriminately reduce total pathogens on treated surfaces. Here, we discuss two recently introduced genetic strategies, based on temperate bacteriophages as DNA-delivery vehicles, that aim to sensitize bacteria to antibiotics and selectively kill the antibiotic-resistant ones. Outlooks for rendering one such approach more efficient and applicable are proposed. We believe that using an end product designed according to the provided principles on hospital surfaces and in hand-sanitizers will facilitate substitution of antibiotic-resistant pathogens with sensitive ones. PMID:27144084

  18. Counteracting selection for antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yosef, Ido; Manor, Miriam; Qimron, Udi

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens is on the rise because antibiotics exert selection pressure that kills only the antibiotic-sensitive pathogens. Sanitation and cleansing of hospital surfaces and the skin of medical personnel do not counteract this selective pressure, but rather indiscriminately reduce total pathogens on treated surfaces. Here, we discuss two recently introduced genetic strategies, based on temperate bacteriophages as DNA-delivery vehicles, that aim to sensitize bacteria to antibiotics and selectively kill the antibiotic-resistant ones. Outlooks for rendering one such approach more efficient and applicable are proposed. We believe that using an end product designed according to the provided principles on hospital surfaces and in hand-sanitizers will facilitate substitution of antibiotic-resistant pathogens with sensitive ones.

  19. Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Plasmids Allow Scalable,
PCR-Mediated DNA Manipulation and Near-Zero Background Cloning.

    PubMed

    Arnak, Remigiusz; Altun, Burcin; Tosato, Valentina; Bruschi, Carlo V

    2016-09-01

    We have constructed two plasmids that can be used for cloning as templates for PCR- -based gene disruption, mutagenesis and the construction of DNA chromosome translocation cassettes. To our knowledge, these plasmids are the first vectors that confer resistance to ampicillin, kanamycin and hygromycin B in bacteria, and to geneticin (G418) and hygromycin B in Saccharomyces cerevisiae simultaneously. The option of simultaneously using up to three resistance markers provides a highly stringent control of recombinant selection and the almost complete elimination of background resistance, while unique restriction sites allow easy cloning of chosen genetic material. Moreover, we successfully used these new vectors as PCR templates for the induction of chromosome translocation in budding yeast by the bridge-induced translocation system. Cells in which translocation was induced carried chromosomal rearrangements as expected and exhibited resistance to both, G418 and hygromycin B. These features make our constructs very handy tools for many molecular biology applications.

  20. [Update on antibiotic resistance in Gram-positive bacteria].

    PubMed

    Lozano, Carmen; Torres, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance among Gram-positive bacteria, especially in Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, is a serious threat to public health. These microorganisms have multiple resistance mechanisms to agents currently used in clinical practice. Many of these resistance mechanisms are common to all 4 of these bacterial species, but other mechanisms seem to be more specific. The prevalence and dissemination of these mechanisms varies considerably, depending on the microorganism. This review discusses the resistance mechanisms to the most clinically relevant antibiotics, with particular emphasis on the new mechanisms described for widely used antibiotics and for newer agents such as lipopeptides, lipoglycopeptides, glycylcyclines and oxazolidinones.

  1. Diverse Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Dairy Cow Manure

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Fabienne; Udikovic-Kolic, Nikolina; Andrew, Sheila; Handelsman, Jo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Application of manure from antibiotic-treated animals to crops facilitates the dissemination of antibiotic resistance determinants into the environment. However, our knowledge of the identity, diversity, and patterns of distribution of these antibiotic resistance determinants remains limited. We used a new combination of methods to examine the resistome of dairy cow manure, a common soil amendment. Metagenomic libraries constructed with DNA extracted from manure were screened for resistance to beta-lactams, phenicols, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines. Functional screening of fosmid and small-insert libraries identified 80 different antibiotic resistance genes whose deduced protein sequences were on average 50 to 60% identical to sequences deposited in GenBank. The resistance genes were frequently found in clusters and originated from a taxonomically diverse set of species, suggesting that some microorganisms in manure harbor multiple resistance genes. Furthermore, amid the great genetic diversity in manure, we discovered a novel clade of chloramphenicol acetyltransferases. Our study combined functional metagenomics with third-generation PacBio sequencing to significantly extend the roster of functional antibiotic resistance genes found in animal gut bacteria, providing a particularly broad resource for understanding the origins and dispersal of antibiotic resistance genes in agriculture and clinical settings. PMID:24757214

  2. Targets for Combating the Evolution of Acquired Antibiotic Resistance.

    PubMed

    Culyba, Matthew J; Mo, Charlie Y; Kohli, Rahul M

    2015-06-16

    Bacteria possess a remarkable ability to rapidly adapt and evolve in response to antibiotics. Acquired antibiotic resistance can arise by multiple mechanisms but commonly involves altering the target site of the drug, enzymatically inactivating the drug, or preventing the drug from accessing its target. These mechanisms involve new genetic changes in the pathogen leading to heritable resistance. This recognition underscores the importance of understanding how such genetic changes can arise. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the processes that contribute to the evolution of antibiotic resistance, with a particular focus on hypermutation mediated by the SOS pathway and horizontal gene transfer. We explore the molecular mechanisms involved in acquired resistance and discuss their viability as potential targets. We propose that additional studies into these adaptive mechanisms not only can provide insights into evolution but also can offer a strategy for potentiating our current antibiotic arsenal.

  3. Targets for Combating the Evolution of Acquired Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria possess a remarkable ability to rapidly adapt and evolve in response to antibiotics. Acquired antibiotic resistance can arise by multiple mechanisms but commonly involves altering the target site of the drug, enzymatically inactivating the drug, or preventing the drug from accessing its target. These mechanisms involve new genetic changes in the pathogen leading to heritable resistance. This recognition underscores the importance of understanding how such genetic changes can arise. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the processes that contribute to the evolution of antibiotic resistance, with a particular focus on hypermutation mediated by the SOS pathway and horizontal gene transfer. We explore the molecular mechanisms involved in acquired resistance and discuss their viability as potential targets. We propose that additional studies into these adaptive mechanisms not only can provide insights into evolution but also can offer a strategy for potentiating our current antibiotic arsenal. PMID:26016604

  4. Antibiotic resistance in ocular bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial infections of the eye are common and ophthalmologists are spoilt for choice with a variety of antibiotics available in the market. Antibiotics can be administered in the eye by a number of routes; topical, subconjunctival, subtenon and intraocular. Apart from a gamut of eye drops available, ophthalmologists also have the option of preparing fortified eye drops from parenteral formulations, thereby, achieving high concentrations; often much above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), of antibiotics in ocular tissues during therapy. Antibiotic resistance among ocular pathogens is increasing in parallel with the increase seen over the years in bacteria associated with systemic infections. Although it is believed that the rise in resistant ocular bacterial isolates is linked to the rise in resistant systemic pathogens, recent evidence has correlated the emergence of resistant bacteria in the eye to prior topical antibiotic therapy. One would like to believe that either of these contributes to the emergence of resistance to antibiotics among ocular pathogens. Until recently, ocular pathogens resistant to fluoroquinolones have been minimal but the pattern is currently alarming. The new 8-fluoroquinolone on the scene-besifloxacin, is developed exclusively for ophthalmic use and it is hoped that it will escape the selective pressure for resistance because of lack of systemic use. In addition to development of new antibacterial agents, the strategies to halt or control further development of resistant ocular pathogens should always include judicious use of antibiotics in the treatment of human, animal or plant diseases.

  5. Selective decontamination and antibiotic resistance in ICUs.

    PubMed

    Plantinga, Nienke L; Bonten, Marc J M

    2015-06-24

    Selective digestive decontamination (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) have been associated with reduced mortality and lower ICU-acquired bacteremia and ventilator-associated pneumonia rates in areas with low levels of antibiotic resistance. However, the effect of selective decontamination (SDD/SOD) in areas where multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are endemic is less clear. It will be important to determine whether SDD/SOD improves patient outcome in such settings and how these measures affect the epidemiology of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Here we review the current evidence on the effects of SDD/SOD on antibiotic resistance development in individual ICU patients as well as the effect on ICU ecology, the latter including both ICU-level antibiotic resistance and antibiotic resistance development during long-term use of SDD/SOD.

  6. Influence of population density on antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Bruinsma, N; Hutchinson, J M; van den Bogaard, A E; Giamarellou, H; Degener, J; Stobberingh, E E

    2003-02-01

    Antibiotic consumption and population density as a measure of crowding in the community were related to the prevalence of antibiotic resistance of three cities in three different countries: St Johns in Newfoundland (Canada), Athens in Greece and Groningen in The Netherlands. Antibiotic consumption was expressed in DDD (defined daily dose), as DID (DDD/1000 inhabitants/day) and as DSD (DDD/km(2)). The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli and enterococci was determined in faecal samples of healthy volunteers. In both Newfoundland (28 DID) and Greece (29 DID) the overall consumption of antibiotics was more than three times higher compared with that of The Netherlands (9 DID). The lowest prevalence of resistant E. coli against the majority of antibiotics tested was found for the samples from Newfoundland and was significant (P < 0.05) for cefazolin, oxytetracycline and trimethoprim. A poor correlation between the number of DID and the prevalence of resistance was observed [the Pearson correlation coefficient (Pcc) ranged between -0.93 and 0.87]. However, when population density was taken into consideration and antibiotic consumption was expressed in DSD, a strong correlation was observed (and Pcc ranged between 0.86 and 1.00). This study suggests that population density is an important factor in the development of antibiotic resistance and warrants special attention as a factor in resistance epidemiology.

  7. Antibiotic Resistance in Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Stultz, Jeremy S; Doern, Christopher D; Godbout, Emily

    2016-12-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common problem in pediatric patients. Resistance to common antibiotic agents appears to be increasing over time, although resistance rates may vary based on geographic region or country. Prior antibiotic exposure is a pertinent risk factor for acquiring resistant organisms during a first UTI and recurrent UTI. Judicious prescribing of antibiotics for common pediatric conditions is needed to prevent additional resistance from occurring. Complex pediatric patients with histories of hospitalizations, prior antibiotic exposure, and recurrent UTIs are also at high risk for acquiring UTIs due to extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms. Data regarding the impact of in vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing interpretation on UTI treatment outcomes is lacking.

  8. Adjuvant strategies for potentiation of antibiotics to overcome antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Pieren, Michel; Tigges, Marcel

    2012-10-01

    Alarming facts about the occurrence and spreading of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria have caught the attention of global surveillance authorities and public media. The demand for novel effective antimicrobial drugs is high and on the rise while, at the same time, the supply of fresh 'magic bullets' is drying up. This review summarizes examples of recent strategies for development of adjunctive antibiotic therapies that overcome microbial resistance and thus rejuvenate the existing arsenal of drugs. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of compounds that inhibit the action of the repressor protein implicated in ethionamide resistance, thus stimulating activation of the drug and thereby restoring the activity of the antibiotic for treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Such specific interference with regulators or signal transduction mechanisms involved in antibiotic resistance or virulence provides a new toolbox for novel combinations of antimicrobial drugs with adjuvant molecules lacking intrinsic antibiotic activity. In addition to the development of new antibiotics and vaccination initiatives this strategy of restoring or potentiating the activity of existing antibiotics may help to postpone the day when antibiotics are no longer generally efficacious.

  9. A Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA)-Based Real-Time PCR Assay for the Rapid Detection of Multiple Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance Genes Directly from Positive Blood Culture

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lingxiang; Shen, Dingxia; Zhou, Qiming; Li, Zexia; Fang, Xiangdong; Li, Quan-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial strains resistant to various antibiotic drugs are frequently encountered in clinical infections, and the rapid identification of drug-resistant strains is highly essential for clinical treatment. We developed a locked nucleic acid (LNA)-based quantitative real-time PCR (LNA-qPCR) method for the rapid detection of 13 antibiotic resistance genes and successfully used it to distinguish drug-resistant bacterial strains from positive blood culture samples. A sequence-specific primer-probe set was designed, and the specificity of the assays was assessed using 27 ATCC bacterial strains and 77 negative blood culture samples. No cross-reaction was identified among bacterial strains and in negative samples, indicating 100% specificity. The sensitivity of the assays was determined by spiking each bacterial strain into negative blood samples, and the detection limit was 1–10 colony forming units (CFU) per reaction. The LNA-qPCR assays were first applied to 72 clinical bacterial isolates for the identification of known drug resistance genes, and the results were verified by the direct sequencing of PCR products. Finally, the LNA-qPCR assays were used for the detection in 47 positive blood culture samples, 19 of which (40.4%) were positive for antibiotic resistance genes, showing 91.5% consistency with phenotypic susceptibility results. In conclusion, LNA-qPCR is a reliable method for the rapid detection of bacterial antibiotic resistance genes and can be used as a supplement to phenotypic susceptibility testing for the early detection of antimicrobial resistance to allow the selection of appropriate antimicrobial treatment and to prevent the spread of resistant isolates. PMID:25775001

  10. A locked nucleic acid (LNA)-based real-time PCR assay for the rapid detection of multiple bacterial antibiotic resistance genes directly from positive blood culture.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lingxiang; Shen, Dingxia; Zhou, Qiming; Li, Zexia; Fang, Xiangdong; Li, Quan-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial strains resistant to various antibiotic drugs are frequently encountered in clinical infections, and the rapid identification of drug-resistant strains is highly essential for clinical treatment. We developed a locked nucleic acid (LNA)-based quantitative real-time PCR (LNA-qPCR) method for the rapid detection of 13 antibiotic resistance genes and successfully used it to distinguish drug-resistant bacterial strains from positive blood culture samples. A sequence-specific primer-probe set was designed, and the specificity of the assays was assessed using 27 ATCC bacterial strains and 77 negative blood culture samples. No cross-reaction was identified among bacterial strains and in negative samples, indicating 100% specificity. The sensitivity of the assays was determined by spiking each bacterial strain into negative blood samples, and the detection limit was 1-10 colony forming units (CFU) per reaction. The LNA-qPCR assays were first applied to 72 clinical bacterial isolates for the identification of known drug resistance genes, and the results were verified by the direct sequencing of PCR products. Finally, the LNA-qPCR assays were used for the detection in 47 positive blood culture samples, 19 of which (40.4%) were positive for antibiotic resistance genes, showing 91.5% consistency with phenotypic susceptibility results. In conclusion, LNA-qPCR is a reliable method for the rapid detection of bacterial antibiotic resistance genes and can be used as a supplement to phenotypic susceptibility testing for the early detection of antimicrobial resistance to allow the selection of appropriate antimicrobial treatment and to prevent the spread of resistant isolates.

  11. The mechanism of ROS regulation of antibiotic resistance and antimicrobial lethality.

    PubMed

    Lina, Ma; Hongfei, Mi; Yunxin, Xue; Dai, Wang; Xilin, Zhao

    2016-10-20

    Misuse and overuse of antibiotics have led to serious resistance problems that pose a grave threat to human health. How to solve the increasing antibiotic resistance problem is a huge challenge. Besides the traditional strategy of developing novel antimicrobial agents, exploring ways to enhance the lethal activity of antibiotics currently available is another feasible approach to fight against resistance. Recent studies showed that ROS plays an important role in regulating both antibiotic resistance and antimicrobial lethality. ROS produced by sublethal levels of antibiotic induces antibiotic resistance through activating drug efflux pumps via MarR(Multiple antibiotic resistance repressor)-MarA(Multiple antibiotic resistance activator), triggers the protective function against stress via SoxR (Superoxide response transcriptional regulator)-SoxS (Superoxide response transcription factor), and promotes mutagenesis by induction of SOS system. On the contrary, ROS triggered by lethal levels of antibiotic promotes bacterial killing and suppresses resistance. In addition to the concentration of antibiotic, the role of ROS in mediating antimicrobial resistance and bacterial killing is also regulated by a series of genetic regulators (e.g. MazEF, Cpx, SoxR, MarRAB). Thus, how ROS contribute to antimicrobial resistance and bacterial killing is complex. In this review, we summarized the mechanism of ROS in regulating antibiotic resistance and antimicrobial lethality, which may provide references and guidance for finding new ways to enhance antimicrobial lethality of currently available antimicrobials and battling antibiotic resistance.

  12. Persistence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Dan I; Hughes, Diarmaid

    2011-09-01

    Unfortunately for mankind, it is very likely that the antibiotic resistance problem we have generated during the last 60 years due to the extensive use and misuse of antibiotics is here to stay for the foreseeable future. This view is based on theoretical arguments, mathematical modeling, experiments and clinical interventions, suggesting that even if we could reduce antibiotic use, resistant clones would remain persistent and only slowly (if at all) be outcompeted by their susceptible relatives. In this review, we discuss the multitude of mechanisms and processes that are involved in causing the persistence of chromosomal and plasmid-borne resistance determinants and how we might use them to our advantage to increase the likelihood of reversing the problem. Of particular interest is the recent demonstration that a very low antibiotic concentration can be enriching for resistant bacteria and the implication that antibiotic release into the environment could contribute to the selection for resistance. Several mechanisms are contributing to the stability of antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations and even if antibiotic use is reduced it is likely that most resistance mechanisms will persist for considerable times.

  13. Antibiotic resistance: are we all doomed?

    PubMed

    Collignon, P

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing and worrying problem associated with increased deaths and suffering for people. Overall, there are only two factors that drive antimicrobial resistance, and both can be controlled. These factors are the volumes of antimicrobials used and the spread of resistant micro-organisms and/or the genes encoding for resistance. The One Health concept is important if we want to understand better and control antimicrobial resistance. There are many things we can do to better control antimicrobial resistance. We need to prevent infections. We need to have better surveillance with good data on usage patterns and resistance patterns available across all sectors, both human and agriculture, locally and internationally. We need to act on these results when we see either inappropriate usage or resistance levels rising in bacteria that are of concern for people. We need to ensure that food and water sources do not spread multi-resistant micro-organisms or resistance genes. We need better approaches to restrict successfully what and how antibiotics are used in people. We need to restrict the use of 'critically important' antibiotics in food animals and the entry of these drugs into the environment. We need to ensure that 'One Health' concept is not just a buzz word but implemented. We need to look at all sectors and control not only antibiotic use but also the spread and development of antibiotic resistant bacteria - both locally and internationally. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  14. Latent introduction to the Netherlands of multiple antibiotic resistance including NDM-1 after hospitalisation in Egypt, August 2013.

    PubMed

    Bathoorn, E; Friedrich, A W; Zhou, K; Arends, J P; Borst, D M; Grundmann, H; Rossen, J W

    2013-10-17

    We describe the introduction of various multi-drug resistant bacterial strains, including an NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, through a traveller returning from Egypt, where they had been admitted to a private hospital. All family members of the patient were colonised with one or more extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing strains. These findings emphasise the importance of adherence to isolation precautions for returning patients and suggest the need for inclusion of Enterobacteriaceae in admission screening.

  15. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in enterococci

    PubMed Central

    Miller, William R; Munita, Jose M; Arias, Cesar A

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) enterococci are important nosocomial pathogens and a growing clinical challenge. These organisms have developed resistance to virtually all antimicrobials currently used in clinical practice using a diverse number of genetic strategies. Due to this ability to recruit antibiotic resistance determinants, MDR enterococci display a wide repertoire of antibiotic resistance mechanisms including modification of drug targets, inactivation of therapeutic agents, overexpression of efflux pumps and a sophisticated cell envelope adaptive response that promotes survival in the human host and the nosocomial environment. MDR enterococci are well adapted to survive in the gastrointestinal tract and can become the dominant flora under antibiotic pressure, predisposing the severely ill and immunocompromised patient to invasive infections. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance in enterococci is the first step for devising strategies to control the spread of these organisms and potentially establish novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:25199988

  16. Occurrence and distribution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and transfer of resistance genes in Lake Taihu.

    PubMed

    Yin, Qian; Yue, Dongmei; Peng, Yuke; Liu, Ying; Xiao, Lin

    2013-01-01

    The overuse of antibiotics has accelerated antibiotic resistance in the natural environment, especially fresh water, generating a potential risk for public health around the world. In this study, antibiotic resistance in Lake Taihu was investigated and this was the first thorough data obtained through culture-dependent methods. High percentages of resistance to streptomycin and ampicillin among bacterial isolates were detected, followed by tetracycline and chloramphenicol. Especially high levels of ampicillin resistance in the western and northern regions were illustrated. Bacterial identification of the isolates selected for further study indicated the prevalence of some opportunistic pathogens and 62.0% of the 78 isolates exhibited multiple antibiotic resistance. The presence of ESBLs genes was in the following sequence: bla(TEM) > bla(SHV) > bla(CTMX) and 38.5% of the isolates had a class I integrase gene. Of all tested strains, 80.8% were able to transfer antibiotic resistance through conjugation. We also concluded that some new families of human-associated ESBLs and AmpC genes can be found in natural environmental isolates. The prevalence of antibiotic resistance and the dissemination of transferable antibiotic resistance in bacterial isolates (especially in opportunistic pathogens) was alarming and clearly indicated the urgency of realizing the health risks of antibiotic resistance to human and animal populations who are dependent on Lake Taihu for water consumption.

  17. Epidemiological aspects of non-human antibiotic usage and resistance: implications for the control of antibiotic resistance in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Donkor, Eric S; Newman, Mercy J; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy

    2012-04-01

    To provide insights into the epidemiology of antibiotic usage in animal husbandry in Ghana and its effect on resistance. Three hundred and ninety-five randomly sampled commercial livestock keepers who practised intensive or extensive farming were interviewed about their antibiotic usage practices using a structured questionnaire. Escherichia coli isolated from stool specimens of farmers and their animals were tested against eight antibiotics using the Kirby Bauer method. Ninety-eight percent (387) of the farmers used antibiotics on animals and the main purpose was to prevent infections in animals; 41% applied antibiotics monthly. The overall prevalence of multiple drug resistance among the E. coli isolates was 91.6%; rates in human and animal isolates were 70.6% and 97.7%, respectively. The prevalence of resistance in animal isolates to the various drugs ranged from 60.8% (amikacin) to 95.7% (ampicillin); the prevalence of resistance in human isolates to the drugs ranged from 2% (cefuroxime) to 94.1% (gentamicin). Animal E. coli isolates showed higher resistance than that of human isolates for five of eight drugs tested. It is concluded that antibiotic usage in animal husbandry in Ghana is more driven by the interest of livestock keepers to prevent and treat animal infections than growth enhancement. Both animal and human E. coli showed high levels of antibiotic resistance, although resistance of animal isolates appeared to be higher than that of humans. There is the need for the development of an antibiotic-resistance management programme in Ghana that will focus simultaneously on human and animal use of antibiotics. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Pantosti, Annalisa; Sanchini, Andrea; Monaco, Monica

    2007-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can exemplify better than any other human pathogen the adaptive evolution of bacteria in the antibiotic era, as it has demonstrated a unique ability to quickly respond to each new antibiotic with the development of a resistance mechanism, starting with penicillin and methicillin, until the most recent, linezolid and daptomycin. Resistance mechanisms include enzymatic inactivation of the antibiotic (penicillinase and aminoglycoside-modification enzymes), alteration of the target with decreased affinity for the antibiotic (notable examples being penicillin-binding protein 2a of methicillin-resistant S. aureus and D-Ala-D-Lac of peptidoglycan precursors of vancomycin-resistant strains), trapping of the antibiotic (for vancomycin and possibly daptomycin) and efflux pumps (fluoroquinolones and tetracycline). Complex genetic arrays (staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec elements or the vanA operon) have been acquired by S. aureus through horizontal gene transfer, while resistance to other antibiotics, including some of the most recent ones (e.g., fluoroquinolones, linezolid and daptomycin) have developed through spontaneous mutations and positive selection. Detection of the resistance mechanisms and their genetic basis is an important support to antibiotic susceptibility surveillance in S. aureus.

  19. Antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus strains isolated from honey marketed in Malaysia against selected multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Aween, Mohamed Mustafa; Hassan, Zaiton; Muhialdin, Belal J; Eljamel, Yossra A; Al-Mabrok, Asma Saleh W; Lani, Mohd Nizam

    2012-07-01

    A total of 32 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from 13 honey samples commercially marketed in Malaysia, 6 strains identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus by API CHL50. The isolates had antibacterial activities against multiple antibiotic resistant's Staphylococcus aureus (25 to 32 mm), Staphylococcus epidermis (14 to 22 mm) and Bacillus subtilis (12 to 19 mm) in the agar overlay method after 24 h incubation at 30 °C. The crude supernatant was heat stable at 90 °C and 121 °C for 1 h. Treatment with proteinase K and RNase II maintained the antimicrobial activity of all the supernatants except sample H006-A and H010-G. All the supernatants showed antimicrobial activities against target bacteria at pH 3 and pH 5 but not at pH 6 within 72 h incubation at 30 °C. S. aureus was not inhibited by sample H006-A isolated from Libyan honey and sample H008-D isolated from Malaysian honey at pH 5, compared to supernatants from other L. acidophilus isolates. The presence of different strains of L. acidophilus in honey obtained from different sources may contribute to the differences in the antimicrobial properties of honey.

  20. Antibiotic tolerance facilitates the evolution of resistance.

    PubMed

    Levin-Reisman, Irit; Ronin, Irine; Gefen, Orit; Braniss, Ilan; Shoresh, Noam; Balaban, Nathalie Q

    2017-02-24

    Controlled experimental evolution during antibiotic treatment can help to explain the processes leading to antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Recently, intermittent antibiotic exposures have been shown to lead rapidly to the evolution of tolerance-that is, the ability to survive under treatment without developing resistance. However, whether tolerance delays or promotes the eventual emergence of resistance is unclear. Here we used in vitro evolution experiments to explore this question. We found that in all cases, tolerance preceded resistance. A mathematical population-genetics model showed how tolerance boosts the chances for resistance mutations to spread in the population. Thus, tolerance mutations pave the way for the rapid subsequent evolution of resistance. Preventing the evolution of tolerance may offer a new strategy for delaying the emergence of resistance.

  1. Overview: Global and Local Impact of Antibiotic Resistance.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Richard R; Bonomo, Robert A

    2016-06-01

    The rapid and ongoing spread of antibiotic resistance poses a serious threat to global public health. The indiscriminant use of antibiotics in agriculture and human medicine along with increasingly connected societies has fueled the distribution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. These factors together have led to rising numbers of infections caused by multidrug-resistant and pan-resistant bacteria, with increases in morbidity and mortality. This article summarizes the trends in antibiotic resistance, discusses the impact of antibiotic resistance on society, and reviews the use of antibiotics in agriculture. Feasible ways to tackle antibiotic resistance to avert a post-antibiotic era are suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Boosting bacterial metabolism to combat antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Prerna; Collins, James J

    2015-02-03

    The metabolic state of a bacterial cell influences its susceptibility to antibiotics. In this issue, Peng et al. (2015) show that resistant bacteria can be sensitized to antibiotic treatment through the addition of exogenous metabolites that stimulate central metabolic pathways and increase drug uptake.

  3. Mining metagenomic datasets for antibiotic resistance genes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antibiotics are medicines that are used to kill, slow down, or prevent the growth of susceptible bacteria. They became widely used in the mid 20th century for controlling disease in humans, animals, and plants, and for a variety of industrial purposes. Antibiotic resistance is a broad term. There ...

  4. Antibiotic resistance: shifting the paradigm in topical acne treatment.

    PubMed

    Andriessen, Anneke; Lynde, Charles W

    2014-11-01

    Multiple topical therapies are available for mild to moderate acne vulgaris. The role of antibiotics and their resistance in the treatment of acne was reviewed by an expert panel of dermatologists who practice in Canada. Prior to the consensus meeting, the panel members filled out a survey on their current practice using topical treatment for acne. A literature review was carried out using information obtained from PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, and EMBASE. During a consensus meeting organized at the Spring Dermatology Update on April 27, 2014 in Toronto, ON, the panel had a blind vote on the issues at hand. The panel reached consensus on: 1) Antibiotics are an integral part of acne treatment not only due to their antibiotic effect but also by their anti-inflammatory action. 2) Oral antibiotics should be used for a short period of time if possible. 3) Topical antibiotics should not be used in monotherapy. 4) Retinoids are effective in reducing antibiotic resistance. 5) A benzoyl peroxide wash is as effective as topical benzoyl peroxide in reducing antibiotic resistance. 6) Therapy needs to be re-evaluated in 6-8 weeks versus 12 weeks. The recommendations given by the panel are to be disseminated to both general practitioners and dermatologists. For mild to moderate acne treatment, topical antibiotics in monotherapy are not to be used but may be combined with a retinoid or BPO to safely achieve more successful outcomes.

  5. Antibiotic resistance and virulence genes in coliform water isolates.

    PubMed

    Stange, C; Sidhu, J P S; Tiehm, A; Toze, S

    2016-11-01

    Widespread fecal pollution of surface water may present a major health risk and a significant pathway for dissemination of antibiotic resistance bacteria. The River Rhine is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe and an important raw water source for drinking water production. A total of 100 coliform isolates obtained from River Rhine (Germany) were examined for their susceptibility to seven antimicrobial agents. Resistances against amoxicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline were detected in 48%, 11% and 9% of isolates respectively. The antibiotic resistance could be traced back to the resistance genes blaTEM, blaSHV, ampC, sul1, sul2, dfrA1, tet(A) and tet(B). Whereby, the ampC gene represents a special case, because its presence is not inevitably linked to a phenotypic antibiotic resistance. Multiple antibiotics resistance was often accompanied by the occurrence of class 1 or 2 integrons. E. coli isolates belonging to phylogenetic groups A and B1 (commensal) were more predominant (57%) compared to B2 and D groups (43%) which are known to carry virulent genes. Additionally, six E. coli virulence genes were also detected. However, the prevalence of virulence genes in the E. coli isolates was low (not exceeding 4.3% per gene) and no diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes were detected. This study demonstrates that surface water is an important reservoir of ARGs for a number of antibiotic classes such as sulfonamide, trimethoprim, beta-lactam-antibiotics and tetracycline. The occurrence of antibiotic resistance in coliform bacteria isolated from River Rhine provides evidence for the need to develop management strategies to limit the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria in aquatic environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Management Options For Reducing The Release Of Antibiotics And Antibiotic Resistance Genes To The Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: There is growing concern worldwide about the role of polluted soil and water - 77 environments in the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. 78 Objective: To identify management options for reducing the spread of antibiotics and 79 antibiotic resist...

  7. Management Options For Reducing The Release Of Antibiotics And Antibiotic Resistance Genes To The Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: There is growing concern worldwide about the role of polluted soil and water - 77 environments in the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. 78 Objective: To identify management options for reducing the spread of antibiotics and 79 antibiotic resist...

  8. The Antibiotic Resistance Problem Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    The term "antibiotic" was first proposed by Vuillemin in 1889 but was first used in the current sense by Walksman in 1941. An antibiotic is defined as a "derivative produced by the metabolism of microorganisms that possess antibacterial activity at low concentrations and is not toxic to the host." In this article, the author describes how…

  9. The Antibiotic Resistance Problem Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    The term "antibiotic" was first proposed by Vuillemin in 1889 but was first used in the current sense by Walksman in 1941. An antibiotic is defined as a "derivative produced by the metabolism of microorganisms that possess antibacterial activity at low concentrations and is not toxic to the host." In this article, the author describes how…

  10. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of antibiotic consumption on antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Bell, Brian G; Schellevis, Francois; Stobberingh, Ellen; Goossens, Herman; Pringle, Mike

    2014-01-09

    Greater use of antibiotics during the past 50 years has exerted selective pressure on susceptible bacteria and may have favoured the survival of resistant strains. Existing information on antibiotic resistance patterns from pathogens circulating among community-based patients is substantially less than from hospitalized patients on whom guidelines are often based. We therefore chose to assess the relationship between the antibiotic resistance pattern of bacteria circulating in the community and the consumption of antibiotics in the community. Both gray literature and published scientific literature in English and other European languages was examined. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyse whether studies found a positive relationship between antibiotic consumption and resistance. A subsequent meta-analysis and meta-regression was conducted for studies for which a common effect size measure (odds ratio) could be calculated. Electronic searches identified 974 studies but only 243 studies were considered eligible for inclusion by the two independent reviewers who extracted the data. A binomial test revealed a positive relationship between antibiotic consumption and resistance (p < .001) but multiple regression modelling did not produce any significant predictors of study outcome. The meta-analysis generated a significant pooled odds ratio of 2.3 (95% confidence interval 2.2 to 2.5) with a meta-regression producing several significant predictors (F(10,77) = 5.82, p < .01). Countries in southern Europe produced a stronger link between consumption and resistance than other regions. Using a large set of studies we found that antibiotic consumption is associated with the development of antibiotic resistance. A subsequent meta-analysis, with a subsample of the studies, generated several significant predictors. Countries in southern Europe produced a stronger link between consumption and resistance than other regions so efforts at reducing antibiotic consumption

  11. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of antibiotic consumption on antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Greater use of antibiotics during the past 50 years has exerted selective pressure on susceptible bacteria and may have favoured the survival of resistant strains. Existing information on antibiotic resistance patterns from pathogens circulating among community-based patients is substantially less than from hospitalized patients on whom guidelines are often based. We therefore chose to assess the relationship between the antibiotic resistance pattern of bacteria circulating in the community and the consumption of antibiotics in the community. Methods Both gray literature and published scientific literature in English and other European languages was examined. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyse whether studies found a positive relationship between antibiotic consumption and resistance. A subsequent meta-analysis and meta-regression was conducted for studies for which a common effect size measure (odds ratio) could be calculated. Results Electronic searches identified 974 studies but only 243 studies were considered eligible for inclusion by the two independent reviewers who extracted the data. A binomial test revealed a positive relationship between antibiotic consumption and resistance (p < .001) but multiple regression modelling did not produce any significant predictors of study outcome. The meta-analysis generated a significant pooled odds ratio of 2.3 (95% confidence interval 2.2 to 2.5) with a meta-regression producing several significant predictors (F(10,77) = 5.82, p < .01). Countries in southern Europe produced a stronger link between consumption and resistance than other regions. Conclusions Using a large set of studies we found that antibiotic consumption is associated with the development of antibiotic resistance. A subsequent meta-analysis, with a subsample of the studies, generated several significant predictors. Countries in southern Europe produced a stronger link between consumption and resistance than other

  12. WAAR (World Alliance against Antibiotic Resistance): Safeguarding antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary Resistance to antibiotics has increased recently to a dramatic extend, and the pipeline of new antibiotics is almost dry for the five next years. Failures happen already for trivial community acquired infections, like pyelonephritis, or peritonitis, and this is likely to increase. Difficult surgical procedures, transplants, and other immunosuppressive therapies will become far more risky. Resistance is mainly due to an excessive usage of antibiotics, in all sectors, including the animal one. Action is urgently needed. Therefore, an alliance against MDRO has been recently created, which includes health care professionals, consumers, health managers, and politicians. The document highlights the different proposed measures, and represents a strong consensus between the different professionals, including general practicionners, and veterinarians. PMID:22958542

  13. Acquired Antibiotic Resistance Genes: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    van Hoek, Angela H. A. M.; Mevius, Dik; Guerra, Beatriz; Mullany, Peter; Roberts, Adam Paul; Aarts, Henk J. M.

    2011-01-01

    In this review an overview is given on antibiotic resistance (AR) mechanisms with special attentions to the AR genes described so far preceded by a short introduction on the discovery and mode of action of the different classes of antibiotics. As this review is only dealing with acquired resistance, attention is also paid to mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, transposons, and integrons, which are associated with AR genes, and involved in the dispersal of antimicrobial determinants between different bacteria. PMID:22046172

  14. Assessing Antibiotic Resistance of Staphyloccocus: Students Use Their Own Microbial Flora To Explore Antibiotic Resistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omoto, Charlotte K.; Malm, Kirstin

    2003-01-01

    Describes a microbiology laboratory experiment in which students test their own microbial flora of Staphylococcus for antibiotic resistance. Provides directions on how to conduct the experiment. (YDS)

  15. Assessing Antibiotic Resistance of Staphyloccocus: Students Use Their Own Microbial Flora To Explore Antibiotic Resistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omoto, Charlotte K.; Malm, Kirstin

    2003-01-01

    Describes a microbiology laboratory experiment in which students test their own microbial flora of Staphylococcus for antibiotic resistance. Provides directions on how to conduct the experiment. (YDS)

  16. Adaptive Landscapes of Resistance Genes Change as Antibiotic Concentrations Change.

    PubMed

    Mira, Portia M; Meza, Juan C; Nandipati, Anna; Barlow, Miriam

    2015-10-01

    Most studies on the evolution of antibiotic resistance are focused on selection for resistance at lethal antibiotic concentrations, which has allowed the detection of mutant strains that show strong phenotypic traits. However, solely focusing on lethal concentrations of antibiotics narrowly limits our perspective of antibiotic resistance evolution. New high-resolution competition assays have shown that resistant bacteria are selected at relatively low concentrations of antibiotics. This finding is important because sublethal concentrations of antibiotics are found widely in patients undergoing antibiotic therapies, and in nonmedical conditions such as wastewater treatment plants, and food and water used in agriculture and farming. To understand the impacts of sublethal concentrations on selection, we measured 30 adaptive landscapes for a set of TEM β-lactamases containing all combinations of the four amino acid substitutions that exist in TEM-50 for 15 β-lactam antibiotics at multiple concentrations. We found that there are many evolutionary pathways within this collection of landscapes that lead to nearly every TEM-genotype that we studied. While it is known that the pathways change depending on the type of β-lactam, this study demonstrates that the landscapes including fitness optima also change dramatically as the concentrations of antibiotics change. Based on these results we conclude that the presence of multiple concentrations of β-lactams in an environment result in many different adaptive landscapes through which pathways to nearly every genotype are available. Ultimately this may increase the diversity of genotypes in microbial populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Curing bacteria of antibiotic resistance: reverse antibiotics, a novel class of antibiotics in nature.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Igarashi, Masayuki; Morimoto, Yuh; Baba, Tadashi; Umekita, Maya; Akamatsu, Yuzuru

    2012-06-01

    By screening cultures of soil bacteria, we re-discovered an old antibiotic (nybomycin) as an antibiotic with a novel feature. Nybomycin is active against quinolone-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains with mutated gyrA genes but not against those with intact gyrA genes against which quinolone antibiotics are effective. Nybomycin-resistant mutant strains were generated from a quinolone-resistant, nybomycin-susceptible, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) strain Mu 50. The mutants, occurring at an extremely low rate (<1 × 10(-11)/generation), were found to have their gyrA genes back-mutated and to have lost quinolone resistance. Here we describe nybomycin as the first member of a novel class of antibiotics designated 'reverse antibiotics'.

  18. Antibiotic resistance: Italian awareness survey 2016.

    PubMed

    Prigitano, Anna; Romanò, Luisa; Auxilia, Francesco; Castaldi, Silvana; Tortorano, Anna M

    2017-03-09

    Antimicrobial resistance has become a public health priority worldwide. The WHO conducted a survey concerning the personal use of antibiotics, knowledge of appropriate use and awareness of the issue of resistance. A similar survey was conducted in Italy involving 666 young university students and 131 seniors attending courses of the University of the third age. Antibiotics seem to be taken with moderate frequency and appropriately: 30% of respondents took them in the past six months and 94% took these drugs only prescribed by a doctor, in the correct dose and for the proper duration. Notable confusion concerning the conditions treatable with antibiotics was detected (only 30% indicated gonorrhea, and 30-40% believed that antibiotics should be employed for fever, cold, and flu), while 94% of participants seemed aware of the problem of antibiotic resistance. Most of the respondents identified the behaviors that can reduce the phenomenon of resistance (regular handwashing and use of antibiotics only when prescribed and needed). The results of our survey, that involved people of high level of instruction and living in urban areas of northern regions, cannot be extended to all the Italian population. However, they provide valid elements to promote initiatives aimed to a more aware use of antibiotics.

  19. The genomic enzymology of antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Morar, Mariya; Wright, Gerard D

    2010-01-01

    The need for new antibiotic therapies is acute and growing in large part because of the emergence of drug-resistant pathogens. A vast number of resistance determinants are, however, found in nonpathogenic micro-organisms. The resistance totality in the global microbiota is the antibiotic resistome and includes not only established resistance genes but also genes that have the potential to evolve into resistance elements. We term these proto-resistance genes and hypothesize that they share common ancestry with other functional units known as housekeeping genes. Genomic enzymology is the study of protein structure-function in light of genetic context and evolution of protein superfamilies. This concept is highly applicable to study of antibiotic resistance evolution from proto-resistance elements. In this review, we summarize some of the genomic enzymology evidence for resistance enzymes pointing to common ancestry with genes of other metabolic functions. Genomic enzymology plays a key role in understanding the origins of antibiotic resistance and aids in designing strategies for diagnosis and prevention thereof.

  20. The fitness costs of antibiotic resistance mutations

    PubMed Central

    Melnyk, Anita H; Wong, Alex; Kassen, Rees

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is increasing in pathogenic microbial populations and is thus a major threat to public health. The fate of a resistance mutation in pathogen populations is determined in part by its fitness. Mutations that suffer little or no fitness cost are more likely to persist in the absence of antibiotic treatment. In this review, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the fitness costs associated with single mutational events that confer resistance. Generally, these mutations were costly, although several drug classes and species of bacteria on average did not show a cost. Further investigations into the rate and fitness values of compensatory mutations that alleviate the costs of resistance will help us to better understand both the emergence and management of antibiotic resistance in clinical settings. PMID:25861385

  1. Antibiotic Cycling and Antibiotic Mixing: Which One Best Mitigates Antibiotic Resistance?

    PubMed

    Beardmore, Robert Eric; Peña-Miller, Rafael; Gori, Fabio; Iredell, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    Can we exploit our burgeoning understanding of molecular evolution to slow the progress of drug resistance? One role of an infection clinician is exactly that: to foresee trajectories to resistance during antibiotic treatment and to hinder that evolutionary course. But can this be done at a hospital-wide scale? Clinicians and theoreticians tried to when they proposed two conflicting behavioral strategies that are expected to curb resistance evolution in the clinic, these are known as "antibiotic cycling" and "antibiotic mixing." However, the accumulated data from clinical trials, now approaching 4 million patient days of treatment, is too variable for cycling or mixing to be deemed successful. The former implements the restriction and prioritization of different antibiotics at different times in hospitals in a manner said to "cycle" between them. In antibiotic mixing, appropriate antibiotics are allocated to patients but randomly. Mixing results in no correlation, in time or across patients, in the drugs used for treatment which is why theorists saw this as an optimal behavioral strategy. So while cycling and mixing were proposed as ways of controlling evolution, we show there is good reason why clinical datasets cannot choose between them: by re-examining the theoretical literature we show prior support for the theoretical optimality of mixing was misplaced. Our analysis is consistent with a pattern emerging in data: neither cycling or mixing is a priori better than the other at mitigating selection for antibiotic resistance in the clinic. : antibiotic cycling, antibiotic mixing, optimal control, stochastic models.

  2. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli isolates in surface water of Taihu Lake Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Song He; Lv, Xiaoyang; Han, Bing; Gu, Xiucong; Wang, Pei Fang; Wang, Chao; He, Zhenli

    2015-08-01

    The rapid development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) has been of concern worldwide. In this study, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were investigated in antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from surface water samples (rivers, n = 17; Taihu Lake, n = 16) and from human, chicken, swine, and Egretta garzetta sources in the Taihu Basin. E. coli showing resistance to at least five drugs occurred in 31, 67, 58, 27, and 18% of the isolates from surface water (n = 665), chicken (n = 27), swine (n = 29), human (n = 45), and E. garzetta (n = 15) sources, respectively. The mean multi-antibiotic resistance (MAR) index of surface water samples (0.44) was lower than that of chicken (0.64) and swine (0.57) sources but higher than that of human (0.30) and E. garzetta sources (0.15). Ten tetracycline, four sulfonamide, four quinolone, five β-lactamase, and two streptomycin resistance genes were detected in the corresponding antibiotic-resistant isolates. Most antibiotic-resistant E. coli harbored at least two similar functional ARGs. Int-I was detected in at least 57% of MAR E. coli isolates. The results of multiple correspondence analysis and Spearman correlation analysis suggest that antibiotic-resistant E. coli in water samples were mainly originated from swine, chicken, and/or human sources. Most of the ARGs detected in E. garzetta sources were prevalent in other sources. These data indicated that human activities may have contributed to the spread of ARB in the aquatic environment.

  3. Antibiotic control of antibiotic resistance in hospitals: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Haber, Michael; Levin, Bruce R; Kramarz, Piotr

    2010-08-25

    Using mathematical deterministic models of the epidemiology of hospital-acquired infections and antibiotic resistance, it has been shown that the rates of hospital-acquired bacterial infection and frequency of antibiotic infections can be reduced by (i) restricting the admission of patients colonized with resistant bacteria, (ii) increasing the rate of turnover of patients, (iii) reducing transmission by infection control measures, and (iv) the use of second-line drugs for which there is no resistance. In an effort to explore the generality and robustness of the predictions of these deterministic models to the real world of hospitals, where there is variation in all of the factors contributing to the incidence of infection, we developed and used a stochastic model of the epidemiology of hospital-acquired infections and resistance. In our analysis of the properties of this model we give particular consideration different regimes of using second-line drugs in this process. We developed a simple model that describes the transmission of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant bacteria in a small hospital. Colonized patients may be treated with a standard drug, for which there is some resistance, and with a second-line drug, for which there is no resistance. We then ran deterministic and stochastic simulation programs, based on this model, to predict the effectiveness of various treatment strategies. The results of the analysis using our stochastic model support the predictions of the deterministic models; not only will the implementation of any of the above listed measures substantially reduce the incidences of hospital-acquired infections and the frequency of resistance, the effects of their implementation should be seen in months rather than the years or decades anticipated to control resistance in open communities. How effectively and how rapidly the application of second-line drugs will contribute to the decline in the frequency of resistance to the first-line drugs

  4. Therapeutic effects of gold nanoparticles synthesized using Musa paradisiaca peel extract against multiple antibiotic resistant Enterococcus faecalis biofilms and human lung cancer cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, S; Vaseeharan, B; Malaikozhundan, B; Gopi, N; Ekambaram, P; Pachaiappan, R; Velusamy, P; Murugan, K; Benelli, G; Suresh Kumar, R; Suriyanarayanamoorthy, M

    2017-01-01

    Botanical-mediated synthesis of nanomaterials is currently emerging as a cheap and eco-friendly nanotechnology, since it does not involve the use of toxic chemicals. In the present study, we focused on the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using the aqueous peel extract of Musa paradisiaca (MPPE-AuNPs) following a facile and cheap fabrication process. The green synthesized MPPE-AuNPs were bio-physically characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, TEM, Zeta potential analysis and EDX. MPPE-AuNPs were crystalline in nature, spherical to triangular in shape, with particle size ranging within 50 nm. The biofilm inhibition activity of MPPE-AuNPs was higher against multiple antibiotic resistant (MARS) Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis. Light and confocal laser scanning microscopic observations evidenced that the MPPE-AuNPs effectively inhibited the biofilm of E. faecalis when tested at 100 μg mL(-1). Cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that MPPE-AuNPs were effective in inhibiting the viability of human A549 lung cancer cells at higher concentrations of 100 μg mL(-1). The morphological changes in the MPPE-AuNPs treated A549 lung cancer cells were visualized under phase-contrast microscopy. Furthermore, the ecotoxicity of MPPE-AuNPs on the freshwater micro crustacean Ceriodaphnia cornuta were evaluated. Notably, no mortality was recorded in MPPE-AuNPs treated C. cornuta at 250 μg mL(-1). This study concludes that MPPE-AuNPs are non-toxic, eco-friendly and act as a multipurpose potential biomaterial for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Persistence of a wild type Escherichia coli and its multiple antibiotic-resistant (MAR) derivatives in the abattoir and on chilled pig carcasses.

    PubMed

    Delsol, Anne A; Halfhide, Deborah E; Bagnall, Mary C; Randall, Luke P; Enne, Virve I; Woodward, Martin J; Roe, John M

    2010-06-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of an Escherichia coli with the multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) phenotype to withstand the stresses of slaughter compared to an isogenic progenitor strain. A wild type E. coli isolate (345-2RifC) of porcine origin was used to derive 3 isogenic MAR mutants. Escherichia coli 345-2RifC and its MAR derivatives were inoculated into separate groups of pigs. Once colonisation was established, the pigs were slaughtered and persistence of the E. coli strains in the abattoir environment and on the pig carcasses was monitored and compared. No significant difference (P>0.05) was detected between the shedding of the different E. coli strains from the live pigs. Both the parent strain and its MAR derivatives persisted in the abattoir environment, however the parent strain was recovered from 6 of the 13 locations sampled while the MAR derivatives were recovered from 11 of 13 and the number of MAR E. coli recovered was 10-fold higher than the parent strain at half of the locations. The parent strain was not recovered from any of the 6 chilled carcasses whereas the MAR derivatives were recovered from 3 out of 5 (P<0.001). This study demonstrates that the expression of MAR in 345-2RifC increased its ability to survive the stresses of the slaughter and chilling processes. Therefore in E. coli, MAR can give a selective advantage, compared to non-MAR strains, for persistence on chilled carcasses thereby facilitating transit of these strains through the food chain. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Antibiotic dosing in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ulldemolins, Marta; Roberts, Jason A; Lipman, Jeffrey; Rello, Jordi

    2011-05-01

    Although early and appropriate antibiotic therapy remains the cornerstone of success for the treatment of septic shock, few data exist to guide antibiotic dose optimization in critically ill patients, particularly those with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). It is well known that MODS significantly alters the patient's physiology, but the effects of these variations on pharmacokinetics have not been reviewed concisely. Therefore, the aims of this article are to summarize the disease-driven variations in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and to provide antibiotic dosing recommendations for critically ill patients with MODS. The main findings of this review are that the two parameters that vary with greatest significance in critically ill patients with MODS are drug volume of distribution and clearance. Disease- and clinician-driven changes lead to an increased volume of distribution and lower-than-expected plasma drug concentrations during the first day of therapy at least. Decreased antibiotic clearance is common and can lead to drug toxicity. In summary, "front-loaded" doses of antibiotic during the first 24 h of therapy should account for the likely increases in the antibiotic volume of distribution. Thereafter, maintenance dosing must be guided by drug clearance and adjusted to the degree of organ dysfunction.

  7. Collateral sensitivity of antibiotic-resistant microbes.

    PubMed

    Pál, Csaba; Papp, Balázs; Lázár, Viktória

    2015-07-01

    Understanding how evolution of microbial resistance towards a given antibiotic influences susceptibility to other drugs is a challenge of profound importance. By combining laboratory evolution, genome sequencing, and functional analyses, recent works have charted the map of evolutionary trade-offs between antibiotics and have explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. Strikingly, mutations that caused multidrug resistance in bacteria simultaneously enhanced sensitivity to many other unrelated drugs (collateral sensitivity). Here, we explore how this emerging research sheds new light on resistance mechanisms and the way it could be exploited for the development of alternative antimicrobial strategies.

  8. IncM Plasmid R1215 Is the Source of Chromosomally Located Regions Containing Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Genes in the Globally Disseminated Acinetobacter baumannii GC1 and GC2 Clones

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, Grace A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clear similarities between antibiotic resistance islands in the chromosomes of extensively antibiotic-resistant isolates from the two dominant, globally distributed Acinetobacter baumannii clones, GC1 and GC2, suggest a common origin. A close relative of the likely progenitor of both of these regions was found in R1215, a conjugative IncM plasmid from a Serratia marcescens strain isolated prior to 1980. The 37.8-kb resistance region in R1215 lies within the mucB gene and includes aacC1, aadA1, aphA1b, blaTEM, catA1, sul1, and tetA(A), genes that confer resistance to gentamicin, streptomycin and spectinomycin, kanamycin and neomycin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline, respectively. The backbone of this region is derived from Tn1721 and is interrupted by a hybrid Tn2670 (Tn21)-Tn1696-type transposon, Tn6020, and an incomplete Tn1. After minor rearrangements, this R1215 resistance island can generate AbGRI2-0*, the predicted earliest form of the IS26-bounded AbGRI2-type resistance island of GC2 isolates, and to the multiple antibiotic resistance region (MARR) of AbaR0, the precursor of this region in AbaR-type resistance islands in the GC1 group. A 29.9-kb circle excised by IS26 has been inserted into the A. baumannii chromosome to generate AbGRI2-0*. To create the MARR of AbaR0, a different circular form, again generated by IS26 from an R1215 resistance region variant, has been opened at a different point by recombination with a copy of the sul1 gene already present in the AbaR precursor. Recent IncM plasmids related to R1215 have a variant resistance island containing a blaSHV gene in the same location. IMPORTANCE Two lineages of extensively antibiotic-resistant A. baumannii currently plaguing modern medicine each acquired resistance to all of the original antibiotics (ampicillin, tetracycline, kanamycin, and sulfonamides) by the end of the 1970s and then became resistant to antibiotics from newer families after they were

  9. Bacteriophage therapy: a potential solution for the antibiotic resistance crisis.

    PubMed

    Golkar, Zhabiz; Bagasra, Omar; Pace, Donald Gene

    2014-02-13

    The emergence of multiple drug-resistant bacteria has prompted interest in alternatives to conventional antimicrobials. One of the possible replacement options for antibiotics is the use of bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents. Phage therapy is an important alternative to antibiotics in the current era of drug-resistant pathogens. Bacteriophages have played an important role in the expansion of molecular biology and have been used as antibacterial agents since 1966. In this review, we describe a brief history of bacteriophages and clinical studies on their use in bacterial disease prophylaxis and therapy. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of bacteriophages as therapeutic agents in this regard.

  10. Genomic sequencing of a strain of Acinetobacter baumannii and potential mechanisms to antibiotics resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Li, Hongru; Zhu, Ziwen; Wakefield, Mark R; Fang, Yujiang; Ye, Ying

    2017-02-09

    Acinetobacter baumannii has been becoming a great challenge to clinicians due to their resistance to almost all available antibiotics. In this study, we sequenced the genome from a multiple antibiotics resistant Acinetobacter baumannii stain which was named A. baumannii-1isolated from China by SMRT sequencing technology to explore its potential mechanisms to antibiotic resistance. We found that several mechanisms might contribute to the antibiotic resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii. Specifically, we found that SNP in genes associated with nucleotide excision repair and ABC transporter might contribute to its resistance to multiple antibiotics; we also found that specific genes associated with bacterial DNA integration and recombination, DNA-mediated transposition and response to antibiotics might contribute to its resistance to multiple antibiotics; Furthermore, specific genes associated with penicillin and cephalosporin biosynthetic pathway and specific genes associated with CHDL and MBL β-lactamase genes might contribute to its resistance to multiple antibiotics. Thus, the detailed mechanisms by which Acinetobacter baumannii show extensive resistance to multiple antibiotics are very complicated. Such a study might be helpful to develop new strategies to control Acinetobacter baumannii infection.

  11. Antibiotic Resistance and the Biology of History.

    PubMed

    Landecker, Hannah

    2016-12-01

    Beginning in the 1940s, mass production of antibiotics involved the industrial-scale growth of microorganisms to harvest their metabolic products. Unfortunately, the use of antibiotics selects for resistance at answering scale. The turn to the study of antibiotic resistance in microbiology and medicine is examined, focusing on the realization that individual therapies targeted at single pathogens in individual bodies are environmental events affecting bacterial evolution far beyond bodies. In turning to biological manifestations of antibiotic use, sciences fathom material outcomes of their own previous concepts. Archival work with stored soil and clinical samples produces a record described here as 'the biology of history': the physical registration of human history in bacterial life. This account thus foregrounds the importance of understanding both the materiality of history and the historicity of matter in theories and concepts of life today.

  12. Antibiotic Resistance and the Biology of History

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Beginning in the 1940s, mass production of antibiotics involved the industrial-scale growth of microorganisms to harvest their metabolic products. Unfortunately, the use of antibiotics selects for resistance at answering scale. The turn to the study of antibiotic resistance in microbiology and medicine is examined, focusing on the realization that individual therapies targeted at single pathogens in individual bodies are environmental events affecting bacterial evolution far beyond bodies. In turning to biological manifestations of antibiotic use, sciences fathom material outcomes of their own previous concepts. Archival work with stored soil and clinical samples produces a record described here as ‘the biology of history’: the physical registration of human history in bacterial life. This account thus foregrounds the importance of understanding both the materiality of history and the historicity of matter in theories and concepts of life today. PMID:28458609

  13. Transferable, multiple antibiotic and mercury resistance in Atlantic Canadian isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is associated with carriage of an IncA/C plasmid similar to the Salmonella enterica plasmid pSN254

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Douglas; Cunningham, Michelle; Ji, Baijing; Fekete, Frank A.; Parry, Erin M.; Clark, Sarah E.; Zalinger, Zachary B.; Gilg, Ilana C.; Danner, G. Russell; Johnson, Keith A.; Beattie, Mike; Ritchie, Rachael

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the molecular basis for multiple antibiotic and mercury resistance in Canadian isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. Methods Phenotypic and genotypic methods were employed to identify plasmid-associated antibiotic and mercury resistance genes and to determine the organization of those genes in multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. salmonicida isolates. Results The MDR phenotype was transferable via conjugation using Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardseilla tarda as recipients. Antibiotic and mercury resistance genes were carried by a conjugative IncA/C plasmid. Three distinct antibiotic resistance cassettes were characterized; first a class I integron containing an aadA7 gene encoding for an aminoglycoside-3′-adenyltransferase, the second cassette showed 99.9% nucleotide sequence homology to a cassette previously identified in the Salmonella enterica IncA/C plasmid pSN254, containing floR, tetA, sulII and strA/strB sequences. The third cassette showed 100% nucleotide sequence similarity to a transposon-like element, containing a blaCMY-2 β-lactamase in association with sugE and blc sequences. This element is known to be widely distributed among clinical and food-borne Salmonella and other Enterobacteriaceae throughout Asia and the United States. Mercury resistance was linked to the presence of a mer operon that showed 100% nucleotide sequence homology to the mer operon carried by plasmid pSN254. Conclusions Each MDR A. salmonicida isolate carried the same plasmid, which was related to plasmid pSN254. This is the first report of plasmid-mediated florfenicol-resistant A. salmonicida in North America. In addition, it is the first report of a plasmid-associated AmpC β-lactamase sequence in a member of the Aeromonadaceae. PMID:18375380

  14. A survey of antibiotic resistance among E. coli strains isolated from poultry in Karachi.

    PubMed

    Ansari, F A; Khatoon, H

    1999-01-01

    Studies were carried out to investigate the incidence of multiple antibiotic resistance among E .coli (total 152) isolated from poultry in Karachi to eight commonly used antibiotics: ampicillin (A), chloramphenicol (C), gentamycin (G), anamycin (K), neomycin (N), polymyxin B (P), streptomycin (S) and tetracycline (T) at the levels of 50 microg/ml, 100 microg/ml and 500 microg/ml. Tables of the results are given, showing the number of resistant strains of different patterns of antibiotic resistance at different levels. A comparison of antibiotic resistance to different number of antibiotics and the frequency of resistance to individual antibiotic at different levels is also reported. The highest frequency of resistance was against tetracycline whereas the lowest frequency of resistance was against gentamycin. Thirty R plasmids were isolated from the resistant strains and will be reported elsewhere.

  15. Antibiotic resistance determinants and clonal relationships among multidrug-resistant isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Singh, Santosh Kumar; Mishra, Mitali; Sahoo, Minu; Patole, Shashank; Sahu, Suneeta; Misra, Sudhi Ranjan; Mohapatra, Harapriya

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we performed PCR based screening to determine the presence of antibiotic resistance genes and sequencing to find mutation in QRDR region among fourteen isolates of K. pneumoniae. Association analysis was conducted to detect the co-resistance among the isolates. Multi-locus sequence analysis was carried out to determine the clonal relationship among them. All the K. pneumoniae isolates showed resistance to multiple antibiotics and exhibited cross-resistance to antibiotics. Although few isolates co-harbored variants of β-lactamase genes, others carried qnrB on plasmid and mutations in Quinolone-Resistant Determining Region (QRDR). This study thus indicates that clonally unrelated K. pneumoniae isolates exhibited co-resistance, harboured multiple antibiotic resistance genes present on the chromosome, plasmids and/or integron Therefore, the data from this study can provide guidelines for the prudent use of antibiotics to avert the impending danger of losing out on the available antibiotics for therapeutic use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Genomic and metagenomic diversity of antibiotic resistance in dairy animals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antibiotic resistance in food animals has received increased scrutiny in recent years due to the increased prevalence of antibiotic resistant infections in the human clinical setting. The extent to which antibiotic usage in food animals is responsible for the burden of antibiotic resistance in human...

  17. Antibiotic combinations for controlling colistin-resistant Enterobacter cloacae.

    PubMed

    Lima, Thais Bergamin; Silva, Osmar Nascimento; de Almeida, Keyla Caroline; Ribeiro, Suzana Meira; Motta, Dielle de Oliveira; Maria-Neto, Simone; Lara, Michelle Brizolla; Filho, Carlos Roberto Souza; Ombredane, Alicia Simalie; de Faria Junior, Celio; Parachin, Nadia Skorupa; Magalhães, Beatriz Simas; Franco, Octávio Luiz

    2017-02-01

    Enterobacter cloacae is a Gram-negative bacterium associated with high morbidity and mortality in intensive care patients due to its resistance to multiple antibiotics. Currently, therapy against multi-resistant bacteria consists of using colistin, in spite of its toxic effects at higher concentrations. In this context, colistin-resistant E. cloacae strains were challenged with lower levels of colistin combined with other antibiotics to reduce colistin-associated side effects. Colistin-resistant E. cloacae (ATCC 49141) strains were generated by serial propagation in subinhibitory colistin concentrations. After this, three colistin-resistant and three nonresistant replicates were isolated. The identity of all the strains was confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS, VITEK 2 and MicroScan analysis. Furthermore, cross-resistance to other antibiotics was checked by disk diffusion and automated systems. The synergistic effects of the combined use of colistin and chloramphenicol were observed via the broth microdilution checkerboard method. First, data here reported showed that all strains presented intrinsic resistance to penicillin, cephalosporin (except fourth generation), monobactam, and some associations of penicillin and β-lactamase inhibitors. Moreover, a chloramphenicol and colistin combination was capable of inhibiting the induced colistin-resistant strains as well as two colistin-resistant clinical strains. Furthermore, no cytotoxic effect was observed by using such concentrations. In summary, the data reported here showed for the first time the possible therapeutic use of colistin-chloramphenicol for infections caused by colistin-resistant E. cloacae.

  18. Colonial variation in Serratia marcescens together with antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Ruhen, R W; Wetherall, F M

    1983-01-01

    A strain of Serratia marcescens, isolated from the blood cultures of a patient receiving antibiotics, exhibited 3 unstable properties. These properties were resistance to aminoglycosides, colony size and pigment production. While resistance to aminoglycosides was linked to colony size, pigment production appeared independent of the other 2 properties. When multiple variation of properties occurs in colonies isolated from clinical material, this still may represent a pure culture.

  19. Characterisation of recently emerged multiple antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104 and other multiresistant phage types from Danish pig herds.

    PubMed

    Baggesen, D L; Aarestrup, F M

    1998-07-25

    A total of 670 isolates of Salmonella enterica were isolated from Danish pig herds, phage typed and tested for susceptibility to amoxycillin + clavulanate, ampicillin, colistin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, neomycin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim + sulphadiazine. S enterica serovar typhimurium (S typhimurium) isolates resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline and three isolates of S typhimurium DT104, two from 1994 and one from 1995, were further tested for resistance against chloramphenicol and sulphonamide and analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using the restriction enzyme Xba I. Overall, 66 per cent of the 670 isolates were sensitive to all the antimicrobial agents tested. Eleven isolates of S typhimurium were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline and also resistant to other antibiotics in different resistance patterns. Seven different multiresistant clones were identified. The most common clones were four isolates of DT104 and three isolates of DT193. Two of the three S typhimurium DT104 from 1994 and 1995 were sensitive to all the antimicrobials tested whereas the remaining isolate from 1994 was resistant to spectinomycin, streptomycin and sulphonamides. All three isolates showed PFGF profiles identical to the four multiresistant DT104 isolates. Compared with most other countries antimicrobial resistance among S enterica isolated from Danish pig herds is uncommon. However, several different multiresistant clones were found.

  20. Multiple antibiotic sensitivity in a pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Kamada, M M; Twarog, F; Leung, D Y

    1991-01-01

    Multiple antibiotic sensitivity (MAS), a common but complex clinical problem, has not been reviewed in the pediatric population. We evaluated 120 children with a history of MAS. The offending antibiotics were beta lactam (186 adverse reactions), sulfonamide (86 adverse reactions), macrolide (32 adverse reactions), erythromycin/sulfisoxazole (26 adverse reactions), aminoglycoside (2 adverse reactions), and tetracycline (2 adverse reactions). Urticaria occurred in 183 reactions, followed by polymorphous rash (n = 71), angioedema (n = 19), erythema multiform (n = 9), bronchospasm (n = 8), arthralgia (n = 7), serum sickness (n = 4), and laryngeal edema (n = 3), the mean age for the first reaction was 3 years (range 1 month to 13 years). Adverse reaction to three classes of antibiotics were noted in 22 patients, and two patients were noted to have adverse reactions to four or more antibiotic classes. Skin tests (ST) were performed in 98 children using penicillin G, a commercial benzyl penicilloyl polylysine, a minor determinant mixture, and a beta lactam analog. Positive ST were noted in 26% (31/120) of the MAS patients. Children with a history of MAS are likely to have true IgE-mediated reactions as documented by positive immediate hypersensitivity reactions to penicillin and/or its minor determinants. Therefore, MAS patients should be carefully evaluated for antibiotic sensitivity and not be assumed to have sensitivity to drug formulation as a basis for MAS.

  1. Emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance: a global problem.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, R; Panda, S; Singh, D V

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a major problem in clinical health settings. Interestingly the origin of many of antibiotic resistance mechanisms can be traced back to non-pathogenic environmental organisms. Important factors leading to the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance include absence of regulation in the use of antibiotics, improper waste disposal and associated transmission of antibiotic resistance genes in the community through commensals. In this review, we discussed the impact of globalisation on the transmission of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria through immigration and export/import of foodstuff. The significance of surveillance to define appropriate use of antibiotics in the clinic has been included as an important preventive measure.

  2. Molecular study on some antibiotic resistant genes in Salmonella spp. isolates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Ari Q.

    2017-09-01

    Studying the genes related with antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella spp. is a crucial step toward a correct and faster treatment of infections caused by the pathogen. In this work Integron mediated antibiotic resistant gene IntI1 (Class I Integrase IntI1) and some plasmid mediated antibiotic resistance genes (Qnr) were scanned among the isolated non-Typhoid Salmonellae strains with known resistance to some important antimicrobial drugs using Sybr Green real time PCR. The aim of the study was to correlate the multiple antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. with the presence of integrase (IntI1) gene and plasmid mediated quinolone resistant genes. Results revealed the presence of Class I Integrase gene in 76% of the isolates with confirmed multiple antibiotic resistances. Moreover, about 32% of the multiple antibiotic resistant serotypes showed a positive R-PCR for plasmid mediated qnrA gene encoding for nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin resistance. No positive results could be revealed form R-PCRs targeting qnrB or qnrS. In light of these results we can conclude that the presence of at least one of the qnr genes and/or the presence of Integrase Class I gene were responsible for the multiple antibiotic resistance to for nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin from the studied Salmonella spp. and further studies required to identify the genes related with multiple antibiotic resistance of the pathogen.

  3. Antibiotic resistance genes & susceptibility patterns in staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Duran, Nizami; Ozer, Burcin; Duran, Gulay Gulbol; Onlen, Yusuf; Demir, Cemil

    2012-03-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the association between the antibiotic susceptibility patterns and the antibiotic resistance genes in staphylococcal isolates obtained from various clinical samples of patients attending a teaching hospital in Hatay, Turkey. A total of 298 staphylococci clinical isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The genes implicated in resistance to oxacillin (mecA), gentamicin (aac(6')/aph(2''), aph(3')-IIIa, ant(4')-Ia), erythromycin (ermA, ermB, ermC, and msrA), tetracyclin (tetK, tetM), and penicillin (blaZ) were amplified using multiplex PCR method. Methicillin resistance rate among 139 Staphlococcus aureus isolates was 16.5 and 25.9 per cent of S. aureus carried mecA gene. Of the 159 CoNS isolates, methicillin resistance rate was 18.9 and 29.6 per cent carried mecA gene. Ninety four isolates identified as gentamicin resistant phenotypically, contained at least one of the gentamicin resistance genes [aac(6')/aph(2''), aph(3')-IIIa, ant(4')-Ia], 17 gentamicin-susceptible isolates were found as positive in terms of one or more resistance genes [aac(6')/aph(2''), aph(3')-IIIa, ant(4')-Ia] by multiplex PCR. A total of 165 isolates were resistant to erythromycin, and contained at least one of the erythromycin resistance genes (ermA, ermB, ermC and msrA). Phenotypically, 106 staphylococcal isolates were resistant to tetracycline, 121 isolates carried either tetK or tetM or both resistance genes. The majority of staphylococci tested possessed the blaZ gene (89.9%). The present results showed that the phenotypic antibiotic susceptibility patterns were not similar to those obtained by genotyping done by multiplex PCR. Rapid and reliable methods for antibiotic susceptibility are important to determine the appropriate therapy decisions. Multiplex PCR can be used for confirmation of the results obtained by conventional phenotypic methods, when needed.

  4. Density-dependent adaptive resistance allows swimming bacteria to colonize an antibiotic gradient.

    PubMed

    Hol, Felix J H; Hubert, Bert; Dekker, Cees; Keymer, Juan E

    2016-01-01

    During antibiotic treatment, antibiotic concentration gradients develop. Little is know regarding the effects of antibiotic gradients on populations of nonresistant bacteria. Using a microfluidic device, we show that high-density motile Escherichia coli populations composed of nonresistant bacteria can, unexpectedly, colonize environments where a lethal concentration of the antibiotic kanamycin is present. Colonizing bacteria establish an adaptively resistant population, which remains viable for over 24 h while exposed to the antibiotic. Quantitative analysis of multiple colonization events shows that collectively swimming bacteria need to exceed a critical population density in order to successfully colonize the antibiotic landscape. After colonization, bacteria are not dormant but show both growth and swimming motility under antibiotic stress. Our results highlight the importance of motility and population density in facilitating adaptive resistance, and indicate that adaptive resistance may be a first step to the emergence of genetically encoded resistance in landscapes of antibiotic gradients.

  5. Density-dependent adaptive resistance allows swimming bacteria to colonize an antibiotic gradient

    PubMed Central

    Hol, Felix J H; Hubert, Bert; Dekker, Cees; Keymer, Juan E

    2016-01-01

    During antibiotic treatment, antibiotic concentration gradients develop. Little is know regarding the effects of antibiotic gradients on populations of nonresistant bacteria. Using a microfluidic device, we show that high-density motile Escherichia coli populations composed of nonresistant bacteria can, unexpectedly, colonize environments where a lethal concentration of the antibiotic kanamycin is present. Colonizing bacteria establish an adaptively resistant population, which remains viable for over 24 h while exposed to the antibiotic. Quantitative analysis of multiple colonization events shows that collectively swimming bacteria need to exceed a critical population density in order to successfully colonize the antibiotic landscape. After colonization, bacteria are not dormant but show both growth and swimming motility under antibiotic stress. Our results highlight the importance of motility and population density in facilitating adaptive resistance, and indicate that adaptive resistance may be a first step to the emergence of genetically encoded resistance in landscapes of antibiotic gradients. PMID:26140531

  6. Antibiotic resistance of bacteria isolated from heavy metal-polluted soils with different land uses.

    PubMed

    Safari Sinegani, Ali Akbar; Younessi, Nayereh

    2017-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the antibiotic and heavy metal tolerance of culturable bacteria isolated from mining waste, pasture, and agricultural soils containing different levels of heavy metals. The populations of total culturable bacteria, and heavy metal- and antibiotic-tolerant bacteria in the soils were enumerated on nutrient agar, nutrient agar amended with metals, and Mueller-Hinton agar amended with antibiotics, respectively. The multiple antibiotic resistance index, and patterns of antibiotic resistance and heavy metal-antibiotic co-resistance were determined for 237 isolates. Among all the samples, those of the tailings of mines with higher levels of heavy metals had the lowest number of bacteria, but a relatively higher abundance of heavy metal- and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. A high degree of resistance was observed for ampicillin and amoxicillin in the isolates from all soils. The agricultural soil isolates had a high prevalence of resistance towards vancomycin, tetracycline, and streptomycin. Among all the tested antibiotics, gentamicin was the most potent. The most frequent pattern of multiple antibiotic resistance in the isolates from agricultural soils was amoxicillin, ampicillin, streptomycin, vancomycin, tetracycline, and doxycycline. The percentage of isolates with multiple antibiotic resistance was considerably higher in the agricultural soils than in the mining waste soils. A high rate of co-resistance towards Hg and antibiotics was observed among the gram-negative isolates, and towards Zn, Ni, Hg, and the beta-lactam antibiotics among the gram-positive isolates. The higher percentage of isolates with multiple antibiotic resistance in the agricultural soils that in the mining waste soils may be related to (1) the level of soil heavy metals, (2) the population and diversity of soil bacteria, (3) the application of manures, and (4) other factors affecting gene transfer between bacteria

  7. Potential of berberine to enhance antimicrobial activity of commonly used antibiotics for dairy cow mastitis caused by multiple drug-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis infection.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Yang, C; Li, Y; Liu, X; Wang, Y

    2015-08-19

    Berberine is a plant alkaloid with antimicrobial activity against a variety of microorganisms. In this study, the antimicrobial properties of berberine against multi-drug resistant field isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis were investigated using berberine alone or in combination with a commonly used antibiotics in veterinary clinics, including penicillin, lincomycin, and amoxicillin. The results indicated that the minimum inhibitory concentrations of berberine, penicillin, lincomycin, and amoxicillin against field S. epidermidis isolates were 2-512, 0.8-213, 0.4-1024, and 0.4-256 mg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the synergistic effects of antimicrobial activity against these multi-drug resistant isolates were observed when the berberine was combined with penicillin, lincomycin, or amoxicillin; no antagonistic effect of the combination was detected in any of the clinical isolates. These observations were further confirmed using a time-killing assay, in which a combination of 2 agents yielded a greater than 2.03-2.44 log10 decrease in colony-forming unit/mL compared with each agent alone. These findings suggest that berberine is a promising compound for preventing and treating multi-drug resistant S. epidermidis infected mastitis in dairy cows either alone or in combination with other commonly used antibiotics, such as penicillin, lincomycin, and amoxicillin.

  8. Multidrug evolutionary strategies to reverse antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Baym, Michael; Stone, Laura K; Kishony, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic treatment has two conflicting effects: the desired, immediate effect of inhibiting bacterial growth and the undesired, long-term effect of promoting the evolution of resistance. Although these contrasting outcomes seem inextricably linked, recent work has revealed several ways by which antibiotics can be combined to inhibit bacterial growth while, counterintuitively, selecting against resistant mutants. Decoupling treatment efficacy from the risk of resistance can be achieved by exploiting specific interactions between drugs, and the ways in which resistance mutations to a given drug can modulate these interactions or increase the sensitivity of the bacteria to other compounds. Although their practical application requires much further development and validation, and relies on advances in genomic diagnostics, these discoveries suggest novel paradigms that may restrict or even reverse the evolution of resistance. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Multidrug evolutionary strategies to reverse antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Baym, Michael; Stone, Laura K.; Kishony, Roy

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic treatment has two conflicting effects: the desired, immediate effect of inhibiting bacterial growth and the undesired, long-term effect of promoting the evolution of resistance. Although these contrasting outcomes seem inextricably linked, recent work has revealed several ways by which antibiotics can be combined to inhibit bacterial growth while, counterintuitively, selecting against resistant mutants. Decoupling treatment efficacy from the risk of resistance can be achieved by exploiting specific interactions between drugs, and the ways in which resistance mutations to a given drug can modulate these interactions or increase the sensitivity of the bacteria to other compounds. Although their practical application requires much further development and validation, and relies on advances in genomic diagnostics, these discoveries suggest novel paradigms that may restrict or even reverse the evolution of resistance. PMID:26722002

  10. Does antifouling paint select for antibiotic resistance?

    PubMed

    Flach, Carl-Fredrik; Pal, Chandan; Svensson, Carl Johan; Kristiansson, Erik; Östman, Marcus; Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Tysklind, Mats; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2017-07-15

    There is concern that heavy metals and biocides contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance via co-selection. Most antifouling paints contain high amounts of such substances, which risks turning painted ship hulls into highly mobile refuges and breeding grounds for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The objectives of this study were to start investigate if heavy-metal based antifouling paints can pose a risk for co-selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and, if so, identify the underlying genetic basis. Plastic panels with one side painted with copper and zinc-containing antifouling paint were submerged in a Swedish marina and biofilms from both sides of the panels were harvested after 2.5-4weeks. DNA was isolated from the biofilms and subjected to metagenomic sequencing. Biofilm bacteria were cultured on marine agar supplemented with tetracycline, gentamicin, copper sulfate or zinc sulfate. Biofilm communities from painted surfaces displayed lower taxonomic diversity and enrichment of Gammaproteobacteria. Bacteria from these communities showed increased resistance to both heavy metals and tetracycline but not to gentamicin. Significantly higher abundance of metal and biocide resistance genes was observed, whereas mobile antibiotic resistance genes were not enriched in these communities. In contrast, we found an enrichment of chromosomal RND efflux system genes, including such with documented ability to confer decreased susceptibility to both antibiotics and biocides/heavy metals. This was paralleled by increased abundances of integron-associated integrase and ISCR transposase genes. The results show that the heavy metal-based antifouling paint exerts a strong selection pressure on marine bacterial communities and can co-select for certain antibiotic-resistant bacteria, likely by favoring species and strains carrying genes that provide cross-resistance. Although this does not indicate an immediate risk for promotion of mobile antibiotic resistance, the

  11. Proteome studies of bacterial antibiotic resistance mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Vranakis, Iosif; Goniotakis, Ioannis; Psaroulaki, Anna; Sandalakis, Vassilios; Tselentis, Yannis; Gevaert, Kris; Tsiotis, Georgios

    2014-01-31

    Ever since antibiotics were used to help humanity battle infectious diseases, microorganisms straight away fought back. Antibiotic resistance mechanisms indeed provide microbes with possibilities to by-pass and survive the action of antibiotic drugs. Several methods have been employed to identify these microbial resistance mechanisms in an ongoing effort to reduce the steadily increasing number of treatment failures due to multi-drug-resistant microbes. Proteomics has evolved to an important tool for this area of research. Following rapid advances in whole genome sequencing, proteomic technologies have been widely used to investigate microbial gene expression. This review highlights the contribution of proteomics in identifying microbial drug resistance mechanisms. It summarizes different proteomic studies on bacteria resistant to different antibiotic drugs. The review further includes an overview of the methodologies used, as well as lists key proteins identified, thus providing the reader not only a summary of research already done, but also directions for future research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Trends in Microbial Proteomics.

  12. Antibiotic policies and control of resistance.

    PubMed

    Gould, Ian M

    2002-08-01

    The current worldwide pandemic of antibiotic resistance shows no signs of abating. It is clear that it is driven mainly by heavy and often inappropriate antibiotic use. Although control measures are widely practised, it is important that we assess their efficacy critically in order to concentrate expensive control efforts where they will be most effective. The past year has seen much activity in this area, with evidence-based assessments of the literature according to strict guidelines, as well as progress in basic science studies of mechanisms of resistance, and their causes and relations to pathogenicity and adaptability. The present review summarizes current developments in the causes of antibiotic resistance, the classification of antibiotic stewardship and control measures, the evidence base for their efficacy, current problems in hospital practice, the adaptability of bacteria, the content of antibiotic policies and anticipated activities. The conclusions from the published literature are that much of it that pertains to changing prescribing practices does not stand up to modern evidence-based analysis concepts. Nevertheless, we can learn from experience in changing other areas of medical practice. We must be pragmatic and must not expect to change the world, but rather take it step by step, recognizing barriers and measuring outcomes and quality indicators. Studies into the molecular basis of resistance confirm the superb genetic adaptability of micro-organisms. They will always be several steps ahead of us. Nevertheless, we are learning how to modify our prescribing habits to minimize resistance, not only by using antibiotics less frequently but also by altering dosing schedules in various ways.

  13. The drinking water treatment process as a potential source of affecting the bacterial antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiaohui; Ma, Xiaolin; Xu, Fengming; Li, Jing; Zhang, Hang; Xiao, Xiang

    2015-11-15

    Two waterworks, with source water derived from the Huangpu or Yangtze River in Shanghai, were investigated, and the effluents were plate-screened for antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) using five antibiotics: ampicillin (AMP), kanamycin (KAN), rifampicin (RFP), chloramphenicol (CM) and streptomycin (STR). The influence of water treatment procedures on the bacterial antibiotic resistance rate and the changes that bacteria underwent when exposed to the five antibiotics at concentration levels ranging from 1 to 100 μg/mL were studied. Multi-drug resistance was also analyzed using drug sensitivity tests. The results indicated that bacteria derived from water treatment plant effluent that used the Huangpu River rather than the Yangtze River as source water exhibited higher antibiotic resistance rates against AMP, STR, RFP and CM but lower antibiotic resistance rates against KAN. When the antibiotic concentration levels ranged from 1 to 10 μg/mL, the antibiotic resistance rates of the bacteria in the water increased as water treatment progressed. Biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration played a key role in increasing the antibiotic resistance rate of bacteria. Chloramine disinfection can enhance antibiotic resistance. Among the isolated ARB, 75% were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Ozone oxidation, BAC filtration and chloramine disinfection can greatly affect the relative abundance of bacteria in the community. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Survey and Analysis of the American Public's Perceptions and Knowledge About Antibiotic Resistance.

    PubMed

    Carter, Rebecca R; Sun, Jiayang; Jump, Robin L P

    2016-09-01

    Background.  Little is known about the American public's perceptions or knowledge about antibiotic-resistant bacteria or antibiotic misuse. We hypothesized that although many people recognize antibiotic resistance as a problem, they may not understand the relationship between antibiotic consumption and selection of resistant bacteria. Methods.  We developed and tested a survey asking respondents about their perceptions and knowledge regarding appropriate antibiotic use. Respondents were recruited with the Amazon Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing platform. The survey, carefully designed to assess a crowd-sourced population, asked respondents to explain "antibiotic resistance" in their own words. Subsequent questions were multiple choice. Results.  Of 215 respondents, the vast majority agreed that inappropriate antibiotic use contributes to antibiotic resistance (92%), whereas a notable proportion (70%) responded neutrally or disagreed with the statement that antibiotic resistance is a problem. Over 40% of respondents indicated that antibiotics were the best choice to treat a fever or a runny nose and sore throat. Major themes from the free-text responses included that antibiotic resistance develops by bacteria, or by the infection, or the body (ie, an immune response). Minor themes included antibiotic overuse and antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial adaptation or an immune response. Conclusions.  Our findings indicate that the public is aware that antibiotic misuse contributes to antibiotic resistance, but many do not consider it to be an important problem. The free-text responses suggest specific educational targets, including the difference between an immune response and bacterial adaptation, to increase awareness and understanding of antibiotic resistance.

  15. Priorities for antibiotic resistance surveillance in Europe.

    PubMed

    Fluit, A C; van der Bruggen, J T; Aarestrup, F M; Verhoef, J; Jansen, W T M

    2006-05-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an increasing global problem. Surveillance studies are needed to monitor resistance development, to guide local empirical therapy, and to implement timely and adequate countermeasures. To achieve this, surveillance studies must have standardised methodologies, be longitudinal, and cover a sufficiently large and representative population. However, many fall short of these requirements that define good surveillance studies. Moreover, current efforts are dispersed among many, mostly small, initiatives with different objectives. These studies must be tailored to the various reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as hospitalised patients, nursing homes, the community, animals and food. Two studies that could serve as examples of tailored programmes are the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS), which collects resistance data during the diagnosis of hospitalised patients, and the DANMAP programme, which collects data in the veterinary sector. As already noted by the WHO, genetic studies that include both the typing of isolates and the characterisation of resistance determinants are necessary to understand fully the spread and development of antibiotic resistance.

  16. Collective Antibiotic Resistance: Mechanisms and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Nicole M.; Gore, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    In collective resistance, microbial communities are able to survive antibiotic exposures that would be lethal to individual cells. In this review, we explore recent advances in understanding collective resistance in bacteria. The population dynamics of “cheating” in a system with cooperative antibiotic inactivation have been described, providing insight into the demographic factors that determine resistance allele frequency in bacteria. Extensive work has elucidated mechanisms underlying collective resistance in biofilms and addressed questions about the role of cooperation in these structures. Additionally, recent investigations of “bet-hedging” strategies in bacteria have explored the contributions of stochasticity and regulation to bacterial phenotypic heterogeneity and examined the effects of these strategies on community survival. PMID:25271119

  17. Vaccines for Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria: Possibility or Pipe Dream?

    PubMed

    García-Quintanilla, Meritxell; Pulido, Marina R; Carretero-Ledesma, Marta; McConnell, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    The increasing incidence of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria from multiple species, together with the paucity of new antibiotics in the development pipeline, indicates that vaccines could play a role in combating these infections. The development of vaccines for these infections presents unique challenges related to target population selection, vaccine administration, and antigen identification. Advances in genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic technologies offer great potential for identifying promising antigens that are highly conserved and expressed during human infections. Although important challenges remain, the potential health and economic benefits associated with the clinical implementation of vaccination strategies for the prevention of antibiotic-resistant infections warrant their continued development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cross-resistance to fluoroquinolones in multiple-antibiotic-resistant (Mar) Escherichia coli selected by tetracycline or chloramphenicol: decreased drug accumulation associated with membrane changes in addition to OmpF reduction.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, S P; McMurry, L M; Hooper, D C; Wolfson, J S; Levy, S B

    1989-01-01

    Chromosomal multiple-antibiotic-resistant (Mar) mutants of Escherichia coli, selected on agar containing low concentrations of tetracycline or chloramphenicol, were 6- to 18-fold less susceptible to the fluoroquinolones than were their wild-type E. coli K-12 or E. coli C parental strains. The frequency of emergence of such mutants was at least 1,000-fold higher than that of those selected by the fluoroquinolone norfloxacin directly. When Mar mutants, but not wild-type cells, were plated on norfloxacin, mutants resistant to high levels of norfloxacin (2 micrograms/ml) appeared at a relatively high (approximately 10(-7] frequency. In addition to decreased amounts of OmpF, Mar mutants had other outer membrane protein changes and were four- to eightfold less susceptible to fluoroquinolones than was an ompF::Tn5 mutant lacking only OmpF. Accumulation of [3H]norfloxacin was more than threefold lower in the Mar mutants than in wild-type cells and twofold lower than in the OmpF-deficient derivative. These differences were not attributable to a change in the endogenous active efflux system for norfloxacin in E. coli. Norfloxacin-induced inhibition of DNA synthesis was threefold lower in intact cells of a Mar mutant than in susceptible cells, but this difference was not seen in toluene-permeabilized cells. Insertion of Tn5 into marA (min 34.05 on the chromosome) led to a return of the wild-type patterns of norfloxacin accumulation, fluoroquinolone and other antimicrobial agent susceptibilities, and outer membrane protein profile, including partial restoration of OmpF. These findings together suggest that marA-dependent fluoroquinolone resistance is linked to decreased cell permeability, only part of which can be accounted for by the reduction in OmpF. Once mutated to marA, cells can achieve high levels of quinolone resistance at a relatively high frequency. Images PMID:2679373

  19. NOTE: Dielectrophoretic assay of bacterial resistance to antibiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johari, Juliana; Hübner, Yvonne; Hull, Judith C.; Dale, Jeremy W.; Hughes, Michael P.

    2003-07-01

    The dielectrophoretic collection spectra of antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis have been determined. These indicate that in the absence of antibiotic treatment there is a strong similarity between the dielectric properties of sensitive and resistant strains, and that there is a significant difference between the sensitive strains before and after treatment with the antibiotic streptomycin after 24 h exposure. This method offers possibilities for the assessment of bacterial resistance to antibiotics.

  20. Antibiotic resistance in nosocomial respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Denys, Gerald A; Relich, Ryan F

    2014-06-01

    Nosocomial respiratory infections are the most common acquired infections in patients with severe underlying conditions and are responsible for high morbidity and mortality in this patient population. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens are associated with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). This article describes the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of HAP and VAP associated with antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The negative impact of antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Friedman, N D; Temkin, E; Carmeli, Y

    2016-05-01

    Antibacterial therapy is one of the most important medical developments of the twentieth century; however, the spread of resistance in healthcare settings and in the community threatens the enormous gains made by the availability of antibiotic therapy. Infections caused by resistant bacteria lead to up to two-fold higher rates of adverse outcomes compared with similar infections caused by susceptible strains. These adverse outcomes may be clinical or economic and reflect primarily the failure or delay of antibiotic treatment. The magnitude of these adverse outcomes will be more pronounced as disease severity, strain virulence, or host vulnerability increases. The negative impacts of antibacterial resistance can be measured at the patient level by increased morbidity and mortality, at the healthcare level by increased resource utilization, higher costs and reduced hospital activity and at the society level by antibiotic treatment guidelines favouring increasingly broad-spectrum empiric therapy. In this review we will discuss the negative impact of antibiotic resistance on patients, the healthcare system and society. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Survey and Analysis of the American Public's Perceptions and Knowledge About Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Rebecca R.; Sun, Jiayang; Jump, Robin L. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Little is known about the American public's perceptions or knowledge about antibiotic-resistant bacteria or antibiotic misuse. We hypothesized that although many people recognize antibiotic resistance as a problem, they may not understand the relationship between antibiotic consumption and selection of resistant bacteria. Methods. We developed and tested a survey asking respondents about their perceptions and knowledge regarding appropriate antibiotic use. Respondents were recruited with the Amazon Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing platform. The survey, carefully designed to assess a crowd-sourced population, asked respondents to explain “antibiotic resistance” in their own words. Subsequent questions were multiple choice. Results. Of 215 respondents, the vast majority agreed that inappropriate antibiotic use contributes to antibiotic resistance (92%), whereas a notable proportion (70%) responded neutrally or disagreed with the statement that antibiotic resistance is a problem. Over 40% of respondents indicated that antibiotics were the best choice to treat a fever or a runny nose and sore throat. Major themes from the free-text responses included that antibiotic resistance develops by bacteria, or by the infection, or the body (ie, an immune response). Minor themes included antibiotic overuse and antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial adaptation or an immune response. Conclusions. Our findings indicate that the public is aware that antibiotic misuse contributes to antibiotic resistance, but many do not consider it to be an important problem. The free-text responses suggest specific educational targets, including the difference between an immune response and bacterial adaptation, to increase awareness and understanding of antibiotic resistance. PMID:27382598

  3. Helicobacter pylori and Antibiotic Resistance, A Continuing and Intractable Problem.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue; Zhang, Meng; Lu, Bin; Dai, Jinfeng

    2016-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori, a human pathogen with a high global prevalence, is the causative pathogen for multiple gastrointestinal diseases, especially chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and gastric malignancies. Antibiotic therapies remain the mainstay for H. pylori eradication; however, this strategy is hampered by the emergence and spread of H. pylori antibiotic resistance. Exploring the mechanistic basis of this resistance is becoming one of the major research questions in contemporary biomedical research, as such knowledge could be exploited to devise novel rational avenues for counteracting the existing resistance and devising strategies to avoid the development of a novel anti-H. pylori medication. Encouragingly, important progress in this field has been made recently. Here, we attempt to review the current state and progress with respect to the molecular mechanism of antibiotic resistance for H. pylori. A picture is emerging in which mutations of various genes in H. pylori, resulting in decreased membrane permeability, altered oxidation-reduction potential, and a more efficient efflux pump system. The increased knowledge on these mechanisms produces hope that antibiotic resistance in H. pylori can ultimately be countered. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Mass spectrometry methods for predicting antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Charretier, Yannick; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2016-10-01

    Developing elaborate techniques for clinical applications can be a complicated process. Whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS revolutionized reliable microorganism identification in clinical microbiology laboratories and is now replacing phenotypic microbial identification. This technique is a generic, accurate, rapid, and cost-effective growth-based method. Antibiotic resistance keeps emerging in environmental and clinical microorganisms, leading to clinical therapeutic challenges, especially for Gram-negative bacteria. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing is used to reliably predict antimicrobial success in treating infection, but it is inherently limited by the need to isolate and grow cultures, delaying the application of appropriate therapies. Antibiotic resistance prediction by growth-independent methods is expected to reduce the turnaround time. Recently, the potential of next-generation sequencing and microarrays in predicting microbial resistance has been demonstrated, and this review evaluates the potential of MS in this field. First, technological advances are described, and the possibility of predicting antibiotic resistance by MS is then illustrated for three prototypical human pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Clearly, MS methods can identify antimicrobial resistance mediated by horizontal gene transfers or by mutations that affect the quantity of a gene product, whereas antimicrobial resistance mediated by target mutations remains difficult to detect.

  5. Antibiotic bacterial resistance in ambulatory patients.

    PubMed

    Yawn, B P; Wollan, P; Cockerill, F; Lydick, E

    2000-10-01

    This study evaluates trends in antibiotic resistance in patients who were treated in an ambulatory setting. The authors compiled the data from all lower respiratory track(sputum) cultures collected from ambulatory patients who visited the Olmsted Medical Center and Mayo Clinic between 1985 and 1998. Cultured organisms were identified, and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values were presented and categorized as susceptible, intermediate, or resistant based on the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) guidelines for MIC and antibiotic susceptibility. 4,297 potentially pathogenic organisms were obtained from sputum cultures for 1,921 patients. The most discernible changes in antibiotic resistance appeared to be in cultures positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A trend toward increasing resistance of isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae to beta-lactam drugs was observed in a portion of the population. An emerging intermediate susceptibility among isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudoumonas species was noted. Trends in antimicrobial resistance of respiratory pathogens from ambulatory patients are less clear than those from hospitalized patients, but must be monitored because of the high percentage of ambulatory patients who receive empirical therapies. Trends in intermediate susceptibility patterns may help reveal emerging antimicrobial resistance.

  6. Acquired Antibiotic Resistance: Are We Born with It? ▿

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lu; Kinkelaar, Daniel; Huang, Ying; Li, Yingli; Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Hua H.

    2011-01-01

    The rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance (AR) is a major public health concern. Recent findings on the prevalence of food-borne antibiotic-resistant (ART) commensal bacteria in ready-to-consume food products suggested that daily food consumption likely serves as a major avenue for dissemination of ART bacteria from the food chain to human hosts. To properly assess the impact of various factors, including the food chain, on AR development in hosts, it is important to determine the baseline of ART bacteria in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We thus examined the gut microbiota of 16 infant subjects, from the newborn stage to 1 year of age, who fed on breast milk and/or infant formula during the early stages of development and had no prior exposure to antibiotics. Predominant bacterial populations resistant to several antibiotics and multiple resistance genes were found in the infant GI tracts within the first week of age. Several ART population transitions were also observed in the absence of antibiotic exposure and dietary changes. Representative AR gene pools including tet(M), ermB, sul2, and blaTEM were detected in infant subjects. Enterococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Streptococcus spp., and Escherichia coli/Shigella spp. were among the identified AR gene carriers. ART bacteria were not detected in the infant formula and infant foods examined, but small numbers of skin-associated ART bacteria were found in certain breast milk samples. The data suggest that the early development of AR in the human gut microbiota is independent of infants' exposure to antibiotics but is likely impacted by exposure to maternal and environmental microbes during and after delivery and that the ART population is significantly amplified within the host even in the absence of antibiotic selective pressure. PMID:21821748

  7. [Selection and spreading of antibiotic resistance in bacteria].

    PubMed

    Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Kolmos, Hans Jørn

    2011-11-07

    Use of an antibiotic may not only select for resistance against the agent itself, but may at the same time co-select for resistance against other antibiotics if resistance genes are linked on e.g. a plasmid. Resistance plasmids may also carry genes mediating resistance against metals and disinfectants. Therefore, abundant use of metals, e.g. copper and zinc for growth promotion in animals used for food, may also co-select for antibiotic resistance. The same applies to disinfectants, e.g. silver and chlorhexidine. Prudent use of antibiotics and these other agents is essential to control antibiotic resistance.

  8. Effects of temperature and antibiotics on persistence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes in poultry litter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of low, residual concentrations of antibiotics in manure and other environmental matrices is not well understood. It has been hypothesized that antibiotic concentrations below clinical MIC (minimal inhibitory concentrations) are still capable of selecting for resistance. The objective of ...

  9. Multiple complexes of long aliphatic N-acyltransferases lead to synthesis of 2,6-diacylated/2-acyl-substituted glycopeptide antibiotics, effectively killing vancomycin-resistant enterococcus.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Syue-Yi; Liu, Yu-Chen; Chang, Chin-Yuan; Huang, Chuen-Jiuan; Chiu, Ya-Huang; Huang, Chun-Man; Hsu, Ning-Shian; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Wu, Chang-Jer; Tsai, Ming-Daw; Li, Tsung-Lin

    2014-08-06

    Teicoplanin A2-2 (Tei)/A40926 is the last-line antibiotic to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections, e.g., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE). This class of antibiotics is powered by the N-acyltransferase (NAT) Orf11*/Dbv8 through N-acylation on glucosamine at the central residue of Tei/A40926 pseudoaglycone. The NAT enzyme possesses enormous value in untapped applications; its advanced development is hampered largely due to a lack of structural information. In this report, we present eight high-resolution X-ray crystallographic unary, binary, and ternary complexes in order to decipher the molecular basis for NAT's functionality. The enzyme undergoes a multistage conformational change upon binding of acyl-CoA, thus allowing the uploading of Tei pseudoaglycone to enable the acyl-transfer reaction to take place in the occlusion between the N- and C-halves of the protein. The acyl moiety of acyl-CoA can be bulky or lengthy, allowing a large extent of diversity in new derivatives that can be formed upon its transfer. Vancomycin/synthetic acyl-N-acetyl cysteamine was not expected to be able to serve as a surrogate for an acyl acceptor/donor, respectively. Most strikingly, NAT can catalyze formation of 2-N,6-O-diacylated or C6→C2 acyl-substituted Tei analogues through an unusual 1,4-migration mechanism under stoichiometric/solvational reaction control, wherein selected representatives showed excellent biological activities, effectively counteracting major types (VanABC) of VRE.

  10. 'Superbug' Resistant to All Antibiotics Killed Nevada Woman

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163038.html 'Superbug' Resistant to All Antibiotics Killed Nevada Woman She died after possibly ... in September from a "superbug" infection that resisted all antibiotics, according to a report released Friday. The ...

  11. Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Drinking Water Sources in Hangzhou City

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhaojun; Yu, Daojun; He, Songzhe; Ye, Hui; Zhang, Lei; Wen, Yanping; Zhang, Wenhui; Shu, Liping; Chen, Shuchang

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) and examined the possible relationship between water quality parameters and antibiotic resistance from two different drinking water sources (the Qiantang River and the Dongtiao Stream) in Hangzhou city of China. E. coli isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 18 antibiotics. Most of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline (TE), followed by ampicillin (AM), piperacillin (PIP), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT), and chloramphenicol (C). The antibiotic resistance rate of E. coli isolates from two water sources was similar; For E. coli isolates from the Qiantang River, their antibiotic resistance rates decreased from up- to downstream. Seasonally, the dry and wet season had little impact on antibiotic resistance. Spearman's rank correlation revealed significant correlation between resistance to TE and phenicols or ciprofloxacin (CIP), as well as quinolones (ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin) and cephalosporins or gentamicin (GM). Pearson's chi-square tests found certain water parameters such as nutrient concentration were strongly associated with resistance to some of the antibiotics. In addition, tet genes were detected from all 82 TE-resistant E. coli isolates, and most of the isolates (81.87%) contained multiple tet genes, which displayed 14 different combinations. Collectively, this study provided baseline data on antibiotic resistance of drinking water sources in Hangzhou city, which indicates drinking water sources could be the reservoir of antibiotic resistance, potentially presenting a public health risk. PMID:28670309

  12. Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Drinking Water Sources in Hangzhou City.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaojun; Yu, Daojun; He, Songzhe; Ye, Hui; Zhang, Lei; Wen, Yanping; Zhang, Wenhui; Shu, Liping; Chen, Shuchang

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) and examined the possible relationship between water quality parameters and antibiotic resistance from two different drinking water sources (the Qiantang River and the Dongtiao Stream) in Hangzhou city of China. E. coli isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 18 antibiotics. Most of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline (TE), followed by ampicillin (AM), piperacillin (PIP), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT), and chloramphenicol (C). The antibiotic resistance rate of E. coli isolates from two water sources was similar; For E. coli isolates from the Qiantang River, their antibiotic resistance rates decreased from up- to downstream. Seasonally, the dry and wet season had little impact on antibiotic resistance. Spearman's rank correlation revealed significant correlation between resistance to TE and phenicols or ciprofloxacin (CIP), as well as quinolones (ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin) and cephalosporins or gentamicin (GM). Pearson's chi-square tests found certain water parameters such as nutrient concentration were strongly associated with resistance to some of the antibiotics. In addition, tet genes were detected from all 82 TE-resistant E. coli isolates, and most of the isolates (81.87%) contained multiple tet genes, which displayed 14 different combinations. Collectively, this study provided baseline data on antibiotic resistance of drinking water sources in Hangzhou city, which indicates drinking water sources could be the reservoir of antibiotic resistance, potentially presenting a public health risk.

  13. Occurrence of antibiotic resistance and characterization of resistant genes and integrons in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from integrated fish farms south China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Su, Hao-Chang; Ying, Guang-Guo; Tao, Ran; Zhang, Rui-Quan; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotics are still widely applied in animal husbandry to prevent diseases and used as feed additives to promote animal growth. This could result in antibiotic resistance to bacteria and antibiotic residues in animals. In this paper, Enterobacteriaceae isolated from four integrated fish farms in Zhongshan, South China were tested for antibiotic resistance, tetracycline resistance genes, sulfonamide resistance genes, and class 1 integrons. The Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were carried out to test antibiotic susceptibility and resistance genes, respectively. Relatively high antibiotic resistance frequencies were found, especially for ampicillin (80%), tetracycline (52%), and trimethoprim (50%). Out of 203 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 98.5% were resistant to one or more antibiotics tested. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) was found highest in animal manures with a MAR index of 0.56. Tetracycline resistance genes (tet(A), tet(C)) and sulfonamide resistance genes (sul2) were detected in more than 50% of the isolates. The intI1 gene was found in 170 isolates (83.7%). Both classic and non-classic class 1 integrons were found. Four genes, aadA5, aadA22, dfr2, and dfrA17, were detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report for molecular characterization of antibiotic resistance genes in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from integrated fish farms in China and the first time that gene cassette array dfrA17-aadA5 has been detected in such fish farms. Results of this study indicated that fish farms may be a reservoir of highly diverse and abundant antibiotic resistant genes and gene cassettes. Integrons may play a key role in multiple antibiotic resistances posing potential health risks to the general public and aquaculture.

  14. Ecology and evolution of antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Baquero, F; Alvarez-Ortega, C; Martinez, J L

    2009-12-01

    The evolution of bacterial pathogens towards antibiotic resistance is not just a relevant problem for human health, but a fascinating example of evolution that can be studied in real time as well. Although most antibiotics are natural compounds produced by environmental microbiota, exposure of bacterial populations to high concentrations of these compounds as the consequence of their introduction for human therapy (and later on for farming) a few decades ago is a very recent situation in evolutionary terms. Resistance genes are originated in environmental bacteria, where they have evolved for millions of years to play different functions that include detoxification, signal trafficking or metabolic functions among others. However, as the consequence of the strong selective pressure exerted by antimicrobials at clinical settings, farms and antibiotic-contaminated natural ecosystems, the selective forces driving the evolution of these potential resistance determinants have changed in the last few decades. Natural ecosystems contain a large number of potential resistance genes; nevertheless, just a few of them are currently present in gene-transfer units and disseminated among pathogens. Along the review, the processes implied in this situation and the consequences for the future evolution of resistance and the environmental microbiota are discussed.

  15. Antibiotic resistance breakers: can repurposed drugs fill the antibiotic discovery void?

    PubMed

    Brown, David

    2015-12-01

    Concern over antibiotic resistance is growing, and new classes of antibiotics, particularly against Gram-negative bacteria, are needed. However, even if the scientific hurdles can be overcome, it could take decades for sufficient numbers of such antibiotics to become available. As an interim solution, antibiotic resistance could be 'broken' by co-administering appropriate non-antibiotic drugs with failing antibiotics. Several marketed drugs that do not currently have antibacterial indications can either directly kill bacteria, reduce the antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration when used in combination with existing antibiotics and/or modulate host defence through effects on host innate immunity, in particular by altering inflammation and autophagy. This article discusses how such 'antibiotic resistance breakers' could contribute to reducing the antibiotic resistance problem, and analyses a priority list of candidates for further investigation.

  16. Persistence of Antibiotic Resistance Plasmids in Biofilms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    TERMS Antibiotic resistance, plasmid, biofilm, coevolution , bacteria, wound infections. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...suitable  candidate   for  plasmid  persistence  tests  in  biofilms  and  for   coevolution  experiments.   Plasmid   pB10...under   antibiotic  selection.   Coevolution  experiment:  methods   Prior  to  commencing  the  evolution  experiments,  we

  17. Chemical Countermeasures for Antibiotic Resistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    focusing on Pseudomonas aeruginosa , methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and MDR Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB); 2) re-sensitize MDR...sensitive S. aureus, A. baumannii and Escherichia coli, and discovered that this class of small molecules was microbicidal primarily against Gram...GRC New Antibacterial Discover and Development, Lucca Italy, April 15-20, 2012. Abstracts: ICAAC, San Francisco, Sep 9-12, 2012, submitted 15

  18. Risk factors for antibiotic-resistant E. coli in children in a rural area.

    PubMed

    Seidman, J C; Anitha K, P; Kanungo, R; Bourgeois, A L; Coles, C L

    2009-06-01

    We surveyed antimicrobial susceptibility in faecal Escherichia coli in primary schoolchildren in rural Tamil Nadu, India. Resistance profiles of E. coli samples from local water sources were also obtained. We investigated sociodemographic characteristics as risk factors for resistance and local paediatric prescription patterns. In 119 stool samples, carriage of resistance to 1 antibiotic was 63% and multiple drug resistance was 32%. Resistance outcomes were associated with school of attendance, having a sibling attend the same school, younger age, and less crowded households. Eight of nine water samples were resistant to > or =1 antibiotic. Recent history of medication use was not associated with resistance carriage. Resistance patterns may have been influenced by local paediatric prescription patterns and veterinary antibiotic use. Frequent, low-cost surveillance of commensal resistance can guide development of locally appropriate treatment guidelines. School-based hygiene programmes should be considered as means of limiting the spread of antibiotic resistance.

  19. [The international surveillance of antibiotics resistance].

    PubMed

    Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2011-11-07

    The growth promoter story in the 1990 s increased the focus on antibiotic misuse and related resistance. A Danish EU conference, The Microbial Threat, in 1998 resulted in The Copenhagen Recommendations, on the basic principles for a policy to contain resistance, which was transformed into EU recommendations in 2001. Following this a range of programs on monitoring of resistance and consumption, research, national campaigns etc. has been accomplished. The US, Canada and Australia have also upgraded their efforts in this area, while the WHO lacks resources to approach the countries in the rest of the world, in which these problems are the worst.

  20. Mechanisms of bacterial resistance to macrolide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yoshinori

    1999-06-01

    Macrolides have been used in the treatment of infectious diseases since the late 1950s. Since that time, a finding of antagonistic action between erythromycin and spiramycin in clinical isolates1 led to evidence of the biochemical mechanism and to the current understanding of inducible or constitutive resistance to macrolides mediated by erm genes containing, respectively, the functional regulation mechanism or constitutively mutated regulatory region. These resistant mechanisms to macrolides are recognized in clinically isolated bacteria. (1) A methylase encoded by the erm gene can transform an adenine residue at 2058 (Escherichia coli equivalent) position of 23S rRNA into an 6N, 6N-dimethyladenine. Position 2058 is known to reside either in peptidyltransferase or in the vicinity of the enzyme region of domain V. Dimethylation renders the ribosome resistant to macrolides (MLS). Moreover, another finding adduced as evidence is that a mutation in the domain plays an important role in MLS resistance: one of several mutations (transition and transversion) such as A2058G, A2058C or U, and A2059G, is usually associated with MLS resistance in a few genera of bacteria. (2) M (macrolide antibiotics)- and MS (macrolide and streptogramin type B antibiotics)- or PMS (partial macrolide and streptogramin type B antibiotics)-phenotype resistant bacteria cause decreased accumulation of macrolides, occasionally including streptogramin type B antibiotics. The decreased accumulation, probably via enhanced efflux, is usually inferred from two findings: (i) the extent of the accumulated drug in a resistant cell increases as much as that in a susceptible cell in the presence of an uncoupling agent such as carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), and arsenate; (ii) transporter proteins, in M-type resistants, have mutual similarity to the 12-transmembrane domain present in efflux protein driven by proton-motive force, and in MS- or PMS-type resistants

  1. Fate of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Genes during Wastewater Chlorination: Implication for Antibiotic Resistance Control

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Qing-Bin; Guo, Mei-Ting; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated fates of nine antibiotic-resistant bacteria as well as two series of antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater treated by various doses of chlorine (0, 15, 30, 60, 150 and 300 mg Cl2 min/L). The results indicated that chlorination was effective in inactivating antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Most bacteria were inactivated completely at the lowest dose (15 mg Cl2 min/L). By comparison, sulfadiazine- and erythromycin-resistant bacteria exhibited tolerance to low chlorine dose (up to 60 mg Cl2 min/L). However, quantitative real-time PCRs revealed that chlorination decreased limited erythromycin or tetracycline resistance genes, with the removal levels of overall erythromycin and tetracycline resistance genes at 0.42 ± 0.12 log and 0.10 ± 0.02 log, respectively. About 40% of erythromycin-resistance genes and 80% of tetracycline resistance genes could not be removed by chlorination. Chlorination was considered not effective in controlling antimicrobial resistance. More concern needs to be paid to the potential risk of antibiotic resistance genes in the wastewater after chlorination. PMID:25738838

  2. Fate of antibiotic resistant bacteria and genes during wastewater chlorination: implication for antibiotic resistance control.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qing-Bin; Guo, Mei-Ting; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated fates of nine antibiotic-resistant bacteria as well as two series of antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater treated by various doses of chlorine (0, 15, 30, 60, 150 and 300 mg Cl2 min/L). The results indicated that chlorination was effective in inactivating antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Most bacteria were inactivated completely at the lowest dose (15 mg Cl2 min/L). By comparison, sulfadiazine- and erythromycin-resistant bacteria exhibited tolerance to low chlorine dose (up to 60 mg Cl2 min/L). However, quantitative real-time PCRs revealed that chlorination decreased limited erythromycin or tetracycline resistance genes, with the removal levels of overall erythromycin and tetracycline resistance genes at 0.42 ± 0.12 log and 0.10 ± 0.02 log, respectively. About 40% of erythromycin-resistance genes and 80% of tetracycline resistance genes could not be removed by chlorination. Chlorination was considered not effective in controlling antimicrobial resistance. More concern needs to be paid to the potential risk of antibiotic resistance genes in the wastewater after chlorination.

  3. Antibiotic resistance: from Darwin to Lederberg to Keynes.

    PubMed

    Amábile-Cuevas, Carlos F

    2013-04-01

    The emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria reflects both, a gradual, completely Darwinian evolution, which mostly yields slight decreases in antibiotic susceptibility, along with phenotypes that are not precisely characterized as "resistance"; and sudden changes, from full susceptibility to full resistance, which are driven by a vast array of horizontal gene transfer mechanisms. Antibiotics select for more than just antibiotic resistance (i.e., increased virulence and enhanced gene exchange abilities); and many non-antibiotic agents or conditions select for or maintain antibiotic resistance traits as a result of a complex network of underlying and often overlapping mechanisms. Thus, the development of new antibiotics and thoughtful, integrated anti-infective strategies is needed to address the immediate and long-term threat of antibiotic resistance. Since the biology of resistance is complex, these new drugs and strategies will not come from free-market forces, or from "incentives" for pharmaceutical companies.

  4. Prevalence and characterization of antibiotic resistant Enterococcus faecalis in French cheeses.

    PubMed

    Jamet, Emmanuel; Akary, Elodie; Poisson, Marie-Ange; Chamba, Jean-François; Bertrand, Xavier; Serror, Pascale

    2012-09-01

    Prevalence of enterococci and antibiotic resistance profiles of Enterococcus faecalis was analyzed in 126 French cheeses from retail stores. Forty-four percent of pasteurized or thermised-milk cheeses, and up to 92% of raw-milk cheeses contained detectable enterococci. A total of 337 antibiotic resistant enterococci were isolated in 29% and 60% of pasteurized-milk and raw-milk cheeses, respectively. E. faecalis was the predominant antibiotic resistant species recovered (81%), followed by Enterococcus faecium (13%), and Enterococcus durans (6%). The most prevalent antibiotic resistances were tetracycline (Tet) and minocycline (Min), followed by erythromycin (Ery), kanamycin (Kan) and chloramphenicol (Cm). The most common multiple antibiotic resistance phenotype was Cm Ery Kan Min Tet. The occurrence of antibiotic genes, as searched by PCR, was 100 % for aph3'IIIa, 96 % for ermB, 90 % for tetM and 80 % for catA in isolates resistant to Kan, Ery, Tet or Cm, respectively. MLST analysis of 30 multidrug resistant E. faecalis revealed that ST19, CC21, CC25 and CC55 isolates were the most common in cheeses. In conclusion, as in many other European countries, French cheeses do contain enterococci with multiple antibiotics resistances. However, low occurrence of high-level gentamicin resistant or sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim-resistant enterococci and absence of vancomycin- or ampicillin- resistant enterococci indicate that cheeses cannot be considered as a major reservoir for nosocomial multi-drug resistant enterococci. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of urban contamination of the La Paz River basin on thermotolerant coliform density and occurrence of multiple antibiotic resistant enteric pathogens in river water, irrigated soil and fresh vegetables.

    PubMed

    Poma, Violeta; Mamani, Nataniel; Iñiguez, Volga

    2016-01-01

    La Paz River in Andean highlands is heavily polluted with urban run-off and further contaminates agricultural lowlands and downstream waters at the Amazon watershed. Agricultural produce at this region is the main source of vegetables for the major Andean cities of La Paz and El Alto. We conducted a 1 year study, to evaluate microbial quality parameters and occurrence of multiple enteropathogenic bacteria (Enterohemorrhagic E. coli-EHEC, Enteroinvasive E. coli or Shigella-EIEC/Shigella, Enteroaggregative E. coli-EAEC, Enteropathogenic E. coli-EPEC Enterotoxigenic E. coli-ETEC and Salmonella) and its resistance to 11 antibiotics. Four sampling locations were selected: a fresh mountain water reservoir (un-impacted, site 1) and downstream sites receiving wastewater discharges (impacted, sites 2-4). River water (sites 1-4, N = 48), and soil and vegetable samples (site 3, N = 24) were collected during dry (April-September) and rainy seasons (October-March). Throughout the study, thermotolerant coliform density values at impacted sites greatly exceeded the guidelines for recreational and agricultural water uses. Seasonal differences were found for thermotolerant coliform density during dry season in water samples nearby a populated and hospital compound area. In contrast to the un-impacted site, where none of the tested enteropathogens were found, 100 % of surface water, 83 % of soil and 67 % of vegetable samples at impacted sites, were contaminated with at least one enteropathogen, being ETEC and Salmonella the most frequently found. ETEC isolates displayed different patterns of toxin genes among sites. The occurrence of enteropathogens was associated with the thermotolerant coliform density. At impacted sites, multiple enteropathogens were frequently found during rainy season. Among isolated enteropathogens, 50 % were resistant to at least two antibiotics, with resistance to ampicillin, nalidixic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline commonly

  6. Antibiotic resistance genes & susceptibility patterns in staphylococci

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Nizami; Ozer, Burcin; Duran, Gulay Gulbol; Onlen, Yusuf; Demir, Cemil

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: This study was carried out to evaluate the association between the antibiotic susceptibility patterns and the antibiotic resistance genes in staphylococcal isolates obtained from various clinical samples of patients attending a teaching hospital in Hatay, Turkey. Methods: A total of 298 staphylococci clinical isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The genes implicated in resistance to oxacillin (mecA), gentamicin (aac(6’)/aph(2”), aph(3’-IIIa, ant(4’)-Ia), erythromycin (ermA, ermB, ermC, and msrA), tetracyclin (tetK, tetM), and penicillin (blaZ) were amplified using multiplex PCR method. Results: Methicillin resistance rate among 139 Staphlococcus aureus isolates was 16.5 and 25.9 per cent of S. aureus carried mecA gene. Of the 159 CoNS isolates, methicillin resistance rate was 18.9 and 29.6 per cent carried mecA gene. Ninety four isolates identified as gentamicin resistant phenotypically, contained at least one of the gentamicin resistance genes [aac(6’)/aph(2”), aph(3’)-IIIa, ant(4’)-Ia], 17 gentamicin-susceptible isolates were found as positive in terms of one or more resistance genes [aac(6’)/aph(2”), aph(3’)-IIIa, ant(4’)-Ia] by multiplex PCR. A total of 165 isolates were resistant to erythromycin, and contained at least one of the erythromycin resistance genes (ermA, ermB, ermC and msrA). Phenotypically, 106 staphylococcal isolates were resistant to tetracycline, 121 isolates carried either tetK or tetM or both resistance genes. The majority of staphylococci tested possessed the blaZ gene (89.9%). Interpretation & conclusions: The present results showed that the phenotypic antibiotic susceptibility patterns were not similar to those obtained by genotyping done by multiplex PCR. Rapid and reliable methods for antibiotic susceptibility are important to determine the appropriate therapy decisions. Multiplex PCR can be used for confirmation of the results obtained by conventional

  7. Assessment of antibiotic resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae exposed to sequential in vitro antibiotic treatments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongjin; Jo, Ara; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Ahn, Juhee

    2016-12-09

    -CIP. Compared to the absence of phenylalanine-arginine-β-naphthylamide (PAβN), the fluorescence intensity of EtBr was increased in K. pneumoniae cells treated at the CON, CON-CIP, and CON-MER in the presence of PAβN. However, the efflux pump activity remained in K. pneumoniae cells treated at the 1/CIP, 1/CIP-CIP, and 1/CIP-MER in the presence of PAβN. The results suggest that the pre-exposed antibiotic history, treatment order, and concentrations influenced the development of multiple antibiotic resistant associated with β-lactamase and efflux pump activities. This study highlights the importance of antibiotic treatment conditions, which would be taken into consideration when new antibiotic strategy is designed to prevent antibiotic resistance.

  8. [The roles of epigenetics and protein post-translational modifications in bacterial antibiotic resistance].

    PubMed

    Xie, Longxiang; Yu, Zhaoxiao; Guo, Siyao; Li, Ping; Abdalla, Abualgasim Elgaili; Xie, Jianping

    2015-08-01

    The increasing antibiotic resistance is now threatening to take us back to a pre-antibiotic era. Bacteria have evolved diverse resistance mechanisms, on which in-depth research could help the development of new strategies to control antibiotic-resistant infections. Epigenetic alterations and protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) play important roles in multiple cellular processes such as metabolism, signal transduction, protein degradation, DNA replication regulation and stress response. Recent studies demonstrated that epigenetics and PTMs also play vital roles in bacterial antibiotic resistance. In this review, we summarize the regulatory roles of epigenetic factors including DNA methylation and regulatory RNAs as well as PTMs such as phosphorylation and succinylation in bacterial antibiotic resistance, which may provide innovative perspectives on selecting antibacterial targets and developing antibiotics.

  9. Clinical impact of antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive pathogens.

    PubMed

    Lode, H M

    2009-03-01

    The European Union's attention to the problem of antibacterial resistance will soon reach a 10-year mark, but the rates of resistance in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria are still increasing. This review focuses on the clinical impact of resistant Gram-positive bacteria on patients. Multiple drug resistance in pneumococcal infections will lead to more treatment failures and higher mortality, which so far have been seen with penicillins and pathogens with high-level resistance. Several studies have demonstrated higher mortality, prolonged length of hospital stay and higher costs associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections, in comparison with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus infections. Similarly, vancomycin-resistant enterococci bloodstream infections have a negative impact with respect to mortality, length of hospital stay and costs, in comparison with infections due to vancomycin-susceptible enterococci. Several distinctive prophylactic and therapeutic approaches have to be undertaken to successfully prevent the clinical consequences of antibiotic resistance in Gram-positive bacteria. This review addresses the impact of antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive pathogens on clinical outcomes.

  10. Antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter: emergence, transmission and persistence

    PubMed Central

    Luangtongkum, Taradon; Jeon, Byeonghwa; Han, Jing; Plummer, Paul; Logue, Catherine M; Zhang, Qijing

    2009-01-01

    Campylobacter is a leading foodborne bacterial pathogen, which causes gastroenteritis in humans. This pathogenic organism is increasingly resistant to antibiotics, especially fluoroquinolones and macrolides, which are the most frequently used antimicrobials for the treatment of campylobacteriosis when clinical therapy is warranted. As a zoonotic pathogen, Campylobacter has a broad animal reservoir and infects humans via contaminated food, water or milk. Antibiotic usage in both animal agriculture and human medicine, can influence the development of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter. This review will describe the trend in fluoroquinolone and macrolide resistance in Campylobacter, summarize the mechanisms underlying the resistance to various antibiotics and discuss the unique features associated with the emergence, transmission and persistence of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter. Special attention will be given to recent findings and emphasis will be placed on Campylobacter resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides. A future perspective on antibiotic resistance and potential approaches for the control of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter, will also be discussed. PMID:19257846

  11. Genomics and the evolution of antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Gillings, Michael R; Paulsen, Ian T; Tetu, Sasha G

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance arises as a consequence of complex interactions among genes, mobile elements, and their bacterial hosts, coupled with the intense selection pressures imposed by humans in an attempt to control bacterial growth. Understanding the evolution of resistance requires an understanding of interacting cellular and genetic components. Here, we review how DNA analysis has helped reconstruct the origins of the mosaic, multiresistant mobile elements that have spread through pathogens in the last 60 years. This history helps inform the future, such that resistance might be better managed. Whole-genome sequencing has great potential for epidemiological tracking and for understanding the development of resistance via experimental evolution. DNA analysis also offers the opportunity for constructing databases that record genes of interest, the mobile elements that move these genes, and the cells or species that acquire such genes. Linking these DNA elements to their human and animal hosts and to the environments where they occur should help us establish a more robust ecological and evolutionary framework for controlling and managing resistance. Such efforts need to be well coordinated because, like many other issues that face humanity, antibiotic resistance is a global problem that requires global solutions. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Assessment of Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance Transfer in the Gut

    PubMed Central

    Schjørring, Susanne; Krogfelt, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed horizontal gene transfer between bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. During the last decades, the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains and treatment failures of bacterial infections have increased the public awareness of antibiotic usage. The use of broad spectrum antibiotics creates a selective pressure on the bacterial flora, thus increasing the emergence of multiresistant bacteria, which results in a vicious circle of treatments and emergence of new antibiotic resistant bacteria. The human gastrointestinal tract is a massive reservoir of bacteria with a potential for both receiving and transferring antibiotic resistance genes. The increased use of fermented food products and probiotics, as food supplements and health promoting products containing massive amounts of bacteria acting as either donors and/or recipients of antibiotic resistance genes in the human GI tract, also contributes to the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains. This paper deals with the assessment of antibiotic resistance gene transfer occurring in the gut. PMID:21318188

  13. Adaptive modulation of antibiotic resistance through intragenomic coevolution.

    PubMed

    Bottery, Michael J; Wood, A Jamie; Brockhurst, Michael A

    2017-09-01

    Bacteria gain antibiotic resistance genes by horizontal acquisition of mobile genetic elements (MGE) from other lineages. Newly acquired MGEs are often poorly adapted causing intragenomic conflicts, resolved by compensatory adaptation of the chromosome, the MGE or reciprocal coadaptation. The footprints of such intragenomic coevolution are present in bacterial genomes, suggesting an important role promoting genomic integration of horizontally acquired genes, but direct experimental evidence of the process is limited. Here we show adaptive modulation of tetracycline resistance via intragenomic coevolution between Escherichia coli and the multi-drug resistant (MDR) plasmid RK2. Tetracycline treatments, including monotherapy or combination therapies with ampicillin, favoured de novo chromosomal resistance mutations coupled with mutations on RK2 impairing the plasmid-encoded tetracycline efflux-pump. These mutations together provided increased tetracycline resistance at reduced cost. Additionally, the chromosomal resistance mutations conferred cross-resistance to chloramphenicol. Reciprocal coadaptation was not observed under ampicillin-only or no antibiotic selection. Intragenomic coevolution can create genomes comprised of multiple replicons that together provide high-level, low-cost resistance, but the resulting co-dependence may limit the spread of coadapted MGEs to other lineages.

  14. Antibiotic treatment and resistance in chronic wounds of vascular origin

    PubMed Central

    TZANEVA, VALENTINA; MLADENOVA, IRENA; TODOROVA, GALINA; PETKOV, DIMITAR

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim The problem of antibiotic resistance is worldwide and affects many types of pathogens. This phenomenon has been growing for decades and nowadays we are faced with a wide range of worrisome pathogens that are becoming resistant and many pathogens that may soon be untreatable. The aim of this study was to determine the resistance and antibiotic treatment in chronic wounds of vascular origin. Methods We performed a cross sectional study on a sample of patients with chronic vascular wounds, hospitalized between October 2014 and August 2015, in the Clinic of Vascular Surgery in Trakia Hospital Stara Zagora. The statistical analysis of data was descriptive, considering the p value of ≤0.05, the threshold of statistical significance. Results In the group of 110 patients, the significantly most frequent chronic wound (p<0.001) was peripheral arteriopathy (47.3%, CI95%: 38.19–56.54). Among 159 strains, 30% of patients having multiple etiology, the species most frequently isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, E.coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis with a significant predominance (p<0.05) of the Gram negative (55.1%). The spectrum of strains resistance included the Beta-lactams (36.4%, p<0.001), Macrolides (20%), Tetracyclines (9.1%), Aminoglycosides (8.2%) and Fluoroquinolones (4.5%). Conclusions Gram negative microorganisms were the main isolates in patients with vascular chronic wound. Significantly predominant was the resistance to the beta-lactam antibiotics. PMID:27547055

  15. Bacteriophage biosensors for antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sorokulova, Irina; Olsen, Eric; Vodyanoy, Vitaly

    2014-03-01

    An increasing number of disease-causing bacteria are resistant to one or more anti-bacterial drugs utilized for therapy. Early and speedy detection of these pathogens is therefore very important. Traditional pathogen detection techniques, that include microbiological and biochemical assays are long and labor-intensive, while antibody or DNA-based methods require substantial sample preparation and purification. Biosensors based on bacteriophages have demonstrated remarkable potential to surmount these restrictions and to offer rapid, efficient and sensitive detection technique for antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

  16. Biofilm-specific antibiotic tolerance and resistance.

    PubMed

    Olsen, I

    2015-05-01

    Biofilms are heterogeneous structures composed of bacterial cells surrounded by a matrix and attached to solid surfaces. The bacteria here are 100 to 1,000 times more tolerant to antimicrobials than corresponding planktonic cells. Biofilms can be difficult to eradicate when they cause biofilm-related diseases, e.g., implant infections, cystic fibrosis, urinary tract infections, and periodontal diseases. A number of phenotypic features of the biofilm can be involved in biofilm-specific tolerance and resistance. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved. The current review deals with both phenotypic and molecular mechanisms of biofilm-specific antibiotic tolerance and resistance.

  17. Association between clinical antibiotic resistance and susceptibility of Pseudomonas in the cystic fibrosis lung

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Gunther; Mahrt, Niels; Tueffers, Leif; Barbosa, Camilo; Harjes, Malte; Adolph, Gernot; Friedrichs, Anette; Krenz-Weinreich, Annegret; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schulenburg, Hinrich

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Cystic fibrosis patients suffer from chronic lung infections that require long-term antibiotic therapy. Pseudomonas readily evolve resistance, rendering antibiotics ineffective. In vitro experiments suggest that resistant bacteria may be treated by exploiting their collateral sensitivity to other antibiotics. Here, we investigate correlations of sensitivity and resistance profiles of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that naturally adapted to antibiotics in the cystic fibrosis lung. Methodology: Resistance profiles for 13 antibiotics were obtained using broth dilution, E-test and VITEK mass spectroscopy. Genetic variants were determined from whole-genome sequences and interrelationships among isolates were analyzed using 13 MLST loci. Result: Our study focused on 45 isolates from 13 patients under documented treatment with antibiotics. Forty percent of these were clinically resistant and 15% multi-drug resistant. Colistin resistance was found once, despite continuous colistin treatment and even though colistin resistance can readily evolve experimentally in the laboratory. Patients typically harbored multiple genetically and phenotypically distinct clones. However, genetically similar clones often had dissimilar resistance profiles. Isolates showed mutations in genes encoding cell wall synthesis, alginate production, efflux pumps and antibiotic modifying enzymes. Cross-resistance was commonly observed within antibiotic classes and between aminoglycosides and β-lactam antibiotics. No evidence was found for consistent phenotypic resistance to one antibiotic and sensitivity to another within one genotype. Conclusions and implications: Evidence supporting potential collateral sensitivity in clinical P. aeruginosa isolates remains equivocal. However, cross-resistance within antibiotic classes is common. Colistin therapy is promising since resistance to it was rare despite its intensive use in the studied patients. PMID:27193199

  18. Populations of antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria change rapidly in a wastewater effluent dominated stream.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Tatsuya; Savin, Mary C

    2010-11-15

    Incomplete elimination of bacteria and pharmaceutical drugs during wastewater treatment results in the entry of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria into receiving streams with effluent inputs. In Mud Creek in Fayetteville, AR, ofloxacin, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole have been detected in water and sediment, and tetracycline has been detected in sediment downstream of treated effluent input. These antibiotics have been measured repeatedly, but at low concentrations (<1μg/L) in the stream. To determine if effluent input results in detectable and stable changes in antibiotic resistances downstream of effluent input, antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli and total coliform bacteria in Mud Creek stream water and sediment were determined using a culture-based method. Isolated E. coli colonies were characterized for multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) patterns on solid media and to evaluate E. coli isolate richness by amplification of a partial uidA gene followed by denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Despite temporal variability, proportions of antibiotic-resistant E. coli were generally high in effluent and 640m downstream. The MAR pattern ampicillin-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was associated with a DGGE profile that was detected in effluent and downstream E. coli isolates, but not upstream. Percent resistance among coliform bacteria to trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole was higher 640m downstream compared to upstream sediment and water (with one exception). Resistance to ofloxacin was too low to analyze statistically and tetracycline resistance was fairly constant across sites. Resistances changed from 640m to 2000m downstream, although dissolved nutrient concentrations within that stream stretch resembled effluent. Antibiotic resistant bacteria are entering the stream, but resistances change within a short distance of effluent inputs, more quickly than indicated based on chemical water properties. Results illustrate the difficulty in

  19. Antibiotic Restriction Might Facilitate the Emergence of Multi-drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Obolski, Uri; Stein, Gideon Y; Hadany, Lilach

    2015-06-01

    High antibiotic resistance frequencies have become a major public health issue. The decrease in new antibiotics' production, combined with increasing frequencies of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria, cause substantial limitations in treatment options for some bacterial infections. To diminish overall resistance, and especially the occurrence of bacteria that are resistant to all antibiotics, certain drugs are deliberately scarcely used--mainly when other options are exhausted. We use a mathematical model to explore the efficiency of such antibiotic restrictions. We assume two commonly used drugs and one restricted drug. The model is examined for the mixing strategy of antibiotic prescription, in which one of the drugs is randomly assigned to each incoming patient. Data obtained from Rabin medical center, Israel, is used to estimate realistic single and double antibiotic resistance frequencies in incoming patients. We find that broad usage of the hitherto restricted drug can reduce the number of incorrectly treated patients, and reduce the spread of bacteria resistant to both common antibiotics. Such double resistant infections are often eventually treated with the restricted drug, and therefore are prone to become resistant to all three antibiotics. Thus, counterintuitively, a broader usage of a formerly restricted drug can sometimes lead to a decrease in the emergence of bacteria resistant to all drugs. We recommend re-examining restriction of specific drugs, when multiple resistance to the relevant alternative drugs already exists.

  20. Antibiotic Restriction Might Facilitate the Emergence of Multi-drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Obolski, Uri; Stein, Gideon Y.; Hadany, Lilach

    2015-01-01

    High antibiotic resistance frequencies have become a major public health issue. The decrease in new antibiotics' production, combined with increasing frequencies of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria, cause substantial limitations in treatment options for some bacterial infections. To diminish overall resistance, and especially the occurrence of bacteria that are resistant to all antibiotics, certain drugs are deliberately scarcely used—mainly when other options are exhausted. We use a mathematical model to explore the efficiency of such antibiotic restrictions. We assume two commonly used drugs and one restricted drug. The model is examined for the mixing strategy of antibiotic prescription, in which one of the drugs is randomly assigned to each incoming patient. Data obtained from Rabin medical center, Israel, is used to estimate realistic single and double antibiotic resistance frequencies in incoming patients. We find that broad usage of the hitherto restricted drug can reduce the number of incorrectly treated patients, and reduce the spread of bacteria resistant to both common antibiotics. Such double resistant infections are often eventually treated with the restricted drug, and therefore are prone to become resistant to all three antibiotics. Thus, counterintuitively, a broader usage of a formerly restricted drug can sometimes lead to a decrease in the emergence of bacteria resistant to all drugs. We recommend re-examining restriction of specific drugs, when multiple resistance to the relevant alternative drugs already exists. PMID:26110266

  1. Fate and transport of veterinary antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and antibiotic resistance gene from fields receiving poultry manure during storm events

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antimicrobials are used in production agriculture to treat disease and promote animal growth, but the presence of antibiotics in the environment raises concern about widespread antibiotic resistance. This study documents the occurrence and transport of tylosin, tetracycline, enterococci resistant to...

  2. Cooperative Antibiotic Resistance in a Multi-Drug Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurtsev, Eugene; Dai, Lei; Gore, Jeff

    2013-03-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a significant health concern. A frequent mechanism of antibiotic resistance involves the production of an enzyme which inactivates the antibiotic. By inactivating the antibiotic, resistant cells can ``share'' their resistance with other cells in the bacterial population, suggesting that it may be possible to observe cooperation between strains that inactivate different antibiotics. Here, we experimentally track the population dynamics of two E. coli strains in the presence of two different antibiotics. We find that together the strains are able to grow in antibiotic concentrations that inhibit growth of either of the strains individually. We observe that even when there is stable coexistence between the two strains, the population size of each strain can undergo large oscillations. We expect that our results will provide insight into the evolution of antibiotic resistance and the evolutionary origin of phenotypic diversity and cooperative behaviors.

  3. Clusters of antibiotic resistance genes enriched together stay together in swine agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Timothy A.; Stedtfeld, Robert D.; Wang, Qiong; Cole, James R.; Hashsham, Syed A.; Looft, Torey; Zhu, Yong -Guan; Tiedje, James M.

    2016-04-12

    Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide health risk, but the influence of animal agriculture on the genetic context and enrichment of individual antibiotic resistance alleles remains unclear. Using quantitative PCR followed by amplicon sequencing, we quantified and sequenced 44 genes related to antibiotic resistance, mobile genetic elements, and bacterial phylogeny in microbiomes from U.S. laboratory swine and from swine farms from three Chinese regions. We identified highly abundant resistance clusters: groups of resistance and mobile genetic element alleles that cooccur. For example, the abundance of genes conferring resistance to six classes of antibiotics together with class 1 integrase and the abundance of IS6100-type transposons in three Chinese regions are directly correlated. These resistance cluster genes likely colocalize in microbial genomes in the farms. Resistance cluster alleles were dramatically enriched (up to 1 to 10% as abundant as 16S rRNA) and indicate that multidrug-resistant bacteria are likely the norm rather than an exception in these communities. This enrichment largely occurred independently of phylogenetic composition; thus, resistance clusters are likely present in many bacterial taxa. Furthermore, resistance clusters contain resistance genes that confer resistance to antibiotics independently of their particular use on the farms. Selection for these clusters is likely due to the use of only a subset of the broad range of chemicals to which the clusters confer resistance. The scale of animal agriculture and its wastes, the enrichment and horizontal gene transfer potential of the clusters, and the vicinity of large human populations suggest that managing this resistance reservoir is important for minimizing human risk.Agricultural antibiotic use results in clusters of cooccurring resistance genes that together confer resistance to multiple antibiotics. The use of a single antibiotic could select for an entire suite of

  4. Clusters of antibiotic resistance genes enriched together stay together in swine agriculture

    DOE PAGES

    Johnson, Timothy A.; Stedtfeld, Robert D.; Wang, Qiong; ...

    2016-04-12

    Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide health risk, but the influence of animal agriculture on the genetic context and enrichment of individual antibiotic resistance alleles remains unclear. Using quantitative PCR followed by amplicon sequencing, we quantified and sequenced 44 genes related to antibiotic resistance, mobile genetic elements, and bacterial phylogeny in microbiomes from U.S. laboratory swine and from swine farms from three Chinese regions. We identified highly abundant resistance clusters: groups of resistance and mobile genetic element alleles that cooccur. For example, the abundance of genes conferring resistance to six classes of antibiotics together with class 1 integrase and the abundancemore » of IS6100-type transposons in three Chinese regions are directly correlated. These resistance cluster genes likely colocalize in microbial genomes in the farms. Resistance cluster alleles were dramatically enriched (up to 1 to 10% as abundant as 16S rRNA) and indicate that multidrug-resistant bacteria are likely the norm rather than an exception in these communities. This enrichment largely occurred independently of phylogenetic composition; thus, resistance clusters are likely present in many bacterial taxa. Furthermore, resistance clusters contain resistance genes that confer resistance to antibiotics independently of their particular use on the farms. Selection for these clusters is likely due to the use of only a subset of the broad range of chemicals to which the clusters confer resistance. The scale of animal agriculture and its wastes, the enrichment and horizontal gene transfer potential of the clusters, and the vicinity of large human populations suggest that managing this resistance reservoir is important for minimizing human risk.Agricultural antibiotic use results in clusters of cooccurring resistance genes that together confer resistance to multiple antibiotics. The use of a single antibiotic could select for an entire suite of resistance

  5. Clusters of Antibiotic Resistance Genes Enriched Together Stay Together in Swine Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Timothy A; Stedtfeld, Robert D; Wang, Qiong; Cole, James R; Hashsham, Syed A; Looft, Torey; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Tiedje, James M

    2016-04-12

    Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide health risk, but the influence of animal agriculture on the genetic context and enrichment of individual antibiotic resistance alleles remains unclear. Using quantitative PCR followed by amplicon sequencing, we quantified and sequenced 44 genes related to antibiotic resistance, mobile genetic elements, and bacterial phylogeny in microbiomes from U.S. laboratory swine and from swine farms from three Chinese regions. We identified highly abundant resistance clusters: groups of resistance and mobile genetic element alleles that cooccur. For example, the abundance of genes conferring resistance to six classes of antibiotics together with class 1 integrase and the abundance of IS6100-type transposons in three Chinese regions are directly correlated. These resistance cluster genes likely colocalize in microbial genomes in the farms. Resistance cluster alleles were dramatically enriched (up to 1 to 10% as abundant as 16S rRNA) and indicate that multidrug-resistant bacteria are likely the norm rather than an exception in these communities. This enrichment largely occurred independently of phylogenetic composition; thus, resistance clusters are likely present in many bacterial taxa. Furthermore, resistance clusters contain resistance genes that confer resistance to antibiotics independently of their particular use on the farms. Selection for these clusters is likely due to the use of only a subset of the broad range of chemicals to which the clusters confer resistance. The scale of animal agriculture and its wastes, the enrichment and horizontal gene transfer potential of the clusters, and the vicinity of large human populations suggest that managing this resistance reservoir is important for minimizing human risk. Agricultural antibiotic use results in clusters of cooccurring resistance genes that together confer resistance to multiple antibiotics. The use of a single antibiotic could select for an entire suite of resistance genes if

  6. Antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter in raw retail chickens and imported chicken portions.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, I. G.

    2003-01-01

    Campylobacter isolates from raw retail chickens (n = 434) sampled between 1998 and 2000 were tested for resistance to 12 antibiotics. Among 208 campylobacters tested, more than 90% of isolates were susceptible to 4 out of 9 antibiotics (nalidixic acid, erythromycin, chloramphenicol and gentamicin). Most campylobacters were resistant to 3 antibiotics and multiple resistance was found in 4%. Ciprofloxacin resistance was 11%. Campylobacter contamination (28%) in imported chickens (n = 150) was almost half that found in local whole chickens (50%), but the resistance of imported isolates (n = 42) was similar to that of local campylobacters. Resistance in isolates from imported chicken breasts was generally more common, but to only 4 antibiotics. Resistance patterns of chicken isolates were compared to human clinical isolates (n = 494), and a greater similarity was found between the clinical and local isolates than with imported campylobacters. Lower chloramphenicol resistance was found in clinical Campylobacter isolates than in those from chicken sources. PMID:14959786

  7. The problems of antibiotic resistance in cystic fibrosis and solutions.

    PubMed

    López-Causapé, Carla; Rojo-Molinero, Estrella; Macià, María D; Oliver, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Chronic respiratory infection is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. One of the hallmarks of these infections, led by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is their long-term (lifelong) persistence despite intensive antimicrobial therapy. Antimicrobial resistance in CF is indeed a multifactorial problem, which includes physiological changes, represented by the transition from the planktonic to the biofilm mode of growth and the acquisition of multiple (antibiotic resistance) adaptive mutations catalyzed by frequent mutator phenotypes. Emerging multidrug-resistant CF pathogens, transmissible epidemic strains and transferable genetic elements (such as those encoding class B carbapenemases) also significantly contribute to this concerning scenario. Strategies directed to combat biofilm growth, prevent the emergence of mutational resistance, promote the development of novel antimicrobial agents against multidrug-resistant strains and implement strict infection control measures are thus needed.

  8. Antibiotic Capture by Bacterial Lipocalins Uncovers an Extracellular Mechanism of Intrinsic Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    El-Halfawy, Omar M.; Klett, Javier; Ingram, Rebecca J.; Loutet, Slade A.; Murphy, Michael E. P.; Martín-Santamaría, Sonsoles

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The potential for microbes to overcome antibiotics of different classes before they reach bacterial cells is largely unexplored. Here we show that a soluble bacterial lipocalin produced by Burkholderia cenocepacia upon exposure to sublethal antibiotic concentrations increases resistance to diverse antibiotics in vitro and in vivo. These phenotypes were recapitulated by heterologous expression in B. cenocepacia of lipocalin genes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Purified lipocalin bound different classes of bactericidal antibiotics and contributed to bacterial survival in vivo. Experimental and X-ray crystal structure-guided computational studies revealed that lipocalins counteract antibiotic action by capturing antibiotics in the extracellular space. We also demonstrated that fat-soluble vitamins prevent antibiotic capture by binding bacterial lipocalin with higher affinity than antibiotics. Therefore, bacterial lipocalins contribute to antimicrobial resistance by capturing diverse antibiotics in the extracellular space at the site of infection, which can be counteracted by known vitamins. PMID:28292982

  9. Molecular characterization of antibiotic resistance in cultivable multidrug-resistant bacteria from livestock manure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingxiang; Tian, Tiantian; Niu, Tianqi; Wang, Panliang

    2017-10-01

    Diverse antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) are frequently reported to have high prevalence in veterinary manure samples due to extensive use of antibiotics in farm animals. However, the characteristics of the distribution and transmission of ARGs among bacteria, especially among different species of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB), have not been well explored. By applying high-throughput sequencing methods, our study uncovered a vast MARB reservoir in livestock manure. The genera Escherichia, Myroides, Acinetobacter, Proteus, Ignatzschineria, Alcaligenes, Providencia and Enterococcus were the predominant cultivable MARB, with compositions of 40.6%-85.7%. From chicken manure isolates, 33 MARB were selected for investigation of the molecular characteristics of antibiotic resistance. A total of 61 ARGs and 18 mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were investigated. We found that 47 ARGs were widely distributed among the 33 MARB isolates. Each isolate carried 27-36 genes responsible for resistance to eight classes of antibiotics frequently used in clinic or veterinary settings. ARGs to the six classes of antibiotics other than streptogramins and vancomycin were present in all 33 MARB isolates with a prevalence of 80%-100%. A total of 12 MGEs were widely distributed among the 33 MARB, with intI1, IS26, ISaba1, and ISEcp1 simultaneously present in 100% of isolates. In addition, 9 gene cassettes within integrons and ISCR1 were detected among MARB isolates encoding resistance to different antibiotic classes. This is the first report revealing the general co-presence of multiple ARGs, various MGEs and ARG cassettes in different species of individual MARB isolates in chicken manure. The results highlight a much higher risk of ARGs spreading through livestock manure to humans than we expected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Addressing the Natural Antibiotic Resistome in Studies of Soil Resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The environment is recognized as a source and a reservoir of antibiotic resistance (AR). Many antibiotic compounds are derived from bacteria and fungi that are naturally present in the environment. These microbes carry genes encoding resistance to the antibiotic that they produce and their resistanc...

  11. Antibiotrophs: The complexity of antibiotic-subsisting and antibiotic-resistant microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Woappi, Yvon; Gabani, Prashant; Singh, Arya; Singh, Om V

    2016-01-01

    Widespread overuse of antibiotics has led to the emergence of numerous antibiotic-resistant bacteria; among these are antibiotic-subsisting strains capable of surviving in environments with antibiotics as the sole carbon source. This unparalleled expansion of antibiotic resistance reveals the potent and diversified resistance abilities of certain bacterial strains. Moreover, these strains often possess hypermutator phenotypes and virulence transmissibility competent for genomic and proteomic propagation and pathogenicity. Pragmatic and prospicient approaches will be necessary to develop efficient therapeutic methods against such bacteria and to understand the extent of their genomic adaptability. This review aims to reveal the niches of these antibiotic-catabolizing microbes and assesses the underlying factors linking natural microbial antibiotic production, multidrug resistance, and antibiotic-subsistence.

  12. Environmental dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and correlation to anthropogenic contamination with antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem which threatens modern healthcare globally. Resistance has traditionally been viewed as a clinical problem, but recently non-clinical environments have been highlighted as an important factor in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events are likely to be common in aquatic environments; integrons in particular are well suited for mediating environmental dissemination of ARGs. A growing body of evidence suggests that ARGs are ubiquitous in natural environments. Particularly, elevated levels of ARGs and integrons in aquatic environments are correlated to proximity to anthropogenic activities. The source of this increase is likely to be routine discharge of antibiotics and resistance genes, for example, via wastewater or run-off from livestock facilities and agriculture. While very high levels of antibiotic contamination are likely to select for resistant bacteria directly, the role of sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics in environmental antibiotic resistance dissemination remains unclear. In vitro studies have shown that low levels of antibiotics can select for resistant mutants and also facilitate HGT, indicating the need for caution. Overall, it is becoming increasingly clear that the environment plays an important role in dissemination of antibiotic resistance; further studies are needed to elucidate key aspects of this process. Importantly, the levels of environmental antibiotic contamination at which resistant bacteria are selected for and HGT is facilitated at should be determined. This would enable better risk analyses and facilitate measures for preventing dissemination and development of antibiotic resistance in the environment.

  13. Environmental dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and correlation to anthropogenic contamination with antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem which threatens modern healthcare globally. Resistance has traditionally been viewed as a clinical problem, but recently non-clinical environments have been highlighted as an important factor in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events are likely to be common in aquatic environments; integrons in particular are well suited for mediating environmental dissemination of ARGs. A growing body of evidence suggests that ARGs are ubiquitous in natural environments. Particularly, elevated levels of ARGs and integrons in aquatic environments are correlated to proximity to anthropogenic activities. The source of this increase is likely to be routine discharge of antibiotics and resistance genes, for example, via wastewater or run-off from livestock facilities and agriculture. While very high levels of antibiotic contamination are likely to select for resistant bacteria directly, the role of sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics in environmental antibiotic resistance dissemination remains unclear. In vitro studies have shown that low levels of antibiotics can select for resistant mutants and also facilitate HGT, indicating the need for caution. Overall, it is becoming increasingly clear that the environment plays an important role in dissemination of antibiotic resistance; further studies are needed to elucidate key aspects of this process. Importantly, the levels of environmental antibiotic contamination at which resistant bacteria are selected for and HGT is facilitated at should be determined. This would enable better risk analyses and facilitate measures for preventing dissemination and development of antibiotic resistance in the environment. PMID:26356096

  14. Bacterial Cheating Limits the Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurtsev, Eugene; Xiao Chao, Hui; Datta, Manoshi; Artemova, Tatiana; Gore, Jeff

    2012-02-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a significant health concern. Bacteria can gain resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin by acquiring a plasmid carrying the gene beta-lactamase, which inactivates the antibiotic. This inactivation may represent a cooperative behavior, as the entire bacterial population benefits from removal of the antibiotic. The presence of a cooperative mechanism of resistance suggests that a cheater strain - which does not contribute to breaking down the antibiotic - may be able to take advantage of resistant cells. We find experimentally that a ``sensitive'' bacterial strain lacking the plasmid conferring resistance can invade a population of resistant bacteria, even in antibiotic concentrations that should kill the sensitive strain. We use a simple model in conjunction with difference equations to explain the observed population dynamics as a function of cell density and antibiotic concentration. Our experimental difference equations resemble the logistic map, raising the possibility of oscillations or even chaotic dynamics.

  15. Development of botanicals to combat antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pooja D; Birdi, Tannaz J

    2017-08-30

    The discovery of antibiotics in the previous century lead to reduction in mortality and morbidity due to infectious diseases but their inappropriate and irrational use has resulted in emergence of resistant microbial populations. Alteration of target sites, active efflux of drugs and enzymatic degradations are the strategies employed by the pathogenic bacteria to develop intrinsic resistance to antibiotics. This has led to an increased interest in medicinal plants since 25-50% of current pharmaceuticals are plant derived. Crude extracts of medicinal plants could serve as an alternate source of resistance modifying agents owing to the wide variety of secondary metabolites. These metabolites (alkaloids, tannins, polyphenols etc.) could act as potentials for antimicrobials and resistance modifiers. Plant extracts have the ability to bind to protein domains leading to modification or inhibition protein-protein interactions. This enables the herbals to also present themselves as effective modulators of host related cellular processes viz immune response, mitosis, apoptosis and signal transduction. Thus they may exert their activity not only by killing the microorganism but by affecting key events in the pathogenic process, thereby, the bacteria, fungi and viruses may have a reduced ability to develop resistance to botanicals. The article is meant to stimulate research wherein the cidal activity of the extract is not the only parameter considered but other mechanism of action by which plants can combat drug resistant microbes are investigated. The present article emphasizes on mechanisms involved in countering multi drug resistance. Copyright © 2017 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Heavy Metal Induced Antibiotic Resistance in Bacterium LSJC7.

    PubMed

    Chen, Songcan; Li, Xiaomin; Sun, Guoxin; Zhang, Yingjiao; Su, Jianqiang; Ye, Jun

    2015-09-29

    Co-contamination of antibiotics and heavy metals prevails in the environment, and may play an important role in disseminating bacterial antibiotic resistance, but the selective effects of heavy metals on bacterial antibiotic resistance is largely unclear. To investigate this, the effects of heavy metals on antibiotic resistance were studied in a genome-sequenced bacterium, LSJC7. The results showed that the presence of arsenate, copper, and zinc were implicated in fortifying the resistance of LSJC7 towards tetracycline. The concentrations of heavy metals required to induce antibiotic resistance, i.e., the minimum heavy metal concentrations (MHCs), were far below (up to 64-fold) the minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) of LSJC7. This finding indicates that the relatively low heavy metal levels in polluted environments and in treated humans and animals might be sufficient to induce bacterial antibiotic resistance. In addition, heavy metal induced antibiotic resistance was also observed for a combination of arsenate and chloramphenicol in LSJC7, and copper/zinc and tetracycline in antibiotic susceptible strain Escherichia coli DH5α. Overall, this study implies that heavy metal induced antibiotic resistance might be ubiquitous among various microbial species and suggests that it might play a role in the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in metal and antibiotic co-contaminated environments.

  17. Heavy Metal Induced Antibiotic Resistance in Bacterium LSJC7

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Songcan; Li, Xiaomin; Sun, Guoxin; Zhang, Yingjiao; Su, Jianqiang; Ye, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Co-contamination of antibiotics and heavy metals prevails in the environment, and may play an important role in disseminating bacterial antibiotic resistance, but the selective effects of heavy metals on bacterial antibiotic resistance is largely unclear. To investigate this, the effects of heavy metals on antibiotic resistance were studied in a genome-sequenced bacterium, LSJC7. The results showed that the presence of arsenate, copper, and zinc were implicated in fortifying the resistance of LSJC7 towards tetracycline. The concentrations of heavy metals required to induce antibiotic resistance, i.e., the minimum heavy metal concentrations (MHCs), were far below (up to 64-fold) the minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) of LSJC7. This finding indicates that the relatively low heavy metal levels in polluted environments and in treated humans and animals might be sufficient to induce bacterial antibiotic resistance. In addition, heavy metal induced antibiotic resistance was also observed for a combination of arsenate and chloramphenicol in LSJC7, and copper/zinc and tetracycline in antibiotic susceptible strain Escherichia coli DH5α. Overall, this study implies that heavy metal induced antibiotic resistance might be ubiquitous among various microbial species and suggests that it might play a role in the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in metal and antibiotic co-contaminated environments. PMID:26426011

  18. Titanium surfaces immobilized with the major antimicrobial fragment FK-16 of human cathelicidin LL-37 are potent against multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Biswajit; Wang, Guangshun

    2017-08-01

    Infections on implanted medical devices are a challenging problem, especially when bacteria form difficult-to-treat biofilms. Antimicrobial peptides are considered to be a solution due to their potency against antibiotic-resistant superbugs. Previously, the authors' laboratory demonstrated the prevention of staphylococcal biofilm formation in an animal catheter model by injecting merecidin (formerly known as 17BIPHE2), a peptide engineered based on the only human cathelicidin. This study documents an alternative solution via covalent immobilization of FK-16, amino acid sequence FKRIVQRIKDFLRNLV-amide, which corresponds to the major antimicrobial region (residues 17-32) of LL-37. FK-16 is superior to the longer peptide LL-37 in terms of synthesis cost and the shorter peptide KR-12 in terms of activity spectrum. Indeed, the FK16-coated titanium surface showed a broad-spectrum activity against the ESKAPE pathogens, including Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species. It also demonstrated anti-adhesion and biofilm inhibition capabilities against both S. aureus and E. coli.

  19. Development of triclosan and antibiotic resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Birosová, Lucia; Mikulásová, Mária

    2009-04-01

    The possible association between the use of triclosan and the development of antibiotic resistance was examined in triclosan-resistant mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. These mutants were obtained from a sensitive parental strain and from ciprofloxacin-resistant isogenic strains using spontaneous mutagenesis or selection after one short exposure or continuous exposure to low concentrations of triclosan. The results showed that triclosan in the environment does not increase the mutation frequency but selects bacterial strains with reduced antibiotic susceptibility. This property depended on the multiple antibiotic resistance (Mar) phenotype of bacterial strains and on the triclosan concentration.

  20. Emerging antibiotic resistance in bacteria with special reference to India.

    PubMed

    Raghunath, D

    2008-11-01

    The antibiotic era started in the 1940s and changed the profile of infectious diseases and human demography. The burgeoning classes and numbers promised much and elimination of this major cause of human (and animal) morbidity appeared possible. Bacterial antibiotic resistance which was observed soon after antibiotic introduction has been studied extensively. Diverse mechanisms have been demonstrated and the genetic basis elucidated. The resilience of the prokaryote ecosystems to antibiotic stress has been realized. The paper presents these subjects briefly to afford an overview. The epidemiology of antibiotic resistance is dealt with and community practices in different countries are described. The role of high antibiotic usage environments is indicated. The implication of the wide use of antibiotics in animals has been pointed out. Steadily increasing antibiotic resistance and decreasing numbers of newer antibiotics appear to point to a post-antibiotic period during which treatment of infections would become increasingly difficult. This article attempts to review the global antimicrobial resistance scene and juxtaposes it to the Indian experience. The prevalence in India of antibiotic resistance among major groups of pathogens is described. The factors that determine the prevalent high antibiotic resistance rates have been highlighted. The future research activity to ensure continued utility of antibiotics in the control of infections has been indicated.

  1. Cost of Antibiotic Resistance and the Geometry of Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Ana; Magalhães, Sara; Gordo, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of effects of beneficial mutations is key to our understanding of biological adaptation. Yet, empirical estimates of this distribution are scarce, and its functional form is largely unknown. Theoretical models of adaptation predict that the functional form of this distribution should depend on the distance to the optimum. Here, we estimate the rate and distribution of adaptive mutations that compensate for the effect of a single deleterious mutation, which causes antibiotic resistance. Using a system with multiple molecular markers, we estimate the distribution of fitness effects of mutations at two distances from the adaptive peak in 60 populations of Escherichia coli. We find that beneficial mutations, which can contribute to compensatory evolution, occur at very high rates, of the order of 10−5 per genome per generation and can be detected within a few tens of generations. They cause an average fitness increase of 2.5% and 3.6%, depending on the cost of resistance, which is expected under Fisher's geometrical model of adaptation. Moreover, we provide the first description of the distribution of beneficial mutations, segregating during the process of compensatory evolution, to antibiotic resistances bearing different costs. Hence, these results have important implications to understanding the spread and maintenance of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. PMID:22144641

  2. Development of antibiotics and the future of marine microorganisms to stem the tide of antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kasanah, Noer; Hamann, Mark T

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotics remain essential tools in the control of infectious diseases. With the emergence of new diseases, resistant forms of diseases such as tuberculosis and malaria, as well as the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria, it has become essential to develop novel antibiotics. Development of the existing antibiotics involved three strategies, including discovery of new target sites, modification of existing antibiotic structures, and the identification of new resources for novel antibiotics. Marine microorganisms have clearly become an essential new resource in the discovery of new antibiotic leads. PMID:15600239

  3. Antibiotic-resistant fecal bacteria, antibiotics, and mercury in surface waters of Oakland County, Michigan, 2005-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Duris, Joseph W.; Crowley, Suzanne L.; Hardigan, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Water samples collected from 20 stream sites in Oakland and Macomb Counties, Mich., were analyzed to learn more about the occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and the co-occurrence of antibiotics and mercury in area streams. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations exceeded the Michigan recreational water-quality standard of 300 E. coli colony forming units (CFU) per 100 milliliters of water in 19 of 35 stream-water samples collected in Oakland County. A gene commonly associated with enterococci from humans was detected in samples from Paint Creek at Rochester and Evans Ditch at Southfield, indicating that human fecal waste is a possible source of fecal contamination at these sites. E. coli resistant to the cephalosporin antibiotics (cefoxitin and/ or ceftriaxone) were found at all sites on at least one occasion. The highest percentages of E. coli isolates resistant to cefoxitin and ceftriaxone were 71 percent (Clinton River at Auburn Hills) and 19 percent (Sashabaw Creek near Drayton Plains), respectively. Cephalosporin-resistant E. coli was detected more frequently in samples from intensively urbanized or industrialized areas than in samples from less urbanized areas. VRE were not detected in any sample collected in this study. Multiple antibiotics (azithromycin, erythromycin, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim) were detected in water samples from the Clinton River at Auburn Hills, and tylosin (an antibiotic used in veterinary medicine and livestock production that belongs to the macrolide group, along with erythromycin) was detected in one water sample from Paint Creek at Rochester. Concentrations of total mercury were as high as 19.8 nanograms per liter (Evans Ditch at Southfield). There was no relation among percentage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and measured concentrations of antibiotics or mercury in the water. Genetic elements capable of exchanging multiple antibiotic-resistance

  4. CURRENT ISSUES REGARDING ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently public concern has increased regarding industrial and environmental substances that may have adverse hormonal effects in human and wildlife populations. This concern has also been expanded to include antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the presence of various antibiotics a...

  5. CURRENT ISSUES REGARDING ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently public concern has increased regarding industrial and environmental substances that may have adverse hormonal effects in human and wildlife populations. This concern has also been expanded to include antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the presence of various antibiotics a...

  6. [Antibiotic therapy for community acquired Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia: clinical relevance of antibiotic resistance].

    PubMed

    Bédos, J-P; Bruneel, F

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains with reduced susceptibility to beta-lactams and with multiple drug resistance has not led to major changes in recommendations for antibiotic therapy in patients with acute community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia. Numerous factors explain the limited clinical impact of this major microbiological change. The frequency of intermediate strains is high but the frequency of resistant strains to beta-lactams is very low. There is a complex relation between the acquisition of resistance to beta-lactams and the decreased virulence of S. pneumoniae strains. The only finding in studies of humanized experimental animal models of lethal bacteremic pneumonia caused by resistance and tolerant strains was a slowing in the kinetics of beta-lactams bactericidal activity, especially for amoxicillin. Taken together, this preclinical data shows that microbiological resistance of pneumococci to beta-lactams has very little influence on a possible failure of recommanded treatment regimens for pneumococcal pneumonia. The high rate of multiple drug resistance, particularly among beta-lactam resistant strains, rules out the probabilistic use of macrolides. Conversely, fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance remains low, inferior to 3%, and the same is true for ketolides (<1%). Only a global strategy of patient management in the use of these new drugs could ensure their long-term activity. The high mortality rate of hospitalized S. pneumoniae pneumonia will only be improved with a better understanding of the complex host-bacteria interactions.

  7. Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the U.S.

    MedlinePlus

    ... and drug-resistant infections can be prevented. How Bacteria Become Resistant When bacteria are exposed to antibiotics, they start learning how to outsmart the drugs. This process occurs in bacteria found in humans, animals, and the environment. Resistant ...

  8. Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria associated with the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    PubMed

    Liu, Dandan; Wilson, Cailin; Hearlson, Jodie; Singleton, Jennifer; Thomas, R Brent; Crupper, Scott S

    2013-09-01

    Free-ranging Red-eared Sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans) were captured from farm ponds located in the Flint Hills of Kansas and a zoo pond in Emporia, Kansas, USA, to evaluate their enteric bacterial flora and associated antibiotic resistance. Bacteria obtained from cloacal swabs were composed of six different Gram-negative genera. Although antibiotic resistance was present in turtles captured from both locations, 40 and 49% of bacteria demonstrated multiple antibiotic resistance to four of the antibiotics tested from the zoo captured and Flint Hills ponds turtles, respectively. These data illustrate environmental antibiotic resistance is widespread in the bacterial flora obtained from Red-eared Sliders in east central Kansas.

  9. Analysis of Romanian Bacteroides isolates for antibiotic resistance levels and the corresponding antibiotic resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Székely, Edit; Eitel, Zsuzsa; Molnár, Szabolcs; Szász, Izabella Éva; Bilca, Doina; Sóki, József

    2015-02-01

    As part of an ESCMID Study Group on Anaerobic Infections (ESGAI) project, a study was conducted to measure the antibiotic susceptibilities and corresponding gene contents of 53 Bacteroides fragilis group strains isolated in Romania. The antibiotic resistance data was comparable with the data found for other East-European countries. Here, no resistant isolate was found for imipenem, metronidazole and tigecycline. An increasing role of the cepA, cfxA and cfiA genes was observed in their corresponding antibiotic resistances. Moreover, no isolate was found that harbored the cfiA gene with a possible activating IS element. Clindamycin resistance was low, similarly to that the rate for the ermF gene. However, we did find some isolates with nimB, ermB, msrSA, linA, satG, tetX, tetM and bexA genes. This study was the first to provide antibiotic resistance data for clinical Bacteroides strains from Romania. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antibiotic resistance pattern among the Salmonella isolated from human, animal and meat in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shweta; Agarwal, Rajesh Kumar; Tiwari, Suresh C; Singh, Himanshu

    2012-03-01

    The present study was conducted to study the antibiotic resistance pattern among nontyphoidal Salmonella isolated from human, animal and meat. A total of 37 Salmonella strains isolated from clinical cases (human and animal) and meat during 2008-2009 belonging to 12 serovars were screened for their antimicrobial resistance pattern using 25 antimicrobial agents falling under 12 different antibiotic classes. All the Salmonella isolates tested showed multiple drug resistance varying from 5.40% to 100% with 16 of the 25 antibiotics tested. None of the isolates were sensitive to erythromycin and metronidazole. Resistance was also observed against clindamycin (94.59%), ampicillin (86.49%), co-trimoxazole (48.65%), colistin (45.94%), nalidixic acid (35.10%), amoxyclave (18.90%), cephalexin, meropenem, tobramycin, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, amoxicillin (8.10% each), sparfloxacin and streptomycin (5.40% each). Isolates from clinical cases of animals were resistant to as many as 16 antibiotics, whereas isolates from human clinical cases and meat were resistant to 9 and 14 antibiotics, respectively. Overall, 19 resistotypes were recorded. Analysis of multiple antibiotic resistance index (MARI) indicated that clinical isolates from animals had higher MARI (0.25) as compared to isolates from food (0.22) and human (0.21). Among the different serotypes studied for antibiogram, Paratyhi B isolates, showed resistance to three to 13 antibiotics, whereas Typhimurium strains were resistant to four to seven antibiotics. Widespread multidrug resistance among the isolates from human, animal and meat was observed. Some of the uncommon serotypes exhibited higher resistance rate. Considerable changes in the resistance pattern were also noted. An interesting finding was the reemergence of sensitivity to some of the old antibiotics (chloromphenicol, tetracycline).

  11. Agricultural use of antibiotics and the evolution and transfer of antibiotic-resistant bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Khachatourians, G G

    1998-01-01

    Microbial Resistance to antibiotics is on the rise, in part because of inappropriate use of antibiotics in human medicine but also because of practices in the agricultural industry. Intensive animal production involves giving livestock animals large quantities of antibiotics to promote growth and prevent infection. These uses promote the selection of antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations. The resistant bacteria from agricultural environments may be transmitted to humans, in whom they cause disease that cannot be treated by conventional antibiotics. The author reviews trends in antibiotic use in animal husbandry and agriculture in general. The development of resistance is described, along with the genetic mechanisms that create resistance and facilitate its spread among bacterial species. Particular aspects of resistance in bacterial species common to both the human population and the agrifood industry are emphasized. Control measures that might reverse the current trends are highlighted. PMID:9835883

  12. Agricultural use of antibiotics and the evolution and transfer of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Khachatourians, G G

    1998-11-03

    Microbial Resistance to antibiotics is on the rise, in part because of inappropriate use of antibiotics in human medicine but also because of practices in the agricultural industry. Intensive animal production involves giving livestock animals large quantities of antibiotics to promote growth and prevent infection. These uses promote the selection of antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations. The resistant bacteria from agricultural environments may be transmitted to humans, in whom they cause disease that cannot be treated by conventional antibiotics. The author reviews trends in antibiotic use in animal husbandry and agriculture in general. The development of resistance is described, along with the genetic mechanisms that create resistance and facilitate its spread among bacterial species. Particular aspects of resistance in bacterial species common to both the human population and the agrifood industry are emphasized. Control measures that might reverse the current trends are highlighted.

  13. Chromate-resistance genes in plasmids from antibiotic-resistant nosocomial enterobacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Flores, Gustavo G; Acosta-Navarrete, Yaned M; Ramírez-Díaz, Martha I; Silva-Sánchez, Jesús; Cervantes, Carlos

    2012-02-01

    The presence of chromate-resistance genes in enterobacteria was evaluated in a collection of 109 antibiotic-resistant nosocomial isolates from nine major cities in México. Results were compared with the presence of mercury-resistance genes. Susceptibility tests showed that 21% of the isolates were resistant to chromate (Cr(R)), whereas 36% were resistant to mercury (Hg(R)). Cr(R) levels were high in Klebsiella pneumoniae (61%), low in Enterobacter cloacae (12%) and Escherichia coli (4%), and null in Salmonella sp. isolates. Colony hybridization demonstrated that the majority of metal-resistant isolates hybridized with chrA gene (87% of Cr(R) isolates), encoding a CHR transporter homologue, and merA gene (74% of Hg(R) isolates), encoding MerA mercuric reductase, suggesting that most isolates expressed these widespread metal-resistance systems. Southern blot hybridization of Cr(R) isolates showed that plasmids of 80, 85, and 95 kb from K. pneumoniae isolates, and of 100 kb from an E. cloacae isolate, contained chrA-related sequences. These plasmids belonged to IncN or IncP incompatibility groups, and conferred Cr(R), as well as multiple antibiotic resistance, when transferred by conjugation to an E. coli standard strain. These data indicated that Cr(R) genes may be distributed among clinical enterobacteria via conjugative plasmids, probably by coselection with antibiotic-resistant genes. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fungal treatment for the removal of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in veterinary hospital wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lucas, D; Badia-Fabregat, M; Vicent, T; Caminal, G; Rodríguez-Mozaz, S; Balcázar, J L; Barceló, D

    2016-06-01

    The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance represents one of the most important public health concerns and has been linked to the widespread use of antibiotics in veterinary and human medicine. The overall elimination of antibiotics in conventional wastewater treatment plants is quite low; therefore, residual amounts of these compounds are continuously discharged to receiving surface waters, which may promote the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In this study, the ability of a fungal treatment as an alternative wastewater treatment for the elimination of forty-seven antibiotics belonging to seven different groups (β-lactams, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, metronidazoles, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim) was evaluated. 77% of antibiotics were removed after the fungal treatment, which is higher than removal obtained in conventional treatment plants. Moreover, the effect of fungal treatment on the removal of some antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) was evaluated. The fungal treatment was also efficient in removing ARGs, such as ermB (resistance to macrolides), tetW (resistance to tetracyclines), blaTEM (resistance to β-lactams), sulI (resistance to sulfonamides) and qnrS (reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones). However, it was not possible to establish a clear link between concentrations of antibiotics and corresponding ARGs in wastewater, which leads to the conclusion that there are other factors that should be taken into consideration besides the antibiotic concentrations that reach aquatic ecosystems in order to explain the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fate of antibiotic resistant cultivable heterotrophic bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Songhe; Han, Bing; Gu, Ju; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang; Ma, Yanyan; Cao, Jiashun; He, Zhenli

    2015-09-01

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are emerging contaminants of environmental concern. Heterotrophic bacteria in activated sludge have an important role in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, the fate of cultivable heterotrophic ARB and ARGs in WWPTs process remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the antibiotic-resistant phenotypes of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria from influent and effluent water of three WWTPs and analysed thirteen ARGs in ARB and in activated sludge from anoxic, anaerobic and aerobic compartments. From each influent or effluent sample of the three plants, 200 isolates were randomly tested for susceptibility to 12 antibiotics. In these samples, between 5% and 64% isolates showed resistance to >9 antibiotics and the proportion of >9-drug-resistant bacteria was lower in isolates from effluent than from influent. Eighteen genera were identified in 188 isolates from influent (n=94) and effluent (n=94) of one WWTP. Six genera (Aeromonas, Bacillus, Lysinibacillus, Microbacterium, Providencia, and Staphylococcus) were detected in both influent and effluent samples. Gram-negative and -positive isolates dominated in influent and effluent, respectively. The 13 tetracycline-, sulphonamide-, streptomycin- and β-lactam-resistance genes were detected at a higher frequency in ARB from influent than from effluent, except for sulA and CTX-M, while in general, the abundances of ARGs in activated sludge from two of the three plants were higher in aerobic compartments than in anoxic ones, indicating abundant ARGs exit in the excess sledges and/or in uncultivable bacteria. These findings may be useful for elucidating the effect of WWTP on ARB and ARGs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antibiotic resistance shaping multi-level population biology of bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Baquero, Fernando; Tedim, Ana P.; Coque, Teresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotics have natural functions, mostly involving cell-to-cell signaling networks. The anthropogenic production of antibiotics, and its release in the microbiosphere results in a disturbance of these networks, antibiotic resistance tending to preserve its integrity. The cost of such adaptation is the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes, and of all genetic and cellular vehicles in which these genes are located. Selection of the combinations of the different evolutionary units (genes, integrons, transposons, plasmids, cells, communities and microbiomes, hosts) is highly asymmetrical. Each unit of selection is a self-interested entity, exploiting the higher hierarchical unit for its own benefit, but in doing so the higher hierarchical unit might acquire critical traits for its spread because of the exploitation of the lower hierarchical unit. This interactive trade-off shapes the population biology of antibiotic resistance, a composed-complex array of the independent “population biologies.” Antibiotics modify the abundance and the interactive field of each of these units. Antibiotics increase the number and evolvability of “clinical” antibiotic resistance genes, but probably also many other genes with different primary functions but with a resistance phenotype present in the environmental resistome. Antibiotics influence the abundance, modularity, and spread of integrons, transposons, and plasmids, mostly acting on structures present before the antibiotic era. Antibiotics enrich particular bacterial lineages and clones and contribute to local clonalization processes. Antibiotics amplify particular genetic exchange communities sharing antibiotic resistance genes and platforms within microbiomes. In particular human or animal hosts, the microbiomic composition might facilitate the interactions between evolutionary units involved in antibiotic resistance. The understanding of antibiotic resistance implies expanding our knowledge on multi

  17. Antibiotic resistance shaping multi-level population biology of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Baquero, Fernando; Tedim, Ana P; Coque, Teresa M

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotics have natural functions, mostly involving cell-to-cell signaling networks. The anthropogenic production of antibiotics, and its release in the microbiosphere results in a disturbance of these networks, antibiotic resistance tending to preserve its integrity. The cost of such adaptation is the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes, and of all genetic and cellular vehicles in which these genes are located. Selection of the combinations of the different evolutionary units (genes, integrons, transposons, plasmids, cells, communities and microbiomes, hosts) is highly asymmetrical. Each unit of selection is a self-interested entity, exploiting the higher hierarchical unit for its own benefit, but in doing so the higher hierarchical unit might acquire critical traits for its spread because of the exploitation of the lower hierarchical unit. This interactive trade-off shapes the population biology of antibiotic resistance, a composed-complex array of the independent "population biologies." Antibiotics modify the abundance and the interactive field of each of these units. Antibiotics increase the number and evolvability of "clinical" antibiotic resistance genes, but probably also many other genes with different primary functions but with a resistance phenotype present in the environmental resistome. Antibiotics influence the abundance, modularity, and spread of integrons, transposons, and plasmids, mostly acting on structures present before the antibiotic era. Antibiotics enrich particular bacterial lineages and clones and contribute to local clonalization processes. Antibiotics amplify particular genetic exchange communities sharing antibiotic resistance genes and platforms within microbiomes. In particular human or animal hosts, the microbiomic composition might facilitate the interactions between evolutionary units involved in antibiotic resistance. The understanding of antibiotic resistance implies expanding our knowledge on multi

  18. Genomic and metagenomic analysis of antibiotic resistance in dairy animals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The extent to which carriage of antibiotic resistant bacteria in food animals is responsible for the burden of antibiotic resistance in human infections is currently not well known. Thus, there is a need to further evaluate the genomic diversity of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria and the microbi...

  19. Emerging trends in antibiotic resistance: Implications for emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Pourmand, Ali; Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann; Jasani, Gregory; May, Larissa

    2017-08-01

    Many bacteria are demonstrating increasing levels of resistance to commonly used antibiotics. While this has implications for the healthcare system as a whole, many patients infected with these resistant organisms will initially present to the emergency department (ED). The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of current trends in infections caused by the most clinically relevant resistant organisms encountered in emergency medicine. Bacteria were selected based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Action Plan for Combating Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, and PubMed database. The following bacteria were included: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococci, Escherichia coli, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All have shown increasing rates of resistance to one or more of the antibiotics commonly used to treat them. Increasing rates of antibiotic resistance are associated with worse clinical outcomes and greater healthcare costs. Antibiotic resistance is increasing and poses significant a risk to both the patient and public health as a whole. Appropriate choice of initial antibiotic is important in improving clinical outcomes, which is often the role of the ED provider. On a broader level, the ED must also take part in institutional efforts such as Antibiotic Stewardship Programs, which have been shown to decrease costs and rates of infection with resistant organisms. Ultimately, a multifaceted approach will be required to curb the threat of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The expression of antibiotic resistance genes in antibiotic-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mak, Stefanie; Xu, Ye; Nodwell, Justin R

    2014-08-01

    Antibiotic-producing bacteria encode antibiotic resistance genes that protect them from the biologically active molecules that they produce. The expression of these genes needs to occur in a timely manner: either in advance of or concomitantly with biosynthesis. It appears that there have been at least two general solutions to this problem. In many cases, the expression of resistance genes is tightly linked to that of antibiotic biosynthetic genes. In others, the resistance genes can be induced by their cognate antibiotics or by intermediate molecules from their biosynthetic pathways. The regulatory mechanisms that couple resistance to antibiotic biosynthesis are mechanistically diverse and potentially relevant to the origins of clinical antibiotic resistance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Antibiotics involved in the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria: a nationwide multilevel study suggests differences within antibiotic classes.

    PubMed

    Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Dumartin, Catherine; L'Hériteau, François; Péfau, Muriel; Hocquet, Didier; Rogues, Anne-Marie; Bertrand, Xavier

    2013-02-01

    To identify the antibiotics potentially the most involved in the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria from an ecological perspective in French healthcare facilities (HCFs). This study was based on data from the French antimicrobial surveillance network (ATB-RAISIN, 2007-09). Antibiotics were expressed in defined daily doses per 1000 patient-days. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were considered as count data adjusted for patient-days. These were third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)- and ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli, cefotaxime-resistant Enterobacter cloacae, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and ceftazidime-, imipenem- and ciprofloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Three-level negative binomial regression models were built to take into account the hierarchical structure of data: level 1, repeated measures each year (count outcome, time, antibiotics); level 2, HCFs (type and size); and level 3, regions (geographical area). A total of 701 HCFs from 20 French regions and up to 1339 HCF-years were analysed. The use of ceftriaxone, but not of cefotaxime, was positively correlated with incidence rates of 3GC- and ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli. In contrast, both 3GCs were positively correlated with the incidence rate of cefotaxime-resistant E. cloacae. Higher levels of use of ciprofloxacin and/or ofloxacin, but not of levofloxacin, were associated with higher incidence rates of 3GC- and ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli, cefotaxime-resistant E. cloacae, methicillin-resistant S. aureus and ceftazidime- and ciprofloxacin-resistant P. aeruginosa. Our study suggests differences within antibiotic classes in promoting antibiotic resistance. We identified ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin as priority targets in public health strategies designed to reduce antibiotic use and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in French HCFs.

  2. Host-dependent Induction of Transient Antibiotic Resistance: A Prelude to Treatment Failure.

    PubMed

    Kubicek-Sutherland, Jessica Z; Heithoff, Douglas M; Ersoy, Selvi C; Shimp, William R; House, John K; Marth, Jamey D; Smith, Jeffrey W; Mahan, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    Current antibiotic testing does not include the potential influence of host cell environment on microbial susceptibility and antibiotic resistance, hindering appropriate therapeutic intervention. We devised a strategy to identify the presence of host-pathogen interactions that alter antibiotic efficacy in vivo. Our findings revealed a bacterial mechanism that promotes antibiotic resistance in vivo at concentrations of drug that far exceed dosages determined by standardized antimicrobial testing. This mechanism has escaped prior detection because it is reversible and operates within a subset of host tissues and cells. Bacterial pathogens are thereby protected while their survival promotes the emergence of permanent drug resistance. This host-dependent mechanism of transient antibiotic resistance is applicable to multiple pathogens and has implications for the development of more effective antimicrobial therapies.

  3. Host-dependent Induction of Transient Antibiotic Resistance: A Prelude to Treatment Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kubicek-Sutherland, Jessica Z.; Heithoff, Douglas M.; Ersoy, Selvi C.; Shimp, William R.; House, John K.; Marth, Jamey D.; Smith, Jeffrey W.; Mahan, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Current antibiotic testing does not include the potential influence of host cell environment on microbial susceptibility and antibiotic resistance, hindering appropriate therapeutic intervention. We devised a strategy to identify the presence of host–pathogen interactions that alter antibiotic efficacy in vivo. Our findings revealed a bacterial mechanism that promotes antibiotic resistance in vivo at concentrations of drug that far exceed dosages determined by standardized antimicrobial testing. This mechanism has escaped prior detection because it is reversible and operates within a subset of host tissues and cells. Bacterial pathogens are thereby protected while their survival promotes the emergence of permanent drug resistance. This host-dependent mechanism of transient antibiotic resistance is applicable to multiple pathogens and has implications for the development of more effective antimicrobial therapies. PMID:26501114

  4. Antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Implications for medical practice.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, E. E.; Kellner, J. D.; Arnold, S.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the definition and prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, its links with antibiotic prescribing, data on antibiotic prescribing and prescribing appropriateness, and evidence-based treatment guidelines for common respiratory tract syndromes. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Primary studies consist of cross-sectional surveys and case-control studies. Treatment guidelines are based on clinical trials, meta-analyses, and cohort studies. Study designs were appropriate for the specific study questions. MAIN FINDINGS: The increasing prevalence of penicillin-resistant S pneumoniae is concurrent with increasing antibiotic prescribing. Individual patients show a twofold to ninefold increase in nasopharyngeal carriage of resistant bacteria or invasion with resistant bacteria (among those who have received antibiotics in the preceding 3 months). Cross-sectional data as well as data from medicaid and drug databases attest to overprescribing of antibiotics for respiratory tract infections. Physician surveys and focus groups blame this on parental pressure for antibiotic prescriptions. However, parents in focus groups and surveys deny they pressure their physicians and indicate their main purpose for office visits is to obtain a diagnosis and to seek reassurance that their children are not seriously ill. Evidence-based guidelines suggest treatment strategies that would reduce antibiotic prescribing. CONCLUSIONS: The few antibiotics that can be used with resistant organisms are expensive and are increasingly being needed. To control the rise of antibiotic resistance, it is important to limit antibiotic overprescribing. PMID:9789668

  5. Antibiotic Capture by Bacterial Lipocalins Uncovers an Extracellular Mechanism of Intrinsic Antibiotic Resistance.

    PubMed

    El-Halfawy, Omar M; Klett, Javier; Ingram, Rebecca J; Loutet, Slade A; Murphy, Michael E P; Martín-Santamaría, Sonsoles; Valvano, Miguel A

    2017-03-14

    The potential for microbes to overcome antibiotics of different classes before they reach bacterial cells is largely unexplored. Here we show that a soluble bacterial lipocalin produced by Burkholderia cenocepacia upon exposure to sublethal antibiotic concentrations increases resistance to diverse antibiotics in vitro and in vivo These phenotypes were recapitulated by heterologous expression in B. cenocepacia of lipocalin genes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Purified lipocalin bound different classes of bactericidal antibiotics and contributed to bacterial survival in vivo Experimental and X-ray crystal structure-guided computational studies revealed that lipocalins counteract antibiotic action by capturing antibiotics in the extracellular space. We also demonstrated that fat-soluble vitamins prevent antibiotic capture by binding bacterial lipocalin with higher affinity than antibiotics. Therefore, bacterial lipocalins contribute to antimicrobial resistance by capturing diverse antibiotics in the extracellular space at the site of infection, which can be counteracted by known vitamins.IMPORTANCE Current research on antibiotic action and resistance focuses on targeting essential functions within bacterial cells. We discovered a previously unrecognized mode of general bacterial antibiotic resistance operating in the extracellular space, which depends on bacterial protein molecules called lipocalins. These molecules are highly conserved in most bacteria and have the ability to capture different classes of antibiotics outside bacterial cells. We also discovered that liposoluble vitamins, such as vitamin E, overcome in vitro and in vivo antibiotic resistance mediated by bacterial lipocalins, providing an unexpected new alternative to combat resistance by using this vitamin or its derivatives as antibiotic adjuvants.

  6. Antibiotic Resistance Is Prevalent in an Isolated Cave Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Bhullar, Kirandeep; Waglechner, Nicholas; Pawlowski, Andrew; Koteva, Kalinka; Banks, Eric D.; Johnston, Michael D.; Barton, Hazel A.; Wright, Gerard D.

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a global challenge that impacts all pharmaceutically used antibiotics. The origin of the genes associated with this resistance is of significant importance to our understanding of the evolution and dissemination of antibiotic resistance in pathogens. A growing body of evidence implicates environmental organisms as reservoirs of these resistance genes; however, the role of anthropogenic use of antibiotics in the emergence of these genes is controversial. We report a screen of a sample of the culturable microbiome of Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico, in a region of the cave that has been isolated for over 4 million years. We report that, like surface microbes, these bacteria were highly resistant to antibiotics; some strains were resistant to 14 different commercially available antibiotics. Resistance was detected to a wide range of structurally different antibiotics including daptomycin, an antibiotic of last resort in the treatment of drug resistant Gram-positive pathogens. Enzyme-mediated mechanisms of resistance were also discovered for natural and semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotics via glycosylation and through a kinase-mediated phosphorylation mechanism. Sequencing of the genome of one of the resistant bacteria identified a macrolide kinase encoding gene and characterization of its product revealed it to be related to a known family of kinases circulating in modern drug resistant pathogens. The implications of this study are significant to our understanding of the prevalence of resistance, even in microbiomes isolated from human use of antibiotics. This supports a growing understanding that antibiotic resistance is natural, ancient, and hard wired in the microbial pangenome. PMID:22509370

  7. Concomitant Antibiotic and Mercury Resistance Among Gastrointestinal Microflora of Feral Brook Trout, Salvelinus fontinalis

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Matthew M.; Parry, Erin M.; Guay, Justin A.; Markham, Nicholas O.; Danner, G. Russell; Johnson, Keith A.; Barkay, Tamar; Fekete, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-nine bacterial isolates representing eight genera from the gastrointestinal tracts of feral brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchell) demonstrated multiple maximal antibiotic resistances and concomitant broad-spectrum mercury (Hg) resistance. Equivalent viable plate counts on tryptic soy agar supplemented with either 0 or 25 μM HgCl2 verified the ubiquity of mercury resistance in this microbial environment. Mercury levels in lake water samples measured 1.5 ng L−1; mercury concentrations in fish filets ranged from 81.8 to 1,080 ng g−1 and correlated with fish length. The presence of similar antibiotic and Hg resistance patterns in multiple genera of gastrointestinal microflora supports a growing body of research that multiple selective genes can be transferred horizontally in the presence of an unrelated individual selective pressure. We present data that bioaccumulation of non-point source Hg pollution could be a selective pressure to accumulate both antibiotic and Hg resistant bacteria. PMID:22850694

  8. [Antibiotic resistance and siderophore production in enterococci].

    PubMed

    Lisiecki, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Enterococci belong to the normal bacterial flora of the gastrointensinal tract of humans. Enterococci are regarded as harmless commensal, and are even believed to have probiotic characteristics. However, they can cause variety of infections, including endocarditis, bloodstream infections and urinary tract infections. During the past several decades, enterococci, and particularly Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium, have been identified as an important cause of nosocomial infections. Enterococci are intrinsically resistant to a broad range of antimicrobials. Infection caused by resistant strains are difficult to treat. Iron is an essential element for bacteria, but is not easily available in host organisms. Enterococci are iron dependent bacteria. Competition for iron between the host and bacteria is an important factor determining the course of bacterial infections. A common strategy among bacteria living in iron-limited environments is the secretion of siderophores, which can bind poorly soluble iron and make it available to cells via active transport mechanisms. The aim of the presented study was to evaluate the correlation between antibiotic resistance and siderophore production of bacteria of the genus Enterococcus. The study included 55 bacterial strains from genus Enterococcus belonging to two species--Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out using disc diffusion methods with guidelines of European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). Total siderophore activity in the culture supernatants was measured using chrome azurol S. Hydroxamate siderophores were assayed using a chemical-specific assay. Antibacterial susceptibility pattern reveals that E. faecium is more resistant than E. faecalis. A significant correlation was found between resistance to fluoroquinolnes and siderophores production. Ciprofloxacin- and norfloxacin-resistant enterococal strains produced siderophores in large

  9. Functional metagenomics for the investigation of antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Mullany, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a major threat to human health and well-being. To effectively combat this problem we need to understand the range of different resistance genes that allow bacteria to resist antibiotics. To do this the whole microbiota needs to be investigated. As most bacteria cannot be cultivated in the laboratory, the reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes in the non-cultivatable majority remains relatively unexplored. Currently the only way to study antibiotic resistance in these organisms is to use metagenomic approaches. Furthermore, the only method that does not require any prior knowledge about the resistance genes is functional metagenomics, which involves expressing genes from metagenomic clones in surrogate hosts. In this review the methods and limitations of functional metagenomics to isolate new antibiotic resistance genes and the mobile genetic elements that mediate their spread are explored.

  10. Functional metagenomics for the investigation of antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Mullany, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a major threat to human health and well-being. To effectively combat this problem we need to understand the range of different resistance genes that allow bacteria to resist antibiotics. To do this the whole microbiota needs to be investigated. As most bacteria cannot be cultivated in the laboratory, the reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes in the non-cultivatable majority remains relatively unexplored. Currently the only way to study antibiotic resistance in these organisms is to use metagenomic approaches. Furthermore, the only method that does not require any prior knowledge about the resistance genes is functional metagenomics, which involves expressing genes from metagenomic clones in surrogate hosts. In this review the methods and limitations of functional metagenomics to isolate new antibiotic resistance genes and the mobile genetic elements that mediate their spread are explored. PMID:24556726

  11. [Diagnosis and management of antibiotic-resistant bacteria].

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kamihira, Shimeru

    2012-06-01

    Antibiotic-resistant infections acquired in hospitals are of great concern, and have become a serious public issue. Antibiotic-resistant infections can be associated with a variety of bacteria, such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP). Since clinical laboratories are responsible for detecting information regarding antibiotic-resistant bacteria, they are required to perform analysis and dissemination of the information. Currently, rapid methods for detecting antibiotic-resistant bacteria using molecular techniques are being developed in response to the problem of the conventional methods for bacteriological testing, which require a few days to obtain results. This article presents the diagnosis and management of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which comprise a serious health care issue.

  12. Can landscape ecology untangle the complexity of antibiotic resistance?

    PubMed

    Singer, Randall S; Ward, Michael P; Maldonado, George

    2006-12-01

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics continues to pose a serious threat to human and animal health. Given the considerable spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the distribution of resistance and the factors that affect its evolution, dissemination and persistence, we argue that antibiotic resistance must be viewed as an ecological problem. A fundamental difficulty in assessing the causal relationship between antibiotic use and resistance is the confounding influence of geography: the co-localization of resistant bacterial species with antibiotic use does not necessarily imply causation and could represent the presence of environmental conditions and factors that have independently contributed to the occurrence of resistance. Here, we show how landscape ecology, which links the biotic and abiotic factors of an ecosystem, might help to untangle the complexity of antibiotic resistance and improve the interpretation of ecological studies.

  13. Antibiotic-non-antibiotic combinations for combating extremely drug-resistant Gram-negative 'superbugs'.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Elena K; Reyes-Ortega, Felisa; Velkov, Tony; Li, Jian

    2017-02-28

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance of Gram-negative pathogens has become a worldwide crisis. The status quo for combating resistance is to employ synergistic combinations of antibiotics. Faced with this fast-approaching post-antibiotic era, it is critical that we devise strategies to prolong and maximize the clinical efficacy of existing antibiotics. Unfortunately, reports of extremely drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative pathogens have become more common. Combining antibiotics such as polymyxin B or the broad-spectrum tetracycline and minocycline with various FDA-approved non-antibiotic drugs have emerged as a novel combination strategy against otherwise untreatable XDR pathogens. This review surveys the available literature on the potential benefits of employing antibiotic-non-antibiotic drug combination therapy. The apex of this review highlights the clinical utility of this novel therapeutic strategy for combating infections caused by 'superbugs'.

  14. Effects of UV light disinfection on antibiotic-resistant coliforms in wastewater effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Meckes, M.C.

    1982-02-01

    Total coliforms and total coliforms resistant to streptomycin, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol were isolated from filtered activated sludge effluents before and after UV light irradiation. Although the UV irradiation effectively disinfected the wastewater effluent, the percentage of the total surviving coliform population resistant to tetracycline or chloramphenicol was significantly higher than the percentage of the total coliform population resistant to those antibiotics before UV irradiation. This finding was attributed to the mechanism of R-factor mediated resistance to tetracycline. No significant difference was noted for the percentage of the surviving total coliform population resistant to streptomycin before or after UV irradiation. Multiple drug resistant to patterns of 300 total coliform isolates revealed that 82% were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Furthermore, 46% of these isolates were capable of transferring antibiotic resistance to a sensitive strain of Escherichia coli.

  15. Bacterial Enzymes and Antibiotic Resistance- Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Maltz, Lauren

    2015-08-25

    By using protein crystallography and X-ray diffraction, structures of bacterial enzymes were solved to gain a better understanding of how enzymatic modification acts as an antibacterial resistance mechanism. Aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs) are one of three aminoglycoside modifying enzymes that confer resistance to the aminoglycoside antibiotics via enzymatic modification, rendering many drugs obsolete. Specifically, the APH(2”) family vary in their substrate specificities and also in their preference for the phosphate donor (ADP versus GDP). By solving the structures of members of the APH(2”) family of enzymes, we can see how domain movements are important to their substrate specificity. Our structure of the ternary complex of APH(2”)-IIIa with GDP and kanamycin, when compared to the known structures of APH(2”)-IVa, reveals that there are real physical differences between these two enzymes, a structural finding that explains why the two enzymes differ in their preferences for certain aminoglycosides. Another important group of bacterial resistance enzymes are the Class D β-lactamases. Oxacillinase carbapenemases (OXAs) are part of this enzyme class and have begun to confer resistance to ‘last resort’ drugs, most notably carbapenems. Our structure of OXA-143 shows that the conformational flexibility of a conserved hydrophobic residue in the active site (Val130) serves to control the entry of a transient water molecule responsible for a key step in the enzyme’s mechanism. Our results provide insight into the structural mechanisms of these two different enzymes.

  16. The role of healthcare strategies in controlling antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Ann-Marie

    In an interview in March 2013, the Chief Medical Officer described antibiotic resistance as a 'ticking time bomb' and ranked it along with terrorism on a list of threats to the nation. Her report Infections and the Rise of Antimicrobial Resistance (Department of Health, 2011) highlighted that, while a new infectious disease has been discovered nearly every year over the past three decades, there have been very few new antibiotics developed, leaving our armoury nearly empty. Antibiotic resistance is a universal problem that needs to be tackled by a wide variety of strategies and players. Our approach to tackling resistance to antibiotic agents must therefore also be dynamic. As well as reducing environmental use, we also need to lower antibiotic use in the healthcare setting. Healthcare workers have a huge role to play in combating antibiotic resistance. This article focuses on several issues related to antibiotic resistance, including antibiotic modes of action and the properties that confer resistance on bacteria. It includes information on antibiotic usage and describes current healthcare strategies we can adopt to help reduce the development of resistance.

  17. Antibiotic resistant bacterial profiles of anaerobic swine lagoon effluent.

    PubMed

    Brooks, J P; McLaughlin, M R

    2009-01-01

    Although land application of swine (Sus scrofa) manure lagoon effluent is a common and effective method of disposal, the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, both pathogenic and commensal can complicate already understood issues associated with its safe disposal. The aim of this study was to assess antibiotic resistance in swine lagoon bacteria from sow, nursery, and finisher farms in the southeastern United States. Effluents from 37 lagoons were assayed for the presence of Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Listeria, and Salmonella. Antibiotic resistance profiles were determined by the Kirby-Bauer swab method for 12 antibiotics comprising eight classes. Statistical analyses indicated that farm type influenced the amount and type of resistance, with nurseries and sow farms ranking as most influential, perhaps due to use of more antibiotic treatments. Finisher farms tended to have the least amount of antibiotic class resistance, signaling an overall healthier market pig, and less therapeutic or prophylactic antibiotic use. Many bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, cephalosporin, and tetracycline class antibiotics, while nearly all were susceptible to quinolone antibiotics. It appeared that swine farm type had a significant association with the amount of resistance associated with bacterial genera sampled from the lagoons; nurseries contributed the largest amount of bacterial resistance.

  18. Previous antibiotic exposure and antimicrobial resistance in invasive pneumococcal disease: results from prospective surveillance.

    PubMed

    Kuster, Stefan P; Rudnick, Wallis; Shigayeva, Altynay; Green, Karen; Baqi, Mahin; Gold, Wayne L; Lovinsky, Reena; Muller, Matthew P; Powis, Jeff E; Rau, Neil; Simor, Andrew E; Walmsley, Sharon L; Low, Donald E; McGeer, Allison

    2014-10-01

    Estimating the risk of antibiotic resistance is important in selecting empiric antibiotics. We asked how the timing, number of courses, and duration of antibiotic therapy in the previous 3 months affected antibiotic resistance in isolates causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We conducted prospective surveillance for IPD in Toronto, Canada, from 2002 to 2011. Antimicrobial susceptibility was measured by broth microdilution. Clinical information, including prior antibiotic use, was collected by chart review and interview with patients and prescribers. Clinical information and antimicrobial susceptibility were available for 4062 (90%) episodes; 1193 (29%) of episodes were associated with receipt of 1782 antibiotic courses in the prior 3 months. Selection for antibiotic resistance was class specific. Time elapsed since most recent antibiotic was inversely associated with resistance (cephalosporins: adjusted odds ratio [OR] per day, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], .96-1.00; P = .02; macrolides: OR, 0.98; 95% CI, .96-.99; P = .005; penicillins: OR [log(days)], 0.62; 95% CI, .44-.89; P = .009; fluoroquinolones: profile penalized-likelihood OR [log(days)], 0.62; 95% CI, .39-1.04; P = .07). Risk of resistance after exposure declined most rapidly for fluoroquinolones and penicillins and reached baseline in 2-3 months. The decline in resistance was slowest for macrolides, and in particular for azithromycin. There was no significant association between duration of therapy and resistance for any antibiotic class. Too few patients received multiple courses of the same antibiotic class to assess the significance of repeat courses. Time elapsed since last exposure to a class of antibiotics is the most important factor predicting antimicrobial resistance in pneumococci. The duration of effect is longer for macrolides than other classes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved

  19. The association between antibiotic use in the community and nasopharyngeal carriage of antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Bedouin children.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, David; Givon-Lavi, Noga; Sharf, Amir Z; Vardy, Daniel; Dagan, Ron

    2008-09-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate whether the increase in antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage was associated with antibiotic use in the community in children in Southern Israel. All the prescriptions given to Bedouin children <5 years old enlisted in 2 sentinel primary pediatric clinics treating approximately 20% of the Bedouin pediatric population of this age range were recorded, from 1998 to 2005. Nasopharyngeal pneumococcal isolates obtained during the same period from healthy children <5 years old were collected and antibiotic susceptibility was determined. A total of 1488 of 1927 (77.7%) cultures were positive for S. pneumoniae. The proportion of S. pneumoniae with penicillin minimal inhibitory concentration > or = 1.0 microg/mL increased from 8% to 21% (P < 0.01); resistance to clindamycin from 9% to 22%; resistance to erythromycin from 13% to 30%; resistance to tetracycline from 13% to 31%; and multidrug resistance from 16% to 30%. The total annual antibiotic prescription rates decreased by 19%, from 3867 to 3191 prescriptions per 1000 children (P < 0.001). This was mainly the result of a reduction in amoxicillin +/- clavulanate prescriptions (from 3046 to 2582; P < 0.001). Oral cephalosporin, erythromycin and penicillin prescription rates decreased significantly as well (P < 0.001) whereas azithromycin prescription rates increased significantly (P < 0.001). We suggest that the increased carriage of S. pneumoniae resistant to multiple antibiotics is possibly associated to the increased azithromycin consumption. Reduction of total antibiotic use may not be sufficient as long as antibiotics with high potential to promote multidrug resistance, given their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics characteristics, are widely used.

  20. Direction of aminoacylated transfer RNAs into antibiotic synthesis and peptidoglycan-mediated antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Jennifer; Ibba, Michael

    2013-09-17

    Prokaryotic aminoacylated-transfer RNAs often need to be efficiently segregated between translation and other cellular biosynthetic pathways. Many clinically relevant bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa direct some aminoacylated-tRNA species into peptidoglycan biosynthesis and/or membrane phospholipid modification. Subsequent indirect peptidoglycan cross-linkage or change in membrane permeability is often a prerequisite for high-level antibiotic resistance. In Streptomycetes, aminoacylated-tRNA species are used for antibiotic synthesis as well as antibiotic resistance. The direction of coding aminoacylated-tRNA molecules away from translation and into antibiotic resistance and synthesis pathways are discussed in this review.

  1. Newly approved antibiotics and antibiotics reserved for resistant infections: Implications for emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann; Pourmand, Ali; May, Larissa

    2017-01-01

    Millions of patients are evaluated every year in the emergency department (ED) for bacterial infections. Emergency physicians often diagnose and prescribe initial antibiotic therapy for a variety of bacterial infections, ranging from simple urinary tract infections to severe sepsis. In life-threatening infections, inappropriate choice of initial antibiotic has been shown to increase morbidity and mortality. As such, initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy on the part of the emergency physician is critical. Increasing rates of antibiotic resistance, drug allergies, and antibiotic shortages further complicates the choice of antibiotics. Patients may have a history of prior resistant infections or culture data indicating that common first-line antibiotics used in the ED may be ineffective. In recent years, there have been several new antibiotic approvals as well as renewed interest in second and third line antibiotics because of the aforementioned concerns. In addition, several newly approved antibiotics have the advantage of being administered once weekly or even as a single infusion, which has the potential to decrease hospitalizations and healthcare costs. This article reviews newly approved antibiotics and antibiotics used to treat resistant infections with a focus on implications for emergency medicine.

  2. Cooperative Bacterial Growth Dynamics Predict the Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemova, Tatiana; Gerardin, Ylaine; Hsin-Jung Li, Sophia; Gore, Jeff

    2011-03-01

    Since the discovery of penicillin, antibiotics have been our primary weapon against bacterial infections. Unfortunately, bacteria can gain resistance to penicillin by acquiring the gene that encodes beta-lactamase, which inactivates the antibiotic. However, mutations in this gene are necessary to degrade the modern antibiotic cefotaxime. Understanding the conditions that favor the spread of these mutations is a challenge. Here we show that bacterial growth in beta-lactam antibiotics is cooperative and that the nature of this growth determines the conditions in which resistance evolves. Quantitative analysis of the growth dynamics predicts a peak in selection at very low antibiotic concentrations; competition between strains confirms this prediction. We also find significant selection at higher antibiotic concentrations, close to the minimum inhibitory concentrations of the strains. Our results argue that an understanding of the evolutionary forces that lead to antibiotic resistance requires a quantitative understanding of the evolution of cooperation in bacteria.

  3. Microbial pollution in wildlife: Linking agricultural manuring and bacterial antibiotic resistance in red-billed choughs.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Guillermo; Lemus, Jesús A; Grande, Javier

    2009-05-01

    The spread of pathogens in the environment due to human activities (pathogen pollution) may be involved in the emergence of many diseases in humans, livestock and wildlife. When manure from medicated livestock and urban effluents is spread onto agricultural land, both residues of antibiotics and bacteria carrying antibiotic resistance may be introduced into the environment. The transmission of bacterial resistance from livestock and humans to wildlife remains poorly understood even while wild animals may act as reservoirs of resistance that may be amplified and spread in the environment. We determined bacterial resistance to antibiotics in wildlife using the red-billed chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax as a potential bioindicator of soil health, and evaluated the role of agricultural manuring with waste of different origins in the acquisition and characteristics of such resistance. Agricultural manure was found to harbor high levels of bacterial resistance to multiple antibiotics. Choughs from areas where manure landspreading is a common agricultural practice harbor a high bacterial resistance to multiple antibiotics, resembling the resistance profile found in the waste (pig slurry and sewage sludge) used in each area. The transfer of bacterial resistance to wildlife should be considered as an important risk for environmental health when agricultural manuring involves fecal material containing multiresistant enteric bacteria including pathogens from livestock operations and urban areas. The assessment of bacterial resistance in wild animals may be valuable for the monitoring of environmental health and for the management of emergent infectious diseases influenced by the impact of different human activities in the environment.

  4. Marine bacteria: potential sources for compounds to overcome antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Eom, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Young-Mog; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most problematic Gram-positive bacterium in the context of public health due to its resistance against almost all available antibiotics except vancomycin and teicoplanin. Moreover, glycopeptide-resistant S. aureus have been emerging with the increasing use of glycopeptides. Recently, resistant strains against linezolid and daptomycin, which are alternative drugs to treat MRSA infection, have also been reported. Thus, the development of new drugs or alternative therapies is clearly a matter of urgency. In response to the antibiotic resistance, many researchers have studied for alternative antibiotics and therapies. In this review, anti-MRSA substances isolated from marine bacteria, with their potential antibacterial effect against MRSA as potential anti-MRSA agents, are discussed and several strategies for overcoming the antibiotic resistance are also introduced. Our objective was to highlight marine bacteria that have potential to lead in developing novel antibiotics or clinically useful alternative therapeutic treatments.

  5. Antibiotic resistance genes in freshwater biofilms along a whole river.

    PubMed

    Winkworth, Cynthia L

    2013-06-01

    A key problem challenging public health officials' efforts to stem the spread of antibiotic resistance is the potential increase of resistance in the environment. Yet, despite recent and significant changes to agricultural land in New Zealand, as well as the sector's high antibiotic use, the influence on antibiotic resistance in the environment remained uncharacterised. Spatial and temporal dynamics of antibiotic resistance genes in freshwater biofilms from NZ's fourth longest river as it transitioned between low and high intensity farming were examined for 1 year. Polymerase chain reaction was employed to gauge the level of resistance present. Biofilms were screened for 10 genes conferring resistance to antibiotics used in humans only and both humans and agricultural animals. Three genes were detected, one which conferred resistance to the important human-only use antibiotic vancomycin. Detected at the two downstream sites only, and those subject to the highest combined land-use stressors, the three genes indicated an elevated presence of antibiotic resistance in relation to surrounding land use; 7.7% versus 2% across the whole river system. The detection of a gene conferring resistance to an important human-only use antibiotic was particularly concerning and highlighted human-based contamination sources along the river, in addition to those of agricultural origin.

  6. Resistance to antibiotics in the normal flora of animals.

    PubMed

    Sørum, H; Sunde, M

    2001-01-01

    The normal bacterial flora contains antibiotic resistance genes to various degrees, even in individuals with no history of exposure to commercially prepared antibiotics. Several factors seem to increase the number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in feces. One important factor is the exposure of the intestinal flora to antibacterial drugs. Antibiotics used as feed additives seem to play an important role in the development of antibiotic resistance in normal flora bacteria. The use of avoparcin as a feed additive has demonstrated that an antibiotic considered "safe" is responsible for increased levels of antibiotic resistance in the normal flora enterococci of animals fed with avoparcin and possibly in humans consuming products from these animals. However, other factors like stress from temperature, crowding, and management also seem to contribute to the occurrence of antibiotic resistance in normal flora bacteria. The normal flora of animals has been studied with respect to the development of antibiotic resistance over four decades, but there are few studies with the intestinal flora as the main focus. The results of earlier studies are valuable when focused against the recent understanding of mobile genetics responsible for bacterial antibiotic resistance. New studies should be undertaken to assess whether the development of antibiotic resistance in the normal flora is directly linked to the dramatic increase in antibiotic resistance of bacterial pathogens. Bacteria of the normal flora, often disregarded scientifically, should be studied with the intention of using them as active protection against infectious diseases and thereby contributing to the overall reduction of use of antibioties in both animals and humans.

  7. Sensitivity of antibiotic resistant and antibiotic susceptible Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus strains against ozone.

    PubMed

    Heß, Stefanie; Gallert, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    Tolerance of antibiotic susceptible and antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus strains from clinical and wastewater samples against ozone was tested to investigate if ozone, a strong oxidant applied for advanced wastewater treatment, will affect the release of antibiotic resistant bacteria into the aquatic environment. For this purpose, the resistance pattern against antibiotics of the mentioned isolates and their survival after exposure to 4 mg/L ozone was determined. Antibiotic resistance (AR) of the isolates was not correlating with higher tolerance against ozone. Except for ampicillin resistant E. coli strains, which showed a trend towards increased resistance, E. coli strains that were also resistant against cotrimoxazol, ciprofloxacin or a combination of the three antibiotics were similarly or less resistant against ozone than antibiotic sensitive strains. Pigment-producing Enterococcus casseliflavus and Staphylococcus aureus seemed to be more resistant against ozone than non-pigmented species of these genera. Furthermore, aggregation or biofilm formation apparently protected bacteria in subsurface layers from inactivation by ozone. The relatively large variance of tolerance against ozone may indicate that resistance to ozone inactivation most probably depends on several factors, where AR, if at all, does not play a major role.

  8. Resistance diagnosis and the changing economics of antibiotic discovery.

    PubMed

    McAdams, David

    2017-01-01

    Point-of-care diagnostics that can determine an infection's antibiotic sensitivity increase the profitability of new antibiotics that enjoy patent protection, even when such diagnostics reduce the quantity of antibiotics sold. Advances in the science and technology underpinning rapid resistance diagnostics can therefore be expected to spur efforts to discover and develop new antibiotics, especially those with a narrow spectrum of activity that would otherwise fail to find a market. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Counteracting antibiotic resistance: breaking barriers among antibacterial strategies.

    PubMed

    Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M; Cantón, Rafael

    2014-08-01

    To fight against antibiotic resistance, prevention-only is no longer an acceptable strategy. The old concept 'one-infection, one-bug, one-drug', genocentrism in antibiotic discovery, and lack of integration between different antimicrobial strategies have probably contributed to current weaknesses in confronting antibiotic resistance. Resistance should be combatted in all fronts simultaneously, in the patient (complex therapy), the group (where resistance is maintained), and the significant environment (polluted by resistance). This paper is reviewing why specific 'therapeutic' approaches are needed in each of these fronts, using different types of 'drugs' directed to a variety of targets, in the goal of inhibiting antibiotic resistant bacteria. Multi-target integrated combination strategies and therapies should be more extensively evaluated, not only in the infected patient (using novel formats for clinical trials), but as associations of 'therapeutic strategies' in the different compartments where antibiotic resistance emerges and flows (measuring global effects in resistance). Multi-targeted therapeutic approaches require a relaxation of barriers among the various compounds, including systemic and topic antibiotics, antiseptics, biocides, anti-resistant clones vaccination, phages, decontamination products, and in general eco-evo drugs acting on factors influencing ecology and evolution of resistant bacteria. The application of methods of systems biology will facilitate such a multi-lateral attack to antibiotic resistance. Such advances should be paralleled by a simultaneous progress in regulatory sciences and close coordination among all stakeholders.

  10. Emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance: setting a parameter space.

    PubMed

    Martínez, José Luis; Baquero, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance among human pathogens is a relevant problem for human health and one of the few evolution processes amenable to experimental studies. In the present review, we discuss some basic aspects of antibiotic resistance, including mechanisms of resistance, origin of resistance genes, and bottlenecks that modulate the acquisition and spread of antibiotic resistance among human pathogens. In addition, we analyse several parameters that modulate the evolution landscape of antibiotic resistance. Learning why some resistance mechanisms emerge but do not evolve after a first burst, whereas others can spread over the entire world very rapidly, mimicking a chain reaction, is important for predicting the evolution, and relevance for human health, of a given mechanism of resistance. Because of this, we propose that the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance can only be understood in a multi-parameter space. Measuring the effect on antibiotic resistance of parameters such as contact rates, transfer rates, integration rates, replication rates, diversification rates, and selection rates, for different genes and organisms, growing under different conditions in distinct ecosystems, will allow for a better prediction of antibiotic resistance and possibilities of focused interventions.

  11. Emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance: setting a parameter space

    PubMed Central

    Baquero, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance among human pathogens is a relevant problem for human health and one of the few evolution processes amenable to experimental studies. In the present review, we discuss some basic aspects of antibiotic resistance, including mechanisms of resistance, origin of resistance genes, and bottlenecks that modulate the acquisition and spread of antibiotic resistance among human pathogens. In addition, we analyse several parameters that modulate the evolution landscape of antibiotic resistance. Learning why some resistance mechanisms emerge but do not evolve after a first burst, whereas others can spread over the entire world very rapidly, mimicking a chain reaction, is important for predicting the evolution, and relevance for human health, of a given mechanism of resistance. Because of this, we propose that the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance can only be understood in a multi-parameter space. Measuring the effect on antibiotic resistance of parameters such as contact rates, transfer rates, integration rates, replication rates, diversification rates, and selection rates, for different genes and organisms, growing under different conditions in distinct ecosystems, will allow for a better prediction of antibiotic resistance and possibilities of focused interventions. PMID:24678768

  12. Knowledge of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in patients followed by family physicians.

    PubMed

    Robert, A; Nguyen, Y; Bajolet, O; Vuillemin, B; Defoin, B; Vernet-Garnier, V; Drame, M; Bani-Sadr, F

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate factors associated with knowledge of antibiotics and drug resistance. A questionnaire was handed out by 14 family physicians to their patients between December 20, 2014 and April 20, 2015 in Rethel (North-East of France). We conducted a cross-sectional study using a logistical regression model to assess factors associated with antibiotic knowledge. Three criteria were used to assess that knowledge. Overall, 293 questionnaires were analysed; 48% of patients had received antibiotics in the previous 12 months. Only 44% and 26% gave a correct answer for the statements "Antibiotics are effective against bacteria and ineffective against viruses" and "Antibiotic resistance decreases if the antibiotic use decreases", respectively. Characteristics such as female sex, age>30 years, high level of education, high professional categories, and having received antibiotic information by the media were associated with high level of knowledge about antibiotics and/or antibiotic resistance. In contrast, having received antibiotic information from family physicians was not associated with good knowledge. Although media awareness campaigns had an independent impact on a higher public knowledge of antibiotics, the overall public knowledge remains low. It would be necessary to strengthen antibiotic campaigns with clearer information on the relation between the excessive use of antibiotics and the increased risk of antibiotic resistance. Family physicians should be more involved to improve antibiotic knowledge among target groups such as men, young patients, and people from a poor social and cultural background. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Coping with antibiotic resistance: combining nanoparticles with antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Kon, Kateryna Volodymyrivna; Abamor, Emrah Sefik; Bagirova, Malahat; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2011-11-01

    The worldwide escalation of bacterial resistance to conventional medical antibiotics is a serious concern for modern medicine. High prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria among bacteria-based infections decreases effectiveness of current treatments and causes thousands of deaths. New improvements in present methods and novel strategies are urgently needed to cope with this problem. Owing to their antibacterial activities, metallic nanoparticles represent an effective solution for overcoming bacterial resistance. However, metallic nanoparticles are toxic, which causes restrictions in their use. Recent studies have shown that combining nanoparticles with antibiotics not only reduces the toxicity of both agents towards human cells by decreasing the requirement for high dosages but also enhances their bactericidal properties. Combining antibiotics with nanoparticles also restores their ability to destroy bacteria that have acquired resistance to them. Furthermore, nanoparticles tagged with antibiotics have been shown to increase the concentration of antibiotics at the site of bacterium-antibiotic interaction, and to facilitate binding of antibiotics to bacteria. Likewise, combining nanoparticles with antimicrobial peptides and essential oils generates genuine synergy against bacterial resistance. In this article, we aim to summarize recent studies on interactions between nanoparticles and antibiotics, as well as other antibacterial agents to formulate new prospects for future studies. Based on the promising data that demonstrated the synergistic effects of antimicrobial agents with nanoparticles, we believe that this combination is a potential candidate for more research into treatments for antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

  14. Antibiotic resistance: a primer and call to action.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel A; M'ikanatha, Nkuchia M; Read, Andrew F

    2015-01-01

    During the past century, discoveries of microorganisms as causes of infections and antibiotics as effective therapeutic agents have contributed to significant gains in public health in many parts of the world. Health agencies worldwide are galvanizing attention toward antibiotic resistance, which is a major threat to public health (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013; World Health Organization, 2014). Some life scientists believe that we are approaching the post-antibiotic age (Davies & Davies, 2010). The growing threat of antimicrobial resistance is fueled by complex factors with biological, behavioral, and societal aspects. This primer provides an overview of antibiotic resistance and its growing burden on public health, the biological and behavioral mechanisms that increase antibiotic resistance, and examples of where health communication scholars can contribute to efforts to make our current antibiotic drugs last as long as possible. In addition, we identify compelling challenges for current communication theories and practices.

  15. Antibiotic Resistance: A Primer and Call to Action

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rachel A.; M’ikanatha, Nkuchia M.; Read, Andrew F.

    2014-01-01

    During the past century, discoveries of microorganisms as causes of infections and antibiotics as effective therapeutic agents have contributed to significant gains in public health in many parts of the world. Health agencies worldwide are galvanizing attention toward antibiotic resistance, which is a major threat to public health (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2013; World Health Organization [WHO], 2014). Some life scientists believe that we are approaching the post-antibiotic age (Davies & Davies, 2010). The growing threat of antimicrobial resistance is fueled by complex factors with biological, behavioral and societal aspects. This primer provides an overview of antibiotic resistance and its growing burden on public health, the biological and behavioral mechanisms that increase antibiotic resistance, and examples of where health communication scholars can contribute to efforts to make our current antibiotic drugs last as long as possible. In addition, we identify compelling challenges for current communication theories and practices. PMID:25121990

  16. The world alliance against antibiotic resistance: consensus for a declaration.

    PubMed

    Carlet, Jean

    2015-06-15

    Antibiotic resistance is increasing worldwide and has become a very important threat to public health. The overconsumption of antibiotics is the most important cause of this problem. We created a World Alliance Against Antibiotic Resistance (WAAAR), which now includes 720 people from 55 different countries and is supported by 145 medical societies or various groups. In June 2014, WAAAR launched a declaration against antibiotic resistance. This article describes the process and the content of this declaration. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Intrinsic antibiotic resistance: mechanisms, origins, challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Cox, Georgina; Wright, Gerard D

    2013-08-01

    The intrinsic antibiotic resistome is a naturally occurring phenomenon that predates antibiotic chemotherapy and is present in all bacterial species. In addition to the intrinsic resistance mediated by the bacterial outer membrane and active efflux, studies have shown that a surprising number of additional genes and genetic loci also contribute to this phenotype. Antibiotic resistance is rife in both the clinic and the environment; novel therapeutic strategies need to be developed in order to prevent a major global clinical threat. The possibility of inhibiting elements comprising the intrinsic resistome in bacterial pathogens offers the promise for repurposing existing antibiotics against intrinsically resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Tracking Change: A Look at the Ecological Footprint of Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Resistance.

    PubMed

    Keen, Patricia L; Patrick, David M

    2013-03-27

    Among the class of pollutants considered as 'emerging contaminants', antibiotic compounds including drugs used in medical therapy, biocides and disinfectants merit special consideration because their bioactivity in the environment is the result of their functional design. Antibiotics can alter the structure and function of microbial communities in the receiving environment and facilitate the development and spread of resistance in critical species of bacteria including pathogens. Methanogenesis, nitrogen transformation and sulphate reduction are among the key ecosystem processes performed by bacteria in nature that can also be affected by the impacts of environmental contamination by antibiotics. Together, the effects of the development of resistance in bacteria involved in maintaining overall ecosystem health and the development of resistance in human, animal and fish pathogens, make serious contributions to the risks associated with environmental pollution by antibiotics. In this brief review, we discuss the multiple impacts on human and ecosystem health of environmental contamination by antibiotic compounds.

  19. Tracking Change: A Look at the Ecological Footprint of Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Keen, Patricia L.; Patrick, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Among the class of pollutants considered as ‘emerging contaminants’, antibiotic compounds including drugs used in medical therapy, biocides and disinfectants merit special consideration because their bioactivity in the environment is the result of their functional design. Antibiotics can alter the structure and function of microbial communities in the receiving environment and facilitate the development and spread of resistance in critical species of bacteria including pathogens. Methanogenesis, nitrogen transformation and sulphate reduction are among the key ecosystem processes performed by bacteria in nature that can also be affected by the impacts of environmental contamination by antibiotics. Together, the effects of the development of resistance in bacteria involved in maintaining overall ecosystem health and the development of resistance in human, animal and fish pathogens, make serious contributions to the risks associated with environmental pollution by antibiotics. In this brief review, we discuss the multiple impacts on human and ecosystem health of environmental contamination by antibiotic compounds. PMID:27029298

  20. Determinants of between-country differences in ambulatory antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance in Europe: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Blommaert, A; Marais, C; Hens, N; Coenen, S; Muller, A; Goossens, H; Beutels, P

    2014-02-01

    To identify key determinants explaining country-year variations in antibiotic use and resistance. Ambulatory antibiotic use data [in defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants per day (DIDs)] for 19 European countries from 1999 to 2007 were collected, along with 181 variables describing countries in terms of their agriculture, culture, demography, disease burden, education, healthcare organization and socioeconomics. After assessing data availability, overlap and relevance, multiple imputation generalized estimating equations were applied with a stepwise selection procedure to select significant determinants of global antibiotic use (expressed in DIDs), relative use of subgroups (amoxicillin and co-amoxiclav) and resistance of Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Relative humidity, healthcare expenditure proportional to gross domestic product, feelings of distrust, proportion of population aged >65 years and availability of treatment guidelines were associated with higher total antibiotic use expressed in DIDs. Restrictions on marketing activities towards prescribers, population density, number of antibiotics, educational attainment and degree of atheism were associated with a lower number of total DIDs used. Relative prescribing of amoxicillin and co-amoxiclav was mainly determined by healthcare system choices [e.g. general practitioner (GP) registration and restricted marketing]. Specific antibiotic use was found to be a significant determinant of resistance for some but not all drug/organism combinations. Incentives to stimulate GP gatekeeping were associated with lower levels of resistance, and life expectancy at age 65+ and atheism were associated with more resistance. Myriad factors influence antibiotic use and resistance at the country level and an important part of these can be modified by policy choices.

  1. Antibiotic Resistance Determinants in a Pseudomonas putida Strain Isolated from a Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Duque, Estrella; Fernández, Matilde; Molina-Santiago, Carlos; Roca, Amalia; Porcel, Mario; de la Torre, Jesús; Segura, Ana; Plesiat, Patrick; Jeannot, Katy; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2014-01-01

    Environmental microbes harbor an enormous pool of antibiotic and biocide resistance genes that can impact the resistance profiles of animal and human pathogens via horizontal gene transfer. Pseudomonas putida strains are ubiquitous in soil and water but have been seldom isolated from humans. We have established a collection of P. putida strains isolated from in-patients in different hospitals in France. One of the isolated strains (HB3267) kills insects and is resistant to the majority of the antibiotics used in laboratories and hospitals, including aminoglycosides, ß-lactams, cationic peptides, chromoprotein enediyne antibiotics, dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors, fluoroquinolones and quinolones, glycopeptide antibiotics, macrolides, polyketides and sulfonamides. Similar to other P. putida clinical isolates the strain was sensitive to amikacin. To shed light on the broad pattern of antibiotic resistance, which is rarely found in clinical isolates of this species, the genome of this strain was sequenced and analysed. The study revealed that the determinants of multiple resistance are both chromosomally-borne as well as located on the pPC9 plasmid. Further analysis indicated that pPC9 has recruited antibiotic and biocide resistance genes from environmental microorganisms as well as from opportunistic and true human pathogens. The pPC9 plasmid is not self-transmissible, but can be mobilized by other bacterial plasmids making it capable of spreading antibiotic resistant determinants to new hosts. PMID:24465371

  2. Antibiotic resistance differentiates Echinacea purpurea endophytic bacterial communities with respect to plant organs.

    PubMed

    Mengoni, Alessio; Maida, Isabel; Chiellini, Carolina; Emiliani, Giovanni; Mocali, Stefano; Fabiani, Arturo; Fondi, Marco; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

    2014-10-01

    Recent findings have shown that antibiotic resistance is widespread in multiple environments and multicellular organisms, as plants, harboring rich and complex bacterial communities, could be hot spot for emergence of antibiotic resistances as a response to bioactive molecules production by members of the same community. Here, we investigated a panel of 137 bacterial isolates present in different organs of the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea, aiming to evaluate if different plant organs harbor strains with different antibiotic resistance profiles, implying then the presence of different biological interactions in the communities inhabiting different plant organs. Data obtained showed a large antibiotic resistance variability among strains, which was strongly related to the different plant organs (26% of total variance, P < 0.0001). Interestingly this uneven antibiotic resistance pattern was present also when a single genus (Pseudomonas), ubiquitous in all organs, was analyzed and no correlation of antibiotic resistance pattern with genomic relatedness among strains was found. In conclusion, we speculate that antibiotic resistance patterns are tightly linked to the type of plant organ under investigation, suggesting the presence of differential forms of biological interaction in stem/leaves, roots and rhizosphere. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Metagenomics and other Methods for Measuring Antibiotic Resistance in Agroecosystems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: There is broad concern regarding antibiotic resistance on farms and in fields, however there is no standard method for defining or measuring antibiotic resistance in environmental samples. Methods: We used metagenomic, culture-based, and molecular methods to characterize the amount, t...

  4. Persistence and resistance as complementary bacterial adaptations to antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Vogwill, T; Comfort, A C; Furió, V; MacLean, R C

    2016-06-01

    Bacterial persistence represents a simple of phenotypic heterogeneity, whereby a proportion of cells in an isogenic bacterial population can survive exposure to lethal stresses such as antibiotics. In contrast, genetically based antibiotic resistance allows for continued growth in the presence of antibiotics. It is unclear, however, whether resistance and persistence are complementary or alternative evolutionary adaptations to antibiotics. Here, we investigate the co-evolution of resistance and persistence across the genus Pseudomonas using comparative methods that correct for phylogenetic nonindependence. We find that strains of Pseudomonas vary extensively in both their intrinsic resistance to antibiotics (ciprofloxacin and rifampicin) and persistence following exposure to these antibiotics. Crucially, we find that persistence correlates positively to antibiotic resistance across strains. However, we find that different genes control resistance and persistence implying that they are independent traits. Specifically, we find that the number of type II toxin-antitoxin systems (TAs) in the genome of a strain is correlated to persistence, but not resistance. Our study shows that persistence and antibiotic resistance are complementary, but independent, evolutionary adaptations to stress and it highlights the key role played by TAs in the evolution of persistence.

  5. Antibiotic-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae Spread Faster with More Treatment, Not More Sexual Partners

    PubMed Central

    Bonhoeffer, Sebastian; Low, Nicola; Althaus, Christian L.

    2016-01-01

    The sexually transmitted bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae has developed resistance to all antibiotic classes that have been used for treatment and strains resistant to multiple antibiotic classes have evolved. In many countries, there is only one antibiotic remaining for empirical N. gonorrhoeae treatment, and antibiotic management to counteract resistance spread is urgently needed. Understanding dynamics and drivers of resistance spread can provide an improved rationale for antibiotic management. In our study, we first used antibiotic resistance surveillance data to estimate the rates at which antibiotic-resistant N. gonorrhoeae spread in two host populations, heterosexual men (HetM) and men who have sex with men (MSM). We found higher rates of spread for MSM (0.86 to 2.38 y−1, mean doubling time: 6 months) compared to HetM (0.24 to 0.86 y−1, mean doubling time: 16 months). We then developed a dynamic transmission model to reproduce the observed dynamics of N. gonorrhoeae transmission in populations of heterosexual men and women (HMW) and MSM. We parameterized the model using sexual behavior data and calibrated it to N. gonorrhoeae prevalence and incidence data. In the model, antibiotic-resistant N. gonorrhoeae spread with a median rate of 0.88 y−1 in HMW and 3.12 y−1 in MSM. These rates correspond to median doubling times of 9 (HMW) and 3 (MSM) months. Assuming no fitness costs, the model shows the difference in the host population’s treatment rate rather than the difference in the number of sexual partners explains the differential spread of resistance. As higher treatment rates result in faster spread of antibiotic resistance, treatment recommendations for N. gonorrhoeae should carefully balance prevention of infection and avoidance of resistance spread. PMID:27196299

  6. [Antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli strains isolated from raw chicken meat in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Fofana, A; Bada Alambédji, R; Seydi, M; Akakpo, A J

    2006-01-01

    Antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli and others pathogens bacteria can be transferred from animals to humans through consumption of contaminated food and foods products and thus present a public health risk. The increase in E. coli resistance to commonly used antimicrobials both in the public health and veterinary sectors is one of the major threats of health care worldwide. The present study was undertaken to estimate the antimicrobial resistance of E. coli isolates from raw chicken meat in Dakar. Levying of skin and muscle have been carried out on 120 chicken carcasses bought from 13 sale points and 23 flocks beetween November 2003 and April 2004. 102 Escherichia coli strains have been isolated, among which, 90 were tested for their susceptibilities to 16 selected antibiotics by agar diffusion method. All Escherichia coli strains (100%), were resistant to one or more antibiotic; 60 strains (66.66%) being resistant to more than five antibiotics. Those frequently encountererd are: ampicillin, trimethoprim, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole, tetracycline, sulfonamides, streptomycin, nalidixic acid. Multiple resistances to 12 antibiotics were also observed. The lowest resistances were noted with gentamicin (3.33%) and neomycin (5.56%). This study showed the significance of chicken meat as source of Escherichia coli strains with a simple or multiple resistance to various antibiotics tested. Further studies are necessary in order to determine bacterium mechanisms of resistance.

  7. Antibiotic resistance in the wild: an eco-evolutionary perspective

    PubMed Central

    Virta, Marko

    2017-01-01

    The legacy of the use and misuse of antibiotics in recent decades has left us with a global public health crisis: antibiotic-resistant bacteria are on the rise, making it harder to treat infections. At the same time, evolution of antibiotic resistance is probably the best-documented case of contemporary evolution. To date, research on antibiotic resistance has largely ignored the complexity of interactions that bacteria engage in. However, in natural populations, bacteria interact with other species; for example, competition and grazing are import interactions influencing bacterial population dynamics. Furthermore, antibiotic leakage to natural environments can radically alter bacterial communities. Overall, we argue that eco-evolutionary feedback loops in microbial communities can be modified by residual antibiotics and evolution of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this review is to connect some of the well-established key concepts in evolutionary biology and recent advances in the study of eco-evolutionary dynamics to research on antibiotic resistance. We also identify some key knowledge gaps related to eco-evolutionary dynamics of antibiotic resistance, and review some of the recent technical advantages in molecular microbiology that offer new opportunities for tackling these questions. Finally, we argue that using the full potential of evolutionary theory and active communication across the different fields is needed for solving this global crisis more efficiently. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Human influences on evolution, and the ecological and societal consequences'. PMID:27920384

  8. Antibiotic resistance in the wild: an eco-evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Hiltunen, Teppo; Virta, Marko; Laine, Anna-Liisa

    2017-01-19

    The legacy of the use and misuse of antibiotics in recent decades has left us with a global public health crisis: antibiotic-resistant bacteria are on the rise, making it harder to treat infections. At the same time, evolution of antibiotic resistance is probably the best-documented case of contemporary evolution. To date, research on antibiotic resistance has largely ignored the complexity of interactions that bacteria engage in. However, in natural populations, bacteria interact with other species; for example, competition and grazing are import interactions influencing bacterial population dynamics. Furthermore, antibiotic leakage to natural environments can radically alter bacterial communities. Overall, we argue that eco-evolutionary feedback loops in microbial communities can be modified by residual antibiotics and evolution of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this review is to connect some of the well-established key concepts in evolutionary biology and recent advances in the study of eco-evolutionary dynamics to research on antibiotic resistance. We also identify some key knowledge gaps related to eco-evolutionary dynamics of antibiotic resistance, and review some of the recent technical advantages in molecular microbiology that offer new opportunities for tackling these questions. Finally, we argue that using the full potential of evolutionary theory and active communication across the different fields is needed for solving this global crisis more efficiently.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human influences on evolution, and the ecological and societal consequences'. © 2016 The Authors.

  9. Phenotypic Resistance to Disinfectants and Antibiotics in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Pigs.

    PubMed

    Espigares, E; Moreno Roldan, E; Espigares, M; Abreu, R; Castro, B; Dib, A L; Arias, Á

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this research was to study the phenotypic resistances to disinfectants and antibiotics in strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) obtained from Canary black pigs. Analyses were performed on 54 strains of MRSA, isolated in Canary black pigs from the province of Tenerife (Spain); all of them carried the mecA gene. The strains were isolated by means of nasal swab samples of healthy pigs, collected under veterinarian supervision. Bactericidal activity of antiseptics and disinfectants was tested by means of the dilution-neutralization method. Susceptibility to the disinfectants glutaraldehyde, peracetic acid and silver nitrate was assessed, as well as to the antiseptics chlorhexidine, benzalkonium chloride and povidone iodine. Susceptibility to a wide array of antibiotics representing the main groups was determined by means of the disc diffusion method. All the strains demonstrated susceptibility to the disinfectants tested at the recommended concentration, and even to dilutions equal to or lesser than 1/16. The most effective antiseptic and disinfectant were, respectively, chlorhexidine and silver nitrate. With regard to the antibiotics, the strains proved to be multiresistant. All presented phenotypic resistance to the β-lactam antibiotics ampicillin, penicillin and cefoxitin, as well as to numerous aminoglycosides, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. It was also observed that 61.1% of the strains were carriers of plasmids. Our results underline that in the strains such as MRSA, which show multiple resistances to antibiotics, the antiseptics and disinfectants show great efficacy. Moreover, as other authors also suggest, for the treatment and prevention of infections caused by MRSA, the use of β-lactam and aminoglycoside antibiotics may be less effective. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Combating antibiotic resistance, mitigating future threats and ongoing initiatives.

    PubMed

    Velez, Roseann; Sloand, Elizabeth

    2016-07-01

    To emphasise the impact of antibiotic resistance as a persistent, global health threat and highlight efforts to improve this complex problem. Political agendas, legislation, development of therapies and educational initiatives are essential to mitigate the increasing rate of antibiotic resistance. Original manuscript. Prescribers, policymakers and researchers are charged with the complex task of mitigating antibiotic resistance in an era when new treatments for bacterial infections are limited. Monitoring, surveillance and incentivising of practice, policy and new treatments provide solutions to antibiotic resistance in both the human and agricultural sectors. This article emphasises the complexity of antibiotic resistance and highlights the need for a multifaceted approach to improve health care outcomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Antibiotic failure mediated by a resistant subpopulation in Enterobacter cloacae.

    PubMed

    Band, Victor I; Crispell, Emily K; Napier, Brooke A; Herrera, Carmen M; Tharp, Greg K; Vavikolanu, Kranthi; Pohl, Jan; Read, Timothy D; Bosinger, Steven E; Trent, M Stephen; Burd, Eileen M; Weiss, David S

    2016-05-09

    Antibiotic resistance is a major public health threat, further complicated by unexplained treatment failures caused by bacteria that appear antibiotic susceptible. We describe an Enterobacter cloacae isolate harbouring a minor subpopulation that is highly resistant to the last-line antibiotic colistin. This subpopulation was distinct from persisters, became predominant in colistin, returned to baseline after colistin removal and was dependent on the histidine kinase PhoQ. During murine infection, but in the absence of colistin, innate immune defences led to an increased frequency of the resistant subpopulation, leading to inefficacy of subsequent colistin therapy. An isolate with a lower-frequency colistin-resistant subpopulation similarly caused treatment failure but was misclassified as susceptible by current diagnostics once cultured outside the host. These data demonstrate the ability of low-frequency bacterial subpopulations to contribute to clinically relevant antibiotic resistance, elucidating an enigmatic cause of antibiotic treatment failure and highlighting the critical need for more sensitive diagnostics.

  12. Antibiotic resistance among aquatic bacteria in natural freshwater environments of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Woon; Joung, Yochan; Han, Ji-Hye; Jung, Wonwha; Kim, Seung Bum

    2015-12-01

    The taxonomic diversity and antibiotic resistance among freshwater bacterial communities in the major water bodies of Korea was examined using 437 penicillin-resistant, and 110 tetracycline-resistant bacterial isolates. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, most isolates were assigned to Proteobacteria, which was then followed by Bacteroidetes. Strains of Aeromonas were found as the most abundant penicillin-resistant populations, whereas those affiliated to diverse species including enteric groups were found as the most abundant tetracycline-resistant populations. Most strains exhibited multiple antibiotic resistance, and all tested strains were resistant to penicillin and hygromycin. High levels of resistance were observed for antibiotics acting on cell wall synthesis, whereas low levels were for those acting on DNA replication or transcription in general. It is apparent from this study that penicillin resistance is widespread among environmental bacteria, although the antibiotic has been generally non-detectable in the environment. It is also likely from the taxonomic composition of the resistant communities that various sources including terrestrial animals and humans may contribute to antibiotic resistance in the freshwater environment.

  13. Antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in waters associated with a hospital in Ujjain, India

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Concerns have been raised about the public health implications of the presence of antibiotic residues in the aquatic environment and their effect on the development of bacterial resistance. While there is information on antibiotic residue levels in hospital effluent from some other countries, information on antibiotic residue levels in effluent from Indian hospitals is not available. Also, concurrent studies on antibiotic prescription quantity in a hospital and antibiotic residue levels and resistant bacteria in the effluent of the same hospital are few. Therefore, we quantified antibiotic residues in waters associated with a hospital in India and assessed their association, if any, with quantities of antibiotic prescribed in the hospital and the susceptibility of Escherichia coli found in the hospital effluent. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in a teaching hospital outside the city of Ujjain in India. Seven antibiotics - amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, amikacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and levofloxacin - were selected. Prescribed quantities were obtained from hospital records. The samples of the hospital associated water were analysed for the above mentioned antibiotics using well developed and validated liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry technique after selectively isolating the analytes from the matrix using solid phase extraction. Escherichia coli isolates from these waters were tested for antibiotic susceptibility, by standard Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method using Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute breakpoints. Results Ciprofloxacin was the highest prescribed antibiotic in the hospital and its residue levels in the hospital wastewater were also the highest. In samples of the municipal water supply and the groundwater, no antibiotics were detected. There was a positive correlation between the quantity of antibiotics prescribed in the hospital and antibiotic residue levels in the hospital wastewater

  14. Antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in waters associated with a hospital in Ujjain, India.

    PubMed

    Diwan, Vishal; Tamhankar, Ashok J; Khandal, Rakesh K; Sen, Shanta; Aggarwal, Manjeet; Marothi, Yogyata; Iyer, Rama V; Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin; Stålsby-Lundborg, Cecilia

    2010-07-13

    Concerns have been raised about the public health implications of the presence of antibiotic residues in the aquatic environment and their effect on the development of bacterial resistance. While there is information on antibiotic residue levels in hospital effluent from some other countries, information on antibiotic residue levels in effluent from Indian hospitals is not available. Also, concurrent studies on antibiotic prescription quantity in a hospital and antibiotic residue levels and resistant bacteria in the effluent of the same hospital are few. Therefore, we quantified antibiotic residues in waters associated with a hospital in India and assessed their association, if any, with quantities of antibiotic prescribed in the hospital and the susceptibility of Escherichia coli found in the hospital effluent. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a teaching hospital outside the city of Ujjain in India. Seven antibiotics--amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, amikacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and levofloxacin--were selected. Prescribed quantities were obtained from hospital records. The samples of the hospital associated water were analysed for the above mentioned antibiotics using well developed and validated liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry technique after selectively isolating the analytes from the matrix using solid phase extraction. Escherichia coli isolates from these waters were tested for antibiotic susceptibility, by standard Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method using Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute breakpoints. Ciprofloxacin was the highest prescribed antibiotic in the hospital and its residue levels in the hospital wastewater were also the highest. In samples of the municipal water supply and the groundwater, no antibiotics were detected. There was a positive correlation between the quantity of antibiotics prescribed in the hospital and antibiotic residue levels in the hospital wastewater. Wastewater samples collected in

  15. "Practical knowledge" and perceptions of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance among drugsellers in Tanzanian private drugstores.

    PubMed

    Viberg, Nina; Kalala, Willbrord; Mujinja, Phare; Tomson, Göran; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2010-09-16

    Studies indicate that antibiotics are sold against regulation and without prescription in private drugstores in rural Tanzania. The objective of the study was to explore and describe antibiotics sale and dispensing practices and link it to drugseller knowledge and perceptions of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance. Exit customers of private drugstores in eight districts were interviewed about the drugstore encounter and drugs bought. Drugsellers filled in a questionnaire with closed- and open-ended questions about antibiotics and resistance. Data were analyzed using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. Of 350 interviewed exit customers, 24% had bought antibiotics. Thirty percent had seen a health worker before coming and almost all of these had a prescription. Antibiotics were dispensed mainly for cough, stomachache, genital complaints and diarrhea but not for malaria or headache. Dispensed drugs were assessed as relevant for the symptoms or disease presented in 83% of all cases and 51% for antibiotics specifically. Non-prescribed drugs were assessed as more relevant than the prescribed. The knowledge level of the drugseller was ranked as high or very high by 75% of the respondents. Seventy-five drugsellers from three districts participated. Seventy-nine percent stated that diseases caused by bacteria can be treated with antibiotics but 24% of these also said that antibiotics can be used for treating viral disease. Most (85%) said that STI can be treated with antibiotics while 1% said the same about headache, 4% general weakness and 3% 'all diseases'. Seventy-two percent had heard of antibiotic resistance. When describing what an antibiotic is, the respondents used six different kinds of keywords. Descriptions of what antibiotic resistance is and how it occurs were quite rational from a biomedical point of view with some exceptions. They gave rise to five categories and one theme: Perceiving antibiotic resistance based on practical experience. The

  16. Probing minority population of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tianxun; Zheng, Yan; Yan, Ya; Yang, Lingling; Yao, Yihui; Zheng, Jiaxin; Wu, Lina; Wang, Xu; Chen, Yuqing; Xing, Jinchun; Yan, Xiaomei

    2016-06-15

    The evolution and spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens has become a major threat to public health. Advanced tools are urgently needed to quickly diagnose antibiotic-resistant infections to initiate appropriate treatment. Here we report the development of a highly sensitive flow cytometric method to probe minority population of antibiotic-resistant bacteria via single cell detection. Monoclonal antibody against TEM-1 β-lactamase and Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated secondary antibody were used to selectively label resistant bacteria green, and nucleic acid dye SYTO 62 was used to stain all the bacteria red. A laboratory-built high sensitivity flow cytometer (HSFCM) was applied to simultaneously detect the side scatter and dual-color fluorescence signals of single bacteria. By using E. coli JM109/pUC19 and E. coli JM109 as the model systems for antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-susceptible bacteria, respectively, as low as 0.1% of antibiotic-resistant bacteria were accurately quantified. By monitoring the dynamic population change of a bacterial culture with the administration of antibiotics, we confirmed that under the antimicrobial pressure, the original low population of antibiotic-resistant bacteria outcompeted susceptible strains and became the dominant population after 5hours of growth. Detection of antibiotic-resistant infection in clinical urine samples was achieved without cultivation, and the bacterial load of susceptible and resistant strains can be faithfully quantified. Overall, the HSFCM-based quantitative method provides a powerful tool for the fundamental studies of antibiotic resistance and holds the potential to provide rapid and precise guidance in clinical therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Natural Products as Platforms To Overcome Antibiotic Resistance.

    PubMed

    Rossiter, Sean E; Fletcher, Madison H; Wuest, William M

    2017-09-27

    Natural products have served as powerful therapeutics against pathogenic bacteria since the golden age of antibiotics of the mid-20th century. However, the increasing frequency of antibiotic-resistant infections clearly demonstrates that new antibiotics are critical for modern medicine. Because combinatorial approaches have not yielded effective drugs, we propose that the development of new antibiotics around proven natural scaffolds is the best short-term solution to the rising crisis of antibiotic resistance. We analyze herein synthetic approaches aiming to reengineer natural products into potent antibiotics. Furthermore, we discuss approaches in modulating quorum sensing and biofilm formation as a nonlethal method, as well as narrow-spectrum pathogen-specific antibiotics, which are of interest given new insights into the implications of disrupting the microbiome.

  18. Distribution of antibiotic resistance genes in glacier environments.

    PubMed

    Segawa, Takahiro; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Rivera, Andres; Yamada, Akinori; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Barcaza, Gonzalo; Shinbori, Kunio; Motoyama, Hideaki; Kohshima, Shiro; Ushida, Kazunari

    2013-02-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes are biologically transmitted from microorganism to microorganism in particular micro-environments where dense microbial communities are often exposed to an intensive use of antibiotics, such as intestinal microflora, and the soil microflora of agricultural fields. However, recent studies have detected antibiotic-resistant bacteria and/or antibiotic resistance genes in the natural environment geographically isolated from such areas. Here we sought to examine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in 54 snow and ice samples collected from the Arctic, Antarctic, Central Asia, North and South America and Africa, to evaluate the level of these genes in environments supposedly not affected by anthropogenic factors. We observed a widespread distribution of antibiotic resistance genes in samples from various glaciers in Central Asia, North and South America, Greenland and Africa. In contrast, Antarctic glaciers were virtually free from these genes. Antibiotic resistance genes, of both clinical (i.e. aac(3), blaIMP) and agricultural (i.e. strA and tetW) origin, were detected. Our results show regional geographical distribution of antibiotic resistance genes, with the most plausible modes of transmission through airborne bacteria and migrating birds.

  19. The role of biofilms as environmental reservoirs of antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Balcázar, José L.; Subirats, Jéssica; Borrego, Carles M.

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance has become a significant and growing threat to public and environmental health. To face this problem both at local and global scales, a better understanding of the sources and mechanisms that contribute to the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance is required. Recent studies demonstrate that aquatic ecosystems are reservoirs of resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes as well as potential conduits for their transmission to human pathogens. Despite the wealth of information about antibiotic pollution and its effect on the aquatic microbial resistome, the contribution of environmental biofilms to the acquisition and spread of antibiotic resistance has not been fully explored in aquatic systems. Biofilms are structured multicellular communities embedded in a self-produced extracellular matrix that acts as a barrier to antibiotic diffusion. High population densities and proximity of cells in biofilms also increases the chances for genetic exchange among bacterial species converting biofilms in hot spots of antibiotic resistance. This review focuses on the potential effect of antibiotic pollution on biofilm microbial communities, with special emphasis on ecological and evolutionary processes underlying acquired resistance to these compounds. PMID:26583011

  20. Metagenomic Insights into Transferable Antibiotic Resistance in Oral Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sukumar, S; Roberts, A P; Martin, F E; Adler, C J

    2016-08-01

    Antibiotic resistance is considered one of the greatest threats to global public health. Resistance is often conferred by the presence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), which are readily found in the oral microbiome. In-depth genetic analyses of the oral microbiome through metagenomic techniques reveal a broad distribution of ARGs (including novel ARGs) in individuals not recently exposed to antibiotics, including humans in isolated indigenous populations. This has resulted in a paradigm shift from focusing on the carriage of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria to a broader concept of an oral resistome, which includes all resistance genes in the microbiome. Metagenomics is beginning to demonstrate the role of the oral resistome and horizontal gene transfer within and between commensals in the absence of selective pressure, such as an antibiotic. At the chairside, metagenomic data reinforce our need to adhere to current antibiotic guidelines to minimize the spread of resistance, as such data reveal the extent of ARGs without exposure to antimicrobials and the ecologic changes created in the oral microbiome by even a single dose of antibiotics. The aim of this review is to discuss the role of metagenomics in the investigation of the oral resistome, including the transmission of antibiotic resistance in the oral microbiome. Future perspectives, including clinical implications of the findings from metagenomic investigations of oral ARGs, are also considered. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  1. RecA Inhibitors Potentiate Antibiotic Activity and Block Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Kausar; Alhhazmi, Areej; DeCoteau, John F; Luo, Yu; Geyer, C Ronald

    2016-03-17

    Antibiotic resistance arises from the maintenance of resistance mutations or genes acquired from the acquisition of adaptive de novo mutations or the transfer of resistance genes. Antibiotic resistance is acquired in response to antibiotic therapy by activating SOS-mediated DNA repair and mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer pathways. Initiation of the SOS pathway promotes activation of RecA, inactivation of LexA repressor, and induction of SOS genes. Here, we have identified and characterized phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid RecA inhibitors that block antibiotic-induced activation of the SOS response. These inhibitors potentiate the activity of bactericidal antibiotics, including members of the quinolone, β-lactam, and aminoglycoside families in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. They reduce the ability of bacteria to acquire antibiotic resistance mutations and to transfer mobile genetic elements conferring resistance. This study highlights the advantage of including RecA inhibitors in bactericidal antibiotic therapies and provides a new strategy for prolonging antibiotic shelf life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A review of global initiatives to fight antibiotic resistance and recent antibiotics׳ discovery.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Arpana Sagwal

    2016-11-01

    Data from across the world have shown an overall decline in the antibiotic pipeline and continually rising resistance to all first-line and last-resort antibiotics. The gaps in our knowledge of existing prevalence and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance (ABR) are all too well known. Several decades of antibiotic abuse in humans, animals, and agricultural practices have created health emergency situations and huge socio-economic impact. This paper discusses key findings of the studies conducted by several national and international collaborative organizations on the current state of affairs in ABR. Alongside, a brief overview of the antibacterial agents׳ discovery in recent years approved by the US FDA is discussed.

  3. Bypass of genetic constraints during mutator evolution to antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Couce, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Rojas, Alexandro; Blázquez, Jesús

    2015-04-07

    Genetic constraints can block many mutational pathways to optimal genotypes in real fitness landscapes, yet the extent to which this can limit evolution remains to be determined. Interestingly, mutator bacteria elevate only specific types of mutations, and therefore could be very sensitive to genetic constraints. Testing this possibility is not only clinically relevant, but can also inform about the general impact of genetic constraints in adaptation. Here, we evolved 576 populations of two mutator and one wild-type Escherichia coli to doubling concentrations of the antibiotic cefotaxime. All strains carried TEM-1, a β-lactamase enzyme well known by its low availability of mutational pathways. Crucially, one of the mutators does not elevate any of the relevant first-step mutations known to improve cefatoximase activity. Despite this, both mutators displayed a similar ability to evolve more than 1000-fold resistance. Initial adaptation proceeded in parallel through general multi-drug resistance mechanisms. High-level resistance, in contrast, was achieved through divergent paths; with the a priori inferior mutator exploiting alternative mutational pathways in PBP3, the target of the antibiotic. These results have implications for mutator management in clinical infections and, more generally, illustrate that limits to natural selection in real organisms are alleviated by the existence of multiple loci contributing to fitness.

  4. What Can Be Done about Antibiotic Resistance?

    MedlinePlus

    ... chosen by doctors whenever possible to avoid destroying populations of beneficial bacteria along with the disease-causing bacteria. In addition, non-therapeutic uses of antibiotics in farm animals and agriculture should be eliminated. Can new antibiotics ...

  5. Antibiotic Resistance Associated with Inositol Metabolism in Salmonellae from Ontario Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, John A.; Kierstead, Marsha E.

    1985-01-01

    During 12 months in 1983-1984, Salmonellae were isolated from cattle 110 times. Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella muenster were the most prevalent serotypes identified. All isolates were sensitive to polymyxin B. Isolates that did not produce acid from inositol were more frequently resistant to ampicillin, carbenicillin, kanamycin, sulfisoxazole, tetracycline and neomycin than isolates which could. Salmonella muenster isolates, which were almost exclusively inositol positive, demonstrated a high frequency of senstivity to commonly used antibiotics. The antibiotic sensitivities of the S. typhimurium isolates showed much greater variability, with multiple antibiotic resistance being frequently associated with those isolates that were inositol negative. PMID:17422563

  6. Antibiotics: Pharmacokinetics, toxicity, resistance and multidrug efflux pumps.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Çiğdem; Özcengiz, Gülay

    2017-06-01

    The discovery of penicillin followed by streptomycin, tetracycline, cephalosporins and other natural, semi-synthetic and synthetic antimicrobials completely revolutionized medicine by reducing human morbidity and mortality from most of the common infections. However, shortly after they were introduced to clinical practice, the development of resistance was emerged. The decreasing interest from antibiotic industry in spite of rapid global emergence of antibiotic resistance is a tough dilemma from the pointview of public health. The efficiency of antimicrobial treatment is determined by both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. In spite of their selective toxicity, antibiotics still cause severe, life-threatening adverse reactions in host body mostly due to defective drug metabolism or excessive dosing regimen. The present article aims at updating current knowledge on pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics concepts and models, toxicity of antibiotics as well as antibiotic resistance mechanisms, resistome analyses and search for novel antibiotic resistance determinants with special emphasis given to the-state-of-the-art regarding multidrug efflux pumps and their additional physiological functions in stress adaptation and virulence of bacteria. All these issues are highly linked to each other and not only important for most efficient and prolonged use of current antibiotics, but also for discovery and development of new antibiotics and novel inhibitors of antibiotic resistance determinants of pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolated cell behavior drives the evolution of antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Artemova, Tatiana; Gerardin, Ylaine; Dudley, Carmel; Vega, Nicole M; Gore, Jeff

    2015-07-29

    Bacterial antibiotic resistance is typically quantified by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), which is defined as the minimal concentration of antibiotic that inhibits bacterial growth starting from a standard cell density. However, when antibiotic resistance is mediated by degradation, the collective inactivation of antibiotic by the bacterial population can cause the measured MIC to depend strongly on the initial cell density. In cases where this inoculum effect is strong, the relationship between MIC and bacterial fitness in the antibiotic is not well defined. Here, we demonstrate that the resistance of a single, isolated cell-which we call the single-cell MIC (scMIC)-provides a superior metric for quantifying antibiotic resistance. Unlike the MIC, we find that the scMIC predicts the direction of selection and also specifies the antibiotic concentration at which selection begins to favor new mutants. Understanding the cooperative nature of bacterial growth in antibiotics is therefore essential in predicting the evolution of antibiotic resistance. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  8. Isolated cell behavior drives the evolution of antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Artemova, Tatiana; Gerardin, Ylaine; Dudley, Carmel; Vega, Nicole M; Gore, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial antibiotic resistance is typically quantified by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), which is defined as the minimal concentration of antibiotic that inhibits bacterial growth starting from a standard cell density. However, when antibiotic resistance is mediated by degradation, the collective inactivation of antibiotic by the bacterial population can cause the measured MIC to depend strongly on the initial cell density. In cases where this inoculum effect is strong, the relationship between MIC and bacterial fitness in the antibiotic is not well defined. Here, we demonstrate that the resistance of a single, isolated cell—which we call the single-cell MIC (scMIC)—provides a superior metric for quantifying antibiotic resistance. Unlike the MIC, we find that the scMIC predicts the direction of selection and also specifies the antibiotic concentration at which selection begins to favor new mutants. Understanding the cooperative nature of bacterial growth in antibiotics is therefore essential in predicting the evolution of antibiotic resistance. PMID:26227664

  9. Antibiotic resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from pond-reared Litopenaeus vannamei marketed in natal, brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Ligia Maria Rodrigues; Almeida, Dulce; Hofer, Ernesto; dos Reis, Cristhiane Moura Falavina; Theophilo, Grace Nazareth Diogo; Santos, André Felipe das Mercês; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes

    2011-01-01

    Ten out of fifty fresh and refrigerated samples of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) collected from retailers in Natal (Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil) tested positive for Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The Kanagawa test and multiplex PCR assays were used to detect TDH and TRH hemolysins and the tdh, trh and tlh genes, respectively. All strains were Kanagawa-negative and tlh-positive. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done for seven antibiotics by the agar diffusion technique. Five strains (50%) presented multiple antibiotic resistance to ampicillin (90%) and amikacin (60%), while two strains (20%) displayed intermediate-level resistance to amikacin. All strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol. Intermediate-level susceptibility and/or resistance to other antibiotics ranged from 10 to 90%, with emphasis on the observed growing intermediate-level resistance to ciprofloxacin. Half our isolates yielded a multiple antibiotic resistance index above 0.2 (range: 0.14–0.29), indicating a considerable risk of propagation of antibiotic resistance throughout the food chain. PMID:24031779

  10. Antibiotic resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in various countries: A review.

    PubMed

    Elmahdi, Sara; DaSilva, Ligia V; Parveen, Salina

    2016-08-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus are the leading causes of seafood associated infections and mortality in the United States. The main syndromes caused by these pathogens are gastroenteritis, wound infections, and septicemia. This article reviewed the antibiotic resistance profile of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in the United States and other countries including Italy, Brazil, Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand, China, India, Iran, South Africa and Australia. The awareness of antimicrobial resistance of these two pathogens is not as well documented as other foodborne bacterial pathogens. Vibrio spp. are usually susceptible to most antimicrobials of veterinary and human significance. However, many studies reported that V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus showed multiple-antibiotic resistance due to misuse of antibiotics to control infections in aquaculture production. In addition, both environmental and clinical isolates showed similar antibiotic resistance profiles. Most frequently observed antibiotic resistance profiles involved ampicillin, penicillin and tetracycline regardless of the countries. The presence of multiple-antibiotic resistant bacteria in seafood and aquatic environments is a major concern in fish and shellfish farming and human health. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria: a challenge for the food industry.

    PubMed

    Capita, Rosa; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were first described in the 1940s, but whereas new antibiotics were being discovered at a steady rate, the consequences of this phenomenon were slow to be appreciated. At present, the paucity of new antimicrobials coming into the market has led to the problem of antibiotic resistance fast escalating into a global health crisis. Although the selective pressure exerted by the use of antibiotics (particularly overuse or misuse) has been deemed the major factor in the emergence of bacterial resistance to these antimicrobials, concerns about the role of the food industry have been growing in recent years and have been raised at both national and international levels. The selective pressure exerted by the use of antibiotics (primary production) and biocides (e.g., disinfectants, food and feed preservatives, or decontaminants) is the main driving force behind the selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance throughout the food chain. Genetically modified (GM) crops with antibiotic resistance marker genes, microorganisms added intentionally to the food chain (probiotic or technological) with potentially transferable antimicrobial resistance genes, and food processing technologies used at sub-lethal doses (e.g., alternative non-thermal treatments) are also issues for concern. This paper presents the main trends in antibiotic resistance and antibiotic development in recent decades, as well as their economic and health consequences, current knowledge concerning the generation, dissemination, and mechanisms of antibacterial resistance, progress to date on the possible routes for emergence of resistance throughout the food chain and the role of foods as a vehicle for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The main approaches to prevention and control of the development, selection, and spread of antibacterial resistance in the food industry are also addressed.

  12. Epigenetic inheritance based evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a topic of major medical importance. Evolution is the result of natural selection acting on variant phenotypes. Both the rigid base sequence of DNA and the more plastic expression patterns of the genes present define phenotype. Results We investigated the evolution of resistant E. coli when exposed to low concentrations of antibiotic. We show that within an isogenic population there are heritable variations in gene expression patterns, providing phenotypic diversity for antibiotic selection to act on. We studied resistance to three different antibiotics, ampicillin, tetracycline and nalidixic acid, which act by inhibiting cell wall synthesis, protein synthesis and DNA synthesis, respectively. In each case survival rates were too high to be accounted for by spontaneous DNA mutation. In addition, resistance levels could be ramped higher by successive exposures to increasing antibiotic concentrations. Furthermore, reversion rates to antibiotic sensitivity were extremely high, generally over 50%, consistent with an epigenetic inheritance mode of resistance. The gene expression patterns of the antibiotic resistant E. coli were characterized with microarrays. Candidate genes, whose altered expression might confer survival, were tested by driving constitutive overexpression and determining antibiotic resistance. Three categories of resistance genes were identified. The endogenous β-lactamase gene represented a cryptic gene, normally inactive, but when by chance expressed capable of providing potent ampicillin resistance. The glutamate decarboxylase gene, in contrast, is normally expressed, but when overexpressed has the incidental capacity to give an increase in ampicillin resistance. And the DAM methylase gene is capable of regulating the expression of other genes, including multidrug efflux pumps. Conclusion In this report we describe the evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria mediated by the

  13. Penicillin's Discovery and Antibiotic Resistance: Lessons for the Future?

    PubMed

    Lobanovska, Mariya; Pilla, Giulia

    2017-03-01

    Undoubtedly, the discovery of penicillin is one of the greatest milestones in modern medicine. 2016 marks the 75th anniversary of the first systemic administration of penicillin in humans, and is therefore an occasion to reflect upon the extraordinary impact that penicillin has had on the lives of millions of people since. This perspective presents a historical account of the discovery of the wonder drug, describes the biological nature of penicillin, and considers lessons that can be learned from the golden era of antibiotic research, which took place between the 1940s and 1960s. Looking back at the history of penicillin might help us to relive this journey to find new treatments and antimicrobial agents. This is particularly relevant today as the emergence of multiple drug resistant bacteria poses a global threat, and joint efforts are needed to combat the rise and spread of resistance.

  14. Does human activity impact the natural antibiotic resistance background? Abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in 21 Swiss lakes.

    PubMed

    Czekalski, Nadine; Sigdel, Radhika; Birtel, Julia; Matthews, Blake; Bürgmann, Helmut

    2015-08-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are emerging environmental contaminants, known to be continuously discharged into the aquatic environment via human and animal waste. Freshwater aquatic environments represent potential reservoirs for ARG and potentially allow sewage-derived ARG to persist and spread in the environment. This may create increased opportunities for an eventual contact with, and gene transfer to, human and animal pathogens via the food chain or drinking water. However, assessment of this risk requires a better understanding of the level and variability of the natural resistance background and the extent of the human impact. We have analyzed water samples from 21 Swiss lakes, taken at sampling points that were not under the direct influence of local contamination sources and analyzed the relative abundance of ARG using quantitative real-time PCR. Copy numbers of genes mediating resistance to three different broad-spectrum antibiotic classes (sulfonamides: sul1, sul2, tetracyclines: tet(B), tet(M), tet(W) and fluoroquinolones: qnrA) were normalized to copy numbers of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. We used multiple linear regression to assess if ARG abundance is related to human activities in the catchment, microbial community composition and the eutrophication status of the lakes. Sul genes were detected in all sampled lakes, whereas only four lakes contained quantifiable numbers of tet genes, and qnrA remained below detection in all lakes. Our data indicate higher abundance of sul1 in lakes with increasing number and capacity of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the catchment. sul2 abundance was rather related to long water residence times and eutrophication status. Our study demonstrates the potential of freshwater lakes to preserve antibiotic resistance genes, and provides a reference for ARG abundance from lake systems with low human impact as a baseline for assessing ARG contamination in lake water.

  15. Microbial selectivity of UV treatment on antibiotic-resistant heterotrophic bacteria in secondary effluents of a municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mei-Ting; Yuan, Qing-Bin; Yang, Jian

    2013-10-15

    Little is known about the microbial selectivity of UV treatment for antibiotic resistant bacteria, and the results of limited studies are conflicting. To understand the effect of UV disinfection on antibiotic resistant bacteria, both total heterotrophic bacteria and antibiotic resistant bacteria (including cephalexin-, ciprofloxacin-, erythromycin-, gentamicin-, vancomycin-, sulfadiazine-, rifampicin-, tetracycline- and chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria) were examined in secondary effluent samples from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Bacteria resistant to both erythromycin and tetracycline were chosen as the representative of multiple-antibiotic-resistant bacteria and their characteristics after UV treatment were also investigated. UV disinfection results in effective inactivation for total heterotrophic bacteria, as well as all antibiotic resistant bacteria. After UV treatment at a fluence of 5 mJ/cm(2), the log reductions of nine types of antibiotic resistant bacteria varied from 1.0 ± 0.1 to 2.4 ± 0.1. Bacteria resistant to both erythromycin and tetracycline had a similar fluence response as did total heterotrophic bacteria. The findings suggest that UV disinfection could eliminate antibiotic resistance in wastewater treatment effluents and thus ensure public health security. Our experimental results indicated that UV disinfection led to enrichment of bacteria with resistance to sulfadiazine, vancomycin, rifampicin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, while the proportions of cephalexin-, erythromycin-, gentamicin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant bacteria in the wastewater decreased. This reveals the microbial selectivity of UV disinfection for antibiotic resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sequential interactions of silver-silica nanocomposite (Ag-SiO2 NC) with cell wall, metabolism and genetic stability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterium.

    PubMed

    Anas, A; Jiya, J; Rameez, M J; Anand, P B; Anantharaman, M R; Nair, S

    2013-01-01

    The study was carried out to understand the effect of silver-silica nanocomposite (Ag-SiO(2) NC) on the cell wall integrity, metabolism and genetic stability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a multiple drug-resistant bacterium. Bacterial sensitivity towards antibiotics and Ag-SiO(2) NC was studied using standard disc diffusion and death rate assay, respectively. The effect of Ag-SiO(2) NC on cell wall integrity was monitored using SDS assay and fatty acid profile analysis, while the effect on metabolism and genetic stability was assayed microscopically, using CTC viability staining and comet assay, respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be resistant to β-lactamase, glycopeptidase, sulfonamide, quinolones, nitrofurantoin and macrolides classes of antibiotics. Complete mortality of the bacterium was achieved with 80 μg ml(-1) concentration of Ag-SiO(2) NC. The cell wall integrity reduced with increasing time and reached a plateau of 70% in 110 min. Changes were also noticed in the proportion of fatty acids after the treatment. Inside the cytoplasm, a complete inhibition of electron transport system was achieved with 100 μg ml(-1) Ag-SiO(2) NC, followed by DNA breakage. The study thus demonstrates that Ag-SiO(2) NC invades the cytoplasm of the multiple drug-resistant P. aeruginosa by impinging upon the cell wall integrity and kills the cells by interfering with electron transport chain and the genetic stability. Although the synthesis, structural characteristics and biofunction of silver nanoparticles are well understood, their application in antimicrobial therapy is still at its infancy as only a small number of microorganisms are tested to be sensitive to nanoparticles. A thorough knowledge of the mode of interaction of nanoparticles with bacteria at subcellular level is mandatory for any clinical application. The present study deals with the interactions of Ag-SiO2NC with the cell wall integrity, metabolism and genetic stability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

  17. Antibiotic use and resistance in animals: Belgian initiatives.

    PubMed

    Daeseleire, Els; De Graef, Evelyne; Rasschaert, Geertrui; De Mulder, Thijs; Van den Meersche, Tina; Van Coillie, Els; Dewulf, Jeroen; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2016-05-01

    The widespread use of antibiotics in animals is causing concerns about the growing risk for development and the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Antibiotic consumption is higher in animals than in humans as reported in a joint publication of EFSA (European Food Safety Agency), ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), and EMA (European Medicines Agency) using data from 2011 and 2012. Both in humans and animals, positive associations between the consumption of antibiotics and resistant bacteria are observed. Responsible use of antibiotics in humans and animals should therefore be promoted. In this paper some general aspects of antibiotic resistance such as microbiological versus clinical resistance, intrinsic versus acquired resistance, resistance mechanisms, and transfer of resistance are briefly introduced. In 2012, the Belgian Center of Expertise on Antimicrobial Consumption and Resistance in Animals (AMCRA) was founded. Its mission is to collect and analyze all data related to antibiotic use and resistance in animals in Belgium and to communicate these findings in a neutral and objective manner. One of AMCRA's 10 objectives is a 50% reduction in antibiotic consumption in veterinary medicine in Belgium by 2020. The aim of this paper is to report on the achievements of this national project. The Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO, Merelbeke-Melle), in collaboration with Ghent University, is currently working on three nationally funded projects on antibiotic resistance in animal husbandry. In the first project, an in vitro model is used to study the influence of low antibiotic concentrations due to carry-over after production and usage of medicated feed on the development of resistance in the pig gut. Part of that project is to develop a quantitative risk assessment model. A second project focuses on tracking excreted antibiotics used in pig rearing and their influence on the development of antibiotic resistance in pig

  18. Resurrecting the intestinal microbiota to combat antibiotic-resistant pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Pamer, Eric G.

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota, which is composed of diverse populations of commensal bacterial species, provides resistance against colonization and invasion by pathogens. Antibiotic treatment can damage the intestinal microbiota and, paradoxically, increase susceptibility to infections. Reestablishing microbiota-mediated colonization resistance after antibiotic treatment could markedly reduce infections, particularly those caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Ongoing studies are identifying commensal bacterial species that can be developed into next-generation probiotics to reestablish or enhance colonization resistance. These live medicines are at various stages of discovery, testing, and production and are being subjected to existing regulatory gauntlets for eventual introduction into clinical practice. The development of next-generation probiotics to reestablish colonization resistance and eliminate potential pathogens from the gut is warranted and will reduce health care–associated infections caused by highly antibiotic-resistant bacteria. PMID:27126035

  19. Resurrecting the intestinal microbiota to combat antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Pamer, Eric G

    2016-04-29

    The intestinal microbiota, which is composed of diverse populations of commensal bacterial species, provides resistance against colonization and invasion by pathogens. Antibiotic treatment can damage the intestinal microbiota and, paradoxically, increase susceptibility to infections. Reestablishing microbiota-mediated colonization resistance after antibiotic treatment could markedly reduce infections, particularly those caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Ongoing studies are identifying commensal bacterial species that can be developed into next-generation probiotics to reestablish or enhance colonization resistance. These live medicines are at various stages of discovery, testing, and production and are being subjected to existing regulatory gauntlets for eventual introduction into clinical practice. The development of next-generation probiotics to reestablish colonization resistance and eliminate potential pathogens from the gut is warranted and will reduce health care-associated infections caused by highly antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Eight More Ways To Deal with Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Shlaes, David M.

    2014-01-01

    The fight against antibiotic resistance must be strengthened. We propose actions that U.S. government agencies and private sector entities can take to build a more comprehensive effort. These actions can increase the viability of investing in new antibiotics, ensure the quality and stewardship of all antibiotics, and make responses to emerging resistance more informed. Success requires the thoughtful exercise of federal authority and a firm commitment to share data and reward developers for the value generated with new, life-saving antibiotics. PMID:24867992

  1. Eight more ways to deal with antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Metz, Matthew; Shlaes, David M

    2014-08-01

    The fight against antibiotic resistance must be strengthened. We propose actions that U.S. government agencies and private sector entities can take to build a more comprehensive effort. These actions can increase the viability of investing in new antibiotics, ensure the quality and stewardship of all antibiotics, and make responses to emerging resistance more informed. Success requires the thoughtful exercise of federal authority and a firm commitment to share data and reward developers for the value generated with new, life-saving antibiotics. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Indirect resistance to several classes of antibiotics in cocultures with resistant bacteria expressing antibiotic-modifying or -degrading enzymes.

    PubMed

    Nicoloff, Hervé; Andersson, Dan I

    2016-01-01

    Indirect resistance (IR), the ability of an antibiotic-resistant population of bacteria to protect a susceptible population, has been previously observed for β-lactamase-producing bacteria and associated with antimicrobial treatment failures. Here, we determined whether other resistance determinants could cause IR in the presence of five other classes of antibiotics. A test was designed to detect IR and 14 antibiotic resistance genes were tested in the presence of 13 antibiotics from six classes. A bioassay was used to measure the ability of resistance-causing enzymes to decrease the concentration of active antibiotics in the medium. We confirmed IR in the presence of β-lactam antibiotics (ampicillin and mecillinam) when TEM-1A was expressed. We found that bacteria expressing antibiotic-modifying or -degrading enzymes Ere(A), Tet(X2) or CatA1 caused IR in the presence of macrolides (erythromycin and clarithromycin), tetracyclines (tetracycline and tigecycline) and chloramphenicol, respectively. IR was not observed with resistance determinants that did not modify or destroy antibiotics or with enzymes modifying aminoglycosides or degrading fosfomycin. IR was dependent on the resistance enzymes decreasing the concentration of active antibiotics in the medium, hence allowing nearby susceptible bacteria to resume growth once the antibiotic concentration fell below their MIC. IR was not limited to β-lactamase-producing bacteria, but was also caused by resistant bacteria carrying cytoplasmic antibiotic-modifying or -degrading enzymes that catalyse energy-consuming reactions requiring complex cellular cofactors. Our results suggest that IR is common and further emphasizes that coinfecting agents and the human microflora can have a negative impact during antimicrobial therapy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. A review of the influence of treatment strategies on antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Virender K; Johnson, Natalie; Cizmas, Leslie; McDonald, Thomas J; Kim, Hyunook

    2016-05-01

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in the aquatic environment have become an emerging contaminant issue, which has implications for human and ecological health. This review begins with an introduction to the occurrence of ARB and ARG in different environmental systems such as natural environments and drinking water resources. For example, ARG or ARB with resistance to ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, quinolone, vancomycin, or tetracycline (e.g., tet(A), tet(B), tet(C), tet(G), tet(O), tet(M), tet(W), sul I, and sul II) have been detected in the environment. The development of resistance may be intrinsic, may be acquired through spontaneous mutations (de novo), or may occur due to horizontal gene transfer from donor bacteria, phages, or free DNA to recipient bacteria. An overview is also provided of the current knowledge regarding inactivation of ARB and ARG, and the mechanism of the effects of different disinfection processes in water and wastewater (chlorination, UV irradiation, Fenton reaction, ozonation, and photocatalytic oxidation). The effects of constructed wetlands and nanotechnology on ARB and ARG are also summarized.

  4. Genomic analysis reveals distinct concentration-dependent evolutionary trajectories for antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mogre, Aalap; Sengupta, Titas; Veetil, Reshma T; Ravi, Preethi; Seshasayee, Aswin Sai Narain

    2014-12-01

    Evolution of bacteria under sublethal concentrations of antibiotics represents a trade-off between growth and resistance to the antibiotic. To understand this trade-off, we performed in vitro evolution of laboratory Escherichia coli under sublethal concentrations of the aminoglycoside kanamycin over short time durations. We report that fixation of less costly kanamycin-resistant mutants occurred earlier in populations growing at lower sublethal concentration of the antibiotic, compared with those growing at higher sublethal concentrations; in the latter, resistant mutants with a significant growth defect persisted longer. Using deep sequencing, we identified kanamycin resistance-conferring mutations, which were costly or not in terms of growth in the absence of the antibiotic. Multiple mutations in the C-terminal end of domain IV of the translation elongation factor EF-G provided low-cost resistance to kanamycin. Despite targeting the same or adjacent residues of the protein, these mutants differed from each other in the levels of resistance they provided. Analysis of one of these mutations showed that it has little defect in growth or in synthesis of green fluorescent protein (GFP) from an inducible plasmid in the absence of the antibiotic. A second class of mutations, recovered only during evolution in higher sublethal concentrations of the antibiotic, deleted the C-terminal end of the ATP synthase shaft. This mutation confers basal-level resistance to kanamycin while showing a strong growth defect in the absence of the antibiotic. In conclusion, the early dynamics of the development of resistance to an aminoglycoside antibiotic is dependent on the levels of stress (concentration) imposed by the antibiotic, with the evolution of less costly variants only a matter of time.

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa antibiotic resistance in Australian cystic fibrosis centres.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel J; Ramsay, Kay A; Yerkovich, Stephanie T; Reid, David W; Wainwright, Claire E; Grimwood, Keith; Bell, Scott C; Kidd, Timothy J

    2016-02-01

    In cystic fibrosis (CF), chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is associated with increased morbidity, antibiotic treatments and mortality. By linking Australian CF registry data with a national microbiological data set, we examined the association between where treatment was delivered, its intensity and P. aeruginosa antibiotic resistance. Sputa were collected from paediatric and adult CF patients attending 18 Australian CF centres. P. aeruginosa antibiotic susceptibilities determined by local laboratories were correlated with clinical characteristics, treatment intensity and infection with strains commonly shared among Australian CF patients. Between-centre differences in treatment and antibiotic resistance were also compared. Large variations in antibiotic usage, maintenance treatment practices and multi-antibiotic resistant P. aeruginosa (MARPA) prevalence exist between Australian CF centres, although the overall proportions of MARPA isolates were similar in paediatric and adult centres (31% vs 35%, P = 0.29). Among paediatric centres, MARPA correlated with intravenous antibiotic usage and the Australian state where treatment was delivered, while azithromycin, reduced lung function and treating state predicted intravenous antibiotic usage. In adult centres, body mass index (BMI) and treating state were associated with MARPA, while intravenous antibiotic use was predicted by gender, BMI, dornase-alpha, azithromycin, lung function and treating state. In adults, P. aeruginosa strains AUST-01 and AUST-02 independently predicted intravenous antibiotic usage. Increased treatment intensity in paediatric centres and the Australian state where treatment was received are both associated with greater risk of MARPA, but not worse clinical outcomes. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  6. Inactivation of an integrated antibiotic resistance gene in mammalian cells to re-enable antibiotic selection.

    PubMed

    Ni, Peiling; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Haixia; Chen, Lingyi

    2014-01-01

    Removing an antibiotic resistance gene allows the same antibiotic to be re-used in the next round of genetic manipulation. Here we applied the CRISPR/Cas system to disrupt the puromycin resistance gene in an engineered mouse embryonic stem cell line and then re-used puromycin selection in the resulting cells to establish stable reporter cell lines. With the CRISPR/Cas system, pre-engineered sequences, such as loxP or FRT, are not required. Thus, this technique can be used to disrupt antibiotic resistance genes that cannot be removed by the Cre-loxP and Flp-FRT systems.

  7. Antibiotic resistance to Propionobacterium acnes: worldwide scenario, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Sardana, Kabir; Gupta, Tanvi; Garg, Vijay K; Ghunawat, Sneha

    2015-07-01

    Antibiotic resistance in cutaneous Propionobacterium is a global problem. As a general rule, resistance levels are high to macrolides, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and clindamycin, while tetracyclines and levofloxacin have low resistance potential. Newer preparations like doxycycline MR and doxycycline 20 mg are subantimicrobial and may not lead to resistance. Sampling techniques are crucial to determine resistance. Genomic evaluation using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing can be useful in diagnosing mutations and mapping phylotypes of Propionobacterium acnes. Resistance may lead to slow response and relapses. Apart from benzoyl peroxide, azelaic acid, topical dapsone, oral zinc and retinoids, novel molecules with little resistance potential include octadecenedioic acid, phytosphingosine, lauric acid, retapamulin, resveratrol, T-3912 and NB-003. The use of oral retinoids and non-antibiotics like zinc can prevent resistance and help reduce the dependence on antibiotics.

  8. Plasmid interference for curing antibiotic resistance plasmids in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kamruzzaman, Muhammad; Shoma, Shereen; Thomas, Christopher M.; Partridge, Sally R.

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance increases the likelihood of death from infection by common pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in developed and developing countries alike. Most important modern antibiotic resistance genes spread between such species on self-transmissible (conjugative) plasmids. These plasmids are traditionally grouped on the basis of replicon incompatibility (Inc), which prevents coexistence of related plasmids in the same cell. These plasmids also use post-segregational killing (‘addiction’) systems, which poison any bacterial cells that lose the addictive plasmid, to guarantee their own survival. This study demonstrates that plasmid incompatibilities and addiction systems can be exploited to achieve the safe and complete eradication of antibiotic resistance from bacteria in vitro and in the mouse gut. Conjugative ‘interference plasmids’ were constructed by specifically deleting toxin and antibiotic resistance genes from target plasmids. These interference plasmids efficiently cured the corresponding antibiotic resistant target plasmid from different Enterobacteriaceae in vitro and restored antibiotic susceptibility in vivo to all bacterial populations into which plasmid-mediated resistance had spread. This approach might allow eradication of emergent or established populations of resistance plasmids in individuals at risk of severe sepsis, enabling subsequent use of less toxic and/or more effective antibiotics than would otherwise be possible, if sepsis develops. The generalisability of this approach and its potential applications in bioremediation of animal and environmental microbiomes should now be systematically explored. PMID:28245276

  9. Plasmid interference for curing antibiotic resistance plasmids in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kamruzzaman, Muhammad; Shoma, Shereen; Thomas, Christopher M; Partridge, Sally R; Iredell, Jonathan R

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance increases the likelihood of death from infection by common pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in developed and developing countries alike. Most important modern antibiotic resistance genes spread between such species on self-transmissible (conjugative) plasmids. These plasmids are traditionally grouped on the basis of replicon incompatibility (Inc), which prevents coexistence of related plasmids in the same cell. These plasmids also use post-segregational killing ('addiction') systems, which poison any bacterial cells that lose the addictive plasmid, to guarantee their own survival. This study demonstrates that plasmid incompatibilities and addiction systems can be exploited to achieve the safe and complete eradication of antibiotic resistance from bacteria in vitro and in the mouse gut. Conjugative 'interference plasmids' were constructed by specifically deleting toxin and antibiotic resistance genes from target plasmids. These interference plasmids efficiently cured the corresponding antibiotic resistant target plasmid from different Enterobacteriaceae in vitro and restored antibiotic susceptibility in vivo to all bacterial populations into which plasmid-mediated resistance had spread. This approach might allow eradication of emergent or established populations of resistance plasmids in individuals at risk of severe sepsis, enabling subsequent use of less toxic and/or more effective antibiotics than would otherwise be possible, if sepsis develops. The generalisability of this approach and its potential applications in bioremediation of animal and environmental microbiomes should now be systematically explored.

  10. Molecular typing of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, S M; Emele, F E; Nwaokorie, F O; Idika, N; Umeizudike, A K; Emeka-Nwabunnia, I; Hanson, B M; Nair, R; Wardyn, S E; Smith, T C

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA) are a major concern in densely populated urban areas. Initial studies of S. aureus in Nigeria indicated existence of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus strains in clinical and community settings. 73 biological samples (40 throat, 23 nasal, 10 wound) were collected from patients and healthcare workers in three populations in Nigeria: Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, and Owerri General Hospital. S. aureus was isolated from 38 of 73 samples (52%). Of the 38 S. aureus samples, 9 (24%) carried the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene (PVL) while 16 (42%) possessed methicillin resistance genes (mecA). Antibiotic susceptibility profiles indicated resistance to several broad-spectrum antibiotics. Antibiotic-resistant S. aureus isolates were recovered from clinical and community settings in Nigeria. Insight about S. aureus in Nigeria may be used to improve antibiotic prescription methods and minimize the spread of antibiotic-resistant organisms in highly populated urban communities similar to Lagos, Nigeria. Copyright © 2014 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Occurrence and Antibiotic Resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from Shellfish in Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Letchumanan, Vengadesh; Pusparajah, Priyia; Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Yin, Wai-Fong; Lee, Learn-Han; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2015-01-01

    High consumer demand for shellfish has led to the need for large-scale, reliable shellfish supply through aquaculture or shellfish farming. However, bacterial infections which can spread rapidly among shellfish poses a major threat to this industry. Shellfish farmers therefore often resort to extensive use of antibiotics, both prophylactically and therapeutically, in order to protect their stocks. The extensive use of antibiotics in aquaculture has been postulated to represent a major contributing factor in the rising incidence of antimicrobial resistant pathogenic bacteria in shellfish. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus and determine the antibiotic resistance profile as well as to perform plasmid curing in order to determine the antibiotic resistance mediation. Based on colony morphology, all 450 samples tested were positive for Vibrio sp; however, tox-R assay showed that only 44.4% (200/450) of these were V. parahaemolyticus. Out of these 200 samples, 6.5% (13/200) were trh-positive while none were tdh-positive. Antibiotic resistance was determined for all V. parahaemolyticus identified against 14 commonly used antibiotics and the multiple antibiotic resistance index (MAR) was calculated. The isolates demonstrated high resistance to several antibiotics tested- including second and third-line antibiotics- with 88% resistant to ampicillin, 81% to amikacin,70.5% to kanamycin, 73% to cefotaxime, and 51.5% to ceftazidime. The MAR index ranged from 0.00 to 0.79 with the majority of samples having an index of 0.36 (resistant to five antibiotics). Among the 13 trh-positive strains, almost 70% (9/13) demonstrated resistance to 4 or more antibiotics. Plasmid profiling for all V. parahaemolyticus isolates revealed that 86.5% (173/200) contained plasmids - ranging from 1 to 7 plasmids with DNA band sizes ranging from 1.2 kb to greater than 10 kb. 6/13 of the pathogenic V. pathogenic strains contained plasmid. After plasmid

  12. Occurrence and Antibiotic Resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from Shellfish in Selangor, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Letchumanan, Vengadesh; Pusparajah, Priyia; Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Yin, Wai-Fong; Lee, Learn-Han; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2015-01-01

    High consumer demand for shellfish has led to the need for large-scale, reliable shellfish supply through aquaculture or shellfish farming. However, bacterial infections which can spread rapidly among shellfish poses a major threat to this industry. Shellfish farmers therefore often resort to extensive use of antibiotics, both prophylactically and therapeutically, in order to protect their stocks. The extensive use of antibiotics in aquaculture has been postulated to represent a major contributing factor in the rising incidence of antimicrobial resistant pathogenic bacteria in shellfish. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus and determine the antibiotic resistance profile as well as to perform plasmid curing in order to determine the antibiotic resistance mediation. Based on colony morphology, all 450 samples tested were positive for Vibrio sp; however, tox-R assay showed that only 44.4% (200/450) of these were V. parahaemolyticus. Out of these 200 samples, 6.5% (13/200) were trh-positive while none were tdh-positive. Antibiotic resistance was determined for all V. parahaemolyticus identified against 14 commonly used antibiotics and the multiple antibiotic resistance index (MAR) was calculated. The isolates demonstrated high resistance to several antibiotics tested- including second and third-line antibiotics- with 88% resistant to ampicillin, 81% to amikacin,70.5% to kanamycin, 73% to cefotaxime, and 51.5% to ceftazidime. The MAR index ranged from 0.00 to 0.79 with the majority of samples having an index of 0.36 (resistant to five antibiotics). Among the 13 trh-positive strains, almost 70% (9/13) demonstrated resistance to 4 or more antibiotics. Plasmid profiling for all V. parahaemolyticus isolates revealed that 86.5% (173/200) contained plasmids - ranging from 1 to 7 plasmids with DNA band sizes ranging from 1.2 kb to greater than 10 kb. 6/13 of the pathogenic V. pathogenic strains contained plasmid. After plasmid

  13. Detection of antibiotic resistance in probiotics of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Wong, Aloysius; Ngu, Davey Yueh Saint; Dan, Lydia Annabel; Ooi, Amanda; Lim, Renee Lay Hong

    2015-09-14

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer nutrition- and health-promoting benefits if consumed in adequate amounts. Concomitant with the demand for natural approaches to maintaining health is an increase in inclusion of probiotics in food and health products. Since probiotic bacteria act as reservoir for antibiotic resistant determinants, the transfer of these genes to pathogens sharing the same intestinal habitat is thus conceivable considering the fact that dietary supplements contain high amounts of often heterogeneous populations of probiotics. Such events can confer pathogens protection against commonly-used drugs. Despite numerous reports of antibiotic resistant probiotics in food and biological sources, the antibiogram of probiotics from dietary supplements remained elusive. Here, we screened five commercially available dietary supplements for resistance towards antibiotics of different classes. Probiotics of all batches of products were resistant towards vancomycin while batch-dependent resistance towards streptomycin, aztreonam, gentamycin and/or ciprofloxacin antibiotics was detected for probiotics of brands Bi and Bn, Bg, and L. Isolates of brand Cn was also resistant towards gentamycin, streptomycin and ciprofloxacin antibiotics. Additionally, we also report a discrepancy between the enumerated viable bacteria amounts and the claims of the manufacturers. This short report has highlighted the present of antibiotic resistance in probiotic bacteria from dietary supplements and therefore serves as a platform for further screenings and for in-depth characterization of the resistant determinants and the molecular machinery that confers the resistance.

  14. Metabolic constraints on the evolution of antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Mattia; Enke, Tim; Chubukov, Victor; Ricci, Vito; Piddock, Laura; Sauer, Uwe

    2017-03-06

    Despite our continuous improvement in understanding antibiotic resistance, the interplay between natural selection of resistance mutations and the environment remains unclear. To investigate the role of bacterial metabolism in constraining the evolution of antibiotic resistance, we evolved Escherichia coli growing on glycolytic or gluconeogenic carbon sources to the selective pressure of three different antibiotics. Profiling more than 500 intracellular and extracellular putative metabolites in 190 evolved populations revealed that carbon and energy metabolism strongly constrained the evolutionary trajectories, both in terms of speed and mode of resistance acquisition. To interpret and explore the space of metabolome changes, we developed a novel constraint-based modeling approach using the concept of shadow prices. This analysis, together with genome resequencing of resistant populations, identified condition-dependent compensatory mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, such as the shift from respiratory to fermentative metabolism of glucose upon overexpression of efflux pumps. Moreover, metabolome-based predictions revealed emerging weaknesses in resistant strains, such as the hypersensitivity to fosfomycin of ampicillin-resistant strains. Overall, resolving metabolic adaptation throughout antibiotic-driven evolutionary trajectories opens new perspectives in the fight against emerging antibiotic resistance.

  15. Previous antibiotic exposure and evolution of antibiotic resistance in mechanically ventilated patients with nosocomial infections.

    PubMed

    Hui, Chun; Lin, Ming-Chih; Jao, Mei-Shin; Liu, Tu-Chen; Wu, Ren-Guang

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of previous antibiotic exposure and the influence of time interval since exposure on the evolution of antibiotic-resistant infections. We retrospectively analyzed 167 mechanically ventilated patients with nosocomial infections over a 3-year period, with focus on infections in the bloodstream, urinary tract, lower respiratory tract, and surgical sites. Of 167 patients, 62% were confirmed as antibiotic resistant. The most common isolated pathogen was extended-spectrum β-lactamase Enterobacteriaceae (43.9%), followed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (22.8%), and carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (17.5%). Multivariate analysis revealed that the association between resistance and the time interval increased within 10 days (odds ratio [OR], 2.45; P=.133) and peaked at 11 to 20 days (OR, 7.17; P=.012). The data were categorized into 2 groups: when the time interval was more than 20 days, there was a 23.9% reduction in resistance rate compared with when the time interval was 20 days or less (OR, 0.36; P=.002). Although antibiotic exposure increased resistance rate in nosocomial infections, this association decreased as time interval increased. Antibiotic stewardship should consider the significance of time interval while investigating the evolution of subsequent antibiotic-resistant infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Antibiotics, Bacteria, and Antibiotic Resistance Genes: Aerial Transport from Cattle Feed Yards via Particulate Matter

    PubMed Central

    McEachran, Andrew D.; Blackwell, Brett R.; Hanson, J. Delton; Wooten, Kimberly J.; Mayer, Gregory D.; Cox, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance has become a global health threat and is often linked with overuse and misuse of clinical and veterinary chemotherapeutic agents. Modern industrial-scale animal feeding operations rely extensively on veterinary pharmaceuticals, including antibiotics, to augment animal growth. Following excretion, antibiotics are transported through the environment via runoff, leaching, and land application of manure; however, airborne transport from feed yards has not been characterized. Objectives: The goal of this study was to determine the extent to which antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes (ARG), and ruminant-associated microbes are aerially dispersed via particulate matter (PM) derived from large-scale beef cattle feed yards. Methods: PM was collected downwind and upwind of 10 beef cattle feed yards. After extraction from PM, five veterinary antibiotics were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, ARG were quantified via targeted quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and microbial community diversity was analyzed via 16S rRNA amplification and sequencing. Results: Airborne PM derived from feed yards facilitated dispersal of several veterinary antibiotics, as well as microbial communities containing ARG. Concentrations of several antibiotics in airborne PM immediately downwind of feed yards ranged from 0.5 to 4.6 μg/g of PM. Microbial communities of PM collected downwind of feed yards were enriched with ruminant-associated taxa and were distinct when compared to upwind PM assemblages. Furthermore, genes encoding resistance to tetracycline antibiotics were significantly more abundant in PM collected downwind of feed yards as compared to upwind. Conclusions: Wind-dispersed PM from feed yards harbors antibiotics, bacteria, and ARGs. Citation: McEachran AD, Blackwell BR, Hanson JD, Wooten KJ, Mayer GD, Cox SB, Smith PN. 2015. Antibiotics, bacteria, and antibiotic

  17. FabH Mutations Confer Resistance to FabF-Directed Antibiotics in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Joshua B.; Yao, Jiangwei; Frank, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    Delineating the mechanisms for genetically acquired antibiotic resistance is a robust approach to target validation and anticipates the evolution of clinical drug resistance. This study defines a spectrum of mutations in fabH that render Staphylococcus aureus resistant to multiple natural products known to inhibit the elongation condensing enzyme (FabF) of bacterial type II fatty acid synthesis. Twenty independently isolated clones resistant to platensimycin, platencin, or thiolactomycin were isolated. All mutants selected against one antibiotic were cross-resistant to the other two antibiotics. Mutations were not detected in fabF, but the resistant strains harbored missense mutations in fabH. The altered amino acids clustered in and around the FabH active-site tunnel. The mutant FabH proteins were catalytically compromised based on the low activities of the purified enzymes, a fatty acid-dependent growth phenotype, and elevated expression of the fabHF operon in the mutant strains. Independent manipulation of fabF and fabH expression levels showed that the FabH/FabF activity ratio was a major determinant of antibiotic sensitivity. Missense mutations that reduce FabH activity are sufficient to confer resistance to multiple antibiotics that bind to the FabF acyl-enzyme intermediate in S. aureus. PMID:25403676

  18. Environmental waters as a source of antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus species in Belgrade, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Veljović, Katarina; Popović, Nikola; Vidojević, Amarela Terzić; Tolinački, Maja; Mihajlović, Sanja; Jovčić, Branko; Kojić, Milan

    2015-09-01

    Despite the number of studies on antibiotic-resistant enterococci from Serbian clinical settings, there are no data about environmental contamination with these bacteria. Thus, this study investigated the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant enterococci in Belgrade, Serbia. Enterococcus species collected from ten surface water sites, including a lake, two major river systems, and springs, were tested. Among enterococci, we found single (21.7 %), double (17.4 %), and multiple antibiotic resistance patterns (56.3 %). Vancomycin-resistant strains were not found, indicating that their abundance in Belgrade is tightly linked to clinical settings. The multiple drug-resistant strains Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus mundtii were frequently detected in the lake during the swimming season and in the rivers near industrial zones. We confirmed the presence of ermB, ermC, ant(6)-Ia, tetM, and tetL and mutations in gyrA genes. The phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene of E. faecium isolates that harbor esp gene classified them into two groups based on high-bootstraps scores in the tree analysis. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of antibiotic-resistant enterococci revealed genomic similarity ranging from 75 to 100 %. This study indicates the importance of anthropogenic impact to the spread of antibiotic-resistant enterococci in environmental waters of Belgrade, Serbia.

  19. Evolution of antibiotic resistance by human and bacterial niche construction.

    PubMed

    Boni, Maciej F; Feldman, Marcus W

    2005-03-01

    Antibiotic treatment by humans generates strong viability selection for antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. The frequency of host antibiotic use often determines the strength of this selection, and changing patterns of antibiotic use can generate many types of behaviors in the population dynamics of resistant and sensitive bacterial populations. In this paper, we present a simple model of hosts dimorphic for their tendency to use/avoid antibiotics and bacterial pathogens dimorphic in their resistance/sensitivity to antibiotic treatment. When a constant fraction of hosts uses antibiotics, the two bacterial strain populations can coexist unless host use-frequency is above a critical value; this critical value is derived as the ratio of the fitness cost of resistance to the fitness cost of undergoing treatment. When strain frequencies can affect host behavior, the dynamics may be analyzed in the light of niche construction. We consider three models underlying changing host behavior: conformism, the avoidance of long infections, and adherence to the advice of public health officials. In the latter two, we find that the pathogen can have quite a strong effect on host behavior. In particular, if antibiotic use is discouraged when resistance levels are high, we observe a classic niche-construction phenomenon of maintaining strain polymorphism even in parameter regions where it would not be expected.

  20. The Changing Profile of Helicobacter pylori Antibiotic Resistance in Singapore: A 15-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Ang, Tiing Leong; Fock, Kwong Ming; Ang, Daphne; Kwek, Andrew Boon Eu; Teo, Eng Kiong; Dhamodaran, Subbiah

    2016-08-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an important cause of H. pylori treatment failure. This study aimed to examine the change in H. pylori antibiotic resistance profile in Singapore over the course of 15 years. The study period was from 2000 to 2014. Gastric mucosal biopsies obtained from H. pylori-positive patients were cultured. Antibiotic susceptibility to metronidazole, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, tetracycline, and amoxicillin was tested. The change in resistance rates over time was analyzed. A total of 708 H. pylori isolates were cultured. There was a significant increase in resistance rates for metronidazole (2000-2002: 24.8%; 2012-2014: 48.2%; p < .001), clarithromycin (2000-2002: 7.9%; 2012-2014: 17.1%; p = .022), and levofloxacin (2000-2002: 5%; 2012-2014: 14.7%; p = .007). The resistance rates for tetracycline (2000-2002: 5%; 2012-2014: 7.6%) and amoxicillin (2000-2002: 3%; 2012-2014: 4.4%) remained stable. Increase in dual (2000-2002: 6.9%; 2012-2014: 9.4%; p = .479) and triple antibiotic resistance rates (2000-2002: 0; 2012-2014: 7.6%; p < .001) were observed. Overall, the most common dual and triple resistance patterns were metronidazole/clarithromycin (4.4%) and metronidazole/clarithromycin/levofloxacin (1.8%), respectively. Over 15 years, H. pylori resistance rates to metronidazole, clarithromycin and levofloxacin had increased. There was increased resistance to multiple antibiotics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Computational gene network study on antibiotic resistance genes of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Anitha, P; Anbarasu, Anand; Ramaiah, Sudha

    2014-05-01

    Multi Drug Resistance (MDR) in Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the major threats for emerging nosocomial infections in hospital environment. Multidrug-resistance in A. baumannii may be due to the implementation of multi-combination resistance mechanisms such as β-lactamase synthesis, Penicillin-Binding Proteins (PBPs) changes, alteration in porin proteins and in efflux pumps against various existing classes of antibiotics. Multiple antibiotic resistance genes are involved in MDR. These resistance genes are transferred through plasmids, which are responsible for the dissemination of antibiotic resistance among Acinetobacter spp. In addition, these resistance genes may also have a tendency to interact with each other or with their gene products. Therefore, it becomes necessary to understand the impact of these interactions in antibiotic resistance mechanism. Hence, our study focuses on protein and gene network analysis on various resistance genes, to elucidate the role of the interacting proteins and to study their functional contribution towards antibiotic resistance. From the search tool for the retrieval of interacting gene/protein (STRING), a total of 168 functional partners for 15 resistance genes were extracted based on the confidence scoring system. The network study was then followed up with functional clustering of associated partners using molecular complex detection (MCODE). Later, we selected eight efficient clusters based on score. Interestingly, the associated protein we identified from the network possessed greater functional similarity with known resistance genes. This network-based approach on resistance genes of A. baumannii could help in identifying new genes/proteins and provide clues on their association in antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fighting antibiotic resistance in Sweden--past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Struwe, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Sweden has been in the favorable situation of having limited antibiotic resistance and low antibiotic consumption. When pneumococci with reduced susceptibility to penicillin and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus emerged during the 1990s, professionals and relevant authorities called for extensive action plans to avoid the critical threshold levels of resistance experienced in other countries. The purpose of this paper is to examine Swedish experiences in light of new and future challenges by reviewing Swedish data on antibiotic resistance and antibiotic use, notifications, outbreak control, action plans and scientific papers. The tradition of liberal performance of clinical cultures, together with well functioning diagnostic laboratories, has formed a basis for close collaboration and development of surveillance within quality assurance programs. For more than 20 years the pharmacy monopoly in Sweden has made it possible to collect well defined data on antibiotic sales at the county level with almost 100% coverage. Multisectorial collaboration was set up in regional Strama (Swedish Strategic Programme Against Antibiotic Resistance) groups. Large diagnosis-prescribing surveys have been undertaken, and the concept of basic hygiene precautions was introduced, together with extensive programs for early case finding. However, surveillance has been hampered by inadequate IT systems and some difficulties in collecting relevant data on antibiotic sales at the national level. Also, a decentralized system with 21 counties and regions has resulted in divergence of action plans and rules. The containment of antibiotic resistance thus far may be explained by the early response in human and veterinary medicine and close multisectorial collaboration, supported by the government, before problems got out of hand. Nevertheless, rapidly growing problems with bacteria that produce extended beta-lactamases have recently emerged and antibiotic sales have started to increase

  3. Antibiotic surgical prophylaxis increases nasal carriage of antibiotic-resistant staphylococci.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Claire L; Hardy, Katherine J; Verlander, Neville Q; Hawkey, Peter M

    2015-12-01

    Staphylococci are a significant cause of hospital-acquired infection. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is an important risk factor for infection in surgical patients and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a major cause of prosthetic joint infections. The impact that antibiotic surgical prophylaxis has on the nasal carriage of staphylococci has not been studied. Daily nasal swabs were taken from 63 patients who received antibiotic surgical prophylaxis and 16 patients who received no antibiotics. Total aerobic bacterial count, S. aureus and CNS were enumerated by culture from nasal swabs. Representative isolates were typed by staphylococcal interspersed repeat units (SIRU) typing and PFGE, and MICs to nine antibiotics were determined. After antibiotic administration, there was a reduction in S. aureus counts (median - 2.3 log(10)c.f.u. ml(- 1)) in 64.0 % of S. aureus carriers, compared with only a 0.89 log(10)c.f.u. ml(- 1) reduction in 75.0 % of S. aureus carriers who did not receive antibiotics. A greater increase in the nasal carriage rate of meticillin-resistant CNS was observed after antibiotic surgical prophylaxis compared with hospitalization alone, with increases of 16.4 and 4.6 %, respectively. Antibiotic-resistant S. epidermidis carriage rate increased by 16.6 % after antibiotic administration compared with 7.5 % with hospitalization alone. Antibiotic surgical prophylaxis impacts the nasal carriage of both S. aureus and CNS.

  4. Impact of antibiotic resistance in gram-negative bacilli on empirical and definitive antibiotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Paterson, David L

    2008-09-15

    Serious infections with gram-negative pathogens continue to be associated with considerable mortality. Increasing antibiotic resistance in organisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae is contributing to difficulties with choosing antibiotics to prescribe for these infections. Optimization of therapy against these organisms starts with the initial empirical antibiotic choice. Surveillance data and hospital or unit antibiograms may inform this decision, although individualization of the initial regimen on the basis of prior antibiotic use and prior isolation of resistant pathogens may be more important. Combinations of antibiotics are often required empirically, and "combination antibiograms" may need to be developed for this purpose. Preliminary data suggest that extending the time over which a dose of antipseudomonal beta-lactam antibiotics is infused may improve clinical outcomes; however, this idea remains to be confirmed in randomized trials. The role of direct susceptibility testing in aiding more-rapid initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy is also being studied. When identification and susceptibility testing is complete, the antibiotic regimen for infections due to gram-negative pathogens can be "fine tuned." On some occasions, this fine tuning necessitates the introduction of "salvage" antibiotics, such as colistin or tigecycline; on others, it necessitates de-escalation and early termination of therapy. The lack of new antibiotic options against gram-negative pathogens underscores the need for optimization of current therapies and prevention of the spread of these organisms.

  5. Integron Involvement in Environmental Spread of Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Stalder, Thibault; Barraud, Olivier; Casellas, Magali; Dagot, Christophe; Ploy, Marie-Cécile

    2012-01-01

    The spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a growing problem and a public health issue. In recent decades, various genetic mechanisms involved in the spread of resistance genes among bacteria have been identified. Integrons – genetic elements that acquire, exchange, and express genes embedded within gene cassettes (GC) – are one of these mechanisms. Integrons are widely distributed, especially in Gram-negative bacteria; they are carried by mobile genetic elements, plasmids, and transposons, which promote their spread within bacterial communities. Initially studied mainly in the clinical setting for their involvement in antibiotic resistance, their role in the environment is now an increasing focus of attention. The aim of this review is to provide an in-depth analysis of recent studies of antibiotic-resistance integrons in the environment, highlighting their potential involvement in antibiotic-resistance outside the clinical context. We will focus particularly on the impact of human activities (agriculture, industries, wastewater treatment, etc.). PMID:22509175

  6. Essential Oils, A New Horizon in Combating Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Polly Soo Xi; Yiap, Beow Chin; Ping, Hu Cai; Lim, Swee Hua Erin

    2014-01-01

    For many years, the battle between humans and the multitudes of infection and disease causing pathogens continues. Emerging at the battlefield as some of the most significant challenges to human health are bacterial resistance and its rapid rise. These have become a major concern in global public health invigorating the need for new antimicrobial compounds. A rational approach to deal with antibiotic resistance problems requires detailed knowledge of the different biological and non-biological factors that affect the rate and extent of resistance development. Combination therapy combining conventional antibiotics and essential oils is currently blooming and represents a potential area for future investigations. This new generation of phytopharmaceuticals may shed light on the development of new pharmacological regimes in combating antibiotic resistance. This review consolidated and described the observed synergistic outcome between essential oils and antibiotics, and highlighted the possibilities of essential oils as the potential resistance modifying agent. PMID:24627729

  7. At the Nexus of Antibiotics and Metals: The Impact of Cu and Zn on Antibiotic Activity and Resistance.

    PubMed

    Poole, Keith

    2017-10-01

    Environmental influences on antibiotic activity and resistance can wreak havoc with in vivo antibiotic efficacy and, ultimately, antimicrobial chemotherapy. In nature, bacteria encounter a variety of metal ions, particularly copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), as contaminants in soil and water, as feed additives in agriculture, as clinically-used antimicrobials, and as components of human antibacterial responses. Importantly, there is a growing body of evidence for Cu/Zn driving antibiotic resistance development in metal-exposed bacteria, owing to metal selection of genetic elements harbouring both metal and antibiotic resistance genes, and metal recruitment of antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Many classes of antibiotics also form complexes with metal cations, including Cu and Zn, and this can hinder (or enhance) antibiotic activity. This review highlights the ways in which Cu/Zn influence antibiotic resistance development and antibiotic activity, and in so doing impact in vivo antibiotic efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Economic implications of antibiotic resistance in a global economy.

    PubMed

    Rudholm, Niklas

    2002-11-01

    This paper concerns the economic implications of antibiotic resistance in a global economy. The global economy consists of several countries, where antibiotic consumption creates a stock of bacteria which is resistant to antibiotics. This stock affects the welfare in all coun