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Sample records for multiple gene expression

  1. Mining Gene Expression Data of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhenli; Huang, Zhengliang; Li, Ke

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Microarray produces a large amount of gene expression data, containing various biological implications. The challenge is to detect a panel of discriminative genes associated with disease. This study proposed a robust classification model for gene selection using gene expression data, and performed an analysis to identify disease-related genes using multiple sclerosis as an example. Materials and methods Gene expression profiles based on the transcriptome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a total of 44 samples from 26 multiple sclerosis patients and 18 individuals with other neurological diseases (control) were analyzed. Feature selection algorithms including Support Vector Machine based on Recursive Feature Elimination, Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve, and Boruta algorithms were jointly performed to select candidate genes associating with multiple sclerosis. Multiple classification models categorized samples into two different groups based on the identified genes. Models’ performance was evaluated using cross-validation methods, and an optimal classifier for gene selection was determined. Results An overlapping feature set was identified consisting of 8 genes that were differentially expressed between the two phenotype groups. The genes were significantly associated with the pathways of apoptosis and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction. TNFSF10 was significantly associated with multiple sclerosis. A Support Vector Machine model was established based on the featured genes and gave a practical accuracy of ∼86%. This binary classification model also outperformed the other models in terms of Sensitivity, Specificity and F1 score. Conclusions The combined analytical framework integrating feature ranking algorithms and Support Vector Machine model could be used for selecting genes for other diseases. PMID:24932510

  2. Multiple Stochastic Point Processes in Gene Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugan, Rajamanickam

    2008-04-01

    We generalize the idea of multiple-stochasticity in chemical reaction systems to gene expression. Using Chemical Langevin Equation approach we investigate how this multiple-stochasticity can influence the overall molecular number fluctuations. We show that the main sources of this multiple-stochasticity in gene expression could be the randomness in transcription and translation initiation times which in turn originates from the underlying bio-macromolecular recognition processes such as the site-specific DNA-protein interactions and therefore can be internally regulated by the supra-molecular structural factors such as the condensation/super-coiling of DNA. Our theory predicts that (1) in case of gene expression system, the variances ( φ) introduced by the randomness in transcription and translation initiation-times approximately scales with the degree of condensation ( s) of DNA or mRNA as φ ∝ s -6. From the theoretical analysis of the Fano factor as well as coefficient of variation associated with the protein number fluctuations we predict that (2) unlike the singly-stochastic case where the Fano factor has been shown to be a monotonous function of translation rate, in case of multiple-stochastic gene expression the Fano factor is a turn over function with a definite minimum. This in turn suggests that the multiple-stochastic processes can also be well tuned to behave like a singly-stochastic point processes by adjusting the rate parameters.

  3. Gene expression studies in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tajouri, Lotti; Fernandez, Francesca; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2007-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a serious neurological disorder affecting young Caucasian individuals, usually with an age of onset at 18 to 40 years old. Females account for approximately 60x of MS cases and the manifestation and course of the disease is highly variable from patient to patient. The disorder is characterised by the development of plaques within the central nervous system (CNS). Many gene expression studies have been undertaken to look at the specific patterns of gene transcript levels in MS. Human tissues and experimental mice were used in these gene-profiling studies and a very valuable and interesting set of data has resulted from these various expression studies. In general, genes showing variable expression include mainly immunological and inflammatory genes, stress and antioxidant genes, as well as metabolic and central nervous system markers. Of particular interest are a number of genes localised to susceptible loci previously shown to be in linkage with MS. However due to the clinical complexity of the disease, the heterogeneity of the tissues used in expression studies, as well as the variable DNA chips/membranes used for the gene profiling, it is difficult to interpret the available information. Although this information is essential for the understanding of the pathogenesis of MS, it is difficult to decipher and define the gene pathways involved in the disorder. Experiments in gene expression profiling in MS have been numerous and lists of candidates are now available for analysis. Researchers have investigated gene expression in peripheral mononuclear white blood cells (PBMCs), in MS animal models Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis (EAE) and post mortem MS brain tissues. This review will focus on the results of these studies.

  4. Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Berka, Randy; Bachkirova, Elena; Rey, Michael

    2012-05-01

    The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

  5. Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Berka, Randy; Bachkirova, Elena; Rey, Michael

    2013-10-01

    The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

  6. Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression

    DOEpatents

    Berka, Randy; Bachkirova, Elena; Rey, Michael

    2008-06-01

    The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

  7. Three gene expression vector sets for concurrently expressing multiple genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Jun; Kondo, Takashi; Makino, Harumi; Ogura, Akira; Matsuda, Fumio; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-05-01

    Yeast has the potential to be used in bulk-scale fermentative production of fuels and chemicals due to its tolerance for low pH and robustness for autolysis. However, expression of multiple external genes in one host yeast strain is considerably labor-intensive due to the lack of polycistronic transcription. To promote the metabolic engineering of yeast, we generated systematic and convenient genetic engineering tools to express multiple genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We constructed a series of multi-copy and integration vector sets for concurrently expressing two or three genes in S. cerevisiae by embedding three classical promoters. The comparative expression capabilities of the constructed vectors were monitored with green fluorescent protein, and the concurrent expression of genes was monitored with three different fluorescent proteins. Our multiple gene expression tool will be helpful to the advanced construction of genetically engineered yeast strains in a variety of research fields other than metabolic engineering.

  8. The Role of Multiple Transcription Factors In Archaeal Gene Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Charles J. Daniels

    2008-09-23

    Since the inception of this research program, the project has focused on two central questions: What is the relationship between the 'eukaryal-like' transcription machinery of archaeal cells and its counterparts in eukaryal cells? And, how does the archaeal cell control gene expression using its mosaic of eukaryal core transcription machinery and its bacterial-like transcription regulatory proteins? During the grant period we have addressed these questions using a variety of in vivo approaches and have sought to specifically define the roles of the multiple TATA binding protein (TBP) and TFIIB-like (TFB) proteins in controlling gene expression in Haloferax volcanii. H. volcanii was initially chosen as a model for the Archaea based on the availability of suitable genetic tools; however, later studies showed that all haloarchaea possessed multiple tbp and tfb genes, which led to the proposal that multiple TBP and TFB proteins may function in a manner similar to alternative sigma factors in bacterial cells. In vivo transcription and promoter analysis established a clear relationship between the promoter requirements of haloarchaeal genes and those of the eukaryal RNA polymerase II promoter. Studies on heat shock gene promoters, and the demonstration that specific tfb genes were induced by heat shock, provided the first indication that TFB proteins may direct expression of specific gene families. The construction of strains lacking tbp or tfb genes, coupled with the finding that many of these genes are differentially expressed under varying growth conditions, provided further support for this model. Genetic tools were also developed that led to the construction of insertion and deletion mutants, and a novel gene expression scheme was designed that allowed the controlled expression of these genes in vivo. More recent studies have used a whole genome array to examine the expression of these genes and we have established a linkage between the expression of specific tfb

  9. Tensor decomposition for multiple-tissue gene expression experiments.

    PubMed

    Hore, Victoria; Viñuela, Ana; Buil, Alfonso; Knight, Julian; McCarthy, Mark I; Small, Kerrin; Marchini, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Genome-wide association studies of gene expression traits and other cellular phenotypes have successfully identified links between genetic variation and biological processes. The majority of discoveries have uncovered cis-expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) effects via mass univariate testing of SNPs against gene expression in single tissues. Here we present a Bayesian method for multiple-tissue experiments focusing on uncovering gene networks linked to genetic variation. Our method decomposes the 3D array (or tensor) of gene expression measurements into a set of latent components. We identify sparse gene networks that can then be tested for association against genetic variation across the genome. We apply our method to a data set of 845 individuals from the TwinsUK cohort with gene expression measured via RNA-seq analysis in adipose, lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) and skin. We uncover several gene networks with a genetic basis and clear biological and statistical significance. Extensions of this approach will allow integration of different omics, environmental and phenotypic data sets.

  10. Gene expression profiles in Finnish twins with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Särkijärvi, Silja; Kuusisto, Hanna; Paalavuo, Raija; Levula, Mari; Airla, Nina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kaprio, Jaakko; Koskenvuo, Markku; Elovaara, Irina

    2006-01-01

    Background Since genetic alterations influencing susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), are as yet poorly understood, the purpose of this study was to identify genes responsible for MS by studying monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs discordant for MS. Methods In order to identify genes involved in MS development, the gene expression profiles in blood mononuclear cells obtained from eight MZ twin pairs discordant for MS were analyzed by cDNA microarray technology detecting the expression of 8 300 genes. The twins were collected from the Finnish Twin Cohort Study and both affected subjects and their healthy siblings underwent neurological evaluation and cerebral and spinal magnetic resonance imaging. Gene expressions were confirmed by relative quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Results It appeared that 25 genes were at least two-fold up-regulated and 15 genes down-regulated in 25% (2/8) of twins with MS when compared to their healthy siblings. Moreover, 6/25 genes were up-regulated in 40% of MS twins and one gene, interferon alpha-inducible protein (clone IFI-6-16) (G1P3), in 50% of them. The six most constantly expressed genes are (1) G1P3, (2) POU domain, class 3, transcription factor 1, (3) myxovirus resistance 2, (4) lysosomal-associated multispanning membrane protein-5, (5) hemoglobin alpha 2 and (6) hemoglobin beta. Conclusion Over two-fold up-regulation of these six genes in almost half of MZ twins with MS suggests their role in MS pathogenesis. Studies using MZ MS twins obtained from genetically homogeneous population offer a unique opportunity to explore the genetic nature of MS. PMID:16504146

  11. Simultaneous Clustering of Multiple Gene Expression and Physical Interaction Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Manikandan; Vetta, Adrian; Schadt, Eric E.; Zhu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Many genome-wide datasets are routinely generated to study different aspects of biological systems, but integrating them to obtain a coherent view of the underlying biology remains a challenge. We propose simultaneous clustering of multiple networks as a framework to integrate large-scale datasets on the interactions among and activities of cellular components. Specifically, we develop an algorithm JointCluster that finds sets of genes that cluster well in multiple networks of interest, such as coexpression networks summarizing correlations among the expression profiles of genes and physical networks describing protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions among genes or gene-products. Our algorithm provides an efficient solution to a well-defined problem of jointly clustering networks, using techniques that permit certain theoretical guarantees on the quality of the detected clustering relative to the optimal clustering. These guarantees coupled with an effective scaling heuristic and the flexibility to handle multiple heterogeneous networks make our method JointCluster an advance over earlier approaches. Simulation results showed JointCluster to be more robust than alternate methods in recovering clusters implanted in networks with high false positive rates. In systematic evaluation of JointCluster and some earlier approaches for combined analysis of the yeast physical network and two gene expression datasets under glucose and ethanol growth conditions, JointCluster discovers clusters that are more consistently enriched for various reference classes capturing different aspects of yeast biology or yield better coverage of the analysed genes. These robust clusters, which are supported across multiple genomic datasets and diverse reference classes, agree with known biology of yeast under these growth conditions, elucidate the genetic control of coordinated transcription, and enable functional predictions for a number of uncharacterized genes. PMID:20419151

  12. Multiple differential expression networks identify key genes in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Ri-Heng; Zhang, Ai-Min; Li, Shuang; Li, Tian-Yang; Wang, Lian-Jing; Zhang, Hao-Ran; Li, Ping; Jia, Xiong-Jie; Zhang, Tao; Peng, Xin-Yu; Liu, Min-Di; Wang, Xu; Lang, Yan; Xue, Wei-Lan; Liu, Jing; Wang, Yan-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Rectal cancer is an important contributor to cancer mortality. The objective of this paper is to identify key genes across three phenotypes (fungating, polypoid and polypoid & small-ulcer) of rectal cancer based on multiple differential expression networks (DENs). Differential interactions and non-differential interactions were evaluated according to Spearman correlation coefficient (SCC) algorithm, and were selected to construct DENs. Topological analysis was performed for exploring hub genes in largest components of DENs. Key genes were denoted as intersections between nodes of DENs and rectal cancer associated genes from Genecards. Finally, we utilized hub genes to classify phenotypes of rectal cancer on the basis of support vector machines (SVM) methodology. We obtained 19 hub genes and total 12 common key genes of three largest components of DENs, and EGFR was the common element. The SVM results revealed that hub genes could classify phenotypes, and validated feasibility of DEN methods. We have successfully identified significant genes (such as EGFR and UBC) across fungating, polypoid and polypoid & small-ulcer phenotype of rectal cancer. They might be potential biomarkers for classification, detection and therapy of this cancer.

  13. Interfering ribonucleic acids that suppress expression of multiple unrelated genes

    PubMed Central

    Passioura, Toby; Gozar, Mary M; Goodchild, Amber; King, Andrew; Arndt, Greg M; Poidinger, Michael; Birkett, Donald J; Rivory, Laurent P

    2009-01-01

    Background Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have become the research tool of choice for gene suppression, with human clinical trials ongoing. The emphasis so far in siRNA therapeutics has been the design of one siRNA with complete complementarity to the intended target. However, there is a need for multi-targeting interfering RNA in diseases in which multiple gene products are of importance. We have investigated the possibility of using a single short synthetic duplex RNA to suppress the expression of VEGF-A and ICAM-1; genes implicated in the progression of ocular neovascular diseases such as diabetic retinopathy. Results Duplex RNA were designed to have incomplete complementarity with the 3'UTR sequences of both target genes. One such duplex, CODEMIR-1, was found to suppress VEGF and ICAM-1 by 90 and 60%, respectively in ARPE-19 cells at a transfected concentration of 40 ng/mL. Use of a cyan fusion reporter with target sites constructed in its 3'UTR demonstrated that the repression of VEGF and ICAM-1 by CODEMIR-1 was indeed due to interaction with the target sequence. An exhaustive analysis of sequence variants of CODEMIR-1 demonstrated a clear positive correlation between activity against VEGF (but not ICAM-1) and the length of the contiguous complementary region (from the 5' end of the guide strand). Various strategies, including the use of inosine bases at the sites of divergence of the target sequences were investigated. Conclusion Our work demonstrates the possibility of designing multitargeting dsRNA to suppress more than one disease-altering gene. This warrants further investigation as a possible therapeutic approach. PMID:19531249

  14. Multiple C4/Slp genes distinguished by expression after transfection.

    PubMed Central

    Robins, D M; Malissen, M; Hood, L; Ferreira, A; Walthall, D; Mitchell, M

    1986-01-01

    The S region of the murine major histocompatibility complex contains two closely related genes: C4, encoding the fourth component of complement, and Slp, encoding sex-limited protein. We cloned these genes from a cosmid library of the B10.W7R strain that does not show androgen regulation of the Slp protein. Restriction site polymorphisms revealed at least four C4-like genes within the Sw7 locus, indicating evolutionary amplification of this region. Transfection of these genes into L cells resulted in expression, processing, and secretion of immunologically correct C4 and Slp proteins. At least two different Slp genes and one C4 gene were capable, after transfection, of expressing C4 and Slp indistinguishable from macrophage-derived protein. A third Slp gene exists within this locus whose recombinant cognate did not express in L cells. Thus, the B10.W7R S region includes one C4 gene and at least three Slp-like genes. Images PMID:3023818

  15. Gene expression in self-repressing system with multiple gene copies.

    PubMed

    Miekisz, Jacek; Szymańska, Paulina

    2013-02-01

    We analyze a simple model of a self-repressing system with multiple gene copies. Protein molecules may bound to DNA promoters and block their own transcription. We derive analytical expressions for the variance of the number of protein molecules in the stationary state in the self-consistent mean-field approximation. We show that the Fano factor (the variance divided by the mean value) is bigger for the one-gene case than for two gene copies and the difference decreases to zero as frequencies of binding and unbinding increase to infinity.

  16. Gene expression profiles of autophagy-related genes in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Igci, Mehri; Baysan, Mehmet; Yigiter, Remzi; Ulasli, Mustafa; Geyik, Sirma; Bayraktar, Recep; Bozgeyik, İbrahim; Bozgeyik, Esra; Bayram, Ali; Cakmak, Ecir Ali

    2016-08-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an imflammatory disease of central nervous system caused by genetic and environmental factors that remain largely unknown. Autophagy is the process of degradation and recycling of damaged cytoplasmic organelles, macromolecular aggregates, and long-lived proteins. Malfunction of autophagy contributes to the pathogenesis of neurological diseases, and autophagy genes may modulate the T cell survival. We aimed to examine the expression levels of autophagy-related genes. The blood samples of 95 unrelated patients (aged 17-65years, 37 male, 58 female) diagnosed as MS and 95 healthy controls were used to extract the RNA samples. After conversion to single stranded cDNA using polyT priming: the targeted genes were pre-amplified, and 96×78 (samples×primers) qRT-PCR reactions were performed for each primer pair on each sample on a 96.96 array of Fluidigm BioMark™. Compared to age- and sex-matched controls, gene expression levels of ATG16L2, ATG9A, BCL2, FAS, GAA, HGS, PIK3R1, RAB24, RGS19, ULK1, FOXO1, HTT were significantly altered (false discovery rate<0.05). Thus, altered expression levels of several autophagy related genes may affect protein levels, which in turn would influence the activity of autophagy, or most probably, those genes might be acting independent of autophagy and contributing to MS pathogenesis as risk factors. The indeterminate genetic causes leading to alterations in gene expressions require further analysis.

  17. Anti-inflammatory genes associated with multiple sclerosis: a gene expression study.

    PubMed

    Perga, S; Montarolo, F; Martire, S; Berchialla, P; Malucchi, S; Bertolotto, A

    2015-02-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system caused by a complex interaction between multiple genes and environmental factors. HLA region is the strongest susceptibility locus, but recent huge genome-wide association studies identified new susceptibility genes. Among these, BACH2, PTGER4, RGS1 and ZFP36L1 were highlighted. Here, a gene expression analysis revealed that three of them, namely BACH2, PTGER4 and ZFP36L1, are down-regulated in MS patients' blood cells compared to healthy subjects. Interestingly, all these genes are involved in the immune system regulation with predominant anti-inflammatory role and their reduction could predispose to MS development.

  18. Reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in multiple avian species.

    PubMed

    Olias, Philipp; Adam, Iris; Meyer, Anne; Scharff, Constance; Gruber, Achim D

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. Selection of suitable reference genes is essential for meaningful normalization and thus correct interpretation of data. In recent years, an increasing number of avian species other than the chicken has been investigated molecularly, highlighting the need for an experimentally validated pan-avian primer set for reference genes. Here we report testing a set for 14 candidate reference genes (18S, ABL, GAPDH, GUSB, HMBS, HPRT, PGK1, RPL13, RPL19, RPS7, SDHA, TFRC, VIM, YWHAZ) on different tissues of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), common crane (Grus grus), white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo f. domestica), cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), Humboldt penguin (Sphenicus humboldti), ostrich (Struthio camelus) and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), spanning a broad range of the phylogenetic tree of birds. Primer pairs for six to 11 genes were successfully established for each of the nine species. As a proof of principle, we analyzed expression levels of 10 candidate reference genes as well as FOXP2 and the immediate early genes, EGR1 and CFOS, known to be rapidly induced by singing in the avian basal ganglia. We extracted RNA from microbiopsies of the striatal song nucleus Area X of adult male zebra finches after they had sang or remained silent. Using three different statistical algorithms, we identified five genes (18S, PGK1, RPS7, TFRC, YWHAZ) that were stably expressed within each group and also between the singing and silent conditions, establishing them as suitable reference genes. In conclusion, the newly developed pan-avian primer set allows accurate normalization and quantification of gene expression levels in multiple avian species.

  19. Multiple common variants for celiac disease influencing immune gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Patrick CA; Trynka, Gosia; Franke, Lude; Hunt, Karen A; Romanos, Jihane; Curtotti, Alessandra; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Heap, Graham AR; Ádány, Róza; Aromaa, Arpo; Bardella, Maria Teresa; van den Berg, Leonard H; Bockett, Nicholas A; de la Concha, Emilio G.; Dema, Bárbara; Fehrmann, Rudolf SN; Fernández-Arquero, Miguel; Fiatal, Szilvia; Grandone, Elvira; Green, Peter M; Groen, Harry JM; Gwilliam, Rhian; Houwen, Roderick HJ; Hunt, Sarah E; Kaukinen, Katri; Kelleher, Dermot; Korponay-Szabo, Ilma; Kurppa, Kalle; MacMathuna, Padraic; Mäki, Markku; Mazzilli, Maria Cristina; McCann, Owen T; Mearin, M Luisa; Mein, Charles A; Mirza, Muddassar M; Mistry, Vanisha; Mora, Barbara; Morley, Katherine I; Mulder, Chris J; Murray, Joseph A; Núñez, Concepción; Oosterom, Elvira; Ophoff, Roel A; Polanco, Isabel; Peltonen, Leena; Platteel, Mathieu; Rybak, Anna; Salomaa, Veikko; Schweizer, Joachim J; Sperandeo, Maria Pia; Tack, Greetje J; Turner, Graham; Veldink, Jan H; Verbeek, Wieke HM; Weersma, Rinse K; Wolters, Victorien M; Urcelay, Elena; Cukrowska, Bozena; Greco, Luigi; Neuhausen, Susan L.; McManus, Ross; Barisani, Donatella; Deloukas, Panos; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Saavalainen, Paivi; Wijmenga, Cisca; van Heel, David A

    2010-01-01

    We performed a second-generation genome wide association study of 4,533 celiac disease cases and 10,750 controls. We genotyped 113 selected SNPs with PGWAS<10−4, and 18 SNPs from 14 known loci, in a further 4,918 cases and 5,684 controls. Variants from 13 new regions reached genome wide significance (Pcombined<5×10−8), most contain immune function genes (BACH2, CCR4, CD80, CIITA/SOCS1/CLEC16A, ICOSLG, ZMIZ1) with ETS1, RUNX3, THEMIS and TNFRSF14 playing key roles in thymic T cell selection. A further 13 regions had suggestive association evidence. In an expression quantitative trait meta-analysis of 1,469 whole blood samples, 20 of 38 (52.6%) tested loci had celiac risk variants correlated (P<0.0028, FDR 5%) with cis gene expression. PMID:20190752

  20. A light-switchable bidirectional expression module allowing simultaneous regulation of multiple genes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xianjun; Li, Ting; Wang, Xue; Yang, Yi

    2015-10-02

    Several light-regulated genetic circuits have been applied to spatiotemporally control transgene expression in mammalian cells. However, simultaneous regulation of multiple genes using one genetic device by light has not yet been reported. In this study, we engineered a bidirectional expression module based on LightOn system. Our data showed that both reporter genes could be regulated at defined and quantitative levels. Simultaneous regulation of four genes was further achieved in cultured cells and mice. Additionally, we successfully utilized the bidirectional expression module to monitor the expression of a suicide gene, showing potential for photodynamic gene therapy. Collectively, we provide a robust and useful tool to simultaneously control multiple genes expression by light, which will be widely used in biomedical research and biotechnology.

  1. Identifying reproducible cancer-associated highly expressed genes with important functional significances using multiple datasets

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haiyan; Li, Xiangyu; Guo, You; Zhang, Yuncong; Deng, Xusheng; Chen, Lufei; Zhang, Jiahui; Guo, Zheng; Ao, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Identifying differentially expressed (DE) genes between cancer and normal tissues is of basic importance for studying cancer mechanisms. However, current methods, such as the commonly used Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM), are biased to genes with low expression levels. Recently, we proposed an algorithm, named the pairwise difference (PD) algorithm, to identify highly expressed DE genes based on reproducibility evaluation of top-ranked expression differences between paired technical replicates of cells under two experimental conditions. In this study, we extended the application of the algorithm to the identification of DE genes between two types of tissue samples (biological replicates) based on several independent datasets or sub-datasets of a dataset, by constructing multiple paired average gene expression profiles for the two types of samples. Using multiple datasets for lung and esophageal cancers, we demonstrated that PD could identify many DE genes highly expressed in both cancer and normal tissues that tended to be missed by the commonly used SAM. These highly expressed DE genes, including many housekeeping genes, were significantly enriched in many conservative pathways, such as ribosome, proteasome, phagosome and TNF signaling pathways with important functional significances in oncogenesis. PMID:27796338

  2. Multiple abiotic stimuli are integrated in the regulation of rice gene expression under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Plessis, Anne; Hafemeister, Christoph; Wilkins, Olivia; Gonzaga, Zennia Jean; Meyer, Rachel Sarah; Pires, Inês; Müller, Christian; Septiningsih, Endang M; Bonneau, Richard; Purugganan, Michael

    2015-11-26

    Plants rely on transcriptional dynamics to respond to multiple climatic fluctuations and contexts in nature. We analyzed the genome-wide gene expression patterns of rice (Oryza sativa) growing in rainfed and irrigated fields during two distinct tropical seasons and determined simple linear models that relate transcriptomic variation to climatic fluctuations. These models combine multiple environmental parameters to account for patterns of expression in the field of co-expressed gene clusters. We examined the similarities of our environmental models between tropical and temperate field conditions, using previously published data. We found that field type and macroclimate had broad impacts on transcriptional responses to environmental fluctuations, especially for genes involved in photosynthesis and development. Nevertheless, variation in solar radiation and temperature at the timescale of hours had reproducible effects across environmental contexts. These results provide a basis for broad-based predictive modeling of plant gene expression in the field.

  3. Identifying stably expressed genes from multiple RNA-Seq data sets

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Sarah; Chang, Jeff H.; Di, Yanming

    2016-01-01

    We examined RNA-Seq data on 211 biological samples from 24 different Arabidopsis experiments carried out by different labs. We grouped the samples according to tissue types, and in each of the groups, we identified genes that are stably expressed across biological samples, treatment conditions, and experiments. We fit a Poisson log-linear mixed-effect model to the read counts for each gene and decomposed the total variance into between-sample, between-treatment and between-experiment variance components. Identifying stably expressed genes is useful for count normalization and differential expression analysis. The variance component analysis that we explore here is a first step towards understanding the sources and nature of the RNA-Seq count variation. When using a numerical measure to identify stably expressed genes, the outcome depends on multiple factors: the background sample set and the reference gene set used for count normalization, the technology used for measuring gene expression, and the specific numerical stability measure used. Since differential expression (DE) is measured by relative frequencies, we argue that DE is a relative concept. We advocate using an explicit reference gene set for count normalization to improve interpretability of DE results, and recommend using a common reference gene set when analyzing multiple RNA-Seq experiments to avoid potential inconsistent conclusions. PMID:28028467

  4. Joint analysis of differential gene expression in multiple studies using correlation motifs

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yingying; Tenzen, Toyoaki; Ji, Hongkai

    2015-01-01

    The standard methods for detecting differential gene expression are mostly designed for analyzing a single gene expression experiment. When data from multiple related gene expression studies are available, separately analyzing each study is not ideal as it may fail to detect important genes with consistent but relatively weak differential signals in multiple studies. Jointly modeling all data allows one to borrow information across studies to improve the analysis. However, a simple concordance model, in which each gene is assumed to be differential in either all studies or none of the studies, is incapable of handling genes with study-specific differential expression. In contrast, a model that naively enumerates and analyzes all possible differential patterns across studies can deal with study-specificity and allow information pooling, but the complexity of its parameter space grows exponentially as the number of studies increases. Here, we propose a correlation motif approach to address this dilemma. This approach searches for a small number of latent probability vectors called correlation motifs to capture the major correlation patterns among multiple studies. The motifs provide the basis for sharing information among studies and genes. The approach has flexibility to handle all possible study-specific differential patterns. It improves detection of differential expression and overcomes the barrier of exponential model complexity. PMID:25143368

  5. Identification of Single- and Multiple-Class Specific Signature Genes from Gene Expression Profiles by Group Marker Index

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yu-Shuen; Aguan, Kripamoy; Pal, Nikhil R.; Chung, I-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Informative genes from microarray data can be used to construct prediction model and investigate biological mechanisms. Differentially expressed genes, the main targets of most gene selection methods, can be classified as single- and multiple-class specific signature genes. Here, we present a novel gene selection algorithm based on a Group Marker Index (GMI), which is intuitive, of low-computational complexity, and efficient in identification of both types of genes. Most gene selection methods identify only single-class specific signature genes and cannot identify multiple-class specific signature genes easily. Our algorithm can detect de novo certain conditions of multiple-class specificity of a gene and makes use of a novel non-parametric indicator to assess the discrimination ability between classes. Our method is effective even when the sample size is small as well as when the class sizes are significantly different. To compare the effectiveness and robustness we formulate an intuitive template-based method and use four well-known datasets. We demonstrate that our algorithm outperforms the template-based method in difficult cases with unbalanced distribution. Moreover, the multiple-class specific genes are good biomarkers and play important roles in biological pathways. Our literature survey supports that the proposed method identifies unique multiple-class specific marker genes (not reported earlier to be related to cancer) in the Central Nervous System data. It also discovers unique biomarkers indicating the intrinsic difference between subtypes of lung cancer. We also associate the pathway information with the multiple-class specific signature genes and cross-reference to published studies. We find that the identified genes participate in the pathways directly involved in cancer development in leukemia data. Our method gives a promising way to find genes that can involve in pathways of multiple diseases and hence opens up the possibility of using an existing

  6. Identification of single- and multiple-class specific signature genes from gene expression profiles by group marker index.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yu-Shuen; Aguan, Kripamoy; Pal, Nikhil R; Chung, I-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Informative genes from microarray data can be used to construct prediction model and investigate biological mechanisms. Differentially expressed genes, the main targets of most gene selection methods, can be classified as single- and multiple-class specific signature genes. Here, we present a novel gene selection algorithm based on a Group Marker Index (GMI), which is intuitive, of low-computational complexity, and efficient in identification of both types of genes. Most gene selection methods identify only single-class specific signature genes and cannot identify multiple-class specific signature genes easily. Our algorithm can detect de novo certain conditions of multiple-class specificity of a gene and makes use of a novel non-parametric indicator to assess the discrimination ability between classes. Our method is effective even when the sample size is small as well as when the class sizes are significantly different. To compare the effectiveness and robustness we formulate an intuitive template-based method and use four well-known datasets. We demonstrate that our algorithm outperforms the template-based method in difficult cases with unbalanced distribution. Moreover, the multiple-class specific genes are good biomarkers and play important roles in biological pathways. Our literature survey supports that the proposed method identifies unique multiple-class specific marker genes (not reported earlier to be related to cancer) in the Central Nervous System data. It also discovers unique biomarkers indicating the intrinsic difference between subtypes of lung cancer. We also associate the pathway information with the multiple-class specific signature genes and cross-reference to published studies. We find that the identified genes participate in the pathways directly involved in cancer development in leukemia data. Our method gives a promising way to find genes that can involve in pathways of multiple diseases and hence opens up the possibility of using an existing

  7. A search engine to identify pathway genes from expression data on multiple organisms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chunnuan; Weirauch, Matthew T; Powell, Corey C; Zambon, Alexander C; Stuart, Joshua M

    2007-01-01

    Background The completion of several genome projects showed that most genes have not yet been characterized, especially in multicellular organisms. Although most genes have unknown functions, a large collection of data is available describing their transcriptional activities under many different experimental conditions. In many cases, the coregulatation of a set of genes across a set of conditions can be used to infer roles for genes of unknown function. Results We developed a search engine, the Multiple-Species Gene Recommender (MSGR), which scans gene expression datasets from multiple organisms to identify genes that participate in a genetic pathway. The MSGR takes a query consisting of a list of genes that function together in a genetic pathway from one of six organisms: Homo sapiens, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Helicobacter pylori. Using a probabilistic method to merge searches, the MSGR identifies genes that are significantly coregulated with the query genes in one or more of those organisms. The MSGR achieves its highest accuracy for many human pathways when searches are combined across species. We describe specific examples in which new genes were identified to be involved in a neuromuscular signaling pathway and a cell-adhesion pathway. Conclusion The search engine can scan large collections of gene expression data for new genes that are significantly coregulated with a pathway of interest. By integrating searches across organisms, the MSGR can identify pathway members whose coregulation is either ancient or newly evolved. PMID:17477880

  8. Stochastic modeling of regulation of gene expression by multiple small RNAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Charles; Jia, Tao; Kulkarni, Rahul V.

    2012-06-01

    A wealth of new research has highlighted the critical roles of small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) in diverse processes, such as quorum sensing and cellular responses to stress. The pathways controlling these processes often have a central motif composed of a master regulator protein whose expression is controlled by multiple sRNAs. However, the stochastic gene expression of a single target gene regulated by multiple sRNAs is currently not well understood. To address this issue, we analyze a stochastic model of regulation of gene expression by multiple sRNAs. For this model, we derive exact analytic results for the regulated protein distribution, including compact expressions for its mean and variance. The derived results provide insights into the roles of multiple sRNAs in fine-tuning the noise in gene expression. In particular, we show that, in contrast to regulation by a single sRNA, multiple sRNAs provide a mechanism for independently controlling the mean and variance of the regulated protein distribution.

  9. Gene Expression Profiling of Multiple Leiomyomata Uteri and Matched Normal Tissue from a Single Patient

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrova, Irina K.; Richer, Jennifer K.; Rudolph, Michael C.; Spoelstra, Nicole S.; Reno, Elaine M.; Medina, Theresa M.; Bradford, Andrew P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify differentially expressed genes between fibroid and adjacent normal myometrium in an identical hormonal and genetic background. Design Array analysis of 3 leiomyomata and matched adjacent normal myometrium in a single patient. Setting University of Colorado Hospital. Patient(s) A single female undergoing medically indicated hysterectomy for symptomatic fibroids. Interventions(s) mRNA isolation and microarray analysis, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Main Outcome Measure(s) Changes in mRNA and protein levels in leiomyomata and matched normal myometrium. Result(s) Expression of 197 genes was increased and 619 decreased, significantly by at least 2 fold, in leiomyomata relative to normal myometrium. Expression profiles between tumors were similar and normal myometrial samples showed minimal variation. Changes in, and variation of, expression of selected genes were confirmed in additional normal and leiomyoma samples from multiple patients. Conclusion(s) Analysis of multiple tumors from a single patient confirmed changes in expression of genes described in previous, apparently disparate, studies and identified novel targets. Gene expression profiles in leiomyomata are consistent with increased activation of mitogenic pathways and inhibition of apoptosis. Down-regulation of genes implicated in invasion and metastasis, of cancers, was observed in fibroids. This expression pattern may underlie the benign nature of uterine leiomyomata and may aid in the differential diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma. PMID:18672237

  10. Stochastic Modeling of Regulation of Gene Expression by Multiple Competing Small RNAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Charles; Jia, Tao; Kulkarni, Rahul

    2011-03-01

    A wealth of new research has highlighted the critical roles of small RNAs (sRNAs) in diverse processes such as quorum sensing and cellular responses to stress. The pathways controlling these processes often have a central motif comprised of a key protein regulated by multiple sRNAs. However, the regulation of stochastic gene expression of a single target gene by multiple sRNAs is currently not well understood. To address this issue, we analyze a stochastic model of regulation of gene expression by multiple sRNAs. For this model, we derive exact analytic results for the regulated protein distribution including compact expressions for its mean and variance. The derived results provide novel insights into the roles of multiple sRNAs in fine-tuning the noise in gene expression. In particular, we show that, in contrast to regulation by a single sRNA, multiple sRNAs provide a mechanism for independently controlling the mean and variance of the regulated protein distribution.

  11. Multiple shRNA expressions in a single plasmid vector improve RNAi against the XPA gene

    SciTech Connect

    Nagao, Akihiro; Zhao, Xia; Takegami, Tsutomu; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Matsui, Shinobu; Matsunaga, Tsukasa; Ishigaki, Yasuhito

    2008-05-30

    To improve the efficiency of stable knockdown with short hairpin RNA (shRNA), we inserted multiple shRNA expression sequences into a single plasmid vector. In this study, the DNA repair factor XPA was selected as a target gene since it is not essential for cell viability and it is easy to check the functional knockdown of this gene. The efficiency of knockdown was compared among single and triple expression vectors. The single shRNA-expressing vector caused limited knockdown of the target protein in stable transfectants, however, the multiple expression vectors apparently increased the frequency of knockdown transfectants. There were correlations between the knockdown level and marker expression in multiple-expressing transfectants, whereas poorer correlations were observed in single vector transfectants. Multiple-transfectants exhibited reduced efficiency of repair of UV-induced DNA damage and an increased sensitivity to ultraviolet light-irradiation. We propose that multiple shRNA expression vectors might be a useful strategy for establishing knockdown cells.

  12. Screening of differentially expressed genes between multiple trauma patients with and without sepsis.

    PubMed

    Ji, S C; Pan, Y T; Lu, Q Y; Sun, Z Y; Liu, Y Z

    2014-03-17

    The purpose of this study was to identify critical genes associated with septic multiple trauma by comparing peripheral whole blood samples from multiple trauma patients with and without sepsis. A microarray data set was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. This data set included 70 samples, 36 from multiple trauma patients with sepsis and 34 from multiple trauma patients without sepsis (as a control set). The data were preprocessed, and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were then screened for using packages of the R language. Functional analysis of DEGs was performed with DAVID. Interaction networks were then established for the most up- and down-regulated genes using HitPredict. Pathway-enrichment analysis was conducted for genes in the networks using WebGestalt. Fifty-eight DEGs were identified. The expression levels of PLAU (down-regulated) and MMP8 (up-regulated) presented the largest fold-changes, and interaction networks were established for these genes. Further analysis revealed that PLAT (plasminogen activator, tissue) and SERPINF2 (serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade F, member 2), which interact with PLAU, play important roles in the pathway of the component and coagulation cascade. We hypothesize that PLAU is a major regulator of the component and coagulation cascade, and down-regulation of PLAU results in dysfunction of the pathway, causing sepsis.

  13. Meta-Analysis of Differential Connectivity in Gene Co-Expression Networks in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Creanza, Teresa Maria; Liguori, Maria; Liuni, Sabino; Nuzziello, Nicoletta; Ancona, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Differential gene expression analyses to investigate multiple sclerosis (MS) molecular pathogenesis cannot detect genes harboring genetic and/or epigenetic modifications that change the gene functions without affecting their expression. Differential co-expression network approaches may capture changes in functional interactions resulting from these alterations. We re-analyzed 595 mRNA arrays from publicly available datasets by studying changes in gene co-expression networks in MS and in response to interferon (IFN)-β treatment. Interestingly, MS networks show a reduced connectivity relative to the healthy condition, and the treatment activates the transcription of genes and increases their connectivity in MS patients. Importantly, the analysis of changes in gene connectivity in MS patients provides new evidence of association for genes already implicated in MS by single-nucleotide polymorphism studies and that do not show differential expression. This is the case of amiloride-sensitive cation channel 1 neuronal (ACCN1) that shows a reduced number of interacting partners in MS networks, and it is known for its role in synaptic transmission and central nervous system (CNS) development. Furthermore, our study confirms a deregulation of the vitamin D system: among the transcription factors that potentially regulate the deregulated genes, we find TCF3 and SP1 that are both involved in vitamin D3-induced p27Kip1 expression. Unveiling differential network properties allows us to gain systems-level insights into disease mechanisms and may suggest putative targets for the treatment. PMID:27314336

  14. SATB1 tethers multiple gene loci to reprogram expression profiledriving breast cancer metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Hye-Jung; Kohwi, Yoshinori; Kohwi-Shigematsu, Terumi

    2006-07-13

    Global changes in gene expression occur during tumor progression, as indicated by expression profiling of metastatic tumors. How this occurs is poorly understood. SATB1 functions as a genome organizer by folding chromatin via tethering multiple genomic loci and recruiting chromatin remodeling enzymes to regulate chromatin structure and expression of a large number of genes. Here we show that SATB1 is expressed at high levels in aggressive breast cancer cells, and is undetectable in non-malignant breast epithelial cells. Importantly, RNAi-mediated removal of SATB1 from highly-aggressive MDA-MB-231 cells altered the expression levels of over 1200 genes, restored breast-like acinar polarity in three-dimensional cultures, and prevented the metastastic phenotype in vivo. Conversely, overexpression of SATB1 in the less-aggressive breast cancer cell line Hs578T altered the gene expression profile and increased metastasis dramatically in vivo. Thus, SATB1 is a global regulator of gene expression in breast cancer cells, directly regulating crucial metastasis-associated genes, including ERRB2 (HER2/NEU), TGF-{beta}1, matrix metalloproteinase 3, and metastasin. The identification of SATB1 as a protein that re-programs chromatin organization and transcription profiles to promote breast cancer metastasis suggests a new model for metastasis and may provide means of therapeutic intervention.

  15. Cooperation of multiple signaling pathways in CD40-regulated gene expression in B lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Dadgostar, Hajir; Zarnegar, Brian; Hoffmann, Alexander; Qin, Xiao-Feng; Truong, Uyen; Rao, Govinda; Baltimore, David; Cheng, Genhong

    2002-01-01

    CD40/CD40L interaction is essential for multiple biological events in T dependent humoral immune responses, including B cell survival and proliferation, germinal center and memory B cell formation, and antibody isotype switching and affinity maturation. By using high-density microarrays, we examined gene expression in primary mouse B lymphocytes after multiple time points of CD40L stimulation. In addition to genes involved in cell survival and growth, which are also induced by other mitogens such as lipopolysaccharide, CD40L specifically activated genes involved in germinal center formation and T cell costimulatory molecules that facilitate T dependent humoral immunity. Next, by examining the roles of individual CD40-activated signal transduction pathways, we dissected the overall CD40-mediated response into genes independently regulated by the individual pathways or collectively by all pathways. We also found that gene down-regulation is a significant part of the overall response and that the p38 pathway plays an important role in this process, whereas the NF-κB pathway is important for the up-regulation of primary response genes. Our finding of overlapping independent control of gene expression modules by different pathways suggests, in principle, that distinct biological behaviors that depend on distinct gene expression subsets can be manipulated by targeting specific signaling pathways. PMID:11830667

  16. Expression Pattern of ERF Gene Family under Multiple Abiotic Stresses in Populus simonii × P. nigra.

    PubMed

    Yao, Wenjing; Zhang, Xuemei; Zhou, Boru; Zhao, Kai; Li, Renhua; Jiang, Tingbo

    2017-01-01

    Identification of gene expression patterns of key genes across multiple abiotic stresses is critical for mechanistic understanding of stress resistance in plant. In the present study, we identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in di-haploid Populus simonii × P. nigra under respective stresses of NaCl, KCl, CdCl2, and PEG. On the basis of RNA-Seq, we detected 247 DEGs that are shared by the four stresses in wild type poplar, and mRNA abundance of the DEGs were validated in transgenic poplar overexpressing ERF76 gene by RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR. Results from gene ontology analysis indicated that these genes are enriched in significant pathways, such as phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, and plant hormone signal transduction. Ethylene response factor (ERF) gene family plays significant role in plant abiotic stress responses. We also investigated expression pattern of ERF gene family under the four stresses. The ERFs and DEGs share similar expression pattern across the four stresses. The transgenic poplar is superior to WT in morphologic, physiological and biochemical traits, which demonstrated the ERF76 gene plays a significant role in stress resistance. These studies will give a rise in understanding the stress response mechanisms in poplar.

  17. Expression Pattern of ERF Gene Family under Multiple Abiotic Stresses in Populus simonii × P. nigra

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Wenjing; Zhang, Xuemei; Zhou, Boru; Zhao, Kai; Li, Renhua; Jiang, Tingbo

    2017-01-01

    Identification of gene expression patterns of key genes across multiple abiotic stresses is critical for mechanistic understanding of stress resistance in plant. In the present study, we identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in di-haploid Populus simonii × P. nigra under respective stresses of NaCl, KCl, CdCl2, and PEG. On the basis of RNA-Seq, we detected 247 DEGs that are shared by the four stresses in wild type poplar, and mRNA abundance of the DEGs were validated in transgenic poplar overexpressing ERF76 gene by RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR. Results from gene ontology analysis indicated that these genes are enriched in significant pathways, such as phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, and plant hormone signal transduction. Ethylene response factor (ERF) gene family plays significant role in plant abiotic stress responses. We also investigated expression pattern of ERF gene family under the four stresses. The ERFs and DEGs share similar expression pattern across the four stresses. The transgenic poplar is superior to WT in morphologic, physiological and biochemical traits, which demonstrated the ERF76 gene plays a significant role in stress resistance. These studies will give a rise in understanding the stress response mechanisms in poplar. PMID:28265277

  18. Analyse multiple disease subtypes and build associated gene networks using genome-wide expression profiles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the large increase of transcriptomic studies that look for gene signatures on diseases, there is still a need for integrative approaches that obtain separation of multiple pathological states providing robust selection of gene markers for each disease subtype and information about the possible links or relations between those genes. Results We present a network-oriented and data-driven bioinformatic approach that searches for association of genes and diseases based on the analysis of genome-wide expression data derived from microarrays or RNA-Seq studies. The approach aims to (i) identify gene sets associated to different pathological states analysed together; (ii) identify a minimum subset within these genes that unequivocally differentiates and classifies the compared disease subtypes; (iii) provide a measurement of the discriminant power of these genes and (iv) identify links between the genes that characterise each of the disease subtypes. This bioinformatic approach is implemented in an R package, named geNetClassifier, available as an open access tool in Bioconductor. To illustrate the performance of the tool, we applied it to two independent datasets: 250 samples from patients with four major leukemia subtypes analysed using expression arrays; another leukemia dataset analysed with RNA-Seq that includes a subtype also present in the previous set. The results show the selection of key deregulated genes recently reported in the literature and assigned to the leukemia subtypes studied. We also show, using these independent datasets, the selection of similar genes in a network built for the same disease subtype. Conclusions The construction of gene networks related to specific disease subtypes that include parameters such as gene-to-gene association, gene disease specificity and gene discriminant power can be very useful to draw gene-disease maps and to unravel the molecular features that characterize specific pathological states. The

  19. Assembly and multiple gene expression of thermophilic enzymes in Escherichia coli for in vitro metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Ninh, Pham Huynh; Honda, Kohsuke; Sakai, Takaaki; Okano, Kenji; Ohtake, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    In vitro reconstitution of an artificial metabolic pathway is an emerging approach for the biocatalytic production of industrial chemicals. However, several enzymes have to be separately prepared (and purified) for the construction of an in vitro metabolic pathway, thereby limiting the practical applicability of this approach. In this study, genes encoding the nine thermophilic enzymes involved in a non-ATP-forming chimeric glycolytic pathway were assembled in an artificial operon and co-expressed in a single recombinant Escherichia coli strain. Gene expression levels of the thermophilic enzymes were controlled by their sequential order in the artificial operon. The specific activities of the recombinant enzymes in the cell-free extract of the multiple-gene-expression E. coli were 5.0-1,370 times higher than those in an enzyme cocktail prepared from a mixture of single-gene-expression strains, in each of which a single one of the nine thermophilic enzymes was overproduced. Heat treatment of a crude extract of the multiple-gene-expression cells led to the denaturation of indigenous proteins and one-step preparation of an in vitro synthetic pathway comprising only a limited number of thermotolerant enzymes. Coupling this in vitro pathway with other thermophilic enzymes including the H2 O-forming NADH oxidase or the malate/lactate dehydrogenase facilitated one-pot conversion of glucose to pyruvate or lactate, respectively.

  20. miRNAs in multiple myeloma – a survival relevant complex regulator of gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Seckinger, Anja; MeiΔner, Tobias; Moreaux, Jérôme; Benes, Vladimir; Hillengass, Jens; Castoldi, Mirco; Zimmermann, Jürgen; Ho, Anthony D.; Jauch, Anna; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Klein, Bernard; Hose, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose microRNAs regulate gene-expression in biological and pathophysiological processes, including multiple myeloma. Here we address i) What are the number and magnitude of changes in miRNA-expression between normal plasma cells and myeloma- or MGUS-samples, and the latter two? ii) What is the biological relevance and how does miRNA-expression impact on gene-expression? iii) Is there a prognostic significance, and what is its background? Experimental design Ninety-two purified myeloma-, MGUS-, normal plasma cell- and myeloma cell line-samples were investigated using miChip-arrays interrogating 559 human miRNAs. Impact on gene-expression was assessed by Affymetrix DNA-microarrays in two cohorts of myeloma patients (n = 677); chromosomal aberrations were assessed by iFISH, survival for 592 patients undergoing up-front high-dose chemotherapy. Results Compared to normal plasma cells, 67/559 miRNAs (12%) with fold changes of 4.6 to −3.1 are differentially expressed in myeloma-, 20 (3.6%) in MGUS-samples, and three (0.5%) between MGUS and myeloma. Expression of miRNAs is associated with proliferation, chromosomal aberrations, tumor mass, and gene expression-based risk-scores. This holds true for target-gene signatures of regulated mRNAs. miRNA-expression confers prognostic significance for event-free and overall survival, as do respective target-gene signatures. Conclusions The myeloma-miRNome confers a pattern of small changes of individual miRNAs impacting on gene-expression, biological functions, and survival. PMID:26472281

  1. Gene expression analysis at multiple time-points identifies key genes for nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Pan, Bin; Liu, Yi; Yan, Jia-Yin; Wang, Yao; Yao, Xue; Zhou, Heng-Xing; Lu, Lu; Kong, Xiao-Hong; Feng, Shi-Qing

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive understanding of gene expression during Wallerian degeneration and axon regeneration after peripheral nerve injury. A microarray was used to detect gene expression in the distal nerve 0, 3, 7, and 14 days after sciatic nerve crush. Bioinformatic analysis was used to predict function of the differentially expressed mRNAs. Microarray results and the key pathways were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Differentially expressed mRNAs at different time-points (3, 7, and 14 days) after injury were identified and compared with a control group (0 day). Nine general trends of changes in gene expression were identified. Key signal pathways and 9 biological processes closely associated with nerve regeneration were identified and verified. Differentially expressed genes and biological processes and pathways associated with axonal regeneration may elucidate the molecular-biological mechanisms underlying peripheral nerve regeneration. Muscle Nerve 55: 373-383, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. SNORD116 and SNORD115 change expression of multiple genes and modify each other's activity.

    PubMed

    Falaleeva, Marina; Surface, Justin; Shen, Manli; de la Grange, Pierre; Stamm, Stefan

    2015-11-10

    The loss of two gene clusters encoding small nucleolar RNAs, SNORD115 and SNORD116 contribute to Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), the most common syndromic form of obesity in humans. SNORD115 and SNORD116 are considered to be orphan C/D box snoRNAs (SNORDs) as they do not target rRNAs or snRNAs. SNORD115 exhibits sequence complementarity towards the serotonin receptor 2C, but SNORD116 shows no extended complementarities to known RNAs. To identify molecular targets, we performed genome-wide array analysis after overexpressing SNORD115 and SNORD116 in HEK 293T cells, either alone or together. We found that SNORD116 changes the expression of over 200 genes. SNORD116 mainly changed mRNA expression levels. Surprisingly, we found that SNORD115 changes SNORD116's influence on gene expression. In similar experiments, we compared gene expression in post-mortem hypothalamus between individuals with PWS and aged-matched controls. The synopsis of these experiments resulted in 23 genes whose expression levels were influenced by SNORD116. Together our results indicate that SNORD115 and SNORD116 influence expression levels of multiple genes and modify each other activity.

  3. A Hox Gene, Antennapedia, Regulates Expression of Multiple Major Silk Protein Genes in the Silkworm Bombyx mori*

    PubMed Central

    Tsubota, Takuya; Tomita, Shuichiro; Uchino, Keiro; Kimoto, Mai; Takiya, Shigeharu; Kajiwara, Hideyuki; Yamazaki, Toshimasa; Sezutsu, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Hox genes play a pivotal role in the determination of anteroposterior axis specificity during bilaterian animal development. They do so by acting as a master control and regulating the expression of genes important for development. Recently, however, we showed that Hox genes can also function in terminally differentiated tissue of the lepidopteran Bombyx mori. In this species, Antennapedia (Antp) regulates expression of sericin-1, a major silk protein gene, in the silk gland. Here, we investigated whether Antp can regulate expression of multiple genes in this tissue. By means of proteomic, RT-PCR, and in situ hybridization analyses, we demonstrate that misexpression of Antp in the posterior silk gland induced ectopic expression of major silk protein genes such as sericin-3, fhxh4, and fhxh5. These genes are normally expressed specifically in the middle silk gland as is Antp. Therefore, the evidence strongly suggests that Antp activates these silk protein genes in the middle silk gland. The putative sericin-1 activator complex (middle silk gland-intermolt-specific complex) can bind to the upstream regions of these genes, suggesting that Antp directly activates their expression. We also found that the pattern of gene expression was well conserved between B. mori and the wild species Bombyx mandarina, indicating that the gene regulation mechanism identified here is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism and not an artifact of the domestication of B. mori. We suggest that Hox genes have a role as a master control in terminally differentiated tissues, possibly acting as a primary regulator for a range of physiological processes. PMID:26814126

  4. Identifying candidate genes for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and obesity through gene expression profiling in multiple tissues or cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junhui; Meng, Yuhuan; Zhou, Jinghui; Zhuo, Min; Ling, Fei; Zhang, Yu; Du, Hongli; Wang, Xiaoning

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and obesity have become increasingly prevalent in recent years. Recent studies have focused on identifying causal variations or candidate genes for obesity and T2DM via analysis of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) within a single tissue. T2DM and obesity are affected by comprehensive sets of genes in multiple tissues. In the current study, gene expression levels in multiple human tissues from GEO datasets were analyzed, and 21 candidate genes displaying high percentages of differential expression were filtered out. Specifically, DENND1B, LYN, MRPL30, POC1B, PRKCB, RP4-655J12.3, HIBADH, and TMBIM4 were identified from the T2DM-control study, and BCAT1, BMP2K, CSRNP2, MYNN, NCKAP5L, SAP30BP, SLC35B4, SP1, BAP1, GRB14, HSP90AB1, ITGA5, and TOMM5 were identified from the obesity-control study. The majority of these genes are known to be involved in T2DM and obesity. Therefore, analysis of gene expression in various tissues using GEO datasets may be an effective and feasible method to determine novel or causal genes associated with T2DM and obesity.

  5. Microarray gene expression profiling analysis combined with bioinformatics in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingyuan; Hou, Xiaojun; Zhang, Ping; Hao, Yong; Yang, Yiting; Wu, Xiongfeng; Zhu, Desheng; Guan, Yangtai

    2013-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most prevalent demyelinating disease and the principal cause of neurological disability in young adults. Recent microarray gene expression profiling studies have identified several genetic variants contributing to the complex pathogenesis of MS, however, expressional and functional studies are still required to further understand its molecular mechanism. The present study aimed to analyze the molecular mechanism of MS using microarray analysis combined with bioinformatics techniques. We downloaded the gene expression profile of MS from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and analysed the microarray data using the differentially coexpressed genes (DCGs) and links package in R and Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. The regulatory impact factor (RIF) algorithm was used to measure the impact factor of transcription factor. A total of 1,297 DCGs between MS patients and healthy controls were identified. Functional annotation indicated that these DCGs were associated with immune and neurological functions. Furthermore, the RIF result suggested that IKZF1, BACH1, CEBPB, EGR1, FOS may play central regulatory roles in controlling gene expression in the pathogenesis of MS. Our findings confirm the presence of multiple molecular alterations in MS and indicate the possibility for identifying prognostic factors associated with MS pathogenesis.

  6. Autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation reduces abnormalities in the expression of immune genes in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    de Paula A Sousa, Alessandra; Malmegrim, Kelen C R; Panepucci, Rodrigo A; Brum, Doralina S; Barreira, Amilton A; Carlos Dos Santos, Antonio; Araújo, Amélia G; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Oliveira, Maria C; Moraes, Daniela A; Pieroni, Fabiano; Barros, George M; Simões, Belinda P; Nicholas, Richard; Burt, Richard K; Voltarelli, Júlio C; Muraro, Paolo A

    2015-01-01

    Autologous haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (AHSCT) has been experimented as a treatment in patients affected by severe forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) who failed to respond to standard immunotherapy. The rationale of AHSCT is to 'reboot' the immune system and reconstitute a new adaptive immunity. The aim of our study was to identify, through a robust and unbiased transcriptomic analysis, any changes of gene expression in T-cells potentially underlying the treatment effect in patients who underwent non-myeloablative AHSCT for treatment of MS. We evaluated by microarray DNA-chip technology the gene expression of peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets sorted from patients with MS patients before AHSCT, at 6 months, 1 year and 2 years after AHSCT and from healthy control subjects. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed that reconstituted CD8+ T-cells of MS patients at 2 years post-transplantation, aggregated together with healthy controls, suggesting a normalization of gene expression in CD8+ cells post-therapy. When we compared the gene expression in MS patients before and after therapy, we detected a large number of differentially expressed genes (DEG) in both CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell subsets at all time points after transplantation. We catalogued the biological function of DEG and we selected 27 genes known to be involved in immune function for accurate quantification of gene expression by real-time PCR. The analysis confirmed and extended with quantitative data, a number of significant changes in both the CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells subsets from MS post-transplant. Notably, CD8+ T-cells revealed more extensive changes in the expression of genes involved in effector immune responses.

  7. Variations in the multiple tbp genes in different Halobacterium salinarum strains and their expression during growth.

    PubMed

    Teufel, Katharina; Bleiholder, Anne; Griesbach, Tim; Pfeifer, Felicitas

    2008-09-01

    The presence and expression of the multiple tbp genes encoding TATA-box binding proteins (TBPs) was investigated in various strains and mutants of the archaeon Halobacterium salinarum. Six genes, tbpA through tbpF, are present in the genome of Hbt. salinarum NRC-1 and also in the gas vesicle negative mutant strain R1. The only tbp gene located in the chromosome is tbpE, whereas all others are found in the plasmid DNA. Due to the dynamic nature of the plasmids in the Halobacterium strains, the copy numbers of the alternative tbp genes vary significantly. Five tbp genes (tbpA through tbpE) were present in the wild-type strain Hbt. salinarum PHH1. The tbpC gene of Hbt. salinarum PHH1 carried an ISH27-2 insertion element at the start of the reading frame that prevented the expression. All other tbp genes of PHH1 were expressed under aerobic and anaerobic growth conditions and quantitative RT-PCR yielded tbpE as dominant tbp transcript during the exponential growth phase. The plasmid deletion variant Hbt. salinarum PHH4 lacked all of the tbp genes except for tbpE and showed an altered growth behaviour compared to PHH1 wild-type in the stationary growth phase under anaerobic growth conditions.

  8. Multiple abiotic stimuli are integrated in the regulation of rice gene expression under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Plessis, Anne; Hafemeister, Christoph; Wilkins, Olivia; Gonzaga, Zennia Jean; Meyer, Rachel Sarah; Pires, Inês; Müller, Christian; Septiningsih, Endang M; Bonneau, Richard; Purugganan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Plants rely on transcriptional dynamics to respond to multiple climatic fluctuations and contexts in nature. We analyzed the genome-wide gene expression patterns of rice (Oryza sativa) growing in rainfed and irrigated fields during two distinct tropical seasons and determined simple linear models that relate transcriptomic variation to climatic fluctuations. These models combine multiple environmental parameters to account for patterns of expression in the field of co-expressed gene clusters. We examined the similarities of our environmental models between tropical and temperate field conditions, using previously published data. We found that field type and macroclimate had broad impacts on transcriptional responses to environmental fluctuations, especially for genes involved in photosynthesis and development. Nevertheless, variation in solar radiation and temperature at the timescale of hours had reproducible effects across environmental contexts. These results provide a basis for broad-based predictive modeling of plant gene expression in the field. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08411.001 PMID:26609814

  9. The Insertion Green Monster (iGM) Method for Expression of Multiple Exogenous Genes in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Labunskyy, Vyacheslav M.; Suzuki, Yo; Hanly, Timothy J.; Murao, Ayako; Roth, Frederick P.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2014-01-01

    Being a simple eukaryotic organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides numerous advantages for expression and functional characterization of proteins from higher eukaryotes, including humans. However, studies of complex exogenous pathways using yeast as a host have been hampered by the lack of tools to engineer strains expressing a large number of genetic components. In addition to inserting multiple genes, it is often desirable to knock out or replace multiple endogenous genes that might interfere with the processes studied. Here, we describe the “insertion Green Monster” (iGM) set of expression vectors that enable precise insertion of many heterologous genes into the yeast genome in a rapid and reproducible manner and permit simultaneous replacement of selected yeast genes. As a proof of principle, we have used the iGM method to replace components of the yeast pathway for methionine sulfoxide reduction with genes encoding the human selenoprotein biosynthesis machinery and generated a single yeast strain carrying 11 exogenous components of the selenoprotein biosynthetic pathway in precisely engineered loci. PMID:24776987

  10. Multiple Genes Encoding the Conserved CCAAT-Box Transcription Factor Complex Are Expressed in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, David; Murray, James A.H.; Smith, Alison G.

    1998-01-01

    The CCAAT motif is found in the promoters of many eukaryotic genes. In yeast a single complex of three proteins, termed HAP2, HAP3, and HAP5, binds to this sequence, and in mammals the three components of the equivalent complex (called variously NF-Y, CBF, or CP1) are also represented by single genes. Here we report the presence of multiple genes for each of the components of the CCAAT-binding complex, HAP2,3,5, from Arabidopsis. Three independent Arabidopsis HAP subunit 2 (AtHAP2) cDNAs were cloned by functional complementation of a yeast hap2 mutant, and two independent forms each of AtHAP3 and AtHAP5 cDNAs were detected in the expressed sequence tag database. Additional homologs (two of AtHAP3 and one of AtHAP5) have been identified from available Arabidopsis genomic sequences. Northern-blot analysis indicated ubiquitous expression for each AtHAP2 and AtHAP5 cDNA in a range of tissues, whereas expression of each AtHAP3 cDNA was under developmental and/or environmental regulation. The unexpected presence of multiple forms of each HAP homolog in Arabidopsis, compared with the single genes in yeast and vertebrates, suggests that the HAP2,3,5 complex may play diverse roles in gene transcription in higher plants. PMID:9662544

  11. Glatiramer acetate treatment effects on gene expression in monocytes of multiple sclerosis patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Glatiramer acetate (GA) is a mixture of synthetic peptides used in the treatment of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GA therapy on the gene expression of monocytes. Methods Monocytes were isolated from the peripheral blood of eight RRMS patients. The blood was obtained longitudinally before the start of GA therapy as well as after one day, one week, one month and two months. Gene expression was measured at the mRNA level by microarrays. Results More than 400 genes were identified as up-regulated or down-regulated in the course of therapy, and we analyzed their biological functions and regulatory interactions. Many of those genes are known to regulate lymphocyte activation and proliferation, but only a subset of genes was repeatedly differentially expressed at different time points during treatment. Conclusions Overall, the observed gene regulatory effects of GA on monocytes were modest and not stable over time. However, our study revealed several genes that are worthy of investigation in future studies on the molecular mechanisms of GA therapy. PMID:24134771

  12. A Hox Gene, Antennapedia, Regulates Expression of Multiple Major Silk Protein Genes in the Silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Tsubota, Takuya; Tomita, Shuichiro; Uchino, Keiro; Kimoto, Mai; Takiya, Shigeharu; Kajiwara, Hideyuki; Yamazaki, Toshimasa; Sezutsu, Hideki

    2016-03-25

    Hoxgenes play a pivotal role in the determination of anteroposterior axis specificity during bilaterian animal development. They do so by acting as a master control and regulating the expression of genes important for development. Recently, however, we showed that Hoxgenes can also function in terminally differentiated tissue of the lepidopteranBombyx mori In this species,Antennapedia(Antp) regulates expression of sericin-1, a major silk protein gene, in the silk gland. Here, we investigated whether Antpcan regulate expression of multiple genes in this tissue. By means of proteomic, RT-PCR, and in situ hybridization analyses, we demonstrate that misexpression of Antpin the posterior silk gland induced ectopic expression of major silk protein genes such assericin-3,fhxh4, and fhxh5 These genes are normally expressed specifically in the middle silk gland as is Antp Therefore, the evidence strongly suggests that Antpactivates these silk protein genes in the middle silk gland. The putativesericin-1 activator complex (middle silk gland-intermolt-specific complex) can bind to the upstream regions of these genes, suggesting that Antpdirectly activates their expression. We also found that the pattern of gene expression was well conserved between B. moriand the wild species Bombyx mandarina, indicating that the gene regulation mechanism identified here is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism and not an artifact of the domestication of B. mori We suggest that Hoxgenes have a role as a master control in terminally differentiated tissues, possibly acting as a primary regulator for a range of physiological processes. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Expression Profiles of the Individual Genes Corresponding to the Genes Generated by Cytotoxicity Experiments with Bortezomib in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Mehdi; Alpsoy, Semih; Türk, Seyhan; Malkan, Ümit Y.; Atakan, Şükrü; Haznedaroğlu, İbrahim C.; Güneş, Gürsel; Gündüz, Mehmet; Yılmaz, Burak; Etgül, Sezgin; Aydın, Seda; Aslan, Tuncay; Sayınalp, Nilgün; Aksu, Salih; Demiroğlu, Haluk; Özcebe, Osman İ.; Büyükaşık, Yahya; Göker, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Multiple myeloma (MM) is currently incurable due to refractory disease relapse even under novel anti-myeloma treatment. In silico studies are effective for key decision making during clinicopathological battles against the chronic course of MM. The aim of this present in silico study was to identify individual genes whose expression profiles match that of the one generated by cytotoxicity experiments for bortezomib. Materials and Methods: We used an in silico literature mining approach to identify potential biomarkers by creating a summarized set of metadata derived from relevant information. The E-MTAB-783 dataset containing expression data from 789 cancer cell lines including 8 myeloma cell lines with drug screening data from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute database obtained from ArrayExpress was “Robust Multi-array analysis” normalized using GeneSpring v.12.5. Drug toxicity data were obtained from the Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer project. In order to identify individual genes whose expression profiles matched that of the one generated by cytotoxicity experiments for bortezomib, we used a linear regression-based approach, where we searched for statistically significant correlations between gene expression values and IC50 data. The intersections of the genes were identified in 8 cell lines and used for further analysis. Results: Our linear regression model identified 73 genes and some genes expression levels were found to very closely correlated with bortezomib IC50 values. When all 73 genes were used in a hierarchical cluster analysis, two major clusters of cells representing relatively sensitive and resistant cells could be identified. Pathway and molecular function analysis of all the significant genes was also investigated, as well as the genes involved in pathways. Conclusion: The findings of our present in silico study could be important not only for the understanding of the genomics of MM but also for the better arrangement of

  14. Expression of Multiple Stress Response Genes by Escherichia Coli Under Modeled Reduced Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukanti, Raja; Leff, Laura G.

    2012-09-01

    Bacteria, in response to changes in their environment, quickly regulate gene expression; hence, transcriptional profiling has been widely used to characterize bacterial responses to various environmental conditions. In this study, we used clinorotation to grow bacteria under low-sedimentation, -shear, and -turbulence conditions (referred to as modeled reduced gravity, MRG, below) which profoundly impacts bacteria including causing elevated resistance to multiple environmental stresses. To explore potential mechanisms behind the multiple stress resistance response to MRG, we assessed expression levels of E. coli genes, using reverse transcription followed by real-time-PCR, involved in specific stress and general stress responses under MRG and normal gravity (NG) in nutritionally rich and minimal media, and during exponential and stationary phases of growth. In addition, growth rates as well as physico-chemical parameters of culture media were examined. Over-expression of stress response genes (csiD, cstA, katE, otsA, treA) occurred under MRG compared to NG controls, but only during the later stages of growth in rich medium demonstrating that bacterial response to MRG varies with growth-medium and -phase. At stationary phase in rich medium under MRG and NG, E. coli had similar growth rates (based on rRNA-leader abundance) and yields (cell mass and numbers); this coupled, with observations of simultaneous induction of starvation response genes (csiD and cstA) suggests the multiple stress resistance phenotype under MRG could be attributable to microzones of nutrient unavailability around cells. Overall, in rich medium, the response resembled the general stress response (GSR) that E. coli develops during stationary phase of growth. Along these same lines, induction of genes coding for GSR was reversed by improving nutritional conditions under MRG. The reversal of GSR under MRG suggests that the multiple stress response exhibited is not specific to MRG but may result

  15. Multiple Signaling Pathways in Gene Expression during Sugar Starvation. Pharmacological Analysis of din Gene Expression in Suspension-Cultured Cells of Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Fujiki, Yuki; Ito, Masaki; Nishida, Ikuo; Watanabe, Akira

    2000-01-01

    We have identified many dark-inducible (din) genes that are expressed in Arabidopsis leaves kept in the dark. In the present study we addressed the question of how plant cells sense the depletion of sugars, and how sugar starvation triggers din gene expression in suspension-cultured cells of Arabidopsis. Depletion of sucrose in the medium triggered marked accumulation of din transcripts. Suppression of din gene expression by 2-deoxy-Glc, and a non-suppressive effect exerted by 3-O-methyl-Glc, suggested that sugar-repressible expression of din genes is mediated through the phosphorylation of hexose by hexokinase, as exemplified in the repression of photosynthetic genes by sugars. We have further shown that the signaling triggered by sugar starvation involves protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events, and have provided the first evidence that multiple pathways of protein dephosphorylation exist in sugar starvation-induced gene expression. An inhibitor of serine/threonine protein kinase, K-252a, inhibited din gene expression in sugar-depleted cells. Okadaic acid, which may preferentially inhibit type 2A protein phosphatases over type 1, enhanced the transcript levels of all din genes, except din6 and din10, under sugar starvation. Conversely, a more potent inhibitor of type 1 and 2A protein phosphatases, calyculin A, increased transcripts from din2 and din9, but decreased those from other din genes, in sugar-depleted cells. On the other hand, calyculin A, but not okadaic acid, completely inhibited the gene expression of chlorophyll a/b-binding protein under sugar starvation. These results indicate that multiple signaling pathways, mediated by different types of protein phosphatases, regulate gene expression during sugar starvation. PMID:11080291

  16. Spatially Restricted and Developmentally Dynamic Expression of Engrailed Genes in Multiple Cerebellar Cell Types

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sandra L.; Kalinovsky, Anna; Orvis, Grant D.

    2011-01-01

    The cerebellum is a highly organized structure partitioned into lobules along the anterior–posterior (A-P) axis and into striped molecular domains along the medial–lateral (M-L) axis. The Engrailed (En) homeobox genes are required for patterning the morphological and molecular domains along both axes, as well as for the establishment of the normal afferent topography required to generate a fully functional cerebellum. As a means to understand how the En genes regulate multiple levels of cerebellum construction, we characterized En1 and En2 expression around birth and at postnatal day (P)21 during the period when the cerebellum undergoes a remarkable transformation from a smooth ovoid structure to a highly foliated structure. We show that both En1 and En2 are expressed in many neuronal cell types in the cerebellum, and expression persists until at least P21. En1 and En2 expression, however, undergoes profound changes in their cellular and spatial distributions between embryonic stages and P21, and their expression domains become largely distinct. Comparison of the distribution of En-expressing Purkinje cells relative to early- and late-onset Purkinje cell M-L stripe proteins revealed that although En1- and En2-expressing Purkinje cell domains do not strictly align with those of ZEBRINII at P21, a clear pattern exists that is most evident at E17.5 by an inverse correlation between the level of En2 expression and PLCβ4 and EPHA4. PMID:21431469

  17. Identification of the key genes connected with plasma cells of multiple myeloma using expression profiles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kefeng; Xu, Zhongyang; Sun, Zhaoyun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To uncover the potential regulatory mechanisms of the relevant genes that contribute to the prognosis and prevention of multiple myeloma (MM). Methods Microarray data (GSE13591) were downloaded, including five plasma cell samples from normal donors and 133 plasma cell samples from MM patients. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by Student’s t-test. Functional enrichment analysis was performed for DEGs using the Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. Transcription factors and tumor-associated genes were also explored by mapping genes in the TRANSFAC, the tumor suppressor gene (TSGene), and tumor-associated gene (TAG) databases. A protein–protein interaction (PPI) network and PPI subnetworks were constructed by Cytoscape software using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING) database. Results A total of 63 DEGs (42 downregulated, 21 upregulated) were identified. Functional enrichment analysis showed that HLA-DRB1 and VCAM1 might be involved in the positive regulation of immune system processes, and HLA-DRB1 might be related to the intestinal immune network for IgA production pathway. The genes CEBPD, JUND, and ATF3 were identified as transcription factors. The top ten nodal genes in the PPI network were revealed including HLA-DRB1, VCAM1, and TFRC. In addition, genes in the PPI subnetwork, such as HLA-DRB1 and VCAM1, were enriched in the cell adhesion molecules pathway, whereas CD4 and TFRC were both enriched in the hematopoietic cell pathway. Conclusion Several crucial genes correlated to MM were identified, including CD4, HLA-DRB1, TFRC, and VCAM1, which might exert their roles in MM progression via immune-mediated pathways. There might be certain regulatory correlations between HLA-DRB1, CD4, and TFRC. PMID:26229487

  18. Phase I Metabolic Genes and Risk of Lung Cancer: Multiple Polymorphisms and mRNA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Rotunno, Melissa; Yu, Kai; Lubin, Jay H.; Consonni, Dario; Pesatori, Angela C.; Goldstein, Alisa M.; Goldin, Lynn R.; Wacholder, Sholom; Burdette, Laurie; Chanock, Stephen J.; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Tucker, Margaret A.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Bergen, Andrew W.; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Polymorphisms in genes coding for enzymes that activate tobacco lung carcinogens may generate inter-individual differences in lung cancer risk. Previous studies had limited sample sizes, poor exposure characterization, and a few single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tested in candidate genes. We analyzed 25 SNPs (some previously untested) in 2101 primary lung cancer cases and 2120 population controls from the Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE) study from six phase I metabolic genes, including cytochrome P450s, microsomal epoxide hydrolase, and myeloperoxidase. We evaluated the main genotype effects and genotype-smoking interactions in lung cancer risk overall and in the major histology subtypes. We tested the combined effect of multiple SNPs on lung cancer risk and on gene expression. Findings were prioritized based on significance thresholds and consistency across different analyses, and accounted for multiple testing and prior knowledge. Two haplotypes in EPHX1 were significantly associated with lung cancer risk in the overall population. In addition, CYP1B1 and CYP2A6 polymorphisms were inversely associated with adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma risk, respectively. Moreover, the association between CYP1A1 rs2606345 genotype and lung cancer was significantly modified by intensity of cigarette smoking, suggesting an underling dose-response mechanism. Finally, increasing number of variants at CYP1A1/A2 genes revealed significant protection in never smokers and risk in ever smokers. Results were supported by differential gene expression in non-tumor lung tissue samples with down-regulation of CYP1A1 in never smokers and up-regulation in smokers from CYP1A1/A2 SNPs. The significant haplotype associations emphasize that the effect of multiple SNPs may be important despite null single SNP-associations, and warrants consideration in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Our findings emphasize the necessity of post-GWAS fine mapping and

  19. Dynamic expression of a glutamate decarboxylase gene in multiple non-neural tissues during mouse development

    PubMed Central

    Maddox, Dennis M; Condie, Brian G

    2001-01-01

    Background Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) is the biosynthetic enzyme for the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Mouse embryos lacking the 67-kDa isoform of GAD (encoded by the Gad1 gene) develop a complete cleft of the secondary palate. This phenotype suggests that this gene may be involved in the normal development of tissues outside of the CNS. Although Gad1 expression in adult non-CNS tissues has been noted previously, no systematic analysis of its embryonic expression outside of the nervous system has been performed. The objective of this study was to define additional structures outside of the central nervous system that express Gad1, indicating those structures that may require its function for normal development. Results Our analysis detected the localized expression of Gad1 transcripts in several developing tissues in the mouse embryo from E9.0-E14.5. Tissues expressing Gad1 included the tail bud mesenchyme, the pharyngeal pouches and arches, the ectodermal placodes of the developing vibrissae, and the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), mesenchyme and ectoderm of the limb buds. Conclusions Some of the sites of Gad1 expression are tissues that emit signals required for patterning and differentiation (AER, vibrissal placodes). Other sites correspond to proliferating stem cell populations that give rise to multiple differentiated tissues (tail bud mesenchyme, pharyngeal endoderm and mesenchyme). The dynamic expression of Gad1 in such tissues suggests a wider role for GABA signaling in development than was previously appreciated. PMID:11178105

  20. C/EBPβ Mediates Growth Hormone-Regulated Expression of Multiple Target Genes

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Tracy X.; Lin, Grace; LaPensee, Christopher R.; Calinescu, Anda-Alexandra; Rathore, Maanjot; Streeter, Cale; Piwien-Pilipuk, Graciela; Lanning, Nathan; Jin, Hui; Carter-Su, Christin; Qin, Zhaohui S.

    2011-01-01

    Regulation of c-Fos transcription by GH is mediated by CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ). This study examines the role of C/EBPβ in mediating GH activation of other early response genes, including Cyr61, Btg2, Socs3, Zfp36, and Socs1. C/EBPβ depletion using short hairpin RNA impaired responsiveness of these genes to GH, as seen for c-Fos. Rescue with wild-type C/EBPβ led to GH-dependent recruitment of the coactivator p300 to the c-Fos promoter. In contrast, rescue with C/EBPβ mutated at the ERK phosphorylation site at T188 failed to induce GH-dependent recruitment of p300, indicating that ERK-mediated phosphorylation of C/EBPβ at T188 is required for GH-induced recruitment of p300 to c-Fos. GH also induced the occupancy of phosphorylated C/EBPβ and p300 on Cyr61, Btg2, and Socs3 at predicted C/EBP-cAMP response element-binding protein motifs in their promoters. Consistent with a role for ERKs in GH-induced expression of these genes, treatment with U0126 to block ERK phosphorylation inhibited their GH-induced expression. In contrast, GH-dependent expression of Zfp36 and Socs1 was not inhibited by U0126. Thus, induction of multiple early response genes by GH in 3T3-F442A cells is mediated by C/EBPβ. A subset of these genes is regulated similarly to c-Fos, through a mechanism involving GH-stimulated ERK 1/2 activation, phosphorylation of C/EBPβ, and recruitment of p300. Overall, these studies suggest that C/EBPβ, like the signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins, regulates multiple genes in response to GH. PMID:21292824

  1. Improved detection of differentially expressed genes in microarray experiments through multiple scanning and image integration

    PubMed Central

    Romualdi, Chiara; Trevisan, Silvia; Celegato, Barbara; Costa, Germano; Lanfranchi, Gerolamo

    2003-01-01

    The variability of results in microarray technology is in part due to the fact that independent scans of a single hybridised microarray give spot images that are not quite the same. To solve this problem and turn it to our advantage, we introduced the approach of multiple scanning and of image integration of microarrays. To this end, we have developed specific software that creates a virtual image that statistically summarises a series of consecutive scans of a microarray. We provide evidence that the use of multiple imaging (i) enhances the detection of differentially expressed genes; (ii) increases the image homogeneity; and (iii) reveals false-positive results such as differentially expressed genes that are detected by a single scan but not confirmed by successive scanning replicates. The increase in the final number of differentially expressed genes detected in a microarray experiment with this approach is remarkable; 50% more for microarrays hybridised with targets labelled by reverse transcriptase, and 200% more for microarrays developed with the tyramide signal amplification (TSA) technique. The results have been confirmed by semi-quantitative RT–PCR tests. PMID:14627839

  2. Unique expression patterns of multiple key genes associated with the evolution of mammalian flight.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Dai, Mengyao; Wang, Yao; Cooper, Kimberly L; Zhu, Tengteng; Dong, Dong; Zhang, Junpeng; Zhang, Shuyi

    2014-05-22

    Bats are the only mammals capable of true flight. Critical adaptations for flight include a pair of dramatically elongated hands with broad wing membranes. To study the molecular mechanisms of bat wing evolution, we perform genomewide mRNA sequencing and in situ hybridization for embryonic bat limbs. We identify seven key genes that display unique expression patterns in embryonic bat wings and feet, compared with mouse fore- and hindlimbs. The expression of all 5'HoxD genes (Hoxd9-13) and Tbx3, six known crucial transcription factors for limb and digit development, is extremely high and prolonged in the elongating wing area. The expression of Fam5c, a tumour suppressor, in bat limbs is bat-specific and significantly high in all short digit regions (the thumb and foot digits). These results suggest multiple genetic changes occurred independently during the evolution of bat wings to elongate the hand digits, promote membrane growth and keep other digits short. Our findings also indicate that the evolution of limb morphology depends on the complex integration of multiple gene regulatory networks and biological processes that control digit formation and identity, chondrogenesis, and interdigital regression or retention.

  3. Heat shock protein 70-hom gene polymorphism and protein expression in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Boiocchi, C; Monti, M C; Osera, C; Mallucci, G; Pistono, C; Ferraro, O E; Nosari, G; Romani, A; Cuccia, M; Govoni, S; Pascale, A; Montomoli, C; Bergamaschi, R

    2016-09-15

    Immune-mediated and neurodegenerative mechanisms are involved in multiple sclerosis (MS). Growing evidences highlight the role of HSP70 genes in the susceptibility of some neurological diseases. In this explorative study we analyzed a polymorphism (i.e. HSP70-hom rs2227956) of the gene HSPA1L, which encodes for the protein hsp70-hom. We sequenced the polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in 191 MS patients and 365 healthy controls. The hsp70-hom protein expression was quantified by western blotting. We reported a strong association between rs2227956 polymorphism and MS risk, which is independent from the association with HSP70-2 rs1061581, and a significant link between hsp70-hom protein expression and MS severity.

  4. Gene profiling of keloid fibroblasts shows altered expression in multiple fibrosis-associated pathways

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joan C.; Boone, Braden E.; Opalenik, Susan R.; Williams, Scott M.; Russell, Shirley B.

    2010-01-01

    Keloids are benign tumors of the dermis that form during a protracted wound healing process. Susceptibility to keloid formation occurs predominantly in people of African and Asian descent. The key alteration(s) responsible for keloid formation has not been identified and there is no satisfactory treatment for this disorder. The altered regulatory mechanism is limited to dermal wound healing, although several diseases characterized by an exaggerated response to injury are prevalent in individuals of African ancestry. We have observed a complex pattern of phenotypic differences in keloid fibroblasts grown in standard culture medium or induced by hydrocortisone. In this study Affymetrix-based microarray was performed on RNA obtained from fibroblasts cultured from normal scars and keloids grown in the absence and presence of hydrocortisone. We observed differential regulation of approximately 500 genes of the 38,000 represented on the Affymetrix chip. Of particular interest was increased expression of several IGF-binding and IGF-binding related proteins and decreased expression of a subset of Wnt pathway inhibitors and multiple IL-1-inducible genes. Increased expression of CTGF and IGFBP-3 was observed in keloid fibroblasts only in the presence of hydrocortisone. These findings support a role for multiple fibrosis-related pathways in the pathogenesis of keloids. PMID:17989729

  5. A gene expression inflammatory signature specifically predicts multiple myeloma evolution and patients survival

    PubMed Central

    Botta, C; Di Martino, M T; Ciliberto, D; Cucè, M; Correale, P; Rossi, M; Tagliaferri, P; Tassone, P

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is closely dependent on cross-talk between malignant plasma cells and cellular components of the inflammatory/immunosuppressive bone marrow milieu, which promotes disease progression, drug resistance, neo-angiogenesis, bone destruction and immune-impairment. We investigated the relevance of inflammatory genes in predicting disease evolution and patient survival. A bioinformatics study by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis on gene expression profiling dataset of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smoldering and symptomatic-MM, identified inflammatory and cytokine/chemokine pathways as the most progressively affected during disease evolution. We then selected 20 candidate genes involved in B-cell inflammation and we investigated their role in predicting clinical outcome, through univariate and multivariate analyses (log-rank test, logistic regression and Cox-regression model). We defined an 8-genes signature (IL8, IL10, IL17A, CCL3, CCL5, VEGFA, EBI3 and NOS2) identifying each condition (MGUS/smoldering/symptomatic-MM) with 84% accuracy. Moreover, six genes (IFNG, IL2, LTA, CCL2, VEGFA, CCL3) were found independently correlated with patients' survival. Patients whose MM cells expressed high levels of Th1 cytokines (IFNG/LTA/IL2/CCL2) and low levels of CCL3 and VEGFA, experienced the longest survival. On these six genes, we built a prognostic risk score that was validated in three additional independent datasets. In this study, we provide proof-of-concept that inflammation has a critical role in MM patient progression and survival. The inflammatory-gene prognostic signature validated in different datasets clearly indicates novel opportunities for personalized anti-MM treatment. PMID:27983725

  6. Multiple promoter elements govern expression of the human ornithine decarboxylase gene in colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Moshier, J A; Osborne, D L; Skunca, M; Dosescu, J; Gilbert, J D; Fitzgerald, M C; Polidori, G; Wagner, R L; Friezner Degen, S J; Luk, G D

    1992-01-01

    Overexpression of the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) gene may be important to the development and maintenance of colonic neoplasms, as well as tumors in general. In this study, we examined the promoter elements governing constitutive expression of the human ODC gene in HCT 116 human colon carcinoma cells and, for comparison, K562 human erythro-leukemia cells. It was determined by functional analysis that the promoter elements responsible reside within the 378 bp immediately upstream from the transcription start site. Within this sequence, there are at least three regions that modulate the efficiency of the ODC promoter cooperatively. Both DNA bandshift and footprint assays demonstrated all three regions to be rich in sites that bind to nuclear proteins isolated from HCT 116 and K562 cells; the protein binding pattern of non-transformed, diploid fibroblasts was found to be much less complex. Several of the protein binding sequences have little or no homology to common regulatory elements. We suggest that the constitutive activity of the ODC gene in HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells, and perhaps transformed cells in general, involves a complex interaction of multiple regulatory sequences and their associated nuclear proteins. Finally, the saturation of the promoter in these transformed cell lines suggests that high levels of protein binding in the ODC promoter may contribute to elevated constitutive expression of this gene. Images PMID:1598217

  7. Hierarchical inverse Gaussian models and multiple testing: application to gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Labbe, Aurelie; Thompson, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Detecting differentially expressed genes in microarray experiments is a topic that has been well studied in the literature. Many hypothesis testing methods have been proposed that rely on strong distributional assumptions for the gene intensities. However, the shape of microarray data may vary substantially from one experiment to another, and model assumptions may be seriously violated in many cases. The literature on microarray data is mainly based on two distributions: the log-normal and the gamma distributions, that often appear to be effective when used in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. However, if a model that fits the data well in a global manner seems attractive, two points should be regarded with attention: the ability of the model to fit the tail of the observed distribution, and its robustness to a wrong specification of the model, in terms of error rates for the hypothesis tests. In order to focus on these aspects, we propose to use Bayesian models involving the inverse Gaussian distribution to describe gene expression data. We show that these models can be good competitors to the traditional Bayesian or random effect gamma or log-normal models in some situations. A multiple testing procedure is then proposed, based on an asymptotic property of the posterior probability of the one-sided alternative hypothesis. We show that the asymptotic property is well approximated for inverse Gaussian models, even when the number of observations available for each test is very small.

  8. Diabetes causes multiple genetic alterations and downregulates expression of DNA repair genes in the prostate.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chunwei; Li, Xiaojuan; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Yuying; Cai, Mengyin; Zhu, Baoyi; Mu, Panwei; Xia, Xuan; Zhao, Yi; Weng, Jianping; Gao, Xin; Wen, Xingqiao

    2011-09-01

    The molecular impact of diabetes mellitus on prostate gland has not been elucidated. In this study, we performed a whole-genome cDNA microarray analysis using a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model to identify the effects of diabetes on the gene expression profiles in prostate. Our study shows that diabetes causes changes in the expression of multiple genes, particularly those related to cell proliferation and differentiation, oxidative stress, DNA damage repair, cell cycle checkpoints, angiogenesis and apoptosis. These findings were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining using rat and human prostate tissue. We also used a cell culture model (human normal prostatic RWPE-1 cell line) to study the direct effect of high glucose. We found that high glucose caused increased intracellular oxidative stress and DNA damage, as well as downregulation of anti-oxidative enzymes and DNA damage repair genes MRE11 and XRCC3. Our findings provide important insights into understanding the pathogenesis of the diabetes-induced changes in prostate as well as identifying potential therapeutic targets for future studies.

  9. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A mRNA gene expression in clinical phases of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rasol, Hoiyda A Abdel; Helmy, Hanan; El-Mously, Sherine; Aziz, Margeret A; El Bahaie, Hossam

    2016-03-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A stimulates angiogenesis, but is also pro-inflammatory and plays an important role in the development of neurological disease. This study aimed to investigate whether vascular endothelial growth factor A mRNA expression could be used as a marker for the prediction of susceptibility to multiple sclerosis and relate vascular endothelial growth factor to the clinical phases of multiple sclerosis. This was a cross-sectional study, consisting of a total of 60 subjects with multiple sclerosis and 20 healthy controls. Subjects were subjected to history taking, neurological examination and peripheral blood sampling for vascular endothelial growth factor A mRNA gene expression. Vascular endothelial growth factor A gene expression was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction using the SYBR Green technique. Vascular endothelial growth factor A mRNA gene expression level was significantly lower in the multiple sclerosis group than in the healthy control group (P < 0.001). Vascular endothelial growth factor A mRNA gene expression level was higher in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients than in those in remission (P < 0.001) and in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis compared with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (P < 0.001). There was no correlation between vascular endothelial growth factor A gene expression levels and duration of disease, multiple sclerosis progression index or expanded disability status scale. A lower vascular endothelial growth factor A mRNA gene expression level was independently associated with a higher risk of multiple sclerosis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Multiple facets of junD gene expression are atypical among AP-1 family members

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, JM; Floyd, DH; Weilbaecher, KN; Green, PL; Boris-Lawrie, K

    2009-01-01

    JunD is a versatile AP-1 transcription factor that can activate or repress a diverse collection of target genes. Precise control of junD expression and JunD protein–protein interactions modulate tumor angiogenesis, cellular differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Molecular and clinical knowledge of two decades has revealed that precise JunD activity is elaborated by interrelated layers of constitutive transcriptional control, complex post-transcriptional regulation and a collection of post-translational modifications and protein–protein interactions. The stakes are high, as inappropriate JunD activity contributes to neoplastic, metabolic and viral diseases. This article deconvolutes multiple layers of control that safeguard junD gene expression and functional activity. The activity of JunD in transcriptional activation and repression is integrated into a regulatory network by which JunD exerts a pivotal role in cellular growth control. Our discussion of the JunD regulatory network integrates important open issues and posits new therapeutic targets for the neoplastic, metabolic and viral diseases associated with JunD/AP-1 expression. PMID:18427548

  11. Baseline Gene Expression Signatures in Monocytes from Multiple Sclerosis Patients Treated with Interferon-beta

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Marta F.; Nurtdinov, Ramil N.; Río, Jordi; Montalban, Xavier; Comabella, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Background A relatively large proportion of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients do not respond to interferon-beta (IFNb) treatment. In previous studies with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), we identified a subgroup of IFNb non-responders that was characterized by a baseline over-expression of type I IFN inducible genes. Additional mechanistic experiments carried out in IFNb non-responders suggested a selective alteration of the type I IFN signaling pathway in the population of blood monocytes. Here, we aimed (i) to investigate whether the type I IFN signaling pathway is up-regulated in isolated monocytes from IFNb non-responders at baseline; and (ii) to search for additional biological pathways in this cell population that may be implicated in the response to IFNb treatment. Methods Twenty RRMS patients classified according to their clinical response to IFNb treatment and 10 healthy controls were included in the study. Monocytes were purified from PBMC obtained before treatment by cell sorting and the gene expression profiling was determined with oligonucleotide microarrays. Results and discussion Purified monocytes from IFNb non-responders were characterized by an over-expression of type I IFN responsive genes, which confirms the type I IFN signature in monocytes suggested from previous studies. Other relevant signaling pathways that were up-regulated in IFNb non-responders were related with the mitochondrial function and processes such as protein synthesis and antigen presentation, and together with the type I IFN signaling pathway, may also be playing roles in the response to IFNb. PMID:23637780

  12. The multiple sclerosis drug fingolimod (FTY720) stimulates neuronal gene expression, axonal growth and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Anastasiadou, Sofia; Knöll, Bernd

    2016-05-01

    Fingolimod (FTY720) is a new generation oral treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS). So far, FTY720 was mainly considered to target trafficking of immune cells but not brain cells such as neurons. Herein, we analyzed FTY720's potential to directly alter neuronal function. In CNS neurons, we identified a FTY720 governed gene expression response. FTY720 upregulated immediate early genes (IEGs) encoding for neuronal activity associated transcription factors such as c-Fos, FosB, Egr1 and Egr2 and induced actin cytoskeleton associated genes (actin isoforms, tropomyosin, calponin). Stimulation of primary neurons with FTY720 enhanced neurite growth and altered growth cone morphology. In accordance, FTY720 enhanced axon regeneration in mice upon facial nerve axotomy. We identified components of a FTY720 engaged signaling cascade including S1P receptors, G12/13G-proteins, RhoA-GTPases and the transcription factors SRF/MRTF. In summary, we uncovered a broader cellular and therapeutic operation mode of FTY720, suggesting beneficial FTY720 effects also on CNS neurons during MS therapy and for treatment of other neurodegenerative diseases requiring neuroprotective and neurorestorative processes.

  13. Expression profiling reveals functionally redundant multiple-copy genes related to zinc, iron and cadmium responses in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Li, Jimeng; Liu, Bo; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu; Aarts, Mark G M; Wu, Jian

    2014-07-01

    Genes underlying environmental adaptability tend to be over-retained in polyploid plant species. Zinc deficiency (ZnD) and iron deficiency (FeD), excess Zn (ZnE) and cadmium exposure (CdE) are major environmental problems for crop cultivation, but little is known about the differential expression of duplicated genes upon these stress conditions. Applying Tag-Seq technology to leaves of Brassica rapa grown under FeD, ZnD, ZnE or CdE conditions, with normal conditions as a control, we examined global gene expression changes and compared the expression patterns of multiple paralogs. We identified 812, 543, 331 and 447 differentially expressed genes under FeD, ZnD, ZnE and CdE conditions, respectively, in B. rapa leaves. Genes involved in regulatory networks centered on the transcription factors bHLH038 or bHLH100 were differentially expressed under (ZnE-induced) FeD. Further analysis revealed that genes associated with Zn, Fe and Cd responses tended to be over-retained in the B. rapa genome. Most of these multiple-copy genes showed the same direction of expression change under stress conditions. We conclude that the duplicated genes involved in trace element responses in B. rapa are functionally redundant, making the regulatory network more complex in B. rapa than in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  14. Identification and Expression Profile of Multiple Genes in Response to Magnesium Exposure in Culex quinquefasciatus Larvae

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    growth factor, aldehyde dehydrogenase, tropomyosin-1, chitotriosidase, heat shock protein 70B2, inorganic phosphate cotransporter, andmanyother...hypothetical protein genes.Magnesiumcan alter gene transcription in a vector mosquito population, and understanding this process can provide insight into the...in Culex larvae could provide amechanistic understanding of gene expression in larvae exposed to heavy metals. Materials and Methods RNA Extraction . Cx

  15. Gene expression profiles from discordant monozygotic twins suggest that molecular pathways are shared among multiple systemic autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study is to determine if multiple systemic autoimmune diseases (SAID) share gene expression pathways that could provide insights into pathogenic mechanisms common to these disorders. Methods RNA microarray analyses (Agilent Human 1A(V2) 20K oligo arrays) were used to quantify gene expression in peripheral blood cells from 20 monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs discordant for SAID. Six affected probands with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), six with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), eight with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM), and their same-gendered unaffected twins, were enrolled. Comparisons were made between discordant twin pairs and these were also each compared to 40 unrelated control subjects (matched 2:1 to each twin by age, gender and ethnicity) using statistical and molecular pathway analyses. Relative quantitative PCR was used to verify independently measures of differential gene expression assessed by microarray analysis. Results Probands and unrelated, matched controls differed significantly in gene expression for 104 probes corresponding to 92 identifiable genes (multiple-comparison adjusted P values < 0.1). Differentially expressed genes involved several overlapping pathways including immune responses (16%), signaling pathways (24%), transcription/translation regulators (26%), and metabolic functions (15%). Interferon (IFN)-response genes (IFI27, OASF, PLSCR1, EIF2AK2, TNFAIP6, and TNFSF10) were up-regulated in probands compared to unrelated controls. Many of the abnormally expressed genes played regulatory roles in multiple cellular pathways. We did not detect any probes expressed differentially in comparisons among the three SAID phenotypes. Similarly, we found no significant differences in gene expression when comparing probands to unaffected twins or unaffected twins to unrelated controls. Gene expression levels for unaffected twins appeared intermediate between that of probands and unrelated controls for 6535 probes

  16. Phosphorylation Events in the Multiple Gene Regulator of Group A Streptococcus Significantly Influence Global Gene Expression and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Sanson, Misu; Makthal, Nishanth; Gavagan, Maire; Cantu, Concepcion; Olsen, Randall J.; Musser, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing analysis of ∼800 strains of group A Streptococcus (GAS) found that the gene encoding the multiple virulence gene regulator of GAS (mga) is highly polymorphic in serotype M59 strains but not in strains of other serotypes. To help understand the molecular mechanism of gene regulation by Mga and its contribution to GAS pathogenesis in serotype M59 GAS, we constructed an isogenic mga mutant strain. Transcriptome studies indicated a significant regulatory influence of Mga and altered metabolic capabilities conferred by Mga-regulated genes. We assessed the phosphorylation status of Mga in GAS cell lysates with Phos-tag gels. The results revealed that Mga is phosphorylated at histidines in vivo. Using phosphomimetic and nonphosphomimetic substitutions at conserved phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase regulation domain (PRD) histidines of Mga, we demonstrated that phosphorylation-mimicking aspartate replacements at H207 and H273 of PRD-1 and at H327 of PRD-2 are inhibitory to Mga-dependent gene expression. Conversely, non-phosphorylation-mimicking alanine substitutions at H273 and H327 relieved inhibition, and the mutant strains exhibited a wild-type phenotype. The opposing regulatory profiles observed for phosphorylation- and non-phosphorylation-mimicking substitutions at H273 extended to global gene regulation by Mga. Consistent with these observations, the H273D mutant strain attenuated GAS virulence, whereas the H273A strain exhibited a wild-type virulence phenotype in a mouse model of necrotizing fasciitis. Together, our results demonstrate phosphoregulation of Mga and its direct link to virulence in M59 GAS strains. These data also lay a foundation toward understanding how naturally occurring gain-of-function variations in mga, such as H201R, may confer an advantage to the pathogen and contribute to M59 GAS pathogenesis. PMID:25824840

  17. Identification of gene expression patterns crucially involved in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Martin M.; Barth, Silvia; Greve, Bernhard; Schumann, Kathrin M.; Bartels, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT After encounter with a central nervous system (CNS)-derived autoantigen, lymphocytes leave the lymph nodes and enter the CNS. This event leads only rarely to subsequent tissue damage. Genes relevant to CNS pathology after cell infiltration are largely undefined. Myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic autoimmune disease of the CNS that results in disability. To assess genes that are involved in encephalitogenicity and subsequent tissue damage mediated by CNS-infiltrating cells, we performed a DNA microarray analysis from cells derived from lymph nodes and eluted from CNS in LEW.1AV1 (RT1av1) rats immunized with MOG 91-108. The data was compared to immunizations with adjuvant alone or naive rats and to immunizations with the immunogenic but not encephalitogenic MOG 73-90 peptide. Here, we show involvement of Cd38, Cxcr4 and Akt and confirm these findings by the use of Cd38-knockout (B6.129P2-Cd38tm1Lnd/J) mice, S1P-receptor modulation during EAE and quantitative expression analysis in individuals with MS. The hereby-defined underlying pathways indicate cellular activation and migration pathways mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors as crucial events in CNS tissue damage. These pathways can be further explored for novel therapeutic interventions. PMID:27519689

  18. Molecular cloning and expression profiling of multiple Dof genes of Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shubhra; Arya, Gulab C; Malviya, Neha; Bisht, Naveen C; Yadav, Dinesh

    2016-08-01

    DNA binding with one finger (Dof) proteins represent a family of plant specific transcription factors associated with diverse biological processes, such as seed maturation and germination, phytohormone and light mediated regulation, and plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In present study, a total of 21 Dof genes from Sorghum bicolor were cloned, sequenced and in silico characterized for homology search, revealing their identity to Dof like proteins. The expression profiling of SbDof genes using quantitative RT-PCR in different tissue types and also under drought and salt stresses was attempted. The SbDof genes displayed differential expression either in their transcript abundance or in their expression patterns under normal growth condition. Two of the SbDof genes namely SbDof8 and SbDof12 showed comparatively high level of transcript abundance in all the tissue types tested; whereas some of the SbDof genes showed a distinct tissue specific expression pattern. Further a total of 13 SbDof genes showed differential expression when subjected to either of the abiotic stress i.e. drought or salinity. Three of the SbDof genes namely SbDof12, SbDof19 and SbDof24 were found to be up-regulated in response to drought and salt stress. Comparative analysis of SbDof genes expression revealed existence of a complex transcriptional and functional diversity across plant growth and developmental stages.

  19. Single-nucleotide polymorphism-gene intermixed networking reveals co-linkers connected to multiple gene expression phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Bin-Sheng; Zhang, Qing-Pu; Zhang, Guang-Mei; Zhang, Shao-Jun; Zhang, Wei; Lv, Hong-Chao; Zhang, Fan; Lv, Sa-Li; Li, Chuan-Xing; Rao, Shao-Qi; Li, Xia

    2007-01-01

    Gene expression profiles and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) profiles are modern data for genetic analysis. It is possible to use the two types of information to analyze the relationships among genes by some genetical genomics approaches. In this study, gene expression profiles were used as expression traits. And relationships among the genes, which were co-linked to a common SNP(s), were identified by integrating the two types of information. Further research on the co-expressions among the co-linked genes was carried out after the gene-SNP relationships were established using the Haseman-Elston sib-pair regression. The results showed that the co-expressions among the co-linked genes were significantly higher if the number of connections between the genes and a SNP(s) was more than six. Then, the genes were interconnected via one or more SNP co-linkers to construct a gene-SNP intermixed network. The genes sharing more SNPs tended to have a stronger correlation. Finally, a gene-gene network was constructed with their intensities of relationships (the number of SNP co-linkers shared) as the weights for the edges. PMID:18466544

  20. Balancing Type One and Two Errors in Multiple Testing for Differential Expression of Genes

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Alexander; Chen, Linlin; Glazko, Galina; Yakovlev, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    A new procedure is proposed to balance type I and II errors in significance testing for differential expression of individual genes. Suppose that a collection, ℱk, of k lists of selected genes is available, each of them approximating by their content the true set of differentially expressed genes. For example, such sets can be generated by a subsampling counterpart of the delete-d-jackknife method controlling the per-comparison error rate for each subsample. A final list of candidate genes, denoted by S*, is composed in such a way that its contents be closest in some sense to all the sets thus generated. To measure “closeness” of gene lists, we introduce an asymmetric distance between sets with its asymmetry arising from a generally unequal assignment of the relative costs of type I and type II errors committed in the course of gene selection. The optimal set S* is defined as a minimizer of the average asymmetric distance from an arbitrary set S to all sets in the collection ℱk. The minimization problem can be solved explicitly, leading to a frequency criterion for the inclusion of each gene in the final set. The proposed method is tested by resampling from real microarray gene expression data with artificially introduced shifts in expression levels of pre-defined genes, thereby mimicking their differential expression. PMID:20161303

  1. Reference gene selection for quantitative gene expression studies during biological invasions: A test on multiple genes and tissues in a model ascidian Ciona savignyi.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuena; Gao, Yangchun; Jiang, Bei; Zhou, Zunchun; Zhan, Aibin

    2016-01-15

    As invasive species have successfully colonized a wide range of dramatically different local environments, they offer a good opportunity to study interactions between species and rapidly changing environments. Gene expression represents one of the primary and crucial mechanisms for rapid adaptation to local environments. Here, we aim to select reference genes for quantitative gene expression analysis based on quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) for a model invasive ascidian, Ciona savignyi. We analyzed the stability of ten candidate reference genes in three tissues (siphon, pharynx and intestine) under two key environmental stresses (temperature and salinity) in the marine realm based on three programs (geNorm, NormFinder and delta Ct method). Our results demonstrated only minor difference for stability rankings among the three methods. The use of different single reference gene might influence the data interpretation, while multiple reference genes could minimize possible errors. Therefore, reference gene combinations were recommended for different tissues - the optimal reference gene combination for siphon was RPS15 and RPL17 under temperature stress, and RPL17, UBQ and TubA under salinity treatment; for pharynx, TubB, TubA and RPL17 were the most stable genes under temperature stress, while TubB, TubA and UBQ were the best under salinity stress; for intestine, UBQ, RPS15 and RPL17 were the most reliable reference genes under both treatments. Our results suggest that the necessity of selection and test of reference genes for different tissues under varying environmental stresses. The results obtained here are expected to reveal mechanisms of gene expression-mediated invasion success using C. savignyi as a model species.

  2. The DAL7 promoter consists of multiple elements that cooperatively mediate regulation of the gene's expression.

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, H S; Cooper, T G

    1989-01-01

    Expression of the allantoin system genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is induced by allophanate or its analog, oxalurate. This work provides evidence for the involvement of distinct types of cis-acting elements in the induction process. The first element was found to have the properties of an upstream activation sequence (UAS). This element was localized to a 16-base-pair (bp) DNA fragment containing a short 5-bp sequence that occurred repeatedly in the upstream region of DAL7. When present in two or more copies, the 16-bp fragment supported high-level beta-galactosidase production in a CYC1-lacZ expression vector; there was, however, no response to the allantoin pathway inducer. The second element had the properties of a negatively acting element or upstream repression sequence (URS). This element was localized to a 16-bp DNA fragment containing an 8-bp sequence that was repeated four times in the upstream region of DAL7. A fragment containing the 8-bp repeated sequence placed adjacent to the UAS-containing fragment mediated inhibition of the ability of the UAS to support lacZ expression regardless of whether inducer was present. A third element, designated an upstream induction sequence (UIS), was required for response to inducer. The UIS was localized to a small DNA fragment containing an approximately 10-bp sequence that was repeated twice in the upstream region of DAL7. When a fragment containing the 10-bp repeated sequence was placed adjacent to these UAS and URS elements, the construction (UIS-UAS-URS) supported normal oxalurate-mediated induction of beta-galactosidase synthesis. These data are consistent with the suggestion that multiple, cis-acting elements participate in the induction process. Images PMID:2552287

  3. Gene expression profiles of prostate cancer reveal involvement of multiple molecular pathways in the metastatic process

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Uma R; Ma, Changqing; Dhir, Rajiv; Bisceglia, Michelle; Lyons-Weiler, Maureen; Liang, Wenjing; Michalopoulos, George; Becich, Michael; Monzon, Federico A

    2007-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is characterized by heterogeneity in the clinical course that often does not correlate with morphologic features of the tumor. Metastasis reflects the most adverse outcome of prostate cancer, and to date there are no reliable morphologic features or serum biomarkers that can reliably predict which patients are at higher risk of developing metastatic disease. Understanding the differences in the biology of metastatic and organ confined primary tumors is essential for developing new prognostic markers and therapeutic targets. Methods Using Affymetrix oligonucleotide arrays, we analyzed gene expression profiles of 24 androgen-ablation resistant metastatic samples obtained from 4 patients and a previously published dataset of 64 primary prostate tumor samples. Differential gene expression was analyzed after removing potentially uninformative stromal genes, addressing the differences in cellular content between primary and metastatic tumors. Results The metastatic samples are highly heterogenous in expression; however, differential expression analysis shows that 415 genes are upregulated and 364 genes are downregulated at least 2 fold in every patient with metastasis. The expression profile of metastatic samples reveals changes in expression of a unique set of genes representing both the androgen ablation related pathways and other metastasis related gene networks such as cell adhesion, bone remodelling and cell cycle. The differentially expressed genes include metabolic enzymes, transcription factors such as Forkhead Box M1 (FoxM1) and cell adhesion molecules such as Osteopontin (SPP1). Conclusion We hypothesize that these genes have a role in the biology of metastatic disease and that they represent potential therapeutic targets for prostate cancer. PMID:17430594

  4. SOURCES OF VARIATION IN BASELINE GENE EXPRESSION LEVELS FROM TOXICOGENOMIC STUDY CONTROL ANIMALS ACROSS MULTIPLE LABORATORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variations in study design are typical for toxicogenomic studies, but their impact on gene expression in control animals has not been well characterized. A dataset of control animal microarray expression data was assembled by a working group of the Health and Environmental Scienc...

  5. SOURCES OF VARIATION IN BASELINE GENE EXPRESSION LEVELS FROM TOXICOGENOMIC STUDY CONTROL ANIMALS ACROSS MULTIPLE LABORATORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variations in study design are typical for toxicogenomic studies, but their impact on gene expression in control animals has not been well characterized. A dataset of control animal microarray expression data was assembled by a working group of the Health and Environmental Scienc...

  6. Disease-specific gene expression profiling in multiple models of lung disease.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Christina C; Yang, Jean Yee Hwa; Huang, Xiaozhu; Banerjee, Suman K; Blackburn, Michael R; Baluk, Peter; McDonald, Donald M; Blackwell, Timothy S; Nagabhushanam, Vijaya; Peters, Wendy; Voehringer, David; Erle, David J

    2008-02-15

    Microarray technology is widely employed for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying complex diseases. However, analyses of individual diseases or models of diseases frequently yield extensive lists of differentially expressed genes with uncertain relationships to disease pathogenesis. To compare gene expression changes in a heterogeneous set of lung disease models in order to identify common gene expression changes seen in diverse forms of lung pathology, as well as relatively small subsets of genes likely to be involved in specific pathophysiological processes. We profiled lung gene expression in 12 mouse models of infection, allergy, and lung injury. A linear model was used to estimate transcript expression changes for each model, and hierarchical clustering was used to compare expression patterns between models. Selected expression changes were verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A total of 24 transcripts, including many involved in inflammation and immune activation, were differentially expressed in a substantial majority (9 or more) of the models. Expression patterns distinguished three groups of models: (1) bacterial infection (n = 5), with changes in 89 transcripts, including many related to nuclear factor-kappaB signaling, cytokines, chemokines, and their receptors; (2) bleomycin-induced diseases (n = 2), with changes in 53 transcripts, including many related to matrix remodeling and Wnt signaling; and (3) T helper cell type 2 (allergic) inflammation (n = 5), with changes in 26 transcripts, including many encoding epithelial secreted molecules, ion channels, and transporters. This multimodel dataset highlights novel genes likely involved in various pathophysiological processes and will be a valuable resource for the investigation of molecular mechanisms underlying lung disease pathogenesis.

  7. Multiple expression control mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and their target genes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Nguan Soon; Michalik, Liliane; Desvergne, Beatrice; Wahli, Walter

    2005-02-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) alpha, beta/delta and gamma belong to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. As ligand-activated receptors, they form a functional transcriptional unit upon heterodimerization with retinoid X receptors (RXRs). PPARs are activated by fatty acids and their derivatives, whereas RXR is activated by 9-cis retinoic acid. This heterodimer binds to peroxisome proliferator response elements (PPRE) residing in target genes and stimulates their expression. Recent reports now indicate that PPARs and RXRs can function independently, in the absence of a hetero-partner, to modulate gene expression. Of importance, these non-canonical mechanisms underscore the impact of both cofactors and DNA on gene expression. Furthermore, these different mechanisms reveal the increasing repertoire of PPAR 'target' genes that now encompasses non-PPREs containing genes. It is also becoming apparent that understanding the regulation of PPAR expression and activity, can itself have a significant influence on how the expression of subgroups of target genes is studied and integrated in current knowledge.

  8. Gene expression profiling in persons with multiple chemical sensitivity before and after a controlled n-butanol exposure session

    PubMed Central

    Dantoft, Thomas M; Skovbjerg, Sine; Andersson, Linus; Claeson, Anna-Sara; Engkilde, Kaare; Lind, Nina; Nordin, Steven; Hellgren, Lars I

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the pathophysiological pathways leading to symptoms elicitation in multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) by comparing gene expression in MCS participants and healthy controls before and after a chemical exposure optimised to cause symptoms among MCS participants. The first hypothesis was that unexposed and symptom-free MCS participants have similar gene expression patterns to controls and a second hypothesis that MCS participants can be separated from controls based on differential gene expression upon a controlled n-butanol exposure. Design Participants were exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol while seated in a windowed exposure chamber for 60 min. A total of 26 genes involved in biochemical pathways found in the literature have been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of MCS and other functional somatic syndromes were selected. Expression levels were compared between MCS and controls before, within 15 min after being exposed to and 4 hours after the exposure. Settings Participants suffering from MCS and healthy controls were recruited through advertisement at public places and in a local newspaper. Participants 36 participants who considered themselves sensitive were prescreened for eligibility. 18 sensitive persons fulfilling the criteria for MCS were enrolled together with 18 healthy controls. Outcome measures 17 genes showed sufficient transcriptional level for analysis. Group comparisons were conducted for each gene at the 3 times points and for the computed area under the curve (AUC) expression levels. Results MCS participants and controls displayed similar gene expression levels both at baseline and after the exposure and the computed AUC values were likewise comparable between the 2 groups. The intragroup variation in expression levels among MCS participants was noticeably greater than the controls. Conclusions MCS participants and controls have similar gene expression levels at baseline and it was not possible to separate

  9. A genome-wide study of DNA methylation patterns and gene expression levels in multiple human and chimpanzee tissues.

    PubMed

    Pai, Athma A; Bell, Jordana T; Marioni, John C; Pritchard, Jonathan K; Gilad, Yoav

    2011-02-01

    The modification of DNA by methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism that affects the spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression. Methylation patterns have been described in many contexts within and across a range of species. However, the extent to which changes in methylation might underlie inter-species differences in gene regulation, in particular between humans and other primates, has not yet been studied. To this end, we studied DNA methylation patterns in livers, hearts, and kidneys from multiple humans and chimpanzees, using tissue samples for which genome-wide gene expression data were also available. Using the multi-species gene expression and methylation data for 7,723 genes, we were able to study the role of promoter DNA methylation in the evolution of gene regulation across tissues and species. We found that inter-tissue methylation patterns are often conserved between humans and chimpanzees. However, we also found a large number of gene expression differences between species that might be explained, at least in part, by corresponding differences in methylation levels. In particular, we estimate that, in the tissues we studied, inter-species differences in promoter methylation might underlie as much as 12%-18% of differences in gene expression levels between humans and chimpanzees.

  10. Simultaneous Non-Negative Matrix Factorization for Multiple Large Scale Gene Expression Datasets in Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Clare M.; Mudaliar, Manikhandan A. V.; Haggart, D. R.; Wolf, C. Roland; Miele, Gino; Vass, J. Keith; Higham, Desmond J.; Crowther, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Non-negative matrix factorization is a useful tool for reducing the dimension of large datasets. This work considers simultaneous non-negative matrix factorization of multiple sources of data. In particular, we perform the first study that involves more than two datasets. We discuss the algorithmic issues required to convert the approach into a practical computational tool and apply the technique to new gene expression data quantifying the molecular changes in four tissue types due to different dosages of an experimental panPPAR agonist in mouse. This study is of interest in toxicology because, whilst PPARs form potential therapeutic targets for diabetes, it is known that they can induce serious side-effects. Our results show that the practical simultaneous non-negative matrix factorization developed here can add value to the data analysis. In particular, we find that factorizing the data as a single object allows us to distinguish between the four tissue types, but does not correctly reproduce the known dosage level groups. Applying our new approach, which treats the four tissue types as providing distinct, but related, datasets, we find that the dosage level groups are respected. The new algorithm then provides separate gene list orderings that can be studied for each tissue type, and compared with the ordering arising from the single factorization. We find that many of our conclusions can be corroborated with known biological behaviour, and others offer new insights into the toxicological effects. Overall, the algorithm shows promise for early detection of toxicity in the drug discovery process. PMID:23272042

  11. Genetic Association and Altered Gene Expression of Mir-155 in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Paraboschi, Elvezia Maria; Soldà, Giulia; Gemmati, Donato; Orioli, Elisa; Zeri, Giulia; Benedetti, Maria Donata; Salviati, Alessandro; Barizzone, Nadia; Leone, Maurizio; Duga, Stefano; Asselta, Rosanna

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by chronic inflammation, demyelination, and axonal damage. As microRNA (miRNA)-dependent alterations in gene expression in hematopoietic cells are critical for mounting an appropriate immune response, miRNA deregulation may result in defects in immune tolerance. In this frame, we sought to explore the possible involvement of miRNAs in MS pathogenesis by monitoring the differential expression of 22 immunity-related miRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of MS patients and healthy controls, by using a microbead-based technology. Three miRNAs resulted >2 folds up-regulated in MS vs controls, whereas none resulted down-regulated. Interestingly, the most up-regulated miRNA (mir-155; fold change = 3.30; P = 0.013) was previously reported to be up-regulated also in MS brain lesions. Mir-155 up-regulation was confirmed by qPCR experiments. The role of mir-155 in MS susceptibility was also investigated by genotyping four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mapping in the mir-155 genomic region. A haplotype of three SNPs, corresponding to a 12-kb region encompassing the last exon of BIC (the B-cell Integration Cluster non-coding RNA, from which mir-155 is processed), resulted associated with the disease status (P = 0.035; OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.05–1.77), suggesting that this locus strongly deserves further investigations. PMID:22272099

  12. Developmental methoxychlor exposure affects multiple reproductive parameters and ovarian folliculogenesis and gene expression in adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Armenti, AnnMarie E.; Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Passantino, Lisa; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2008-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 {mu}g/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P < 0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P < 0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor {beta} was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P < 0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P < 0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis.

  13. Autoregulatory lentiviral vectors allow multiple cycles of doxycycline-inducible gene expression in human hematopoietic cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Centlivre, M; Zhou, X; Pouw, S M; Weijer, K; Kleibeuker, W; Das, A T; Blom, B; Seppen, J; Berkhout, B; Legrand, N

    2010-01-01

    The efficient control of gene expression in vivo from lentiviral vectors remains technically challenging. To analyze inducible gene expression in a human setting, we generated 'human immune system' (HIS) mice by transplanting newborn BALB/c Rag2(-/-)IL-2Rgamma(c)(-/-) immunodeficient mice with human hematopoietic stem cells transduced with a doxycycline-inducible lentiviral vector. We compared several methods of doxycycline delivery to mice, and could accurately measure doxycycline in vivo using a new sensitive detection assay. Two different lentiviral vector designs with constitutive (TRECMV-V14) or autoregulatory (TREAuto-V14) expression of an optimized reverse tetracycline transactivator were used to transduce human hematopoietic stem cells. After transplantation into immunodeficient mice, we analyzed the expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene in the human hematopoiesis-derived cells that develop and accumulate in the generated HIS mice. We show efficient inducible GFP expression in adult HIS mice containing TREAuto-V14-transduced human cells, whereas GFP expression is poor with the TRECMV-V14 vector. Multiple cycles of doxycycline exposure in the TREAuto-V14 group result in repeated cycles of GFP expression with no loss of intensity. These findings are of major interest for gene therapy and basic research settings that require inducible gene expression.

  14. UGT2B gene expression analysis in multiple tobacco carcinogen-targeted tissues.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nathan R; Lazarus, Philip

    2014-04-01

    The UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B subfamily of enzymes plays an important role in the metabolism of numerous endogenous and exogenous compounds, including various carcinogens present in tobacco smoke. The goal of the present study was to examine the levels of expression of individual UGT2B genes in various tissues that are targets for tobacco carcinogenesis. Using MT-ATP6 as the experimentally validated housekeeping gene, the highest extrahepatic expression of UGT2B genes was observed in human tonsil, with UGT2B expression levels similar to that observed in human liver. UGT2B17 exhibited high relative expression in most tissues examined, including lung, most tissues of the aerodigestive tract, and pancreas. UGT2B7 expression was highest in pancreas but low or undetectable in most other tissues examined. UGT2B10 expression was high in both tonsil and tongue. There was wide variability between individuals in the magnitude of expression in each tissue site, and there were strong correlations between UGT2B expression levels in different individuals within many of the tissue sites, suggesting coordinated regulation of UGT2B gene expression in extrahepatic tissues. In the liver, UGTs 2B4, 2B7, 2B10, and 2B15 were significantly correlated with each other (all r(2) > 0.70, P < 0.0001). In all examined tissues of the aerodigestive tract, UGTs 2B10, 2B11, and 2B17 exhibited a strong correlation with each other (all r(2) > 0.75, P < 0.05). UGTs 2B7 and 2B10 exhibited a strong inverse correlation in the pancreas (r(2) = -0.95, P < 0.01). These data suggest that specific UGT2B enzymes important in tobacco carcinogen metabolism are expressed and coordinately regulated in various target sites for tobacco-related cancers.

  15. Expression of the KAL gene in multiple neuronal sites during chicken development.

    PubMed Central

    Legouis, R; Lievre, C A; Leibovici, M; Lapointe, F; Petit, C

    1993-01-01

    The human KAL gene is responsible for the X chromosome-linked Kallmann syndrome. A partial cDNA sequence from the chicken KAL homologue was determined and used to study expression of the KAL gene, by in situ hybridization, during chicken development, from day 6 of incubation. The KAL gene is mainly expressed in neurons of the central nervous system during the second half of embryonic life. High levels of transcript were detected in mitral neurons of the olfactory bulbs, in striatal neurons, in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, in retinal neurons, and in isolated neurons of the brainstem and spinal cord. No expression was observed in glial cells. A low level of expression was observed in some mesenchymal derivatives. In the adult, expression is maintained or increased in several neuronal populations, especially in optic tectum and striatum. A possible role for the KAL protein in synaptogenesis at these stages is discussed. These results in the chicken embryo help to elucidate the mechanisms of anosmia and gonadotropin-releasing hormone deficiency, which define Kallmann syndrome. In addition, most of the occasional symptoms described in Kallmann syndrome patients, such as cerebellar ataxia, abnormal ocular movements, abnormal spatial visual attention, mirror movements, and renal aplasia, could be ascribed to malfunction of areas that, in the chicken, express the KAL gene. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8460158

  16. An internal ribosome entry site (IRES) mutant library for tuning expression level of multiple genes in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Koh, Esther Y C; Ho, Steven C L; Mariati; Song, Zhiwei; Bi, Xuezhi; Bardor, Muriel; Yang, Yuansheng

    2013-01-01

    A set of mutated Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements with varying strengths is generated by mutating the translation initiation codons of 10(th), 11(th), and 12(th) AUG to non-AUG triplets. They are able to control the relative expression of multiple genes over a wide range in mammalian cells in both transient and stable transfections. The relative strength of each IRES mutant remains similar in different mammalian cell lines and is not gene specific. The expressed proteins have correct molecular weights. Optimization of light chain over heavy chain expression by these IRES mutants enhances monoclonal antibody expression level and quality in stable transfections. Uses of this set of IRES mutants can be extended to other applications such as synthetic biology, investigating interactions between proteins and its complexes, cell engineering, multi-subunit protein production, gene therapy, and reprogramming of somatic cells into stem cells.

  17. Immune response genes receptors expression and polymorphisms in relation to multiple sclerosis susceptibility and response to INF-β therapy.

    PubMed

    Karam, Rehab A; Rezk, Noha A; Amer, Mona M; Fathy, Hala A

    2016-09-01

    Interferon (IFN)-β is one of the disease modifying drugs used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. A predictive marker that indicates good or poor response to the treatment is highly desirable. We aimed to investigate the relation between the immune response genes receptors (IFNAR1, IFNAR2, and CCR5) expression and their polymorhic variants and multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility as well as the response to IFN-β therapy. The immune response genes receptors expression and genotyping were analyzed in 80 patients with MS, treated with IFN-β and in 110 healthy controls. There was a significant decrease of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 mRNA expression and a significant increase of CCR5 mRNA expression in MS patients compared with the control group. Also, the level of IFNAR1, IFNAR2, and CCR5 mRNA expression was found to be significantly lower in the responders than nonresponders. Carriers of IFNAR1 18417 C/C genotype and C allele had an increased risk of developing MS. There was a significant relation between CCR5 Δ32 allele and IFN-β treatment response in MS patients. Our results highlighted the significance of IFNAR and CCR5 genes in multiple sclerosis risk and the response to IFN-β therapy. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(9):727-734, 2016.

  18. Temporal Gene Expression Analysis and RNA Silencing of Single and Multiple Members of Gene Family in the Lone Star Tick Amblyomma americanum

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Saliva is an integral factor in the feeding success of veterinary and medically important ticks. Therefore, the characterization of the proteins present in tick saliva is an important area of tick research. Here, we confirmed previously generated sialotranscriptome data using quantitative real-time PCR. The information obtained in this in-depth study of gene expression was used to measure the effects of metalloprotease gene silencing on tick feeding. We analyzed the temporal expression of seven housekeeping genes and 44 differentially expressed salivary molecules selected from a previously published Amblyomma americanum sialotranscriptome. Separate reference genes were selected for the salivary glands and midgut from among the seven housekeeping genes, to normalize the transcriptional expression of differentially expressed genes. The salivary gland reference gene, ubiquitin, was used to normalize the expression of 44 salivary genes. Unsurprisingly, each gene family was expressed throughout the blood meal, but the expression of specific genes differed at each time point. To further clarify the complex nature of the many proteins found in the saliva, we disrupted the translation of several members of the metalloprotease family. Intriguingly, the nucleotide sequence similarity of the reprolysin metalloprotease gene family is so homologous that a single synthesized dsRNA sequence knocked down multiple members of the family. The use of multigene knockdown yielded a more significant picture of the role of metalloproteases in tick feeding success, and changes were observed in the female engorgement weight and larval hatching success. Interestingly, the depletion of metalloprotease transcripts also reduced the total number of bacteria present in the salivary glands. These data provide insight into the expression and functions of tick salivary proteins expressed while feeding on its host. PMID:26872360

  19. Temporal Gene Expression Analysis and RNA Silencing of Single and Multiple Members of Gene Family in the Lone Star Tick Amblyomma americanum.

    PubMed

    Bullard, Rebekah L; Williams, Jaclyn; Karim, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Saliva is an integral factor in the feeding success of veterinary and medically important ticks. Therefore, the characterization of the proteins present in tick saliva is an important area of tick research. Here, we confirmed previously generated sialotranscriptome data using quantitative real-time PCR. The information obtained in this in-depth study of gene expression was used to measure the effects of metalloprotease gene silencing on tick feeding. We analyzed the temporal expression of seven housekeeping genes and 44 differentially expressed salivary molecules selected from a previously published Amblyomma americanum sialotranscriptome. Separate reference genes were selected for the salivary glands and midgut from among the seven housekeeping genes, to normalize the transcriptional expression of differentially expressed genes. The salivary gland reference gene, ubiquitin, was used to normalize the expression of 44 salivary genes. Unsurprisingly, each gene family was expressed throughout the blood meal, but the expression of specific genes differed at each time point. To further clarify the complex nature of the many proteins found in the saliva, we disrupted the translation of several members of the metalloprotease family. Intriguingly, the nucleotide sequence similarity of the reprolysin metalloprotease gene family is so homologous that a single synthesized dsRNA sequence knocked down multiple members of the family. The use of multigene knockdown yielded a more significant picture of the role of metalloproteases in tick feeding success, and changes were observed in the female engorgement weight and larval hatching success. Interestingly, the depletion of metalloprotease transcripts also reduced the total number of bacteria present in the salivary glands. These data provide insight into the expression and functions of tick salivary proteins expressed while feeding on its host.

  20. Life spanning murine gene expression profiles in relation to chronological and pathological aging in multiple organs.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Martijs J; Melis, Joost Pm; Kuiper, Raoul V; van der Hoeven, Tessa V; Wackers, P F K; Robinson, Joke; van der Horst, Gijsbertus Tj; Dollé, Martijn Et; Vijg, Jan; Breit, Timo M; Hoeijmakers, Jan Hj; van Steeg, Harry

    2013-10-01

    Aging and age-related pathology is a result of a still incompletely understood intricate web of molecular and cellular processes. We present a C57BL/6J female mice in vivo aging study of five organs (liver, kidney, spleen, lung, and brain), in which we compare genome-wide gene expression profiles during chronological aging with pathological changes throughout the entire murine life span (13, 26, 52, 78, 104, and 130 weeks). Relating gene expression changes to chronological aging revealed many differentially expressed genes (DEGs), and altered gene sets (AGSs) were found in most organs, indicative of intraorgan generic aging processes. However, only ≤ 1% of these DEGs are found in all organs. For each organ, at least one of 18 tested pathological parameters showed a good age-predictive value, albeit with much inter- and intraindividual (organ) variation. Relating gene expression changes to pathology-related aging revealed correlated genes and gene sets, which made it possible to characterize the difference between biological and chronological aging. In liver, kidney, and brain, a limited number of overlapping pathology-related AGSs were found. Immune responses appeared to be common, yet the changes were specific in most organs. Furthermore, changes were observed in energy homeostasis, reactive oxygen species, cell cycle, cell motility, and DNA damage. Comparison of chronological and pathology-related AGSs revealed substantial overlap and interesting differences. For example, the presence of immune processes in liver pathology-related AGSs that were not detected in chronological aging. The many cellular processes that are only found employing aging-related pathology could provide important new insights into the progress of aging. © 2013 The Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Identification of Gene Markers Associated with Aggressive Meningioma by Filtering across Multiple Sets of Gene Expression Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Jourdan E.; Lusis, Eriks A.; Scheck, Adrienne C.; Coons, Stephen W.; Lal, Anita; Perry, Arie; Gutmann, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Meningiomasare common intracranial tumors but relatively little is known about the genetic events responsible for their clinical diversity. While recent genomic studies have provided clues, the genes identified often differ among publications. We used microarray expression profiling to identify genes that are differentially expressed, with at least a 4-fold change, between grade I and grade III meningiomas. We filtered this initial set of potential biomarkers through a second cohort of meningiomas and then verified the remaining genes by quantitative polymerase chain reaction followed by examination using a third microarray expression cohort. Using this approach, we identified 9 overexpressed (TPX2, RRM2, TOP2A, PI3, BIRC5, CDC2, NUSAP1, DLG7, SOX11) and 2 underexpressed (TIMP3, KCNMA1) genes in grade III vs. grade I meningiomas. As a further validation step, we analyzed these genes in a fourth cohort and found that patients with grade II meningiomas with high topoisomerase 2-α protein expression (greater than 5% labeling-index) had shorter times to death than patients with low expression. We believe that this multistep, multi-cohort approach provides a robust method for reducing false positives while generating a list of reproducible candidate genes that are associated with clinically aggressive meningioma and are suitable for analysis for their potential prognostic value. PMID:21157382

  2. Multiple circadian-regulated elements contribute to cycling period gene expression in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Stanewsky, R; Jamison, C F; Plautz, J D; Kay, S A; Hall, J C

    1997-01-01

    A new regulatory element necessary for the correct temporal expression of the period (per) gene was identified by monitoring real-time per expression in living individual flies carrying two different period-luciferase transgenes. luciferase RNA driven from only the per promoter was not sufficient to replicate the normal pattern of per RNA cycling; however, a per-luc fusion RNA driven from a transgene containing additional per sequences cycled identically to endogenous per. The results indicate the existence of at least two circadian-regulated elements--one within the promoter and one within the transcribed portion of the per gene. Phase and amplitude analysis of both per-luc transgenes revealed that normal per expression requires the regulation of these elements at distinct phases and suggests a mechanism by which biological clocks sustain high-amplitude feedback oscillations. PMID:9305642

  3. Multiple network algorithm for epigenetic modules via the integration of genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoke; Liu, Zaiyi; Zhang, Zhongyuan; Huang, Xiaotai; Tang, Wanxin

    2017-01-31

    With the increase in the amount of DNA methylation and gene expression data, the epigenetic mechanisms of cancers can be extensively investigate. Available methods integrate the DNA methylation and gene expression data into a network by specifying the anti-correlation between them. However, the correlation between methylation and expression is usually unknown and difficult to determine. To address this issue, we present a novel multiple network framework for epigenetic modules, namely, Epigenetic Module based on Differential Networks (EMDN) algorithm, by simultaneously analyzing DNA methylation and gene expression data. The EMDN algorithm prevents the specification of the correlation between methylation and expression. The accuracy of EMDN algorithm is more efficient than that of modern approaches. On the basis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) breast cancer data, we observe that the EMDN algorithm can recognize positively and negatively correlated modules and these modules are significantly more enriched in the known pathways than those obtained by other algorithms. These modules can serve as bio-markers to predict breast cancer subtypes by using methylation profiles, where positively and negatively correlated modules are of equal importance in the classification of cancer subtypes. Epigenetic modules also estimate the survival time of patients, and this factor is critical for cancer therapy. The proposed model and algorithm provide an effective method for the integrative analysis of DNA methylation and gene expression. The algorithm is freely available as an R-package at https://github.com/william0701/EMDN .

  4. Molecular mechanisms governing Pcdh-γ gene expression: Evidence for a multiple promoter and cis-alternative splicing model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaozhong; Su, Hong; Bradley, Allan

    2002-01-01

    The genomic architecture of protocadherin (Pcdh) gene clusters is remarkably similar to that of the immunoglobulin and T cell receptor gene clusters, and can potentially provide significant molecular diversity. Pcdh genes are abundantly expressed in the central nervous system. These molecules are primary candidates for establishing specific neuronal connectivity. Despite the extensive analyses of the genomic structure of both human and mouse Pcdh gene clusters, the definitive molecular mechanisms that control Pcdh gene expression are still unknown. Four theories have been proposed, including (1) DNA recombination followed by cis-splicing, (2) single promoter and cis-alternative splicing, (3) multiple promoters and cis-alternative splicing, and (4) multiple promoters and trans-splicing. Using a combination of molecular and genetic analyses, we evaluated the four models at the Pcdh-γ locus. Our analysis provides evidence that the transcription of individual Pcdh-γ genes is under the control of a distinct but related promoter upstream of each Pcdh-γ variable exon, and posttranscriptional processing of each Pcdh-γ transcript is predominantly mediated through cis-alternative splicing. PMID:12154121

  5. Multiple genes, tissue specificity, and expression-dependent modulationcontribute to the functional diversity of potassium channels in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Y; Ward, J M; Kelly, W B; Ichida, A M; Gaber, R F; Anderson, J A; Uozumi, N; Schroeder, J I; Crawford, N M

    1995-01-01

    K+ channels play diverse roles in mediating K+ transport and in modulating the membrane potential in higher plant cells during growth and development. Some of the diversity in K+ channel functions may arise from the regulated expression of multiple genes encoding different K+ channel polypeptides. Here we report the isolation of a novel Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA (AKT2) that is highly homologous to the two previously identified K+ channel genes, KAT1 and AKT1. This cDNA mapped to the center of chromosome 4 by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and was highly expressed in leaves, whereas AKT1 was mainly expressed in roots. In addition, we show that diversity in K+ channel function may be attributable to differences in expression levels. Increasing KAT1 expression in Xenopus oocytes by polyadenylation of the KAT1 mRNA increased the current amplitude and led to higher levels of KAT1 protein, as assayed in western blots. The increase in KAT1 expression in oocytes produced shifts in the threshold potential for activation to more positive membrane potentials and decreased half-activation times. These results suggest that different levels of expression and tissue-specific expression of different K+ channel isoforms can contribute to the functional diversity of plant K+ channels. The identification of a highly expressed, leaf-specific K+ channel homolog in plants should allow further molecular characterization of K+ channel functions for physiological K+ transport processes in leaves. PMID:8552711

  6. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus and Choristoneura fumiferana multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus v-cath genes are expressed as pre-proenzymes.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jeffrey J; Arif, Basil M; Krell, Peter J

    2009-04-01

    Intracellular processing and trafficking of the baculovirus v-cath expressed cathepsin (V-CATH), which lacks canonical targeting signals, are poorly understood. The cathepsins of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), Choristoneura fumiferana multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (CfMNPV) and most other alphabaculovirus group I nucleopolyhedroviruses have well-conserved N-termini containing overlapping chymotrypsin-cleavage (Y(11)) and myristoylation (G(12)) motifs, which are suggestive of proteolytic signal-peptide cleavage to generate proV-CATH and subsequent acylation. To determine proteolytic N-terminal processing of V-CATH, haemagglutinin epitope-coding tags were fused to the 5' and/or 3' ends of AcMNPV and CfMNPV v-cath. Immunoblot analysis suggested that a small N-terminal peptide is cleaved for both viruses, indicating that v-cath is expressed as a pre-proenzyme. The two viral homologues undergo similar proteolytic processing, but have different glycosylation or other post-translational modifications. An AcMNPV V-CATH-DsRED fusion protein co-localized to the endoplasmic reticulum with an HDEL motif-containing green fluorescent protein. Based on these findings, pre-proV-CATH processing and trafficking mechanisms are postulated.

  7. Pheochromocytoma in rats with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MENX) shares gene expression patterns with human pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Molatore, Sara; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Irmler, Martin; Perren, Aurel; Mannelli, Massimo; Ercolino, Tonino; Beuschlein, Felix; Jarzab, Barbara; Wloch, Jan; Ziaja, Jacek; Zoubaa, Saida; Neff, Frauke; Beckers, Johannes; Höfler, Heinz; Atkinson, Michael J.; Pellegata, Natalia S.

    2010-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas are rare neoplasias of neural crest origin arising from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and sympathetic ganglia (extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma). Pheochromocytoma that develop in rats homozygous for a loss-of-function mutation in p27Kip1 (MENX syndrome) show a clear progression from hyperplasia to tumor, offering the possibility to gain insight into tumor pathobiology. We compared the gene-expression signatures of both adrenomedullary hyperplasia and pheochromocytoma with normal rat adrenal medulla. Hyperplasia and tumor show very similar transcriptome profiles, indicating early determination of the tumorigenic signature. Overrepresentation of developmentally regulated neural genes was a feature of the rat lesions. Quantitative RT-PCR validated the up-regulation of 11 genes, including some involved in neural development: Cdkn2a, Cdkn2c, Neurod1, Gal, Bmp7, and Phox2a. Overexpression of these genes precedes histological changes in affected adrenal glands. Their presence at early stages of tumorigenesis indicates they are not acquired during progression and may be a result of the lack of functional p27Kip1. Adrenal and extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma development clearly follows diverged molecular pathways in MENX rats. To correlate these findings to human pheochromocytoma, we studied nine genes overexpressed in the rat lesions in 46 sporadic and familial human pheochromocytomas. The expression of GAL, DGKH, BMP7, PHOX2A, L1CAM, TCTE1, EBF3, SOX4, and HASH1 was up-regulated, although with different frequencies. Immunohistochemical staining detected high L1CAM expression selectively in 27 human pheochromocytomas but not in 140 nonchromaffin neuroendocrine tumors. These studies reveal clues to the molecular pathways involved in rat and human pheochromocytoma and identify previously unexplored biomarkers for clinical use. PMID:20937862

  8. A transgenic mouse model of plasma cell malignancy shows phenotypic, cytogenetic, and gene expression heterogeneity similar to human multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Boylan, Kristin L M; Gosse, Mary A; Staggs, Sarah E; Janz, Siegfried; Grindle, Suzanne; Kansas, Geoffrey S; Van Ness, Brian G

    2007-05-01

    Multiple myeloma is an incurable plasma cell malignancy for which existing animal models are limited. We have previously shown that the targeted expression of the transgenes c-Myc and Bcl-X(L) in murine plasma cells produces malignancy that displays features of human myeloma, such as localization of tumor cells to the bone marrow and lytic bone lesions. We have isolated and characterized in vitro cultures and adoptive transfers of tumors from Bcl-xl/Myc transgenic mice. Tumors have a plasmablastic morphology and variable expression of CD138, CD45, CD38, and CD19. Spectral karyotyping analysis of metaphase chromosomes from primary tumor cell cultures shows that the Bcl-xl/Myc tumors contain a variety of chromosomal abnormalities, including trisomies, translocations, and deletions. The most frequently aberrant chromosomes are 12 and 16. Three sites for recurring translocations were also identified on chromosomes 4D, 12F, and 16C. Gene expression profiling was used to identify differences in gene expression between tumor cells and normal plasma cells (NPC) and to cluster the tumors into two groups (tumor groups C and D), with distinct gene expression profiles. Four hundred and ninety-five genes were significantly different between both tumor groups and NPCs, whereas 124 genes were uniquely different from NPCs in tumor group C and 204 genes were uniquely different from NPCs in tumor group D. Similar to human myeloma, the cyclin D genes are differentially dysregulated in the mouse tumor groups. These data suggest the Bcl-xl/Myc tumors are similar to a subset of plasmablastic human myelomas and provide insight into the specific genes and pathways underlying the human disease.

  9. Integrative analysis of DNA copy number, DNA methylation and gene expression in multiple myeloma reveals alterations related to relapse

    PubMed Central

    Krzeminski, Patryk; Corchete, Luis A.; García, Juan L.; López-Corral, Lucía; Fermiñán, Encarna; García, Eva M.; Martín, Ana A.; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús M.; García-Sanz, Ramón; Miguel, Jesús F. San; Gutiérrez, Norma C.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable despite the introduction of novel agents, and a relapsing course is observed in most patients. Although the development of genomic technologies has greatly improved our understanding of MM pathogenesis, the mechanisms underlying relapse have been less thoroughly investigated. In this study, an integrative analysis of DNA copy number, DNA methylation and gene expression was conducted in matched diagnosis and relapse samples from MM patients. Overall, the acquisition of abnormalities at relapse was much more frequent than the loss of lesions present at diagnosis, and DNA losses were significantly more frequent in relapse than in diagnosis samples. Interestingly, copy number abnormalities involving more than 100 Mb of DNA at relapse significantly affect the gene expression of these samples, provoking a particular deregulation of the IL-8 pathway. On the other hand, no significant modifications of gene expression were observed in those samples with less than 100 Mb affected by chromosomal changes. Although several statistical approaches were used to identify genes whose abnormal expression at relapse was regulated by methylation, only two genes that were significantly deregulated in relapse samples (SORL1 and GLT1D1) showed a negative correlation between methylation and expression. Further analysis revealed that DNA methylation was involved in regulating SORL1 expression in MM. Finally, relevant changes in gene expression observed in relapse samples, such us downregulation of CD27 and P2RY8, were most likely not preceded by alterations in the corresponding DNA. Taken together, these results suggest that the genomic heterogeneity described at diagnosis remains at relapse. PMID:27811368

  10. Integrative analysis of DNA copy number, DNA methylation and gene expression in multiple myeloma reveals alterations related to relapse.

    PubMed

    Krzeminski, Patryk; Corchete, Luis A; García, Juan L; López-Corral, Lucía; Fermiñán, Encarna; García, Eva M; Martín, Ana A; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús M; García-Sanz, Ramón; San Miguel, Jesús F; Gutiérrez, Norma C

    2016-12-06

    Multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable despite the introduction of novel agents, and a relapsing course is observed in most patients. Although the development of genomic technologies has greatly improved our understanding of MM pathogenesis, the mechanisms underlying relapse have been less thoroughly investigated. In this study, an integrative analysis of DNA copy number, DNA methylation and gene expression was conducted in matched diagnosis and relapse samples from MM patients. Overall, the acquisition of abnormalities at relapse was much more frequent than the loss of lesions present at diagnosis, and DNA losses were significantly more frequent in relapse than in diagnosis samples. Interestingly, copy number abnormalities involving more than 100 Mb of DNA at relapse significantly affect the gene expression of these samples, provoking a particular deregulation of the IL-8 pathway. On the other hand, no significant modifications of gene expression were observed in those samples with less than 100 Mb affected by chromosomal changes. Although several statistical approaches were used to identify genes whose abnormal expression at relapse was regulated by methylation, only two genes that were significantly deregulated in relapse samples (SORL1 and GLT1D1) showed a negative correlation between methylation and expression. Further analysis revealed that DNA methylation was involved in regulating SORL1 expression in MM. Finally, relevant changes in gene expression observed in relapse samples, such us downregulation of CD27 and P2RY8, were most likely not preceded by alterations in the corresponding DNA. Taken together, these results suggest that the genomic heterogeneity described at diagnosis remains at relapse.

  11. Enhanced transcriptome maps from multiple mouse tissues reveal evolutionary constraint in gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Pervouchine, Dmitri D.; Djebali, Sarah; Breschi, Alessandra; Davis, Carrie A.; Barja, Pablo Prieto; Dobin, Alex; Tanzer, Andrea; Lagarde, Julien; Zaleski, Chris; See, Lei-Hoon; Fastuca, Meagan; Drenkow, Jorg; Wang, Huaien; Bussotti, Giovanni; Pei, Baikang; Balasubramanian, Suganthi; Monlong, Jean; Harmanci, Arif; Gerstein, Mark; Beer, Michael A.; Notredame, Cedric; Guigó, Roderic; Gingeras, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Mice have been a long-standing model for human biology and disease. Here we characterize, by RNA sequencing, the transcriptional profiles of a large and heterogeneous collection of mouse tissues, augmenting the mouse transcriptome with thousands of novel transcript candidates. Comparison with transcriptome profiles in human cell lines reveals substantial conservation of transcriptional programmes, and uncovers a distinct class of genes with levels of expression that have been constrained early in vertebrate evolution. This core set of genes captures a substantial fraction of the transcriptional output of mammalian cells, and participates in basic functional and structural housekeeping processes common to all cell types. Perturbation of these constrained genes is associated with significant phenotypes including embryonic lethality and cancer. Evolutionary constraint in gene expression levels is not reflected in the conservation of the genomic sequences, but is associated with conserved epigenetic marking, as well as with characteristic post-transcriptional regulatory programme, in which sub-cellular localization and alternative splicing play comparatively large roles. PMID:25582907

  12. Gene expression profiling in persons with multiple chemical sensitivity before and after a controlled n-butanol exposure session.

    PubMed

    Dantoft, Thomas M; Skovbjerg, Sine; Andersson, Linus; Claeson, Anna-Sara; Engkilde, Kaare; Lind, Nina; Nordin, Steven; Hellgren, Lars I

    2017-02-22

    To investigate the pathophysiological pathways leading to symptoms elicitation in multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) by comparing gene expression in MCS participants and healthy controls before and after a chemical exposure optimised to cause symptoms among MCS participants.The first hypothesis was that unexposed and symptom-free MCS participants have similar gene expression patterns to controls and a second hypothesis that MCS participants can be separated from controls based on differential gene expression upon a controlled n-butanol exposure. Participants were exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol while seated in a windowed exposure chamber for 60 min. A total of 26 genes involved in biochemical pathways found in the literature have been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of MCS and other functional somatic syndromes were selected. Expression levels were compared between MCS and controls before, within 15 min after being exposed to and 4 hours after the exposure. Participants suffering from MCS and healthy controls were recruited through advertisement at public places and in a local newspaper. 36 participants who considered themselves sensitive were prescreened for eligibility. 18 sensitive persons fulfilling the criteria for MCS were enrolled together with 18 healthy controls. 17 genes showed sufficient transcriptional level for analysis. Group comparisons were conducted for each gene at the 3 times points and for the computed area under the curve (AUC) expression levels. MCS participants and controls displayed similar gene expression levels both at baseline and after the exposure and the computed AUC values were likewise comparable between the 2 groups. The intragroup variation in expression levels among MCS participants was noticeably greater than the controls. MCS participants and controls have similar gene expression levels at baseline and it was not possible to separate MCS participants from controls based on gene expression measured after the

  13. HIV Cell-to-Cell Spread Results in Earlier Onset of Viral Gene Expression by Multiple Infections per Cell

    PubMed Central

    Boullé, Mikaël; Müller, Thorsten G.; Dähling, Sabrina; Jackson, Laurelle; Mahamed, Deeqa; Oom, Lance; Lustig, Gila

    2016-01-01

    Cell-to-cell spread of HIV, a directed mode of viral transmission, has been observed to be more rapid than cell-free infection. However, a mechanism for earlier onset of viral gene expression in cell-to-cell spread was previously uncharacterized. Here we used time-lapse microscopy combined with automated image analysis to quantify the timing of the onset of HIV gene expression in a fluorescent reporter cell line, as well as single cell staining for infection over time in primary cells. We compared cell-to-cell spread of HIV to cell-free infection, and limited both types of transmission to a two-hour window to minimize differences due to virus transit time to the cell. The mean time to detectable onset of viral gene expression in cell-to-cell spread was accelerated by 19% in the reporter cell line and by 35% in peripheral blood mononuclear cells relative to cell-free HIV infection. Neither factors secreted by infected cells, nor contact with infected cells in the absence of transmission, detectably changed onset. We recapitulated the earlier onset by infecting with multiple cell-free viruses per cell. Surprisingly, the acceleration in onset of viral gene expression was not explained by cooperativity between infecting virions. Instead, more rapid onset was consistent with a model where the fastest expressing virus out of the infecting virus pool sets the time for infection independently of the other co-infecting viruses. PMID:27812216

  14. Coordinate expression of multiple bacterial carotenoid genes in canola leading to altered carotenoid production.

    PubMed

    Ravanello, Monica P; Ke, Dangyang; Alvarez, Julie; Huang, Bihua; Shewmaker, Christine K

    2003-10-01

    Carotenoids have drawn much attention recently because of their potentially positive benefits to human health as well as their utility in both food and animal feed. Previous work in canola (Brassica napus) seed over-expressing the bacterial phytoene synthase gene (crtB) demonstrated a change in carotenoid content, such that the total levels of carotenoids, including phytoene and downstream metabolites like beta-carotene, were elevated 50-fold, with the ratio of beta- to alpha-carotene being 2:1. This result raised the possibility that the composition of metabolites in this pathway could be modified further in conjunction with the increased flux obtained with crtB. Here we report on the expression of additional bacterial genes for the enzymes geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (crtE), phytoene desaturase (crtI) and lycopene cyclase (crtY and the plant B. napus lycopene beta-cyclase) engineered in conjunction with phytoene synthase (crtB) in transgenic canola seed. Analysis of the carotenoid levels by HPLC revealed a 90% decrease in phytoene levels for the double construct expressing crtB in conjunction with crtI. The transgenic seed from all the double constructs, including the one expressing the bacterial crtB and the plant lycopene beta-cyclase showed an increase in the levels of total carotenoid similar to that previously observed by expressing crtB alone but minimal effects were observed with respect to the ratio of beta- to alpha-carotene compared to the original construct. However, the beta- to alpha-carotene ratio was increased from 2:1 to 3:1 when a triple construct consisting of the bacterial phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase and lycopene cyclase genes were expressed together. This result suggests that the bacterial genes may form an aggregate complex that allows in vivo activity of all three proteins through substrate channeling. This finding should allow further manipulation of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway for downstream products with

  15. Expression of the lef5 gene from Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus contributes to the baculovirus stability in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Solís, María; Jakubowska, Agata K; Herrero, Salvador

    2017-09-09

    Baculoviruses are a broad group of viruses infecting insects, predominately of the order Lepidoptera. They are used worldwide as biological insecticides and as expression vectors to produce recombinant proteins. Baculoviruses replicate in their host, although several cell lines have been developed for in vitro replication. Nevertheless, replication of baculoviruses in cell culture involves the generation of defective viruses with a decrease in productivity and virulence. Transcriptional studies of the Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) and the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) infective process revealed differences in the expression patterns when the virus replicated under in vitro (Se301 cells) or in vivo (S. exigua larvae) conditions. The late expression factor 5 (lef5) gene was found to be highly overexpressed when the virus replicates in larvae. To test the possible role of lef5 expression in viral stability, recombinant AcMNPV expressing the lef5 gene from SeMNPV (Se-lef5) was generated and its stability was monitored during successive infection passages in Sf21 cells by evaluating the loss of several essential and non-essential genes. The gfp transgene was more stable in those viruses expressing the Se-LEF5 protein and the GFP-defective viruses were accumulated at a lower level when compared to its control viruses, confirming the positive influence of lef5 in viral stability during the multiplication process. This work describes for the first time a viral factor involved in transgene stability when baculoviruses replicate in cell culture, opening new ways to facilitate the in vitro production of recombinant proteins using baculovirus.

  16. Role of serum TRAIL level and TRAIL apoptosis gene expression in multiple sclerosis and relation to brain atrophy.

    PubMed

    Tawdy, Mohamed H; Abd El Nasser, Maged M; Abd El Shafy, Sanaa S; Nada, Mona A F; El Sirafy, Mohamed Nasr I; Magd, Amany Hussien Abol

    2014-09-01

    One of the presumed pathological mechanisms of multiple sclerosis (MS) is the failure of apoptosis of autoreactive T lymphocytes. This study aimed to determine the relationship of the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) mRNA gene expression ratio and serum TRAIL levels with MS and brain atrophy. This study was conducted on 53 relapsing-remitting Egyptian MS patients and 25 matched healthy volunteers. The expression of TRAIL in peripheral blood lymphocytes was analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, serum levels of soluble TRAIL (sTRAIL) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and brain MRI measured "black holes" and the bicaudate ratio as a measure of brain atrophy in all patients. The serum TRAIL level was lower in MS patients compared to controls but no difference was seen in the TRAIL mRNA gene expression ratio. No significant correlation was detected between the serum TRAIL level and the TRAIL mRNA expression ratio in either group. No statistically significant correlation was found between serum TRAIL levels or the TRAIL mRNA expression ratio with the number of black holes or the bicaudate ratio on MRI. Apoptosis of T lymphocytes is decreased in MS patients, which could be useful when designing treatments. There was no difference in the TRAIL mRNA gene expression ratio between MS patients and controls.

  17. Transgenic rice expressing the cry2AX1 gene confers resistance to multiple lepidopteran pests.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, M; Reddy, P Sairam; Mustafa, G; Rajesh, G; Narasu, V M Laxmi; Udayasuriyan, V; Rana, Debashis

    2016-10-01

    A chimeric Bacillus thuringiensis toxin (Bt) gene, cry2AX1was cloned in a bi-selectable marker free binary vector construct. The cry2AX1 gene, driven by the Chrysanthemum rbcS1 promoter, was introduced into JK1044R, the restorer line (Oryza sativa L. ssp. Indica) of a notified commercially grown rice hybrid in India, by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Its effect against two major lepidopteran insect pests viz., yellow stem borer (YSB) Scirpophaga incertulas, rice leaf folder (RLF) Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and one minor insect pest, oriental army worm (OAW) Mythimna separata was demonstrated through bioassays of transgenic rice plants under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. The rbcS1 promoter with chloroplast signal peptide was used to avoid Cry2AX1 protein expression in rice seed endosperm tissue. A total of 37 independent transformants were generated, of which after preliminary molecular characterization and YSB bioassay screening, five events were selected for their protein expression and bioefficacy against all three rice insect. One elite transgenic rice line, BtE15, was identified with Cry2AX1 expression ranging from 0.68 to 1.34 µg g(-1) leaf fresh weight and with 80-92 % levels of resistance against rice pests at the vegetative and reproductive stages. Increase in Cry2AX1 protein concentration was also observed with crop maturity. The Cry2AX1protein concentration in the de-husked seeds was negligible (as low as 2.7-3.6 ng g(-1)). These results indicate the potential application of cry2AX1 gene in rice for protection against YSB, RLF and OAW.

  18. Translating a gene expression signature for multiple myeloma prognosis into a robust high-throughput assay for clinical use

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Widespread adoption of genomic technologies in the management of heterogeneous indications, including Multiple Myeloma, has been hindered by concern over variation between published gene expression signatures, difficulty in physician interpretation and the challenge of obtaining sufficient genetic material from limited patient specimens. Methods Since 2006, the 70-gene prognostic signature, developed by the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) has been applied to over 4,700 patients in studies performed in 4 countries and described in 17 peer-reviewed publications. Analysis of control sample and quality control data compiled over a 12-month period was performed. Results Over a 12 month period, the 70-gene prognosis score (range 0–100) of our multiple myeloma cell-line control sample had a standard deviation of 2.72 and a coefficient of variance of 0.03. The whole-genome microarray profile used to calculate a patient’s GEP70 score can be generated with as little as 15 ng of total RNA; approximately 30,000 CD-138+ plasma cells. Results from each GEP70 analysis are presented as either low (70-gene score <45.2) or high (≥45.2) risk for relapse (newly diagnosed setting) or shorter overall survival (relapse setting). A personalized and outcome-annotated gene expression heat map is provided to assist in the clinical interpretation of the result. Conclusions The 70-gene assay, commercialized under the name ‘MyPRS®’ (Myeloma Prognostic Risk Score) and performed in Signal Genetics’ CLIA-certified high throughput flow-cytometry and molecular profiling laboratory is a reproducible and standardized method of multiple myeloma prognostication. PMID:24885236

  19. Analysis of microRNA and Gene Expression Profiles in Multiple Sclerosis: Integrating Interaction Data to Uncover Regulatory Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Freiesleben, Sherry; Hecker, Michael; Zettl, Uwe Klaus; Fuellen, Georg; Taher, Leila

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to contribute to the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. Here, we propose a new consensus-based strategy to analyse and integrate miRNA and gene expression data in MS as well as other publically available data to gain a deeper understanding of the role of miRNAs in MS and to overcome the challenges posed by studies with limited patient sample sizes. We processed and analysed microarray datasets, and compared the expression of genes and miRNAs in the blood of MS patients and controls. We then used our consensus and integration approach to construct two molecular networks dysregulated in MS: a miRNA- and a gene-based network. We identified 18 differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs and 128 DE genes that may contribute to the regulatory alterations behind MS. The miRNAs were linked to immunological and neurological pathways, and we exposed let-7b-5p and miR-345-5p as promising blood-derived disease biomarkers in MS. The results suggest that DE miRNAs are more informative than DE genes in uncovering pathways potentially involved in MS. Our findings provide novel insights into the regulatory mechanisms and networks underlying MS. PMID:27694855

  20. Hypothermia and rewarming induce gene expression and multiplication of cells in healthy rat prostate tissue.

    PubMed

    Kaija, Helena; Pakanen, Lasse; Kortelainen, Marja-Leena; Porvari, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer has been extensively studied, but cellular stress responses in healthy prostate tissue are rarely investigated. Hypothermia is known to cause alterations in mRNA and protein expressions and stability. The aim of this study was to use normal rat prostate as a model in order to find out consequences of cold exposure and rewarming on the expressions of genes which are either members or functionally/structurally related to erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene B (ErbB) signaling pathway. Relative mRNA expressions of amphiregulin (AMR), cyclin D1 (CyD1), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21), transmembrane form of the prostatic acid phosphatase (PAcP), thrombomodulin (TM) and heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) in rat ventral prostate were quantified in mild (2 or 4.5 h at room temperature) and severe (2 or 4.5 h at +10°C) hypothermia and in rewarming after cold exposure (2 h at +10°C followed by 2 h at room temperature or 3 h at +28°C). AMR protein level, apoptotic Bcl-2 associated X protein to B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bax/Bcl-2) mRNA ratio and proliferative index Ki-67 were determined. 4.5-h mild hypothermia, 2-h severe hypothermia and rewarming increased expression of all these genes. Elevated proliferation index Ki-67 could be seen in 2-h severe hypothermia, and the proliferation index had its highest value in longer rewarming with totally recovered normal body temperature. Pro-apoptotic tendency could be seen in 2-h mild hypothermia while anti-apoptosis was predominant in 4.5-h mild hypothermia and in shorter rewarming with only partly recovered body temperature. Hypothermia and following rewarming promote the proliferation of cells in healthy rat prostate tissue possibly via ErbB signaling pathway.

  1. Involvement of multiple transcription factors for metal-induced spy gene expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Ogasawara, Hiroshi; Ishihama, Akira

    2008-01-20

    Bacteria are directly exposed to metals in environment. To maintain the intracellular metal homeostasis, Escherichia coli contain a number of gene regulation systems, each for response to a specific metal. A periplasmic protein Spy of E. coli was found to be induced upon short-exposure to copper ion in CpxAR-dependent manner. Transcription of the spy gene was also induced by long-exposure to zinc ion. This induction, however, depended on another two-component system BaeSR. Using DNase-I footprinting assay, we identified two BaeR-binding regions on the spy promoter with a direct repeat of the BaeR-box sequence, TCTNCANAA. The zinc-responsive BaeR-binding sites were separated from copper-responsive CpxR-binding site, implying that the spy promoter responds to two species of metal independently through different using sensor-response regulator systems. Since BaeSR-dependent zinc response requires longer time, the induction of spy gene transcription by external zinc may include multiple steps such as through sensing the zinc-induced envelope disorder by BaeSR.

  2. Altered mRNA Expression of Telomere-Associated Genes in Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance and Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Panero, Julieta; Arbelbide, Jorge; Fantl, Dorotea Beatriz; Rivello, Hernán García; Kohan, Dana; Slavutsky, Irma

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we explored changes in the expression of the telomere maintenance genes, TRF1, TRF2 and TANK1 in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and multiple myeloma (MM). Results were correlated with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT ) expression, telomere length (TL) and clinicopathological characteristics. Bone marrow (BM) samples from 132 patients, 64 with MGUS and 68 with MM, were studied. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify gene expression. TL was evaluated by terminal restriction fragment length analysis. MGUS patients showed increased TRF1 levels (P = 0.006) and lower expression of TRF2 (P = 0.005) and TANK1 (P = 0.003) compared with MM patients. For hTERT analysis, patients were divided into three groups by use of receiver operating characteristics: low (group I [GI]), intermediate (group II [GII]) and high (group III [GIII]) expression. We observed increasing expression of TRF2 and TANK1 from GI to GIII in MGUS and MM, with differences for both genes in MM (P < 0.01) and for TRF2 in MGUS (P < 0.01). GIII patients with the highest telomerase expression had the shortest TL. In both entities, a positive association between TRF2-TANK1, TRF2-hTERT and TANK1-hTERT (P ≤ 0.01) was observed. In MM, the percentage of BM infiltration and Ki-67 index were positively associated with TRF2, TANK1 and hTERT expression (P ≤ 0.03) and negatively with TL (P = 0.02), whereas lactate dehydrogenase was significantly correlated with TRF2 mRNA (P = 0.008). Our findings provide the first evidence of a modification in the expression of telomeric proteins in plasma cell disorders, and suggest that mechanisms other than telomerase activation are involved in TL maintenance in these pathologies. PMID:20644899

  3. Identification and expression profiles of multiple genes in Nile tilapia in response to bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Pridgeon, Julia W; Aksoy, Mediha; Klesius, Phillip H; Li, Yuehong; Mu, Xingjiang; Srivastava, Kunwar; Reddy, Gopal

    2011-11-15

    To understand the molecular mechanisms involved in response of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to bacterial infection, suppression subtractive cDNA hybridization technique was used to identify upregulated genes in the posterior kidney of Nile tilapia at 6h post infection with Aeromonas hydrophila. A total of 31 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified from 192 clones of the subtractive cDNA library. Quantitative PCR revealed that nine of the 31 ESTs were significantly (p<0.05) upregulated in Nile tilapia at 6h post infection with A. hydrophila at an injection dose of 10(5)CFU per fish (≈ 20% mortality). Of the nine upregulated genes, four were also significantly (p<0.05) induced in Nile tilapia at 6h post infection with A. hydrophila at an injection dose of 10(6)CFU per fish (≈ 60% mortality). Of the four genes induced by A. hydrophila at both injection doses, three were also significantly (p<0.05) upregulated in Nile tilapia at 6h post infection with Streptococcus iniae at doses of 10(6) and at 10(5)CFU per fish (≈ 70% and ≈ 30% mortality, respectively). The three genes induced by both bacteria included EST 2A05 (similar to adenylate kinase domain containing protein 1), EST 2G11 (unknown protein, shared similarity with Salmo salar IgH locus B genomic sequence with e value of 0.02), and EST 2H04 (unknown protein). Significant upregulation of these genes in Nile tilapia following bacterial infections suggested that they might play important roles in host response to infections of A. hydrophila and S. iniae.

  4. Layered genetic control of DNA methylation and gene expression: a locus of multiple sclerosis in healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jean; Bourdon, Celine; Bernard, Manon; Wilson, Michael D.; Reischl, Eva; Waldenberger, Melanie; Ruggeri, Barbara; Schumann, Gunter; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Leemans, Alexander; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Leonard, Gabriel; Richer, Louis; Bouchard, Luigi; Gaudet, Daniel; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation may contribute to the etiology of complex genetic disorders through its impact on genome integrity and gene expression; it is modulated by DNA-sequence variants, named methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTLs). Most meQTLs influence methylation of a few CpG dinucleotides within short genomic regions (<3 kb). Here, we identified a layered genetic control of DNA methylation at numerous CpGs across a long 300 kb genomic region. This control involved a single long-range meQTL and multiple local meQTLs. The long-range meQTL explained up to 75% of variance in methylation of CpGs located over extended areas of the 300 kb region. The meQTL was identified in four samples (P = 2.8 × 10−17, 3.1 × 10−31, 4.0 × 10−71 and 5.2 × 10−199), comprising a total of 2796 individuals. The long-range meQTL was strongly associated not only with DNA methylation but also with mRNA expression of several genes within the 300 kb region (P = 7.1 × 10−18–1.0 × 10−123). The associations of the meQTL with gene expression became attenuated when adjusted for DNA methylation (causal inference test: P = 2.4 × 10−13–7.1 × 10−20), indicating coordinated regulation of DNA methylation and gene expression. Further, the long-range meQTL was found to be in linkage disequilibrium with the most replicated locus of multiple sclerosis, a disease affecting primarily the brain white matter. In middle-aged adults free of the disease, we observed that the risk allele was associated with subtle structural properties of the brain white matter found in multiple sclerosis (P = 0.02). In summary, we identified a long-range meQTL that controls methylation and expression of several genes and may be involved in increasing brain vulnerability to multiple sclerosis. PMID:26220975

  5. Neural precursor-specific expression of multiple Drosophila genes is driven by dual enhancer modules with overlapping function

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Steven W.; Rebeiz, Mark; Atanasov, Jenny E.

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptional cis-regulatory modules (CRMs), or enhancers, are responsible for directing gene expression in specific territories and cell types during development. In some instances, the same gene may be served by two or more enhancers with similar specificities. Here we show that the utilization of dual, or “shadow”, enhancers is a common feature of genes that are active specifically in neural precursor (NP) cells in Drosophila. By genome-wide computational discovery of statistically significant clusters of binding motifs for both proneural activator (P) proteins and basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) repressor (R) factors (a “P+R” regulatory code), we have identified NP-specific enhancer modules associated with multiple genes expressed in this cell type. These CRMs are distinct from those previously identified for the corresponding gene, establishing the existence of a dual-enhancer arrangement in which both modules reside close to the gene they serve. Using wild-type and mutant reporter gene constructs in vivo, we show that P sites in these modules mediate activation by proneural factors in “proneural cluster” territories, whereas R sites mediate repression by bHLH repressors, which serves to restrict expression specifically to NP cells. To our knowledge, our results identify the first direct targets of these bHLH repressors. Finally, using genomic rescue constructs for neuralized (neur), we demonstrate that each of the gene's two NP-specific enhancers is sufficient to rescue neur function in the lateral inhibition process by which adult sensory organ precursor (SOP) cells are specified, but that deletion of both enhancers results in failure of this event. PMID:25404315

  6. Stable expression of mtlD gene imparts multiple stress tolerance in finger millet.

    PubMed

    Hema, Ramanna; Vemanna, Ramu S; Sreeramulu, Shivakumar; Reddy, Chandrasekhara P; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa; Udayakumar, Makarla

    2014-01-01

    Finger millet is susceptible to abiotic stresses, especially drought and salinity stress, in the field during seed germination and early stages of seedling development. Therefore developing stress tolerant finger millet plants combating drought, salinity and associated oxidative stress in these two growth stages is important. Cellular protection through osmotic adjustment and efficient free radical scavenging ability during abiotic stress are important components of stress tolerance mechanisms in plants. Mannitol, an osmolyte, is known to scavenge hydroxyl radicals generated during various abiotic stresses and thereby minimize stress damage in several plant species. In this study transgenic finger millet plants expressing the mannitol biosynthetic pathway gene from bacteria, mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (mtlD), were developed through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation. mtlD gene integration in the putative transgenic plants was confirmed by Southern blot. Further, performance of transgenic finger millet under drought, salinity and oxidative stress was studied at plant level in T1 generation and in T1 and T2 generation seedlings. Results from these experiments showed that transgenic finger millet had better growth under drought and salinity stress compared to wild-type. At plant level, transgenic plants showed better osmotic adjustment and chlorophyll retention under drought stress compared to the wild-type. However, the overall increase in stress tolerance of transgenics for the three stresses, especially for oxidative stress, was only marginal compared to other mtlD gene expressing plant species reported in the literature. Moreover, the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation protocol developed for finger millet in this study can be used to introduce diverse traits of agronomic importance in finger millet.

  7. Protection and synergism by recombinant fowl pox vaccines expressing multiple genes from Marek's disease virus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lucy E; Witter, R L; Reddy, S M; Wu, P; Yanagida, N; Yoshida, S

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant fowl poxviruses (rFPVs) were constructed to express genes from serotype 1 Marek's disease virus (MDV) coding for glycoproteins B, E, I, H, and UL32 (gB1, gE, gI, gH, and UL32). An additional rFPV was constructed to contain four MDV genes (gB1, gE, gI, and UL32). These rFPVs were evaluated for their ability to protect maternal antibody-positive chickens against challenge with highly virulent MDV isolates. The protection induced by a single rFPV/gB1 (42%) confirmed our previous finding. The protection induced by rFPV/gI (43%), rFPV/gB1UL32 (46%), rFPV/gB1gEgI (72%), and rFPV/gB1gEgIUL32 (70%) contributed to additional knowledge on MDV genes involved in protective immunity. In contrast, the rFPV containing gE, gH, or UL32 did not induce significant protection compared with turkey herpesvirus (HVT). Levels of protection by rFPV/gB1 and rFPV/gl were comparable with that of HVT. Only gB1 and gI conferred synergism in rFPV containing these two genes. Protection by both rFPV/gB1gEgI (72%) and rFPV/gB1gEgIUL32(70%) against Marek's disease was significantly enhanced compared with a single gB1 or gI gene (40%). This protective synergism between gB1 and gI in rFPVs may be the basis for better protection when bivalent vaccines between serotypes 2 and 3 were used. When rFPV/gB1gIgEUL32 + HVT were used as vaccine against Md5 challenge, the protection was significantly enhanced (94%). This synergism between rFPV/gB1gIgEUL32 and HVT indicates additional genes yet to be discovered in HVT may be responsible for the enhancement.

  8. HDL inhibits the effects of oxidized phospholipids on endothelial cell gene expression via multiple mechanisms[S

    PubMed Central

    Emert, Benjamin; Hasin-Brumshtein, Yehudit; Springstead, James R.; Vakili, Ladan; Berliner, Judith A.; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl-sn-glycero-3-phospholcholine (OxPAPC) and its component phospholipids accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions and regulate the expression of >1,000 genes, many proatherogenic, in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). In contrast, there is evidence in the literature that HDL protects the vasculature from inflammatory insult. We have previously shown that in HAECs, HDL attenuates the expression of several proatherogenic genes regulated by OxPAPC and 1-palmitoyl-2-(5,6-epoxyisoprostane E2)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. We now demonstrate that HDL reverses >50% of the OxPAPC transcriptional response. Genes reversed by HDL are enriched for inflammatory and vascular development pathways, while genes not affected by HDL are enriched for oxidative stress response pathways. The protective effect of HDL is partially mimicked by cholesterol repletion and treatment with apoA1 but does not require signaling through scavenger receptor class B type I. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that HDL protection requires direct interaction with OxPAPC. HDL-associated platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) hydrolyzes short-chain bioactive phospholipids in OxPAPC; however, inhibiting PAF-AH activity does not prevent HDL protection. Our results are consistent with HDL sequestering specific bioactive lipids in OxPAPC, thereby preventing their regulation of select target genes. Overall, this work implicates HDL as a major regulator of OxPAPC action in endothelial cells via multiple mechanisms. PMID:24859737

  9. Network-based analysis of differentially expressed genes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood reveals new candidate genes for multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Safari-Alighiarloo, Nahid; Taghizadeh, Mohammad; Tabatabaei, Seyyed Mohammad; Namaki, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background The involvement of multiple genes and missing heritability, which are dominant in complex diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), entail using network biology to better elucidate their molecular basis and genetic factors. We therefore aimed to integrate interactome (protein–protein interaction (PPI)) and transcriptomes data to construct and analyze PPI networks for MS disease. Methods Gene expression profiles in paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) samples from MS patients, sampled in relapse or remission and controls, were analyzed. Differentially expressed genes which determined only in CSF (MS vs. control) and PBMCs (relapse vs. remission) separately integrated with PPI data to construct the Query-Query PPI (QQPPI) networks. The networks were further analyzed to investigate more central genes, functional modules and complexes involved in MS progression. Results The networks were analyzed and high centrality genes were identified. Exploration of functional modules and complexes showed that the majority of high centrality genes incorporated in biological pathways driving MS pathogenesis. Proteasome and spliceosome were also noticeable in enriched pathways in PBMCs (relapse vs. remission) which were identified by both modularity and clique analyses. Finally, STK4, RB1, CDKN1A, CDK1, RAC1, EZH2, SDCBP genes in CSF (MS vs. control) and CDC37, MAP3K3, MYC genes in PBMCs (relapse vs. remission) were identified as potential candidate genes for MS, which were the more central genes involved in biological pathways. Discussion This study showed that network-based analysis could explicate the complex interplay between biological processes underlying MS. Furthermore, an experimental validation of candidate genes can lead to identification of potential therapeutic targets. PMID:28028462

  10. Frequent expression loss of Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain (ITIH) genes in multiple human solid tumors: A systematic expression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, Alexander; Veeck, Juergen; Bektas, Nuran; Wild, Peter J; Hartmann, Arndt; Heindrichs, Uwe; Kristiansen, Glen; Werbowetski-Ogilvie, Tamra; Del Maestro, Rolando; Knuechel, Ruth; Dahl, Edgar

    2008-01-01

    Background The inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitors (ITI) are a family of plasma protease inhibitors, assembled from a light chain – bikunin, encoded by AMBP – and five homologous heavy chains (encoded by ITIH1, ITIH2, ITIH3, ITIH4, and ITIH5), contributing to extracellular matrix stability by covalent linkage to hyaluronan. So far, ITIH molecules have been shown to play a particularly important role in inflammation and carcinogenesis. Methods We systematically investigated differential gene expression of the ITIH gene family, as well as AMBP and the interacting partner TNFAIP6 in 13 different human tumor entities (of breast, endometrium, ovary, cervix, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, lung, thyroid, prostate, kidney, and pancreas) using cDNA dot blot analysis (Cancer Profiling Array, CPA), semiquantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results We found that ITIH genes are clearly downregulated in multiple human solid tumors, including breast, colon and lung cancer. Thus, ITIH genes may represent a family of putative tumor suppressor genes that should be analyzed in greater detail in the future. For an initial detailed analysis we chose ITIH2 expression in human breast cancer. Loss of ITIH2 expression in 70% of cases (n = 50, CPA) could be confirmed by real-time PCR in an additional set of breast cancers (n = 36). Next we studied ITIH2 expression on the protein level by analyzing a comprehensive tissue micro array including 185 invasive breast cancer specimens. We found a strong correlation (p < 0.001) between ITIH2 expression and estrogen receptor (ER) expression indicating that ER may be involved in the regulation of this ECM molecule. Conclusion Altogether, this is the first systematic analysis on the differential expression of ITIH genes in human cancer, showing frequent downregulation that may be associated with initiation and/or progression of these malignancies. PMID:18226209

  11. Over-expression of the apple spermidine synthase gene in pear confers multiple abiotic stress tolerance by altering polyamine titers.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiao-Peng; Pang, Xiao-Ming; Matsuda, Narumi; Kita, Masayuki; Inoue, Hiromichi; Hao, Yu-Jin; Honda, Chikako; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2008-04-01

    An apple spermidine synthase (SPDS) gene (MdSPDS1) was verified to encode a functional protein by the complementation of the spe3 yeast mutant, which lacks the SPDS gene. To justify our hypothesis that apple SPDS is involved in abiotic stress responses and to obtain transgenic fruit trees tolerant to abiotic stresses as well, MdSPDS1-over-expressing transgenic European pear (Pyrus communis L. 'Ballad') plants were created by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A total of 21 transgenic lines showing various spermidine (Spd) titers and MdSPDS1 expression levels were obtained. Selected lines were exposed to salt (150 mM NaCl), osmosis (300 mM mannitol), and heavy metal (500 microM CuSO4) stresses for evaluating their stress tolerances. Transgenic line no. 32, which was revealed to have the highest Spd accumulation and expression level of MdSPDS1, showed the strongest tolerance to these stresses. When growth increments, electrolyte leakage (EL), and values of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were monitored, line no. 32 showed the lowest growth inhibition and the least increase in EL or TBARS under stress conditions. Spd titers in wild-type and transgenic lines showed diverse changes upon stresses, and these changes were not consistent with the changes in MdSPDS1 expressions. Moreover, there were no differences in the sodium concentration in the shoots between the wild type and line no. 32, whereas the copper concentration was higher in the wild type than in line no. 32. Although the mechanism(s) underlying the involvement of polyamines in stress responses is not known, these results suggest that the over-expression of the SPDS gene substantially increased the tolerance to multiple stresses by altering the polyamine titers in pear. Thus, MdSPDS1-over-expressing transgenic pear plants could be used to improve desert land and/or to repair polluted environments.

  12. Expression of multiple tfb genes in different Halobacterium salinarum strains and interaction of TFB with transcriptional activator GvpE.

    PubMed

    Bleiholder, Anne; Frommherz, Regina; Teufel, Katharina; Pfeifer, Felicitas

    2012-04-01

    Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 contains multiple TBP and TFB proteins required for the recruitment of RNA polymerase for transcription initiation. The presence and the expression of genes encoding TFB were investigated in the two Hbt. salinarum strains NRC-1 and PHH1 and the mutant strain PHH4. The plasmid-encoded tfbC and tfbE genes of NRC-1 were lacking in PHH1 and PHH4. The 5'-end of the tfbF transcript was determined and contained a 5'-untranslated region of 39 nucleotides able to form a stem-loop structure. The expression of these tfb genes was studied in cultures growing at 15, 37°C and under heat shock conditions. Cold temperatures reduced growth and except for tfbF also the amounts of all tfb transcripts. However, the formation of gas vesicles increased in PHH1 and NRC-1. Heat shock reduced growth of PHH1 and NRC-1, but PHH4 was not affected. A 100-fold increase in tfbA and tfbB mRNA was observed in PHH1 and PHH4, whereas NRC-1 reduced the amounts of these transcripts and increased the expression of tfbG. All TFB proteins tested were able to interact with the transcription activator GvpE involved in gas vesicle formation that thus is able to recruit TFB to the gvp promoter.

  13. Epigenetic and gene expression alterations of FOXP3 in the T cells of EAE mouse model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Noori-Zadeh, Ali; Mesbah-Namin, Seyed Alireza; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali Akbar

    2017-04-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease with demyelination and neurodegeneration of the central nervous system. It has been shown that the regulatory T (Treg) cells are responsible for maintaining tolerance to self-antigens and can suppress the autoimmune process in several animal models such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS. Recent basic studies have demonstrated that forkhead box P (FOXP3) and BTB domain and CNC homolog 2 (BACH2) are the master transcription factors of these cells playing a pivotal role in the polarization of naïve T cells into Treg cells. In the current study, the expression of FOXP3 and BACH2 genes and FOXP3 promoter methylation were evaluated in T cells of the EAE-induced mice. The results of this study showed a prominent and significant hypermethylation of the FOXP3 gene promoter in the EAE-induced mice compared to the sham and control groups. The expression of FOXP3 and BACH2 genes was significantly decreased in the EAE group in comparison with the sham and control groups. This study suggests that the epigenetic modification of FOXP3 gene is involved in the pathogenesis of EAE and this could be important in therapy in an appropriate and logical statement.

  14. The MAR-binding protein SATB1 orchestrates temporal and spatial expression of multiple genes during T-cell development

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, John D.; Yasui, Dag H.; Niida, Hiroyuki; Joh, Tadashi; Loh, Dennis Y.; Kohwi-Shigematsu, Terumi

    2000-01-01

    SATB1 is expressed primarily in thymocytes and can act as a transcriptional repressor. SATB1 binds in vivo to the matrix attachment regions (MARs) of DNA, which are implicated in the loop domain organization of chromatin. The role of MAR-binding proteins in specific cell lineages is unknown. We generated SATB1-null mice to determine how SATB1 functions in the T-cell lineage. SATB1-null mice are small in size, have disproportionately small thymi and spleens, and die at 3 weeks of age. At the cellular level, multiple defects in T-cell development were observed. Immature CD3−CD4−CD8− triple negative (TN) thymocytes were greatly reduced in number, and thymocyte development was blocked mainly at the DP stage. The few peripheral CD4+ single positive (SP) cells underwent apoptosis and failed to proliferate in response to activating stimuli. At the molecular level, among 589 genes examined, at least 2% of genes including a proto-oncogene, cytokine receptor genes, and apoptosis-related genes were derepressed at inappropriate stages of T-cell development in SATB1-null mice. For example, IL-2Rα and IL-7Rα genes were ectopically transcribed in CD4+CD8+ double positive (DP) thymocytes. SATB1 appears to orchestrate the temporal and spatial expression of genes during T-cell development, thereby ensuring the proper development of this lineage. Our data provide the first evidence that MAR-binding proteins can act as global regulators of cell function in specific cell lineages. PMID:10716941

  15. Microcyst formation and HIV-1 gene expression occur in multiple nephron segments in HIV-associated nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Ross, M J; Bruggeman, L A; Wilson, P D; Klotman, P E

    2001-12-01

    Tubular microcyst formation is a prominent histopathologic feature of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), but its pathogenesis is unknown. HIV-1 has recently been shown to infect renal tubular epithelial cells in patients with HIVAN. In addition, HIV-1 gene expression in renal epithelial cells has been shown to cause a renal disease that is identical to HIVAN in HIV-1 transgenic mice. In these studies, immunohistochemistry for tubular segment-specific markers and mRNA in situ hybridization for HIV-1 was used to determine which tubular segments develop microcysts and which segments express HIV-1 in the kidneys of transgenic mice and patients with HIVAN. It was found that microcysts involve multiple nephron segments in both patients with HIVAN and HIV-1 transgenic mice. Furthermore, HIV-1 infection in HIVAN and HIV-1 transgene expression also occurs in multiple segments of the nephron. These data support a direct role for HIV-1 infection of renal epithelial cells in the pathogenesis of microcyst formation in patients with HIVAN.

  16. Endogenous interferon-β-inducible gene expression and interferon-β-treatment are associated with reduced T cell responses to myelin basic protein in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Börnsen, Lars; Romme Christensen, Jeppe; Ratzer, Rikke; Hedegaard, Chris; Søndergaard, Helle B; Krakauer, Martin; Hesse, Dan; Nielsen, Claus H; Sorensen, Per S; Sellebjerg, Finn

    2015-01-01

    Autoreactive CD4+ T-cells are considered to play a major role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis, exogenous and endogenous type I interferons restrict disease severity. Recombinant interferon-β is used for treatment of multiple sclerosis, and some untreated multiple sclerosis patients have increased expression levels of type I interferon-inducible genes in immune cells. The role of endogenous type I interferons in multiple sclerosis is controversial: some studies found an association of high expression levels of interferon-β-inducible genes with an increased expression of interleukin-10 and a milder disease course in untreated multiple sclerosis patients, whereas other studies reported an association with a poor response to treatment with interferon-β. In the present study, we found that untreated multiple sclerosis patients with an increased expression of interferon-β-inducible genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and interferon-β-treated multiple sclerosis patients had decreased CD4+ T-cell reactivity to the autoantigen myelin basic protein ex vivo. Interferon-β-treated multiple sclerosis patients had increased IL10 and IL27 gene expression levels in monocytes in vivo. In vitro, neutralization of interleukin-10 and monocyte depletion increased CD4+ T-cell reactivity to myelin basic protein while interleukin-10, in the presence or absence of monocytes, inhibited CD4+ T-cell reactivity to myelin basic protein. Our findings suggest that spontaneous expression of interferon-β-inducible genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from untreated multiple sclerosis patients and treatment with interferon-β are associated with reduced myelin basic protein-induced T-cell responses. Reduced myelin basic protein-induced CD4+ T-cell autoreactivity in interferon-β-treated multiple sclerosis patients may be mediated by monocyte-derived interleukin-10.

  17. Mamld1 Deficiency Significantly Reduces mRNA Expression Levels of Multiple Genes Expressed in Mouse Fetal Leydig Cells but Permits Normal Genital and Reproductive Development

    PubMed Central

    Miyado, Mami; Nakamura, Michiko; Miyado, Kenji; Morohashi, Ken-ichirou; Sano, Shinichiro; Nagata, Eiko; Fukami, Maki

    2012-01-01

    Although mastermind-like domain containing 1 (MAMLD1) (CXORF6) on human chromosome Xq28 has been shown to be a causative gene for 46,XY disorders of sex development with hypospadias, the biological function of MAMLD1/Mamld1 remains to be elucidated. In this study, we first showed gradual and steady increase of testicular Mamld1 mRNA expression levels in wild-type male mice from 12.5 to 18.5 d postcoitum. We then generated Mamld1 knockout (KO) male mice and revealed mildly but significantly reduced testicular mRNA levels (65–80%) of genes exclusively expressed in Leydig cells (Star, Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1, Hsd3b1, and Insl3) as well as grossly normal testicular mRNA levels of genes expressed in other cell types or in Leydig and other cell types. However, no demonstrable abnormality was identified for cytochrome P450 17A1 and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B) protein expression levels, appearance of external and internal genitalia, anogenital distance, testis weight, Leydig cell number, intratesticular testosterone and other steroid metabolite concentrations, histological findings, in situ hybridization findings for sonic hedgehog (the key molecule for genital tubercle development), and immunohistochemical findings for anti-Müllerian hormone (Sertoli cell marker), HSD3B (Leydig cell marker), and DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 4 (germ cell marker) in the KO male mice. Fertility was also normal. These findings imply that Mamld1 deficiency significantly reduces mRNA expression levels of multiple genes expressed in mouse fetal Leydig cells but permits normal genital and reproductive development. The contrastive phenotypic findings between Mamld1 KO male mice and MAMLD1 mutation positive patients would primarily be ascribed to species difference in the fetal sex development. PMID:23087174

  18. The Yeast Prion [SWI(+)] Abolishes Multicellular Growth by Triggering Conformational Changes of Multiple Regulators Required for Flocculin Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Ying; Li, Liming

    2015-12-29

    Although transcription factors are prevalent among yeast prion proteins, the role of prion-mediated transcriptional regulation remains elusive. Here, we show that the yeast prion [SWI(+)] abolishes flocculin (FLO) gene expression and results in a complete loss of multicellularity. Further investigation demonstrates that besides Swi1, multiple other proteins essential for FLO expression, including Mss11, Sap30, and Msn1 also undergo conformational changes and become inactivated in [SWI(+)] cells. Moreover, the asparagine-rich region of Mss11 can exist as prion-like aggregates specifically in [SWI(+)] cells, which are SDS resistant, heritable, and curable, but become metastable after separation from [SWI(+)]. Our findings thus reveal a prion-mediated mechanism through which multiple regulators in a biological pathway can be inactivated. In combination with the partial loss-of-function phenotypes of [SWI(+)] cells on non-glucose sugar utilization, our data therefore demonstrate that a prion can influence distinct traits differently through multi-level regulations, providing insights into the biological roles of prions. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The yeast prion [SWI+] abolishes multicellular growth by triggering conformational changes of multiple regulators required for flocculin gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Ying; Li, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Summary While transcription factors are prevalent among yeast prion proteins, the role of prion-mediated transcriptional regulation remains elusive. We show here that the yeast prion [SWI+] abolishes flocculin (FLO) gene expression and results in a complete loss of multicellularity. Further investigation demonstrates that besides Swi1, multiple other proteins essential for FLO expression, including Mss11, Sap30, and Msn1 also undergo conformational changes, and become inactivated in [SWI+] cells. Moreover, the asparagine-rich region of Mss11 can exist as prion-like aggregates specifically in [SWI+] cells, which are SDS-resistant, heritable, and curable, but become metastable after separation from [SWI+]. Our findings thus reveal a prion-mediated mechanism through which multiple regulators in a biological pathway can be inactivated. In combination with the partial loss-of-function phenotypes of [SWI+] cells on non-glucose sugar utilization, our data therefore demonstrate that a prion can influence differently on distinct traits through multi-level regulations, providing insights into the biological roles of prions. PMID:26711350

  20. Multiple 5'-flanking regions of the human alpha-skeletal actin gene synergistically modulate muscle-specific expression.

    PubMed

    Muscat, G E; Kedes, L

    1987-11-01

    that the particular combination of domains used is dependent on the availability, in kind or amount, of trans-acting, transcription-modulating factors present in each cell type. Thus, multiple myogenic factors that vary qualitatively and quantitatively may be responsible for the different and complex modulatory programs of actin gene expression observed during in vivo muscle differentiation.

  1. Multiplexed optical coding nanobeads and their application in single-molecule counting analysis for multiple gene expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Shen, Liping; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Shui, Lingling; Sui, Benhui; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiaofan; Jin, Wenrui

    2015-07-30

    A method for fabrication of multiplexed optical coding nanobeads (MOCNBs) was developed by hybridizing three types of coding DNAs labeled with different dyes (Cy5, FAM and AMCA) at precisely controlled ratios with biotinylated reporter DNA modified to magnetic streptavidin-coated nanobeads with a diameter of 300 nm. The color of the MOCNBs could be observed by overlapping three single-primary-color fluorescence images of the MOCNBs corresponding to emission of Cy5 (red), FAM (green) and AMCA (blue). The MOCNBs could be easily identified under a conventional fluorescence microscope. The MOCNBs with different colors could serve as the multiplexed optical coding labels for single-molecule counting analysis (SMCA) and be used in multi-gene expression analysis (MGEA). In the SMCA-based MGEA technique, multiple messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in cells could be simultaneously quantified through their complementary DNAs (cDNAs) by counting the bright dots with the same color corresponding to the single cDNA molecules labeled with the MOCNBs. We measured expression profiles of three genes from Lepidoptera insect Helicoverpa armigera in ∼100 HaEpi cells with and without steroid hormone inductions to demonstrate the SMCA-based MGEA technique using MOCNBs.

  2. Gene-expression signature of benign monoclonal gammopathy evident in multiple myeloma is linked to good prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Fenghuang; Barlogie, Bart; Arzoumanian, Varant; Huang, Yongsheng; Williams, David R.; Hollmig, Klaus; Pineda-Roman, Mauricio; Tricot, Guido; van Rhee, Frits; Zangari, Maurizio; Dhodapkar, Madhav; Shaughnessy, John D.

    2007-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) can progress to multiple myeloma (MM). Although these diseases share many of the same genetic features, it is still unclear whether global gene-expression profiling might identify prior genomic signatures that distinguish them. Through significance analysis of microarrays, 52 genes involved in important pathways related to cancer were differentially expressed in the plasma cells of healthy subjects (normal plasma-cell [NPC]; n = 22) and patients with stringently defined MGUS/smoldering MM (n = 24) and symptomatic MM (n = 351) (P < .001). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of 351 patients with MM, 44 with MGUS (24 + 20), and 16 with MM from MGUS created 2 major cluster branches, one containing 82% of the MGUS patients and the other containing 28% of the MM patients, termed MGUS-like MM (MGUS-L MM). Using the same clustering approach on an independent cohort of 214 patients with MM, 27% were found to be MGUS-L. This molecular signature, despite its association with a lower incidence of complete remission (P = .006), was associated with low-risk clinical and molecular features and superior survival (P < .01). The MGUS-L signature was also seen in plasma cells from 15 of 20 patients surviving more than 10 years after autotransplantation. These data provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of plasma-cell dyscrasias. PMID:17023574

  3. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of multiple polyphenol oxidase genes in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum) kernels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 1.10.31) is a major cause of discoloring in raw dough containing wheat flour. Minimization of PPO activity has proven difficult because bread wheat is genetically complex, composed of the genomes of three grass species. The PPO-A1 and PPO-D1 genes, on chromosomes 2A and...

  4. Identification and expression profiles of multiple genes in Nile tilapia in response to bacterial infections

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To understand the molecular mechanisms involved in response of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to bacterial infection, suppression subtractive cDNA hybridization technique was used to identify upregulated genes in the posterior kidney of Nile tilapia at 6h post infection with Aeromonas hydrophi...

  5. Genes with a spike expression are clustered in chromosome (sub)bands and spike (sub)bands have a powerful prognostic value in patients with multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Kassambara, Alboukadel; Hose, Dirk; Moreaux, Jérôme; Walker, Brian A.; Protopopov, Alexei; Reme, Thierry; Pellestor, Franck; Pantesco, Véronique; Jauch, Anna; Morgan, Gareth; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Klein, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Background Genetic abnormalities are common in patients with multiple myeloma, and may deregulate gene products involved in tumor survival, proliferation, metabolism and drug resistance. In particular, translocations may result in a high expression of targeted genes (termed spike expression) in tumor cells. We identified spike genes in multiple myeloma cells of patients with newly-diagnosed myeloma and investigated their prognostic value. Design and Methods Genes with a spike expression in multiple myeloma cells were picked up using box plot probe set signal distribution and two selection filters. Results In a cohort of 206 newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma, 2587 genes/expressed sequence tags with a spike expression were identified. Some spike genes were associated with some transcription factors such as MAF or MMSET and with known recurrent translocations as expected. Spike genes were not associated with increased DNA copy number and for a majority of them, involved unknown mechanisms. Of spiked genes, 36.7% clustered significantly in 149 out of 862 documented chromosome (sub)bands, of which 53 had prognostic value (35 bad, 18 good). Their prognostic value was summarized with a spike band score that delineated 23.8% of patients with a poor median overall survival (27.4 months versus not reached, P<0.001) using the training cohort of 206 patients. The spike band score was independent of other gene expression profiling-based risk scores, t(4;14), or del17p in an independent validation cohort of 345 patients. Conclusions We present a new approach to identify spike genes and their relationship to patients’ survival. PMID:22102711

  6. Single-cell multiple gene expression analysis based on single-molecule-detection microarray assay for multi-DNA determination.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Wang, Xianwei; Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Jinxing; Jin, Wenrui

    2015-01-07

    We report a novel ultra-sensitive and high-selective single-molecule-detection microarray assay (SMA) for multiple DNA determination. In the SMA, a capture DNA (DNAc) microarray consisting of 10 subarrays with 9 spots for each subarray is fabricated on a silanized glass coverslip as the substrate. On the subarrays, the spot-to-spot spacing is 500 μm and each spot has a diameter of ∼300 μm. The sequence of the DNAcs on the 9 spots of a subarray is different, to determine 8 types of target DNAs (DNAts). Thus, 8 types of DNAts are captured to their complementary DNAcs at 8 spots of a subarray, respectively, and then labeled with quantum dots (QDs) attached to 8 types of detection DNAs (DNAds) with different sequences. The ninth spot is used to detect the blank value. In order to determine the same 8 types of DNAts in 10 samples, the 10 DNAc-modified subarrays on the microarray are identical. Fluorescence single-molecule images of the QD-labeled DNAts on each spot of the subarray are acquired using a home-made single-molecule microarray reader. The amounts of the DNAts are quantified by counting the bright dots from the QDs. For a microarray, 8 types of DNAts in 10 samples can be quantified in parallel. The limit of detection of the SMA for DNA determination is as low as 1.3×10(-16) mol L(-1). The SMA for multi-DNA determination can also be applied in single-cell multiple gene expression analysis through quantification of complementary DNAs (cDNAs) corresponding to multiple messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in single cells. To do so, total RNA in single cells is extracted and reversely transcribed into their cDNAs. Three types of cDNAs corresponding to beta-2-microglobulin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and ribosomal protein, large, P2 mRNAs in single human breast cancer cells and 5 random synthetic DNAts are simultaneously quantified to examine the SMA and SMA-based single-cell multiple gene expression analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related genes increases with copy number in multiple cancer types

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular process through which epithelial cells transform into mesenchymal cells. EMT-implicated genes initiate and promote cancer metastasis because mesenchymal cells have greater invasive and migration capacities than epithelial cells. In this pan-cancer analysis, we explored the relationship between gene expression changes and copy number variations (CNVs) for EMT-implicated genes. Based on curated 377 EMT-implicated genes from the literature, we identified 212 EMT-implicated genes associated with more frequent copy number gains (CNGs) than copy number losses (CNLs) using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Then by correlating these CNV data with TCGA gene expression data, we identified 71 EMT-implicated genes with concordant CNGs and gene up-regulation in 20 or more tumor samples. Of those, 14 exhibited such concordance in over 110 tumor samples. These 14 genes were predominantly apoptosis regulators, which may implies that apoptosis is critical during EMT. Moreover, the 71 genes with concordant CNG and up-regulation were largely involved in cellular functions such as phosphorylation cascade signaling. This is the first observation of concordance between CNG and up-regulation of specific genes in hundreds of samples, which may indicate that somatic CNGs activate gene expression by increasing the gene dosage. PMID:27029057

  8. The distinct gene expression profiles of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and multiple myeloma suggest different anti-apoptotic mechanisms but predict only some differences in phenotype.

    PubMed

    Zent, Clive S; Zhan, Fenghuang; Schichman, Steven A; Bumm, Klaus H W; Lin, Pei; Chen, James B; Shaughnessy, John D

    2003-09-01

    We compared gene expression in purified tumor cells from untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic (CLL) (n=24) and newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) (n=29) using the Affymetrix HuGeneFL microarray with probes for approximately 6800 genes. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed that CLL and MM have distinct expression profiles (class prediction). Gene and protein expression (measured by flow cytometry) correlated well for CD19, CD20, CD23, and CD138 in CLL and MM, but not for immunoglobulin light chain, CD38 and CD79b in CLL, or CD45 and CD52 in MM. CLL and MM differentially expressed 18% of 130 apoptosis related genes, suggesting differences in mechanisms of cell survival.

  9. Angiotensinogen gene is expressed and differentially regulated in multiple tissues of the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, D J; Habener, J F

    1986-01-01

    To define the role of local synthesis of angiotensinogen in tissue angiotensin production, we have quantitated angiotensinogen messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in 17 different tissues of four groups of rats: control rats, nephrectomized rats, rats given dexamethasone, ethynylestradiol, and triiodothyronine, and nephrectomized rats given dexamethasone, ethynylestradiol, and triiodothyronine. Angiotensinogen mRNA was identified in 12 tissues: liver, kidney, brain, spinal cord, aorta, mesentery, atria, lung, adrenal, large intestine, stomach, and spleen. Angiotensinogen mRNA was not identified in pituitary, ventricle, testis, small intestine, or pancreas. When expressed per gram tissue wet weight, angiotensinogen mRNA levels of extrahepatic tissues were less than 4% of hepatic levels. However, when expressed per milligram total RNA, angiotensinogen mRNA levels of brain, spinal cord, aorta, and mesentery were 26-42% of hepatic levels. Regulation of angiotensinogen mRNA levels was tissue specific. This demonstration of a widespread tissue distribution of angiotensinogen mRNA may indicate a similarly widespread distribution of local angiotensin systems that are independent of the circulating renin-angiotensin system. Images PMID:3013940

  10. HUMAN PARAOXONASE-1 (PON1): GENE STRUCTURE AND EXPRESSION, PROMISCUOUS ACTIVITIES AND MULTIPLE PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLES

    PubMed Central

    Mackness, Mike; Mackness, Bharti

    2015-01-01

    Human PON1 is a HDL-associated lipolactonase capable of preventing LDL and cell membrane oxidation and is therefore considered to be atheroprotective. PON1 contributes to the antioxidative function of HDL and reductions in HDL-PON1 activity, prevalent in a wide variety of diseases with an inflammatory component, is believed to lead to dysfunctional HDL which can promote inflammation and atherosclerosis. However, PON1 is multifunctional and may contribute to other HDL functions such as in innate immunity, preventing infection by quorum sensing gram negative bacteria by destroying acyl lactone mediators of quorum sensing, and putative new roles in cancer development and the promotion of healthy ageing. In this review we explore the physiological roles of PON1 in disease development, as well as PON1 gene and protein structure, promiscuous activities and the roles of SNPs and ethnicity in determining PON1 activity. PMID:25965560

  11. Human paraoxonase-1 (PON1): Gene structure and expression, promiscuous activities and multiple physiological roles.

    PubMed

    Mackness, Mike; Mackness, Bharti

    2015-08-01

    Human PON1 is a HDL-associated lipolactonase capable of preventing LDL and cell membrane oxidation and is therefore considered to be atheroprotective. PON1 contributes to the antioxidative function of HDL and reductions in HDL-PON1 activity, prevalent in a wide variety of diseases with an inflammatory component, are believed to lead to dysfunctional HDL which can promote inflammation and atherosclerosis. However, PON1 is multifunctional and may contribute to other HDL functions such as in innate immunity, preventing infection by quorum sensing gram negative bacteria by destroying acyl lactone mediators of quorum sensing, and putative new roles in cancer development and the promotion of healthy ageing. In this review we explore the physiological roles of PON1 in disease development, as well as PON1 gene and protein structure, promiscuous activities and the roles of SNPs and ethnicity in determining PON1 activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Gene Orientation and Use of Multiple Promoters on the Expression of XYL1 and XYL2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Ju Yun; Laplaza, José; Jeffries, Thomas W.

    Orientation of adjacent genes has been reported to affect their expression in eukaryotic systems, and metabolic engineering also often makes repeated use of a few promoters to obtain high expression. To improve transcriptional control in heterologous expression, we examined how these factors affect gene expression and enzymatic activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We assembled d-xylose reductase (XYL1) and d-xylitol dehydrogenase (XYL2) in four ways. Each pair of genes was placed in two different tandem (l→2→ or √1√2), convergent (1→√2), and divergent (√1 2→) orientations in autonomous plasmids. The TEF1 promoter was used to drive XYL1 and the TDH3 promoter to drive XYL2 in each of the constructs. The effects of gene orientation on growth, transcription, and enzyme activity were analyzed. The transcription level as measured by quantitative PCR (q-PCR) correlated with enzyme activities, but our data did not show a significant effect of gene orientation. To test the possible dilution of promoter strength due to multiple use of the same promoter, we examined the level of expression of XYL1 driven by either the TEF1 or TDH3 promoter when carried on a single copy plasmid. We then coexpressed XYL2 from either a single or multicopy plasmid, which was also driven by the same promoter. XYL2 transcript and enzyme expression increased with plasmid copy number, while the expression of XYLl was constant regardless of the number of other TEF1 or TDH3 promoters present in the cell. According to our data, there is no significant effect of gene orientation or multiple promoter use on gene transcription and translation when genes are expressed from plasmids; however, other factors could affect expression of adjacent genes in chromosomes.

  13. Multiple enhancers contribute to expression of the NK-2 homeobox gene ceh-22 in C. elegans pharyngeal muscle.

    PubMed

    Kuchenthal, C A; Chen, W; Okkema, P G

    2001-12-01

    Gene expression in the pharyngeal muscles of C. elegans is regulated in part by the NK-2 family homeodomain factor CEH-22, which is structurally and functionally related to Drosophila Tinman and the vertebrate Nkx2-5 factors. ceh-22 is expressed exclusively in the pharyngeal muscles and is the earliest gene known to be expressed in this tissue. Here we characterize the ceh-22 promoter region in transgenic C. elegans. A 1.9-kb fragment upstream of ceh-22 is sufficient to regulate reporter gene expression in a pattern identical to the endogenous gene. Within this promoter we identified two transcriptional enhancers and characterized their cell type and temporal specificity. The distal enhancer becomes active in the pharynx near the time that ceh-22 expression initiates; however, it becomes active more broadly later in development. The proximal enhancer becomes active after the onset of ceh-22 expression, but it is active specifically in the ceh-22-expressing pharyngeal muscles. We suggest these enhancers respond to distinct signals that initiate and maintain ceh-22 gene expression. Proximal enhancer activity requires a short segment containing a CEH-22 responsive element, suggesting that CEH-22 autoregulates its own expression.

  14. Gene therapy with mesenchymal stem cells expressing IFN-ß ameliorates neuroinflammation in experimental models of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Marin-Bañasco, C; Benabdellah, K; Melero-Jerez, C; Oliver, B; Pinto-Medel, M J; Hurtado-Guerrero, I; de Castro, F; Clemente, D; Fernández, O; Martin, F; Leyva, L; Suardíaz, M

    2017-02-01

    Recombinant IFN-ß is one of the first-line treatments in multiple sclerosis (MS), despite its lack of efficacy in some patients. In this context, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising therapeutic alternative due to their immunomodulatory properties and multipotency. Moreover, by taking advantage of their pathotropism, these cells can be genetically modified to be used as carriers for delivering or secreting therapeutic drugs into injured tissues. Here, we report the therapeutic effect of systemic delivery of adipose-derived MSCs (AdMSCs), transduced with the IFN-β gene, into mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Relapsing-remitting and chronic progressive EAE were induced in mice. Cells were injected i.v. Disease severity, inflammation and tissue damage were assessed clinically, by flow cytometry of spleens and histopathological evaluation of the CNS respectively. Genetic engineering did not modify the biological characteristics of these AdMSCs (morphology, growth rate, immunophenotype and multipotency). Furthermore, the transduction of IFN-ß to AdMSCs maintained and, in some cases, enhanced the functional properties of AdMSCs by ameliorating the symptoms of MS in EAE models and by decreasing indications of peripheral and central neuro-inflammation. Gene therapy was found to be more effective than cell therapy in ameliorating several clinical parameters in both EAE models, presumably due to the continuous expression of IFN-β. Furthermore, it has significant advantages over AdMSC therapy, and also over systemic IFN-ß treatment, by providing long-term expression of the cytokine at therapeutic concentrations and reducing the frequency of injections, while minimizing dose-limiting side effects. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Deletion of Orai1 alters expression of multiple genes during osteoclast and osteoblast maturation.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung-Yong; Foley, Julie; Numaga-Tomita, Takuro; Petranka, John G; Bird, Gary S; Putney, James W

    2012-12-01

    Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is a major Ca(2+) influx pathway in most non-excitable cell types and Orai1 was recently identified as an essential pore-subunit of SOCE channels. Here we investigate the physiological role of Orai1 in bone homeostasis using Orai1-deficient mice (Orai1(-/-)). Orai1(-/-) mice developed osteopenia with decreased bone mineral density and trabecular bone volume. To identify the nature and origin of the bone defect, bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts from Orai1(-/-) mice were examined. Orai1-mediated SOCE was completely abolished in Orai1(-/-) osteoclast precursor cells and osteoclastogenesis in vitro from Orai1(-/-) mice was impaired due to a defect in cell fusion of pre-osteoclasts. Also, resorption activity in vitro was comparable but the size of pits formed by Orai1(-/-) osteoclasts was smaller. We next assessed the role of Orai1 in osteoblast differentiation and function by using a pre-osteoblast cell line, as well as primary osteoblasts from wild-type and Orai1(-/-) mice. SOCE in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cells was inactivated by lentiviral overexpression of a pore-dead Orai1 mutant. Lack of SOCE in MC3T3-E1 had no effect on alkaline phosphatase staining and expression but substantially inhibited mineralized nodule formation. Consistent with this finding, Orai1-mediated SOCE was markedly reduced in Orai1(-/-) osteoblast precursor cells and osteoblastogenesis in vitro from Orai1(-/-) stromal cells showed impaired mineral deposition but no change in differentiation. This indicates that Orai1 is involved in the function but not in the differentiation of osteoblasts. Together, these results suggest that Orai1 plays a critical role in bone homeostasis by regulating both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd.

  16. Deletion of Orai1 Alters Expression of Multiple Genes during Osteoclast and Osteoblast Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sung-Yong; Foley, Julie; Numaga-Tomita, Takuro; Petranka, John G.; Bird, Gary S.; Putney, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is a major Ca2+ influx pathway in most non-excitable cell types and Orai1 was recently identified as an essential pore-subunit of SOCE channels. Here we investigate the physiological role of Orai1 in bone homeostasis using Orai1-deficient mice (Orai1−/−). Orai1−/− mice developed osteopenia with decreased bone mineral density and trabecular bone volume. To identify the nature and origin of the bone defect, bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts from Orai1−/− mice were examined. Orai1-mediated SOCE was completely abolished in Orai1−/− osteoclast precursor cells and osteoclastogenesis in vitro from Orai1−/− mice was impaired due to a defect in cell fusion of pre-osteoclasts. Also, resorption activity in vitro was comparable but the size of pits formed by Orai1−/− osteoclasts was smaller. We next assessed the role of Orai1 in osteoblast differentiation and function by using a pre-osteoblast cell line, as well as primary osteoblasts from wild-type and Orai1−/− mice. SOCE in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cells was inactivated by lentiviral overexpression of a pore-dead Orai1 mutant. Lack of SOCE in MC3T3-E1 had no effect on alkaline phosphatase staining and expression but substantially inhibited mineralized nodule formation. Consistent with this finding, Orai1-mediated SOCE was markedly reduced in Orai1−/− osteoblast precursor cells and osteoblastogenesis in vitro from Orai1−/− stromal cells showed impaired mineral deposition but no change in differentiation. This indicates that Orai1 is involved in the function but not in the differentiation of osteoblasts. Together, these results suggest that Orai1 plays a critical role in bone homeostasis by regulating both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PMID:23122304

  17. Transgenic Expression of miR-222 Disrupts Intestinal Epithelial Regeneration by Targeting Multiple Genes Including Frizzled-7.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hee Kyoung; Chen, Yu; Rao, Jaladanki N; Liu, Lan; Xiao, Lan; Turner, Douglas J; Yang, Peixin; Gorospe, Myriam; Wang, Jian-Ying

    2015-08-03

    Defects in intestinal epithelial integrity occur commonly in various pathologies. miR-222 is implicated in many aspects of cellular function and plays an important role in several diseases, but its exact biological function in the intestinal epithelium is underexplored. We generated mice with intestinal epithelial tissue-specific overexpression of miR-222 to investigate the function of miR-222 in intestinal physiology and diseases in vivo. Transgenic expression of miR-222 inhibited mucosal growth and increased susceptibility to apoptosis in the small intestine, thus leading to mucosal atrophy. The miR-222-elevated intestinal epithelium was vulnerable to pathological stress, since local overexpression of miR-222 not only delayed mucosal repair after ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury but also exacerbated gut barrier dysfunction induced by exposure to cecal ligation and puncture. miR-222 overexpression also decreased expression of the Wnt receptor Frizzled-7 (FZD7), cyclin-dependent kinase 4, and tight junctions in the mucosal tissue. Mechanistically, we identified the Fzd7 mRNA as a novel target of miR-222 and found that [miR-222/Fzd7 mRNA] association repressed Fzd7 mRNA translation. These results implicate miR-222 as a negative regulator of normal intestinal epithelial regeneration and protection by down-regulating expression of multiple genes including the Fzd7. Our findings also suggest a novel role of increased miR-222 in the pathogenesis of mucosal growth inhibition, delayed healing, and barrier dysfunction.

  18. De novo Transcriptome Assembly of Chinese Kale and Global Expression Analysis of Genes Involved in Glucosinolate Metabolism in Multiple Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shuanghua; Lei, Jianjun; Chen, Guoju; Chen, Hancai; Cao, Bihao; Chen, Changming

    2017-01-01

    Chinese kale, a vegetable of the cruciferous family, is a popular crop in southern China and Southeast Asia due to its high glucosinolate content and nutritional qualities. However, there is little research on the molecular genetics and genes involved in glucosinolate metabolism and its regulation in Chinese kale. In this study, we sequenced and characterized the transcriptomes and expression profiles of genes expressed in 11 tissues of Chinese kale. A total of 216 million 150-bp clean reads were generated using RNA-sequencing technology. From the sequences, 98,180 unigenes were assembled for the whole plant, and 49,582~98,423 unigenes were assembled for each tissue. Blast analysis indicated that a total of 80,688 (82.18%) unigenes exhibited similarity to known proteins. The functional annotation and classification tools used in this study suggested that genes principally expressed in Chinese kale, were mostly involved in fundamental processes, such as cellular and molecular functions, the signal transduction, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. The expression levels of all unigenes were analyzed in various tissues of Chinese kale. A large number of candidate genes involved in glucosinolate metabolism and its regulation were identified, and the expression patterns of these genes were analyzed. We found that most of the genes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis were highly expressed in the root, petiole, and in senescent leaves. The expression patterns of ten glucosinolate biosynthetic genes from RNA-seq were validated by quantitative RT-PCR in different tissues. These results provided an initial and global overview of Chinese kale gene functions and expression activities in different tissues. PMID:28228764

  19. The hypoxia-mimetic agent cobalt chloride induces cell cycle arrest and alters gene expression in U266 multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Bae, Seunghee; Jeong, Hye-Jung; Cha, Hwa Jun; Kim, Karam; Choi, Yeong Min; An, In-Sook; Koh, Hyea Jung; Lim, Dae Jin; Lee, Su-Jae; An, Sungkwan

    2012-11-01

    Hypoxia is a common feature of tumors that occurs across a wide variety of malignancies. Multiple myeloma is an incurable malignant disorder of plasma cells in the bone marrow. Although bone marrow hypoxia is crucial for normal hematopoiesis, the effect of hypoxia on multiple myeloma is poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that cobalt chloride (CoCl2)-mediated hypoxia decreased cell viability and altered gene expression in U266 human multiple myeloma cells. CoCl2 induced the loss of cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, FACS analysis revealed that the loss of cell viability was related to apoptosis. Using microarray analysis, we identified mRNA expression profile changes in response to CoCl2 treatment in U266 cells. Four hundred and fifty-two mRNAs exhibited >2-fold changes in expression in CoCl2-treated U266 cells compared to their expression in control cells. A follow-up bioinformatics study revealed that a great number of genes with altered expression were involved in apoptosis, cell cycle, transcription and development. In conclusion, these results provide novel evidence that CoCl2-mediated hypoxia affects the expression profiles of genes that are functionally related to apoptosis and angiogenesis in U266 multiple myeloma cells.

  20. Global gene expression changes underlying Stachybotrys chartarum toxin-induced apoptosis in murine alveolar macrophages: evidence of multiple signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiyan; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2007-03-01

    The overall mechanism(s) underlying macrophage apoptosis caused by the toxins of the indoor mold Stachybotrys chartarum (SC) are not yet understood. In this direction, we report a microarray-based global gene expression profiling on the murine alveolar macrophage cell line (MH-S) treated with SC toxins for short (2 h) and long (24 h) periods, coinciding with the pre-apoptotic (<3 h) and progressed apoptotic stages of the treated cells, respectively. Microarray results on differential expression were validated by real-time RT-PCR analysis using representative gene targets. The toxin-regulated genes corresponded to multiple cellular processes, including cell growth, proliferation and death, inflammatory/immune response, genotoxic stress and oxidative stress, and to the underlying multiple signal transduction pathways involving MAPK-, NF-kB-, TNF-, and p53-mediated signaling. Transcription factor NF-kB showed dynamic temporal changes, characterized by an initial activation and a subsequent inhibition. Up-regulation of a battery of DNA damage-responsive and DNA repair genes in the early stage of the treatment suggested a possible role of genotoxic stress in the initiation of apoptosis. Simultaneous expression changes in both pro-survival genes and pro-apoptotic genes indicated the role of a critical balance between the two processes in SC toxin-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the results imply that multiple signaling pathways underlie the SC toxin-induced apoptosis in alveolar macrophages.

  1. Differential Gene Expression in the Siphonophore Nanomia bijuga (Cnidaria) Assessed with Multiple Next-Generation Sequencing Workflows

    PubMed Central

    Siebert, Stefan; Robinson, Mark D.; Tintori, Sophia C.; Goetz, Freya; Helm, Rebecca R.; Smith, Stephen A.; Shaner, Nathan; Haddock, Steven H. D.; Dunn, Casey W.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated differential gene expression between functionally specialized feeding polyps and swimming medusae in the siphonophore Nanomia bijuga (Cnidaria) with a hybrid long-read/short-read sequencing strategy. We assembled a set of partial gene reference sequences from long-read data (Roche 454), and generated short-read sequences from replicated tissue samples that were mapped to the references to quantify expression. We collected and compared expression data with three short-read expression workflows that differ in sample preparation, sequencing technology, and mapping tools. These workflows were Illumina mRNA-Seq, which generates sequence reads from random locations along each transcript, and two tag-based approaches, SOLiD SAGE and Helicos DGE, which generate reads from particular tag sites. Differences in expression results across workflows were mostly due to the differential impact of missing data in the partial reference sequences. When all 454-derived gene reference sequences were considered, Illumina mRNA-Seq detected more than twice as many differentially expressed (DE) reference sequences as the tag-based workflows. This discrepancy was largely due to missing tag sites in the partial reference that led to false negatives in the tag-based workflows. When only the subset of reference sequences that unambiguously have tag sites was considered, we found broad congruence across workflows, and they all identified a similar set of DE sequences. Our results are promising in several regards for gene expression studies in non-model organisms. First, we demonstrate that a hybrid long-read/short-read sequencing strategy is an effective way to collect gene expression data when an annotated genome sequence is not available. Second, our replicated sampling indicates that expression profiles are highly consistent across field-collected animals in this case. Third, the impacts of partial reference sequences on the ability to detect DE can be mitigated through

  2. Differential gene expression in the siphonophore Nanomia bijuga (Cnidaria) assessed with multiple next-generation sequencing workflows.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Stefan; Robinson, Mark D; Tintori, Sophia C; Goetz, Freya; Helm, Rebecca R; Smith, Stephen A; Shaner, Nathan; Haddock, Steven H D; Dunn, Casey W

    2011-01-01

    We investigated differential gene expression between functionally specialized feeding polyps and swimming medusae in the siphonophore Nanomia bijuga (Cnidaria) with a hybrid long-read/short-read sequencing strategy. We assembled a set of partial gene reference sequences from long-read data (Roche 454), and generated short-read sequences from replicated tissue samples that were mapped to the references to quantify expression. We collected and compared expression data with three short-read expression workflows that differ in sample preparation, sequencing technology, and mapping tools. These workflows were Illumina mRNA-Seq, which generates sequence reads from random locations along each transcript, and two tag-based approaches, SOLiD SAGE and Helicos DGE, which generate reads from particular tag sites. Differences in expression results across workflows were mostly due to the differential impact of missing data in the partial reference sequences. When all 454-derived gene reference sequences were considered, Illumina mRNA-Seq detected more than twice as many differentially expressed (DE) reference sequences as the tag-based workflows. This discrepancy was largely due to missing tag sites in the partial reference that led to false negatives in the tag-based workflows. When only the subset of reference sequences that unambiguously have tag sites was considered, we found broad congruence across workflows, and they all identified a similar set of DE sequences. Our results are promising in several regards for gene expression studies in non-model organisms. First, we demonstrate that a hybrid long-read/short-read sequencing strategy is an effective way to collect gene expression data when an annotated genome sequence is not available. Second, our replicated sampling indicates that expression profiles are highly consistent across field-collected animals in this case. Third, the impacts of partial reference sequences on the ability to detect DE can be mitigated through

  3. Gene Expression Profiles from Disease Discordant Twins Suggest Shared Antiviral Pathways and Viral Exposures among Multiple Systemic Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Gan, Lu; O'Hanlon, Terrance P; Lai, Zhennan; Fannin, Rick; Weller, Melodie L; Rider, Lisa G; Chiorini, John A; Miller, Frederick W

    2015-01-01

    Viral agents are of interest as possible autoimmune triggers due to prior reported associations and widely studied molecular mechanisms of antiviral immune responses in autoimmunity. Here we examined new viral candidates for the initiation and/or promotion of systemic autoimmune diseases (SAID), as well as possible related signaling pathways shared in the pathogenesis of those disorders. RNA isolated from peripheral blood samples from 33 twins discordant for SAID and 33 matched, unrelated healthy controls was analyzed using a custom viral-human gene microarray. Paired comparisons were made among three study groups-probands with SAID, their unaffected twins, and matched, unrelated healthy controls-using statistical and molecular pathway analyses. Probands and unaffected twins differed significantly in the expression of 537 human genes, and 107 of those were associated with viral infections. These 537 differentially expressed human genes participate in overlapping networks of several canonical, biologic pathways relating to antiviral responses and inflammation. Moreover, certain viral genes were expressed at higher levels in probands compared to either unaffected twins or unrelated, healthy controls. Interestingly, viral gene expression levels in unaffected twins appeared intermediate between those of probands and the matched, unrelated healthy controls. Of the viruses with overexpressed viral genes, herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) was the only human viral pathogen identified using four distinct oligonucleotide probes corresponding to three HSV-2 genes associated with different stages of viral infection. Although the effects from immunosuppressive therapy on viral gene expression remain unclear, this exploratory study suggests a new approach to evaluate shared viral agents and antiviral immune responses that may be involved in the development of SAID.

  4. Gene Expression Profiles from Disease Discordant Twins Suggest Shared Antiviral Pathways and Viral Exposures among Multiple Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Lu; O’Hanlon, Terrance P.; Lai, Zhennan; Fannin, Rick; Weller, Melodie L.; Rider, Lisa G.; Chiorini, John A.; Miller, Frederick W.

    2015-01-01

    Viral agents are of interest as possible autoimmune triggers due to prior reported associations and widely studied molecular mechanisms of antiviral immune responses in autoimmunity. Here we examined new viral candidates for the initiation and/or promotion of systemic autoimmune diseases (SAID), as well as possible related signaling pathways shared in the pathogenesis of those disorders. RNA isolated from peripheral blood samples from 33 twins discordant for SAID and 33 matched, unrelated healthy controls was analyzed using a custom viral-human gene microarray. Paired comparisons were made among three study groups—probands with SAID, their unaffected twins, and matched, unrelated healthy controls—using statistical and molecular pathway analyses. Probands and unaffected twins differed significantly in the expression of 537 human genes, and 107 of those were associated with viral infections. These 537 differentially expressed human genes participate in overlapping networks of several canonical, biologic pathways relating to antiviral responses and inflammation. Moreover, certain viral genes were expressed at higher levels in probands compared to either unaffected twins or unrelated, healthy controls. Interestingly, viral gene expression levels in unaffected twins appeared intermediate between those of probands and the matched, unrelated healthy controls. Of the viruses with overexpressed viral genes, herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) was the only human viral pathogen identified using four distinct oligonucleotide probes corresponding to three HSV-2 genes associated with different stages of viral infection. Although the effects from immunosuppressive therapy on viral gene expression remain unclear, this exploratory study suggests a new approach to evaluate shared viral agents and antiviral immune responses that may be involved in the development of SAID. PMID:26556803

  5. Photoperiod regulates multiple gene expression in the suprachiasmatic nuclei and pars tuberalis of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jonathan D; Ebling, Francis J P; Hazlerigg, David G

    2005-06-01

    Photoperiod regulates the seasonal physiology of many mammals living in temperate latitudes. Photoperiodic information is decoded by the master circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus and then transduced via pineal melatonin secretion. This neurochemical signal is interpreted by tissues expressing melatonin receptors (e.g. the pituitary pars tuberalis, PT) to drive physiological changes. In this study we analysed the photoperiodic regulation of the circadian clockwork in the SCN and PT of the Siberian hamster. Female hamsters were exposed to either long or short photoperiod for 8 weeks and sampled at 2-h intervals across the 24-h cycle. In the SCN, rhythmic expression of the clock genes Per1, Per2, Cry1, Rev-erbalpha, and the clock-controlled genes arginine vasopressin (AVP) and d-element binding protein (DBP) was modulated by photoperiod. All of these E-box-containing genes tracked dawn, with earlier peak mRNA expression in long, compared to short, photoperiod. This response occurred irrespective of the presence of additional regulatory cis-elements, suggesting photoperiodic regulation of SCN gene expression through a common E-box-related mechanism. In long photoperiod, expression of Cry1 and Per1 in the PT tracked the onset and offset of melatonin secretion, respectively. However, whereas Cry1 tracked melatonin onset in short period, Per1 expression was not detectably rhythmic. We therefore propose that, in the SCN, photoperiodic regulation of clock gene expression primarily occurs via E-boxes, whereas melatonin-driven signal transduction drives the phasing of a subset of clock genes in the PT, independently of the E-box.

  6. Common inversion polymorphism at 17q21.31 affects expression of multiple genes in tissue-specific manner.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Simone; Chepelev, Iouri; Janson, Esther; Strengman, Eric; van den Berg, Leonard H; Veldink, Jan H; Ophoff, Roel A

    2012-09-06

    Chromosome 17q21.31 contains a common inversion polymorphism of approximately 900 kb in populations with European ancestry. Two divergent MAPT haplotypes, H1 and H2 are described with distinct linkage disequilibrium patterns across the region reflecting the inversion status at this locus. The MAPT H1 haplotype has been associated with progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, while the H2 is linked to recurrent deletion events associated with the 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome, a disease characterized by developmental delay and learning disability. In this study, we investigate the effect of the inversion on the expression of genes in the 17q21.31 region. We find the expression of several genes in and at the borders of the inversion to be affected; specific either to whole blood or different regions of the human brain. The H1 haplotype was found to be associated with an increased expression of LRRC37A4, PLEKH1M and MAPT. In contrast, a decreased expression of MGC57346, LRRC37A and CRHR1 was associated with H1. Studies thus far have focused on the expression of MAPT in the inversion region. However, our results show that the inversion status affects expression of other genes in the 17q21.31 region as well. Given the link between the inversion status and different neurological diseases, these genes may also be involved in disease pathology, possibly in a tissue-specific manner.

  7. Network-Based Meta-Analyses of Associations of Multiple Gene Expression Profiles with Bone Mineral Density Variations in Women

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Tianhua; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Lan; Zeng, Yong; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Yu-ping; Deng, Hong-wen

    2016-01-01

    Background Existing microarray studies of bone mineral density (BMD) have been critical for understanding the pathophysiology of osteoporosis, and have identified a number of candidate genes. However, these studies were limited by their relatively small sample sizes and were usually analyzed individually. Here, we propose a novel network-based meta-analysis approach that combines data across six microarray studies to identify functional modules from human protein-protein interaction (PPI) data, and highlight several differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and a functional module that may play an important role in BMD regulation in women. Methods Expression profiling studies were identified by searching PubMed, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and ArrayExpress. Two meta-analysis methods were applied across different gene expression profiling studies. The first, a nonparametric Fisher’s method, combined p-values from individual experiments to identify genes with large effect sizes. The second method combined effect sizes from individual datasets into a meta-effect size to gain a higher precision of effect size estimation across all datasets. Genes with Q test’s p-values < 0.05 or I2 values > 50% were assessed by a random effects model and the remainder by a fixed effects model. Using Fisher’s combined p-values, functional modules were identified through an integrated analysis of microarray data in the context of large protein–protein interaction (PPI) networks. Two previously published meta-analysis studies of genome-wide association (GWA) datasets were used to determine whether these module genes were genetically associated with BMD. Pathway enrichment analysis was performed with a hypergeometric test. Results Six gene expression datasets were identified, which included a total of 249 (129 high BMD and 120 low BMD) female subjects. Using a network-based meta-analysis, a consensus module containing 58 genes (nodes) and 83 edges was detected. Pathway enrichment

  8. Alteration of Multiple Leukocyte Gene Expression Networks is Linked with Magnetic Resonance Markers of Prognosis After Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Teren, A.; Kirsten, H.; Beutner, F.; Scholz, M.; Holdt, L. M.; Teupser, D.; Gutberlet, M.; Thiery, J.; Schuler, G.; Eitel, I.

    2017-01-01

    Prognostic relevant pathways of leukocyte involvement in human myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury are largely unknown. We enrolled 136 patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) after primary angioplasty within 12 h after onset of symptoms. Following reperfusion, whole blood was collected within a median time interval of 20 h (interquartile range: 15–25 h) for genome-wide gene expression analysis. Subsequent CMR scans were performed using a standard protocol to determine infarct size (IS), area at risk (AAR), myocardial salvage index (MSI) and the extent of late microvascular obstruction (lateMO). We found 398 genes associated with lateMO and two genes with IS. Neither AAR, nor MSI showed significant correlations with gene expression. Genes correlating with lateMO were strongly related to several canonical pathways, including positive regulation of T-cell activation (p = 3.44 × 10−5), and regulation of inflammatory response (p = 1.86 × 10−3). Network analysis of multiple gene expression alterations associated with larger lateMO identified the following functional consequences: facilitated utilisation and decreased concentration of free fatty acid, repressed cell differentiation, enhanced phagocyte movement, increased cell death, vascular disease and compensatory vasculogenesis. In conclusion, the extent of lateMO after acute, reperfused STEMI correlated with altered activation of multiple genes related to fatty acid utilisation, lymphocyte differentiation, phagocyte mobilisation, cell survival, and vascular dysfunction. PMID:28155873

  9. Validation of the Lung Subtyping Panel in Multiple Fresh-Frozen and Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Lung Tumor Gene Expression Data Sets.

    PubMed

    Faruki, Hawazin; Mayhew, Gregory M; Fan, Cheng; Wilkerson, Matthew D; Parker, Scott; Kam-Morgan, Lauren; Eisenberg, Marcia; Horten, Bruce; Hayes, D Neil; Perou, Charles M; Lai-Goldman, Myla

    2016-06-01

    Context .- A histologic classification of lung cancer subtypes is essential in guiding therapeutic management. Objective .- To complement morphology-based classification of lung tumors, a previously developed lung subtyping panel (LSP) of 57 genes was tested using multiple public fresh-frozen gene-expression data sets and a prospectively collected set of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung tumor samples. Design .- The LSP gene-expression signature was evaluated in multiple lung cancer gene-expression data sets totaling 2177 patients collected from 4 platforms: Illumina RNAseq (San Diego, California), Agilent (Santa Clara, California) and Affymetrix (Santa Clara) microarrays, and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Gene centroids were calculated for each of 3 genomic-defined subtypes: adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and neuroendocrine, the latter of which encompassed both small cell carcinoma and carcinoid. Classification by LSP into 3 subtypes was evaluated in both fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples, and agreement with the original morphology-based diagnosis was determined. Results .- The LSP-based classifications demonstrated overall agreement with the original clinical diagnosis ranging from 78% (251 of 322) to 91% (492 of 538 and 869 of 951) in the fresh-frozen public data sets and 84% (65 of 77) in the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded data set. The LSP performance was independent of tissue-preservation method and gene-expression platform. Secondary, blinded pathology review of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples demonstrated concordance of 82% (63 of 77) with the original morphology diagnosis. Conclusions .- The LSP gene-expression signature is a reproducible and objective method for classifying lung tumors and demonstrates good concordance with morphology-based classification across multiple data sets. The LSP panel can supplement morphologic assessment of lung cancers, particularly

  10. Gene Expression Ratios Lead to Accurate and Translatable Predictors of DR5 Agonism across Multiple Tumor Lineages.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Anupama; Growney, Joseph D; Wilson, Nick S; Emery, Caroline M; Johnson, Jennifer A; Ward, Rebecca; Monaco, Kelli A; Korn, Joshua; Monahan, John E; Stump, Mark D; Mapa, Felipa A; Wilson, Christopher J; Steiger, Janine; Ledell, Jebediah; Rickles, Richard J; Myer, Vic E; Ettenberg, Seth A; Schlegel, Robert; Sellers, William R; Huet, Heather A; Lehár, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Death Receptor 5 (DR5) agonists demonstrate anti-tumor activity in preclinical models but have yet to demonstrate robust clinical responses. A key limitation may be the lack of patient selection strategies to identify those most likely to respond to treatment. To overcome this limitation, we screened a DR5 agonist Nanobody across >600 cell lines representing 21 tumor lineages and assessed molecular features associated with response. High expression of DR5 and Casp8 were significantly associated with sensitivity, but their expression thresholds were difficult to translate due to low dynamic ranges. To address the translational challenge of establishing thresholds of gene expression, we developed a classifier based on ratios of genes that predicted response across lineages. The ratio classifier outperformed the DR5+Casp8 classifier, as well as standard approaches for feature selection and classification using genes, instead of ratios. This classifier was independently validated using 11 primary patient-derived pancreatic xenograft models showing perfect predictions as well as a striking linearity between prediction probability and anti-tumor response. A network analysis of the genes in the ratio classifier captured important biological relationships mediating drug response, specifically identifying key positive and negative regulators of DR5 mediated apoptosis, including DR5, CASP8, BID, cFLIP, XIAP and PEA15. Importantly, the ratio classifier shows translatability across gene expression platforms (from Affymetrix microarrays to RNA-seq) and across model systems (in vitro to in vivo). Our approach of using gene expression ratios presents a robust and novel method for constructing translatable biomarkers of compound response, which can also probe the underlying biology of treatment response.

  11. Gene Expression Ratios Lead to Accurate and Translatable Predictors of DR5 Agonism across Multiple Tumor Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Anupama; Growney, Joseph D.; Wilson, Nick S.; Emery, Caroline M.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Ward, Rebecca; Monaco, Kelli A.; Korn, Joshua; Monahan, John E.; Stump, Mark D.; Mapa, Felipa A.; Wilson, Christopher J.; Steiger, Janine; Ledell, Jebediah; Rickles, Richard J.; Myer, Vic E.; Ettenberg, Seth A.; Schlegel, Robert; Sellers, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Death Receptor 5 (DR5) agonists demonstrate anti-tumor activity in preclinical models but have yet to demonstrate robust clinical responses. A key limitation may be the lack of patient selection strategies to identify those most likely to respond to treatment. To overcome this limitation, we screened a DR5 agonist Nanobody across >600 cell lines representing 21 tumor lineages and assessed molecular features associated with response. High expression of DR5 and Casp8 were significantly associated with sensitivity, but their expression thresholds were difficult to translate due to low dynamic ranges. To address the translational challenge of establishing thresholds of gene expression, we developed a classifier based on ratios of genes that predicted response across lineages. The ratio classifier outperformed the DR5+Casp8 classifier, as well as standard approaches for feature selection and classification using genes, instead of ratios. This classifier was independently validated using 11 primary patient-derived pancreatic xenograft models showing perfect predictions as well as a striking linearity between prediction probability and anti-tumor response. A network analysis of the genes in the ratio classifier captured important biological relationships mediating drug response, specifically identifying key positive and negative regulators of DR5 mediated apoptosis, including DR5, CASP8, BID, cFLIP, XIAP and PEA15. Importantly, the ratio classifier shows translatability across gene expression platforms (from Affymetrix microarrays to RNA-seq) and across model systems (in vitro to in vivo). Our approach of using gene expression ratios presents a robust and novel method for constructing translatable biomarkers of compound response, which can also probe the underlying biology of treatment response. PMID:26378449

  12. Life-spanning murine gene expression profiles in relation to chronological and pathological aging in multiple organs

    PubMed Central

    Kuiper, Raoul V; van der Hoeven, Tessa V; Wackers, P.F.K.; Robinson, Joke; van der Horst, Gijsbertus TJ; Dollé, Martijn ET; Vijg, Jan; Breit, Timo M; Hoeijmakers, Jan HJ; van Steeg, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Summary Aging and age-related pathology is a result of a still incompletely-understood intricate web of molecular and cellular processes. We present a C57BL/6J female mice in vivo aging study of five organs (liver, kidney, spleen, lung and brain), in which we compare genome-wide gene expression profiles during chronological aging with pathological changes throughout the entire murine lifespan (13, 26, 52, 78, 104 and 130 weeks). Relating gene expression changes to chronological aging revealed many differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and altered gene-sets (AGSs) were found in most organs, indicative of intra-organ generic aging processes. However, only ≤ 1% of these DEGs are found in all organs. For each organ, at least one of 18 tested pathological parameters showed a good age-predictive value, albeit with much inter- and intra-individual (organ) variation. Relating gene expression changes to pathology-related aging revealed correlated genes and gene-sets, which made it possible to characterize the difference between biological and chronological aging. In liver, kidney and brain, a limited number of overlapping pathology-related AGSs were found. Immune responses appeared to be common, yet the changes were specific in most organs. Furthermore, changes were observed in energy homeostasis, reactive oxygen species, cell cycle, cell motility and DNA damage. Comparison of chronological and pathology-related AGSs revealed substantial overlap and interesting differences. For example, the presence of immune processes in liver pathology-related AGSs which were not detected in chronological aging. The many cellular processes that are only found employing aging–related pathology could provide important new insights into the progress of aging. PMID:23795901

  13. Contents of therapeutic metabolites in Swertia chirayita correlate with the expression profiles of multiple genes in corresponding biosynthesis pathways.

    PubMed

    Padhan, Jibesh Kumar; Kumar, Varun; Sood, Hemant; Singh, Tiratha Raj; Chauhan, Rajinder S

    2015-08-01

    Swertia chirayita, an endangered medicinal herb, contains three major secondary metabolites swertiamarin, amarogentin and mangiferin, exhibiting valuable therapeutic traits. No information exists as of today on the biosynthesis of these metabolites in S. chirayita. The current study reports the expression profiling of swertiamarin, amarogentin and mangiferin biosynthesis pathway genes and their correlation with the respective metabolites content in different tissues of S. chirayita. Root tissues of greenhouse grown plants contained the maximum amount of secoiridoids (swertiamarin, 2.8% of fr. wt and amarogentin, 0.1% of fr. wt), whereas maximum accumulation of mangiferin (1.0% of fr. wt) was observed in floral organs. Differential gene expression analysis and their subsequent principal component analysis unveiled ten genes (encoding HMGR, PMK, MVK, ISPD, ISPE, GES, G10H, 8HGO, IS and 7DLGT) of the secoiridoids biosynthesis pathway and five genes (encoding EPSPS, PAL, ADT, CM and CS) of mangiferin biosynthesis with elevated transcript amounts in relation to corresponding metabolite contents. Three genes of the secoiridoids biosynthesis pathway (encoding PMK, ISPD and IS) showed elevated levels (∼57-104 fold increase in roots), and EPSPS of mangiferin biosynthesis showed an about 117 fold increase in transcripts in leaf tissues of the greenhouse grown plants. The study does provide leads on potential candidate genes correlating with the metabolites biosynthesis in S. chirayita as an initiative towards its genetic improvement.

  14. Combined gene expression and proteomic analysis of EGF induced apoptosis in A431 cells suggests multiple pathways trigger apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Alanazi, Ibrahim; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Hoffmann, Peter; Adelson, David L

    2013-11-01

    A431 cells, derived from epidermoid carcinoma, overexpress the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and when treated with a high dose of EGF will undergo apoptosis. We exploited microarray and proteomics techniques and network prediction to study the regulatory mechanisms of EGF-induced apoptosis in A431 cells. We observed significant changes in gene expression in 162 genes, approximately evenly split between pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes and identified 30 proteins from the proteomic data that had either pro or anti-apoptotic annotation. Our correlation analysis of gene expression and proteome modeled a number of distinct sub-networks that are associated with the onset of apoptosis, allowing us to identify specific pathways and components. These include components of the interferon signalling pathway, and down stream components, including cytokines and suppressors of cytokine signalling. A central component of almost all gene expression sub-networks identified was TP53, which is mutated in A431 cells, and was down regulated. This down regulation of TP53 appeared to be correlated with proteomic sub-networks of cytoskeletal or cell adhesion components that might induce apoptosis by triggering cytochrome C release. Of the only three genes also differentially expressed as proteins, only serpinb1 had a known association with apoptosis. We confirmed that up regulation and cleavage of serpinb1 into L-DNAaseII was correlated with the induction of apoptosis. It is unlikely that a single pathway, but more likely a combination of pathways is needed to trigger EGF induced apoptosis in A431cells.

  15. Primate Lentiviruses Modulate NF-κB Activity by Multiple Mechanisms to Fine-Tune Viral and Cellular Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Heusinger, Elena; Kirchhoff, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) plays a complex role during the replication of primate lentiviruses. On the one hand, NF-κB is essential for induction of efficient proviral gene expression. On the other hand, this transcription factor contributes to the innate immune response and induces expression of numerous cellular antiviral genes. Recent data suggest that primate lentiviruses cope with this challenge by boosting NF-κB activity early during the replication cycle to initiate Tat-driven viral transcription and suppressing it at later stages to minimize antiviral gene expression. Human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV, respectively) initially exploit their accessory Nef protein to increase the responsiveness of infected CD4+ T cells to stimulation. Increased NF-κB activity initiates Tat expression and productive replication. These events happen quickly after infection since Nef is rapidly expressed at high levels. Later during infection, Nef proteins of HIV-2 and most SIVs exert a very different effect: by down-modulating the CD3 receptor, an essential factor for T cell receptor (TCR) signaling, they prevent stimulation of CD4+ T cells via antigen-presenting cells and hence suppress further induction of NF-κB and an effective antiviral immune response. Efficient LTR-driven viral transcription is maintained because it is largely independent of NF-κB in the presence of Tat. In contrast, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and its simian precursors have lost the CD3 down-modulation function of Nef and use the late viral protein U (Vpu) to inhibit NF-κB activity by suppressing its nuclear translocation. In this review, we discuss how HIV-1 and other primate lentiviruses might balance viral and antiviral gene expression through a tight temporal regulation of NF-κB activity throughout their replication cycle. PMID:28261165

  16. Primate Lentiviruses Modulate NF-κB Activity by Multiple Mechanisms to Fine-Tune Viral and Cellular Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Heusinger, Elena; Kirchhoff, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) plays a complex role during the replication of primate lentiviruses. On the one hand, NF-κB is essential for induction of efficient proviral gene expression. On the other hand, this transcription factor contributes to the innate immune response and induces expression of numerous cellular antiviral genes. Recent data suggest that primate lentiviruses cope with this challenge by boosting NF-κB activity early during the replication cycle to initiate Tat-driven viral transcription and suppressing it at later stages to minimize antiviral gene expression. Human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV, respectively) initially exploit their accessory Nef protein to increase the responsiveness of infected CD4(+) T cells to stimulation. Increased NF-κB activity initiates Tat expression and productive replication. These events happen quickly after infection since Nef is rapidly expressed at high levels. Later during infection, Nef proteins of HIV-2 and most SIVs exert a very different effect: by down-modulating the CD3 receptor, an essential factor for T cell receptor (TCR) signaling, they prevent stimulation of CD4(+) T cells via antigen-presenting cells and hence suppress further induction of NF-κB and an effective antiviral immune response. Efficient LTR-driven viral transcription is maintained because it is largely independent of NF-κB in the presence of Tat. In contrast, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and its simian precursors have lost the CD3 down-modulation function of Nef and use the late viral protein U (Vpu) to inhibit NF-κB activity by suppressing its nuclear translocation. In this review, we discuss how HIV-1 and other primate lentiviruses might balance viral and antiviral gene expression through a tight temporal regulation of NF-κB activity throughout their replication cycle.

  17. Common inversion polymorphism at 17q21.31 affects expression of multiple genes in tissue-specific manner

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chromosome 17q21.31 contains a common inversion polymorphism of approximately 900 kb in populations with European ancestry. Two divergent MAPT haplotypes, H1 and H2 are described with distinct linkage disequilibrium patterns across the region reflecting the inversion status at this locus. The MAPT H1 haplotype has been associated with progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease, while the H2 is linked to recurrent deletion events associated with the 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome, a disease characterized by developmental delay and learning disability. Results In this study, we investigate the effect of the inversion on the expression of genes in the 17q21.31 region. We find the expression of several genes in and at the borders of the inversion to be affected; specific either to whole blood or different regions of the human brain. The H1 haplotype was found to be associated with an increased expression of LRRC37A4, PLEKH1M and MAPT. In contrast, a decreased expression of MGC57346, LRRC37A and CRHR1 was associated with H1. Conclusions Studies thus far have focused on the expression of MAPT in the inversion region. However, our results show that the inversion status affects expression of other genes in the 17q21.31 region as well. Given the link between the inversion status and different neurological diseases, these genes may also be involved in disease pathology, possibly in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:22950410

  18. Establishment of a human lung cancer cell line with high metastatic potential to multiple organs: gene expression associated with metastatic potential in human lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Tetsuhiro; Shimizu, Kimihiro; Kawashima, Osamu; Kamiyoshihara, Mitsuhiro; Kakegawa, Seiichi; Sugano, Masayuki; Ibe, Takashi; Nagashima, Toshiteru; Kaira, Kyoichi; Sunaga, Noriaki; Ohtaki, Youichi; Atsumi, Jun; Takeyoshi, Izumi

    2012-11-01

    Convenient and reliable multiple organ metastasis model systems might contribute to understanding the mechanism(s) of metastasis of lung cancer, which may lead to overcoming metastasis and improvement in the treatment outcome of lung cancer. We isolated a highly metastatic subline, PC14HM, from the human pulmonary adenocarcinoma cell line, PC14, using an in vivo selection method. The expression of 34,580 genes was compared between PC14HM and parental PC14 by cDNA microarray analysis. Among the differentially expressed genes, expression of four genes in human lung cancer tissues and adjacent normal lung tissues were compared using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Although BALB/c nude mice inoculated with parental PC14 cells had few metastases, almost all mice inoculated with PC14HM cells developed metastases in multiple organs, including the lung, bone and adrenal gland, the same progression seen in human lung cancer. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that 981 genes were differentially (more than 3-fold) expressed between the two cell lines. Functional classification revealed that many of those genes were associated with cell growth, cell communication, development and transcription. Expression of three upregulated genes (HRB-2, HS3ST3A1 and RAB7) was higher in human cancer tissue compared to normal lung tissue, while expression of EDG1, which was downregulated, was lower in the cancer tissue compared to the normal lung. These results suggest that the newly established PC14HM cell line may provide a mouse model of widespread metastasis of lung cancer. This model system may provide insights into the key genetic determinants of widespread metastasis of lung cancer.

  19. Altered expression of oligodendrocyte and neuronal marker genes predicts the clinical onset of autoimmune encephalomyelitis and indicates the effectiveness of multiple sclerosis-directed therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Evangelidou, Maria; Karamita, Maria; Vamvakas, Sotiris-Spyros; Szymkowski, David E; Probert, Lesley

    2014-05-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a valuable model for studying immunopathology in multiple sclerosis (MS) and for exploring the interface between autoimmune responses and CNS tissue that ultimately leads to lesion development. In this study, we measured gene expression in mouse spinal cord during myelin oligodendrocyte gp35-55 peptide-induced EAE, using quantitative RT-PCR, to identify gene markers that monitor individual hallmark pathological processes. We defined a small panel of genes whose longitudinal expression patterns provided insight into the timing, interrelationships, and mechanisms of individual disease processes and the efficacy of therapeutics for the treatment of MS. Earliest transcriptional changes were upregulation of Il17a and sharp downregulation of neuronal and oligodendrocyte marker genes preceding clinical disease onset, whereas neuroinflammatory markers progressively increased as symptoms and tissue lesions developed. EAE-induced gene-expression changes were not altered in mice deficient in IKKβ in cells of the myeloid lineage compared with controls, but the administration of a selective inhibitor of soluble TNF to mice from the day of immunization delayed changes in the expression of innate inflammation, myelin, and neuron markers from the presymptomatic phase. Proof of principle that the gene panel shows drug screening potential was obtained using a well-established MS therapeutic, glatiramer acetate. Prophylactic treatment of mice with glatiramer acetate normalized gene marker expression, and this correlated with the level of therapeutic success. These results show that neurons and oligodendrocytes are highly sensitive to CNS-directed autoimmunity before the development of clinical symptoms and immunopathology and reveal a role for soluble TNF in mediating the earliest changes in gene expression.

  20. Gene expression profile reveals abnormalities of multiple signaling pathways in mesenchymal stem cell derived from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yu; Ma, Xiaolei; Zhang, Huayong; Gu, Zhifeng; Hou, Yayi; Gilkeson, Gary S; Lu, Liwei; Zeng, Xiaofeng; Sun, Lingyun

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to compare bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and normal controls by means of cDNA microarray, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting. Our results showed there were a total of 1, 905 genes which were differentially expressed by BMMSCs derived from SLE patients, of which, 652 genes were upregulated and 1, 253 were downregulated. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that the majority of these genes were related to cell cycle and protein binding. Pathway analysis exhibited that differentially regulated signal pathways involved actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, tight junction, and TGF-β pathway. The high protein level of BMP-5 and low expression of Id-1 indicated that there might be dysregulation in BMP/TGF-β signaling pathway. The expression of Id-1 in SLE BMMSCs was reversely correlated with serum TNF-α levels. The protein level of cyclin E decreased in the cell cycling regulation pathway. Moreover, the MAPK signaling pathway was activated in BMMSCs from SLE patients via phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and SAPK/JNK. The actin distribution pattern of BMMSCs from SLE patients was also found disordered. Our results suggested that there were distinguished differences of BMMSCs between SLE patients and normal controls.

  1. Gene Expression Profile Reveals Abnormalities of Multiple Signaling Pathways in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived from Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yu; Ma, Xiaolei; Zhang, Huayong; Gu, Zhifeng; Hou, Yayi; Gilkeson, Gary S.; Lu, Liwei; Zeng, Xiaofeng; Sun, Lingyun

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to compare bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and normal controls by means of cDNA microarray, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting. Our results showed there were a total of 1, 905 genes which were differentially expressed by BMMSCs derived from SLE patients, of which, 652 genes were upregulated and 1, 253 were downregulated. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that the majority of these genes were related to cell cycle and protein binding. Pathway analysis exhibited that differentially regulated signal pathways involved actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, tight junction, and TGF-β pathway. The high protein level of BMP-5 and low expression of Id-1 indicated that there might be dysregulation in BMP/TGF-β signaling pathway. The expression of Id-1 in SLE BMMSCs was reversely correlated with serum TNF-α levels. The protein level of cyclin E decreased in the cell cycling regulation pathway. Moreover, the MAPK signaling pathway was activated in BMMSCs from SLE patients via phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and SAPK/JNK. The actin distribution pattern of BMMSCs from SLE patients was also found disordered. Our results suggested that there were distinguished differences of BMMSCs between SLE patients and normal controls. PMID:22966240

  2. The divergent orphan nuclear receptor ODR-7 regulates olfactory neuron gene expression via multiple mechanisms in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Colosimo, Marc E; Tran, Susan; Sengupta, Piali

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear receptors regulate numerous critical biological processes. The C. elegans genome is predicted to encode approximately 270 nuclear receptors of which >250 are unique to nematodes. ODR-7 is the only member of this large divergent family whose functions have been defined genetically. ODR-7 is expressed in the AWA olfactory neurons and specifies AWA sensory identity by promoting the expression of AWA-specific signaling genes and repressing the expression of an AWC-specific olfactory receptor gene. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of action of a divergent nuclear receptor, we have identified residues and domains required for different aspects of ODR-7 function in vivo. ODR-7 utilizes an unexpected diversity of mechanisms to regulate the expression of different sets of target genes. Moreover, these mechanisms are distinct in normal and heterologous cellular contexts. The odr-7 ortholog in the closely related nematode C. briggsae can fully substitute for all ODR-7-mediated functions, indicating conservation of function across 25-120 million years of divergence. PMID:14704165

  3. Expression of multiple Sox genes through embryonic development in the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi is spatially restricted to zones of cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, Christine E; Simmons, David K; Pang, Kevin; Martindale, Mark Q; Baxevanis, Andreas D

    2014-01-01

    The Sox genes, a family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of a high mobility group (HMG) box domain, are among the central groups of developmental regulators in the animal kingdom. They are indispensable in progenitor cell fate determination, and various Sox family members are involved in managing the critical balance between stem cells and differentiating cells. There are 20 mammalian Sox genes that are divided into five major groups (B, C, D, E, and F). True Sox genes have been identified in all animal lineages but not outside Metazoa, indicating that this gene family arose at the origin of the animals. Whole-genome sequencing of the lobate ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi allowed us to examine the full complement and expression of the Sox gene family in this early-branching animal lineage. Our phylogenetic analyses of the Sox gene family were generally in agreement with previous studies and placed five of the six Mnemiopsis Sox genes into one of the major Sox groups: SoxB (MleSox1), SoxC (MleSox2), SoxE (MleSox3, MleSox4), and SoxF (MleSox5), with one unclassified gene (MleSox6). We investigated the expression of five out of six Mnemiopsis Sox genes during early development. Expression patterns determined through in situ hybridization generally revealed spatially restricted Sox expression patterns in somatic cells within zones of cell proliferation, as determined by EdU staining. These zones were located in the apical sense organ, upper tentacle bulbs, and developing comb rows in Mnemiopsis, and coincide with similar zones identified in the cydippid ctenophore Pleurobrachia. Our results are consistent with the established role of multiple Sox genes in the maintenance of stem cell pools. Both similarities and differences in juvenile cydippid stage expression patterns between Mnemiopsis Sox genes and their orthologs from Pleurobrachia highlight the importance of using multiple species to characterize the evolution of development within a given

  4. Expression of multiple Sox genes through embryonic development in the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi is spatially restricted to zones of cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Sox genes, a family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of a high mobility group (HMG) box domain, are among the central groups of developmental regulators in the animal kingdom. They are indispensable in progenitor cell fate determination, and various Sox family members are involved in managing the critical balance between stem cells and differentiating cells. There are 20 mammalian Sox genes that are divided into five major groups (B, C, D, E, and F). True Sox genes have been identified in all animal lineages but not outside Metazoa, indicating that this gene family arose at the origin of the animals. Whole-genome sequencing of the lobate ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi allowed us to examine the full complement and expression of the Sox gene family in this early-branching animal lineage. Results Our phylogenetic analyses of the Sox gene family were generally in agreement with previous studies and placed five of the six Mnemiopsis Sox genes into one of the major Sox groups: SoxB (MleSox1), SoxC (MleSox2), SoxE (MleSox3, MleSox4), and SoxF (MleSox5), with one unclassified gene (MleSox6). We investigated the expression of five out of six Mnemiopsis Sox genes during early development. Expression patterns determined through in situ hybridization generally revealed spatially restricted Sox expression patterns in somatic cells within zones of cell proliferation, as determined by EdU staining. These zones were located in the apical sense organ, upper tentacle bulbs, and developing comb rows in Mnemiopsis, and coincide with similar zones identified in the cydippid ctenophore Pleurobrachia. Conclusions Our results are consistent with the established role of multiple Sox genes in the maintenance of stem cell pools. Both similarities and differences in juvenile cydippid stage expression patterns between Mnemiopsis Sox genes and their orthologs from Pleurobrachia highlight the importance of using multiple species to characterize the evolution of

  5. Digital gene expression approach over multiple RNA-Seq data sets to detect neoblast transcriptional changes in Schmidtea mediterranea.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Esteban, Gustavo; González-Sastre, Alejandro; Rojo-Laguna, José Ignacio; Saló, Emili; Abril, Josep F

    2015-05-08

    The freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea is recognised as a valuable model for research into adult stem cells and regeneration. With the advent of the high-throughput sequencing technologies, it has become feasible to undertake detailed transcriptional analysis of its unique stem cell population, the neoblasts. Nonetheless, a reliable reference for this type of studies is still lacking. Taking advantage of digital gene expression (DGE) sequencing technology we compare all the available transcriptomes for S. mediterranea and improve their annotation. These results are accessible via web for the community of researchers. Using the quantitative nature of DGE, we describe the transcriptional profile of neoblasts and present 42 new neoblast genes, including several cancer-related genes and transcription factors. Furthermore, we describe in detail the Smed-meis-like gene and the three Nuclear Factor Y subunits Smed-nf-YA, Smed-nf-YB-2 and Smed-nf-YC. DGE is a valuable tool for gene discovery, quantification and annotation. The application of DGE in S. mediterranea confirms the planarian stem cells or neoblasts as a complex population of pluripotent and multipotent cells regulated by a mixture of transcription factors and cancer-related genes.

  6. Multiple positive and negative 5' regulatory elements control the cell-type-specific expression of the embryonic skeletal myosin heavy-chain gene.

    PubMed Central

    Bouvagnet, P F; Strehler, E E; White, G E; Strehler-Page, M A; Nadal-Ginard, B; Mahdavi, V

    1987-01-01

    To identify the DNA sequences that regulate the expression of the sarcomeric myosin heavy-chain (MHC) genes in muscle cells, a series of deletion constructs of the rat embryonic MHC gene was assayed for transient expression after introduction into myogenic and nonmyogenic cells. The sequences in 1.4 kilobases of 5'-flanking DNA were found to be sufficient to direct expression of the MHC gene constructs in a tissue-specific manner (i.e., in differentiated muscle cells but not in undifferentiated muscle and nonmuscle cells). Three main distinct regulatory domains have been identified: (i) the upstream sequences from positions -1413 to -174, which determine the level of expression of the MHC gene and are constituted of three positive regulatory elements and two negative ones; (ii) a muscle-specific regulatory element from positions -173 to -142, which restricts the expression of the MHC gene to muscle cells; and (iii) the promoter region, downstream from position -102, which directs transcription initiation. Introduction of the simian virus 40 enhancer into constructs where subportions of or all of the upstream sequences are deleted (up to position -173) strongly increases the level of expression of such truncated constructs but without changing their muscle specificity. These upstream sequences, which can be substituted for by the simian virus 40 enhancer, function in an orientation-, position-, and promoter-dependent fashion. The muscle-specific element is also promoter specific but does not support efficient expression of the MHC gene. The MHC promoter in itself is not muscle specific. These results underline the importance of the concerted action of multiple regulatory elements that are likely to represent targets for DNA-binding-regulatory proteins. Images PMID:2830491

  7. Do baseline Cereblon gene expression and IL-6 receptor expression determine the response to thalidomide-dexamethasone treatment in multiple myeloma patients?

    PubMed

    Bedewy, Ahmed M L; El-Maghraby, Shereen M

    2014-01-01

    Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) are key components of treatment for hematologic malignancies, especially multiple myeloma (MM). Cereblon (CRBN) expression was described to be essential for the activity of thalidomide. Furthermore, IMiD binding to CRBN is cytotoxic to multiple myeloma cells and absence of CRBN confers IMiDs resistance. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a potent pleiotropic cytokine that regulates plasma cell (PC) growth via the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R). IL-6/IL-6R autocrine activity is implicated in the development and progression of cancers including cervical cancer, prostate cancer, and multiple myeloma. The aim of the study was to evaluate CRBN and IL-6R expressions and their impact on clinical efficacy of dexamethasone-thalidomide therapy in multiple myeloma (MM) patients, in addition to their association with other clinical and prognostic parameters. Forty-six newly diagnosed MM patients were enrolled in the study. We measured CRBN expression prior to therapy initiation by real-time polymerase chain reaction in 46 bone marrow (BM) aspiration samples of patients and controls. In addition, IL-6R expression was evaluated on BM biopsies of patients and controls by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Twenty-eight males (60.9%) and 18 females (39.1%) were enrolled. The mean age was 65.11 ± 7.3 yr (range 39-77 yr). Median CRBN expression in 46 BM samples of MM patients was significantly higher than in controls (P < 0.001). Among established prognostic parameters, international staging system (ISS), serum beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), and serum albumin correlated reversely with CRBN expression. IL-6R expression was significantly higher in patients than in controls. IL-6R expression was significantly associated with response to treatment (P < 0.001), B2M (P = 0.032), and ISS (P = 0.028). Strong intensity expression was associated with low CRBN expression (P = 0.001).In conclusion, CRBN expression may provide a biomarker to predict response to IMiD in patients

  8. The spatiotemporal expression of multiple coho salmon ovarian connexin genes and their hormonal regulation in vitro during oogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Throughout oogenesis, cell-cell communication via gap junctions (GJs) between oocytes and surrounding follicle cells (theca and granulosa cells), and/or amongst follicle cells is required for successful follicular development. To gain a fundamental understanding of ovarian GJs in teleosts, gene transcripts encoding GJ proteins, connexins (cx), were identified in the coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, ovary. The spatiotemporal expression of four ovarian cx transcripts was assessed, as well as their potential regulation by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). Methods Salmonid ovarian transcriptomes were mined for cx genes. Four gene transcripts designated cx30.9, cx34.3, cx43.2, and cx44.9 were identified. Changes in gene expression across major stages of oogenesis were determined with real-time, quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) and cx transcripts were localized to specific ovary cell-types by in situ hybridization. Further, salmon ovarian follicles were cultured with various concentrations of FSH, LH and IGF1 and effects of each hormone on cx gene expression were determined by qPCR. Results Transcripts for cx30.9 and cx44.9 were highly expressed at the perinucleolus (PN)-stage and decreased thereafter. In contrast, transcripts for cx34.3 and cx43.2 were low at the PN-stage and increased during later stages of oogenesis, peaking at the mid vitellogenic (VIT)-stage and maturing (MAT)-stage, respectively. In situ hybridization revealed that transcripts for cx34.3 were only detected in granulosa cells, but other cx transcripts were detected in both oocytes and follicle cells. Transcripts for cx30.9 and cx44.9 were down-regulated by FSH and IGF1 at the lipid droplet (LD)-stage, whereas transcripts for cx34.3 were up-regulated by FSH and IGF1 at the LD-stage, and LH and IGF1 at the late VIT-stage. Transcripts for cx43.2 were down-regulated by IGF1 at the late VIT-stage and showed no response to

  9. Gene Express Inc.

    PubMed

    Saccomanno, Colette F

    2006-07-01

    Gene Express, Inc. is a technology-licensing company and provider of Standardized Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (StaRT-PCR) services. Designed by and for clinical researchers involved in pharmaceutical, biomarker and molecular diagnostic product development, StaRT-PCR is a unique quantitative and standardized multigene expression measurement platform. StaRT-PCR meets all of the performance characteristics defined by the US FDA as required to support regulatory submissions [101,102] , and by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act of 1988 (CLIA) as necessary to support diagnostic testing [1] . A standardized mixture of internal standards (SMIS), manufactured in bulk, provides integrated quality control wherein each native template target gene is measured relative to a competitive template internal standard. Bulk production enables the compilation of a comprehensive standardized database from across multiple experiments, across collaborating laboratories and across the entire clinical development lifecycle of a given compound or diagnostic product. For the first time, all these data are able to be directly compared. Access to such a database can dramatically shorten the time from investigational new drug (IND) to new drug application (NDA), or save time and money by hastening a substantiated 'no-go' decision. High-throughput StaRT-PCR is conducted at the company's automated Standardized Expression Measurement (SEM) Center. Currently optimized for detection on a microcapillary electrophoretic platform, StaRT-PCR products also may be analyzed on microarray, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), or matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) platforms. SEM Center services deliver standardized genomic data--data that will accelerate the application of pharmacogenomic technology to new drug and diagnostic test development and facilitate personalized medicine.

  10. Cloning and Expression of Multiple Cytochrome P450 Genes: Induction by Fipronil in Workers of the Red Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baizhong; Zhang, Lei; Cui, Rukun; Zeng, Xinnian; Gao, Xiwu

    2016-01-01

    Both exogenous and endogenous compounds can induce the expression of cytochrome P450 genes. The insect cytochrome P450 genes related to insecticide resistance are likely to be expressed as the "first line of defense" when challenged with insecticides. In this study, four cytochrome P450 genes, SinvCYP6B1, SinvCYP6A1, SinvCYP4C1, and SinvCYP4G15, were firstly isolated from workers of the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) through rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and sequenced. The fipronil induction profiles of the four cytochrome P450 genes and the two previously isolated CYP4AB1 and CYP4AB2 were characterized in workers. The results revealed that the expression of SinvCYP6B1, SinvCYP6A1, CYP4AB2, and SinvCYP4G15, increased 1.4-fold and 1.3-fold more than those of acetone control, respectively, after 24 h exposure to fipronil at concentrations of 0.25 μg mL-1 (median lethal dose) and 0.56 μg mL-1 (90% lethal dose), while no significant induction of the expression of CYP4AB1 and SinvCYP4C1 was detected. Among these genes, SinvCYP6B1 was the most significantly induced, and its maximum expression was 3.6-fold higher than that in acetone control. These results might suggest that multiple cytochrome P450 genes are co-up-regulated in workers of the fire ant through induction mechanism when challenged with fipronil. These findings indicated that cytochrome P450 genes play an important role in the detoxification of insecticides and provide a theoretical basis for the mechanisms of insecticide metabolism in the fire ant.

  11. Feature Selection and Classification of MAQC-II Breast Cancer and Multiple Myeloma Microarray Gene Expression Data

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qingzhong; Sung, Andrew H.; Chen, Zhongxue; Liu, Jianzhong; Huang, Xudong; Deng, Youping

    2009-01-01

    Microarray data has a high dimension of variables but available datasets usually have only a small number of samples, thereby making the study of such datasets interesting and challenging. In the task of analyzing microarray data for the purpose of, e.g., predicting gene-disease association, feature selection is very important because it provides a way to handle the high dimensionality by exploiting information redundancy induced by associations among genetic markers. Judicious feature selection in microarray data analysis can result in significant reduction of cost while maintaining or improving the classification or prediction accuracy of learning machines that are employed to sort out the datasets. In this paper, we propose a gene selection method called Recursive Feature Addition (RFA), which combines supervised learning and statistical similarity measures. We compare our method with the following gene selection methods: Support Vector Machine Recursive Feature Elimination (SVMRFE)Leave-One-Out Calculation Sequential Forward Selection (LOOCSFS)Gradient based Leave-one-out Gene Selection (GLGS) To evaluate the performance of these gene selection methods, we employ several popular learning classifiers on the MicroArray Quality Control phase II on predictive modeling (MAQC-II) breast cancer dataset and the MAQC-II multiple myeloma dataset. Experimental results show that gene selection is strictly paired with learning classifier. Overall, our approach outperforms other compared methods. The biological functional analysis based on the MAQC-II breast cancer dataset convinced us to apply our method for phenotype prediction. Additionally, learning classifiers also play important roles in the classification of microarray data and our experimental results indicate that the Nearest Mean Scale Classifier (NMSC) is a good choice due to its prediction reliability and its stability across the three performance measurements: Testing accuracy, MCC values, and AUC errors. PMID

  12. Feature selection and classification of MAQC-II breast cancer and multiple myeloma microarray gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingzhong; Sung, Andrew H; Chen, Zhongxue; Liu, Jianzhong; Huang, Xudong; Deng, Youping

    2009-12-11

    Microarray data has a high dimension of variables but available datasets usually have only a small number of samples, thereby making the study of such datasets interesting and challenging. In the task of analyzing microarray data for the purpose of, e.g., predicting gene-disease association, feature selection is very important because it provides a way to handle the high dimensionality by exploiting information redundancy induced by associations among genetic markers. Judicious feature selection in microarray data analysis can result in significant reduction of cost while maintaining or improving the classification or prediction accuracy of learning machines that are employed to sort out the datasets. In this paper, we propose a gene selection method called Recursive Feature Addition (RFA), which combines supervised learning and statistical similarity measures. We compare our method with the following gene selection methods: Support Vector Machine Recursive Feature Elimination (SVMRFE), Leave-One-Out Calculation Sequential Forward Selection (LOOCSFS), Gradient based Leave-one-out Gene Selection (GLGS). To evaluate the performance of these gene selection methods, we employ several popular learning classifiers on the MicroArray Quality Control phase II on predictive modeling (MAQC-II) breast cancer dataset and the MAQC-II multiple myeloma dataset. Experimental results show that gene selection is strictly paired with learning classifier. Overall, our approach outperforms other compared methods. The biological functional analysis based on the MAQC-II breast cancer dataset convinced us to apply our method for phenotype prediction. Additionally, learning classifiers also play important roles in the classification of microarray data and our experimental results indicate that the Nearest Mean Scale Classifier (NMSC) is a good choice due to its prediction reliability and its stability across the three performance measurements: Testing accuracy, MCC values, and AUC errors.

  13. Regulation of cannabinoid receptor gene expression and endocannabinoid levels in lymphocyte subsets by interferon-β: a longitudinal study in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Sánchez López, A J; Román-Vega, L; Ramil Tojeiro, E; Giuffrida, A; García-Merino, A

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests the involvement of the cannabinoid system in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). We studied cannabinoid receptor (CB)1 and CB2 receptor gene expression in B, natural killer (NK) and T cells from MS patients before and after 1 year of interferon beta therapy, and compared these levels to those of healthy controls. We also measured the production of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and the gene expression of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in these cells. Prior to interferon therapy, MS patients showed significantly elevated CB2 expression in B cells, but not in T or NK cells. These levels decreased gradually within 6 months to 1 year of interferon treatment. CB1 expression was elevated in all cell subsets, but only reached statistical significance in T cells; all levels decreased progressively over time. Before treatment, AEA but not 2-AG levels were significantly elevated in the three cell populations; after 1 year of treatment, all values decreased to control levels. The expression of FAAH was unchanged. The different expression of cannabinoid receptor genes and the increased level of AEA in lymphocytes point to a possible role of the cannabinoid system in MS immune response and its modulation by interferon.

  14. Regulation of cannabinoid receptor gene expression and endocannabinoid levels in lymphocyte subsets by interferon-β: a longitudinal study in multiple sclerosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez López, A J; Román-Vega, L; Ramil Tojeiro, E; Giuffrida, A; García-Merino, A

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests the involvement of the cannabinoid system in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). We studied cannabinoid receptor (CB)1 and CB2 receptor gene expression in B, natural killer (NK) and T cells from MS patients before and after 1 year of interferon beta therapy, and compared these levels to those of healthy controls. We also measured the production of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and the gene expression of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in these cells. Prior to interferon therapy, MS patients showed significantly elevated CB2 expression in B cells, but not in T or NK cells. These levels decreased gradually within 6 months to 1 year of interferon treatment. CB1 expression was elevated in all cell subsets, but only reached statistical significance in T cells; all levels decreased progressively over time. Before treatment, AEA but not 2-AG levels were significantly elevated in the three cell populations; after 1 year of treatment, all values decreased to control levels. The expression of FAAH was unchanged. The different expression of cannabinoid receptor genes and the increased level of AEA in lymphocytes point to a possible role of the cannabinoid system in MS immune response and its modulation by interferon. PMID:25169051

  15. [Prokaryotic expression of vp3 gene of Muscovy duck parvovirus, and its antiserum preparation for detection of virus multiplication].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Zhu, Yumin; Dong, Shijuan; Yu, Ruisong; Zhang, Yuanshu; Li, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    New epidemic broke out in recent year which was suspected to be caused by variant Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV). For this reason, new MDPV detection methods are needed for the new virus strains. In this study, a pair of primers were designed according to the full-length genome of MDPV strain SAAS-SHNH, which were identified in 2012, and were used to amplify the vp3 gene of MDPV by polymerase chain reaction. After being sequenced, the vp3 gene was subcloned into the prokaryotic expression vector PET28a. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21 and induced with IPTG. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis showed the MDPV vp3 gene was successfully expressed. After being purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography system, the recombinant protein was used as antigen to immunize rabbits to obtain antiserum. Western blotting analysis showed that the acquired antiserum could react specifically with VP3 protein of J3D6 strain and MDPV vaccine strain. The antiserum could also be used for detection of cultured MDPV from primary duck embryo fibroblasts by immune fluorescence assay (IFA). It could be concluded that the VP3 protein and its antibody prepared in the research could be used for detection of VP3 antiserum and antigen respectively.

  16. Multiple roles for UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 in regulating gene expression and metabolite accumulation in Arabidopsis under solar ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Morales, Luis O; Brosché, Mikael; Vainonen, Julia; Jenkins, Gareth I; Wargent, Jason J; Sipari, Nina; Strid, Åke; Lindfors, Anders V; Tegelberg, Riitta; Aphalo, Pedro J

    2013-02-01

    Photomorphogenic responses triggered by low fluence rates of ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B; 280-315 nm) are mediated by the UV-B photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8). Beyond our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of UV-B perception by UVR8, there is still limited information on how the UVR8 pathway functions under natural sunlight. Here, wild-type Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the uvr8-2 mutant were used in an experiment outdoors where UV-A (315-400 nm) and UV-B irradiances were attenuated using plastic films. Gene expression, PYRIDOXINE BIOSYNTHESIS1 (PDX1) accumulation, and leaf metabolite signatures were analyzed. The results show that UVR8 is required for transcript accumulation of genes involved in UV protection, oxidative stress, hormone signal transduction, and defense against herbivores under solar UV. Under natural UV-A irradiance, UVR8 is likely to interact with UV-A/blue light signaling pathways to moderate UV-B-driven transcript and PDX1 accumulation. UVR8 both positively and negatively affects UV-A-regulated gene expression and metabolite accumulation but is required for the UV-B induction of phenolics. Moreover, UVR8-dependent UV-B acclimation during the early stages of plant development may enhance normal growth under long-term exposure to solar UV.

  17. Expression of Echmr gene from Eichhornia offers multiple stress tolerance to Cd sensitive Escherichia coli Δgsh mutants.

    PubMed

    Thapa, G; Das, D; Gunupuru, L R

    2016-09-09

    The detoxification of heavy metals frequently involves conjugation to glutathione prior to compartmentalization and eflux in higher plants. We have expressed a heavy metal stress responsive (Echmr) gene from water hyacinth, which conferred tolerance to Cd sensitive Escherichia coli Δgsh mutants against heavy metals and abiotic stresses. The recombinant E. coli Δgsh mutant cells showed better growth recovery and survival than control cells under Cd (200 μM), Pb(200 μM), heat shock (50 °C), cold stress at 4 °C for 4 h, and UV-B (20 min) exposure. The enhanced expression of Echmr gene revealed by northern analysis during above stresses further advocates its role in multi-stress tolerance. Heterologous expression of EcHMR from Eichhornia rescued Cd(2+) sensitive E. coli mutants from Cd(2+) toxicity and induced better recovery post abiotic stresses. This may suggests a possible role of Echmr in Cd(II) and desiccation tolerance in plants for enhanced stress response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Multiple Sclerosis Risk Variant HLA-DRB1*1501 Associates with High Expression of DRB1 Gene in Different Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Abad-Grau, María del Mar; Fedetz, María; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Lucas, Miguel; Fernández, Óscar; Ndagire, Dorothy; Catalá-Rabasa, Antonio; Ruiz, Agustín; Gayán, Javier; Delgado, Concepción; Arnal, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DRB1*1501 has been consistently associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) in nearly all populations tested. This points to a specific antigen presentation as the pathogenic mechanism though this does not fully explain the disease association. The identification of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) for genes in the HLA locus poses the question of the role of gene expression in MS susceptibility. We analyzed the eQTLs in the HLA region with respect to MS-associated HLA-variants obtained from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We found that the Tag of DRB1*1501, rs3135388 A allele, correlated with high expression of DRB1, DRB5 and DQB1 genes in a Caucasian population. In quantitative terms, the MS-risk AA genotype carriers of rs3135388 were associated with 15.7-, 5.2- and 8.3-fold higher expression of DQB1, DRB5 and DRB1, respectively, than the non-risk GG carriers. The haplotype analysis of expression-associated variants in a Spanish MS cohort revealed that high expression of DRB1 and DQB1 alone did not contribute to the disease. However, in Caucasian, Asian and African American populations, the DRB1*1501 allele was always highly expressed. In other immune related diseases such as type 1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, asthma and IgA deficiency, the best GWAS-associated HLA SNPs were also eQTLs for different HLA Class II genes. Our data suggest that the DR/DQ expression levels, together with specific structural properties of alleles, seem to be the causal effect in MS and in other immunopathologies rather than specific antigen presentation alone. PMID:22253788

  19. Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles of Soft Tissue Sarcoma Using a Combination of Knowledge-Based Filtering with Integration of Multiple Statistics

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Ayano; Ichinohe, Risa; Ikuyo, Yoriko; Takahashi, Teruyoshi; Marui, Shigetaka; Yasuhara, Koji; Nakamura, Tetsuro; Sugita, Shintaro; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Hasegawa, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of soft tissue sarcomas (STS) have been difficult. Of the diverse histological subtypes, undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) is particularly difficult to diagnose accurately, and its classification per se is still controversial. Recent advances in genomic technologies provide an excellent way to address such problems. However, it is often difficult, if not impossible, to identify definitive disease-associated genes using genome-wide analysis alone, primarily because of multiple testing problems. In the present study, we analyzed microarray data from 88 STS patients using a combination method that used knowledge-based filtering and a simulation based on the integration of multiple statistics to reduce multiple testing problems. We identified 25 genes, including hypoxia-related genes (e.g., MIF, SCD1, P4HA1, ENO1, and STAT1) and cell cycle- and DNA repair-related genes (e.g., TACC3, PRDX1, PRKDC, and H2AFY). These genes showed significant differential expression among histological subtypes, including UPS, and showed associations with overall survival. STAT1 showed a strong association with overall survival in UPS patients (logrank p = 1.84×10−6 and adjusted p value 2.99×10−3 after the permutation test). According to the literature, the 25 genes selected are useful not only as markers of differential diagnosis but also as prognostic/predictive markers and/or therapeutic targets for STS. Our combination method can identify genes that are potential prognostic/predictive factors and/or therapeutic targets in STS and possibly in other cancers. These disease-associated genes deserve further preclinical and clinical validation. PMID:25188299

  20. Hormone-induced protection against mammary tumorigenesis is conserved in multiple rat strains and identifies a core gene expression signature induced by pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Blakely, Collin M; Stoddard, Alexander J; Belka, George K; Dugan, Katherine D; Notarfrancesco, Kathleen L; Moody, Susan E; D'Cruz, Celina M; Chodosh, Lewis A

    2006-06-15

    Women who have their first child early in life have a substantially lower lifetime risk of breast cancer. The mechanism for this is unknown. Similar to humans, rats exhibit parity-induced protection against mammary tumorigenesis. To explore the basis for this phenomenon, we identified persistent pregnancy-induced changes in mammary gene expression that are tightly associated with protection against tumorigenesis in multiple inbred rat strains. Four inbred rat strains that exhibit marked differences in their intrinsic susceptibilities to carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis were each shown to display significant protection against methylnitrosourea-induced mammary tumorigenesis following treatment with pregnancy levels of estradiol and progesterone. Microarray expression profiling of parous and nulliparous mammary tissue from these four strains yielded a common 70-gene signature. Examination of the genes constituting this signature implicated alterations in transforming growth factor-beta signaling, the extracellular matrix, amphiregulin expression, and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I axis in pregnancy-induced alterations in breast cancer risk. Notably, related molecular changes have been associated with decreased mammographic density, which itself is strongly associated with decreased breast cancer risk. Our findings show that hormone-induced protection against mammary tumorigenesis is widely conserved among divergent rat strains and define a gene expression signature that is tightly correlated with reduced mammary tumor susceptibility as a consequence of a normal developmental event. Given the conservation of this signature, these pathways may contribute to pregnancy-induced protection against breast cancer.

  1. Increased Resistance to Multiple Antimicrobials and Altered Resistance Gene Expression in CMY-2-Positive Salmonella enterica following a Simulated Patient Treatment with Ceftriaxone

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Russell D.; Hulsebus, Holly J.; Akbar, Samina

    2012-01-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the most common causes of food-borne disease in the United States. Increasing antimicrobial resistance and corresponding increases in virulence present serious challenges. Currently, empirical therapy for invasive Salmonella enterica infection includes either ceftriaxone or ciprofloxacin (E. L. Hohmann, Clin. Infect. Dis. 32:263–269, 2001). The blaCMY-2 gene confers resistance to ceftriaxone, the antimicrobial of choice for pediatric patients with invasive Salmonella enterica infections, making these infections especially dangerous (J. M. Whichard et al., Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:1464–1466, 2005). We hypothesized that blaCMY-2-positive Salmonella enterica would exhibit increased MICs to multiple antimicrobial agents and increased resistance gene expression following exposure to ceftriaxone using a protocol that simulated a patient treatment in vitro. Seven Salmonella enterica strains survived a simulated patient treatment in vitro and, following treatment, exhibited a significantly increased ceftriaxone MIC. Not only would these isolates be less responsive to further ceftriaxone treatment, but because the blaCMY-2 genes are commonly located on large, multidrug-resistant plasmids, increased expression of the blaCMY-2 gene may be associated with increased expression of other drug resistance genes located on the plasmid (N. D. Hanson and C. C. Sanders, Curr. Pharm. Des. 5:881–894, 1999). The results of this study demonstrate that a simulated patient treatment with ceftriaxone can alter the expression of antimicrobial resistance genes, including blaCMY-2 and floR in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Newport. Additionally, we have shown increased MICs following a simulated patient treatment with ceftriaxone for tetracycline, amikacin, ceftriaxone, and cefepime, all of which have resistance genes commonly located on CMY-2 plasmids. The increases in resistance observed are significant and may have a negative impact on both

  2. Real-Time Expression Analysis of Selected Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus Gene Promoters during Infection of Permissive, Semipermissive and Nonpermissive Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Fabricio da Silva; Ardisson-Araújo, Daniel Mendes Pereira; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2017-06-01

    Baculovirus infection follows a transcriptionally controlled sequence of gene expression that occurs by activation of different viral gene promoter sequences during infection. This sequence of promoter activation may be disrupted by cellular defenses against viral infection, which might interfere with viral progeny formation. In this work, the activity of the ie1, gp64, lef-1, vp39, p6.9 and polh promoters of the Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus was assessed during infection of permissive, semipermissive and nonpermissive cell lines by a novel methodology that detects reporter protein luminescence in real-time. This technique allowed us to characterize in rich detail the AgMNPV promoters in permissive cell lines and revealed differential profiles of expression in cells with limited permissivity that correlate well with limitations in viral DNA replication. Semipermissive and nonpermissive cell lines presented delays and restrictions in late and very late promoter expression. Cells undergoing apoptosis did not inhibit late gene expression; however, viral progeny formation is severely affected. This work demonstrates the application of the real-time luminescence detection methodology and how the promoter expression profile may be used to diagnose cellular permissivity to baculovirus infection.

  3. Real-Time Expression Analysis of Selected Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus Gene Promoters during Infection of Permissive, Semipermissive and Nonpermissive Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Morgado, Fabricio da Silva; Ardisson-Araújo, Daniel Mendes Pereira; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2017-01-01

    Baculovirus infection follows a transcriptionally controlled sequence of gene expression that occurs by activation of different viral gene promoter sequences during infection. This sequence of promoter activation may be disrupted by cellular defenses against viral infection, which might interfere with viral progeny formation. In this work, the activity of the ie1, gp64, lef-1, vp39, p6.9 and polh promoters of the Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus was assessed during infection of permissive, semipermissive and nonpermissive cell lines by a novel methodology that detects reporter protein luminescence in real-time. This technique allowed us to characterize in rich detail the AgMNPV promoters in permissive cell lines and revealed differential profiles of expression in cells with limited permissivity that correlate well with limitations in viral DNA replication. Semipermissive and nonpermissive cell lines presented delays and restrictions in late and very late promoter expression. Cells undergoing apoptosis did not inhibit late gene expression; however, viral progeny formation is severely affected. This work demonstrates the application of the real-time luminescence detection methodology and how the promoter expression profile may be used to diagnose cellular permissivity to baculovirus infection. PMID:28587184

  4. Multiple genes for functional 6 fatty acyl desaturases (Fad) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): gene and cDNA characterization, functional expression, tissue distribution and nutritional regulation.

    PubMed

    Monroig, Oscar; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Morais, Sofia; Leaver, Michael J; Taggart, John B; Tocher, Douglas R

    2010-09-01

    Fish are the primary source in the human food basket of the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoate (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoate (DHA; 22:6n-3), that are crucial to the health of higher vertebrates. Atlantic salmon are able to synthesize EPA and DHA from 18:3n-3 through reactions catalyzed by fatty acyl desaturases (Fad) and elongases of very long chain fatty acids. Previously, two cDNAs encoding functionally distinct Delta5 and Delta6 Fads were isolated, but screening of a genomic DNA library revealed the existence of more putative fad genes in the Atlantic salmon genome. In the present study, we show that there are at least four genes encoding putative Fad proteins in Atlantic salmon. Two genes, Delta6fad_a and Delta5fad, corresponded to the previously cloned Delta6 and Delta5 Fad cDNAs. Functional characterization by heterologous expression in yeast showed that the cDNAs for both the two further putative fad genes, Delta6fad_b and Delta6fad_c, had only Delta6 activity, converting 47 % and 12 % of 18:3n-3 to 18:4n-3, and 25 and 7 % of 18:2n-6 to 18:3n-6, for 6Fad_b and Delta6fad_c, respectively. Both 6fad_a and 6fad_b genes were highly expressed in intestine (pyloric caeca), liver and brain, with 6fad_b also highly expressed in gill, whereas 6fad_c transcript was found predominantly in brain, with lower expression levels in all other tissues. The expression levels of the 6fad_a gene in liver and the 6fad_b gene in intestine were significantly higher in fish fed diets containing vegetable oil compared to fish fed fish oil suggesting up-regulation in response to reduced dietary EPA and DHA. In contrast, no significant differences were found between transcript levels for 6fad_a in intestine, 6fad_b in liver, or 6fad_c in liver or intestine of fish fed vegetable oil compared to fish fed fish oil. The observed differences in tissue expression and nutritional regulation of the fad genes are discussed in relation to gene structures and fish

  5. Characterizing the Grape Transcriptome. Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags from Multiple Vitis Species and Development of a Compendium of Gene Expression during Berry Development1[w

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Francisco Goes da; Iandolino, Alberto; Al-Kayal, Fadi; Bohlmann, Marlene C.; Cushman, Mary Ann; Lim, Hyunju; Ergul, Ali; Figueroa, Rubi; Kabuloglu, Elif K.; Osborne, Craig; Rowe, Joan; Tattersall, Elizabeth; Leslie, Anna; Xu, Jane; Baek, JongMin; Cramer, Grant R.; Cushman, John C.; Cook, Douglas R.

    2005-01-01

    We report the analysis and annotation of 146,075 expressed sequence tags from Vitis species. The majority of these sequences were derived from different cultivars of Vitis vinifera, comprising an estimated 25,746 unique contig and singleton sequences that survey transcription in various tissues and developmental stages and during biotic and abiotic stress. Putatively homologous proteins were identified for over 17,752 of the transcripts, with 1,962 transcripts further subdivided into one or more Gene Ontology categories. A simple structured vocabulary, with modules for plant genotype, plant development, and stress, was developed to describe the relationship between individual expressed sequence tags and cDNA libraries; the resulting vocabulary provides query terms to facilitate data mining within the context of a relational database. As a measure of the extent to which characterized metabolic pathways were encompassed by the data set, we searched for homologs of the enzymes leading from glycolysis, through the oxidative/nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and into the general phenylpropanoid pathway. Homologs were identified for 65 of these 77 enzymes, with 86% of enzymatic steps represented by paralogous genes. Differentially expressed transcripts were identified by means of a stringent believability index cutoff of ≥98.4%. Correlation analysis and two-dimensional hierarchical clustering grouped these transcripts according to similarity of expression. In the broadest analysis, 665 differentially expressed transcripts were identified across 29 cDNA libraries, representing a range of developmental and stress conditions. The groupings revealed expected associations between plant developmental stages and tissue types, with the notable exception of abiotic stress treatments. A more focused analysis of flower and berry development identified 87 differentially expressed transcripts and provides the basis for a compendium that relates gene expression and annotation

  6. Molecular Characteristics of High-Dose Melphalan Associated Oral Mucositis in Patients with Multiple Myeloma: A Gene Expression Study on Human Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bødker, Julie Støve; Christensen, Heidi Søgaard; Johansen, Preben; Nielsen, Søren; Christiansen, Ilse; Bergmann, Olav Jonas; Bøgsted, Martin; Dybkær, Karen; Vyberg, Mogens; Johnsen, Hans Erik

    2017-01-01

    Background Toxicity of the oral and gastrointestinal mucosa induced by high-dose melphalan is a clinical challenge with no documented prophylactic interventions or predictive tests. The aim of this study was to describe molecular changes in human oral mucosa and to identify biomarkers correlated with the grade of clinical mucositis. Methods and Findings Ten patients with multiple myeloma (MM) were included. For each patient, we acquired three buccal biopsies, one before, one at 2 days, and one at 20 days after high-dose melphalan administration. We also acquired buccal biopsies from 10 healthy individuals that served as controls. We analyzed the biopsies for global gene expression and performed an immunohistochemical analysis to determine HLA-DRB5 expression. We evaluated associations between clinical mucositis and gene expression profiles. Compared to gene expression levels before and 20 days after therapy, at two days after melphalan treatment, we found gene regulation in the p53 and TNF pathways (MDM2, INPPD5, TIGAR), which favored anti-apoptotic defense, and upregulation of immunoregulatory genes (TREM2, LAMP3) in mucosal dendritic cells. This upregulation was independent of clinical mucositis. HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DRB5 (surface receptors on dendritic cells) were expressed at low levels in all patients with MM, in the subgroup of patients with ulcerative mucositis (UM), and in controls; in contrast, the subgroup with low-grade mucositis (NM) displayed 5–6 fold increases in HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DRB5 expression in the first two biopsies, independent of melphalan treatment. Moreover, different splice variants of HLA-DRB1 were expressed in the UM and NM subgroups. Conclusions Our results revealed that, among patients with MM, immunoregulatory genes and genes involved in defense against apoptosis were affected immediately after melphalan administration, independent of the presence of clinical mucositis. Furthermore, our results suggested that the expression levels of HLA

  7. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) gene expression in the developing cerebellum suggests multiple roles for FGF signaling during cerebellar morphogenesis and development.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Yuichiro; Yu, Tian; Ahmed, Mohi U; Berry, Mary; Mason, Ivor; Basson, M Albert

    2009-08-01

    The cerebellum is derived from the anterior-most segment of the embryonic hindbrain, rhombomere 1 (r1). Previous studies have shown that the early development and patterning of r1 requires fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling. However, many of the developmental processes that shape cerebellar morphogenesis take place later in embryonic development and during the first 2 weeks of postnatal life in the mouse. Here, we present a more comprehensive analysis of the expression patterns of genes encoding FGF receptors and secreted FGF ligands during these later stages of cerebellar development. We show that these genes are expressed in multiple cell types in the developing cerebellum, in an astonishing array of distinct patterns. These data suggest that FGF signaling functions throughout cerebellar development to regulate many processes that shape the formation of a functional cerebellum.

  8. The potato developer (D) locus encodes an R2R3 MYB transcription factor that regulates expression of multiple anthocyanin structural genes in tuber skin.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chun Suk; Griffiths, Helen M; De Jong, Darlene M; Cheng, Shuping; Bodis, Mary; Kim, Tae Sung; De Jong, Walter S

    2009-12-01

    A dominant allele at the D locus (also known as I in diploid potato) is required for the synthesis of red and purple anthocyanin pigments in tuber skin. It has previously been reported that D maps to a region of chromosome 10 that harbors one or more homologs of Petunia an2, an R2R3 MYB transcription factor that coordinately regulates the expression of multiple anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in the floral limb. To test whether D acts similarly in tuber skin, RT-PCR was used to evaluate the expression of flavanone 3-hydroxylase (f3h), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (dfr) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (f3'5'h). All three genes were expressed in the periderm of red- and purple-skinned clones, while dfr and f3'5'h were not expressed, and f3h was only weakly expressed, in white-skinned clones. A potato cDNA clone with similarity to an2 was isolated from an expression library prepared from red tuber skin, and an assay developed to distinguish the two alleles of this gene in a diploid potato clone known to be heterozygous Dd. One allele was observed to cosegregate with pigmented skin in an F(1) population of 136 individuals. This allele was expressed in tuber skin of red- and purple-colored progeny, but not in white tubers, while other parental alleles were not expressed in white or colored tubers. The allele was placed under the control of a doubled 35S promoter and transformed into the light red-colored cultivar Désirée, the white-skinned cultivar Bintje, and two white diploid clones known to lack the functional allele of D. Transformants accumulated pigment in tuber skin, as well as in other tissues, including young foliage, flower petals, and tuber flesh.

  9. 17alpha-Ethinylestradiol decreases expression of multiple hepatic nucleotide excision repair genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Notch, Emily G; Miniutti, Danielle M; Mayer, Gregory D

    2007-10-15

    Waterborne 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE(2)) alters hormone-mediated biological indicators in fish. These alterations include increased plasma vitellogenin, increased intersex individuals, decreased egg and sperm production, reduced gamete quality, and complete feminization of male fish. Together, these observations implicate aquatic estrogens in a broad range of detrimental effects on fish reproduction and fitness. In addition to impairing reproductive processes, EE(2) is also a strong promoter of hepatic tumor formation. Since many ubiquitous, aquatic hepatocarcinogens form DNA adducts that are preferentially repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER) processes, we hypothesized that EE(2) may exert co-carcinogenic effects by reducing an organisms ability to repair DNA adducts via this mechanism. The present study used fluorescence-based quantitative RT-PCR to examine effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of the semisynthetic estrogen, EE(2), on hepatic nucleotide excision repair (NER) gene expression. Adult male and female zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 1ng/L, 10ng/L or 100ng/L concentrations of EE(2), or to a solvent control (0.05%, v/v ethanol), for 7 days with static water renewal every 24h. Effectiveness of EE(2) exposure in the liver was confirmed by examining hepatic expression of two estrogen-responsive biomarkers, vitellogenin-1 and cytochrome P450-1A1 (CYP1A1). Quantitative analysis confirmed that exposure to 100ng/L EE(2) caused significant decreases in transcript abundance of several hepatic NER genes in male zebrafish, including XPC (>17-fold), XPA (>7-fold), XPD (>8-fold), and XPF (>8-fold). Adult female zebrafish exhibited a four-fold decreased in XPC mRNA abundance at all exposure concentrations. Decreased mRNA abundance of NER genes was also seen to a lesser degree at lower concentrations of EE(2). Adult male zebrafish showed greater reduction of hepatic NER transcript levels than their female counterparts, which is

  10. MALT1--a universal soldier: multiple strategies to ensure NF-κB activation and target gene expression.

    PubMed

    Afonina, Inna S; Elton, Lynn; Carpentier, Isabelle; Beyaert, Rudi

    2015-09-01

    The paracaspase MALT1 (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1) is an intracellular signaling protein that plays a key role in innate and adaptive immunity. It is essential for nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation and proinflammatory gene expression downstream of several cell surface receptors. MALT1 has been most studied in the context of T-cell receptor-induced NF-κB signaling, supporting T-cell activation and proliferation. In addition, MALT1 hyperactivation is associated with specific subtypes of B-cell lymphoma, where it controls tumor cell proliferation and survival. For a long time, MALT1 was believed to function solely as a scaffold protein, providing a platform for the assembly of other NF-κB signaling proteins. However, this view changed dramatically when MALT1 was found to have proteolytic activity that further fine-tunes signaling. MALT1 proteolytic activity is essential for T-cell activation and lymphomagenesis, suggesting that MALT1 is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and distinct lymphoma entities. However, interference with MALT1 activity may pose a dangerous threat to the normal functioning of the immune system and should be evaluated with great care. Here we discuss the current knowledge on the scaffold and protease functions of MALT1, including an overview of its substrates and the functional implications of their cleavage.

  11. Identification and expression profile of multiple genes in Nile tilapia in response to formalin killed Streptococcus iniae vaccination.

    PubMed

    Pridgeon, Julia W; Klesius, Phillip H

    2011-08-15

    Twenty-eight expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were isolated from a Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) vaccinated vs non-vaccinated subtractive library at 12-h post injection of a formalin killed Streptococcus iniae ARS-98-60 vaccine. The 28 ESTs were classified in terms of their putative functions. Half of the ESTs identified were unknown proteins. Of the remaining half ESTs, 17% have putative functions in protein biosynthesis and 11% have putative functions in immunity, energy production, and signal transduction, respectively. Immunity-related ESTs identified included high density lipoprotein-binding protein vigilin, immunoglobulin heavy chain, and QM-like protein. Quantitative PCR revealed that one EST (cytochrome c oxidase subunit II) was highly upregulated (1825 ± 336 fold) in vaccinated fish compared to that in non-vaccinated fish. Of the remaining 27 ESTs, nine were significantly (P<0.05) upregulated (<20 fold) in vaccinated fish. The nine significantly upregulated genes included five unknown or hypothetical proteins and four known proteins (high density lipoprotein-binding protein vigilin, QM-like protein, ribosomal protein S13, and ribosomal protein L5). The upregulation of these genes induced by killed S. iniae vaccines suggest that they might play important role in Nile tilapia defense against S. iniae infection.

  12. Brain insults in rats induce increased expression of the BDNF gene through differential use of multiple promoters.

    PubMed

    Kokaia, Z; Metsis, M; Kokaia, M; Bengzon, J; Elmér, E; Smith, M L; Timmusk, T; Siesjö, B K; Persson, H; Lindvall, O

    1994-04-01

    The rat brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene consists of four short 5'-exons linked to separate promoters and one 3'-exon encoding the mature BDNF protein. Using in situ hybridization we demonstrate here that kindling-induced seizures, cerebral ischaemia and insulin-induced hypoglycaemic coma increase BDNF mRNA levels through insult- and region-specific usage of three promoters within the BDNF gene. Both brief (2 min) and longer (10 min) periods of forebrain ischaemia induced significant and major increases only of exon III mRNA in the dentate gyrus. Following hypoglycaemic coma (1 and 30 min), exon III mRNA was markedly elevated in the dentate gyrus and, in addition, exon I mRNA showed a moderate increase. Single and recurrent (n = 40) hippocampal seizures significantly increased expression of exon I, II and III mRNAs in the dentate gyrus granule cells. After recurrent seizures, including generalized convulsions, there were also major increases of both exon I and III mRNAs in the CA3 region, amygdala, piriform cortex and neocortex, whereas in the hippocampal CA1 sector marked elevations were detected only for exon III mRNA. The insults had no effect on the level of exon IV mRNA in the brain. The region- and insult-specific pattern of promoter activation might be of importance for the effectiveness of protective responses as well as for the regulation of plastic changes following brain insults.

  13. Integrating genome-wide association study and expression quantitative trait loci data identifies multiple genes and gene set associated with neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qianrui; Wang, Wenyu; Hao, Jingcan; He, Awen; Wen, Yan; Guo, Xiong; Wu, Cuiyan; Ning, Yujie; Wang, Xi; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Feng

    2017-08-01

    Neuroticism is a fundamental personality trait with significant genetic determinant. To identify novel susceptibility genes for neuroticism, we conducted an integrative analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data of genome wide association study (GWAS) and expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) study. GWAS summary data was driven from published studies of neuroticism, totally involving 170,906 subjects. eQTL dataset containing 927,753 eQTLs were obtained from an eQTL meta-analysis of 5311 samples. Integrative analysis of GWAS and eQTL data was conducted by summary data-based Mendelian randomization (SMR) analysis software. To identify neuroticism associated gene sets, the SMR analysis results were further subjected to gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). The gene set annotation dataset (containing 13,311 annotated gene sets) of GSEA Molecular Signatures Database was used. SMR single gene analysis identified 6 significant genes for neuroticism, including MSRA (p value=2.27×10(-10)), MGC57346 (p value=6.92×10(-7)), BLK (p value=1.01×10(-6)), XKR6 (p value=1.11×10(-6)), C17ORF69 (p value=1.12×10(-6)) and KIAA1267 (p value=4.00×10(-6)). Gene set enrichment analysis observed significant association for Chr8p23 gene set (false discovery rate=0.033). Our results provide novel clues for the genetic mechanism studies of neuroticism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Increased expression of a set of genes enriched in oxygen binding function discloses a predisposition of breast cancer bone metastases to generate metastasis spread in multiple organs.

    PubMed

    Capulli, Mattia; Angelucci, Adriano; Driouch, Keltouma; Garcia, Teresa; Clement-Lacroix, Philippe; Martella, Francesco; Ventura, Luca; Bologna, Mauro; Flamini, Stefano; Moreschini, Oreste; Lidereau, Rosette; Ricevuto, Enrico; Muraca, Maurizio; Teti, Anna; Rucci, Nadia

    2012-11-01

    Bone is the preferential site of distant metastasis in breast carcinoma (BrCa). Patients with metastasis restricted to bone (BO) usually show a longer overall survival compared to patients who rapidly develop multiple metastases also involving liver and lung. Hence, molecular predisposition to generate bone and visceral metastases (BV) represents a clear indication of poor clinical outcome. We performed microarray analysis with two different chip platforms, Affymetrix and Agilent, on bone metastasis samples from BO and BV patients. The unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the resulting transcriptomes correlated with the clinical progression, segregating the BO from the BV profiles. Matching the twofold significantly regulated genes from Affymetrix and Agilent chips resulted in a 15-gene signature with 13 upregulated and two downregulated genes in BV versus BO bone metastasis samples. In order to validate the resulting signature, we isolated different MDA-MB-231 clonal subpopulations that metastasize only in the bone (MDA-BO) or in bone and visceral tissues (MDA-BV). Six of the signature genes were also significantly upregulated in MDA-BV compared to MDA-BO clones. A group of upregulated genes, including Hemoglobin B (HBB), were involved in oxygen metabolism, and in vitro functional analysis of HBB revealed that its expression in the MDA subpopulations was associated with a reduced production of hydrogen peroxide. Expression of HBB was detected in primary BrCa tissue but not in normal breast epithelial cells. Metastatic lymph nodes were frequently more positive for HBB compared to the corresponding primary tumors, whereas BO metastases had a lower expression than BV metastases, suggesting a positive correlation between HBB and ability of bone metastasis to rapidly spread to other organs. We propose that HBB, along with other genes involved in oxygen metabolism, confers a more aggressive metastatic phenotype in BrCa cells disseminated to bone.

  15. Placental gene-expression profiles of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy reveal involvement of multiple molecular pathways in blood vessel formation and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a pregnancy-associated liver disease with potentially deleterious consequences for the fetus, particularly when maternal serum bile-acid concentration >40 μM. However, the etiology and pathogenesis of ICP remain elusive. To reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms for the association of maternal serum bile-acid level and fetal outcome in ICP patients, DNA microarray was applied to characterize the whole-genome expression profiles of placentas from healthy women and women diagnosed with ICP. Methods Thirty pregnant women recruited in this study were categorized evenly into three groups: healthy group; mild ICP, with serum bile-acid concentration ranging from 10–40 μM; and severe ICP, with bile-acid concentration >40 μM. Gene Ontology analysis in combination with construction of gene-interaction and gene co-expression networks were applied to identify the core regulatory genes associated with ICP pathogenesis, which were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR and histological staining. Results The core regulatory genes were mainly involved in immune response, VEGF signaling pathway and G-protein-coupled receptor signaling, implying essential roles of immune response, vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in ICP pathogenesis. This implication was supported by the observed aggregated immune-cell infiltration and deficient blood vessel formation in ICP placentas. Conclusions Our study provides a system-level insight into the placental gene-expression profiles of women with mild or severe ICP, and reveals multiple molecular pathways in immune response and blood vessel formation that might contribute to ICP pathogenesis. PMID:25001852

  16. Placental gene-expression profiles of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy reveal involvement of multiple molecular pathways in blood vessel formation and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Du, QiaoLing; Pan, YouDong; Zhang, YouHua; Zhang, HaiLong; Zheng, YaJuan; Lu, Ling; Wang, JunLei; Duan, Tao; Chen, JianFeng

    2014-07-07

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a pregnancy-associated liver disease with potentially deleterious consequences for the fetus, particularly when maternal serum bile-acid concentration >40 μM. However, the etiology and pathogenesis of ICP remain elusive. To reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms for the association of maternal serum bile-acid level and fetal outcome in ICP patients, DNA microarray was applied to characterize the whole-genome expression profiles of placentas from healthy women and women diagnosed with ICP. Thirty pregnant women recruited in this study were categorized evenly into three groups: healthy group; mild ICP, with serum bile-acid concentration ranging from 10-40 μM; and severe ICP, with bile-acid concentration >40 μM. Gene Ontology analysis in combination with construction of gene-interaction and gene co-expression networks were applied to identify the core regulatory genes associated with ICP pathogenesis, which were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR and histological staining. The core regulatory genes were mainly involved in immune response, VEGF signaling pathway and G-protein-coupled receptor signaling, implying essential roles of immune response, vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in ICP pathogenesis. This implication was supported by the observed aggregated immune-cell infiltration and deficient blood vessel formation in ICP placentas. Our study provides a system-level insight into the placental gene-expression profiles of women with mild or severe ICP, and reveals multiple molecular pathways in immune response and blood vessel formation that might contribute to ICP pathogenesis.

  17. Clarifying the molecular mechanism associated with carfilzomib resistance in human multiple myeloma using microarray gene expression profile and genetic interaction network

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhihong; Liu, Tingbo; Zheng, Jing; Hu, Jianda

    2017-01-01

    Carfilzomib is a Food and Drug Administration-approved selective proteasome inhibitor for patients with multiple myeloma (MM). However, recent studies indicate that MM cells still develop resistance to carfilzomib, and the molecular mechanisms associated with carfilzomib resistance have not been studied in detail. In this study, to better understand its potential resistant effect and its underlying mechanisms in MM, microarray gene expression profile associated with carfilzomib-resistant KMS-11 and its parental cell line was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. Raw fluorescent signals were normalized and differently expressed genes were identified using Significance Analysis of Microarrays method. Genetic interaction network was expanded using String, a biomolecular interaction network JAVA platform. Meanwhile, molecular function, biological process and signaling pathway enrichment analysis were performed based on Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Totally, 27 upregulated and 36 downregulated genes were identified and a genetic interaction network associated with the resistant effect was expanded basing on String, which consisted of 100 nodes and 249 edges. In addition, signaling pathway enrichment analysis indicated that cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction, autophagy, ErbB signaling pathway, microRNAs in cancer and fatty acid metabolism pathways were aberrant in carfilzomib-resistant KMS-11 cells. Thus, in this study, we demonstrated that carfilzomib potentially conferred drug resistance to KMS-11 cells by cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction, autophagy, ErbB signaling pathway, microRNAs in cancer and fatty acid metabolism pathways, which may provide some potential molecular therapeutic targets for drug combination therapy against carfilzomib resistance. PMID:28280367

  18. Clarifying the molecular mechanism associated with carfilzomib resistance in human multiple myeloma using microarray gene expression profile and genetic interaction network.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhihong; Liu, Tingbo; Zheng, Jing; Hu, Jianda

    2017-01-01

    Carfilzomib is a Food and Drug Administration-approved selective proteasome inhibitor for patients with multiple myeloma (MM). However, recent studies indicate that MM cells still develop resistance to carfilzomib, and the molecular mechanisms associated with carfilzomib resistance have not been studied in detail. In this study, to better understand its potential resistant effect and its underlying mechanisms in MM, microarray gene expression profile associated with carfilzomib-resistant KMS-11 and its parental cell line was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. Raw fluorescent signals were normalized and differently expressed genes were identified using Significance Analysis of Microarrays method. Genetic interaction network was expanded using String, a biomolecular interaction network JAVA platform. Meanwhile, molecular function, biological process and signaling pathway enrichment analysis were performed based on Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Totally, 27 upregulated and 36 downregulated genes were identified and a genetic interaction network associated with the resistant effect was expanded basing on String, which consisted of 100 nodes and 249 edges. In addition, signaling pathway enrichment analysis indicated that cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, autophagy, ErbB signaling pathway, microRNAs in cancer and fatty acid metabolism pathways were aberrant in carfilzomib-resistant KMS-11 cells. Thus, in this study, we demonstrated that carfilzomib potentially conferred drug resistance to KMS-11 cells by cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, autophagy, ErbB signaling pathway, microRNAs in cancer and fatty acid metabolism pathways, which may provide some potential molecular therapeutic targets for drug combination therapy against carfilzomib resistance.

  19. Nitric oxide-induced murine hematopoietic stem cell fate involves multiple signaling proteins, gene expression, and redox modulation.

    PubMed

    Nogueira-Pedro, Amanda; Dias, Carolina C; Regina, Helena; Segreto, C; Addios, Priscilla C; Lungato, Lisandro; D'Almeida, Vania; Barros, Carlos C; Higa, Elisa M S; Buri, Marcus V; Ferreira, Alice T; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian

    2014-11-01

    There are a growing number of reports showing the influence of redox modulation in cellular signaling. Although the regulation of hematopoiesis by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) has been described, their direct participation in the differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) remains unclear. In this work, the direct role of nitric oxide (NO(•)), a RNS, in the modulation of hematopoiesis was investigated using two sources of NO(•) , one produced by endothelial cells stimulated with carbachol in vitro and another using the NO(•)-donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (SNAP) in vivo. Two main NO(•) effects were observed: proliferation of HSCs-especially of the short-term HSCs-and its commitment and terminal differentiation to the myeloid lineage. NO(•)-induced proliferation was characterized by the increase in the number of cycling HSCs and hematopoietic progenitor cells positive to BrdU and Ki-67, upregulation of Notch-1, Cx43, PECAM-1, CaR, ERK1/2, Akt, p38, PKC, and c-Myc. NO(•)-induced HSCs differentiation was characterized by the increase in granulocytic-macrophage progenitors, granulocyte-macrophage colony forming units, mature myeloid cells, upregulation of PU.1, and C/EBPα genes concomitantly to the downregulation of GATA-3 and Ikz-3 genes, activation of Stat5 and downregulation of the other analyzed proteins mentioned above. Also, redox status modulation differed between proliferation and differentiation responses, which is likely associated with the transition of the proliferative to differentiation status. Our findings provide evidence of the role of NO(•) in inducing HSCs proliferation and myeloid differentiation involving multiple signaling.

  20. Expression of the DAL80 gene, whose product is homologous to the GATA factors and is a negative regulator of multiple nitrogen catabolic genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is sensitive to nitrogen catabolite repression.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, T S; Cooper, T G

    1991-01-01

    We have cloned the negative regulatory gene (DAL80) of the allantoin catabolic pathway, characterized its structure, and determined the physiological conditions that control DAL80 expression and its influence on the expression of nitrogen catabolic genes. Disruption of the DAL80 gene demonstrated that it regulates multiple nitrogen catabolic pathways. Inducer-independent expression was observed for the allantoin pathway genes DAL7 and DUR1,2, as well as the UGA1 gene required for gamma-aminobutyrate catabolism in the disruption mutant. DAL80 transcription was itself highly sensitive to nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR), and its promoter contained 12 sequences homologous to the NCR-sensitive UASNTR. The deduced DAL80 protein structure contains zinc finger and coiled-coil motifs. The DAL80 zinc finger motif possessed high homology to the transcriptional activator proteins required for expression of NCR-sensitive genes in fungi and the yeast GLN3 gene product required for functioning of the NCR-sensitive DAL UASNTR. It was also homologous to the three GATAA-binding proteins reported to be transcriptional activators in avian and mammalian tissues. The latter correlations raise the possibility that both positive and negative regulators of allantoin pathway transcription may bind to similar sequences. Images PMID:1944286

  1. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression profiles of multiple leptin genes and a leptin receptor gene in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huixian; Chen, Huapu; Zhang, Yong; Li, Shuisheng; Lu, Danqi; Zhang, Haifa; Meng, Zining; Liu, Xiaochun; Lin, Haoran

    2013-01-15

    Leptin plays key roles in body weight regulation, energy metabolism, food intake, reproduction and immunity in mammals. However, its function in teleosts is still unclear. In the present study, two leptin genes (gLepA and gLepB) and one leptin receptor gene (gLepR) were cloned and characterized in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The cDNAs of gLepA and gLepB were 671 bp and 684 bp in length, encoding for proteins of 161 amino acid (aa) and 158 aa, respectively. The three-dimensional (3D) structures modeling of gLepA and gLepB showed strong conservation of tertiary structure with that of other vertebrates. The total length of gLepR cDNA was 4242 bp, encoding a protein of 1169 aa which contained all functionally important domains conserved among vertebrate LEPR. Tissue distribution analysis showed that gLepA was highly expressed in cerebellum, liver and ovary, while gLepB mRNA abundantly in the brain regions, as well as in the ovary with some extend. The gLepR was mainly expressed in kidney, head kidney and most of brain regions. Analysis of expression profiles of gLep and gLepR genes during the embryonic stages showed that high expression of gLepR was observed in the brain vesicle stage, while neither gLepA nor gLepB mRNA was detected during different embryonic stages. Finally, fasting and refeeding experiments were carried out to investigate the possible function of leptin genes in food intake and energy metabolism, and the results showed that a significant increase of gLepA expression in the liver was induced by food deprivation in both short-term (7 days) and long-term (3 weeks) fasting and gLepA mRNA upregulation was eliminated after refeeding, while gLepB wasn't detected in the liver of grouper during fasting. No significant differences in hypothalamic leptin and leptin receptor expression were found during short-term fasting and refeeding. Hepatic expression of gLepA mRNA increased significantly 9h after a single meal. These results suggested g

  2. Differential expression analysis for individual cancer samples based on robust within-sample relative gene expression orderings across multiple profiling platforms

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Qingzhou; Chen, Rou; Yan, Haidan; Cai, Hao; Guo, You; Li, Mengyao; Li, Xiangyu; Tong, Mengsha; Ao, Lu; Li, Hongdong; Hong, Guini; Guo, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The highly stable within-sample relative expression orderings (REOs) of gene pairs in a particular type of human normal tissue are widely reversed in the cancer condition. Based on this finding, we have recently proposed an algorithm named RankComp to detect differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for individual disease samples measured by a particular platform. In this paper, with 461 normal lung tissue samples separately measured by four commonly used platforms, we demonstrated that tens of millions of gene pairs with significantly stable REOs in normal lung tissue can be consistently detected in samples measured by different platforms. However, about 20% of stable REOs commonly detected by two different platforms (e.g., Affymetrix and Illumina platforms) showed inconsistent REO patterns due to the differences in probe design principles. Based on the significantly stable REOs (FDR<0.01) for normal lung tissue consistently detected by the four platforms, which tended to have large rank differences, RankComp detected averagely 1184, 1335 and 1116 DEGs per sample with averagely 96.51%, 95.95% and 94.78% precisions in three evaluation datasets with 25, 57 and 58 paired lung cancer and normal samples, respectively. Individualized pathway analysis revealed some common and subtype-specific functional mechanisms of lung cancer. Similar results were observed for colorectal cancer. In conclusion, based on the cross-platform significantly stable REOs for a particular normal tissue, differentially expressed genes and pathways in any disease sample measured by any of the platforms can be readily and accurately detected, which could be further exploited for dissecting the heterogeneity of cancer. PMID:27634898

  3. Evolutionary Changes in Gene Expression, Coding Sequence and Copy-Number at the Cyp6g1 Locus Contribute to Resistance to Multiple Insecticides in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Harrop, Thomas W. R.; Sztal, Tamar; Lumb, Christopher; Good, Robert T.; Daborn, Phillip J.; Batterham, Philip; Chung, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Widespread use of insecticides has led to insecticide resistance in many populations of insects. In some populations, resistance has evolved to multiple pesticides. In Drosophila melanogaster, resistance to multiple classes of insecticide is due to the overexpression of a single cytochrome P450 gene, Cyp6g1. Overexpression of Cyp6g1 appears to have evolved in parallel in Drosophila simulans, a sibling species of D. melanogaster, where it is also associated with insecticide resistance. However, it is not known whether the ability of the CYP6G1 enzyme to provide resistance to multiple insecticides evolved recently in D. melanogaster or if this function is present in all Drosophila species. Here we show that duplication of the Cyp6g1 gene occurred at least four times during the evolution of different Drosophila species, and the ability of CYP6G1 to confer resistance to multiple insecticides exists in D. melanogaster and D. simulans but not in Drosophila willistoni or Drosophila virilis. In D. virilis, which has multiple copies of Cyp6g1, one copy confers resistance to DDT and another to nitenpyram, suggesting that the divergence of protein sequence between copies subsequent to the duplication affected the activity of the enzyme. All orthologs tested conferred resistance to one or more insecticides, suggesting that CYP6G1 had the capacity to provide resistance to anthropogenic chemicals before they existed. Finally, we show that expression of Cyp6g1 in the Malpighian tubules, which contributes to DDT resistance in D. melanogaster, is specific to the D. melanogaster–D. simulans lineage. Our results suggest that a combination of gene duplication, regulatory changes and protein coding changes has taken place at the Cyp6g1 locus during evolution and this locus may play a role in providing resistance to different environmental toxins in different Drosophila species. PMID:24416303

  4. Gene expression technology

    SciTech Connect

    Goeddel, D.V. )

    1990-01-01

    The articles in this volume were assemble to enable the reader to design effective strategies for the expression of cloned genes and cDNAs. More than a compilation of papers describing the multitude of techniques now available for expressing cloned genes, this volume provides a manual that should prove useful for solving the majority of expression problems one likely to encounter. The four major expression systems commonly available to most investigators are stressed: Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, yeast, and mammalian cells. Each of these system has its advantages and disadvantages, details of which are found in Chapter 1 and the strategic overviews for the four major sections of the volume. The papers in each of these sections provide many suggestions on how to proceed if initial expression levels are not sufficient.

  5. Changes in gene expression profiles of multiple myeloma cells induced by arsenic trioxide (ATO): possible mechanisms to explain ATO resistance in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ping; Kalakonda, Nagesh; Comenzo, Raymond L

    2005-03-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable plasma cell malignancy marked by eventual resistance to therapy. Although arsenic trioxide (ATO) can induce apoptosis in MM cell lines, the in vivo activity of ATO in MM has been disappointing. The existence of ATO resistance mechanisms in MM can be inferred. We sought to generate hypotheses for ATO resistance by studying the gene expression profiles of MM cells that survived in culture with 0.5 micromol/l ATO. Among the 31 genes whose quantitative levels of expression (QLE) significantly increased in ATO were haem oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and metallothionein-2A (MT-2A). Among the 56 genes whose QLE were significantly decreased were genes that modulate cell cycling [BTBD2 and IGFBP7 (mac25)] and sensitivity to reactive oxygen species (ROS) (BACH2). HO-1 exerts an anti-apoptotic effect in ischaemic cells, and MT-2A chelates ATO intracellularly. Inhibition of HO-1 with tin protoporphyrin enhances ROS in MM cells in ATO, and addition of N-acetylcysteine increases MT-2A. Protective antioxidant responses occur in MM cells exposed to ATO, and may occur in stromal cells as well, and act to quench ROS and provide diffusible anti-apoptotic factors. They may also involve cysteine-rich proteins that chelate ATO and modulate redox-sensitive residues on proteins, such as nuclear factor kappa B and p53. A better understanding of ATO resistance will enable ATO to be combined with other agents for MM.

  6. Effects of gene orientation and use of multiple promoters on the expression of XYL1 and XYL2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Treesearch

    Ju Yun Bae; Jose Laplaza; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2008-01-01

    Orientation of adjacent genes has been reported to affect their expression in eukaryotic systems, and metabolic engineering also often makes repeated use of a few promoters to obtain high expression. To improve transcriptional control in heterologous expression, we examined how these factors affect gene expression and enzymatic activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We...

  7. Nontypeable pneumococci can be divided into multiple cps types, including one type expressing the novel gene pspK.

    PubMed

    Park, In Ho; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Andrade, Ana Lucia; Briles, David E; McDaniel, Larry S; Nahm, Moon H

    2012-01-01

    Although virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae is associated with its capsule, some pathogenic S. pneumoniae isolates lack capsules and are serologically nontypeable (NT). We obtained 64 isolates that were identified as NT "pneumococci" (i.e., bacteria satisfying the conventional definition but without the multilocus sequence typing [MLST]-based definition of S. pneumoniae) by the traditional criteria. All 64 were optochin sensitive and had lytA, and 63 had ply. Twelve isolates had cpsA, suggesting the presence of a conventional but defective capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps) locus. The 52 cpsA-negative isolates could be divided into three null capsule clades (NCC) based on aliC (aliB-like ORF1), aliD (aliB-like ORF2), and our newly discovered gene, pspK, in their cps loci. pspK encodes a protein with a long alpha-helical region containing an LPxTG motif and a YPT motif known to bind human pIgR. There were nine isolates in NCC1 (pspK(+) but negative for aliC and aliD), 32 isolates in NCC2 (aliC(+) aliD(+) but negative for pspK), and 11 in NCC3 (aliD(+) but negative for aliC and pspK). Among 52 cpsA-negative isolates, 41 were identified as S. pneumoniae by MLST analysis. All NCC1 and most NCC2 isolates were S. pneumoniae, whereas all nine NCC3 and two NCC2 isolates were not S. pneumoniae. Several NCC1 and NCC2 isolates from multiple individuals had identical MLST and cps regions, showing that unencapsulated S. pneumoniae can be infectious among humans. Furthermore, NCC1 and NCC2 S. pneumoniae isolates could colonize mice as well as encapsulated S. pneumoniae, although S. pneumoniae with an artificially disrupted cps locus did not. Moreover, an NCC1 isolate with pspK deletion did not colonize mice, suggesting that pspK is critical for colonization. Thus, PspK may provide pneumococci a means of surviving in the nasopharynx without capsule. IMPORTANCE The presence of a capsule is critical for many pathogenic bacteria, including pneumococci. Reflecting the

  8. Efficient arsenic metabolism--the AS3MT haplotype is associated with DNA methylation and expression of multiple genes around AS3MT.

    PubMed

    Engström, Karin S; Hossain, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Lauss, Martin; Ahmed, Sultan; Raqib, Rubhana; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic is a very potent toxicant. One major susceptibility factor for arsenic-related toxicity is the efficiency of arsenic metabolism. The efficiency, in turn, is associated with non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the arsenic methyltransferase AS3MT on chromosome 10q24. However, the mechanism of action for these SNPs is not yet clarified. Here, we assessed the influence of genetic variation in AS3MT on DNA methylation and gene expression within 10q24, in people exposed to arsenic in drinking water. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood from women in the Argentinean Andes (N = 103) and from cord blood from new-borns in Bangladesh (N = 127). AS3MT SNPs were analyzed with Sequenom or Taqman assays. Whole genome epigenetic analysis with Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip was performed on bisulphite-treated DNA. Whole genome gene expression analysis was performed with Illumina DirectHyb HumanHT-12 v4.0 on RNA from peripheral blood. Arsenic exposure was assessed by HPLC-ICPMS. In the Argentinean women, the major AS3MT haplotype, associated with more efficient arsenic metabolism, showed increased methylation of AS3MT (p = 10(-6)) and also differential methylation of several other genes within about 800 kilobasepairs: CNNM2 (p<10(-16)), NT5C2 (p<10(-16)), C10orf26 (p = 10(-8)), USMG5 (p = 10(-5)), TRIM8 (p = 10(-4)), and CALHM2 (p = 0.038) (adjusted for multiple comparisons). Similar, but weaker, associations between AS3MT haplotype and DNA methylation in 10q24 were observed in cord blood (Bangladesh). The haplotype-associated altered CpG methylation was correlated with reduced expression of AS3MT and CNNM2 (r(s) = -0.22 to -0.54), and with increased expression of NT5C2 and USMG5 (r(s) = 0.25 to 0.58). Taking other possibly influential variables into account in multivariable linear models did only to a minor extent alter the strength of the associations. In conclusion, the AS3MT haplotype status strongly

  9. Generation of a Transcriptome in a Model Lepidopteran Pest, Heliothis virescens, Using Multiple Sequencing Strategies for Profiling Midgut Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Popham, Holly J. R.; Gould, Fred; Adang, Michael J.; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Heliothine pests such as the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.), pose a significant threat to production of a variety of crops and ornamental plants and are models for developmental and physiological studies. The efforts to develop new control measures for H. virescens, as well as its use as a relevant biological model, are hampered by a lack of molecular resources. The present work demonstrates the utility of next-generation sequencing technologies for rapid molecular resource generation from this species for which lacks a sequenced genome. In order to amass a de novo transcriptome for this moth, transcript sequences generated from Illumina, Roche 454, and Sanger sequencing platforms were merged into a single de novo transcriptome assembly. This pooling strategy allowed a thorough sampling of transcripts produced under diverse environmental conditions, developmental stages, tissues, and infections with entomopathogens used for biological control, to provide the most complete transcriptome to date for this species. Over 138 million reads from the three platforms were assembled into the final set of 63,648 contigs. Of these, 29,978 had significant BLAST scores indicating orthologous relationships to transcripts of other insect species, with the top-hit species being the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) and silkworm (Bombyx mori). Among identified H. virescens orthologs were immune effectors, signal transduction pathways, olfactory receptors, hormone biosynthetic pathways, peptide hormones and their receptors, digestive enzymes, and insecticide resistance enzymes. As an example, we demonstrate the utility of this transcriptomic resource to study gene expression profiling of larval midguts and detect transcripts of putative Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxin receptors. The substantial molecular resources described in this study will facilitate development of H. virescens as a relevant biological model for functional genomics and for new biological

  10. Generation of a Transcriptome in a Model Lepidopteran Pest, Heliothis virescens, Using Multiple Sequencing Strategies for Profiling Midgut Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Perera, Omaththage P; Shelby, Kent S; Popham, Holly J R; Gould, Fred; Adang, Michael J; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Heliothine pests such as the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.), pose a significant threat to production of a variety of crops and ornamental plants and are models for developmental and physiological studies. The efforts to develop new control measures for H. virescens, as well as its use as a relevant biological model, are hampered by a lack of molecular resources. The present work demonstrates the utility of next-generation sequencing technologies for rapid molecular resource generation from this species for which lacks a sequenced genome. In order to amass a de novo transcriptome for this moth, transcript sequences generated from Illumina, Roche 454, and Sanger sequencing platforms were merged into a single de novo transcriptome assembly. This pooling strategy allowed a thorough sampling of transcripts produced under diverse environmental conditions, developmental stages, tissues, and infections with entomopathogens used for biological control, to provide the most complete transcriptome to date for this species. Over 138 million reads from the three platforms were assembled into the final set of 63,648 contigs. Of these, 29,978 had significant BLAST scores indicating orthologous relationships to transcripts of other insect species, with the top-hit species being the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) and silkworm (Bombyx mori). Among identified H. virescens orthologs were immune effectors, signal transduction pathways, olfactory receptors, hormone biosynthetic pathways, peptide hormones and their receptors, digestive enzymes, and insecticide resistance enzymes. As an example, we demonstrate the utility of this transcriptomic resource to study gene expression profiling of larval midguts and detect transcripts of putative Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxin receptors. The substantial molecular resources described in this study will facilitate development of H. virescens as a relevant biological model for functional genomics and for new biological

  11. Expression of the Nitroarene Dioxygenase Genes in Comamonas sp. Strain JS765 and Acidovorax sp. Strain JS42 Is Induced by Multiple Aromatic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Lessner, Daniel J.; Parales, Rebecca E.; Narayan, Shakti; Gibson, David T.

    2003-01-01

    This work reports a genetic analysis of the expression of nitrobenzene dioxygenase (NBDO) in Comamonas sp. strain JS765 and 2-nitrotoluene dioxygenase (2NTDO) in Acidovorax sp. strain JS42. Strains JS765 and JS42 possess identical LysR-type regulatory proteins, NbzR and NtdR, respectively. NbzR/NtdR is homologous to NahR, the positive salicylate-responsive transcriptional activator of the naphthalene degradation genes in Pseudomonas putida G7. The genes encoding NBDO and 2NTDO in each strain are cotranscribed, and transcription starts at the same site within identical promoter regions for each operon. Results from a lacZ reporter gene fusion demonstrated that expression of NBDO and 2NTDO is induced by multiple aromatic compounds, including an array of nitroaromatic compounds (nitrobenzene, 2-, 3-, and 4-nitrotoluene, 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene, and aminodinitrotoluenes), as well as salicylate and anthranilate. The nitroaromatic compounds appear to be the actual effector molecules. Analysis of β-galactosidase and 2NTDO activities with strain JS42 demonstrated that NtdR was required for induction by all of the inducing compounds, high basal-level expression of 2NTDO, and complementation of a JS42 ntdR null mutant. Complementation with the closely related regulators NagR (from Ralstonia sp. strain U2) and NahR restored only induction by the archetype inducers, salicylate or salicylate and anthranilate, respectively, and did not restore the high basal level of expression of 2NTDO. The mechanism of 2NTDO gene regulation in JS42, and presumably that of NBDO gene regulation in JS765, appear similar to that of NahR-regulated genes in Pseudomonas putida G7. However, NbzR and NtdR appear to have evolved a broader specificity in JS42 and JS765, allowing for recognition of nitroaromatic compounds while retaining the ability to respond to salicylate and anthranilate. NtdR is also the first example of a nitroarene-responsive LysR-type transcriptional activator. PMID:12813084

  12. Expression of multiple resistance genes enhances tolerance to environmental stressors in transgenic poplar (Populus × euramericana 'Guariento').

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaohua; Chu, Yanguang; Li, Huan; Hou, Yingjie; Zhang, Bingyu; Huang, Qinjun; Hu, Zanmin; Huang, Rongfeng; Tian, Yingchuan

    2011-01-01

    Commercial and non-commercial plants face a variety of environmental stressors that often cannot be controlled. In this study, transgenic hybrid poplar (Populus × euramericana 'Guariento') harboring five effector genes (vgb, SacB, JERF36, BtCry3A and OC-I) were subjected to drought, salinity, waterlogging and insect stressors in greenhouse or laboratory conditions. Field trials were also conducted to investigate long-term effects of transgenic trees on insects and salt tolerance in the transformants. In greenhouse studies, two transgenic lines D5-20 and D5-21 showed improved growth, as evidenced by greater height and basal diameter increments and total biomass relative to the control plants after drought or salt stress treatments. The improved tolerance to drought and salt was primarily attributed to greater instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi) in the transgenic trees. The chlorophyll concentrations tended to be higher in the transgenic lines under drought or saline conditions. Transformed trees in drought conditions accumulated more fructan and proline and had increased Fv/Fm ratios (maximum quantum yield of photosystem II) under waterlogging stress. Insect-feeding assays in the laboratory revealed a higher total mortality rate and lower exuviation index of leaf beetle [Plagiodera versicolora (Laicharting)] larvae fed with D5-21 leaves, suggesting enhanced insect resistance in the transgenic poplar. In field trials, the dominance of targeted insects on 2-year-old D5-21 transgenic trees was substantially lower than that of the controls, indicating enhanced resistance to Coleoptera. The average height and DBH (diameter at breast height) of 2.5-year-old transgenic trees growing in naturally saline soil were 3.80% and 4.12% greater than those of the control trees, but these increases were not significant. These results suggested that multiple stress-resistance properties in important crop tree species could be simultaneously improved, although additional

  13. Mutations in WSC genes for putative stress receptors result in sensitivity to multiple stress conditions and impairment of Rlm1-dependent gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zu, T; Verna, J; Ballester, R

    2001-09-01

    Intracellular signaling by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades plays an essential role in the cellular response to environmental stress. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the PKC1-regulated, stress-activated MAP kinase pathway, the MPK1 cascade, is activated by heat and by a decrease in osmolarity. The genes WSC1, WSC2 and WSC3 encode putative receptors that maintain cell wall integrity under conditions of heat stress. Genetic studies place the function of the WSC genes upstream of the MPK1 kinase cascade. To further define the role of the WSC family in the stress response we determined whether: (1) the wscdelta mutants are sensitive to other environmental stress conditions, in addition to heat shock; (2) expression from four transcriptional control elements, known to be activated by stress, is impaired in wscdelta mutants; and (3) Wsc4, a Wsc homolog, has functions that overlap with those of the other Wsc family members. We report here that deletion of WSC and PKC1 causes hypersensitivity to ethanol, hydrogen peroxide and DNA-damaging drugs. In wscdelta mutants expression of beta-galactosidase from the AP-1 response element (ARE), the heat shock response element (HSE) or the stress response element (STRE) is not reduced. In contrast, expression of a reporter gene placed under the control of the Rlm1 (transcription factor)-dependent response element is significantly reduced in wscdelta mutants. This suggests that the lysis defect of wscdelta mutants is at least in part caused by a defect in transcriptional regulation by Rlm1. Phenotypic analysis of the effect of deleting WSC4 in a wsc1delta mutant show that, unlike WSC2 or WSC3, deletion of WSC4 does not exacerbate the lysis defect of a wsc1delta strain. In contrast, deletion of WSC4 enhances the sensitivity of the wsc1delta mutant to heat shock, ethanol, and a DNA-damaging drug, suggesting that WSC4 plays a role in the response to environmental stress but that its function may differ from those of

  14. Differential gene expression in Neurospora crassa cell types: heterogeneity and multiple copies of rRNA genes. Annual progress report, July 1981-June 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    The significant results obtained were as follows: (I) Multiple copies of isolated rRNA genes from N. crassa were tested for heterogeneity by rRNA: rDNA reassociation kinetics. More than 90% of rDNA copies were identical. The possible heterogeneity of a small fraction of rDNAs could not be attributed to inclusion of any tDNA sequences. (II) Two approaches to study gross differences between rRNA genes from N. crassa cell types-conidia, germinated conidia, and mycelia were undertaken. No difference was seen in either the restriction patterns nor the autoradiographs. Either gross differences between rDNAS of N. crassa cell types were not present or they were not detected by these two approaches. (III) Using similar DNA restriction analysis procedures, differences between closely related heterothallic and homothallic species of Neurospora were detected. (IV) Successful sequencing of 317 bases of the N. crassa slime mutant pMF2 clone which includes the 5.8S rDNA and it's flanking internal spacer regions was achieved. (ERB)

  15. Genomic origin, expression differentiation and regulation of multiple genes encoding CYP83A1, a key enzyme for core glucosinolate biosynthesis, from the allotetraploid Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Meenu; Augustine, Rehna; Majee, Manoj; Pradhan, Akshay K; Bisht, Naveen C

    2015-03-01

    The multiple BjuCYP83A1 genes formed as a result of polyploidy have retained cell-, tissue-, and condition-specific transcriptional sub-functionalization to control the complex aliphatic glucosinolates biosynthesis in the allotetraploid Brassica juncea. Glucosinolates along with their breakdown products are associated with diverse roles in plant metabolism, plant defense and animal nutrition. CYP83A1 is a key enzyme that oxidizes aliphatic aldoximes to aci-nitro compounds in the complex aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. In this study, we reported the isolation of four CYP83A1 genes named BjuCYP83A1-1, -2, -3, and -4 from allotetraploid Brassica juncea (AABB genome), an economically important oilseed crop of Brassica genus. The deduced BjuCYP83A1 proteins shared 85.7-88.4 % of sequence identity with A. thaliana AtCYP83A1 and 84.2-95.8 % among themselves. Phylogenetic and divergence analysis revealed that the four BjuCYP83A1 proteins are evolutionary conserved and have evolved via duplication and hybridization of two relatively simpler diploid Brassica genomes namely B. rapa (AA genome) and B. nigra (BB genome), and have retained high level of sequence conservation following allopolyploidization. Ectopic over-expression of BjuCYP83A1-1 in A. thaliana showed that it is involved mainly in the synthesis of C4 aliphatic glucosinolates. Detailed expression analysis using real-time qRT-PCR in B. juncea and PromoterBjuCYP83A1-GUS lines in A. thaliana confirmed that the four BjuCYP83A1 genes have retained ubiquitous, overlapping but distinct expression profiles in different tissue and cell types of B. juncea, and in response to various elicitor treatments and environmental conditions. Taken together, this study demonstrated that transcriptional sub-functionalization and coordinated roles of multiple BjuCYP83A1 genes control the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates in the allotetraploid B. juncea, and provide a framework for metabolic engineering of

  16. Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate reduces body weight with regulation of multiple genes expression in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mak-Soon; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, Yangha

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antiobesity effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in diet-induced obese mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed on a high-fat diet for 8 weeks to induce obesity. Subsequently they were divided into 3 groups and were maintained on a high-fat control diet or high-fat diets supplemented with 0.2 or 0.5% EGCG (w/w) for a further 8 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism and fatty acid oxidation were analyzed in white adipose tissue, together with biometric and blood parameters. Experimental diets supplemented with EGCG resulted in reduction of body weight and mass of various adipose tissues in a dose-dependent manner. EGCG diet also considerably lowered the levels of plasma triglyceride and liver lipid. In the epididymal white adipose tissue of EGCG diet-fed mice, the mRNA levels of adipogenic genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma), CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-alpha (C/EBP-alpha), regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were significantly decreased. However, the mRNA levels of carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), as well as lipolytic genes such as hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), were significantly increased. These results suggest that green tea EGCG effectively reduces adipose tissue mass and ameliorates plasma lipid profiles in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. These effects might be at least partially mediated via regulation of the expression of multiple genes involved in adipogenesis, lipolysis, beta-oxidation and thermogenesis in white adipose tissue. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Circular RNA of the human sphingomyelin synthase 1 gene: Multiple splice variants, evolutionary conservatism and expression in different tissues

    PubMed Central

    Filippenkov, Ivan B; Sudarkina, Olga Yu; Limborska, Svetlana A; Dergunova, Lyudmila V

    2015-01-01

    The human sphingomyelin synthase 1 gene (SGMS1) encodes an essential enzyme that is involved in the synthesis of sphingomyelin and diacylglycerol from phosphatidylcholine and ceramide. Among the products of SGMS1, we found new transcripts, circular RNAs (circRNAs), that contain sequences of the gene's 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR). Some of them include the gene's coding region and fragments of introns. An analysis of the abundance of circRNAs in human tissues showed that the largest transcripts were predominantly found in different parts of the brain. circRNAs of rat and mouse sphingomyelin synthase 1 orthologous genes were detected and are highly similar to the human SGMS1 gene transcripts. A quantitative analysis of the abundance of such transcripts also revealed their elevated amount in the brain. A computational analysis of sequences of human circRNAs showed their high potential of binding microRNAs (miRNAs), including the miRNAs that form complexes with Ago proteins and the mRNA of SGMS1. We assume that the circRNAs identified here participate in the regulation of the function of the SGMS1 gene in the brain. PMID:26274505

  18. A retrotransposon insertion in the 5' regulatory domain of Ptf1a results in ectopic gene expression and multiple congenital defects in Danforth's short tail mouse.

    PubMed

    Lugani, Francesca; Arora, Ripla; Papeta, Natalia; Patel, Ami; Zheng, Zongyu; Sterken, Roel; Singer, Ruth A; Caridi, Gianluca; Mendelsohn, Cathy; Sussel, Lori; Papaioannou, Virginia E; Gharavi, Ali G

    2013-01-01

    Danforth's short tail mutant (Sd) mouse, first described in 1930, is a classic spontaneous mutant exhibiting defects of the axial skeleton, hindgut, and urogenital system. We used meiotic mapping in 1,497 segregants to localize the mutation to a 42.8-kb intergenic segment on chromosome 2. Resequencing of this region identified an 8.5-kb early retrotransposon (ETn) insertion within the highly conserved regulatory sequences upstream of Pancreas Specific Transcription Factor, 1a (Ptf1a). This mutation resulted in up to tenfold increased expression of Ptf1a as compared to wild-type embryos at E9.5 but no detectable changes in the expression levels of other neighboring genes. At E9.5, Sd mutants exhibit ectopic Ptf1a expression in embryonic progenitors of every organ that will manifest a developmental defect: the notochord, the hindgut, and the mesonephric ducts. Moreover, at E 8.5, Sd mutant mice exhibit ectopic Ptf1a expression in the lateral plate mesoderm, tail bud mesenchyme, and in the notochord, preceding the onset of visible defects such as notochord degeneration. The Sd heterozygote phenotype was not ameliorated by Ptf1a haploinsufficiency, further suggesting that the developmental defects result from ectopic expression of Ptf1a. These data identify disruption of the spatio-temporal pattern of Ptf1a expression as the unifying mechanism underlying the multiple congenital defects in Danforth's short tail mouse. This striking example of an enhancer mutation resulting in profound developmental defects suggests that disruption of conserved regulatory elements may also contribute to human malformation syndromes.

  19. Dose-dense and less dose-intense Total Therapy 5 for gene expression profiling-defined high-risk multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Jethava, Y; Mitchell, A; Zangari, M; Waheed, S; Schinke, C; Thanendrarajan, S; Sawyer, J; Alapat, D; Tian, E; Stein, C; Khan, R; Heuck, C J; Petty, N; Avery, D; Steward, D; Smith, R; Bailey, C; Epstein, J; Yaccoby, S; Hoering, A; Crowley, J; Morgan, G; Barlogie, B; van Rhee, F

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a heterogeneous disease with high-risk patients progressing rapidly despite treatment. Various definitions of high-risk MM are used and we reported that gene expression profile (GEP)-defined high risk was a major predictor of relapse. In spite of our best efforts, the majority of GEP70 high-risk patients relapse and we have noted higher relapse rates during drug-free intervals. This prompted us to explore the concept of less intense drug dosing with shorter intervals between courses with the aim of preventing inter-course relapse. Here we report the outcome of the Total Therapy 5 trial, where this concept was tested. This regimen effectively reduced early mortality and relapse but failed to improve progression-free survival and overall survival due to relapse early during maintenance. PMID:27471869

  20. Injection of Aβ1-40 into hippocampus induced cognitive lesion associated with neuronal apoptosis and multiple gene expressions in the tree shrew.

    PubMed

    Lin, Na; Xiong, Liu-Lin; Zhang, Rong-Ping; Zheng, Hong; Wang, Lei; Qian, Zhong-Yi; Zhang, Piao; Chen, Zhi-Wei; Gao, Fa-Bao; Wang, Ting-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) can incur significant health care costs to the patient, their families, and society; furthermore, effective treatments are limited, as the mechanisms of AD are not fully understood. This study utilized twelve adult male tree shrews (TS), which were randomly divided into PBS and amyloidbetapeptide1-40 (Aβ1-40) groups. AD model was established via an intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of Aβ1-40 after being incubated for 4 days at 37 °C. Behavioral, pathophysiological and molecular changes were evaluated by hippocampal-dependent tasks, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), silver staining, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, TUNEL assay and gene sequencing, respectively. At 4 weeks post-injection, as compared with the PBS group, in Aβ1-40 injected animals: cognitive impairments happened, and the hippocampus had atrophied indicated by MRI findings; meanwhile, HE staining showed the cells of the CA3 and DG were significantly thinner and smaller. The average number of cells in the DG, but not the CA3, was also significantly reduced; furthermore, silver staining revealed neurotic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the hippocampi; TUNEL assay showed many cells exhibited apoptosis, which was associated with downregulated BCL-2/BCL-XL-associated death promoter (Bad), inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP), Cytochrome c (CytC) and upregulated tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1); lastly, gene sequencing reported a total of 924 mobilized genes, among which 13 of the downregulated and 19 of the upregulated genes were common to the AD pathway. The present study not only established AD models in TS, but also reported on the underlying mechanism involved in neuronal apoptosis associated with multiple gene expression.

  1. The siderophilic cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp. strain JSC-1 acclimates to iron starvation by expressing multiple isiA-family genes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Gaozhong; Gan, Fei; Bryant, Donald A

    2016-06-01

    In the evolution of different cyanobacteria performing oxygenic photosynthesis, the core complexes of the two photosystems were highly conserved. However, cyanobacteria exhibit significant diversification in their light-harvesting complexes and have flexible regulatory mechanisms to acclimate to changes in their growth environments. In the siderophilic, filamentous cyanobacterium, Leptolyngbya sp. strain JSC-1, five different isiA-family genes occur in two gene clusters. During acclimation to Fe limitation, relative transcript levels for more than 600 genes increased more than twofold. Relative transcript levels were ~250 to 300 times higher for the isiA1 gene cluster (isiA1-isiB-isiC), and ~440- to 540-fold for the isiA2-isiA3-isiA4-cpcG2-isiA5 gene cluster after 48 h of iron starvation. Chl-protein complexes were isolated and further purified from cells grown under Fe-replete and Fe-depleted conditions. A single class of particles, trimeric PSI, was identified by image analysis of electron micrographs of negatively stained PSI complexes from Fe-replete cells. However, three major classes of particles were observed for the Chl-protein supercomplexes from cells grown under iron starvation conditions. Based on LC-MS-MS analyses, the five IsiA-family proteins were found in the largest supercomplexes together with core components of the two photosystems; however, IsiA5 was not present in complexes in which only the core subunits of PSI were detected. IsiA5 belongs to the same clade as PcbC proteins in a phylogenetic classification, and it is proposed that IsiA5 is most likely involved in supercomplexes containing PSII dimers. IsiA4, which is a fusion of an IsiA domain and a C-terminal PsaL domain, was found together with IsiA1, IsiA2, and IsiA3 in complexes with monomeric PSI. The data indicate that horizontal gene transfer, gene duplication, and divergence have played important roles in the adaptive evolution of this cyanobacterium to iron starvation conditions.

  2. Multiple rod-cone and cone-rod photoreceptor transmutations in snakes: evidence from visual opsin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Simões, Bruno F; Sampaio, Filipa L; Loew, Ellis R; Sanders, Kate L; Fisher, Robert N; Hart, Nathan S; Hunt, David M; Partridge, Julian C; Gower, David J

    2016-01-27

    In 1934, Gordon Walls forwarded his radical theory of retinal photoreceptor 'transmutation'. This proposed that rods and cones used for scotopic and photopic vision, respectively, were not fixed but could evolve into each other via a series of morphologically distinguishable intermediates. Walls' prime evidence came from series of diurnal and nocturnal geckos and snakes that appeared to have pure-cone or pure-rod retinas (in forms that Walls believed evolved from ancestors with the reverse complement) or which possessed intermediate photoreceptor cells. Walls was limited in testing his theory because the precise identity of visual pigments present in photoreceptors was then unknown. Subsequent molecular research has hitherto neglected this topic but presents new opportunities. We identify three visual opsin genes, rh1, sws1 and lws, in retinal mRNA of an ecologically and taxonomically diverse sample of snakes central to Walls' theory. We conclude that photoreceptors with superficially rod- or cone-like morphology are not limited to containing scotopic or photopic opsins, respectively. Walls' theory is essentially correct, and more research is needed to identify the patterns, processes and functional implications of transmutation. Future research will help to clarify the fundamental properties and physiology of photoreceptors adapted to function in different light levels. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Multiple rod–cone and cone–rod photoreceptor transmutations in snakes: Evidence from visual opsin gene expression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simoe, Bruno F; Sampaio, Filipa L.; Loew, Ellis R.; Sanders, Kate L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Hart, Nathan S.; Hunt, David M.; Partridge, Julian C.; Gower, David J.

    2016-01-01

    In 1934, Gordon Walls forwarded his radical theory of retinal photoreceptor ‘transmutation’. This proposed that rods and cones used for scotopic and photopic vision, respectively, were not fixed but could evolve into each other via a series of morphologically distinguishable intermediates. Walls' prime evidence came from series of diurnal and nocturnal geckos and snakes that appeared to have pure-cone or pure-rod retinas (in forms that Walls believed evolved from ancestors with the reverse complement) or which possessed intermediate photoreceptor cells. Walls was limited in testing his theory because the precise identity of visual pigments present in photoreceptors was then unknown. Subsequent molecular research has hitherto neglected this topic but presents new opportunities. We identify three visual opsin genes, rh1, sws1 and lws, in retinal mRNA of an ecologically and taxonomically diverse sample of snakes central to Walls' theory. We conclude that photoreceptors with superficially rod- or cone-like morphology are not limited to containing scotopic or photopic opsins, respectively. Walls' theory is essentially correct, and more research is needed to identify the patterns, processes and functional implications of transmutation. Future research will help to clarify the fundamental properties and physiology of photoreceptors adapted to function in different light levels.

  4. Multiple rod–cone and cone–rod photoreceptor transmutations in snakes: evidence from visual opsin gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Sampaio, Filipa L.; Loew, Ellis R.; Sanders, Kate L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Hart, Nathan S.; Hunt, David M.; Partridge, Julian C.

    2016-01-01

    In 1934, Gordon Walls forwarded his radical theory of retinal photoreceptor ‘transmutation’. This proposed that rods and cones used for scotopic and photopic vision, respectively, were not fixed but could evolve into each other via a series of morphologically distinguishable intermediates. Walls' prime evidence came from series of diurnal and nocturnal geckos and snakes that appeared to have pure-cone or pure-rod retinas (in forms that Walls believed evolved from ancestors with the reverse complement) or which possessed intermediate photoreceptor cells. Walls was limited in testing his theory because the precise identity of visual pigments present in photoreceptors was then unknown. Subsequent molecular research has hitherto neglected this topic but presents new opportunities. We identify three visual opsin genes, rh1, sws1 and lws, in retinal mRNA of an ecologically and taxonomically diverse sample of snakes central to Walls' theory. We conclude that photoreceptors with superficially rod- or cone-like morphology are not limited to containing scotopic or photopic opsins, respectively. Walls' theory is essentially correct, and more research is needed to identify the patterns, processes and functional implications of transmutation. Future research will help to clarify the fundamental properties and physiology of photoreceptors adapted to function in different light levels. PMID:26817768

  5. RNA Sequencing Identifies Multiple Fusion Transcripts, Differentially Expressed Genes, and Reduced Expression of Immune Function Genes in BRAF (V600E) Mutant vs BRAF Wild-Type Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chindris, Ana-Maria; Asmann, Yan W.; Casler, John D.; Serie, Daniel J.; Reddi, Honey V.; Cradic, Kendall W.; Rivera, Michael; Grebe, Stefan K.; Necela, Brian M.; Eberhardt, Norman L.; Carr, Jennifer M.; McIver, Bryan; Copland, John A.; Aubrey Thompson, E.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The BRAF V600E mutation (BRAF-MUT) confers an aggressive phenotype in papillary thyroid carcinoma, but unidentified additional genomic abnormalities may be required for full phenotypic expression. Objective: RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed to identify genes differentially expressed between BRAF-MUT and BRAF wild-type (BRAF-WT) tumors and to correlate changes to patient clinical status. Design: BRAF-MUT and BRAF-WT tumors were identified in patients with T1N0 and T2–3N1 tumors evaluated in a referral medical center. Gene expression levels were determined (RNA-Seq) and fusion transcripts were detected. Multiplexed capture/detection and digital counting of mRNA transcripts (nCounter, NanoString Technologies) validated RNA-Seq data for immune system-related genes. Patients: BRAF-MUT patients included nine women, three men; nine were TNM stage I and three were stage III. Three (25%) had tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. BRAF-WT included five women, three men; all were stage I, and five (62.5%) had tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. Results: RNA-Seq identified 560 of 13 085 genes differentially expressed between BRAF-MUT and BRAF-WT tumors. Approximately 10% of these genes were related to MetaCore immune function pathways; 51 were underexpressed in BRAF-MUT tumors, whereas 4 (HLAG, CXCL14, TIMP1, IL1RAP) were overexpressed. The four most differentially overexpressed immune genes in BRAF-WT tumors (IL1B; CCL19; CCL21; CXCR4) correlated with lymphocyte infiltration. nCounter confirmed the RNA-Seq expression level data. Eleven different high-confidence fusion transcripts were detected (four interchromosomal; seven intrachromosomal) in 13 of 20 tumors. All in-frame fusions were validated by RT-PCR. Conclusion: BRAF-MUT papillary thyroid cancers have reduced expression of immune/inflammatory response genes compared with BRAF-WT tumors and correlate with lymphocyte infiltration. In contrast, HLA-G and CXCL14 are overexpressed in BRAF-MUT tumors. Sixty-five percent

  6. RNA sequencing identifies multiple fusion transcripts, differentially expressed genes, and reduced expression of immune function genes in BRAF (V600E) mutant vs BRAF wild-type papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Smallridge, Robert C; Chindris, Ana-Maria; Asmann, Yan W; Casler, John D; Serie, Daniel J; Reddi, Honey V; Cradic, Kendall W; Rivera, Michael; Grebe, Stefan K; Necela, Brian M; Eberhardt, Norman L; Carr, Jennifer M; McIver, Bryan; Copland, John A; Thompson, E Aubrey

    2014-02-01

    The BRAF V600E mutation (BRAF-MUT) confers an aggressive phenotype in papillary thyroid carcinoma, but unidentified additional genomic abnormalities may be required for full phenotypic expression. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed to identify genes differentially expressed between BRAF-MUT and BRAF wild-type (BRAF-WT) tumors and to correlate changes to patient clinical status. BRAF-MUT and BRAF-WT tumors were identified in patients with T1N0 and T2-3N1 tumors evaluated in a referral medical center. Gene expression levels were determined (RNA-Seq) and fusion transcripts were detected. Multiplexed capture/detection and digital counting of mRNA transcripts (nCounter, NanoString Technologies) validated RNA-Seq data for immune system-related genes. BRAF-MUT patients included nine women, three men; nine were TNM stage I and three were stage III. Three (25%) had tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. BRAF-WT included five women, three men; all were stage I, and five (62.5%) had tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. RNA-Seq identified 560 of 13 085 genes differentially expressed between BRAF-MUT and BRAF-WT tumors. Approximately 10% of these genes were related to MetaCore immune function pathways; 51 were underexpressed in BRAF-MUT tumors, whereas 4 (HLAG, CXCL14, TIMP1, IL1RAP) were overexpressed. The four most differentially overexpressed immune genes in BRAF-WT tumors (IL1B; CCL19; CCL21; CXCR4) correlated with lymphocyte infiltration. nCounter confirmed the RNA-Seq expression level data. Eleven different high-confidence fusion transcripts were detected (four interchromosomal; seven intrachromosomal) in 13 of 20 tumors. All in-frame fusions were validated by RT-PCR. BRAF-MUT papillary thyroid cancers have reduced expression of immune/inflammatory response genes compared with BRAF-WT tumors and correlate with lymphocyte infiltration. In contrast, HLA-G and CXCL14 are overexpressed in BRAF-MUT tumors. Sixty-five percent of tumors had between one and three fusion transcripts

  7. apex: phylogenetics with multiple genes.

    PubMed

    Jombart, Thibaut; Archer, Frederick; Schliep, Klaus; Kamvar, Zhian; Harris, Rebecca; Paradis, Emmanuel; Goudet, Jérome; Lapp, Hilmar

    2017-01-01

    Genetic sequences of multiple genes are becoming increasingly common for a wide range of organisms including viruses, bacteria and eukaryotes. While such data may sometimes be treated as a single locus, in practice, a number of biological and statistical phenomena can lead to phylogenetic incongruence. In such cases, different loci should, at least as a preliminary step, be examined and analysed separately. The r software has become a popular platform for phylogenetics, with several packages implementing distance-based, parsimony and likelihood-based phylogenetic reconstruction, and an even greater number of packages implementing phylogenetic comparative methods. Unfortunately, basic data structures and tools for analysing multiple genes have so far been lacking, thereby limiting potential for investigating phylogenetic incongruence. In this study, we introduce the new r package apex to fill this gap. apex implements new object classes, which extend existing standards for storing DNA and amino acid sequences, and provides a number of convenient tools for handling, visualizing and analysing these data. In this study, we introduce the main features of the package and illustrate its functionalities through the analysis of a simple data set.

  8. Molecular mechanism of anticancer effect of Sclerotium rolfsii lectin in HT29 cells involves differential expression of genes associated with multiple signaling pathways: A microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Barkeer, Srikanth; Guha, Nilanjan; Hothpet, Vishwanathreddy; Saligrama Adavigowda, Deepak; Hegde, Prajna; Padmanaban, Arunkumar; Yu, Lu-Gang; Swamy, Bale M; Inamdar, Shashikala R

    2015-12-01

    Sclerotium rolfsii lectin (SRL) is a lectin isolated from fungus S. rolfsii and has high binding specificity toward the oncofetal Thomsen-Friedenreich carbohydrate antigen (Galβ1-3GalNAc-α-O-Ser/Thr, T or TF), which is expressed in more than 90% of human cancers. Our previous studies have shown that binding of SRL to human colon, breast and ovarian cancer cells induces cell apoptosis in vitro and suppresses tumor growth in vivo. This study investigated the SRL-mediated cell signaling in human colon cancer HT29 cells by mRNA and miRNA microarrays. It was found that SRL treatment results in altered expression of several hundred molecules including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-JUN-associated, apoptosis-associated and cell cycle and DNA replication-associated signaling molecules. Pathway analysis using GeneSpring 12.6.1 revealed that SRL treatment induces changes of MAPK and c-JUN-associated signaling pathways as early as 2 h while changes of cell cycle, DNA replication and apoptosis pathways were significantly affected only after 24 h. A significant change of cell miRNA expression was also observed after 12 h treatment of the cells with SRL. These changes were further validated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. This study thus suggests that the presence of SRL affects multiple signaling pathways in cancer cells with early effects on cell proliferation pathways associated with MAPK and c-JUN, followed by miRNA-associated cell activity and apoptosis. This provides insight information into the molecular mechanism of the anticancer activity of this fungal lectin.

  9. Differences in metabolite-detecting, adrenergic, and immune gene expression following moderate exercise in chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple sclerosis and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    White, Andrea T.; Light, Alan R.; Hughen, Ronald W.; VanHaitsma, Timothy A.; Light, Kathleen C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and multiple sclerosis (MS) are characterized by debilitating fatigue, yet evaluation of this symptom is subjective. We examined metabolite-detecting, adrenergic, and immune gene expression (mRNA) in patients with CFS (n=22) vs. MS (n=20) vs. healthy controls (n=23) and determined their relationship to fatigue and pain before and after exercise. Methods Blood samples and fatigue and pain ratings were obtained at baseline and 0.5, 8, 24, and 48 hours following sustained moderate exercise. Leukocyte mRNA of 4 metabolite-detecting receptors (ASIC3, P2X4, P2X5, TRPV1), 4 adrenergic (α-2a, β-1, β-2 receptors, COMT) and 5 immune markers (CD14, TLR4, IL-6, IL-10, LTa) was examined using quantitative PCR. Results CFS patients had greater post-exercise increases in fatigue and pain (10–29 pts above baseline, p<.001) and greater mRNA increases in P2X4, TRPV1, CD14 and all adrenergic receptors than controls (1.3 ± .14 to 3.4 ± .90 fold increase above baseline, p=.04 – .005). CFS patients with co-morbid fibromyalgia (n=18) also showed greater increases in ASIC3 and P2X5 (p<.05). MS patients had greater post-exercise increases than controls in β-1 and β-2 adrenergic receptor expression (1.4 ± .27 and 1.3 ± .06 fold increase, respectively, p=.02 and <.001) and greater decreases in TLR4 (p=.02). In MS, IL-10 and TLR4 decreases correlated with higher fatigue scores. Conclusion Post-exercise mRNA increases in metabolite-detecting receptors were unique to CFS patients while both MS and CFS showed abnormal increases in adrenergic receptors. Among MS patients, greater fatigue was correlated with blunted immune marker expression. PMID:22210239

  10. Multiple functional SNPs in differentially expressed genes modify risk and survival of non-small cell lung cancer in chinese female non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xue; Yin, Zhihua; Li, Xuelian; Xia, Lingzi; Quan, Xiaowei; Zhao, Yuxia; Zhou, Baosen

    2017-01-27

    DNA genotype can affect gene expression, and gene expression can influence the onset and progression of diseases. Here we conducted a comprehensive study, we integrated analysis of gene expression profile and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray data in order to scan out the critical genetic changes that participate in the onset and development of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Gene expression profile datasets were downloaded from the GEO database. Firstly, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between NSCLC samples and adjacent normal samples were identified. Next, by STRING database, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed. At the same time, hub genes in PPI network were identified. Then, some functional SNPs in hub genes that may affect gene expression have been annotated. Finally, we carried a study to explore the relationship between functional SNPs and NSCLC risk and overall survival in Chinese female non-smokers. A total of 488 DEGs were identified in our study. There are 29 proteins with a higher degree of connectivity in the PPI network, including FOS, IL6 and MMP9. By using database annotation, we got 8 candidate functional SNPs that may affect the expression level of hub proteins. In the case-control study, we found that rs4754-T allele, rs959173-C allele and rs2239144-G allele were the protective allele of NSCLC risk. In dominant model, rs4754-CT+TT genotype were associated with a shorter survival time. In general, our study provides a novel research direction in the field of multi-omic data integration, and helps us find some critical genetic changes in disease.

  11. Nonadditive gene expression in polyploids.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Liu, Xiaoxian; Pires, J Chris; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2014-01-01

    Allopolyploidy involves hybridization and duplication of divergent parental genomes and provides new avenues for gene expression. The expression levels of duplicated genes in polyploids can show deviation from parental additivity (the arithmetic average of the parental expression levels). Nonadditive expression has been widely observed in diverse polyploids and comprises at least three possible scenarios: (a) The total gene expression level in a polyploid is similar to that of one of its parents (expression-level dominance); (b) total gene expression is lower or higher than in both parents (transgressive expression); and (c) the relative contribution of the parental copies (homeologs) to the total gene expression is unequal (homeolog expression bias). Several factors may result in expression nonadditivity in polyploids, including maternal-paternal influence, gene dosage balance, cis- and/or trans-regulatory networks, and epigenetic regulation. As our understanding of nonadditive gene expression in polyploids remains limited, a new generation of investigators should explore additional phenomena (i.e., alternative splicing) and use other high-throughput "omics" technologies to measure the impact of nonadditive expression on phenotype, proteome, and metabolome.

  12. The expression of human H2A-H2B histone gene pairs is regulated by multiple sequence elements in their joint promoters.

    PubMed

    Trappe, R; Doenecke, D; Albig, W

    1999-09-03

    The majority of human H2A and H2B histone genes are organized as gene pairs: 14 H2A-H2B gene pairs, one solitary H2A gene and three solitary H2B genes have been described. Two of the H2A genes and two of the H2B genes arranged within gene pairs are pseudogenes. The gene pairs are organized with divergent transcriptional orientation, and the coding regions of the respective H2A and H2B genes are separated by about 320 nucleotide pairs that form overlapping promoter regions. Comparison of promoters of H2A-H2B gene pairs has previously shown that these belong to two different groups (groups I and II) which are characterized by specific patterns of conserved sequence elements. We have constructed a reporter gene vector that allows the simultaneous analysis of both genes regulated by the divergent promoters belonging to group I or II, respectively. Firefly-luciferase and beta-galactosidase genes were taken as reporter genes. Site directed mutagenesis performed at individual promoter elements revealed that individual sequence elements within both groups of promoters functionally depend on each other and may contribute to a coordinate expression of paired H2A and H2B genes through assembly of their joint promoter into a mutually dependent promoter complex. Group II promoters are characterized by the presence of an E2F binding site upstream of the H2A gene-proximal TATA box. Immediately upstream of the E2F element, we have identified a highly conserved octanucleotide CACAGCTT (RT-1) that exists in all human group II H2A-H2B gene promoters. Protein binding studies at the RT-1 element indicate factor binding to this sequence. Site directed mutagenesis indicates that both the E2F element and the RT-1 motif are essential for full promoter activity.

  13. Structure, chromosome location, and expression of the mouse zinc finger gene Krox-20: multiple gene products and coregulation with the proto-oncogene c-fos.

    PubMed Central

    Chavrier, P; Janssen-Timmen, U; Mattéi, M G; Zerial, M; Bravo, R; Charnay, P

    1989-01-01

    We have analyzed the structure and the regulation of Krox-20, a mouse zinc finger-encoding gene which is transiently activated following serum stimulation of quiescent fibroblast cells in culture. The gene is localized on chromosome 10, band B5, in the mouse, and the homologous human gene also maps to chromosome 10 (region q21.1 to q22.1). Alternative splicing of the 5'-most intron of the Krox-20 gene gives rise to mRNAs encoding putative zinc finger proteins with different N termini. The first exon contains a sequence element with strong similarity to the c-fos proto-oncogene serum response element (SRE). This element can functionally substitute for the c-fos SRE, and it binds the same nuclear protein. It is probably responsible for the serum induction of Krox-20, possibly in combination with a weaker SRE located in the 5'-flanking region of the gene. Our findings suggest that c-fos, Krox-20, and a number of immediate-early serum response genes are coregulated and that the SRE and its cognate protein are essential components of this regulatory pathway. Images PMID:2496302

  14. Evolution of Gene Expression after Gene Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Nelson; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Yongrui; Messing, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    We took a rather unique approach to investigate the conservation of gene expression of prolamin storage protein genes across two different subfamilies of the Poaceae. We took advantage of oat plants carrying single maize chromosomes in different cultivars, called oat–maize addition (OMA) lines, which permitted us to determine whether regulation of gene expression was conserved between the two species. We found that γ-zeins are expressed in OMA7.06, which carries maize chromosome 7 even in the absence of the trans-acting maize prolamin-box-binding factor (PBF), which regulates their expression. This is likely because oat PBF can substitute for the function of maize PBF as shown in our transient expression data, using a γ-zein promoter fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). Despite this conservation, the younger, recently amplified prolamin genes in maize, absent in oat, are not expressed in the corresponding OMAs. However, maize can express the oldest prolamin gene, the wheat high-molecular weight glutenin Dx5 gene, even when maize Pbf is knocked down (through PbfRNAi), and/or another maize transcription factor, Opaque-2 (O2) is knocked out (in maize o2 mutant). Therefore, older genes are conserved in their regulation, whereas younger ones diverged during evolution and eventually acquired a new repertoire of suitable transcriptional activators. PMID:25912045

  15. Production of itaconate by whole-cell bioconversion of citrate mediated by expression of multiple cis-aconitate decarboxylase (cadA) genes in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junyoung; Seo, Hyung-Min; Bhatia, Shashi Kant; Song, Hun-Seok; Kim, Jung-Ho; Jeon, Jong-Min; Choi, Kwon-Young; Kim, Wooseong; Yoon, Jeong-Jun; Kim, Yun-Gon; Yang, Yung-Hun

    2017-01-01

    Itaconate, a C5 unsaturated dicarboxylic acid, is an important chemical building block that is used in manufacturing high-value products, such as latex and superabsorbent polymers. Itaconate is produced by fermentation of sugars by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus terreus. However, fermentation by A. terreus involves a long fermentation period and the formation of various byproducts, resulting in high production costs. E. coli has been developed as an alternative for producing itaconate. However, fermentation of glucose gives low conversion yields and low productivity. Here, we report the whole-cell bioconversion of citrate to itaconate with enhanced aconitase and cis-aconitate decarboxylase activities by controlling the expression of multiple cadA genes. In addition, this bioconversion system does not require the use of buffers, which reduces the production cost and the byproducts released during purification. Using this whole-cell bioconversion system, we were able to catalyze the conversion of 319.8 mM of itaconate (41.6 g/L) from 500 mM citrate without any buffer system or additional cofactors, with 64.0% conversion in 19 h and a productivity of 2.19 g/L/h. Our bioconversion system suggests very high productivity for itaconate production. PMID:28051098

  16. Heterologous expression of a salinity and developmentally regulated rice cyclophilin gene (OsCyp2) in E. coli and S. cerevisiae confers tolerance towards multiple abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Sumita; Singh, Prabhjeet; Singla-Pareek, Sneh L; Pareek, Ashwani

    2009-06-01

    Cyclophilin 2 (OsCyp2) is a cytosolic member of immunophilin family from rice. We have isolated its full length cDNA (1,056 bp) with an open reading frame of 519 bp encoding a polypeptide of 172 amino acids and an estimated pI of 8.61. Peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity of the protein was determined using N-succinyl-ala-ala-pro-phe-p-nitroanilidine as peptide substrate. It has a catalytic efficiency (K (cat)/K (m)) of 4.5 x 10(6)/(mol/l)/s, which is comparable to known cyclophilins from plants. Its activity is specifically inhibited by cyclosporin A, a macrolide drug inhibitor of cyclophilins. Transcript analysis showed it to be a developmentally and differentially regulated gene; showing changes in abundance at seedling, tillering and heading stage under non-stress and salinity stress conditions. Expression of OsCyp2 enhances the ability of Escherichia coli to survive under diverse abiotic stresses viz. salinity, high temperature, osmotic stress (mannitol) and oxidative stress (H(2)O(2)). OsCyp2 was able to complement the yeast mutant lacking native Cyp2 and also improved the growth of wild type yeast under above-mentioned stress conditions. Based on these results, we propose that OsCyp2 may serve as a 'suitable candidate' for raising transgenic plants for enhanced multiple abiotic stress tolerance.

  17. Genetic, Physiological, and Gene Expression Analyses Reveal That Multiple QTL Enhance Yield of Rice Mega-Variety IR64 under Drought

    PubMed Central

    Swamy B. P., Mallikarjuna; Ahmed, Helal Uddin; Henry, Amelia; Mauleon, Ramil; Dixit, Shalabh; Vikram, Prashant; Tilatto, Ram; Verulkar, Satish B.; Perraju, Puvvada; Mandal, Nimai P.; Variar, Mukund; S., Robin; Chandrababu, Ranganath; Singh, Onkar N.; Dwivedi, Jawaharlal L.; Das, Sankar Prasad; Mishra, Krishna K.; Yadaw, Ram B.; Aditya, Tamal Lata; Karmakar, Biswajit; Satoh, Kouji; Moumeni, Ali; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Leung, Hei; Kumar, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    Background Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a highly drought sensitive crop, and most semi dwarf rice varieties suffer severe yield losses from reproductive stage drought stress. The genetic complexity of drought tolerance has deterred the identification of agronomically relevant quantitative trait loci (QTL) that can be deployed to improve rice yield under drought in rice. Convergent evidence from physiological characterization, genetic mapping, and multi-location field evaluation was used to address this challenge. Methodology/Principal Findings Two pairs of backcross inbred lines (BILs) from a cross between drought-tolerant donor Aday Sel and high-yielding but drought-susceptible rice variety IR64 were produced. From six BC4F3 mapping populations produced by crossing the +QTL BILs with the −QTL BILs and IR64, four major-effect QTL - one each on chromosomes 2, 4, 9, and 10 - were identified. Meta-analysis of transcriptome data from the +QTL/−QTL BILs identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) significantly associated with QTL on chromosomes 2, 4, 9, and 10. Physiological characterization of BILs showed increased water uptake ability under drought. The enrichment of DEGs associated with root traits points to differential regulation of root development and function as contributing to drought tolerance in these BILs. BC4F3-derived lines with the QTL conferred yield advantages of 528 to 1875 kg ha−1 over IR64 under reproductive-stage drought stress in the targeted ecosystems of South Asia. Conclusions/Significance Given the importance of rice in daily food consumption and the popularity of IR64, the BC4F3 lines with multiple QTL could provide higher livelihood security to farmers in drought-prone environments. Candidate genes were shortlisted for further characterization to confirm their role in drought tolerance. Differential yield advantages of different combinations of the four QTL reported here indicate that future research should include optimizing QTL

  18. Gene set analysis for longitudinal gene expression data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gene set analysis (GSA) has become a successful tool to interpret gene expression profiles in terms of biological functions, molecular pathways, or genomic locations. GSA performs statistical tests for independent microarray samples at the level of gene sets rather than individual genes. Nowadays, an increasing number of microarray studies are conducted to explore the dynamic changes of gene expression in a variety of species and biological scenarios. In these longitudinal studies, gene expression is repeatedly measured over time such that a GSA needs to take into account the within-gene correlations in addition to possible between-gene correlations. Results We provide a robust nonparametric approach to compare the expressions of longitudinally measured sets of genes under multiple treatments or experimental conditions. The limiting distributions of our statistics are derived when the number of genes goes to infinity while the number of replications can be small. When the number of genes in a gene set is small, we recommend permutation tests based on our nonparametric test statistics to achieve reliable type I error and better power while incorporating unknown correlations between and within-genes. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method has a greater power than other methods for various data distributions and heteroscedastic correlation structures. This method was used for an IL-2 stimulation study and significantly altered gene sets were identified. Conclusions The simulation study and the real data application showed that the proposed gene set analysis provides a promising tool for longitudinal microarray analysis. R scripts for simulating longitudinal data and calculating the nonparametric statistics are posted on the North Dakota INBRE website http://ndinbre.org/programs/bioinformatics.php. Raw microarray data is available in Gene Expression Omnibus (National Center for Biotechnology Information) with accession number GSE6085. PMID

  19. Gene Expression Profiling during Murine Tooth Development.

    PubMed

    Landin, Maria A Dos Santos Silva; Shabestari, Maziar; Babaie, Eshrat; Reseland, Janne E; Osmundsen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the expression of genes, including ameloblastin (Ambn), amelogenin X chromosome (Amelx), and enamelin (Enam) during early (pre-secretory) tooth development. The expression of these genes has predominantly been studied at post-secretory stages. Deoxyoligonucleotide microarrays were used to study gene expression during development of the murine first molar tooth germ at 24 h intervals, starting at the 11th embryonic day (E11.5), and up to the 7th day after birth (P7). The profile search function of Spotfire software was used to select genes with similar expression profile as the enamel genes (Ambn, Amelx, and Enam). Microarray results where validated using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR), and translated proteins identified by Western-blotting. In situ localization of the Ambn, Amelx, and Enam mRNAs were monitored from E12.5 to E17.5 using deoxyoligonucleotide probes. Bioinformatics analysis was used to associate biological functions with differentially expressed (DE; p ≤ 0.05) genes. Microarray results showed a total of 4362 genes including Ambn, Amelx, and Enam to be significant DE throughout the time-course. The expression of the three enamel genes was low at pre-natal stages (E11.5-P0) increasing after birth (P1-P7). Profile search lead to isolation of 87 genes with significantly similar expression to the three enamel proteins. These mRNAs were expressed in dental epithelium and epithelium derived cells. Although expression of Ambn, Amelx, and Enam were lower during early tooth development compared to secretory stages enamel proteins were detectable by Western-blotting. Bioinformatic analysis associated the 87 genes with multiple biological functions. Around 35 genes were associated with 15 transcription factors.

  20. Gene Expression Profiling during Murine Tooth Development

    PubMed Central

    Landin, Maria A. dos Santos Silva; Shabestari, Maziar; Babaie, Eshrat; Reseland, Janne E.; Osmundsen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the expression of genes, including ameloblastin (Ambn), amelogenin X chromosome (Amelx), and enamelin (Enam) during early (pre-secretory) tooth development. The expression of these genes has predominantly been studied at post-secretory stages. Deoxyoligonucleotide microarrays were used to study gene expression during development of the murine first molar tooth germ at 24 h intervals, starting at the 11th embryonic day (E11.5), and up to the 7th day after birth (P7). The profile search function of Spotfire software was used to select genes with similar expression profile as the enamel genes (Ambn, Amelx, and Enam). Microarray results where validated using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR), and translated proteins identified by Western-blotting. In situ localization of the Ambn, Amelx, and Enam mRNAs were monitored from E12.5 to E17.5 using deoxyoligonucleotide probes. Bioinformatics analysis was used to associate biological functions with differentially expressed (DE; p ≤ 0.05) genes. Microarray results showed a total of 4362 genes including Ambn, Amelx, and Enam to be significant DE throughout the time-course. The expression of the three enamel genes was low at pre-natal stages (E11.5–P0) increasing after birth (P1–P7). Profile search lead to isolation of 87 genes with significantly similar expression to the three enamel proteins. These mRNAs were expressed in dental epithelium and epithelium derived cells. Although expression of Ambn, Amelx, and Enam were lower during early tooth development compared to secretory stages enamel proteins were detectable by Western-blotting. Bioinformatic analysis associated the 87 genes with multiple biological functions. Around 35 genes were associated with 15 transcription factors. PMID:22866057

  1. Cold induction of Arabidopsis CBF genes involves multiple ICE (inducer of CBF expression) promoter elements and a cold-regulatory circuit that is desensitized by low temperature.

    PubMed

    Zarka, Daniel G; Vogel, Jonathan T; Cook, Daniel; Thomashow, Michael F

    2003-10-01

    The Arabidopsis CBF1, 2, and 3 genes (also known as DREB1b, c, and a, respectively) encode transcriptional activators that have a central role in cold tolerance. CBF1-3 are rapidly induced upon exposing plants to low temperature, followed by expression of CBF-targeted genes, the CBF regulon, resulting in an increase in plant freezing tolerance. At present, little is known about the cold-sensing mechanism that controls CBF expression. Results presented here indicate that this mechanism does not require a cold shock to bring about the accumulation of CBF transcripts, but instead, absolute temperature is monitored with a greater degree of input, i.e. lower temperature, resulting in a greater output, i.e. higher levels of CBF transcripts. Temperature-shift experiments also indicate that the cold-sensing mechanism becomes desensitized to a given low temperature, such as 4 degrees C, and that resensitization to that temperature requires between 8 and 24 h at warm temperature. Gene fusion experiments identified a 125-bp section of the CBF2 promoter that is sufficient to impart cold-responsive gene expression. Mutational analysis of this cold-responsive region identified two promoter segments that work in concert to impart robust cold-regulated gene expression. These sequences, designated ICEr1 and ICEr2 (induction of CBF expression region 1 or 2), were also shown to stimulate transcription in response to mechanical agitation and the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide.

  2. Dehydroepiandrosterone affects the expression of multiple genes in rat liver including 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1: a cDNA array analysis.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shi; Ripp, Sharon L; Prough, Russell A; Geoghegan, Thomas E

    2003-03-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a C-19 adrenal steroid precursor to the gonadal steroids. In humans, circulating levels of DHEA, as its sulfated conjugate, are high at puberty and throughout early adulthood but decline with age. Dietary supplementation to maintain high levels of DHEA purportedly has beneficial effects on cognitive memory, the immune system, and fat and carbohydrate metabolism. In rodents, DHEA is a peroxisome proliferator that induces genes for the classical peroxisomal and microsomal enzymes associated with this response. These effects are mediated through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha). However, DHEA can affect the expression of genes independently of PPAR alpha, including the gene for the major inducible drug and xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome P450 3A23. To elucidate the biochemistry associated with DHEA treatment, we employed a cDNA gene expression array using liver RNA from rats treated with DHEA or the classic peroxisome proliferator nafenopin. Principal components analysis identified 30 to 35 genes whose expression was affected by DHEA and/or nafenopin. Some were genes previously identified as PPAR-responsive genes. Changes in expression of several affected genes were verified by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. These included aquaporin 3, which was induced by DHEA and to a lesser extent nafenopin, nuclear tyrosine phosphatase, which was induced by both agents, and 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1, which was decreased by treatment with DHEA in a dose-dependent fashion. Regulation of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 expression is important since the enzyme is believed to amplify local glucocorticoid signaling, and its repression may cause some of the metabolic effects associated with DHEA.

  3. Expression of multiple Bacillus subtilis genes is controlled by decay of slrA mRNA from Rho-dependent 3′ ends

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo; Kearns, Daniel B.; Bechhofer, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Timely turnover of RNA is an important element in the control of bacterial gene expression, but relatively few specific targets of RNA turnover regulation are known. Deletion of the Bacillus subtilis pnpA gene, encoding the major 3′ exonuclease turnover enzyme, polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase), was shown previously to cause a motility defect correlated with a reduced level of the 32-gene fla/che flagellar biosynthesis operon transcript. fla/che operon transcript abundance has been shown to be inhibited by an excess of the small regulatory protein, SlrA, and here we find that slrA mRNA accumulated in the pnpA-deletion mutant. Mutation of slrA was epistatic to mutation of pnpA for the motility-related phenotype. Further, Rho-dependent termination was required for PNPase turnover of slrA mRNA. When the slrA gene was provided with a Rho-independent transcription terminator, gene regulation was no longer PNPase-dependent. Thus we show that the slrA transcript is a direct target of PNPase and that regulation of RNA turnover is a major determinant of motility gene expression. The interplay of specific transcription termination and mRNA decay mechanisms suggests selection for fine-tuning of gene expression. PMID:26857544

  4. Mutation and expression of multiple treatment response-related genes in a population with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    LU, HONG-YANG; SU, DAN; PAN, XIAO-DAN; JIANG, HONG; MA, SHENG-LIN

    2012-01-01

    Individual therapy based on various pathohistological types and biological characteristics may be the practical trend of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. To provide a molecular criterion for drug selection, we investigated the incidence of somatic mutation and mRNA expression levels of common genes relevant to treatment response in a population with locally advanced NSCLC. Mutant-enriched and branched DNA-liquidchip technology (bDNA-LCT) were used to detect the somatic mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), KRAS, BRAF and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase catalytic α (PIK3CA) genes, and mRNA levels of EGFR, ERCC1, class III β-tubulin (TUBB3) and TYMS, separately, in paraffin tissue blocks from 30 patients with stage IIIA NSCLC. Our current findings revealed that 6, 4 and 2 out of 30 samples were found with mutations in exons 19, 21 and 20 of the EGFR gene, respectively. The mutation incidence of exons 19 and 21 had a positive correlation with EGFR mRNA expression. Mutations in exons 12 and 13 of the K-ras gene were found in 2 out of 30, and 1 out of 30 samples, separately. Three out of 30 samples were found with mutations in codon 542 of the PIK3CA gene. No mutations were found in the BRAF gene. The expression levels of ERCC1 and TUBB3 mRNAs were higher in patients with adenocarcinoma than those in patients with squamous cell carcinoma. The expression of TYMS mRNA in patients with adenocarcinoma was lower than that in patients with squamous cell carcinoma. In conclusion, mutations and mRNA expression of these commonly studied genes provides a basis for the selection of suitable molecular markers for individual treatment in a population with locally advanced NSCLC. PMID:22740923

  5. Differences in metabolite-detecting, adrenergic, and immune gene expression after moderate exercise in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, patients with multiple sclerosis, and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    White, Andrea T; Light, Alan R; Hughen, Ronald W; Vanhaitsma, Timothy A; Light, Kathleen C

    2012-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and multiple sclerosis (MS) are characterized by debilitating fatigue, yet evaluation of this symptom is subjective. We examined metabolite-detecting, adrenergic, and immune gene expression (messenger ribonucleic acid [mRNA]) in patients with CFS (n = 22) versus patients with MS (n = 20) versus healthy controls (n = 23) and determined their relationship to fatigue and pain before and after exercise. Blood samples and fatigue and pain ratings were obtained at baseline and 0.5, 8, 24, and 48 hours after sustained moderate exercise. Leukocyte mRNA of four metabolite-detecting receptors (acid-sensing ion channel 3, purinergic type 2X4 and 2X5 receptors, and transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1) and four adrenergic (α-2a, β-1, and β-2 receptors and catechol-O-methyltransferase) and five immune markers (CD14, toll-like receptor 4 [TLR4], interleukin [IL] 6, IL-10, and lymphotoxin α) was examined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Patients with CFS had greater postexercise increases in fatigue and pain (10-29 points above baseline, p < .001) and greater mRNA increases in purinergic type 2X4 receptor, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1, CD14, and all adrenergic receptors than controls (mean ± standard error = 1.3 ± 0.14- to 3.4 ± 0.90-fold increase above baseline, p = .04-.005). Patients with CFS with comorbid fibromyalgia (n = 18) also showed greater increases in acid-sensing ion channel 3 and purinergic type 2X5 receptors (p < .05). Patients with MS had greater postexercise increases than controls in β-1 and β-2 adrenergic receptor expressions (1.4 ± 0.27- and 1.3 ± 0.06-fold increases, respectively, p = .02 and p < .001) and greater decreases in TLR4 (p = .02). In MS, IL-10 and TLR4 decreases correlated with higher fatigue scores. Postexercise mRNA increases in metabolite-detecting receptors were unique to patients with CFS, whereas both patients with MS and patients with CFS showed abnormal

  6. Gene Expression Patterns in Human Liver Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Cheung, Siu Tim; So, Samuel; Fan, Sheung Tat; Barry, Christopher; Higgins, John; Lai, Kin-Man; Ji, Jiafu; Dudoit, Sandrine; Ng, Irene O.L.; van de Rijn, Matt; Botstein, David; Brown, Patrick O.

    2002-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Using cDNA microarrays to characterize patterns of gene expression in HCC, we found consistent differences between the expression patterns in HCC compared with those seen in nontumor liver tissues. The expression patterns in HCC were also readily distinguished from those associated with tumors metastatic to liver. The global gene expression patterns intrinsic to each tumor were sufficiently distinctive that multiple tumor nodules from the same patient could usually be recognized and distinguished from all the others in the large sample set on the basis of their gene expression patterns alone. The distinctive gene expression patterns are characteristic of the tumors and not the patient; the expression programs seen in clonally independent tumor nodules in the same patient were no more similar than those in tumors from different patients. Moreover, clonally related tumor masses that showed distinct expression profiles were also distinguished by genotypic differences. Some features of the gene expression patterns were associated with specific phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the tumors, including growth rate, vascular invasion, and p53 overexpression. PMID:12058060

  7. Method of controlling gene expression

    DOEpatents

    Peters, Norman K.; Frost, John W.; Long, Sharon R.

    1991-12-03

    A method of controlling expression of a DNA segment under the control of a nod gene promoter which comprises administering to a host containing a nod gene promoter an amount sufficient to control expression of the DNA segment of a compound of the formula: ##STR1## in which each R is independently H or OH, is described.

  8. The flow of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Misteli, Tom

    2004-03-01

    Gene expression is a highly interconnected multistep process. A recent meeting in Iguazu Falls, Argentina, highlighted the need to uncover both the molecular details of each single step as well as the mechanisms of coordination among processes in order to fully understand the expression of genes.

  9. Discovering modulators of gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Babur, Özgün; Demir, Emek; Gönen, Mithat; Sander, Chris; Dogrusoz, Ugur

    2010-01-01

    Proteins that modulate the activity of transcription factors, often called modulators, play a critical role in creating tissue- and context-specific gene expression responses to the signals cells receive. GEM (Gene Expression Modulation) is a probabilistic framework that predicts modulators, their affected targets and mode of action by combining gene expression profiles, protein–protein interactions and transcription factor–target relationships. Using GEM, we correctly predicted a significant number of androgen receptor modulators and observed that most modulators can both act as co-activators and co-repressors for different target genes. PMID:20466809

  10. Screening of differentially expressed genes in pathological scar tissues using expression microarray.

    PubMed

    Huang, L P; Mao, Z; Zhang, L; Liu, X X; Huang, C; Jia, Z S

    2015-09-09

    Pathological scar tissues and normal skin tissues were differentiated by screening for differentially expressed genes in pathologic scar tissues via gene expression microarray. The differentially expressed gene data was analyzed by gene ontology and pathway analyses. There were 5001 up- or down-regulated genes in 2-fold differentially expressed genes, 956 up- or down-regulated genes in 5-fold differentially expressed genes, and 114 up- or down-regulated genes in 20-fold differentially expressed genes. Therefore, significant differences were observed in the gene expression in pathological scar tissues and normal foreskin tissues. The development of pathological scar tissues has been correlated to changes in multiple genes and pathways, which are believed to form a dynamic network connection.

  11. Gene expression of the endolymphatic sac.

    PubMed

    Friis, Morten; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Winther, Ole; Henao, Ricardo; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2011-12-01

    The endolymphatic sac is part of the membranous inner ear and is thought to play a role in the fluid homeostasis and immune defense of the inner ear; however, the exact function of the endolymphatic sac is not fully known. Many of the detected mRNAs in this study suggest that the endolymphatic sac has multiple and diverse functions in the inner ear. The objective of this study was to provide a comprehensive review of the genes expressed in the endolymphatic sac in the rat and perform a functional characterization based on measured mRNA abundance. Microarray technology was used to investigate the gene expression of the endolymphatic sac with the surrounding dura. Characteristic and novel endolymphatic sac genes were determined by comparing with expressions in pure dura. In all, 463 genes were identified specific for the endolymphatic sac. Functional annotation clustering revealed 29 functional clusters.

  12. The hexA gene of Erwinia carotovora encodes a LysR homologue and regulates motility and the expression of multiple virulence determinants.

    PubMed

    Harris, S J; Shih, Y L; Bentley, S D; Salmond, G P

    1998-05-01

    We have identified a gene important for the regulation of exoenzyme virulence factor synthesis in the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora (Ecc) and virulence and motility in Erwinia carotovora ssp. atroseptica (Eca). This gene, hexA (hyperproduction of exoenzymes), is a close relative of the Erwinia chrysanthemi (Echr) gene pecT and encodes a member of the LysR family of transcriptional regulators. hexA mutants in both Ecc and Eca produce abnormally high levels of the exoenzyme virulence factors pectate lyase, cellulase and protease. In addition, Eca hexA mutants show increased expression of the fliA and fliC genes and hypermotility. Consistent with a role as a global regulator, expression of hexA from even a low-copy plasmid can suppress exoenzyme production in Ecc and Eca and motility in Eca. Production of the quorum-sensing pheromone OHHL in Ecc hexA is higher throughout the growth curve compared with the wild-type strain. Overexpression of Ecc hexA also caused widespread effects in several strains of the opportunistic human pathogen, Serratia. Low-copy hexA expression resulted in repression of exoenzyme, pigment and antibiotic production and repression of the spreading phenotype. Finally, mutations in hexA were shown to increase Ecc or Eca virulence in planta.

  13. Cloning expression and analysis of phytochelatin synthase (pcs) gene from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 offering multiple stress tolerance in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Chaurasia, Neha; Mishra, Yogesh; Rai, Lal Chand

    2008-11-07

    Phytochelatin synthase (PCS) is involved in the synthesis of phytochelatins (PCs), plays role in heavy metal detoxification. The present study describes for first time the functional expression and characterization of pcs gene of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 in Escherichia coli in terms of offering protection against heat, salt, carbofuron (pesticide), cadmium, copper, and UV-B stress. The involvement of pcs gene in tolerance to above abiotic stresses was investigated by cloning of pcs gene in expression vector pGEX-5X-2 and its transformation in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The E. coli cells transformed with pGEX-5X-pcs showed better growth than control cells (pGEX-5X-2) under temperature (47 deg. C), NaCl (6% w/v), carbofuron (0.025 mg ml{sup -1}), CdCl{sub 2} (4 mM), CuCl{sub 2} (1 mM), and UV-B (10 min) exposure. The enhanced expression of pcs gene revealed by RT-PCR analysis under above stresses at different time intervals further advocates its role in tolerance against above abiotic stresses.

  14. Amino acid regulation of gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Fafournoux, P; Bruhat, A; Jousse, C

    2000-01-01

    The impact of nutrients on gene expression in mammals has become an important area of research. Nevertheless, the current understanding of the amino acid-dependent control of gene expression is limited. Because amino acids have multiple and important functions, their homoeostasis has to be finely maintained. However, amino-acidaemia can be affected by certain nutritional conditions or various forms of stress. It follows that mammals have to adjust several of their physiological functions involved in the adaptation to amino acid availability by regulating the expression of numerous genes. The aim of the present review is to examine the role of amino acids in regulating mammalian gene expression and protein turnover. It has been reported that some genes involved in the control of growth or amino acid metabolism are regulated by amino acid availability. For instance, limitation of several amino acids greatly increases the expression of the genes encoding insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein, where C/EBP is CCAAT/enhancer binding protein) and asparagine synthetase. Elevated mRNA levels result from both an increase in the rate of transcription and an increase in mRNA stability. Several observations suggest that the amino acid regulation of gene expression observed in mammalian cells and the general control process described in yeast share common features. Moreover, amino acid response elements have been characterized in the promoters of the CHOP and asparagine synthetase genes. Taken together, the results discussed in the present review demonstrate that amino acids, by themselves, can, in concert with hormones, play an important role in the control of gene expression. PMID:10998343

  15. Human Lacrimal Gland Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Aakalu, Vinay Kumar; Parameswaran, Sowmya; Maienschein-Cline, Mark; Bahroos, Neil; Shah, Dhara; Ali, Marwan; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2017-01-01

    Background The study of human lacrimal gland biology and development is limited. Lacrimal gland tissue is damaged or poorly functional in a number of disease states including dry eye disease. Development of cell based therapies for lacrimal gland diseases requires a better understanding of the gene expression and signaling pathways in lacrimal gland. Differential gene expression analysis between lacrimal gland and other embryologically similar tissues may be helpful in furthering our understanding of lacrimal gland development. Methods We performed global gene expression analysis of human lacrimal gland tissue using Affymetrix ® gene expression arrays. Primary data from our laboratory was compared with datasets available in the NLM GEO database for other surface ectodermal tissues including salivary gland, skin, conjunctiva and corneal epithelium. Results The analysis revealed statistically significant difference in the gene expression of lacrimal gland tissue compared to other ectodermal tissues. The lacrimal gland specific, cell surface secretory protein encoding genes and critical signaling pathways which distinguish lacrimal gland from other ectodermal tissues are described. Conclusions Differential gene expression in human lacrimal gland compared with other ectodermal tissue types revealed interesting patterns which may serve as the basis for future studies in directed differentiation among other areas. PMID:28081151

  16. The Effects of High-Fat Diet Exposure In Utero on the Obesogenic and Diabetogenic Traits Through Epigenetic Changes in Adiponectin and Leptin Gene Expression for Multiple Generations in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Masuyama, Hisashi; Mitsui, Takashi; Nobumoto, Etsuko; Hiramatsu, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that epigenetic changes under malnutrition in utero might play important roles in transgenerational links with metabolic diseases. We have previously shown that exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) in utero may cause a metabolic syndrome-like phenomenon through epigenetic modifications of Adiponectin and Leptin genes. Because an association of obesity between mother and offspring endured in multiple generations, we examined whether HFD exposure in utero might affect the metabolic status of female offspring through multigenerational epigenetic changes of Adiponectin and Leptin genes and whether a normal diet in utero for multiple generations might abolish such epigenetic changes after exposure to a HFD in utero using ICR mice. We observed that the effect of maternal HFD on offspring over multiple generations in metabolic syndrome-like phenomenon such as weight and fat mass gain, glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, abnormal adiponectin and leptin levels, and hypertension, were accumulated with expression and epigenetic changes in Adiponectin and Leptin genes. A normal diet in utero in the subsequent generations after HFD exposure in utero diminished, and a normal diet in utero for 3 generations completely abolished, the effect of HFD in utero on weight and fat mass gain, insulin resistance, serum triglyceride, adiponectin, and leptin levels, with epigenetic changes of Adiponectin and Leptin genes. Exposure to a HFD in utero might affect glucose and lipid metabolism of female offspring through epigenetic modifications to Adiponectin and Leptin genes for multiple generations. Obesogenic and diabetogenic traits were abolished after a maternal normal diet for 3 generations.

  17. Transplastomic Nicotiana benthamiana plants expressing multiple defence genes encoding protease inhibitors and chitinase display broad-spectrum resistance against insects, pathogens and abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng-Jen; Senthilkumar, Rajendran; Jane, Wann-Neng; He, Yong; Tian, Zhihong; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2014-05-01

    Plastid engineering provides several advantages for the next generation of transgenic technology, including the convenient use of transgene stacking and the generation of high expression levels of foreign proteins. With the goal of generating transplastomic plants with multiresistance against both phytopathogens and insects, a construct containing a monocistronic patterned gene stack was transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana plastids harbouring sweet potato sporamin, taro cystatin and chitinase from Paecilomyces javanicus. Transplastomic lines were screened and characterized by Southern/Northern/Western blot analysis for the confirmation of transgene integration and respective expression level. Immunogold localization analyses confirmed the high level of accumulation proteins that were specifically expressed in leaf and root plastids. Subsequent functional bioassays confirmed that the gene stacks conferred a high level of resistance against both insects and phytopathogens. Specifically, larva of Spodoptera litura and Spodoptera exigua either died or exhibited growth retardation after ingesting transplastomic plant leaves. In addition, the inhibitory effects on both leaf spot diseases caused by Alternaria alternata and soft rot disease caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum were markedly observed. Moreover, tolerance to abiotic stresses such as salt/osmotic stress was highly enhanced. The results confirmed that the simultaneous expression of sporamin, cystatin and chitinase conferred a broad spectrum of resistance. Conversely, the expression of single transgenes was not capable of conferring such resistance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate an efficacious stacked combination of plastid-expressed defence genes which resulted in an engineered tolerance to various abiotic and biotic stresses. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Gene expression changes in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Jeffrey P; Lit, Lisa; Baron, Colin A; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Walker, Wynn; Davis, Ryan A; Croen, Lisa A; Ozonoff, Sally; Hansen, Robin; Pessah, Isaac N; Sharp, Frank R

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify gene expression differences in blood differences in children with autism (AU) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to general population controls. Transcriptional profiles were compared with age- and gender-matched, typically developing children from the general population (GP). The AU group was subdivided based on a history of developmental regression (A-R) or a history of early onset (A-E without regression). Total RNA from blood was processed on human Affymetrix microarrays. Thirty-five children with AU (17 with early onset autism and 18 with autism with regression) and 14 ASD children (who did not meet criteria for AU) were compared to 12 GP children. Unpaired t tests (corrected for multiple comparisons with a false discovery rate of 0.05) detected a number of genes that were regulated more than 1.5-fold for AU versus GP (n=55 genes), for A-E versus GP (n=140 genes), for A-R versus GP (n=20 genes), and for A-R versus A-E (n=494 genes). No genes were significantly regulated for ASD versus GP. There were 11 genes shared between the comparisons of all autism subgroups to GP (AU, A-E, and A-R versus GP) and these genes were all expressed in natural killer cells and many belonged to the KEGG natural killer cytotoxicity pathway (p=0.02). A subset of these genes (n=7) was tested with qRT-PCR and all genes were found to be differentially expressed (p<0.05). We conclude that the gene expression data support emerging evidence for abnormalities in peripheral blood leukocytes in autism that could represent a genetic and/or environmental predisposition to the disorder.

  19. Tissue-based Alzheimer gene expression markers-comparison of multiple machine learning approaches and investigation of redundancy in small biomarker sets.

    PubMed

    Scheubert, Lena; Luštrek, Mitja; Schmidt, Rainer; Repsilber, Dirk; Fuellen, Georg

    2012-10-15

    Alzheimer's disease has been known for more than 100 years and the underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet completely understood. The identification of genes involved in the processes in Alzheimer affected brain is an important step towards such an understanding. Genes differentially expressed in diseased and healthy brains are promising candidates. Based on microarray data we identify potential biomarkers as well as biomarker combinations using three feature selection methods: information gain, mean decrease accuracy of random forest and a wrapper of genetic algorithm and support vector machine (GA/SVM). Information gain and random forest are two commonly used methods. We compare their output to the results obtained from GA/SVM. GA/SVM is rarely used for the analysis of microarray data, but it is able to identify genes capable of classifying tissues into different classes at least as well as the two reference methods. Compared to the other methods, GA/SVM has the advantage of finding small, less redundant sets of genes that, in combination, show superior classification characteristics. The biological significance of the genes and gene pairs is discussed.

  20. Multiple Recombinant Adeno-Associated Viral Vector Serotypes Display Persistent In Vivo Gene Expression in Vector-Transduced Rat Stifle Joints

    PubMed Central

    Gurda, Brittney L.; Engiles, Julie B.; Hankenson, Kurt D.; Wilson, James M.; Richardson, Dean W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Our aim was to investigate serotype-specific cell and tissue-transduction tropisms, transgene expression levels and longevity, and immunogenicity of candidate rAAV serotypes in rat osteochondral cells, tissues, and stifle joints. In vitro, we used six rAAV serotypes and two promoters to transduce synoviocytes and chondrocytes. Serotypes rAAV2/5 and 2/2 yielded the highest transduction efficiency 4 days after transduction. No differences were detected between cytomegalovirus and chicken β-actin promoters. In vivo, intra-articular injection was used to introduce four rAAV serotypes into 4-month-old rats in the left stifle joint. Eleven months later, serotype 2/5 vector, diluted with saline or surfactant, was injected into the right stifle joint of the same rats. Rats were analyzed up to 12 months after initial injection. Bioluminescence was detected at 7 days and all serotypes tested displayed bioluminescence above controls after 1 year in the left stifle. Gene expression was detected in the right stifle joints of all rats with the exception of rats previously injected with serotype 2/5. We observed no difference irrespective of whether the luciferin was injected subcutaneously or intraperitoneally. However, surfactant-diluted vectors led to increased gene expression compared with saline-diluted vectors. Cell- and tissue-specific transduction was observed in rat stifles injected with an nLacZ-containing rAAV. Transduction was greatest in stromal tissues and mesenchymal cell types. Exposure to a specific serotype did not inhibit subsequent transduction with a different serotype at a second vector injection. Including surfactant as a vector diluent increased gene expression within the stifle joint and should be considered for in vivo gene therapy applications. PMID:23659250

  1. RNA-Seq of Borrelia burgdorferi in Multiple Phases of Growth Reveals Insights into the Dynamics of Gene Expression, Transcriptome Architecture, and Noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, William K.; Savage, Christina R.; Brissette, Catherine A.; Seshu, Janakiram; Livny, Jonathan; Stevenson, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, differentially expresses numerous genes and proteins as it cycles between mammalian hosts and tick vectors. Insights on regulatory mechanisms have been provided by earlier studies that examined B. burgdorferi gene expression patterns during cultivation. However, prior studies examined bacteria at only a single time point of cultivation, providing only a snapshot of what is likely a dynamic transcriptional program driving B. burgdorferi adaptations to changes during culture growth phases. To address that concern, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis of B. burgdorferi cultures at early-exponential, mid-exponential, and early-stationary phases of growth. We found that expression of nearly 18% of annotated B. burgdorferi genes changed significantly during culture maturation. Moreover, genome-wide mapping of the B. burgdorferi transcriptome in different growth phases enabled insight on transcript boundaries, operon structures, and identified numerous putative non-coding RNAs. These RNA-Seq data are discussed and presented as a resource for the community of researchers seeking to better understand B. burgdorferi biology and pathogenesis. PMID:27706236

  2. Application of multidisciplinary analysis to gene expression.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xuefel; Kang, Huining; Fields, Chris; Cowie, Jim R.; Davidson, George S.; Haaland, David Michael; Sibirtsev, Valeriy; Mosquera-Caro, Monica P.; Xu, Yuexian; Martin, Shawn Bryan; Helman, Paul; Andries, Erik; Ar, Kerem; Potter, Jeffrey; Willman, Cheryl L.; Murphy, Maurice H.

    2004-01-01

    Molecular analysis of cancer, at the genomic level, could lead to individualized patient diagnostics and treatments. The developments to follow will signal a significant paradigm shift in the clinical management of human cancer. Despite our initial hopes, however, it seems that simple analysis of microarray data cannot elucidate clinically significant gene functions and mechanisms. Extracting biological information from microarray data requires a complicated path involving multidisciplinary teams of biomedical researchers, computer scientists, mathematicians, statisticians, and computational linguists. The integration of the diverse outputs of each team is the limiting factor in the progress to discover candidate genes and pathways associated with the molecular biology of cancer. Specifically, one must deal with sets of significant genes identified by each method and extract whatever useful information may be found by comparing these different gene lists. Here we present our experience with such comparisons, and share methods developed in the analysis of an infant leukemia cohort studied on Affymetrix HG-U95A arrays. In particular, spatial gene clustering, hyper-dimensional projections, and computational linguistics were used to compare different gene lists. In spatial gene clustering, different gene lists are grouped together and visualized on a three-dimensional expression map, where genes with similar expressions are co-located. In another approach, projections from gene expression space onto a sphere clarify how groups of genes can jointly have more predictive power than groups of individually selected genes. Finally, online literature is automatically rearranged to present information about genes common to multiple groups, or to contrast the differences between the lists. The combination of these methods has improved our understanding of infant leukemia. While the complicated reality of the biology dashed our initial, optimistic hopes for simple answers from

  3. Apoptin induces apoptosis in nude mice allograft model of human bladder cancer by altering multiple bladder tumor-associated gene expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunhui; Wang, Wenju; Wang, Jiansong; Zhan, Hui; Jiang, Lihong; Yan, Ruping; Hou, Zongliu; Zhu, Huirong; Yu, Lirui; Shi, Yunqiang; Ding, Mingxia; Ke, Changxing

    2013-06-01

    Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the most common human malignancies that account for major death in the world. Apoptin that is derived from chicken anemia virus (CAV) has displayed tumor-specific cytotoxic activity in a variety of human carcinomas. However, the magical function of apoptin in bladder carcinoma cell lines has not been identified yet. In our study, we delivered apoptin into bladder-originating T24, EJ, and HCV29 cell lines by adenovirus system. The selective cytotoxic effect of apoptin was determined by cell viability assay, active caspase-3 measurement, and annexin V/PI double staining. Importantly, we have examined the differential expression patterns of tumor-associated genes including Ki67, C-erbB-2, Rb, and nm23 by flow cytometry and western blot in vitro. In an animal study, apoptin was infused into animal models by AAV system, and immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) were employed to validate results in vivo. The results indicated that apoptin could selectively induce apoptosis in bladder tumorigenic cells coupled with tumor-specific nucleus accumulation in vitro. Interestingly, apoptin could downregulate expression levels of Ki67 and C-erbB-2 and upregulate the expression of Rb both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the animal models treated with AAV-apoptin have shown smaller tumor volumes and displayed better prognosis than controls. In conclusion, apoptin could selectively induce apoptosis in bladder tumor cells through altering expression profiles of tumor-associated genes.

  4. Evolutionary approach for relative gene expression algorithms.

    PubMed

    Czajkowski, Marcin; Kretowski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    A Relative Expression Analysis (RXA) uses ordering relationships in a small collection of genes and is successfully applied to classiffication using microarray data. As checking all possible subsets of genes is computationally infeasible, the RXA algorithms require feature selection and multiple restrictive assumptions. Our main contribution is a specialized evolutionary algorithm (EA) for top-scoring pairs called EvoTSP which allows finding more advanced gene relations. We managed to unify the major variants of relative expression algorithms through EA and introduce weights to the top-scoring pairs. Experimental validation of EvoTSP on public available microarray datasets showed that the proposed solution significantly outperforms in terms of accuracy other relative expression algorithms and allows exploring much larger solution space.

  5. Evolutionary Approach for Relative Gene Expression Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Czajkowski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    A Relative Expression Analysis (RXA) uses ordering relationships in a small collection of genes and is successfully applied to classiffication using microarray data. As checking all possible subsets of genes is computationally infeasible, the RXA algorithms require feature selection and multiple restrictive assumptions. Our main contribution is a specialized evolutionary algorithm (EA) for top-scoring pairs called EvoTSP which allows finding more advanced gene relations. We managed to unify the major variants of relative expression algorithms through EA and introduce weights to the top-scoring pairs. Experimental validation of EvoTSP on public available microarray datasets showed that the proposed solution significantly outperforms in terms of accuracy other relative expression algorithms and allows exploring much larger solution space. PMID:24790574

  6. Tuning noise in gene expression.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Sanjay

    2015-05-05

    The relative contribution of promoter architecture and the associated chromatin environment in regulating gene expression noise has remained elusive. In their recent work, Arkin, Schaffer and colleagues (Dey et al, 2015) show that mean expression and noise for a given promoter at different genomic loci are uncorrelated and influenced by the local chromatin environment.

  7. Monoallelic Gene Expression in Mammals.

    PubMed

    Chess, Andrew

    2016-11-23

    Monoallelic expression not due to cis-regulatory sequence polymorphism poses an intriguing problem in epigenetics because it requires the unequal treatment of two segments of DNA that are present in the same nucleus and that can indeed have absolutely identical sequences. Here, I focus on a few recent developments in the field of monoallelic expression that are of particular interest and raise interesting questions for future work. One development is regarding analyses of imprinted genes, in which recent work suggests the possibility that intriguing networks of imprinted genes exist and are important for genetic and physiological studies. Another issue that has been raised in recent years by a number of publications is the question of how skewed allelic expression should be for it to be designated as monoallelic expression and, further, what methods are appropriate or inappropriate for analyzing genomic data to examine allele-specific expression. Perhaps the most exciting recent development in mammalian monoallelic expression is a clever and carefully executed analysis of genetic diversity of autosomal genes subject to random monoallelic expression (RMAE), which provides compelling evidence for distinct evolutionary forces acting on random monoallelically expressed genes.

  8. Multiple regulatory mechanisms of hepatocyte growth factor expression in malignant cells with a short poly(dA) sequence in the HGF gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kazuko; Takeda, Masayuki; Okamoto, Isamu; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Nishio, Kazuto

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) expression is a poor prognostic factor in various types of cancer. Expression levels of HGF have been reported to be regulated by shorter poly(dA) sequences in the promoter region. In the present study, the poly(dA) mononucleotide tract in various types of human cancer cell lines was examined and compared with the HGF expression levels in those cells. Short deoxyadenosine repeat sequences were detected in five of the 55 cell lines used in the present study. The H69, IM95, CCK-81, Sui73 and H28 cells exhibited a truncated poly(dA) sequence in which the number of poly(dA) repeats was reduced by ≥5 bp. Two of the cell lines exhibited high HGF expression, determined by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The CCK-81, Sui73 and H28 cells with shorter poly(dA) sequences exhibited low HGF expression. The cause of the suppression of HGF expression in the CCK-81, Sui73 and H28 cells was clarified by two approaches, suppression by methylation and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the HGF gene. Exposure to 5-Aza-dC, an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase 1, induced an increased expression of HGF in the CCK-81 cells, but not in the other cells. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs72525097 in intron 1 was detected in the Sui73 and H28 cells. Taken together, it was found that the defect of poly(dA) in the HGF promoter was present in various types of cancer, including lung, stomach, colorectal, pancreas and mesothelioma. The present study proposes the negative regulation mechanisms by methylation and SNP in intron 1 of HGF for HGF expression in cancer cells with short poly(dA).

  9. Multiple Roles for UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 in Regulating Gene Expression and Metabolite Accumulation in Arabidopsis under Solar Ultraviolet Radiation1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Luis O.; Brosché, Mikael; Vainonen, Julia; Jenkins, Gareth I.; Wargent, Jason J.; Sipari, Nina; Strid, Åke; Lindfors, Anders V.; Tegelberg, Riitta; Aphalo, Pedro J.

    2013-01-01

    Photomorphogenic responses triggered by low fluence rates of ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B; 280–315 nm) are mediated by the UV-B photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8). Beyond our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of UV-B perception by UVR8, there is still limited information on how the UVR8 pathway functions under natural sunlight. Here, wild-type Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the uvr8-2 mutant were used in an experiment outdoors where UV-A (315–400 nm) and UV-B irradiances were attenuated using plastic films. Gene expression, PYRIDOXINE BIOSYNTHESIS1 (PDX1) accumulation, and leaf metabolite signatures were analyzed. The results show that UVR8 is required for transcript accumulation of genes involved in UV protection, oxidative stress, hormone signal transduction, and defense against herbivores under solar UV. Under natural UV-A irradiance, UVR8 is likely to interact with UV-A/blue light signaling pathways to moderate UV-B-driven transcript and PDX1 accumulation. UVR8 both positively and negatively affects UV-A-regulated gene expression and metabolite accumulation but is required for the UV-B induction of phenolics. Moreover, UVR8-dependent UV-B acclimation during the early stages of plant development may enhance normal growth under long-term exposure to solar UV. PMID:23250626

  10. Role of Na+, K+, Cl−, proline and sucrose concentrations in determining salinity tolerance and their correlation with the expression of multiple genes in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Pedro; Feron, Richard; de Boer, Gert-Jan; de Boer, Albertus H.

    2014-01-01

    One of the major abiotic stresses affecting agriculture is soil salinity, which reduces crop yield and, consequently, revenue for farmers. Although tomato is an important agricultural species, elite varieties are poor at withstanding salinity stress. Thus, a feasible way of improving yield under conditions of salinity stress is to breed for improved salt tolerance. In this study, we analysed the physiological and genetic parameters of 23 tomato accessions in order to identify possible traits to be used by plant breeders to develop more tolerant tomato varieties. Although we observed a wide range of Na+ concentrations within the leaves, stems and roots, the maintenance of growth in the presence of 100 mM NaCl did not correlate with the exclusion or accumulation of Na+. Nor could we correlate the growth with accumulation of sugars and proline or with the expression of any gene involved in the homoeostasis of Na+ in the plant. However, several significant correlations between gene expression and Na+ accumulation were observed. For instance, Na+ concentrations both in the leaves and stems were positively correlated with HKT1;2 expression in the roots, and Na+ concentration measured in the roots was positively correlated with HKT1;1 expression also in the roots. Higher and lower Na+ accumulation in the roots and leaves were significantly correlated with higher NHX3 and NHX1 expression in the roots, respectively. These results suggest that, in tomato, for a particular level of tolerance to salinity, a complex relationship between Na+ concentration in the cells and tissue tolerance defines the salinity tolerance of individual tomato accessions. In tomato it is likely that tissue and salinity tolerance work independently, making tolerance to salinity depend on their relative effects rather than on one of these mechanisms alone. PMID:24996430

  11. Multiple sex pheromone genes are expressed in the abdominal glands of the smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris) and Montandon's Newt (L. montandoni) (Salamandridae).

    PubMed

    Artur, Osikowski; Wiesław, Babik; Paweł, Grzmil; Jacek M, Szymura

    2008-06-01

    The smooth newt (Lissotriton "Triturus" vulgaris) and Montandon's newt (L."T." montandoni) are sister species exhibiting pronounced differences in male secondary sexual traits but nevertheless hybridizing and producing fertile hybrids in nature. Since pheromonal communication is an important aspect of the reproductive biology of urodeles, structural differentiation of peptide pheromones and their receptors may contribute to incipient reproductive isolation. The aim of the study was the identification of genes encoding putative courtship pheromone precursors in two newt species and the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships among them. Our analyses were based on cDNA obtained from the transcripts from the abdominal glands of male newts. We identified five unique cDNA sequences encoding the putative pheromone precursors in L. vulgaris and three additional unique sequences in L. montandoni. The results indicate that in the abdominal glands of Lissotriton newts more than one pheromone-encoding gene is expressed and that these loci form a gene family. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the divergence of at least some of these genes predates the radiation of European newts.

  12. Histone Gene Multiplicity and Position Effect Variegation in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Gerald D.; Sinclair, Donald A.; Grigliatti, Thomas A.

    1983-01-01

    The histone genes of wild-type Drosophila melanogaster are reiterated 100–150 times per haploid genome and are located in the segment of chromosome 2 that corresponds to polytene bands 39D2-3 to E1-2. The influence of altered histone gene multiplicity on chromatin structure has been assayed by measuring modification of the gene inactivation associated with position effect variegation in genotypes bearing deletions of the 39D-E segment. The proportion of cells in which a variegating gene is active is increased in genotypes that are heterozygous for a deficiency that removes the histone gene complex. Deletions that remove segments adjacent to the histone gene complex have no effect on the expression of variegating genes. Suppression of position effect variegation associated with reduction of histone gene multiplicity applies to both X-linked and autosomal variegating genes. Position effects exerted by both autosomal and sex-chromosome heterochromatin were suppressible by deletions of the histone gene complex. The suppression was independent of the presence of the Y chromosome. A deficiency that deletes only the distal portion of the histone gene complex also has the ability to suppress position effect variegation. Duplication of the histone gene complex did not enhance position effect variegation. Deletion or duplication of the histone gene complex in the maternal genome had no effect on the extent of variegation in progeny whose histone gene multiplicity was normal. These results are discussed with respect to current knowledge of the organization of the histone gene complex and control of its expression. PMID:17246163

  13. Gene expression analysis of overwintering mountain pine beetle larvae suggests multiple systems involved in overwintering stress, cold hardiness, and preparation for spring development

    PubMed Central

    Bonnett, Tiffany; Pitt, Caitlin; Spooner, Luke J.; Fraser, Jordie; Yuen, Macaire M.S.; Keeling, Christopher I.; Bohlmann, Jörg; Huber, Dezene P.W.

    2016-01-01

    Cold-induced mortality has historically been a key aspect of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), population control, but little is known about the molecular basis for cold tolerance in this insect. We used RNA-seq analysis to monitor gene expression patterns of mountain pine beetle larvae at four time points during their overwintering period—early-autumn, late-autumn, early-spring, and late-spring. Changing transcript profiles over the winter indicates a multipronged physiological response from larvae that is broadly characterized by gene transcripts involved in insect immune responses and detoxification during the autumn. In the spring, although transcripts associated with developmental process are present, there was no particular biological process dominating the transcriptome. PMID:27441109

  14. Gene expression analysis of overwintering mountain pine beetle larvae suggests multiple systems involved in overwintering stress, cold hardiness, and preparation for spring development.

    PubMed

    Robert, Jeanne A; Bonnett, Tiffany; Pitt, Caitlin; Spooner, Luke J; Fraser, Jordie; Yuen, Macaire M S; Keeling, Christopher I; Bohlmann, Jörg; Huber, Dezene P W

    2016-01-01

    Cold-induced mortality has historically been a key aspect of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), population control, but little is known about the molecular basis for cold tolerance in this insect. We used RNA-seq analysis to monitor gene expression patterns of mountain pine beetle larvae at four time points during their overwintering period-early-autumn, late-autumn, early-spring, and late-spring. Changing transcript profiles over the winter indicates a multipronged physiological response from larvae that is broadly characterized by gene transcripts involved in insect immune responses and detoxification during the autumn. In the spring, although transcripts associated with developmental process are present, there was no particular biological process dominating the transcriptome.

  15. Noise in gene expression: origins, consequences, and control.

    PubMed

    Raser, Jonathan M; O'Shea, Erin K

    2005-09-23

    Genetically identical cells and organisms exhibit remarkable diversity even when they have identical histories of environmental exposure. Noise, or variation, in the process of gene expression may contribute to this phenotypic variability. Recent studies suggest that this noise has multiple sources, including the stochastic or inherently random nature of the biochemical reactions of gene expression. In this review, we summarize noise terminology and comment on recent investigations into the sources, consequences, and control of noise in gene expression.

  16. Transcriptome analysis of Hpa1Xoo transformed cotton revealed constitutive expression of genes in multiple signalling pathways related to disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Miao, Weiguo; Wang, Xiben; Song, Congfeng; Wang, Yu; Ren, Yonghong; Wang, Jinsheng

    2010-10-01

    The transcriptome profile in leaves and roots of the transgenic cotton line T-34 expressing hpa1(Xoo) from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae was analysed using a customized 12k cotton cDNA microarray. A total of 530 cDNA transcripts involved in 34 pathways were differentially expressed in the transgenic line T-34, in which 123 differentially expressed genes were related to the cotton defence responses including the hypersensitive reaction, defence responses associated with the recognition of pathogen-derived elicitors, and defence signalling pathways mediated by salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, ethylene, auxin, abscicic acid, and Ca(2+). Furthermore, transcripts encoding various leucine-rich protein kinases and mitogen-activated protein kinases were up-regulated in the transgenic line T-34 and expression of transcripts related to the energy producing and consuming pathway was also increased, which suggested that the enhanced metabolism related to the host defence response in the transgenic line T-34 imposed an increased energy demand on the transgenic plant.

  17. Differential gene expression in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Jakobs, Tatjana C

    2014-07-01

    In glaucoma, regardless of its etiology, retinal ganglion cells degenerate and eventually die. Although age and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) are the main risk factors, there are still many mysteries in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. The advent of genome-wide microarray expression screening together with the availability of animal models of the disease has allowed analysis of differential gene expression in all parts of the eye in glaucoma. This review will outline the findings of recent genome-wide expression studies and discuss their commonalities and differences. A common finding was the differential regulation of genes involved in inflammation and immunity, including the complement system and the cytokines transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). Other genes of interest have roles in the extracellular matrix, cell-matrix interactions and adhesion, the cell cycle, and the endothelin system.

  18. Differential Gene Expression in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Jakobs, Tatjana C.

    2014-01-01

    In glaucoma, regardless of its etiology, retinal ganglion cells degenerate and eventually die. Although age and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) are the main risk factors, there are still many mysteries in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. The advent of genome-wide microarray expression screening together with the availability of animal models of the disease has allowed analysis of differential gene expression in all parts of the eye in glaucoma. This review will outline the findings of recent genome-wide expression studies and discuss their commonalities and differences. A common finding was the differential regulation of genes involved in inflammation and immunity, including the complement system and the cytokines transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). Other genes of interest have roles in the extracellular matrix, cell–matrix interactions and adhesion, the cell cycle, and the endothelin system. PMID:24985133

  19. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  20. Stochastic Mechanisms in Gene Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAdams, Harley H.; Arkin, Adam

    1997-02-01

    In cellular regulatory networks, genetic activity is controlled by molecular signals that determine when and how often a given gene is transcribed. In genetically controlled pathways, the protein product encoded by one gene often regulates expression of other genes. The time delay, after activation of the first promoter, to reach an effective level to control the next promoter depends on the rate of protein accumulation. We have analyzed the chemical reactions controlling transcript initiation and translation termination in a single such ``genetically coupled'' link as a precursor to modeling networks constructed from many such links. Simulation of the processes of gene expression shows that proteins are produced from an activated promoter in short bursts of variable numbers of proteins that occur at random time intervals. As a result, there can be large differences in the time between successive events in regulatory cascades across a cell population. In addition, the random pattern of expression of competitive effectors can produce probabilistic outcomes in switching mechanisms that select between alternative regulatory paths. The result can be a partitioning of the cell population into different phenotypes as the cells follow different paths. There are numerous unexplained examples of phenotypic variations in isogenic populations of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells that may be the result of these stochastic gene expression mechanisms.

  1. Zipf's Law in Gene Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Chikara; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2003-02-01

    Using data from gene expression databases on various organisms and tissues, including yeast, nematodes, human normal and cancer tissues, and embryonic stem cells, we found that the abundances of expressed genes exhibit a power-law distribution with an exponent close to -1; i.e., they obey Zipf’s law. Furthermore, by simulations of a simple model with an intracellular reaction network, we found that Zipf’s law of chemical abundance is a universal feature of cells where such a network optimizes the efficiency and faithfulness of self-reproduction. These findings provide novel insights into the nature of the organization of reaction dynamics in living cells.

  2. Pathogen-responsive expression of a putative ATP-binding cassette transporter gene conferring resistance to the diterpenoid sclareol is regulated by multiple defense signaling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Emma J; Schenk, Peer M; Kazan, Kemal; Penninckx, Iris A M A; Anderson, Jonathan P; Maclean, Don J; Cammue, Bruno P A; Ebert, Paul R; Manners, John M

    2003-11-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are encoded by large gene families in plants. Although these proteins are potentially involved in a number of diverse plant processes, currently, very little is known about their actual functions. In this paper, through a cDNA microarray screening of anonymous cDNA clones from a subtractive library, we identified an Arabidopsis gene (AtPDR12) putatively encoding a member of the pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) subfamily of ABC transporters. AtPDR12 displayed distinct induction profiles after inoculation of plants with compatible and incompatible fungal pathogens and treatments with salicylic acid, ethylene, or methyl jasmonate. Analysis of AtPDR12 expression in a number of Arabidopsis defense signaling mutants further revealed that salicylic acid accumulation, NPR1 function, and sensitivity to jasmonates and ethylene were all required for pathogen-responsive expression of AtPDR12. Germination assays using seeds from an AtPDR12 insertion line in the presence of sclareol resulted in lower germination rates and much stronger inhibition of root elongation in the AtPDR12 insertion line than in wild-type plants. These results suggest that AtPDR12 may be functionally related to the previously identified ABC transporters SpTUR2 and NpABC1, which transport sclareol. Our data also point to a potential role for terpenoids in the Arabidopsis defensive armory.

  3. The Shared Crosstalk of Multiple Pathways Involved in the Inflammation between Rheumatoid Arthritis and Coronary Artery Disease Based on a Digital Gene Expression Profile

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Jiang, Miao; He, Dan; Bian, Yanqin; Zhang, Ge; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Lu, Aiping

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and coronary artery disease (CAD) are both complex inflammatory diseases, and an increased prevalence of CAD and a high rate of mortality have been observed in RA patients. But the molecular mechanism of inflammation that is shared between the two disorders is unclear. High-throughput techniques, such as transcriptome analysis, are becoming important tools for genetic biomarker discovery in highly complex biological samples, which is critical for the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of disease. In the present study, we reported one type of transcriptome analysis method: digital gene expression profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 10 RA patients, 10 CAD patients and 10 healthy people. In all, 213 and 152 differently expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in RA patients compared with normal controls (RA vs. normal) and CAD patients compared with normal controls (CAD vs. normal), respectively, with 73 shared DEGs between them. Using this technique in combination with Ingenuity Pathways Analysis software, the effects on inflammation of four shared canonical pathways, three shared activated predicted upstream regulators and three shared molecular interaction networks were identified and explored. These shared molecular mechanisms may provide the genetic basis and potential targets for optimizing the application of current drugs to more effectively treat these diseases simultaneously and for preventing one when the other is diagnosed. PMID:25514790

  4. Rat Models of Cardiovascular Disease Demonstrate Distinctive Pulmonary Gene Expressions for Vascular Response Genes: Impact of Ozone Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative gene expression profiling of multiple tissues from rat strains with genetic predisposition to diverse cardiovascular diseases (CVD) can help decode the transcriptional program that governs organ-specific functions. We examined expressions of CVD genes in the lungs of ...

  5. Rat Models of Cardiovascular Disease Demonstrate Distinctive Pulmonary Gene Expressions for Vascular Response Genes: Impact of Ozone Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative gene expression profiling of multiple tissues from rat strains with genetic predisposition to diverse cardiovascular diseases (CVD) can help decode the transcriptional program that governs organ-specific functions. We examined expressions of CVD genes in the lungs of ...

  6. In vivo effects of UV radiation on multiple endpoints and expression profiles of DNA repair and heat shock protein (Hsp) genes in the cycloid copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    PubMed

    Won, Eun-Ji; Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Yeonjung; Kumar, K Suresh; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Su-Jae; Park, Heum Gi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on energy acquisition and consumption, the copepod Paracyclopina nana was irradiated with several doses (0-3kJ/m(2)) of UV. After UV radiation, we measured the re-brooding success, growth pattern of newly hatched nauplii, ingestion rate, and assimilation of diet. In addition, we checked the modulated patterns of DNA repair and heat shock protein (hsp) chaperoning genes of P. nana. UV-B radiation induced a significant reduction (7-87%) of the re-brooding rate of ovigerous females, indicating that UV-induced egg sac damage is closely correlated with a reduction in the hatching rate of UV-irradiated ovigerous female offspring. Using chlorophyll a and stable carbon isotope incubation experiments, we found a dose-dependent decrease (P<0.05) in food ingestion and the rate of assimilation to the body in response to UV radiation, implying that P. nana has an underlying ability to shift its balanced-energy status from growth and reproduction to DNA repair and adaptation. Also, expression of P. nana base excision repair (BER)-associated genes and hsp chaperoning genes was significantly increased in response to UV radiation in P. nana. These findings indicate that even 1kJ/m(2) of UV radiation induces a reduction in reproduction and growth patterns, alters the physiological balance and inhibits the ability to cope with UV-induced damage in P. nana.

  7. Sequence and gene expression evolution of paralogous genes in willows

    PubMed Central

    Harikrishnan, Srilakshmy L.; Pucholt, Pascal; Berlin, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Whole genome duplications (WGD) have had strong impacts on species diversification by triggering evolutionary novelties, however, relatively little is known about the balance between gene loss and forces involved in the retention of duplicated genes originating from a WGD. We analyzed putative Salicoid duplicates in willows, originating from the Salicoid WGD, which took place more than 45 Mya. Contigs were constructed by de novo assembly of RNA-seq data derived from leaves and roots from two genotypes. Among the 48,508 contigs, 3,778 pairs were, based on fourfold synonymous third-codon transversion rates and syntenic positions, predicted to be Salicoid duplicates. Both copies were in most cases expressed in both tissues and 74% were significantly differentially expressed. Mean Ka/Ks was 0.23, suggesting that the Salicoid duplicates are evolving by purifying selection. Gene Ontology enrichment analyses showed that functions related to DNA- and nucleic acid binding were over-represented among the non-differentially expressed Salicoid duplicates, while functions related to biosynthesis and metabolism were over-represented among the differentially expressed Salicoid duplicates. We propose that the differentially expressed Salicoid duplicates are regulatory neo- and/or subfunctionalized, while the non-differentially expressed are dose sensitive, hence, functionally conserved. Multiple evolutionary processes, thus drive the retention of Salicoid duplicates in willows. PMID:26689951

  8. Sequence and gene expression evolution of paralogous genes in willows.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Srilakshmy L; Pucholt, Pascal; Berlin, Sofia

    2015-12-22

    Whole genome duplications (WGD) have had strong impacts on species diversification by triggering evolutionary novelties, however, relatively little is known about the balance between gene loss and forces involved in the retention of duplicated genes originating from a WGD. We analyzed putative Salicoid duplicates in willows, originating from the Salicoid WGD, which took place more than 45 Mya. Contigs were constructed by de novo assembly of RNA-seq data derived from leaves and roots from two genotypes. Among the 48,508 contigs, 3,778 pairs were, based on fourfold synonymous third-codon transversion rates and syntenic positions, predicted to be Salicoid duplicates. Both copies were in most cases expressed in both tissues and 74% were significantly differentially expressed. Mean Ka/Ks was 0.23, suggesting that the Salicoid duplicates are evolving by purifying selection. Gene Ontology enrichment analyses showed that functions related to DNA- and nucleic acid binding were over-represented among the non-differentially expressed Salicoid duplicates, while functions related to biosynthesis and metabolism were over-represented among the differentially expressed Salicoid duplicates. We propose that the differentially expressed Salicoid duplicates are regulatory neo- and/or subfunctionalized, while the non-differentially expressed are dose sensitive, hence, functionally conserved. Multiple evolutionary processes, thus drive the retention of Salicoid duplicates in willows.

  9. Neighboring Genes Show Correlated Evolution in Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarian, Avazeh T; Hurst, Laurence D

    2015-07-01

    When considering the evolution of a gene's expression profile, we commonly assume that this is unaffected by its genomic neighborhood. This is, however, in contrast to what we know about the lack of autonomy between neighboring genes in gene expression profiles in extant taxa. Indeed, in all eukaryotic genomes genes of similar expression-profile tend to cluster, reflecting chromatin level dynamics. Does it follow that if a gene increases expression in a particular lineage then the genomic neighbors will also increase in their expression or is gene expression evolution autonomous? To address this here we consider evolution of human gene expression since the human-chimp common ancestor, allowing for both variation in estimation of current expression level and error in Bayesian estimation of the ancestral state. We find that in all tissues and both sexes, the change in gene expression of a focal gene on average predicts the change in gene expression of neighbors. The effect is highly pronounced in the immediate vicinity (<100 kb) but extends much further. Sex-specific expression change is also genomically clustered. As genes increasing their expression in humans tend to avoid nuclear lamina domains and be enriched for the gene activator 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, we conclude that, most probably owing to chromatin level control of gene expression, a change in gene expression of one gene likely affects the expression evolution of neighbors, what we term expression piggybacking, an analog of hitchhiking.

  10. Multiple Genes in a Single Host: Cost-Effective Production of Bacterial Laccase (cotA), Pectate Lyase (pel), and Endoxylanase (xyl) by Simultaneous Expression and Cloning in Single Vector in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sandeep; Jain, Kavish Kumar; Bhardwaj, Kailash N.; Chakraborty, Subhojit; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to reduce the enzyme production cost for exploiting lignocellulosic materials by expression of multiple genes in a single host. Genes for bacterial laccase (CotA), pectate lyase (Pel) and endoxylanase (Xyl), which hold significance in lignocellulose degradation, were cloned in pETDuet-1 vector containing two independent cloning sites (MCS). CotA and xyl genes were cloned in MCS1 and MCS 2, respectively. Pel gene was cloned by inserting complete cassette (T7 promoter, ribosome binding site, pel gene, His tag and complete gene ORF) preceded by cotA open reading frame in the MCS1. IPTG induction of CPXpDuet-1 construct in E. coli BL21(DE3) resulted in expression of all three heterologous proteins of ~65 kDa (CotA), ~45 kDa (Pel) and ~25 kDa (Xyl), confirmed by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. Significant portions of the enzymes were also found in culture supernatant (~16, ~720 and ~370 IU/ml activities of CotA, Pel and Xyl, respectively). Culture media optimization resulted in 2, 3 and 7 fold increased secretion of recombinant CotA, Pel and Xyl, respectively. Bioreactor level optimization of the recombinant cocktail expression resulted in production of 19 g/L dry cell biomass at OD600nm 74 from 1 L induced culture after 15 h of cultivation, from which 9, 627 and 1090 IU/ml secretory enzyme activities of CotA, Xyl and Pel were obtained, respectively. The cocktail was also found to increase the saccharification of orange peel in comparison to the xylanase alone. Thus, simultaneous expression as well as extra cellular secretion of these enzymes as cocktail can reduce the enzyme production cost which increases their applicability specially for exploiting lignocellulosic materials for their conversion to value added products like alcohol and animal feed. PMID:26642207

  11. Correspondence between resting state activity and brain gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guang-Zhong; Belgard, T. Grant; Mao, Deng; Chen, Leslie; Berto, Stefano; Preuss, Todd M.; Lu, Hanzhang; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Konopka, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The relationship between functional brain activity and gene expression has not been fully explored in the human brain. Here, we identify significant correlations between gene expression in the brain and functional activity by comparing fractional Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuations (fALFF) from two independent human fMRI resting state datasets to regional cortical gene expression from a newly generated RNA-seq dataset and two additional gene expression datasets to obtain robust and reproducible correlations. We find significantly more genes correlated with fALFF than expected by chance, and identify specific genes correlated with the imaging signals in multiple expression datasets in the default mode network. Together, these data support a population-level relationship between regional steady state brain gene expression and resting state brain activity. PMID:26590343

  12. Differential gene expression in anatomical compartments of the human eye

    PubMed Central

    Diehn, Jennifer J; Diehn, Maximilian; Marmor, Michael F; Brown, Patrick O

    2005-01-01

    Background The human eye is composed of multiple compartments, diverse in form, function, and embryologic origin, that work in concert to provide us with our sense of sight. We set out to systematically characterize the global gene expression patterns that specify the distinctive characteristics of the various eye compartments. Results We used DNA microarrays representing approximately 30,000 human genes to analyze gene expression in the cornea, lens, iris, ciliary body, retina, and optic nerve. The distinctive patterns of expression in each compartment could be interpreted in relation to the physiology and cellular composition of each tissue. Notably, the sets of genes selectively expressed in the retina and in the lens were particularly large and diverse. Genes with roles in immune defense, particularly complement components, were expressed at especially high levels in the anterior segment tissues. We also found consistent differences between the gene expression patterns of the macula and peripheral retina, paralleling the differences in cell layer densities between these regions. Based on the hypothesis that genes responsible for diseases that affect a particular eye compartment are likely to be selectively expressed in that compartment, we compared our gene expression signatures with genetic mapping studies to identify candidate genes for diseases affecting the cornea, lens, and retina. Conclusion Through genome-scale gene expression profiling, we were able to discover distinct gene expression 'signatures' for each eye compartment and identified candidate disease genes that can serve as a reference database for investigating the physiology and pathophysiology of the eye. PMID:16168081

  13. Reduced expression of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF34, an essential gene, enhances heterologous gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Salem, Tamer Z.; Zhang, Fengrui; Thiem, Suzanne M.

    2013-01-20

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF34 is part of a transcriptional unit that includes ORF32, encoding a viral fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and ORF33. We identified ORF34 as a candidate for deletion to improve protein expression in the baculovirus expression system based on enhanced reporter gene expression in an RNAi screen of virus genes. However, ORF34 was shown to be an essential gene. To explore ORF34 function, deletion (KO34) and rescue bacmids were constructed and characterized. Infection did not spread from primary KO34 transfected cells and supernatants from KO34 transfected cells could not infect fresh Sf21 cells whereas the supernatant from the rescue bacmids transfection could recover the infection. In addition, budded viruses were not observed in KO34 transfected cells by electron microscopy, nor were viral proteins detected from the transfection supernatants by western blots. These demonstrate that ORF34 is an essential gene with a possible role in infectious virus production.

  14. Gene expression analysis of flax seed development.

    PubMed

    Venglat, Prakash; Xiang, Daoquan; Qiu, Shuqing; Stone, Sandra L; Tibiche, Chabane; Cram, Dustin; Alting-Mees, Michelle; Nowak, Jacek; Cloutier, Sylvie; Deyholos, Michael; Bekkaoui, Faouzi; Sharpe, Andrew; Wang, Edwin; Rowland, Gordon; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Datla, Raju

    2011-04-29

    Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is an important crop whose seed oil and stem fiber have multiple industrial applications. Flax seeds are also well-known for their nutritional attributes, viz., omega-3 fatty acids in the oil and lignans and mucilage from the seed coat. In spite of the importance of this crop, there are few molecular resources that can be utilized toward improving seed traits. Here, we describe flax embryo and seed development and generation of comprehensive genomic resources for the flax seed. We describe a large-scale generation and analysis of expressed sequences in various tissues. Collectively, the 13 libraries we have used provide a broad representation of genes active in developing embryos (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledon and mature stages) seed coats (globular and torpedo stages) and endosperm (pooled globular to torpedo stages) and genes expressed in flowers, etiolated seedlings, leaves, and stem tissue. A total of 261,272 expressed sequence tags (EST) (GenBank accessions LIBEST_026995 to LIBEST_027011) were generated. These EST libraries included transcription factor genes that are typically expressed at low levels, indicating that the depth is adequate for in silico expression analysis. Assembly of the ESTs resulted in 30,640 unigenes and 82% of these could be identified on the basis of homology to known and hypothetical genes from other plants. When compared with fully sequenced plant genomes, the flax unigenes resembled poplar and castor bean more than grape, sorghum, rice or Arabidopsis. Nearly one-fifth of these (5,152) had no homologs in sequences reported for any organism, suggesting that this category represents genes that are likely unique to flax. Digital analyses revealed gene expression dynamics for the biosynthesis of a number of important seed constituents during seed development. We have developed a foundational database of expressed sequences and collection of plasmid clones that comprise even low-expressed genes such as

  15. Gene expression analysis of flax seed development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is an important crop whose seed oil and stem fiber have multiple industrial applications. Flax seeds are also well-known for their nutritional attributes, viz., omega-3 fatty acids in the oil and lignans and mucilage from the seed coat. In spite of the importance of this crop, there are few molecular resources that can be utilized toward improving seed traits. Here, we describe flax embryo and seed development and generation of comprehensive genomic resources for the flax seed. Results We describe a large-scale generation and analysis of expressed sequences in various tissues. Collectively, the 13 libraries we have used provide a broad representation of genes active in developing embryos (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledon and mature stages) seed coats (globular and torpedo stages) and endosperm (pooled globular to torpedo stages) and genes expressed in flowers, etiolated seedlings, leaves, and stem tissue. A total of 261,272 expressed sequence tags (EST) (GenBank accessions LIBEST_026995 to LIBEST_027011) were generated. These EST libraries included transcription factor genes that are typically expressed at low levels, indicating that the depth is adequate for in silico expression analysis. Assembly of the ESTs resulted in 30,640 unigenes and 82% of these could be identified on the basis of homology to known and hypothetical genes from other plants. When compared with fully sequenced plant genomes, the flax unigenes resembled poplar and castor bean more than grape, sorghum, rice or Arabidopsis. Nearly one-fifth of these (5,152) had no homologs in sequences reported for any organism, suggesting that this category represents genes that are likely unique to flax. Digital analyses revealed gene expression dynamics for the biosynthesis of a number of important seed constituents during seed development. Conclusions We have developed a foundational database of expressed sequences and collection of plasmid clones that comprise

  16. Neighboring Genes Show Correlated Evolution in Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbarian, Avazeh T.; Hurst, Laurence D.

    2015-01-01

    When considering the evolution of a gene’s expression profile, we commonly assume that this is unaffected by its genomic neighborhood. This is, however, in contrast to what we know about the lack of autonomy between neighboring genes in gene expression profiles in extant taxa. Indeed, in all eukaryotic genomes genes of similar expression-profile tend to cluster, reflecting chromatin level dynamics. Does it follow that if a gene increases expression in a particular lineage then the genomic neighbors will also increase in their expression or is gene expression evolution autonomous? To address this here we consider evolution of human gene expression since the human-chimp common ancestor, allowing for both variation in estimation of current expression level and error in Bayesian estimation of the ancestral state. We find that in all tissues and both sexes, the change in gene expression of a focal gene on average predicts the change in gene expression of neighbors. The effect is highly pronounced in the immediate vicinity (<100 kb) but extends much further. Sex-specific expression change is also genomically clustered. As genes increasing their expression in humans tend to avoid nuclear lamina domains and be enriched for the gene activator 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, we conclude that, most probably owing to chromatin level control of gene expression, a change in gene expression of one gene likely affects the expression evolution of neighbors, what we term expression piggybacking, an analog of hitchhiking. PMID:25743543

  17. Identification of multiple small heat-shock protein genes in Plutella xylostella (L.) and their expression profiles in response to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi'en; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    We identify and characterize 14 small heat-shock protein (sHSP) genes from the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), a destructive pest. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that, except for sHSP18.8 and sHSP19.22, the other 12 DBM sHSPs belong to five known insect sHSP groups. Developmental expression analysis revealed that most sHSPs peaked in the pupal and adult stages. The transcripts of sHSPs display tissue specificity with two exhibiting constitutive expression in four tested tissues. Expression of sHSP18.8 in fourth instar larvae is not induced by the tested abiotic stressors, and unless sHSP21.8 is not sensitive to thermal stress, 12 sHSPs are significantly up-regulated. The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of all sHSPs are reduced under oxidative stress. Food deprivation leads to significant down-regulation of three sHSPs. The majority of sHSPs show expression variation to various heavy metals, whereas mRNA abundances of sHSP22.1 and sHSP 28.9 are reduced by four heavy metals. The responses of sHSPs to indoxacarb and cantharidin are varied. Beta-cypermethrin and chlorfenapyr exposure results in an increase of 13 sHSP transcripts and a reduction of 12 sHSP transcripts, respectively. These results show that different sHSPs might play distinct roles in the development and regulation of physiological activities, as well as in response to various abiotic stresses of DBM.

  18. Coordination of plastid and nuclear gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, John C; Sullivan, James A; Wang, Jun-Hui; Jerome, Cheryl A; MacLean, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    The coordinated expression of genes distributed between the nuclear and plastid genomes is essential for the assembly of functional chloroplasts. Although the nucleus has a pre-eminent role in controlling chloroplast biogenesis, there is considerable evidence that the expression of nuclear genes encoding photosynthesis-related proteins is regulated by signals from plastids. Perturbation of several plastid-located processes, by inhibitors or in mutants, leads to decreased transcription of a set of nuclear photosynthesis-related genes. Characterization of arabidopsis gun (genomes uncoupled) mutants, which express nuclear genes in the presence of norflurazon or lincomycin, has provided evidence for two separate signalling pathways, one involving tetrapyrrole biosynthesis intermediates and the other requiring plastid protein synthesis. In addition, perturbation of photosynthetic electron transfer produces at least two different redox signals, as part of the acclimation to altered light conditions. The recognition of multiple plastid signals requires a reconsideration of the mechanisms of regulation of transcription of nuclear genes encoding photosynthesis-related proteins. PMID:12594922

  19. The flow cytometry-defined light chain cytoplasmic immunoglobulin index and an associated 12-gene expression signature are independent prognostic factors in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Papanikolaou, X; Alapat, D; Rosenthal, A; Stein, C; Epstein, J; Owens, R; Yaccoby, S; Johnson, S; Bailey, C; Heuck, C; Tian, E; Joiner, A; van Rhee, F; Khan, R; Zangari, M; Jethava, Y; Waheed, S; Davies, F; Morgan, G; Barlogie, B

    2015-08-01

    As part of Total Therapy (TT) 3b, baseline marrow aspirates were subjected to two-color flow cytometry of nuclear DNA content and cytoplasmic immunoglobulin (DNA/CIG) as well as plasma cell gene expression profiling (GEP). DNA/CIG-derived parameters, GEP and standard clinical variables were examined for their effects on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Among DNA/CIG parameters, the percentage of the light chain-restricted (LCR) cells and their cytoplasmic immunoglobulin index (CIg) were linked to poor outcome. In the absence of GEP data, low CIg <2.8, albumin <3.5 g/dl and age ⩾65 years were significantly associated with inferior OS and PFS. When GEP information was included, low CIg survived the model along with GEP70-defined high risk and low albumin. Low CIg was linked to beta-2-microglobulin >5.5 mg/l, a percentage of LCR cells exceeding 50%, C-reactive protein ⩾8 mg/l and GEP-derived high centrosome index. Further analysis revealed an association of low CIg with 12 gene probes implicated in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and drug transportation from which a risk score was developed in TT3b that held prognostic significance also in TT3a, TT2 and HOVON trials, thus validating its general applicability. Low CIg is a powerful new prognostic variable and has identified potentially drug-able targets.

  20. The flow cytometry-defined light chain cytoplasmic immunoglobulin index and an associated 12-gene expression signature are independent prognostic factors in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Papanikolaou, X; Alapat, D; Rosenthal, A; Stein, C; Epstein, J; Owens, R; Yaccoby, S; Johnson, S; Bailey, C; Heuck, C; Tian, E; Joiner, A; van Rhee, F; Khan, R; Zangari, M; Jethava, Y; Waheed, S; Davies, F; Morgan, G; Barlogie, B

    2015-01-01

    As part of Total Therapy (TT) 3b, baseline marrow aspirates were subjected to two-color flow cytometry of nuclear DNA content and cytoplasmic immunoglobulin (DNA/CIG) as well as plasma cell gene expression profiling (GEP). DNA/CIG-derived parameters, GEP and standard clinical variables were examined for their effects on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Among DNA/CIG parameters, the percentage of the light chain-restricted (LCR) cells and their cytoplasmic immunoglobulin index (CIg) were linked to poor outcome. In the absence of GEP data, low CIg <2.8, albumin <3.5 g/dl and age ⩾65 years were significantly associated with inferior OS and PFS. When GEP information was included, low CIg survived the model along with GEP70-defined high risk and low albumin. Low CIg was linked to beta-2-microglobulin >5.5 mg/l, a percentage of LCR cells exceeding 50%, C-reactive protein ⩾8 mg/l and GEP-derived high centrosome index. Further analysis revealed an association of low CIg with 12 gene probes implicated in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and drug transportation from which a risk score was developed in TT3b that held prognostic significance also in TT3a, TT2 and HOVON trials, thus validating its general applicability. Low CIg is a powerful new prognostic variable and has identified potentially drug-able targets. PMID:25753926

  1. Regulation of ABO gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kominato, Yoshihiko; Hata, Yukiko; Matsui, Kazuhiro; Takizawa, Hisao

    2005-07-01

    The ABO blood group system is important in blood transfusions and in identifying individuals during criminal investigations. Two carbohydrate antigens, the A and B antigens, and their antibodies constitute this system. Although biochemical and molecular genetic studies have demonstrated the molecular basis of the histo-blood group ABO system, some aspects remain to be elucidated. To explain the molecular basis of how the ABO genes are controlled in cell type-specific expression, during normal cell differentiation, and in cancer cells with invasive and metastatic potential that lack A/B antigens, it is essential to understand the regulatory mechanism of ABO gene transcription. We review the transcriptional regulation of the ABO gene, including positive and negative elements in the upstream region of the gene, and draw some inferences that help to explain the phenomena described above.

  2. Molecular Characterization of the α-Subunit of Na+/K+ ATPase from the Euryhaline Barnacle Balanus improvisus Reveals Multiple Genes and Differential Expression of Alternative Splice Variants

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Ulrika; Alm Rosenblad, Magnus; Wrange, Anna-Lisa; Sundell, Kristina S.; Jonsson, Per R.; André, Carl; Havenhand, Jonathan; Blomberg, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The euryhaline bay barnacle Balanus improvisus has one of the broadest salinity tolerances of any barnacle species. It is able to complete its life cycle in salinities close to freshwater (3 PSU) up to fully marine conditions (35 PSU) and is regarded as one of few truly brackish-water species. Na+/K+ ATPase (NAK) has been shown to be important for osmoregulation when marine organisms are challenged by changing salinities, and we therefore cloned and examined the expression of different NAKs from B. improvisus. We found two main gene variants, NAK1 and NAK2, which were approximately 70% identical at the protein level. The NAK1 mRNA existed in a long and short variant with the encoded proteins differing only by 27 N-terminal amino acids. This N-terminal stretch was coded for by a separate exon, and the two variants of NAK1 mRNAs appeared to be created by alternative splicing. We furthermore showed that the two NAK1 isoforms were differentially expressed in different life stages and in various tissues of adult barnacle, i.e the long isoform was predominant in cyprids and in adult cirri. In barnacle cyprid larvae that were exposed to a combination of different salinities and pCO2 levels, the expression of the long NAK1 mRNA increased relative to the short in low salinities. We suggest that the alternatively spliced long variant of the Nak1 protein might be of importance for osmoregulation in B. improvisus in low salinity conditions. PMID:24130836

  3. Gene expression profile of pulpitis

    PubMed Central

    Galicia, Johnah C.; Henson, Brett R.; Parker, Joel S.; Khan, Asma A.

    2016-01-01

    The cost, prevalence and pain associated with endodontic disease necessitate an understanding of the fundamental molecular aspects of its pathogenesis. This study was aimed to identify the genetic contributors to pulpal pain and inflammation. Inflamed pulps were collected from patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis (n=20). Normal pulps from teeth extracted for various reasons served as controls (n=20). Pain level was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Genome-wide microarray analysis was performed using Affymetrix GeneTitan Multichannel Instrument. The difference in gene expression levels were determined by the Significance Analysis of Microarray program using a false discovery rate (q-value) of 5%. Genes involved in immune response, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and signaling, integrin cell surface interactions, and others were expressed at relatively higher levels in the in the pulpitis group. Moreover, several genes known to modulate pain and inflammation showed differential expression in asymptomatic and mild pain patients (≥30mm on VAS) compared to those with moderate to severe pain. This exploratory study provides a molecular basis for the clinical diagnosis of pulpitis. With an enhanced understanding of pulpal inflammation, future studies on treatment and management of pulpitis and on pain associated with it can have a biological reference to bridge treatment strategies with pulpal biology. PMID:27052691

  4. Gene expression profile of pulpitis.

    PubMed

    Galicia, J C; Henson, B R; Parker, J S; Khan, A A

    2016-06-01

    The cost, prevalence and pain associated with endodontic disease necessitate an understanding of the fundamental molecular aspects of its pathogenesis. This study was aimed to identify the genetic contributors to pulpal pain and inflammation. Inflamed pulps were collected from patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis (n=20). Normal pulps from teeth extracted for various reasons served as controls (n=20). Pain level was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Genome-wide microarray analysis was performed using Affymetrix GeneTitan Multichannel Instrument. The difference in gene expression levels were determined by the significance analysis of microarray program using a false discovery rate (q-value) of 5%. Genes involved in immune response, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and signaling, integrin cell surface interactions, and others were expressed at relatively higher levels in the pulpitis group. Moreover, several genes known to modulate pain and inflammation showed differential expression in asymptomatic and mild pain patients (⩾30 mm on VAS) compared with those with moderate to severe pain. This exploratory study provides a molecular basis for the clinical diagnosis of pulpitis. With an enhanced understanding of pulpal inflammation, future studies on treatment and management of pulpitis and on pain associated with it can have a biological reference to bridge treatment strategies with pulpal biology.

  5. Sequence determinants of prokaryotic gene expression level under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Heng; Yang, Yi; Hu, Xiao-Pan; He, Yi-Ming; Ma, Bin-Guang

    2014-11-01

    Prokaryotic gene expression is environment-dependent and temperature plays an important role in shaping the gene expression profile. Revealing the regulation mechanisms of gene expression pertaining to temperature has attracted tremendous efforts in recent years particularly owning to the yielding of transcriptome and proteome data by high-throughput techniques. However, most of the previous works concentrated on the characterization of the gene expression profile of individual organism and little effort has been made to disclose the commonality among organisms, especially for the gene sequence features. In this report, we collected the transcriptome and proteome data measured under heat stress condition from recently published literature and studied the sequence determinants for the expression level of heat-responsive genes on multiple layers. Our results showed that there indeed exist commonness and consistent patterns of the sequence features among organisms for the differentially expressed genes under heat stress condition. Some features are attributed to the requirement of thermostability while some are dominated by gene function. The revealed sequence determinants of bacterial gene expression level under heat stress complement the knowledge about the regulation factors of prokaryotic gene expression responding to the change of environmental conditions. Furthermore, comparisons to thermophilic adaption have been performed to reveal the similarity and dissimilarity of the sequence determinants for the response to heat stress and for the adaption to high habitat temperature, which elucidates the complex landscape of gene expression related to the same physical factor of temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. High-level expression of improved thermo-stable alkaline xylanase variant in Pichia Pastoris through codon optimization, multiple gene insertion and high-density fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yihong; Fang, Cheng; Wang, Qinhong; Zhou, Yuling; Zhang, Guimin; Ma, Yanhe

    2016-11-29

    In paper industry, xylanases are used to increase the pulp properties in bleaching process as its eco-friendly nature. The xylanases activity is hindered by high temperature and alkaline conditions with high enzyme production cost in the paper industry. Here, XynHB, an alkaline stable xylanase from Bacillus pumilus HBP8 was mutated at N188A to XynHBN188A. Expressed mutant in E. coli showed 1.5-fold higher xylanase activity than XynHB at 60 °C. The mutant expressed in Pichia pastoris was glycosylated, remained stable for 30 min at 60 °C. XynHBN188A optimized based on codon usage bias for P. pastoris (xynHBN188As) showed an increase of 39.5% enzyme activity. The strain Y16 forming the largest hydrolysis halo in the xylan plate was used in shake flask experiments produced an enzyme activity of 6,403 U/ml. The Y16 strain had 9 copies of the recombinant xynHBN188As gene in the genome revealed by qPCR. The enzymatic activity increased to 48,241 U/ml in a 5 L fermentor. Supplement of 15 U/g xylanase enhanced the brightness of paper products by 2% in bleaching experiment, and thereby improved the tensile strength and burst factor by 13% and 6.5%, respectively. XynHBN188As has a great potential in paper industries.

  7. High-level expression of improved thermo-stable alkaline xylanase variant in Pichia Pastoris through codon optimization, multiple gene insertion and high-density fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yihong; Fang, Cheng; Wang, Qinhong; Zhou, Yuling; Zhang, Guimin; Ma, Yanhe

    2016-01-01

    In paper industry, xylanases are used to increase the pulp properties in bleaching process as its eco-friendly nature. The xylanases activity is hindered by high temperature and alkaline conditions with high enzyme production cost in the paper industry. Here, XynHB, an alkaline stable xylanase from Bacillus pumilus HBP8 was mutated at N188A to XynHBN188A. Expressed mutant in E. coli showed 1.5-fold higher xylanase activity than XynHB at 60 °C. The mutant expressed in Pichia pastoris was glycosylated, remained stable for 30 min at 60 °C. XynHBN188A optimized based on codon usage bias for P. pastoris (xynHBN188As) showed an increase of 39.5% enzyme activity. The strain Y16 forming the largest hydrolysis halo in the xylan plate was used in shake flask experiments produced an enzyme activity of 6,403 U/ml. The Y16 strain had 9 copies of the recombinant xynHBN188As gene in the genome revealed by qPCR. The enzymatic activity increased to 48,241 U/ml in a 5 L fermentor. Supplement of 15 U/g xylanase enhanced the brightness of paper products by 2% in bleaching experiment, and thereby improved the tensile strength and burst factor by 13% and 6.5%, respectively. XynHBN188As has a great potential in paper industries. PMID:27897254

  8. Gene Expression Studies in Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xlao-Guang; Mathur, Geetika; James, Anthony A.

    2009-01-01

    Research on gene expression in mosquitoes is motivated by both basic and applied interests. Studies of genes involved in hematophagy, reproduction, olfaction, and immune responses reveal an exquisite confluence of biological adaptations that result in these highly-successful life forms. The requirement of female mosquitoes for a bloodmeal for propagation has been exploited by a wide diversity of viral, protozoan and metazoan pathogens as part of their life cycles. Identifying genes involved in host-seeking, blood feeding and digestion, reproduction, insecticide resistance and susceptibility/refractoriness to pathogen development is expected to provide the bases for the development of novel methods to control mosquito-borne diseases. Advances in mosquito transgenesis technologies, the availability of whole genome sequence information, mass sequencing and analyses of transcriptomes and RNAi techniques will assist development of these tools as well as deepen the understanding of the underlying genetic components for biological phenomena characteristic of these insect species. PMID:19161831

  9. Does FACS perturb gene expression?

    PubMed

    Richardson, Graham M; Lannigan, Joanne; Macara, Ian G

    2015-02-01

    Fluorescence activated cell sorting is the technique most commonly used to separate primary mammary epithelial sub-populations. Many studies incorporate this technique before analyzing gene expression within specific cellular lineages. However, to our knowledge, no one has examined the effects of fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) separation on short-term transcriptional profiles. In this study, we isolated a heterogeneous mixture of cells from the mouse mammary gland. To determine the effects of the isolation and separation process on gene expression, we harvested RNA from the cells before enzymatic digestion, following enzymatic digestion, and following a mock FACS sort where the entire cohort of cells was retained. A strict protocol was followed to minimize disruption to the cells, and to ensure that no subpopulations were enriched or lost. Microarray analysis demonstrated that FACS causes minimal disruptions to gene expression patterns, but prior steps in the mammary cell isolation process are followed by upregulation of 18 miRNA's and rapid decreases in their predicted target transcripts. © 2015 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2015 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  10. The Gene Expression Omnibus Database.

    PubMed

    Clough, Emily; Barrett, Tanya

    2016-01-01

    The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database is an international public repository that archives and freely distributes high-throughput gene expression and other functional genomics data sets. Created in 2000 as a worldwide resource for gene expression studies, GEO has evolved with rapidly changing technologies and now accepts high-throughput data for many other data applications, including those that examine genome methylation, chromatin structure, and genome-protein interactions. GEO supports community-derived reporting standards that specify provision of several critical study elements including raw data, processed data, and descriptive metadata. The database not only provides access to data for tens of thousands of studies, but also offers various Web-based tools and strategies that enable users to locate data relevant to their specific interests, as well as to visualize and analyze the data. This chapter includes detailed descriptions of methods to query and download GEO data and use the analysis and visualization tools. The GEO homepage is at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/.

  11. Gene expression throughout a vertebrate's embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Describing the patterns of gene expression during embryonic development has broadened our understanding of the processes and patterns that define morphogenesis. Yet gene expression patterns have not been described throughout vertebrate embryogenesis. This study presents statistical analyses of gene expression during all 40 developmental stages in the teleost Fundulus heteroclitus using four biological replicates per stage. Results Patterns of gene expression for 7,000 genes appear to be important as they recapitulate developmental timing. Among the 45% of genes with significant expression differences between pairs of temporally adjacent stages, significant differences in gene expression vary from as few as five to more than 660. Five adjacent stages have disproportionately more significant changes in gene expression (> 200 genes) relative to other stages: four to eight and eight to sixteen cell stages, onset of circulation, pre and post-hatch, and during complete yolk absorption. The fewest differences among adjacent stages occur during gastrulation. Yet, at stage 16, (pre-mid-gastrulation) the largest number of genes has peak expression. This stage has an over representation of genes in oxidative respiration and protein expression (ribosomes, translational genes and proteases). Unexpectedly, among all ribosomal genes, both strong positive and negative correlations occur. Similar correlated patterns of expression occur among all significant genes. Conclusions These data provide statistical support for the temporal dynamics of developmental gene expression during all stages of vertebrate development. PMID:21356103

  12. Anisomycin uses multiple mechanisms to stimulate mitogen-activated protein kinases and gene expression and to inhibit neuronal differentiation in PC12 phaeochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Törocsik, B; Szeberényi, J

    2000-02-01

    Treatment of PC12 cells with nerve growth factor (NGF) stimulates extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), as well as stress-activated c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) and p38 kinase, and induces neuronal differentiation. While the pivotal role of ERKs in NGF-induced morphological differentiation is well established, the contribution of JNK- and p38-pathways is less clear. The role of the JNK- and p38-pathway in PC12 cells was analysed by using anisomycin, a protein synthesis inhibitor that activates JNKs and p38. Non-toxic concentrations of anisomycin were found to stimulate these enzyme activities as well as the expression of the early response genes c-jun, c-fos and zif268, and to inhibit NGF-induced neurite formation. These effects of anisomycin appear to be mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn act through both TrkA/Ras-dependent and -independent signalling pathways. In addition, cross-talk between the p38- and ERK-pathways appears to play a role in the action of anisomycin.

  13. Integrated analysis of gene expression by association rules discovery

    PubMed Central

    Carmona-Saez, Pedro; Chagoyen, Monica; Rodriguez, Andres; Trelles, Oswaldo; Carazo, Jose M; Pascual-Montano, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Background Microarray technology is generating huge amounts of data about the expression level of thousands of genes, or even whole genomes, across different experimental conditions. To extract biological knowledge, and to fully understand such datasets, it is essential to include external biological information about genes and gene products to the analysis of expression data. However, most of the current approaches to analyze microarray datasets are mainly focused on the analysis of experimental data, and external biological information is incorporated as a posterior process. Results In this study we present a method for the integrative analysis of microarray data based on the Association Rules Discovery data mining technique. The approach integrates gene annotations and expression data to discover intrinsic associations among both data sources based on co-occurrence patterns. We applied the proposed methodology to the analysis of gene expression datasets in which genes were annotated with metabolic pathways, transcriptional regulators and Gene Ontology categories. Automatically extracted associations revealed significant relationships among these gene attributes and expression patterns, where many of them are clearly supported by recently reported work. Conclusion The integration of external biological information and gene expression data can provide insights about the biological processes associated to gene expression programs. In this paper we show that the proposed methodology is able to integrate multiple gene annotations and expression data in the same analytic framework and extract meaningful associations among heterogeneous sources of data. An implementation of the method is included in the Engene software package. PMID:16464256

  14. Classification of genes based on gene expression analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Angelova, M. Myers, C. Faith, J.

    2008-05-15

    Systems biology and bioinformatics are now major fields for productive research. DNA microarrays and other array technologies and genome sequencing have advanced to the point that it is now possible to monitor gene expression on a genomic scale. Gene expression analysis is discussed and some important clustering techniques are considered. The patterns identified in the data suggest similarities in the gene behavior, which provides useful information for the gene functionalities. We discuss measures for investigating the homogeneity of gene expression data in order to optimize the clustering process. We contribute to the knowledge of functional roles and regulation of E. coli genes by proposing a classification of these genes based on consistently correlated genes in expression data and similarities of gene expression patterns. A new visualization tool for targeted projection pursuit and dimensionality reduction of gene expression data is demonstrated.

  15. Gene expression profiling of mouse embryos with microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Sharov, Alexei A.; Piao, Yulan; Ko, Minoru S. H.

    2011-01-01

    Global expression profiling by DNA microarrays provides a snapshot of cell and tissue status and becomes an essential tool in biological and medical sciences. Typical questions that can be addressed by microarray analysis in developmental biology include: (1) to find a set of genes expressed in a specific cell type; (2) to identify genes expressed commonly in multiple cell types; (3) to follow the time-course changes of gene expression patterns; (4) to demonstrate cell’s identity by showing similarities or differences among two or multiple cell types; (5) to find regulatory pathways and/or networks affected by gene manipulations, such as overexpression or repression of gene expression; (6) to find downstream target genes of transcription factors; (7) to find downstream target genes of cell signaling; (8) to examine the effects of environmental manipulation of cells on gene expression patterns; and (9) to find the effects of genetic manipulation in embryos and adults. Here we describe strategies for executing these experiments and monitoring changes of cell state with gene expression microarrays in application to mouse embryology. Both statistical assessment and interpretation of data are discussed. We also present a protocol for performing microarray analysis on a small amount of embryonic materials. PMID:20699157

  16. Evaluating a set of reference genes for expression normalization in multiple tissues and skeletal muscle at different development stages in pigs using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Tang, Zhonglin; Wang, Ning; Long, Liangqi; Li, Kui

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression analysis requires the use of reference genes consistently expressed under various conditions. In many cases, however, the commonly used reference genes are not uniformly expressed independently of tissues or environmental conditions. To provide a set of reliable reference genes in pigs, we used quantitative polymerase chain reaction to examine expression of six common reference genes (GAPDH, ACTB, H3F3A, HPRT1, RPL32, and RPS18) in adult tissues and prenatal skeletal muscles at 33, 65, and 90 days postcopulation from Tongcheng (obese-type) and Landrace (lean-type) pigs. The expression stability of these reference genes was evaluated by NormFinder, BestKeeper, and geNorm methods. Our data suggest that the reference genes were expressed variably in different tissues, developmental stages and breeds. RPS18, PRL32, and H3F3A could be used as internal controls to normalize gene expression in pig tissues and developmental skeletal muscle. The combination of internal control genes was necessary for accurate expression normalization. During skeletal muscle development, H3F3A and RPS18 would be the most appropriate combination to normalize gene expression in Tongcheng pigs, whereas the combination of PRL32 and RPS18 would be more suitable in Landrace pigs. In different tissues, the expression of PRL32 and RPS18 was the most consistent, and the combination of three genes (RPL32, RPS18, and H3F3A) is the most suitable for accurate normalization.

  17. Functional analysis of sirtuin genes in multiple Plasmodium falciparum strains.

    PubMed

    Merrick, Catherine J; Jiang, Rays H Y; Skillman, Kristen M; Samarakoon, Upeka; Moore, Rachel M; Dzikowski, Ron; Ferdig, Michael T; Duraisingh, Manoj T

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of severe human malaria, employs antigenic variation to avoid host immunity. Antigenic variation is achieved by transcriptional switching amongst polymorphic var genes, enforced by epigenetic modification of chromatin. The histone-modifying 'sirtuin' enzymes PfSir2a and PfSir2b have been implicated in this process. Disparate patterns of var expression have been reported in patient isolates as well as in cultured strains. We examined var expression in three commonly used laboratory strains (3D7, NF54 and FCR-3) in parallel. NF54 parasites express significantly lower levels of var genes compared to 3D7, despite the fact that 3D7 was originally a clone of the NF54 strain. To investigate whether this was linked to the expression of sirtuins, genetic disruption of both sirtuins was attempted in all three strains. No dramatic changes in var gene expression occurred in NF54 or FCR-3 following PfSir2b disruption, contrasting with previous observations in 3D7. In 3D7, complementation of the PfSir2a genetic disruption resulted in a significant decrease in previously-elevated var gene expression levels, but with the continued expression of multiple var genes. Finally, rearranged chromosomes were observed in the 3D7 PfSir2a knockout line. Our results focus on the potential for parasite genetic background to contribute to sirtuin function in regulating virulence gene expression and suggest a potential role for sirtuins in maintaining genome integrity.

  18. Functional Analysis of Sirtuin Genes in Multiple Plasmodium falciparum Strains

    PubMed Central

    Merrick, Catherine J.; Jiang, Rays H. Y.; Skillman, Kristen M.; Samarakoon, Upeka; Moore, Rachel M.; Dzikowski, Ron; Ferdig, Michael T.; Duraisingh, Manoj T.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of severe human malaria, employs antigenic variation to avoid host immunity. Antigenic variation is achieved by transcriptional switching amongst polymorphic var genes, enforced by epigenetic modification of chromatin. The histone-modifying ‘sirtuin’ enzymes PfSir2a and PfSir2b have been implicated in this process. Disparate patterns of var expression have been reported in patient isolates as well as in cultured strains. We examined var expression in three commonly used laboratory strains (3D7, NF54 and FCR-3) in parallel. NF54 parasites express significantly lower levels of var genes compared to 3D7, despite the fact that 3D7 was originally a clone of the NF54 strain. To investigate whether this was linked to the expression of sirtuins, genetic disruption of both sirtuins was attempted in all three strains. No dramatic changes in var gene expression occurred in NF54 or FCR-3 following PfSir2b disruption, contrasting with previous observations in 3D7. In 3D7, complementation of the PfSir2a genetic disruption resulted in a significant decrease in previously-elevated var gene expression levels, but with the continued expression of multiple var genes. Finally, rearranged chromosomes were observed in the 3D7 PfSir2a knockout line. Our results focus on the potential for parasite genetic background to contribute to sirtuin function in regulating virulence gene expression and suggest a potential role for sirtuins in maintaining genome integrity. PMID:25780929

  19. Structure, expression and functions of MTA genes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Wang, Rui-An

    2016-05-15

    Metastatic associated proteins (MTA) are integrators of upstream regulatory signals with the ability to act as master coregulators for modifying gene transcriptional activity. The MTA family includes three genes and multiple alternatively spliced variants. The MTA proteins neither have their own enzymatic activity nor have been shown to directly interact with DNA. However, MTA proteins interact with a variety of chromatin remodeling factors and complexes with enzymatic activities for modulating the plasticity of nucleosomes, leading to the repression or derepression of target genes or other extra-nuclear and nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase (NuRD)-complex independent activities. The functions of MTA family members are driven by the steady state levels and subcellular localization of MTA proteins, the dynamic nature of modifying signals and enzymes, the structural features and post-translational modification of protein domains, interactions with binding proteins, and the nature of the engaged and resulting features of nucleosomes in the proximity of target genes. In general, MTA1 and MTA2 are the most upregulated genes in human cancer and correlate well with aggressive phenotypes, therapeutic resistance, poor prognosis and ultimately, unfavorable survival of cancer patients. Here we will discuss the structure, expression and functions of the MTA family of genes in the context of cancer cells.

  20. Noise in eukaryotic gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, William J.; KÆrn, Mads; Cantor, Charles R.; Collins, J. J.

    2003-04-01

    Transcription in eukaryotic cells has been described as quantal, with pulses of messenger RNA produced in a probabilistic manner. This description reflects the inherently stochastic nature of gene expression, known to be a major factor in the heterogeneous response of individual cells within a clonal population to an inducing stimulus. Here we show in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that stochasticity (noise) arising from transcription contributes significantly to the level of heterogeneity within a eukaryotic clonal population, in contrast to observations in prokaryotes, and that such noise can be modulated at the translational level. We use a stochastic model of transcription initiation specific to eukaryotes to show that pulsatile mRNA production, through reinitiation, is crucial for the dependence of noise on transcriptional efficiency, highlighting a key difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic sources of noise. Furthermore, we explore the propagation of noise in a gene cascade network and demonstrate experimentally that increased noise in the transcription of a regulatory protein leads to increased cell-cell variability in the target gene output, resulting in prolonged bistable expression states. This result has implications for the role of noise in phenotypic variation and cellular differentiation.

  1. Global Gene-expression Analysis of the Response of Salmonella Enteritidis to Egg White Exposure Reveals Multiple Egg White-imposed Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Florence; Bonnassie, Sylvie; Alabdeh, Mariah; Cochet, Marie-Françoise; Nau, Françoise; Guérin-Dubiard, Catherine; Gautier, Michel; Andrews, Simon C.; Jan, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Chicken egg white protects the embryo from bacterial invaders by presenting an assortment of antagonistic activities that combine together to both kill and inhibit growth. The key features of the egg white anti-bacterial system are iron restriction, high pH, antibacterial peptides and proteins, and viscosity. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is the major pathogen responsible for egg-borne infection in humans, which is partly explained by its exceptional capacity for survival under the harsh conditions encountered within egg white. However, at temperatures up to 42°C, egg white exerts a much stronger bactericidal effect on S. Enteritidis than at lower temperatures, although the mechanism of egg white-induced killing is only partly understood. Here, for the first time, the impact of exposure of S. Enteritidis to egg white under bactericidal conditions (45°C) is explored by global-expression analysis. A large-scale (18.7% of genome) shift in transcription is revealed suggesting major changes in specific aspects of S. Enteritidis physiology: induction of egg white related stress-responses (envelope damage, exposure to heat and alkalinity, and translation shutdown); shift in energy metabolism from respiration to fermentation; and enhanced micronutrient provision (due to iron and biotin restriction). Little evidence of DNA damage or redox stress was obtained. Instead, data are consistent with envelope damage resulting in cell death by lysis. A surprise was the high degree of induction of hexonate/hexuronate utilization genes, despite no evidence indicating the presence of these substrates in egg white. PMID:28553268

  2. Harnessing gene expression networks to prioritize candidate epileptic encephalopathy genes.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Karen L; Lukic, Vesna; Thorne, Natalie P; Berkovic, Samuel F; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Bahlo, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    We apply a novel gene expression network analysis to a cohort of 182 recently reported candidate Epileptic Encephalopathy genes to identify those most likely to be true Epileptic Encephalopathy genes. These candidate genes were identified as having single variants of likely pathogenic significance discovered in a large-scale massively parallel sequencing study. Candidate Epileptic Encephalopathy genes were prioritized according to their co-expression with 29 known Epileptic Encephalopathy genes. We utilized developing brain and adult brain gene expression data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas (AHBA) and compared this to data from Celsius: a large, heterogeneous gene expression data warehouse. We show replicable prioritization results using these three independent gene expression resources, two of which are brain-specific, with small sample size, and the third derived from a heterogeneous collection of tissues with large sample size. Of the nineteen genes that we predicted with the highest likelihood to be true Epileptic Encephalopathy genes, two (GNAO1 and GRIN2B) have recently been independently reported and confirmed. We compare our results to those produced by an established in silico prioritization approach called Endeavour, and finally present gene expression networks for the known and candidate Epileptic Encephalopathy genes. This highlights sub-networks of gene expression, particularly in the network derived from the adult AHBA gene expression dataset. These networks give clues to the likely biological interactions between Epileptic Encephalopathy genes, potentially highlighting underlying mechanisms and avenues for therapeutic targets.

  3. Harnessing Gene Expression Networks to Prioritize Candidate Epileptic Encephalopathy Genes

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Karen L.; Lukic, Vesna; Thorne, Natalie P.; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Bahlo, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    We apply a novel gene expression network analysis to a cohort of 182 recently reported candidate Epileptic Encephalopathy genes to identify those most likely to be true Epileptic Encephalopathy genes. These candidate genes were identified as having single variants of likely pathogenic significance discovered in a large-scale massively parallel sequencing study. Candidate Epileptic Encephalopathy genes were prioritized according to their co-expression with 29 known Epileptic Encephalopathy genes. We utilized developing brain and adult brain gene expression data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas (AHBA) and compared this to data from Celsius: a large, heterogeneous gene expression data warehouse. We show replicable prioritization results using these three independent gene expression resources, two of which are brain-specific, with small sample size, and the third derived from a heterogeneous collection of tissues with large sample size. Of the nineteen genes that we predicted with the highest likelihood to be true Epileptic Encephalopathy genes, two (GNAO1 and GRIN2B) have recently been independently reported and confirmed. We compare our results to those produced by an established in silico prioritization approach called Endeavour, and finally present gene expression networks for the known and candidate Epileptic Encephalopathy genes. This highlights sub-networks of gene expression, particularly in the network derived from the adult AHBA gene expression dataset. These networks give clues to the likely biological interactions between Epileptic Encephalopathy genes, potentially highlighting underlying mechanisms and avenues for therapeutic targets. PMID:25014031

  4. Fractional populations in multiple gene inheritance.

    PubMed

    Chung, Myung-Hoon; Kim, Chul Koo; Nahm, Kyun

    2003-01-22

    With complete knowledge of the human genome sequence, one of the most interesting tasks remaining is to understand the functions of individual genes and how they communicate. Using the information about genes (locus, allele, mutation rate, fitness, etc.), we attempt to explain population demographic data. This population evolution study could complement and enhance biologists' understanding about genes. We present a general approach to study population genetics in complex situations. In the present approach, multiple allele inheritance, multiple loci inheritance, natural selection and mutations are allowed simultaneously in order to consider a more realistic situation. A simulation program is presented so that readers can readily carry out studies with their own parameters. It is shown that the multiplicity of the loci greatly affects the demographic results of fractional population ratios. Furthermore, the study indicates that some high infant mortality rates due to congenital anomalies can be attributed to multiple loci inheritance. The simulation program can be downloaded from http://won.hongik.ac.kr/~mhchung/index_files/yapop.htm. In order to run this program, one needs Visual Studio.NET platform, which can be downloaded from http://msdn.microsoft.com/netframework/downloads/default.asp.

  5. Equivalent Gene Expression Profiles between Glatopa™ and Copaxone®

    PubMed Central

    D’Alessandro, Josephine S.; Duffner, Jay; Pradines, Joel; Capila, Ishan; Garofalo, Kevin; Kaundinya, Ganesh; Greenberg, Benjamin M.; Kantor, Daniel; Ganguly, Tanmoy C.

    2015-01-01

    Glatopa™ is a generic glatiramer acetate recently approved for the treatment of patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Gene expression profiling was performed as a means to evaluate equivalence of Glatopa and Copaxone®. Microarray analysis containing 39,429 unique probes across the entire genome was performed in murine glatiramer acetate—responsive Th2-polarized T cells, a test system highly relevant to the biology of glatiramer acetate. A closely related but nonequivalent glatiramoid molecule was used as a control to establish assay sensitivity. Multiple probe-level (Student’s t-test) and sample-level (principal component analysis, multidimensional scaling, and hierarchical clustering) statistical analyses were utilized to look for differences in gene expression induced by the test articles. The analyses were conducted across all genes measured, as well as across a subset of genes that were shown to be modulated by Copaxone. The following observations were made across multiple statistical analyses: the expression of numerous genes was significantly changed by treatment with Copaxone when compared against media-only control; gene expression profiles induced by Copaxone and Glatopa were not significantly different; and gene expression profiles induced by Copaxone and the nonequivalent glatiramoid were significantly different, underscoring the sensitivity of the test system and the multiple analysis methods. Comparative analysis was also performed on sets of transcripts relevant to T-cell biology and antigen presentation, among others that are known to be modulated by glatiramer acetate. No statistically significant differences were observed between Copaxone and Glatopa in the expression levels (magnitude and direction) of these glatiramer acetate-regulated genes. In conclusion, multiple methods consistently supported equivalent gene expression profiles between Copaxone and Glatopa. PMID:26473741

  6. Equivalent Gene Expression Profiles between Glatopa™ and Copaxone®.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Josephine S; Duffner, Jay; Pradines, Joel; Capila, Ishan; Garofalo, Kevin; Kaundinya, Ganesh; Greenberg, Benjamin M; Kantor, Daniel; Ganguly, Tanmoy C

    2015-01-01

    Glatopa™ is a generic glatiramer acetate recently approved for the treatment of patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Gene expression profiling was performed as a means to evaluate equivalence of Glatopa and Copaxone®. Microarray analysis containing 39,429 unique probes across the entire genome was performed in murine glatiramer acetate--responsive Th2-polarized T cells, a test system highly relevant to the biology of glatiramer acetate. A closely related but nonequivalent glatiramoid molecule was used as a control to establish assay sensitivity. Multiple probe-level (Student's t-test) and sample-level (principal component analysis, multidimensional scaling, and hierarchical clustering) statistical analyses were utilized to look for differences in gene expression induced by the test articles. The analyses were conducted across all genes measured, as well as across a subset of genes that were shown to be modulated by Copaxone. The following observations were made across multiple statistical analyses: the expression of numerous genes was significantly changed by treatment with Copaxone when compared against media-only control; gene expression profiles induced by Copaxone and Glatopa were not significantly different; and gene expression profiles induced by Copaxone and the nonequivalent glatiramoid were significantly different, underscoring the sensitivity of the test system and the multiple analysis methods. Comparative analysis was also performed on sets of transcripts relevant to T-cell biology and antigen presentation, among others that are known to be modulated by glatiramer acetate. No statistically significant differences were observed between Copaxone and Glatopa in the expression levels (magnitude and direction) of these glatiramer acetate-regulated genes. In conclusion, multiple methods consistently supported equivalent gene expression profiles between Copaxone and Glatopa.

  7. Clustering cancer gene expression data by projective clustering ensemble

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xianxue; Yu, Guoxian

    2017-01-01

    Gene expression data analysis has paramount implications for gene treatments, cancer diagnosis and other domains. Clustering is an important and promising tool to analyze gene expression data. Gene expression data is often characterized by a large amount of genes but with limited samples, thus various projective clustering techniques and ensemble techniques have been suggested to combat with these challenges. However, it is rather challenging to synergy these two kinds of techniques together to avoid the curse of dimensionality problem and to boost the performance of gene expression data clustering. In this paper, we employ a projective clustering ensemble (PCE) to integrate the advantages of projective clustering and ensemble clustering, and to avoid the dilemma of combining multiple projective clusterings. Our experimental results on publicly available cancer gene expression data show PCE can improve the quality of clustering gene expression data by at least 4.5% (on average) than other related techniques, including dimensionality reduction based single clustering and ensemble approaches. The empirical study demonstrates that, to further boost the performance of clustering cancer gene expression data, it is necessary and promising to synergy projective clustering with ensemble clustering. PCE can serve as an effective alternative technique for clustering gene expression data. PMID:28234920

  8. Nonreplicating vaccinia vector efficiently expresses recombinant genes.

    PubMed

    Sutter, G; Moss, B

    1992-11-15

    Modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), a highly attenuated vaccinia virus strain that has been safety tested in humans, was evaluated for use as an expression vector. MVA has multiple genomic deletions and is severely host cell restricted: it grows well in avian cells but is unable to multiply in human and most other mammalian cells tested. Nevertheless, we found that replication of viral DNA appeared normal and that both early and late viral proteins were synthesized in human cells. Proteolytic processing of viral structural proteins was inhibited, however, and only immature virus particles were detected by electron microscopy. We constructed an insertion plasmid with the Escherichia coli lacZ gene under the control of the vaccinia virus late promoter P11, flanked by sequences of MVA DNA, to allow homologous recombination at the site of a naturally occurring 3500-base-pair deletion within the MVA genome. MVA recombinants were isolated and propagated in permissive avian cells and shown to express the enzyme beta-galactosidase upon infection of nonpermissive human cells. The amount of enzyme made was similar to that produced by a recombinant of vaccinia virus strain Western Reserve, which also had the lacZ gene under control of the P11 promoter, but multiplied to high titers. Since recombinant gene expression is unimpaired in nonpermissive human cells, MVA may serve as a highly efficient and exceptionally safe vector.

  9. Seasonal Effects on Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Goldinger, Anita; Shakhbazov, Konstantin; Henders, Anjali K.; McRae, Allan F.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Powell, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Many health conditions, ranging from psychiatric disorders to cardiovascular disease, display notable seasonal variation in severity and onset. In order to understand the molecular processes underlying this phenomenon, we have examined seasonal variation in the transcriptome of 606 healthy individuals. We show that 74 transcripts associated with a 12-month seasonal cycle were enriched for processes involved in DNA repair and binding. An additional 94 transcripts demonstrated significant seasonal variability that was largely influenced by blood cell count levels. These transcripts were enriched for immune function, protein production, and specific cellular markers for lymphocytes. Accordingly, cell counts for erythrocytes, platelets, neutrophils, monocytes, and CD19 cells demonstrated significant association with a 12-month seasonal cycle. These results demonstrate that seasonal variation is an important environmental regulator of gene expression and blood cell composition. Notable changes in leukocyte counts and genes involved in immune function indicate that immune cell physiology varies throughout the year in healthy individuals. PMID:26023781

  10. [Neuronal plasticity and gene expression].

    PubMed

    Sokolova, O O; Shtark, M B; Lisachev, P D

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal plasticity--a fundamental feature of brain--provides adequate interactions with dynamic environment. One of the most deeply investigated forms of the neuronal plasticity is a long-term potentiation (LTP)--a phenomenon underlying learning and memory. Signal paths activated during LTP converge into the nuclear of the neuron, giving rise to launch of the molecular-genetic programs, which mediate structural and functional remodeling of synapses. In the review data concerning involvement of multilevel gene expression into plastic change under neuronal activation are summarized.

  11. Association of tissue lineage and gene expression: conservatively and differentially expressed genes define common and special functions of tissues

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo is formed, develops, and establishes developmental hierarchies of tissues. The recent advance in microarray technology made it possible to investigate the tissue specific patterns of gene expression and their relationship with tissue lineages. This study is focused on how tissue specific functions, tissue lineage, and cell differentiation are correlated, which is essential to understand embryonic development and organism complexity. Results We performed individual gene and gene set based analysis on multiple tissue expression data, in association with the classic topology of mammalian fate maps of embryogenesis. For each sub-group of tissues on the fate map, conservatively, differentially and correlatively expressed genes or gene sets were identified. Tissue distance was found to correlate with gene expression divergence. Tissues of the ectoderm or mesoderm origins from the same segments on the fate map shared more similar expression pattern than those from different origins. Conservatively expressed genes or gene sets define common functions in a tissue group and are related to tissue specific diseases, which is supported by results from Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analysis. Gene expression divergence is larger in certain human tissues than in the mouse homologous tissues. Conclusion The results from tissue lineage and gene expression analysis indicate that common function features of neighbor tissue groups were defined by the conservatively expressed genes and were related to tissue specific diseases, and differentially expressed genes contribute to the functional divergence of tissues. The difference of gene expression divergence in human and mouse homologous tissues reflected the organism complexity, i.e. distinct neural development levels and different body sizes. PMID:21172044

  12. Does inbreeding affect gene expression in birds?

    PubMed

    Hansson, Bengt; Naurin, Sara; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2014-09-01

    Inbreeding increases homozygosity, exposes genome-wide recessive deleterious alleles and often reduces fitness. The physiological and reproductive consequences of inbreeding may be manifested already during gene regulation, but the degree to which inbreeding influences gene expression is unknown in most organisms, including in birds. To evaluate the pattern of inbreeding-affected gene expression over the genome and in relation to sex, we performed a transcriptome-wide gene expression (10 695 genes) study of brain tissue of 10-day-old inbred and outbred, male and female zebra finches. We found significantly lower gene expression in females compared with males at Z-linked genes, confirming that dosage compensation is incomplete in female birds. However, inbreeding did not affect gene expression at autosomal or sex-linked genes, neither in males nor in females. Analyses of single genes again found a clear sex-biased expression at Z-linked genes, whereas only a single gene was significantly affected by inbreeding. The weak effect of inbreeding on gene expression in zebra finches contrasts to the situation, for example, in Drosophila where inbreeding has been found to influence gene expression more generally and at stress-related genes in particular.

  13. GSMA: Gene Set Matrix Analysis, An Automated Method for Rapid Hypothesis Testing of Gene Expression Data

    PubMed Central

    Cheadle, Chris; Watkins, Tonya; Fan, Jinshui; Williams, Marc A.; Georas, Steven; Hall, John; Rosen, Antony; Barnes, Kathleen C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Microarray technology has become highly valuable for identifying complex global changes in gene expression patterns. The assignment of functional information to these complex patterns remains a challenging task in effectively interpreting data and correlating results from across experiments, projects and laboratories. Methods which allow the rapid and robust evaluation of multiple functional hypotheses increase the power of individual researchers to data mine gene expression data more efficiently. Results: We have developed (gene set matrix analysis) GSMA as a useful method for the rapid testing of group-wise up- or down-regulation of gene expression simultaneously for multiple lists of genes (gene sets) against entire distributions of gene expression changes (datasets) for single or multiple experiments. The utility of GSMA lies in its flexibility to rapidly poll gene sets related by known biological function or as designated solely by the end-user against large numbers of datasets simultaneously. Conclusions: GSMA provides a simple and straightforward method for hypothesis testing in which genes are tested by groups across multiple datasets for patterns of expression enrichment. PMID:20066124

  14. PLEXdb: Gene expression resources for plants and plant pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    PLEXdb (Plant Expression Database), in partnership with community databases, supports comparisons of gene expression across multiple plant and pathogen species, promoting individuals and/or consortia to upload genome-scale data sets to contrast them to previously archived data. These analyses facili...

  15. Key aspects of analyzing microarray gene-expression data.

    PubMed

    Chen, James J

    2007-05-01

    One major challenge with the use of microarray technology is the analysis of massive amounts of gene-expression data for various applications. This review addresses the key aspects of the microarray gene-expression data analysis for the two most common objectives: class comparison and class prediction. Class comparison mainly aims to select which genes are differentially expressed across experimental conditions. Gene selection is separated into two steps: gene ranking and assigning a significance level. Class prediction uses expression profiling analysis to develop a prediction model for patient selection, diagnostic prediction or prognostic classification. Development of a prediction model involves two components: model building and performance assessment. It also describes two additional data analysis methods: gene-class testing and multiple ordering criteria.

  16. Transcriptomic analysis of gene expression profiles of stomach carcinoma reveal abnormal expression of mitotic components.

    PubMed

    Tong, Hongfei; Wang, Jisheng; Chen, Hui; Wang, Zhaohong; Fan, Henwei; Ni, Zhonglin

    2017-02-01

    In order to explore the etiology of gastric cancer on global gene expression level, we developed advanced bioinformatic analysis to investigate the variations of global gene expression and the interactions among them. We downloaded the dataset GSE63288 from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database which included 22 human gastric cancer and 22 healthy control samples. We identified the differential expression genes, and explored the Gene ontology (GO) and pathways of the differentially expressed genes. Furthermore, integrative interaction network and co-expression network were employed to identify the key genes which may contribute to gastric cancer progression. The results indicated that 5 kinases including BUB1, TTK protein kinase, Citron Rho-interacting kinase (CIT), ZAK and NEK2 were upregulated in gastric cancer. Interestingly, BUB1, TTK, CIT and NEK2 have shown high expression similarities and bound with each other, and participated in multiple phases of mitosis. Moreover, a subnet of co-expression genes e.g. KIF14, PRC1, CENPF and CENPI was also involved in mitosis which was functionally coupled with the kinases above. By validation assays, the results indicated that CIT, PRC1, TTK and KIF14 were significantly upregulated in gastric cancer. These evidences have suggested that aberrant expression of these genes may drive gastric cancer including progression, invasion and metastasis. Although the causal relationships between gastric cancer and the genes are still lacking, it was reasonable to take them as biomarkers for diagnosis of gastric cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Expression of multiple proteins in transgenic plants

    DOEpatents

    Vierstra, Richard D.; Walker, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of multiple proteins in transgenic plants. A DNA construct for introduction into plants includes a provision to express a fusion protein of two proteins of interest joined by a linking domain including plant ubiquitin. When the fusion protein is produced in the cells of a transgenic plant transformed with the DNA construction, native enzymes present in plant cells cleave the fusion protein to release both proteins of interest into the cells of the transgenic plant. Since the proteins are produced from the same fusion protein, the initial quantities of the proteins in the cells of the plant are approximately equal.

  18. Large Scale Gene Expression Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific, Sex-Biased Gene Expression in Humans.

    PubMed

    Mayne, Benjamin T; Bianco-Miotto, Tina; Buckberry, Sam; Breen, James; Clifton, Vicki; Shoubridge, Cheryl; Roberts, Claire T

    2016-01-01

    The severity and prevalence of many diseases are known to differ between the sexes. Organ specific sex-biased gene expression may underpin these and other sexually dimorphic traits. To further our understanding of sex differences in transcriptional regulation, we performed meta-analyses of sex biased gene expression in multiple human tissues. We analyzed 22 publicly available human gene expression microarray data sets including over 2500 samples from 15 different tissues and 9 different organs. Briefly, by using an inverse-variance method we determined the effect size difference of gene expression between males and females. We found the greatest sex differences in gene expression in the brain, specifically in the anterior cingulate cortex, (1818 genes), followed by the heart (375 genes), kidney (224 genes), colon (218 genes), and thyroid (163 genes). More interestingly, we found different parts of the brain with varying numbers and identity of sex-biased genes, indicating that specific cortical regions may influence sexually dimorphic traits. The majority of sex-biased genes in other tissues such as the bladder, liver, lungs, and pancreas were on the sex chromosomes or involved in sex hormone production. On average in each tissue, 32% of autosomal genes that were expressed in a sex-biased fashion contained androgen or estrogen hormone response elements. Interestingly, across all tissues, we found approximately two-thirds of autosomal genes that were sex-biased were not under direct influence of sex hormones. To our knowledge this is the largest analysis of sex-biased gene expression in human tissues to date. We identified many sex-biased genes that were not under the direct influence of sex chromosome genes or sex hormones. These may provide targets for future development of sex-specific treatments for diseases.

  19. Large Scale Gene Expression Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific, Sex-Biased Gene Expression in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Mayne, Benjamin T.; Bianco-Miotto, Tina; Buckberry, Sam; Breen, James; Clifton, Vicki; Shoubridge, Cheryl; Roberts, Claire T.

    2016-01-01

    The severity and prevalence of many diseases are known to differ between the sexes. Organ specific sex-biased gene expression may underpin these and other sexually dimorphic traits. To further our understanding of sex differences in transcriptional regulation, we performed meta-analyses of sex biased gene expression in multiple human tissues. We analyzed 22 publicly available human gene expression microarray data sets including over 2500 samples from 15 different tissues and 9 different organs. Briefly, by using an inverse-variance method we determined the effect size difference of gene expression between males and females. We found the greatest sex differences in gene expression in the brain, specifically in the anterior cingulate cortex, (1818 genes), followed by the heart (375 genes), kidney (224 genes), colon (218 genes), and thyroid (163 genes). More interestingly, we found different parts of the brain with varying numbers and identity of sex-biased genes, indicating that specific cortical regions may influence sexually dimorphic traits. The majority of sex-biased genes in other tissues such as the bladder, liver, lungs, and pancreas were on the sex chromosomes or involved in sex hormone production. On average in each tissue, 32% of autosomal genes that were expressed in a sex-biased fashion contained androgen or estrogen hormone response elements. Interestingly, across all tissues, we found approximately two-thirds of autosomal genes that were sex-biased were not under direct influence of sex hormones. To our knowledge this is the largest analysis of sex-biased gene expression in human tissues to date. We identified many sex-biased genes that were not under the direct influence of sex chromosome genes or sex hormones. These may provide targets for future development of sex-specific treatments for diseases. PMID:27790248

  20. Scaling of Gene Expression with Transcription-Factor Fugacity

    PubMed Central

    Weinert, Franz M.; Brewster, Robert C.; Rydenfelt, Mattias; Phillips, Rob; Kegel, Willem K.

    2015-01-01

    The proteins associated with gene regulation are often shared between multiple pathways simultaneously. By way of contrast, models in regulatory biology often assume these pathways act independently. We demonstrate a framework for calculating the change in gene expression for the interacting case by decoupling repressor occupancy across the cell from the gene of interest by way of a chemical potential. The details of the interacting regulatory architecture are encompassed in an effective concentration, and thus, a single scaling function describes a collection of gene expression data from diverse regulatory situations and collapses it onto a single master curve. PMID:25554908

  1. Scaling of gene expression with transcription-factor fugacity.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Franz M; Brewster, Robert C; Rydenfelt, Mattias; Phillips, Rob; Kegel, Willem K

    2014-12-19

    The proteins associated with gene regulation are often shared between multiple pathways simultaneously. By way of contrast, models in regulatory biology often assume these pathways act independently. We demonstrate a framework for calculating the change in gene expression for the interacting case by decoupling repressor occupancy across the cell from the gene of interest by way of a chemical potential. The details of the interacting regulatory architecture are encompassed in an effective concentration, and thus, a single scaling function describes a collection of gene expression data from diverse regulatory situations and collapses it onto a single master curve.

  2. Mechanoregulation of gene expression in fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Wang, James H.-C.; Thampatty, Bhavani P.; Lin, Jeen-Shang; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical loads placed on connective tissues alter gene expression in fibroblasts through mechanotransduction mechanisms by which cells convert mechanical signals into cellular biological events, such as gene expression of extracellular matrix components (e.g., collagen). This mechanical regulation of ECM gene expression affords maintenance of connective tissue homeostasis. However, mechanical loads can also interfere with homeostatic cellular gene expression and consequently cause the pathogenesis of connective tissue diseases such as tendinopathy and osteoarthritis. Therefore, the regulation of gene expression by mechanical loads is closely related to connective tissue physiology and pathology. This article reviews the effects of various mechanical loading conditions on gene regulation in fibroblasts and discusses several mechanotransduction mechanisms. Future research directions in mechanoregulation of gene expression are also suggested. PMID:17331678

  3. Multiple Aspects of Gene Dysregulation in Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Moumné, Lara; Betuing, Sandrine; Caboche, Jocelyne

    2013-01-01

    Huntington’s Disease (HD) is a genetic neurodegenerative disease caused by a CAG expansion in the gene encoding Huntingtin (Htt). It is characterized by chorea, cognitive, and psychiatric disorders. The most affected brain region is the striatum, and the clinical symptoms are directly correlated to the rate of striatal degeneration. The wild-type Htt is a ubiquitous protein and its deletion is lethal. Mutated (expanded) Htt produces excitotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunctions, axonal transport deficit, altered proteasome activity, and gene dysregulation. Transcriptional dysregulation occurs at early neuropathological stages in HD patients. Multiple genes are dysregulated, with overlaps of altered transcripts between mouse models of HD and patient brains. Nuclear localization of Exp-Htt interferes with transcription factors, co-activators, and proteins of the transcriptional machinery. Another key mechanism described so far, is an alteration of cytoplasmic retention of the transcriptional repressor REST, which is normally associated with wild-type Htt. As such, Exp-Htt causes alteration of transcription of multiple genes involved in neuronal survival, plasticity, signaling, and mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration. Besides these transcriptional dysregulations, Exp-Htt affects the chromatin structure through altered post-translational modifications (PTM) of histones and methylation of DNA. Multiple alterations of histone PTM are described, including acetylation, methylation, ubiquitylation, polyamination, and phosphorylation. Exp-Htt also affects the expression and regulation of non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs). First multiple neural miRNAs are controlled by REST, and dysregulated in HD, with concomitant de-repression of downstream mRNA targets. Second, Exp-Htt protein or RNA may also play a major role in the processing of miRNAs and hence pathogenesis. These pleiotropic effects of Exp-Htt on gene expression may represent seminal deleterious effects in the

  4. Gene duplication, silencing and expression alteration govern the molecular evolution of PRC2 genes in plants.

    PubMed

    Furihata, Hazuka Y; Suenaga, Kazuya; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Yoshida, Takanori; Kawabe, Akira

    2016-10-13

    PRC2 genes were analyzed for their number of gene duplications, dN/dS ratios and expression patterns among Brassicaceae and Gramineae species. Although both amino acid sequences and copy number of the PRC2 genes were generally well conserved in both Brassicaceae and Gramineae species, we observed that some rapidly evolving genes experienced duplications and expression pattern changes. After multiple duplication events, all but one or two of the duplicated copies tend to be silenced. Silenced copies were reactivated in the endosperm and showed ectopic expression in developing seeds. The results indicated that rapid evolution of some PRC2 genes is initially caused by a relaxation of selective constraint following the gene duplication events. Several loci could become maternally expressed imprinted genes and acquired functional roles in the endosperm.

  5. Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis: Genes, Environment, and a Comprehensive Therapeutic Approach.

    PubMed

    Cappa, Ryan; Theroux, Liana; Brenton, J Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    Pediatric multiple sclerosis is an increasingly recognized and studied disorder that accounts for 3% to 10% of all patients with multiple sclerosis. The risk for pediatric multiple sclerosis is thought to reflect a complex interplay between environmental and genetic risk factors. Environmental exposures, including sunlight (ultraviolet radiation, vitamin D levels), infections (Epstein-Barr virus), passive smoking, and obesity, have been identified as potential risk factors in youth. Genetic predisposition contributes to the risk of multiple sclerosis, and the major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6 makes the single largest contribution to susceptibility to multiple sclerosis. With the use of large-scale genome-wide association studies, other non-major histocompatibility complex alleles have been identified as independent risk factors for the disease. The bridge between environment and genes likely lies in the study of epigenetic processes, which are environmentally-influenced mechanisms through which gene expression may be modified. This article will review these topics to provide a framework for discussion of a comprehensive approach to counseling and ultimately treating the pediatric patient with multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Global methylation and promoter-specific methylation of the P16, SOCS-1, E-cadherin, P73 and SHP-1 genes and their expression in patients with multiple myeloma during active disease and remission.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Baños, Déborah; Sánchez-Hernández, Beatríz; Jiménez, Guadalupe; Barrera-Lumbreras, Georgina; Barrales-Benítez, Olga

    2017-05-01

    Tumor suppressor gene promoter CpG island methylation is a well-recognized mechanism in cancer pathogenesis, but its role in multiple myeloma (MM) is controversial. The present study investigated the methylation status and expression of P16, suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS-1), P73, E-cadherin and Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1), as well as global methylation in patients with MM during active disease and remission. Bone marrow samples were obtained from 43 patients at the Multiple Myeloma Clinic, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (Mexico City, Mexico) during active disease and remission. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and ELISA were performed on bisulfite-treated or untreated DNA to determine promoter-specific or genomic methylation, respectively. Gene expression was measured using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that SOCS-1 methylation occurred more frequently during active disease than remission [29 vs. 3.2% (P=0.021)] and was associated with more advanced forms of the disease [international staging system (ISS) 3, 16.67% vs. ISS 1, 8.3% (P=0.037)]. SHP-1 methylation during active disease was associated with a lower probability of survival at 39-month follow up (median), 52.5 vs. 87.5% (P=0.025). The percentage of methylation was associated with active disease at remission, but this was not significant. Global hypomethylation at remission was a negative predictor factor for overall survival (OS). The results indicated that methylated P16, SOCS-1 and SHP-1 were associated with clinical variables of poor prognosis in MM, likewise the persistence of global hypomethylation at remission. The negative impact on OS of global hypomethylation at remission must be confirmed in a larger sample. Future studies are necessary to investigate whether patients with global hypermethylation at remission should receive more aggressive treatments to

  7. Differential Gene Expression in Human Cerebrovascular Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Shenkar, Robert; Elliott, J. Paul; Diener, Katrina; Gault, Judith; Hu, Ling-Jia; Cohrs, Randall J.; Phang, Tzulip; Hunter, Lawrence; Breeze, Robert E.; Awad, Issam A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We sought to identify genes with differential expression in cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs), arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and control superficial temporal arteries (STAs) and to confirm differential expression of genes previously implicated in the pathobiology of these lesions. METHODS Total ribonucleic acid was isolated from four CCM, four AVM, and three STA surgical specimens and used to quantify lesion-specific messenger ribonucleic acid expression levels on human gene arrays. Data were analyzed with the use of two separate methodologies: gene discovery and confirmation analysis. RESULTS The gene discovery method identified 42 genes that were significantly up-regulated and 36 genes that were significantly down-regulated in CCMs as compared with AVMs and STAs (P = 0.006). Similarly, 48 genes were significantly up-regulated and 59 genes were significantly down-regulated in AVMs as compared with CCMs and STAs (P = 0.006). The confirmation analysis showed significant differential expression (P < 0.05) in 11 of 15 genes (angiogenesis factors, receptors, and structural proteins) that previously had been reported to be expressed differentially in CCMs and AVMs in immunohistochemical analysis. CONCLUSION We identify numerous genes that are differentially expressed in CCMs and AVMs and correlate expression with the immunohistochemistry of genes implicated in cerebrovascular malformations. In future efforts, we will aim to confirm candidate genes specifically related to the pathobiology of cerebrovascular malformations and determine their biological systems and mechanistic relevance. PMID:12535382

  8. Norovirus gene expression and replication.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Lucy G; Goodfellow, Ian G

    2014-02-01

    Noroviruses are small, positive-sense RNA viruses within the family Caliciviridae, and are now accepted widely as a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in both developed and developing countries. Despite their impact, our understanding of the life cycle of noroviruses has lagged behind that of other RNA viruses due to the inability to culture human noroviruses (HuNVs). Our knowledge of norovirus biology has improved significantly over the past decade as a result of numerous technological advances. The use of a HuNV replicon, improved biochemical and cell-based assays, combined with the discovery of a murine norovirus capable of replication in cell culture, has improved greatly our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of norovirus genome translation and replication, as well as the interaction with host cell processes. In this review, the current state of knowledge of the intracellular life of noroviruses is discussed with particular emphasis on the mechanisms of viral gene expression and viral genome replication.

  9. Identifying nonspecific SAGE tags by context of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xijin; Wang, San Ming

    2008-01-01

    Many serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) tags can be matched to multiple genes, leading to difficulty in SAGE data interpretation and analysis. As only a subset of genes in the human genome are transcribed in a certain type of tissue/cell, we used microarray expression data from different tissue types to define contexts of gene expression and to annotate SAGE tags collected from the same or similar tissue sources. To predict the original transcript contributing a nonspecific SAGE tag collected from a particular tissue, we ranked the corresponding genes by their expression levels determined by microarray. We developed a tissue-specific SAGE tag annotation database based on microarray data collected from 73 normal human tissues and 18 cancer tissues and cell lines. The database can be queried online at: http://www.basic.northwestern.edu/SAGE/. The accuracy of this database was confirmed by experimental data.

  10. Differentially Expressed Genes and Signature Pathways of Human Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jennifer S.; von Lersner, Ariana K.; Robbins, Charles J.; Sang, Qing-Xiang Amy

    2015-01-01

    Genomic technologies including microarrays and next-generation sequencing have enabled the generation of molecular signatures of prostate cancer. Lists of differentially expressed genes between malignant and non-malignant states are thought to be fertile sources of putative prostate cancer biomarkers. However such lists of differentially expressed genes can be highly variable for multiple reasons. As such, looking at differential expression in the context of gene sets and pathways has been more robust. Using next-generation genome sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, differential gene expression between age- and stage- matched human prostate tumors and non-malignant samples was assessed and used to craft a pathway signature of prostate cancer. Up- and down-regulated genes were assigned to pathways composed of curated groups of related genes from multiple databases. The significance of these pathways was then evaluated according to the number of differentially expressed genes found in the pathway and their position within the pathway using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis and Signaling Pathway Impact Analysis. The “transforming growth factor-beta signaling” and “Ran regulation of mitotic spindle formation” pathways were strongly associated with prostate cancer. Several other significant pathways confirm reported findings from microarray data that suggest actin cytoskeleton regulation, cell cycle, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, and calcium signaling are also altered in prostate cancer. Thus we have demonstrated feasibility of pathway analysis and identified an underexplored area (Ran) for investigation in prostate cancer pathogenesis. PMID:26683658

  11. GESearch: An Interactive GUI Tool for Identifying Gene Expression Signature.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ning; Yin, Hengfu; Liu, Jingjing; Dai, Xiaogang; Yin, Tongming

    2015-01-01

    The huge amount of gene expression data generated by microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies present challenges to exploit their biological meanings. When searching for the coexpression genes, the data mining process is largely affected by selection of algorithms. Thus, it is highly desirable to provide multiple options of algorithms in the user-friendly analytical toolkit to explore the gene expression signatures. For this purpose, we developed GESearch, an interactive graphical user interface (GUI) toolkit, which is written in MATLAB and supports a variety of gene expression data files. This analytical toolkit provides four models, including the mean, the regression, the delegate, and the ensemble models, to identify the coexpression genes, and enables the users to filter data and to select gene expression patterns by browsing the display window or by importing knowledge-based genes. Subsequently, the utility of this analytical toolkit is demonstrated by analyzing two sets of real-life microarray datasets from cell-cycle experiments. Overall, we have developed an interactive GUI toolkit that allows for choosing multiple algorithms for analyzing the gene expression signatures.

  12. Differential gene detection incorporating common expression patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oba, Shigeyuki; Ishii, Shin

    2009-12-01

    In detection of differentially expressed (DE) genes between different groups of samples based on a high-throughput expression measurement system, we often use a classical statistical testing based on a simple assumption that the expression of a certain DE gene in one group is higher or lower in average than that in the other group. Based on this simple assumption, the theory of optimal discovery procedure (ODP) (Storey, 2005) provided an optimal thresholding function for DE gene detection. However, expression patterns of DE genes over samples may have such a structure that is not exactly consistent with group labels assigned to the samples. Appropriate treatment of such a structure can increase the detection ability. Namely, genes showing similar expression patterns to other biologically meaningful genes can be regarded as statistically more significant than those showing expression patterns independent of other genes, even if differences in mean expression levels are comparable. In this study, we propose a new statistical thresholding function based on a latent variable model incorporating expression patterns together with the ODP theory. The latent variable model assumes hidden common signals behind expression patterns over samples and the ODP theory is extended to involve the latent variables. When applied to several gene expression data matrices which include cluster structures or 'cancer outlier' structures, the newly-proposed thresholding functions showed prominently better detection performance of DE genes than the original ODP thresholding function did. We also demonstrate how the proposed methods behave through analyses of real breast cancer and lymphoma datasets.

  13. Analysis of bHLH coding genes using gene co-expression network approach.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Swati; Sanchita; Singh, Garima; Singh, Noopur; Srivastava, Gaurava; Sharma, Ashok

    2016-07-01

    Network analysis provides a powerful framework for the interpretation of data. It uses novel reference network-based metrices for module evolution. These could be used to identify module of highly connected genes showing variation in co-expression network. In this study, a co-expression network-based approach was used for analyzing the genes from microarray data. Our approach consists of a simple but robust rank-based network construction. The publicly available gene expression data of Solanum tuberosum under cold and heat stresses were considered to create and analyze a gene co-expression network. The analysis provide highly co-expressed module of bHLH coding genes based on correlation values. Our approach was to analyze the variation of genes expression, according to the time period of stress through co-expression network approach. As the result, the seed genes were identified showing multiple connections with other genes in the same cluster. Seed genes were found to be vary in different time periods of stress. These analyzed seed genes may be utilized further as marker genes for developing the stress tolerant plant species.

  14. Parallel recruitment of multiple genes into c4 photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Boxall, Susanna F; Gregory, Richard; Edwards, Erika J; Hartwell, James; Osborne, Colin P

    2013-01-01

    During the diversification of living organisms, novel adaptive traits usually evolve through the co-option of preexisting genes. However, most enzymes are encoded by gene families, whose members vary in their expression and catalytic properties. Each may therefore differ in its suitability for recruitment into a novel function. In this work, we test for the presence of such a gene recruitment bias using the example of C4 photosynthesis, a complex trait that evolved recurrently in flowering plants as a response to atmospheric CO2 depletion. We combined the analysis of complete nuclear genomes and high-throughput transcriptome data for three grass species that evolved the C4 trait independently. For five of the seven enzymes analyzed, the same gene lineage was recruited across the independent C4 origins, despite the existence of multiple copies. The analysis of a closely related C3 grass confirmed that C4 expression patterns were not present in the C3 ancestors but were acquired during the evolutionary transition to C4 photosynthesis. The significant bias in gene recruitment indicates that some genes are more suitable for a novel function, probably because the mutations they accumulated brought them closer to the characteristics required for the new function.

  15. Parallel Recruitment of Multiple Genes into C4 Photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Boxall, Susanna F.; Gregory, Richard; Edwards, Erika J.; Hartwell, James; Osborne, Colin P.

    2013-01-01

    During the diversification of living organisms, novel adaptive traits usually evolve through the co-option of preexisting genes. However, most enzymes are encoded by gene families, whose members vary in their expression and catalytic properties. Each may therefore differ in its suitability for recruitment into a novel function. In this work, we test for the presence of such a gene recruitment bias using the example of C4 photosynthesis, a complex trait that evolved recurrently in flowering plants as a response to atmospheric CO2 depletion. We combined the analysis of complete nuclear genomes and high-throughput transcriptome data for three grass species that evolved the C4 trait independently. For five of the seven enzymes analyzed, the same gene lineage was recruited across the independent C4 origins, despite the existence of multiple copies. The analysis of a closely related C3 grass confirmed that C4 expression patterns were not present in the C3 ancestors but were acquired during the evolutionary transition to C4 photosynthesis. The significant bias in gene recruitment indicates that some genes are more suitable for a novel function, probably because the mutations they accumulated brought them closer to the characteristics required for the new function. PMID:24179135

  16. [Susceptibility gene in multiple system atrophy (MSA)].

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate molecular bases of multiple system atrophy (MSA), we first focused on recently identified MSA multiplex families. Though linkage analyses followed by whole genome resequencing, we have identified a causative gene, COQ2, for MSA. We then conducted comprehensive nucleotide sequence analysis of COQ2 of sporadic MSA cases and controls, and found that functionally deleterious COQ2 variants confer a strong risk for developing MSA. COQ2 encodes an enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of coenzyme Q10. Decreased synthesis of coenzyme Q10 is considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of MSA through decreased electron transport in mitochondria and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress.

  17. Familial aggregation analysis of gene expressions

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Shao-Qi; Xu, Liang-De; Zhang, Guang-Mei; Li, Xia; Li, Lin; Shen, Gong-Qing; Jiang, Yang; Yang, Yue-Ying; Gong, Bin-Sheng; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Fan; Xiao, Yun; Wang, Qing K

    2007-01-01

    Traditional studies of familial aggregation are aimed at defining the genetic (and non-genetic) causes of a disease from physiological or clinical traits. However, there has been little attempt to use genome-wide gene expressions, the direct phenotypic measures of genes, as the traits to investigate several extended issues regarding the distributions of familially aggregated genes on chromosomes or in functions. In this study we conducted a genome-wide familial aggregation analysis by using the in vitro cell gene expressions of 3300 human autosome genes (Problem 1 data provided to Genetic Analysis Workshop 15) in order to answer three basic genetics questions. First, we investigated how gene expressions aggregate among different types (degrees) of relative pairs. Second, we conducted a bioinformatics analysis of highly familially aggregated genes to see how they are distributed on chromosomes. Third, we performed a gene ontology enrichment test of familially aggregated genes to find evidence to support their functional consensus. The results indicated that 1) gene expressions did aggregate in families, especially between sibs. Of 3300 human genes analyzed, there were a total of 1105 genes with one or more significant (empirical p < 0.05) familial correlation; 2) there were several genomic hot spots where highly familially aggregated genes (e.g., the chromosome 6 HLA genes cluster) were clustered; 3) as we expected, gene ontology enrichment tests revealed that the 1105 genes were aggregating not only in families but also in functional categories. PMID:18466548

  18. Regulation of imprinted gene expression in Arabidopsis endosperm

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Tzung-Fu; Shin, Juhyun; Uzawa, Rie; Silva, Pedro; Cohen, Stephanie; Bauer, Matthew J.; Hashimoto, Meryl; Kirkbride, Ryan C.; Harada, John J.; Zilberman, Daniel; Fischer, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Imprinted genes are expressed primarily or exclusively from either the maternal or paternal allele, a phenomenon that occurs in flowering plants and mammals. Flowering plant imprinted gene expression has been described primarily in endosperm, a terminal nutritive tissue consumed by the embryo during seed development or after germination. Imprinted expression in Arabidopsis thaliana endosperm is orchestrated by differences in cytosine DNA methylation between the paternal and maternal genomes as well as by Polycomb group proteins. Currently, only 11 imprinted A. thaliana genes are known. Here, we use extensive sequencing of cDNA libraries to identify 9 paternally expressed and 34 maternally expressed imprinted genes in A. thaliana endosperm that are regulated by the DNA-demethylating glycosylase DEMETER, the DNA methyltransferase MET1, and/or the core Polycomb group protein FIE. These genes encode transcription factors, proteins involved in hormone signaling, components of the ubiquitin protein degradation pathway, regulators of histone and DNA methylation, and small RNA pathway proteins. We also identify maternally expressed genes that may be regulated by unknown mechanisms or deposited from maternal tissues. We did not detect any imprinted genes in the embryo. Our results show that imprinted gene expression is an extensive mechanistically complex phenomenon that likely affects multiple aspects of seed development. PMID:21257907

  19. Genome-wide patterns of Arabidopsis gene expression in nature.

    PubMed

    Richards, Christina L; Rosas, Ulises; Banta, Joshua; Bhambhra, Naeha; Purugganan, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Organisms in the wild are subject to multiple, fluctuating environmental factors, and it is in complex natural environments that genetic regulatory networks actually function and evolve. We assessed genome-wide gene expression patterns in the wild in two natural accessions of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and examined the nature of transcriptional variation throughout its life cycle and gene expression correlations with natural environmental fluctuations. We grew plants in a natural field environment and measured genome-wide time-series gene expression from the plant shoot every three days, spanning the seedling to reproductive stages. We find that 15,352 genes were expressed in the A. thaliana shoot in the field, and accession and flowering status (vegetative versus flowering) were strong components of transcriptional variation in this plant. We identified between ∼110 and 190 time-varying gene expression clusters in the field, many of which were significantly overrepresented by genes regulated by abiotic and biotic environmental stresses. The two main principal components of vegetative shoot gene expression (PC(veg)) correlate to temperature and precipitation occurrence in the field. The largest PC(veg) axes included thermoregulatory genes while the second major PC(veg) was associated with precipitation and contained drought-responsive genes. By exposing A. thaliana to natural environments in an open field, we provide a framework for further understanding the genetic networks that are deployed in natural environments, and we connect plant molecular genetics in the laboratory to plant organismal ecology in the wild.

  20. Spatiotemporal Expression of Zic Genes During Vertebrate Inner Ear Development

    PubMed Central

    Chervenak, Andrew P.; Hakim, Ibrahim; Barald, Kate F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Inner ear development involves signaling from surrounding tissues, including the adjacent hindbrain, periotic mesenchyme and notochord. These signals include SHH, FGFs, BMPs and WNTs from the hindbrain and SHH from the notochord. Zic genes, which are expressed in the dorsal neural tube and act during neural development, have been implicated as effectors of these pathways. This report examines whether Zic genes’ involvement in inner ear development is a tenable hypothesis based on their expression patterns. Results In the developing inner ear of both the chick and mouse, all of the Zic genes were expressed in the dorsal neural tube and variably in the periotic mesenchyme, but expression of the Zic genes in the otic epithelium was not found. The onset of expression differed among the Zic genes; within any given region surrounding the otic epithelium, multiple Zic genes were expressed in the same place at the same time. Conclusions Zic gene expression in the region of the developing inner ear is similar between mouse and chick. Zic expression domains overlap with sites of WNT and SHH signaling during otocyst patterning, suggesting a role for Zic genes in modulating signaling from these pathways. PMID:23606270

  1. Amplification of kinetic oscillations in gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, V. P.

    2008-10-01

    Because of the feedbacks between the DNA transcription and mRNA translation, the gene expression in cells may exhibit bistability and oscillations. The deterministic and stochastic calculations presented illustrate how the bistable kinetics of expression of one gene in a cell can be influenced by the kinetic oscillations in the expression of another gene. Due to stability of the states of the bistable kinetics of gene 1 and the relatively small difference between the maximum and minimum protein amounts during the oscillations of gene 2, the induced oscillations of gene 1 are found to typically be related either to the low-or high-reactive state of this gene. The quality of the induced oscillations may be appreciably better than that of the inducing oscillations. This means that gene 1 can serve as an amplifier of the kinetic oscillations of gene 2.

  2. Gene expression inference with deep learning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yifei; Li, Yi; Narayan, Rajiv; Subramanian, Aravind; Xie, Xiaohui

    2016-06-15

    Large-scale gene expression profiling has been widely used to characterize cellular states in response to various disease conditions, genetic perturbations, etc. Although the cost of whole-genome expression profiles has been dropping steadily, generating a compendium of expression profiling over thousands of samples is still very expensive. Recognizing that gene expressions are often highly correlated, researchers from the NIH LINCS program have developed a cost-effective strategy of profiling only ∼1000 carefully selected landmark genes and relying on computational methods to infer the expression of remaining target genes. However, the computational approach adopted by the LINCS program is currently based on linear regression (LR), limiting its accuracy since it does not capture complex nonlinear relationship between expressions of genes. We present a deep learning method (abbreviated as D-GEX) to infer the expression of target genes from the expression of landmark genes. We used the microarray-based Gene Expression Omnibus dataset, consisting of 111K expression profiles, to train our model and compare its performance to those from other methods. In terms of mean absolute error averaged across all genes, deep learning significantly outperforms LR with 15.33% relative improvement. A gene-wise comparative analysis shows that deep learning achieves lower error than LR in 99.97% of the target genes. We also tested the performance of our learned model on an independent RNA-Seq-based GTEx dataset, which consists of 2921 expression profiles. Deep learning still outperforms LR with 6.57% relative improvement, and achieves lower error in 81.31% of the target genes. D-GEX is available at https://github.com/uci-cbcl/D-GEX CONTACT: xhx@ics.uci.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Characterization and expression of multiple alternatively spliced transcripts of the Goodpasture antigen gene region. Goodpasture antibodies recognize recombinant proteins representing the autoantigen and one of its alternative forms.

    PubMed

    Penadés, J R; Bernal, D; Revert, F; Johansson, C; Fresquet, V J; Cervera, J; Wieslander, J; Quinones, S; Saus, J

    1995-05-01

    Collagen IV, the major component of basement membranes, is composed of six distinct alpha chains (alpha 1-alpha 6). Atypically among the collagen IV genes, the exons encoding the carboxyl-terminal region of the human alpha 3(IV) chain undergo alternative splicing. This region has been designated as the Goodpasture antigen because of its reactivity in the kidney and lung with the pathogenic autoantibodies causing Goodpasture syndrome. The data presented in this report demonstrate that, in human kidney, the gene region encompassing the Goodpasture antigen generates at least six alternatively spliced transcripts predicting five distinct proteins that differ in their carboxyl-terminus and retain, except in one case, the exon that harbors the characteristic amino-terminus of the antigen. Goodpasture antibodies specifically recognize recombinant proteins representing the antigen and the alternative form that retains the amino-half of the antigen, suggesting that this moiety could be involved in the in vivo binding of the pathogenic antibodies. Furthermore, the sera of control individuals contain autoantibodies against the antigen that can be differentiated from those causing the syndrome based on their specific reactivities, suggesting that the binding of the pathogenic autoantibodies to a specific determinant likely trigger a distinct and unique cascade of events causing the disease.

  4. Multiple-to-Multiple Relationships between MicroRNAs and Target Genes in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Yutaka; Akiyama, Yoshimitsu; Yuasa, Yasuhito

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as transcriptional regulators and play pivotal roles in carcinogenesis. According to miRNA target databases, one miRNA may regulate many genes as its targets, while one gene may be targeted by many miRNAs. These findings indicate that relationships between miRNAs and their targets may not be one-to-one. However, many reports have described only a one-to-one, one-to-multiple or multiple-to-one relationship between miRNA and its target gene in human cancers. Thus, it is necessary to determine whether or not a combination of some miRNAs would regulate multiple targets and be involved in carcinogenesis. To find some groups of miRNAs that may synergistically regulate their targets in human gastric cancer (GC), we re-analyzed our previous miRNA expression array data and found that 50 miRNAs were up-regulated on treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine in a GC cell line. The “TargetScan” miRNA target database predicted that some of these miRNAs have common target genes. We also referred to the GEO database for expression of these common target genes in human GCs, which might be related to gastric carcinogenesis. In this study, we analyzed two miRNA combinations, miR-224 and -452, and miR-181c and -340. Over-expression of both miRNA combinations dramatically down-regulated their target genes, DPYSL2 and KRAS, and KRAS and MECP2, respectively. These miRNA combinations synergistically decreased cell proliferation upon transfection. Furthermore, we revealed that these miRNAs were down-regulated through promoter hypermethylation in GC cells. Thus, it is likely that the relationships between miRNAs and their targets are not one-to-one but multiple-to-multiple in GCs, and that these complex relationships may be related to gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:23667495

  5. Estimation and Testing of Gene Expression Heterosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Nettleton, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Heterosis, also known as the hybrid vigor, occurs when the mean phenotype of hybrid off-spring is superior to that of its two inbred parents. The heterosis phenomenon is extensively utilized in agriculture though the molecular basis is still unknown. In an effort to understand phenotypic heterosis at the molecular level, researchers have begun to compare expression levels of thousands of genes between parental inbred lines and their hybrid offspring to search for evidence of gene expression heterosis. Standard statistical approaches for separately analyzing expression data for each gene can produce biased and highly variable estimates and unreliable tests of heterosis. To address these shortcomings, we develop a hierarchical model to borrow information across genes. Using our modeling framework, we derive empirical Bayes estimators and an inference strategy to identify gene expression heterosis. Simulation results show that our proposed method outperforms the more traditional strategy used to detect gene expression heterosis. This article has supplementary material online. PMID:25435758

  6. Estimation and Testing of Gene Expression Heterosis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Tieming; Liu, Peng; Nettleton, Dan

    2014-09-01

    Heterosis, also known as the hybrid vigor, occurs when the mean phenotype of hybrid off-spring is superior to that of its two inbred parents. The heterosis phenomenon is extensively utilized in agriculture though the molecular basis is still unknown. In an effort to understand phenotypic heterosis at the molecular level, researchers have begun to compare expression levels of thousands of genes between parental inbred lines and their hybrid offspring to search for evidence of gene expression heterosis. Standard statistical approaches for separately analyzing expression data for each gene can produce biased and highly variable estimates and unreliable tests of heterosis. To address these shortcomings, we develop a hierarchical model to borrow information across genes. Using our modeling framework, we derive empirical Bayes estimators and an inference strategy to identify gene expression heterosis. Simulation results show that our proposed method outperforms the more traditional strategy used to detect gene expression heterosis. This article has supplementary material online.

  7. Cinnamon extract regulates plasma levels of adipose-derived factors and expression of multiple genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and lipogenesis in adipose tissue of fructose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Qin, B; Polansky, M M; Anderson, R A

    2010-03-01

    We reported earlier that dietary cinnamon extract (CE) improves systemic insulin sensitivity and dyslipidemia by enhancing insulin signaling. In the present study, we have examined the effects of CE on several biomarkers including plasma levels of adipose-derived adipokines, and the potential molecular mechanisms of CE in epididymal adipose tissue (EAT). In Wistar rats fed a high-fructose diet (HFD) to induce insulin resistance, supplementation with a CE (Cinnulin PF, 50 mg/kg daily) for 8 weeks reduced blood glucose, plasma insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, chylomicron-apoB48, VLDL-apoB100, and soluble CD36. CE also inhibited plasma retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) levels. CE-induced increases in plasma adiponectin were not significant. CE did not affect food intake, bodyweight, and EAT weight. In EAT, there were increases in the insulin receptor ( IR) and IR substrate 2 ( IRS2) mRNA, but CE-induced increases in mRNA expression of IRS1, phosphoinositide-3-kinase, AKT1, glucose transporters 1 and 4 , and glycogen synthase 1 expression and decreased trends in mRNA expression of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta were not statistically significant. CE also enhanced the mRNA levels of ADIPOQ, and inhibited sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c mRNA levels. mRNA and protein levels of fatty acid synthase and FABP4 were inhibited by CE and RBP4, and CD36 protein levels were also decreased by CE. These results suggest that CE effectively ameliorates circulating levels of adipokines partially mediated via regulation of the expression of multiple genes involved in insulin sensitivity and lipogenesis in the EAT.

  8. Selection and validation of reference genes for gene expression analysis in apomictic and sexual Cenchrus ciliaris.

    PubMed

    Simon, Bindu; Conner, Joann A; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2013-10-02

    Apomixis is a naturally occurring asexual mode of seed reproduction resulting in offspring genetically identical to the maternal plant. Identifying differential gene expression patterns between apomictic and sexual plants is valuable to help deconstruct the trait. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a popular method for analyzing gene expression. Normalizing gene expression data using proper reference genes which show stable expression under investigated conditions is critical in qRT-PCR analysis. We used qRT-PCR to validate expression and stability of six potential reference genes (EF1alpha, EIF4A, UBCE, GAPDH, ACT2 and TUBA) in vegetative and reproductive tissues of B-2S and B-12-9 accessions of C. ciliaris. Among tissue types evaluated, EF1alpha showed the highest level of expression while TUBA showed the lowest. When all tissue types were evaluated and compared between genotypes, EIF4A was the most stable reference gene. Gene expression stability for specific ovary stages of B-2S and B-12-9 was also determined. Except for TUBA, all other tested reference genes could be used for any stage-specific ovary tissue normalization, irrespective of the mode of reproduction. Our gene expression stability assay using six reference genes, in sexual and apomictic accessions of C. ciliaris, suggests that EIF4A is the most stable gene across all tissue types analyzed. All other tested reference genes, with the exception of TUBA, could be used for gene expression comparison studies between sexual and apomictic ovaries over multiple developmental stages. This reference gene validation data in C. ciliaris will serve as an important base for future apomixis-related transcriptome data validation.

  9. Detecting microRNA activity from gene expression data

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to the messenger RNA (mRNA) of protein coding genes. They control gene expression by either inhibiting translation or inducing mRNA degradation. A number of computational techniques have been developed to identify the targets of miRNAs. In this study we used predicted miRNA-gene interactions to analyse mRNA gene expression microarray data to predict miRNAs associated with particular diseases or conditions. Results Here we combine correspondence analysis, between group analysis and co-inertia analysis (CIA) to determine which miRNAs are associated with differences in gene expression levels in microarray data sets. Using a database of miRNA target predictions from TargetScan, TargetScanS, PicTar4way PicTar5way, and miRanda and combining these data with gene expression levels from sets of microarrays, this method produces a ranked list of miRNAs associated with a specified split in samples. We applied this to three different microarray datasets, a papillary thyroid carcinoma dataset, an in-house dataset of lipopolysaccharide treated mouse macrophages, and a multi-tissue dataset. In each case we were able to identified miRNAs of biological importance. Conclusions We describe a technique to integrate gene expression data and miRNA target predictions from multiple sources. PMID:20482775

  10. Nitrile Hydratase Genes Are Present in Multiple Eukaryotic Supergroups

    PubMed Central

    Marron, Alan O.; Akam, Michael; Walker, Giselle

    2012-01-01

    Background Nitrile hydratases are enzymes involved in the conversion of nitrile-containing compounds into ammonia and organic acids. Although they are widespread in prokaryotes, nitrile hydratases have only been reported in two eukaryotes: the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis and the stramenopile Aureococcus anophagefferens. The nitrile hydratase gene in M. brevicollis was believed to have arisen by lateral gene transfer from a prokaryote, and is a fusion of beta and alpha nitrile hydratase subunits. Only the alpha subunit has been reported in A. anophagefferens. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report the detection of nitrile hydratase genes in five eukaryotic supergroups: opisthokonts, amoebozoa, archaeplastids, CCTH and SAR. Beta-alpha subunit fusion genes are found in the choanoflagellates, ichthyosporeans, apusozoans, haptophytes, rhizarians and stramenopiles, and potentially also in the amoebozoans. An individual alpha subunit is found in a dinoflagellate and an individual beta subunit is found in a haptophyte. Phylogenetic analyses recover a clade of eukaryotic-type nitrile hydratases in the Opisthokonta, Amoebozoa, SAR and CCTH; this is supported by analyses of introns and gene architecture. Two nitrile hydratase sequences from an animal and a plant resolve in the prokaryotic nitrile hydratase clade. Conclusions/Significance The evidence presented here demonstrates that nitrile hydratase genes are present in multiple eukaryotic supergroups, suggesting that a subunit fusion gene was present in the last common ancestor of all eukaryotes. The absence of nitrile hydratase from several sequenced species indicates that subunits were lost in multiple eukaryotic taxa. The presence of nitrile hydratases in many other eukaryotic groups is unresolved due to insufficient data and taxon sampling. The retention and expression of the gene in distantly related eukaryotic species suggests that it plays an important metabolic role. The novel family of eukaryotic

  11. Identifying a gene expression signature of cluster headache in blood

    PubMed Central

    Eising, Else; Pelzer, Nadine; Vijfhuizen, Lisanne S.; Vries, Boukje de; Ferrari, Michel D.; ‘t Hoen, Peter A. C.; Terwindt, Gisela M.; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Cluster headache is a relatively rare headache disorder, typically characterized by multiple daily, short-lasting attacks of excruciating, unilateral (peri-)orbital or temporal pain associated with autonomic symptoms and restlessness. To better understand the pathophysiology of cluster headache, we used RNA sequencing to identify differentially expressed genes and pathways in whole blood of patients with episodic (n = 19) or chronic (n = 20) cluster headache in comparison with headache-free controls (n = 20). Gene expression data were analysed by gene and by module of co-expressed genes with particular attention to previously implicated disease pathways including hypocretin dysregulation. Only moderate gene expression differences were identified and no associations were found with previously reported pathogenic mechanisms. At the level of functional gene sets, associations were observed for genes involved in several brain-related mechanisms such as GABA receptor function and voltage-gated channels. In addition, genes and modules of co-expressed genes showed a role for intracellular signalling cascades, mitochondria and inflammation. Although larger study samples may be required to identify the full range of involved pathways, these results indicate a role for mitochondria, intracellular signalling and inflammation in cluster headache. PMID:28074859

  12. Complex roles of Stat1 in regulating gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ramana, C V; Chatterjee-Kishore, M; Nguyen, H; Stark, G R

    2000-05-15

    Stat1 is a fascinating and complex protein with multiple, yet contrasting transcriptional functions. Upon activation, it drives the expression of many genes but also suppresses the transcription of others. These opposing characteristics also apply to its role in facilitating crosstalk between signal transduction pathways, as it participates in both synergistic activation and inhibition of gene expression. Stat1 is a functional transcription factor even in the absence of inducer-mediated activation, participating in the constitutive expression of some genes. This review summarizes the well studied involvement of Stat1 in IFN-dependent and growth factor-dependent signaling and then describes the roles of Stat1 in positive, negative and constitutive regulation of gene expression as well as its participation in crosstalk between signal transduction pathways. Oncogene (2000).

  13. Visually Relating Gene Expression and in vivo DNA Binding Data

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Min-Yu; Mackey, Lester; Ker?,; nen, Soile V. E.; Weber, Gunther H.; Jordan, Michael I.; Knowles, David W.; Biggin, Mark D.; Hamann, Bernd

    2011-09-20

    Gene expression and in vivo DNA binding data provide important information for understanding gene regulatory networks: in vivo DNA binding data indicate genomic regions where transcription factors are bound, and expression data show the output resulting from this binding. Thus, there must be functional relationships between these two types of data. While visualization and data analysis tools exist for each data type alone, there is a lack of tools that can easily explore the relationship between them. We propose an approach that uses the average expression driven by multiple of ciscontrol regions to visually relate gene expression and in vivo DNA binding data. We demonstrate the utility of this tool with examples from the network controlling early Drosophila development. The results obtained support the idea that the level of occupancy of a transcription factor on DNA strongly determines the degree to which the factor regulates a target gene, and in some cases also controls whether the regulation is positive or negative.

  14. Widespread ectopic expression of olfactory receptor genes

    PubMed Central

    Feldmesser, Ester; Olender, Tsviya; Khen, Miriam; Yanai, Itai; Ophir, Ron; Lancet, Doron

    2006-01-01

    Background Olfactory receptors (ORs) are the largest gene family in the human genome. Although they are expected to be expressed specifically in olfactory tissues, some ectopic expression has been reported, with special emphasis on sperm and testis. The present study systematically explores the expression patterns of OR genes in a large number of tissues and assesses the potential functional implication of such ectopic expression. Results We analyzed the expression of hundreds of human and mouse OR transcripts, via EST and microarray data, in several dozens of human and mouse tissues. Different tissues had specific, relatively small OR gene subsets which had particularly high expression levels. In testis, average expression was not particularly high, and very few highly expressed genes were found, none corresponding to ORs previously implicated in sperm chemotaxis. Higher expression levels were more common for genes with a non-OR genomic neighbor. Importantly, no correlation in expression levels was detected for human-mouse orthologous pairs. Also, no significant difference in expression levels was seen between intact and pseudogenized ORs, except for the pseudogenes of subfamily 7E which has undergone a human-specific expansion. Conclusion The OR superfamily as a whole, show widespread, locus-dependent and heterogeneous expression, in agreement with a neutral or near neutral evolutionary model for transcription control. These results cannot reject the possibility that small OR subsets might play functional roles in different tissues, however considerable care should be exerted when offering a functional interpretation for ectopic OR expression based only on transcription information. PMID:16716209

  15. Simultaneous gene quantitation of multiple genes in individual bovine nuclear transfer blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Smith, Craig; Berg, Debbie; Beaumont, Sue; Standley, Neil T; Wells, David N; Pfeffer, Peter L

    2007-01-01

    During somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT), the transcriptional status of the donor cell has to be reprogrammed to reflect that of an embryo. We analysed the accuracy of this process by comparing transcript levels of four developmentally important genes (Oct4, Otx2, Ifitm3, GATA6), a gene involved in epigenetic regulation (Dnmt3a) and three housekeeping genes (beta-actin, beta-tubulin and GAPDH) in 21 NT blastocysts with that in genetically half-identical in vitro produced (IVP, n=19) and in vivo (n=15) bovine embryos. We have optimised an RNA-isolation and SYBR-green-based real-time RT-PCR procedure allowing the reproducible absolute quantification of multiple genes from a single blastocyst. Our data indicated that transcript levels did not differ significantly between stage and grade-matched zona-free NT and IVP embryos except for Ifitm3/Fragilis, which was expressed at twofold higher levels in NT blastocysts. Ifitm3 expression is confined to the inner cell mass at day 7 blastocysts and to the epiblast in day 14 embryos. No ectopic expression in the trophectoderm was seen in NT embryos. Gene expression in NT and IVP embryos increased between two- and threefold for all eight genes from early to late blastocyst stages. This increase exceeded the increase in cell number over this time period indicating an increase in transcript number per cell. Embryo quality (morphological grading) was correlated to cell number for NT and IVP embryos with grade 3 blastocysts containing 30% fewer cells. However, only NT embryos displayed a significant reduction in gene expression (50%) with loss of quality. Variability in gene expression levels was not significantly different in NT, IVP or in vivo embryos but differed among genes, suggesting that the stringency of regulation is intrinsic to a gene and not affected by culture or nuclear transfer. Oct4 levels exhibited the lowest variability. Analysing the total variability of all eight genes for individual embryos revealed that in

  16. Differential network analysis from cross-platform gene expression data

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Ou-Yang, Le; Zhao, Xing-Ming; Yan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how the structure of gene dependency network changes between two patient-specific groups is an important task for genomic research. Although many computational approaches have been proposed to undertake this task, most of them estimate correlation networks from group-specific gene expression data independently without considering the common structure shared between different groups. In addition, with the development of high-throughput technologies, we can collect gene expression profiles of same patients from multiple platforms. Therefore, inferring differential networks by considering cross-platform gene expression profiles will improve the reliability of network inference. We introduce a two dimensional joint graphical lasso (TDJGL) model to simultaneously estimate group-specific gene dependency networks from gene expression profiles collected from different platforms and infer differential networks. TDJGL can borrow strength across different patient groups and data platforms to improve the accuracy of estimated networks. Simulation studies demonstrate that TDJGL provides more accurate estimates of gene networks and differential networks than previous competing approaches. We apply TDJGL to the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in ovarian tumors to build differential networks associated with platinum resistance. The hub genes of our inferred differential networks are significantly enriched with known platinum resistance-related genes and include potential platinum resistance-related genes. PMID:27677586

  17. Integrating phenotype and gene expression data for predicting gene function.

    PubMed

    Malone, Brandon M; Perkins, Andy D; Bridges, Susan M

    2009-10-08

    This paper presents a framework for integrating disparate data sets to predict gene function. The algorithm constructs a graph, called an integrated similarity graph, by computing similarities based upon both gene expression and textual phenotype data. This integrated graph is then used to make predictions about whether individual genes should be assigned a particular annotation from the Gene Ontology. A combined graph was generated from publicly-available gene expression data and phenotypic information from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This graph was used to assign annotations to genes, as were graphs constructed from gene expression data and textual phenotype information alone. While the F-measure appeared similar for all three methods, annotations based upon the integrated similarity graph exhibited a better overall precision than gene expression or phenotype information alone can generate. The integrated approach was also able to assign almost as many annotations as the gene expression method alone, and generated significantly more total and correct assignments than the phenotype information could provide. These results suggest that augmenting standard gene expression data sets with publicly-available textual phenotype data can help generate more precise functional annotation predictions while mitigating the weaknesses of a standard textual phenotype approach.

  18. Gene Expression Patterns in Ovarian Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Schaner, Marci E.; Ross, Douglas T.; Ciaravino, Giuseppe; Sørlie, Therese; Troyanskaya, Olga; Diehn, Maximilian; Wang, Yan C.; Duran, George E.; Sikic, Thomas L.; Caldeira, Sandra; Skomedal, Hanne; Tu, I-Ping; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Johnson, Steven W.; O'Dwyer, Peter J.; Fero, Michael J.; Kristensen, Gunnar B.; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Hastie, Trevor; Tibshirani, Robert; van de Rijn, Matt; Teng, Nelson N.; Longacre, Teri A.; Botstein, David; Brown, Patrick O.; Sikic, Branimir I.

    2003-01-01

    We used DNA microarrays to characterize the global gene expression patterns in surface epithelial cancers of the ovary. We identified groups of genes that distinguished the clear cell subtype from other ovarian carcinomas, grade I and II from grade III serous papillary carcinomas, and ovarian from breast carcinomas. Six clear cell carcinomas were distinguished from 36 other ovarian carcinomas (predominantly serous papillary) based on their gene expression patterns. The differences may yield insights into the worse prognosis and therapeutic resistance associated with clear cell carcinomas. A comparison of the gene expression patterns in the ovarian cancers to published data of gene expression in breast cancers revealed a large number of differentially expressed genes. We identified a group of 62 genes that correctly classified all 125 breast and ovarian cancer specimens. Among the best discriminators more highly expressed in the ovarian carcinomas were PAX8 (paired box gene 8), mesothelin, and ephrin-B1 (EFNB1). Although estrogen receptor was expressed in both the ovarian and breast cancers, genes that are coregulated with the estrogen receptor in breast cancers, including GATA-3, LIV-1, and X-box binding protein 1, did not show a similar pattern of coexpression in the ovarian cancers. PMID:12960427

  19. Effects on circulating steroid hormones and gene expression along the hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal axis in adult Japanese quail exposed to 17β-trenbolone across multiple generations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karouna, Natalie; Chen, Yu; Henry, Paula F.; Maddox, Catherine M.; Sprague, Dan

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the androgenic growth promoter 17β-trenbolone (17βTB) on adult Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) exposed across three generations. The F0 generation was exposed after sexual maturity to 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, and 40 ppm through feed. The F1 generation was exposed in ovo by maternal transfer and through feed at the same doses as their parents. The F2 generation was exposed in ovo only. Levels of plasma sex steroids, gonadal Cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNA and select brain neuroendocrine peptide mRNAs were measured. In males, testosterone levels did not differ in any generation from those in controls. Estradiol was significantly elevated in 17βTB t