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Sample records for multiple didymella teleomorphs

  1. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati and its teleomorph Neosartorya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We revised the taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati along with its teleomorph genus Neosartorya. Our species concept is based phenotype (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular (beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences) characters in a polyphasic approach. Four new taxa are proposed:...

  2. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati and its teleomorph Neosartorya

    PubMed Central

    Samson, R.A.; Hong, S.; Peterson, S.W.; Frisvad, J.C.; Varga, J.

    2007-01-01

    The taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati with its teleomorph genus Neosartorya is revised. The species concept is based on phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular (β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences) characters in a polyphasic approach. Four new taxa are proposed: N. australensis N. ferenczii, N. papuaensis and N. warcupii. All newly described and accepted species are illustrated. The section consists of 33 taxa: 10 strictly anamorphic Aspergillus species and 23 Neosartorya species. Four other Neosartorya species described previously were not available for this monograph, and consequently are relegated to the category of doubtful species. PMID:18490953

  3. Phylogenetic placement of plant pathogenic Sclerotium species among teleomorph genera.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhihan; Harrington, Thomas C; Gleason, Mark L; Batzer, Jean C

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses and morphological characteristics were used to assess the taxonomic placement of eight plant-pathogenic Sclerotium species. Members of this genus produce only sclerotia and no fruiting bodies or spores, so Sclerotium species have been difficult to place taxonomically. Sequences of rDNA large subunit (LSU) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were determined for isolates of Sclerotium cepivorum, S. coffeicola, S. denigrans, S. hydrophilum, Ceratorhiza oryzae-sativae, S. perniciosum, S. rhizodes, S. rolfsii and S. rolfsii var. delphinii. Parsimony analysis grouped two species previously thought to be in the Basidiomycota, S. denigrans and S. perniciosum, within the Ascomycota; these species were found to have affinities with the teleomorph genera Sclerotinia and Stromatinia and the asexual Sclerotium cepivorum, which was known earlier to be related to Sclerotinia species. The other Sclerotium species were placed in one of two basidiomycetous groups, genera Athelia or Ceratobasidium. Based on rDNA analysis and morphology the basidiomycetous Sclerotium hydrophilum and S. rhizodes were transferred to genus Ceratorhiza, the anamorph of Ceratobasidium species. Sclerotium coffeicola was found to be close to S. rolfsii var. delphinii and S. rolfsii var. rolfsii, which was shown earlier to have an Athelia teleomorph. PMID:20361501

  4. Ogataea pignaliae sp. nov., the teleomorph of Candida pignaliae.

    PubMed

    Péter, Gábor; Tornai-Lehoczki, Judit; Dlauchy, Dénes

    2010-10-01

    Six ascosporulating Candida pignaliae strains were isolated from epigeal plant parts in Hungary. They share identical D1/D2 LSU rRNA gene sequences with the type strain of C. pignaliae, and the physiological characteristics investigated are also very similar to that of the type strain. The only substantial difference compared to the type strain of C. pignaliae is their ability to assimilate β-glucosides (cellobiose, salicin and arbutin). The majority of the isolation sources of the strains reported in this study have the common feature of containing tannic acid, while the type strain of C. pignaliae was recovered from tanning fluid. We were able to induce ascosporulation also in the type strain of C. pignaliae. Therefore, Ogataea pignaliae Péter, Tornai-Lehoczki & Dlauchy sp. nov. is proposed as the teleomorph of C. pignaliae (F. H. Jacob) S. A. Meyer & Yarrow. The type strain is CBS 6071(T).

  5. New teleomorph combinations in the entomopathogenic genus Metacordyceps.

    PubMed

    Kepler, R M; Sung, G-H; Ban, S; Nakagiri, A; Chen, M-J; Huang, B; Li, Z; Spatafora, J W

    2012-01-01

    The genus Metacordyceps contains arthropod pathogens in Clavicipitaceae (Hypocreales) that formerly were classified in Cordyceps sensu Kobayasi et Mains. Of the current arthropod pathogenic genera of Hypocreales, the genus Metacordyceps remains one of the most poorly understood and contains a number of teleomorphic morphologies convergent with species of Cordyceps s.s. (Cordycipitaceae) and Ophiocordyceps (Ophiocordycipitaceae). Of note, the anamorph genera Metarhizium and Pochonia were found to be associated only with Metacordyceps and demonstrated to be phylogenetically informative for the clade. Several species of Cordyceps considered to have uncertain placements (incertae sedis) in the current taxonomic framework of clavicipitoid fungi were collected during field expeditions mostly in eastern Asia. Species reclassified here in Metacordyceps include Cordyceps atrovirens Kobayasi & Shimizu, Cordyceps indigotica Kobayasi & Shimizu, Cordyceps khaoyaiensis Hywel-Jones, Cordyceps kusanagiensis Kobayasi & Shimizu, Cordyceps martialis Speg., Ophiocordyceps owariensis Kobayasi, Cordyceps pseudoatrovirens Kobayasi & Shimizu and Ophicordyceps owariensis f. viridescens (Uchiy. & Udagawa) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora. Incorporation of these species in a multigene phylogenetic framework of the major clades of clavicipitoid fungi more than doubled the number of species in Metacordyceps and allowed for refinement of morphological concepts for the genus consistent with the phylogenetic structure. Based on these findings we then discuss evolution of this genus, subgeneric relationships, anamorph connections, and suggest additional species that should be confirmed for possible inclusion in Metacordyceps. PMID:22067304

  6. Clarification on Host Range of Didymella pinodes the Causal Agent of Pea Ascochyta Blight

    PubMed Central

    Barilli, Eleonora; Cobos, Maria José; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Didymella pinodes is the principal causal agent of ascochyta blight, one of the most important fungal diseases of pea (Pisum sativum) worldwide. Understanding its host specificity has crucial implications in epidemiology and management; however, this has not been clearly delineated yet. In this study we attempt to clarify the host range of D. pinodes and to compare it with that of other close Didymella spp. D. pinodes was very virulent on pea accessions, although differences in virulence were identified among isolates. On the contrary, studied isolates of D. fabae, D. rabiei, and D. lentil showed a reduced ability to infect pea not causing macroscopically visible symptoms on any of the pea accessions tested. D. pinodes isolates were also infective to some extend on almost all species tested including species such as Hedysarum coronarium, Lathyrus sativus, Lupinus albus, Medicago spp., Trifolium spp., Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vicia articulata which were not mentioned before as hosts of D. pinodes. On the contrary, D. lentil and D. rabiei were more specific, infecting only lentil and chickpea, respectively. D. fabae was intermediate, infecting mainly faba bean, but also slightly other species such as Glycine max, Phaseolus vulgaris, Trifolium spp., Vicia sativa, and V. articulata. DNA sequence analysis of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) was performed to confirm identity of the isolates studies and to determine phylogenetic relationship among the Didymella species, revealing the presence of two clearly distinct clades. Clade one was represented by two supported subclusters including D. fabae isolates as well as D. rabiei with D. lentil isolates. Clade two was the largest and included all the D. pinodes isolates as well as Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. Genetic distance between D. pinodes and the other Didymella spp. isolates was not correlated with overall differences in pathogenicity. Based on evidences presented here, D

  7. Clarification on Host Range of Didymella pinodes the Causal Agent of Pea Ascochyta Blight.

    PubMed

    Barilli, Eleonora; Cobos, Maria José; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Didymella pinodes is the principal causal agent of ascochyta blight, one of the most important fungal diseases of pea (Pisum sativum) worldwide. Understanding its host specificity has crucial implications in epidemiology and management; however, this has not been clearly delineated yet. In this study we attempt to clarify the host range of D. pinodes and to compare it with that of other close Didymella spp. D. pinodes was very virulent on pea accessions, although differences in virulence were identified among isolates. On the contrary, studied isolates of D. fabae, D. rabiei, and D. lentil showed a reduced ability to infect pea not causing macroscopically visible symptoms on any of the pea accessions tested. D. pinodes isolates were also infective to some extend on almost all species tested including species such as Hedysarum coronarium, Lathyrus sativus, Lupinus albus, Medicago spp., Trifolium spp., Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vicia articulata which were not mentioned before as hosts of D. pinodes. On the contrary, D. lentil and D. rabiei were more specific, infecting only lentil and chickpea, respectively. D. fabae was intermediate, infecting mainly faba bean, but also slightly other species such as Glycine max, Phaseolus vulgaris, Trifolium spp., Vicia sativa, and V. articulata. DNA sequence analysis of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) was performed to confirm identity of the isolates studies and to determine phylogenetic relationship among the Didymella species, revealing the presence of two clearly distinct clades. Clade one was represented by two supported subclusters including D. fabae isolates as well as D. rabiei with D. lentil isolates. Clade two was the largest and included all the D. pinodes isolates as well as Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. Genetic distance between D. pinodes and the other Didymella spp. isolates was not correlated with overall differences in pathogenicity. Based on evidences presented here, D

  8. Zygoascus hellenicus gen. nov., sp. nov., the teleomorph of Candida hellenica (= C. inositophila = C. steatolytica).

    PubMed

    Smith, M T

    1986-01-01

    The anamorphic yeast species Candida hellenica, C. inositophila and C. steatolytica were found to constitute haploid mating types of an undescribed, filamentous heterothallic Endomycete. The new genus Zygoascus is proposed for the teleomorph. Descriptions are given of the genus and type species, Z. hellenicus.

  9. Toxicity of mancozeb, chlorothalonil, captan, fluopyram, boscalid, and difenoconazole to Didymella applanata isolates from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mirković, Biljana; Tanović, Brankica; Stević, Milan; Hrustić, Jovana; Mihajlović, Milica; Delibašić, Goran; Vukša, Petar

    2015-01-01

    Field isolates of Didymella applanata, the causal agent of spur blight of raspberry, were evaluated in vitro for their sensitivity to mancozeb, chlorothalonil, captan, fluopyram, boscalid and difenoconazole. A total of 10 isolates, collected during 2013 at five localities in the major raspberry growing region in Serbia, and characterized as copper hydroxide, dithianon, and tebuconazole (sensitive), pyraclostrobin (sensitive or highly resistant) and fluazinam (sensitive or moderately resistant), were used in this study. The EC50 values for the isolates ranged from 1.33 to 2.88 mg L(-1) for mancozeb, from 3.18 to 6.65 mg L(-1) for chlorothalonil, from 15.75 to 24.69 mg L(-1) for captan and from 1.80 to 8.20 mg L(-1) for fluopyram. The narrowest range of EC50 values was recorded for difenoconazole (0.23-0.49 mg L(-1)), whereas the widest range was obtained for boscalid (4.49-49.25 mg L(-1)). The calculated resistance factors showed that all D. applanata isolates were sensitive to mancozeb, chlorothalonil, captan, and difenoconazole. Four isolates were moderately resistant to boscalid, while three of them were also moderately resistant to fluopyram. This finding of moderately resistant isolates to these SDHI fungicides indicates a possible cross-resistance which should be clarified in further investigations.

  10. Toxicity of mancozeb, chlorothalonil, captan, fluopyram, boscalid, and difenoconazole to Didymella applanata isolates from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mirković, Biljana; Tanović, Brankica; Stević, Milan; Hrustić, Jovana; Mihajlović, Milica; Delibašić, Goran; Vukša, Petar

    2015-01-01

    Field isolates of Didymella applanata, the causal agent of spur blight of raspberry, were evaluated in vitro for their sensitivity to mancozeb, chlorothalonil, captan, fluopyram, boscalid and difenoconazole. A total of 10 isolates, collected during 2013 at five localities in the major raspberry growing region in Serbia, and characterized as copper hydroxide, dithianon, and tebuconazole (sensitive), pyraclostrobin (sensitive or highly resistant) and fluazinam (sensitive or moderately resistant), were used in this study. The EC50 values for the isolates ranged from 1.33 to 2.88 mg L(-1) for mancozeb, from 3.18 to 6.65 mg L(-1) for chlorothalonil, from 15.75 to 24.69 mg L(-1) for captan and from 1.80 to 8.20 mg L(-1) for fluopyram. The narrowest range of EC50 values was recorded for difenoconazole (0.23-0.49 mg L(-1)), whereas the widest range was obtained for boscalid (4.49-49.25 mg L(-1)). The calculated resistance factors showed that all D. applanata isolates were sensitive to mancozeb, chlorothalonil, captan, and difenoconazole. Four isolates were moderately resistant to boscalid, while three of them were also moderately resistant to fluopyram. This finding of moderately resistant isolates to these SDHI fungicides indicates a possible cross-resistance which should be clarified in further investigations. PMID:26252498

  11. Toxicity of copper hydroxide, dithianon, fluazinam, tebuconazole and pyraclostrobin to Didymella applanata isolates from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mirković, Biljana; Tanović, Brankica; Hrustić, Jovana; Mihajlović, Milica; Stević, Milan; Delibašić, Goran; Vukša, Petar

    2015-01-01

    A study of the in vitro sensitivity of 10 isolates of Didymella applanata to copper hydroxide, dithianon, fluazinam, tebuconazole and pyraclostrobin, was conducted. The isolates were derived from diseased raspberry canes sampled during 2013 at five localities in western part of Serbia, known as the main raspberry growing region of the country. Prior to sensitivity testing experimental conditions for radial growth assay were optimized. The results showed that the temperature of 22 °C, oatmeal agar medium and 12/12 hrs light/ darkness light regimen provided the best conditions for sensitivity tests. Most of D. applanata isolates were sensitive to the tested fungicides. The narrowest range of EC50 values was recorded for tebuconazole (1.42-2.66 mg L(-1)). The widest range of EC50 values was obtained for pyraclostrobin, ranging from 0.17 mg L(-1) to 55.33 mg L(-1). The EC50 values for the studied isolates were 39.48-51.19 mg L(-1) for copper hydroxide, 12.12-18.73 mg L(-1) for dithianon and 5.72-42.56 mg L(-1) for fluazinam. According to resistance factor values, all D. applanata isolates were sensitive to copper hydroxide, dithianon and tebuconazole. Among tested isolates, six were highly resistant to pyraclostrobin (RFs in the range of 207.1-325.5) and two moderately resistant to fluazinam (RFs were 3 and 7.4), respectively. PMID:25602150

  12. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Didymella bryoniae by Visual Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xiefeng; Li, Pingfang; Xu, Jinghua; Zhang, Man; Ren, Runsheng; Liu, Guang; Yang, Xingping

    2016-01-01

    Didymella bryoniae is a pathogenic fungus that causes gummy stem blight (GSB) in Cucurbitaceae crops (e.g., cantaloupe, muskmelon, cucumber, and watermelon). GSB produces lesions on the stems and leaves, and can also be spread by seeds. Here, we developed a rapid, visual, and sensitive loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) assay for D. bryoniae detection based on sequence-characterized amplified regions (GenBank accession nos GQ872461 and GQ872462) common to the two random amplification of polymorphic DNA group genotypes (RGI and RGII) of D. bryoniae; ideal conditions for detection were optimized for completion in 45 min at 63°C. The sensitivity and specificity of the LAMP assay were further analyzed in comparison with those of a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sensitivity of the LAMP assay was 1000-fold higher than that of conventional PCR with a detection limit of 0.1 fg μL-1 of targeted DNA. The LAMP assay could be accomplished in about 45 min, with the results visible to the naked eye. The assay showed high specificity in discriminating all D. bryoniae isolates from seven other fungal pathogens that occur in Cucurbitaceae crops. The LAMP assay also detected D. bryoniae infection in young muskmelon leaves with suspected early symptoms of GSB disease. Hence, the technique has great potential for developing rapid and sensitive visual detection methods for the D. bryoniae pathogen in crops and seeds. This method has potential application in early prediction of disease and reducing the risk of epidemics.

  13. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Didymella bryoniae by Visual Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiefeng; Li, Pingfang; Xu, Jinghua; Zhang, Man; Ren, Runsheng; Liu, Guang; Yang, Xingping

    2016-01-01

    Didymella bryoniae is a pathogenic fungus that causes gummy stem blight (GSB) in Cucurbitaceae crops (e.g., cantaloupe, muskmelon, cucumber, and watermelon). GSB produces lesions on the stems and leaves, and can also be spread by seeds. Here, we developed a rapid, visual, and sensitive loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) assay for D. bryoniae detection based on sequence-characterized amplified regions (GenBank accession nos GQ872461 and GQ872462) common to the two random amplification of polymorphic DNA group genotypes (RGI and RGII) of D. bryoniae; ideal conditions for detection were optimized for completion in 45 min at 63°C. The sensitivity and specificity of the LAMP assay were further analyzed in comparison with those of a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sensitivity of the LAMP assay was 1000-fold higher than that of conventional PCR with a detection limit of 0.1 fg μL(-1) of targeted DNA. The LAMP assay could be accomplished in about 45 min, with the results visible to the naked eye. The assay showed high specificity in discriminating all D. bryoniae isolates from seven other fungal pathogens that occur in Cucurbitaceae crops. The LAMP assay also detected D. bryoniae infection in young muskmelon leaves with suspected early symptoms of GSB disease. Hence, the technique has great potential for developing rapid and sensitive visual detection methods for the D. bryoniae pathogen in crops and seeds. This method has potential application in early prediction of disease and reducing the risk of epidemics. PMID:27625648

  14. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Didymella bryoniae by Visual Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xiefeng; Li, Pingfang; Xu, Jinghua; Zhang, Man; Ren, Runsheng; Liu, Guang; Yang, Xingping

    2016-01-01

    Didymella bryoniae is a pathogenic fungus that causes gummy stem blight (GSB) in Cucurbitaceae crops (e.g., cantaloupe, muskmelon, cucumber, and watermelon). GSB produces lesions on the stems and leaves, and can also be spread by seeds. Here, we developed a rapid, visual, and sensitive loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) assay for D. bryoniae detection based on sequence-characterized amplified regions (GenBank accession nos GQ872461 and GQ872462) common to the two random amplification of polymorphic DNA group genotypes (RGI and RGII) of D. bryoniae; ideal conditions for detection were optimized for completion in 45 min at 63°C. The sensitivity and specificity of the LAMP assay were further analyzed in comparison with those of a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sensitivity of the LAMP assay was 1000-fold higher than that of conventional PCR with a detection limit of 0.1 fg μL-1 of targeted DNA. The LAMP assay could be accomplished in about 45 min, with the results visible to the naked eye. The assay showed high specificity in discriminating all D. bryoniae isolates from seven other fungal pathogens that occur in Cucurbitaceae crops. The LAMP assay also detected D. bryoniae infection in young muskmelon leaves with suspected early symptoms of GSB disease. Hence, the technique has great potential for developing rapid and sensitive visual detection methods for the D. bryoniae pathogen in crops and seeds. This method has potential application in early prediction of disease and reducing the risk of epidemics. PMID:27625648

  15. Phylogenetic placement of the lichenicolous, anamorphic genus Lichenodiplis and its connection to Muellerella-like teleomorphs.

    PubMed

    Muggia, Lucia; Kopun, Theodora; Ertz, Damien

    2015-11-01

    Lichenicolous fungi are a specialized group of taxa which inhabit lichens and develop diverse degrees of specificity and parasitic behaviour towards their hosts. They are recognized only by their phenotypic symptoms and sexual or asexual spore-producing structures on the lichen thalli. Only recently, molecular data and culture dependent approaches have helped in uncovering the species diversity and in verifying the phylogenetic position and anamorph-teleomorph relationships of some taxa. Here, we studied the phylogenetic placement of representative taxa of two lichenicolous genera, the coelomycete Lichenodiplis and the ascomycete Muellerella. We obtained molecular data for three nuclear and mitochondrial loci (28S, 18S, and 16S), both from fresh collected specimens and culture isolates. Our multilocus phylogeny places Lichenodiplis and Muellerella samples in one monophyletic, fully supported clade, sister to Epibryon (Epibryaceae) in Chaetothyriales (Eurotiomycetes). Morphological analyses of axenically cultured fungi show the formation of conidiomata and conidiospores in both Lichenodiplis and Muellerella isolates. We suggest that the species Lichenodiplis lecanorae and Muellerella atricola represent, respectively, the anamorphic and teleomorphic stages of the same fungus and discuss their relationships with the other fungal families in Chaetothyriomycetidae. PMID:26466884

  16. Resolving the phylogenetic and taxonomic status of dark-spored teleomorph genera in the Botryosphaeriaceae.

    PubMed

    Phillips, A J L; Alves, A; Pennycook, S R; Johnston, P R; Ramaley, A; Akulov, A; Crous, P W

    2008-12-01

    Species in the Botryosphaeriaceae are common plant pathogens and saprobes found on a variety of mainly woody hosts. Teleomorphs typically have hyaline, aseptate ascospores. However, some have been reported with brown ascospores and their taxonomic status is uncertain. A multi-gene approach (SSU, ITS, LSU, EF1-alpha and beta-tubulin) was used to resolve the correct phylogenetic position of the dark-spored 'Botryosphaeria' teleomorphs and related asexual species. Neodeightonia and Phaeobotryon are reinstated for species with brown ascospores that are either 1-septate (Neodeightonia) or 2-septate (Phaeobotryon). Phaeobotryosphaeria is reinstated for species with brown, aseptate ascospores that bear an apiculus at either end. The status of Sphaeropsis is clarified and shown to be the anamorph of Phaeobotryosphaeria. Two new genera, namely Barriopsis for species having brown, aseptate ascospores without apiculi and Spencermartinsia for species having brown, 1-septate ascospores with an apiculus at either end are introduced. Species of Dothiorella have brown, 1-septate ascospores and differ from Spencermartinsia in the absence of apiculi. These six genera can also be distinguished from one another based on morphological characters of their anamorphs. Although previously placed in the Botryosphaeriaceae, Dothidotthia, was shown to belong in the Pleosporales, and the new family Dothidotthiaceae is introduced to accommodate it. PMID:20396576

  17. Role of prodigiosin and chitinases in antagonistic activity of the bacterium Serratia marcescens against the fungus Didymella applanata.

    PubMed

    Duzhak, A B; Panfilova, Z I; Duzhak, T G; Vasyunina, E A; Shternshis, M V

    2012-08-01

    The molecular features of antagonism of the bacterium Serratia marcescens against the plant pathogenic fungus Didymella applanata have been studied. The chitinases and the red pigment prodigiosin (PG) of S. marcescens were isolated and characterized. Specific antifungal activity of the purified PG and chitinases against D. applanata was tested in vitro. The antagonistic properties of several S. marcescens strains exhibiting different levels of PG and chitinase production were analyzed in vitro with regard to D. applanata. It was found that the ability of S. marcescens to suppress the vital functions of D. applanata depends mainly on the level of PG production, whereas chitinase production does not provide the bacterium with any competitive advantage over the fungus.

  18. Ecological genetic divergence of the fungal pathogen Didymella rabiei on sympatric wild and domesticated Cicer spp. (Chickpea).

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Omer; Peever, Tobin L; Chilvers, Martin I; Ozkilinc, Hilal; Can, Canan; Abbo, Shahal; Shtienberg, Dani; Sherman, Amir

    2010-01-01

    For millennia, chickpea (Cicer arietinum) has been grown in the Levant sympatrically with wild Cicer species. Chickpea is traditionally spring-sown, while its wild relatives germinate in the autumn and develop in the winter. It has been hypothesized that the human-directed shift of domesticated chickpea to summer production was an attempt to escape the devastating Ascochyta disease caused by Didymella rabiei. We estimated genetic divergence between D. rabiei isolates sampled from wild Cicer judaicum and domesticated C. arietinum and the potential role of temperature adaptation in this divergence. Neutral genetic markers showed strong differentiation between pathogen samples from the two hosts. Isolates from domesticated chickpea demonstrated increased adaptation to higher temperatures when grown in vitro compared with isolates from the wild host. The distribution of temperature responses among progeny from crosses of isolates from C. judaicum with isolates from C. arietinum was continuous, suggesting polygenic control of this trait. In vivo inoculations of host plants indicated that pathogenic fitness of the native isolates was higher than that of their hybrid progeny. The results indicate that there is a potential for adaptation to higher temperatures; however, the chances for formation of hybrids which are capable of parasitizing both hosts over a broad temperature range are low. We hypothesize that this pathogenic fitness cost is due to breakdown of coadapted gene complexes controlling pathogenic fitness on each host and may be responsible for maintenance of genetic differentiation between the pathogen demes.

  19. Ecological Genetic Divergence of the Fungal Pathogen Didymella rabiei on Sympatric Wild and Domesticated Cicer spp. (Chickpea) ▿

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, Omer; Peever, Tobin L.; Chilvers, Martin I.; Özkilinc, Hilal; Can, Canan; Abbo, Shahal; Shtienberg, Dani; Sherman, Amir

    2010-01-01

    For millennia, chickpea (Cicer arietinum) has been grown in the Levant sympatrically with wild Cicer species. Chickpea is traditionally spring-sown, while its wild relatives germinate in the autumn and develop in the winter. It has been hypothesized that the human-directed shift of domesticated chickpea to summer production was an attempt to escape the devastating Ascochyta disease caused by Didymella rabiei. We estimated genetic divergence between D. rabiei isolates sampled from wild Cicer judaicum and domesticated C. arietinum and the potential role of temperature adaptation in this divergence. Neutral genetic markers showed strong differentiation between pathogen samples from the two hosts. Isolates from domesticated chickpea demonstrated increased adaptation to higher temperatures when grown in vitro compared with isolates from the wild host. The distribution of temperature responses among progeny from crosses of isolates from C. judaicum with isolates from C. arietinum was continuous, suggesting polygenic control of this trait. In vivo inoculations of host plants indicated that pathogenic fitness of the native isolates was higher than that of their hybrid progeny. The results indicate that there is a potential for adaptation to higher temperatures; however, the chances for formation of hybrids which are capable of parasitizing both hosts over a broad temperature range are low. We hypothesize that this pathogenic fitness cost is due to breakdown of coadapted gene complexes controlling pathogenic fitness on each host and may be responsible for maintenance of genetic differentiation between the pathogen demes. PMID:19897759

  20. A Beauveria phylogeny inferred from nuclear ITS and EF1-alpha sequences: evidence for cryptic diversification and links to Cordyceps teleomorphs.

    PubMed

    Rehner, Stephen A; Buckley, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    Beauveria is a globally distributed genus of soil-borne entomopathogenic hyphomycetes of interest as a model system for the study of entomopathogenesis and the biological control of pest insects. Species recognition in Beauveria is difficult due to a lack of taxonomically informative morphology. This has impeded assessment of species diversity in this genus and investigation of their natural history. A gene-genealogical approach was used to investigate molecular phylogenetic diversity of Beauveria and several presumptively related Cordyceps species. Analyses were based on nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-alpha) sequences for 86 exemplar isolates from diverse geographic origins, habitats and insect hosts. Phylogenetic trees were inferred using maximum parsimony and Bayesian likelihood methods. Six well supported clades within Beauveria, provisionally designated A-F, were resolved in the EF1-alpha and combined gene phylogenies. Beauveria bassiana, a ubiquitous species that is characterized morphologically by globose to subglobose conidia, was determined to be non-monophyletic and consists of two unrelated lineages, clades A and C. Clade A is globally distributed and includes the Asian teleomorph Cordyceps staphylinidaecola and its probable synonym C. bassiana. All isolates contained in Clade C are anamorphic and originate from Europe and North America. Clade B includes isolates of B. brongniartii, a Eurasian species complex characterized by ellipsoidal conidia. Clade D includes B. caledonica and B. vermiconia, which produce cylindrical and comma-shaped conidia, respectively. Clade E, from Asia, includes Beauveria anamorphs and a Cordyceps teleomorph that both produce ellipsoidal conidia. Clade F, the basal branch in the Beauveria phylogeny includes the South American species B. amorpha, which produces cylindrical conidia. Lineage diversity detected within clades A, B and C suggests that prevailing morphological

  1. Recent advances in genes involved in secondary metabolite synthesis, hyphal development, energy metabolism and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae).

    PubMed

    Geng, Zongyi; Zhu, Wei; Su, Hao; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Yang, Jinkui

    2014-01-01

    The ascomycete fungus, Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae), is the most common causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease for cereal crops worldwide. F. graminearum produces ascospores (sexual spores) and conidia (asexual spores), which can serve as disease inocula of FHB. Meanwhile, Fusarium-infected grains are often contaminated with mycotoxins such as trichothecenes (TRIs), fumonisins, and zearalenones, among which TRIs are related to the pathogenicity of F. graminearum, and these toxins are hazardous to humans and livestock. In recent years, with the complete genome sequencing of F. graminearum, an increasing number of functional genes involved in the production of secondary metabolites, hyphal differentiation, sexual and asexual reproduction, virulence and pathogenicity have been identified from F. graminearum. In this review, the secondary metabolite synthesis, hyphal development and pathogenicity related genes in F. graminearum were thoroughly summarized, and the genes associated with secondary metabolites, sexual reproduction, energy metabolism, and pathogenicity were highlighted.

  2. A Compromised Mlo Pathway Affects the Response of Barley to the Necrotrophic Fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana (Teleomorph: Cochliobolus sativus) and Its Toxins.

    PubMed

    Kumar, J; Hückelhoven, R; Beckhove, U; Nagarajan, S; Kogel, K H

    2001-02-01

    ABSTRACT In search of new durable disease resistance traits in barley to control leaf spot blotch disease caused by the necrotrophic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana (teleomorph: Cochliobolus sativus), we developed macroscopic and microscopic scales to judge spot blotch disease development on barley. Infection of barley was associated with cell wall penetration and accumulation of hydrogen peroxide. The latter appeared to take place in cell wall swellings under fungal penetration attempts as well as during cell death provoked by the necrotrophic pathogen. Additionally, we tested the influence of a compromised Mlo pathway that confers broad resistance against powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei). Powdery mildew-resistant genotypes with mutations at the Mlo locus (mlo genotypes) showed a higher sensitivity to infiltration of toxic culture filtrate of Bipolaris sorokiniana as compared with wild-type barley. Mutants defective in Ror, a gene required for mlo-specified powdery mildew resistance, were also more sensitive to Bipolaris sorokiniana toxins than wild-type barley but showed less symptoms than mlo5 parents. Fungal culture filtrates induced an H2O2 burst in all mutants, whereas wild-type (Mlo) barley was less sensitive. The results support the hypothesis that the barley Mlo gene product functions as a suppresser of cell death. Therefore, a compromised Mlo pathway is effective for control of biotrophic powdery mildew fungus but not for necrotrophic Bipolaris sorokiniana. We discuss the problem of finding resistance traits that are effective against both biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens with emphasis on the role of the anti-oxidative system of plant cells.

  3. Highlights of the Didymellaceae: A polyphasic approach to characterise Phoma and related pleosporalean genera

    PubMed Central

    Aveskamp, M.M.; de Gruyter, J.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Crous, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Fungal taxonomists routinely encounter problems when dealing with asexual fungal species due to poly- and paraphyletic generic phylogenies, and unclear species boundaries. These problems are aptly illustrated in the genus Phoma. This phytopathologically significant fungal genus is currently subdivided into nine sections which are mainly based on a single or just a few morphological characters. However, this subdivision is ambiguous as several of the section-specific characters can occur within a single species. In addition, many teleomorph genera have been linked to Phoma, three of which are recognised here. In this study it is attempted to delineate generic boundaries, and to come to a generic circumscription which is more correct from an evolutionary point of view by means of multilocus sequence typing. Therefore, multiple analyses were conducted utilising sequences obtained from 28S nrDNA (Large Subunit - LSU), 18S nrDNA (Small Subunit - SSU), the Internal Transcribed Spacer regions 1 & 2 and 5.8S nrDNA (ITS), and part of the β-tubulin (TUB) gene region. A total of 324 strains were included in the analyses of which most belonged to Phoma taxa, whilst 54 to related pleosporalean fungi. In total, 206 taxa were investigated, of which 159 are known to have affinities to Phoma. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the current Boeremaean subdivision is incorrect from an evolutionary point of view, revealing the genus to be highly polyphyletic. Phoma species are retrieved in six distinct clades within the Pleosporales, and appear to reside in different families. The majority of the species, however, including the generic type, clustered in a recently established family, Didymellaceae. In the second part of this study, the phylogenetic variation of the species and varieties in this clade was further assessed. Next to the genus Didymella, which is considered to be the sole teleomorph of Phoma s. str., we also retrieved taxa belonging to the teleomorph genera

  4. Multiple Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... is called multiple pregnancy . If more than one egg is released during the menstrual cycle and each ... fraternal twins (or more). When a single fertilized egg splits, it results in multiple identical embryos. This ...

  5. Multiple myeloma

    MedlinePlus

    Plasma cell dyscrasia; Plasma cell myeloma; Malignant plasmacytoma; Plasmacytoma of bone; Myeloma - multiple ... Multiple myeloma most commonly causes: Low red blood cell count ( anemia ), which can lead to fatigue and ...

  6. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the ... attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Multiple sclerosis affects women more than men. It often begins ...

  7. Finger Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simanihuruk, Mudin

    2011-01-01

    Multiplication facts are difficult to teach. Therefore many researchers have put a great deal of effort into finding multiplication strategies. Sherin and Fuson (2005) provided a good survey paper on the multiplication strategies research area. Kolpas (2002), Rendtorff (1908), Dabell (2001), Musser (1966) and Markarian (2009) proposed the finger…

  8. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multiple Sclerosis Information Page Condensed from Multiple Sclerosis: Hope Through ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Multiple Sclerosis? An unpredictable disease of the central nervous system, ...

  9. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  10. Representing Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harries, Tony; Barmby, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors wish to explore the use of visual representations in facilitating the understanding of multiplication. In doing so, they examine the different aspects of multiplication that they can access through different representations. In addition, they draw on a study that they have been carrying out looking at pupils' actual use…

  11. Multiple homicides.

    PubMed

    Copeland, A R

    1989-09-01

    A study of multiple homicides or multiple deaths involving a solitary incident of violence by another individual was performed on the case files of the Office of the Medical Examiner of Metropolitan Dade County in Miami, Florida, during 1983-1987. A total of 107 multiple homicides were studied: 88 double, 17 triple, one quadruple, and one quintuple. The 236 victims were analyzed regarding age, race, sex, cause of death, toxicologic data, perpetrator, locale of the incident, and reason for the incident. This article compares this type of slaying with other types of homicide including those perpetrated by serial killers. Suggestions for future research in this field are offered.

  12. Multiple Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  13. Myeloma (multiple)

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Multiple myeloma is the most common primary cancer of the bones in adults, representing about 1% of all cancers diagnosed in the US in 2004, and 14% of all haematological malignancies. In the UK, multiple myeloma accounts for 1% of all new cases of cancer diagnosed each year. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatment in people with asymptomatic early stage multiple myeloma (stage I)? What are the effects of first-line treatments in people with advanced stage multiple myeloma (stages II and III)? What are the effect of salvage treatments, or supportive therapy, in people with advanced stage multiple myeloma (stages II and III)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to November 2004 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 71 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: allogenic transplant (non-myeloablative), autologous stem cell transplant (early or late transplantation, double or single, purging of), bisphosphonates, bone marrow stem cells, bortezomib, chemotherapy (combination, conventional dose, intermediate dose plus stem cell rescue, high-dose plus stem cell rescue), combination chemotherapy plus corticosteroids, deferred treatment (in stage I disease), early chemotherapy plus corticosteroids (in stage I disease), epoetin alpha, first-line treatments, infection prophylaxis, interferon, maintenance therapy (in advanced multiple myeloma), melphalan (normal dose

  14. Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Common manifestations include paresthesias, diplopia, loss of vision, numbness or weakness of the limbs, bowel or bladder dysfunction, spasticity, ataxia, fatigue, and mental changes. Four main patterns of MS are recognized: relapsing remitting, primary progressive, secondary progressive, and progressive relapsing. The cause of MS is unknown, although it appears to be an autoimmune disease. Much of what is known about MS has been learned from an animal model of the disease, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. PMID:24381825

  15. Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Schiess, Nicoline; Calabresi, Peter A

    2016-08-01

    It is estimated that there are 300,000 people with multiple sclerosis (MS) in the United States and 2.3 million worldwide. Each MS attack can affect function in cognitive, emotional, motoric, sensory, or visual domains. Patients are often struck in the prime of their lives as they attempt to move forward with career, and family. Since the previous 2010 Seminars in Neurology Pearls and Pitfalls issue, the world of MS has drastically changed and advanced. Here the authors address the ever-changing MS world in both treatment options and diagnostics, covering easily missed differential diagnoses, newly available immunomodulatory therapy, and the challenges of safely treating patients. PMID:27643903

  16. Multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, S. Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a clonal plasma cell malignancy that accounts for slightly more than 10% of all hematologic cancers. In this paper, we present a historically focused review of the disease, from the description of the first case in 1844 to the present. The evolution of drug therapy and stem-cell transplantation for the treatment of myeloma, as well as the development of new agents, is discussed. We also provide an update on current concepts of diagnosis and therapy, with an emphasis on how treatments have emerged from a historical perspective after certain important discoveries and the results of experimental studies. PMID:18332230

  17. [Multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Abe, Masahiro; Miki, Hirokazu; Nakamura, Shingen

    2016-03-01

    Owing to the positive clinical benefits obtained with new agents, complete remission (CR) can be used as a surrogate for overall survival, and should be achieved. Although multiple myeloma is a heterogeneous disease in terms of myeloma cell- and patient-related risk factors, patients should receive the most effective combination therapy based on proteasome inhibitors and/or immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) as backbone medication irrespective of the risks encountered in the setting of induction therapy ("one-size-fits-all" therapy), followed by consolidation/maintenance therapy to achieve CR with the ultimate goal of extended survival. Myeloma-defining biomarkers have been established to identify high-risk smoldering myeloma requiring treatment. The development of salvage treatments yielding better outcomes for relapsed/refractory myeloma is urgently needed. Upcoming novel molecular targeting agents with different modes of action and immunotherapeutic agents will be integrated into myeloma treatment regimens with a great therapeutic impact, and further evolution of the treatment paradigm for multiple myeloma is eagerly anticipated. PMID:27076236

  18. Phylogeny of tremellomycetous yeasts and related dimorphic and filamentous basidiomycetes reconstructed from multiple gene sequence analyses

    PubMed Central

    Liu, X.-Z.; Wang, Q.-M.; Theelen, B.; Groenewald, M.; Bai, F.-Y.; Boekhout, T.

    2015-01-01

    The Tremellomycetes (Basidiomycota) contains a large number of unicellular and dimorphic fungi with stable free-living unicellular states in their life cycles. These fungi have been conventionally classified as basidiomycetous yeasts based on physiological and biochemical characteristics. Many currently recognised genera of these yeasts are mainly defined based on phenotypical characters and are highly polyphyletic. Here we reconstructed the phylogeny of the majority of described anamorphic and teleomorphic tremellomycetous yeasts using Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, and neighbour-joining analyses based on the sequences of seven genes, including three rRNA genes, namely the small subunit of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA), D1/D2 domains of the large subunit rDNA, and the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS 1 and 2) of rDNA including 5.8S rDNA; and four protein-coding genes, namely the two subunits of the RNA polymerase II (RPB1 and RPB2), the translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1) and the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b (CYTB). With the consideration of morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic characters and the congruence of phylogenies inferred from analyses using different algorithms based on different data sets consisting of the combined seven genes, the three rRNA genes, and the individual protein-coding genes, five major lineages corresponding to the orders Cystofilobasidiales, Filobasidiales, Holtermanniales, Tremellales, and Trichosporonales were resolved. A total of 45 strongly supported monophyletic clades with multiple species and 23 single species clades were recognised. This phylogenetic framework will be the basis for the proposal of an updated taxonomic system of tremellomycetous yeasts that will be compatible with the current taxonomic system of filamentous basidiomycetes accommodating the ‘one fungus, one name’ principle. PMID:26955196

  19. [Multiple apheresis].

    PubMed

    Coffe, C

    2007-05-01

    Multiple apheresis makes it possible to obtain at least two labile blood components from a single donor using a cell separator. It can be either multicomponent apheresis leading to the preparation of at least two different blood component types or red blood cell apheresis providing two identical red blood cell concentrates. These techniques available in addition to whole blood donation, are modifying collection strategies in many Etablissements Français du Sang and will contribute to improve stock logistics in the future. In areas with insufficient stock, these procedures will help achieve blood component self-sufficiency. The author first describes the principle underlying different--current or future--techniques as well as their advantages and drawbacks. He finally addresses the potential impact of these processes on the evolution of blood collection and the advantages to be gained. PMID:17521944

  20. Multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Boster, Aaron L.; Racke, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Preliminary studies have suggested that a high salt diet may play a role in the development of autoimmune disease and possibly multiple sclerosis (MS). Promising clinical trial results for 2 new therapies for MS have been reported. Dimethyl fumarate, also known by its investigational name BG-12, became the third oral disease-modifying therapy for MS to be Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved in March 2013. Interestingly, dimethyl fumarate served as the active compound used for the treatment of psoriasis for decades. Alemtuzumab remains under investigation and is not currently FDA-approved for treatment of MS. Other drugs currently approved for alternative indications are being investigated for use in MS. Additionally, an investigation of alternative dosing strategies for glatiramer acetate suggests that patients may benefit from a higher dose formulation and less frequent medication administration. Advances in basic science research have identified another potential autoantigenic target in MS, KIR4.1, which may provide further insight into MS pathophysiology. PMID:24175156

  1. Multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Massimo; Preziosa, Paolo; Rocca, Maria A

    2016-01-01

    Due to its sensitivity to the different multiple sclerosis (MS)-related abnormalities, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an established tool to diagnose MS and to monitor its evolution. MRI has been included in the diagnostic workup of patients with clinically isolated syndromes suggestive of MS, and ad hoc criteria have been proposed and are regularly updated. In patients with definite MS, the ability of conventional MRI techniques to explain patients' clinical status and progression of disability is still suboptimal. Several advanced MRI-based technologies have been applied to estimate overall MS burden in the different phases of the disease. Their use has allowed the heterogeneity of MS pathology in focal lesions, normal-appearing white matter and gray matter to be graded in vivo. Recently, additional features of MS pathology, including macrophage infiltration and abnormal iron deposition, have become quantifiable. All of this, combined with functional imaging techniques, is improving our understanding of the mechanisms associated with MS evolution. In the near future, the use of ultrahigh-field systems is likely to provide additional insight into disease pathophysiology. However, the utility of advanced MRI techniques in clinical trial monitoring and in assessing individual patients' response to treatment still needs to be assessed. PMID:27432676

  2. Multiple System Atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multiple System Atrophy Information Page Condensed from Multiple System Atrophy ... Trials Organizations Publicaciones en Español What is Multiple System Atrophy? Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive ...

  3. Multiple sclerosis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - multiple sclerosis ... The following organizations provide information on multiple sclerosis : Multiple Sclerosis Foundation -- www.msfocus.org National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/multiple_sclerosis National ...

  4. Multiple-Ring Digital Communication Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold

    1992-01-01

    Optical-fiber digital communication network to support data-acquisition and control functions of electric-power-distribution networks. Optical-fiber links of communication network follow power-distribution routes. Since fiber crosses open power switches, communication network includes multiple interconnected loops with occasional spurs. At each intersection node is needed. Nodes of communication network include power-distribution substations and power-controlling units. In addition to serving data acquisition and control functions, each node acts as repeater, passing on messages to next node(s). Multiple-ring communication network operates on new AbNET protocol and features fiber-optic communication.

  5. Fatigue and Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Fatigue - National Multiple Sclerosis Society Skip to navigation Skip to content Menu Navigation National Multiple Sclerosis Society Sign In In Your Area ... help* daily life for: positive-mom* The National MS Society is Here to Help Need More Information? ...

  6. What Is Multiple Myeloma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... other tissues. If someone has only a single plasma cell tumor, the disease is called an isolated (or solitary ) plasmacytoma . If someone has more than one plasmacytoma, they have multiple myeloma . Multiple myeloma is ...

  7. Challenges of Parenting Multiples

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parenting Multiples There are many psychological, social, and economic issues associated with multiple pregnancies. These issues should ... births can also be helpful during difficult times. ECONOMIC ISSUES • The health care cost for delivery and ...

  8. National Multiple Sclerosis Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Join the Community Stay Informed Corporate Support National Multiple Sclerosis Society Our Mission: People affected by MS can ... 10.5 Million in New Research to Stop Multiple Sclerosis, Restore Function and End MS Forever October 11, ...

  9. MultipleColposcopyJCO

    Cancer.gov

    Performing multiple biopsies during a procedure known as colposcopy—visual inspection of the cervix—is more effective than performing only a single biopsy of the worst-appearing area for detecting cervical cancer precursors. This multiple biopsy approach

  10. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cancerous (malignant) tumors or grow excessively without forming tumors. Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes are caused by ... This Article Generic Name Select Brand Names corticotropin H.P. ACTHAR GEL epinephrine ADRENALIN Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia ...

  11. Nutrition for Multiples.

    PubMed

    Luke, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    In 2012 there were 135,943 infants of multiple pregnancies born in the United States, nearly a 2-fold increase since 1980, with twins accounting for 96% of all multiple births. To date, most perinatal morbidities associated with multiple births have proven resistant to technological or pharmaceutical interventions. Maternal nutrition can have a profound effect on the course and outcome of multiple pregnancy, with the goal of achieving optimal intrauterine growth and birthweights, and minimizing prenatal and perinatal complications for the mother and her children.

  12. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOEpatents

    Alger, Terry W.

    1994-01-01

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed wh provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation.

  13. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOEpatents

    Alger, T.W.

    1994-09-06

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed which provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation. 4 figs.

  14. Multiple Myeloma Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... it is multiple myeloma . Stay on top of discoveries, trials, research and more. Click here to sign up for the MMRF Newsletter First name Last name E-mail address CLOSE News & Press Multiple Myeloma Knowledge Center Privacy Policy Donor Privacy Policy Terms of ...

  15. Orchestrating Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Seana; Kornhaber, Mindy; Gardner, Howard

    2006-01-01

    Education policymakers often go astray when they attempt to integrate multiple intelligences theory into schools, according to the originator of the theory, Howard Gardner, and his colleagues. The greatest potential of a multiple intelligences approach to education grows from the concept of a profile of intelligences. Each learner's intelligence…

  16. Twins, Triplets, Multiple Births

    MedlinePlus

    ... from alone. Multiple births are up in the United States. More women are having babies after age 30 and more are taking fertility drugs. Both boost the chance of carrying more than one baby. A family history of twins also makes multiples more likely. Years ...

  17. Prediction in Multiple Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.

    2000-01-01

    Presents the concept of prediction via multiple regression (MR) and discusses the assumptions underlying multiple regression analyses. Also discusses shrinkage, cross-validation, and double cross-validation of prediction equations and describes how to calculate confidence intervals around individual predictions. (SLD)

  18. [Multiple pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma].

    PubMed

    Haro, M; Ruiz, J; Vila, X; Avellanet, M; Izquierdo, J

    1994-01-01

    The causes of multiple pulmonary nodules are many, with metastasis being the most feared. A rare but possible etiology, however, is hyalinizing multiple granuloma. We present a case that allows us to review this condition and its course, as well as a variety of associated immunological changes and possible complications. PMID:8087395

  19. Applying Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christodoulou, Joanna A.

    2009-01-01

    The ideas of multiple intelligences introduced by Howard Gardner of Harvard University more than 25 years ago have taken form in many ways, both in schools and in other sometimes-surprising settings. The silver anniversary of Gardner's learning theory provides an opportunity to reflect on the ways multiple intelligences theory has taken form and…

  20. Constraining Multiple Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue. Multiple Grammars advances the claim that optionality is a constitutive characteristic of any one grammar, with interlanguage grammars being perhaps the clearest examples of a…

  1. Current multiplication by using multiple thyristors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Pemen, A J M; Van Heesch, E J M; Winands, G J J

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a circuit topology to obtain current multiplication by using multiple thyristors. To gain insight into this technique, an equivalent circuit model is introduced. Proper operation of the topology was demonstrated by experiments on a small-scale setup including three thyristors. One thyristor is triggered by a trigger circuit; the other two are autotriggered and require no external trigger circuit. The three thyristors could be synchronized automatically in sequence. During the closing process, the discharging of the energy storage capacitors via the thyristors is prevented. The discharging starts when all thyristors are closed, and the currents through each thyristor are simultaneous and identical. The output current is exactly three times the switching current.

  2. [Psychoneuroimmunology and multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Mel'nikov, M V; Pashchenkov, M V; Boĭko, A N

    2015-01-01

    In this review, the authors discuss interactions between mental, nervous and immune systems in multiple sclerosis, an impact of psycho-emotional stress on disease development and progression as well as possible mechanisms of these interactions.

  3. Multiple shell fusion targets

    DOEpatents

    Lindl, J.D.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1975-10-31

    Multiple shell fusion targets for use with electron beam and ion beam implosion systems are described. The multiple shell targets are of the low-power type and use a separate relatively low Z, low density ablator at large radius for the outer shell, which reduces the focusing and power requirements of the implosion system while maintaining reasonable aspect ratios. The targets use a high Z, high density pusher shell placed at a much smaller radius in order to obtain an aspect ratio small enough to protect against fluid instability. Velocity multiplication between these shells further lowers the power requirements. Careful tuning of the power profile and intershell density results in a low entropy implosion which allows breakeven at low powers. For example, with ion beams as a power source, breakeven at 10-20 Terrawatts with 10 MeV alpha particles for imploding a multiple shell target can be accomplished.

  4. The Multiplicative Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between three critical elements, and the associated mathematical language, to assist students to make the critical transition from additive to multiplicative thinking are examined in this article by Chris Hurst.

  5. Pomalidomide for Multiple Myeloma

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from a phase III trial that compared the combination of pomalidomide (Pomalyst®) and low-dose dexamethasone versus high-dose dexamethasone alone in patients with multiple myeloma that has progressed despite other treatments.

  6. Multiple beam ptychography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, Robert; Bevis, Charles; Lopez-Rios, Raymond; Reichanadter, Jonathan; Gardner, Dennis F.; Porter, Christina; Shanblatt, Elisabeth; Tanksalvala, Michael; Mancini, Giulia F.; Murnane, Margaret; Kapteyn, Henry; Adams, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    We present an extension to ptychography that allows simultaneous deconvolution of multiple, spatially separate, illuminating probes. This enables an increased field of view and hence, an increase in imaging throughput, without increased exposure times. This technique can be used for any non-interfering probes: demonstrated with multiple wavelengths and orthogonal polarizations. The latter of which gives us spatially resolved polarization spectroscopy from a single scan.

  7. Mobile multiple access study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Multiple access techniques (FDMA, CDMA, TDMA) for the mobile user and attempts to identify the current best technique are discussed. Traffic loading is considered as well as voice and data modulation and spacecraft and system design. Emphasis is placed on developing mobile terminal cost estimates for the selected design. In addition, design examples are presented for the alternative techniques of multiple access in order to compare with the selected technique.

  8. Multiple stage multiple filter hydrate store

    DOEpatents

    Bjorkman, Jr., Harry K.

    1983-05-31

    An improved hydrate store for a metal halogen battery system is disclosed which employs a multiple stage, multiple filter means or separating the halogen hydrate from the liquid used in forming the hydrate. The filter means is constructed in the form of three separate sections which combine to substantially cover the interior surface of the store container. Exit conduit means is provided in association with the filter means for transmitting liquid passing through the filter means to a hydrate former subsystem. The hydrate former subsystem combines the halogen gas generated during the charging of the battery system with the liquid to form the hydrate in association with the store. Relief valve means is interposed in the exit conduit means for controlling the operation of the separate sections of the filter means, such that the liquid flow through the exit conduit means from each of the separate sections is controlled in a predetermined sequence. The three separate sections of the filter means operate in three discrete stages to provide a substantially uniform liquid flow to the hydrate former subsystem during the charging of the battery system. The separation of the liquid from the hydrate causes an increase in the density of the hydrate by concentrating the hydrate along the filter means.

  9. Trousseau's syndrome: multiple definitions and multiple mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    In 1865, Armand Trousseau noted that unexpected or migratory thrombophlebitis could be a forewarning of an occult visceral malignancy. An analysis by Sack and colleagues in 1977 extended the term Trousseau's syndrome to include chronic disseminated intravascular coagulopathy associated with microangiopathy, verrucous endocarditis, and arterial emboli in patients with cancer, often occurring with mucin-positive carcinomas. In recent times the term has been ascribed to various clinical situations, ranging all the way from these classic descriptions to any kind of coagulopathy occurring in the setting of any kind of malignancy. These multiple definitions of Trousseau's syndrome are partly the consequence of multiple pathophysiologic mechanisms that apparently contribute to the hypercoagulability associated with cancer. Even the classic syndrome probably represents a spectrum of disorders, ranging from exaggerated fluid-phased thrombosis dependent on prothrombotic agents such as tissue factor to a platelet- and endotheliumum-based selectin-dependent microangiopathy associated with mucin-producing carcinomas, along with thrombin and fibrin production. Also considered here are recent hypotheses about genetic pathways within tumor cells that might trigger these thrombotic phenomena, and the reasons why therapy with heparins of various kinds remain the preferred treatment, probably because of their salutary actions on several of the proposed pathologic mechanisms. PMID:17496204

  10. Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Measurement Error Models

    PubMed Central

    Tekwe, Carmen D.; Carter, Randy L.; Cullings, Harry M.; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Models (MIMIC) are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times however when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model, (2) to develop likelihood based estimation methods for the MIMIC ME model, (3) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. As a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure. PMID:24962535

  11. Multiple stage multiple filter hydrate store

    DOEpatents

    Bjorkman, H.K. Jr.

    1983-05-31

    An improved hydrate store for a metal halogen battery system is disclosed which employs a multiple stage, multiple filter means for separating the halogen hydrate from the liquid used in forming the hydrate. The filter means is constructed in the form of three separate sections which combine to substantially cover the interior surface of the store container. Exit conduit means is provided in association with the filter means for transmitting liquid passing through the filter means to a hydrate former subsystem. The hydrate former subsystem combines the halogen gas generated during the charging of the battery system with the liquid to form the hydrate in association with the store. Relief valve means is interposed in the exit conduit means for controlling the operation of the separate sections of the filter means, such that the liquid flow through the exit conduit means from each of the separate sections is controlled in a predetermined sequence. The three separate sections of the filter means operate in three discrete stages to provide a substantially uniform liquid flow to the hydrate former subsystem during the charging of the battery system. The separation of the liquid from the hydrate causes an increase in the density of the hydrate by concentrating the hydrate along the filter means. 7 figs.

  12. Multiple indicators, multiple causes measurement error models.

    PubMed

    Tekwe, Carmen D; Carter, Randy L; Cullings, Harry M; Carroll, Raymond J

    2014-11-10

    Multiple indicators, multiple causes (MIMIC) models are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times, however, when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this paper are as follows: (i) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model; (ii) to develop likelihood-based estimation methods for the MIMIC ME model; and (iii) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. As a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure. PMID:24962535

  13. Breast-feeding multiples.

    PubMed

    Flidel-Rimon, O; Shinwell, E S

    2002-06-01

    Human breast milk is the best nutrition for human infants. Its advantages over the milk of other species, such as cows, include both a reduced risk for infections, allergies and chronic diseases, together with the full nutritional requirements for growth and development. Breast-feeding is as important for multiples as for singletons. Despite the advantages, multiples receive less breast-feeding than singletons. Common reasons for not breast-feeding multiples include the fear of not fulfilling the infants' needs and the difficulty of coping with the demands on the mother's time. In addition, many multiples are delivered prematurely and by Caesarean section. Maternal pain and discomfort together with anxiety over the infants' condition are not conducive to successful breast-feeding. During lactation, the mother needs to add calories to her daily diet. It has been recommended to add approximately 500-600 kcal/day for each infant. Thus, between eating, nursing and sleeping, life is very busy for the mother of multiples. However, there is evidence that, with appropriate nutrition, one mother can nourish more than one infant. Also, simultaneous breast-feeding can save much time. Combined efforts of parents, close family, friends and the medical team can help to make either full or partial breast-feeding of multiples possible. However, when breast-feeding is not possible, health care workers need to carefully avoid judgmental approaches that may induce feelings of guilt.

  14. Neuromaturation of multiples.

    PubMed

    Allen, Marilee C; Donohue, Pamela K

    2002-06-01

    Etiology of preterm birth and degree of maturation are the primary determinants of a preterm infant's survival and complications. Multiple gestation increases the likelihood of preterm birth but its influence on rate of maturation or complications of prematurity has been controversial, primarily because of confounding variables (e.g. race, aetiology of preterm delivery, degree of prematurity and pregnancy complications). Very low birthweight preterm multiples have virtually the same rates of neonatal mortality, complications and neuromaturation as preterm singletons of the same gestational age. There is no advantage of delivering twins or higher order multiples before 30 weeks gestation, unless a fetus decompensates in utero. Survival improves for near term intermediate-size preterm multiples while intrauterine growth decelerates and placental and fetal neuromaturation accelerate. These data and the high fetal death rate at term support delivery of multiples as soon as there is fetal lung maturity, and consideration of elective delivery of twins at 35-38 weeks gestation and triplets at 33-35 weeks gestation.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: multiple sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions multiple sclerosis multiple sclerosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Multiple sclerosis is a condition characterized by areas of damage ( ...

  16. Multiple noncontiguous spine fractures.

    PubMed

    Henderson, R L; Reid, D C; Saboe, L A

    1991-02-01

    The data from a prospective study of 508 spine injuries were reviewed to determine the incidence of multiple noncontiguous spine fractures. All patients were examined at admission and at 1 and 2 years postinjury. This series identified 77 (15.2%) multilevel fractures. Motor vehicle accidents were the primary cause of these fractures. The incidence of neurologic injury was not significantly different between multiple noncontiguous and single fractures. Failure to use seat belts and ejection from the vehicle were the main factors associated with multiple noncontiguous spine injuries. Seven major fracture patterns were identified, which accounted for 60% of these injuries. The prognosis for multilevel spine fractures was not significantly worse that that for single-level injuries. PMID:2011766

  17. Enhancing multiple disciplinary teamwork.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Terri E

    2008-01-01

    Multiple disciplinary research provides an opportunity to bring together investigators across disciplines to provide new views and develop innovative approaches to important questions. Through this shared experience, novel paradigms are formed, original frameworks are developed, and new language is generated. Integral to the successful construction of effective cross-disciplinary teams is the recognition of antecedent factors that affect the development of the team such as intrapersonal, social, physical environmental, organizational, and institutional influences. Team functioning is enhanced with well-developed behavioral, affective, interpersonal, and intellectual processes. Outcomes of effective multiple disciplinary research teams include novel ideas, integrative models, new training programs, institutional change, and innovative policies that can also influence the degree to which antecedents and processes contribute to team performance. Ongoing evaluation of team functioning and achievement of designated outcomes ensures the continued development of the multiple disciplinary team and confirmation of this approach as important to the advancement of science.

  18. MAVID multiple alignment server.

    PubMed

    Bray, Nicolas; Pachter, Lior

    2003-07-01

    MAVID is a multiple alignment program suitable for many large genomic regions. The MAVID web server allows biomedical researchers to quickly obtain multiple alignments for genomic sequences and to subsequently analyse the alignments for conserved regions. MAVID has been successfully used for the alignment of closely related species such as primates and also for the alignment of more distant organisms such as human and fugu. The server is fast, capable of aligning hundreds of kilobases in less than a minute. The multiple alignment is used to build a phylogenetic tree for the sequences, which is subsequently used as a basis for identifying conserved regions in the alignment. The server can be accessed at http://baboon.math.berkeley.edu/mavid/.

  19. Multiple sort flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Engh, G. van den; Esposito, R.J.

    1996-01-09

    A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane. 8 figs.

  20. Multiple origins of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, D. M.; Valentine, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    There is some indication that life may have originated readily under primitive earth conditions. If there were multiple origins of life, the result could have been a polyphyletic biota today. Using simple stochastic models for diversification and extinction, we conclude: (1) the probability of survival of life is low unless there are multiple origins, and (2) given survival of life and given as many as 10 independent origins of life, the odds are that all but one would have gone extinct, yielding the monophyletic biota we have now. The fact of the survival of our particular form of life does not imply that it was unique or superior.

  1. Neutron multiplicity analysis tool

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Scott L

    2010-01-01

    I describe the capabilities of the EXCOM (EXcel based COincidence and Multiplicity) calculation tool which is used to analyze experimental data or simulated neutron multiplicity data. The input to the program is the count-rate data (including the multiplicity distribution) for a measurement, the isotopic composition of the sample and relevant dates. The program carries out deadtime correction and background subtraction and then performs a number of analyses. These are: passive calibration curve, known alpha and multiplicity analysis. The latter is done with both the point model and with the weighted point model. In the current application EXCOM carries out the rapid analysis of Monte Carlo calculated quantities and allows the user to determine the magnitude of sample perturbations that lead to systematic errors. Neutron multiplicity counting is an assay method used in the analysis of plutonium for safeguards applications. It is widely used in nuclear material accountancy by international (IAEA) and national inspectors. The method uses the measurement of the correlations in a pulse train to extract information on the spontaneous fission rate in the presence of neutrons from ({alpha},n) reactions and induced fission. The measurement is relatively simple to perform and gives results very quickly ({le} 1 hour). By contrast, destructive analysis techniques are extremely costly and time consuming (several days). By improving the achievable accuracy of neutron multiplicity counting, a nondestructive analysis technique, it could be possible to reduce the use of destructive analysis measurements required in safeguards applications. The accuracy of a neutron multiplicity measurement can be affected by a number of variables such as density, isotopic composition, chemical composition and moisture in the material. In order to determine the magnitude of these effects on the measured plutonium mass a calculational tool, EXCOM, has been produced using VBA within Excel. This

  2. Multiple sort flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Van den Engh, Ger; Esposito, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane.

  3. [Multiple bowenoid arsenic keratoses].

    PubMed

    Leyh, F; Rothlaender, J P

    1985-01-01

    Case report of multiple keratoses and chronic lymphatic leukemia after arsenic poisoning 30 years ago during a one-year exposure to copper acetoarsenate in a pesticide factory. Absorption through the skin with local arsenic skin damage is discussed. Etretinate therapy (1 mg/kg b. w.) was ineffective.

  4. Multiple Cutaneous Reticulohistiocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Hemmady, Karishma D; Someshwar, Shylaja S; Jerajani, Hemangi R

    2016-01-01

    Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis characterized in its full form by severe destructive arthritis, cutaneous nodules, and systemic manifestations. Cutaneous lesions may precede, accompany, or more commonly develop later than other features in this disease. We describe a case of multiple cutaneous reticulohistiocytoma without any systemic associations after thorough investigations. PMID:26955136

  5. Managing Multiple Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePascale, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    Regardless of how one might feel about the recent developments in teacher evaluation systems, No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and adequate yearly progress (AYP), or student assessments for high-stakes promotion decisions, educators overwhelmingly agree that use of multiple measures is better than reliance on a single measure such as a large-scale,…

  6. Automatic multiple applicator electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Easy-to-use, economical device permits electrophoresis on all known supporting media. System includes automatic multiple-sample applicator, sample holder, and electrophoresis apparatus. System has potential applicability to fields of taxonomy, immunology, and genetics. Apparatus is also used for electrofocusing.

  7. [Smoldering multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Fouquet, G; Guidez, S; Herbaux, C; Demarquette, H; Leleu, X

    2014-04-01

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic plasma cell neoplasia, characterized by monoclonal plasma cell proliferation in the absence of end-organ damage, but with a high risk of progression to multiple myeloma. It has therefore to be distinguished from monoclonal gammapathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), which has a much lower risk of progression, but also from multiple myeloma, which remains an incurable disease and requires a specific treatment. The critical question in the management of SMM is whether an early therapeutic strategy could help delaying the progression to multiple myeloma, in order to lower the risk of serious complications related to this progression, or even to cure the disease. This early treatment could not be proposed to all SMM patients, who are indeed asymptomatic, and in whom the risk of toxicity could make it difficult to justify the potential benefit obtained. The challenge is to target early at diagnosis SMM patients with a high risk of progression, using available routine tests sufficiently reliable to warrant the therapeutic sanction which relies on it. Today however, apart from randomized studies, recommendations are to maintain therapeutic abstention in SMM patients. PMID:24050785

  8. Patterns in Multiples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robold, Alice I.

    1982-01-01

    Activities that allow students to represent patterns concretely before showing the patterns in color on paper are presented. Three basic activities are described, with suggestions made for extensions that allow further pupil exploration of multiples. Student discovery of relationships not found by the teacher is expected. (MP)

  9. Higher-order Multiples.

    PubMed

    Stone, Joanne; Kohari, Katherine S

    2015-09-01

    Higher-order multiple gestations have increased since the advent of advanced reproductive technologies. These pregnancies present unique risks to both mothers and fetuses. It is imperative that early diagnosis of chronicity be determined and that proper counseling is performed, so patients understand the risks, evaluation, and management needed.

  10. Multiple Primary Cancer Monograph

    Cancer.gov

    To identify groups of cancer survivors that are at increased risk for multiple primary cancers, investigators led an effort to provide the first comprehensive population-based analysis of the risk of subsequent cancer in the U.S., resulting in a monograph.

  11. Multiple gap photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Dalal, Vikram L.

    1981-01-01

    A multiple gap photovoltaic device having a transparent electrical contact adjacent a first cell which in turn is adjacent a second cell on an opaque electrical contact, includes utilizing an amorphous semiconductor as the first cell and a crystalline semiconductor as the second cell.

  12. Multiple Grammars and MOGUL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscott, John

    2014-01-01

    Optionality is a central phenomenon in second language acquisition (SLA), for which any adequate theory must account. Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) offer an appealing approach to it, using Roeper's Multiple Grammars Theory, which was created with first language in mind but which extends very naturally to SLA. They include…

  13. Mastering the Multiplication Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Ettorre, Jenna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to share the results of a six-week research project (after baseline data was collected) that focused on three different strategies (flashcards, interactive games, and music) and their effectiveness in helping fifth grade students memorize the basic multiplication facts. Many teachers face a serious problem when their…

  14. Multiple Access Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motamedi, Masoud

    1990-01-01

    The Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) strawman design uses a hybrid Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)/Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) implementation. TDMA is used for the forward direction (from Suppliers to Users), and FDMA for the return direction (from Users to Suppliers). An alternative architecture is proposed that will require minimal real time coordination and yet provide a fast access method by using random access Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). The CDMA system issues are addressed such as connecting suppliers and users, both of whom may be located anywhere in the CONUS, when the user terminals are constrained in size and weight; and providing efficient traffic routing under highly variable traffic requirements. It is assumed that bandwidth efficiency is not of paramount importance. CDMA or Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (SSMA) communication is a method in which a group of carriers operate at the same nominal center frequency but are separable from each other by the low cross correlation of the spreading codes used. Interference and multipath rejection capability, ease of selective addressing and message screening, low density power spectra for signal hiding and security, and high resolution ranging are among the benefits of spread spectrum communications.

  15. Multiplicative Calculus and Student Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Duff

    1999-01-01

    Multiplicative calculus is based on a multiplicative rate of change whereas the usual calculus is based on an additive rate of change. Describes some student investigations into multiplicative calculus, including an original student idea about multiplicative Euler's Method. (Author/ASK)

  16. Core multiplication in childhood.

    PubMed

    McCrink, Koleen; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2010-08-01

    A dedicated, non-symbolic, system yielding imprecise representations of large quantities (approximate number system, or ANS) has been shown to support arithmetic calculations of addition and subtraction. In the present study, 5-7-year-old children without formal schooling in multiplication and division were given a task requiring a scalar transformation of large approximate numerosities, presented as arrays of objects. In different conditions, the required calculation was doubling, quadrupling, or increasing by a fractional factor (2.5). In all conditions, participants were able to represent the outcome of the transformation at above-chance levels, even on the earliest training trials. Their performance could not be explained by processes of repeated addition, and it showed the critical ratio signature of the ANS. These findings provide evidence for an untrained, intuitive process of calculating multiplicative numerical relationships, providing a further foundation for formal arithmetic instruction. PMID:20537618

  17. Multiple zeros of polynomials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    For polynomials of higher degree, iterative numerical methods must be used. Four iterative methods are presented for approximating the zeros of a polynomial using a digital computer. Newton's method and Muller's method are two well known iterative methods which are presented. They extract the zeros of a polynomial by generating a sequence of approximations converging to each zero. However, both of these methods are very unstable when used on a polynomial which has multiple zeros. That is, either they fail to converge to some or all of the zeros, or they converge to very bad approximations of the polynomial's zeros. This material introduces two new methods, the greatest common divisor (G.C.D.) method and the repeated greatest common divisor (repeated G.C.D.) method, which are superior methods for numerically approximating the zeros of a polynomial having multiple zeros. These methods were programmed in FORTRAN 4 and comparisons in time and accuracy are given.

  18. Multiple pulse laser

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.S.; Jernigan, J.L.

    1981-02-10

    A multiple pulse laser from a single resonant cavity is disclosed. An acousto-optic cell is used to modulate coherent light from a lasing element. Either multiple chirp signals or a masked mirror are used to provide distinct pulses of light. Through proper choice of materials for the acousto-optic cell and use of divergent optics, a higher power level is obtained. Use of a multi-tapped delay line permits a shorter period between pulses due to the linear superposition principle. When the mask embodiment is used, the acousto-optic cell focuses light which scans across the mask. Whenever the focused light passes through the mask, lasing occurs which generates an output pulse.

  19. Portable multiplicity counter

    DOEpatents

    Newell, Matthew R.; Jones, David Carl

    2009-09-01

    A portable multiplicity counter has signal input circuitry, processing circuitry and a user/computer interface disposed in a housing. The processing circuitry, which can comprise a microcontroller integrated circuit operably coupled to shift register circuitry implemented in a field programmable gate array, is configured to be operable via the user/computer interface to count input signal pluses receivable at said signal input circuitry and record time correlations thereof in a total counting mode, coincidence counting mode and/or a multiplicity counting mode. The user/computer interface can be for example an LCD display/keypad and/or a USB interface. The counter can include a battery pack for powering the counter and low/high voltage power supplies for biasing external detectors so that the counter can be configured as a hand-held device for counting neutron events.

  20. Multiple wavelength diffractive imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bo; Dilanian, Ruben A.; Teichmann, Sven; Abbey, Brian; Peele, Andrew G.; Williams, Garth J.; Hannaford, Peter; van Dao, Lap; Quiney, Harry M.; Nugent, Keith A.

    2009-02-01

    We demonstrate coherent diffraction imaging using multiple harmonics from a high-harmonic generation source. An algorithm is presented that builds the known incident spectrum into the reconstruction procedure with the result that the useable flux is increased by more than an order of magnitude. Excellent images are obtained with a resolution of (165±5)nm and compare very well with images from a scanning electron microscope.

  1. Multiple muons in MACRO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinz, R.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the multiple muon events in the Monopole Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Observatory detector was conducted to determine the cosmic ray composition. Particular emphasis is placed on the interesting primary cosmic ray energy region above 2000 TeV/nucleus. An extensive study of muon production in cosmic ray showers has been done. Results were used to parameterize the characteristics of muon penetration into the Earth to the location of a detector.

  2. Universality of particle multiplicities

    SciTech Connect

    Goulianos, K. |

    1994-09-01

    We discuss the scaling properties and universality aspects of the rapidity and multiplicity distributions of particles produced in high energy hadronic and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions. This paper is based on material presented in three lectures on pomeron phenomenology, which included a review of traditional soft pomeron physics and selected topics on hard diffraction processes probing the structure function of the pomeron.

  3. Multiple quantum coherence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Nathan A; Yurs, Lena A; Block, Stephen B; Pakoulev, Andrei V; Kornau, Kathryn M; Wright, John C

    2009-08-20

    Multiple quantum coherences provide a powerful approach for studies of complex systems because increasing the number of quantum states in a quantum mechanical superposition state increases the selectivity of a spectroscopic measurement. We show that frequency domain multiple quantum coherence multidimensional spectroscopy can create these superposition states using different frequency excitation pulses. The superposition state is created using two excitation frequencies to excite the symmetric and asymmetric stretch modes in a rhodium dicarbonyl chelate and the dynamic Stark effect to climb the vibrational ladders involving different overtone and combination band states. A monochromator resolves the free induction decay of different coherences comprising the superposition state. The three spectral dimensions provide the selectivity required to observe 19 different spectral features associated with fully coherent nonlinear processes involving up to 11 interactions with the excitation fields. The different features act as spectroscopic probes of the diagonal and off-diagonal parts of the molecular potential energy hypersurface. This approach can be considered as a coherent pump-probe spectroscopy where the pump is a series of excitation pulses that prepares a multiple quantum coherence and the probe is another series of pulses that creates the output coherence. PMID:19507812

  4. MULTIPLE OSCILLATION STABILIZING CONTROL.

    SciTech Connect

    YUE,M.; SCHLUETER,R.; AZARM,M.; BARI,R.

    2004-07-23

    This paper presents a strategy that may be used to guide stabilizing control design for multiple oscillations, which are difficult to control using conventional control design procedures. A multiple oscillation phenomena is observed in an example power system. A local bifurcation and an interarea bifurcation develop in an example power system due to multiple bifurcation parameter variations. The dynamic behaviors of the bifurcating system are complex due to the overlapping of the two different bifurcation subsystems and are shown to be difficult to control. The double bifurcations are studied in this paper and in order to stabilize them, three kind of {mu}-synthesis robust controls are designed, (a) {mu}-synthesis power system stabilizer (MPSS); (b) {mu}-synthesis SVC control (MSVC); and (c) a mixed MPSS/MSVC control. Based on the bifurcation subsystem analysis, the measurement signals and locations of the controls are selected. The control performances of three kind of controls are evaluated and compared. The conclusions are given according to the analysis and time simulation results.

  5. Multiple Core Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R.H.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Nuclei of galaxies often show complicated density structures and perplexing kinematic signatures. In the past we have reported numerical experiments indicating a natural tendency for galaxies to show nuclei offset with respect to nearby isophotes and for the nucleus to have a radial velocity different from the galaxy's systemic velocity. Other experiments show normal mode oscillations in galaxies with large amplitudes. These oscillations do not damp appreciably over a Hubble time. The common thread running through all these is that galaxies often show evidence of ringing, bouncing, or sloshing around in unexpected ways, even though they have not been disturbed by any external event. Recent observational evidence shows yet another phenomenon indicating the dynamical complexity of central regions of galaxies: multiple cores (M31, Markarian 315 and 463 for example). These systems can hardly be static. We noted long-lived multiple core systems in galaxies in numerical experiments some years ago, and we have more recently followed up with a series of experiments on multiple core galaxies, starting with two cores. The relevant parameters are the energy in the orbiting clumps, their relative.masses, the (local) strength of the potential well representing the parent galaxy, and the number of cores. We have studied the dependence of the merger rates and the nature of the final merger product on these parameters. Individual cores survive much longer in stronger background potentials. Cores can survive for a substantial fraction of a Hubble time if they travel on reasonable orbits.

  6. Multiple sclerosis and infections.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Arun

    2015-01-01

    The intersection between infections and multiple sclerosis (MS) is complex and bidirectional. Numerous infectious agents have been posited to play a role in the initiation of MS, while emerging evidence suggests a potential relationship between established MS and the gut microbiome. As both systemic and CNS infections are major complications of MS, the clinical manifestations and evolving epidemiology of these infections over the lifespan of the MS patient are examined in this review. Data from animal models and human studies are discussed. PMID:26611265

  7. Multiple-chemical sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Glinton, Gloria J

    2005-12-01

    Multiple-chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a condition in which individuals have an acute hypersensitivity to low levels of chemicals found in everyday substances, such as household cleaning agents, pesticides, fresh paint, new carpeting, synthetic building materials, newsprint, perfume, and numerous other petrochemical products. This condition continues to remain somewhat of a mystery to the medical community, and its true prevalence rate is unknown because many cases are not identified and reported as MCS. This article will inform the reader about the condition of MCS.

  8. Multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Piper, A

    1994-05-01

    Five aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of multiple personality disorder (MPD) were examined. The following five conclusions were made: the contemporary diagnostic criteria are vague and overinclusive; the recent alleged increase in prevalence of the disorder is almost certainly artefactual; legal proceedings involving MPD patients raise disturbing questions about personal responsibility; there is little literature support for the theory that MPD results from childhood trauma; and many of the techniques used to diagnose and treat the condition reinforce its symptoms. A careful revision of diagnostic criteria for the disorder is recommended.

  9. Multiple granular cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Jones, J K; Kuo, T T; Griffiths, C M; Itharat, S

    1980-10-01

    Eleven cases of granular cell tumor were reviewed. In two of the cases multiple sites of involvement were seen. The tumor occurred in the oral cavity in both of these cases and each was initially wrongly diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. The most common site was the subcutaneous tissue (nine patients) and the tongue was involved in three cases. In one patient the parotid gland was involved. Eight of the patients were females and three were males; seven were black and four were white. The importance of differentiating between squamous cell carcinoma and granular cell tumor is stressed, as is the need for a simple wide surgical excision. PMID:7421377

  10. Factorial Invariance in Multiple Populations: A Multiple Testing Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2013-01-01

    A multiple testing method for examining factorial invariance for latent constructs evaluated by multiple indicators in distinct populations is outlined. The procedure is based on the false discovery rate concept and multiple individual restriction tests and resolves general limitations of a popular factorial invariance testing approach. The…

  11. Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Y; Chitnis, Tanuja

    2016-04-01

    Pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory neurologic disease that is challenging to diagnose and treat. Although there are many clinical parallels between pediatric-onset MS and adult-onset MS, there is also accumulating evidence of distinguishing clinical features that may, in part, arise from development-specific, neuroimmune processes governing MS pathogenesis in children. Here the authors describe the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric MS, with a particular focus on describing clinical features and highlighting new developments that promise a better understanding of pediatric MS pathogenesis. An important task that lies ahead for pediatric neurologists is better understanding the early gene-environment interaction that precipitates the first demyelinating event in pediatric MS. This area is of particular importance for understanding the MS etiology and the natural history of pediatric MS. Such understanding should in turn inform new developments in diagnostic tools, long-term therapies, and much-needed biomarkers. Such biomarkers are not only valuable for defining the disease onset, but also for monitoring both the treatment response and a disease evolution that spans multiple decades in children with MS. PMID:27116721

  12. Albumin and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    LeVine, Steven M

    2016-04-12

    Leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a common pathological feature in multiple sclerosis (MS). Following a breach of the BBB, albumin, the most abundant protein in plasma, gains access to CNS tissue where it is exposed to an inflammatory milieu and tissue damage, e.g., demyelination. Once in the CNS, albumin can participate in protective mechanisms. For example, due to its high concentration and molecular properties, albumin becomes a target for oxidation and nitration reactions. Furthermore, albumin binds metals and heme thereby limiting their ability to produce reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Albumin also has the potential to worsen disease. Similar to pathogenic processes that occur during epilepsy, extravasated albumin could induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and affect the ability of astrocytes to maintain potassium homeostasis thereby possibly making neurons more vulnerable to glutamate exicitotoxicity, which is thought to be a pathogenic mechanism in MS. The albumin quotient, albumin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/albumin in serum, is used as a measure of blood-CSF barrier dysfunction in MS, but it may be inaccurate since albumin levels in the CSF can be influenced by multiple factors including: 1) albumin becomes proteolytically cleaved during disease, 2) extravasated albumin is taken up by macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes, and 3) the location of BBB damage affects the entry of extravasated albumin into ventricular CSF. A discussion of the roles that albumin performs during MS is put forth.

  13. Smoldering multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Minjie; Yang, Guang; Kong, Yuanyuan; Wu, Xiaosong; Shi, Jumei

    2015-01-01

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic precursor stage of multiple myeloma (MM) characterized by clonal bone marrow plasma cells (BMPC) ≥ 10% and/or M protein level ≥ 30 g/L in the absence of end organ damage. It represents an intermediate stage between monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and symptomatic MM. The risk of progression to symptomatic MM is not uniform, and several parameters have been reported to predict the risk of progression. These include the level of M protein and the percentage of BMPC, the proportion of immunophenotypically aberrant plasma cells, and the presence of immunoparesis, free light-chain (FLC) ratio, peripheral blood plasma cells (PBPC), pattern of serum M protein evolution, abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cytogenetic abnormalities, IgA isotype, and Bence Jones proteinuria. So far treatment is still not recommended for SMM, because several trials suggested that patients with SMM do not benefit from early treatment. However, the Mateos et al. trial showed a survival benefit after early treatment with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone in patients with high-risk SMM. This trial has prompted a reevaluation of early treatment in an asymptomatic patient population. PMID:26000300

  14. Smoldering Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Minjie; Yang, Guang; Kong, Yuanyuan; Wu, Xiaosong; Shi, Jumei

    2015-01-01

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic precursor stage of multiple myeloma (MM) characterized by clonal bone marrow plasma cells (BMPC) ≥ 10% and/or M protein level ≥ 30 g/L in the absence of end organ damage. It represents an intermediate stage between monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and symptomatic MM. The risk of progression to symptomatic MM is not uniform, and several parameters have been reported to predict the risk of progression. These include the level of M protein and the percentage of BMPC, the proportion of immunophenotypically aberrant plasma cells, and the presence of immunoparesis, free light-chain (FLC) ratio, peripheral blood plasma cells (PBPC), pattern of serum M protein evolution, abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cytogenetic abnormalities, IgA isotype, and Bence Jones proteinuria. So far treatment is still not recommended for SMM, because several trials suggested that patients with SMM do not benefit from early treatment. However, the Mateos et al. trial showed a survival benefit after early treatment with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone in patients with high-risk SMM. This trial has prompted a reevaluation of early treatment in an asymptomatic patient population. PMID:26000300

  15. Smoldering multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Landgren, Ola; Mateos, María-Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic clonal plasma cell disorder. SMM is distinguished from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance by a much higher risk of progression to multiple myeloma (MM). There have been major advances in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of SMM in the last few years. These include a revised disease definition, identification of several new prognostic factors, a classification based on underlying cytogenetic changes, and new treatment options. Importantly, a subset of patients previously considered SMM is now reclassified as MM on the basis of biomarkers identifying patients with an ≥80% risk of progression within 2 years. SMM has assumed greater significance on the basis of recent trials showing that early therapy can be potentially beneficial to patients. As a result, there is a need to accurately diagnose and risk-stratify patients with SMM, including routine incorporation of modern imaging and laboratory techniques. In this review, we outline current concepts in diagnosis and risk stratification of SMM, and provide specific recommendations on the management of SMM. PMID:25838344

  16. Smoldering multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, S Vincent; Landgren, Ola; Mateos, María-Victoria

    2015-05-14

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic clonal plasma cell disorder. SMM is distinguished from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance by a much higher risk of progression to multiple myeloma (MM). There have been major advances in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of SMM in the last few years. These include a revised disease definition, identification of several new prognostic factors, a classification based on underlying cytogenetic changes, and new treatment options. Importantly, a subset of patients previously considered SMM is now reclassified as MM on the basis of biomarkers identifying patients with an ≥80% risk of progression within 2 years. SMM has assumed greater significance on the basis of recent trials showing that early therapy can be potentially beneficial to patients. As a result, there is a need to accurately diagnose and risk-stratify patients with SMM, including routine incorporation of modern imaging and laboratory techniques. In this review, we outline current concepts in diagnosis and risk stratification of SMM, and provide specific recommendations on the management of SMM. PMID:25838344

  17. Multiple symbol differential detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A differential detection technique for multiple phase shift keying (MPSK) signals is provided which uses a multiple symbol observation interval on the basis of which a joint decision is made regarding the phase of the received symbols. In accordance with the invention, a first difference phase is created between first and second received symbols. Next, the first difference phase is correlated with the possible values thereof to provide a first plurality of intermediate output signals. A second difference phase is next created between second and third received symbols. The second difference phase is correlated with plural possible values thereof to provide a second plurality of intermediate output signals. Next, a third difference phase is created between the first and third symbols. The third difference phase is correlated with plural possible values thereof to provide a third plurality of intermediate output signals. Each of the first plurality of intermediate outputs are combined with each of the second plurality of intermediate outputs and each of the third plurality of intermediate outputs to provide a plurality of possible output values. Finally, a joint decision is made by choosing from the plurality of possible output values the value which represents the best combined correlation of the first, second and third difference values with the possible values thereof.

  18. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Initially known as multiple system organ failure, the term multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) was first described in the 1960s in adults with bleeding, respiratory failure, and sepsis. It is defined as "the development of potentially reversible physiologic derangement involving two or more organ systems not involved in the disorder that resulted in ICU admission, and arising in the wake of a potentially life threatening physiologic insult."(3) There are many risk factors predisposing to MODS; however, the most common risk factors are shock due to any cause, sepsis, and tissue hypoperfusion. A dysregulated immune response, or immuneparalysis, in which the homeostasis between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory reaction is lost is thought to be key in the development of MODS. The clinical course and evolution of MODS is dependent on a combination of acquired and genetic factors. There are several nonspecific therapies for the prevention and resolution of MODS, mostly care is supportive. Mortality from MODS in septic pediatric patients varies between 11% and 54%.

  19. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Dovichi, Norman J.; Zhang, Jian Z.

    1995-01-01

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibres to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands.

  20. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

    1995-08-08

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibers to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands. 21 figs.

  1. Albumin and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    LeVine, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a common pathological feature in multiple sclerosis (MS). Following a breach of the BBB, albumin, the most abundant protein in plasma, gains access to CNS tissue where it is exposed to an inflammatory milieu and tissue damage, e.g., demyelination. Once in the CNS, albumin can participate in protective mechanisms. For example, due to its high concentration and molecular properties, albumin becomes a target for oxidation and nitration reactions. Furthermore, albumin binds metals and heme thereby limiting their ability to produce reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Albumin also has the potential to worsen disease. Similar to pathogenic processes that occur during epilepsy, extravasated albumin could induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and affect the ability of astrocytes to maintain potassium homeostasis thereby possibly making neurons more vulnerable to glutamate exicitotoxicity, which is thought to be a pathogenic mechanism in MS. The albumin quotient, albumin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/albumin in serum, is used as a measure of blood-CSF barrier dysfunction in MS, but it may be inaccurate since albumin levels in the CSF can be influenced by multiple factors including: 1) albumin becomes proteolytically cleaved during disease, 2) extravasated albumin is taken up by macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes, and 3) the location of BBB damage affects the entry of extravasated albumin into ventricular CSF. A discussion of the roles that albumin performs during MS is put forth. PMID:27067000

  2. The Functions of Multiple Representations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Shaaron

    1999-01-01

    Discusses multiple representations and multimedia learning environments; describes a functional taxonomy of MERs (multiple external representations); and considers how MERs are used to support cognitive processes in learning and problem solving with computers. (Contains 41 references.) (Author/LRW)

  3. Screening and testing in multiples.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mark I; Andriole, Stephanie

    2010-09-01

    The same principles for diagnosis and screening in singleton pregnancies apply to multiples. However, there can be significant differences in the safety and efficacy of all approaches with multiple gestations. This article deals with specific aspects of screening in multiple pregnancies.

  4. Bayes multiple decision functions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wensong; Peña, Edsel A

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of simultaneously making many (M) binary decisions based on one realization of a random data matrix X. M is typically large and X will usually have M rows associated with each of the M decisions to make, but for each row the data may be low dimensional. Such problems arise in many practical areas such as the biological and medical sciences, where the available dataset is from microarrays or other high-throughput technology and with the goal being to decide which among of many genes are relevant with respect to some phenotype of interest; in the engineering and reliability sciences; in astronomy; in education; and in business. A Bayesian decision-theoretic approach to this problem is implemented with the overall loss function being a cost-weighted linear combination of Type I and Type II loss functions. The class of loss functions considered allows for use of the false discovery rate (FDR), false nondiscovery rate (FNR), and missed discovery rate (MDR) in assessing the quality of decision. Through this Bayesian paradigm, the Bayes multiple decision function (BMDF) is derived and an efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal Bayes action is described. In contrast to many works in the literature where the rows of the matrix X are assumed to be stochastically independent, we allow a dependent data structure with the associations obtained through a class of frailty-induced Archimedean copulas. In particular, non-Gaussian dependent data structure, which is typical with failure-time data, can be entertained. The numerical implementation of the determination of the Bayes optimal action is facilitated through sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The theory developed could also be extended to the problem of multiple hypotheses testing, multiple classification and prediction, and high-dimensional variable selection. The proposed procedure is illustrated for the simple versus simple hypotheses setting and for the composite hypotheses setting

  5. MULTIPLE GALAXY COLLISIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Here is a sampling of 15 ultraluminous infrared galaxies viewed by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Hubble's sharp vision reveals more complexity within these galaxies, which astronomers are interpreting as evidence of a multiple-galaxy pileup. These images, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are part of a three-year study of 123 galaxies within 3 billion light-years of Earth. The study was conducted in 1996, 1997, and 1999. False colors were assigned to these photos to enhance fine details within these coalescing galaxies. Credits: NASA, Kirk Borne (Raytheon and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.), Luis Colina (Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Spain), and Howard Bushouse and Ray Lucas (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md.)

  6. MULTIPLE SPARK GAP SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Schofield, A.E.

    1958-07-22

    A multiple spark gap switch of unique construction is described which will permit controlled, simultaneous discharge of several capacitors into a load. The switch construction includes a disc electrode with a plurality of protuberances of generally convex shape on one surface. A firing electrode is insulatingly supponted In each of the electrode protuberances and extends substantially to the apex thereof. Individual electrodes are disposed on an insulating plate parallel with the disc electrode to form a number of spark gaps with the protuberances. These electrodes are each connected to a separate charged capacitor and when a voltage ls applied simultaneously between the trigger electrodes and the dlsc electrode, each spark gap fires to connect its capacitor to the disc electrode and a subsequent load.

  7. Multiple asteroid rendezvous missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, D. F.; Friedlander, A. L.

    1979-01-01

    Asteroid missions, centered on multiple asteroid rendezvous missions to main belt asteroids, are discussed and the required solar electric propulsion for these missions as well as the current performance estimates are examined. A brief statistical analysis involving asteroid availability transfer requirements and propulsion system capabilities is given, leading to a prediction that 5 to 8 asteroids can be encountered with a single launch. Measurement techniques include visual imaging, radio tracking, magnetometry, and in the case of landers, seismometry. The spacecraft will be propelled by a solar electric system with a power level of 25 kW to 40 kW and tour possibilities for 13 different asteroids have been developed. Preliminary estimates of asteroid triaxiality are made to calculate the effect of close orbits.

  8. Multiple-port valve

    DOEpatents

    Doody, Thomas J.

    1978-08-22

    A multiple-port valve assembly is designed to direct flow from a primary conduit into any one of a plurality of secondary conduits as well as to direct a reverse flow. The valve includes two mating hemispherical sockets that rotatably receive a spherical valve plug. The valve plug is attached to the primary conduit and includes diverging passageways from that conduit to a plurality of ports. Each of the ports is alignable wih one or more of a plurality of secondary conduits fitted into one of the hemispherical sockets. The other hemispherical socket includes a slot for the primary conduit such that the conduit's motion along that slot with rotation of the spherical plug about various axes will position the valve-plug ports in respect to the secondary conduits.

  9. Multiple detectors "Influence Method".

    PubMed

    Rios, I J; Mayer, R E

    2016-05-01

    The "Influence Method" is conceived for the absolute determination of a nuclear particle flux in the absence of known detector efficiency and without the need to register coincidences of any kind. This method exploits the influence of the presence of one detector in the count rate of another detector, when they are placed one behind the other and define statistical estimators for the absolute number of incident particles and for the efficiency (Rios and Mayer, 2015a). Its detailed mathematical description was recently published (Rios and Mayer, 2015b) and its practical implementation in the measurement of a moderated neutron flux arising from an isotopic neutron source was exemplified in (Rios and Mayer, 2016). With the objective of further reducing the measurement uncertainties, in this article we extend the method for the case of multiple detectors placed one behind the other. The new estimators for the number of particles and the detection efficiency are herein derived.

  10. On multiple Einstein rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, M. C.; An, J.; Evans, N. W.

    2008-12-01

    A number of recent surveys for gravitational lenses have found examples of double Einstein rings. Here, we analytically investigate the occurrence of multiple Einstein rings. We prove, under very general assumptions, that at the most one Einstein ring can arise from a mass distribution in a single plane lensing a single background source. Two or more Einstein rings can therefore only occur in multiplane lensing. Surprisingly, we show that it is possible for a single source to produce more than one Einstein ring. If two point masses, or two isothermal spheres, in different planes are aligned with observer and source on the optical axis, we show that there are up to three Einstein rings. We also discuss the image morphologies for these two models if axisymmetry is broken, and give the first instances of magnification invariants in the case of two-lens planes.

  11. Multiple detectors "Influence Method".

    PubMed

    Rios, I J; Mayer, R E

    2016-05-01

    The "Influence Method" is conceived for the absolute determination of a nuclear particle flux in the absence of known detector efficiency and without the need to register coincidences of any kind. This method exploits the influence of the presence of one detector in the count rate of another detector, when they are placed one behind the other and define statistical estimators for the absolute number of incident particles and for the efficiency (Rios and Mayer, 2015a). Its detailed mathematical description was recently published (Rios and Mayer, 2015b) and its practical implementation in the measurement of a moderated neutron flux arising from an isotopic neutron source was exemplified in (Rios and Mayer, 2016). With the objective of further reducing the measurement uncertainties, in this article we extend the method for the case of multiple detectors placed one behind the other. The new estimators for the number of particles and the detection efficiency are herein derived. PMID:26943904

  12. IRON IN MULTIPLE MYELOMA

    PubMed Central

    VanderWall, Kristina; Daniels-Wells, Tracy R; Penichet, Manuel; Lichtenstein, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a non-curable B cell malignancy in which iron metabolism plays an important role. Patients with this disorder almost universally suffer from a clinically significant anemia, which is often symptomatic, and which is due to impaired iron utilization. Recent studies indicate that the proximal cause of dysregulated iron metabolism and anemia in these patients is cytokine-induced upregulation of hepcidin expression. Malignant myeloma cells are dependent on an increased influx of iron and therapeutic efforts are being made to target this requirement. The studies detailing the characteristics and biochemical abnormalities in iron metabolism causing anemia and the initial attempts to target iron therapeutically are described in this review. PMID:23879589

  13. Swamp Works- Multiple Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carelli, Jonathan M.; Schuler, Jason M.; Chandler, Meredith L.

    2013-01-01

    My Surface Systems internship over the summer 2013 session covered a broad range of projects that utilized multiple fields of engineering and technology. This internship included a project to create a command center for a 120 ton regolith bin, for the design and assembly of a blast shield to add further protection for the Surface Systems engineers, for the design and assembly of a portable four monitor hyper wall strip that could extend as large as needed, research and programming a nano drill that could be utilized on a next generation robot or rover, and social media tasks including the making of videos, posting to social networking websites and creation of a new outreach program to help spread the word about the Swamp Works laboratory.

  14. Immunology of Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sospedra, Mireia; Martin, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered a prototypic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). A complex genetic background with the HLA-DR15 haplotype as the main genetic risk factor and over 100 mostly immune-related minor risk alleles as well as several environmental factors contribute to the etiology of MS. With respect to pathomechanisms, autoimmune inflammation in early MS is primarily mediated by adaptive immune responses and involves autoreactive T cells, B cells, and antibodies, while the later, chronic stages of MS are characterized by a compartmentalized immune response in the CNS with activated microglia and macrophages. A host of immune cells and mediators can contribute to the autoimmune process, but CNS-related factors such as localization of lesions, vulnerability of oligodendrocytes, neurons/axons, and secondary metabolic changes all play a role in the heterogeneous expression of the disease, including different pathologic lesion patterns, neuroimaging findings, disease courses, and severity and response to treatment. PMID:27116718

  15. Aging and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sanai, Shaik Ahmed; Saini, Vasu; Benedict, Ralph Hb; Zivadinov, Robert; Teter, Barbara E; Ramanathan, Murali; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca

    2016-05-01

    The life expectancy and average age of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) have increased significantly during the last two decades. The introduction of disease-modifying therapies and a better delineation and understanding of the superimposed comorbidities often diagnosed in MS patients are probably the most important factors accountable for the increase in aging MS population worldwide. Healthcare teams must therefore address the problems arising due to advancing age superimposed on this chronic neurologic disease. In this review, we focus on the physiology of aging, its effects on MS disease course, and the pathological and immunological changes associated with aging and disease progression. Additionally, we discuss the common comorbidities that occur in aging persons with MS that may arise either as a result of the aging process or from relentless chronic MS disease progression as well as the challenges on differentiating the two processes for a more appropriate therapeutic approach. PMID:26895718

  16. Multiple layer insulation cover

    DOEpatents

    Farrell, James J.; Donohoe, Anthony J.

    1981-11-03

    A multiple layer insulation cover for preventing heat loss in, for example, a greenhouse, is disclosed. The cover is comprised of spaced layers of thin foil covered fabric separated from each other by air spaces. The spacing is accomplished by the inflation of spaced air bladders which are integrally formed in the cover and to which the layers of the cover are secured. The bladders are inflated after the cover has been deployed in its intended use to separate the layers of the foil material. The sizes of the material layers are selected to compensate for sagging across the width of the cover so that the desired spacing is uniformly maintained when the cover has been deployed. The bladders are deflated as the cover is stored thereby expediting the storage process and reducing the amount of storage space required.

  17. Mixed Mode Matrix Multiplication

    SciTech Connect

    Meng-Shiou Wu; Srinivas Aluru; Ricky A. Kendall

    2004-09-30

    In modern clustering environments where the memory hierarchy has many layers (distributed memory, shared memory layer, cache,...), an important question is how to fully utilize all available resources and identify the most dominant layer in certain computations. When combining algorithms on all layers together, what would be the best method to get the best performance out of all the resources we have? Mixed mode programming model that uses thread programming on the shared memory layer and message passing programming on the distributed memory layer is a method that many researchers are using to utilize the memory resources. In this paper, they take an algorithmic approach that uses matrix multiplication as a tool to show how cache algorithms affect the performance of both shared memory and distributed memory algorithms. They show that with good underlying cache algorithm, overall performance is stable. When underlying cache algorithm is bad, superlinear speedup may occur, and an increasing number of threads may also improve performance.

  18. Aging and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sanai, Shaik Ahmed; Saini, Vasu; Benedict, Ralph Hb; Zivadinov, Robert; Teter, Barbara E; Ramanathan, Murali; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca

    2016-05-01

    The life expectancy and average age of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) have increased significantly during the last two decades. The introduction of disease-modifying therapies and a better delineation and understanding of the superimposed comorbidities often diagnosed in MS patients are probably the most important factors accountable for the increase in aging MS population worldwide. Healthcare teams must therefore address the problems arising due to advancing age superimposed on this chronic neurologic disease. In this review, we focus on the physiology of aging, its effects on MS disease course, and the pathological and immunological changes associated with aging and disease progression. Additionally, we discuss the common comorbidities that occur in aging persons with MS that may arise either as a result of the aging process or from relentless chronic MS disease progression as well as the challenges on differentiating the two processes for a more appropriate therapeutic approach.

  19. Vaccines in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Eric M L; Chahin, Salim; Berger, Joseph R

    2016-04-01

    Vaccinations help prevent communicable disease. To be valuable, a vaccine's ability to prevent disease must exceed the risk of adverse effects from administration. Many vaccines present no risk of infection as they are comprised of killed or non-infectious components while other vaccines consist of live attenuated microorganisms which carry a potential risk of infection-particularly, in patients with compromised immunity. There are several unique considerations with respect to vaccination in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population. First, there has been concern that vaccination may trigger or aggravate the disease. Second, disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) employed in the treatment of MS may increase the risk of infectious complications from vaccines or alter their efficacy. Lastly, in some cases, vaccination strategies may be part of the treatment paradigm in attempts to avoid complications of therapy. PMID:26922172

  20. Vaccines in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Eric M L; Chahin, Salim; Berger, Joseph R

    2016-04-01

    Vaccinations help prevent communicable disease. To be valuable, a vaccine's ability to prevent disease must exceed the risk of adverse effects from administration. Many vaccines present no risk of infection as they are comprised of killed or non-infectious components while other vaccines consist of live attenuated microorganisms which carry a potential risk of infection-particularly, in patients with compromised immunity. There are several unique considerations with respect to vaccination in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population. First, there has been concern that vaccination may trigger or aggravate the disease. Second, disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) employed in the treatment of MS may increase the risk of infectious complications from vaccines or alter their efficacy. Lastly, in some cases, vaccination strategies may be part of the treatment paradigm in attempts to avoid complications of therapy.

  1. Neutron-multiplication measurement instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results.

  2. Multiple valence superatoms.

    PubMed

    Reveles, J U; Khanna, S N; Roach, P J; Castleman, A W

    2006-12-01

    We recently demonstrated that, in gas phase clusters containing aluminum and iodine atoms, an Al(13) cluster behaves like a halogen atom, whereas an Al(14) cluster exhibits properties analogous to an alkaline earth atom. These observations, together with our findings that Al(13)(-) is inert like a rare gas atom, have reinforced the idea that chosen clusters can exhibit chemical behaviors reminiscent of atoms in the periodic table, offering the exciting prospect of a new dimension of the periodic table formed by cluster elements, called superatoms. As the behavior of clusters can be controlled by size and composition, the superatoms offer the potential to create unique compounds with tailored properties. In this article, we provide evidence of an additional class of superatoms, namely Al(7)(-), that exhibit multiple valences, like some of the elements in the periodic table, and hence have the potential to form stable compounds when combined with other atoms. These findings support the contention that there should be no limitation in finding clusters, which mimic virtually all members of the periodic table.

  3. [Smoking and multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Arruti, Maialen; Castillo-Triviño, Tamara; Egüés, Nerea; Olascoaga, Javier

    2015-02-16

    Introduccion. La esclerosis multiple (EM) es una enfermedad autoinmune de etiologia compleja, hoy por hoy desconocida, en la que factores geneticos y ambientales determinan la susceptibilidad. En los ultimos años, el efecto del tabaco ha sido uno de los factores ambientales que ha emergido en la EM, y se ha asociado tanto a un aumento de la susceptibilidad como a un aumento de la progresion. Objetivo. Revisar la evidencia actual sobre el papel del tabaco en la EM. Desarrollo. Se incluye una actualizacion de los estudios publicados que han analizado distintos aspectos del tabaco en la EM: vias patogenicas implicadas, asociacion del tabaco y riesgo de EM, interaccion con otros factores de riesgo y efecto del tabaco en el curso de la enfermedad. Conclusiones. Los estudios observacionales demuestran que el tabaquismo incrementa de forma significativa el riesgo de EM (odds ratio ~ 1,5) y es un factor de riesgo independiente. Sin embargo, la EM es una enfermedad compleja y el aumento de riesgo por el tabaco puede diferir en funcion de la interaccion con otros factores geneticos y ambientales. El papel del tabaco como factor de progresion es mas controvertido, con resultados contradictorios y estudios de gran variabilidad, lo que dificulta establecer una conclusion firme. Los mecanismos por los que el tabaquismo modifica el riesgo y posiblemente la progresion de la enfermedad no son aun conocidos.

  4. Viruses and Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Gregory P.; Gilden, Don; Burgoon, Mark P.; Yu, Xiaoli; Bennett, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disorder of unknown etiology, possibly caused by a virus or virus-triggered immunopathology. The virus might reactivate after years of latency and lyse oligodendrocytes, as in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, or initiate immunopathological demyelination, as in animals infected with Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus or coronaviruses. The argument for a viral cause of MS is supported by epidemiological analyses and studies of MS in identical twins, indicating that disease is acquired. However, the most important evidence is the presence of bands of oligoclonal IgG (OCBs) in MS brain and CSF that persist throughout the lifetime of the patient. OCBs are found almost exclusively in infectious CNS disorders, and antigenic targets of OCBs represent the agent that causes disease. Here, the authors review past attempts to identify an infectious agent in MS brain cells and discuss the promise of using recombinant antibodies generated from clonally expanded plasma cells in brain and CSF to identify disease-relevant antigens. They show how this strategy has been used successfully to analyze antigen specificity in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a chronic encephalitis caused by measles virus, and in neuromyelitis optica, a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disease produced by antibodies directed against the aquaporin-4 water channel. PMID:22130640

  5. Viruses and Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Virtanen, Jussi Oskari; Jacobson, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a heterogeneous disease that develops as an interplay between the immune system and environmental stimuli in genetically susceptible individuals. There is increasing evidence that viruses may play a role in MS pathogenesis acting as these environmental triggers. However, it is not known if any single virus is causal, or rather several viruses can act as triggers in disease development. Here, we review the association of different viruses to MS with an emphasis on two herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). These two agents have generated the most impact during recent years as possible co-factors in MS disease development. The strongest argument for association of EBV with MS comes from the link between symptomatic infectious mononucleosis and MS and from seroepidemiological studies. In contrast to EBV, HHV-6 has been found significantly more often in MS plaques than in MS normal appearing white matter or non-MS brains and HHV-6 re-activation has been reported during MS clinical relapses. In this review we also suggest new strategies, including the development of new infectious animal models of MS and antiviral MS clinical trials, to elucidate roles of different viruses in the pathogenesis of this disease. Furthermore, we introduce the idea of using unbiased sequence-independent pathogen discovery methodologies, such as next generation sequencing, to study MS brain tissue or body fluids for detection of known viral sequences or potential novel viral agents. PMID:22583435

  6. Neuroimaging in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zivadinov, Robert; Cox, Jennifer L

    2007-01-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has routinely been used to improve the accuracy of multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosis and prognosis. Metrics derived from conventional MRI are now routinely used to detect therapeutic effects and extend clinical observations. However, conventional MRI measures, such as the use of lesion volume and count of gadolinium-enhancing and T2 lesions, have insufficient sensitivity and specificity to reveal the true degree of pathological changes occurring in MS. They cannot distinguish between inflammation, edema, demyelination, Wallerian degeneration, and axonal loss. In addition, they do not show a reliable correlation with clinical measures of disability and do not provide a complete assessment of therapeutic outcomes. Recent neuropathologic studies of typical chronic MS brains reveal macroscopic demyelination in cortical and deep gray matter (GM) that cannot be detected by currently available MRI techniques. Therefore, there is a pressing need for the development of newer MRI techniques to detect these lesions. Newer metrics of MRI analysis, including T1-weighted hypointense lesions, central nervous system atrophy measures, magnetization transfer imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and diffusion tensor imaging, are able to capture a more global picture of the range of tissue alterations caused by inflammation and neurodegeneration. At this time, they provide the only proof--albeit indirect--that important occult pathology is occurring in the GM. However, evidence is increasing that these nonconventional MRI measures correlate better with both existing and developing neurological impairment and disability when compared to conventional metrics. PMID:17531854

  7. MULTIPLE SHAFT TOOL HEAD

    DOEpatents

    Colbert, H.P.

    1962-10-23

    An improved tool head arrangement is designed for the automatic expanding of a plurality of ferruled tubes simultaneously. A plurality of output shafts of a multiple spindle drill head are driven in unison by a hydraulic motor. A plurality of tube expanders are respectively coupled to the shafts through individual power train arrangements. The axial or thrust force required for the rolling operation is provided by a double acting hydraulic cylinder having a hollow through shaft with the shaft cooperating with an internally rotatable splined shaft slidably coupled to a coupling rigidly attached to the respectlve output shaft of the drill head, thereby transmitting rotary motion and axial thrust simultaneously to the tube expander. A hydraulic power unit supplies power to each of the double acting cylinders through respective two-position, four-way valves, under control of respective solenoids for each of the cylinders. The solenoids are in turn selectively controlled by a tool selection control unit which in turn is controlled by signals received from a programmed, coded tape from a tape reader. The number of expanders that are extended in a rolling operation, which may be up to 42 expanders, is determined by a predetermined program of operations depending upon the arrangement of the ferruled tubes to be expanded in the tube bundle. The tape reader also supplies dimensional information to a machine tool servo control unit for imparting selected, horizontal and/or vertical movement to the tool head assembly. (AEC)

  8. Multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Peeraully, Tasneem

    2014-04-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare adult-onset synucleinopathy associated with dysautonomia and the variable presence of poorly levodopa-responsive parkinsonism and/or cerebellar ataxia. Other clinical symptoms that can be associated with MSA include hyperreflexia, stridor, sleep apnea, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Mean survival from time of diagnosis ranges between 6 to 10 years, and definitive diagnosis is made on autopsy with demonstration of oligodendroglial cytoplasmic inclusions consisting of fibrillar α-synuclein. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be positive for cruciform T2 hyperintensity within the pons (the "hot cross bun sign"), volume loss in the pons and cerebellum, and T2 signal loss in the dorsolateral putamen with hyperintense rim on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequencing. Although most cases are sporadic, genetic polymorphisms have been identified both in familial and sporadic cases of MSA, and influence observed phenotypes. Treatment is symptomatic, with both pharmacological and nonpharmacological strategies. There are currently no consensus guidelines on management. Current and future research is aimed at identifying biomarkers and developing disease-modifying therapies.

  9. Progressive multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ontaneda, Daniel; Fox, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose to Review To highlight the pathological features and clinical aspects of progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS). To highlight results of clinical trial experience to date and review ongoing clinical trials and perspective new treatment options. Explain the challenges of clinical trial design in PMS. Recent Findings MS has been identified as a chronic immune mediated disease, and the progressive phase of the disease appears to have significant neurodegenerative mechanisms. The classification of the course of PMS has been re-organized into categories of active vs. inactive inflammatory disease and the presence vs. absence of gradual disease progression. This differentiation allows clearer conceptualization of PMS and possibly even more efficient recruitment of PMS subjects into clinical trials. Clinical trial experience to date in PMS has been negative with anti-inflammatory medications used in relapsing MS. Simvastatin was recently tested in a phase II trial and showed a 43% reduction on annualized atrophy progression in secondary progressive MS. Ongoing PMS trials are currently being conducted with the phosphodiesterase inhibitor ibudilast, S1P modulator siponimod, and anti-B-cell therapy ocrelizumab. Several efforts for development of outcome measures in PMS are ongoing. Summary PMS represents a significant challenge, as the pathogenesis of the disease is not well understood, no validated outcome metrics have been established, and clinical trial experience to date has been disappointing. Advances in the understanding of the disease and lessons learned in previous clinical trials are paving the way for successful development of disease modifying agents for this disease. PMID:25887766

  10. Multiple valence superatoms

    PubMed Central

    Reveles, J. U.; Khanna, S. N.; Roach, P. J.; Castleman, A. W.

    2006-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that, in gas phase clusters containing aluminum and iodine atoms, an Al13 cluster behaves like a halogen atom, whereas an Al14 cluster exhibits properties analogous to an alkaline earth atom. These observations, together with our findings that Al13− is inert like a rare gas atom, have reinforced the idea that chosen clusters can exhibit chemical behaviors reminiscent of atoms in the periodic table, offering the exciting prospect of a new dimension of the periodic table formed by cluster elements, called superatoms. As the behavior of clusters can be controlled by size and composition, the superatoms offer the potential to create unique compounds with tailored properties. In this article, we provide evidence of an additional class of superatoms, namely Al7−, that exhibit multiple valences, like some of the elements in the periodic table, and hence have the potential to form stable compounds when combined with other atoms. These findings support the contention that there should be no limitation in finding clusters, which mimic virtually all members of the periodic table. PMID:17121987

  11. Viruses and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Owens, Gregory P; Gilden, Don; Burgoon, Mark P; Yu, Xiaoli; Bennett, Jeffrey L

    2011-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disorder of unknown etiology, possibly caused by a virus or virus-triggered immunopathology. The virus might reactivate after years of latency and lyse oligodendrocytes, as in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, or initiate immunopathological demyelination, as in animals infected with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus or coronaviruses. The argument for a viral cause of MS is supported by epidemiological analyses and studies of MS in identical twins, indicating that disease is acquired. However, the most important evidence is the presence of bands of oligoclonal IgG (OCBs) in MS brain and CSF that persist throughout the lifetime of the patient. OCBs are found almost exclusively in infectious CNS disorders, and antigenic targets of OCBs represent the agent that causes disease. Here, the authors review past attempts to identify an infectious agent in MS brain cells and discuss the promise of using recombinant antibodies generated from clonally expanded plasma cells in brain and CSF to identify disease-relevant antigens. They show how this strategy has been used successfully to analyze antigen specificity in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a chronic encephalitis caused by measles virus, and in neuromyelitis optica, a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disease produced by antibodies directed against the aquaporin-4 water channel. PMID:22130640

  12. Multiple stage railgun

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, Ronald S.; Scudder, Jonathan K.; Aaland, Kristian

    1982-01-01

    A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator (10) for accelerating a projectile (15) by movement of a plasma arc (13) along the rails (11,12). The railgun (10) is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages (10a-n) which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources (14a-n) as the projectile (15) moves through the bore (17) of the railgun (10). Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end (29) of the railgun (10) can be prevented by connection of the energy sources (14a-n) to the rails (11,12) through isolation diodes (34a-n). Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails (11,12) into electrically isolated rail sections (11a-n, 12a-n). In such case means (55a-n) are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse (31) or laser device (61) is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage.

  13. [Diet and multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Pozuelo-Moyano, Beatriz; Benito-León, Julián

    2014-05-16

    Introduccion. El tipo de dieta se ha relacionado con el proceso inflamatorio que forma parte de la esclerosis multiple (EM). En los ultimos años, distintas lineas de investigacion han generado una gran cantidad de conocimiento sobre la participacion de la dieta en la patogenesis de la EM. Objetivo. Elucidar de modo critico las evidencias que relacionan distintos tipos de dietas y alimentos con la EM. Desarrollo. Se incluye una actualizacion de los estudios publicados mas significativos que han analizado el papel de la dieta en la patogenesis y en el tratamiento de la EM. Para explorar la asociacion entre la dieta y el riesgo de EM se ha revisado la evidencia disponible hasta el momento, pasando por estudios observacionales hasta terminar con estudios de intervencion. Conclusiones. Se necesita mas investigacion sobre la nutricion como factor de riesgo, ya que podria tener relacion con la enfermedad, y el control de esta podria llevar a una disminucion significativa de la incidencia o progresion de la patologia.

  14. [Familial multiple cavernomatosis].

    PubMed

    Terriza, F; Amrani, Y; Asencio, J J; Goberna, E; Casado, A; Peralta, J I

    1997-04-01

    We present a family study of multiple cavernomatosis which affected a boy of six, his mother and two brothers. It was seen clinically as epileptic crises, focal neurological defects and frequent headaches. In our case, the condition started as a syndrome of intracranial hypertension with progressive headache and vomiting. During the illness, localizing neurological signs due to bleeding were seen. Amongst these were acute left hemiparesia and paralysis of vertical gaze. Other members of the family remain symptom-free. In a search for angiomas at other sites none were found in the patient or his family. Recently the gene giving rise to the familial cerebral cavernosa malformation has been found to be a locus on chromosome 7. We discuss the findings on neuro-imaging, emphasizing the importance of magnetic resonance (MR) both in diagnosis and finding affected asymptomatic family members, because of its great sensitivity and specificity. Angiography is not a suitable technique for this since they behave as hidden malformations. We also point out its importance as a way of following-up the illness and for evaluation of possible complications due to progressive growth or sudden haemorrhage, which may indicate the need for treatment. Finally we emphasize the different characteristics of MR signals in this type of lesion since cavernomatasa malformations are dynamic lesions. PMID:9172920

  15. [Morphologic and molecular characterization of Phomopsis longicolla(teleomorph unknown: Diaporthales) from tempered and subtropical regions of Argentina].

    PubMed

    Hernández, Facundo E; Pioli, Rosanna N; Peruzzo, Alejandra M; Formento, Ángela N; Pratta, Guillermo R

    2015-09-01

    Diaporthe (teleomorpho)-Phomopsis - (anamorph) (DP) is a fungal group of great genetic diversity with over 900 species associated to a wide host range that includes cultivated and uncultivated species, forest, fruit trees and weeds. DP isolates are hemibiotrophs and have different sources of primary inoculum as stubble and seeds to restart cycles of parasitism - saprophytism. They colonize host tissues from early plant stages and establish different nutritional relationships, acting as endophytic and necrotrophic fungi. The plasticity of the Phomopsis genus has favored its expansion to different agro-ecosystems and various hosts constituting an epidemiological risk. The objective was to validate the identity and evaluate the biological relationships among 12 isolates of P longicolla and D. phaseolorum var. sojae (anamorph P phaseoli var. sojae) obtained in different tempered and subtropical agro-environments of Argentina, in order to analyze the variability and strategies for preserving fungal biodiversity. Macromorphological attributes (such as texture and color of colonies, stroma shape and distribution, pycnidia and perythecia shape and distribution) and micro-morphological characteristics (such as size and shape of conidia, asci and ascospores) allowed identifying three new isolates as P longicolla. A complementary molecular analysis was also made to overcome the limitations derived from the morphological analysis, thus the AFP.8413 isolate was finally identified as P longicolla. The molecular characterization was useful to identify the evaluated isolates and to group them in four taxa of the Diaporthe-Phomopsis complex: ten isolates were included in P. longicolla, one isolate was included in D. phaseolorum var. sojae (anamorph P. phaseoli var. sojae), one isolate was identified as D. phaseolorum var. caulivora and two isolates were included in D. phaseolorum var. meridionalis. The use of phenotipic and molecular tools have contributed to an accurate identification of P longicolla, and comprehension about the biological relationships (homo or heterothallic hibridizations) among D. phaseolorum varieties (P phaseoli) and species of Diaporthe-Phomopsis. This allowed also a better understanding of the mechanisms of fungic plasticity, to colonize and expand their host range and genetic variability, promoting thus their biodiversity conservation. Rev. Biol. Trop. 63 (3): 871-884. Epub 2015 September 01. PMID:26666139

  16. Swamp Works- Multiple Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carelli, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    My Surface Systems internship over the summer 2013 session covered a broad range of projects that ranged multiple aspects and fields of engineering and technology. This internship included a project to create a command center for a 120 ton regolith bin, a design and build for a blast shield to add further protection for the Surface Systems engineers, a design for a portable four monitor hyper wall that can extend as large as needed, research and programming a nano drill for a next generation robot, and social media tasks including the making of videos, posting to social networking websites and implementation of a new weekly outreach program to help spread the word about the Swamp Works laboratory. The objectives for the command center were to create a central computer controlled area for the still in production lunar regolith bin. It needed to be easy to use and the operating systems had to be Linux. The objectives for the hyper wall were to build a mobile transport of monitors that could potentially attach to one another. It needed to be light but sturdy, and have the ability to last. The objectives for the blast shield included a robust design that could withstand a small equipment malfunction, while also being convenient for use. The objectives for the nano-drill included the research and implementation of programming for vertical and horizontal movement. The hyper wall and blasts shield project were designed by me in the Pro/Engineer/Creo2 software. Each project required a meeting with the Swamp Works engineers and was declared successful.

  17. Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) is a common genetically and clinically heterogeneous skeletal dysplasia characterized by early-onset osteoarthritis, mainly in the hip and knee, and mild-to-moderate short stature. Here we report on a 6-generation MED family with 17 affected members. Method The clinical and radiographic data on the 12 affected members still living were scrutinized. A structured inquiry comprising state of health and MED-related symptoms since birth up to the present time and the osteoarthritis outcome (KOOS) questionnaire were sent to all living family members with MED. The 5 known gene loci for autosomal dominant MED were analyzed for linkage, using fluorescence-labeled microsatellite markers. Linkage was ascertained with markers close to the COL9A2 gene, which was analyzed for mutations by sequencing. Results We identified an exon 3 donor splice mutation in the COL9A2 gene in all affected family members. Clinical, radiographic, and questionnaire data from affected family members suggested that MED caused by COL9A2 mutations starts in early childhood with knee pain accompanied by delayed ossification of femoral epiphyses. The disease then either stabilizes during puberty or progresses with additional joints becoming affected; joint surgery might be necessary. The progression of the disease also affects muscles, with increasing atrophy, resulting in muscle fatigue and pain. Muscular atrophy has not been reported earlier in cases with COL9A2 mutations. Interpretation In a patient with clinically suspected or verified MED, it is important to perform DNA-based analysis to identify a possible disease-causing mutation. This information can be used to carry out genetic risk assessment of other family members and to achieve an early and correct diagnosis in the children. PMID:19995321

  18. Injectable Multiple Sclerosis Medications

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Zung Vu

    2012-01-01

    Although injection-site reactions (ISRs) occur with US Food and Drug Administration–approved injectable disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis, there are currently few reports of real-world data on ISR management strategies or possible correlations between ISRs and patient demographics, disease characteristics, and missed injections. Patient-reported data on the use of DMTs, patient demographic and disease characteristics, missed injections, and ISR reduction strategies were collected via e-mail, a patient registry (www.ms-cam.org), and a Web-based survey. Of the 1380 respondents, 1201 (87%) indicated that they had used injectable DMTs, of whom 377 (31%) had used intramuscular (IM) interferon beta-1a (IFNβ-1a), 172 (14%) had used subcutaneous (SC) IFNβ-1a, 183 (15%) had used SC IFNβ-1b, and 469 (39%) had used glatiramer acetate (GA). The majority of respondents were older (73% were ≥40 years), female (79%), married or living with a partner (72%), white (94%), and nonsmoking (82%). Injection-site reaction incidence, grouped according to severity, varied among DMTs, with IM IFNβ-1a causing significantly (P < .001) fewer mild, moderate, or severe ISRs than the other therapies. Female sex and younger age were significantly (P < .05) associated with more moderate ISRs among users of IM IFNβ-1a, SC IFNβ-1b, and GA. Nonwhites reported severe ISRs more often than whites. For all DMTs injection-site massage and avoidance of sensitive sites were the most frequently used strategies to minimize ISRs. These data may help identify patients with characteristics associated with a higher risk for ISRs, allowing health-care professionals to provide anticipatory guidance to patients at risk for decreased adherence or discontinuation. PMID:24453732

  19. Zinc in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup

    2016-01-01

    In the last 35 years, zinc (Zn) has been examined for its potential role in the disease multiple sclerosis (MS). This review gives an overview of the possible role of Zn in the pathogenesis of MS as well as a meta-analysis of studies having measured Zn in serum or plasma in patients with MS. Searching the databases PubMed and EMBASE as well as going through reference lists in included articles 24 studies were found measuring Zn in patients with MS. Of these, 13 met inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The result of the meta-analysis shows a reduction in serum or plasma Zn levels in patients with MS with a 95% CI of [−3.66, −0.93] and a p value of .001 for the difference in Zn concentration in μM. One of six studies measuring cerebrospinal fluid, Zn levels found a significant increase in patients with MS with controls. The studies measuring whole blood and erythrocyte Zn levels found up to several times higher levels of Zn in patients with MS compared with healthy controls with decreasing levels during attacks in relapsing-remitting MS patients. Future studies measuring serum or plasma Zn are encouraged to analyze their data through homogenous MS patient subgroups on especially age, sex, and disease subtype since the difference in serum or plasma Zn in these subgroups have been found to be significantly different. It is hypothesized that local alterations of Zn may be actively involved in the pathogenesis of MS. PMID:27282383

  20. Multiple chronic benign pulmonary nodules.

    PubMed

    Kalifa, L G; Schimmel, D H; Gamsu, G

    1976-11-01

    Four cases are discussed in which were found unusual multiple chronic pulmonary nodules: leiomyomatous hamartomas, rheumatoid nodules, multiple histoplasmomas, and possible multiple plasma cell granulomas (hyalinizing pulmonary nodules). In each case the initial impression of metastic malignancy was countered by more than 2 years' observation, during which time the lesions appeared to be benign. Histologic examination is necessary to exclude malignancy, although a definitive diagnosis may be difficult to establish. PMID:981596

  1. Multiplicative Thinking: Much More than Knowing Multiplication Facts and Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Chris; Hurrell, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Multiplicative thinking is accepted as a "big idea" of mathematics that underpins important mathematical concepts such as fraction understanding, proportional reasoning, and algebraic thinking. It is characterised by understandings such as the multiplicative relationship between places in the number system, basic and extended number…

  2. Multiple-hypothesis multiple-model line tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, Donald W.; Owen, Mark W.; Cox, Henry

    2000-07-01

    Passive sonar signal processing generally includes tracking of narrowband and/or broadband signature components observed on a Lofargram or on a Bearing-Time-Record (BTR) display. Fielded line tracking approaches to date have been recursive and single-hypthesis-oriented Kalman- or alpha-beta filters, with no mechanism for considering tracking alternatives beyond the most recent scan of measurements. While adaptivity is often built into the filter to handle changing track dynamics, these approaches are still extensions of single target tracking solutions to multiple target tracking environment. This paper describes an application of multiple-hypothesis, multiple target tracking technology to the sonar line tracking problem. A Multiple Hypothesis Line Tracker (MHLT) is developed which retains the recursive minimum-mean-square-error tracking behavior of a Kalman Filter in a maximum-a-posteriori delayed-decision multiple hypothesis context. Multiple line track filter states are developed and maintained using the interacting multiple model (IMM) state representation. Further, the data association and assignment problem is enhanced by considering line attribute information (line bandwidth and SNR) in addition to beam/bearing and frequency fit. MHLT results on real sonar data are presented to demonstrate the benefits of the multiple hypothesis approach. The utility of the system in cluttered environments and particularly in crossing line situations is shown.

  3. Bent Bonds and Multiple Bonds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Edward A.; Gillespie, Ronald J.

    1980-01-01

    Considers carbon-carbon multiple bonds in terms of Pauling's bent bond model, which allows direct calculation of double and triple bonds from the length of a CC single bond. Lengths of these multiple bonds are estimated from direct measurements on "bent-bond" models constructed of plastic tubing and standard kits. (CS)

  4. Multiple Intelligences and Lab Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colannino, Noreen M.; Hoyt, William L.; Murray, Ann

    2004-01-01

    Science teachers who are committed to excellence in the classroom continually seek ways to improve teaching and learning, and the concept of multiple intelligences holds promise as a method for accomplishing this. The essence of the theory of multiple intelligences is to understand the many differences among students, the variations in the ways…

  5. Multiple Intelligences for Differentiated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, R. Bruce

    2007-01-01

    There is an intricate literacy to Gardner's multiple intelligences theory that unlocks key entry points for differentiated learning. Using a well-articulated framework, rich with graphic representations, Williams provides a comprehensive discussion of multiple intelligences. He moves the teacher and students from curiosity, to confidence, to…

  6. Multiple fractional Fourier transform holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yangsu; Zhang, Yixiao; Gao, Feng; Gao, Fuhua; Huang, Xiaoyang; Guo, Yongkang

    2002-04-01

    In this paper, we introduce the recording and reconstruction theories of the multiple fractional Fourier transform hologram (M-FRTH). We fabricated a multiple fractional Fourier transform hologram, and obtained satisfying reconstruction results. The experimental result shows that the M-FRTH has a high anti-counterfeiting capacity and can be used in the fabrication of the trademark, ID, and the notes.

  7. Adult Multiple Intelligences and Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Meg Ryback

    In the Adult Multiple Intelligences (AMI) study, 10 teachers of adults from the northeastern region of the United States explored for 18 months the ways that multiple intelligences (MI) theory could support instruction and assessment in various adult learning contexts. The results of this research were published in a book by Julie Viens called MI…

  8. Symptomatic therapy in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Frohman, Teresa C.; Castro, Wanda; Shah, Anjali; Courtney, Ardith; Ortstadt, Jeffrey; Davis, Scott L.; Logan, Diana; Abraham, Thomas; Abraham, Jaspreet; Remington, Gina; Treadaway, Katherine; Graves, Donna; Hart, John; Stuve, Olaf; Lemack, Gary; Greenberg, Benjamin; Frohman, Elliot M.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common disabling neurological disease of young adults. The ability to impact the quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis should not only incorporate therapies that are disease modifying, but should also include a course of action for the global multidisciplinary management focused on quality of life and functional capabilities. PMID:21694806

  9. The problem with multiple robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Marcus J.; Kenny, Patrick G.

    1994-01-01

    The issues that can arise in research associated with multiple, robotic agents are discussed. Two particular multi-robot projects are presented as examples. This paper was written in the hope that it might ease the transition from single to multiple robot research.

  10. Electroconvulsive Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Steen, Katie; Narang, Puneet; Lippmann, Steven

    2015-01-01

    We performed a literature search regarding the safety and efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis and comorbid psychiatric symptoms. Literature review was conducted via PubMed databases. Of the cases we reviewed, most subjects with multiple sclerosis reported significant psychiatric symptom relief, with only a handful reporting neurologic deterioration. There was some evidence that active white matter lesions may be predictive of neurologic deterioration when electroconvulsive therapy is used in patients with multiple sclerosis. A brief description of the pathophysiology and effects of depression in patients with multiple sclerosis is also provided. Although no clinical recommendations or meaningful conclusions can be drawn without further investigation, the literature suggests that electroconvulsive therapy for treatment of psychiatric illnesses in patients with multiple sclerosis is safe and efficacious.

  11. Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Leray, E; Moreau, T; Fromont, A; Edan, G

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most frequently seen demyelinating disease, with a prevalence that varies considerably, from high levels in North America and Europe (>100/100,000 inhabitants) to low rates in Eastern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa (2/100,000 population). Knowledge of the geographical distribution of the disease and its survival data, and a better understanding of the natural history of the disease, have improved our understanding of the respective roles of endogenous and exogenous causes of MS. Concerning mortality, in a large French cohort of 27,603 patients, there was no difference between MS patients and controls in the first 20 years of the disease, although life expectancy was reduced by 6-7 years in MS patients. In 2004, the prevalence of MS in France was 94.7/100,000 population, according to data from the French National Health Insurance Agency for Salaried Workers (Caisse nationale d'assurance maladie des travailleurs Salariés [CNAM-TS]), which insures 87% of the French population. This prevalence was higher in the North and East of France. In several countries, including France, the gender ratio for MS incidence (women/men) went from 2/1 to 3/1 from the 1950s to the 2000s, but only for the relapsing-remitting form. As for risk factors of MS, the most pertinent environmental factors are infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), especially if it arises after childhood and is symptomatic. The role of smoking in MS risk has been confirmed, but is modest. In contrast, vaccines, stress, traumatic events and allergies have not been identified as risk factors, while the involvement of vitamin D has yet to be confirmed. From a genetic point of view, the association between HLA-DRB1*15:01 and a high risk of MS has been known for decades. More recently, immunogenetic markers have been identified (IL2RA, IL7RA) and, in particular thanks to studies of genome-wide associations, more than 100 genetic variants have been reported. Most of these are involved in

  12. Multiple Access in Ultra-Wideband Communications Using Multiple Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Nekoogar, F; Dowla, F

    2003-04-11

    Multiple access (MA) in UWB communication is an area of active research. To date several time-division or code-division pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) or pulse position modulation (PPM) schemes have been proposed to separate multiple users in UWB communications. Conventionally, all users employ the same pulse shape and modulate the transmit pulse based on changing amplitude or position. One concern with using the same pulse for all channels is that the multiple access interference (MAI) increases as the number of users increase. This is due to increased cross-correlation between similar pulses of the different channels, raising thus the noise floor in such systems. In this paper we introduce and study the performance of a new MA scheme in the context of multiple orthogonal transmitted-reference (T-R) short duration (nsec) chirp pulses in the presence of multipath and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN).

  13. Multiple polymersomes for programmed release of multiple components.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin-Hyun; Shum, Ho Cheung; Kim, Jin Woong; Cho, Jun-Cheol; Weitz, David A

    2011-09-28

    Long-term storage and controlled release of multiple components while avoiding cross-contamination have potentially important applications for pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Polymersomes are very promising delivery vehicles but cannot be used to encapsulate multiple independent components and release them in a controlled manner. Here, we report a microfluidic approach to produce multiple polymersomes, or polymersomes-in-polymersome by design, enabling encapsulation and programmed release of multiple components. Monodisperse polymersomes are prepared from templates of double-emulsion drops, which in turn are injected as the innermost phase to form the second level of double-emulsion drops, producing double polymersomes. Using the same strategy, higher-order polymersomes are also prepared. In addition, incorporation of hydrophobic homopolymer into the different bilayers of the multiple polymersomes enables controlled and sequential dissociation of the different bilayer membranes in a programmed fashion. The high encapsulation efficiency of this microfluidic approach, as well as its programmability and the biocompatibility of the materials used to form the polymersomes, will provide new opportunities for practical delivery systems of multiple components. PMID:21838246

  14. Multiple polymersomes for programmed release of multiple components.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin-Hyun; Shum, Ho Cheung; Kim, Jin Woong; Cho, Jun-Cheol; Weitz, David A

    2011-09-28

    Long-term storage and controlled release of multiple components while avoiding cross-contamination have potentially important applications for pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Polymersomes are very promising delivery vehicles but cannot be used to encapsulate multiple independent components and release them in a controlled manner. Here, we report a microfluidic approach to produce multiple polymersomes, or polymersomes-in-polymersome by design, enabling encapsulation and programmed release of multiple components. Monodisperse polymersomes are prepared from templates of double-emulsion drops, which in turn are injected as the innermost phase to form the second level of double-emulsion drops, producing double polymersomes. Using the same strategy, higher-order polymersomes are also prepared. In addition, incorporation of hydrophobic homopolymer into the different bilayers of the multiple polymersomes enables controlled and sequential dissociation of the different bilayer membranes in a programmed fashion. The high encapsulation efficiency of this microfluidic approach, as well as its programmability and the biocompatibility of the materials used to form the polymersomes, will provide new opportunities for practical delivery systems of multiple components.

  15. [Syndrome of multiple organ failure].

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, P; Suisse, A

    1990-11-01

    The multiple organ failure syndrome (MOF) is a relatively new entity defined as the successive occurrence of respiratory (ARDS), hepatic, renal, myocardial, gastro-intestinal or neurological failure in patients with hyperkinetic haemodynamic and hypermetabolic states. The etiologies are: infection, septic and non-septic shock, burns and multiple injuries. The MOF syndrome is considered to be a generalised "inflammatory reaction" to tissue aggression involving a cascade of mediatory factors (TNF, interleukines...) of macrophagic, lymphocytic origin, causing multiple organ failure. The treatment depends on early correction of cellular hypoxia related to circulatory disturbances, nutritional support, anti-infective therapy and, in the near future, "control of mediator activity" (immunotherapy).

  16. [Future challenges in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Fernández, Óscar

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis occurs in genetically susceptible individuals, in whom an unknown environmental factor triggers an immune response, giving rise to a chronic and disabling autoimmune disease. Currently, significant progress is being made in our knowledge of the frequency and distribution of multiple sclerosis and its risk factors, genetics, pathology, pathogenesis, diagnostic and prognostic markers, and treatment. This has radically changed patients' and clinicians' expectations of multiple sclerosis and has raised hope that there will soon be a way to control the disease. PMID:25732950

  17. Autonomic dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Racosta, Juan Manuel; Kimpinski, Kurt; Morrow, Sarah Anne; Kremenchutzky, Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    Autonomic dysfunction is a prevalent and significant cause of disability among patients with multiple sclerosis. Autonomic dysfunction in multiple sclerosis is usually explained by lesions within central nervous system regions responsible for autonomic regulation, but novel evidence suggests that other factors may be involved as well. Additionally, the interactions between the autonomic nervous system and the immune system have generated increased interest about the role of autonomic dysfunction in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. In this paper we analyze systematically the most relevant signs and symptoms of autonomic dysfunction in MS, considering separately their potential causes and implications.

  18. On Multiple-Layered Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to find ways to make vortex flow fields decompose more quickly, photographs and observations are presented of vortex flow fields that indicate the presence of multiple layers of fluid rotating about a common axis. A survey of the literature indicates that multiple-layered vortices form in waterspouts, tornadoes and lift-generated vortices of aircraft. An explanation for the appearance of multiple-layered structures in vortices is suggested. The observations and data presented are intended to improve the understanding of the formation and persistence of vortex flow fields.

  19. Multiple myeloma. Houses and spouses

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, R.A.; Greipp, P.R.

    1983-02-15

    Two families in which successive spouses who lived in the same house developed multiple myeloma are reported. In the first instance, a man whose first wife died of multiple myeloma remarried, and his second wife also developed myeloma. In the second family, a woman's first husband died of multiple myeloma and her second husband did too. Radiation studies of the houses and yards showed no increased radioactivity. No evidence was found for excessive exposure to chemicals or other environmental agents, for contact with other patients having similar malignancies, or for exposure to viruses or other transmissible factors. The significance of the occurrence of multiple myeloma in subsequent spouses is unknown. It is hoped that this report will stimulate research for other instances and lead to careful epidemiologic, radiologic, and virologic studies.

  20. Multiple Regression and Its Discontents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel C.; Marsh, Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Multiple regression is part of a larger statistical strategy originated by Gauss. The authors raise questions about the theory and suggest some changes that would make room for Mandelbrot and Serendipity.

  1. Humanizing Outgroups Through Multiple Categorization

    PubMed Central

    Prati, Francesca; Crisp, Richard J.; Meleady, Rose; Rubini, Monica

    2016-01-01

    In three studies, we examined the impact of multiple categorization on intergroup dehumanization. Study 1 showed that perceiving members of a rival university along multiple versus simple categorical dimensions enhanced the tendency to attribute human traits to this group. Study 2 showed that multiple versus simple categorization of immigrants increased the attribution of uniquely human emotions to them. This effect was explained by the sequential mediation of increased individuation of the outgroup and reduced outgroup threat. Study 3 replicated this sequential mediation model and introduced a novel way of measuring humanization in which participants generated attributes corresponding to the outgroup in a free response format. Participants generated more uniquely human traits in the multiple versus simple categorization conditions. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings and consider their role in informing and improving efforts to ameliorate contemporary forms of intergroup discrimination. PMID:26984016

  2. MULTIPLE SCALES FOR SUSTAINABLE RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This session will highlight recent research that incorporates the use of multiple scales and innovative environmental accounting to better inform decisions that affect sustainability, resilience, and vulnerability at all scales. Effective decision-making involves assessment at mu...

  3. Multiple test tubes stirred mechanically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, H. J.; Strong, I. J.

    1965-01-01

    Mechanical device simultaneously stirs multiple test tubes under controlled laboratory conditions. The invention provides a variable stirring rate, minimal amount of contamination of tube contents, unattended and simple operation, and easy maintenance and cleaning.

  4. Criteria for performing multiple dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, C.D.; Gupta, V.P.; Pryor, K.H.

    1995-10-01

    When radiation fields vary spatially as a result of job- or location-specific conditions, the use of more than one dosimeter may be necessary for a variety of radiation protection purposes. This paper contains a methodology for when and how to use multiple dosimeters under conditions incident to routine activities in the presence of ionizing radiation. It also describes a methodology for determining the effective dose equivalent when the use of multiple dosimeters has been deemed necessary by radiation protection professionals.

  5. [Current therapy of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Antonio García Merino, J

    2014-12-01

    Since the introduction of interferon beta 1 b for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, there has been a progressive increase in the number of drugs available for this disease. Currently, 11 drugs have been approved in Spain, and their indications depend on specific clinical characteristics. The present article reviews these indications and also discusses other medications without official approval that have also been used in multiple sclerosis. PMID:25732945

  6. Multiple phases of protien gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annaka, Masahiko; Tanaka, Toyoichi

    1994-03-01

    A multiple phase transition was observed in gels made by covalently cross-linking proteins in either native or denatured state. The enzymatic activity of the gels prepared from native α-chymotrypsin was determined for each of the multiple phases. The reversibility of the swelling degrees and the enzymatic reaction rates upon phase transition suggests that the protein is at a free energy minimum and thus in a phase.

  7. Multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Velasquez, G.; Glass, T.A.; D'Souza, V.J.; Formanek, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Renal oncocytoma, although rare, is being diagnosed more frequently, and criteria to differentiate it from other tumors have been described. Multiple oncocytomas have been reported, but an association between multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma in the same kidney has not been described. The authors report a case with two oncocytomas and a renal carcinoma in the right kidney as well as a right adrenal adenoma.

  8. The INEL beryllium multiplication experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.; King, J.J.

    1991-03-01

    The experiment to measure the multiplication of 14-MeV neutrons in bulk beryllium has been completed. The experiment consists of determining the ratio of {sup 56}Mn activities induced in a large manganese bath by a central 14-MeV neutron source, with and without a beryllium sample surrounding the source. In the manganese bath method a neutron source is placed at the center of a totally-absorbing aqueous solution of MnSo{sub 4}. The capture of neutrons by Mn produces a {sup 56}Mn activity proportional to the emission rate of the source. As applied to the measurement of the multiplication of 14- MeV neutrons in bulk beryllium, the neutron source is a tritium target placed at the end of the drift tube of a small deuteron accelerator. Surrounding the source is a sample chamber. When the sample chamber is empty, the neutrons go directly to the surrounding MnSO{sub 4} solution, and produce a {sup 56}Mn activity proportional to the neutron emission rate. When the chamber contains a beryllium sample, the neutrons first enter the beryllium and multiply through the (n,2n) process. Neutrons escaping from the beryllium enter the bath and produce a {sup 56}Mn activity proportional to the neutron emission rate multiplied by the effective value of the multiplication in bulk beryllium. The ratio of the activities with and without the sample present is proportional to the multiplication value. Detailed calculations of the multiplication and all the systematic effects were made with the Monte Carlo program MCNP, utilizing both the Young and Stewart and the ENDF/B-VI evaluations for beryllium. Both data sets produce multiplication values that are in excellent agreement with the measurements for both raw and corrected values of the multiplication. We conclude that there is not real discrepancy between experimental and calculated values for the multiplication of neutrons in bulk beryllium. 12 figs., 11 tabs., 18 refs.

  9. Multiple tumours in survival estimates.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Stefano; De Angelis, Roberta; Ciccolallo, Laura; Carrani, Eugenio; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Grande, Enrico; Zigon, Giulia; Brenner, Hermann

    2009-04-01

    In international comparisons of cancer registry based survival it is common practice to restrict the analysis to first primary tumours and exclude multiple cancers. The probability of correctly detecting subsequent cancers depends on the registry's running time, which results in different proportions of excluded patients and may lead to biased comparisons. We evaluated the impact on the age-standardised relative survival estimates of also including multiple primary tumours. Data from 2,919,023 malignant cancers from 69 European cancer registries participating in the EUROCARE-4 collaborative study were used. A total of 183,683 multiple primary tumours were found, with an overall proportion of 6.3% over all the considered cancers, ranging from 0.4% (Naples, Italy) to 12.9% (Iceland). The proportion of multiple tumours varied greatly by type of tumour, being higher for those with high incidence and long survival (breast, prostate and colon-rectum). Five-year relative survival was lower when including patients with multiple cancers. For all cancers combined the average difference was -0.4 percentage points in women and -0.7 percentage points in men, and was greater for older registries. Inclusion of multiple tumours led to lower survival in 44 out of 45 cancer sites analysed, with the greatest differences found for larynx (-1.9%), oropharynx (-1.5%), and penis (-1.3%). Including multiple primary tumours in survival estimates for international comparison is advisable because it reduces the bias due to different observation periods, age, registration quality and completeness of registration. The general effect of inclusion is to reduce survival estimates by a variable amount depending on the proportion of multiple primaries and cancer site.

  10. A multiple armature railgun launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challita, Antonios; Maas, Brian L.; Bauer, David P.; Heyse, Mark

    1993-01-01

    Railgun launchers with multiple armatures, which can distribute the accelerating force on the projectile, supply each armature with gun current for acceleration through its own set of rails. Test results are reported which confirm the feasibility of this concept; it is shown that the control of current distribution to multiple armatures is possible. Attention is given to gun behavior for the case of high length/diameter projectiles.

  11. Multiple myeloma involving the orbit.

    PubMed

    Fay, A M; Leib, M L; Fountain, K S

    1998-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell malignancy often associated with destructive skeletal lesions. Orbital involvement in multiple myeloma is rare. Risk factors for orbital involvement have not been established, although risk may vary with immunoglobulin subtype. Early detection of orbital plasmacytoma may affect treatment and clinical course. A case is reported of multiple myeloma without elevated serum immunoglobulins that involves the orbit, and the implications of early detection are discussed. The patient was first examined by an ophthalmologist 13 months after multiple myeloma was diagnosed and 5 months after the external appearance of an orbital tumor. Urine protein electrophoresis demonstrated kappa light chains. Hypergammaglobulinemia was not detected. Plain-film roentgenography showed orbital involvement at the time of initial diagnosis. An impressive clinical response to external beam radiation therapy was seen. Attention to immunoprotein characteristics in multiple myeloma may help to identify risk factors for orbital involvement. Early detection may permit safer and equally effective treatment. All patients with multiple myeloma should undergo thorough ophthalmic examination at the time of initial diagnosis.

  12. Therapeutics for multiple sclerosis symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ben-Zacharia, Aliza Bitton

    2011-01-01

    Symptoms management in multiple sclerosis is an integral part of its care. Accurate assessment and addressing the different symptoms provides increased quality of life among patients with multiple sclerosis. Multiple sclerosis symptoms may be identified as primary, secondary, or tertiary symptoms. Primary symptoms, such as weakness, sensory loss, and ataxia, are directly related to demyelination and axonal loss. Secondary symptoms, such as urinary tract infections as a result of urinary retention, are a result of the primary symptoms. Tertiary symptoms, such as reactive depression or social isolation, are a result of the social and psychological consequences of the disease. Common multiple sclerosis symptoms include fatigue and weakness; decreased balance, spasticity and gait problems; depression and cognitive issues; bladder, bowel, and sexual deficits; visual and sensory loss; and neuropathic pain. Less-common symptoms include dysarthria and dysphagia, vertigo, and tremors. Rare symptoms in multiple sclerosis include seizures, hearing loss, and paralysis. Symptom management includes nonpharmacological methods, such as rehabilitation and psychosocial support, and pharmacological methods, ie, medications and surgical procedures. The keys to symptom management are awareness, knowledge, and coordination of care. Symptoms have to be recognized and management needs to be individualized. Multiple sclerosis therapeutics include nonpharmacological strategies that consist of lifestyle modifications, rehabilitation, social support, counseling, and pharmacological agents or surgical procedures. The goal is vigilant management to improve quality of life and promote realistic expectations and hope.

  13. Performance of Multiple Pulse Multiple Delay Modulated UWB Signals in a Multiple Access Indoor Wireless Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Nekoogar, F

    2003-06-12

    In this paper, the performance of a two user UWB multiple access (UWB-MA) system based on multiple-pulse multiple-delay (MPMD) modulation scheme in an indoor wireless channel is evaluated by computer simulations. The indoor multipath propagation channel model used in this study is based on the modified statistical Saleh-Valenzuela model proposed by Foerester and Li from Intel. The simulation results indicate that the multipath performance of MPMD modulated signals in a multiple access system outperforms the nonmultipath case as the number of autocorrelation function (ACF) sampling points increases for each user. This is an unusual but important result, since MPMD receiver exploits multipath phenomenon in indoor wireless channels to increase the BER performance, hence the transmission rate in a UWB-MA system.

  14. Controlling multiple groups of robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hor, MawKae

    1992-11-01

    Coordinating multiple robots has attracted researchers' interests for many years. However, most of the problems being studied deal with multiple robots acted only within a single group. Coordinated robots are categorized into different groups when the coordination involves robots interchange or heterogeneous motion during the manipulation process. In such a case, coordination between robot groups has to be considered. This is required in certain types of coordinated manipulations such as passing an object, held by multiple robots, between groups of robots or rotating or rolling an object, held by multiple robots, continuously. In the former task, coordinations are made between two isotropic groups of robots whereas in the latter task, coordinations are made between non-isotropic groups of robots. This paper investigates problems related to the control and coordinating of multiple groups of robots. We analyze various kind of tasks of these types and propose a hierarchical control mechanism in achieving these coordinations. Scenarios and limitations for these tasks are presented and discussed. A hybrid force and position control principle is employed in both global and local planning and control. A hierarchical architecture is used to control different levels of the control and planning primitives. The primitives developed for controlling individual robot group can be adopted in this architecture. The primitives in one level offer services only to those in its neighboring levels and hides them from the details of actual service implementations hence reducing the system designing complexity.

  15. Biological auctions with multiple rewards.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Johannes G; Kanodia, Ayush; Gupta, Raghav; Nowak, Martin A; Chatterjee, Krishnendu

    2015-08-01

    The competition for resources among cells, individuals or species is a fundamental characteristic of evolution. Biological all-pay auctions have been used to model situations where multiple individuals compete for a single resource. However, in many situations multiple resources with various values exist and single reward auctions are not applicable. We generalize the model to multiple rewards and study the evolution of strategies. In biological all-pay auctions the bid of an individual corresponds to its strategy and is equivalent to its payment in the auction. The decreasingly ordered rewards are distributed according to the decreasingly ordered bids of the participating individuals. The reproductive success of an individual is proportional to its fitness given by the sum of the rewards won minus its payments. Hence, successful bidding strategies spread in the population. We find that the results for the multiple reward case are very different from the single reward case. While the mixed strategy equilibrium in the single reward case with more than two players consists of mostly low-bidding individuals, we show that the equilibrium can convert to many high-bidding individuals and a few low-bidding individuals in the multiple reward case. Some reward values lead to a specialization among the individuals where one subpopulation competes for the rewards and the other subpopulation largely avoids costly competitions. Whether the mixed strategy equilibrium is an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) depends on the specific values of the rewards. PMID:26180069

  16. Biological auctions with multiple rewards.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Johannes G; Kanodia, Ayush; Gupta, Raghav; Nowak, Martin A; Chatterjee, Krishnendu

    2015-08-01

    The competition for resources among cells, individuals or species is a fundamental characteristic of evolution. Biological all-pay auctions have been used to model situations where multiple individuals compete for a single resource. However, in many situations multiple resources with various values exist and single reward auctions are not applicable. We generalize the model to multiple rewards and study the evolution of strategies. In biological all-pay auctions the bid of an individual corresponds to its strategy and is equivalent to its payment in the auction. The decreasingly ordered rewards are distributed according to the decreasingly ordered bids of the participating individuals. The reproductive success of an individual is proportional to its fitness given by the sum of the rewards won minus its payments. Hence, successful bidding strategies spread in the population. We find that the results for the multiple reward case are very different from the single reward case. While the mixed strategy equilibrium in the single reward case with more than two players consists of mostly low-bidding individuals, we show that the equilibrium can convert to many high-bidding individuals and a few low-bidding individuals in the multiple reward case. Some reward values lead to a specialization among the individuals where one subpopulation competes for the rewards and the other subpopulation largely avoids costly competitions. Whether the mixed strategy equilibrium is an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) depends on the specific values of the rewards.

  17. Multiple myeloma: evaluation by CT

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiman, J.S.; McLeod, R.A.; Kyle, R.A.; Beabout, J.W.

    1985-02-01

    Although patients who have multiple myeloma usually have straightforward clinical symptoms and corroborative radiographs, in some instances, these patients will present atypically, with symptoms suggesting active disease but radiographs that are normal or nonspecific. The authors reviewed the records of 32 patients who had documented multiple myeloma and had undergone CT examinations, assessing the value of those examinations. Although CT is not indicated in all patients who have multiple myeloma, it is especially useful in patients who have bone pain and normal or nonspecific radiographs. CT provided confirmatory information in all cases in which lesions were seen on radiographs. CT also frequently demonstrated a greater extent of disease than could be appreciated on the radiographs.

  18. Multiple Myeloma Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huff, Carol Ann; Matsui, William

    2008-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is characterized by the clonal expansion of neoplastic plasma cells within the bone marrow, elevated serum immunoglobulin, and osteolytic bone disease. The disease is highly responsive to a wide variety of anticancer treatments including conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, corticosteroids, radiation therapy, and a growing number of agents with novel mechanisms of action. However, few if any patients are cured with these modalities and relapse remains a critical issue. A better understanding of clonogenic multiple myleoma cells is essential to ultimately improving long-term outcomes, but the nature of the cells responsible for myeloma regrowth and disease relapse is unclear. We review evidence that functional heterogeneity exists in multiple myeloma and discuss potential strategies and clinical implications of the stem-cell model of cancer in this disease. PMID:18539970

  19. Spontaneous Preterm Birth in Multiples.

    PubMed

    Biggio, Joseph R; Anderson, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    The number of multiple gestations has increased over the last several decades and preterm birth is one of the leading causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality for these pregnancies. While screening and treatment strategies have achieved moderate success in singleton gestations, screening strategies are less effective in multiple gestations. In addition, to date no intervention aimed at preventing preterm birth has been conclusively shown to either prolong gestation or improve neonatal outcomes for multiple gestations. As in singleton gestations, cervical length is one of the strongest predictors of preterm birth. While not conclusive, emerging data suggest that vaginal progesterone or cervical pessary may be able to prevent preterm birth in twin gestations with a short cervix.

  20. Multiple smart weapons employment mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    McGlynn, M.P.; Meiklejohn, W.D.

    1993-07-20

    A digital communications armament network adaptor is described for carrying multiple smart weapons on a single wing pylon station of an aircraft, comprising: an aircraft having a weapons controller configured in compliance with MIL-STD 1553; multiple wing-mounted pylons on said aircraft, each providing a weapons station with communications and ejection and release mechanisms electrically connected to said controller for the airborne launch of smart weapons; a multiple ejector rack affixed to at least one pylon, said rack holding a plurality of smart weapons; and an electronic digital network connected between the controller and said rack-mounted smart weapons, said network located in said rack and including circuitry which receives coded digital communications from said controller and selectively rebroadcasts said communications to one of said smart weapons on said rack designated by said coded communications, thereby controlling all required functions of said designated smart weapon.

  1. On the Performance of Multiple Pulse Multiple Delay UWB Modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Nekoogar, F; Dowla, F U

    2003-05-23

    Multiple access (MA) in UWB communication is an area of active research. In this paper we introduce and study the performance of a new MA scheme in the context of multiple transmitted-reference short duration (nsec) chirp pulses in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). The transmitted-reference (T-R) receiver is extended using multiple orthogonal pulses. The proposed UWB receiver samples the receiver autocorrelation function (ACF) at both zero- and non-zero lags, thus sampling and matching the shape of ACFs rather than just the shape of the received pulses. Sampling of non-zero ACF lags is a significant new approach. The scheme proposed in this paper is a step towards combining the multi-pulse approach and T-R modulation in a multiple access ultra wideband (MA-UWB) communications system. Improved bit error rate performance over a conventional zero-lag receiver (i.e. energy detection receiver) is demonstrated by simulation. Analytical expressions for the system BER are also derived and confirmed through simulations for the system.

  2. Evoked potentials in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kraft, George H

    2013-11-01

    Before the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), evoked potentials (EPs)-visual evoked potentials, somatosensory evoked potentials, and brain stem auditory evoked responses-were commonly used to determine a second site of disease in patients being evaluated for possible multiple sclerosis (MS). The identification of an area of the central nervous system showing abnormal conduction was used to supplement the abnormal signs identified on the physical examination-thus identifying the "multiple" in MS. This article is a brief overview of additional ways in which central nervous system (CNS) physiology-as measured by EPs-can still contribute value in the management of MS in the era of MRIs.

  3. Multiple resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, E.M.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1985-06-19

    A multiple repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. A plurality of serially connected paired parallel rails are powered by similar power supplies. Each supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles. The multiple serial operation permits relatively small energy components to deliver overall relatively large amounts of energy to the projectiles being propelled.

  4. Multiple resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, Emanuel M.; Nunnally, William C.

    1988-01-01

    A multiple repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. A plurality of serially connected paired parallel rails are powered by similar power supplies. Each supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles. The multiple serial operation permits relatively small energy components to deliver overall relatively large amounts of energy to the projectiles being propelled.

  5. [Current description of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Río, Jordi; Montalbán, Xavier

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a multifocal demyelinating disease leading to progressive neurodegeneration caused by an autoimmune response in genetically predisposed individuals. In the last few years, the knowledge and management of this disease has been revolutionized by a series of findings. The present article reviews pathological features of the disease, in which cortical involvement is increasingly implicated, and aspects related to novel pathogenic mechanisms, such as the role of the microbiota in the genesis of multiple sclerosis, as well as recent contributions from the fields of epidemiology and genetics. Also reviewed are the latest diagnostic criteria, which currently allow a much earlier diagnosis, with clear therapeutic implications. PMID:25732942

  6. Multiple order common path spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

  7. Multiple McNemar Tests

    PubMed Central

    Westfall, Peter H.; Troendle, James F.; Pennello, Gene

    2010-01-01

    Summary Methods for performing multiple tests of paired proportions are described. A broadly applicable method using McNemar's exact test and the exact distributions of all test statistics is developed; the method controls the familywise error rate in the strong sense under minimal assumptions. A closed form (not simulation-based) algorithm for carrying out the method is provided. A bootstrap alternative is developed to account for correlation structures. Operating characteristics of these and other methods are evaluated via a simulation study. Applications to multiple comparisons of predictive models for disease classification and to post-market surveillance of adverse events are given. PMID:20345498

  8. Management of multiple impacted teeth

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Nidhi; Valiathan, Ashima; Bansal, Kshitij; Parkar, Farhan

    2012-01-01

    An impacted or missing permanent tooth can add significant complications to an otherwise straightforward case. When multiple impacted teeth are present, the case complexity increases further. Developing a treatment sequence, determining appropriate anchorage, and planning and executing sound biomechanics can be a challenge. The following case report illustrates a patient with three retained primary teeth and three impacted permanent canines. After careful treatment planning and extraction of multiple primary teeth;, followed by attempted guided eruption of impacted teeth, the patient finished with a significantly improved functional and aesthetic result. PMID:22557915

  9. [Current description of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Río, Jordi; Montalbán, Xavier

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a multifocal demyelinating disease leading to progressive neurodegeneration caused by an autoimmune response in genetically predisposed individuals. In the last few years, the knowledge and management of this disease has been revolutionized by a series of findings. The present article reviews pathological features of the disease, in which cortical involvement is increasingly implicated, and aspects related to novel pathogenic mechanisms, such as the role of the microbiota in the genesis of multiple sclerosis, as well as recent contributions from the fields of epidemiology and genetics. Also reviewed are the latest diagnostic criteria, which currently allow a much earlier diagnosis, with clear therapeutic implications.

  10. Multiple sequence alignment with DIALIGN.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    DIALIGN is a software tool for multiple sequence alignment by combining global and local alignment features. It composes multiple alignments from local pairwise sequence similarities. This approach is particularly useful to discover conserved functional regions in sequences that share only local homologies but are otherwise unrelated. An anchoring option allows to use external information and expert knowledge in addition to primary-sequence similarity alone. The latest version of DIALIGN optionally uses matches to the PFAM database to detect weak homologies. Various versions of the program are available through Göttingen Bioinformatics Compute Server (GOBICS) at http://www.gobics.de/department/software.

  11. Multiple-mask chemical etching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, D. L.

    1969-01-01

    Multiple masking techniques use lateral etching to reduce the total area of the high etch-rate oxide exposed to the chemical etchant. One method uses a short-term etch to remove the top layer from the silicon oxide surface, another acts before the top layer is grown.

  12. Some discrete multiple orthogonal polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvesú, J.; Coussement, J.; van Assche, W.

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, we extend the theory of discrete orthogonal polynomials (on a linear lattice) to polynomials satisfying orthogonality conditions with respect to r positive discrete measures. First we recall the known results of the classical orthogonal polynomials of Charlier, Meixner, Kravchuk and Hahn (T.S. Chihara, An Introduction to Orthogonal Polynomials, Gordon and Breach, New York, 1978; R. Koekoek and R.F. Swarttouw, Reports of the Faculty of Technical Mathematics and Informatics No. 98-17, Delft, 1998; A.F. Nikiforov et al., Classical Orthogonal Polynomials of a Discrete Variable, Springer, Berlin, 1991). These polynomials have a lowering and raising operator, which give rise to a Rodrigues formula, a second order difference equation, and an explicit expression from which the coefficients of the three-term recurrence relation can be obtained. Then we consider r positive discrete measures and define two types of multiple orthogonal polynomials. The continuous case (Jacobi, Laguerre, Hermite, etc.) was studied by Van Assche and Coussement (J. Comput. Appl. Math. 127 (2001) 317-347) and Aptekarev et al. (Multiple orthogonal polynomials for classical weights, manuscript). The families of multiple orthogonal polynomials (of type II) that we will study have a raising operator and hence a Rodrigues formula. This will give us an explicit formula for the polynomials. Finally, there also exists a recurrence relation of order r+1 for these multiple orthogonal polynomials of type II. We compute the coefficients of the recurrence relation explicitly when r=2.

  13. Multiple pass laser amplifier system

    DOEpatents

    Brueckner, Keith A.; Jorna, Siebe; Moncur, N. Kent

    1977-01-01

    A laser amplification method for increasing the energy extraction efficiency from laser amplifiers while reducing the energy flux that passes through a flux limited system which includes apparatus for decomposing a linearly polarized light beam into multiple components, passing the components through an amplifier in delayed time sequence and recombining the amplified components into an in phase linearly polarized beam.

  14. Drugs Approved for Multiple Myeloma

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for multiple myeloma and other plasma cell neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  15. Multiple Literacies Theory: Exploring Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masny, Diana

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the contributions of philosophy, art and science to education through the conceptual, theoretical, and methodological usefulness of a Deleuze-Guattarian conceptual framework that informs multiple literacies theory (MLT). Education lends itself to Deleuze's notion of connecting and creating through philosophy, art and…

  16. Fashion, Paper Dolls and Multiplicatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ura, Suzana Kaori; Stein-Barana, Alzira C. M.; Munhoz, Deisy P.

    2011-01-01

    The multiplicative principle is the tool allowing the counting of groups that can be described by a sequence of events. An event is a subset of sample space, i.e. a collection of possible outcomes, which may be equal to or smaller than the sample space as a whole. It is important that students understand this basic principle early on and know how…

  17. Multiple Regression: A Leisurely Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Larry G.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    Multiple regression is a useful statistical technique when the researcher is considering situations in which variables of interest are theorized to be multiply caused. It may also be useful in those situations in which the researchers is interested in studies of predictability of phenomena of interest. This paper provides an introduction to…

  18. Multiple Pathways for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, Lee Anna

    2012-01-01

    Maine has been focusing on the importance of postsecondary training. Maine's Skowhegan Area High School (SAHS) and Somerset Career and Technical Center (SCTC) have partnered in a Multiple Pathways initiative (funded by the Nellie Mae Education Foundation) to increase students' high school completion rate and to increase enrollment in postsecondary…

  19. Improving Inferences from Multiple Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shotland, R. Lance; Mark, Melvin M.

    1987-01-01

    Multiple evaluation methods (MEMs) can cause an inferential challenge, although there are strategies to strengthen inferences. Practical and theoretical issues involved in the use by social scientists of MEMs, three potential problems in drawing inferences from MEMs, and short- and long-term strategies for alleviating these problems are outlined.…

  20. Multigenre, Multiple Intelligences, and Transcendentalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggieri, Colleen A.

    2002-01-01

    Explains an eleventh grade literature unit on Transcendentalism which employed a wide variety of supplemental materials and literary connections and which provided alternate assessment opportunities. Details how this unit revealed meaningful connections through comics, music, free reading, and multiple intelligences. Concludes that many students…

  1. Accommodations for Multiple Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trammell, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Students with learning or learning-related disabilities frequently struggle with multiple choice assessments due to difficulty discriminating between items, filtering out distracters, and framing a mental best answer. This Practice Brief suggests accommodations and strategies that disability service providers can utilize in conjunction with…

  2. Childhood Multiple Sclerosis: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, Amy; O'Connor, Erin; Tennekoon, Gihan

    2006-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that is increasingly recognized as a disease that affects children. Similar to adult-onset MS, children present with visual and sensory complaints, as well as weakness, spasticity, and ataxia. A lumbar puncture can be helpful in diagnosing MS when…

  3. Assessment of Multiplication Fact Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Marilyn Sue; Usnick, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    This project had two major goals: to determine the usefulness of individually-administered interview process to access elementary students' fluency with basic multiplication facts, and to determine whether a developmental sequence found in Australian mathematics education literature applied to elementary students in the United States. Students in…

  4. Multiple Intelligences in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Kathleen M.

    Within the context of school improvement and school reform, it is important to examine Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (MI theory). His work has far-reaching implications for curriculum development and classroom implementation. Gardner believes that the culture defines intelligence too narrowly. He sought to broaden the scope of…

  5. Multiple Intelligences and Business Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce

    2003-01-01

    Results from 97 business students with substantial work histories indicate that the Multiple Intelligence Preference Inventory gives a valid and reliable indication of their preferred intelligences. Awareness of these results is associated with assessments of self and others as knowledge sources. This information can help in recognizing,…

  6. Kinesiology: Challenges of Multiple Agendas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, Karl M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge of how the field of kinesiology can exploit the advantages of multiple agendas while minimizing the disadvantages. Agendas here are the scholarly themes that help organize the field of study explicitly or implicitly and that give emphases to it with respect to its content and impact in society. The issue of…

  7. Characteristics of Multiple Comparison Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusuf, Mian Muhammad; And Others

    Multiple comparison procedures (MCPs), in the context of analysis of variance, are becoming more popular than the overall F tests. An attempt is made to clarify confusion among the different MCPs by systematically comparing and contrasting the procedures in terms of their purposes, restrictions, robustness to assumptions, and other special…

  8. Overhearing Single and Multiple Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.

    2008-01-01

    In 2 spontaneous speech experiments, this study found that multiple perspectives improved overhearers' abilities to select abstract shapes from an array, although single-perspective descriptions were more detailed. Prior findings that overhearers performed better when listening in on dialogues (Fox Tree, 1999) can best be understood as an…

  9. Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Thomas

    The model presented in this book provides a language for talking about the inner gifts of children, especially those students who have accumulated labels such as Learning Disabled (LD) and Attention Deficit Disorders (ADD) during their school careers, and describes how educators can bring Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (MI), a…

  10. Multiple Intelligence for Every Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Pokey

    2003-01-01

    An overview is presented of multiple intelligence (MI) theory along with practical applications of the model. Three basic aspects of the theory (teaching strategies, curricular adaptations, and student assessment) are described relative to the infusion of MI theory in general education classrooms to ensure appropriate inclusion for students with…

  11. Multiple Forms of Dynamic Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Shaaron; VanLabeke, Nicolas

    2004-01-01

    The terms dynamic representation and animation are often used as if they are synonymous, but in this paper we argue that there are multiple ways to represent phenomena that change over time. Time-persistent representations show a range of values over time. Time-implicit representations also show a range of values but not the specific times when…

  12. Becoming a Multiple Intelligences School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerr, Thomas R.

    The motivation to help students learn has moved many educators to explore multiple intelligences (MI) theory as a tool to help more children succeed. This book relates a decade of experiences in applying MI theory at New City School, an independent St. Louis elementary school. Directed toward educational leaders, the book focuses on the centrality…

  13. Multiple Segment Factorial Vignette Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    The multiple segment factorial vignette design (MSFV) combines elements of experimental designs and probability sampling with the inductive, exploratory approach of qualitative research. MSFVs allow researchers to investigate topics that may be hard to study because of ethical or logistical concerns. Participants are presented with short stories…

  14. Investigations on Multiplication of Fractions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sai, Khoo Phon; Inder, Walter R. D.

    1984-01-01

    Three different models with continuous materials, discontinuous materials, and number lines were used to study the operation concept in six investigations on multiplication with fractions with pupils aged 11-12 in a Penang International School. All approaches could be understood by pupils, but they preferred the area and fractional models. (MNS)

  15. Enhancing Learning through Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Pinar; Guneysu, Sibel; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether there was a significant difference between multiple intelligence instruction (MII) and traditionally designed science instruction (TDSI) on fourth grade students' understanding of concepts associated with the "Diversity of Living Things" unit. Students' intelligence types were also examined. There were two…

  16. Defining secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lorscheider, Johannes; Buzzard, Katherine; Jokubaitis, Vilija; Spelman, Tim; Havrdova, Eva; Horakova, Dana; Trojano, Maria; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Girard, Marc; Duquette, Pierre; Prat, Alexandre; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Grand'Maison, François; Grammond, Pierre; Hupperts, Raymond; Alroughani, Raed; Sola, Patrizia; Boz, Cavit; Pucci, Eugenio; Lechner-Scott, Jeanette; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Iuliano, Gerardo; Van Pesch, Vincent; Granella, Franco; Ramo-Tello, Cristina; Spitaleri, Daniele; Petersen, Thor; Slee, Mark; Verheul, Freek; Ampapa, Radek; Amato, Maria Pia; McCombe, Pamela; Vucic, Steve; Sánchez Menoyo, José Luis; Cristiano, Edgardo; Barnett, Michael H; Hodgkinson, Suzanne; Olascoaga, Javier; Saladino, Maria Laura; Gray, Orla; Shaw, Cameron; Moore, Fraser; Butzkueven, Helmut; Kalincik, Tomas

    2016-09-01

    A number of studies have been conducted with the onset of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis as an inclusion criterion or an outcome of interest. However, a standardized objective definition of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis has been lacking. The aim of this work was to evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of an objective definition for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, to enable comparability of future research studies. Using MSBase, a large, prospectively acquired, global cohort study, we analysed the accuracy of 576 data-derived onset definitions for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and first compared these to a consensus opinion of three neurologists. All definitions were then evaluated against 5-year disease outcomes post-assignment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: sustained disability, subsequent sustained progression, positive disability trajectory, and accumulation of severe disability. The five best performing definitions were further investigated for their timeliness and overall disability burden. A total of 17 356 patients were analysed. The best definition included a 3-strata progression magnitude in the absence of a relapse, confirmed after 3 months within the leading Functional System and required an Expanded Disability Status Scale step ≥4 and pyramidal score ≥2. It reached an accuracy of 87% compared to the consensus diagnosis. Seventy-eight per cent of the identified patients showed a positive disability trajectory and 70% reached significant disability after 5 years. The time until half of all patients were diagnosed was 32.6 years (95% confidence interval 32-33.6) after disease onset compared with the physicians' diagnosis at 36 (35-39) years. The identified patients experienced a greater disease burden [median annualized area under the disability-time curve 4.7 (quartiles 3.6, 6.0)] versus non-progressive patients [1.8 (1.2, 1.9)]. This objective definition of secondary progressive multiple

  17. Defining secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lorscheider, Johannes; Buzzard, Katherine; Jokubaitis, Vilija; Spelman, Tim; Havrdova, Eva; Horakova, Dana; Trojano, Maria; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Girard, Marc; Duquette, Pierre; Prat, Alexandre; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Grand'Maison, François; Grammond, Pierre; Hupperts, Raymond; Alroughani, Raed; Sola, Patrizia; Boz, Cavit; Pucci, Eugenio; Lechner-Scott, Jeanette; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Iuliano, Gerardo; Van Pesch, Vincent; Granella, Franco; Ramo-Tello, Cristina; Spitaleri, Daniele; Petersen, Thor; Slee, Mark; Verheul, Freek; Ampapa, Radek; Amato, Maria Pia; McCombe, Pamela; Vucic, Steve; Sánchez Menoyo, José Luis; Cristiano, Edgardo; Barnett, Michael H; Hodgkinson, Suzanne; Olascoaga, Javier; Saladino, Maria Laura; Gray, Orla; Shaw, Cameron; Moore, Fraser; Butzkueven, Helmut; Kalincik, Tomas

    2016-09-01

    A number of studies have been conducted with the onset of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis as an inclusion criterion or an outcome of interest. However, a standardized objective definition of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis has been lacking. The aim of this work was to evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of an objective definition for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, to enable comparability of future research studies. Using MSBase, a large, prospectively acquired, global cohort study, we analysed the accuracy of 576 data-derived onset definitions for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and first compared these to a consensus opinion of three neurologists. All definitions were then evaluated against 5-year disease outcomes post-assignment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: sustained disability, subsequent sustained progression, positive disability trajectory, and accumulation of severe disability. The five best performing definitions were further investigated for their timeliness and overall disability burden. A total of 17 356 patients were analysed. The best definition included a 3-strata progression magnitude in the absence of a relapse, confirmed after 3 months within the leading Functional System and required an Expanded Disability Status Scale step ≥4 and pyramidal score ≥2. It reached an accuracy of 87% compared to the consensus diagnosis. Seventy-eight per cent of the identified patients showed a positive disability trajectory and 70% reached significant disability after 5 years. The time until half of all patients were diagnosed was 32.6 years (95% confidence interval 32-33.6) after disease onset compared with the physicians' diagnosis at 36 (35-39) years. The identified patients experienced a greater disease burden [median annualized area under the disability-time curve 4.7 (quartiles 3.6, 6.0)] versus non-progressive patients [1.8 (1.2, 1.9)]. This objective definition of secondary progressive multiple

  18. Budgeting and controllable cost variances. The case of multiple diagnoses, multiple services, and multiple resources.

    PubMed

    Broyles, R W; Lay, C M

    1982-12-01

    This paper examines an unfavorable cost variance in an institution which employs multiple resources to provide stay specific and ancillary services to patients presenting multiple diagnoses. It partitions the difference between actual and expected costs into components that are the responsibility of an identifiable individual or group of individuals. The analysis demonstrates that the components comprising an unfavorable cost variance are attributable to factor prices, the use of real resources, the mix of patients, and the composition of care provided by the institution. In addition, the interactive effects of these factors are also identified. PMID:7183731

  19. Multiple-Mouse MRI with Multiple Arrays of Receive Coils

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Marc S.; Esparza-Coss, Emilio; Bankson, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Compared to traditional single-animal imaging methods, multiple-mouse MRI has been shown to dramatically improve imaging throughput and reduce the potentially prohibitive cost for instrument access. To date, up to a single radiofrequency coil has been dedicated to each animal being simultaneously scanned, thus limiting the sensitivity, flexibility, and ultimate throughput. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of multiple-mouse MRI with a phased-array coil dedicated to each animal. A dual-mouse imaging system, consisting of a pair of two-element phased-array coils, was developed and used to achieve acceleration factors greater than the number of animals scanned at once. By simultaneously scanning two mice with a retrospectively gated cardiac cine MRI sequence, a three-fold acceleration was achieved with SNR in the heart that is equivalent to that achieved with an unaccelerated scan using a commercial mouse birdcage coil. PMID:20146352

  20. Navigation solution for a multiple satellite and multiple ground architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, Abraham M.

    This research presents the phased development of an algorithm to plan impulsive orbital maneuvers based on the relative motion between multiple satellites and multiple ground locations. The algorithm leverages the state transition matrix derived from the equations of motion and the equations of variation for the non-spherical Earth and air drag effects. The algorithm determines the impulsive maneuver to achieve the user-defined terminal conditions. The first phase solves for the first burn of an orbital transfer between user-defined altitudes. The optimum trajectory is determined and compared to the first burn in a Hohmann Transfer. The results are expanded to include varying the inclination and eccentricity of the initial orbit. The second phase solves for the minimum time trajectory resulting from a fixed fuel maneuver to transfer a satellite between user-defined altitudes. The results include the transfer time and transfer angle for the minimum time trajectory. The third phase places a satellite within a sphere, of user-defined radius, centered on a non-maneuvering satellite within a constrained time. The results are presented for prograde orbits. An empirical method to determine the optimum DeltaV is provided. The fourth phase places a satellite within the overlapping spheres, of user-defined radii, centered on multiple non-maneuvering satellites, within a constrained time. Empirical methods are presented to determine the separation distance and optimum DeltaV. The final phase culminates by delivering a satellite within the overlapping spheres, centered on multiple non-maneuvering satellites and ground locations, constrained by range and elevation angle, within a constrained time. An empirical model to calculate the optimum DeltaV is shown. All results illustrate mission design trade-offs including ballistic coefficient, orbit inclinations, eccentricity and orbit sizes.

  1. Marine and Human Systems: Addressing Multiple Scales and Multiple Stressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, E. E.; Bundy, A.; Chuenpagdee, R.; Maddison, L.; Svendsen, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Marine Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research (IMBER) project aims to develop a comprehensive understanding of, and predictive capacity of ocean responses to accelerating global change and the consequent effects on the Earth System and human society. Understanding the changing ecology and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems and their sensitivity and resilience to multiple drivers, pressures and stressors is critical to developing responses that will help reduce the vulnerability of marine-dependent human communities. The cumulative pressure of anthropogenic activities on marine systems is already apparent and is projected to increase in the next decades. Policy- and decision-makers need assessments of the status and trends of marine habitats, species, and ecosystems to promote sustainable human activities in the marine environment, particularly in light of global environmental change and changing social systems and human pressures. The IMBER community recently undertook a synthesis and evaluation of approaches for ecosystem-based marine governance, integrated modeling of marine social-ecological systems, and the social and ecological consequences of changing marine ecosystems. The outcomes of this activity provide assessments of current understanding, indicate approaches needed to predict the effects of multiple stressors, at multiple scales, on marine ecosystems and dependent human populations, and highlight approaches for developing innovative societal responses to changing marine ecosystems.

  2. Dean's Great Discovery: Multiplication, Division and Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, Colleen; Davies, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Multiplication, division and fractions are "hotspots" for students in the middle years with many students experiencing difficulty with these concepts. Arrays effectively model multiplication and help children develop multiplicative thinking and learn multiplication facts. In this article the authors show how an open-ended array problem enabled a…

  3. [Multiple calcifications and ossifications of tendons].

    PubMed

    Gaucher, A; Péré, P; Gillet, P

    1991-06-21

    Multiple calcifications and ossifications of tendons are, as a rule, associated with similar lesions of other articular and/or periarticular structures. The nature and multiplicity of these lesions gives them an unquestionable diagnostic and nosological value. Multiple calcifications are part of the apatite arthritis or of diffuse articular chondrocalcinosis. Multiple ossifications of tendons often suggest Forestier's disease and ankylosing spondylitis.

  4. Kidney Disease and Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Rennke, Helmut G.; Laubach, Jacob P.; Richardson, Paul G.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Kidney injury is a common complication of multiple myeloma and other plasma cell dyscrasias, and it is associated with increased mortality. Multiple pathogenic mechanisms can contribute to kidney injury in the patient with myeloma, some of which are the result of nephrotoxic monoclonal Ig and some of which are independent of paraprotein deposition. The pathogenic mechanisms that underlie paraprotein-related kidney disease are increasingly well understood. A novel assay allowing the quantification of free light chains in the serum has aided the diagnosis of new onset disease and allowed for the earlier detection of relapse. Novel myeloma agents have shown considerable promise in reversing renal failure in some patients and improving outcomes. Stem cell transplantation remains a mainstay of management for younger patients with myeloma who are suitable candidates for intensive therapy, whereas the role of new drugs, plasma exchange, and kidney transplantation continues to evolve. PMID:23868898

  5. Multiple Osteomas in Middle Ear

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongxin; Li, Qiuhuan; Gong, Shusheng; Liu, Honggang; Yu, Zilong; Zhang, Luo

    2012-01-01

    Since the first description of middle ear osteomas by Thomas in 1964, only few reports were published within the English literatures (Greinwalid et al., 1998; Shimizu et al., 2003; Cho et al., 2005; and Jang et al., 2009), and only one case of the multiple osteomas in middle ear was described by Kim et al., 2006, which arose from the promontory, lateral semicircular canal, and epitympanum. Here we describe a patient with multiple middle ear osteomas arising from the promontory, incus, Eustachian tube, and bony semicanal of tensor tympani muscle. This patient also contracted the chronic otitis media in the ipsilateral ear. The osteomas were successfully removed by performing type III tympanoplasty in one stage. PMID:22928138

  6. Multiple sclerosis - New treatment modalities

    PubMed Central

    Totaro, Rocco; Di Carmine, Caterina; Marini, Carmine; Carolei, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Ever since the introduction of the first disease modifying therapies, the concept of multiple sclerosis treatment algorithms developed ceaselessly. The increasing number of available drugs is paralleled by impelling issue of ensuring the most appropriate treatment to the right patient at the right time. The purpose of this review is to describe novel agents recently approved for multiple sclerosis treatment, namely teriflunomide, alemtuzumab and dimethylfumarate, focusing on mechanism of action, efficacy data in experimental setting, safety and tolerability. The place in therapy of newer treatment implies careful balancing of risk-benefit profile as well as accurate patient selection. Hence the widening of therapeutic arsenal provides greater opportunity for personalized therapy but also entails a complex trade-off between efficacy, tolerability, safety and eventually patient preference. PMID:26831413

  7. Multiple Exciton Generation Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luther, J. M.; Semonin, O. E.; Beard, M. C.; Gao, J.; Nozik, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Heat loss is the major factor limiting traditional single junction solar cells to a theoretical efficiency of 32%. Multiple Exciton Generation (MEG) enables efficient use of the solar spectrum yielding a theoretical power conversion efficiency of 44% in solar cells under 1-sun conditions. Quantum-confined semiconductors have demonstrated the ability to generate multiple carriers but present-day materials deliver efficiencies far below the SQ limit of 32%. Semiconductor quantum dots of PbSe and PbS provide an active testbed for developing high-efficiency, inexpensive solar cells benefitting from quantum confinement effects. Here, we will present recent work of solar cells employing MEG to yield external quantum efficiencies exceeding 100%.

  8. Harmonic multiplication using resonant tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sollner, T. C. L. G.; Brown, E. R.; Goodhue, W. D.; Correa, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of resonant-tunneling diodes as varistors for harmonic multiplication. It is shown that efficient odd-harmonic conversion is possible and that even harmonics do not appear because of the antisymmetry of the current-voltage (I-V) curve. It is also shown that, with the proper choice of resonant-tunneling structure and pump amplitude, most of the harmonic output power can be confined to a single odd-harmonic frequency. Fifth-harmonic multiplication was demonstrated with an output at 21.75 GHz and a power conversion efficiency of 0.5 percent, and a fifth-harmonic efficiency of 2.7 percent was achieved in a circuit simulation using an improved I-V curve.

  9. Multiple Disease Resistance in Plants.

    PubMed

    Wiesner-Hanks, Tyr; Nelson, Rebecca

    2016-08-01

    Many plants, both in nature and in agriculture, are resistant to multiple diseases. Although much of the plant innate immunity system provides highly specific resistance, there is emerging evidence to support the hypothesis that some components of plant defense are relatively nonspecific, providing multiple disease resistance (MDR). Understanding MDR is of fundamental and practical interest to plant biologists, pathologists, and breeders. This review takes stock of the available evidence related to the MDR hypothesis. Questions about MDR are considered primarily through the lens of forward genetics, starting at the organismal level and proceeding to the locus level and, finally, to the gene level. At the organismal level, MDR may be controlled by clusters of R genes that evolve under diversifying selection, by dispersed, pathogen-specific genes, and/or by individual genes providing MDR. Based on the few MDR loci that are well-understood, MDR is conditioned by diverse mechanisms at the locus and gene levels. PMID:27296142

  10. Artifactual hypercalcemia in multiple myeloma

    SciTech Connect

    Annesley, T.M.; Burritt, M.F.; Kyle, R.A.

    1982-09-01

    A calcium-binding IgG K monoclonal protein in a patient with multiple myeloma and asymptomatic hypercalcemia was recognized, isolated, and characterized. In addition to binding by the whole IgG molecules, calcium was bound by purified Fab fragments and recombined heavy and light chains. In a competitive binding study, the isolated myeloma protein did not bind magnesium. Recognition of calcium-binding myeloma proteins is important in order to avoid therapy for hypercalcemia.

  11. Multiple-Segment Climbing Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James; May, Edward; Eklund, Wayne

    1994-01-01

    Multiple-segment climbing robots developed to perform such tasks as inspection, sandblasting, welding, and painting on towers and other structures. Look and move like caterpillars. Video camera mounted on one of segments rotated to desired viewing angle. Used in remote inspection of structure, to view motion of robot and/or provides video feedback for control of motion, and/or to guide operation of head mounted on foremost segment with motorized actuators.

  12. Protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.

  13. Protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.

  14. Multiple man-machine interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, L.; Cook, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    The multiple man machine interfaces inherent in military pilot training, their social implications, and the issue of possible negative feedback were explored. Modern technology has produced machines which can see, hear, and touch with greater accuracy and precision than human beings. Consequently, the military pilot is more a systems manager, often doing battle against a target he never sees. It is concluded that unquantifiable human activity requires motivation that is not intrinsic in a machine.

  15. Multiple target laser ablation system

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, Douglas N.

    1996-01-01

    A laser ablation apparatus and method are provided in which multiple targets consisting of material to be ablated are mounted on a movable support. The material transfer rate is determined for each target material, and these rates are stored in a controller. A position detector determines which target material is in a position to be ablated, and then the controller controls the beam trigger timing and energy level to achieve a desired proportion of each constituent material in the resulting film.

  16. Multiple target laser ablation system

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, D.N.

    1996-01-09

    A laser ablation apparatus and method are provided in which multiple targets consisting of material to be ablated are mounted on a movable support. The material transfer rate is determined for each target material, and these rates are stored in a controller. A position detector determines which target material is in a position to be ablated, and then the controller controls the beam trigger timing and energy level to achieve a desired proportion of each constituent material in the resulting film. 3 figs.

  17. Olfactory loss in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zivadinov, R; Zorzon, M; Monti Bragadin, L; Pagliaro, G; Cazzato, G

    1999-10-15

    The objectives of the present study were to test odor identification ability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to examine possible correlations between smell identification test scores and various clinical variables. We performed a case-control study comparing the Cross Cultural Smell Identification Test scores of 40 patients with definite multiple sclerosis with those obtained in 40 age-, sex- and smoking-habit-matched healthy controls. The neurological impairment, the disability, the cognitive performances and the psychological functioning were also assessed. Patients with multiple sclerosis scored significantly poorer than controls on the Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test (P<0.001). Olfactory function was borderline normal in four (10%) and abnormal in five (12.5%) MS patients, whereas it was normal in all controls (P<0.02). Significant correlations between the smell identification score and symptoms of anxiety (r=-0.43, P=0.006), depression (r=-0.42, P=0. 008) and severity of neurological impairment (r=-0.32, P=0.05) were found. Only two (5%) patients with multiple sclerosis reported having episodes of smell loss, suggesting a low level of awareness of this problem. Although smell changes are rarely reported, olfactory function is impaired in a considerable number of patients with MS. The observed association between decreased odor identification ability and symptoms of anxiety and depression in our patients suggests that mood and anxiety disorders have to be considered in assessing olfaction in MS patients. Clearly, smell disturbances deserve greater attention from health professionals and caregivers dealing with such patients.

  18. [Special cases of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Mendibe Bilbao, Mar

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease that usually occurs in young people and affects them for the rest of their lives. Patients and their families usually have a series of doubts and questions on everyday matters and all types of situations that occur during the distinct stages of life and which can influence the course of the disease. The aim of this review is to provide specific answers to these questions. PMID:25732948

  19. [Special cases of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Mendibe Bilbao, Mar

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease that usually occurs in young people and affects them for the rest of their lives. Patients and their families usually have a series of doubts and questions on everyday matters and all types of situations that occur during the distinct stages of life and which can influence the course of the disease. The aim of this review is to provide specific answers to these questions.

  20. Multiplicity of Solutions in Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupont, M

    1927-01-01

    One of the most striking phenomena which accompany the flow of fluids such as air and water about bodies, is that of changes in character. This phenomena is still very little understood. We will first discuss the nature of these changes and then show that pure theory leads to a multiplicity of characters of flow, among which we will endeavor to indicate those bearing some analogy to experimental results.

  1. CHARGED PARTICLE MULTIPLICITIES AT BRAHMS.

    SciTech Connect

    DEBBE, R., FOR THE BRAHMS COLLABORATION

    2001-07-30

    This report presents the measurement of charged particle multiplicity densities dN/d{eta} in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions as function of {eta} and the centrality of the collisions. This distributions were extracted from data collected by the BRAHMS collaboration during the first RHK run with gold ions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 130A {center_dot} GeV. The analysis method is described and, results are compared to some model predictions.

  2. Update on multiple sclerosis treatments.

    PubMed

    Bridel, Claire; Lalive, Patrice H

    2014-01-01

    Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) management has dramatically changed over the past decade. New drugs have arrived on the market, allowing for more individualised treatment selection. However, this diversity has increased the complexity of RRMS patient follow-up. In this review, we provide summarised information about treatment efficacy, potential side-effects, follow-up recommendations, vaccinations, and pregnancy safety issues for all currently available disease modifying therapies and those awaiting approval. PMID:25247669

  3. Coping with Multiple Sclerosis Scale

    PubMed Central

    Parkerson, Holly A.; Kehler, Melissa D.; Sharpe, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Coping with Multiple Sclerosis Scale (CMSS) was developed to assess coping strategies specific to multiple sclerosis (MS). Despite its wide application in MS research, psychometric support for the CMSS remains limited to the initial factor analytic investigation by Pakenham in 2001. Methods: The current investigation assessed the factor structure and construct validity of the CMSS. Participants with MS (N = 453) completed the CMSS, as well as measures of disability related to MS (Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale), quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief Scale), and anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Results: The original factor structure reported by Pakenham was a poor fit to the data. An alternate seven-factor structure was identified using exploratory factor analysis. Although there were some similarities with the existing CMSS subscales, differences in factor content and item loadings were found. Relationships between the revised CMSS subscales and additional measures were assessed, and the findings were consistent with previous research. Conclusions: Refinement of the CMSS is suggested, especially for subscales related to acceptance and avoidance strategies. Until further research is conducted on the revised CMSS, it is recommended that the original CMSS continue to be administered. Clinicians and researchers should be mindful of lack of support for the acceptance and avoidance subscales and should seek additional scales to assess these areas. PMID:27551244

  4. Multiple primary cancers: An enigma

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Amitabh; Patnayak, Rashmi; Lakshmi, Amancharla Yadagiri; Manilal, Banoth; Reddy, Mandyam Kumaraswamy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Incidence of multiple primary cancers though uncommon, is being frequently reported now-a-days owing to better diagnostic techniques, the prolonged life span and the increased incidence of long-term survival of cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study. Cases of multiple malignancies diagnosed histopathologically were retrieved from the archives of department of surgical oncology. Clinical data were obtained from the medical records. They were categorized as synchronous malignancies if the interval between them was less or equal to 6 months and metachronous, if the interval was more than 6 months. Results: A total of 13 cases were encountered in the 5 year study period. Out of them two were in the metachronous category and the rest were synchronous as the 2nd malignancy was detected mostly during clinical evaluation of the patients for the primary malignancy. There was female predominance with age range being 43-68 years. Majority of the cases were in the 7th decade. The most common organ involved was breast, followed by cervix. Apart from bilateral breast malignancies, there were combinations like breast with uterine endometrial carcinoma, cervical carcinoma and even papillary thyroid carcinoma. Conclusion: Detection of multiple primary malignancies is becoming increasingly common in day-to-day practice. Greater awareness of this is required among both cancer patients and their treating clinicians. PMID:27169120

  5. Entropy content of multiplicity distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, C. S.

    1989-02-01

    We argue that the entropy S is an important variable to consider for multiparticle productions. A prediction of the width parameter 1//k of multiplicity distributions can be made at superhigh energies by extrapolating the entropy variable S, considered as a function of the average multiplicity Nmacr;. This is done explicitly for the negative binomial distributions and the Furry-Yule distributions, though the method is applicable to other distributions. We also argue that direct extrapolation in the variable 1//k is not advisable. Further evidence for SSZ scaling is given, and a power law for the average multiplicity N¯ as a function of the collision energy √s is derived. It is a pleasure to thank Rudy Hwa and David Kiang for discussions and help. I am also grateful to Dr. V. Šimák and Dr. M. Šumbera for a correspondence pointing out a numerical error in the earlier version of this work. This work is supported in part by the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the Québec Department of Education.

  6. Optical multiple object tracking techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1989-01-01

    Two multichannel multiple-object tracking techniques are reviewed. In the diffraction grating technique, the input scene is picked up by a TV camera and imaged onto a liquid-crystal light valve (LCLV), and the output side of the light valve is illuminated with a suitably polarized and collimated coherent laser beam to yield a reflected beam with polarization modulated according to the intensity of the incoherent input. This reflected beam passes through a beam splitter cube and an analyzer, resulting in an intensity modulated coherent image. An array of spectrum islands containing the information of the input appears after crossing a contact screen/lens combination. In the multiple-focus hololens technique, the scene of moving objects is sent into the LCTVSLM through a camera; a collimated laser beam is incident upon the LCTV screen; a low-pass filter is inserted between the LCTVSLM and the hololens for the removal of the high order diffractions due to the grid structure of the LCTV. The feasibility of the LCTVSLM and multiple-focus hololens technique is demonstrated.

  7. A multiple armature railgun launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyse, Mark W.; Challita, Antonios; Maas, Brian L.; Bauer, David P.

    1993-01-01

    As longer projectiles are accelerated, the efficiency (projectile mass/launch mass) of the launch package decreases. The reduction in efficiency makes launching projectiles with a L/D (length-to-diameter ratio) greater than 20 undesirable. EM guns have several launch characteristics that differ from conventional guns. Higher launch velocities are achievable in EM guns because sonic gas velocities do not limit the projectile velocity. Acceleration profiles for EM guns are more constant. The acceleration forces can be distributed on the projectile easily because the accelerating force can be distributed with multiple armatures. These characteristics combine to make EN guns a very attractive approach for launching very long (i.e.. high L/D ratio) projectiles. Railgun launchers with multiple armatures can distribute the accelerating force. Each armature is supplied gun current for acceleration through its own set of rails. This multi-rail, multi-armature concept was tested at the railgun test facility. The results demonstrated feasibility. We were able to control current distribution to multiple armatures. This paper describes the theory and test results for multi-armature launch of high L/D projectiles.

  8. Multiple memory systems as substrates for multiple decision systems.

    PubMed

    Doll, Bradley B; Shohamy, Daphna; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2015-01-01

    It has recently become widely appreciated that value-based decision making is supported by multiple computational strategies. In particular, animal and human behavior in learning tasks appears to include habitual responses described by prominent model-free reinforcement learning (RL) theories, but also more deliberative or goal-directed actions that can be characterized by a different class of theories, model-based RL. The latter theories evaluate actions by using a representation of the contingencies of the task (as with a learned map of a spatial maze), called an "internal model." Given the evidence of behavioral and neural dissociations between these approaches, they are often characterized as dissociable learning systems, though they likely interact and share common mechanisms. In many respects, this division parallels a longstanding dissociation in cognitive neuroscience between multiple memory systems, describing, at the broadest level, separate systems for declarative and procedural learning. Procedural learning has notable parallels with model-free RL: both involve learning of habits and both are known to depend on parts of the striatum. Declarative memory, by contrast, supports memory for single events or episodes and depends on the hippocampus. The hippocampus is thought to support declarative memory by encoding temporal and spatial relations among stimuli and thus is often referred to as a relational memory system. Such relational encoding is likely to play an important role in learning an internal model, the representation that is central to model-based RL. Thus, insofar as the memory systems represent more general-purpose cognitive mechanisms that might subserve performance on many sorts of tasks including decision making, these parallels raise the question whether the multiple decision systems are served by multiple memory systems, such that one dissociation is grounded in the other. Here we investigated the relationship between model-based RL and

  9. Sequence Factorization with Multiple References

    PubMed Central

    Wandelt, Sebastian; Leser, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The success of high-throughput sequencing has lead to an increasing number of projects which sequence large populations of a species. Storage and analysis of sequence data is a key challenge in these projects, because of the sheer size of the datasets. Compression is one simple technology to deal with this challenge. Referential factorization and compression schemes, which store only the differences between input sequence and a reference sequence, gained lots of interest in this field. Highly-similar sequences, e.g., Human genomes, can be compressed with a compression ratio of 1,000:1 and more, up to two orders of magnitude better than with standard compression techniques. Recently, it was shown that the compression against multiple references from the same species can boost the compression ratio up to 4,000:1. However, a detailed analysis of using multiple references is lacking, e.g., for main memory consumption and optimality. In this paper, we describe one key technique for the referential compression against multiple references: The factorization of sequences. Based on the notion of an optimal factorization, we propose optimization heuristics and identify parameter settings which greatly influence 1) the size of the factorization, 2) the time for factorization, and 3) the required amount of main memory. We evaluate a total of 30 setups with a varying number of references on data from three different species. Our results show a wide range of factorization sizes (optimal to an overhead of up to 300%), factorization speed (0.01 MB/s to more than 600 MB/s), and main memory usage (few dozen MB to dozens of GB). Based on our evaluation, we identify the best configurations for common use cases. Our evaluation shows that multi-reference factorization is much better than single-reference factorization. PMID:26422374

  10. Therapeutic advancements in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Gozzetti, Alessandro; Candi, Veronica; Papini, Giulia; Bocchia, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma survival has significantly improved in the latest years due to a broad spectrum of novel agents available for treatment. The introduction of thalidomide, bortezomib, and lenalidomide together with autologous stem-cell transplantation has considerably increased complete remission rate and progression-free survival resulting ultimately in prolonged survival in myeloma patients. Moreover, novel strategies of treatment such as consolidation and maintenance are being used to further implement responses. Finally, a number of new drugs such as carfilzomib and pomalidomide are already in clinical practice, making the future of myeloma patients brighter. PMID:25237651

  11. Coordination of multiple robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.; Soloway, D.

    1987-01-01

    Kinematic resolved-rate control from one robot arm is extended to the coordinated control of multiple robot arms in the movement of an object. The structure supports the general movement of one axis system (moving reference frame) with respect to another axis system (control reference frame) by one or more robot arms. The grippers of the robot arms do not have to be parallel or at any pre-disposed positions on the object. For multiarm control, the operator chooses the same moving and control reference frames for each of the robot arms. Consequently, each arm then moves as though it were carrying out the commanded motions by itself.

  12. Symptomatic management in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Pushkar

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the commonest cause of disability in young adults. While there is increasing choice and better treatments available for delaying disease progression, there are still, very few, effective symptomatic treatments. For many patients such as those with primary progressive MS (PPMS) and those that inevitably become secondary progressive, symptom management is the only treatment available. MS related symptoms are complex, interrelated, and can be interdependent. It requires good understanding of the condition, a holistic multidisciplinary approach, and above all, patient education and empowerment. PMID:26538847

  13. Multiple piece turbine rotor blade

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Russell B; Fedock, John A

    2013-05-21

    A multiple piece turbine rotor blade with a shell having an airfoil shape and secured between a spar and a platform with the spar including a tip end piece. a snap ring fits around the spar and abuts against the spar tip end piece on a top side and abuts against a shell on the bottom side so that the centrifugal loads from the shell is passed through the snap ring and into the spar and not through a tip cap dovetail slot and projection structure.

  14. Therapeutic Advancements in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Gozzetti, Alessandro; Candi, Veronica; Papini, Giulia; Bocchia, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma survival has significantly improved in the latest years due to a broad spectrum of novel agents available for treatment. The introduction of thalidomide, bortezomib, and lenalidomide together with autologous stem-cell transplantation has considerably increased complete remission rate and progression-free survival resulting ultimately in prolonged survival in myeloma patients. Moreover, novel strategies of treatment such as consolidation and maintenance are being used to further implement responses. Finally, a number of new drugs such as carfilzomib and pomalidomide are already in clinical practice, making the future of myeloma patients brighter. PMID:25237651

  15. [Multiple agenesis and prosthetic restoration].

    PubMed

    Renault, P

    1990-03-01

    Cases of multiple agenesia present some difficulties in the treatment planing. Three situations may be encountered: limited agenesia, restored by a fixed, bonded or cemented prosthesis, multiple uni- or bimaxillary agenesia without remaining of deciduous teeth, restored by a fixed, bonded or cemented prosthesis or the partial adjacent prosthesis, multiple uni- or bimaxillary agenesia with remaining of deciduous teeth, restored by means of a supra-dental prosthesis. The first two situations have been described in dental literature and are relatively easy to treat. The same is not true for the third situation, where the decision to keep the temporary teeth considerably increases the difficulty of prosthetic restoration. This subject will be illustrated by the presentation of a clinical case of multiple bi-maxillary agenesia. The patient has: on the maxilla: an absence of 9 permanent teeth (18, 15, 14, 12, 22, 23, 24, 25, 28) and the presence of 4 deciduous teeth (62, 63, 64, 65), on the mandible: an absence of all permanent teeth, with the exception of 36 and 46, and the remaining of 4 deciduous teeth (75, 73, 83, 84). The remaining of deciduous teeth and the presence of a very high inter-arch space led to opting for dental coverage so as to keep the deciduous teeth and a proper vertical dimension. The patient wished to solve his "problem" in the maxilla first, and is not wanting to undergo the extraction of his deciduous teeth. The following therapeutic proposal was adapted: On the maxilla, a three-step procedure: first step: building of metal copings on 13, 16 and 26 and metal-ceramic crowns on 11 and 21, second step: building of telescop crowns on 16 and 26 and clasps on 13, 11 and 21, third step: casting of the removable partial denture framework and soldering to the telescop crowns and clasps. On the mandible, a provisional restoration using a supra-dental resin removable partial denture with ceramic occlusal surfaces was adopted. The aesthetic and functional

  16. Multiple bleeds in haemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Aronstam, A; Painter, M J; Eddey, J V

    1979-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-one bleeding episodes involving two sites simultaneously were noted during a survey of 4935 bleeding episodes, an incidence of 3.7%. Elbows, knees and ankles were the commonest sites involved in double bleeds, while the thigh, upper arm and elbow were the commonest sites involved in the double bleeds needing most transfusions. The overall transfusion requirements were less than for single bleeds. The frequency of multiple bleeds correlated significantly with the overall bleeding frequency, but not with the number of days under observation.

  17. Smart card multiple function badge

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    Smart cards are credit card-sized computers with integrated data storage, an operating system to manage the data, and built-in security features that protect the data. They are used to distribute information to remote sites, providing the same or greater reliability, data integrity, and information security than a network system. However, smart cards may provide greater functionality at a lower cost than network systems. The US Department of Energy Hanford Site is developing the smart card to be used as a multiple function identification badge that will service various data management requirements on the Site. This paper discusses smart card technology and the proposed Hanford Site applications.

  18. [Driving ability with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Küst, J; Dettmers, C

    2014-07-01

    Driving is an important issue for young patients, especially for those whose walking capacity is impaired. Driving might support the patient's social and vocational participation. The question as to whether a patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) is restricted in the ability to drive a car depends on neurological and neuropsychological deficits, self-awareness, insight into deficits and ability to compensate for loss of function. Because of the enormous variability of symptoms in MS the question is highly individualized. A practical driving test under supervision of a driving instructor (possibly accompanied by a neuropsychologist) might be helpful in providing both patient and relatives adequate feedback on driving abilities. PMID:24906536

  19. Multiple frequency atmospheric radar techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stitt, Gary Richard

    The use of multiple frequency coding to improve the vertical resolution of pulsed-Doppler very high frequency atmospheric radars, especially with regards to the two-frequency techniques known as frequency domain interferometry (FDI), is presented. This technique consists of transmitting alternate pulses on two distinct carrier frequencies. The two resulting time series are used to evaluate the normalized cross-correlation function, whose magnitude and phase are related to the thickness and position of a scattering layer. These same time series are also used to evaluate cross-spectra, which yield magnitude and phase values for each Doppler frequency component of the return signal.

  20. [Multiple finger geodes in children].

    PubMed

    Hoeffel, J C; Oprisescu, B; Bresson, A; Ploier, R; Vidailhet, M

    1993-06-01

    Three pediatric patients with multiple geodes in the fingers are reported. This condition occurs mainly between one and three years and at seven years of age and is more common in winter. Affected fingers are swollen. Roentgenograms disclose several small lucent defects which are usually located in the middle phalanx. Several fingers are usually involved. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate is increased in virtually every case. Resolution occurs spontaneously within a few weeks or months. There is no tendency towards recurrence. Although the condition is inflammatory, exposure to cold is probably a precipitating factor.

  1. Evolutionary Processes in Multiple Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Eggleton, P P; Kisseleva-Eggleton, L

    2006-02-14

    There are several ways in which triple stars can evolve in somewhat unusual ways. They discuss two situations where Case A Roche-lobe overflow, followed by a merger, can produce anomalous wide binaries such as {gamma} Per; and Kozai cycles in triples with non-parallel orbits, which can produce merged rapidly-rotating stars like AB Dor, and which can also lead to the delayed ejection of one component of a multiple, as may have been observed in T Tau in 1998.

  2. Stroke after multiple bee sting.

    PubMed

    Rajendiran, C; Puvanalingam, A; Thangam, D; Ragunanthanan, S; Ramesh, D; Venkatesan, S; Sundar, C

    2012-02-01

    Bee stings are commonly encountered worldwide. Various manifestations after bee sting have been described. Local reactions are common. Unusually, manifestations like vomiting, diarrhea, dyspnea, generalized edema, acute renal failure, hypotension and collapse may occur. Rarely vasculitis, serum sickness, neuritis and encephalitis have been described which generally develop days to weeks after a sting. We report a case of a 25-year-old male who developed left sided monoparesis and transient visual loss following multiple bee stings. Unlike the previous case reports, in our case there has been involvement of both the anterior circulation and posterior circulation territory to the brain. We report this case due to it's rarity. PMID:22715562

  3. Neurotherapeutic Strategies for Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Frohman, Teresa C; Beh, Shin C; Kildebeck, Eric J; Narayan, Ram; Treadaway, Katherine; Greenberg, Benjamin; Frohman, Elliot M

    2016-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common disabling neurologic disease of young adults. There are now 16 US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved disease-modifying therapies for MS as well as a cohort of other agents commonly used in practice when conventional therapies prove inadequate. This article discusses approved FDA therapies as well as commonly used practice-based therapies for MS, as well as those therapies that can be used in patients attempting to become pregnant, or in patients with an established pregnancy, who require concomitant treatment secondary to recalcitrant disease activity. PMID:27445239

  4. Ordering Multiple Soft Gluon Emissions.

    PubMed

    Ángeles Martínez, René; Forshaw, Jeffrey R; Seymour, Michael H

    2016-05-27

    We present an expression for the QCD amplitude for a general hard scattering process with any number of soft gluon emissions, to one-loop accuracy. The amplitude is written in two different but equivalent ways: as a product of operators ordered in dipole transverse momentum and as a product of loop-expanded currents. We hope that these results will help in the development of an all-orders algorithm for multiple emissions that includes the full color structure and both the real and imaginary contributions to the amplitude. PMID:27284651

  5. Newer therapies for multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Coles, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    The newer immunotherapies for multiple sclerosis (fingolimod, natalizumab, dimethyl fumarate, teriflunomide, alemtuzumab) offer advantages of efficacy or tolerability over the injectable therapies of the 1990s. But they also have greater risks. As further treatments emerge (daclizumab and ocrelizumab are likely to be licensed in the next two years), the physician needs to be able to place them within a complex landscape of drugs and a specific treatment strategy, which may be an “escalation” or “induction” approach. Whilst on treatment, neurologist and patient need to be vigilant to signs of disease breakthrough or adverse effects. PMID:26538846

  6. Newer therapies for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Coles, Alasdair

    2015-09-01

    The newer immunotherapies for multiple sclerosis (fingolimod, natalizumab, dimethyl fumarate, teriflunomide, alemtuzumab) offer advantages of efficacy or tolerability over the injectable therapies of the 1990s. But they also have greater risks. As further treatments emerge (daclizumab and ocrelizumab are likely to be licensed in the next two years), the physician needs to be able to place them within a complex landscape of drugs and a specific treatment strategy, which may be an "escalation" or "induction" approach. Whilst on treatment, neurologist and patient need to be vigilant to signs of disease breakthrough or adverse effects. PMID:26538846

  7. Heredity in multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Soma, Hiroyuki; Yabe, Ichiro; Takei, Asako; Fujiki, Naoto; Yanagihara, Tetsuro; Sasaki, Hidenao

    2006-01-15

    We investigated the family histories of 157 Japanese patients with probable or possible multiple system atrophy (MSA). A family history of neurodegenerative disorders was only detected in three MSA patients (1.9%). We evaluated these patients by careful neurological examination, neuroimaging studies, and genetic studies to exclude hereditary spinocerebellar ataxia with a similar clinical phenotype to MSA. The results indicated that one of them had a family history of MSA. Although the familial presence of neurodegenerative disorders is rare in MSA patients, the existence of such cases suggests that MSA may have a genetic background.

  8. Developments in multiple headspace extraction.

    PubMed

    Hakkarainen, Minna

    2007-03-10

    This paper reviews new developments in multiple headspace extraction (MHE), especially its combination with two miniaturized extraction techniques, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and single-drop microextraction (SDME). The combination of the techniques broadens the applicability of SPME and SDME to quantitative determination of analytes in complex liquid and solid matrixes. These new methods offer several advantages over traditional liquid-solid, liquid-liquid and headspace extraction techniques. The potential applications include extraction of volatiles and semivolatiles from environmental and physiological samples and from different polymer products such as medical and biomedical materials, food packaging and building materials. The theoretical principals of the techniques are also briefly reviewed. PMID:17081616

  9. Symptomatic fatigue in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Freal, J E; Kraft, G H; Coryell, J K

    1984-03-01

    Symptomatic fatigue has not been investigated previously in a multiple sclerosis population. Potential subjects were the 78% of 656 individuals with multiple sclerosis who indicated in a previous study that they experienced symptomatic fatigue. Three hundred nine subjects (60%) returned a follow-up questionnaire on symptomatic fatigue. Ninety percent described fatigue as "tiredness or the need to rest," but 43% of them indicated that "sleepiness" was part of the symptomatology. In 48% fatigue made other MS symptoms worse. Fatigue tended to occur in the late afternoon and evening. It occurred almost daily for more than 66% of the subjects. In 47% of the subjects fatigue usually subsided within a few hours; in other subjects occurrences were of variable length (40%) or lasted between 6 and 24 hours (8%). Ninety percent said that fatigue was worse at warmer environmental temperatures. Fatigue was worse for 83% after "vigorous exercise" and for 64% after "moderate exercise" although 15% reported that moderate exercise helped to reduce fatigue. Meditation, some drugs, and cooling with water reduced fatigue in a majority of the small proportion of the population trying these techniques. A planned daily schedule of activity and rest seemed to be a partially effective response to symptomatic fatigue for the majority of subjects studied.

  10. MULTIPLE ECH LAUNCHER CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    GREEN,M.T; PONCE,D; GRUNLOH,H.J; ELLIS,R.A; GROSNICKLE,W.H; HUMPHREY,R.L

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 The addition of new, high power gyrotrons to the heating and current drive arsenal at DIII-D, required a system upgrade for control of fully steerable ECH Launchers. Each launcher contains two pointing mirrors with two degrees of mechanical freedom. The two flavors of motion are called facet and tilt. Therefore up to four channels of motion per launcher need to be controlled. The system utilizes absolute encoders to indicate mirror position and therefore direction of the microwave beam. The launcher movement is primarily controlled by PLC, but future iterations of design, may require this control to be accomplished by a CPU on fast bus such as Compact PCI. This will be necessary to accomplish real time position control. Safety of equipment and personnel is of primary importance when controlling a system of moving parts. Therefore multiple interlocks and fault status enunciators have been implemented. This paper addresses the design of a Multiple ECH Launcher Control System, and characterizes the flexibility needed to upgrade to a real time position control system in the future.

  11. JAWS multiple Doppler derived winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmore, Kimberly L.

    1987-01-01

    An elementary working knowledge is given of the advantages and limitations of the multiple Doppler radar analyses that have recently become available from the Joint Airport Weather Studies (JAWS) project. What Doppler radar is and what it does is addressed and the way Doppler radars were used in the JAWS project to gather wind shear data is described. The working definition of wind shear used is winds that affect aircraft flight over a span of 15 to 45 seconds and turbulence is defined as air motion that cause abrupt aircraft motions. The JAWS data current available contain no turbulence data. The concept of multiple Doppler analysis and the geometry of how it works are described, followed by an explanation of how data gathered in radar space are interpolated to a common Cartesian coordinate system and the limitations involved. A discussion is also presented of the analysis grid and how it was constructed. What the user actually gets is discussed, followed by a discussion of the expected errors in the three orthogonal wind components. Finally, a discussion is presented of why JAWS data are significant.

  12. A heuristic multiple target tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaupre, J. C. F.; Farooq, M.; Roy, J. M. J.

    1992-04-01

    The potential of applying recent developments in expert systems to multiple target tracking (MTT) is investigated. Standard MTT algorithms can generate relatively unreliable target state estimates. The multiple hypotheses tracker (MHT) is a very powerful algorithm, and demanding in computer resources, which can handle difficult situations by differing the formulation of hard decisions and which forms hypothetical tracks with associated probability values. It is proposed that heuristics can be formulated to improve MHT performance. These rules act on the tracks, hypotheses, and corresponding probability values to decide which hypotheses are most representative of reality. In effect, the MHT algorithm is modified to accept and process knowledge of the context or environment in which it operates and on its own strengths and weaknesses. To evaluate the performance of this concept, a prototype has been built which simulates the environment of a small military flight training school as viewed through the returns of a modified area surveillance radar. In a scenario involving nine targets behaving within regulated directives, the tracking prototype successfully displays timely, accurate, and dependable information.

  13. Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Jongen, P J; Ter Horst, A T; Brands, A M

    2012-04-01

    Cognitive impairment occurs in 40-65% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, typically involving complex attention, information processing speed, (episodic) memory and executive functions. It is seen in the subclinical radiologically isolated syndrome, clinically isolated syndrome, and all phases of clinical MS. In pediatric-onset MS cognition is frequently impaired and worsens relatively rapidly. Cognitive impairment often affects personal life and vocational status. Depression, anxiety and fatigue aggravate symptoms, whereas cognitive reserve partially protects. Cognitive dysfunction correlates to brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesion volumes and (regional) atrophy, and degree of and increase in MRI abnormalities predict further worsening. Experimental MRI indicates a crucial role for (focal) cortical lesions and atrophy, abnormal cortical integrity, and early changes in normal appearing brain tissue. Functional MRI suggests compensatory reorganization and adaptation changes in neural activities. Screening tools are the Brief Repeatable Neuropsychological Battery, Symbol Digit Modalities Test and Audio Recorded Cognitive Screen. The Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is used for formal neuropsychological evaluation. What constitutes a clinically relevant change and how to optimally monitor cognition are issues to be settled. In relapsing-remitting MS timely and adequate disease modifying drug treatment may stabilize or possibly improve cognition. There is no evidence-based symptomatic drug treatment, nor are there optimal non-pharmacological approaches. Leisure activities enhance cognitive reserve. Cognitive rehabilitation in MS patients is still in its infancy. Cognitive behavioral therapy, exercise, and education programs are promising psychosocial interventions to improve coping and lessen cognitive symptoms.

  14. Full potential multiple scattering theory

    SciTech Connect

    MacLaren, J.M.

    1994-10-20

    A practical method for performing self-consistent electronic structure calculations based upon full-potential multiple-scattering theory is presented. Solutions to the single site Schroedinger equation are obtained by solving coupled channel integral equations for a potential which is analytically continued out to the circumscribing sphere. This potential coincides with the full cell potential inside each atomic cell. Scattering matrices and wavefunctions for the full cell potential are obtained from surface Wronskian relations. The charge density is obtained from the single particle Green`s function. This Green`s function is computed using the cell scattering matrices and wavefunctions using the layer multiple scattering theory. Self consistent solutions require a solution at each iteration to the Poisson equation. The Poisson equation is solved using a variational cellular method. In the approach a local solution to each cell is augmented by adding a series of regular harmonics (solutions to Laplace`s equation). Minimizing the coulomb energy, subject to continuity of the potential across all cell boundary provides an expression for the coefficients of the regular harmonics. This method is applied to BCC Nb. Calculated properties converge well in angular momentum and show comparable accuracy to full potential linearized muffin-tin orbital calculations.

  15. Multiple channel data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Crawley, H. Bert; Rosenberg, Eli I.; Meyer, W. Thomas; Gorbics, Mark S.; Thomas, William D.; McKay, Roy L.; Homer, Jr., John F.

    1990-05-22

    A multiple channel data acquisition system for the transfer of large amounts of data from a multiplicity of data channels has a plurality of modules which operate in parallel to convert analog signals to digital data and transfer that data to a communications host via a FASTBUS. Each module has a plurality of submodules which include a front end buffer (FEB) connected to input circuitry having an analog to digital converter with cache memory for each of a plurality of channels. The submodules are interfaced with the FASTBUS via a FASTBUS coupler which controls a module bus and a module memory. The system is triggered to effect rapid parallel data samplings which are stored to the cache memories. The cache memories are uploaded to the FEBs during which zero suppression occurs. The data in the FEBs is reformatted and compressed by a local processor during transfer to the module memory. The FASTBUS coupler is used by the communications host to upload the compressed and formatted data from the module memory. The local processor executes programs which are downloaded to the module memory through the FASTBUS coupler.

  16. Multiple protocol fluorometer and method

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Zbigniew S.; Falkowski, Paul G.

    2000-09-19

    A multiple protocol fluorometer measures photosynthetic parameters of phytoplankton and higher plants using actively stimulated fluorescence protocols. The measured parameters include spectrally-resolved functional and optical absorption cross sections of PSII, extent of energy transfer between reaction centers of PSII, F.sub.0 (minimal), F.sub.m (maximal) and F.sub.v (variable) components of PSII fluorescence, photochemical and non-photochemical quenching, size of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool, and the kinetics of electron transport between Q.sub.a and PQ pool and between PQ pool and PSI. The multiple protocol fluorometer, in one embodiment, is equipped with an excitation source having a controlled spectral output range between 420 nm and 555 nm and capable of generating flashlets having a duration of 0.125-32 .mu.s, an interval between 0.5 .mu.s and 2 seconds, and peak optical power of up to 2 W/cm.sup.2. The excitation source is also capable of generating, simultaneous with the flashlets, a controlled continuous, background illumination.

  17. Multiple Waveband Temperature Sensor (MWTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandara, Sumith V.; Gunapala, Sarath; Wilson, Daniel; Stirbl, Robert; Blea, Anthony; Harding, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of Multiple Waveband Temperature Sensor (MWTS). The MWTS project will result in a highly stable, monolithically integrated, high resolution infrared detector array sensor that records registered thermal imagery in four infrared wavebands to infer dynamic temperature profiles on a laser-irradiated ground target. An accurate surface temperature measurement of a target in extreme environments in a non-intrusive manner is required. The development challenge is to: determine optimum wavebands (suitable for target temperatures, nature of the targets and environments) to measure accurate target surface temperature independent of the emissivity, integrate simultaneously readable multiband Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIPs) in a single monolithic focal plane array (FPA) sensor and to integrate the hardware/software and system calibration for remote temperature measurements. The charge was therefore to develop and demonstrate a multiband infrared imaging camera with the detectors simultaneously sensitive to multiple distinct color bands for front surface temperature measurements Wavelength ( m) measurements. Amongst the requirements are: that the measurement system will not affect target dynamics or response to the laser irradiation and that the simplest criterion for spectral band selection is to choose those practically feasible spectral bands that create the most contrast between the objects or scenes of interest in the expected environmental conditions. There is in the presentation a review of the modeling and simulation of multi-wave infrared temperature measurement and also a review of the detector development and QWIP capacities.

  18. Multiple channel data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Crawley, H.B.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Meyer, W.T.; Gorbics, M.S.; Thomas, W.D.; McKay, R.L.; Homer, J.F. Jr.

    1990-05-22

    A multiple channel data acquisition system for the transfer of large amounts of data from a multiplicity of data channels has a plurality of modules which operate in parallel to convert analog signals to digital data and transfer that data to a communications host via a FASTBUS. Each module has a plurality of submodules which include a front end buffer (FEB) connected to input circuitry having an analog to digital converter with cache memory for each of a plurality of channels. The submodules are interfaced with the FASTBUS via a FASTBUS coupler which controls a module bus and a module memory. The system is triggered to effect rapid parallel data samplings which are stored to the cache memories. The cache memories are uploaded to the FEBs during which zero suppression occurs. The data in the FEBs is reformatted and compressed by a local processor during transfer to the module memory. The FASTBUS coupler is used by the communications host to upload the compressed and formatted data from the module memory. The local processor executes programs which are downloaded to the module memory through the FASTBUS coupler. 25 figs.

  19. A multiple imputation strategy for sequential multiple assignment randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Shortreed, Susan M; Laber, Eric; Scott Stroup, T; Pineau, Joelle; Murphy, Susan A

    2014-10-30

    Sequential multiple assignment randomized trials (SMARTs) are increasingly being used to inform clinical and intervention science. In a SMART, each patient is repeatedly randomized over time. Each randomization occurs at a critical decision point in the treatment course. These critical decision points often correspond to milestones in the disease process or other changes in a patient's health status. Thus, the timing and number of randomizations may vary across patients and depend on evolving patient-specific information. This presents unique challenges when analyzing data from a SMART in the presence of missing data. This paper presents the first comprehensive discussion of missing data issues typical of SMART studies: we describe five specific challenges and propose a flexible imputation strategy to facilitate valid statistical estimation and inference using incomplete data from a SMART. To illustrate these contributions, we consider data from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trial of Intervention and Effectiveness, one of the most well-known SMARTs to date. PMID:24919867

  20. Diabetic Diet - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Diabetic Diet URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Diabetic Diet - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  1. Refractive Errors - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Refractive Errors URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Refractive Errors - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  2. Dietary Fats - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Dietary Fats URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Dietary Fats - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  3. Smokeless Tobacco - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Smokeless Tobacco URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Smokeless Tobacco - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  4. Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cosmetic Dentistry URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  5. Oil Spills - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Oil Spills URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Oil Spills - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  6. Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Diabetic Foot URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  7. Accelerated Cure Project for Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... main content Accelerating research toward a cure for multiple sclerosis Home Contact Us Search form Search Connect Volunteer ... is to accelerate efforts toward a cure for multiple sclerosis by rapidly advancing research that determines its causes ...

  8. Lead Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Lead Poisoning URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Lead Poisoning - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  9. Medication Errors - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Medication Errors URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Medication Errors - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  10. Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Rotavirus Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  11. Chlamydia Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Chlamydia Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Chlamydia Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  12. Child Nutrition - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Nutrition URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Nutrition - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  13. Teaching Multiplication Algorithms from Other Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Cheng-Yao

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a number of multiplication algorithms from different cultures around the world: Hindu, Egyptian, Russian, Japanese, and Chinese. Students can learn these algorithms and better understand the operation and properties of multiplication.

  14. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  15. The Multiple Control of Verbal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Jack; Palmer, David C; Sundberg, Mark L

    2011-01-01

    Amid the novel terms and original analyses in Skinner's Verbal Behavior, the importance of his discussion of multiple control is easily missed, but multiple control of verbal responses is the rule rather than the exception. In this paper we summarize and illustrate Skinner's analysis of multiple control and introduce the terms convergent multiple control and divergent multiple control. We point out some implications for applied work and discuss examples of the role of multiple control in humor, poetry, problem solving, and recall. Joint control and conditional discrimination are discussed as special cases of multiple control. We suggest that multiple control is a useful analytic tool for interpreting virtually all complex behavior, and we consider the concepts of derived relations and naming as cases in point. PMID:22532752

  16. Peptic Ulcer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Peptic Ulcer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Peptic Ulcer - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  17. Parasitic Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Parasitic Diseases URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Parasitic Diseases - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  18. Some Simple Computational Formulas for Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Lewis R., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Short-cut formulas are presented for direct computation of the beta weights, the standard errors of the beta weights, and the multiple correlation coefficient for multiple regression problems involving three independent variables and one dependent variable. (Author)

  19. Multiple embryos, multiple nepionts and multiple equatorial layers in Cycloclypeus carpenteri.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briguglio, Antonino; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Wolfgring, Erik; Hohenegger, Johann

    2016-04-01

    In this study, 17 specimens of Cycloclypeus carpenteri have been analyzed by means of microCT scanning. We used CT scanning technique as it enables the visualization and the quantifications of internal structures of hollow specimens without their destruction. It has been observed that many specimens possessing the natural morphology of this taxon, actually contain multiple embryos (up to 16 in one single specimen) and, in some few cases, multiple nepionts each with its own heterosteginid chambers (up to three separated nepionts). The diameter of each proloculus has been measured, and as a result, they are very variable even within the same specimen, therefore questioning the long known theory that schizonts have smaller proloculi than gamonts and also questioning the fact that proloculi in the same species should all have comparable size. Furthermore, we have observed the presence of additional equatorial planes on several specimens. Such additional planes are always connected to what seems to be the main equatorial plane. Such connections are T-shaped and are located at the junction between two equatorial layers; these junctions are made by a chamberlet, which possesses an unusually higher number of apertures. The connections between equatorial planes are always perfectly synchronized with the relative growth step and the same chamber can be therefore followed along the multiple equatorial planes. Apparently there is a perfect geometric relationship between the creation of additional equatorial planes and the position of the nepionts. Whenever the nepionts are positioned on different planes, additional planes are created and the angle of the nepionts is related to the banding angle of the equatorial planes. The presence of additional planes do not hamper the life of the cell, on the contrary, it seems that the cell is still able to build nicely shaped chamberlets and, after volumetric calculations, it seems all specimens managed to keep their logistic growth

  20. The Multiple Control of Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Jack; Palmer, David C.; Sundberg, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Amid the novel terms and original analyses in Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", the importance of his discussion of multiple control is easily missed, but multiple control of verbal responses is the rule rather than the exception. In this paper we summarize and illustrate Skinner's analysis of multiple control and introduce the terms "convergent…

  1. Identifying the Multiple Intelligences of Your Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Joyce A.; Conti, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    One way of addressing individual differences among adult learners is to identify the Multiple Intelligences of the learner. Multiple Intelligences refers to the concept developed by Howard Gardner that challenges the traditional view of intelligence and explains the presence of nine different Multiple Intelligences. The purpose of this study was…

  2. 7 CFR 1437.13 - Multiple benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multiple benefits. 1437.13 Section 1437.13... General Provisions § 1437.13 Multiple benefits. (a) If a producer is eligible to receive payments under..., but shall not be eligible for both. The limitation on multiple benefits prohibits a producer...

  3. Breast feeding twins and high multiples.

    PubMed

    Flidel-Rimon, O; Shinwell, E S

    2006-09-01

    Breast feeding offers major health advantages for all infants, whether born singleton or from multiple pregnancy. Adequate quantity and quality of milk production has been documented even for high multiples. Combined efforts of parents, close family, friends, and the medical team can help to make either full or partial breast feeding of multiples possible.

  4. 29 CFR 20.30 - Multiple debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Multiple debts. 20.30 Section 20.30 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor FEDERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION Administrative Offset § 20.30 Multiple debts. When collecting multiple debts by administrative offset, agencies should apply the recovered amounts to those debts,...

  5. 29 CFR 20.30 - Multiple debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Multiple debts. 20.30 Section 20.30 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor FEDERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION Administrative Offset § 20.30 Multiple debts. When collecting multiple debts by administrative offset, agencies should apply the recovered amounts to those debts,...

  6. 14 CFR 1261.505 - Multiple debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multiple debts. 1261.505 Section 1261.505...) Administrative Offset of Claims § 1261.505 Multiple debts. When collecting multiple debts by administrative offset, NASA will apply the recovered amounts to those debts in accordance with the best interests of...

  7. 14 CFR 1261.505 - Multiple debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Multiple debts. 1261.505 Section 1261.505...) Administrative Offset of Claims § 1261.505 Multiple debts. When collecting multiple debts by administrative offset, NASA will apply the recovered amounts to those debts in accordance with the best interests of...

  8. Functional Multiple-Set Canonical Correlation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun; Jung, Kwanghee; Takane, Yoshio; Woodward, Todd S.

    2012-01-01

    We propose functional multiple-set canonical correlation analysis for exploring associations among multiple sets of functions. The proposed method includes functional canonical correlation analysis as a special case when only two sets of functions are considered. As in classical multiple-set canonical correlation analysis, computationally, the…

  9. Cross-Validation, Shrinkage, and Multiple Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Kevin

    One aspect of multiple regression--the shrinkage of the multiple correlation coefficient on cross-validation is reviewed. The paper consists of four sections. In section one, the distinction between a fixed and a random multiple regression model is made explicit. In section two, the cross-validation paradigm and an explanation for the occurrence…

  10. Lattice Multiplication in a Preservice Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Patricia M.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the algorithm for multiplication that is referred to as lattice multiplication. Evidence of how the author's preservice students' conceptual understanding of the algorithm grew through the semester is given. In addition, the author extends the conceptualization of the algorithm from the multiplication of whole numbers to the…

  11. The Many Meanings of "Multiple Measures"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Professional assessment organizations almost universally endorse the use of multiple measures for making education decisions. In practice, however, the concept of multiple measures is defined and applied in many different ways, depending on how we answer two questions--What counts as a "measure"? and How are the multiple measures combined?…

  12. Multiple Intelligences: Current Trends in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Marsha J.; Kordinak, S. Thomas; Bruce, A. Jerry

    2009-01-01

    With his theory of multiple intelligences, Howard Gardner challenged the presumption that intelligence is a single innate entity. He maintained that multiple intelligences exist and are related to specific brain areas and symbol systems. Each of the intelligences has its merits and limits, but by using a multiple intelligences approach, more…

  13. Deconstructing Calculation Methods, Part 3: Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ian

    2008-01-01

    In this third of a series of four articles, the author deconstructs the primary national strategy's approach to written multiplication. The approach to multiplication, as set out on pages 12 to 15 of the primary national strategy's "Guidance paper" "Calculation" (DfES, 2007), is divided into six stages: (1) mental multiplication using…

  14. Clonal Evolution in Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Bita; Vij, Ravi

    2016-08-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic malignancy encountered among patients in the United States. The last decade has seen incremental improvements in the survival of patients with MM. These advances are, to a large extent, attributable to the addition of proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs to the armamentarium of treatment options. The adoption of these drug classes was the result of an empiric research paradigm. However, with the application of next generation sequencing technologies, we are now starting to unravel the genomic landscape of MM. It is hoped that this will allow us to better disentangle the biology of the disease and allow for identification of new therapeutic targets. In this article, we review what we have learned to date about the mutational profile, clonal architecture, and evolution of the disease, and discuss the potential clinical implications of these findings. PMID:27521309

  15. Moral enhancement requires multiple virtues.

    PubMed

    Hughes, James J

    2015-01-01

    Some of the debates around the concept of moral enhancement have focused on whether the improvement of a single trait, such as empathy or intelligence, would be a good in general, or in all circumstances. All virtue theories, however, both secular and religious, have articulated multiple virtues that temper and inform one another in the development of a mature moral character. The project of moral enhancement requires a reengagement with virtue ethics and contemporary moral psychology to develop an empirically grounded model of the virtues and a fuller model of character development. Each of these virtues may be manipulable with electronic, psychopharmaceutical, and genetic interventions. A set of interdependent virtues is proposed, along with some of the research pointing to ways such virtues could be enhanced.

  16. Recency effect in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Godoy, J F; Perez, M; Sanchez-Barrera, M B; Muela, J A; Mari-Beffa, P; Puente, A

    1996-05-01

    The main object of this study was to test acquisition-retrieval deficits in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients A Spanish version of the Rey Auditory-Verbal Test (RAVLT) (Rey 1964) was used with an MS group (n=10 subjects) and a control group (n=10) Different measurements were obtained with the RAVLT memory span, a learning curve, and a curve of serial position of words The results revealed no differences between groups in memory span and learning curve, but significant differences were found in the curve of serial position No revency effect in the immediate form of theRAVLT was seen These results are discussed with reference to the work of Baddelaey and Hitch (1993) regarding recency effects and related literature on the acquisition-retrieval deficits in MS patients.

  17. Hereditary Multiple Exostoses with Pseudoaneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Hadidy, Azmy M. Al-Smady, Moa'ath M.; Haroun, Azmi A.; Hamamy, Hanan A.; Ghoul, Suha M.; Shennak, Akram O.

    2007-06-15

    A 16-year-old male patient with hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) was found to have a pseudoaneurysm of the left popliteal artery caused by osteochondroma in the lower femur. The diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography without the need to perform an angiogram. The osteochondroma was excised and the popliteal artery was repaired with a saphenous graft. Vascular complications are extremely rare in HME, pseudoaneurysm being the most common and mostly located in the popliteal artery. This complication should be considered in young HME patients with a mass at the knee region. The radiological spectrum of investigations allows the diagnosis of this complication with proper and less invasive management procedures for the patient.

  18. Intrathoracic chemodectoma with multiple localisations.

    PubMed Central

    Lacquet, L K; Moulijn, A C; Jongerius, C M; Limburg, M; Rensing, J B

    1977-01-01

    In 1958 a mediastinal tumour was discovered in an asymptomatic woman with a history of vomiting and an oesophageal anomaly which had not been treated. A tumour of the anterosuperior mediastinum in relation to the aortic arch was extirpated and proved to be a chemodectoma or non-chromaffin paraganglioma. At subsequent follow-ups the mediastinum was never normal and the heart size progressively increased, the oesophageal anomaly remaining unchanged. A small opacity appeared in the left lung in 1974. An operation performed in 1975 revealed an osteochondroma in the lung, pericarditis, and an intrapericardial chemodectoma. The oesophagus was not explored. An intrathoracic chemodectoma is rare. The importance of angiography in its diagnosis is emphasised. Malignant degeneration is seldom observed. Therapy is surgical, the tumour being radioresistant. The possibility to be considered in our patient was either relapse of the tumour with degeneration or multiple localisations of the tumour. Images PMID:194350

  19. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Olavarrieta, C; Cummings, J L; Velazquez, J; Garcia de la Cadena, C

    1999-01-01

    The range of neuropsychiatric symptoms in multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been prospectively assessed. The authors, working at a tertiary medical center in Mexico City, used the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) to evaluate neuropsychiatric symptoms prospectively in 44 MS patients who were stable between relapses and 25 control subjects of similar age, education, and cognitive function. Neuropsychiatric symptoms were present in 95% of patients and 16% of control subjects. Changes present were depressive symptoms (79%), agitation (40%), anxiety (37%), irritability (35%), apathy (20%), euphoria (13%), disinhibition (13%), hallucinations (10%), aberrant motor behavior (9%), and delusions (7%). The only relationships with MRI were between euphoria and hallucinations and moderately severe MRI abnormalities. The authors conclude that diverse types of neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in MS; symptoms are present between exacerbations; and there are variable correlations with MRI abnormalities.

  20. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) is an autosomal-dominant cancer syndrome characterized by variable penetrance of medullary thyroid carcinoma(MTC), pheochromocytoma (PHEO), and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). MEN2 consists of two clinical subtypes, MEN2A and MEN2B. Familial medullary thyroid cancer is now viewed as a phenotypic variant of MEN2A with decreased penetrance for PHEO and PHPT rather than a distinct entity. All subtypes are caused by gain-of-function mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. Genotype-phenotype correlations exist that help predict the presence of other associated endocrine neoplasms as well as the timing of thyroid cancer development. Recognition of the clinical entity in individuals and families at risk of harboring a germline RET mutation is crucial for the management and prevention of associated malignancies. Recent guidelines released by the American Thyroid Association regarding the management of MTC will be summarized in this chapter.

  1. Moral enhancement requires multiple virtues.

    PubMed

    Hughes, James J

    2015-01-01

    Some of the debates around the concept of moral enhancement have focused on whether the improvement of a single trait, such as empathy or intelligence, would be a good in general, or in all circumstances. All virtue theories, however, both secular and religious, have articulated multiple virtues that temper and inform one another in the development of a mature moral character. The project of moral enhancement requires a reengagement with virtue ethics and contemporary moral psychology to develop an empirically grounded model of the virtues and a fuller model of character development. Each of these virtues may be manipulable with electronic, psychopharmaceutical, and genetic interventions. A set of interdependent virtues is proposed, along with some of the research pointing to ways such virtues could be enhanced. PMID:25473861

  2. Hughes syndrome and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Uthman, I; Noureldine, M H A; Berjawi, A; Skaf, M; Haydar, A A; Merashli, M; Hughes, G R V

    2015-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) share common clinical, laboratory and radiological features. We reviewed all the English papers on MS and APS published in the literature from 1965 to 2014 using PubMed and Google Scholar. We found that APS can mimic antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL)-positive MS in many ways in its clinical presentation. Nevertheless, APS diagnosis, clinical manifestations and management differ from those of MS. aPL were found in MS patients with titers ranging from 2% to 88%. The distribution and volume of lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may help to differentiate MS from primary APS. In addition, atypical MS presentation can guide physicians toward an alternative diagnosis, especially when features of thrombosis and/or history of connective tissue disease are present. In that case, an anticoagulation trial could be worthwhile. PMID:25326228

  3. Vision Disturbances in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Costello, Fiona

    2016-04-01

    Visual disturbances are frequently encountered in multiple sclerosis (MS), and include problems with how affected individuals see the world (afferent visual pathway symptoms) and how their eyes move together (efferent visual pathway disorders). Optic neuritis is the most common afferent visual pathway manifestation of MS, from which visual recovery is often incomplete. Visual field defects caused by lesions in the retrochiasmal or retrogeniculate regions of the afferent visual pathway also occur, albeit less frequently. Efferent visual pathway lesions causing ocular misalignment and nystagmus may lead to diplopia and oscillopsia, respectively. Vision loss has a major impact on perceptions regarding quality of life in MS. Therefore, it is important for clinicians to be able to identify and localize the underlying basis of visual disturbances to provide the best care possible for their patients. PMID:27116725

  4. Standardized multiple output power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragusa, E. V.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive program to develop a prototype model of a standardized multiple output power supply for use in space flight applications is described. The prototype unit was tested and evaluated to assure that the design would provide near optimum performance for the planned application. The prototype design used a dc-to-dc converter incorporating reqenerative current feedback with a time-ratio controlled duty cycle to achieve high efficiency over a wide variation of input voltage and output loads. The packaging concept uses a mainframe capable of accommodating up to four inverter/regulator modules with one common input filter and housekeeping module. Each inverter/regulator module provides a maximum of 100 watts or 10 amperes. Each module is adaptable to operate at any voltage between 4.0 volts and 108 volts. The prototype unit contains +5, + or - 15 and +28 volt modules.

  5. Personality aspects in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Diana, R; Grosz, A; Mancini, E

    1985-12-01

    To test the claim that peculiar personality bias is detectable in multiple sclerosis (MS) we used the Szondi test to investigate the psychodynamic aspects of 110 MS patients in comparison with 200 healthy subjects. MS patients appeared to have a greater need for love in a passive form than normal people, rigid defense mechanisms, difficulty in resolving their inner conflicts either by sublimation or by internalization of satisfactory new emotional experiences, feelings of autoaggressiveness, and many symptoms of depression. Some of these aspects correlate with the severity of the disease, others seem to date back to early childhood as peculiar personality patterns. An investigation of childhood events in 110 controls confirmed that MS patients had had many more unhappy experiences in childhood than might commonly be expected. Further, the oft-reported psychiatric troubles preceding MS clinical onset suggest that at least in some MS patients there are specific gaps in personality structure dating back to early phases of their development. PMID:4086262

  6. Diagnostic Advances in Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Barley, Kevin; Chari, Ajai

    2016-04-01

    There have been several advances in the diagnosis of multiple myeloma (MM) in recent years. Serum free light chains have improved the ability to diagnose light chain MM; however, there are still difficulties in the serologic diagnosis of MM in some cases, particularly IgA MM. A novel heavy/light chain assay is able to improve the accuracy of diagnosis in these cases. Free light chains may also improve the diagnosis of extramedullary disease in difficult cases such as disease involving the central nervous system, pleura, or ascites. Advances in imaging such as whole body low-dose computed tomography (CT) whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) have improved sensitivity in identifying lytic bone lesions, which would enable earlier treatment, and monitoring of osseous disease particularly in non- or oligosecretory disease. New techniques such as fused PET/MRI may further enhance the diagnosis of both bone lesions and extramedullary disease.

  7. [Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Niino, Masaaki; Miyazaki, Yusei

    2016-04-01

    While cognitive impairment is a major symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS), it is commonly overlooked. This may be explained by the fact that it is difficult to evaluate cognitive function in patients with MS using screening batteries for the detection of dementia such as the mini-mental state examination. Further more, cognitive impairment in MS typically involves domain-specific deficits such as imparement of sustained attention and information processing speed rather than global cognitive decline. Cognitive impairment may influence the daily living and social lines of affected patients. This review discusses the characteristics of cognitive impairment, appropreate tests to evaluate its symptoms, and the current status of clinical trials for the treatment of MS. PMID:27056855

  8. Lightweight multiple output converter development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kisch, J. J.; Martinelli, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    A high frequency, multiple output power conditioner was developed and breadboarded using an eight-stage capacitor diode voltage multiplier to provide +1200 Vdc, and a three-stage for -350 Vdc. In addition, two rectifier bridges were capacitively coupled to the eight-stage multiplier to obtain 0.5 and 0.65 a dc constant current outputs referenced to +1200 Vdc. Total power was 120 watts, with an overall efficiency of 85 percent at the 80 kHz operating frequency. All outputs were regulated to three percent or better, with complete short circuit protection. The power conditioner component weight and efficiency were compared to the equivalent four outputs of the 10 kHz conditioner for the 8 cm ion engine. Weight reduction for the four outputs was 557 grams; extrapolated in the same ratio to all nine outputs, it would be 1100 to 1400 grams.

  9. Multiple-stage integrating accelerometer

    DOEpatents

    Devaney, Howard F.

    1986-01-01

    An accelerometer assembly is provided for use in activating a switch in response to multiple acceleration pulses in series. The accelerometer includes a housing forming a chamber. An inertial mass or piston is slidably disposed in the chamber and spring biased toward a first or reset position. A damping system is also provided to damp piston movement in response to first and subsequent acceleration pulses. Additionally, a cam, including a Z-shaped slot, and cooperating follower pin slidably received therein are mounted to the piston and the housing. The middle or cross-over leg of the Z-shaped slot cooperates with the follower pin to block or limit piston movement and prevent switch activation in response to a lone acceleration pulse. The switch of the assembly is only activated after two or more separate acceleration pulses are sensed and the piston reaches the end of the chamber opposite the reset position.

  10. Multiple-stage integrating accelerometer

    DOEpatents

    Devaney, H.F.

    1984-06-27

    An accelerometer assembly is provided for use in activating a switch in response to multiple acceleration pulses in series. The accelerometer includes a housing forming a chamber. An inertial mass or piston is slidably disposed in the chamber and spring biased toward a first or reset position. A damping system is also provided to damp piston movement in response to first and subsequent acceleration pulses. Additionally, a cam, including a Z-shaped slot, and cooperating follower pin slidably received therein are mounted to the piston and the housing. The middle or cross-over leg of the Z-shaped slot cooperates with the follower pin to block or limit piston movement and prevent switch activation in response to a lone acceleration pulse. The switch of the assembly is only activated after two or more separate acceleration pulses are sensed and the piston reaches the end of the chamber opposite the reset position.

  11. Autonomic Dysregulation in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Pintér, Alexandra; Cseh, Domonkos; Sárközi, Adrienn; Illigens, Ben M.; Siepmann, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive central neurological disease characterized by inflammation and demyelination. In patients with MS, dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system may present with various clinical symptoms including sweating abnormalities, urinary dysfunction, orthostatic dysregulation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and sexual dysfunction. These autonomic disturbances reduce the quality of life of affected patients and constitute a clinical challenge to the physician due to variability of clinical presentation and inconsistent data on diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis and initiation of individualized interdisciplinary and multimodal strategies is beneficial in the management of autonomic dysfunction in MS. This review summarizes the current literature on the most prevalent aspects of autonomic dysfunction in MS and provides reference to underlying pathophysiological mechanisms as well as means of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26213927

  12. [Emerging therapies for multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    de Lorenzo-Pinto, Ana; Rodríguez-González, Carmen Guadalupe; Ais-Larisgoitia, Arantza

    2013-01-19

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated inflammatory disease of the central nervous system considered the second cause of disability in young adults. The prognosis of MS has improved significantly since the approval of the first interferon β in 1993 but, compared to other diseases, few new therapeutic products have been commercialized in the last years. However, currently, there are more than 600 ongoing clinical trials and new drugs that aim to improve efficacy and a more convenient schedule of administration, will appear shortly on the market. On the other hand, new safety issues will arise as well as a significant economic impact on the health system. The main efficacy and safety results of these drugs are reviewed in this paper. They can be classified into 2 groups: oral (fingolimod, laquinimod, teriflunomide, BG-12 [dimethyl fumarate], oral cladribine, dalfampridine) and monoclonal antibodies (rituximab, ocrelizumab, ofatumumab, daclizumab, alemtuzumab). PMID:22766059

  13. Oral agents in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lorefice, L; Fenu, G; Frau, J; Coghe, G C; Marrosu, M G; Cocco, E

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Disease-modifying drugs licensed for MS treatment have been developed to reduce relapse rates and halt disease progression. The majority of current MS drugs involve regular, parenteral administration, affecting long-term adherence and thus reducing treatment efficacy. Over the last two decades great progress has been made towards developing new MS therapies with different modes of action and biologic effects. In particular, oral drugs have generated much interest because of their convenience and positive impact on medication adherence. Fingolimod was the first launched oral treatment for relapsing-remitting MS; recently, Teriflunomide and Dimethyl fumarate have also been approved as oral disease-modifying agents. In this review, we summarize and discuss the history, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and safety of oral agents that have been approved or are under development for the selective treatment of MS. PMID:25924620

  14. [Current immunotherapy of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Paul, F; Ruprecht, K

    2015-08-01

    Following the introduction of interferon beta 1b as the first immunomodulatory therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS) in 1993, there are currently nine substances or substance classes approved for the treatment of MS (i.e. alemtuzumab, azathioprine, dimethyl fumarate, fingolimod, glatiramer acetate, interferon beta, mitoxantrone, natalizumab and teriflunomide). Major developments during the last 5 years include the approval of orally administered medications (i.e. fingolimod, teriflunomide and dimethyl fumarate), a monoclonal antibody (alemtuzumab), as well as glatiramer acetate with an administration frequency three times a week and a pegylated formulation of interferon beta 1a. The broadened therapeutic options enable a more differentiated and individualized therapy of MS; however, evidence-based data for therapeutic decision-making relevant in clinical practice are not always available. Rare but potentially severe and even life-threatening side effects of immunotherapies for MS require continuous pharmacovigilance and adherence to risk management plans. PMID:26253589

  15. 2014 multiple sclerosis therapeutic update.

    PubMed

    Cree, Bruce A C

    2014-04-01

    Rapid advances are occurring in multiple sclerosis disease modifying therapies. Recent therapeutic advances include modifications to improve tolerability of existing products (e.g. interferon beta and glatiramer acetate), development of novel anti-neuroinflammatory medications (e.g. fingolimod, teriflunomide and dimethyl fumarate, daclizumab, alemtuzumab, ocrelizumab) and investigation of treatments in progressive MS (e.g. natalizumab, mastinib, natalizumab, siponimod). The impact of vitamin D supplementation on the disease course in relapsing MS patients is also being studied in several clinical trials. This article reviews the current state of the field with a forward look to the next phase of MS research that could focus on strategies to promote remyelination and provide neuronal protection. PMID:24707333

  16. Immunological treatment of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Diebold, Martin; Derfuss, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    Treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been a challenge since its first description by Charcot. The advent of immunomodulatory drugs in the mid 1990s brought the first big change in the treatment of MS patients. During the last 10 years there has been an ongoing tremendous evolution of novel treatment options for relapsing-remitting MS. These options include monoclonal antibodies, which inhibit migration of lymphocytes (natalizumab), deplete lymphocytes (alemtuzumab), or block the cytokine receptor interleukin (IL)-2 (daclizumab), teriflunomide that inhibits proliferation of activated lymphocytes, fingolimod that modulates the sphingosine-receptor system, and dimethylfumarate that combines features of immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive drugs. The topic of this review is to discuss currently available treatments and provide an outlook into the near future. PMID:27312167

  17. Progress in Multiple Sclerosis Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Goris, An; Pauwels, Ine; Dubois, Bénédicte

    2012-01-01

    A genetic component in the susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS) has long been known, and the first and major genetic risk factor, the HLA region, was identified in the 1970’s. However, only with the advent of genome-wide association studies in the past five years did the list of risk factors for MS grow from 1 to over 50. In this review, we summarize the search for MS risk genes and the latest results. Comparison with data from other autoimmune and neurological diseases and from animal models indicates parallels and differences between diseases. We discuss how these translate into an improved understanding of disease mechanisms, and address current challenges such as genotype-phenotype correlations, functional mechanisms of risk variants and the missing heritability. PMID:23730204

  18. Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Harandi, Asghar Amini; Harandi, Ali Amini; Pakdaman, Hossein; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease and also is one of the most common disabling neurological disorders in young and middle-aged adults. The main pathogenesis of MS has long been thought to be an immune mediated disorder of the central nervous system. The function of the immune system is under the influence of vitamin D which as a modulator of immune response could play a role in autoimmune diseases including MS. Deficiency of vitamin D or variations in DNA sequence (polymorphism) of vitamin D receptor gene diminishes its optimal function on immune system that consequently could lead to increasing risk of MS. However, its role in development and modulating the course of MS is still under investigation. In this review we aimed to discuss the role of vitamin D in body, immune system and consequently altering the risk of MS. PMID:24800040

  19. Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Harandi, Ali Amini; Pakdaman, Hossein; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease and also is one of the most common disabling neurological disorders in young and middle-aged adults. The main pathogenesis of MS has long been thought to be an immune mediated disorder of the central nervous system. The function of the immune system is under the influence of vitamin D which as a modulator of immune response could play a role in autoimmune diseases including MS. Deficiency of vitamin D or variations in DNA sequence (polymorphism) of vitamin D receptor gene diminishes its optimal function on immune system that consequently could lead to increasing risk of MS. However, its role in development and modulating the course of MS is still under investigation. In this review we aimed to discuss the role of vitamin D in body, immune system and consequently altering the risk of MS. PMID:24800040

  20. Migraine: multiple processes, complex pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Burstein, Rami; Noseda, Rodrigo; Borsook, David

    2015-04-29

    Migraine is a common, multifactorial, disabling, recurrent, hereditary neurovascular headache disorder. It usually strikes sufferers a few times per year in childhood and then progresses to a few times per week in adulthood, particularly in females. Attacks often begin with warning signs (prodromes) and aura (transient focal neurological symptoms) whose origin is thought to involve the hypothalamus, brainstem, and cortex. Once the headache develops, it typically throbs, intensifies with an increase in intracranial pressure, and presents itself in association with nausea, vomiting, and abnormal sensitivity to light, noise, and smell. It can also be accompanied by abnormal skin sensitivity (allodynia) and muscle tenderness. Collectively, the symptoms that accompany migraine from the prodromal stage through the headache phase suggest that multiple neuronal systems function abnormally. As a consequence of the disease itself or its genetic underpinnings, the migraine brain is altered structurally and functionally. These molecular, anatomical, and functional abnormalities provide a neuronal substrate for an extreme sensitivity to fluctuations in homeostasis, a decreased ability to adapt, and the recurrence of headache. Advances in understanding the genetic predisposition to migraine, and the discovery of multiple susceptible gene variants (many of which encode proteins that participate in the regulation of glutamate neurotransmission and proper formation of synaptic plasticity) define the most compelling hypothesis for the generalized neuronal hyperexcitability and the anatomical alterations seen in the migraine brain. Regarding the headache pain itself, attempts to understand its unique qualities point to activation of the trigeminovascular pathway as a prerequisite for explaining why the pain is restricted to the head, often affecting the periorbital area and the eye, and intensifies when intracranial pressure increases.

  1. Care Partners and Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Quig, Mary Elizabeth; Tyry, Tuula; Marrie, Ruth Ann; Cutter, Gary; Shearin, Edward; Johnson, Kamau; Simsarian, James

    2015-01-01

    Background: Caring for someone with multiple sclerosis (MS) can be a stressful experience that requires clinical attention. We investigated the impact of caregiver stress on the emotional well-being and physical health of the MS care partner using the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) Registry. Methods: Care partners of NARCOMS participants were invited to complete an online questionnaire that captured demographic characteristics, health status, caregiver burden as measured by the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview, and impact of caregiving on employment. Results: Of 1446 care partners who agreed to participate, 1333 had complete data. Most were men (n = 825, 61.9%), with a mean (SD) age of 51.1 (11.2) years. The mean (SD) Zarit total score was 24.6 (15.1), placing the overall group in the mild caregiver burden range. Compared with male care partners, female care partners reported higher levels of burden and stress and more medication use for stress/anxiety and mood disorders. Male care partners were more likely to report physical concerns. Care partners of people with primary progressive MS reported greater perceived burden than did partners of people with secondary progressive MS and relapsing-remitting MS. More than 40% of care partners (559 of 1288) had missed work during the past year owing to caregiving responsibilities. Conclusions: Care partners of people with MS have substantial physical and psychological health concerns and experience an adverse impact on employment. Future research should evaluate how to mitigate the adverse effects of caregiving and evaluate positive aspects of the role. PMID:26664330

  2. Novel therapy in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Avilés, Agustin; Neri, Natividad; Nambo, M Jesús; Cleto, Sergio; Castañeda, Claudia; González, Martha; Talavera, Alejandra; Huerta-Guzmán, Judith

    2005-10-01

    Treatment in patients with multiple myeloma remain to be defined. Younger patients (defined as a cut-off level < 65 years old) will be treated with chemotherapy and transplant procedures. However, most patients > 65 years old are not candidates for this therapeutic approach and the use of intensive chemotherapy could be associated to severe toxicity. We developed an new, not-cytotoxic regimen with dexamethasone 30 mg/m(2), iv, days 1 to 4, all trans retinoic acid 45 mg/m(2), po, days 5 to 14 and interferon alfa 2a 4.5 MU, sc, daily, days 5 to 14 (DAI regimen) administered every 28 days in number of 6 cycles, at this point patients were restaging, if they showed complete response, objective response or partial response they were conducted to received thalidomide 100-200 mg po, daily and dexamethasone 10 mg/2, po days 1 to 4 at monthly intervals, for 18 months. Forty one patients were enrolled in an Phase II study. In an intent to treat analysis all patients were evaluable. Complete response was observed in 18 cases (43%), objective response in 10 patients (24%) and partial response in 5 patients (12%), overall response rate was 80%. Eight patients were considered failures. At an median of 36 months, no relapse of progression disease has been observed, thus actuarial curves at 3-years showed that event free survival is 100% and overall survival is 91%. Toxicity was mild, all patients received the planned dose in time. This regimen appear to be useful in older patients with multiple myeloma, the response rate is higher and toxicity was mild. Controlled clinical trials comparing with conventional chemotherapy will be conducted to define the role of this therapeutic approach. PMID:16133792

  3. Migraine: Multiple Processes, Complex Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Noseda, Rodrigo; Borsook, David

    2015-01-01

    Migraine is a common, multifactorial, disabling, recurrent, hereditary neurovascular headache disorder. It usually strikes sufferers a few times per year in childhood and then progresses to a few times per week in adulthood, particularly in females. Attacks often begin with warning signs (prodromes) and aura (transient focal neurological symptoms) whose origin is thought to involve the hypothalamus, brainstem, and cortex. Once the headache develops, it typically throbs, intensifies with an increase in intracranial pressure, and presents itself in association with nausea, vomiting, and abnormal sensitivity to light, noise, and smell. It can also be accompanied by abnormal skin sensitivity (allodynia) and muscle tenderness. Collectively, the symptoms that accompany migraine from the prodromal stage through the headache phase suggest that multiple neuronal systems function abnormally. As a consequence of the disease itself or its genetic underpinnings, the migraine brain is altered structurally and functionally. These molecular, anatomical, and functional abnormalities provide a neuronal substrate for an extreme sensitivity to fluctuations in homeostasis, a decreased ability to adapt, and the recurrence of headache. Advances in understanding the genetic predisposition to migraine, and the discovery of multiple susceptible gene variants (many of which encode proteins that participate in the regulation of glutamate neurotransmission and proper formation of synaptic plasticity) define the most compelling hypothesis for the generalized neuronal hyperexcitability and the anatomical alterations seen in the migraine brain. Regarding the headache pain itself, attempts to understand its unique qualities point to activation of the trigeminovascular pathway as a prerequisite for explaining why the pain is restricted to the head, often affecting the periorbital area and the eye, and intensifies when intracranial pressure increases. PMID:25926442

  4. Multiple familial trichoepithelioma: confirmation via dermoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Navarrete-Dechent, Cristián; Bajaj, Shirin; Marghoob, Ashfaq A.; González, Sergio; Muñoz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Trichoepitheliomas are uncommon benign adnexal neoplasms that originate from the hair follicles. Multiple familial trichoepithelioma constitute an autosomal dominant disease characterized by the appearance of multiple flesh-colored, symmetrical papules, tumors and/or nodules in the central face and occasionally on the scalp. Although clinical diagnosis is usually straightforward in light of the family history and naked-eye examination, dermoscopy may aid in its confirmation. Dermoscopy of each papule revealed in-focus arborizing vessels, multiple milia-like cysts and rosettes amidst a whitish background. In a patient with multiple facial papules revealing a dermoscopic appearance described above, the diagnosis of sporadic or familial multiple trichoepithelioma should be considered.

  5. The angular gyrus: multiple functions and multiple subdivisions.

    PubMed

    Seghier, Mohamed L

    2013-02-01

    There is considerable interest in the structural and functional properties of the angular gyrus (AG). Located in the posterior part of the inferior parietal lobule, the AG has been shown in numerous meta-analysis reviews to be consistently activated in a variety of tasks. This review discusses the involvement of the AG in semantic processing, word reading and comprehension, number processing, default mode network, memory retrieval, attention and spatial cognition, reasoning, and social cognition. This large functional neuroimaging literature depicts a major role for the AG in processing concepts rather than percepts when interfacing perception-to-recognition-to-action. More specifically, the AG emerges as a cross-modal hub where converging multisensory information is combined and integrated to comprehend and give sense to events, manipulate mental representations, solve familiar problems, and reorient attention to relevant information. In addition, this review discusses recent findings that point to the existence of multiple subdivisions in the AG. This spatial parcellation can serve as a framework for reporting AG activations with greater definition. This review also acknowledges that the role of the AG cannot comprehensibly be identified in isolation but needs to be understood in parallel with the influence from other regions. Several interesting questions that warrant further investigations are finally emphasized. PMID:22547530

  6. Multiple intervention research programs in community health.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Nancy; Mill, Judy; Kothari, Anita R

    2004-03-01

    The authors describe an organizing framework for multiple interventions in community health. The framework provides a foundation for programmatic research on multiple interventions and poses critical questions that need to be addressed in the next generation of research in this field. Multiple intervention programs are characterized by the use of multiple strategies targeted at multiple levels of the socio-ecological system and delivered to multiple target audiences. Consequently, they complement the growing literature on the broad determinants of health and health promotion. The authors describe a 4-stage framework and identify gaps and challenges in this field of research. There are 5 key research areas requiring concerted action; researchers must: examine nested determinants, develop integrated conceptual frameworks, examine ways to optimize synergies among interventions, describe spin-offs from multiple intervention programs, and monitor the sustainability of their impact.

  7. Multiple Peroxisomal Enzymatic Deficiency Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Vamecq, Joseph; Draye, Jean-Pierre; Van Hoof, François; Misson, Jean-Paul; Evrard, Philippe; Verellen, Gaston; Eyssen, Hendrik J.; Van Eldere, Johan; Schutgens, Ruud B. H.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Roels, Frank; Goldfischer, Sidney L.

    1986-01-01

    Biologic, morphologic, and biochemical investigations performed in 2 patients demonstrate multiple peroxisomal deficiencies in the cerebrohepatorenal syndrome of Zellweger (CHRS) and neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD). Very long chain fatty acids, abnormal bile acids, including bile acid precursors (di- and trihydroxycoprostanoic acids), and C29-dicarboxylic acid accumulated in plasma in both patients. Generalized hyperaminoaciduria was also present. Peroxisomes could not be detected in CHRS liver and kidney; however, in the NALD patient, small and sparse cytoplasmic bodies resembling altered peroxisomes were found in hepatocytes. Hepatocellular and Kupffer cell lysosomes were engorged with ferritin and contained clefts and trilaminar structures believed to represent very long chain fatty acids. Enzymatic deficiencies reflected the peroxisomal defects. Hepatic glycolate oxidase and palmitoyl-CoA oxidase activities were deficient. No particle-bound catalase was found in cultured fibroblasts, and ether glycerolipid (plasmalogen) biosynthesis was markedly reduced. Administration of phenobarbital and clofibrate, an agent that induces peroxisomal proliferation and enzymatic activities, to the NALD patient did not bring about any changes in plasma metabolites, liver peroxisome population, or oxidizing activities. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:2879480

  8. Remyelination Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Harlow, Danielle E.; Honce, Justin M.; Miravalle, Augusto A.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disorder of the central nervous system that results in destruction of the myelin sheath that surrounds axons and eventual neurodegeneration. Current treatments approved for the treatment of relapsing forms of MS target the aberrant immune response and successfully reduce the severity of attacks and frequency of relapses. Therapies are still needed that can repair damage particularly for the treatment of progressive forms of MS for which current therapies are relatively ineffective. Remyelination can restore neuronal function and prevent further neuronal loss and clinical disability. Recent advancements in our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating myelination, as well as the development of high-throughput screens to identify agents that enhance myelination, have lead to the identification of many potential remyelination therapies currently in preclinical and early clinical development. One problem that has plagued the development of treatments to promote remyelination is the difficulty in assessing remyelination in patients with current imaging techniques. Powerful new imaging technologies are making it easier to discern remyelination in patients, which is critical for the assessment of these new therapeutic strategies during clinical trials. This review will summarize what is currently known about remyelination failure in MS, strategies to overcome this failure, new therapeutic treatments in the pipeline for promoting remyelination in MS patients, and new imaging technologies for measuring remyelination in patients. PMID:26696956

  9. Models of Multiple System Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Fellner, Lisa; Wenning, Gregor K.; Stefanova, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a predominantly sporadic, adult-onset, fatal neurodegenerative disease of unknown etiology. MSA is characterized by autonomic failure, levodopa-unresponsive parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia and pyramidal signs in any combination. MSA belongs to a group of neurodegenerative disorders termed α-synucleinopathies, which also include Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Their common pathological feature is the occurrence of abnormal α-synuclein positive inclusions in neurons or glial cells. In MSA, the main cell type presenting aggregates composed of α-synuclein are oligodendroglial cells. This pathological hallmark, also called glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs), is associated with progressive and profound neuronal loss in various regions of the brain. The development of animal models of MSA is justified by the limited understanding of the mechanisms of neurodegeneration and GCIs formation, which is paralleled by a lack of therapeutic strategies. Two main types of rodent models have been generated to replicate different features of MSA neuropathology. On one hand, neurotoxin-based models have been produced to reproduce neuronal loss in substantia nigra pars compacta and striatum. On the other hand, transgenic mouse models with overexpression of α-synuclein in oligodendroglia have been used to reproduce GCIs-related pathology. This chapter gives an overview of the atypical Parkinson’s syndrome MSA and summarizes the currently available MSA animal models and their relevance for pre-clinical testing of disease-modifying therapies. PMID:24338664

  10. Evidence for Multiple Rhythmic Skills

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Rhythms, or patterns in time, play a vital role in both speech and music. Proficiency in a number of rhythm skills has been linked to language ability, suggesting that certain rhythmic processes in music and language rely on overlapping resources. However, a lack of understanding about how rhythm skills relate to each other has impeded progress in understanding how language relies on rhythm processing. In particular, it is unknown whether all rhythm skills are linked together, forming a single broad rhythmic competence, or whether there are multiple dissociable rhythm skills. We hypothesized that beat tapping and rhythm memory/sequencing form two separate clusters of rhythm skills. This hypothesis was tested with a battery of two beat tapping and two rhythm memory tests. Here we show that tapping to a metronome and the ability to adjust to a changing tempo while tapping to a metronome are related skills. The ability to remember rhythms and to drum along to repeating rhythmic sequences are also related. However, we found no relationship between beat tapping skills and rhythm memory skills. Thus, beat tapping and rhythm memory are dissociable rhythmic aptitudes. This discovery may inform future research disambiguating how distinct rhythm competencies track with specific language functions. PMID:26376489

  11. [Oral treatments in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Meca-Lallana, José Eustasio; Hernández-Clares, Rocío; Carreón-Guarnizo, Ester

    2014-12-01

    The development of new disease-modifying drugs (DMD) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), which share the common denominator of oral administration, considerably improves patient expectations in terms of effectiveness, tolerability and treatment adherence compared with currently available drugs. However, the common route of administration of these drugs does not mean that they are equivalent, since the heading of "oral route" encompasses drugs with distinct indications and mechanisms of action, as well as heterogeneous results in terms of efficacy and safety, allowing treatment to be personalized according to the each patient' s characteristics. Currently, four oral DMD are available or in an advanced stage of clinical development: fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate and laquinimod. In pivotal trials versus placebo, these molecules reduced the annualized rate of exacerbations versus placebo by 54%, 31%, 53% and 23%, respectively, the risk of progression of disability by 31%, 30%, 38% and 36%, and the number of active lesions showing contrast uptake on magnetic resonance imaging by 82%, 80%, 90% and 37%, respectively. Based on the risk/benefit ratio, fingolimod is indicated in patients with suboptimal response to initial DMD or in severe rapidly progressing RRMS, while the remaining drugs can be used as first-line options. Clinical experience with these treatments will provide new data on safety and effectiveness, which will be determinant when establishing therapeutic algorithms. PMID:25732946

  12. Cardiovascular dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, A R; Nava, C; Arriada, N; Violante, A; Corona, T

    2000-02-01

    Cardiovascular dysfunction (CD) in multiple sclerosis (MS) is related to involvement of reflex pathways in the brainstem. The battery of CD tests was applied to a group of 40 healthy subjects and 40 patients with MS, divided in 2 subgroups according to the expanded disability status scale (EDSS). The tests included: 1) postural blood pressure changes, 2) postural heart rate changes, 3) heart rate changes on inspiration/forced expiration and 4) ECG R-R interval measurement on the Valsalva maneuver. Both groups were subjected to the functional independence scale (FIM). Imaging studies were reviewed and autonomic dysfunction at other levels was explored. The results showed a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) in all tests when comparing patients to controls. Tests 1 and 4 had the highest significance, with findings of more severe involvement in patients with a higher EDSS and lower FIM. A correlation was also found between CD and brainstem lesions on MRI (P < 0.01). A significant number of MS patients had evidence of CD. Test 1 may be considered a simple marker, in daily clinical practice, to detect subclinical CD. Subclinical CD is a cause of disability in this group of patients.

  13. Advanced Multiple Aperture Seeing Profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Deqing; Zhao, Gang

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of the seeing profile of the atmospheric turbulence as a function of altitude are crucial for solar astronomical site characterization, as well as the optimized design and performance estimation of solar Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO). Knowledge of the seeing distribution, up to 30 km, with a potential new solar observation site, is required for future solar MCAO developments. Current optical seeing profile measurement techniques are limited by the need to use a large facility solar telescope for such seeing profile measurements, which is a serious limitation on characterizing a site's seeing conditions in terms of the seeing profile. Based on our previous work, we propose a compact solar seeing profiler called the Advanced Multiple Aperture Seeing Profile (A-MASP). A-MASP consists of two small telescopes, each with a 100 mm aperture. The two small telescopes can be installed on a commercial computerized tripod to track solar granule structures for seeing profile measurement. A-MASP is extreme simple and portable, which makes it an ideal system to bring to a potential new site for seeing profile measurements.

  14. Remyelination Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Harlow, Danielle E; Honce, Justin M; Miravalle, Augusto A

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disorder of the central nervous system that results in destruction of the myelin sheath that surrounds axons and eventual neurodegeneration. Current treatments approved for the treatment of relapsing forms of MS target the aberrant immune response and successfully reduce the severity of attacks and frequency of relapses. Therapies are still needed that can repair damage particularly for the treatment of progressive forms of MS for which current therapies are relatively ineffective. Remyelination can restore neuronal function and prevent further neuronal loss and clinical disability. Recent advancements in our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating myelination, as well as the development of high-throughput screens to identify agents that enhance myelination, have lead to the identification of many potential remyelination therapies currently in preclinical and early clinical development. One problem that has plagued the development of treatments to promote remyelination is the difficulty in assessing remyelination in patients with current imaging techniques. Powerful new imaging technologies are making it easier to discern remyelination in patients, which is critical for the assessment of these new therapeutic strategies during clinical trials. This review will summarize what is currently known about remyelination failure in MS, strategies to overcome this failure, new therapeutic treatments in the pipeline for promoting remyelination in MS patients, and new imaging technologies for measuring remyelination in patients.

  15. Array processor with multiple broadcasting

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, V.K.P.; Raghavendra, C.S.

    1987-04-01

    In this paper the authors consider a generalized broadcasting feature for mesh connected computers (MCCs) which consists of N = N/sup 1/2/ x N/sup 1/2/ processors with broadcasting features in each row and each column. This multiple broadcast allows parallel data transfers within rows and columns of processors. The proposed architecture is suited for solution of problems in linear algebra, image processing, computational geometry, and numerical computations. They develop parallel algorithms for many problems in these areas for example, they can find max in O(N/sup 1/6/), median in O(N/sup 1/6/(log N)/sup 2/3/), convex polygon of a digitized picture in O(N/sup 1/6/), and nearest neighbor in O(N/sup 1/6/), while these problems need ..cap omega..(N/sup 1/3/) on a 2-MCC with single broadcast. The authors also derive bounds on the speedups obtainable with broadcasting.

  16. Measuring multiple spike train synchrony.

    PubMed

    Kreuz, Thomas; Chicharro, Daniel; Andrzejak, Ralph G; Haas, Julie S; Abarbanel, Henry D I

    2009-10-15

    Measures of multiple spike train synchrony are essential in order to study issues such as spike timing reliability, network synchronization, and neuronal coding. These measures can broadly be divided in multivariate measures and averages over bivariate measures. One of the most recent bivariate approaches, the ISI-distance, employs the ratio of instantaneous interspike intervals (ISIs). In this study we propose two extensions of the ISI-distance, the straightforward averaged bivariate ISI-distance and the multivariate ISI-diversity based on the coefficient of variation. Like the original measure these extensions combine many properties desirable in applications to real data. In particular, they are parameter-free, time scale independent, and easy to visualize in a time-resolved manner, as we illustrate with in vitro recordings from a cortical neuron. Using a simulated network of Hindemarsh-Rose neurons as a controlled configuration we compare the performance of our methods in distinguishing different levels of multi-neuron spike train synchrony to the performance of six other previously published measures. We show and explain why the averaged bivariate measures perform better than the multivariate ones and why the multivariate ISI-diversity is the best performer among the multivariate methods. Finally, in a comparison against standard methods that rely on moving window estimates, we use single-unit monkey data to demonstrate the advantages of the instantaneous nature of our methods. PMID:19591867

  17. Multiple Myeloma and Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Noiri, Eisei

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) has a high incidence rate in the elderly. Responsiveness to treatments differs considerably among patients because of high heterogeneity of MM. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common clinical feature in MM patients, and treatment-related mortality and morbidity are higher in MM patients with CKD than in patients with normal renal function. Recent advances in diagnostic tests, chemotherapy agents, and dialysis techniques are providing clinicians with novel approaches for the management of MM patients with CKD. Once reversible factors, such as hypercalcemia, have been corrected, the most common cause of severe acute kidney injury (AKI) in MM patients is tubulointerstitial nephropathy, which results from very high circulating concentrations of monoclonal immunoglobulin free light chains (FLC). In the setting of AKI, an early reduction of serum FLC concentration is related to kidney function recovery. The combination of extended high cutoff hemodialysis and chemotherapy results in sustained reductions in serum FLC concentration in the majority of patients and a high rate of independence from dialysis. PMID:24288486

  18. Gender agreement and multiple referents.

    PubMed

    Finocchiaro, Chiara; Mahon, Bradford Z; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    We report a new pattern of usage in current, spoken Italian that has implications for both psycholinguistic models of language production and linguistic theories of language change. In Italian, gender agreement is mandatory for both singular and plural nouns. However, when two or more nouns of different grammatical gender appear in a conjoined noun phrase (NP), masculine plural agreement is required. In this study, we combined on-line and off-line methodologies in order to assess the mechanisms involved in gender marking in the context of multiple referents. The results of two pronoun production tasks showed that plural feminine agreement was significantly more difficult than plural masculine agreement. In a separate study using offline judgements of acceptability, we found that agreement violations in Italian are tolerated more readily in the case of feminine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., la mela e la banana 'the:fem apple:fem and the: fem banana: fem') than masculine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., il fiore e il libro 'the:mas flower: mas and the:mas book:mas'). Implications of these results are discussed both at the level of functional architecture within the language production system and at the level of changes in language use. PMID:21037930

  19. Molecular pathogenesis of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Yusuke; Kikuchi, Jiro

    2015-06-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM), one of the most intractable malignancies, is characterized by the infiltration and growth of plasma cells, the most differentiated cells in the B-cell lineage, in the bone marrow. Despite the introduction of novel therapeutic agents, including proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs, the prognosis of patients with MM is still worse than that of most hematological malignancies. A better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the disease is essential to achieve any improvement of treatment outcome of MM patients. All MM cases pass through the phase of asymptomatic expansion of clonal plasma cells, referred to as monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). It has long been believed that MM evolves linearly from MGUS to terminal phases, such as extramedullary tumors and plasma cell leukemia via the accumulation of novel mutations. However, recent studies using next-generation sequencing have disclosed the complex genomic architecture of the disease. At each step of progression, the acquisition of novel mutations is accompanied by subclonal evolution from reservoir clones with branching patterns. Each subclone may carry novel mutations and distinct phenotypes, including drug sensitivity. In addition, minor clones already exist at the MGUS stage, which could expand later in the clinical course, resulting in relapse and/or leukemic conversion. The ultimate goal of treatment is to eradicate all clones, including subclonal populations with distinct biological characteristics. This goal could be achieved by further improving treatment strategies that reflect the genomic landscape of the disease.

  20. Gender agreement and multiple referents.

    PubMed

    Finocchiaro, Chiara; Mahon, Bradford Z; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    We report a new pattern of usage in current, spoken Italian that has implications for both psycholinguistic models of language production and linguistic theories of language change. In Italian, gender agreement is mandatory for both singular and plural nouns. However, when two or more nouns of different grammatical gender appear in a conjoined noun phrase (NP), masculine plural agreement is required. In this study, we combined on-line and off-line methodologies in order to assess the mechanisms involved in gender marking in the context of multiple referents. The results of two pronoun production tasks showed that plural feminine agreement was significantly more difficult than plural masculine agreement. In a separate study using offline judgements of acceptability, we found that agreement violations in Italian are tolerated more readily in the case of feminine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., la mela e la banana 'the:fem apple:fem and the: fem banana: fem') than masculine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., il fiore e il libro 'the:mas flower: mas and the:mas book:mas'). Implications of these results are discussed both at the level of functional architecture within the language production system and at the level of changes in language use.

  1. Evidence for Multiple Rhythmic Skills.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Rhythms, or patterns in time, play a vital role in both speech and music. Proficiency in a number of rhythm skills has been linked to language ability, suggesting that certain rhythmic processes in music and language rely on overlapping resources. However, a lack of understanding about how rhythm skills relate to each other has impeded progress in understanding how language relies on rhythm processing. In particular, it is unknown whether all rhythm skills are linked together, forming a single broad rhythmic competence, or whether there are multiple dissociable rhythm skills. We hypothesized that beat tapping and rhythm memory/sequencing form two separate clusters of rhythm skills. This hypothesis was tested with a battery of two beat tapping and two rhythm memory tests. Here we show that tapping to a metronome and the ability to adjust to a changing tempo while tapping to a metronome are related skills. The ability to remember rhythms and to drum along to repeating rhythmic sequences are also related. However, we found no relationship between beat tapping skills and rhythm memory skills. Thus, beat tapping and rhythm memory are dissociable rhythmic aptitudes. This discovery may inform future research disambiguating how distinct rhythm competencies track with specific language functions. PMID:26376489

  2. Multiple sclerosis: Prospects and promise.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Stephen L; Chan, Jonah R; Oksenberg, Jorge R

    2013-09-01

    We have entered a golden era in multiple sclerosis (MS) research. Two decades ago, our understanding of the disease was largely descriptive and there were no approved therapies to modify the natural history of MS. Today, delineation of immune pathways relevant to MS have been clarified; a comprehensive map of genes that influence risk compiled; clues to environmental triggers identified; noninvasive in vivo monitoring of the MS disease process has been revolutionized by high-field MRI; and many effective therapies for the early, relapsing, component of MS now exist. However, major challenges remain. We still have no useful treatment for progressive MS (the holy grail of MS research), no means to repair injured axons or protect neurons, and extremely limited evidence to guide treatment decisions. Recent advances have set in place a foundation for development of increasingly selective immunotherapy for patients; application of genetic and genomic discoveries to improve therapeutic options; development of remyelination or neuroprotection therapies for progressive MS; and integrating clinical, imaging and genomic data for personalized medicine. MS has now advanced from the backwaters of autoimmune disease research to the front-line, and definitive answers, including cures, are now realistic goals for the next decade. Many of the breakthrough discoveries in MS have also resulted from meaningful interactions across disciplines, and especially from translational and basic scientists working closely with clinicians, highlighting that the clinical value of discoveries are most often revealed when ideas developed in the laboratory are tested at the bedside. PMID:23955638

  3. Multiple access mass storage network

    SciTech Connect

    Wentz, D.L. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The Multi-Access Storage Subnetwork (MASS) is the latest addition to the Octopus computer network at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The subnetwork provides shared mass storage for the Laboratory's multiple-host computer configuration. A Control Data Corp. 38500 Mass Storage facility is interfaces by MASS to the large, scientific worker computers to provide an on-line capacity of 1 trillion bits of user-accessible data. The MASS architecture offers a very high performance approach to the management of large data storage, as well as a high degree of reliability needed for operation in the Laboratory's timesharing environment. MASS combines state-of-the-art digital hardware with an innovative system philosophy. The key LLL design features of the subnetwork that contribute to the high performance include the following: a data transmission scheme that provides a 40-Mbit/s channel over distances of up to 1000 ft, a large metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) memory buffer controlled by a 24-port memory multiplexer with an aggregate data rate of 280 Mbit/s, and a set of high-speed microprocessor-based controllers driving the commercial mass storage units. Reliability of the system is provided by a completely redundant network, including two control minicomputer systems. Also enhancing reliability is error detection and correction in the MOS memory. A hardware-generated checksum is carried with each file throughout the entire network to ensure integrity of user files. 6 figures, 1 table.

  4. Gender agreement and multiple referents

    PubMed Central

    Finocchiaro, Chiara; Mahon, Bradford Z.; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    We report a new pattern of usage in current, spoken Italian that has implications for both psycholinguistic models of language production and linguistic theories of language change. In Italian, gender agreement is mandatory for both singular and plural nouns. However, when two or more nouns of different grammatical gender appear in a conjoined noun phrase (NP), masculine plural agreement is required. In this study, we combined on-line and off-line methodologies in order to assess the mechanisms involved in gender marking in the context of multiple referents. The results of two pronoun production tasks showed that plural feminine agreement was significantly more difficult than plural masculine agreement. In a separate study using offline judgements of acceptability, we found that agreement violations in Italian are tolerated more readily in the case of feminine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., la mela e la banana ‘the:fem apple:fem and the: fem banana: fem’) than masculine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., il fiore e il libro ‘the:mas flower: mas and the:mas book:mas’). Implications of these results are discussed both at the level of functional architecture within the language production system and at the level of changes in language use.* PMID:21037930

  5. Emerging therapies for multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Podar, Klaus; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Hideshima, Teru; Vallet, Sonia; Richardson, Paul G; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2011-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal plasma cell malignancy clinically characterized by osteolytic lesions, immunodeficiency, and renal disease. There are an estimated 750,000 people diagnosed with MM worldwide, with a median overall survival of 3 – 5 years. Besides chromosomal aberrations, translocations, and mutations in essential growth and tumor-suppressor genes, accumulating data strongly highlight the pathophysiologic role of the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment in MM pathogenesis. Based on this knowledge, several novel agents have been identified, and treatment options in MM have fundamentally changed during the last decade. Thalidomide, bortezomib, and lenalidomide have been incorporated into conventional cytotoxic and transplantation regimens, first in relapsed and refractory and now also in newly diagnosed MM. Despite these significant advances, there remains an urgent need for more efficacious and tolerable drugs. Indeed, a plethora of preclinical agents awaits translation from the bench to the bedside. This article reviews the scientific rationale of new therapy regimens and newly identified therapeutic agents – small molecules as well as therapeutic antibodies – that hold promise to further improve outcome in MM. PMID:19249983

  6. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    PubMed Central

    Rameau, Catherine; Bertheloot, Jessica; Leduc, Nathalie; Andrieu, Bruno; Foucher, Fabrice; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply. PMID:25628627

  7. Multiple-measurement beam probe

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, J.D.; Grant, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Particle accelerators are becoming smaller and are producing more intense beams; therefore, it is critical that beam-diagnostic instrumentation provide accelerator operators and automated control systems with a complete set of beam information. Traditionally, these beam data were collected and processed using limited-bandwidth interceptive techniques. For the new-generation accelerators, we are developing a multiple-measurement microstrip probe to obtain broadband beam data from inside a drift tube without perturbing the beam. The cylindrical probe's dimensions are 6-cm OD by 1.0 m long, and the probe is mounted inside a drift tube. The probe (and its associated electronics) monitors bunched-beam current, energy, and transverse position by sensing the beam's electromagnetic fields through the annular opening in the drift tube. The electrical impedance is tightly controlled through the full length of the probe and transmission lines to maintain beam-induced signal fidelity. The probe's small, cylindrical structure is matched to beam-bunch characteristics at specific beamline locations so that signal-to-noise ratios are optimized. Surrounding the probe, a mechanical structure attaches to the drift-tube interior and the quadrupole magnets; thus, the entire assembly's mechanical and electrical centers can be aligned and calibrated with respect to the rest of the linac.

  8. Mechanisms of multiple chemical sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Winder, Chris

    2002-03-10

    Sensitivity to chemicals is a toxicological concept, contained in the dose-response relationship. Sensitivity also includes the concept of hypersensitivity, although controversy surrounds the nature of effects from very low exposures. The term multiple chemical sensitivity has been used to describe individuals with a debilitating, multi-organ sensitivity following chemical exposures. Many aspects of this condition extend the nature of sensitivity to low levels of exposure to chemicals, and is a designation with medical, immunological, neuropsychological and toxicological perspectives. The basis of MCS is still to be identified, although a large number of hypersensitivity, immunological, psychological, neurological and toxicological mechanisms have been suggested, including: allergy; autosuggestion; cacosomia; conditioned response; immunological; impairment of biochemical pathways involved in energy production; impairment of neurochemical pathways; illness belief system; limbic kindling; olfactory threshold sensitivity; panic disorder; psychosomatic condition; malingering; neurogenic inflammation; overload of biotransformation pathways (also linked with free radical production); psychological or psychiatric illness; airway reactivity; sensitisation of the neurological system; time dependent sensitisation, toxicant induced loss of tolerance. Most of these theories tend to break down into concepts involving: (1) disruption in immunological/allergy processes; (2) alteration in nervous system function; (3) changes in biochemical or biotransformation capacity; (4) changes in psychological/neurobehavioural function. Research into the possible mechanisms of MCS is far from complete. However, a number of promising avenues of investigation indicate that the possibility of alteration of the sensitivity of nervous system cells (neurogenic inflammation, limbic kindling, cacosomia, neurogenic switching) are a possible mechanism for MCS.

  9. Multiple genetic alterations in human carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Sugimura, T; Terada, M; Yokota, J; Hirohashi, S; Wakabayashi, K

    1992-01-01

    Cancer development in man appeared to be a multistage process as suggested by epidemiological studies on commonly occurring gastric, colon, and breast cancers and also on human retrovirus-related leukemia, and by the finding by physicians and surgeons of precancerous lesions for many types of neoplasias. In the last 10 years it has become evident that human cancers have multiple genetic alterations caused by point mutations, recombinations, amplifications, and/or deletions. The genes affected include both oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes and genes that accelerate cell proliferation and metastasis. Cancers with more malignant properties and poorer prognosis are generally associated with larger numbers of genetic alterations. These multiple genetic alterations are considered to be a direct reflection of the multiple steps involved in carcinogenesis. The multiple genetic alterations are caused by multiple environmental carcinogenic substances or factors, each of which usually exists only at minute concentrations and does not exert any major impact alone except under particular occupational, iatrogenic, and locally geographic conditions. The fact that carcinogenesis is a multistep process involving multiple genetic alterations clearly needs to be taken into consideration in assessing the risks of environmental carcinogenic substances or factors. The increasing incidence of multiple primary cancers is also most easily understood from the viewpoint of multiple steps in carcinogenesis. Possible multiple approaches to cancer prevention should therefore be considered in relation to multistep carcinogenesis and multiple carcinogenic factors. PMID:1486862

  10. Improving Multiple Fault Diagnosability using Possible Conflicts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Bregon, Anibal; Biswas, Gautam; Koutsoukos, Xenofon; Pulido, Belarmino

    2012-01-01

    Multiple fault diagnosis is a difficult problem for dynamic systems. Due to fault masking, compensation, and relative time of fault occurrence, multiple faults can manifest in many different ways as observable fault signature sequences. This decreases diagnosability of multiple faults, and therefore leads to a loss in effectiveness of the fault isolation step. We develop a qualitative, event-based, multiple fault isolation framework, and derive several notions of multiple fault diagnosability. We show that using Possible Conflicts, a model decomposition technique that decouples faults from residuals, we can significantly improve the diagnosability of multiple faults compared to an approach using a single global model. We demonstrate these concepts and provide results using a multi-tank system as a case study.

  11. Iron chelation and multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Weigel, Kelsey J.; Lynch, Sharon G.; LeVine, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Histochemical and MRI studies have demonstrated that MS (multiple sclerosis) patients have abnormal deposition of iron in both gray and white matter structures. Data is emerging indicating that this iron could partake in pathogenesis by various mechanisms, e.g., promoting the production of reactive oxygen species and enhancing the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Iron chelation therapy could be a viable strategy to block iron-related pathological events or it can confer cellular protection by stabilizing hypoxia inducible factor 1α, a transcription factor that normally responds to hypoxic conditions. Iron chelation has been shown to protect against disease progression and/or limit iron accumulation in some neurological disorders or their experimental models. Data from studies that administered a chelator to animals with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model of MS, support the rationale for examining this treatment approach in MS. Preliminary clinical studies have been performed in MS patients using deferoxamine. Although some side effects were observed, the large majority of patients were able to tolerate the arduous administration regimen, i.e., 6–8 h of subcutaneous infusion, and all side effects resolved upon discontinuation of treatment. Importantly, these preliminary studies did not identify a disqualifying event for this experimental approach. More recently developed chelators, deferasirox and deferiprone, are more desirable for possible use in MS given their oral administration, and importantly, deferiprone can cross the blood–brain barrier. However, experiences from other conditions indicate that the potential for adverse events during chelation therapy necessitates close patient monitoring and a carefully considered administration regimen. PMID:24397846

  12. Defective immunoregulation in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Goust, J M; Hoffman, P M; Pryjma, J; Hogan, E L; Fudenberg, H H

    1980-11-01

    Imbalances in T cell subpopulations have been reported in multiple sclerosis (MS). In the present study of 31 MS patients, the percentage of T cells with Fc receptors for IgG (Tg) was found to be increased in patients with chronic progressive disease, and another T cell subset binding to the Raji B lymphoid cell line was decreased. An inverse correlation (r = -0.675; < 95% confidence limit) was found between these two subsets, suggesting that they vary inversely in MS. The mitogenic responses of MS mononuclear cells, isolated T cells, and recombinet T and non-T cells to the lectins phytohemagglutinin and pokeweek mitogen (PWM) did not differ from those of normal cells. However, more immunoglobulin (Ig)-producing cells were generated in a PWM-driven system with cells from MS patients than with cells from age-matched controls (p < 0.05). Autologous recombination of separated T and non-T cells did not significantly modify these results. T cells from MS patients added to B cells from normal controls exerted an effect that was related to their percentage of Tg cells; that is, values above 15% were associated with a suppression of Ig production, whereas for Tg values below 12%, a helper effect or no modification was observed. These results suggest that changes in T cell subsets in MS are related to changes in functional ability to modulate Ig production by normal B cells. However, MS B cells partly escape regulation by their own T cells, suggesting an associated B cell hyperactivity. PMID:7436394

  13. Taste dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Doty, Richard L; Tourbier, Isabelle A; Pham, Dzung L; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L; Udupa, Jayaram K; Karacali, Bilge; Beals, Evan; Fabius, Laura; Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Moonis, Gul; Kim, Taehoon; Mihama, Toru; Geckle, Rena J; Yousem, David M

    2016-04-01

    Empirical studies of taste function in multiple sclerosis (MS) are rare. Moreover, a detailed assessment of whether quantitative measures of taste function correlate with the punctate and patchy myelin-related lesions found throughout the CNS of MS patients has not been made. We administered a 96-trial test of sweet (sucrose), sour (citric acid), bitter (caffeine) and salty (NaCl) taste perception to the left and right anterior (CN VII) and posterior (CN IX) tongue regions of 73 MS patients and 73 matched controls. The number and volume of lesions were assessed using quantitative MRI in 52 brain regions of 63 of the MS patients. Taste identification scores were significantly lower in the MS patients for sucrose (p = 0.0002), citric acid (p = 0.0001), caffeine (p = 0.0372) and NaCl (p = 0.0004) and were present in both anterior and posterior tongue regions. The percent of MS patients with identification scores falling below the 5th percentile of controls was 15.07 % for caffeine, 21.9 % for citric acid, 24.66 % for sucrose, and 31.50 % for NaCl. Such scores were inversely correlated with lesion volumes in the temporal, medial frontal, and superior frontal lobes, and with the number of lesions in the left and right superior frontal lobes, right anterior cingulate gyrus, and left parietal operculum. Regardless of the subject group, women outperformed men on the taste measures. These findings indicate that a sizable number of MS patients exhibit taste deficits that are associated with MS-related lesions throughout the brain. PMID:26810729

  14. Molecular aspects of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Kastrinakis, N G; Gorgoulis, V G; Foukas, P G; Dimopoulos, M A; Kittas, C

    2000-10-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B-cell neoplasm characterized by bone marrow infiltration with malignant plasma cells, which synthesize and secrete monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) fragments. Despite the considerable progress in the understanding of MM biology, the molecular basis of the disease remains elusive. The initial transformation is thought to occur in a postgerminal center B-lineage cell, carrying a somatically hypermutated Ig heavy chain (IGH) gene. This plasmablastic precursor cell colonizes the bone marrow, propagates clonally and differentiates into a slowly proliferating myeloma cell population, all under the influence of specific cell adhesion molecules and cytokines. Production of interleukin-6 by stromal cells, osteoblasts and, in some cases, neoplastic cells is an essential element of myeloma cell growth, with the cytokine stimulus being delivered intracellularly via the Jack-STAT and ras signaling pathways. While karyotypic changes have been identified in up to 50% of MM patients, recent molecular cytogenetic techniques have revealed chromosomal abnormalities in the vast majority of examined cases. Translocations mostly involve illegal switch rearrangements of the IGH locus with various partner genes (CCND1, FGFR3, c-maf). Such events have been assigned a critical role in MM development. Mutations in coding and regulatory regions, as well as aberrant expression patterns of several oncogenes (c-myc, ras) and tumor suppressor genes (p16, p15) have been reported. Key regulators of programmed cell death (BCL-2, Fas), tumor expansion (metalloproteinases) and drug responsiveness (topoisomerase II alpha) have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of this hematologic malignancy. A tumorigenic role for human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) was postulated recently, following the detection of viral sequences in bone marrow dendritic cells of MM patients. However, since several research groups were unable to confirm this observation, the role of HHV8 remains unclear

  15. Nutrition Facts in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Rossano, Rocco

    2015-01-01

    The question whether dietary habits and lifestyle have influence on the course of multiple sclerosis (MS) is still a matter of debate, and at present, MS therapy is not associated with any information on diet and lifestyle. Here we show that dietary factors and lifestyle may exacerbate or ameliorate MS symptoms by modulating the inflammatory status of the disease both in relapsing-remitting MS and in primary-progressive MS. This is achieved by controlling both the metabolic and inflammatory pathways in the human cell and the composition of commensal gut microbiota. What increases inflammation are hypercaloric Western-style diets, characterized by high salt, animal fat, red meat, sugar-sweetened drinks, fried food, low fiber, and lack of physical exercise. The persistence of this type of diet upregulates the metabolism of human cells toward biosynthetic pathways including those of proinflammatory molecules and also leads to a dysbiotic gut microbiota, alteration of intestinal immunity, and low-grade systemic inflammation. Conversely, exercise and low-calorie diets based on the assumption of vegetables, fruit, legumes, fish, prebiotics, and probiotics act on nuclear receptors and enzymes that upregulate oxidative metabolism, downregulate the synthesis of proinflammatory molecules, and restore or maintain a healthy symbiotic gut microbiota. Now that we know the molecular mechanisms by which dietary factors and exercise affect the inflammatory status in MS, we can expect that a nutritional intervention with anti-inflammatory food and dietary supplements can alleviate possible side effects of immune-modulatory drugs and the symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome and thus favor patient wellness. PMID:25694551

  16. Knowledge repositories for multiple uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, Keith; Riddle, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    In the life cycle of a complex physical device or part, for example, the docking bay door of the Space Station, there are many uses for knowledge about the device or part. The same piece of knowledge might serve several uses. Given the quantity and complexity of the knowledge that must be stored, it is critical to maintain the knowledge in one repository, in one form. At the same time, because of quantity and complexity of knowledge that must be used in life cycle applications such as cost estimation, re-design, and diagnosis, it is critical to automate such knowledge uses. For each specific use, a knowledge base must be available and must be in a from that promotes the efficient performance of that knowledge base. However, without a single source knowledge repository, the cost of maintaining consistent knowledge between multiple knowledge bases increases dramatically; as facts and descriptions change, they must be updated in each individual knowledge base. A use-neutral representation of a hydraulic system for the F-111 aircraft was developed. The ability to derive portions of four different knowledge bases is demonstrated from this use-neutral representation: one knowledge base is for re-design of the device using a model-based reasoning problem solver; two knowledge bases, at different levels of abstraction, are for diagnosis using a model-based reasoning solver; and one knowledge base is for diagnosis using an associational reasoning problem solver. It was shown how updates issued against the single source use-neutral knowledge repository can be propagated to the underlying knowledge bases.

  17. Nutrition facts in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Riccio, Paolo; Rossano, Rocco

    2015-01-01

    The question whether dietary habits and lifestyle have influence on the course of multiple sclerosis (MS) is still a matter of debate, and at present, MS therapy is not associated with any information on diet and lifestyle. Here we show that dietary factors and lifestyle may exacerbate or ameliorate MS symptoms by modulating the inflammatory status of the disease both in relapsing-remitting MS and in primary-progressive MS. This is achieved by controlling both the metabolic and inflammatory pathways in the human cell and the composition of commensal gut microbiota. What increases inflammation are hypercaloric Western-style diets, characterized by high salt, animal fat, red meat, sugar-sweetened drinks, fried food, low fiber, and lack of physical exercise. The persistence of this type of diet upregulates the metabolism of human cells toward biosynthetic pathways including those of proinflammatory molecules and also leads to a dysbiotic gut microbiota, alteration of intestinal immunity, and low-grade systemic inflammation. Conversely, exercise and low-calorie diets based on the assumption of vegetables, fruit, legumes, fish, prebiotics, and probiotics act on nuclear receptors and enzymes that upregulate oxidative metabolism, downregulate the synthesis of proinflammatory molecules, and restore or maintain a healthy symbiotic gut microbiota. Now that we know the molecular mechanisms by which dietary factors and exercise affect the inflammatory status in MS, we can expect that a nutritional intervention with anti-inflammatory food and dietary supplements can alleviate possible side effects of immune-modulatory drugs and the symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome and thus favor patient wellness.

  18. Nutrition facts in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Riccio, Paolo; Rossano, Rocco

    2015-01-01

    The question whether dietary habits and lifestyle have influence on the course of multiple sclerosis (MS) is still a matter of debate, and at present, MS therapy is not associated with any information on diet and lifestyle. Here we show that dietary factors and lifestyle may exacerbate or ameliorate MS symptoms by modulating the inflammatory status of the disease both in relapsing-remitting MS and in primary-progressive MS. This is achieved by controlling both the metabolic and inflammatory pathways in the human cell and the composition of commensal gut microbiota. What increases inflammation are hypercaloric Western-style diets, characterized by high salt, animal fat, red meat, sugar-sweetened drinks, fried food, low fiber, and lack of physical exercise. The persistence of this type of diet upregulates the metabolism of human cells toward biosynthetic pathways including those of proinflammatory molecules and also leads to a dysbiotic gut microbiota, alteration of intestinal immunity, and low-grade systemic inflammation. Conversely, exercise and low-calorie diets based on the assumption of vegetables, fruit, legumes, fish, prebiotics, and probiotics act on nuclear receptors and enzymes that upregulate oxidative metabolism, downregulate the synthesis of proinflammatory molecules, and restore or maintain a healthy symbiotic gut microbiota. Now that we know the molecular mechanisms by which dietary factors and exercise affect the inflammatory status in MS, we can expect that a nutritional intervention with anti-inflammatory food and dietary supplements can alleviate possible side effects of immune-modulatory drugs and the symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome and thus favor patient wellness. PMID:25694551

  19. Early prognosis of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Swanton, Josephine; Fernando, Kryshani; Miller, David

    2014-01-01

    Establishing the prognosis for multiple sclerosis (MS) early in the disease course is critically important for patients who develop this disease. Potentially, this information could be used to guide the selection of which disease modifying therapy (if any) should be started in which individual and to determine, over course of the illness, when the therapeutic approach needs to be modified. Regardless, of its importance, however, we only have a limited ability to predict how an individual's illness will evolve. For several decades, we have known about certain clinical features of MS that seem to associated with a more benign course (e.g., female gender, clinical onset before the age of 40 years, few early relapses, slow early accumulation of fixed deficits, and the initial involvement of only sensory systems). Nevertheless, the prognostic value of these clinical features offer only limited help to individual patients in making their different (and difficult) life-choices. For this reason, there have been numerous attempts to develop paraclinical tests, which can augment (and improve upon) this clinical prognostic information. These approaches have included the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures such as gadolinium enhancement, new T2 lesions, the volume of T2 lesion burden, brain atrophy (either whole brain or separately for grey and white matter), spinal cord atrophy, cortical connectivity, and determining the characteristics and chemical composition of the normal appearing white matter. They have also included investigations of the use of immunological markers for establishing prognosis. Nevertheless, this field is still only in its infancy and our ability to predict accurately the outlook for an individual remains limited at best. This chapter reviews the current evidence, taken from both clinical and paraclinical sources, as it relates to establishing this prognosis and provides insight to where, in the future, we need to look. PMID:24507526

  20. Multiple myeloma cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Minjie; Kong, Yuanyuan; Yang, Guang; Gao, Lu; Shi, Jumei

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable despite much progress that has been made in the treatment of the disease. MM cancer stem cell (MMSC), a rare subpopulation of MM cells with the capacity for self-renewal and drug resistance, is considered to lead to disease relapse. Several markers such as side population (SP) and ALDH1+ have been used to identify MMSCs. However, ideally and more precisely, the identification of the MMSCs should rely on MMSCs phenotype. Unfortunately the MMSC phenotype has not been properly defined yet. Drug resistance is the most important property of MMSCs and contributes to disease relapse, but the mechanisms of drug resistance have not been fully understood. The major signaling pathways involved in the regulation of self-renewal and differentiation of MMSCs include Hedgehog (Hh), Wingless (Wnt), Notch and PI3K/Akt/mTOR. However, the precise role of these signaling pathways needs to be clarified. It has been reported that the microRNA profile of MMSCs is remarkably different than that of non-MMSCs. Therefore, the search for targeting MMSCs has also been focused on microRNAs. Complex and mutual interactions between the MMSC and the surrounding bone marrow (BM) microenvironment sustain self-renewal and survival of MMSC. However, the required molecules for the interaction of the MMSC and the surrounding BM microenvironment need to be further identified. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge of MMSCs regarding their phenotype, mechanisms of drug resistance, signaling pathways that regulate MMSCs self-renewal and differentiation, abnormal microRNAs expression, and their interactions with the BM microenvironment. PMID:27007154

  1. Dystonia in multiple system atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Boesch, S; Wenning, G; Ransmayr, G; Poewe, W

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To delineate the frequency and nature of dystonia in multiple system atrophy (MSA). Methods: a cohort of 24 patients with clinically probable MSA over the past 10 years were prospectively followed up. Motor features were either dominated by parkinsonism (MSA-P subtype, n=18) or cerebellar ataxia (MSA-C, n=6). Classification of dystonic features and their changes with time was based on clinical observation during 6–12 monthly follow up visits. Parkinsonian features and complications of drug therapy were assessed. Most patients (22/24) died during the observation period. Neuropathological examination was confirmatory in all of the five necropsied patients. Results: At first neurological visit dystonia was present in 11 (46%) patients all of whom had been levodopa naive at this time point. Six patients (25%) exhibited cervical dystonia (antecollis) (MSA-P n=4, MSA-C n=2), five patients (21%) showed unilateral limb dystonia (MSA-P n=4; MSA-C n=1). A definite initial response to levodopa treatment was seen in 15/18 patients with MSA-P, but in none of the six patients with MSA-C. A subgroup of 12 patients with MSA-P developed levodopa induced dyskinesias 2.3 years (range 0.5–4) after initiation of levodopa therapy. Most patients had peak dose craniocervical dystonia; however, some patients experienced limb or generalised dystonia. Isolated peak dose limb chorea occurred in only one patient. Conclusion: The prospective clinical study suggests that dystonia is common in untreated MSA-P. This finding may reflect younger age at disease onset and putaminal pathology in MSA-P. Levodopa induced dyskinesias were almost exclusively dystonic affecting predominantly craniocervical musculature. Future studies are required to elucidate the underlying pathophysiology of dystonia in MSA. PMID:11861684

  2. Polycythaemia: an unusual presentation of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Elaine J; Taverna, Josephine A; Yu, Qi; Yeager, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to anaemia, polycythaemia is a distinctly uncommon finding in patients with multiple myeloma. We describe the presence of otherwise unexplained polycythaemia in a 57-year-old Caucasian man who was found to have IgG κ multiple myeloma. After treatment of myeloma, the polycythaemia resolved. We reviewed previous reports of polycythaemia associated with multiple myeloma and discuss potential pathophysiological mechanisms that link these 2 conditions. PMID:27651406

  3. Multiple acousto-optic q-switch

    SciTech Connect

    Deason, Vance A.

    1993-01-01

    An improved dynamic moire interferometer comprised of a lasing medium providing a plurality of beams of coherent light, a multiple q-switch producing multiple trains of 100,000 or more pulses per second, a combining means collimating multiple trains of pulses into substantially a single train and directing beams to specimen gratings affixed to a test material, and a controller, triggering and sequencing the emission of the pulses with the occurrence and recording of a dynamic loading event.

  4. Multiple acousto-optic q-switch

    SciTech Connect

    Deason, Vance A.

    1993-12-07

    An improved dynamic moire interferometer comprised of a lasing medium providing a plurality of beams of coherent light, a multiple q-switch producing multiple trains of 100,000 or more pulses per second, a combining means collimating multiple trains of pulses into substantially a single train and directing beams to specimen gratings affixed to a test material, and a controller, triggering and sequencing the emission of the pulses with the occurrence and recording of a dynamic loading event.

  5. COMPASS Hadron Multiplicity Measurements and Fragmentation Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolarski, M.

    2016-03-01

    COMPASS preliminary results on hadron, pion and kaon multiplicities are presented. The hadron and pion data show a good agreement with (N)LO QCD expectations and some of these preliminary data have been already successfully incorporated in the global NLO QCD fits to world data. However, the results for kaon multiplicities, are different from the expectations of the DSS fit. There is also a tension between COMPASS and HERMES results, the only other experiment which measured kaon multiplicities in SIDIS.

  6. Class II HLA antigens in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, D H; Hornabrook, R W; Dagger, J; Fong, R

    1989-01-01

    HLA typing in Wellington revealed a stronger association of multiple sclerosis with DR2 than with DQw1. The association with DQw1 appeared to be due to linkage disequilibrium of this antigen with DR2. These results, when considered in conjunction with other studies, are most easily explained by the hypothesis that susceptibility to multiple sclerosis is influenced by multiple risk factors, with DR2 being an important risk factor in Caucasoid populations. PMID:2732726

  7. Multiple-invariance esprit for DOA estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linczuk, Maciej

    2004-07-01

    We consider the problem of estimating the direction of arrival (DOA) of multiple sources in the presence of noise. First, we introduce a narrowband signal model disturbed by white, Gaussian noise. This signal is detected by Uniform Linear Antenna Array -- ULA. Next, we discuss some properties of this signal model and its cross correlation matrix. Using this properties we introduce SINGLE SHIFT INVARIANCE algorithm for DOA estimation: ESPRIT. Next, we describe an idea of MULTIPLE INVARIANCE algorithm based on MULTIPLE INVARIANCE ESPRIT. In the last section we examine some statistical properties of both algorithms: ESPRIT and MULTIPLE INVARIANCE ESPRIT.

  8. Long-term outcomes in multiple gestations.

    PubMed

    Rand, Larry; Eddleman, Keith A; Stone, Joanne

    2005-06-01

    Children born from a multiple gestation are at increased risk for cerebral palsy, learning disability, and language and neurobehavioral deficits. With the increased incidence of multiple pregnancies and use of assisted reproductive technology (ART), these issues are more commonly affecting parents. Long-term outcomes are a critical part of preconceptual and early pregnancy counseling for parents faced with a multiple gestation or considering ART, and the provider should be well versed on issues surrounding zygosity, gestational age, higher-order multiples, and the effects of options such as multifetal pregnancy reduction. PMID:15922795

  9. Charm production in high multiplicity pp events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, K.; Guiot, B.; Karpenko, Iu.; Pierog, T.; Sophys, G.

    2016-08-01

    Studying proton-proton scattering at 7 TeV, the ALICE collaboration found the unexpected result that the D meson multiplicity increases more than linear as a function of the charged particle multiplicity. We try to understand this behavior using the EPOS3 approach. Two issues play an important role in this context: multiple scattering, in particular its impact on multiplicity fluctuations, and the collective hydrodynamic expansion. These data contain therefore valuable information about very basic features of the reaction mechanism in proton- proton collisions.

  10. Charged particle multiplicity studies with PHOBOS.

    SciTech Connect

    Alver, B.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Physics; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech.; BNL

    2008-01-01

    Summary and conclusion: (1) Multiplicity - PHOBOS have performed complete charged particle multiplicity measurements for Au+Au, Cu+Cu, d+Au, and p+p collisions, System size dependence, and 'Complete' pseudorapidity distributions; 'Universality' compared to elementary e+e- collisions; and (2) Midrapidity multiplicity - Factorization of centrality and energy dependencies; (3) Limiting fragmentation - extended longitudinal scaling - Seen for Au+Au, Cu+Cu, and d+Au, Also observed in flow observables; (4) Total charged particle multiplicity - N{sub ch}/N{sub part} constant with centrality, (5) Future - Finish up many analysis and reviews.

  11. Exhausting Multiple Hemodialysis Access Failures

    PubMed Central

    Bolleke, Erjola; Seferi, Saimir; Rroji, Merita; Idrizi, Alma; Barbullushi, Myftar; Thereska, Nestor

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Vascular access is often considered the Achilles heel the of hemodialysis because of its impact on morbidity, all cause mortality and finally costs of these patients. The most common complication of permanent hemodialysis (HD) vascular access is thrombosis, with some cases being related to hypercoagulability states. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APAS) is a cause of increased thrombotic tendency, and this may complicate the management of such patients on HD. Case report: We describe a 41-year-old woman with end stage renal disease (ESRD) from Adult Polycystic Kidney Disease who was referred to our tertiary care center for treatment and selection of renal replacement therapy form. It was thought to initiate with peritoneal dialysis considering her actual conditions. She was putted on hemodialysis for several sessions, and a subclavian cathether was her first vascular access. The surgeon created an arterio-venous fistula which did not mature. After the implantation of the peritoneal cathether she started peritoneal dialysis and continued living with that for 2 years. She felt exhausted and because of a grave peritonitis episode accompanied with procedure failure and a long hospitalization she was transferred to hemodialysis. Renal transplantation was not possible because she didn’t have a kidney donation. She was maintained on regular HD, but her dialysis care was complicated by recurrent vascular access failures. She had multiple interventions for arterio-venous fistulas and grafts but almost all of them failed due to thrombosis to the extent that only one access site was available for her routine renal replacement treatment. A thorough thrombophilia screen confirmed the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. A diagnosis of APAS was made and she was anticoagulated with warfarin. The AVG made in this last available site is still working from 18 months. If it fails we have no answers and solutions for her. Conclusion: The presence of

  12. Multiple personality and forensic issues.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D O; Bard, J S

    1991-09-01

    As clinicians become more sophisticated regarding MPD, we can expect many more cases to come to the court's attention, especially among violent offenders. This is because violence and MPD have very similar origins in early extraordinary physical and sexual abuse. As offenders become more knowledgeable, we can also expect to encounter more and better malingering. At this time, however, we are far more likely to overlook the problem than we are to overdiagnose it. Why is it that MPD is recognized so infrequently in the offender population? Probably because so many of its characteristics are similar to the symptoms associated with antisocial personality. For example, amnesia for behaviors is dismissed as lying, fugue states appear to be attempts to evade justice; finding things in one's possession looks like stealing; self-mutilation and suicide attempts seem manipulative; and the use of different names at different times and in different circumstances is interpreted as the conscious use of aliases in order to evade the law. Even the dramatic, at times heart-wrenching emotional catharses relating to abuse revealed during hypnosis are so painful that the average person has difficulty accepting that they happened and, therefore, dismisses them as exaggeration or total fabrication. Most often, the diagnosis is missed because the clinician does not even consider it a possibility. In this article we have reviewed some of the ways in which courts have approached the issue of MPD and some of the problems specific to its diagnosis in forensic settings. The clinician must keep in mind that in cases in which issues of mental illness are raised, the law reflects that which it is taught by alleged experts. The case law on multiple personality is still sparse, leaving much room for new data and new interpretations of these data. The current tendency to treat each alternate as though it were a whole and responsible individual as opposed to an imaginary construct, a symptom of a

  13. Modeling Multiple Causes of Carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T D

    1999-01-24

    multiple causes of carcinogenesis and shifts the risk-assessment logic to considerations of "what dose does?" in contrast to the current process of the substance-specific question of "what dose is?" Whether reactive oxygen is the proximate or contributing cause of disease or simply a better estimate of biologically effective dose, it has enormous advantages for improved risk- and policy-based decisions. Various estimates of immune system modulation will be given based on radiobiology.

  14. Constructive Multiple-Choice Testing System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jooyong

    2010-01-01

    The newly developed computerized Constructive Multiple-choice Testing system is introduced. The system combines short answer (SA) and multiple-choice (MC) formats by asking examinees to respond to the same question twice, first in the SA format, and then in the MC format. This manipulation was employed to collect information about the two…

  15. Multiple Uses of a Word Study Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Laurice M.; Orlins, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents two case studies that illustrate the multiple uses of word sorts, a word study phonics technique. Case study children were Sara, a second grader, who had difficulty with reading basic words and John, a third grader, who had difficulty with spelling basic words. Multiple baseline designs were employed to study the effects of…

  16. Schooling Built on the Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel, Christine D.

    2009-01-01

    This article features a school built on multiple intelligences. As the first multiple intelligences school in the world, the Key Learning Community shapes its students' days to include significant time in the musical, spatial and bodily-kinesthetic intelligences, as well as the more traditional areas of logical-mathematical and linguistics. In…

  17. The Distributive Property: The Core of Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzer, Cathy J.; Stanford, Ted

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a sequence of learning activities that lead to using the area model of multiplication to understand the distributive property (DP). The connection between area and multiplication is an important one, both for algebraic thinking and for geometry, as indicated in two of the critical areas for the third grade in the Common Core…

  18. Dishabituation Produces Interactions during Multiple Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSweeney, Frances K.; Kowal, Benjamin P.; Murphy, Eric S.; Isava, Duane M.

    2004-01-01

    McSweeney and Weatherly (1998) argued that differential habituation to the reinforcer contributes to the behavioral interactions observed during multiple schedules. The present experiment confirmed that introducing dishabituators into one component of a multiple schedule increases response rate in the other, constant, component. During baseline,…

  19. 43 CFR 3400.1 - Multiple development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Multiple development. 3400.1 Section 3400... Multiple development. (a) The granting of an exploration license, a license to mine or a lease for the exploration, development, or production of coal deposits shall preclude neither the issuance of...

  20. Food Allergy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Food Allergy URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Food Allergy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  1. Multiple Intelligences: A Collection. K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Robin, Ed.; Bellanca, James, Ed.

    Divided into five concise sections, this book introduces and examines the personage of Howard Gardner and his theory of multiple intelligences. The articles explore practical applications and implications of the theory and provide supporting evidence applicable to all children. Special applications of the multiple intelligences theory, including…

  2. Demyelination of subcortical nuclei in multiple sclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krutenkova, E.; Aitmagambetova, G.; Khodanovich, M.; Bowen, J.; Gangadharan, B.; Henson, L.; Mayadev, A.; Repovic, P.; Qian, P.; Yarnykh, V.

    2016-02-01

    Myelin containing in basal ganglia in multiple sclerosis patients was evaluated using new noninvasive quantitative MRI method fast whole brain macromolecular proton fraction mapping. Myelin level in globus pallidus and putamen significantly decreased in multiple sclerosis patients as compared with healthy control subjects but not in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus.

  3. Regularized Multiple-Set Canonical Correlation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takane, Yoshio; Hwang, Heungsun; Abdi, Herve

    2008-01-01

    Multiple-set canonical correlation analysis (Generalized CANO or GCANO for short) is an important technique because it subsumes a number of interesting multivariate data analysis techniques as special cases. More recently, it has also been recognized as an important technique for integrating information from multiple sources. In this paper, we…

  4. 29 CFR 788.15 - Multiple crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Multiple crews. 788.15 Section 788.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR... EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.15 Multiple crews. In many cases an employer who operates a sawmill...

  5. 27 CFR 24.282 - Multiple transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Multiple transfers. 24.282 Section 24.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Multiple transfers. (a) Truck. The proprietor may use one transfer record for all wine shipped by truck...

  6. 9 CFR 113.7 - Multiple fractions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multiple fractions. 113.7 Section 113.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... § 113.7 Multiple fractions. (a) When a biological product contains more than one immunogenic...

  7. 40 CFR 791.52 - Multiple tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Multiple tests. 791.52 Section 791.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.52 Multiple tests. When more than one of a...

  8. 20 CFR 416.923 - Multiple impairments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Multiple impairments. 416.923 Section 416.923 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Evaluation of Disability § 416.923 Multiple impairments....

  9. 47 CFR 1.520 - Multiple applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multiple applications. 1.520 Section 1.520 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Broadcast Applications and Proceedings General Filing Requirements § 1.520 Multiple applications. See § 73.3520....

  10. 20 CFR 220.104 - Multiple impairments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Multiple impairments. 220.104 Section 220.104 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Evaluation of Disability § 220.104 Multiple impairments. To determine whether the...

  11. Making the Most of Multiple Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-choice questions draw criticism because many people perceive they test only recall or atomistic, surface-level objectives and do not require students to think. Although this can be the case, it does not have to be that way. Susan M. Brookhart suggests that multiple-choice questions are a useful part of any teacher's questioning repertoire…

  12. 14 CFR 21.149 - Multiple products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multiple products. 21.149 Section 21.149 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Certificates § 21.149 Multiple products. The Administrator...

  13. 47 CFR 73.3520 - Multiple applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multiple applications. 73.3520 Section 73.3520... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3520 Multiple applications. Where there is one... successor or assignee, or on behalf of, or for the benefit of the original parties in interest....

  14. Evaluation of the Randomized Multiple Choice Format.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harke, Douglas James

    Each physics problem used in evaluating the effectiveness of Randomized Multiple Choice (RMC) tests was stated in the conventional manner and was followed by several multiple choice items corresponding to the steps in a written solution but presented in random order. Students were instructed to prepare a written answer and to use it to answer the…

  15. Nonfamilial Multiple Trichoepithelioma: Few and Far Between

    PubMed Central

    Sehrawat, Manu; Jairath, Vijayeeta; Jain, VK

    2016-01-01

    Trichoepithelioma is a rare benign adnexal tumor which may be of solitary nonfamilial type or multiple familial trichoepitheliomas. Here, we describe a rare presentation of nonfamilial case of trichoepithelioma in a 50-year-old female with multiple skin colored facial papules and nodules over the face, upper back, and extremities. PMID:26955100

  16. 40 CFR 791.52 - Multiple tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Multiple tests. 791.52 Section 791.52...) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.52 Multiple tests. When more than one of a particular kind of test required by the test rule is performed, the additional costs will be shared among...

  17. 40 CFR 791.52 - Multiple tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Multiple tests. 791.52 Section 791.52...) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.52 Multiple tests. When more than one of a particular kind of test required by the test rule is performed, the additional costs will be shared among...

  18. Estimates of Multiple Correlation Coefficient Shrinkage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Corenna C.

    The accuracy and variability of 4 cross-validation procedures and 18 formulas were compared concerning their ability to estimate the population multiple correlation and the validity of the sample regression equation in the population. The investigation included two types of regression, multiple and stepwise; three sample sizes, N = 30, 60, 120;…

  19. Plague - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Plague URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/plague.html Other topics A-Z A B C ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Plague - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  20. Multiple medical problems following agent orange exposure.

    PubMed

    Ambrus, J L; Islam, A; Akhter, S; Dembinski, W; Kulaylat, M; Ambrus, C M

    2004-01-01

    A patient exposed to agent orange and a gunshot wound during the Vietnam War has developed multiple medical problems including nocardiosis, onychomycosis (Trichophyton rubrum), multiple thromboembolic episodes, hemochromatosis, diabetes mellitus type 2, diabetic neuropathy, activated protein C resistance (without Leyden V 1st mutation), degree A-V block, lung cancer (metastatic adenocarcinoma), carpal tunnel syndrome and arthritis. PMID:18084883

  1. Multiple salivary mucoceles in a young boy.

    PubMed

    Porter, S R; Scully, C; Kainth, B; Ward-Booth, P

    1998-06-01

    A rare case of multiple mucoceles in a 4-year-old boy is reported. The patients presented with multiple sessile swellings on his lower lip, with no obvious local aetiology. The patient was otherwise well. The lesions were excised surgically and histopathological examination confirmed the lesions to be extravasation-type mucoceles. The article includes a brief review of mucoceles. PMID:9728101

  2. Multiple Intelligences of Students at Jordanian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khataybeh, Abdalla; Al-Sheikh, Kholoud

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating different intelligence types among Jordanian students at different public and private universities in Jordan. To achieve such aim, it sought to identify and rank multiple intelligences that characterize students at Jordanian universities, and to identify and rank the differences in multiple intelligences…

  3. Developing Multiplicative Thinking from Additive Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Jennifer M.; Andreasen, Janet B.

    2013-01-01

    As students progress through elementary school, they encounter mathematics concepts that shift from additive to multiplicative situations (NCTM 2000). When they encounter fraction problems that require multiplicative thinking, they tend to incorrectly extend additive properties from whole numbers (Post et al. 1985). As a result, topics such as …

  4. Floods - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Floods URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/floods.html Other topics A-Z A B C ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Floods - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  5. Multiple Charter Authorizing Options. Policy Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Paul T.

    2009-01-01

    "Multiple authorizers" refers to situations where more than one entity is able to authorize charter schools in any given community. The presence of multiple authorizers can strengthen a state's charter school sector because a diversity of authorizers can promote professional practices among authorizers and provide checks and balances in charter…

  6. Enhancing Vocabulary Development in Multiple Classroom Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Janis M.; Staton, Denise G.

    1999-01-01

    Describes ways teachers can enhance students' vocabulary development through multiple contexts available in typical middle school classroom settings. Addresses questions about vocabulary learning and offers suggestions for enhancing vocabulary with narrative and expository texts that involve multiple classroom contexts. Considers the Vocab-o-gram…

  7. Anthrax - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Anthrax URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/anthrax.html Other topics A-Z A B C ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Anthrax - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  8. Trend Toward Multiple Authorship: Update and Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zook, Avery, II

    1987-01-01

    Updated by five years the research of Strahan (1982) who noted trend toward multiple authorship in "Journal of Counseling Psychology" (JCP) articles, and also examined "The Counseling Psychologist" (TCP). Concluded that the trend toward multiple authorship in JCP and TCP may be leveling off. (Author/KS)

  9. 46 CFR 183.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Multiple generators. 183.322 Section 183.322 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service power, the following...

  10. 46 CFR 183.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Multiple generators. 183.322 Section 183.322 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service power, the following...

  11. 46 CFR 120.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Multiple generators. 120.322 Section 120.322 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service power, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each generator...

  12. 46 CFR 120.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Multiple generators. 120.322 Section 120.322 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service power, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each generator...

  13. 46 CFR 129.323 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Multiple generators. 129.323 Section 129.323 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.323 Multiple generators. If an OSV uses two or more generators to supply electricity for the ship's service loads, to comply with § 129.310(a) of this...

  14. 46 CFR 120.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Multiple generators. 120.322 Section 120.322 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service power, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each generator...

  15. 46 CFR 129.323 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Multiple generators. 129.323 Section 129.323 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.323 Multiple generators. If an OSV uses two or more generators to supply electricity for the ship's service loads, to comply with § 129.310(a) of this...

  16. 46 CFR 183.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Multiple generators. 183.322 Section 183.322 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service power, the following...

  17. 46 CFR 120.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multiple generators. 120.322 Section 120.322 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service power, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each generator...

  18. 46 CFR 129.323 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Multiple generators. 129.323 Section 129.323 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.323 Multiple generators. If an OSV uses two or more generators to supply electricity for the ship's service loads, to comply with § 129.310(a) of this...

  19. 46 CFR 129.323 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Multiple generators. 129.323 Section 129.323 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.323 Multiple generators. If an OSV uses two or more generators to supply electricity for the ship's service loads, to comply with § 129.310(a) of this...

  20. 46 CFR 120.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Multiple generators. 120.322 Section 120.322 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service power, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each generator...

  1. 46 CFR 183.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Multiple generators. 183.322 Section 183.322 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service power, the following...

  2. 46 CFR 183.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multiple generators. 183.322 Section 183.322 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service power, the following...

  3. 46 CFR 129.323 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multiple generators. 129.323 Section 129.323 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.323 Multiple generators. If an OSV uses two or more generators to supply electricity for the ship's service loads, to comply with § 129.310(a) of this...

  4. Arsenic - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Arsenic URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/arsenic.html Other topics A-Z A B C ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Arsenic - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  5. Multiple bit differential detection of offset QPSK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M.

    2003-01-01

    Analogous to multiple symbol differential detection of quadrature phase-shift-keying, a multiple bit differential detection scheme is described for offset QPSK that also exhibits continuous improvement in performance with increasing observation interval. Being derived from maximum-likelihood (ML) considerations, the proposed scheme is purported to be the most power efficient scheme for such a modulation and detection method.

  6. Multiple familial trichoepithelioma: confirmation via dermoscopy.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Dechent, Cristián; Bajaj, Shirin; Marghoob, Ashfaq A; González, Sergio; Muñoz, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Trichoepitheliomas are uncommon benign adnexal neoplasms that originate from the hair follicles. Multiple familial trichoepithelioma constitute an autosomal dominant disease characterized by the appearance of multiple flesh-colored, symmetrical papules, tumors and/or nodules in the central face and occasionally on the scalp. Although clinical diagnosis is usually straightforward in light of the family history and naked-eye examination, dermoscopy may aid in its confirmation. Dermoscopy of each papule revealed in-focus arborizing vessels, multiple milia-like cysts and rosettes amidst a whitish background. In a patient with multiple facial papules revealing a dermoscopic appearance described above, the diagnosis of sporadic or familial multiple trichoepithelioma should be considered. PMID:27648384

  7. Multiple familial trichoepithelioma: confirmation via dermoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Navarrete-Dechent, Cristián; Bajaj, Shirin; Marghoob, Ashfaq A.; González, Sergio; Muñoz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Trichoepitheliomas are uncommon benign adnexal neoplasms that originate from the hair follicles. Multiple familial trichoepithelioma constitute an autosomal dominant disease characterized by the appearance of multiple flesh-colored, symmetrical papules, tumors and/or nodules in the central face and occasionally on the scalp. Although clinical diagnosis is usually straightforward in light of the family history and naked-eye examination, dermoscopy may aid in its confirmation. Dermoscopy of each papule revealed in-focus arborizing vessels, multiple milia-like cysts and rosettes amidst a whitish background. In a patient with multiple facial papules revealing a dermoscopic appearance described above, the diagnosis of sporadic or familial multiple trichoepithelioma should be considered. PMID:27648384

  8. The Challenge of Multiple Perspectives: Multiple Solution Tasks for Students Incorporating Diverse Tools and Representation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kordaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the role of multiple solution tasks (MST) incorporating multiple learning tools and representation systems (MTRS) in encouraging each student to develop multiple perspectives on the learning concepts under study and creativity of thought. Specifically, two types of MST were used, namely tasks that allowed and demanded…

  9. Field performance of cucurbit and tomato plants infected with a nonpathogenic mutant of Colletotrichum magna (teleomorph: Glomerella magna; Jekins and Winstead)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Redman, R.S.; Roossinck, M.J.; Maher, S.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Path-1 is a UV-induced non-pathogenic mutant of a virulent Colletotrichum magna isolate that establishes mutualistic symbioses with cucurbit and tomato species. Under laboratory conditions, this mutualism results in plant growth enhancement, drought tolerance, and disease protection against fungal pathogens. This study focuses on the efficacy of this symbiosis and the symbiotic lifestyle expressed by path-1 under field conditions in the absence of disease stress. The effects of colonization by path-1 on fruit yields and growth was measured in field plots with four cucurbit species including four watermelon cultivars, and two tomato cultivars, over four growing seasons. The persistence of the symbiosis, extent of colonization, and path-1 transmission were also assessed. Yields from path-1 infected plants were equivalent to or greater than yields from non-inoculated control plants and path-1 systemically colonized plants throughout each growing season. Path-1 also increased the growth rates of tomato plants and was not transmitted to uncolonized plants. The results indicate that there are no metabolic costs of this symbiosis and the symbiosis is maintained under field conditions.

  10. Charge multiplication effect in thin diamond films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skukan, N.; Grilj, V.; Sudić, I.; Pomorski, M.; Kada, W.; Makino, T.; Kambayashi, Y.; Andoh, Y.; Onoda, S.; Sato, S.; Ohshima, T.; Kamiya, T.; Jakšić, M.

    2016-07-01

    Herein, we report on the enhanced sensitivity for the detection of charged particles in single crystal chemical vapour deposition (scCVD) diamond radiation detectors. The experimental results demonstrate charge multiplication in thin planar diamond membrane detectors, upon impact of 18 MeV O ions, under high electric field conditions. Avalanche multiplication is widely exploited in devices such as avalanche photo diodes, but has never before been reproducibly observed in intrinsic CVD diamond. Because enhanced sensitivity for charged particle detection is obtained for short charge drift lengths without dark counts, this effect could be further exploited in the development of sensors based on avalanche multiplication and radiation detectors with extreme radiation hardness.

  11. A Study of Multiplicities in Hadronic Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Estrada Tristan, Nora Patricia; /San Luis Potosi U.

    2006-02-01

    Using data from the SELEX (Fermilab E781) experiment obtained with a minimum-bias trigger, we study multiplicity and angular distributions of secondary particles produced in interactions in the experimental targets. We observe interactions of {Sigma}{sup -}, proton, {pi}{sup -}, and {pi}{sup +}, at beam momenta between 250 GeV/c and 650 GeV/c, in copper, polyethylene, graphite, and beryllium targets. We show that the multiplicity and angular distributions for meson and baryon beams at the same momentum are identical. We also show that the mean multiplicity increases with beam momentum, and presents only small variations with the target material.

  12. Pre-main sequence multiple systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouy, Hervé

    2011-04-01

    It is now well established that the majority of young stars are found in multiple systems, so that any theory of stellar formation must account for their existence and properties. Studying the properties of multiple star systems therefore represents a very powerful approach to place observational constraints on star formation theories. Additionally, multiple systems offer other advantages. They provide the most accurate and unambiguous way to measure masses, using orbital fitting and Kepler's laws, and even the stellar radius in the special case of eclipsing binaries. They also allow to compare the properties of 2 coeval objects with different masses, providing important tests for the evolutionary models.

  13. Multiple emitter location and signal parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, R. O.

    1986-03-01

    Multiple signal classification (MUSIC) techniques involved in determining the parameters of multiple wavefronts arriving at an antenna array are discussed. A MUSIC algorithm is described, which provides asymptotically unbiased estimates of (1) the number of signals, (2) directions of arrival (or emitter locations), (3) strengths and cross correlations among the incident waveforms, and (4) the strength of noise/interference. The example of the use of the algorithm as a multiple frequency estimator operating on time series is examined. Comparisons of this method with methods based on maximum likelihood and maximum entropy, as well as conventional beamforming, are presented.

  14. Collimation of average multiplicity in QCD jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arleo, François; Pérez Ramos, Redamy

    2009-11-01

    The collimation of average multiplicity inside quark and gluon jets is investigated in perturbative QCD in the modified leading logarithmic approximation (MLLA). The role of higher order corrections accounting for energy conservation and the running of the coupling constant leads to smaller multiplicity collimation as compared to leading logarithmic approximation (LLA) results. The collimation of jets produced in heavy-ion collisions has also been explored by using medium-modified splitting functions enhanced in the infrared sector. As compared to elementary collisions, the angular distribution of the jet multiplicity is found to broaden in QCD media at all energy scales.

  15. Novel Insights and Therapeutics in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Catriona A; Goverman, Joan M

    2015-01-01

    The last twelve years have witnessed the development of new therapies for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis that demonstrate increased efficacy relative to previous therapies. Many of these new drugs target the inflammatory phase of disease by manipulating different aspects of the immune system. While these new treatments are promising, the development of therapies for patients with progressive multiple sclerosis remains a significant challenge. We discuss the distinct mechanisms that may contribute to these two types of multiple sclerosis and the implications of these differences in the development of new therapeutic targets for this debilitating disease.

  16. Multiple protein stationary phases: a review.

    PubMed

    Singh, N S; Habicht, K-L; Dossou, K S S; Shimmo, R; Wainer, I W; Moaddel, R

    2014-10-01

    Cellular membrane affinity chromatography stationary phases have been extensively used to characterize immobilized proteins and provide a direct measurement of multiple binding sites, including orthosteric and allosteric sites. This review will address the utilization of immobilized cellular and tissue fragments to characterize multiple transmembrane proteins co-immobilized onto a stationary phase. This approach will be illustrated by demonstrating that multiple transmembrane proteins were immobilized from cell lines and tissue fragments. In addition, the immobilization of individual compartments/organelles within a cell will be discussed and the changes in the proteins binding/kinetics based on their location. PMID:24780640

  17. Neutron multiplication error in TRU waste measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Veilleux, John; Stanfield, Sean B; Wachter, Joe; Ceo, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) in neutron assays of transuranic waste (TRU) are comprised of several components including counting statistics, matrix and source distribution, calibration inaccuracy, background effects, and neutron multiplication error. While a minor component for low plutonium masses, neutron multiplication error is often the major contributor to the TMU for items containing more than 140 g of weapons grade plutonium. Neutron multiplication arises when neutrons from spontaneous fission and other nuclear events induce fissions in other fissile isotopes in the waste, thereby multiplying the overall coincidence neutron response in passive neutron measurements. Since passive neutron counters cannot differentiate between spontaneous and induced fission neutrons, multiplication can lead to positive bias in the measurements. Although neutron multiplication can only result in a positive bias, it has, for the purpose of mathematical simplicity, generally been treated as an error that can lead to either a positive or negative result in the TMU. While the factors that contribute to neutron multiplication include the total mass of fissile nuclides, the presence of moderating material in the matrix, the concentration and geometry of the fissile sources, and other factors; measurement uncertainty is generally determined as a function of the fissile mass in most TMU software calculations because this is the only quantity determined by the passive neutron measurement. Neutron multiplication error has a particularly pernicious consequence for TRU waste analysis because the measured Fissile Gram Equivalent (FGE) plus twice the TMU error must be less than 200 for TRU waste packaged in 55-gal drums and less than 325 for boxed waste. For this reason, large errors due to neutron multiplication can lead to increased rejections of TRU waste containers. This report will attempt to better define the error term due to neutron multiplication and arrive at values that are

  18. Multiple path length dual polarization interferometry.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Paul D; Swann, Marcus J; Waigh, Thomas A; Schedin, Fred; Lu, Jian R

    2009-06-22

    An optical sensor for quantitative analysis of ultrathin films and adsorbed layers is described. Quantification of both layer thickness and refractive index (density) can be made for in situ and ex-situ coated films. With the use of two polarizations, in situ measurements are made via one path length in a young's interferometer arrangement while ex-situ measurements use multiple path lengths. The multiple path length young's interferometer arrangement is embodied in a solid state waveguide configuration called the multiple path length dual polarization interferometer (MPL-DPI). The technique is demonstrated with ultrathin layers of poly(methylmethacrylate) and human serum albumin.

  19. Novel Insights and Therapeutics in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Catriona A.; Goverman, Joan M.

    2015-01-01

    The last twelve years have witnessed the development of new therapies for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis that demonstrate increased efficacy relative to previous therapies. Many of these new drugs target the inflammatory phase of disease by manipulating different aspects of the immune system. While these new treatments are promising, the development of therapies for patients with progressive multiple sclerosis remains a significant challenge. We discuss the distinct mechanisms that may contribute to these two types of multiple sclerosis and the implications of these differences in the development of new therapeutic targets for this debilitating disease. PMID:26339480

  20. Association between polyneuritis and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Forrester, C; Lascelles, R G

    1979-01-01

    We report two cases in which multiple sclerosis and inflammatory polyneuritis occurred separately, and suggest that this association supports the idea that the two conditions may have an aetiological link. PMID:228012

  1. Multiple Database Searching: Techniques and Pitfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Donald T.

    1978-01-01

    Problems involved in searching multiple data bases are discussed including indexing differences, overlap among data bases, variant spellings, and elimination of duplicate items from search output. Discussion focuses on CA Condensates, Inspec, and Metadex data bases. (J PF)

  2. Mental Health Effects of Women's Multiple Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Angela Barron

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the problems and benefits associated with women juggling the multiple roles demanded by work and family. Discusses the need for research that considers the physiological pathways involved in responses to stressful environmental and psychological conditions. (Author/JS)

  3. Application Guide to Neutron Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    D. G. Langner; J. E. Stewart; M. M. Pickrell; M. S. Krick; N. Ensslin; W. C. Harker

    1998-11-01

    This document is intended to serve as a comprehensive applications guide to passive neutron multiplicity counting, a new nondestructive assay (NDA) technique developed over the past ten years. The document describes the principles of multiplicity counter design, electronics, and mathematics. Existing counters in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are surveyed, and their operating requirements and procedures and defined. Current applications to plutonium material types found in DOE facilities are described, and estimates of the expected assay precision and bias are given. Lastly, guidelines for multiplicity counter selection and procurement are summarized. The document also includes a detailed collection of references on passive neutron coincidence and multiplicity publications over the last ten to fifteen years.

  4. Multiple-Wavelength Pyrometry Independent Of Emissivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    Multiple-wavelength pyrometric method provides for determination of two sequential temperatures of same surface or temperatures of two surfaces made of same material. Temperatures measured, without knowing emissivity, by uncalibrated spectral radiometer.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: multiple system atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... OPCA progressive autonomic failure with multiple system atrophy SDS Shy-Drager syndrome sporadic olivopontocerebellar atrophy Related Information ... A, Hulot JS, Morrison KE, Renton A, Sussmuth SD, Landwehrmeyer BG, Ludolph A, Agid Y, Brice A, ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: multiple pterygium syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... A side-to-side curvature of the spine ( scoliosis ) is sometimes seen. Affected individuals may also have ... Boston Children's Hospital: Respiratory Distress Boston Children's Hospital: Scoliosis in Children Cleveland Clinic: Scoliosis Disease InfoSearch: Multiple ...

  7. Multiple microprocessor systems: what, why, and when

    SciTech Connect

    Fathi, E.T.; Krieger, M.

    1983-03-01

    For many applications-especially those requiring diversified computations in real time or high reliability without massive redundancy-multiple micons-especially those requiring diversified computations in real time or high reliability without massive redundancy-multiple microprocessor systems are the logical choice. Multiple microprocessor systems can provide an appropriate solution to the demand for additional computing power to meet new requirements and to support complex applications. To clarify the concept and its associated terminology, this article considers the what, why, and when of multiple microprocessor systems. Aspects that apply to all processors, regardless of size, are presented in general terms. However, since the main interest lies with microprocessor-based systems, aspects that depend on processor power and input/output flexibility are related specifically to microprocessors. 38 references.

  8. Tornadoes - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Library of Medicine Menu Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO ... Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All ...

  9. Sports Safety - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Sports Safety URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ...

  10. Multiple sclerosis: Experimental and clinical aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Scheinberg, L.; Raine, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the experimental and clinical aspects of multiple sclerosis. Specifically discussed are - Association of Epstein Barr Virus with pathology of central nervous system; immunology of viruses; and immunosuppression.

  11. The serological diagnostic challenges of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yisu; Hunter, Terrence; Offer, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Serological screening tests for multiple myeloma are commonly requested by physicians in both primary and secondary care to investigate patients presenting with anaemia or renal impairment of unknown cause. This article reviews the interpretation of these tests.

  12. Inventory and Billing Systems for Multiple Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lavon

    1985-01-01

    Washington State University developed a comprehensive supplies inventory system and a generalized billing system with multiple users in mind. The inventory management system and the service center billing system are described. (Author/MLW)

  13. [Relativity in multiple myeloma and KL-6].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Chikashi; Miyake, Takaaki; Araki, Tuyoshi; Ishikawa, Noriyoshi; Taketani, Takeshi; Mishima, Seiji; Shibata, Hiroshi; Nagai, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    KL-6 is a high-molecular-weight mucinous glycoprotein discovered as a pulmonary adenocaricinoma related antigen. Its levels are used as a biomarker of lung injury in interstitial pneumonia. We here report a case of multiple myeloma with Bence-Jones lambda type whose serum KL-6 level was revealed high at a concentration of 19,400 U/ml. Next, we analyzed the blood test profiles and the concentrations of KL-6 in 20 patients with multiple myeloma. CD19/CD56 double negative fraction on myeloma cells with high expression of CD38 was found in all 5 patients with multiple myeloma having elevated KL-6 level. Patients with interstitial pneumonia show high level of KL-6. We, therefore, need to differentiate the interstitial pneumonia and the above-mentioned multiple myeloma when serum KL-6 level is high.

  14. Multiple Myeloma Treatment (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Licensed Materials from any location via the Internet. b. STANDALONE WORKSTATION: A standalone subscription permits multiple ... computer. A Standalone Workstation license does not include Internet access to the Licensed Materials. c. INSTITUTIONAL SUBSCRIPTION: ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: multiple familial trichoepithelioma

    MedlinePlus

    ... with the skin (skin appendages), such as hair follicles and sweat glands. People with multiple familial trichoepithelioma ... round tumors called trichoepitheliomas, which arise from hair follicles. Trichoepitheliomas are generally noncancerous (benign) but occasionally develop ...

  16. Multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves by rain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsolakis, A.; Stutzman, W. L.

    1982-01-01

    As the operating frequencies of communications systems move higher into the millimeter wave region, the effects of multiple scattering in precipitation media become more significant. In this paper, general formulations are presented for single, first-order multiple, and complete multiple scattering. Included specifically are distributions of particle size, shape, and orientation angle, as well as variation in the medium density along the direction of wave propagation. Calculations are performed for rain. It is shown that the effects of higher-order scattering are not noticeable in either attenuation or channel isolation on a dual-polarized system until frequencies of about 30 GHz are reached. The complete multiple-scattering formulation presented gives accurate results at high millimeter wave frequencies as well as including realistic medium parameter distributions. Furthermore, it is numerically efficient.

  17. Multiplicative interaction in network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Piepho, Hans-Peter; Madden, Laurence V; Williams, Emlyn R

    2015-02-20

    Meta-analysis of a set of clinical trials is usually conducted using a linear predictor with additive effects representing treatments and trials. Additivity is a strong assumption. In this paper, we consider models for two or more treatments that involve multiplicative terms for interaction between treatment and trial. Multiplicative models provide information on the sensitivity of each treatment effect relative to the trial effect. In developing these models, we make use of a two-way analysis-of-variance approach to meta-analysis and consider fixed or random trial effects. It is shown using two examples that models with multiplicative terms may fit better than purely additive models and provide insight into the nature of the trial effect. We also show how to model inconsistency using multiplicative terms.

  18. Multiple myeloma presenting as gingival hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sanjeev; Kaur, Harjit; Kansal, Gaurav; Gupta, Parul

    2013-05-01

    Multiple myeloma is a malignant neoplasm that is characterized by a monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells. Oral and maxillofacial manifestations as an initial sign or symptom of multiple myeloma are rare. A 58-year-old male patient presented with generalized gingival enlargement for last 6 months. Based on clinical presentation, a diagnosis of gingival hyperplasia was made. After Phase I therapy, excisional biopsy was taken in anterior mandibular region and excised tissue was sent for histopathological examination. The histopathology report revealed a lining of stratified squamous epithelium with foci of ulceration. The subepithelial zone showed infiltration by sheets of mainly binucleate and multinucleate plasma cells, few cells being less differentiated. Rounded cytoplasmic inclusion bodies were identified in many of these cells. After a series of clinical investigations, a case of "multiple myeloma" was diagnosed. Patient presenting with generalized gingival hyperplasia should be worked up for systemic disease like multiple myeloma.

  19. Multiple-component covalent organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ning; Zhai, Lipeng; Coupry, Damien E.; Addicoat, Matthew A.; Okushita, Keiko; Nishimura, Katsuyuki; Heine, Thomas; Jiang, Donglin

    2016-07-01

    Covalent organic frameworks are a class of crystalline porous polymers that integrate molecular building blocks into periodic structures and are usually synthesized using two-component [1+1] condensation systems comprised of one knot and one linker. Here we report a general strategy based on multiple-component [1+2] and [1+3] condensation systems that enable the use of one knot and two or three linker units for the synthesis of hexagonal and tetragonal multiple-component covalent organic frameworks. Unlike two-component systems, multiple-component covalent organic frameworks feature asymmetric tiling of organic units into anisotropic skeletons and unusually shaped pores. This strategy not only expands the structural complexity of skeletons and pores but also greatly enhances their structural diversity. This synthetic platform is also widely applicable to multiple-component electron donor-acceptor systems, which lead to electronic properties that are not simply linear summations of those of the conventional [1+1] counterparts.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: multiple sulfatase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... condition that mainly affects the brain, skin, and skeleton. Because the signs and symptoms of multiple sulfatase ... of cells in particular tissues, specifically the brain, skeleton, and skin, cause many of the signs and ...