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Sample records for multiple didymella teleomorphs

  1. Historical and contemporary multilocus population structure of Ascochyta rabiei (teleomorph: Didymella rabiei) in the Pacific Northwest of the United States.

    PubMed

    Peever, T L; Salimath, S S; Su, G; Kaiser, W J; Muehlbauer, F J

    2004-02-01

    The historical and contemporary population genetic structure of the chickpea Ascochyta blight pathogen, Ascochyta rabiei (teleomorph: Didymella rabiei), was determined in the US Pacific Northwest (PNW) using 17 putative AFLP loci, four genetically characterized, sequence-tagged microsatellite loci (STMS) and the mating type locus (MAT). A single multilocus genotype of A. rabiei (MAT1-1) was detected in 1983, which represented the first recorded appearance of Ascochyta blight of chickpea in the PNW. During the following year many additional alleles, including the other mating type allele (MAT1-2), were detected. By 1987, all alleles currently found in the PNW had been introduced. Highly significant genetic differentiation was detected among contemporary subpopulations from different hosts and geographical locations indicating restricted gene flow and/or genetic drift occurring within and among subpopulations and possible selection by host cultivar. Two distinct populations were inferred with high posterior probability which correlated to host of origin and date of sample using Bayesian model-based population structure analyses of multilocus genotypes. Allele frequencies, genotype distributions and population assignment probabilities were significantly different between the historical and contemporary samples of isolates and between isolates sampled from a resistance screening nursery and those sampled from commercial chickpea fields. A random mating model could not be rejected in any subpopulation, indicating the importance of the sexual stage of the fungus both as a source of primary inoculum for Ascochyta blight epidemics and potentially adaptive genotypic diversity.

  2. Cytology and Genetics of Sexual Incompatibility in Didymella rabiei

    Treesearch

    A. Dan Wilson; W.J. Kaiser

    1995-01-01

    Mating crosses in all possible combinations between 15 monoascosporic isolates of Didymella rabiei (Ascomycotina, Dothideales), derived from diseased chickpea stems collected at a single location in Genesee, Idaho, were prepared on sterile chickpea stem pieces incubated on moist sterile filter papers in glass petri dishes for 5-6 weeks at 10°C or in...

  3. Occurrence of Didymella ascospores in western and southern Poland in 2004-2006.

    PubMed

    Stępalska, Danuta; Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Piotrowicz, Katarzyna

    2012-06-01

    The concentration of airborne Didymella spores has been investigated at two monitoring sites situated along the west-south transect in Poland (Szczecin, Kraków), i.e. from a height of 100 to 219 m, respectively, above sea level. The aerobiological monitoring of fungal spores was performed by means of two Lanzoni volumetric spore traps. The high Didymella spore numbers were observed at both cities in June, July and August. Statistically significant correlations have been found mainly between the Didymella spore concentrations in the air and the minimum air temperature and relative air humidity. The spore count of Didymella is determined by the diversity of local flora and weather conditions, especially by the relative air humidity. The identification of factors that influence and shape spore concentrations may significantly improve the current methods of allergy prevention.

  4. Effects of Temperature Stresses on the Resistance of Chickpea Genotypes and Aggressiveness of Didymella rabiei Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Kemal, Seid Ahmed; Krimi Bencheqroun, Sanae; Hamwieh, Aladdin; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important food and rotation crop in many parts of the world. Cold (freezing and chilling temperatures) and Ascochyta blight (Didymella rabiei) are the major constraints in chickpea production. The effects of temperature stresses on chickpea susceptibility and pathogen aggressiveness are not well documented in the Cicer-Didymella pathosystem. Two experiments were conducted under controlled conditions using chickpea genotypes and pathogen isolates in 2011 and 2012. In Experiment 1, four isolates of D. rabiei (AR-01, AR-02, AR-03 and AR-04), six chickpea genotypes (Ghab-1, Ghab-2, Ghab-3, Ghab-4, Ghab-5 and ICC-12004) and four temperature regimes (10, 15, 20, and 25°C) were studied using 10 day-old seedlings. In Experiment 2, three chickpea genotypes (Ghab-1, Ghab-2, and ICC-12004) were exposed to 5 and 10 days of chilling temperature exposure at 5°C and non-exposed seedlings were used as controls. Seedlings of the three chickpea genotypes were inoculated with the four pathogen isolates used in Experiment 1. Three disease parameters (incubation period, latent period and disease severity) were measured to evaluate treatment effects. In Experiment 1, highly significant interactions between genotypes and isolates; genotypes and temperature; and isolate and temperature were observed for incubation and latent periods. Genotype x isolate and temperature x isolate interactions also significantly affected disease severity. The resistant genotype ICC-12004 showed long incubation and latent periods and low disease severity at all temperatures. The highly aggressive isolate AR-04 caused symptoms, produced pycnidia in short duration as well as high disease severity across temperature regimes, which indicated it is adapted to a wide range of temperatures. Short incubation and latent periods and high disease severity were observed on genotypes exposed to chilling temperature. Our findings showed that the significant interactions of genotypes

  5. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati and its teleomorph Neosartorya

    PubMed Central

    Samson, R.A.; Hong, S.; Peterson, S.W.; Frisvad, J.C.; Varga, J.

    2007-01-01

    The taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati with its teleomorph genus Neosartorya is revised. The species concept is based on phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular (β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences) characters in a polyphasic approach. Four new taxa are proposed: N. australensis N. ferenczii, N. papuaensis and N. warcupii. All newly described and accepted species are illustrated. The section consists of 33 taxa: 10 strictly anamorphic Aspergillus species and 23 Neosartorya species. Four other Neosartorya species described previously were not available for this monograph, and consequently are relegated to the category of doubtful species. PMID:18490953

  6. [Transformation of Didymella bryoniae mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens].

    PubMed

    Ren, Haiying; Fang, Li; Li, Gang; Ru, Shuijiang; Wang, Hanrong

    2010-06-01

    Gummy stem blight, a plant disease caused by Didymella bryoniae, is one of the major diseases in melon. The disease can seriously reduce melon yield and quality. However, little information is available on the genetics and functional genomics of the fungal pathogen. In this study, we developed an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for D. bryoniae by using a universal pathogenic isolate DB11 and the Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58C1 carrying plasmid pBIG2RHPH2 harboring the hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene (hph). Total 45 transformants could be obtained per 1 x 10(5) spores when 1 x 10(6) spores per milliliter of D. bryoniae spore suspension were cocultivated with Agrobacterium cells at OD600 = 0.15 for 48 h in the presence of induction medium (pH 5.2) containing acetosyringone at 200 microg/mL and selection medium contained 100 microg/mL of hygromycin B and 200 microg/mL of cefotaxime sodium, ampicillin and tetracycline, respectively. The transformants were stable when grown on PDA medium without hygromycin B for five times and were verified by PCR amplification with the hph primers and by Southern blot analysis with the hph probe. The transformation system will be useful for further studies of functional genes in D. bryoniae.

  7. Clarification on Host Range of Didymella pinodes the Causal Agent of Pea Ascochyta Blight

    PubMed Central

    Barilli, Eleonora; Cobos, Maria José; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Didymella pinodes is the principal causal agent of ascochyta blight, one of the most important fungal diseases of pea (Pisum sativum) worldwide. Understanding its host specificity has crucial implications in epidemiology and management; however, this has not been clearly delineated yet. In this study we attempt to clarify the host range of D. pinodes and to compare it with that of other close Didymella spp. D. pinodes was very virulent on pea accessions, although differences in virulence were identified among isolates. On the contrary, studied isolates of D. fabae, D. rabiei, and D. lentil showed a reduced ability to infect pea not causing macroscopically visible symptoms on any of the pea accessions tested. D. pinodes isolates were also infective to some extend on almost all species tested including species such as Hedysarum coronarium, Lathyrus sativus, Lupinus albus, Medicago spp., Trifolium spp., Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vicia articulata which were not mentioned before as hosts of D. pinodes. On the contrary, D. lentil and D. rabiei were more specific, infecting only lentil and chickpea, respectively. D. fabae was intermediate, infecting mainly faba bean, but also slightly other species such as Glycine max, Phaseolus vulgaris, Trifolium spp., Vicia sativa, and V. articulata. DNA sequence analysis of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) was performed to confirm identity of the isolates studies and to determine phylogenetic relationship among the Didymella species, revealing the presence of two clearly distinct clades. Clade one was represented by two supported subclusters including D. fabae isolates as well as D. rabiei with D. lentil isolates. Clade two was the largest and included all the D. pinodes isolates as well as Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. Genetic distance between D. pinodes and the other Didymella spp. isolates was not correlated with overall differences in pathogenicity. Based on evidences presented here, D

  8. Development of an improved real-time PCR system for broad spectrum detection of diverse didymella bryoniae genotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gummy stem blight (GSB) is a major disease of cucurbit crops (e.g., cantaloupe, cucumber and watermelon) in the southern United States. Didymella bryoniae (anamorph Phoma cucurbitacearum), the causal agent of GSB, is often isolated from infected tissues together with other Phoma spp. RAPD profiles...

  9. Microbial symbionts affect Pisum sativum proteome and metabolome under Didymella pinodes infection.

    PubMed

    Desalegn, G; Turetschek, R; Kaul, H-P; Wienkoop, S

    2016-06-30

    The long cultivation of field pea led to an enormous diversity which, however, seems to hold just little resistance against the ascochyta blight disease complex. The potential of below ground microbial symbiosis to prime the immune system of Pisum for an upcoming pathogen attack has hitherto received little attention. This study investigates the effect of beneficial microbes on the leaf proteome and metabolome as well as phenotype characteristics of plants in various symbiont interactions (mycorrhiza, rhizobia, co-inoculation, non-symbiotic) after infestation by Didymella pinodes. In healthy plants, mycorrhiza and rhizobia induced changes in RNA metabolism and protein synthesis. Furthermore, metal handling and ROS dampening was affected in all mycorrhiza treatments. The co-inoculation caused the synthesis of stress related proteins with concomitant adjustment of proteins involved in lipid biosynthesis. The plant's disease infection response included hormonal adjustment, ROS scavenging as well as synthesis of proteins related to secondary metabolism. The regulation of the TCA, amino acid and secondary metabolism including the pisatin pathway, was most pronounced in rhizobia associated plants which had the lowest infection rate and the slowest disease progression. A most comprehensive study of the Pisum sativum proteome and metabolome infection response to Didymella pinodes is provided. Several distinct patterns of microbial symbioses on the plant metabolism are presented for the first time. Upon D. pinodes infection, rhizobial symbiosis revealed induced systemic resistance e.g. by an enhanced level of proteins involved in pisatin biosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Aggressiveness Changes in Populations of Didymella pinodes over Winter and Spring Pea Cropping Seasons

    PubMed Central

    Laloi, G.; Montarry, J.; Guibert, M.; Andrivon, D.; Michot, D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ascochyta blight, caused by the necrotrophic ascomycete Didymella pinodes, is responsible for severe losses in winter and spring pea crops. Despite different climatic conditions, epidemics on winter and spring crops are due to a single population of D. pinodes, suggesting gene flow either between the two crops or from reservoir sources during the cropping season. This should lead to similar pathogenicity characteristics in isolates sampled from the two crops. However, these hypotheses have never been formally tested. We therefore sampled a total of 520 D. pinodes strains throughout a growing season from winter and spring pea plots (WP and SP, respectively) and from winter and spring trap plants (TWP and TSP). Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers revealed high genetic diversity within subpopulations, whereas pathogenicity tests showed that mean aggressiveness increases over the course of an epidemic. These results support the idea that alloinoculum contributes to the carryover of epidemics between winter and spring crops and that the most aggressive isolates are selected as an epidemic progresses. IMPORTANCE Ascochyta blight, caused by Didymella pinodes, is responsible for severe losses in pea crops. While previous studies have shown that ascochyta blight epidemics on winter and spring crops are due to a single population of D. pinodes, suggesting that isolates from the two crops present similar pathogenicity characteristics, that hypothesis have never been tested. Genetic analysis of subpopulations sampled throughout a growing season from winter and spring pea plots revealed high genetic diversity within subpopulations, whereas pathogenicity tests showed that mean aggressiveness increases over the course of an epidemic. PMID:27208102

  11. Toxicity of mancozeb, chlorothalonil, captan, fluopyram, boscalid, and difenoconazole to Didymella applanata isolates from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mirković, Biljana; Tanović, Brankica; Stević, Milan; Hrustić, Jovana; Mihajlović, Milica; Delibašić, Goran; Vukša, Petar

    2015-01-01

    Field isolates of Didymella applanata, the causal agent of spur blight of raspberry, were evaluated in vitro for their sensitivity to mancozeb, chlorothalonil, captan, fluopyram, boscalid and difenoconazole. A total of 10 isolates, collected during 2013 at five localities in the major raspberry growing region in Serbia, and characterized as copper hydroxide, dithianon, and tebuconazole (sensitive), pyraclostrobin (sensitive or highly resistant) and fluazinam (sensitive or moderately resistant), were used in this study. The EC50 values for the isolates ranged from 1.33 to 2.88 mg L(-1) for mancozeb, from 3.18 to 6.65 mg L(-1) for chlorothalonil, from 15.75 to 24.69 mg L(-1) for captan and from 1.80 to 8.20 mg L(-1) for fluopyram. The narrowest range of EC50 values was recorded for difenoconazole (0.23-0.49 mg L(-1)), whereas the widest range was obtained for boscalid (4.49-49.25 mg L(-1)). The calculated resistance factors showed that all D. applanata isolates were sensitive to mancozeb, chlorothalonil, captan, and difenoconazole. Four isolates were moderately resistant to boscalid, while three of them were also moderately resistant to fluopyram. This finding of moderately resistant isolates to these SDHI fungicides indicates a possible cross-resistance which should be clarified in further investigations.

  12. Toxicity of copper hydroxide, dithianon, fluazinam, tebuconazole and pyraclostrobin to Didymella applanata isolates from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mirković, Biljana; Tanović, Brankica; Hrustić, Jovana; Mihajlović, Milica; Stević, Milan; Delibašić, Goran; Vukša, Petar

    2015-01-01

    A study of the in vitro sensitivity of 10 isolates of Didymella applanata to copper hydroxide, dithianon, fluazinam, tebuconazole and pyraclostrobin, was conducted. The isolates were derived from diseased raspberry canes sampled during 2013 at five localities in western part of Serbia, known as the main raspberry growing region of the country. Prior to sensitivity testing experimental conditions for radial growth assay were optimized. The results showed that the temperature of 22 °C, oatmeal agar medium and 12/12 hrs light/ darkness light regimen provided the best conditions for sensitivity tests. Most of D. applanata isolates were sensitive to the tested fungicides. The narrowest range of EC50 values was recorded for tebuconazole (1.42-2.66 mg L(-1)). The widest range of EC50 values was obtained for pyraclostrobin, ranging from 0.17 mg L(-1) to 55.33 mg L(-1). The EC50 values for the studied isolates were 39.48-51.19 mg L(-1) for copper hydroxide, 12.12-18.73 mg L(-1) for dithianon and 5.72-42.56 mg L(-1) for fluazinam. According to resistance factor values, all D. applanata isolates were sensitive to copper hydroxide, dithianon and tebuconazole. Among tested isolates, six were highly resistant to pyraclostrobin (RFs in the range of 207.1-325.5) and two moderately resistant to fluazinam (RFs were 3 and 7.4), respectively.

  13. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Didymella bryoniae by Visual Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xiefeng; Li, Pingfang; Xu, Jinghua; Zhang, Man; Ren, Runsheng; Liu, Guang; Yang, Xingping

    2016-01-01

    Didymella bryoniae is a pathogenic fungus that causes gummy stem blight (GSB) in Cucurbitaceae crops (e.g., cantaloupe, muskmelon, cucumber, and watermelon). GSB produces lesions on the stems and leaves, and can also be spread by seeds. Here, we developed a rapid, visual, and sensitive loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) assay for D. bryoniae detection based on sequence-characterized amplified regions (GenBank accession nos GQ872461 and GQ872462) common to the two random amplification of polymorphic DNA group genotypes (RGI and RGII) of D. bryoniae; ideal conditions for detection were optimized for completion in 45 min at 63°C. The sensitivity and specificity of the LAMP assay were further analyzed in comparison with those of a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sensitivity of the LAMP assay was 1000-fold higher than that of conventional PCR with a detection limit of 0.1 fg μL-1 of targeted DNA. The LAMP assay could be accomplished in about 45 min, with the results visible to the naked eye. The assay showed high specificity in discriminating all D. bryoniae isolates from seven other fungal pathogens that occur in Cucurbitaceae crops. The LAMP assay also detected D. bryoniae infection in young muskmelon leaves with suspected early symptoms of GSB disease. Hence, the technique has great potential for developing rapid and sensitive visual detection methods for the D. bryoniae pathogen in crops and seeds. This method has potential application in early prediction of disease and reducing the risk of epidemics. PMID:27625648

  14. Simultaneous Detection of Acidovorax Avenae Subsp. Citrulli and Didymella Bryoniae in Cucurbit Seedlots Using Magnetic Capture Hybridization and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To improve the detection of plant pathogens in seeds magnetic capture hybridization and multiplex real-time PCR (MCH real-time PCR) was evaluated. Single stranded DNA hybridization capture probes targeting Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli and Didymella bryoniae DNA were covalently attached to magn...

  15. An Improved Real-Time PCR System for Broad-Spectrum Detection of Didymella bryoniae, the Causal Agent of Gummy Stem Blight of Cucurbits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gummy stem blight (GSB) is a major disease of cucurbit crops (e.g., cantaloupe, cucumber and watermelon). Didymella bryoniae (anamorph Phoma cucurbitacearum), the causal agent of GSB, is often co-isolated from infected tissues with other Phoma spp. RAPD profiles and PCR primers have been used to de...

  16. Key metabolic traits of Pisum sativum maintain cell vitality during Didymella pinodes infection: cultivar resistance and the microsymbionts' influence.

    PubMed

    Turetschek, Reinhard; Desalegn, Getinet; Epple, Tamara; Kaul, Hans-Peter; Wienkoop, Stefanie

    2017-03-06

    Ascochyta blight causes severe losses in field pea production and the search for resistance traits towards the causal agent Didymella pinodes is of particular importance for farmers. Various microsymbionts have been reported to shape the plants' immune response. However, regardless their contribution to resistance, they are hardly included in experimental designs. We delineate the effect of symbionts (rhizobia, mycorrhiza) on the leaf proteome and metabolome of two field pea cultivars with varying resistance levels against D. pinodes and, furthermore, show cultivar specific symbiont colonisation efficiency. The pathogen infection showed a stronger influence on the interaction with the microsymbionts in the susceptible cultivar, which was reflected in decreased nodule weight and root mycorrhiza colonisation. Vice versa, symbionts induced variation of the host's infection response which, however, was overruled by genotypic resistance associated traits of the tolerant cultivar such as maintenance of photosynthesis and provision of sugars and carbon back bones to fuel secondary metabolism. Moreover, resistance appears to be linked to sulphur metabolism, a functional glutathione-ascorbate hub and fine adjustment of jasmonate and ethylene synthesis to suppress induced cell death. We conclude that these metabolic traits are essential for sustainment of cell vitality and thus, a more efficient infection response. The infection response of two Pisum sativum cultivars with varying resistance levels towards Didymella pinodes was analysed most comprehensively at proteomic and metabolomic levels. Enhanced tolerance was linked to newly discovered cultivar specific metabolic traits such as hormone synthesis and presumably suppression of cell death. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Kurtzmaniella gen. nov. and description of the heterothallic, haplontic yeast species Kurtzmaniella cleridarum sp. nov., the teleomorph of Candida cleridarum.

    PubMed

    Lachance, Marc-André; Starmer, William T

    2008-02-01

    The teleomorph of Candida cleridarum was discovered through the detection of conjugation between isolates of a large collection from the nitidulid beetles of the genus Carpophilus found in the flowers of various cacti in Arizona, USA. The previous oversight of the sexual cycle of this yeast is attributed to the inequality (ca. 5 : 1) of the two mating types. Extensive conjugation between compatible mating types is observed after overnight incubation on 5 % malt agar, followed after 3-5 days by the formation of mature asci. The hat-shaped ascospores are reminiscent of those seen in Kodamaea species, which are members of the same guild. However, published analyses of D1/D2 large subunit rDNA sequences indicate an affinity with the genus Debaryomyces. As the latter is polyphyletic and morphologically heterogeneous, and in view of the distinct life cycle of the new teleomorph, the new genus Kurtzmaniella is described with a novel species, Kurtzmaniella cleridarum sp. nov. Given the close relatedness of Kurtzmaniella cleridarum sp. nov. to Candida quercitrusa, Candida oleophila and Candida railenensis, for which several natural isolates were available, strains of these species were mixed in pairs under the conditions found favourable for the former. Conjugation was not detected in those species. The type strain of Kurtzmaniella cleridarum sp. nov. is UWOPS 99-101.1(T) (=CBS 8793(T)=NRRL Y-48386(T), h(+)), type of Candida cleridarum. The allotype is UWOPS 07-123.1 (=CBS 10688=NRRL Y-48387, h(-)).

  18. Ecological Genetic Divergence of the Fungal Pathogen Didymella rabiei on Sympatric Wild and Domesticated Cicer spp. (Chickpea) ▿

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, Omer; Peever, Tobin L.; Chilvers, Martin I.; Özkilinc, Hilal; Can, Canan; Abbo, Shahal; Shtienberg, Dani; Sherman, Amir

    2010-01-01

    For millennia, chickpea (Cicer arietinum) has been grown in the Levant sympatrically with wild Cicer species. Chickpea is traditionally spring-sown, while its wild relatives germinate in the autumn and develop in the winter. It has been hypothesized that the human-directed shift of domesticated chickpea to summer production was an attempt to escape the devastating Ascochyta disease caused by Didymella rabiei. We estimated genetic divergence between D. rabiei isolates sampled from wild Cicer judaicum and domesticated C. arietinum and the potential role of temperature adaptation in this divergence. Neutral genetic markers showed strong differentiation between pathogen samples from the two hosts. Isolates from domesticated chickpea demonstrated increased adaptation to higher temperatures when grown in vitro compared with isolates from the wild host. The distribution of temperature responses among progeny from crosses of isolates from C. judaicum with isolates from C. arietinum was continuous, suggesting polygenic control of this trait. In vivo inoculations of host plants indicated that pathogenic fitness of the native isolates was higher than that of their hybrid progeny. The results indicate that there is a potential for adaptation to higher temperatures; however, the chances for formation of hybrids which are capable of parasitizing both hosts over a broad temperature range are low. We hypothesize that this pathogenic fitness cost is due to breakdown of coadapted gene complexes controlling pathogenic fitness on each host and may be responsible for maintenance of genetic differentiation between the pathogen demes. PMID:19897759

  19. Ecological genetic divergence of the fungal pathogen Didymella rabiei on sympatric wild and domesticated Cicer spp. (Chickpea).

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Omer; Peever, Tobin L; Chilvers, Martin I; Ozkilinc, Hilal; Can, Canan; Abbo, Shahal; Shtienberg, Dani; Sherman, Amir

    2010-01-01

    For millennia, chickpea (Cicer arietinum) has been grown in the Levant sympatrically with wild Cicer species. Chickpea is traditionally spring-sown, while its wild relatives germinate in the autumn and develop in the winter. It has been hypothesized that the human-directed shift of domesticated chickpea to summer production was an attempt to escape the devastating Ascochyta disease caused by Didymella rabiei. We estimated genetic divergence between D. rabiei isolates sampled from wild Cicer judaicum and domesticated C. arietinum and the potential role of temperature adaptation in this divergence. Neutral genetic markers showed strong differentiation between pathogen samples from the two hosts. Isolates from domesticated chickpea demonstrated increased adaptation to higher temperatures when grown in vitro compared with isolates from the wild host. The distribution of temperature responses among progeny from crosses of isolates from C. judaicum with isolates from C. arietinum was continuous, suggesting polygenic control of this trait. In vivo inoculations of host plants indicated that pathogenic fitness of the native isolates was higher than that of their hybrid progeny. The results indicate that there is a potential for adaptation to higher temperatures; however, the chances for formation of hybrids which are capable of parasitizing both hosts over a broad temperature range are low. We hypothesize that this pathogenic fitness cost is due to breakdown of coadapted gene complexes controlling pathogenic fitness on each host and may be responsible for maintenance of genetic differentiation between the pathogen demes.

  20. Pinolide, a new nonenolide produced by Didymella pinodes , the causal agent of ascochyta blight on Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna; Fondevilla, Sara; Abouzeid, Mohamed A; Rubiales, Diego; Evidente, Antonio

    2012-05-30

    An aggressive isolate of Didymella pinodes isolated from pea ( Pisum sativum ) produced four different metabolites in vitro. The metabolites isolated from the culture filtrates were characterized by spectroscopic and optical methods. A new nonenolide, named pinolide, was isolated and characterized as (2S*,7R*,8S*,5E,9R*)-2,7,8-trihydroxy-9-propyl-5-nonen-9-olide. Pinolidoxin, the main toxin produced by D. pinodes, was also isolated together with two other closely related nonenolides, identified as herbarumin II and 2-epi-herbarumin II. Herbarumin II and 2-epi-herbarumin II have been previously isolated from the fungi Phoma herbarum and Paraphaeosphaeria recurvifoliae , respectively, but described here to be isolated for the first time from D. pinodes. When tested on leaves of the host plant and other legumes and weeds, pinolidoxin was phytotoxic in all of the plant species, whereas the other three nonenolides did not produce any symptoms. The importance of the stereochemistry of the hydroxy group at C-7 on phytotoxicity also is discussed.

  1. Cell wall-degrading enzymes of Didymella bryoniae in relation to fungal growth and virulence in cantaloupe fruit

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J.; Bruton, B. D.; Biles, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    Didymella bryoniae is an important pathogen of cucurbits worldwide. Virulence factors of D. bryoniae were investigated in regard to fungal growth and the production of cell wall-degrading enzymes, polygalacturonase (PG), pectate lyase (PL), pectin lyase (PNL), β-galactosidase (β-Gal) and cellulase (Cx). Virulence levels of five D. bryoniae isolates were determined by the severity of inoculated cantaloupe fruit decay. The highly virulent isolates had more mycelial growth than the moderately virulent isolates in different media. PG activities produced by the highly virulent isolates in shake cultures and in decayed fruit were greater than those of the moderately virulent isolates. PNL, but not PL, in decayed fruit was higher with the highly virulent isolates compared to the moderately virulent ones. The highly virulent isolates showed higher Cx activity than the moderately virulent ones in decayed fruit and in fruit tissue shake culture. β-Gal activities of the highly virulent isolates in pectin shake culture and in decayed fruit were greater than those of the two moderately virulent isolates although fruit also produced β-Gal. Protein analysis showed two fungal β-Gal isozymes in decayed fruit compared to those of healthy fruit. Correlation analysis indicated that the activities of PG, PNL, β-Gal and Cx in cultures and in decayed fruit positively correlated with fungal growth and fruit decay severity. The results of this study suggest that PG, PNL, β-Gal, and Cx appear to be virulence factors of D. bryoniae in cantaloupe decay with PG and β-Gal as the most predominant fruit decay enzymes. PMID:25364138

  2. A disseminated infection with the antifungal-multiresistant teleomorphic fungus Neocosmospora vasinfecta in a patient with acute B-lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Frédéric; D’Almeida, Mahussi; Albert, Olivier; Fitton-Ouhabi, Valérie; Noël, Thierry; Accoceberry, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    We report on a fatal invasive infection due to the ascomycetous fungus Neocosmospora vasinfecta, in a 20-year-old European patient suffering from an acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The infection could not be controlled by a bitherapy combining liposomal amphotericin B and voriconazole. This is the second case of disseminated infection reported with this unusual fungus, which develops under its teleomorphic state, is fully resistant to all systemic antifungals, and which is known to live in tropical countries. PMID:24432214

  3. Description of Hyphopichia buzzinii f.a., sp. nov. and Hyphopichia homilentoma comb. nov., the teleomorph of Candida homilentoma.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Lucas R; Santos, Ana R O; Groenewald, Marizeth; Smith, Maudy Th H; Lara, Carla A; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles; Jacques, Noémie; Grondin, Cécile; Casaregola, Serge; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2017-04-06

    During studies of the yeast diversity associated with rotting wood in Brazil and fruits, plants and insects in French Guiana, three strains of a new species were isolated. Analysis of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-5.8S and D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene showed that this species belongs to the genus Hyphopichia and its closest relative is Candida homilentoma. These species differ by 44 nucleotide substitutions in D1/D2 sequences. A new species Hyphopichia buzzinii f. a., sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate these isolates. The type strain of Hyphopichia buzzinii sp. nov. is CLIB 1739(T) (=CBS 14300(T) = UFMG-CM-Y6121(T); MycoBank number is MB 815609). In addition, we isolated 11 strains of C. homilentoma from rotting wood, leaf surfaces, and water bodies in Brazil, and these strains when crossed among one another and with the type strain (CBS 6312(T)) of this species, produced hat-shaped ascospores typical of the genus Hyphopichia. We describe the teleomorph of C. homilentoma as a new combination, Hyphopichia homilentoma comb. nov. (type strain CBS 6312(T); MycoBank number is MB 820009). We also propose to transfer the other six Candida species of the Hyphopichia clade to this genus as new combinations. Hyphopichia homilentoma produced ethanol and xylitol from D-xylose whereas H. buzzinii was only able to convert this pentose to xylitol.

  4. Biological characteristics of teleomorph and optimized in vitro fruiting conditions of the Hoelen medicinal mushroom, Wolfiporia extensa (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhangyi; Meng, Hu; Xiong, Huan; Bian, Yinbing

    2014-01-01

    Wolfiporia extensa is a basidiomycetous brown rot fungus and is of well-known medicinal import in China, Japan, and other Asiatic countries. Fruiting body induction is of major relevance for basic biological research and for their use in industrial applications. Based on the evaluation of the effects of temperature, time in the dark before induction and culture, and wounding treatment on fruiting, this report describes the most efficient protocol for inducing fruiting of W. extensa growing on agar plates. Furthermore, several biological characteristics of teleomorph, such as the locations of hymenium, the configuration of basidiospores and primary mycelia, and events involved in basidiosporogenesis in W. extensa, were analyzed for the first time using fluorescence microscopy. The results showed that the hymenium born on both sides of the wall of the honeycomb-like structure on the surface of fruiting bodies and the hymenophoral trama situated in the middle. Each basidia has 4 binuclear basidiospores, and the primary mycelia are multinucleate without clamp connections. These results broaden our knowledge about this brown rot fungus and promote further studies of the sexual reproduction, fruiting body development, and advancement of breeding program, new topics related to the contents of pharmacologically active substances in W. extensa fruiting bodies.

  5. Kwoniella mangroviensis gen. nov., sp.nov. (Tremellales, Basidiomycota), a teleomorphic yeast from mangrove habitats in the Florida Everglades and Bahamas.

    PubMed

    Statzell-Tallman, Adele; Belloch, Carmela; Fell, Jack W

    2008-02-01

    Mangrove forests inhabit the shoreline regions of tropical and subtropical marine habitats, where they are the basis of a multi-trophic level food web that drives the shellfish and fisheries industries. Yeasts, and other fungi, have significant roles in these ecosystems as they decompose plant organic material and serve as a food source for small invertebrates. Studies designed to examine yeast communities of mangrove regions of the Florida Everglades and the Bahamas demonstrated the repeated presence of an undescribed teleomorphic basidiomycetous yeast. The yeast is heterothallic, with a sexual cycle that can be observed on artificial media. Mating between compatible pairs produces polymorphic basidia. Some basidia are globose, ovoid or lageniform, with longitudinal to oblique and transverse septa, whereas other basidia are navicular with one to three transverse septa. Basidiocarps and ballistoconidia are absent. Molecular sequence analysis of a partial region (D1/D2 domains) of the large subunit rRNA demonstrated that the yeast is phylogenetically distinct from other teleomorphic Tremellales with close relationships to the anamorphic species Cryptococcus dejecticola, Cryptococcus bestiolae and Bullera dendrophila. The molecular and phenotypic data indicate that this teleomorph should be classified in a novel genus. Therefore, Kwoniella mangroviensis gen. nov., sp. nov. (Type strain CBS 8507), is proposed.

  6. A Beauveria phylogeny inferred from nuclear ITS and EF1-alpha sequences: evidence for cryptic diversification and links to Cordyceps teleomorphs.

    PubMed

    Rehner, Stephen A; Buckley, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    Beauveria is a globally distributed genus of soil-borne entomopathogenic hyphomycetes of interest as a model system for the study of entomopathogenesis and the biological control of pest insects. Species recognition in Beauveria is difficult due to a lack of taxonomically informative morphology. This has impeded assessment of species diversity in this genus and investigation of their natural history. A gene-genealogical approach was used to investigate molecular phylogenetic diversity of Beauveria and several presumptively related Cordyceps species. Analyses were based on nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-alpha) sequences for 86 exemplar isolates from diverse geographic origins, habitats and insect hosts. Phylogenetic trees were inferred using maximum parsimony and Bayesian likelihood methods. Six well supported clades within Beauveria, provisionally designated A-F, were resolved in the EF1-alpha and combined gene phylogenies. Beauveria bassiana, a ubiquitous species that is characterized morphologically by globose to subglobose conidia, was determined to be non-monophyletic and consists of two unrelated lineages, clades A and C. Clade A is globally distributed and includes the Asian teleomorph Cordyceps staphylinidaecola and its probable synonym C. bassiana. All isolates contained in Clade C are anamorphic and originate from Europe and North America. Clade B includes isolates of B. brongniartii, a Eurasian species complex characterized by ellipsoidal conidia. Clade D includes B. caledonica and B. vermiconia, which produce cylindrical and comma-shaped conidia, respectively. Clade E, from Asia, includes Beauveria anamorphs and a Cordyceps teleomorph that both produce ellipsoidal conidia. Clade F, the basal branch in the Beauveria phylogeny includes the South American species B. amorpha, which produces cylindrical conidia. Lineage diversity detected within clades A, B and C suggests that prevailing morphological

  7. Ubiquinone systems in fungi. V. Distribution and taxonomic implications of ubiquinones in Eurotiales, Onygenales and the related plectomycete genera, except for Aspergillus, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, and their related teleomorphs.

    PubMed

    Kuraishi, H; Itoh, M; Katayama, Y; Ito, T; Hasegawa, A; Sugiyama, J

    2000-02-01

    The ubiquinone (coenzyme Q) systems were determined for 176 teleomorphic isolates, 14 anamorphic isolates, and three samples of fruit-bodies of Dendrosphaera eberhardtii, which belonged to Eurotiales, Onygenales, and related taxa. In Eurotiales, Ascosphaera had Q-9, whereas Bettsia had Q-10. All isolates of Monascaceae had the Q-10 system, whereas those of four genera of Pseudeurotiaceae had the Q-10(H2) system. The Q-10(H2) system was found in genera of Trichocomaceae, except for Aspergillus, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, and their related taxa. However, Thermoascus had the Q-9 system. In Onygenales, members of Arthrodermataceae had Q-9, and those of Gymnoascaceae had Q-10(H2). Isolates of Myxotrichaceae were characterized by Q-10(H2) with few exceptions, which had Q-10. The quinones of Onygenaceae belonged to complex systems, i.e., Q-9, 0-10 and 0-10(H2), and a combination of two systems. Families Onygenaceae and Trichocomaceae are likely a phylogenetic heterogeneity. Ubiquinone analysis provides a very useful criterion of great promise for classifying eurotialean taxa and also for identifying their isolates.

  8. Primers for mating-type diagnosis in Diaporthe and Phomopsis: their use in teleomorph induction in vitro and biological species definition.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jorge M; Correia, Viviana G; Phillips, Alan J L

    2010-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in ascomycete fungi is governed by the mating-type (MAT) locus. The MAT loci of Diaporthe and its Phomopsis anamorphs differ in only one gene: MAT1-1-1 in mating-type MAT1-1 and MAT1-2-1 in mating-type MAT1-2. In order to diagnose mating-types in Diaporthe and Phomopsis and evaluate their usefulness in teleomorph induction in vitro and biological species delimitation, we designed primers that amplify part of the MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 genes. MAT phylogenies were generated and compared with ITS and EF1-α phylograms. Species recognised in the EF1-α phylogeny corresponded directly with those determined in the MAT phylogenies. ITS was shown to be highly variable resulting in a large number of phylogenetic species that were discordant with MAT and EF1-α species. Mating experiments were conducted to evaluate the existence of reproductive barriers between some isolates, and their anamorphic morphologies were compared. The primers proved to be useful in the mating-type diagnosis of isolates, selection of compatible mating pairs, and in the assessment of biological species boundaries. Copyright © 2010 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of use of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics for identification of species of the anamorph genus Candida and related teleomorph yeast species.

    PubMed Central

    Latouche, G N; Daniel, H M; Lee, O C; Mitchell, T G; Sorrell, T C; Meyer, W

    1997-01-01

    A total of 49 type and neotype isolates and 32 clinical isolates of the anamorph genus Candida and related teleomorph genera were obtained from different culture collections and clinical laboratories. Isolates were subjected to two phenotypic methods of identification, Vitek yeast biochemical card (YBC) and API ID 32C, both based on carbohydrate assimilation, and one genotypic method, PCR fingerprinting, based on the detection of DNA polymorphisms between minisatellite-specific sequences with the primer M13 (5' GAGGGTGGCGGTTCT 3'). The correct identification of a strain at the Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures was used as the gold standard for the identification of an isolate. When the study was restricted to species included in the respective biochemical databases, the Vitek YBC and API ID 32C systems performed adequately with positive identification rates of 87.3 and 76.8%, respectively. When uncommon species were added to the study, several of which are not included in the databases, the identification efficiencies were 76.5 and 77.5%, respectively. By comparison, all isolates were correctly identified by PCR fingerprinting, with 63 reference species profiles in the databank. Sufficient polymorphisms among the total set of banding patterns were observed, with adequate similarity in the major patterns obtained from a given species, to allow each isolate to be assigned unambiguously to a particular species. In addition, variations in minor bands allowed for differentiation to the strain level. PCR fingerprinting was found to be rapid, reproducible, and more cost-effective than either biochemical approach. Our results provide reference laboratories with an improved identification method for yeasts based on genotypic rather than phenotypic markers. PMID:9399515

  10. Comparison of use of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics for identification of species of the anamorph genus Candida and related teleomorph yeast species.

    PubMed

    Latouche, G N; Daniel, H M; Lee, O C; Mitchell, T G; Sorrell, T C; Meyer, W

    1997-12-01

    A total of 49 type and neotype isolates and 32 clinical isolates of the anamorph genus Candida and related teleomorph genera were obtained from different culture collections and clinical laboratories. Isolates were subjected to two phenotypic methods of identification, Vitek yeast biochemical card (YBC) and API ID 32C, both based on carbohydrate assimilation, and one genotypic method, PCR fingerprinting, based on the detection of DNA polymorphisms between minisatellite-specific sequences with the primer M13 (5' GAGGGTGGCGGTTCT 3'). The correct identification of a strain at the Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures was used as the gold standard for the identification of an isolate. When the study was restricted to species included in the respective biochemical databases, the Vitek YBC and API ID 32C systems performed adequately with positive identification rates of 87.3 and 76.8%, respectively. When uncommon species were added to the study, several of which are not included in the databases, the identification efficiencies were 76.5 and 77.5%, respectively. By comparison, all isolates were correctly identified by PCR fingerprinting, with 63 reference species profiles in the databank. Sufficient polymorphisms among the total set of banding patterns were observed, with adequate similarity in the major patterns obtained from a given species, to allow each isolate to be assigned unambiguously to a particular species. In addition, variations in minor bands allowed for differentiation to the strain level. PCR fingerprinting was found to be rapid, reproducible, and more cost-effective than either biochemical approach. Our results provide reference laboratories with an improved identification method for yeasts based on genotypic rather than phenotypic markers.

  11. Multiplicity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    practice as a "[descent] into that inner circle of the Inferno where the damned endlessly degate multiplicity for sentencing." United States v. Barnard...select the charges to be brought in a particular case"). 19 Brown v. Ohio, 432 U.S. 161, 165 (1977). 20 Whalen v. United States, 445 U.S. at 689. 21...parte Lange, 8-5 U.S. (19 Wall.) 163 (1874). Cf. Brown v. Ohio, 432 U.S. at 165 ("once the legislature has acted courts may not impose more than one

  12. Multiple Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Multiple Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Multiple Pregnancy Page ... Multiple Pregnancy FAQ188, July 2015 PDF Format Multiple Pregnancy Pregnancy How does multiple pregnancy occur? What are ...

  13. Highlights of the Didymellaceae: A polyphasic approach to characterise Phoma and related pleosporalean genera

    PubMed Central

    Aveskamp, M.M.; de Gruyter, J.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Crous, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Fungal taxonomists routinely encounter problems when dealing with asexual fungal species due to poly- and paraphyletic generic phylogenies, and unclear species boundaries. These problems are aptly illustrated in the genus Phoma. This phytopathologically significant fungal genus is currently subdivided into nine sections which are mainly based on a single or just a few morphological characters. However, this subdivision is ambiguous as several of the section-specific characters can occur within a single species. In addition, many teleomorph genera have been linked to Phoma, three of which are recognised here. In this study it is attempted to delineate generic boundaries, and to come to a generic circumscription which is more correct from an evolutionary point of view by means of multilocus sequence typing. Therefore, multiple analyses were conducted utilising sequences obtained from 28S nrDNA (Large Subunit - LSU), 18S nrDNA (Small Subunit - SSU), the Internal Transcribed Spacer regions 1 & 2 and 5.8S nrDNA (ITS), and part of the β-tubulin (TUB) gene region. A total of 324 strains were included in the analyses of which most belonged to Phoma taxa, whilst 54 to related pleosporalean fungi. In total, 206 taxa were investigated, of which 159 are known to have affinities to Phoma. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the current Boeremaean subdivision is incorrect from an evolutionary point of view, revealing the genus to be highly polyphyletic. Phoma species are retrieved in six distinct clades within the Pleosporales, and appear to reside in different families. The majority of the species, however, including the generic type, clustered in a recently established family, Didymellaceae. In the second part of this study, the phylogenetic variation of the species and varieties in this clade was further assessed. Next to the genus Didymella, which is considered to be the sole teleomorph of Phoma s. str., we also retrieved taxa belonging to the teleomorph genera

  14. Multiple myeloma

    MedlinePlus

    Plasma cell dyscrasia; Plasma cell myeloma; Malignant plasmacytoma; Plasmacytoma of bone; Myeloma - multiple ... Multiple myeloma most commonly causes: Low red blood cell count ( anemia ), which can lead to fatigue and ...

  15. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple sclerosis Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially disabling disease of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). In MS, the immune system attacks the protective ...

  16. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the ... attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Multiple sclerosis affects women more than men. It often begins ...

  17. Multiple Myeloma

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple myeloma Overview Multiple myeloma is a cancer that forms in a type of white blood cell called a plasma cell. Plasma cells help ... by making antibodies that recognize and attack germs. Multiple myeloma causes cancer cells to accumulate in the bone ...

  18. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  19. Multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Peller, Patrick J

    2015-04-01

    This article presents a review of multiple myeloma, precursor states, and related plasma cell disorders. The clinical roles of fluorodeoxyglucose PET/computed tomography (CT) and the potential to improve the management of patients with multiple myeloma are discussed. The clinical and research data supporting the utility of PET/CT use in evaluating myeloma and other plasma cell dyscrasias continues to grow.

  20. Multiple homicides.

    PubMed

    Copeland, A R

    1989-09-01

    A study of multiple homicides or multiple deaths involving a solitary incident of violence by another individual was performed on the case files of the Office of the Medical Examiner of Metropolitan Dade County in Miami, Florida, during 1983-1987. A total of 107 multiple homicides were studied: 88 double, 17 triple, one quadruple, and one quintuple. The 236 victims were analyzed regarding age, race, sex, cause of death, toxicologic data, perpetrator, locale of the incident, and reason for the incident. This article compares this type of slaying with other types of homicide including those perpetrated by serial killers. Suggestions for future research in this field are offered.

  1. [Indiscriminate use of Latin name for natural Cordyceps sinensis insect-fungi complex and multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis fungi].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yi-Sang; Zhu, Jia-Shi

    2016-04-01

    Natural Cordyceps sinensis(Dongchongxiacao) is an insect-fungi complex containing multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis(≡Cordyceps sinensis) fungi and dead body of larva of the family of Hepialidae. But natural C. sinensis and O. sinensis fungi use the same Latin name, resulting in uncertainty of the specific meaning, even disturbing the formulation and implementation of governmental policies and regulations, and influencing consumer psychology onthe market. This paper reviews the history and current status of the indiscriminate use of the Latin name O. sinensis for both the natural insect-fungi complex C. sinensis and O. sinensis fungi and lists the rename suggetions. Some scholars suggested using the term O. sinensis for the fungi and renaming the natural C. sinensis "Chinese cordyceps". Others suggested renaming the natural C. sinensis "Ophiocordyceps & Hepialidae". Both suggestions have not reached general consensus due to various academic concerns. This paper also reviews the exacerbation of the academic uncertainties when forcing implementing the 2011 Amsterdam Declaration "One Fungus=One Name" under the academic debate. Joint efforts of mycological, zoological and botany-TCM taxonomists and properly initiating the dispute systems offered by International Mycology Association may solve the debate on the indiscriminate use of the Latin name O.sinensis for the natural insect-fungi complex,the teleomorph and anamorph(s) of O. sinensis fungi. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. Parenting Multiples

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents. It's important for caretakers to spend time speaking directly to each child, as well as reading to them and encouraging language. Social skills can come earlier for multiples, simply because they' ...

  3. Multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Advances in the imaging and treatment of multiple myeloma have occurred over the past decade. This article summarises the current status and highlights how an understanding of both is necessary for optimum management. PMID:20159661

  4. Multiple Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... result in twins, triplets, or more. In vitro fertilization can lead to a multiple pregnancy if more ... egg that are usually genetically identical. In Vitro Fertilization: A procedure in which an egg is removed ...

  5. Multiple emulsions.

    PubMed

    Yazan, Y; Seiller, M; Puisieux, F

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to update the information on multiple emulsions known to be promising delivery systems for both pharmaceuticals and cosmetic materials. The possibility of encapsulating active substances within liquid membranes may lead to interesting opportunities in both fields. Thus the formulation, manufacturing, stabilization, analysis and potential application of multiple emulsions seems to be worth surveying, putting a special emphasis on cosmetic applications.

  6. Multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shaji K; Rajkumar, Vincent; Kyle, Robert A; van Duin, Mark; Sonneveld, Pieter; Mateos, María-Victoria; Gay, Francesca; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2017-07-20

    Multiple myeloma is a malignancy of terminally differentiated plasma cells, and patients typically present with bone marrow infiltration of clonal plasma cells and monoclonal protein in the serum and/or urine. The diagnosis of multiple myeloma is made when clear end-organ damage attributable to the plasma cell proliferative disorder or when findings that suggest a high likelihood of their development are present. Distinguishing symptomatic multiple myeloma that requires treatment from the precursor stages of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smouldering multiple myeloma is important, as observation is the standard for those conditions. Much progress has been made over the past decade in the understanding of disease biology and individualized treatment approaches. Several new classes of drugs, such as proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs, have joined the traditional armamentarium (corticosteroids, alkylating agents and anthracyclines) and, along with high-dose therapy and autologous haemopoietic stem cell transplantation, have led to deeper and durable clinical responses. Indeed, an increasing proportion of patients are achieving lasting remissions, raising the possibility of cure for this disease. Success will probably depend on using combinations of effective agents and treating patients in the early stages of disease, such as patients with smouldering multiple myeloma.

  7. [Multiple meningiomas].

    PubMed

    Terrier, L-M; François, P

    2016-06-01

    Multiple meningiomas (MMs) or meningiomatosis are defined by the presence of at least 2 lesions that appear simultaneously or not, at different intracranial locations, without the association of neurofibromatosis. They present 1-9 % of meningiomas with a female predominance. The occurrence of multiple meningiomas is not clear. There are 2 main hypotheses for their development, one that supports the independent evolution of these tumors and the other, completely opposite, that suggests the propagation of tumor cells of a unique clone transformation, through cerebrospinal fluid. NF2 gene mutation is an important intrinsic risk factor in the etiology of multiple meningiomas and some exogenous risk factors have been suspected but only ionizing radiation exposure has been proven. These tumors can grow anywhere in the skull but they are more frequently observed in supratentorial locations. Their histologic types are similar to unique meningiomas of psammomatous, fibroblastic, meningothelial or transitional type and in most cases are benign tumors. The prognosis of these tumors is eventually good and does not differ from the unique tumors except for the cases of radiation-induced multiple meningiomas, in the context of NF2 or when diagnosed in children where the outcome is less favorable. Each meningioma lesion should be dealt with individually and their multiple character should not justify their resection at all costs.

  8. Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Details the characteristics of Howard Gardner's seven multiple intelligences (MI): linguistic, logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, spatial, musical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. Discusses the implications of MI for instruction. Explores how students can study using their preferred learning style - visual, auditory, and physical study…

  9. Multiple Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  10. Multiple Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  11. Phylogeny of tremellomycetous yeasts and related dimorphic and filamentous basidiomycetes reconstructed from multiple gene sequence analyses

    PubMed Central

    Liu, X.-Z.; Wang, Q.-M.; Theelen, B.; Groenewald, M.; Bai, F.-Y.; Boekhout, T.

    2015-01-01

    The Tremellomycetes (Basidiomycota) contains a large number of unicellular and dimorphic fungi with stable free-living unicellular states in their life cycles. These fungi have been conventionally classified as basidiomycetous yeasts based on physiological and biochemical characteristics. Many currently recognised genera of these yeasts are mainly defined based on phenotypical characters and are highly polyphyletic. Here we reconstructed the phylogeny of the majority of described anamorphic and teleomorphic tremellomycetous yeasts using Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, and neighbour-joining analyses based on the sequences of seven genes, including three rRNA genes, namely the small subunit of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA), D1/D2 domains of the large subunit rDNA, and the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS 1 and 2) of rDNA including 5.8S rDNA; and four protein-coding genes, namely the two subunits of the RNA polymerase II (RPB1 and RPB2), the translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1) and the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b (CYTB). With the consideration of morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic characters and the congruence of phylogenies inferred from analyses using different algorithms based on different data sets consisting of the combined seven genes, the three rRNA genes, and the individual protein-coding genes, five major lineages corresponding to the orders Cystofilobasidiales, Filobasidiales, Holtermanniales, Tremellales, and Trichosporonales were resolved. A total of 45 strongly supported monophyletic clades with multiple species and 23 single species clades were recognised. This phylogenetic framework will be the basis for the proposal of an updated taxonomic system of tremellomycetous yeasts that will be compatible with the current taxonomic system of filamentous basidiomycetes accommodating the ‘one fungus, one name’ principle. PMID:26955196

  12. Multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, S. Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a clonal plasma cell malignancy that accounts for slightly more than 10% of all hematologic cancers. In this paper, we present a historically focused review of the disease, from the description of the first case in 1844 to the present. The evolution of drug therapy and stem-cell transplantation for the treatment of myeloma, as well as the development of new agents, is discussed. We also provide an update on current concepts of diagnosis and therapy, with an emphasis on how treatments have emerged from a historical perspective after certain important discoveries and the results of experimental studies. PMID:18332230

  13. Multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Files, Daniel Kane; Jausurawong, Tani; Katrajian, Ruba; Danoff, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, debilitating disease that can have devastating effects. Presentation varies widely in symptoms, pace, and progression. In addition to a thorough history and physical examination, diagnostic tools required to diagnose MS and exclude other diagnoses include MRI, evoked potential testing, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Although the disease is not curable presently, quality of life can be improved by minimizing the frequency and severity of disease burden. Disease modification, symptom management, preservation of function, and treatment of psychosocial issues are paramount to enhance the quality of life for the patient affected with MS.

  14. Multiple Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Philip Joseph

    1987-09-01

    The Theory of Inflation, namely, that at some point the entropy content of the universe was greatly increased, has much promise. It may solve the puzzles of homogeneity and the creation of structure. However, no particle physics model has yet been found that can successfully drive inflation. The difficulty in satisfying the constraint that the isotropy of the microwave background places on the effective potential of prospective models is immense. In this work we have codified the requirements of such models in a most general form. We have carefully calculated the amounts of inflation the various problems of the Standard Model need for their solution. We have derived a completely model independent upper bound on the inflationary Hubble parameter. We have developed a general notation with which to probe the possibilities of Multiple Inflation. We have shown that only in very unlikely circumstances will any evidence of an earlier inflation, survive the de Sitter period of its successor. In particular, it is demonstrated that it is most unlikely that two bouts of inflation will yield high amplitudes of density perturbations on small scales and low amplitudes on large. We conclude that, while multiple inflation will be of great theoretical interest, it is unlikely to have any observational impact.

  15. [Multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Abe, Masahiro; Miki, Hirokazu; Nakamura, Shingen

    2016-03-01

    Owing to the positive clinical benefits obtained with new agents, complete remission (CR) can be used as a surrogate for overall survival, and should be achieved. Although multiple myeloma is a heterogeneous disease in terms of myeloma cell- and patient-related risk factors, patients should receive the most effective combination therapy based on proteasome inhibitors and/or immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) as backbone medication irrespective of the risks encountered in the setting of induction therapy ("one-size-fits-all" therapy), followed by consolidation/maintenance therapy to achieve CR with the ultimate goal of extended survival. Myeloma-defining biomarkers have been established to identify high-risk smoldering myeloma requiring treatment. The development of salvage treatments yielding better outcomes for relapsed/refractory myeloma is urgently needed. Upcoming novel molecular targeting agents with different modes of action and immunotherapeutic agents will be integrated into myeloma treatment regimens with a great therapeutic impact, and further evolution of the treatment paradigm for multiple myeloma is eagerly anticipated.

  16. [Multiple apheresis].

    PubMed

    Coffe, C

    2007-05-01

    Multiple apheresis makes it possible to obtain at least two labile blood components from a single donor using a cell separator. It can be either multicomponent apheresis leading to the preparation of at least two different blood component types or red blood cell apheresis providing two identical red blood cell concentrates. These techniques available in addition to whole blood donation, are modifying collection strategies in many Etablissements Français du Sang and will contribute to improve stock logistics in the future. In areas with insufficient stock, these procedures will help achieve blood component self-sufficiency. The author first describes the principle underlying different--current or future--techniques as well as their advantages and drawbacks. He finally addresses the potential impact of these processes on the evolution of blood collection and the advantages to be gained.

  17. Multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Boster, Aaron L.; Racke, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Preliminary studies have suggested that a high salt diet may play a role in the development of autoimmune disease and possibly multiple sclerosis (MS). Promising clinical trial results for 2 new therapies for MS have been reported. Dimethyl fumarate, also known by its investigational name BG-12, became the third oral disease-modifying therapy for MS to be Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved in March 2013. Interestingly, dimethyl fumarate served as the active compound used for the treatment of psoriasis for decades. Alemtuzumab remains under investigation and is not currently FDA-approved for treatment of MS. Other drugs currently approved for alternative indications are being investigated for use in MS. Additionally, an investigation of alternative dosing strategies for glatiramer acetate suggests that patients may benefit from a higher dose formulation and less frequent medication administration. Advances in basic science research have identified another potential autoantigenic target in MS, KIR4.1, which may provide further insight into MS pathophysiology. PMID:24175156

  18. Multiple osteochondromas

    PubMed Central

    Bovée, Judith VMG

    2008-01-01

    Multiple osteochondromas (MO) is characterised by development of two or more cartilage capped bony outgrowths (osteochondromas) of the long bones. The prevalence is estimated at 1:50,000, and it seems to be higher in males (male-to-female ratio 1.5:1). Osteochondromas develop and increase in size in the first decade of life, ceasing to grow when the growth plates close at puberty. They are pedunculated or sessile (broad base) and can vary widely in size. The number of osteochondromas may vary significantly within and between families, the mean number of locations is 15–18. The majority are asymptomatic and located in bones that develop from cartilage, especially the long bones of the extremities, predominantly around the knee. The facial bones are not affected. Osteochondromas may cause pain, functional problems and deformities, especially of the forearm, that may be reason for surgical removal. The most important complication is malignant transformation of osteochondroma towards secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma, which is estimated to occur in 0.5–5%. MO is an autosomal dominant disorder and is genetically heterogeneous. In almost 90% of MO patients germline mutations in the tumour suppressor genes EXT1 or EXT2 are found. The EXT genes encode glycosyltransferases, catalyzing heparan sulphate polymerization. The diagnosis is based on radiological and clinical documentation, supplemented with, if available, histological evaluation of osteochondromas. If the exact mutation is known antenatal diagnosis is technically possible. MO should be distinguished from metachondromatosis, dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica and Ollier disease. Osteochondromas are benign lesions and do not affect life expectancy. Management includes removal of osteochondromas when they give complaints. Removed osteochondromas should be examined for malignant transformation towards secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma. Patients should be well instructed and regular follow-up for early detection

  19. Preparing for Multiple Births

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video Games, and the Internet Preparing for Multiple Births KidsHealth > For Parents > Preparing for Multiple Births Print ... a combination of both. The Risks of Multiple Births The most common risk involved with multiple births ...

  20. Multiple Myeloma Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Center Finder Home » About Multiple Myeloma » Symptoms Multiple Myeloma Symptoms Multiple myeloma symptoms may vary by patient, ... to be managed or prevented. The most common multiple myeloma symptoms may include: Bone pain or bone fractures ...

  1. Multiple sclerosis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - multiple sclerosis ... The following organizations provide information on multiple sclerosis : Multiple Sclerosis Foundation -- www.msfocus.org National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/multiple_sclerosis National ...

  2. Multiple System Atrophy (MSA)

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare, degenerative neurological disorder ... progresses gradually and eventually leads to death. Multiple system atrophy care at Mayo Clinic . Mayo Clinic Footer ...

  3. Fungitoxicity of organic extracts of Ocimum basilicum on growth and morphogenesis of Bipolaris species (teleomorph Cochliobolus).

    PubMed

    Elsherbiny, E A; Safwat, N A; Elaasser, M M

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the inhibitory effects of various organic extracts of Ocimum basilicum against some species of Bipolaris and Cochliobolus with GC-MS and HPLC analysis. The ethyl acetate extract consisted of methyl cinnamate as the most abundant component, while butylated hydroxytoluene was the major component in the methanol extract. Pyrogallol and chlorogenic acid were major phenolic compounds in the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, respectively. Complete growth inhibition of all fungi except Cochliobolus australiensis was observed by ethyl acetate extract, and on Bipolaris hawaiensis, Bipolaris spicifera and Cochliobolus cynodontis by methanol extract. Spore germination was completely inhibited for Bipolaris hawaiensis by ethyl acetate extract. Scanning electron microscopic observations revealed that the organic extracts cause considerable morphological changes of the fungal hyphae such as mycelial asymmetry, hyphal swelling, sunken, curling, distorted and broken hyphae. The ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of O. basilicum can result in an effective suppression of mycelial growth, spore germination and germ tube elongation of Bipolaris and Cochliobolus species. The organic extracts of O. basilicum are potential and promising natural tools for controlling Bipolaris and Cochliobolus species, economically important plant and human fungal pathogens. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Colletotrichum acutatum var. fioriniae (teleomorph: Glomerella acutata var. fioriniae var. nov.) infection of a scale insect.

    PubMed

    Marcelino, Jose; Giordano, Rosanna; Gouli, Svetlana; Gouli, Vladimir; Parker, Bruce L; Skinner, Margaret; TeBeest, David; Cesnik, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    An epizootic has been reported in Fiorinia externa populations in New York, Connecticut, Pennsylvania and NewJersey. Infected insects have profuse sclerotial masses enclosing their bodies. The most commonly isolated microorganism from infected F. externa was Colletotrichum sp. A morphological and molecular characterization of this fungus indicated that it is closely related to phytopathogenic C. acutatum isolates. Isolates of Colletotrichum sp. from F. externa in areas of the epizootic were similar genetically and were named Colletotrichum acutatum var. fioriniae var. nov, based on our findings. In vitro and in planta mating observed between isolates of C. acutatum var. fioriniae could serve as a possible source of genetic variation and might give rise to new biotypes with a propensity to infect insects. Only one other strain, C. gloeosporioides f. sp. ortheziidae, has been reported to show entomopathogenic activity.

  5. Multiple-Ring Digital Communication Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold

    1992-01-01

    Optical-fiber digital communication network to support data-acquisition and control functions of electric-power-distribution networks. Optical-fiber links of communication network follow power-distribution routes. Since fiber crosses open power switches, communication network includes multiple interconnected loops with occasional spurs. At each intersection node is needed. Nodes of communication network include power-distribution substations and power-controlling units. In addition to serving data acquisition and control functions, each node acts as repeater, passing on messages to next node(s). Multiple-ring communication network operates on new AbNET protocol and features fiber-optic communication.

  6. Multiple-Ring Digital Communication Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold

    1992-01-01

    Optical-fiber digital communication network to support data-acquisition and control functions of electric-power-distribution networks. Optical-fiber links of communication network follow power-distribution routes. Since fiber crosses open power switches, communication network includes multiple interconnected loops with occasional spurs. At each intersection node is needed. Nodes of communication network include power-distribution substations and power-controlling units. In addition to serving data acquisition and control functions, each node acts as repeater, passing on messages to next node(s). Multiple-ring communication network operates on new AbNET protocol and features fiber-optic communication.

  7. Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Domestic Violence URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  8. MultipleColposcopyJCO

    Cancer.gov

    Performing multiple biopsies during a procedure known as colposcopy—visual inspection of the cervix—is more effective than performing only a single biopsy of the worst-appearing area for detecting cervical cancer precursors. This multiple biopsy approach

  9. Panic Disorder - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Panic Disorder URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Panic Disorder - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  10. Twins, Triplets, Multiple Births

    MedlinePlus

    ... deliver by C-section, especially if there are three babies or more. Parenting multiples can be a challenge. Volunteer help and support groups for parents of multiples can help. Dept. of Health and ...

  11. Whooping Cough - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Whooping Cough URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Whooping Cough - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  12. Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Salmonella Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  13. Impaired Driving - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Impaired Driving URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Impaired Driving - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  14. Postpartum Depression - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Postpartum Depression URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Postpartum Depression - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  15. Sexual reproduction in aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus nomius

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sexual reproduction was examined in the aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus nomius. Crosses between sexually compatible strains resulted in the formation of multiple nonostiolate ascocarps within stromata, which places the teleomorph in the genus Petromyces. Ascocarp and ascospore morphology in...

  16. Creating Multiple Processes from Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolffe, Robert; Robinson, Helja; Grant, Jean Marie

    1998-01-01

    Howard Gardner's multiple-intelligences theory stresses that all humans possess the various intelligences (linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist) to differing degrees, and most people can attain adequate competency levels. This article provides a sample checklist for…

  17. On Multiple Questions and Multiple WH Fronting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudin, Catherine

    An analysis of languages with multiple fronting of WH words (who, what, whom, etc.) looks in detail at Polish, Serbo-Croatian, Czech, Bulgarian (Slavic languages), and Romanian (a Romance language). In spite of their superficial similarity, the Slavic and East European languages that normally put all WH words at the beginning of clauses fall into…

  18. Multiple Instance Fuzzy Inference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-02

    Zhang, Xin Chen, and Wei-Bang Chen, “An online multiple instance learn - ing system for semantic image retrieval,” in Multimedia Workshops, 2007. ISMW...INFERENCE A novel fuzzy learning framework that employs fuzzy inference to solve the problem of multiple instance learning (MIL) is presented. The...fuzzy learning framework that employs fuzzy inference to solve the problem of multiple instance learning (MIL) is presented. The framework introduces a

  19. Complications of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Bladé, Joan; Rosiñol, Laura

    2007-12-01

    Multiple myeloma, also known as myeloma or plasma cell myeloma, is a progressive hematologic disease. Complications of multiple myeloma include renal insufficiency, hematologic complications (anemia, bone marrow failure, bleeding disorders), infections, bone complications (pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression, hyercalcemia), and neurologic complications (spinal cord and nerve root compression, intracranial plasmacytomas, leptomeningeal involvement, among others). This article reviews these various complications connected to multiple myeloma, examining their various causes and possible treatment.

  20. Orchestrating Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Seana; Kornhaber, Mindy; Gardner, Howard

    2006-01-01

    Education policymakers often go astray when they attempt to integrate multiple intelligences theory into schools, according to the originator of the theory, Howard Gardner, and his colleagues. The greatest potential of a multiple intelligences approach to education grows from the concept of a profile of intelligences. Each learner's intelligence…

  1. Applying Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christodoulou, Joanna A.

    2009-01-01

    The ideas of multiple intelligences introduced by Howard Gardner of Harvard University more than 25 years ago have taken form in many ways, both in schools and in other sometimes-surprising settings. The silver anniversary of Gardner's learning theory provides an opportunity to reflect on the ways multiple intelligences theory has taken form and…

  2. Orchestrating Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Seana; Kornhaber, Mindy; Gardner, Howard

    2006-01-01

    Education policymakers often go astray when they attempt to integrate multiple intelligences theory into schools, according to the originator of the theory, Howard Gardner, and his colleagues. The greatest potential of a multiple intelligences approach to education grows from the concept of a profile of intelligences. Each learner's intelligence…

  3. Constraining Multiple Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue. Multiple Grammars advances the claim that optionality is a constitutive characteristic of any one grammar, with interlanguage grammars being perhaps the clearest examples of a…

  4. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOEpatents

    Alger, T.W.

    1994-09-06

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed which provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation. 4 figs.

  5. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOEpatents

    Alger, Terry W.

    1994-01-01

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed wh provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation.

  6. Applying Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christodoulou, Joanna A.

    2009-01-01

    The ideas of multiple intelligences introduced by Howard Gardner of Harvard University more than 25 years ago have taken form in many ways, both in schools and in other sometimes-surprising settings. The silver anniversary of Gardner's learning theory provides an opportunity to reflect on the ways multiple intelligences theory has taken form and…

  7. Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Tulika; Noor, Nazia Nagori; Kural, Moolraj; Tripathi, Amita

    2016-01-01

    The multiple pterygium syndrome is consist of wide range of fetal malformations which have a genetic linkage. A defect in embryonic acetylcholine receptor which can be inherited as autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, or X-linked fashion is the cause of this syndrome. We present a sporadic case of lethal multiple pterygium syndrome. PMID:27843868

  8. Assessing Children's Multiplicative Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Chris; Hurrell, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Multiplicative thinking is a "big idea" of mathematics that underpins much of the mathematics learned beyond the early primary school years. This paper reports on a current study that utilises an interview tool and a written quiz to gather data about children's multiplicative thinking. The development of the tools and some of the…

  9. Constraining Multiple Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue. Multiple Grammars advances the claim that optionality is a constitutive characteristic of any one grammar, with interlanguage grammars being perhaps the clearest examples of a…

  10. Multiple scattering technique lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bissonnette, Luc R.

    1992-01-01

    The Bernouilli-Ricatti equation is based on the single scattering description of the lidar backscatter return. In practice, especially in low visibility conditions, the effects of multiple scattering can be significant. Instead of considering these multiple scattering effects as a nuisance, we propose here to use them to help resolve the problems of having to assume a backscatter-to-extinction relation and specifying a boundary value for a position far remote from the lidar station. To this end, we have built a four-field-of-view lidar receiver to measure the multiple scattering contributions. The system has been described in a number of publications that also discuss preliminary results illustrating the multiple scattering effects for various environmental conditions. Reported here are recent advances made in the development of a method of inverting the multiple scattering data for the determination of the aerosol scattering coefficient.

  11. Multiple frame cluster tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadaleta, Sabino; Klusman, Mike; Poore, Aubrey; Slocumb, Benjamin J.

    2002-08-01

    Tracking large number of closely spaced objects is a challenging problem for any tracking system. In missile defense systems, countermeasures in the form of debris, chaff, spent fuel, and balloons can overwhelm tracking systems that track only individual objects. Thus, tracking these groups or clusters of objects followed by transitions to individual object tracking (if and when individual objects separate from the groups) is a necessary capability for a robust and real-time tracking system. The objectives of this paper are to describe the group tracking problem in the context of multiple frame target tracking and to formulate a general assignment problem for the multiple frame cluster/group tracking problem. The proposed approach forms multiple clustering hypotheses on each frame of data and base individual frame clustering decisions on the information from multiple frames of data in much the same way that MFA or MHT work for individual object tracking. The formulation of the assignment problem for resolved object tracking and candidate clustering methods for use in multiple frame cluster tracking are briefly reviewed. Then, three different formulations are presented for the combination of multiple clustering hypotheses on each frame of data and the multiple frame assignments of clusters between frames.

  12. [Multiple sclerosis and migration].

    PubMed

    Materljan, E; Sepcić, J; Materljan, B

    1996-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis, original primary demyelination in the central nervous system, is a disease of as yet unknown cause. Epidemiologic research may contribute to the clarification of this problem. Migration studies have proven that susceptibility to multiple sclerosis is associated with ethnic origin and environment, and that the critical age for the disease development is till 15 years. In Croatia, emigrating inhabitants of Gorski Kotar, a region with high exposure to this disease, carry the risk of multiple sclerosis development, provided that have emigrated after adolescence.

  13. Multiple Myeloma and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Zeinab A.; Zantout, Mira S.; Azar, Sami T.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a malignant plasma cell disorder that accounts for approximately 10% of all hematologic cancers. It is characterized by accumulation of clonal plasma cells, predominantly in the bone marrow. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing; therefore, it is expected that there will be an increase in the diagnosis of multiple myeloma with concomitant diabetes mellitus. The treatment of multiple myeloma and diabetes mellitus is multifaceted. The coexistence of the two conditions in a patient forms a major challenge for physicians. PMID:22363889

  14. Multiple intracranial enterogenous cysts.

    PubMed Central

    Walls, T J; Purohit, D P; Aji, W S; Schofield, I S; Barwick, D D

    1986-01-01

    The case of a 40-year-old woman with increasing ataxia is described. Although the clinical presentation and evoked response studies raised the possibility of multiple sclerosis, further investigation revealed multiple cystic intracranial lesions. Surgical excision of one of the lesions relieved the patient's symptoms. Histological examination revealed that this was an enterogenous cyst. Although single cysts of this type have rarely been reported occurring in the posterior cranial fossa, the occurrence of multiple lesions, some in the supratentorial compartment, appears to be unique. Images PMID:3701354

  15. Vision and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Simon J; Raoof, Naz; McLean, Rebecca J; Gottlob, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis can affect vision in many ways, including optic neuritis, chronic optic neuropathy, retrochiasmal visual field defects, higher order cortical processing, double vision, nystagmus and also by related ocular conditions such as uveitis. There are also side effects from recently introduced multiple sclerosis treatments that can affect vision. This review will discuss all these aspects and how they come together to cause visual symptoms. It will then focus on practical aspects of how to recognise when there is a vision problem in a multiple sclerosis patient and on what treatments are available to improve vision.

  16. Pomalidomide for Multiple Myeloma

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from a phase III trial that compared the combination of pomalidomide (Pomalyst®) and low-dose dexamethasone versus high-dose dexamethasone alone in patients with multiple myeloma that has progressed despite other treatments.

  17. Multiple shell fusion targets

    DOEpatents

    Lindl, J.D.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1975-10-31

    Multiple shell fusion targets for use with electron beam and ion beam implosion systems are described. The multiple shell targets are of the low-power type and use a separate relatively low Z, low density ablator at large radius for the outer shell, which reduces the focusing and power requirements of the implosion system while maintaining reasonable aspect ratios. The targets use a high Z, high density pusher shell placed at a much smaller radius in order to obtain an aspect ratio small enough to protect against fluid instability. Velocity multiplication between these shells further lowers the power requirements. Careful tuning of the power profile and intershell density results in a low entropy implosion which allows breakeven at low powers. For example, with ion beams as a power source, breakeven at 10-20 Terrawatts with 10 MeV alpha particles for imploding a multiple shell target can be accomplished.

  18. Taking multiple medicines safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000883.htm Taking multiple medicines safely To use the sharing features on this ... directed. Why You May Need More Than One Medicine You may take more than one medicine to ...

  19. The Multiplicative Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between three critical elements, and the associated mathematical language, to assist students to make the critical transition from additive to multiplicative thinking are examined in this article by Chris Hurst.

  20. Sexual Health - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Sexual Health URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ...

  1. The Multiplicative Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between three critical elements, and the associated mathematical language, to assist students to make the critical transition from additive to multiplicative thinking are examined in this article by Chris Hurst.

  2. Cholesterol - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cholesterol URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/cholesterol.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  3. Concussion - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Concussion URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/concussion.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  4. Dentures - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Dentures URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/dentures.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  5. Crohn's Disease - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Crohn's Disease URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/crohnsdisease.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  6. Colonic Diseases - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Colonic Diseases URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/colonicdiseases.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  7. Multiple System Atrophy (MSA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to-day activities Vocal cord paralysis, which makes speech and breathing difficult Increased difficulty swallowing People typically live about seven to 10 years after multiple system atrophy symptoms first appear. However, the ...

  8. Understanding Multiplication of Fractions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweetland, Robert D.

    1984-01-01

    Discussed the use of Cuisenaire rods in teaching the multiplication of fractions. Considers whole number times proper fraction, proper fraction multiplied by proper fraction, mixed number times proper fraction, and mixed fraction multiplied by mixed fractions. (JN)

  9. Breast Diseases - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Breast Diseases URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/breastdiseases.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  10. Anemia - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Anemia URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/anemia.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  11. Anxiety - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Anxiety URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/anxiety.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  12. Anal Disorders - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Anal Disorders URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/analdisorders.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  13. Animal Bites - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Animal Bites URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/animalbites.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  14. Alzheimer's Disease - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Alzheimer's Disease URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/alzheimersdisease.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  15. Bladder Diseases - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bladder Diseases URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bladderdiseases.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  16. Burns - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Burns URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/burns.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  17. Breathing Problems - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Breathing Problems URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/breathingproblems.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  18. Childbirth - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Childbirth URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/childbirth.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  19. Acute Bronchitis - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Acute Bronchitis URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/acutebronchitis.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  20. Alcohol - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Alcohol URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/alcohol.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  1. Angioplasty - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Angioplasty URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/angioplasty.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  2. Back Injuries - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Back Injuries URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/backinjuries.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  3. Breastfeeding - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Breastfeeding URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/breastfeeding.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  4. Angina - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Angina URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/angina.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  5. Bipolar Disorder - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bipolar Disorder URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bipolardisorder.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  6. Child Nutrition - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Nutrition URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/childnutrition.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  7. Chickenpox - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Chickenpox URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/chickenpox.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  8. Bad Breath - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bad Breath URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/badbreath.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  9. Blood Thinners - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Blood Thinners URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bloodthinners.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  10. Bed Bugs - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bed Bugs URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bedbugs.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  11. Cataract - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cataract URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/cataract.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  12. Breast Cancer - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Breast Cancer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/breastcancer.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  13. Atrial Fibrillation - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Atrial Fibrillation URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/atrialfibrillation.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  14. Advance Directives - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Advance Directives URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/advancedirectives.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  15. Allergy - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Allergy URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/allergy.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  16. Cesarean Section - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cesarean Section URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/cesareansection.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  17. Bone Diseases - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bone Diseases URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bonediseases.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  18. Child Safety - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Safety URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/childsafety.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  19. Cervical Cancer - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cervical Cancer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/cervicalcancer.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  20. Bullying - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bullying URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bullying.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  1. Blood Sugar - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Blood Sugar URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bloodsugar.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  2. Asthma - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Asthma URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/asthma.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  3. Cancer Chemotherapy - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cancer Chemotherapy URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/cancerchemotherapy.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  4. Abortion - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Abortion URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/abortion.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  5. Appendicitis - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Appendicitis URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/appendicitis.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  6. Arthritis - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Arthritis URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/arthritis.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  7. Caregivers - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Caregivers URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/caregivers.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  8. Cancer - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cancer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/cancer.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  9. After Surgery - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → After Surgery URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/aftersurgery.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  10. Back Pain - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Back Pain URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/backpain.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  11. Bacterial Infections - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bacterial Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bacterialinfections.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  12. Chemical Emergencies - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Chemical Emergencies URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/chemicalemergencies.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  13. Bone Cancer - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bone Cancer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bonecancer.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  14. Mobile multiple access study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Multiple access techniques (FDMA, CDMA, TDMA) for the mobile user and attempts to identify the current best technique are discussed. Traffic loading is considered as well as voice and data modulation and spacecraft and system design. Emphasis is placed on developing mobile terminal cost estimates for the selected design. In addition, design examples are presented for the alternative techniques of multiple access in order to compare with the selected technique.

  15. Multiple pterygium syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Penchaszadeh, V B; Salszberg, B

    1981-01-01

    The multiple pterygium syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterised by arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, pterygia of the neck, fingers, and antecubital, popliteal, and intercrural areas, growth retardation, and facial, vertebral, and genital anomalies. We present two unrelated patients of 17 and 6 years of age, respectively, affected with this condition. We describe the natural history of their disorder since birth and review the spectrum of phenotypic variation of the multiple pterygium syndrome in 25 published cases. Images PMID:7334504

  16. Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Measurement Error Models

    PubMed Central

    Tekwe, Carmen D.; Carter, Randy L.; Cullings, Harry M.; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Models (MIMIC) are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times however when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model, (2) to develop likelihood based estimation methods for the MIMIC ME model, (3) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. As a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure. PMID:24962535

  17. Multiple indicators, multiple causes measurement error models

    SciTech Connect

    Tekwe, Carmen D.; Carter, Randy L.; Cullings, Harry M.; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-06-25

    Multiple indicators, multiple causes (MIMIC) models are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times, however, when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this study are as follows: (i) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model; (ii) to develop likelihood-based estimation methods for the MIMIC ME model; and (iii) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. Finally, as a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure.

  18. Trousseau's syndrome: multiple definitions and multiple mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    In 1865, Armand Trousseau noted that unexpected or migratory thrombophlebitis could be a forewarning of an occult visceral malignancy. An analysis by Sack and colleagues in 1977 extended the term Trousseau's syndrome to include chronic disseminated intravascular coagulopathy associated with microangiopathy, verrucous endocarditis, and arterial emboli in patients with cancer, often occurring with mucin-positive carcinomas. In recent times the term has been ascribed to various clinical situations, ranging all the way from these classic descriptions to any kind of coagulopathy occurring in the setting of any kind of malignancy. These multiple definitions of Trousseau's syndrome are partly the consequence of multiple pathophysiologic mechanisms that apparently contribute to the hypercoagulability associated with cancer. Even the classic syndrome probably represents a spectrum of disorders, ranging from exaggerated fluid-phased thrombosis dependent on prothrombotic agents such as tissue factor to a platelet- and endotheliumum-based selectin-dependent microangiopathy associated with mucin-producing carcinomas, along with thrombin and fibrin production. Also considered here are recent hypotheses about genetic pathways within tumor cells that might trigger these thrombotic phenomena, and the reasons why therapy with heparins of various kinds remain the preferred treatment, probably because of their salutary actions on several of the proposed pathologic mechanisms. PMID:17496204

  19. Multiple stage multiple filter hydrate store

    DOEpatents

    Bjorkman, H.K. Jr.

    1983-05-31

    An improved hydrate store for a metal halogen battery system is disclosed which employs a multiple stage, multiple filter means for separating the halogen hydrate from the liquid used in forming the hydrate. The filter means is constructed in the form of three separate sections which combine to substantially cover the interior surface of the store container. Exit conduit means is provided in association with the filter means for transmitting liquid passing through the filter means to a hydrate former subsystem. The hydrate former subsystem combines the halogen gas generated during the charging of the battery system with the liquid to form the hydrate in association with the store. Relief valve means is interposed in the exit conduit means for controlling the operation of the separate sections of the filter means, such that the liquid flow through the exit conduit means from each of the separate sections is controlled in a predetermined sequence. The three separate sections of the filter means operate in three discrete stages to provide a substantially uniform liquid flow to the hydrate former subsystem during the charging of the battery system. The separation of the liquid from the hydrate causes an increase in the density of the hydrate by concentrating the hydrate along the filter means. 7 figs.

  20. Multiple indicators, multiple causes measurement error models

    DOE PAGES

    Tekwe, Carmen D.; Carter, Randy L.; Cullings, Harry M.; ...

    2014-06-25

    Multiple indicators, multiple causes (MIMIC) models are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times, however, when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this study are as follows: (i) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model; (ii) to develop likelihood-based estimation methodsmore » for the MIMIC ME model; and (iii) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. Finally, as a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure.« less

  1. Multiple indicators, multiple causes measurement error models.

    PubMed

    Tekwe, Carmen D; Carter, Randy L; Cullings, Harry M; Carroll, Raymond J

    2014-11-10

    Multiple indicators, multiple causes (MIMIC) models are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times, however, when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this paper are as follows: (i) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model; (ii) to develop likelihood-based estimation methods for the MIMIC ME model; and (iii) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. As a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Multiple stage multiple filter hydrate store

    DOEpatents

    Bjorkman, Jr., Harry K.

    1983-05-31

    An improved hydrate store for a metal halogen battery system is disclosed which employs a multiple stage, multiple filter means or separating the halogen hydrate from the liquid used in forming the hydrate. The filter means is constructed in the form of three separate sections which combine to substantially cover the interior surface of the store container. Exit conduit means is provided in association with the filter means for transmitting liquid passing through the filter means to a hydrate former subsystem. The hydrate former subsystem combines the halogen gas generated during the charging of the battery system with the liquid to form the hydrate in association with the store. Relief valve means is interposed in the exit conduit means for controlling the operation of the separate sections of the filter means, such that the liquid flow through the exit conduit means from each of the separate sections is controlled in a predetermined sequence. The three separate sections of the filter means operate in three discrete stages to provide a substantially uniform liquid flow to the hydrate former subsystem during the charging of the battery system. The separation of the liquid from the hydrate causes an increase in the density of the hydrate by concentrating the hydrate along the filter means.

  3. Use of Multiple Correlation Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberty, Carl J.; Petoskey, Martha D.

    1999-01-01

    Distinguishes between multiple correlation and multiple regression analysis. Illustrates suggested information reporting methods and reviews the use of regression methods when dealing with problems of missing data. (SK)

  4. Enhancing multiple disciplinary teamwork.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Terri E

    2008-01-01

    Multiple disciplinary research provides an opportunity to bring together investigators across disciplines to provide new views and develop innovative approaches to important questions. Through this shared experience, novel paradigms are formed, original frameworks are developed, and new language is generated. Integral to the successful construction of effective cross-disciplinary teams is the recognition of antecedent factors that affect the development of the team such as intrapersonal, social, physical environmental, organizational, and institutional influences. Team functioning is enhanced with well-developed behavioral, affective, interpersonal, and intellectual processes. Outcomes of effective multiple disciplinary research teams include novel ideas, integrative models, new training programs, institutional change, and innovative policies that can also influence the degree to which antecedents and processes contribute to team performance. Ongoing evaluation of team functioning and achievement of designated outcomes ensures the continued development of the multiple disciplinary team and confirmation of this approach as important to the advancement of science.

  5. Neutron multiplicity analysis tool

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Scott L

    2010-01-01

    I describe the capabilities of the EXCOM (EXcel based COincidence and Multiplicity) calculation tool which is used to analyze experimental data or simulated neutron multiplicity data. The input to the program is the count-rate data (including the multiplicity distribution) for a measurement, the isotopic composition of the sample and relevant dates. The program carries out deadtime correction and background subtraction and then performs a number of analyses. These are: passive calibration curve, known alpha and multiplicity analysis. The latter is done with both the point model and with the weighted point model. In the current application EXCOM carries out the rapid analysis of Monte Carlo calculated quantities and allows the user to determine the magnitude of sample perturbations that lead to systematic errors. Neutron multiplicity counting is an assay method used in the analysis of plutonium for safeguards applications. It is widely used in nuclear material accountancy by international (IAEA) and national inspectors. The method uses the measurement of the correlations in a pulse train to extract information on the spontaneous fission rate in the presence of neutrons from ({alpha},n) reactions and induced fission. The measurement is relatively simple to perform and gives results very quickly ({le} 1 hour). By contrast, destructive analysis techniques are extremely costly and time consuming (several days). By improving the achievable accuracy of neutron multiplicity counting, a nondestructive analysis technique, it could be possible to reduce the use of destructive analysis measurements required in safeguards applications. The accuracy of a neutron multiplicity measurement can be affected by a number of variables such as density, isotopic composition, chemical composition and moisture in the material. In order to determine the magnitude of these effects on the measured plutonium mass a calculational tool, EXCOM, has been produced using VBA within Excel. This

  6. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Pont, Allan

    1980-01-01

    The multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes consist of three distinct disease entities. They have in common adenomatous, carcinomatous or hyperplastic involvement of a variety of endocrine glands, and an autosomal dominant inheritance. MEN I includes hyperparathyroidism, islet cell and pituitary tumors. The components of MEN IIa are hyperparathyroidism, medullary thyroid carcinoma and pheochromocytoma. MEN IIb includes multiple neuromas, medullary thyroid carcinoma and pheochromocytoma. Effective tests are available for the early detection of components of the syndromes in potentially affected patients. Screening can lead to therapeutic intervention before clinical sequelae ensue. PMID:6247851

  7. Multiple sort flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Van den Engh, Ger; Esposito, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane.

  8. Multiple origins of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, D. M.; Valentine, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    There is some indication that life may have originated readily under primitive earth conditions. If there were multiple origins of life, the result could have been a polyphyletic biota today. Using simple stochastic models for diversification and extinction, we conclude: (1) the probability of survival of life is low unless there are multiple origins, and (2) given survival of life and given as many as 10 independent origins of life, the odds are that all but one would have gone extinct, yielding the monophyletic biota we have now. The fact of the survival of our particular form of life does not imply that it was unique or superior.

  9. Multiple sort flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Engh, G. van den; Esposito, R.J.

    1996-01-09

    A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane. 8 figs.

  10. [Multiple intracranial arteriovenous malformation].

    PubMed

    Gelabert-González, Miguel; Santin-Amo, José María; Román-Pena, Paula; Vázquez Herrero, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Multiple cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are thought to be exceedingly rare lesions and have usually been reported as single cases. The incidence of multiple cerebral AVMs in major series ranges from 0.3% to 9% and, in the majority of cases, these malformations are associated with other vascular anomalies of the brain or soft tissues. We report a 62-year-old woman that presented with a left temporal haemorrhage. Angiography showed 3 AVMs located in the left temporal lobe, left cerebellar hemisphere and right temporal lobe. The lesions were treated with radiosurgery.

  11. Multiple Primary Cancer Monograph

    Cancer.gov

    To identify groups of cancer survivors that are at increased risk for multiple primary cancers, investigators led an effort to provide the first comprehensive population-based analysis of the risk of subsequent cancer in the U.S., resulting in a monograph.

  12. Automatic multiple applicator electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Easy-to-use, economical device permits electrophoresis on all known supporting media. System includes automatic multiple-sample applicator, sample holder, and electrophoresis apparatus. System has potential applicability to fields of taxonomy, immunology, and genetics. Apparatus is also used for electrofocusing.

  13. Multiple gap photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Dalal, Vikram L.

    1981-01-01

    A multiple gap photovoltaic device having a transparent electrical contact adjacent a first cell which in turn is adjacent a second cell on an opaque electrical contact, includes utilizing an amorphous semiconductor as the first cell and a crystalline semiconductor as the second cell.

  14. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Parke, A L; Liu, P T; Parke, D V

    2003-01-01

    Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and renal failure, is described, its clinical features outlined, its origins in tissue oxidative stress following severe infections, surgical trauma, ionizing radiation, high-dosage drugs and chemicals, severe hemorrhage, etc., are defined, and its prevention and treatment prescribed.

  15. Multiple external root resorption.

    PubMed

    Yusof, W Z; Ghazali, M N

    1989-04-01

    Presented is an unusual case of multiple external root resorption. Although the cause of this resorption was not determined, several possibilities are presented. Trauma from occlusion, periodontal and pulpal inflammation, and resorption of idiopathic origin are all discussed as possible causes.

  16. Universality of particle multiplicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulianos, K.

    1994-09-01

    We discuss the scaling properties and universality aspects of the rapidity and multiplicity distributions of particles produced in high energy hadronic and e(+)e(-) interactions. This paper is based on material presented in three lectures on pomeron phenomenology, which included a review of traditional soft pomeron physics and selected topics on hard diffraction processes probing the structure function of the pomeron.

  17. Assessing Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, William C.

    This paper explains Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI) and discusses questions raised about MI theory in regard to validity, assessment, and implications for instructional activities. MI theory asserts that human cognitive competence is best described in terms of a set of abilities, talents, and mental skills that each child…

  18. Multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Salama, A A

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents a description of Multiple Personality Disorder--its development, etiology, and presentation. The paper stresses the criteria for diagnosis that can help professionals to identify individuals at an early stage. An overview of treatment approaches and indications for hospitalization, length of treatment, and goals are also explained.

  19. Multiple Access Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motamedi, Masoud

    1990-01-01

    The Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) strawman design uses a hybrid Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)/Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) implementation. TDMA is used for the forward direction (from Suppliers to Users), and FDMA for the return direction (from Users to Suppliers). An alternative architecture is proposed that will require minimal real time coordination and yet provide a fast access method by using random access Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). The CDMA system issues are addressed such as connecting suppliers and users, both of whom may be located anywhere in the CONUS, when the user terminals are constrained in size and weight; and providing efficient traffic routing under highly variable traffic requirements. It is assumed that bandwidth efficiency is not of paramount importance. CDMA or Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (SSMA) communication is a method in which a group of carriers operate at the same nominal center frequency but are separable from each other by the low cross correlation of the spreading codes used. Interference and multipath rejection capability, ease of selective addressing and message screening, low density power spectra for signal hiding and security, and high resolution ranging are among the benefits of spread spectrum communications.

  20. Multiple Grammars and MOGUL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscott, John

    2014-01-01

    Optionality is a central phenomenon in second language acquisition (SLA), for which any adequate theory must account. Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) offer an appealing approach to it, using Roeper's Multiple Grammars Theory, which was created with first language in mind but which extends very naturally to SLA. They include…

  1. Unfolding Fraction Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyberg, Terry; Whitney, Stephanie R.; Cramer, Kathleen A.; Monson, Debra S.; Leavitt, Seth

    2011-01-01

    Students often have difficulty understanding fractions, in general, and understanding how to multiply fractions, in particular. To move past this potential problem area, students need to develop a deeper understanding of multiplication and connect the ideas to fractions. In this article, the authors share their insights into teaching fraction…

  2. Multiple Intelligences: A Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Robin, Ed.; Bellanca, James, Ed.

    As a concise resource for Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences and its implications for schooling around the world, this collection is designed for educators, parents, and others interested in education. The first section discusses Gardner and his background, and the second section expounds his theory. The third section explores the…

  3. Multiple Stakeholders and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichelberger, R. Tony

    Evaluations occur within a political decision-making mileau, where multiple stakeholders are contending for limited funds. Given the subjective basis of empirical information, different conclusions or recommendations about a program may result from different ideological, theoretical, and disciplinary perspectives. The logic behind the…

  4. Multiple Docking Adapter Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This cutaway drawing details the major characteristics of the Skylab Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA). The MDA, built under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center, housed the control units for the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP), and Zero-Gravity Materials Processing Facility, and provided a docking port for the Apollo Command Module (CM).

  5. Hyperamylasaemia in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Bloemendal, H J; Lobatto, S

    1996-07-01

    A 71-year-old woman, known to have multiple myeloma, was admitted because of fever, abdominal pain and hyperamylasaemia and hyperamylasuria. She was diagnosed as having acute pancreatitis. Because the diagnosis could not be confirmed, and serum lipase was normal, it appeared that this patient had developed an amylase-producing myeloma lesion in the pelvis.

  6. A Multiple Intelligence Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuzzi, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    Describes multiple intelligence instruction (MII), based on the theory that humans possess seven intelligences: visual, musical, logical-mathematical, intrapersonal, interpersonal, linguistic, and bodily-kinesthetic. Argues that current methods of assessment are deficit-based and, therefore, not helpful in assessing MII students. Describes an…

  7. [Smoldering multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Fouquet, G; Guidez, S; Herbaux, C; Demarquette, H; Leleu, X

    2014-04-01

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic plasma cell neoplasia, characterized by monoclonal plasma cell proliferation in the absence of end-organ damage, but with a high risk of progression to multiple myeloma. It has therefore to be distinguished from monoclonal gammapathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), which has a much lower risk of progression, but also from multiple myeloma, which remains an incurable disease and requires a specific treatment. The critical question in the management of SMM is whether an early therapeutic strategy could help delaying the progression to multiple myeloma, in order to lower the risk of serious complications related to this progression, or even to cure the disease. This early treatment could not be proposed to all SMM patients, who are indeed asymptomatic, and in whom the risk of toxicity could make it difficult to justify the potential benefit obtained. The challenge is to target early at diagnosis SMM patients with a high risk of progression, using available routine tests sufficiently reliable to warrant the therapeutic sanction which relies on it. Today however, apart from randomized studies, recommendations are to maintain therapeutic abstention in SMM patients. Copyright © 2013 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiple Scattering in Clouds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    Equation .................................. 35 Boundary Conditions ................................ 37SIrradiance at Cloud Exit...mathematical description of the multiple scatter- ing problem is given by the nonstationary radiative transport equation of Chandrasekhar [2]. Written in...function, S0 is the source function, and X is the single-scatter albedo. Unfortunately, the nonstationary transport equation has not been solved in a

  9. Multiple sclerosis and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Popescu, C D

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is one of the main reasons for invalidation of young adults of both sexes. The disease is more common in women than in men. The illness begins most frequently in patients between the ages of 20 and 40 years, which is also the most fertile period for women. MS is an immune-mediated disease with chronic evolution marked by exacerbations and remissions that amplify the degree of disability. The most common clinical picture is the one with relapse and remission whose evolution is greatly improved after immunomodulatory treatment. We have revised the literature together with the data from the national multiple sclerosis society and the cases that are in the National Programme of Multiple Sclerosis, mainly the ones that are assigned to the regional center of Iaşi, at the Neurology Clinic inside the Clinical Rehabilitation Hospital Iaşi. Pregnancy is quite frequent in female patients with MS. Certain risks are present during pregnancy, birth and breastfeeding and certain protocols must be applied, such as interrupting the immunomodulatory treatment before the conception. Child delivery must be closely monitored and it must take into consideration the dysfunction that the patient has and be adapted to the existing deficits. There are some methods that may be used during delivery for female patients with multiple sclerosis in order to make this process smooth and reduce the risk of postpartum complications. Multiple sclerosis is an invalidating disease, with a high prevalence in women. Pregnancy in patients with MS is not such a natural phenomenon as in a healthy female and it requires a multidisciplinary team in order to ensure the safety of both the mother and the newborn.

  10. Small Multiples with Gaps.

    PubMed

    Meulemans, Wouter; Dykes, Jason; Slingsby, Aidan; Turkay, Cagatay; Wood, Jo

    2017-01-01

    Small multiples enable comparison by providing different views of a single data set in a dense and aligned manner. A common frame defines each view, which varies based upon values of a conditioning variable. An increasingly popular use of this technique is to project two-dimensional locations into a gridded space (e.g. grid maps), using the underlying distribution both as the conditioning variable and to determine the grid layout. Using whitespace in this layout has the potential to carry information, especially in a geographic context. Yet, the effects of doing so on the spatial properties of the original units are not understood. We explore the design space offered by such small multiples with gaps. We do so by constructing a comprehensive suite of metrics that capture properties of the layout used to arrange the small multiples for comparison (e.g. compactness and alignment) and the preservation of the original data (e.g. distance, topology and shape). We study these metrics in geographic data sets with varying properties and numbers of gaps. We use simulated annealing to optimize for each metric and measure the effects on the others. To explore these effects systematically, we take a new approach, developing a system to visualize this design space using a set of interactive matrices. We find that adding small amounts of whitespace to small multiple arrays improves some of the characteristics of 2D layouts, such as shape, distance and direction. This comes at the cost of other metrics, such as the retention of topology. Effects vary according to the input maps, with degree of variation in size of input regions found to be a factor. Optima exist for particular metrics in many cases, but at different amounts of whitespace for different maps. We suggest multiple metrics be used in optimized layouts, finding topology to be a primary factor in existing manually-crafted solutions, followed by a trade-off between shape and displacement. But the rich range of possible

  11. Multiplicative Calculus and Student Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Duff

    1999-01-01

    Multiplicative calculus is based on a multiplicative rate of change whereas the usual calculus is based on an additive rate of change. Describes some student investigations into multiplicative calculus, including an original student idea about multiplicative Euler's Method. (Author/ASK)

  12. Treatment of multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, S. Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of multiple myeloma has changed dramatically in the past decade. The increase in the number of active agents has generated numerous possible drug combinations that can be used in the first-line and relapsed settings. As a result, there is considerable confusion about the choice of regimens for initial therapy, role of transplantation in the era of new drugs, end points for therapy, and the role of maintenance therapy. A hotly debated area is whether treatment approaches should achieve cure or disease control, which impacts greatly on the treatment strategy employed. This article provides an update on the treatment of multiple myeloma, with a focus on recent advances, newly diagnosed disease, role of transplantation and maintenance therapy. A synthesized approach to the treatment of myeloma is presented, along with a discussion of key paradigms that need to be challenged. PMID:21522124

  13. Portable multiplicity counter

    DOEpatents

    Newell, Matthew R.; Jones, David Carl

    2009-09-01

    A portable multiplicity counter has signal input circuitry, processing circuitry and a user/computer interface disposed in a housing. The processing circuitry, which can comprise a microcontroller integrated circuit operably coupled to shift register circuitry implemented in a field programmable gate array, is configured to be operable via the user/computer interface to count input signal pluses receivable at said signal input circuitry and record time correlations thereof in a total counting mode, coincidence counting mode and/or a multiplicity counting mode. The user/computer interface can be for example an LCD display/keypad and/or a USB interface. The counter can include a battery pack for powering the counter and low/high voltage power supplies for biasing external detectors so that the counter can be configured as a hand-held device for counting neutron events.

  14. Multiple zeros of polynomials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    For polynomials of higher degree, iterative numerical methods must be used. Four iterative methods are presented for approximating the zeros of a polynomial using a digital computer. Newton's method and Muller's method are two well known iterative methods which are presented. They extract the zeros of a polynomial by generating a sequence of approximations converging to each zero. However, both of these methods are very unstable when used on a polynomial which has multiple zeros. That is, either they fail to converge to some or all of the zeros, or they converge to very bad approximations of the polynomial's zeros. This material introduces two new methods, the greatest common divisor (G.C.D.) method and the repeated greatest common divisor (repeated G.C.D.) method, which are superior methods for numerically approximating the zeros of a polynomial having multiple zeros. These methods were programmed in FORTRAN 4 and comparisons in time and accuracy are given.

  15. Universality of particle multiplicities

    SciTech Connect

    Goulianos, K. |

    1994-09-01

    We discuss the scaling properties and universality aspects of the rapidity and multiplicity distributions of particles produced in high energy hadronic and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions. This paper is based on material presented in three lectures on pomeron phenomenology, which included a review of traditional soft pomeron physics and selected topics on hard diffraction processes probing the structure function of the pomeron.

  16. Multiple myeloma: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Slovak, Marilyn L

    2011-12-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of terminally differentiated plasma cells characterized by complex genetic aberrations and heterogeneous outcomes. Over the past 25 years, cytogenetic analysis has played a key role in the diagnosis and management of MM. This article reviews the conventional cytogenetics, molecular cytogenetics, and genomic diagnostics of MM and highlights a few recent clinical trials that demonstrate the impact of genetic risk stratification on the treatment of this plasma cell malignancy.

  17. Lipedema with multiple lipomas.

    PubMed

    Pascucci, Anabella; Lynch, Peter J

    2010-09-15

    Lipedema is an underdiagnosed syndrome of unclear etiology, characterized by symmetric painful enlargement of the buttocks and lower extremities, which spares the feet. This enlargement is caused by the deposition of adipose tissue. It was first described by Allen and Hines in 1940, who observed that it had a female predilection; patients commonly had an associated family history. We describe a patient with classic lipedema and multiple lipomas of her arms and trunk.

  18. Multiple muons in MACRO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinz, R.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the multiple muon events in the Monopole Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Observatory detector was conducted to determine the cosmic ray composition. Particular emphasis is placed on the interesting primary cosmic ray energy region above 2000 TeV/nucleus. An extensive study of muon production in cosmic ray showers has been done. Results were used to parameterize the characteristics of muon penetration into the Earth to the location of a detector.

  19. [Multiple primary pulmonary carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Guitart, A C; Gómez, G; Estrada, G; Rodríguez, C; León, C; Cornudella, R

    1991-02-01

    Three cases of multiple simultaneous primary lung carcinomas are presented, in which diagnosis was established by post-surgery pathological exam. In all three cases, chest X-ray showed pulmonary masses suggestive or clinical malignancy, and pre-surgery pathological diagnosis or squamous lung carcinoma. During thoracotomy or in the resected segment, a second lesion we confirmed which made resection necessary being this second lesion classified as lung adenocarcinoma.

  20. Multiple log potash assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, D. G.

    1993-10-01

    A five-mineral multiple-log potash assay technique has been successfully applied to evaluate potash-rich intervals in evaporite sequences. The technique is able to distinguish economic potash minerals from non-economic potash minerals and from other non-potash radioactive minerals. It can be applied on location, using a programmable calculator or microcomputer, providing near real-time logs of potash mineral concentrations. Log assay values show good agreement with core wet chemistry analyses.

  1. Multiple Core Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R.H.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Nuclei of galaxies often show complicated density structures and perplexing kinematic signatures. In the past we have reported numerical experiments indicating a natural tendency for galaxies to show nuclei offset with respect to nearby isophotes and for the nucleus to have a radial velocity different from the galaxy's systemic velocity. Other experiments show normal mode oscillations in galaxies with large amplitudes. These oscillations do not damp appreciably over a Hubble time. The common thread running through all these is that galaxies often show evidence of ringing, bouncing, or sloshing around in unexpected ways, even though they have not been disturbed by any external event. Recent observational evidence shows yet another phenomenon indicating the dynamical complexity of central regions of galaxies: multiple cores (M31, Markarian 315 and 463 for example). These systems can hardly be static. We noted long-lived multiple core systems in galaxies in numerical experiments some years ago, and we have more recently followed up with a series of experiments on multiple core galaxies, starting with two cores. The relevant parameters are the energy in the orbiting clumps, their relative.masses, the (local) strength of the potential well representing the parent galaxy, and the number of cores. We have studied the dependence of the merger rates and the nature of the final merger product on these parameters. Individual cores survive much longer in stronger background potentials. Cores can survive for a substantial fraction of a Hubble time if they travel on reasonable orbits.

  2. Multiple protein structure alignment.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, W. R.; Flores, T. P.; Orengo, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    A method was developed to compare protein structures and to combine them into a multiple structure consensus. Previous methods of multiple structure comparison have only concatenated pairwise alignments or produced a consensus structure by averaging coordinate sets. The current method is a fusion of the fast structure comparison program SSAP and the multiple sequence alignment program MULTAL. As in MULTAL, structures are progressively combined, producing intermediate consensus structures that are compared directly to each other and all remaining single structures. This leads to a hierarchic "condensation," continually evaluated in the light of the emerging conserved core regions. Following the SSAP approach, all interatomic vectors were retained with well-conserved regions distinguished by coherent vector bundles (the structural equivalent of a conserved sequence position). Each bundle of vectors is summarized by a resultant, whereas vector coherence is captured in an error term, which is the only distinction between conserved and variable positions. Resultant vectors are used directly in the comparison, which is weighted by their error values, giving greater importance to the matching of conserved positions. The resultant vectors and their errors can also be used directly in molecular modeling. Applications of the method were assessed by the quality of the resulting sequence alignments, phylogenetic tree construction, and databank scanning with the consensus. Visual assessment of the structural superpositions and consensus structure for various well-characterized families confirmed that the consensus had identified a reasonable core. PMID:7849601

  3. Multiple Core Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R.H.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Nuclei of galaxies often show complicated density structures and perplexing kinematic signatures. In the past we have reported numerical experiments indicating a natural tendency for galaxies to show nuclei offset with respect to nearby isophotes and for the nucleus to have a radial velocity different from the galaxy's systemic velocity. Other experiments show normal mode oscillations in galaxies with large amplitudes. These oscillations do not damp appreciably over a Hubble time. The common thread running through all these is that galaxies often show evidence of ringing, bouncing, or sloshing around in unexpected ways, even though they have not been disturbed by any external event. Recent observational evidence shows yet another phenomenon indicating the dynamical complexity of central regions of galaxies: multiple cores (M31, Markarian 315 and 463 for example). These systems can hardly be static. We noted long-lived multiple core systems in galaxies in numerical experiments some years ago, and we have more recently followed up with a series of experiments on multiple core galaxies, starting with two cores. The relevant parameters are the energy in the orbiting clumps, their relative.masses, the (local) strength of the potential well representing the parent galaxy, and the number of cores. We have studied the dependence of the merger rates and the nature of the final merger product on these parameters. Individual cores survive much longer in stronger background potentials. Cores can survive for a substantial fraction of a Hubble time if they travel on reasonable orbits.

  4. Effect of climate change on sporulation of the teleomorphs of Leptosphaeria species causing stem canker of brassicas.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Joanna; Kedziora, Andrzej; Brachaczek, Andrzej; Latunde-Dada, Akinwunmi O; Dakowska, Sylwia; Karg, Grzegorz; Jedryczka, Małgorzata

    Leptosphaeria maculans and L. biglobosa are closely related sibling fungal pathogens that cause phoma leaf spotting, stem canker (blackleg) and stem necrosis of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). The disease is distributed worldwide, and it is one of the main causes of considerable decrease in seed yield and quality. Information about the time of ascospore release at a particular location provides important data for decision making in plant protection, thereby enabling fungicides to be used only when necessary and at optimal times and doses. Although the pathogens have been studied very extensively, the effect of climate change on the frequencies and distributions of their aerially dispersed primary inoculum has not been reported to date. We have collected a large dataset of spore counts from Poznan, located in central-west part of Poland, and studied the relationships between climate and the daily concentrations of airborne propagules over a period of 17 years (1998-2014). The average air temperature and precipitation for the time of development of pseudothecia and ascospore release (July-November), increased during the years under study at the rates of 0.1 °C and 6.3 mm per year. The day of the year (DOY) for the first detection of spores, as well as the date with maximum of spores, shifted from 270 to 248 DOY, and from 315 to 265 DOY, respectively. The acceleration of the former parameter by 22 days and the latter by 50 days has great influence on the severity of stem canker of oilseed rape.

  5. Galactomannans from the cell walls of species of Paecilomyces sect. Paecilomyces and their teleomorphs as immunotaxonomic markers.

    PubMed

    Domenech, J; Prieto, A; Barasoaín, I; Gómez-Miranda, B; Bernabé, M; Leal, J A

    1999-10-01

    An alkali-extractable and water-soluble fraction (F1S) was obtained from cell walls of Paecilomyces variotii and species of the related genera Talaromyces, Byssochlamys and Thermoascus. The structure of the main polysaccharide of these fractions was studied and found to consist of a core of (1 --> 6)-alpha-mannopyranose partially substituted at 0.2 by chains of galactofuranose and shorter chains of mannopyranose. The differences in the regularity of the branching points and the length of the galactofuranose side chains are useful to distinguish between species. These differences were detected by immunological methods, since highly specific polyclonal antibodies were raised against these polysaccharides. Mycelium of P. variotii CBS 990.73A was stained by indirect immunofluorescence. The polysaccharides studied in this work differ from the one described for species from section Isarioidea, and this is another indication of the heterogeneity of the genus Paecilomyces.

  6. Multiple Sparse Representations Classification

    PubMed Central

    Plenge, Esben; Klein, Stefan S.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Meijering, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Sparse representations classification (SRC) is a powerful technique for pixelwise classification of images and it is increasingly being used for a wide variety of image analysis tasks. The method uses sparse representation and learned redundant dictionaries to classify image pixels. In this empirical study we propose to further leverage the redundancy of the learned dictionaries to achieve a more accurate classifier. In conventional SRC, each image pixel is associated with a small patch surrounding it. Using these patches, a dictionary is trained for each class in a supervised fashion. Commonly, redundant/overcomplete dictionaries are trained and image patches are sparsely represented by a linear combination of only a few of the dictionary elements. Given a set of trained dictionaries, a new patch is sparse coded using each of them, and subsequently assigned to the class whose dictionary yields the minimum residual energy. We propose a generalization of this scheme. The method, which we call multiple sparse representations classification (mSRC), is based on the observation that an overcomplete, class specific dictionary is capable of generating multiple accurate and independent estimates of a patch belonging to the class. So instead of finding a single sparse representation of a patch for each dictionary, we find multiple, and the corresponding residual energies provides an enhanced statistic which is used to improve classification. We demonstrate the efficacy of mSRC for three example applications: pixelwise classification of texture images, lumen segmentation in carotid artery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and bifurcation point detection in carotid artery MRI. We compare our method with conventional SRC, K-nearest neighbor, and support vector machine classifiers. The results show that mSRC outperforms SRC and the other reference methods. In addition, we present an extensive evaluation of the effect of the main mSRC parameters: patch size, dictionary size, and

  7. Multiple Sclerosis: An Update.

    PubMed

    Faguy, Kathryn

    2016-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common disabling neurologic condition in young adults and imposes high financial and quality of life costs on patients, their families, and society. Yet, developments in the battle against MS include new treatments to slow its progression and updated diagnostic criteria that can accelerate diagnosis and effective treatment. This article offers a review and update on the disease, focusing on risk factors and possible causes, symptoms, forms of MS, diagnostic criteria and tools, and the expanding array of approved treatments. It also reports on the skyrocketing cost of MS drugs, misdiagnosis, and special patient populations with MS.

  8. Ambulation and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Motl, Robert W

    2013-05-01

    Walking impairment is a common consequence of multiple sclerosis (MS) that can result in substantial limitations of daily activities and compromised quality of life. Walking impairment is often monitored as an indicator of disease and neurologic disability progression. The worsening of walking performance while undertaking a cognitive task underscores the role of nonmotor impairments in ambulation limitations. Walking impairment has ubiquitous and life-altering consequences, underscoring the importance of continued efforts to identify approaches to prevent and forestall this event, and to restore walking ability in persons with MS.

  9. Multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Piper, A

    1994-05-01

    Five aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of multiple personality disorder (MPD) were examined. The following five conclusions were made: the contemporary diagnostic criteria are vague and overinclusive; the recent alleged increase in prevalence of the disorder is almost certainly artefactual; legal proceedings involving MPD patients raise disturbing questions about personal responsibility; there is little literature support for the theory that MPD results from childhood trauma; and many of the techniques used to diagnose and treat the condition reinforce its symptoms. A careful revision of diagnostic criteria for the disorder is recommended.

  10. Multiple sulfatase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Soong, B W; Casamassima, A C; Fink, J K; Constantopoulos, G; Horwitz, A L

    1988-08-01

    Multiple sulfatase deficiency is an inherited disorder characterized by a deficiency of several sulfatases and the accumulation of sulfatides, glycosaminoglycans, sphingolipids, and steroid sulfates in tissues and body fluids. The clinical manifestations represent the summation of two diseases: late infantile metachromatic leukodystrophy and mucopolysaccharidosis. We present a 9-year-old girl with a phenotype similar to a mucopolysaccharidosis: short stature, microcephaly, and mild facial dysmorphism, along with dysphagia, retinal degeneration, developmental arrest, and ataxia. We discuss the importance of measuring the sulfatase activities in the leukocytes, and the instability of sulfatases in the cultured skin fibroblasts.

  11. Multiple pulmonary rheumatoid nodules.

    PubMed

    Sargin, Gokhan; Senturk, Taskin

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of 45-year-old female patient with the diagnosis of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis, who was admitted to our rheumatology department with exacerbation of the disease. The patient's disease activity score (DAS 28) was 6.9. Physical examination revealed changes in the lung auscultation as a rough breathing sound at the middle and lower lobe of the right lung. Chest X-ray revealed multiple nodular densities in both lungs. Lung biopsy was performed for the diagnosis and revealed necrotizing granulomas with central fibrinoid necrosis surrounded by epithelioid cells. Such a histopathological picture is typical for rheumatoid nodules. Finally the patient was treated with rituximab, with significant improvement.

  12. Speech Recognition Using Multiple Features and Multiple Recognizers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-03

    features from phone to phone (3:92)." Frication The forcing of air through a restricted vocal tract to produce speech . This restriction causes turbulent...V - - AFIT/eIENG/91D-7 i It., AD-A243 791 Cd SPEECH RECOGNITION USING MULTIPLE FEATURES AND MULTIPLE RECOGNIZERS THESIS Thomas F Rathbun Captain...FUNDING NUMBERS Speech Recognition Using Multiple Features and Multiple Recognizers 6. AUTHOR(S) Thomas F Rathbun, Capt, USAF 7. PERFORMING

  13. Factorial Invariance in Multiple Populations: A Multiple Testing Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2013-01-01

    A multiple testing method for examining factorial invariance for latent constructs evaluated by multiple indicators in distinct populations is outlined. The procedure is based on the false discovery rate concept and multiple individual restriction tests and resolves general limitations of a popular factorial invariance testing approach. The…

  14. Should "Multiple Imputations" Be Treated as "Multiple Indicators"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    Multiple imputations for latent variables are constructed so that analyses treating them as true variables have the correct expectations for population characteristics. Analyzing multiple imputations in accordance with their construction yields correct estimates of population characteristics, whereas analyzing them as multiple indicators generally…

  15. Factorial Invariance in Multiple Populations: A Multiple Testing Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2013-01-01

    A multiple testing method for examining factorial invariance for latent constructs evaluated by multiple indicators in distinct populations is outlined. The procedure is based on the false discovery rate concept and multiple individual restriction tests and resolves general limitations of a popular factorial invariance testing approach. The…

  16. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

    1995-08-08

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibers to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands. 21 figs.

  17. Smoldering multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Landgren, Ola; Mateos, María-Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic clonal plasma cell disorder. SMM is distinguished from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance by a much higher risk of progression to multiple myeloma (MM). There have been major advances in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of SMM in the last few years. These include a revised disease definition, identification of several new prognostic factors, a classification based on underlying cytogenetic changes, and new treatment options. Importantly, a subset of patients previously considered SMM is now reclassified as MM on the basis of biomarkers identifying patients with an ≥80% risk of progression within 2 years. SMM has assumed greater significance on the basis of recent trials showing that early therapy can be potentially beneficial to patients. As a result, there is a need to accurately diagnose and risk-stratify patients with SMM, including routine incorporation of modern imaging and laboratory techniques. In this review, we outline current concepts in diagnosis and risk stratification of SMM, and provide specific recommendations on the management of SMM. PMID:25838344

  18. Multiple symbol differential detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A differential detection technique for multiple phase shift keying (MPSK) signals is provided which uses a multiple symbol observation interval on the basis of which a joint decision is made regarding the phase of the received symbols. In accordance with the invention, a first difference phase is created between first and second received symbols. Next, the first difference phase is correlated with the possible values thereof to provide a first plurality of intermediate output signals. A second difference phase is next created between second and third received symbols. The second difference phase is correlated with plural possible values thereof to provide a second plurality of intermediate output signals. Next, a third difference phase is created between the first and third symbols. The third difference phase is correlated with plural possible values thereof to provide a third plurality of intermediate output signals. Each of the first plurality of intermediate outputs are combined with each of the second plurality of intermediate outputs and each of the third plurality of intermediate outputs to provide a plurality of possible output values. Finally, a joint decision is made by choosing from the plurality of possible output values the value which represents the best combined correlation of the first, second and third difference values with the possible values thereof.

  19. [Multiple sclerosis and depression].

    PubMed

    Sánchez López, M P; Olivares Pérez, T; Nieto Barco, A; Hernández Pérez, M A; Barroso Ribal, J

    Depression has frequently been reported in multiple sclerosis. However, prevalence rates must be interpreted in the light of the conceptual and methodological limitations of these studies. Depression has traditionally been associated with response to the diagnosis of this disease, the presence of physical and cognitive limitations, the damage of specific neural systems and inmunomodulatory therapy. To assess the evolution of emotional state and its relationship with motor and cognitive slowness, in relapsing remitting patients with minimal levels of neurological disability. Data are reported for 35 patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis, 27 treated with interferons and 8 without interferon treatment. Mood disturbance (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI), physical disability (Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale, EDSS) and speed of information processing (reaction times) were assessed. The first testing was carried out before the start of treatment and the second testing one year later. The group of patients showed a total BDI score indicative of minimal depression associated with items expressing performance difficulties and somatic complaints. Emotional state was not related to physical disability but was related to processing speed measures. A significant improvement of depression was observed after one year of treatment with inmunomodulatory therapy.

  20. Phase-multiplication holography

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, H.D.; Prince, J.M.; Davis, T.J.

    1982-01-25

    This disclosure relates generally to nondestructive testing for identifying structural characteristics of an object by scanned holographic techniques using a known source of radiation, such as electromagnetic or acoustical radiation. It is an object of this invention to provide an apparatus and method for synthetic aperture expansion in holographic imaging applications to construct fringe patterns capable of holographic reproduction where aperture restrictions in nondestructive testing applications would conventionally make such imaging techniques impossible. The apparatus and method result in the production of a sharply defined frontal image of structural characteristics which could not otherwise be imaged because they occur either near the surface of the object or are confined by geometry restricting aperture dimensions available for scanning purposes. The depth of the structural characteristic below the surface of the object can also be determined by the reconstruction parameters which produce the sharpest focus. Lateral resolution is established by simulated reduction in the radiation wavelength and may easily be an order of magnitude less than the electromagnetic wavelength in the material or 2 times the standard depth of penetration. Since the phase multiplication technique is performed on the detected data, the penetration depth available due to the longer wavelength signals applied to the test object remains unchanged. The phase multiplication technique can also be applied to low frequency acoustic holography, resulting in a test which combines excellent penetration of difficult materials with high resolution images.

  1. Smoldering multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, S Vincent; Landgren, Ola; Mateos, María-Victoria

    2015-05-14

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic clonal plasma cell disorder. SMM is distinguished from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance by a much higher risk of progression to multiple myeloma (MM). There have been major advances in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of SMM in the last few years. These include a revised disease definition, identification of several new prognostic factors, a classification based on underlying cytogenetic changes, and new treatment options. Importantly, a subset of patients previously considered SMM is now reclassified as MM on the basis of biomarkers identifying patients with an ≥80% risk of progression within 2 years. SMM has assumed greater significance on the basis of recent trials showing that early therapy can be potentially beneficial to patients. As a result, there is a need to accurately diagnose and risk-stratify patients with SMM, including routine incorporation of modern imaging and laboratory techniques. In this review, we outline current concepts in diagnosis and risk stratification of SMM, and provide specific recommendations on the management of SMM.

  2. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, M. J.; Coursin, D. B.

    1993-01-01

    The multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), though newly described, has manifested itself in intensive care unit (ICU) patients for several decades. As the name implies, it is a syndrome in which more than one organ system fails. Failure of these multiple organ systems may or may not be related to the initial injury or disease process for which the patient was admitted to the ICU. MODS is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in current ICU practice. While the pathophysiology of MODS is not completely known, much evidence indicates that, during the initial injury which precipitates ICU admission, a chain of events is initiated which results in activation of several endogenous metabolic pathways. These pathways release compounds which, in and of themselves, are usually cytoprotective. However, an over exuberant activation of these endogenous systems results in an inflammatory response which can lead to development of failure in distant organs. As these organs fail, they activate and propagate the systemic inflammatory response. No therapy has proven entirely efficacious at modulating this inflammatory response and the incidence and severity of MODS. In current ICU practice, treatment is focused on prevention and treating individual organ dysfunction as it develops. With increased understanding of the pathophysiology of MODS therapy will come newer modalities which inhibit or interfere with the propagation of the endogenous systemic inflammatory response. These newer therapies hold great promise and already some are undergoing clinical investigation. PMID:7825351

  3. Blepharoclonus in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Jacome, D E

    2001-12-01

    Keane described 2 patients with gaze-evoked blepharoclonus (BLC), a form of reflex BLC, and multiple sclerosis (MS). A search for common areas of demyelination and focal axonal atrophy (T1 black holes) of the central nervous system (CNS) in 11 patients with MS exhibiting eyelid closure BLC was conducted employing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Finding lesions in common CNS locations on these patients can help to elucidate the pathogenesis of this restricted movement disorder. Eleven adult patients with relapsing-remitting, primary or secondary progressive MS were studied. MRI views were completed employing a 1.5-tesla scanner. Contrast Axial T1 imaging was obtained in 9 patients. TL blackholes were not identified. Ten patients had multiple, scattered periventricular (PV) areas of demyelination. Four patients exhibited brainstem lesions of diverse but inconsistent locations including midbrain, cerebellar peduncle, pons and medulla. In 2 of the patients the brainstem lesions were transient but BLC persisted after the lesions regressed. No common areas of CNS demyelination or focal axonal atrophy were identified on these patients with MS and BLC. The pathogenesis and clinical significance of BLC in MS remains to be elucidated.

  4. Biosensing in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Andrew; Jonzzon, Soren; Suleiman, Leena; Arjona, Jennifer; Graves, Jennifer S

    2017-10-04

    The goal of using wearable biosensors in multiple sclerosis (MS) is to provide outcome metrics with higher sensitivity to deficits and better inter-test and inter-rater reliability than standard neurological exam bedside maneuvers. A wearable biosensor not only has the potential to enhance physical exams, but also offers the promise of remote evaluations of the patient either at home or with local non-specialist providers. Areas Covered: We performed a structured literature review on the use of wearable biosensors in studies of multiple sclerosis. This included accelerometers, gyroscopes, eye-trackers, grip sensors, multi-sensors and clinical trials. Expert Commentary: Wearable sensors that are sensitive to change in function over time have great potential to serve as outcome metrics in clinical trials. Key features of generalizability are simplicity in the application of the device and delivery of data to the provider. Another important feature to establish is best sampling rate. Having too high of a sampling rate can lead to over interpretation of noisy data On the other hand, a low sampling rate can result in an insensitive test thus missing subtle changes of clinical interest. Of most importance is to establish metrics derived from wearable devices that provide meaningful data in longitudinal studies.

  5. [Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome].

    PubMed

    Cuenca Solanas, M

    1999-01-01

    Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is a clinical situation that has been described as a result of the rapid progress and advances that have been made in recent decades in the physiology, diagnosis, and therapeutic support of critically ill patients. In 1991, in view of the confusing terminology used to characterize processes coursing with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), a consensus conference was held. A series of basic definitions were established and the term "multiple organ failure" was replace by MODS. In response to outside aggression, the organism tries to defend itself with two mechanisms: a non-specific humoral and cellular response called inflammation, and a specific antigenic response that modifies the genetic codes of cells of the defense system and constitutes an immunological response. At present it is thought that the inflammatory response is activated (SIRS) in response to an uncontrolled aggression, but an antiinflammatory response syndrome (ARS) exists as well. An exaggerated SIRS can lead to MODS. MODS usually debuts with pulmonary dysfunction. If the aggression persists, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, coagulation, central nervous system, gastrointestinal metabolism, neuroendocrine and musculoskeletal failure follow. A series of causes often trigger this syndrome and certain factors favor it. Prevention of these causes and factors in fundamental for controlling the occurrence of MODS. At present, there is no clear treatment for MODS, although numerous studies designed to block the release of certain proinflammatory mediators or to neutralize antiinflammatory responses are being carried out.

  6. Smoldering Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Minjie; Yang, Guang; Kong, Yuanyuan; Wu, Xiaosong; Shi, Jumei

    2015-01-01

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic precursor stage of multiple myeloma (MM) characterized by clonal bone marrow plasma cells (BMPC) ≥ 10% and/or M protein level ≥ 30 g/L in the absence of end organ damage. It represents an intermediate stage between monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and symptomatic MM. The risk of progression to symptomatic MM is not uniform, and several parameters have been reported to predict the risk of progression. These include the level of M protein and the percentage of BMPC, the proportion of immunophenotypically aberrant plasma cells, and the presence of immunoparesis, free light-chain (FLC) ratio, peripheral blood plasma cells (PBPC), pattern of serum M protein evolution, abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cytogenetic abnormalities, IgA isotype, and Bence Jones proteinuria. So far treatment is still not recommended for SMM, because several trials suggested that patients with SMM do not benefit from early treatment. However, the Mateos et al. trial showed a survival benefit after early treatment with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone in patients with high-risk SMM. This trial has prompted a reevaluation of early treatment in an asymptomatic patient population. PMID:26000300

  7. Albumin and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    LeVine, Steven M

    2016-04-12

    Leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a common pathological feature in multiple sclerosis (MS). Following a breach of the BBB, albumin, the most abundant protein in plasma, gains access to CNS tissue where it is exposed to an inflammatory milieu and tissue damage, e.g., demyelination. Once in the CNS, albumin can participate in protective mechanisms. For example, due to its high concentration and molecular properties, albumin becomes a target for oxidation and nitration reactions. Furthermore, albumin binds metals and heme thereby limiting their ability to produce reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Albumin also has the potential to worsen disease. Similar to pathogenic processes that occur during epilepsy, extravasated albumin could induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and affect the ability of astrocytes to maintain potassium homeostasis thereby possibly making neurons more vulnerable to glutamate exicitotoxicity, which is thought to be a pathogenic mechanism in MS. The albumin quotient, albumin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/albumin in serum, is used as a measure of blood-CSF barrier dysfunction in MS, but it may be inaccurate since albumin levels in the CSF can be influenced by multiple factors including: 1) albumin becomes proteolytically cleaved during disease, 2) extravasated albumin is taken up by macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes, and 3) the location of BBB damage affects the entry of extravasated albumin into ventricular CSF. A discussion of the roles that albumin performs during MS is put forth.

  8. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Dovichi, Norman J.; Zhang, Jian Z.

    1995-01-01

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibres to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands.

  9. Multiple Representations of Buoyancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliviera, Jessica; Weglarz, Meredith; Vesenka, James

    2009-10-01

    For many students the concept of buoyancy falls under a category that can be loosely described as ``knowing it when they see it.'' Unfortunately some of the misconceptions this generates are that ``objects float because they are light'' and ``objects float because they are full of air'' [1]. Those these can some times be true, these descriptions are vague at best, and frequently can be wrong. Part of these misconceptions may stem from incomplete immersion of the object in the fluid and the vector nature of forces. We describe a demonstration/lab activity to help students make sense about relationship between the tension on and weight of an object immersed in water. The activity is in rich in multiple representations, graphical, diagrammatical as well as mathematical. A simple four question multiple choice pre/post test survey has been developed to evaluate the effectiveness of the lab activity.[4pt] [1] Bruce Harlan ``Diving Science'', www.stmatthewsschool.com/deep/pdfs/Diving%20Science.pdf

  10. Multiple Drug Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Pichler, Werner J.; Srinoulprasert, Yuttana; Yun, James; Hausmann, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Multiple drug hypersensitivity (MDH) is a syndrome that develops as a consequence of massive T-cell stimulations and is characterized by long-lasting drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHR) to different drugs. The initial symptoms are mostly severe exanthems or drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). Subsequent symptoms due to another drug often appear in the following weeks, overlapping with the first DHR, or months to years later after resolution of the initial presentation. The second DHR includes exanthema, erythroderma, DRESS, Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN), hepatitis, and agranulocytosis. The eliciting drugs can be identified by positive skin or in vitro tests. The drugs involved in starting the MDH are the same as for DRESS, and they are usually given in rather high doses. Fixed drug combination therapies like sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim or piperacillin/tazobactam are frequently involved in MDH, and 30–40% of patients with severe DHR to combination therapy show T-cell reactions to both components. The drug-induced T-cell stimulation appears to be due to the p-i mechanism. Importantly, a permanent T-cell activation characterized by PD-1+/CD38+ expression on CD4+/CD25low T cells can be found in the circulation of patients with MDH for many years. In conclusion, MDH is a drug-elicited syndrome characterized by a long-lasting hyperresponsiveness to multiple, structurally unrelated drugs with clinically diverse symptoms. PMID:28315874

  11. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Initially known as multiple system organ failure, the term multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) was first described in the 1960s in adults with bleeding, respiratory failure, and sepsis. It is defined as "the development of potentially reversible physiologic derangement involving two or more organ systems not involved in the disorder that resulted in ICU admission, and arising in the wake of a potentially life threatening physiologic insult."(3) There are many risk factors predisposing to MODS; however, the most common risk factors are shock due to any cause, sepsis, and tissue hypoperfusion. A dysregulated immune response, or immuneparalysis, in which the homeostasis between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory reaction is lost is thought to be key in the development of MODS. The clinical course and evolution of MODS is dependent on a combination of acquired and genetic factors. There are several nonspecific therapies for the prevention and resolution of MODS, mostly care is supportive. Mortality from MODS in septic pediatric patients varies between 11% and 54%. © 2013 Published by Mosby, Inc.

  12. Smoldering multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Minjie; Yang, Guang; Kong, Yuanyuan; Wu, Xiaosong; Shi, Jumei

    2015-01-01

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic precursor stage of multiple myeloma (MM) characterized by clonal bone marrow plasma cells (BMPC) ≥ 10% and/or M protein level ≥ 30 g/L in the absence of end organ damage. It represents an intermediate stage between monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and symptomatic MM. The risk of progression to symptomatic MM is not uniform, and several parameters have been reported to predict the risk of progression. These include the level of M protein and the percentage of BMPC, the proportion of immunophenotypically aberrant plasma cells, and the presence of immunoparesis, free light-chain (FLC) ratio, peripheral blood plasma cells (PBPC), pattern of serum M protein evolution, abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cytogenetic abnormalities, IgA isotype, and Bence Jones proteinuria. So far treatment is still not recommended for SMM, because several trials suggested that patients with SMM do not benefit from early treatment. However, the Mateos et al. trial showed a survival benefit after early treatment with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone in patients with high-risk SMM. This trial has prompted a reevaluation of early treatment in an asymptomatic patient population.

  13. Management of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Perrin Ross, Amy

    2013-11-01

    Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), a disease of the central nervous system that disrupts signals within the brain and also the signals between the brain and body, will likely experience symptoms that may negatively impact their quality of life (QOL). Due to the complexity of MS and its disease burden, multidisciplinary management that combines pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic strategies with patient education is necessary. Diagnosing relapses of MS in clinical practice can be difficult due to the multiple subtypes of MS, variations of symptomatology, and pseudo-relapses. Managing relapses also presents its own set of challenges, for example, evaluating if treatment is appropriate and determining which agent would be most effective for a patient if treatment is recommended. Patient education is essential for achieving optimal outcomes for patients with MS and improving patient QOL, and should increase awareness of: (1) the disease itself and its progression; (2) the signs and symptoms of MS; (3) current treatment strategies and plan of care; (4) the recognition and management of relapses; (5) the value of treatment adherence and impact of nonadherence; and (6) hope for the future. The management of active MS may be further complicated by the complex variety of pharmacotherapeutic options, and in some instances, by having to switch between agents and drug classes. Newer agents in development (eg, alemtuzumab, ocrelizumab, laquinimod) offer the opportunity to expand the therapeutic armamentarium, although further long-term data are required to evaluate any safety concerns associated with newer agents.

  14. Hypersexuality, fetishism and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Huws, R; Shubsachs, A P; Taylor, P J

    1991-02-01

    Hypersexuality and fetishism appeared in a patient with multiple sclerosis whose MRI scan showed frontal and temporal lesions. The hypersexuality may have been the presenting symptom of the multiple sclerosis.

  15. Piercing and Tattoos - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Piercing and Tattoos URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... XYZ List of All Topics All Piercing and Tattoos - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  16. Multiple Sclerosis and Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... Editors David C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD Multiple sclerosis and vitamin D Andrew J. Solomon, MD WHAT ... caused by improper immune responses (autoimmune diseases), including multiple sclerosis (MS). A recent Patient Page in Neurology provided ...

  17. Lattice Multiplication: Old and New.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Givan, Betty; Karr, Rosemary

    1988-01-01

    The author presents two examples of lattice multiplication followed by a computer algorithm to perform this multiplication. The algorithm is given in psuedocode but could easily be given in Pascal. (PK)

  18. Multiple personality disorder following childbirth.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, J M; Friedman, T

    1993-06-01

    A case of multiple personality disorder is described as a coping mechanism protecting the patient from the abuse to which she was subjected throughout her life. The multiple personalities became more prominent following the birth of a severely handicapped child.

  19. Input Multiplicities in Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppel, Lowell B.

    1983-01-01

    Describes research investigating potential effect of input multiplicity on multivariable chemical process control systems. Several simple processes are shown to exhibit the possibility of theoretical developments on input multiplicity and closely related phenomena are discussed. (JN)

  20. Rotator Cuff Injuries - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Rotator Cuff Injuries URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Rotator Cuff Injuries - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  1. Teaching EFL to Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosn, Irma K.

    This paper is in large part a critique of Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences presented in his 1983 book "Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences," and asserts that the multiple intelligences (MI) concept has been widely misinterpreted. The paper outlines some of the misconceptions of Gardner's theory as identified by…

  2. MULTIPLE GALAXY COLLISIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Here is a sampling of 15 ultraluminous infrared galaxies viewed by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Hubble's sharp vision reveals more complexity within these galaxies, which astronomers are interpreting as evidence of a multiple-galaxy pileup. These images, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are part of a three-year study of 123 galaxies within 3 billion light-years of Earth. The study was conducted in 1996, 1997, and 1999. False colors were assigned to these photos to enhance fine details within these coalescing galaxies. Credits: NASA, Kirk Borne (Raytheon and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.), Luis Colina (Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Spain), and Howard Bushouse and Ray Lucas (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md.)

  3. Multiple jet study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. E.; Kors, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    Test data is presented which allows determination of jet penetration and mixing of multiple cold air jets into a ducted subsonic heated mainstream flow. Jet-to-mainstream momentum flux ratios ranged from 6 to 60. Temperature profile data is presented at various duct locations up to 24 orifice diameters downstream of the plane of jet injection. Except for two configurations, all geometries investigated had a single row of constant diameter orifices located transverse to the main flow direction. Orifice size and spacing between orifices were varied. Both of these were found to have a significant effect on jet penetration and mixing. The best mixing of the hot and cold streams was achieved with duct height.

  4. Multiple layer insulation cover

    DOEpatents

    Farrell, James J.; Donohoe, Anthony J.

    1981-11-03

    A multiple layer insulation cover for preventing heat loss in, for example, a greenhouse, is disclosed. The cover is comprised of spaced layers of thin foil covered fabric separated from each other by air spaces. The spacing is accomplished by the inflation of spaced air bladders which are integrally formed in the cover and to which the layers of the cover are secured. The bladders are inflated after the cover has been deployed in its intended use to separate the layers of the foil material. The sizes of the material layers are selected to compensate for sagging across the width of the cover so that the desired spacing is uniformly maintained when the cover has been deployed. The bladders are deflated as the cover is stored thereby expediting the storage process and reducing the amount of storage space required.

  5. Swamp Works- Multiple Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carelli, Jonathan M.; Schuler, Jason M.; Chandler, Meredith L.

    2013-01-01

    My Surface Systems internship over the summer 2013 session covered a broad range of projects that utilized multiple fields of engineering and technology. This internship included a project to create a command center for a 120 ton regolith bin, for the design and assembly of a blast shield to add further protection for the Surface Systems engineers, for the design and assembly of a portable four monitor hyper wall strip that could extend as large as needed, research and programming a nano drill that could be utilized on a next generation robot or rover, and social media tasks including the making of videos, posting to social networking websites and creation of a new outreach program to help spread the word about the Swamp Works laboratory.

  6. Vaccines in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Eric M L; Chahin, Salim; Berger, Joseph R

    2016-04-01

    Vaccinations help prevent communicable disease. To be valuable, a vaccine's ability to prevent disease must exceed the risk of adverse effects from administration. Many vaccines present no risk of infection as they are comprised of killed or non-infectious components while other vaccines consist of live attenuated microorganisms which carry a potential risk of infection-particularly, in patients with compromised immunity. There are several unique considerations with respect to vaccination in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population. First, there has been concern that vaccination may trigger or aggravate the disease. Second, disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) employed in the treatment of MS may increase the risk of infectious complications from vaccines or alter their efficacy. Lastly, in some cases, vaccination strategies may be part of the treatment paradigm in attempts to avoid complications of therapy.

  7. Multiple stage railgun

    SciTech Connect

    Aaland, K.; Hawke, R.S.; Scudder, J.K.

    1982-08-10

    A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator for accelerating a projectile by movement of a plasma arc along the rails. The railgun is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources as the projectile moves through the bore of the railgun. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can be prevented by connection of the energy sources to the rails through isolation diodes. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails into electrically isolated rail sections. In such case means are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse or laser device is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage.

  8. [Pomalidomide for multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Fouquet, G; Macro, M; Decaux, O; Fohrer, C; Guidez, S; Demarquette, H; Le Grand, C; Prodhomme, C; Renaud, L; Bories, C; Herbaux, C; Karlin, L; Roussel, M; Benboubker, L; Hulin, C; Arnulf, B; Leleu, X

    2015-09-01

    Once characterized by a very poor outcome, multiple myeloma (MM) now has a significantly prolonged survival, with major improvements allowed by the use of "novel agents": proteasome inhibitors (first-in-class bortezomib) and immunomodulatory compounds (IMiDs; first-in-class thalidomide and lenalidomide). However, the vast majority - if not all - of patients with MM ultimately end up being refractory to all existing drugs, including these efficient novel agents. There is a clear unmet medical need in this situation, which warrants the development of the next generation of proteasome inhibitors and IMiDs, as well as new drug classes. This review focuses on pomalidomide, the next generation IMiD, recently approved by the US FDA and the EMA for patients with relapsed or refractory MM who have received at least two prior therapies, including lenalidomide and bortezomib, and have demonstrated disease progression on their last therapy.

  9. Multiple choice minority game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, F. K.; Chau, H. F.

    2003-03-01

    Minority game is a model of heterogeneous players who think inductively. In this game, each player chooses one out of two alternatives every turn and those who end up in the minority side wins. It is instructive to extend the minority game by allowing players to choose one out of many alternatives. Nevertheless, such an extension is not straight-forward due to difficulties in finding a set of reasonable, unbiased and computationally feasible strategies. Here, we propose a variation of the minority game where every player has more than two options. Results of numerical simulations agree with the expectation that our multiple choices minority game exhibits similar behavior as the original two-choice minority game.

  10. Mixed Mode Matrix Multiplication

    SciTech Connect

    Meng-Shiou Wu; Srinivas Aluru; Ricky A. Kendall

    2004-09-30

    In modern clustering environments where the memory hierarchy has many layers (distributed memory, shared memory layer, cache,...), an important question is how to fully utilize all available resources and identify the most dominant layer in certain computations. When combining algorithms on all layers together, what would be the best method to get the best performance out of all the resources we have? Mixed mode programming model that uses thread programming on the shared memory layer and message passing programming on the distributed memory layer is a method that many researchers are using to utilize the memory resources. In this paper, they take an algorithmic approach that uses matrix multiplication as a tool to show how cache algorithms affect the performance of both shared memory and distributed memory algorithms. They show that with good underlying cache algorithm, overall performance is stable. When underlying cache algorithm is bad, superlinear speedup may occur, and an increasing number of threads may also improve performance.

  11. Multiple Sequence Alignment.

    PubMed

    Bawono, Punto; Dijkstra, Maurits; Pirovano, Walter; Feenstra, Anton; Abeln, Sanne; Heringa, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    The increasing importance of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques has highlighted the key role of multiple sequence alignment (MSA) in comparative structure and function analysis of biological sequences. MSA often leads to fundamental biological insight into sequence-structure-function relationships of nucleotide or protein sequence families. Significant advances have been achieved in this field, and many useful tools have been developed for constructing alignments, although many biological and methodological issues are still open. This chapter first provides some background information and considerations associated with MSA techniques, concentrating on the alignment of protein sequences. Then, a practical overview of currently available methods and a description of their specific advantages and limitations are given, to serve as a helpful guide or starting point for researchers who aim to construct a reliable MSA.

  12. Multiple Sclerosis in Children

    PubMed Central

    INALOO, Soroor; HAGHBIN, Saideh

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most important immune-mediated demyelinated disease of human which is typically the disease of young adults. A total of 4% to 5% of MS population are pediatric. Pediatric MS is defined as the appearance of MS before the age of sixteen. About 80% of the pediatric cases and nearly all adolescent onset patients present with attacks typical to adult MS. Approximately 97% to 99% of the affected children have relapsing-remitting MS, while 85% to 95% of the adults experience such condition. MS in children is associated with more frequent and severe relapses. Treatment is the same as adults. We aimed to review the epidemiology, etiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of MS in children. PMID:24665290

  13. Multiple telescope infrared interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townes, C. H.; Sutton, E. C.

    1981-01-01

    The advantages of multiple telescope infrared interferometry are discussed in detail, using the 10 micron region as a specific example. Scale and seeing considerations are addressed, taking into account analytically the distorting effect of turbulent air and discussing the effect of water vapor on seeing. The usefulness of fringe phase determination to determine the intensities in the radiation field, and the effect of atmospheric fluctuations on their use, are considered. Astrometry by means of interferometry is extensively covered, with examples such as a plot of the fringe phase of o Ceti as a function of time compared with a theoretical fringe phase of the star with a fixed best-fit baseline. The sensitivity of an interferometer involving two receiving telescopes is considered. Finally, an example of a telescope design for 10-micron interferometry is described and depicted.

  14. Multiple suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Tuckman, J; Youngman, W F; Kreizman, G

    1968-04-01

    A sample of 157 persons who attempted suicide from 2 to 6 times was compared with a sample of 1,045 single attempted suicides on a number of personal and social characteristics and other factors related to the act itself. Suicide death rates, obtained through a follow-up of both groups for a year following the last attempt, were also compared. It is concluded (1) that the two groups are essentially similar in their general characteristics and in their risk of suicide and (2) that, among multiples, little change occurs from first to second attempt. However, it is pointed out that both groups are at considerably higher risk of suicide than those who have not made attempts.

  15. [Pediatric multiple trauma].

    PubMed

    Auner, B; Marzi, I

    2014-05-01

    Multiple trauma in children is rare so that even large trauma centers will only treat a small number of cases. Nevertheless, accidents are the most common cause of death in childhood whereby the causes are mostly traffic accidents and falls. Head trauma is the most common form of injury and the degree of severity is mostly decisive for the prognosis. Knowledge on possible causes of injury and injury patterns as well as consideration of anatomical and physiological characteristics are of great importance for treatment. The differences compared to adults are greater the younger the child is. Decompression and stopping bleeding are the main priorities before surgical fracture stabilization. The treatment of a severely injured child should be carried out by an interdisciplinary team in an approved trauma center with expertise in pediatrics. An inadequate primary assessment involves a high risk of early mortality. On the other hand children have a better prognosis than adults with comparable injuries.

  16. Tremor in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mostert, Jop; Heersema, Dorothea; De Keyser, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Tremor is estimated to occur in about 25 to 60 percent of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). This symptom, which can be severely disabling and embarrassing for patients, is difficult to manage. Isoniazid in high doses, carbamazepine, propranolol and gluthetimide have been reported to provide some relief, but published evidence of effectiveness is very limited. Most trials were of small size and of short duration. Cannabinoids appear ineffective. Tremor reduction can be obtained with stereotactic thalamotomy or thalamic stimulation. However, the studies were small and information on long-term functional outcome is scarce. Physiotherapy, tremor reducing orthoses, and limb cooling can achieve some functional improvement. Tremor in MS remains a significant challenge and unmet need, requiring further basic and clinical research. PMID:17318714

  17. MULTIPLE SPARK GAP SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Schofield, A.E.

    1958-07-22

    A multiple spark gap switch of unique construction is described which will permit controlled, simultaneous discharge of several capacitors into a load. The switch construction includes a disc electrode with a plurality of protuberances of generally convex shape on one surface. A firing electrode is insulatingly supponted In each of the electrode protuberances and extends substantially to the apex thereof. Individual electrodes are disposed on an insulating plate parallel with the disc electrode to form a number of spark gaps with the protuberances. These electrodes are each connected to a separate charged capacitor and when a voltage ls applied simultaneously between the trigger electrodes and the dlsc electrode, each spark gap fires to connect its capacitor to the disc electrode and a subsequent load.

  18. [Multiple endocrine neoplasia].

    PubMed

    Schaaf, Ludwig; Raue, Friedhelm

    2017-09-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and 2 are hereditary cancer syndromes. They are characterized by the occurrence of many benign and malignant tumor types, in MEN1 parathyroid tumors, pituitary tumors, and pancreas tumors, in MEN2 medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, and parathyroid tumors. The autosomal dominant inherited tumor syndromes are caused by mutations in the MEN1 gene, a tumor suppressor gene, and mutations in the RET gene, an activated oncogene, in MEN2. The clinical expression of the different tumors can vary within and between families, with a good genotype-phenotype correlation in MEN2. Early diagnosis and therapy is possible by using biochemical and imaging screening in the families. Early thyroidectomy in young patients with MEN2 results in a high cure rate of MTC. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Multiple Linear Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grégoire, G.

    2014-12-01

    This chapter deals with the multiple linear regression. That is we investigate the situation where the mean of a variable depends linearly on a set of covariables. The noise is supposed to be gaussian. We develop the least squared method to get the parameter estimators and estimates of their precisions. This leads to design confidence intervals, prediction intervals, global tests, individual tests and more generally tests of submodels defined by linear constraints. Methods for model's choice and variables selection, measures of the quality of the fit, residuals study, diagnostic methods are presented. Finally identification of departures from the model's assumptions and the way to deal with these problems are addressed. A real data set is used to illustrate the methodology with software R. Note that this chapter is intended to serve as a guide for other regression methods, like logistic regression or AFT models and Cox regression.

  20. Multiple trellis coded modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A technique for designing trellis codes to minimize bit error performance for a fading channel. The invention provides a criteria which may be used in the design of such codes which is significantly different from that used for average white Gaussian noise channels. The method of multiple trellis coded modulation of the present invention comprises the steps of: (a) coding b bits of input data into s intermediate outputs; (b) grouping said s intermediate outputs into k groups of s.sub.i intermediate outputs each where the summation of all s.sub.i,s is equal to s and k is equal to at least 2; (c) mapping each of said k groups of intermediate outputs into one of a plurality of symbols in accordance with a plurality of modulation schemes, one for each group such that the first group is mapped in accordance with a first modulation scheme and the second group is mapped in accordance with a second modulation scheme; and (d) outputting each of said symbols to provide k output symbols for each b bits of input data.

  1. Progressive multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ontaneda, Daniel; Fox, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose to Review To highlight the pathological features and clinical aspects of progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS). To highlight results of clinical trial experience to date and review ongoing clinical trials and perspective new treatment options. Explain the challenges of clinical trial design in PMS. Recent Findings MS has been identified as a chronic immune mediated disease, and the progressive phase of the disease appears to have significant neurodegenerative mechanisms. The classification of the course of PMS has been re-organized into categories of active vs. inactive inflammatory disease and the presence vs. absence of gradual disease progression. This differentiation allows clearer conceptualization of PMS and possibly even more efficient recruitment of PMS subjects into clinical trials. Clinical trial experience to date in PMS has been negative with anti-inflammatory medications used in relapsing MS. Simvastatin was recently tested in a phase II trial and showed a 43% reduction on annualized atrophy progression in secondary progressive MS. Ongoing PMS trials are currently being conducted with the phosphodiesterase inhibitor ibudilast, S1P modulator siponimod, and anti-B-cell therapy ocrelizumab. Several efforts for development of outcome measures in PMS are ongoing. Summary PMS represents a significant challenge, as the pathogenesis of the disease is not well understood, no validated outcome metrics have been established, and clinical trial experience to date has been disappointing. Advances in the understanding of the disease and lessons learned in previous clinical trials are paving the way for successful development of disease modifying agents for this disease. PMID:25887766

  2. Multiple detectors "Influence Method".

    PubMed

    Rios, I J; Mayer, R E

    2016-05-01

    The "Influence Method" is conceived for the absolute determination of a nuclear particle flux in the absence of known detector efficiency and without the need to register coincidences of any kind. This method exploits the influence of the presence of one detector in the count rate of another detector, when they are placed one behind the other and define statistical estimators for the absolute number of incident particles and for the efficiency (Rios and Mayer, 2015a). Its detailed mathematical description was recently published (Rios and Mayer, 2015b) and its practical implementation in the measurement of a moderated neutron flux arising from an isotopic neutron source was exemplified in (Rios and Mayer, 2016). With the objective of further reducing the measurement uncertainties, in this article we extend the method for the case of multiple detectors placed one behind the other. The new estimators for the number of particles and the detection efficiency are herein derived. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Multiple drug hypersensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chiriac, Anca M; Demoly, Pascal

    2013-08-01

    The multiple drug hypersensitivity syndrome (MDH) is a distinct clinical entity, different from cross-reactivity and flare-up reactions. Following its initial description in 1989 by Sullivan et al., several authors have addressed the issues surrounding this peculiar form of drug hypersensitivity. Whether this syndrome is single or can be further classified in several entities is still a matter of debate. Case reports, case series or studies involving large populations on MDH are few. The use of this term in the literature is heterogeneous, and the definitions variable. Given the major advances in the study of drug hypersensitivities in general, and ongoing research regarding severe cutaneous adverse reactions in particular, careful study of the subgroup of patients with demonstrated immunological basis of MDH has enabled the generation of possible pathogenetic hypotheses. Together with the studies (despite their limitations) to estimate the prevalence of this syndrome in adult and paediatric patients these emerging data need confirmation through larger studies with well defined populations. Bringing together the experience of groups involved in the field of drug allergy should help to move knowledge regarding this peculiar form of drug hypersensitivity forward.

  4. MULTIPLE SHAFT TOOL HEAD

    DOEpatents

    Colbert, H.P.

    1962-10-23

    An improved tool head arrangement is designed for the automatic expanding of a plurality of ferruled tubes simultaneously. A plurality of output shafts of a multiple spindle drill head are driven in unison by a hydraulic motor. A plurality of tube expanders are respectively coupled to the shafts through individual power train arrangements. The axial or thrust force required for the rolling operation is provided by a double acting hydraulic cylinder having a hollow through shaft with the shaft cooperating with an internally rotatable splined shaft slidably coupled to a coupling rigidly attached to the respectlve output shaft of the drill head, thereby transmitting rotary motion and axial thrust simultaneously to the tube expander. A hydraulic power unit supplies power to each of the double acting cylinders through respective two-position, four-way valves, under control of respective solenoids for each of the cylinders. The solenoids are in turn selectively controlled by a tool selection control unit which in turn is controlled by signals received from a programmed, coded tape from a tape reader. The number of expanders that are extended in a rolling operation, which may be up to 42 expanders, is determined by a predetermined program of operations depending upon the arrangement of the ferruled tubes to be expanded in the tube bundle. The tape reader also supplies dimensional information to a machine tool servo control unit for imparting selected, horizontal and/or vertical movement to the tool head assembly. (AEC)

  5. Multiple sclerosis and behavior.

    PubMed

    Pinkston, James B; Kablinger, Anita; Alekseeva, Nadejda

    2007-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most frequently seen neurological causes of progressive disability in early to middle adulthood. The disease is variable in its presentation and course, affects roughly 100-300 per 100,000 persons within the United States alone, and is slightly more common among females than males. MS places substantial burdens on patients, families, and caregivers. It negatively affects cognitive abilities and psychiatric functioning, and can add a notably deleterious effect on a patient's quality of life. This chapter reviews the recent literature on the behavioral manifestations of MS. Cognitive domains discussed include executive functioning, processing speed, attention, learning and memory, language functioning, and visual spatial processing. Some attention will also be paid to differential diagnosis and the cognitive effects of treatment. Psychiatric manifestations are also discussed, including symptoms of depression, bipolar disorder, euphoria, pathological laughter and crying, and psychosis, as well as maladaptive personality traits. Finally, the chapter concludes with a discussion of the effects of MS on quality of life including such areas as fatigue, sexual dysfunction, pain, employment, and cognitive functioning.

  6. [Diet and multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Pozuelo-Moyano, Beatriz; Benito-León, Julián

    2014-05-16

    Introduccion. El tipo de dieta se ha relacionado con el proceso inflamatorio que forma parte de la esclerosis multiple (EM). En los ultimos años, distintas lineas de investigacion han generado una gran cantidad de conocimiento sobre la participacion de la dieta en la patogenesis de la EM. Objetivo. Elucidar de modo critico las evidencias que relacionan distintos tipos de dietas y alimentos con la EM. Desarrollo. Se incluye una actualizacion de los estudios publicados mas significativos que han analizado el papel de la dieta en la patogenesis y en el tratamiento de la EM. Para explorar la asociacion entre la dieta y el riesgo de EM se ha revisado la evidencia disponible hasta el momento, pasando por estudios observacionales hasta terminar con estudios de intervencion. Conclusiones. Se necesita mas investigacion sobre la nutricion como factor de riesgo, ya que podria tener relacion con la enfermedad, y el control de esta podria llevar a una disminucion significativa de la incidencia o progresion de la patologia.

  7. Multiple valence superatoms

    PubMed Central

    Reveles, J. U.; Khanna, S. N.; Roach, P. J.; Castleman, A. W.

    2006-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that, in gas phase clusters containing aluminum and iodine atoms, an Al13 cluster behaves like a halogen atom, whereas an Al14 cluster exhibits properties analogous to an alkaline earth atom. These observations, together with our findings that Al13− is inert like a rare gas atom, have reinforced the idea that chosen clusters can exhibit chemical behaviors reminiscent of atoms in the periodic table, offering the exciting prospect of a new dimension of the periodic table formed by cluster elements, called superatoms. As the behavior of clusters can be controlled by size and composition, the superatoms offer the potential to create unique compounds with tailored properties. In this article, we provide evidence of an additional class of superatoms, namely Al7−, that exhibit multiple valences, like some of the elements in the periodic table, and hence have the potential to form stable compounds when combined with other atoms. These findings support the contention that there should be no limitation in finding clusters, which mimic virtually all members of the periodic table. PMID:17121987

  8. Thermoregulation in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Thad E.; White, Andrea T.; Frohman, Elliot M.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive neurological disorder that disrupts axonal myelin in the central nervous system. Demyelination produces alterations in saltatory conduction, slowed conduction velocity, and a predisposition to conduction block. An estimated 60–80% of MS patients experience temporary worsening of clinical signs and neurological symptoms with heat exposure. Additionally, MS may produce impaired neural control of autonomic and endocrine functions. This review focuses on five main themes regarding the current understanding of thermoregulatory dysfunction in MS: 1) heat sensitivity; 2) central regulation of body temperature; 3) thermoregulatory effector responses; 4) heat-induced fatigue; and 5) countermeasures to improve or maintain function during thermal stress. Heat sensitivity in MS is related to the detrimental effects of increased temperature on action potential propagation in demyelinated axons, resulting in conduction slowing and/or block, which can be quantitatively characterized using precise measurements of ocular movements. MS lesions can also occur in areas of the brain responsible for the control and regulation of body temperature and thermoregulatory effector responses, resulting in impaired neural control of sudomotor pathways or neural-induced changes in eccrine sweat glands, as evidenced by observations of reduced sweating responses in MS patients. Fatigue during thermal stress is common in MS and results in decreased motor function and increased symptomatology likely due to impairments in central conduction. Although not comprehensive, some evidence exists concerning treatments (cooling, precooling, and pharmacological) for the MS patient to preserve function and decrease symptom worsening during heat stress. PMID:20671034

  9. [Multiple primary cutaneous plasmacytoma].

    PubMed

    Malissen, N; Fabre, C; Joujoux, J-M; Bourquard, P; Dandurand, M; Marque, M; Stoebner, P; Meunier, L

    2014-05-01

    Primary cutaneous plasmacytoma is a rare form of cutaneous B-cell lymphoma. A 51 year-old male with an unremarkable history gradually presented erythematous papulonodular lesions that had appeared gradually over the whole body throughout a two-year period and showing histologic and immunohistochemical features of cutaneous plasmacytoma. Staging investigations confirmed the primary character of the disease, and because of this and the absence of functional impairment, we opted for therapeutic abstention. No progression was noted after 4 years of regular monitoring. Primary cutaneous plasmacytoma (PCP) is characterized by clonal proliferation of plasma cells in skin. Multiple PCPs are extremely rare and to date have been treated in most cases by chemotherapy, either with or without radiotherapy. The prognosis is poor, with 2-year survival of only 25%. The present case is original, being the only one to our knowledge in which therapeutic abstention was followed by a lack of progression after 4 years of regular follow-up. Consequently, certain indolent forms of PCP do not warrant automatic institution of chemotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Fatigue and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Béthoux, F

    2006-07-01

    Even if the definition and pathophysiology of fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) are still debated, and despite the scarcity of objective markers correlated with the subjective sensation of fatigue, a review of the literature shows the importance of its detection and management, and allows one to propose therapeutic strategies. Fatigue is not only the most frequently reported symptom in MS, but also a frequent source of activity and participation limitations, psychological distress, and impairment of quality of life. Its management, which must be initiated early, is based on a comprehensive evaluation of its characteristics and consequences (sometimes with the use of scales such as the Fatigue Severity Scale and the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale), and on the identification of many potential contributing factors (psychological disorders, sleep disturbances, pain, infections and other comorbidities, medications, and deconditioning). Rehabilitative interventions are essential to the treatment of fatigue. Beyond the traditional energy conservation strategies and cooling techniques, several randomized controlled studies have demonstrated the positive impact of aerobic exercise. Medications are partially beneficial, and with the exception of amantadine, their efficacy has not been confirmed by randomized double-blind trials.

  11. Isothermal Multiple Displacement Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Isothermal multiple strand displacement amplification (IMDA) of the whole human genome is a promising method for procuring abundant DNA from valuable and often limited clinical specimens. However, whether DNA generated by this method is of high quality and a faithful replication of the DNA in the original specimen, allowing for subsequent molecular diagnostic testing, requires verification. In this study, we evaluated the suitability of IMDA-generated DNA (IMDA-DNA) for detecting antigen receptor gene rearrangements, chromosomal translocations, and gene mutations using Southern blot analysis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods, or sequencing methods in 28 lymphoma and leukemia clinical specimens. Molecular testing before and after whole genome amplification of these specimens using the IMDA technique showed concordance in 27 of 28 (96%) specimens. Analysis of IMDA-DNA by Southern blot analysis detected restriction fragments >12 kilobases long. No amplification bias was observed at all loci tested demonstrating that this method can be useful in generating large amounts of unbiased, high molecular weight DNA from limited clinical specimens. PMID:15269301

  12. Multiple Myeloma: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Al-Farsi, Khalil

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a rare, largely incurable malignant disease of plasma cells. Patients usually present with hypercalcemia, renal insufficiency, anemia and/or lytic bony lesions along with a monoclonal protein in the serum and/or urine in addition to an increase in the number of clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow. Patients with myeloma live on an average for five to seven years, with their survival dependent on the presence or absence of different prognostic markers. Treatment of younger fit patients is with induction therapy consisting of steroids with one or more novel anti-myeloma agents followed by high dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation, while older and less fit patients are treated with melphalan-based combination chemotherapy. Supportive care is of paramount importance and includes the use of bisphosphonates, prophylactic antibiotics, thrombosis prophylaxis and the use of hematopoietic growth factors along with the treatment of complications of disease and its therapy. As more progress is being made and deeper responses are being attained, the disease might turn into a potentially curable one in the near future. PMID:23386937

  13. [Familial multiple cavernomatosis].

    PubMed

    Terriza, F; Amrani, Y; Asencio, J J; Goberna, E; Casado, A; Peralta, J I

    1997-04-01

    We present a family study of multiple cavernomatosis which affected a boy of six, his mother and two brothers. It was seen clinically as epileptic crises, focal neurological defects and frequent headaches. In our case, the condition started as a syndrome of intracranial hypertension with progressive headache and vomiting. During the illness, localizing neurological signs due to bleeding were seen. Amongst these were acute left hemiparesia and paralysis of vertical gaze. Other members of the family remain symptom-free. In a search for angiomas at other sites none were found in the patient or his family. Recently the gene giving rise to the familial cerebral cavernosa malformation has been found to be a locus on chromosome 7. We discuss the findings on neuro-imaging, emphasizing the importance of magnetic resonance (MR) both in diagnosis and finding affected asymptomatic family members, because of its great sensitivity and specificity. Angiography is not a suitable technique for this since they behave as hidden malformations. We also point out its importance as a way of following-up the illness and for evaluation of possible complications due to progressive growth or sudden haemorrhage, which may indicate the need for treatment. Finally we emphasize the different characteristics of MR signals in this type of lesion since cavernomatasa malformations are dynamic lesions.

  14. [Smoking and multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Arruti, Maialen; Castillo-Triviño, Tamara; Egüés, Nerea; Olascoaga, Javier

    2015-02-16

    Introduccion. La esclerosis multiple (EM) es una enfermedad autoinmune de etiologia compleja, hoy por hoy desconocida, en la que factores geneticos y ambientales determinan la susceptibilidad. En los ultimos años, el efecto del tabaco ha sido uno de los factores ambientales que ha emergido en la EM, y se ha asociado tanto a un aumento de la susceptibilidad como a un aumento de la progresion. Objetivo. Revisar la evidencia actual sobre el papel del tabaco en la EM. Desarrollo. Se incluye una actualizacion de los estudios publicados que han analizado distintos aspectos del tabaco en la EM: vias patogenicas implicadas, asociacion del tabaco y riesgo de EM, interaccion con otros factores de riesgo y efecto del tabaco en el curso de la enfermedad. Conclusiones. Los estudios observacionales demuestran que el tabaquismo incrementa de forma significativa el riesgo de EM (odds ratio ~ 1,5) y es un factor de riesgo independiente. Sin embargo, la EM es una enfermedad compleja y el aumento de riesgo por el tabaco puede diferir en funcion de la interaccion con otros factores geneticos y ambientales. El papel del tabaco como factor de progresion es mas controvertido, con resultados contradictorios y estudios de gran variabilidad, lo que dificulta establecer una conclusion firme. Los mecanismos por los que el tabaquismo modifica el riesgo y posiblemente la progresion de la enfermedad no son aun conocidos.

  15. Multiple valence superatoms.

    PubMed

    Reveles, J U; Khanna, S N; Roach, P J; Castleman, A W

    2006-12-05

    We recently demonstrated that, in gas phase clusters containing aluminum and iodine atoms, an Al(13) cluster behaves like a halogen atom, whereas an Al(14) cluster exhibits properties analogous to an alkaline earth atom. These observations, together with our findings that Al(13)(-) is inert like a rare gas atom, have reinforced the idea that chosen clusters can exhibit chemical behaviors reminiscent of atoms in the periodic table, offering the exciting prospect of a new dimension of the periodic table formed by cluster elements, called superatoms. As the behavior of clusters can be controlled by size and composition, the superatoms offer the potential to create unique compounds with tailored properties. In this article, we provide evidence of an additional class of superatoms, namely Al(7)(-), that exhibit multiple valences, like some of the elements in the periodic table, and hence have the potential to form stable compounds when combined with other atoms. These findings support the contention that there should be no limitation in finding clusters, which mimic virtually all members of the periodic table.

  16. Multiple stage railgun

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, Ronald S.; Scudder, Jonathan K.; Aaland, Kristian

    1982-01-01

    A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator (10) for accelerating a projectile (15) by movement of a plasma arc (13) along the rails (11,12). The railgun (10) is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages (10a-n) which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources (14a-n) as the projectile (15) moves through the bore (17) of the railgun (10). Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end (29) of the railgun (10) can be prevented by connection of the energy sources (14a-n) to the rails (11,12) through isolation diodes (34a-n). Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails (11,12) into electrically isolated rail sections (11a-n, 12a-n). In such case means (55a-n) are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse (31) or laser device (61) is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage.

  17. Rituximab in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Svenningsson, Rasmus; Alping, Peter; Novakova, Lenka; Björck, Anna; Fink, Katharina; Islam-Jakobsson, Protik; Malmeström, Clas; Axelsson, Markus; Vågberg, Mattias; Sundström, Peter; Lycke, Jan; Piehl, Fredrik; Svenningsson, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the safety and efficacy of rituximab in multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: In this retrospective uncontrolled observational multicenter study, off-label rituximab-treated patients with MS were identified through the Swedish MS register. Outcome data were collected from the MS register and medical charts. Adverse events (AEs) grades 2–5 according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events were recorded. Results: A total of 822 rituximab-treated patients with MS were identified: 557 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), 198 secondary progressive MS (SPMS), and 67 primary progressive MS (PPMS). At baseline, 26.2% had contrast-enhancing lesions (CELs). Patients were treated with 500 or 1,000 mg rituximab IV every 6–12 months, during a mean 21.8 (SD 14.3) months. During treatment, the annualized relapse rates were 0.044 (RRMS), 0.038 (SPMS), and 0.015 (PPMS), and 4.6% of patients displayed CELs. Median Expanded Disability Status Scale remained unchanged in RRMS (p = 0.42) and increased by 0.5 and 1.0 in SPMS and PPMS, respectively (p = 0.10 and 0.25). Infusion-related AEs occurred during 7.8% of infusions and most were mild. A total of 89 AEs grades ≥2 (of which 76 infections) were recorded in 72 patients. No case of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy was detected. Conclusions: This is the largest cohort of patients with MS treated with rituximab reported so far. The safety, clinical, and MRI findings in this heterogeneous real-world cohort treated with different doses of rituximab were similar to those reported in previous randomized controlled trials on B-cell depletion therapy in MS. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that for patients with MS, rituximab is safe and effective. PMID:27760868

  18. Multiple sclerosis update.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Clyde E

    2013-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic but incurable disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that is often diagnosed in the second or third decade of life. It is more common among women than men, significantly impairs patient quality of life, and is associated with substantial costs to patients, healthcare systems, and society. Of the approximately 2.3 million individuals worldwide that have MS, more than 400,000 reside in the United States. Although the etiology of MS is not completely understood, a great deal of evidence suggests a complex relationship between environmental and genetic factors. The pathophysiology of MS involves an aberrant attack by the host immune system on oligodendrocytes, which synthesize and maintain myelin sheaths in the CNS. There are 4 identified disease courses in MS, and approximately 85% of people with MS present with relapsing-remitting MS, which is characterized by discrete acute attacks followed by periods of remission. Signs and symptoms of MS are dependent on the demyelinated area(s) of the CNS and often involve sensory disturbances, limb weakness, fatigue, and increased body temperature. The criteria for a diagnosis of MS include evidence of damage in at least 2 separate areas of the CNS, evidence that the damage occurred at different time points, and the ruling out of other possible diagnoses. Diseasemodifying drugs (DMDs) that reduce the frequency of relapses, development of brain lesions, and progression of disability are the standard of care for relapsing forms of MS, and the use of DMDs should be initiated as early as possible.

  19. Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) is a common genetically and clinically heterogeneous skeletal dysplasia characterized by early-onset osteoarthritis, mainly in the hip and knee, and mild-to-moderate short stature. Here we report on a 6-generation MED family with 17 affected members. Method The clinical and radiographic data on the 12 affected members still living were scrutinized. A structured inquiry comprising state of health and MED-related symptoms since birth up to the present time and the osteoarthritis outcome (KOOS) questionnaire were sent to all living family members with MED. The 5 known gene loci for autosomal dominant MED were analyzed for linkage, using fluorescence-labeled microsatellite markers. Linkage was ascertained with markers close to the COL9A2 gene, which was analyzed for mutations by sequencing. Results We identified an exon 3 donor splice mutation in the COL9A2 gene in all affected family members. Clinical, radiographic, and questionnaire data from affected family members suggested that MED caused by COL9A2 mutations starts in early childhood with knee pain accompanied by delayed ossification of femoral epiphyses. The disease then either stabilizes during puberty or progresses with additional joints becoming affected; joint surgery might be necessary. The progression of the disease also affects muscles, with increasing atrophy, resulting in muscle fatigue and pain. Muscular atrophy has not been reported earlier in cases with COL9A2 mutations. Interpretation In a patient with clinically suspected or verified MED, it is important to perform DNA-based analysis to identify a possible disease-causing mutation. This information can be used to carry out genetic risk assessment of other family members and to achieve an early and correct diagnosis in the children. PMID:19995321

  20. Swamp Works- Multiple Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carelli, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    My Surface Systems internship over the summer 2013 session covered a broad range of projects that ranged multiple aspects and fields of engineering and technology. This internship included a project to create a command center for a 120 ton regolith bin, a design and build for a blast shield to add further protection for the Surface Systems engineers, a design for a portable four monitor hyper wall that can extend as large as needed, research and programming a nano drill for a next generation robot, and social media tasks including the making of videos, posting to social networking websites and implementation of a new weekly outreach program to help spread the word about the Swamp Works laboratory. The objectives for the command center were to create a central computer controlled area for the still in production lunar regolith bin. It needed to be easy to use and the operating systems had to be Linux. The objectives for the hyper wall were to build a mobile transport of monitors that could potentially attach to one another. It needed to be light but sturdy, and have the ability to last. The objectives for the blast shield included a robust design that could withstand a small equipment malfunction, while also being convenient for use. The objectives for the nano-drill included the research and implementation of programming for vertical and horizontal movement. The hyper wall and blasts shield project were designed by me in the Pro/Engineer/Creo2 software. Each project required a meeting with the Swamp Works engineers and was declared successful.

  1. Employment in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Vella, Lea; Vollmer, Tim; Hadjimichael, Olympia; Mohr, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with significant economic burden and high rates of unemployment. This investigation evaluated patient and disease characteristics associated with work loss and work initiation using the NARCOMS patient registry. Patient and disease characteristics associated with transitions to unemployment or employment were evaluated cross-sectionally and prospectively over the course of two assessment periods (mean interval of 1.56 ± 0.93 years). Eligible participants included 8,867 patients for the cross-sectional component, and 8,122 for longitudinal analyses. At Time 1 and Time 2 56–58 % of MS patients were not employed. At Time 1, unemployed participants more likely to have a progressive disease course, had a longer symptom duration, greater levels of disability as measured by the PDDS, and greater functional limitations across all domains of the performance scales (p < 0.0001 for all). At Time 2, increasing MS symptoms in the past 6 months increased the odds of becoming unemployed. In addition, specific problems in mobility, hand function, fatigue, and cognitive performance domains were associated with increased odds of becoming unemployed. Less severe problems in similar areas, including mobility, hand function, and cognitive functioning were also predictive of work initiation among patients not employed. MS is associated with high rates of unemployment. Specific physical and mental health limitations confer risk of employment cessation over time, as well as the likelihood of employment initiation. This study has implications for rehabilitation interventions to target specific MS related limitations that place patients at greatest risk for work status changes. PMID:18677639

  2. Anomaly Detection at Multiple Scales

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-07

    Arlington, VA November 7, 2011 Anomaly Detection at Multiple Scales Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden...AND SUBTITLE Anomaly Detection at Multiple Scales 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...Personal temperament and mental health • Distress, instability, or other vulnerability Anomaly Detection at Multiple Scales (ADAMS) Detect

  3. Multiplicative Thinking: Much More than Knowing Multiplication Facts and Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Chris; Hurrell, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Multiplicative thinking is accepted as a "big idea" of mathematics that underpins important mathematical concepts such as fraction understanding, proportional reasoning, and algebraic thinking. It is characterised by understandings such as the multiplicative relationship between places in the number system, basic and extended number…

  4. Multiplicative Thinking: Much More than Knowing Multiplication Facts and Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Chris; Hurrell, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Multiplicative thinking is accepted as a "big idea" of mathematics that underpins important mathematical concepts such as fraction understanding, proportional reasoning, and algebraic thinking. It is characterised by understandings such as the multiplicative relationship between places in the number system, basic and extended number…

  5. Multiple star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Adam L.

    2010-11-01

    In this thesis, I present a study of the formation and evolution of stars, particularly multiple stellar systems. Binary stars provide a key constraint on star formation because any successful model should reproduce the mass-dependent frequency, distribution of separations, and distribution of mass ratios. I have pursued a number of surveys for different ranges of parameter space, all yielding one overarching conclusion: binary formation is fundamentally tied to mass. Solar-mass stars have a high primordial binary frequency (50%--75%) and a wide range of separations (extending to >10,000 AU), but as the system mass decreases, the frequency and separation distribution also decrease. For brown dwarfs, binaries are rare (~10%--15%) and have separations of <5 AU. Inside of this outer separation cutoff, the separation distribution appears to be log-flat for solar-mass stars, and perhaps for lower-mass systems. Solar-mass binary systems appear to have a flat mass ratio distribution, but for primary masses <0.3 Msun, the distribution becomes increasingly biased toward similar-mass companions. My results also constrain the binary formation timescale and the postformation evolutionary processes that sculpt binary populations. The dynamical interaction timescale in sparse associations like Taurus and Upper Sco is far longer than their ages, which suggests that those populations are dynamically pristine. However, binary systems in denser clusters undergo significant dynamical processing that strips outer binary companions; the difference in wide binary properties between my sample and the field is explained by the composite origin of the field population. I also have placed the individual components of young binary systems on the HR diagram in order to infer their coevality. In Taurus, binary systems are significantly more coeval (Δτ~0.5 Myr) than the association as a whole (Δτ~3--5 Myr). Finally, my survey of young very-low-mass stars and brown dwarfs found no planetary

  6. Bisphosphonates in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Mhaskar, Rahul; Redzepovic, Jasmina; Wheatley, Keith; Clark, Otavio Augusto Camara; Miladinovic, Branko; Glasmacher, Axel; Kumar, Ambuj; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2010-03-17

    Bisphosphonates are specific inhibitors of osteoclastic activity and are currently used as supportive therapy for multiple myeloma (MM). However, the exact clinical role of bisphosphonates in MM remains unclear. This update of the first review published in 2002. We have also analyzed observational studies targeting osteonecrosis of jaw (ONJ). We searched the literature using the methods outlined in the previous review. We also searched observational studies or case reports examining ONJ. We selected RCTs with a parallel design related to the use of bisphosphonate in myeloma. We also selected observational studies or case reports examining bisphosphonates related to ONJ. We have reported pooled data using either hazard ratio or risk ratio and, when appropriate, as absolute risk reduction and the number needed to treat to prevent or to cause a pathological event. We have assessed statistical heterogeneity and reported I(2) statistic. This review includes 17 trials with 1520 patients analyzed in bisphosphonates groups, and 1490 analyzed in control groups. In comparison with placebo/no treatment, the pooled analysis demonstrated the beneficial effect of bisphosphonates on prevention of pathological vertebral fractures (RR= 0.74 (95% CI: 0.62 to 0.89), P = 0.001), total skeletal related events (SREs) (RR= 0.80 (95% CI: 0.72 to 0.89), P < 0.0001) and on amelioration of pain (RR = 0.75 (95% CI: 0.60 to 0.95), P = 0.01). We found no significant effect of bisphosphonates on overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), hypercalcemia or on the reduction of non-vertebral fractures. The indirect meta-analyses did not find the superiority of any particular type of bisphosphonate over others. Only two RCTs reported ONJ. The identified observational studies suggested that ONJ may be a common event (range: 0% to 51%). Adding bisphosphonates to the treatment of MM reduces pathological vertebral fractures, SREs and pain but not mortality. Assuming the baseline risk of 20

  7. [Multiple trauma and burns].

    PubMed

    García de Lorenzo y Mateos, A; Caparrós Fernández de Aguilar, T; Blesa Malpica, A

    2000-01-01

    Patients with multiple injuries and burns are the paradigm of critically-ill patients. Their cases are acute, severe and, fortunately, reversible in a large number of situations. The severe aggressions leading to this kind of condition is the rigger for a maelstrom of inflammatory mediators, metabolic and neuro-endocrinal response, leading to an acceleration in the combustion of the injured organ. This "internal combustion" process takes nourishment from organic reserves, using them up and thus producing dysfunctions in various organs. This is where nutritional support has a role, always remedying the metabolic response to inflammation and attempting to modify it. For this reason, nutritional support plays an undisputed part in the treatment of such patients. This nutritional support, so necessary in situations with a high degree of stress, must be individually tailored in terms of quantity and quality to the process and to the patient in question. Thus, adapting the support to requirements appears as a priority of nutritional assessment. While it is important to provide nourishment to needy patients, it is just as important if not more so to avoid over-nourishment. Indirect calorimetry continues to be the most accurate indicator for determining the needs of each patient and, in view of the lack of knowledge of this technique mainly as a result of economic factors, many different methods and formulas have been proposed to attempt to carry out these adjustments. The characteristics and distribution of the macronutrients will be connected with the pathologies to be treated. And finally, the route for providing this nourishment seems ever more clearly to be as prompt first-line administration through the digestive tube. There are situations in which parenteral support will complement or replace the enteral route when the latter is insufficient or unavailable; in certain circumstances, the parenteral route even seems to be superior to enteral support, as in the case of

  8. Alemtuzumab for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Riera, Rachel; Porfírio, Gustavo J M; Torloni, Maria R

    2016-04-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune, T-cell-dependent, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, with an unpredictable course. Current MS therapies focus on treating exacerbations, preventing new exacerbations and avoiding the progression of disability. However, at present there is no effective treatment that is capable of safely and effectively reaching these objectives. This has led to the development and investigation of new drugs. Recent clinical trials suggest that alemtuzumab, a humanised monoclonal antibody against cell surface CD52, could be a promising option for MS. To assess the safety and effectiveness of alemtuzumab used alone or associated with other treatments to decrease disease activity in patients with any form of MS. We searched the Trials Register of the Cochrane Multiple Sclerosis and Rare Diseases of the CNS Group (30 April 2015), which contains trials from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS and the trial registry databases ClinicalTrials.gov and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. There was no restriction on the source, publication date or language. All randomised clinical trials (RCTs) involving adults diagnosed with any form of MS according to the McDonald criteria, comparing alemtuzumab alone or associated with other medications, at any dose and for any duration, versus placebo or any other active drug therapy or alemtuzumab in other dose, regimen or duration. The co-primary outcomes were relapse-free survival, sustained disease progression and number of participants with at least one of any adverse events, including serious adverse events. Two independent review authors performed study selection, data extraction and 'Risk of bias' assessment. A third review author checked the process for accuracy. We used the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool to assess the risk of bias of the studies included in the review. We used the GRADE system to

  9. The problem with multiple robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Marcus J.; Kenny, Patrick G.

    1994-01-01

    The issues that can arise in research associated with multiple, robotic agents are discussed. Two particular multi-robot projects are presented as examples. This paper was written in the hope that it might ease the transition from single to multiple robot research.

  10. Multiple Intelligences and Lab Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colannino, Noreen M.; Hoyt, William L.; Murray, Ann

    2004-01-01

    Science teachers who are committed to excellence in the classroom continually seek ways to improve teaching and learning, and the concept of multiple intelligences holds promise as a method for accomplishing this. The essence of the theory of multiple intelligences is to understand the many differences among students, the variations in the ways…

  11. Multiple Intelligences for Differentiated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, R. Bruce

    2007-01-01

    There is an intricate literacy to Gardner's multiple intelligences theory that unlocks key entry points for differentiated learning. Using a well-articulated framework, rich with graphic representations, Williams provides a comprehensive discussion of multiple intelligences. He moves the teacher and students from curiosity, to confidence, to…

  12. Multiple Intelligences Centers and Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Carolyn; Freeman, Lynn

    Based upon Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, this book guides elementary school teachers through the process of using classroom learning centers and projects by providing choices for students. The guide is divided into two sections, providing the theoretical background and information on how to develop multiple intelligences learning…

  13. Adult Multiple Intelligences and Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Meg Ryback

    In the Adult Multiple Intelligences (AMI) study, 10 teachers of adults from the northeastern region of the United States explored for 18 months the ways that multiple intelligences (MI) theory could support instruction and assessment in various adult learning contexts. The results of this research were published in a book by Julie Viens called MI…

  14. Folklore and the Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehnecke, Dianne Swenson

    1995-01-01

    Explores using Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences for folklore analysis. States that when listening to folktales, linguistic intelligence was used, as opposed to drawing pictures of the stories, which used spatial intelligence. Provides some ideas on how to bring folklore studies and the use of multiple intelligences into the classroom. (PA)

  15. Multiplication Fact Fluency Using Doubles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Judith M.; Rubenstein, Rheta N.

    2010-01-01

    Not knowing multiplication facts creates a gap in a student's mathematics development and undermines confidence and disposition toward further mathematical learning. Learning multiplication facts is a first step in proportional reasoning, "the capstone of elementary arithmetic and the gateway to higher mathematics" (NRC 2001, p. 242). Proportional…

  16. Multiple Intelligences Centers and Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Carolyn; Freeman, Lynn

    Based upon Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, this book guides elementary school teachers through the process of using classroom learning centers and projects by providing choices for students. The guide is divided into two sections, providing the theoretical background and information on how to develop multiple intelligences learning…

  17. Chaotic communication scheme with multiplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobreshov, A. M.; Karavaev, A. A.

    2007-05-01

    A new scheme of data transmission with nonlinear admixing is described, in which the two mutually inverse operations (multiplication and division) ensure multiplicative mixing of the informative and chaotic signals that provides a potentially higher degree of security. A special feature of the proposed scheme is the absence of limitations (related to the division by zero) imposed on the types of informative signals.

  18. Universal features of multiplicity distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Balantekin, A.B. |

    1994-06-01

    Universal features of multiplicity distributions are studied and combinants, certain linear combinations of ratios of probabilities, are introduced. It is argued that they can be a useful tool in analyzing multiplicity distributions of hadrons emitted in high energy collisions and large scale structure of galaxy distributions.

  19. Multiple Intelligences for Differentiated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, R. Bruce

    2007-01-01

    There is an intricate literacy to Gardner's multiple intelligences theory that unlocks key entry points for differentiated learning. Using a well-articulated framework, rich with graphic representations, Williams provides a comprehensive discussion of multiple intelligences. He moves the teacher and students from curiosity, to confidence, to…

  20. Rickettsial Antibodies in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Field, E. J.; Chambers, Mavis

    1970-01-01

    The serum of subjects with multiple sclerosis or other degenerative neurological diseases and that of normal controls does not differ significantly in its content of antibodies to several rickettsial antigens. There is no evidence for a rickettsial aetiology of multiple sclerosis, and no grounds for an extended clinical trial of Le Gac's full method of treatment with antibiotics. PMID:4983591

  1. Multiple sclerosis associated with trismus.

    PubMed Central

    D'Costa, D. F.; Vania, A. K.; Millac, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the case history of a middle-aged lady who presented with symptoms and signs over one year leading to a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. During one of her relapses, she developed trismus--an association that has not been described before in multiple sclerosis. PMID:2099430

  2. Multiplicity distributions in nuclear collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Capella, A.; Casado, J.A.; Pajares, C.; Ramallo, A.V.; Tran Tranh Van, J.

    1987-05-01

    Multiplicity distributions in nuclear collisions are calculated in the framework of the dual parton model. A comparison with experimental data is performed. The multiplicity distributions for /sup 16/O-/sup 207/Pb collisions at 200 Gev/c per nucleon is predicted. The fluctuations of the energy density in the central rapidity region for such collisions are estimated.

  3. Symptomatic therapy in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Frohman, Teresa C.; Castro, Wanda; Shah, Anjali; Courtney, Ardith; Ortstadt, Jeffrey; Davis, Scott L.; Logan, Diana; Abraham, Thomas; Abraham, Jaspreet; Remington, Gina; Treadaway, Katherine; Graves, Donna; Hart, John; Stuve, Olaf; Lemack, Gary; Greenberg, Benjamin; Frohman, Elliot M.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common disabling neurological disease of young adults. The ability to impact the quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis should not only incorporate therapies that are disease modifying, but should also include a course of action for the global multidisciplinary management focused on quality of life and functional capabilities. PMID:21694806

  4. Bent Bonds and Multiple Bonds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Edward A.; Gillespie, Ronald J.

    1980-01-01

    Considers carbon-carbon multiple bonds in terms of Pauling's bent bond model, which allows direct calculation of double and triple bonds from the length of a CC single bond. Lengths of these multiple bonds are estimated from direct measurements on "bent-bond" models constructed of plastic tubing and standard kits. (CS)

  5. Folklore and the Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehnecke, Dianne Swenson

    1995-01-01

    Explores using Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences for folklore analysis. States that when listening to folktales, linguistic intelligence was used, as opposed to drawing pictures of the stories, which used spatial intelligence. Provides some ideas on how to bring folklore studies and the use of multiple intelligences into the classroom. (PA)

  6. Multiplication Fact Fluency Using Doubles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Judith M.; Rubenstein, Rheta N.

    2010-01-01

    Not knowing multiplication facts creates a gap in a student's mathematics development and undermines confidence and disposition toward further mathematical learning. Learning multiplication facts is a first step in proportional reasoning, "the capstone of elementary arithmetic and the gateway to higher mathematics" (NRC 2001, p. 242). Proportional…

  7. Can Multiple Myeloma Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Phone Search Search En Español Category Cancer A-Z Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Can Multiple Myeloma Be Found Early? Signs and Symptoms of Multiple Myeloma Tests to Find Multiple Myeloma Diagnosing Multiple Myeloma from ...

  8. Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Leray, E; Moreau, T; Fromont, A; Edan, G

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most frequently seen demyelinating disease, with a prevalence that varies considerably, from high levels in North America and Europe (>100/100,000 inhabitants) to low rates in Eastern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa (2/100,000 population). Knowledge of the geographical distribution of the disease and its survival data, and a better understanding of the natural history of the disease, have improved our understanding of the respective roles of endogenous and exogenous causes of MS. Concerning mortality, in a large French cohort of 27,603 patients, there was no difference between MS patients and controls in the first 20 years of the disease, although life expectancy was reduced by 6-7 years in MS patients. In 2004, the prevalence of MS in France was 94.7/100,000 population, according to data from the French National Health Insurance Agency for Salaried Workers (Caisse nationale d'assurance maladie des travailleurs Salariés [CNAM-TS]), which insures 87% of the French population. This prevalence was higher in the North and East of France. In several countries, including France, the gender ratio for MS incidence (women/men) went from 2/1 to 3/1 from the 1950s to the 2000s, but only for the relapsing-remitting form. As for risk factors of MS, the most pertinent environmental factors are infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), especially if it arises after childhood and is symptomatic. The role of smoking in MS risk has been confirmed, but is modest. In contrast, vaccines, stress, traumatic events and allergies have not been identified as risk factors, while the involvement of vitamin D has yet to be confirmed. From a genetic point of view, the association between HLA-DRB1*15:01 and a high risk of MS has been known for decades. More recently, immunogenetic markers have been identified (IL2RA, IL7RA) and, in particular thanks to studies of genome-wide associations, more than 100 genetic variants have been reported. Most of these are involved in

  9. Electroconvulsive Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Steen, Katie; Narang, Puneet

    2015-01-01

    We performed a literature search regarding the safety and efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis and comorbid psychiatric symptoms. Literature review was conducted via PubMed databases. Of the cases we reviewed, most subjects with multiple sclerosis reported significant psychiatric symptom relief, with only a handful reporting neurologic deterioration. There was some evidence that active white matter lesions may be predictive of neurologic deterioration when electroconvulsive therapy is used in patients with multiple sclerosis. A brief description of the pathophysiology and effects of depression in patients with multiple sclerosis is also provided. Although no clinical recommendations or meaningful conclusions can be drawn without further investigation, the literature suggests that electroconvulsive therapy for treatment of psychiatric illnesses in patients with multiple sclerosis is safe and efficacious. PMID:26351621

  10. Multiplicative properties of quantum channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaman, Mizanur

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we study the multiplicative behaviour of quantum channels, mathematically described by trace preserving, completely positive maps on matrix algebras. It turns out that the multiplicative domain of a unital quantum channel has a close connection to its spectral properties. A structure theorem (theorem 2.5), which reveals the automorphic property of an arbitrary unital quantum channel on a subalgebra, is presented. Various classes of quantum channels (irreducible, primitive, etc) are then analysed in terms of this stabilising subalgebra. The notion of the multiplicative index of a unital quantum channel is introduced, which measures the number of times a unital channel needs to be composed with itself for the multiplicative algebra to stabilise. We show that the maps that have trivial multiplicative domains are dense in completely bounded norm topology in the set of all unital completely positive maps. Some applications in quantum information theory are discussed.

  11. Electroconvulsive Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Steen, Katie; Narang, Puneet; Lippmann, Steven

    2015-01-01

    We performed a literature search regarding the safety and efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis and comorbid psychiatric symptoms. Literature review was conducted via PubMed databases. Of the cases we reviewed, most subjects with multiple sclerosis reported significant psychiatric symptom relief, with only a handful reporting neurologic deterioration. There was some evidence that active white matter lesions may be predictive of neurologic deterioration when electroconvulsive therapy is used in patients with multiple sclerosis. A brief description of the pathophysiology and effects of depression in patients with multiple sclerosis is also provided. Although no clinical recommendations or meaningful conclusions can be drawn without further investigation, the literature suggests that electroconvulsive therapy for treatment of psychiatric illnesses in patients with multiple sclerosis is safe and efficacious.

  12. Multiple Access in Ultra-Wideband Communications Using Multiple Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Nekoogar, F; Dowla, F

    2003-04-11

    Multiple access (MA) in UWB communication is an area of active research. To date several time-division or code-division pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) or pulse position modulation (PPM) schemes have been proposed to separate multiple users in UWB communications. Conventionally, all users employ the same pulse shape and modulate the transmit pulse based on changing amplitude or position. One concern with using the same pulse for all channels is that the multiple access interference (MAI) increases as the number of users increase. This is due to increased cross-correlation between similar pulses of the different channels, raising thus the noise floor in such systems. In this paper we introduce and study the performance of a new MA scheme in the context of multiple orthogonal transmitted-reference (T-R) short duration (nsec) chirp pulses in the presence of multipath and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN).

  13. Multiple Model Methods for Cost Function Based Multiple Hypothesis Trackers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    MHT’s Gaussian mixture with Multiple Model Adaptive Estimators (MMAEs) or Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) estimators, and replacing the elemental...Kalman Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 2.3.1 Dynamics Design Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.3.2 Propagation ...Track Life of Various Merging and Pruning Algorithms . . 2-30 3.1. Constant Velocity Truth Model Driven by White Gaussian Noise . . 3-3 3.2. Constant

  14. On Multiple-Layered Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to find ways to make vortex flow fields decompose more quickly, photographs and observations are presented of vortex flow fields that indicate the presence of multiple layers of fluid rotating about a common axis. A survey of the literature indicates that multiple-layered vortices form in waterspouts, tornadoes and lift-generated vortices of aircraft. An explanation for the appearance of multiple-layered structures in vortices is suggested. The observations and data presented are intended to improve the understanding of the formation and persistence of vortex flow fields.

  15. Autonomic dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Racosta, Juan Manuel; Kimpinski, Kurt; Morrow, Sarah Anne; Kremenchutzky, Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    Autonomic dysfunction is a prevalent and significant cause of disability among patients with multiple sclerosis. Autonomic dysfunction in multiple sclerosis is usually explained by lesions within central nervous system regions responsible for autonomic regulation, but novel evidence suggests that other factors may be involved as well. Additionally, the interactions between the autonomic nervous system and the immune system have generated increased interest about the role of autonomic dysfunction in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. In this paper we analyze systematically the most relevant signs and symptoms of autonomic dysfunction in MS, considering separately their potential causes and implications.

  16. [Future challenges in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Fernández, Óscar

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis occurs in genetically susceptible individuals, in whom an unknown environmental factor triggers an immune response, giving rise to a chronic and disabling autoimmune disease. Currently, significant progress is being made in our knowledge of the frequency and distribution of multiple sclerosis and its risk factors, genetics, pathology, pathogenesis, diagnostic and prognostic markers, and treatment. This has radically changed patients' and clinicians' expectations of multiple sclerosis and has raised hope that there will soon be a way to control the disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Humanizing Outgroups Through Multiple Categorization

    PubMed Central

    Prati, Francesca; Crisp, Richard J.; Meleady, Rose; Rubini, Monica

    2016-01-01

    In three studies, we examined the impact of multiple categorization on intergroup dehumanization. Study 1 showed that perceiving members of a rival university along multiple versus simple categorical dimensions enhanced the tendency to attribute human traits to this group. Study 2 showed that multiple versus simple categorization of immigrants increased the attribution of uniquely human emotions to them. This effect was explained by the sequential mediation of increased individuation of the outgroup and reduced outgroup threat. Study 3 replicated this sequential mediation model and introduced a novel way of measuring humanization in which participants generated attributes corresponding to the outgroup in a free response format. Participants generated more uniquely human traits in the multiple versus simple categorization conditions. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings and consider their role in informing and improving efforts to ameliorate contemporary forms of intergroup discrimination. PMID:26984016

  18. MULTIPLE SCALES FOR SUSTAINABLE RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This session will highlight recent research that incorporates the use of multiple scales and innovative environmental accounting to better inform decisions that affect sustainability, resilience, and vulnerability at all scales. Effective decision-making involves assessment at mu...

  19. Hereditary multiple exostoses and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Gòmez-Bernal, Germán

    2008-05-01

    I report a case of a patient who suffered schizophrenia and multiple exostoses and argue the possible role of EXT gene and nearly chromosomal loci in further genetic investigations related to schizophrenia.

  20. Twins, Triplets, and Other Multiples

    MedlinePlus

    ... complications Pregnancy loss Know your pregnancy rights Getting ready for baby Childbirth and ... Twins, triplets, and other multiples If you are pregnant with more than one baby, you are far from alone. In the ...

  1. Multiple Thymoma with Myasthenia Gravis

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dong Hyun; Cho, Sukki

    2017-01-01

    The actual incidence of multiple thymoma is unknown and rarely reported because it remains controversial whether the cases represent a disease of multicentric origin or a disease resulting from intrathymic metastasis. In this case, a patient underwent total thymectomy for multiple thymoma with myasthenia gravis via bilateral video-assisted thoracic surgery. A well-encapsulated multinodular cystic mass, measuring 57 mm×50 mm×22 mm in the right lobe of the thymus, and a well-encapsulated mass, measuring 32 mm×15 mm×14 mm in the left lobe, were found. Both tumors were type B2 thymoma. Few cases of multiple thymoma with myasthenia gravis have ever been reported in the literature. We report a case of synchronous multiple thymoma associated with myasthenia gravis. PMID:28180109

  2. Multiple Regression and Its Discontents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel C.; Marsh, Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Multiple regression is part of a larger statistical strategy originated by Gauss. The authors raise questions about the theory and suggest some changes that would make room for Mandelbrot and Serendipity.

  3. MULTIPLE SCALES FOR SUSTAINABLE RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This session will highlight recent research that incorporates the use of multiple scales and innovative environmental accounting to better inform decisions that affect sustainability, resilience, and vulnerability at all scales. Effective decision-making involves assessment at mu...

  4. Teen Sexual Health - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Teen Sexual Health URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ...

  5. Multiplicities in high energy interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Derrick, M.

    1985-05-13

    This paper reviews the data on multiplicities in high energy interactions. Results from e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, from neutrino interactions, and from hadronic collisions, both diffractive and nondiffractive, are compared and contrasted. The energy dependence of the mean charged multiplicity, , as well as the rapidity density at Y = 0 are presented. For hadronic collisions, the data on neutral pion production shows a strong correlation with . The heavy particle fractions increase with ..sqrt..s up to the highest energies. The charged particle multiplicity distributions for each type of reaction show a scaling behavior when expressed in terms of the mean. Attempts to understand this behavior, which was first predicted by Koba, Nielsen, and Olesen, are discussed. The multiplicity correlations and the energy variation of the shape of the KNO scaling distribution provide important constraints on models. Some extrapolations to the energies of the Superconducting Super Collider are made. 51 refs., 27 figs.

  6. Baby Health Checkup - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Baby Health Checkup URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/babyhealthcheckup.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  7. Biodefense and Bioterrorism - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Biodefense and Bioterrorism URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/biodefenseandbioterrorism.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  8. Child Mental Health - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Mental Health URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/childmentalhealth.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  9. Bile Duct Diseases - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bile Duct Diseases URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bileductdiseases.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  10. Cervical Cancer Screening - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cervical Cancer Screening URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/cervicalcancerscreening.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  11. Bone Marrow Diseases - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bone Marrow Diseases URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bonemarrowdiseases.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorder - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Autism Spectrum Disorder URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/autismspectrumdisorder.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  13. Asthma in Children - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Asthma in Children URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/asthmainchildren.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  14. Child Dental Health - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Dental Health URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/childdentalhealth.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  15. Multiple Regression and Its Discontents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel C.; Marsh, Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Multiple regression is part of a larger statistical strategy originated by Gauss. The authors raise questions about the theory and suggest some changes that would make room for Mandelbrot and Serendipity.

  16. The INEL beryllium multiplication experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.; King, J.J.

    1991-03-01

    The experiment to measure the multiplication of 14-MeV neutrons in bulk beryllium has been completed. The experiment consists of determining the ratio of {sup 56}Mn activities induced in a large manganese bath by a central 14-MeV neutron source, with and without a beryllium sample surrounding the source. In the manganese bath method a neutron source is placed at the center of a totally-absorbing aqueous solution of MnSo{sub 4}. The capture of neutrons by Mn produces a {sup 56}Mn activity proportional to the emission rate of the source. As applied to the measurement of the multiplication of 14- MeV neutrons in bulk beryllium, the neutron source is a tritium target placed at the end of the drift tube of a small deuteron accelerator. Surrounding the source is a sample chamber. When the sample chamber is empty, the neutrons go directly to the surrounding MnSO{sub 4} solution, and produce a {sup 56}Mn activity proportional to the neutron emission rate. When the chamber contains a beryllium sample, the neutrons first enter the beryllium and multiply through the (n,2n) process. Neutrons escaping from the beryllium enter the bath and produce a {sup 56}Mn activity proportional to the neutron emission rate multiplied by the effective value of the multiplication in bulk beryllium. The ratio of the activities with and without the sample present is proportional to the multiplication value. Detailed calculations of the multiplication and all the systematic effects were made with the Monte Carlo program MCNP, utilizing both the Young and Stewart and the ENDF/B-VI evaluations for beryllium. Both data sets produce multiplication values that are in excellent agreement with the measurements for both raw and corrected values of the multiplication. We conclude that there is not real discrepancy between experimental and calculated values for the multiplication of neutrons in bulk beryllium. 12 figs., 11 tabs., 18 refs.

  17. Criteria for performing multiple dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, C.D.; Gupta, V.P.; Pryor, K.H.

    1995-10-01

    When radiation fields vary spatially as a result of job- or location-specific conditions, the use of more than one dosimeter may be necessary for a variety of radiation protection purposes. This paper contains a methodology for when and how to use multiple dosimeters under conditions incident to routine activities in the presence of ionizing radiation. It also describes a methodology for determining the effective dose equivalent when the use of multiple dosimeters has been deemed necessary by radiation protection professionals.

  18. Multiple phases of protien gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annaka, Masahiko; Tanaka, Toyoichi

    1994-03-01

    A multiple phase transition was observed in gels made by covalently cross-linking proteins in either native or denatured state. The enzymatic activity of the gels prepared from native α-chymotrypsin was determined for each of the multiple phases. The reversibility of the swelling degrees and the enzymatic reaction rates upon phase transition suggests that the protein is at a free energy minimum and thus in a phase.

  19. Multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Velasquez, G.; Glass, T.A.; D'Souza, V.J.; Formanek, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Renal oncocytoma, although rare, is being diagnosed more frequently, and criteria to differentiate it from other tumors have been described. Multiple oncocytomas have been reported, but an association between multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma in the same kidney has not been described. The authors report a case with two oncocytomas and a renal carcinoma in the right kidney as well as a right adrenal adenoma.

  20. A multiple armature railgun launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challita, Antonios; Maas, Brian L.; Bauer, David P.; Heyse, Mark

    1993-01-01

    Railgun launchers with multiple armatures, which can distribute the accelerating force on the projectile, supply each armature with gun current for acceleration through its own set of rails. Test results are reported which confirm the feasibility of this concept; it is shown that the control of current distribution to multiple armatures is possible. Attention is given to gun behavior for the case of high length/diameter projectiles.

  1. Multiple tumours in survival estimates.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Stefano; De Angelis, Roberta; Ciccolallo, Laura; Carrani, Eugenio; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Grande, Enrico; Zigon, Giulia; Brenner, Hermann

    2009-04-01

    In international comparisons of cancer registry based survival it is common practice to restrict the analysis to first primary tumours and exclude multiple cancers. The probability of correctly detecting subsequent cancers depends on the registry's running time, which results in different proportions of excluded patients and may lead to biased comparisons. We evaluated the impact on the age-standardised relative survival estimates of also including multiple primary tumours. Data from 2,919,023 malignant cancers from 69 European cancer registries participating in the EUROCARE-4 collaborative study were used. A total of 183,683 multiple primary tumours were found, with an overall proportion of 6.3% over all the considered cancers, ranging from 0.4% (Naples, Italy) to 12.9% (Iceland). The proportion of multiple tumours varied greatly by type of tumour, being higher for those with high incidence and long survival (breast, prostate and colon-rectum). Five-year relative survival was lower when including patients with multiple cancers. For all cancers combined the average difference was -0.4 percentage points in women and -0.7 percentage points in men, and was greater for older registries. Inclusion of multiple tumours led to lower survival in 44 out of 45 cancer sites analysed, with the greatest differences found for larynx (-1.9%), oropharynx (-1.5%), and penis (-1.3%). Including multiple primary tumours in survival estimates for international comparison is advisable because it reduces the bias due to different observation periods, age, registration quality and completeness of registration. The general effect of inclusion is to reduce survival estimates by a variable amount depending on the proportion of multiple primaries and cancer site.

  2. [Current therapy of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Antonio García Merino, J

    2014-12-01

    Since the introduction of interferon beta 1 b for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, there has been a progressive increase in the number of drugs available for this disease. Currently, 11 drugs have been approved in Spain, and their indications depend on specific clinical characteristics. The present article reviews these indications and also discusses other medications without official approval that have also been used in multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Therapeutics for multiple sclerosis symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ben-Zacharia, Aliza Bitton

    2011-01-01

    Symptoms management in multiple sclerosis is an integral part of its care. Accurate assessment and addressing the different symptoms provides increased quality of life among patients with multiple sclerosis. Multiple sclerosis symptoms may be identified as primary, secondary, or tertiary symptoms. Primary symptoms, such as weakness, sensory loss, and ataxia, are directly related to demyelination and axonal loss. Secondary symptoms, such as urinary tract infections as a result of urinary retention, are a result of the primary symptoms. Tertiary symptoms, such as reactive depression or social isolation, are a result of the social and psychological consequences of the disease. Common multiple sclerosis symptoms include fatigue and weakness; decreased balance, spasticity and gait problems; depression and cognitive issues; bladder, bowel, and sexual deficits; visual and sensory loss; and neuropathic pain. Less-common symptoms include dysarthria and dysphagia, vertigo, and tremors. Rare symptoms in multiple sclerosis include seizures, hearing loss, and paralysis. Symptom management includes nonpharmacological methods, such as rehabilitation and psychosocial support, and pharmacological methods, ie, medications and surgical procedures. The keys to symptom management are awareness, knowledge, and coordination of care. Symptoms have to be recognized and management needs to be individualized. Multiple sclerosis therapeutics include nonpharmacological strategies that consist of lifestyle modifications, rehabilitation, social support, counseling, and pharmacological agents or surgical procedures. The goal is vigilant management to improve quality of life and promote realistic expectations and hope.

  4. Multiple Myeloma: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Michels, Thomas C; Petersen, Keith E

    2017-03-15

    Multiple myeloma accounts for 1.6% of all cancer cases and approximately 10% of hematologic malignancies in the United States. In 2015, an estimated 28,850 new cases of multiple myeloma were diagnosed in the United States, and the disease caused more than 11,000 deaths. Patients older than 65 years account for 85% of those diagnosed with multiple myeloma, and there is a twofold increased incidence in blacks compared with whites. Patients may present with bone pain or with symptoms that are often nonspecific, such as nausea, vomiting, malaise, weakness, recurrent infections, and weight loss. Many patients present with only laboratory abnormalities, such as anemia, renal disease, and elevated protein levels. The diagnosis of multiple myeloma requires increased numbers of immature, abnormal, or atypical plasma cells in the bone marrow; a monoclonal protein in the serum or urine; or characteristic bone lesions. The diagnostic workup in a patient with suspected multiple myeloma should include a complete blood count with differential; serum chemistries; creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase, and beta2-microglobulin tests; immunoglobulin studies; skeletal survey; and bone marrow evaluation. Initiation of chemotherapy and assessment of eligibility for autologous stem cell transplantation require referral to an oncologist. Most patients with multiple myeloma will receive thromboprophylaxis, bisphosphonate therapy, and prophylaxis against infection at some point in their treatment. Family physicians play a role in assessing these patients for infection, adverse treatment effects, and renal and thrombotic complications, and in managing issues related to pain, nutrition, and psychosocial support.

  5. Performance of Multiple Pulse Multiple Delay Modulated UWB Signals in a Multiple Access Indoor Wireless Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Nekoogar, F

    2003-06-12

    In this paper, the performance of a two user UWB multiple access (UWB-MA) system based on multiple-pulse multiple-delay (MPMD) modulation scheme in an indoor wireless channel is evaluated by computer simulations. The indoor multipath propagation channel model used in this study is based on the modified statistical Saleh-Valenzuela model proposed by Foerester and Li from Intel. The simulation results indicate that the multipath performance of MPMD modulated signals in a multiple access system outperforms the nonmultipath case as the number of autocorrelation function (ACF) sampling points increases for each user. This is an unusual but important result, since MPMD receiver exploits multipath phenomenon in indoor wireless channels to increase the BER performance, hence the transmission rate in a UWB-MA system.

  6. Telerobotic management system: coordinating multiple human operators with multiple robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jamie W.; Pretty, Raymond; Brothers, Brendan; Gosine, Raymond G.

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes an application called the Tele-robotic management system (TMS) for coordinating multiple operators with multiple robots for applications such as underground mining. TMS utilizes several graphical interfaces to allow the user to define a partially ordered plan for multiple robots. This plan is then converted to a Petri net for execution and monitoring. TMS uses a distributed framework to allow robots and operators to easily integrate with the applications. This framework allows robots and operators to join the network and advertise their capabilities through services. TMS then decides whether tasks should be dispatched to a robot or a remote operator based on the services offered by the robots and operators.

  7. Safety of multiple stereotactic radiosurgery treatments for multiple brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Hillard, Virany H; Shih, Lynn L; Chin, Shing; Moorthy, Chitti R; Benzil, Deborah L

    2003-07-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a widely used therapy for multiple brain lesions, and studies have clearly established the safety and efficacy of single-dose SRS. However, as patient survival has increased, the recurrence of tumors and the development of metastases to new sites within the brain have made it desirable to repeat treatments over time. The cumulative toxicity of multi-isocenter, multiple treatments has not been well defined. We have retrospectively studied 10 patients who received multiple SRS treatments for multiple brain lesions to assess the cumulative toxicity of these treatments. In a retrospective review of all patients treated with SRS using the X-knife (Radionics, Burlington, MA) at Westchester Medical Center/New York Medical College between December 1995 and December 2000, 10 patients were identified who received at least two treatments to at least 3 isocenters and had a minimum follow-up period of 6 months. Image fusion technique was used to determine cumulative doses to targeted lesions, whole brain and critical brain structures. Toxicities and complications were identified by chart and radiological review. The average of the maximum doses (cGy) to a point within the whole brain was 2402 (range 1617-3953); to the brainstem, 1059 (range 48-4126); to the right optic nerve, 223 (range 14-1012); to the left optic nerve, 159 (range 17-475); and to the optic chiasm, 219 (range 15-909). There were no focal neurological toxicities, including visual disturbances, cranial nerve palsies, or ataxia in any of the 10 patients. There were also no global toxicities, including cognitive decline or secondary tumors. Only one patient developed seizures that were difficult to control in association with radiation necrosis. Multiple SRS treatments at the cumulative doses used in our study are a safe therapy for patients with multiple brain lesions.

  8. Convergence characteristics of the multiple input, multiple output LMS algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Scott D.; Hansen, Colin H.; Clark, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    The convergence characteristics of the multiple input, multiple output LMS algorithm, as applied to active noise and vibration control systems, are examined. The mean square error during the convergence process, as well as the final converged value, are examined analytically and in computer simulation. It is shown that the ratio of number of error sensors to number of control sources has a significant influence upon both the converging and converged value of the mean square error. Other active control system variables, such as the inherent time delays and structural/acoustic transfer functions, are also shown to have a significant influence upon the convergence process.

  9. Convergence characteristics of the multiple input, multiple output LMS algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Scott D.; Hansen, Colin H.; Clark, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    The convergence characteristics of the multiple input, multiple output LMS algorithm, as applied to active noise and vibration control systems, are examined. The mean square error during the convergence process, as well as the final converged value, are examined analytically and in computer simulation. It is shown that the ratio of number of error sensors to number of control sources has a significant influence upon both the converging and converged value of the mean square error. Other active control system variables, such as the inherent time delays and structural/acoustic transfer functions, are also shown to have a significant influence upon the convergence process.

  10. Gasdynamic Multiple-Mirror Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beklemishev, Alexei; Anikeev, Andrei; Bagryansky, Peter; Burdakov, Alexander; Gavrilenko, Dmitrii; Ivanov, Alexander; Polosatkin, Sergei; Sinitsky, Stanislav

    2013-10-01

    The new linear device for confinement of fusion plasmas, GDMT, is being developed at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk. The facility will combine features of existing GOL-3 and GDT devices: the central GDT-like cell with sloshing NBI ions, and the multiple-mirror plugs for suppression of axial losses. Such combination became feasible due to recent discoveries. In particular, the requirement of flute-mode stability can be relaxed by using vortex confinement, achieved by plasma biasing through open field lines. This allows the use of potentially destabilizing multiple-mirror sections. Another key effect is the enhanced multiple-mirror confinement at low densities, which is due to collective rather than coulomb scattering of ions. Hence the multiple-mirror plugs can work at pressures compatible with magnetic confinement. These two main technologies are supplemented by axial injection of pulsed electron beams. Besides additional plasma heating (like in GOL-3), such injection can be used for induced collective scattering in the multiple-mirror plugs and for plasma biasing. The new device is designed to be superconducting and modular. It will be built in stages, with the first stage, GDMT-T, intended for PMI studies. The work was financially supported by Ministry of Education and Science RF.

  11. Pyrochemical neutron multiplicity counter design

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, D.G.; Ensslin, N.; Krick, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    Pyrochemical process materials are difficult to measure using conventional neutron counting methods because of significant self- multiplication and variable ({alpha},n) reaction rates. Multiplicity counters measure the first three moments of the neutron multiplicity distribution and thus make it possible to determine sample mass even when multiplication and ({alpha},n) rate are unknown. A new multiplicity counter suitable for inplant measurement of pyrochemical process materials has been designed using Monte Carlo simulations. The goals were to produce a counter that has high neutron detection efficiency, low die-away time, a flat spatial efficiency profile, and is insensitive to the neutron energy spectrum. Monte Carlo calculations were performed for several prototype models consisting of four rings of 71-cm active length {sup 3}He tubes in a polyethylene body. The cadmium-lined sample well is 25 cm in diameter to accommodate a wide variety of inplant sample containers. The counter can be free-standing or in-line without mechanical modification. The calculations were performed to determine the above design criteria for several configurations of tube spacing, cadmium liners, and sample height. Calculations were also performed for distributed sample sources to understand the integrated effects of variable neutron spectra on the counter. 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Maintenance therapy in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Mewawalla, Prerna; Chilkulwar, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances, multiple myeloma remains an incurable disease. Induction therapy followed by autologous transplantation has become the standard of care. The idea of maintenance therapy in multiple myeloma is not new. Starting with chemotherapy in 1975, to interferon in 1998, to novel agents recently, a multitude of agents have been explored in patients with multiple myeloma. In spite of the novel agents, multiple myeloma continues to be an incurable disease with the progression-free survival after autologous transplant rarely exceeding 3 years. The goal of using maintenance therapy has been to improve the outcomes following autologous transplantation by increasing the progression-free survival, deepening remissions and perhaps increasing overall survival. It has been shown that patients with a stringent complete response (CR) have a better outcome [Kapoor et al. 2013]. It is becoming increasingly common to check minimal residual disease (MRD) as a means of assessing depth of response. It has also been shown that patients with no MRD have not only a better progression-free survival but also a better overall survival compared with patients who are MRD positive. This makes it even more important to find agents for maintenance therapy, which can further deepen and maintain responses. Here, we present a comprehensive review of the agents studied as maintenance for multiple myeloma and their efficacy, both in terms of overall survival, progression-free survival and toxicity. PMID:28203343

  13. Multiple myeloma: evaluation by CT

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiman, J.S.; McLeod, R.A.; Kyle, R.A.; Beabout, J.W.

    1985-02-01

    Although patients who have multiple myeloma usually have straightforward clinical symptoms and corroborative radiographs, in some instances, these patients will present atypically, with symptoms suggesting active disease but radiographs that are normal or nonspecific. The authors reviewed the records of 32 patients who had documented multiple myeloma and had undergone CT examinations, assessing the value of those examinations. Although CT is not indicated in all patients who have multiple myeloma, it is especially useful in patients who have bone pain and normal or nonspecific radiographs. CT provided confirmatory information in all cases in which lesions were seen on radiographs. CT also frequently demonstrated a greater extent of disease than could be appreciated on the radiographs.

  14. Multiple personality: self-rape.

    PubMed

    Beer, D; Beer, J; Beer, J

    1994-12-01

    Multiple personality disorder is the classification given a person for whom two or more distinct personalities are diagnosed. The personalities can be different and vary in character from aggressive to submissive (victimized). The victim alters can be abused and abuse or mutilate self to relieve anxiety or guilt (deserving punishment) or to exert control. Alters may provide a means of expressing anger or other feelings. Aggression towards the body may be sexually oriented, so one may ask whether aggression could make self-rape possible. If so, such expression of self-injuries may be observed in a person with multiple personality as when one alter may injure another. Clinical case material is presented on this concept for a woman who had been formally diagnosed with multiple personality disorder.

  15. More than Multiplication in a 12 x 12 Multiplication Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierdien, Faaiz

    2009-01-01

    This note presents demonstrations of mathematics that emerges when problems are posed with respect to a combined 12 x 12 multiplication table showing multiplier and multiplicand. Through processes such as recognizing and extending patterns, specializing and generalizing particular functional relationships between the diagonal and row sequences are…

  16. Multiple Imputation Strategies for Multiple Group Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enders, Craig K.; Gottschall, Amanda C.

    2011-01-01

    Although structural equation modeling software packages use maximum likelihood estimation by default, there are situations where one might prefer to use multiple imputation to handle missing data rather than maximum likelihood estimation (e.g., when incorporating auxiliary variables). The selection of variables is one of the nuances associated…

  17. Multiple Texts: Multiple Opportunities for Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Notes that whatever the unit, educators can include a wide range of materials: informational picture and chapter books; biographies and photographic essays; and Internet, newspaper, and magazine articles. Discusses how the use of multiple texts can help all students become a part of the same community of readers. Provides a list of references that…

  18. Multiple Imputation Strategies for Multiple Group Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enders, Craig K.; Gottschall, Amanda C.

    2011-01-01

    Although structural equation modeling software packages use maximum likelihood estimation by default, there are situations where one might prefer to use multiple imputation to handle missing data rather than maximum likelihood estimation (e.g., when incorporating auxiliary variables). The selection of variables is one of the nuances associated…

  19. [Paroxysmal dystonia and multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    El Otmani, H; Benmansour, Y; Araqi-Houssaini, A; Benkirane, N; Dany, F; Abdoh Rafai, M; El Moutawakil, B; Slassi, I

    2014-02-01

    Movement disorders are uncommon in multiple sclerosis, except for tremor. Patients rarely have paroxysmal dystonia (or tonic spasm), which can be the presenting manifestation of the disease. Two videotaped observations are presented. The first patient was a 27-year-old woman, treated for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, who presented daily several short (<1minute) paroxysms of right hemibody dystonia. Brain MRI revealed several areas of cerebral demyelination, including the posterior limb of the left internal capsule with gadolinium enhancement. These events disappeared 7 days after corticosteroid infusion. The second patient was a 62-year-old man who presented brief episodes (<1minute) of daily painful left hemibody dystonia. Three months later, similar paroxysms affecting the right hemibody including the face occurred. At times, the two hemibodies were affected simultaneously. The brain MRI showed multiple areas of white matter hyperintensity, including two symmetrical areas in the posterior limb of the internal capsules. Multiple sclerosis was diagnosed on clinical, MRI and biological data. Four days after starting corticosteroids, these paroxysmal phenomena disappeared totally. Dystonia is an under-recognized aspect of paroxysmal events during multiple sclerosis. It might involve ephaptic transmission among abnormal demyelinated neurons; this ectopic excitation can arise at variable levels of the corticospinal tract, but the analysis of reported cases and those described in this study shows that impairment of the posterior limb of the internal capsule seems to be a prevalent topography. Inflammation is likely to play a role because steroids often improve these phenomena. In this article, we review the clinical aspects, pathophysiology and outcome of paroxysmal dystonia in multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiple myeloma: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Nau, Konrad C; Lewis, William D

    2008-10-01

    Multiple myeloma, the most common bone malignancy, is occurring with increasing frequency in older persons. Typical symptoms are bone pain, malaise, anemia, renal insufficiency, and hypercalcemia. Incidental discovery on comprehensive laboratory panels is common. The disease is diagnosed with serum or urine protein electrophoresis or immunofixation and bone marrow aspirate analysis. Skeletal radiographs are important in staging multiple myeloma and revealing lytic lesions, vertebral compression fractures, and osteoporosis. Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography or computed tomography are emerging as useful tools in the evaluation of patients with myeloma; magnetic resonance imaging is preferred for evaluating acute spinal compression. Nuclear bone scans and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry have no role in the diagnosis and staging of myeloma. The differential diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathies includes monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance, smoldering (asymptomatic) and symptomatic multiple myeloma, amyloidosis, B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, and rare plasma cell leukemia and heavy chain diseases. Patients with monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance or smoldering multiple myeloma should be followed closely, but not treated. Symptomatic multiple myeloma is treated with chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation, if possible. Melphalan, prednisolone, dexamethasone, vincristine, doxorubicin, bortezomib, and thalidomide and its analogue lenalidomide have been used successfully. It is important that family physicians recognize and appropriately treat multiple myeloma complications. Bone pain is treated with opiates, bisphosphonates, radiotherapy, vertebroplasty, or kyphoplasty; nephrotoxic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be avoided. Hypercalcemia is treated with isotonic saline infusions, steroids, furosemide, or bisphosphonates. Because of susceptibility to infections

  1. Polarimetry with multiple mirror telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, S. C.

    1986-01-01

    The polarizations of multiple mirror telescopes are calculated using Mueller calculus. It is found that the Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) produces a constant depolarization that is a function of wavelength and independent of sky position. The efficiency and crosstalk are modeled and experimentally verified. The two- and four-mirror new generation telescopes are found to produce sinusoidal depolarization for which an accurate interpretation of the incident Stokes vector requires inverse matrix calculations. Finally, the depolarization of f/1 paraboloids is calculated and found to be less than 0.1 percent at 3000 A.

  2. Multiplicative calculus and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashirov, Agamirza E.; Kurpinar, Emine Misirli; Özyapici, Ali

    2008-01-01

    Two operations, differentiation and integration, are basic in calculus and analysis. In fact, they are the infinitesimal versions of the subtraction and addition operations on numbers, respectively. In the period from 1967 till 1970 Michael Grossman and Robert Katz gave definitions of a new kind of derivative and integral, moving the roles of subtraction and addition to division and multiplication, and thus established a new calculus, called multiplicative calculus. In the present paper our aim is to bring up this calculus to the attention of researchers and demonstrate its usefulness.

  3. Body composition in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Dionyssiotis, Y

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis affects central nervous system leading to disability. Among other complications the deterioration of body composition is usually neglected and increases the risk for diseases such as coronary heart disease, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, lipid abnormalities and bone loss leading to fractures in this population. Body mass index values, the effect of spasticity, the increased number of drugs used and the relationship between skeletal muscle and bone which interacts with impaired motor function leading to body composition alterations in multiple sclerosis are reviewed. PMID:23935336

  4. Multiple Sclerosis and its Management

    PubMed Central

    Weinshenker, Brian

    1992-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis, the most common disabling disease of the central nervous system affecting young adults, is diagnosed primarily from a history of typical relapsing and remitting white matter symptoms supported by objective signs. Multiple sclerosis may present in more insidious ways or may be mimicked by other diseases, which seemingly satisfy the diagnostic criteria of dissemination in time and space. Patients need psychological support to deal with an uncertain future. A multidisciplinary team approach can best manage both acute temporary disability and, often later, progressive physical and occasionally mental disability. ImagesFigures 1-3 PMID:21221279

  5. [Current description of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Río, Jordi; Montalbán, Xavier

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a multifocal demyelinating disease leading to progressive neurodegeneration caused by an autoimmune response in genetically predisposed individuals. In the last few years, the knowledge and management of this disease has been revolutionized by a series of findings. The present article reviews pathological features of the disease, in which cortical involvement is increasingly implicated, and aspects related to novel pathogenic mechanisms, such as the role of the microbiota in the genesis of multiple sclerosis, as well as recent contributions from the fields of epidemiology and genetics. Also reviewed are the latest diagnostic criteria, which currently allow a much earlier diagnosis, with clear therapeutic implications.

  6. Multiple resonant railgun power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, E.M.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1985-06-19

    A multiple repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. A plurality of serially connected paired parallel rails are powered by similar power supplies. Each supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles. The multiple serial operation permits relatively small energy components to deliver overall relatively large amounts of energy to the projectiles being propelled.

  7. Multiple resonant railgun power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, Emanuel M.; Nunnally, William C.

    1988-01-01

    A multiple repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. A plurality of serially connected paired parallel rails are powered by similar power supplies. Each supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles. The multiple serial operation permits relatively small energy components to deliver overall relatively large amounts of energy to the projectiles being propelled.

  8. Multiple order common path spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

  9. Dynamics of Multiple Stars: Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokovinin, A.

    The dynamics of hierarchical multiple stars is observed mostly by a combination of various techniques that lead to the determination of orbits. It is found that the empirical limit of dynamical stability matches the theoretical limit for circular outer orbits but is more restrictive for eccentric orbits. The relative orientation of orbits in triple stars shows some weak correlation, likely explained by their origin as decay products of small clusters. The combination of dynamics and tides leads to the formation of close binaries within higher-order multiples. Examples of such systems (Algol, Capella, 41 Dra) show that even distant tertiary components can significantly modify stellar evolution.

  10. Multiple McNemar tests.

    PubMed

    Westfall, Peter H; Troendle, James F; Pennello, Gene

    2010-12-01

    Methods for performing multiple tests of paired proportions are described. A broadly applicable method using McNemar's exact test and the exact distributions of all test statistics is developed; the method controls the familywise error rate in the strong sense under minimal assumptions. A closed form (not simulation-based) algorithm for carrying out the method is provided. A bootstrap alternative is developed to account for correlation structures. Operating characteristics of these and other methods are evaluated via a simulation study. Applications to multiple comparisons of predictive models for disease classification and to postmarket surveillance of adverse events are given.

  11. Acute aphasia in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Devere, T R; Trotter, J L; Cross, A H

    2000-08-01

    Acute aphasia is rare in multiple sclerosis. We describe 3 patients with multiple sclerosis who had acute exacerbations presenting as aphasias. One patient had a mixed transcortical aphasia, 1 had a transcortical motor aphasia, and 1 had a Broca aphasia. Magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brain with contrast enhancement revealed new white matter lesions in the left hemisphere in all 3 patients. Two of the 3 patients had a good response to treatment with methylprednisolone sodium succinate. Arch Neurol. 2000;57:1207-1209

  12. Multiple state transition path sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogal, Jutta; Bolhuis, Peter G.

    2008-12-01

    We developed a multiple state transition path sampling (TPS) approach in which it is possible to simultaneously sample pathways connecting a number of different stable states. Based on the original formulation of the TPS we have extended the path ensemble to include trajectories connecting not only two distinct stable states but any two states defined within a system. The multiple state TPS approach is useful in complex systems exhibiting a number of intermediate stable states that are interconnected in phase space. Combining this approach with transition interface sampling we can also directly obtain an expression for the rate constants of all possible transitions within the system.

  13. Development of a Multimorbidity Illness Perceptions Scale (MULTIPleS)

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Chris J.; Kenning, Cassandra; Coventry, Peter A.; Bee, Penny; Bundy, Christine; Fisher, Louise; Bower, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Illness perceptions are beliefs about the cause, nature and management of illness, which enable patients to make sense of their conditions. These perceptions can predict adjustment and quality of life in patients with single conditions. However, multimorbidity (i.e. patients with multiple long-term conditions) is increasingly prevalent and a key challenge for future health care delivery. The objective of this research was to develop a valid and reliable measure of illness perceptions for multimorbid patients. Methods Candidate items were derived from previous qualitative research with multimorbid patients. Questionnaires were posted to 1500 patients with two or more exemplar long-term conditions (depression, diabetes, osteoarthritis, coronary heart disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Data were analysed using factor analysis and Rasch analysis. Rasch analysis is a modern psychometric technique for deriving unidimensional and intervally-scaled questionnaires. Results Questionnaires from 490 eligible patients (32.6% response) were returned. Exploratory factor analysis revealed five potential subscales ‘Emotional representations’, ‘Treatment burden’, ‘Prioritising conditions’, ‘Causal links’ and ‘Activity limitations’. Rasch analysis led to further item reduction and the generation of a summary scale comprising of items from all scales. All scales were unidimensional and free from differential item functioning or local independence of items. All scales were reliable, but for each subscale there were a number of patients who scored at the floor of the scale. Conclusions The MULTIPleS measure consists of five individual subscales and a 22-item summary scale that measures the perceived impact of multimorbidity. All scales showed good fit to the Rasch model and preliminary evidence of reliability and validity. A number of patients scored at floor of each subscale, which may reflect variation in the perception of multimorbidity

  14. Fashion, Paper Dolls and Multiplicatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ura, Suzana Kaori; Stein-Barana, Alzira C. M.; Munhoz, Deisy P.

    2011-01-01

    The multiplicative principle is the tool allowing the counting of groups that can be described by a sequence of events. An event is a subset of sample space, i.e. a collection of possible outcomes, which may be equal to or smaller than the sample space as a whole. It is important that students understand this basic principle early on and know how…

  15. Improving Inferences from Multiple Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shotland, R. Lance; Mark, Melvin M.

    1987-01-01

    Multiple evaluation methods (MEMs) can cause an inferential challenge, although there are strategies to strengthen inferences. Practical and theoretical issues involved in the use by social scientists of MEMs, three potential problems in drawing inferences from MEMs, and short- and long-term strategies for alleviating these problems are outlined.…

  16. [Mandibular lesions in multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Scutellari, P N; Orzincolo, C

    1992-03-01

    A review was made of 237 cases of multiple myeloma seen at the Institute of Radiology and Hematology of the Ferrara University from 1984 through 1990. The results showed skeletal involvement of the mandible to be present in 25 patients (10.54%). The diagnosis of multiple myeloma was based on the following criteria: 1) increased number of abnormal, atypical or immature plasma cells in the bone marrow; 2) the presence of a monoclonal protein in the serum or urine; 3) bone lesions consistent with those of myeloma. Symptoms include pain and swelling of the oral cavity, tooth mobility and loss, numbness along the inferior dental nerve, and paresthesia of the lower lip. The typical radiographic appearance is a well-defined "punched-out" lytic defect, solitary or multiple; sometimes, the defect enlarges and appears "bubbly" or septated. Permeative lytic areas, with blurred outlines, are a rare pattern, which is radiologically indistinguishable from skeletal metastases. The involvement of the oral cavity and jaw in multiple myeloma has been often reported in literature: nevertheless, if radiographs of the jaws had been systematically taken in all the cases, its incidence would probably have been much higher than previously suspected.

  17. Improving Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Cristina; Lopes, Ana Paula; Babo, Lurdes; Azevedo, Jose

    2011-01-01

    A MC (multiple-choice) question can be defined as a question in which students are asked to select one alternative from a given set of alternatives in response to a question stem. The objective of this paper is to analyse if MC questions may be considered as an interesting alternative for assessing knowledge, particularly in the mathematics area,…

  18. Multiple pass laser amplifier system

    DOEpatents

    Brueckner, Keith A.; Jorna, Siebe; Moncur, N. Kent

    1977-01-01

    A laser amplification method for increasing the energy extraction efficiency from laser amplifiers while reducing the energy flux that passes through a flux limited system which includes apparatus for decomposing a linearly polarized light beam into multiple components, passing the components through an amplifier in delayed time sequence and recombining the amplified components into an in phase linearly polarized beam.

  19. Multiple Pathways for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, Lee Anna

    2012-01-01

    Maine has been focusing on the importance of postsecondary training. Maine's Skowhegan Area High School (SAHS) and Somerset Career and Technical Center (SCTC) have partnered in a Multiple Pathways initiative (funded by the Nellie Mae Education Foundation) to increase students' high school completion rate and to increase enrollment in postsecondary…

  20. Multiple realizability and biological laws.

    PubMed

    Raerinne, Jani P; Eronen, Markus I

    2012-01-01

    We critically analyze Alexander Rosenberg's argument based on the multiple realizability of biological properties that there are no biological laws. The argument is intuitive and suggestive. Nevertheless, a closer analysis reveals that the argument rests on dubious assumptions about the nature of natural selection, laws of nature, and multiple realizability. We also argue that the argument is limited in scope, since it applies to an outmoded account of laws and the applicability of the argument to other more promising accounts of laws is questionable. Another concern of ours is that the relation between multiple realizability and natural selection is more complex than Rosenberg acknowledges. Finally, we claim that an explanation for why Rosenberg's argument appears persuasive and appealing is that the argument is based on an inflated concept of multiple realizability that rests on unreliable intuitions concerning what counts as a different realization of the same property. Consequently, we argue that the argument is at best inconclusive and at worst false insofar as its implications for the existence of biological laws are concerned.

  1. Novel therapies for multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Ryoo, Joan J; Cole, Craig Emmitt; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2002-09-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) continues to evade cure by conventional therapies, increasing the urgency for new, biologically based treatments. Reviewed in this discussion are novel chemotherapies under clinical trial that capitalize upon greater comprehension of tumor pathophysiology. In targeting tumor biology, these therapies serve as a model of treatment with great potential for improving outcomes in patients with MM.

  2. Teaching to the Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loria, Win

    1999-01-01

    Relates the exploration and incorporation of Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligences Theory (MI) into classroom practices. States that service-learning projects provide wonderful opportunities to put into practice the various types of intelligences, allowing students to utilize their best learning strategies to access the content area of the…

  3. Multiple Regression: A Leisurely Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Larry G.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    Multiple regression is a useful statistical technique when the researcher is considering situations in which variables of interest are theorized to be multiply caused. It may also be useful in those situations in which the researchers is interested in studies of predictability of phenomena of interest. This paper provides an introduction to…

  4. Generating Multiple Calibrating Voltages Simultaneously

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutreix, Lionel J.

    1992-01-01

    Calibrating unit containing signal generator controlled by microprocessor puts out ac signals of known voltages on fifty channels simultaneously. Signals used to calibrate high-frequency tape recorder channels for multiple, ac-coupled strain gauges simultaneously. Calibrating voltage required on each tape channel determined by remote computer, and corresponding data and commands transmitted to microprocessor via modems.

  5. Multiple Activities Program: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omaha Public Schools, NE.

    This is an evaluation report of the Multiple Activities Program, an ESEA Title I Program conducted in the Omaha Public Schools from September 1969 to September 1970. The report is designed as an adaptation of the C.I.P.P. evaluation model (context, input, process, and product). The needs, objectives, activities, and success of each strand within…

  6. Multiple Perspectives on Starting Right.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.

    This paper addresses multiple perspectives on the quality of early childhood care and education, including lessons learned from programs in various countries, the implications of these perspectives, and recommendations for the improvement of early childhood provision. It also examines the ideas expressed in the 1994 "Start Right" report on early…

  7. Multigenre, Multiple Intelligences, and Transcendentalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggieri, Colleen A.

    2002-01-01

    Explains an eleventh grade literature unit on Transcendentalism which employed a wide variety of supplemental materials and literary connections and which provided alternate assessment opportunities. Details how this unit revealed meaningful connections through comics, music, free reading, and multiple intelligences. Concludes that many students…

  8. Childhood Multiple Sclerosis: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, Amy; O'Connor, Erin; Tennekoon, Gihan

    2006-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that is increasingly recognized as a disease that affects children. Similar to adult-onset MS, children present with visual and sensory complaints, as well as weakness, spasticity, and ataxia. A lumbar puncture can be helpful in diagnosing MS when…

  9. Drugs Approved for Multiple Myeloma

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for multiple myeloma and other plasma cell neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  10. Overhearing Single and Multiple Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.

    2008-01-01

    In 2 spontaneous speech experiments, this study found that multiple perspectives improved overhearers' abilities to select abstract shapes from an array, although single-perspective descriptions were more detailed. Prior findings that overhearers performed better when listening in on dialogues (Fox Tree, 1999) can best be understood as an…

  11. Multiple Forms of Dynamic Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Shaaron; VanLabeke, Nicolas

    2004-01-01

    The terms dynamic representation and animation are often used as if they are synonymous, but in this paper we argue that there are multiple ways to represent phenomena that change over time. Time-persistent representations show a range of values over time. Time-implicit representations also show a range of values but not the specific times when…

  12. Overhearing Single and Multiple Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.

    2008-01-01

    In 2 spontaneous speech experiments, this study found that multiple perspectives improved overhearers' abilities to select abstract shapes from an array, although single-perspective descriptions were more detailed. Prior findings that overhearers performed better when listening in on dialogues (Fox Tree, 1999) can best be understood as an…

  13. Multigenre, Multiple Intelligences, and Transcendentalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggieri, Colleen A.

    2002-01-01

    Explains an eleventh grade literature unit on Transcendentalism which employed a wide variety of supplemental materials and literary connections and which provided alternate assessment opportunities. Details how this unit revealed meaningful connections through comics, music, free reading, and multiple intelligences. Concludes that many students…

  14. Multiple Segment Factorial Vignette Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    The multiple segment factorial vignette design (MSFV) combines elements of experimental designs and probability sampling with the inductive, exploratory approach of qualitative research. MSFVs allow researchers to investigate topics that may be hard to study because of ethical or logistical concerns. Participants are presented with short stories…

  15. Fashion, Paper Dolls and Multiplicatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ura, Suzana Kaori; Stein-Barana, Alzira C. M.; Munhoz, Deisy P.

    2011-01-01

    The multiplicative principle is the tool allowing the counting of groups that can be described by a sequence of events. An event is a subset of sample space, i.e. a collection of possible outcomes, which may be equal to or smaller than the sample space as a whole. It is important that students understand this basic principle early on and know how…

  16. The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Christian Holm; Gaardhøje, Jens Jørgen; Gulbrandsen, Kristján; Nielsen, Børge Svane; Søgaard, Carsten

    The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range -3.4 < η < 5.1. It is placed around the beam pipe at small angles to extend the charged particle acceptance of ALICE into the forward regions, not covered by the central barrel detectors.

  17. Empowering Students through Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubado, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences challenges narrow concepts of student talent and ability. This article applies this theory to the challenge of educating students with learning behavior disabilities. Reaching these young people and engaging them in learning can help them understand that intelligence comes in many forms. (Author)

  18. Individual Differences and Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasko, Daniel, Jr.

    Recent educational research indicates that learners differ in their preferences for learning mode and strategies. Implications for instruction and assessment are discussed as they relate to the Theory of Multiple Intelligences of H. Gardner (1983). One of the principles of the "Learner Centered Psychological Principles" of the American…

  19. Dimensions of multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Murray, J B

    1994-06-01

    Research on multiple personality disorder (MPD) has burgeoned, and large-scale investigations indicate that a typical MPD patient is a woman, a victim of childhood abuse (especially sexual abuse), a person whose symptoms meet criteria for other psychiatric disorders, and a person who would employ many psychological defenses. Treatment approaches have frequently included hypnotherapy, which requires skill and caution.

  20. Multiple Literacies Theory: Exploring Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masny, Diana

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the contributions of philosophy, art and science to education through the conceptual, theoretical, and methodological usefulness of a Deleuze-Guattarian conceptual framework that informs multiple literacies theory (MLT). Education lends itself to Deleuze's notion of connecting and creating through philosophy, art and…

  1. Accommodations for Multiple Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trammell, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Students with learning or learning-related disabilities frequently struggle with multiple choice assessments due to difficulty discriminating between items, filtering out distracters, and framing a mental best answer. This Practice Brief suggests accommodations and strategies that disability service providers can utilize in conjunction with…

  2. Enhancing Learning through Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Pinar; Guneysu, Sibel; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether there was a significant difference between multiple intelligence instruction (MII) and traditionally designed science instruction (TDSI) on fourth grade students' understanding of concepts associated with the "Diversity of Living Things" unit. Students' intelligence types were also examined. There were two…

  3. Multiple Intelligences and Business Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce

    2003-01-01

    Results from 97 business students with substantial work histories indicate that the Multiple Intelligence Preference Inventory gives a valid and reliable indication of their preferred intelligences. Awareness of these results is associated with assessments of self and others as knowledge sources. This information can help in recognizing,…

  4. Becoming a Multiple Intelligences School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerr, Thomas R.

    The motivation to help students learn has moved many educators to explore multiple intelligences (MI) theory as a tool to help more children succeed. This book relates a decade of experiences in applying MI theory at New City School, an independent St. Louis elementary school. Directed toward educational leaders, the book focuses on the centrality…

  5. Improving Inferences from Multiple Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shotland, R. Lance; Mark, Melvin M.

    1987-01-01

    Multiple evaluation methods (MEMs) can cause an inferential challenge, although there are strategies to strengthen inferences. Practical and theoretical issues involved in the use by social scientists of MEMs, three potential problems in drawing inferences from MEMs, and short- and long-term strategies for alleviating these problems are outlined.…

  6. Multiple Pathways for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, Lee Anna

    2012-01-01

    Maine has been focusing on the importance of postsecondary training. Maine's Skowhegan Area High School (SAHS) and Somerset Career and Technical Center (SCTC) have partnered in a Multiple Pathways initiative (funded by the Nellie Mae Education Foundation) to increase students' high school completion rate and to increase enrollment in postsecondary…

  7. [Facial trauma and multiple trauma].

    PubMed

    Corre, Pierre; Arzul, Ludovic; Khonsari, Roman Hossein; Mercier, Jacques

    2013-09-01

    The human face contains the sense organs and is responsible for essential functions: swallowing, chewing, speech, breathing and communication. It is also and most importantly the seat of a person's identity. Multiple trauma adds a life-threatening dimension to the physical and psychological impact of a facial trauma.

  8. Multiple bursitis in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, O; Akimoto, S; Sato, M; Miyachi, Y

    1997-06-01

    Bursitis is a common clinical entity usually induced by trauma and infection. It often occurs in inflammatory diseases such as gout and rheumatoid arthritis. We describe a patient with systemic sclerosis who developed multiple bursitis in the later stage of the disease.

  9. Multiple Intelligences in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Kathleen M.

    Within the context of school improvement and school reform, it is important to examine Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (MI theory). His work has far-reaching implications for curriculum development and classroom implementation. Gardner believes that the culture defines intelligence too narrowly. He sought to broaden the scope of…

  10. Multiple Intelligences and Business Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce

    2003-01-01

    Results from 97 business students with substantial work histories indicate that the Multiple Intelligence Preference Inventory gives a valid and reliable indication of their preferred intelligences. Awareness of these results is associated with assessments of self and others as knowledge sources. This information can help in recognizing,…

  11. Childhood Multiple Sclerosis: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, Amy; O'Connor, Erin; Tennekoon, Gihan

    2006-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that is increasingly recognized as a disease that affects children. Similar to adult-onset MS, children present with visual and sensory complaints, as well as weakness, spasticity, and ataxia. A lumbar puncture can be helpful in diagnosing MS when…

  12. Multiple Segment Factorial Vignette Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    The multiple segment factorial vignette design (MSFV) combines elements of experimental designs and probability sampling with the inductive, exploratory approach of qualitative research. MSFVs allow researchers to investigate topics that may be hard to study because of ethical or logistical concerns. Participants are presented with short stories…

  13. Multiple WH-Fronting Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudin, Catherine

    The unique position of WH words in Slavic languages is discussed, with specific reference to Bulgarian and Serbo-Croatian. The multiple fronting characteristics of Bulgarian and Serbo-Croatian differ in terms of the following positions and behaviors: extraction from embedded questions; clitic placement and other indications of constituent status;…

  14. Robust multiple frequency multiple power localization schemes in the presence of multiple jamming attacks

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Localization of the wireless sensor network is a vital area acquiring an impressive research concern and called upon to expand more with the rising of its applications. As localization is gaining prominence in wireless sensor network, it is vulnerable to jamming attacks. Jamming attacks disrupt communication opportunity among the sender and receiver and deeply impact the localization process, leading to a huge error of the estimated sensor node position. Therefore, detection and elimination of jamming influence are absolutely indispensable. Range-based techniques especially Received Signal Strength (RSS) is facing severe impact of these attacks. This paper proposes algorithms based on Combination Multiple Frequency Multiple Power Localization (C-MFMPL) and Step Function Multiple Frequency Multiple Power Localization (SF-MFMPL). The algorithms have been tested in the presence of multiple types of jamming attacks including capture and replay, random and constant jammers over a log normal shadow fading propagation model. In order to overcome the impact of random and constant jammers, the proposed method uses two sets of frequencies shared by the implemented anchor nodes to obtain the averaged RSS readings all over the transmitted frequencies successfully. In addition, three stages of filters have been used to cope with the replayed beacons caused by the capture and replay jammers. In this paper the localization performance of the proposed algorithms for the ideal case which is defined by without the existence of the jamming attack are compared with the case of jamming attacks. The main contribution of this paper is to achieve robust localization performance in the presence of multiple jamming attacks under log normal shadow fading environment with a different simulation conditions and scenarios. PMID:28493977

  15. Defining secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lorscheider, Johannes; Buzzard, Katherine; Jokubaitis, Vilija; Spelman, Tim; Havrdova, Eva; Horakova, Dana; Trojano, Maria; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Girard, Marc; Duquette, Pierre; Prat, Alexandre; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Grand'Maison, François; Grammond, Pierre; Hupperts, Raymond; Alroughani, Raed; Sola, Patrizia; Boz, Cavit; Pucci, Eugenio; Lechner-Scott, Jeanette; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Iuliano, Gerardo; Van Pesch, Vincent; Granella, Franco; Ramo-Tello, Cristina; Spitaleri, Daniele; Petersen, Thor; Slee, Mark; Verheul, Freek; Ampapa, Radek; Amato, Maria Pia; McCombe, Pamela; Vucic, Steve; Sánchez Menoyo, José Luis; Cristiano, Edgardo; Barnett, Michael H; Hodgkinson, Suzanne; Olascoaga, Javier; Saladino, Maria Laura; Gray, Orla; Shaw, Cameron; Moore, Fraser; Butzkueven, Helmut; Kalincik, Tomas

    2016-09-01

    A number of studies have been conducted with the onset of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis as an inclusion criterion or an outcome of interest. However, a standardized objective definition of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis has been lacking. The aim of this work was to evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of an objective definition for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, to enable comparability of future research studies. Using MSBase, a large, prospectively acquired, global cohort study, we analysed the accuracy of 576 data-derived onset definitions for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and first compared these to a consensus opinion of three neurologists. All definitions were then evaluated against 5-year disease outcomes post-assignment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: sustained disability, subsequent sustained progression, positive disability trajectory, and accumulation of severe disability. The five best performing definitions were further investigated for their timeliness and overall disability burden. A total of 17 356 patients were analysed. The best definition included a 3-strata progression magnitude in the absence of a relapse, confirmed after 3 months within the leading Functional System and required an Expanded Disability Status Scale step ≥4 and pyramidal score ≥2. It reached an accuracy of 87% compared to the consensus diagnosis. Seventy-eight per cent of the identified patients showed a positive disability trajectory and 70% reached significant disability after 5 years. The time until half of all patients were diagnosed was 32.6 years (95% confidence interval 32-33.6) after disease onset compared with the physicians' diagnosis at 36 (35-39) years. The identified patients experienced a greater disease burden [median annualized area under the disability-time curve 4.7 (quartiles 3.6, 6.0)] versus non-progressive patients [1.8 (1.2, 1.9)]. This objective definition of secondary progressive multiple

  16. Adaptive Channel Estimation for Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Frequency Domain Equalization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    FDE) in a single carrier (SC) multiple - input multiple - output ( MIMO ) system. Two types of channel estimation methods are proposed, assuming...Adaptive Channel Estimation for Multiple - Input Multiple - Output Frequency Domain Equalization Xu Zhu*, Fareq Malek*, Yi Gong+ and Yi Huang...perfect channel state information (CSI), and has a fast convergence speed and reasonably low complexity. Keywords- Multiple - Input Multiple - Output

  17. Design of a Multiple Input-Multiple Output Flight Control System Containing Uncertain Parameters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    MULTIPLE INPUT - MULTIPLE OUTPUT ( MIMO ) SYSTEM... ......... 31 1. Introduction. ...................... 31 2...find design bounds analytically a (L) loop transmission i at flight condition j L nominal loop transmission 0 MIMO multiple input - multiple output M P...aircraft (12). The U. S. Air Force is interested in this technique as a method to * synthesize multiple input - multiple output ( MIMO ) controllers. In

  18. Collectively loading programs in a multiple program multiple data environment

    DOEpatents

    Aho, Michael E.; Attinella, John E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Miller, Samuel J.

    2016-11-08

    Techniques are disclosed for loading programs efficiently in a parallel computing system. In one embodiment, nodes of the parallel computing system receive a load description file which indicates, for each program of a multiple program multiple data (MPMD) job, nodes which are to load the program. The nodes determine, using collective operations, a total number of programs to load and a number of programs to load in parallel. The nodes further generate a class route for each program to be loaded in parallel, where the class route generated for a particular program includes only those nodes on which the program needs to be loaded. For each class route, a node is selected using a collective operation to be a load leader which accesses a file system to load the program associated with a class route and broadcasts the program via the class route to other nodes which require the program.

  19. Coherent optical communication using polarization multiple-input-multiple-output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yan; Li, Guifang

    2005-09-01

    Polarization-division multiplexed (PDM) optical signals can potentially be demultiplexed by coherent detection and digital signal processing without using optical dynamic polarization control at the receiver. In this paper, we show that optical communications using PDM is analogous to wireless communications using multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) antennae and thus algorithms for channel estimation in wireless MIMO can be ready applied to optical polarization MIMO (PMIMO). Combined with frequency offset and phase estimation algorithms, simulations show that PDM quadrature phase-shift keying signals can be coherently detected by the proposed scheme using commercial semiconductor lasers while no optical phase locking and polarization control are required. This analogy further suggests the potential application of space-time coding in wireless communications to optical polarization MIMO systems and relates the problem of polarization-mode dispersion in fiber transmission to the multi-path propagation in wireless communications.

  20. Coherent optical communication using polarization multiple-input-multiple-output.

    PubMed

    Han, Yan; Li, Guifang

    2005-09-19

    Polarization-division multiplexed (PDM) optical signals can potentially be demultiplexed by coherent detection and digital signal processing without using optical dynamic polarization control at the receiver. In this paper, we show that optical communications using PDM is analogous to wireless communications using multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) antennae and thus algorithms for channel estimation in wireless MIMO can be ready applied to optical polarization MIMO (PMIMO). Combined with frequency offset and phase estimation algorithms, simulations show that PDM quadrature phase-shift keying signals can be coherently detected by the proposed scheme using commercial semiconductor lasers while no optical phase locking and polarization control are required. This analogy further suggests the potential application of space-time coding in wireless communications to optical polarization MIMO systems and relates the problem of polarization-mode dispersion in fiber transmission to the multi-path propagation in wireless communications.

  1. Multiple-membrane multiple-electrolyte redox flow battery design

    DOEpatents

    Yan, Yushan; Gu, Shuang; Gong, Ke

    2017-05-02

    A redox flow battery is provided. The redox flow battery involves multiple-membrane (at least one cation exchange membrane and at least one anion exchange membrane), multiple-electrolyte (one electrolyte in contact with the negative electrode, one electrolyte in contact with the positive electrode, and at least one electrolyte disposed between the two membranes) as the basic characteristic, such as a double-membrane, triple electrolyte (DMTE) configuration or a triple-membrane, quadruple electrolyte (TMQE) configuration. The cation exchange membrane is used to separate the negative or positive electrolyte and the middle electrolyte, and the anion exchange membrane is used to separate the middle electrolyte and the positive or negative electrolyte.

  2. Software Portability Considerations for Multiple Applications over Multiple Sites

    PubMed Central

    Munnecke, Thomas

    1981-01-01

    There are great benefits to be obtained by distributing the cost of software development over multiple sites. Both economies and dis-economies of scale become prominent when broad-based software portability is looked at carefully. However, traditional data processing techniques are oriented to making specific users, rather than general software for a class of users. This trend toward overspecification is getting worse with traditional data processing languages, while other standard languages are confronting it.

  3. Marine and Human Systems: Addressing Multiple Scales and Multiple Stressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, E. E.; Bundy, A.; Chuenpagdee, R.; Maddison, L.; Svendsen, E.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the changing ecology and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems and their sensitivity and resilience to multiple drivers, pressures and stressors is critical to developing responses that will help reduce the vulnerability of marine-dependent human communities. The cumulative pressure of anthropogenic activities on marine systems is already apparent and is projected to increase in the next decades. Policy- and decision-makers need assessments of the status and trends of marine habitats, species, and ecosystems to promote sustainable human activities in the marine environment, particularly in light of global environmental change and changing social systems and human pressures. The Integrated Marine Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research (IMBER) science community recently undertook a synthesis and evaluation of approaches for ecosystem-based marine governance, integrated modeling of marine social-ecological systems, and the social and ecological consequences of changing marine ecosystems. The outcomes of this activity provide assessments of current understanding, indicate approaches needed to predict the effects of multiple stressors, at multiple scales, on marine ecosystems and dependent human populations, and highlight approaches for developing innovative societal responses to changing marine ecosystems.

  4. Marine and Human Systems: Addressing Multiple Scales and Multiple Stressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, E. E.; Bundy, A.; Chuenpagdee, R.; Maddison, L.; Svendsen, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Marine Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research (IMBER) project aims to develop a comprehensive understanding of, and predictive capacity of ocean responses to accelerating global change and the consequent effects on the Earth System and human society. Understanding the changing ecology and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems and their sensitivity and resilience to multiple drivers, pressures and stressors is critical to developing responses that will help reduce the vulnerability of marine-dependent human communities. The cumulative pressure of anthropogenic activities on marine systems is already apparent and is projected to increase in the next decades. Policy- and decision-makers need assessments of the status and trends of marine habitats, species, and ecosystems to promote sustainable human activities in the marine environment, particularly in light of global environmental change and changing social systems and human pressures. The IMBER community recently undertook a synthesis and evaluation of approaches for ecosystem-based marine governance, integrated modeling of marine social-ecological systems, and the social and ecological consequences of changing marine ecosystems. The outcomes of this activity provide assessments of current understanding, indicate approaches needed to predict the effects of multiple stressors, at multiple scales, on marine ecosystems and dependent human populations, and highlight approaches for developing innovative societal responses to changing marine ecosystems.

  5. Teaching Multiplication and Multiplication Tables by the Application of Finger Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahadir, Elif

    2017-01-01

    Developments in mathematics education tend to emphasize mathematics teaching with the help of activities that will allow the students to create these concepts rather than to make them memorize mathematical rules. The purpose of this study is to analyze the applicability of the application of multiplication with fingers developed by the researcher.…

  6. Dean's Great Discovery: Multiplication, Division and Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, Colleen; Davies, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Multiplication, division and fractions are "hotspots" for students in the middle years with many students experiencing difficulty with these concepts. Arrays effectively model multiplication and help children develop multiplicative thinking and learn multiplication facts. In this article the authors show how an open-ended array problem…

  7. Evoked potentials in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kraft, George H

    2013-11-01

    Before the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), evoked potentials (EPs)-visual evoked potentials, somatosensory evoked potentials, and brain stem auditory evoked responses-were commonly used to determine a second site of disease in patients being evaluated for possible multiple sclerosis (MS). The identification of an area of the central nervous system showing abnormal conduction was used to supplement the abnormal signs identified on the physical examination-thus identifying the "multiple" in MS. This article is a brief overview of additional ways in which central nervous system (CNS) physiology-as measured by EPs-can still contribute value in the management of MS in the era of MRIs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiple sclerosis - New treatment modalities

    PubMed Central

    Totaro, Rocco; Di Carmine, Caterina; Marini, Carmine; Carolei, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Ever since the introduction of the first disease modifying therapies, the concept of multiple sclerosis treatment algorithms developed ceaselessly. The increasing number of available drugs is paralleled by impelling issue of ensuring the most appropriate treatment to the right patient at the right time. The purpose of this review is to describe novel agents recently approved for multiple sclerosis treatment, namely teriflunomide, alemtuzumab and dimethylfumarate, focusing on mechanism of action, efficacy data in experimental setting, safety and tolerability. The place in therapy of newer treatment implies careful balancing of risk-benefit profile as well as accurate patient selection. Hence the widening of therapeutic arsenal provides greater opportunity for personalized therapy but also entails a complex trade-off between efficacy, tolerability, safety and eventually patient preference. PMID:26831413

  9. Multiple Sclerosis Epidemiology in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bezzini, Daiana; Battaglia, Mario A

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is characterized by a non-homogeneous distribution around the world. Some authors in past described a latitude gradient, with increasing risk from the equator to North and South Poles, but this theory is still controversial. Regarding Europe, there are many articles in the literature concerning the epidemiology of this disease but, unfortunately, they are not always comparable due to different methodologies, they do not cover all countries in the continent, and most of them reported data of small areas and rarely at a national level. In 2012 there were 20 national registries that could help to describe the epidemiology of the disease and, in addition, there is an European Register for Multiple Sclerosis that collect data from already existing national or regional MS registries and databases. Another valid alternative to obtain epidemiological data, also at national level, in a routinely and cost-saving way is through administrative data that are of increasing interest in the last years.

  10. Harmonic multiplication using resonant tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sollner, T. C. L. G.; Brown, E. R.; Goodhue, W. D.; Correa, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of resonant-tunneling diodes as varistors for harmonic multiplication. It is shown that efficient odd-harmonic conversion is possible and that even harmonics do not appear because of the antisymmetry of the current-voltage (I-V) curve. It is also shown that, with the proper choice of resonant-tunneling structure and pump amplitude, most of the harmonic output power can be confined to a single odd-harmonic frequency. Fifth-harmonic multiplication was demonstrated with an output at 21.75 GHz and a power conversion efficiency of 0.5 percent, and a fifth-harmonic efficiency of 2.7 percent was achieved in a circuit simulation using an improved I-V curve.

  11. Method for deploying multiple spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharer, Peter J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method for deploying multiple spacecraft is disclosed. The method can be used in a situation where a first celestial body is being orbited by a second celestial body. The spacecraft are loaded onto a single spaceship that contains the multiple spacecraft and the spacecraft is launched from the second celestial body towards a third celestial body. The spacecraft are separated from each other while in route to the third celestial body. Each of the spacecraft is then subjected to the gravitational field of the third celestial body and each of the spacecraft assumes a different, independent orbit about the first celestial body. In those situations where the spacecraft are launched from Earth, the Sun can act as the first celestial body, the Earth can act as the second celestial body and the Moon can act as the third celestial body.

  12. The multiple layer solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenna, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical model is developed for obtaining numerical solutions for differential equations describing the performance of separate layers in a multiple layer solar collector. The configurations comprises heat transfer fluid entering at the top of the collector and travelling down through several layers. A black absorber plate prevents reemission of thermal radiation. The overall performance is shown to depend on the number of layers, the heat transfer coefficient across each layer, and the absorption properties of the working fluid. It is found that the multiple layer system has a performance inferior to that of flat plate selective surface collectors. Air gaps insulating adjacent layers do not raise the efficiency enough to overcome the relative deficiency.

  13. Kidney Disease and Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Rennke, Helmut G.; Laubach, Jacob P.; Richardson, Paul G.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Kidney injury is a common complication of multiple myeloma and other plasma cell dyscrasias, and it is associated with increased mortality. Multiple pathogenic mechanisms can contribute to kidney injury in the patient with myeloma, some of which are the result of nephrotoxic monoclonal Ig and some of which are independent of paraprotein deposition. The pathogenic mechanisms that underlie paraprotein-related kidney disease are increasingly well understood. A novel assay allowing the quantification of free light chains in the serum has aided the diagnosis of new onset disease and allowed for the earlier detection of relapse. Novel myeloma agents have shown considerable promise in reversing renal failure in some patients and improving outcomes. Stem cell transplantation remains a mainstay of management for younger patients with myeloma who are suitable candidates for intensive therapy, whereas the role of new drugs, plasma exchange, and kidney transplantation continues to evolve. PMID:23868898

  14. Tolerogenic vaccines for Multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mannie, Mark D; Curtis, Alan D

    2013-05-01

    Tolerogenic vaccines represent a new class of vaccine designed to re-establish immunological tolerance, restore immune homeostasis, and thereby reverse autoimmune disease. Tolerogenic vaccines induce long-term, antigen-specific, inhibitory memory that blocks pathogenic T cell responses via loss of effector T cells and gain of regulatory T cell function. Substantial advances have been realized in the generation of tolerogenic vaccines that inhibit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in a preclinical setting, and these vaccines may be a prequel of the tolerogenic vaccines that may have therapeutic benefit in Multiple Sclerosis. The purpose here is to provide a snapshot of the current concepts and future prospects of tolerogenic vaccination for Multiple Sclerosis, along with the central challenges to clinical application.

  15. Multiple Exciton Generation Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luther, J. M.; Semonin, O. E.; Beard, M. C.; Gao, J.; Nozik, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Heat loss is the major factor limiting traditional single junction solar cells to a theoretical efficiency of 32%. Multiple Exciton Generation (MEG) enables efficient use of the solar spectrum yielding a theoretical power conversion efficiency of 44% in solar cells under 1-sun conditions. Quantum-confined semiconductors have demonstrated the ability to generate multiple carriers but present-day materials deliver efficiencies far below the SQ limit of 32%. Semiconductor quantum dots of PbSe and PbS provide an active testbed for developing high-efficiency, inexpensive solar cells benefitting from quantum confinement effects. Here, we will present recent work of solar cells employing MEG to yield external quantum efficiencies exceeding 100%.

  16. Pedestrian flow through multiple bottlenecks.

    PubMed

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Yanagisawa, Daichi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the dynamics of the evacuation process with multiple bottlenecks using the floor field model. To deal with this problem, we first focus on a part of the system and report its microscopic behavior. The system is controlled by parameters of inflow and the competitiveness of the pedestrians, and large inflow leads to a congested situation. Through simulations, the metastable state induced by conflicts of pedestrians is observed. The metastability is related to the phase transition from free flow to congestion. The critical condition of the transition is theoretically derived. In addition, we give simulation results of situations with multiple bottlenecks. They imply that local improvement of pedestrian flow sometimes adversely affects the total evacuation time, and that the total optimization of the system is not straightforward.

  17. Treating multiple sclerosis with natalizumab.

    PubMed

    Iaffaldano, Pietro; Lucchese, Guglielmo; Trojano, Maria

    2011-12-01

    Natalizumab is the first monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis. Pivotal trials demonstrated the efficacy of natalizumab on clinical and paraclinical measures of disease activity and disability progression. Although a direct comparison has not been performed yet, natalizumab seems to be more efficacious than the currently available immunomodulant drugs, such as IFN-β and glatiramer acetate. Despite its efficacy, the occurrence of an increased risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with the treatment, raises concerns about its widespread use in multiple sclerosis patients. This paper provides an overview of the most relevant results from the Phase I-IV studies on natalizumab and highlights the challenges addressed to minimize and manage its adverse events in clinical practice.

  18. Multiple annular linear diffractive axicons.

    PubMed

    Bialic, Emilie; de la Tocnaye, Jean-Louis de Bougrenet

    2011-04-01

    We propose a chromatic analysis of multiple annular linear diffractive axicons. Large aperture axicons are optical devices providing achromatic nondiffracting beams, with an extended depth of focus, when illuminated by a white light source, due to chromatic foci superimposition. Annular apertures introduce chromatic foci separation, and because chromatic aberrations result in focal segment axial shifts, polychromatic imaging properties are partially lost. We investigate here various design parameters that can be used to achieve color splitting, filtering, and combining using these properties. In order to improve the low-power efficiency of a single annular axicon, we suggest a spatial multiplexing of concentric annular axicons with different sizes and periods we call multiple annular aperture diffractive axicons (MALDAs). These are chosen to maintain focal depths while enabling color imaging with sufficient diffraction efficiency. Illustrations are given for binary phase diffractive axicons, considering technical aspects such as grating design wavelength and phase dependence due to the grating thickness.

  19. Multiplicative form of the Lagrangian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surawuttinack, K.; Yoo-Kong, S.; Tanasittikosol, M.

    2016-12-01

    We obtain an alternative class of Lagrangians in the so-called the multiplicative form for a system with one degree of freedom in the nonrelativistic and the relativistic cases. This new form of the Lagrangian can be regarded as a one-parameter class with the parameter λ obtained using an extension of the standard additive form of the Lagrangian because both forms yield the same equation of motion. We note that the multiplicative form of the Lagrangian can be regarded as a generating function for obtaining an infinite hierarchy of Lagrangians that yield the same equation of motion. This nontrivial set of Lagrangians confirms that the Lagrange function is in fact nonunique.

  20. FRACTIONAL DYNAMICS AT MULTIPLE TIMES

    PubMed Central

    Meerschaert, Mark M.; Straka, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A continuous time random walk (CTRW) imposes a random waiting time between random particle jumps. CTRW limit densities solve a fractional Fokker-Planck equation, but since the CTRW limit is not Markovian, this is not sufficient to characterize the process. This paper applies continuum renewal theory to restore the Markov property on an expanded state space, and compute the joint CTRW limit density at multiple times. PMID:23378670

  1. Multiple Vaccinations: Friend or Foe

    PubMed Central

    Church, Sarah E.; Jensen, Shawn M.; Twitty, Chris; Bahjat, Keith; Hu, Hong-Ming; Urba, Walter J.; Fox, Bernard A.

    2013-01-01

    Few immunotherapists would accept the concept of a single vaccination inducing a therapeutic anti-cancer immune response in a patient with advanced cancer. But what is the evidence to support the “more-is-better” approach of multiple vaccinations? Since we are unaware of trials comparing the effect of a single vaccine versus multiple vaccinations on patient outcome, we considered that an anti-cancer immune response might provide a surrogate measure of the effectiveness of vaccination strategies. Since few large trials include immunological monitoring, the majority of information is gleaned from smaller trials in which an evaluation of immune responses to vaccine or tumor, before and at one or more times following the first vaccine was performed. In some studies there is convincing evidence that repeated administration of a specific vaccine can augment the immune response to antigens contained in the vaccine. In other settings multiple vaccinations can significantly reduce the immune response to one or more targets. Results from three large adjuvant vaccine studies support the potential detrimental effect of multiple vaccinations as clinical outcomes in the control arms were significantly better than that for treatment groups. Recent research has provided insights into mechanisms that are likely responsible for the reduced responses in the studies noted above, but supporting evidence from clinical specimens is generally lacking. Interpretation of these results is further complicated by the possibility that the dominant immune response may evolve to recognize epitopes not present in the vaccine. Nonetheless, the FDA-approval of the first therapeutic cancer vaccine and recent developments from preclinical models and clinical trials provide a substantial basis for optimism and a critical evaluation of cancer vaccine strategies. PMID:21952289

  2. Multiplicity of Solutions in Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupont, M

    1927-01-01

    One of the most striking phenomena which accompany the flow of fluids such as air and water about bodies, is that of changes in character. This phenomena is still very little understood. We will first discuss the nature of these changes and then show that pure theory leads to a multiplicity of characters of flow, among which we will endeavor to indicate those bearing some analogy to experimental results.

  3. Multiple sclerosis and birth order.

    PubMed Central

    James, W H

    1984-01-01

    Studies on the birth order of patients with multiple sclerosis have yielded contradictory conclusions. Most of the sets of data, however, have been tested by biased tests. Data that have been submitted to unbiased tests seem to suggest that cases are more likely to occur in early birth ranks. This should be tested on further samples and some comments are offered on how this should be done. PMID:6707558

  4. Bipolar disorder and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Mariana Inés; Moreira, Marcos Aurélio; Araújo, Carolina Reis; Lana-Peixoto, Marco Aurélio; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio

    2007-12-01

    Bipolar disorder may be overrepresented in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Although research in this area is limited, studies assessing the nature of this association have focused on genetic aspects, adverse reaction to drugs and brain demyelinating lesions. Herein we report three patients with MS that also presented bipolar disorder. The coexistence of neurological and psychiatric symptoms in most MS relapses highlights the relevance of biological factors in the emergence of mood disorders in these patients.

  5. Protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.

  6. Protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.

  7. Multiple target laser ablation system

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, Douglas N.

    1996-01-01

    A laser ablation apparatus and method are provided in which multiple targets consisting of material to be ablated are mounted on a movable support. The material transfer rate is determined for each target material, and these rates are stored in a controller. A position detector determines which target material is in a position to be ablated, and then the controller controls the beam trigger timing and energy level to achieve a desired proportion of each constituent material in the resulting film.

  8. Multiple target laser ablation system

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, D.N.

    1996-01-09

    A laser ablation apparatus and method are provided in which multiple targets consisting of material to be ablated are mounted on a movable support. The material transfer rate is determined for each target material, and these rates are stored in a controller. A position detector determines which target material is in a position to be ablated, and then the controller controls the beam trigger timing and energy level to achieve a desired proportion of each constituent material in the resulting film. 3 figs.

  9. Multiple man-machine interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, L.; Cook, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    The multiple man machine interfaces inherent in military pilot training, their social implications, and the issue of possible negative feedback were explored. Modern technology has produced machines which can see, hear, and touch with greater accuracy and precision than human beings. Consequently, the military pilot is more a systems manager, often doing battle against a target he never sees. It is concluded that unquantifiable human activity requires motivation that is not intrinsic in a machine.

  10. Multiple-Segment Climbing Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James; May, Edward; Eklund, Wayne

    1994-01-01

    Multiple-segment climbing robots developed to perform such tasks as inspection, sandblasting, welding, and painting on towers and other structures. Look and move like caterpillars. Video camera mounted on one of segments rotated to desired viewing angle. Used in remote inspection of structure, to view motion of robot and/or provides video feedback for control of motion, and/or to guide operation of head mounted on foremost segment with motorized actuators.

  11. Confabulators mistake multiplicity for uniqueness.

    PubMed

    Serra, Mara; La Corte, Valentina; Migliaccio, Raffaella; Brazzarola, Marta; Zannoni, Ilaria; Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Dalla Barba, Gianfranco

    2014-09-01

    Some patients with organic amnesia show confabulation, the production of statements and actions unintentionally incongruous to the subject's history, present and future situation. It has been shown that confabulators tend to report as unique and specific personal memories, events or actions that belong to their habits and routines (Habits Confabulations). We consider that habits and routines can be characterized by multiplicity, as opposed to uniqueness. This paper examines this phenomenon whereby confabulators mistake multiplicity, i.e., repeated events, for uniqueness, i.e., events that occurred in a unique and specific temporo-spatial context. In order to measure the ability to discriminate unique from repeated events we used four runs of a recognition memory task, in which some items were seen only once at study, whereas others were seen four times. Confabulators, but not non-confabulating amnesiacs (NCA), considered repeated items as unique, thus mistaking multiplicity for uniqueness. This phenomenon has been observed clinically but our study is the first to demonstrate it experimentally. We suggest that a crucial mechanism involved in the production of confabulations is thus the confusion between unique and repeated events.

  12. Resistant multiple sparse canonical correlation.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Jacob; Replogle, Joseph; Chandler, Gabriel; Hardin, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is a multivariate technique that takes two datasets and forms the most highly correlated possible pairs of linear combinations between them. Each subsequent pair of linear combinations is orthogonal to the preceding pair, meaning that new information is gleaned from each pair. By looking at the magnitude of coefficient values, we can find out which variables can be grouped together, thus better understanding multiple interactions that are otherwise difficult to compute or grasp intuitively. CCA appears to have quite powerful applications to high-throughput data, as we can use it to discover, for example, relationships between gene expression and gene copy number variation. One of the biggest problems of CCA is that the number of variables (often upwards of 10,000) makes biological interpretation of linear combinations nearly impossible. To limit variable output, we have employed a method known as sparse canonical correlation analysis (SCCA), while adding estimation which is resistant to extreme observations or other types of deviant data. In this paper, we have demonstrated the success of resistant estimation in variable selection using SCCA. Additionally, we have used SCCA to find multiple canonical pairs for extended knowledge about the datasets at hand. Again, using resistant estimators provided more accurate estimates than standard estimators in the multiple canonical correlation setting. R code is available and documented at https://github.com/hardin47/rmscca.

  13. [Multiple sclerosis: current immunological aspects].

    PubMed

    Cuevas-García, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common inflammatory, chronic and degenerative condition of the central nervous system, and represents the first cause of disability in young adults. In Mexico, 11 to 20 out of every 100 000 people suffer from this disease. The causes of multiple sclerosis remain unknown, but several theories have been proposed: the interaction of environmental factors, viral infectious factors and genetic and immune susceptibility of each individual patient, which induce an autoimmune response and promote neuronal/axonal degeneration. In this review, the immune reaction main components and neurodegeneration present in multiple sclerosis are analyzed, as well as the inflammatory cascade associated with demyelination. Available treatments' main purpose is to modulate aspects related to the adaptive immune response (B and T cells). The therapeutic challenge will be antigen-specific immune-tolerance induction, for example, with the use of tolerance protocols with peptides or DNA or nanoparticles vaccines. Future therapies should aim to control innate components (microglia, macrophages, astrocytes) and to promote remyelination. To optimize the treatment, a combined therapeutic approach targeting the control of inflammatory and neurodegenerative components of the disease and monitoring of biomarkers will be necessary.

  14. Multiplicities in high energy interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Derrick, M.

    1984-01-01

    Charged particle multiplicities in hadronic collision have been measured for all energies up to ..sqrt..s = 540 GeV in the center of mass. Similar measurements in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation cover the much smaller range - up to ..sqrt..s = 40 GeV. Data are also available from deep inelastic neutrino scattering up to ..sqrt..s approx. 10 GeV. The experiments measure the mean charged multiplicity , the rapidity density at y = O, and the distributions in prong number. The mean number of photons associated with the events can be used to measure the ..pi../sup 0/ and eta/sup 0/ multiplicities. Some information is also available on the charged pion, kaon, and nucleon fractions as well as the K/sup 0/ and ..lambda../sup 0/ rates and for the higher energy data, the identically equal fraction. We review this data and consider the implications of extrapolations to SSC energies. 13 references.

  15. Optical multiple object tracking techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1989-02-01

    Two multichannel multiple-object tracking techniques are reviewed. In the diffraction grating technique, the input scene is picked up by a TV camera and imaged onto a liquid-crystal light valve (LCLV), and the output side of the light valve is illuminated with a suitably polarized and collimated coherent laser beam to yield a reflected beam with polarization modulated according to the intensity of the incoherent input. This reflected beam passes through a beam splitter cube and an analyzer, resulting in an intensity modulated coherent image. An array of spectrum islands containing the information of the input appears after crossing a contact screen/lens combination. In the multiple-focus hololens technique, the scene of moving objects is sent into the LCTVSLM through a camera; a collimated laser beam is incident upon the LCTV screen; a low-pass filter is inserted between the LCTVSLM and the hololens for the removal of the high order diffractions due to the grid structure of the LCTV. The feasibility of the LCTVSLM and multiple-focus hololens technique is demonstrated.

  16. Optical multiple object tracking techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1989-01-01

    Two multichannel multiple-object tracking techniques are reviewed. In the diffraction grating technique, the input scene is picked up by a TV camera and imaged onto a liquid-crystal light valve (LCLV), and the output side of the light valve is illuminated with a suitably polarized and collimated coherent laser beam to yield a reflected beam with polarization modulated according to the intensity of the incoherent input. This reflected beam passes through a beam splitter cube and an analyzer, resulting in an intensity modulated coherent image. An array of spectrum islands containing the information of the input appears after crossing a contact screen/lens combination. In the multiple-focus hololens technique, the scene of moving objects is sent into the LCTVSLM through a camera; a collimated laser beam is incident upon the LCTV screen; a low-pass filter is inserted between the LCTVSLM and the hololens for the removal of the high order diffractions due to the grid structure of the LCTV. The feasibility of the LCTVSLM and multiple-focus hololens technique is demonstrated.

  17. Multivitamin supplementation and multiple births.

    PubMed

    Werler, M M; Cragan, J D; Wasserman, C R; Shaw, G M; Erickson, J D; Mitchell, A A

    1997-07-11

    It is well established that maternal multivitamin supplementation reduces the risk of neural tube defects and evidence suggests that it may be associated with other reproductive outcomes. The present study was prompted by a report from a randomized trial in Hungary which showed a 40% increase in multiple births among periconceptional vitamin users. Retrospectively collected data on multivitamin supplementation were obtained on multiple and singleton births from three separate studies: Atlanta Birth Defects Case-Control Study (ABDCCS) malformed and nonmalformed infants born 1968-1980, California Birth Defects Monitoring Program (CBDMP) malformed and nonmalformed infants born 1987-1989, and Boston University Slone Epidemiology Unit Birth Defects Study (SEU-BDS) malformed infants born 1987-1994. Supplementation was divided into three mutually exclusive categories based on timing: "periconceptional" use--before through at least the third month after conception; "early" use--beginning in the first month and continuing through at least the third month after conception; and "later" use--beginning in the second or third month after conception. For periconceptional use, four of five datasets showed a 30 to 60% greater prevalence of supplementation among mothers of multiple births. In contrast, this pattern was not evident for "early" and "later" use. Overall, the study findings are tentative, due to a lack of consistency across all five datasets and they should not alter recent recommendations related to folate supplementation for the prevention of neural tube defects.

  18. Multiple-illumination photoacoustic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, Quinn M.; Zemp, Roger J.

    2016-03-01

    Previously we described the potential for multiple illumination photoacoustic tomography to provide quantitative reconstructions, however this work used only simulated data. We have developed a custom photoacoustic-ultrasound tomography system capable of multiple illuminations and parallel acquisition from a 256 element 5 MHz transducer ring array with 8-cm diameter. The multiple illumination scheme uses a free-space light delivery geometry where a rotational stage scans a pulsed laser beam onto different incident locations around the sample. For each illumination location a photoacoustic image is reconstructed using a modified backprojection algorithm. Images from different source locations have the potential to be combined to form an improved deep-tissue image using our previously developed iterative algorithms. We complement the photoacoustic imaging data with unique ultrasound imaging data. Most previous ultrasound tomography methods have used migration algorithms, iterative ray-based analysis, wave-equation modeling, or frequency-based algorithms that all demand large amounts of data and computational power. We propose a new UST method that offers isotropic resolution, provides scattering contrast, as well as the potential for measuring ultrasound scattering anisotropy and decoupling density and compressibility contributions. The imaging system is driven by a Verasonics scan engine and programmed for both ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging modes. Resolution has been measured to be 150 μm for ultrasound and 200 μm for photoacoustic images. Imaging capabilities are demonstrated on phantoms with custom-tailored ultrasound scattering and optical properties, as well as in murine models.

  19. Multiple scattering expansion with distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandy, P. C.; Thaler, R. M.

    1980-12-01

    A multiple scattering description of elastic scattering is formulated in terms of impulsive scatterings from single target nucleons and pairs of target nucleons. In this description, distortion effects on the projectile from the residual medium are also described by multiple scattering in terms of the same single and pair amplitudes. At the level of single scattering, this procedure yields the first order optical potential result of Kerman, McManus, and Thaler. When scattering from both single nucleons and pairs of nucleons is included, the method leads to a one-body integral equation which requires the physical projectile-nucleon and projectile-pair transition amplitudes as input. This input is similar, but not exactly equivalent to that required by the spectator expansion for the optical potential truncated at second order. A principal advantage of the present formulation is that there need be no explicit dependence upon the projection operator Q which projects off the target ground state. This feature introduces a scaling which appears to be a direct extension of the first order Kerman, McManus, and Thaler type of scaling. We follow up suggestions arising in the foregoing to show that the exact optical potential to second order in the spectator expansion can also be cast into a form having no explicit dependence upon Q, and requiring physical projectile-nucleon and projectile-pair transition amplitudes as input. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Multiple scattering from single nucleons, pairs of nucleons in nucleus. Distortion from residual medium. Optical potential. spectator expansion.

  20. A multiple armature railgun launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyse, Mark W.; Challita, Antonios; Maas, Brian L.; Bauer, David P.

    1993-01-01

    As longer projectiles are accelerated, the efficiency (projectile mass/launch mass) of the launch package decreases. The reduction in efficiency makes launching projectiles with a L/D (length-to-diameter ratio) greater than 20 undesirable. EM guns have several launch characteristics that differ from conventional guns. Higher launch velocities are achievable in EM guns because sonic gas velocities do not limit the projectile velocity. Acceleration profiles for EM guns are more constant. The acceleration forces can be distributed on the projectile easily because the accelerating force can be distributed with multiple armatures. These characteristics combine to make EN guns a very attractive approach for launching very long (i.e.. high L/D ratio) projectiles. Railgun launchers with multiple armatures can distribute the accelerating force. Each armature is supplied gun current for acceleration through its own set of rails. This multi-rail, multi-armature concept was tested at the railgun test facility. The results demonstrated feasibility. We were able to control current distribution to multiple armatures. This paper describes the theory and test results for multi-armature launch of high L/D projectiles.

  1. Multiple Scattering Theory of XAFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabinsky, Steven Ira

    A multiple scattering theory of XAFS for arbitrary materials with convergence to full multiple scattering calculations and to experiment is presented. It is shown that the multiple scattering expansion converges with a small number of paths. The theory is embodied in an efficient automated computer code that provides accurate theoretical multiple scattering standards for use in experimental analysis. The basis of this work is a new path enumeration and filtering algorithm. Paths are constructed for an arbitrary cluster in order of increasing path length. Filters based on the relative importance of the paths in the plane wave approximation and on the random phase approximation limit the number of paths so that all important paths with effective path length up to the mean free path length (between 10 and 20 A) can be considered. Quantitative expressions for path proliferation and relative path importance are presented. The calculations are compared with full multiple scattering calculations for Cu and Al. In the case of fcc Cu, the path filters reduce the number of paths from 60 billion to only 56 paths in a cluster of radius 12.5 A. These 56 paths are sufficient to converge the calculation to within the uncertainty inherent in the band structure calculation. Based on an analysis of these paths, a new hypothesis is presented for consideration: Single scattering, double scattering, and all orders of scattering that involve only forward or back scattering are sufficient to describe XAFS. Comparison with experiment in Cu, Pt and Ti demonstrate the accuracy of the calculation through the fourth shell. The correlated Debye model is used to determine Debye-Waller factors--the strengths and weaknesses of this approach are discussed. Preliminary results for calculations of the x -ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) have been done. The calculations compare well with Cu, Pt and Ti experiments. The white line in the Pt absorption edge is calculated correctly. There are

  2. Multiple memory systems as substrates for multiple decision systems.

    PubMed

    Doll, Bradley B; Shohamy, Daphna; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2015-01-01

    It has recently become widely appreciated that value-based decision making is supported by multiple computational strategies. In particular, animal and human behavior in learning tasks appears to include habitual responses described by prominent model-free reinforcement learning (RL) theories, but also more deliberative or goal-directed actions that can be characterized by a different class of theories, model-based RL. The latter theories evaluate actions by using a representation of the contingencies of the task (as with a learned map of a spatial maze), called an "internal model." Given the evidence of behavioral and neural dissociations between these approaches, they are often characterized as dissociable learning systems, though they likely interact and share common mechanisms. In many respects, this division parallels a longstanding dissociation in cognitive neuroscience between multiple memory systems, describing, at the broadest level, separate systems for declarative and procedural learning. Procedural learning has notable parallels with model-free RL: both involve learning of habits and both are known to depend on parts of the striatum. Declarative memory, by contrast, supports memory for single events or episodes and depends on the hippocampus. The hippocampus is thought to support declarative memory by encoding temporal and spatial relations among stimuli and thus is often referred to as a relational memory system. Such relational encoding is likely to play an important role in learning an internal model, the representation that is central to model-based RL. Thus, insofar as the memory systems represent more general-purpose cognitive mechanisms that might subserve performance on many sorts of tasks including decision making, these parallels raise the question whether the multiple decision systems are served by multiple memory systems, such that one dissociation is grounded in the other. Here we investigated the relationship between model-based RL and

  3. Feedback control of multiple hemodynamic variables with multiple cardiovascular drugs.

    PubMed

    Sugimachi, Masaru; Uemura, Kazunori; Kamiya, Atsunori; Shimizu, Shuji; Inagaki, Masashi; Shishido, Toshiaki

    2009-01-01

    The ultimate goal of disease treatment is to control the biological system beyond the native regulation to combat pathological process. To maximize the advantage of drugs, we attempted to pharmacologically control the biological system at will, e.g., control multiple hemodynamic variables with multiple cardiovascular drugs. A comprehensive physiological cardiovascular model enabled us to evaluate cardiovascular properties (pump function, vascular resistance, and blood volume) and the feedback control of these properties. In 12 dogs, with dobutamine (5+/-3 mug.kg(-1).min(-1)), nitroprusside (4+/-2 mug.kg(-1).min(-1)), dextran (2+/-2 ml.kg(-1)), and furosemide (10 mg in one, 20 mg in one), rapid, sufficient and stable control of pump function, vascular resistance and blood volume resulted in similarly quick and stable control of blood pressure, cardiac output and left atrial pressure in 5+/-7, 7+/-5, and 12+/-10 minutes, respectively. These variables remained stable for 60 minutes (RMS 4+/-3 mmHg, 5+/-2 ml.min(-1).kg(-1), 0.8+/-0.6 mmHg, respectively).

  4. Multiple Primary Malignancies in Patients with Multiple Early Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Hoon; Kim, Su Mi; Choi, Min Gew; Sohn, Tae Sung; Bae, Jae Moon; Kim, Sung

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the correlation between multiple early gastric cancer (MEGC) and multiple primary malignancies during the follow-up of patients with gastrectomy. The number of primary tumors detected in other organs after gastrectomy for early gastric cancer (EGC) has been increasing because of improved survival and surveillance programs. A total of 3,129 patients underwent radical gastrectomy for treatment of EGC at Samsung Medical Center from January 2000 to December 2005. Of these, 3,057 patients were selected and their medical records were retrospectively analyzed. Among the 3,057 patients, 148 (4.8%) had MEGC, 84.5% were male, 57.4% were over 60 years old, 42.6% had a macroscopic type EGC IIb main lesion, and 68.9% had well-differentiated tumors with a significantly high incidence of MEGC. There were no differences between patients with solitary early gastric cancer (SEGC) and those with MEGC with regard to overall survival or recurrence-free survival, but MEGC was an independent risk factor for metachronous primary malignancies in other organs (P=0.004, hazard ratio [HR]=2.444). MEGC is not a risk factor for poor prognosis after curative gastrectomy, but it is a risk factor for metachronous primary malignancies in other organs during postoperative follow-up; therefore, careful surveillance is needed.

  5. The evolution of multiple mating

    PubMed Central

    Gowaty, Patricia Adair

    2012-01-01

    Polyandry is a paradox: why do females mate multiple times when a single ejaculate often provides enough sperm for lifetime egg production? Gowaty et al. addressed explanations for polyandry in Drosophila pseudoobscura from the perspective of hypotheses based on sex differences in costs of reproduction (CoR). Contrary to CoR, Gowaty et al. showed that (1) a single ejaculate was inadequate for lifetime egg production; (2) polyandry provided fitness benefits to females beyond provision of adequate sperm and (3) fitness benefits of polyandry were not offset by costs. Here, I discuss predictions of the ad hoc hypotheses of CoR and three alternative hypotheses to CoR to facilitate a discussion and further development of a strong inference approach to experiments on the adaptive significance of polyandry for females. Each of the hypotheses makes testable predictions; simultaneous tests of the predictions will provide a strong inference approach to understanding the adaptive significance of multiple mating. I describe a sex-symmetric experiment meant to evaluate variation in fitness among lifelong virgins (V); monogamous females and males with one copulation (MOC); monogamous females and males with multiple copulations (MMC); PAND, polyandrous females; and PGYN, polygynous males. Last, I recommend the study of many different species, while taking care in choice of study species and attention to the assumptions of specific hypotheses. I particularly urge the study of many more Drosophila species both in laboratory and the wild to understand the “nature of flies in nature,” where opportunities and constraints mold evolutionary responses. PMID:22223093

  6. Sequence Factorization with Multiple References

    PubMed Central

    Wandelt, Sebastian; Leser, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The success of high-throughput sequencing has lead to an increasing number of projects which sequence large populations of a species. Storage and analysis of sequence data is a key challenge in these projects, because of the sheer size of the datasets. Compression is one simple technology to deal with this challenge. Referential factorization and compression schemes, which store only the differences between input sequence and a reference sequence, gained lots of interest in this field. Highly-similar sequences, e.g., Human genomes, can be compressed with a compression ratio of 1,000:1 and more, up to two orders of magnitude better than with standard compression techniques. Recently, it was shown that the compression against multiple references from the same species can boost the compression ratio up to 4,000:1. However, a detailed analysis of using multiple references is lacking, e.g., for main memory consumption and optimality. In this paper, we describe one key technique for the referential compression against multiple references: The factorization of sequences. Based on the notion of an optimal factorization, we propose optimization heuristics and identify parameter settings which greatly influence 1) the size of the factorization, 2) the time for factorization, and 3) the required amount of main memory. We evaluate a total of 30 setups with a varying number of references on data from three different species. Our results show a wide range of factorization sizes (optimal to an overhead of up to 300%), factorization speed (0.01 MB/s to more than 600 MB/s), and main memory usage (few dozen MB to dozens of GB). Based on our evaluation, we identify the best configurations for common use cases. Our evaluation shows that multi-reference factorization is much better than single-reference factorization. PMID:26422374

  7. Binaries and Multiple Stellar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horch, Elliott

    Binary and multiple stellar systems have importance in three main areas of astronomy and astrophysics. First, because of the relatively simple gravitational interaction at work in the case of binary stars, these systems provide a basic check on stellar structure and evolution theory since the masses may be determined through observation. When these masses can be linked to other properties of the two stars, such as luminosity, color, and radius, they can provide very stringent constraints on stellar models. Second, the statistics of binary and multiple star systems provide clues to star formation mechanisms and environmental effects in the galactic gravitational potential and in clusters. Although a number of good results have been obtained in nearby star clusters and associations, knowledge of the field population has been somewhat limited until recently by a lack of large, complete samples of binaries. However, there appears to be a great deal of promise in this area for the coming decade in part due to astrometric satellites such as Hipparcos and Gaia. Third, the binary scenario is invoked to explain several important types of astrophysical phenomena such as Type Ia supernovae, cataclysmic variables, and stellar x-ray sources. Since the first of these mentioned is a standard candle for the extragalactic distance scale, it may even be said binary stars play a minor role in field of cosmology. However, in this chapter, the focus will mainly be on normal stars in binary and multiple-stellar systems. The basic physics of binaries will be reviewed, and the observational methods in use today will be discussed together with their limitations and prospects for the future. Finally, an overview of the current science in the three main areas mentioned where binaries have a significant impact will be given.

  8. [Radiological diagnostics of multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    D'Anastasi, M; Grandl, S; Reiser, M F; Baur-Melnyk, A

    2014-06-01

    Robust and reliable imaging methods are required to estimate the skeletal tumor load in multiple myeloma, as well as for the diagnosis of extraskeletal manifestations. Imaging also plays an essential role in the assessment of fracture risk and of vertebral fractures. The conventional skeletal survey has been the gold standard in the imaging of multiple myeloma for many years. Other modalities which have been investigated and are in use are whole-body computed tomography (WBCT), 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography (FDG PET-CT) and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WBMRI). These techniques are able to depict both mineralized bone and the bone marrow with a high sensitivity for myeloma lesions. Several studies have shown that cross-sectional imaging is superior to the skeletal survey in the detection of myeloma lesions and WBMRI has been shown to be significantly more sensitive than WBCT for the detection of focal myeloma lesions as well as for diffuse infiltration. The FDG PET-CT technique has a sensitivity comparable to WBMRI. Due to the higher sensitivity in the detection of myeloma lesions WBCT and WBMRI should replace the skeletal survey. A WBCT should be performed if there is suspicion of multiple myeloma. If no focal lesions are found WBMRI or at least MRI of the spine and pelvis should be additionally performed if available. If WBMRI has been initially performed and focal lesions are present, an additional WBCT may be performed to assess the extent of bone destruction and fracture risk. In cases of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), solitary and smoldering myeloma, a WBMRI, if available, should be performed in addition to WBCT.

  9. Symptomatic management in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Pushkar

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the commonest cause of disability in young adults. While there is increasing choice and better treatments available for delaying disease progression, there are still, very few, effective symptomatic treatments. For many patients such as those with primary progressive MS (PPMS) and those that inevitably become secondary progressive, symptom management is the only treatment available. MS related symptoms are complex, interrelated, and can be interdependent. It requires good understanding of the condition, a holistic multidisciplinary approach, and above all, patient education and empowerment. PMID:26538847

  10. Multiple piece turbine rotor blade

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Russell B; Fedock, John A

    2013-05-21

    A multiple piece turbine rotor blade with a shell having an airfoil shape and secured between a spar and a platform with the spar including a tip end piece. a snap ring fits around the spar and abuts against the spar tip end piece on a top side and abuts against a shell on the bottom side so that the centrifugal loads from the shell is passed through the snap ring and into the spar and not through a tip cap dovetail slot and projection structure.

  11. Multiple channel programmable coincidence counter

    DOEpatents

    Arnone, Gaetano J.

    1990-01-01

    A programmable digital coincidence counter having multiple channels and featuring minimal dead time. Neutron detectors supply electrical pulses to a synchronizing circuit which in turn inputs derandomized pulses to an adding circuit. A random access memory circuit connected as a programmable length shift register receives and shifts the sum of the pulses, and outputs to a serializer. A counter is input by the adding circuit and downcounted by the seralizer, one pulse at a time. The decoded contents of the counter after each decrement is output to scalers.

  12. Smart card multiple function badge

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    Smart cards are credit card-sized computers with integrated data storage, an operating system to manage the data, and built-in security features that protect the data. They are used to distribute information to remote sites, providing the same or greater reliability, data integrity, and information security than a network system. However, smart cards may provide greater functionality at a lower cost than network systems. The US Department of Energy Hanford Site is developing the smart card to be used as a multiple function identification badge that will service various data management requirements on the Site. This paper discusses smart card technology and the proposed Hanford Site applications.

  13. Counting Multiplicity over Infinite Alphabets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel, Amaldev; Ramanujam, R.

    In the theory of automata over infinite alphabets, a central difficulty is that of finding a suitable compromise between expressiveness and algorithmic complexity. We propose an automaton model where we count the multiplicity of data values on an input word. This is particularly useful when such languages represent behaviour of systems with unboundedly many processes, where system states carry such counts as summaries. A typical recognizable language is: “every process does at most k actions labelled a”. We show that emptiness is elementarily decidable, by reduction to the covering problem on Petri nets.

  14. Multiple functions of USP18

    PubMed Central

    Honke, Nadine; Shaabani, Namir; Zhang, Dong-Er; Hardt, Cornelia; Lang, Karl S

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of the ubiquitin system and the description of its important role in the degradation of proteins, many studies have shown the importance of ubiquitin-specific peptidases (USPs). One special member of this family is the USP18 protein (formerly UBP43). In the past two decades, several functions of USP18 have been discovered: this protein is not only an isopeptidase but also a potent inhibitor of interferon signaling. Therefore, USP18 functions as 'a' maestro of many biological pathways in various cell types. This review outlines multiple functions of USP18 in the regulation of various immunological processes, including pathogen control, cancer development, and autoimmune diseases. PMID:27809302

  15. Cutaneous Manifestations of Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Behera, Binodini; Pattnaik, Monali; Sahu, Bharti; Mohanty, Prasenjeet; Jena, Swapna; Mohapatra, Liza

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a proliferative disorder of plasma cells which produce abnormal immunoglobulin proteins. Skin involvement is rarely found in this disorder. They are either specific or nonspecific lesions. We report four such interesting patients who presented to us initially with common dermatoses such as leukocytoclastic vasculitis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and vesiculobullous disorders and were subsequently diagnosed to have MM. There were no skeletal involvements or renal function abnormality at the time of presentation. Unusual presentation, nonresponsiveness to conventional therapy, and abnormal blood parameters prompted us to suspect some underlying systemic conditions which were later confirmed to be MM after serum immunoelectrophoresis for M-band and bone marrow biopsy. PMID:27904188

  16. Spasticity management in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Christina; Howard, Ileana M

    2013-11-01

    Spasticity is a prevalent and potentially disabling symptom common in individuals with multiple sclerosis. Adequate evaluation and management of spasticity requires a careful assessment of the patient's history to determine functional impact of spasticity and potential exacerbating factors, and physical examination to determine the extent of the condition and culpable muscles. A host of options for spasticity management are available: therapeutic exercise, physical modalities, complementary/alternative medicine interventions, oral medications, chemodenervation, and implantation of an intrathecal baclofen pump. Choice of treatment hinges on a combination of the extent of symptoms, patient preference, and availability of services.

  17. Coordination of multiple robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.; Soloway, D.

    1987-01-01

    Kinematic resolved-rate control from one robot arm is extended to the coordinated control of multiple robot arms in the movement of an object. The structure supports the general movement of one axis system (moving reference frame) with respect to another axis system (control reference frame) by one or more robot arms. The grippers of the robot arms do not have to be parallel or at any pre-disposed positions on the object. For multiarm control, the operator chooses the same moving and control reference frames for each of the robot arms. Consequently, each arm then moves as though it were carrying out the commanded motions by itself.

  18. [Driving ability with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Küst, J; Dettmers, C

    2014-07-01

    Driving is an important issue for young patients, especially for those whose walking capacity is impaired. Driving might support the patient's social and vocational participation. The question as to whether a patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) is restricted in the ability to drive a car depends on neurological and neuropsychological deficits, self-awareness, insight into deficits and ability to compensate for loss of function. Because of the enormous variability of symptoms in MS the question is highly individualized. A practical driving test under supervision of a driving instructor (possibly accompanied by a neuropsychologist) might be helpful in providing both patient and relatives adequate feedback on driving abilities.

  19. Multiple Impacts on Monolithic Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    Two-dimensional computer code , . Eulerian computer code Shaped-charge penetration Multiple impact .6, ABYRAC• ( - ms i N twSMW Mni/ffir b? Wok nuftd...material was copper with a yield stress in shear of 1.3 kbar. Before impact, the velocity of the penetrators was 5.0 km/s and the diameter, 3 mm. The steel...target was semi-infinite with a yield stress in shear of 6.8 kbar. Five impact situations were considered: (1) one impact by a 27.0- m-long penetrator

  20. Multiple Myeloma: Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, S. Vincent; Kumar, Shaji

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) has changed dramatically in the last decade. The disease definition has been updated to allow highly specific biomarkers in addition to established markers of end-organ damage. The staging system has been revised to combine both measures of tumor burden and disease biology. Advances in therapy have resulted in a significant improvement of overall survival. New drugs introduced in the last few years include carfilzomib, pomalidomide, and panobinostat. In addition, monoclonal antibodies such as elotuzumab and daratumumab have shown promising clinical activity. In this review, we outline the current approach to diagnosis, prognosis, and management of MM. PMID:26763514

  1. [Thalidomide, cereblon and multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Ogura, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Cereblon was identified as a direct target of thalidomide by Prof. H. Handa, and this pioneering work triggered active research on IMiDs (immunomodulatory drugs), which include thalidomide-derivatives, such as lenalidomide and pomalidomide. These small molecules have been shown to bind to cereblon (CRBN) to modulate its activity as a substrate receptor. In addition, structural analyses on CRBN have revealed unique actions of these small agents, by which degradation of transcription factors is controlled in a specific and unique way. I summarize recent progress on CRBN-CRLA ubiquitin ligase and IMiDs, focusing on the therapeutic application of these drugs for treatment of multiple myeloma.

  2. Recirculation in multiple wave conversions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, A. N.; Brizard, A.J.; Kaufman, A.N.; Tracy, E.R.

    2008-07-30

    A one-dimensional multiple wave-conversion model is constructed that allows energy recirculation in ray phase space. Using a modular eikonal approach, the connection coefficients for this model are calculated by ray phase-space methods. Analytical results (confirmed numerically) show that all connection coefficients exhibit interference effects that depend on an interference phase, calculated from the coupling constants and the area enclosed by the intersecting rays. This conceptual model, which focuses on the topology of intersecting rays in phase space, is used to investigate how mode conversion between primary and secondary waves is modified by the presence of a tertiary wave.

  3. Multiple personality disorder in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Y; Suzuki, K; Sato, T; Murakami, Y; Takahashi, T

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the features of multiple personality disorder (MPD) in Japan are similar to those in North America, although a wide disparity exists in the prevalence of MPD between the two areas. In order to describe the features of MPD in Japan, we obtained clinical data from MPD case reports, including two of our own cases, published in Japanese academic journals and compared it with the data from other countries. The cases in Japan differed significantly from those in North America in the mean number of personalities and prevalence of sexual and/or physical abuse.

  4. Evolutionary Processes in Multiple Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Eggleton, P P; Kisseleva-Eggleton, L

    2006-02-14

    There are several ways in which triple stars can evolve in somewhat unusual ways. They discuss two situations where Case A Roche-lobe overflow, followed by a merger, can produce anomalous wide binaries such as {gamma} Per; and Kozai cycles in triples with non-parallel orbits, which can produce merged rapidly-rotating stars like AB Dor, and which can also lead to the delayed ejection of one component of a multiple, as may have been observed in T Tau in 1998.

  5. [Multiple finger geodes in children].

    PubMed

    Hoeffel, J C; Oprisescu, B; Bresson, A; Ploier, R; Vidailhet, M

    1993-06-01

    Three pediatric patients with multiple geodes in the fingers are reported. This condition occurs mainly between one and three years and at seven years of age and is more common in winter. Affected fingers are swollen. Roentgenograms disclose several small lucent defects which are usually located in the middle phalanx. Several fingers are usually involved. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate is increased in virtually every case. Resolution occurs spontaneously within a few weeks or months. There is no tendency towards recurrence. Although the condition is inflammatory, exposure to cold is probably a precipitating factor.

  6. Ordering Multiple Soft Gluon Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ángeles Martínez, René; Forshaw, Jeffrey R.; Seymour, Michael H.

    2016-05-01

    We present an expression for the QCD amplitude for a general hard scattering process with any number of soft gluon emissions, to one-loop accuracy. The amplitude is written in two different but equivalent ways: as a product of operators ordered in dipole transverse momentum and as a product of loop-expanded currents. We hope that these results will help in the development of an all-orders algorithm for multiple emissions that includes the full color structure and both the real and imaginary contributions to the amplitude.

  7. Multiple mononeuropathy following cocaine abuse

    PubMed Central

    Beniczky, Sándor; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Fabricius, Martin; Andersen, Kjeld V

    2009-01-01

    A 31-year-old man with acute-onset of left-sided weakness following the sniffing of cocaine was admitted with rhabdomyolysis. Neurophysiological studies showed axonal degeneration in 4/10 sensory and 3/8 motor nerves, and conduction block outside the typical compression-sites in 3/8 motor nerves. The findings are consistent with a diagnosis of multiple mononeuropathy. Ischaemia due to vasoconstriction is currently believed to be the cause of muscle necrosis following cocaine abuse and we hypothesise that it also explains the neuropathy in this case. PMID:21686808

  8. Cutaneous Manifestations of Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Behera, Binodini; Pattnaik, Monali; Sahu, Bharti; Mohanty, Prasenjeet; Jena, Swapna; Mohapatra, Liza

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a proliferative disorder of plasma cells which produce abnormal immunoglobulin proteins. Skin involvement is rarely found in this disorder. They are either specific or nonspecific lesions. We report four such interesting patients who presented to us initially with common dermatoses such as leukocytoclastic vasculitis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and vesiculobullous disorders and were subsequently diagnosed to have MM. There were no skeletal involvements or renal function abnormality at the time of presentation. Unusual presentation, nonresponsiveness to conventional therapy, and abnormal blood parameters prompted us to suspect some underlying systemic conditions which were later confirmed to be MM after serum immunoelectrophoresis for M-band and bone marrow biopsy.

  9. Selective termination of multiple gestations.

    PubMed

    Golbus, M S; Cunningham, N; Goldberg, J D; Anderson, R; Filly, R; Callen, P

    1988-10-01

    Twenty-two selective terminations in multiple gestations were performed by a number of different methods. In 17 dichorionic pregnancies there was a successful delivery in surviving singletons or twins. In five monochorionic pregnancies undergoing selective termination there was a successful delivery in only one and a pregnancy loss in the other four. Six of the 18 delivered pregnancies were complicated by premature labor and delivery. Among the several methods used for selective termination, intracardiac potassium chloride injection appears to be the procedure of choice in dichorionic pregnancies.

  10. [Special cases of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Mendibe Bilbao, Mar

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease that usually occurs in young people and affects them for the rest of their lives. Patients and their families usually have a series of doubts and questions on everyday matters and all types of situations that occur during the distinct stages of life and which can influence the course of the disease. The aim of this review is to provide specific answers to these questions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Multiple myeloma with extramedullary disease.

    PubMed

    Oriol, Albert

    2011-11-01

    Plasmacytoma is a tumor mass consisting of atypical plasma cells. Incidence of plasmacytomas associated with multiple myeloma range from 7% to 17% at diagnosis and from 6% to 20% during the course of the disease. In both situations, occurrence of extramedullary disease has been consistently associated with a poorer prognosis of myeloma. Extramedullary relapse or progression occurs in a variety of clinical circumstances and settings, and therefore requires individualization of treatment. Alkylating agents, bortezomib, and immunomodulatory drugs, along with corticoids, have been used to treat extramedullary relapse but, because of the relatively low frequency or detection rate of extramedullary relapse, no efficacy data are available from controlled studies in this setting.

  12. Multiplicative processes in visual cognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Credidio, H. F.; Teixeira, E. N.; Reis, S. D. S.; Moreira, A. A.; Andrade, J. S.

    2014-03-01

    The Central Limit Theorem (CLT) is certainly one of the most important results in the field of statistics. The simple fact that the addition of many random variables can generate the same probability curve, elucidated the underlying process for a broad spectrum of natural systems, ranging from the statistical distribution of human heights to the distribution of measurement errors, to mention a few. An extension of the CLT can be applied to multiplicative processes, where a given measure is the result of the product of many random variables. The statistical signature of these processes is rather ubiquitous, appearing in a diverse range of natural phenomena, including the distributions of incomes, body weights, rainfall, and fragment sizes in a rock crushing process. Here we corroborate results from previous studies which indicate the presence of multiplicative processes in a particular type of visual cognition task, namely, the visual search for hidden objects. Precisely, our results from eye-tracking experiments show that the distribution of fixation times during visual search obeys a log-normal pattern, while the fixational radii of gyration follow a power-law behavior.

  13. Multiple channel data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Crawley, H. Bert; Rosenberg, Eli I.; Meyer, W. Thomas; Gorbics, Mark S.; Thomas, William D.; McKay, Roy L.; Homer, Jr., John F.

    1990-05-22

    A multiple channel data acquisition system for the transfer of large amounts of data from a multiplicity of data channels has a plurality of modules which operate in parallel to convert analog signals to digital data and transfer that data to a communications host via a FASTBUS. Each module has a plurality of submodules which include a front end buffer (FEB) connected to input circuitry having an analog to digital converter with cache memory for each of a plurality of channels. The submodules are interfaced with the FASTBUS via a FASTBUS coupler which controls a module bus and a module memory. The system is triggered to effect rapid parallel data samplings which are stored to the cache memories. The cache memories are uploaded to the FEBs during which zero suppression occurs. The data in the FEBs is reformatted and compressed by a local processor during transfer to the module memory. The FASTBUS coupler is used by the communications host to upload the compressed and formatted data from the module memory. The local processor executes programs which are downloaded to the module memory through the FASTBUS coupler.

  14. Multiple channel data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Crawley, H.B.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Meyer, W.T.; Gorbics, M.S.; Thomas, W.D.; McKay, R.L.; Homer, J.F. Jr.

    1990-05-22

    A multiple channel data acquisition system for the transfer of large amounts of data from a multiplicity of data channels has a plurality of modules which operate in parallel to convert analog signals to digital data and transfer that data to a communications host via a FASTBUS. Each module has a plurality of submodules which include a front end buffer (FEB) connected to input circuitry having an analog to digital converter with cache memory for each of a plurality of channels. The submodules are interfaced with the FASTBUS via a FASTBUS coupler which controls a module bus and a module memory. The system is triggered to effect rapid parallel data samplings which are stored to the cache memories. The cache memories are uploaded to the FEBs during which zero suppression occurs. The data in the FEBs is reformatted and compressed by a local processor during transfer to the module memory. The FASTBUS coupler is used by the communications host to upload the compressed and formatted data from the module memory. The local processor executes programs which are downloaded to the module memory through the FASTBUS coupler. 25 figs.

  15. Multiple pure tone noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Fei; Sharma, Anupam; Paliath, Umesh; Shieh, Chingwei

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a fully numerical method for predicting multiple pure tones, also known as “Buzzsaw” noise. It consists of three steps that account for noise source generation, nonlinear acoustic propagation with hard as well as lined walls inside the nacelle, and linear acoustic propagation outside the engine. Noise generation is modeled by steady, part-annulus computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. A linear superposition algorithm is used to construct full-annulus shock/pressure pattern just upstream of the fan from part-annulus CFD results. Nonlinear wave propagation is carried out inside the duct using a pseudo-two-dimensional solution of Burgers' equation. Scattering from nacelle lip as well as radiation to farfield is performed using the commercial solver ACTRAN/TM. The proposed prediction process is verified by comparing against full-annulus CFD simulations as well as against static engine test data for a typical high bypass ratio aircraft engine with hardwall as well as lined inlets. Comparisons are drawn against nacelle unsteady pressure transducer measurements at two axial locations as well as against near- and far-field microphone array measurements outside the duct. This is the first fully numerical approach (no experimental or empirical input is required) to predict multiple pure tone noise generation, in-duct propagation and far-field radiation. It uses measured blade coordinates to calculate MPT noise.

  16. Multiple scroll wave chimera states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maistrenko, Volodymyr; Sudakov, Oleksandr; Osiv, Oleksiy; Maistrenko, Yuri

    2017-06-01

    We report the appearance of three-dimensional (3D) multiheaded chimera states that display cascades of self-organized spatiotemporal patterns of coexisting coherence and incoherence. We demonstrate that the number of incoherent chimera domains can grow additively under appropriate variations of the system parameters generating thereby head-adding cascades of the scroll wave chimeras. The phenomenon is derived for the Kuramoto model of N 3 identical phase oscillators placed in the unit 3D cube with periodic boundary conditions, parameters being the coupling radius r and phase lag α. To obtain the multiheaded chimeras, we perform the so-called `cloning procedure' as follows: choose a sample single-headed 3D chimera state, make appropriate scale transformation, and put some number of copies of them into the unit cube. After that, start numerical simulations with slightly perturbed initial conditions and continue them for a sufficiently long time to confirm or reject the state existence and stability. In this way it is found, that multiple scroll wave chimeras including those with incoherent rolls, Hopf links and trefoil knots admit this sort of multiheaded regeneration. On the other hand, multiple 3D chimeras without spiral rotations, like coherent and incoherent balls, tubes, crosses, and layers appear to be unstable and are destroyed rather fast even for arbitrarily small initial perturbations.

  17. Multiple protocol fluorometer and method

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Zbigniew S.; Falkowski, Paul G.

    2000-09-19

    A multiple protocol fluorometer measures photosynthetic parameters of phytoplankton and higher plants using actively stimulated fluorescence protocols. The measured parameters include spectrally-resolved functional and optical absorption cross sections of PSII, extent of energy transfer between reaction centers of PSII, F.sub.0 (minimal), F.sub.m (maximal) and F.sub.v (variable) components of PSII fluorescence, photochemical and non-photochemical quenching, size of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool, and the kinetics of electron transport between Q.sub.a and PQ pool and between PQ pool and PSI. The multiple protocol fluorometer, in one embodiment, is equipped with an excitation source having a controlled spectral output range between 420 nm and 555 nm and capable of generating flashlets having a duration of 0.125-32 .mu.s, an interval between 0.5 .mu.s and 2 seconds, and peak optical power of up to 2 W/cm.sup.2. The excitation source is also capable of generating, simultaneous with the flashlets, a controlled continuous, background illumination.

  18. Neurophysiological investigations in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Leocani, L; Comi, G

    2000-06-01

    The advent of magnetic resonance imaging techniques has greatly reduced the diagnostic value of neurophysiological tests, particularly evoked potentials, in multiple sclerosis patients, because of the higher sensitivity in revealing subclinical involvement of the central nervous system. Technical progress and new methods of investigating afferent and efferent nervous pathways would seem to increase the sensitivity in detecting neural dysfunction, but the 'clinical gain' is modest at best. More promising is the utilization of neurophysiological tests to quantify the severity of white matter involvement. Transversal and longitudinal studies have demonstrated good correlations between neurophysiological parameters and disability measures, indicating that a battery of neurophysiological tests could be useful in monitoring the disease evolution in single patients and as surrogate endpoints in clinical trials. Further studies are needed for a better definition of the applications of evoked potentials and other neurophysiological techniques. Finally, event-related potentials and advanced electroencephalogram techniques, such as coherence analysis, could provide useful information on the pathophysiology of cognitive dysfunction, so common in multiple sclerosis patients, and with a strong impact on the quality of life.

  19. apex: phylogenetics with multiple genes.

    PubMed

    Jombart, Thibaut; Archer, Frederick; Schliep, Klaus; Kamvar, Zhian; Harris, Rebecca; Paradis, Emmanuel; Goudet, Jérome; Lapp, Hilmar

    2017-01-01

    Genetic sequences of multiple genes are becoming increasingly common for a wide range of organisms including viruses, bacteria and eukaryotes. While such data may sometimes be treated as a single locus, in practice, a number of biological and statistical phenomena can lead to phylogenetic incongruence. In such cases, different loci should, at least as a preliminary step, be examined and analysed separately. The r software has become a popular platform for phylogenetics, with several packages implementing distance-based, parsimony and likelihood-based phylogenetic reconstruction, and an even greater number of packages implementing phylogenetic comparative methods. Unfortunately, basic data structures and tools for analysing multiple genes have so far been lacking, thereby limiting potential for investigating phylogenetic incongruence. In this study, we introduce the new r package apex to fill this gap. apex implements new object classes, which extend existing standards for storing DNA and amino acid sequences, and provides a number of convenient tools for handling, visualizing and analysing these data. In this study, we introduce the main features of the package and illustrate its functionalities through the analysis of a simple data set.

  20. Globally optimum multiple object tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebe, Ismail O.; You, Suya; Neumann, Ulrich

    2005-05-01

    Robust and accurate tracking of multiple objects is a key challenge in video surveillance. Tracking algorithms generally suffer from either one or more of the following problems, excluding detection errors. First, objects can be incorrectly interpreted as one of the other objects in the scene. Second, interactions between objects, such as occlusions, may cause tracking errors. Third, globally-optimum tracking is hard to achieve since the combinatorial assignment problem is NP-Complete. We present a modified Multiple-Hypothesis Tracking algorithm, MHT, for globally optimum tracking of moving objects. The system defines five states for tracked objects: appear, disappear, track, split, and merge, and these states cover all the interactions of object pairs. After the detection of objects in the current frame, a resemblance matrix is computed for every object pair. We convert the two-dimensional resemblance matrix into a three-dimensional state-likelihood structure and use a MHT technique to solve the state-assignment problem in 3D. This prevents incorrect assignments due to local minima in the assignment process. Moreover, the method models occlusion cases with the split and merge states. Finally, this method approximates a globally optimum state assignment in polynomial time complexity.