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Sample records for multiple indicators multiple

  1. Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Measurement Error Models

    PubMed Central

    Tekwe, Carmen D.; Carter, Randy L.; Cullings, Harry M.; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Models (MIMIC) are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times however when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model, (2) to develop likelihood based estimation methods for the MIMIC ME model, (3) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. As a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure. PMID:24962535

  2. Multiple indicators, multiple causes measurement error models.

    PubMed

    Tekwe, Carmen D; Carter, Randy L; Cullings, Harry M; Carroll, Raymond J

    2014-11-10

    Multiple indicators, multiple causes (MIMIC) models are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times, however, when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this paper are as follows: (i) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model; (ii) to develop likelihood-based estimation methods for the MIMIC ME model; and (iii) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. As a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure. PMID:24962535

  3. Should researchers use single indicators, best indicators, or multiple indicators in structural equation models?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Structural equation modeling developed as a statistical melding of path analysis and factor analysis that obscured a fundamental tension between a factor preference for multiple indicators and path modeling’s openness to fewer indicators. Discussion Multiple indicators hamper theory by unnecessarily restricting the number of modeled latents. Using the few best indicators – possibly even the single best indicator of each latent – encourages development of theoretically sophisticated models. Additional latent variables permit stronger statistical control of potential confounders, and encourage detailed investigation of mediating causal mechanisms. Summary We recommend the use of the few best indicators. One or two indicators are often sufficient, but three indicators may occasionally be helpful. More than three indicators are rarely warranted because additional redundant indicators provide less research benefit than single indicators of additional latent variables. Scales created from multiple indicators can introduce additional problems, and are prone to being less desirable than either single or multiple indicators. PMID:23088287

  4. Testing for Nonuniform Differential Item Functioning with Multiple Indicator Multiple Cause Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol M.; Grimm, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    In extant literature, multiple indicator multiple cause (MIMIC) models have been presented for identifying items that display uniform differential item functioning (DIF) only, not nonuniform DIF. This article addresses, for apparently the first time, the use of MIMIC models for testing both uniform and nonuniform DIF with categorical indicators. A…

  5. Multiple-Indicator Multilevel Growth Model: A Solution to Multiple Methodological Challenges in Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Amery D.; Liu, Yan; Gadermann, Anne M.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper described the versatility of the multiple-indicator multilevel (MIML) model in helping to resolve four common challenges in studying growth using longitudinal data. These challenges are (1) how to deal with changes in measurement over time and investigate temporal measurement invariance, (2) how to model residual dependence due to the…

  6. Identifying node role in social network based on multiple indicators.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shaobin; Lv, Tianyang; Zhang, Xizhe; Yang, Yange; Zheng, Weimin; Wen, Chao

    2014-01-01

    It is a classic topic of social network analysis to evaluate the importance of nodes and identify the node that takes on the role of core or bridge in a network. Because a single indicator is not sufficient to analyze multiple characteristics of a node, it is a natural solution to apply multiple indicators that should be selected carefully. An intuitive idea is to select some indicators with weak correlations to efficiently assess different characteristics of a node. However, this paper shows that it is much better to select the indicators with strong correlations. Because indicator correlation is based on the statistical analysis of a large number of nodes, the particularity of an important node will be outlined if its indicator relationship doesn't comply with the statistical correlation. Therefore, the paper selects the multiple indicators including degree, ego-betweenness centrality and eigenvector centrality to evaluate the importance and the role of a node. The importance of a node is equal to the normalized sum of its three indicators. A candidate for core or bridge is selected from the great degree nodes or the nodes with great ego-betweenness centrality respectively. Then, the role of a candidate is determined according to the difference between its indicators' relationship with the statistical correlation of the overall network. Based on 18 real networks and 3 kinds of model networks, the experimental results show that the proposed methods perform quite well in evaluating the importance of nodes and in identifying the node role.

  7. Control region sequences indicate that multiple externae represent multiple infections by Sacculina carcini (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala).

    PubMed

    Rees, David; Glenner, Henrik

    2014-08-01

    The rhizocephalan barnacle, Sacculina carcini, is a common parasite of the European shore crab, Carcinus maenas, in which it causes significant detrimental physical and behavioral modifications. In the vast majority of cases, the external portion of the parasite is present in the form of a single sac-like externa; in rare cases, double or even triple externae may occur on the same individual host. Here, we use a highly variable DNA marker, the mitochondrial control region (CR), to investigate whether multiple externae in S. carcini represent infection by multiple parasites or asexual cloning developed by a single parasite individual. Sequences for multiple externae from C. maenas hosts from the Danish inlet, Limfjorden, and from the mud flates at Roscoff, France, were compared. In almost all cases, double or triple externae from an individual host yielded different haplotypes. In the few cases where identical haplotypes were identified from externae on a multiple-infected host, this always represented the most commonly found haplotype in the population. This indicates that in Sacculina carcini, the presence of multiple externae on a single host reflects infection by different individual parasites. A haplotype network of CR sequences also suggests a degree of geographical partitioning, with no shared haplotypes between the Limfjorden and Roscoff. Our data represent the first complete CR sequences for a rhizocephalan, and a unique gene order was also revealed. Although the utility of CR sequences for population-level work must be investigated further, the CR has proved a simple to use and highly variable marker for studies of S. carcini and can easily be applied to a variety of studies in this important parasite. PMID:25473481

  8. Control region sequences indicate that multiple externae represent multiple infections by Sacculina carcini (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala)

    PubMed Central

    Rees, David; Glenner, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The rhizocephalan barnacle, Sacculina carcini, is a common parasite of the European shore crab, Carcinus maenas, in which it causes significant detrimental physical and behavioral modifications. In the vast majority of cases, the external portion of the parasite is present in the form of a single sac-like externa; in rare cases, double or even triple externae may occur on the same individual host. Here, we use a highly variable DNA marker, the mitochondrial control region (CR), to investigate whether multiple externae in S. carcini represent infection by multiple parasites or asexual cloning developed by a single parasite individual. Sequences for multiple externae from C. maenas hosts from the Danish inlet, Limfjorden, and from the mud flates at Roscoff, France, were compared. In almost all cases, double or triple externae from an individual host yielded different haplotypes. In the few cases where identical haplotypes were identified from externae on a multiple-infected host, this always represented the most commonly found haplotype in the population. This indicates that in Sacculina carcini, the presence of multiple externae on a single host reflects infection by different individual parasites. A haplotype network of CR sequences also suggests a degree of geographical partitioning, with no shared haplotypes between the Limfjorden and Roscoff. Our data represent the first complete CR sequences for a rhizocephalan, and a unique gene order was also revealed. Although the utility of CR sequences for population-level work must be investigated further, the CR has proved a simple to use and highly variable marker for studies of S. carcini and can easily be applied to a variety of studies in this important parasite. PMID:25473481

  9. Multiple Citation Indicators and Their Composite across Scientific Disciplines

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidis, John P.A.; Klavans, Richard; Boyack, Kevin W.

    2016-01-01

    Many fields face an increasing prevalence of multi-authorship, and this poses challenges in assessing citation metrics. Here, we explore multiple citation indicators that address total impact (number of citations, Hirsch H index [H]), co-authorship adjustment (Schreiber Hm index [Hm]), and author order (total citations to papers as single; single or first; or single, first, or last author). We demonstrate the correlation patterns between these indicators across 84,116 scientists (those among the top 30,000 for impact in a single year [2013] in at least one of these indicators) and separately across 12 scientific fields. Correlation patterns vary across these 12 fields. In physics, total citations are highly negatively correlated with indicators of co-authorship adjustment and of author order, while in other sciences the negative correlation is seen only for total citation impact and citations to papers as single author. We propose a composite score that sums standardized values of these six log-transformed indicators. Of the 1,000 top-ranked scientists with the composite score, only 322 are in the top 1,000 based on total citations. Many Nobel laureates and other extremely influential scientists rank among the top-1,000 with the composite indicator, but would rank much lower based on total citations. Conversely, many of the top 1,000 authors on total citations have had no single/first/last-authored cited paper. More Nobel laureates of 2011–2015 are among the top authors when authors are ranked by the composite score than by total citations, H index, or Hm index; 40/47 of these laureates are among the top 30,000 by at least one of the six indicators. We also explore the sensitivity of indicators to self-citation and alphabetic ordering of authors in papers across different scientific fields. Multiple indicators and their composite may give a more comprehensive picture of impact, although no citation indicator, single or composite, can be expected to select all the

  10. A multiple indicator, multiple cause method for representing social capital with an application to psychological distress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congdon, Peter

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes a structural equation methodology for obtaining social capital scores for survey subjects from multiple indicators of social support, neighbourhood and trust perceptions, and memberships of organizations. It adjusts for variation that is likely to occur in levels of social capital according to geographic context (e.g. level of area deprivation, geographic region, level of urbanity) and demographic group. Social capital is used as an explanatory factor for psychological distress using data from the 2006 Health Survey for England. A highly significant effect of social capital in reducing the chance of psychiatric caseness is obtained after controlling for other individual and geographic risk factors. Allowing for social capital has considerable effects on the impacts on psychiatric health of other risk factors. In particular, the impact of area deprivation category is much reduced. There is also evidence of significant differentiation in social capital between population categories and geographic contexts.

  11. Multiple myeloma: clinical features and indications for therapy.

    PubMed

    Dispenzieri, Angela; Kyle, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a malignant plasma-cell proliferative disease with an expected 15,270 new cases and 11,070 deaths in the USA in 2004 alone. This accounts for 1% of all malignancies and slightly more than 10% of all hematologic malignancies in Caucasians and 20% in African Americans. The diagnosis is based on the presence of bone pain, anemia, and plasma-cell infiltrate in the bone marrow or within bone lesions. It is essential that the spectrum of plasma-cell proliferative disorders be recognized: monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma (SMM), and active (symptomatic) MM. These distinctions affect important management decisions. Other related disorders include primary systemic amyloidosis, POEMS syndrome, and acquired Fanconi syndrome. PMID:16026737

  12. Detecting multiple breaks in geodetic time series using indicator saturation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Luke; Pretis, Felix

    2016-04-01

    Identifying the timing and magnitude of breaks in geodetic time series has been the source of much discussion. Instruments recording different geophysical phenomena may record long term trends, quasi-periodic signals at a variety of time scales from days to decades, and sudden breaks due to natural or anthropogenic causes, ranging from instrument replacement to earthquakes. Records can not always be relied upon to be continuous in time, yet one may desire to accurately bridge gaps without performing interpolation. We apply the novel Indicator Saturation (IS) method to identify breaks in a synthetic GPS time series used for the Detection of Offsets in GPS Experiments (DOGEX). The IS approach differs from alternative break detection methods by considering every point in the time series as a break, until it is demonstrated statistically that it is not. Saturating a model with a full set of break functions and removing all but significant ones, formulates the detection of breaks as a problem of model selection. This allows multiple breaks of different forms (from impulses, to shifts in the mean, and changing trends) without requiring a minimum break-length to be detected, while simultaneously modelling any underlying variation driven by additional covariates. To address selection bias in the coefficients, we demonstrate the bias-corrected estimates of break coefficients when using step-shifts in the mean of the modelled time-series. The regimes of the time-varying mean of the time-series (the `coefficient path' of the intercept determined by the detected breaks) can be used to conduct hypothesis tests on whether subsequent shifts offset each other - for example whether a measurement change induces a temporary bias rather than a permanent one. We explore this non-classical analysis method to see if it can bring about the sub millimetre errors in long term rates of land motion currently required by the GPS community.

  13. Iran's Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey - 2010: Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Rashidian, Arash; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Elahi, Elham; Beheshtian, Maryam; Shakibazadeh, Elham; Khabiri, Roghayeh; Arab, Mohammad; Zakeri, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is an international emphasis on providing timely and high quality data to monitor progress of countries toward Millennium Development Goals. Iran's Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey (IrMIDHS) aimed to provide valid information on population and health outcomes to monitor progress in achieving national priorities and health programs and to assist policy makers to design effective strategies for improving health outcomes and equity in access to care. Methods: A cross-sectional multi-stage stratified cluster-random survey is conducted through face-to-face household interviews. The sampling frame is developed using Iran's 2006 population and housing census. Provincial samples ranging are from a minimum of 400 households per province to 6400 households in Tehran province. Cluster size is 10 households. The target sample includes 3096 clusters: 2187 clusters in urban and 909 clusters in rural areas. IrMIDHS instruments include three questionnaires: Household questionnaire, women aged 15-54 questionnaire, children under five questionnaire, supervision and quality assessment checklists and data collection sheets and standard weight and height measurement tools for under-five children. A cascading decentralized training method is used for training data collection and supervision teams. Quality assurance procedures are defined for the five steps of conducting the survey including: Sampling, training data collection and training teams, survey implementation, data entry and analysis. A multi-layer supervision and monitoring procedure is established. All the questionnaires are double entered. Conclusions: IrMIDHS will provide valuable data for policymakers in Iran. Designing and implementation of the study involve contributions from academics as well as program managers and policy makers. The collaborative nature of the study may facilitate better usage of its results. PMID:24932396

  14. Multiple uses of indicators and indices in cumulative effects assessment and management

    SciTech Connect

    Canter, L.W.; Atkinson, S.F.

    2011-09-15

    Both environmental indicators and multi-metric indices are useful for describing baseline conditions and qualitatively predicting the cumulative consequences of multiple actions. Several examples and case studies associated with indicators and/or indices are presented herein. They can be easily modified for usage in CEAM. Habitat suitability models reflect special indices related to habitat needs and quality for specific species or broad habitat types. Such models have been used to address direct and indirect effects, and with some modification, they can be also used to address cumulative effects of multiple actions. This review has indicated that there are numerous examples of such tools which have been or could be used in both EIA and CEAM. Some key lessons are: (1) in conducting CEAM studies, it is useful to think from the mindset that 'I am the VEC or indicator, and what is my historical and current condition and how have I, or will I, be affected by multiple past, present, and future actions?'; (2) due to the likely absence of detailed information on future actions, the described tools can still be used to 'predict' future conditions by focusing on qualitative up-or-down changes in individual indicators or indices with their aggregated displays; and (3) numerous regional and site-specific tools are currently available, with one example being indices of biological integrity for specific watersheds and water bodies. Such tools, even though they may not have been developed for CEAM usage, can certainly benefit CEAM studies and practice. Finally, usage of selected and appropriate tools as described herein can aid in conducting science-based, systematic, and documentable CEAM studies.

  15. Indicators of Cellular and Developmental Disorders in Multiple Primary Cancers.

    PubMed

    Redzović, Arnela; Dintinjana, Renata Dobrila; Nacinović, Antica Duletić

    2016-04-01

    In human organism development is a very complex and highly regulated system that enables the functional balance of each organ in a whole body. Disorders and tumor micro-environment weaken host immune system that is not able to recognize the tumor as a unknown body and fight against its uncontrollable forces. Tumor avoids the immune system in a way that promotes immunosuppression and orientation cytokine production towards Th2 immune responses which are responsible for infection appearances. Some of infectious agents (viruses) can cause oncogene activation and inhibition of tumor suppressor genes. It is also known that oncology treatment can be detrimental to the host immune system. The drugs or radiation can activate different signaling pathways which lead to a vicious circle from which there is no return. Experimental models of tumor biology and molecular events in vivo are patients who have multiple primary cancers (MPC) diagnosed during life. Such patients confirm the complexity of disorders that occur in the cell and explain all the influences and contributions to developmental tumor cascade. PMID:27301239

  16. Early sexual initiation and multiple sexual partners among Vietnamese women: analysis from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Son, Dinh Thai; Oh, Juhwan; Heo, Jongho; Van Huy, Nguyen; Van Minh, Hoang; Choi, Sugy; Hoat, Luu Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Under current HIV transmission mechanisms operating in Vietnam, women are seen as victims of their male partners. Having multiple sexual partners is one of the well-known risk factors for HIV infection. However, little is known about women's risky sexual behaviour and their vulnerability to HIV in Vietnam. This study aims to explore association between early sexual initiation and the number of lifetime sexual partners in Vietnamese women. Although the Vietnamese culture is socially conservative in this area, identifying women's risky sexual behaviour is important for the protection of women at risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. Design A total of 8,791 women, who reported having had sexual intercourse, were included in this analysis of data from the 2011 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in Vietnam. Data were collected using two-stage strata sampling, first at the national level and second across six geographical regions (n=8,791). Multivariable logistic regressions describe association between early initiation of a sexual activity and lifetime multiple sexual partners. Results Early sexual intercourse was significantly associated with having lifetime multiple sexual partners. Women who were aged 19 or younger at first sexual intercourse were over five times more likely to have multiple sexual partners, compared with women whose first sexual intercourse was after marriage; aged 10–14 years (OR=5.9; 95% CI=1.9–18.8) at first intercourse; and aged 15–19 years (OR=5.4; 95% CI=4.0–7.2) at first intercourse. There was significant association with having multiple sexual partners for women of lower household wealth and urban residence, but the association with educational attainment was not strong. Conclusions The study results call for health and education policies to encourage the postponement of early sexual activity in young Vietnamese women as protection against risky sexual behaviour later in life. PMID:26950566

  17. Calls for Multiple Indices Incorporating Multiculturalism in Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Dong-gwi

    2005-01-01

    This reaction evaluates three content analyses that investigated separate aspects of research articles published in major counseling psychology journals: (a) institutional research productivity, (b) use of structural equation modeling, and (c) use of theory-driven research. The evaluation focuses on the adequacy of indices used in the content…

  18. Learning about Locomotion Patterns: Effective Use of Multiple Pictures and Motion-Indicating Arrows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imhof, Birgit; Scheiter, Katharina; Edelmann, Jorg; Gerjets, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how enriching visualizations with arrows indicating the motion of objects may help in conveying dynamic information: Multiple static-simultaneous visualizations with motion-indicating arrows were compared with either multiple visualizations without arrows or a single visualization with arrows. Seventy-one students were…

  19. Convergent Evidence Scaling for Multiple Assessment Indicators: Conceptual Issues, Applications, and Technical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, R. T.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present Convergent Evidence Scaling (CES) as an emergent method for combining data from multiple assessment indicators. The CES method combines single-case assessment data by converging data gathered across multiple persons, settings, or measures, thereby providing an overall criterion-referenced outcome on which…

  20. A New Measurement Equivalence Technique Based on Latent Class Regression as Compared with Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Jamshid; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi; Jafari, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Background: Measurement equivalence is an essential prerequisite for making valid comparisons in mental health questionnaires across groups. In most methods used for assessing measurement equivalence, which is known as Differential Item Functioning (DIF), latent variables are assumed to be continuous. Objective: To compare a new method called Latent Class Regression (LCR) designed for discrete latent variable with the multiple indicators multiple cause (MIMIC) as a continuous latent variable technique to assess the measurement equivalence of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), which is a cross deferent subgroup of Iranian nurses. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 among 771 nurses working in the hospitals of Fars and Bushehr provinces of southern Iran. To identify the Minor Psychiatric Disorders (MPD), the nurses completed self-report GHQ-12 questionnaires and sociodemographic questions. Two uniform-DIF detection methods, LCR and MIMIC, were applied for comparability when the GHQ-12 score was assumed to be discrete and continuous, respectively. Results: The result of fitting LCR with 2 classes indicated that 27.4% of the nurses had MPD. Gender was identified as an influential factor of the level of MPD.LCR and MIMIC agree with detection of DIF and DIF-free items by gender, age, education and marital status in 83.3, 100.0, 91.7 and 83.3% cases, respectively. Conclusions: The results indicated that the GHQ-12 is to a great degree, an invariant measure for the assessment of MPD among nurses. High convergence between the two methods suggests using the LCR approach in cases of discrete latent variable, e.g. GHQ-12 and adequate sample size. PMID:27482129

  1. Microsatellites indicate a high frequency of multiple paternity in Apodemus (Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Baker, R J; Makova, K D; Chesser, R K

    1999-01-01

    Microsatellites were employed to estimate frequency of multiple paternity litters of two species of mice (genus Apodemus): striped field mouse (A. agrarius), and wood mouse (A. sylvaticus). Ten pregnant females of A. agrarius and six of A. sylvaticus were collected from natural populations in the northern Ukraine and analysed with 11 and nine microsatellite loci, respectively. Multiple paternity was indicated in eight of 10 litters in A. agrarius and in three of six litters in A. sylvaticus. Multiple paternity was documented at several loci (ranging from two to 10). In two cases (A. agrarius), three males were estimated to have fathered the litter. PMID:12187947

  2. Vascular Multiplicity Should Not Be a Contra-Indication for Live Kidney Donation and Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    van Bruggen, Mark; Kimenai, Hendrikus J. A. N.; Tran, Thi C. K.; Terkivatan, Türkan; Betjes, Michiel G. H.; IJzermans, Jan N. M.; Dor, Frank J. M. F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether vascular multiplicity should be considered as contraindication and therefore ‘extended donor criterion’ is still under debate. Methods Data from all live kidney donors from 2006–2013 (n = 951) was retrospectively reviewed. Vascular anatomy as imaged by MRA, CTA or other modalities was compared with intraoperative findings. Furthermore, the influence of vascular multiplicity on outcome of donors and recipients was studied. Results In 237 out of 951 donors (25%), vascular multiplicity was present. CTA had the highest accuracy levels regarding vascular anatomy assessment. Regarding outcome of donors with vascular multiplicity, warm ischemia time (WIT) and skin-to-skin time were significantly longer if arterial multiplicity (AM) was present (5.1 vs. 4.0 mins and 202 vs. 178 mins). Skin-to-skin time was significantly longer, and complication rates were higher in donors with venous multiplicity (203 vs. 180 mins and 17.2% vs. 8.4%). Outcome of renal transplant recipients showed a significantly increased WIT (30 vs. 26.7 minutes), higher rate of DGF (13.9% vs. 6.9%) and lower rate of BPAR (6.9% vs. 13.9%) in patients receiving a kidney with AM compared to kidneys with singular anatomy. Conclusions We conclude that vascular multiplicity should not be a contra-indication, since it has little impact on clinical outcome in the donor as well as in renal transplant recipients. PMID:27077904

  3. Multiple Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... is called multiple pregnancy . If more than one egg is released during the menstrual cycle and each ... fraternal twins (or more). When a single fertilized egg splits, it results in multiple identical embryos. This ...

  4. Multiple myeloma

    MedlinePlus

    Plasma cell dyscrasia; Plasma cell myeloma; Malignant plasmacytoma; Plasmacytoma of bone; Myeloma - multiple ... Multiple myeloma most commonly causes: Low red blood cell count ( anemia ), which can lead to fatigue and ...

  5. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the ... attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Multiple sclerosis affects women more than men. It often begins ...

  6. Single and Multiple Indicators of Physical Attractiveness and Psychosocial Behaviors among Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Daniel F.; Lerner, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    Examined relations among several indicators of physical attractiveness (PA): height, weight, and triceps skinfold thickness. Appraised whether multiple PA indicators accounted for more variation in measures of psychosocial functioning than did single PA indexes. Facial attractiveness was the most frequent statistically significant predictor of…

  7. Finger Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simanihuruk, Mudin

    2011-01-01

    Multiplication facts are difficult to teach. Therefore many researchers have put a great deal of effort into finding multiplication strategies. Sherin and Fuson (2005) provided a good survey paper on the multiplication strategies research area. Kolpas (2002), Rendtorff (1908), Dabell (2001), Musser (1966) and Markarian (2009) proposed the finger…

  8. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multiple Sclerosis Information Page Condensed from Multiple Sclerosis: Hope Through ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Multiple Sclerosis? An unpredictable disease of the central nervous system, ...

  9. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  10. How teams use indicators for quality improvement - a multiple-case study on the use of multiple indicators in multidisciplinary breast cancer teams.

    PubMed

    Gort, Marjan; Broekhuis, Manda; Regts, Gerdien

    2013-11-01

    A crucial issue in healthcare is how multidisciplinary teams can use indicators for quality improvement. Such teams have increasingly become the core component in both care delivery and in many quality improvement methods. This study aims to investigate the relationships between (1) team factors and the way multidisciplinary teams use indicators for quality improvement, and (2) both team and process factors and the intended results. An in-depth, multiple-case study was conducted in the Netherlands in 2008 involving four breast cancer teams using six structure, process and outcome indicators. The results indicated that the process of using indicators involves several stages and activities. Two teams applied a more intensive, active and interactive approach as they passed through these stages. These teams were perceived to have achieved good results through indicator use compared to the other two teams who applied a simple control approach. All teams experienced some difficulty in integrating the new formal control structure, i.e. measuring and managing performance, in their operational task, and in using their 'new' managerial task to decide as a team what and how to improve. Our findings indicate the presence of a network of relationships between team factors, the controllability and actionability of indicators, the indicator-use process, and the intended results.

  11. Child Sexual Abuse and Adult Romantic Adjustment: Comparison of Single- and Multiple-Indicator Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godbout, Natacha; Sabourin, Stephane; Lussier, Yvan

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the usefulness of single- and multiple-indicator strategies in a model examining the role of child sexual abuse (CSA) to predict later marital satisfaction through attachment and psychological distress. The sample included 1,092 women and men from a nonclinical population in cohabiting or marital relationships. The single-item…

  12. Gender and Perceived Illness Severity: Differential Indicators of Employment Concerns for Adults with Multiple Sclerosis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessler, Richard T.; Turner, Ronna C.; Robertson, Judith L.; Rumrill,Phillip D.

    2005-01-01

    Although research has indicated a link between gender and perceived illness severity and the employment status of people with multiple sclerosis (MS), it has not addressed questions regarding the relationship between those variables and specific types of employment concerns. In this study, a sample of 1,310 adults with MS replied to a mail survey…

  13. Difficulty and Discriminating Indices of Three-Multiple Choice Tests Using the Confidence Scoring Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omirin, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    The study investigated the comparison of the difficulty and discrimination incides of three multiple choice tests using the confidence scoring procedure (CSP). The study was also set to determine whether or not the difficulty and discrimination indices would be improved, if the tests were scored by the confidence scoring procedure. Two null…

  14. A Statistical Analysis of Infrequent Events on Multiple-Choice Tests that Indicate Probable Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundermann, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    A statistical analysis of multiple-choice answers is performed to identify anomalies that can be used as evidence of student cheating. The ratio of exact errors in common (EEIC: two students put the same wrong answer for a question) to differences (D: two students get different answers) was found to be a good indicator of cheating under a wide…

  15. Human Health Risk Implications of Multiple Sources of Faecal Indicator Bacteria in a Recreational Waterbody

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluate the influence of multiple sources of faecal indicator bacteria in recreational water bodies on potential human health risk by considering waters impacted by human and animal sources, human and non-pathogenic sources, and animal and non-pathogenic sources. We illustrat...

  16. UNAIDS 'multiple sexual partners' core indicator: promoting sexual networks to reduce potential biases.

    PubMed

    Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Emina, Jacques B O; Sankoh, Osman

    2014-01-01

    UNAIDS proposed a set of core indicators for monitoring changes in the worldwide AIDS epidemic. This paper explores the validity and effectiveness of the 'multiple sexual partners' core indicator, which is only partially captured with current available data. The paper also suggests an innovative approach for collecting more informative data that can be used to provide an accurate measure of the UNAIDS's 'multiple sexual partners' core indicator. Specifically, the paper addresses three major limitations associated with the indicator when it is measured with respondents' sexual behaviors. First, the indicator assumes that a person's risk of contracting HIV/AIDS/STIs is merely a function of his/her own sexual behavior. Second, the indicator does not account for a partner's sexual history, which is very important in assessing an individual's risk level. Finally, the 12-month period used to define a person's risks can be misleading, especially because HIV/AIDS theoretically has a period of latency longer than a year. The paper concludes that, programmatically, improvements in data collection are a top priority for reducing the observed bias in the 'multiple sexual partners' core indicator.

  17. Representing Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harries, Tony; Barmby, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors wish to explore the use of visual representations in facilitating the understanding of multiplication. In doing so, they examine the different aspects of multiplication that they can access through different representations. In addition, they draw on a study that they have been carrying out looking at pupils' actual use…

  18. Applying a Multiple Group Causal Indicator Modeling Framework to the Reading Comprehension Skills of Third, Seventh, and Tenth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Wagner, Richard K.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates the utility of applying a causal indicator modeling framework to investigate important predictors of reading comprehension in third, seventh, and tenth grade students. The results indicated that a 4-factor multiple indicator multiple indicator cause (MIMIC) model of reading comprehension provided adequate fit at each grade…

  19. Multiple homicides.

    PubMed

    Copeland, A R

    1989-09-01

    A study of multiple homicides or multiple deaths involving a solitary incident of violence by another individual was performed on the case files of the Office of the Medical Examiner of Metropolitan Dade County in Miami, Florida, during 1983-1987. A total of 107 multiple homicides were studied: 88 double, 17 triple, one quadruple, and one quintuple. The 236 victims were analyzed regarding age, race, sex, cause of death, toxicologic data, perpetrator, locale of the incident, and reason for the incident. This article compares this type of slaying with other types of homicide including those perpetrated by serial killers. Suggestions for future research in this field are offered.

  20. Therapeutic effects of multiple nutritional supplements on the hypertensive indices of cardiovascular distress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okereke, Emmanuel O.

    2000-09-01

    This quasi-experiment study examined the therapeutic effects of multiple nutritional supplements on the hypertensive indices of cardiovascular distress. By utilizing drug interventions that reduced cardiovascular distress through changes in the hypertensive indices, previous studies have shown that improvements in life expectancy, lowering of health care costs in later years, and reduction in all-cause mortality were achieved. In fact, individuals without risk factors or with low risk factors for cardiovascular disease in young adulthood or middle age were healthier, had a greater life expectancy, and incurred lower health care costs in later years. The hypertensive indices of interest include elevated heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (Ps), diastolic blood pressure (PD), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), pulse pressure (PP), and mechanical disadvantages of the heart MDH. Mechanical disadvantage of the heart is a term that has been developed for the purposes of this study. The alternative hypotheses for this study proposed to show a significant change in the relevant hypertensive indices of cardiovascular distress in volunteers after a minimum of 45 days treatment with multiple nutritional supplements. The target population was all middle-aged (30 to 65 years) volunteer hypertensives in Nigeria (West Africa), who were randomly assigned to either the experimental group or control group, controlling for individuals who were on any form of medication, smokers, alcoholics, and those who were pregnant or on contraceptives. Treatment involved multiple doses of the various vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, and accessory nutrients in their complementary combinations that influence various levels of cardiovascular function. After 45 days of treatment, the differences between the mean sores of the experimental group and control group on Ps, PD, MABP, and PP were found to be statistically significant, at p ≤ .05 cut-off level for

  1. ( sup 14 C)urea and sup 58 Co-EDTA as reference indicators in hepatic multiple indicator dilution studies

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, K.S.; Barker, F. III; Schwab, A.J.; Goresky, C.A. )

    1990-07-01

    The space distribution and the processes underlying uptake of tracer substrate may be appraised by the multiple indicator dilution technique, after the simultaneous injection of noneliminated vascular ({sup 51}Cr-labeled red blood cells), extracellular ({sup 125}I-labeled albumin and ({sup 14}C)sucrose for high and low molecular weight interstitial space, respectively), and cellular ({sup 3}H{sub 2}O) indicators and tracer substrate. When tracer substrates and/or their metabolites containing {sup 14}C or {sup 3}H labels are being studied, it becomes necessary to find substitutions for the similarly labeled noneliminated indicators. In red blood cell-perfused rat livers, {sup 58}Co-EDTA is found to be a good replacement for the low molecular weight interstitial reference; it has a space distribution indistinguishable from that for ({sup 14}C)sucrose. ({sup 14}C)urea and {sup 3}H{sub 2}O, which distribute similarly in red blood cells, have similar outflow dilution profiles. With corrections for minor deviations in recovery (a ratio of 0.936 +/- 0.024 (SD)) and transit time (a ratio of 0.962 +/- 0.008 (SD)), the cellular water space can be closely approximated from the ({sup 14}C)-urea curve. 58Co-EDTA and ({sup 14}C)urea are reasonable substitutes for ({sup 14}C)sucrose and {sup 3}H{sub 2}O, respectively, in multiple indicator dilution liver perfusion studies for investigating transfer and removal characteristics of tracer substrates.

  2. Using Indicators of Multiple Deprivation to Demonstrate the Spatial Legacy of Apartheid in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Michael; Wright, Gemma

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a spatial analysis of multiple deprivation in South Africa and demonstrates that the most deprived areas in the country are located in the rural former homeland areas. The analysis is undertaken using the datazone level South African Index of Multiple Deprivation which was constructed from the 2001 Census. Datazones are a new…

  3. Multiple Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  4. Chemotherapy-Induced Changes in Cardiac Capillary Permeability Measured by Fluorescent Multiple Indicator Dilution

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Fernandez, Alicia; Carvajal, Denny A.; Lei, Tingjun; McGoron, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Anthracyclines cause severe irreversible cardiac toxicity. The study of changes in cardiac permeability with chemotherapy could enhance the understanding of mechanisms behind cardiac damage, and provide useful information to evaluate anthracycline cardiotoxicity. Thirty-six rats (12 Sprague-Dawley, 12 Wistar, 12 Fischer-344) were randomly assigned to control (n= 21) or doxorubicin (n = 15), and injected i.p. with a cumulative dose of 18 mg/kg doxorubicin in saline (vehicle) or vehicle over 12 days. Echocardiography was performed at baseline and on day 11. An isolated heart experiment was done on day 12 to obtain perfused heart pressure values, and to measure cardiac capillary permeability using a Texas Red/sodium fluorescein multiple indicator dilution method. Control animals had significantly lower average permeability-surface-area-products (0.035±0.013 cm3/s) than doxorubicin animals (0.066±0.023 cm3/s), PSP±SD, p<0.001. These permeability changes correlated with significant functional changes. There was a significant decline in cardiac function with a deleterious effect of chemotherapy on fractional shortening (p<0.001), left ventricular developed pressure (p<0.001), contractility (p<0.001), and relaxation (p=0.02). Based on our results, cardiac capillary permeability changes can be detected after in vivo chemotherapy treatment using our fluorescent multiple indicator dilution technique, and may provide valuable information in evaluating cardiotoxicity of novel drugs. PMID:25224075

  5. Multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Boster, Aaron L.; Racke, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Preliminary studies have suggested that a high salt diet may play a role in the development of autoimmune disease and possibly multiple sclerosis (MS). Promising clinical trial results for 2 new therapies for MS have been reported. Dimethyl fumarate, also known by its investigational name BG-12, became the third oral disease-modifying therapy for MS to be Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved in March 2013. Interestingly, dimethyl fumarate served as the active compound used for the treatment of psoriasis for decades. Alemtuzumab remains under investigation and is not currently FDA-approved for treatment of MS. Other drugs currently approved for alternative indications are being investigated for use in MS. Additionally, an investigation of alternative dosing strategies for glatiramer acetate suggests that patients may benefit from a higher dose formulation and less frequent medication administration. Advances in basic science research have identified another potential autoantigenic target in MS, KIR4.1, which may provide further insight into MS pathophysiology. PMID:24175156

  6. Myeloma (multiple)

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Multiple myeloma is the most common primary cancer of the bones in adults, representing about 1% of all cancers diagnosed in the US in 2004, and 14% of all haematological malignancies. In the UK, multiple myeloma accounts for 1% of all new cases of cancer diagnosed each year. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatment in people with asymptomatic early stage multiple myeloma (stage I)? What are the effects of first-line treatments in people with advanced stage multiple myeloma (stages II and III)? What are the effect of salvage treatments, or supportive therapy, in people with advanced stage multiple myeloma (stages II and III)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to November 2004 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 71 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: allogenic transplant (non-myeloablative), autologous stem cell transplant (early or late transplantation, double or single, purging of), bisphosphonates, bone marrow stem cells, bortezomib, chemotherapy (combination, conventional dose, intermediate dose plus stem cell rescue, high-dose plus stem cell rescue), combination chemotherapy plus corticosteroids, deferred treatment (in stage I disease), early chemotherapy plus corticosteroids (in stage I disease), epoetin alpha, first-line treatments, infection prophylaxis, interferon, maintenance therapy (in advanced multiple myeloma), melphalan (normal dose

  7. Comparison of the multiple-sample means with composite sample results for fecal indicator bacteria by quantitative PCR and culture.

    PubMed

    Converse, Reagan R; Wymer, Larry J; Dufour, Alfred P; Wade, Timothy J

    2012-10-01

    Few studies have addressed the efficacy of composite sampling for measuring indicator bacteria by quantitative PCR (qPCR). We compared results from composited samples with multiple-sample means for culture- and qPCR-based water quality monitoring. Results from composited samples for both methods were similarly correlated to multiple-sample means and predicted criteria exceedances equally.

  8. Sleep stage classification by body movement index and respiratory interval indices using multiple radar sensors.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Masayuki; Sasaki, Noriyuki; Suzumura, Kazuki; Matsui, Takemi

    2015-01-01

    Disturbed sleep has become more common in recent years. To increase the quality of sleep, undergoing sleep observation has gained interest as an attempt to resolve possible problems. In this paper, we evaluate a non-restrictive and non-contact method for classifying real-time sleep stages and report on its potential applications. The proposed system measures body movements and respiratory signals of a sleeping person using a multiple 24-GHz microwave radar placed beneath the mattress. We determined a body-movement index to identify wake and sleep periods, and fluctuation indices of respiratory intervals to identify sleep stages. For identifying wake and sleep periods, the rate agreement between the body-movement index and the reference result using the R&K method was 83.5 ± 6.3%. One-minute standard deviations, one of the fluctuation indices of respiratory intervals, had a high degree of contribution and showed a significant difference across the three sleep stages (REM, LIGHT, and DEEP; p <; 0.001). Although the degree that the 5-min fractal dimension contributed-another fluctuation index-was not as high as expected, its difference between REM and DEEP sleep was significant (p <; 0.05). We applied a linear discriminant function to classify wake or sleep periods and to estimate the three sleep stages. The accuracy was 79.3% for classification and 71.9% for estimation. This is a novel system for measuring body movements and body-surface movements that are induced by respiration and for measuring high sensitivity pulse waves using multiple radar signals. This method simplifies measurement of sleep stages and may be employed at nursing care facilities or by the general public to increase sleep quality.

  9. Sleep stage classification by body movement index and respiratory interval indices using multiple radar sensors.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Masayuki; Sasaki, Noriyuki; Suzumura, Kazuki; Matsui, Takemi

    2015-01-01

    Disturbed sleep has become more common in recent years. To increase the quality of sleep, undergoing sleep observation has gained interest as an attempt to resolve possible problems. In this paper, we evaluate a non-restrictive and non-contact method for classifying real-time sleep stages and report on its potential applications. The proposed system measures body movements and respiratory signals of a sleeping person using a multiple 24-GHz microwave radar placed beneath the mattress. We determined a body-movement index to identify wake and sleep periods, and fluctuation indices of respiratory intervals to identify sleep stages. For identifying wake and sleep periods, the rate agreement between the body-movement index and the reference result using the R&K method was 83.5 ± 6.3%. One-minute standard deviations, one of the fluctuation indices of respiratory intervals, had a high degree of contribution and showed a significant difference across the three sleep stages (REM, LIGHT, and DEEP; p <; 0.001). Although the degree that the 5-min fractal dimension contributed-another fluctuation index-was not as high as expected, its difference between REM and DEEP sleep was significant (p <; 0.05). We applied a linear discriminant function to classify wake or sleep periods and to estimate the three sleep stages. The accuracy was 79.3% for classification and 71.9% for estimation. This is a novel system for measuring body movements and body-surface movements that are induced by respiration and for measuring high sensitivity pulse waves using multiple radar signals. This method simplifies measurement of sleep stages and may be employed at nursing care facilities or by the general public to increase sleep quality. PMID:26738053

  10. Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Common manifestations include paresthesias, diplopia, loss of vision, numbness or weakness of the limbs, bowel or bladder dysfunction, spasticity, ataxia, fatigue, and mental changes. Four main patterns of MS are recognized: relapsing remitting, primary progressive, secondary progressive, and progressive relapsing. The cause of MS is unknown, although it appears to be an autoimmune disease. Much of what is known about MS has been learned from an animal model of the disease, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. PMID:24381825

  11. Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Schiess, Nicoline; Calabresi, Peter A

    2016-08-01

    It is estimated that there are 300,000 people with multiple sclerosis (MS) in the United States and 2.3 million worldwide. Each MS attack can affect function in cognitive, emotional, motoric, sensory, or visual domains. Patients are often struck in the prime of their lives as they attempt to move forward with career, and family. Since the previous 2010 Seminars in Neurology Pearls and Pitfalls issue, the world of MS has drastically changed and advanced. Here the authors address the ever-changing MS world in both treatment options and diagnostics, covering easily missed differential diagnoses, newly available immunomodulatory therapy, and the challenges of safely treating patients. PMID:27643903

  12. Multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, S. Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a clonal plasma cell malignancy that accounts for slightly more than 10% of all hematologic cancers. In this paper, we present a historically focused review of the disease, from the description of the first case in 1844 to the present. The evolution of drug therapy and stem-cell transplantation for the treatment of myeloma, as well as the development of new agents, is discussed. We also provide an update on current concepts of diagnosis and therapy, with an emphasis on how treatments have emerged from a historical perspective after certain important discoveries and the results of experimental studies. PMID:18332230

  13. Fingolimod for multiple sclerosis and emerging indications: appropriate patient selection, safety precautions, and special considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ayzenberg, Ilya; Hoepner, Robert; Kleiter, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Fingolimod (FTY720), an immunotherapeutic drug targeting the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor, is a widely used medication for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Apart from the pivotal Phase III trials demonstrating efficacy against placebo and interferon-β-1a once weekly, sufficient clinical data are now available to assess its real-world efficacy and safety profile. Approved indications of fingolimod differ between countries. This discrepancy, to some extent, reflects the intermediate position of fingolimod in the expanding lineup of MS medications. With individualization of therapy, appropriate patient selection gets more important. We discuss various scenarios for fingolimod use in relapsing-remitting MS and their pitfalls: as first-line therapy, as escalation therapy after failure of previous immunotherapies, and as de-escalation therapy following highly potent immunotherapies. Potential side effects such as bradycardia, infections, macular edema, teratogenicity, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy as well as appropriate safety precautions are outlined. Disease reactivation has been described upon fingolimod cessation; therefore, patients should be closely monitored for MS activity for several months after stopping fingolimod. Finally, we discuss preclinical and clinical data indicating neuroprotective effects of fingolimod, which might open the way to future indications such as stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26929636

  14. Effects of whole body vibration on hormonal & functional indices in patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Eftekhari, Elham; Etemadifar, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease, which affects the patients’ mobility, and exercise training is considered to be beneficial for these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 10 wk of low intensity exercise and whole body vibration (WBV) training on fatigue, quality of life, functional and physical indices, and serum levels of ghrelin, leptin, and testosterone in MS patients. Methods: Thirty four MS patients with mild to moderate disability were recruited and randomly divided into two groups, the training group (n=17) and control group (n=17). Patients in the training group did low intensity exercise and WBV training programme three times a week for 10 wk. The control group continued their routine life. Intended variables like expanded disability status scale (EDSS), fatigue, quality of life, functional and physical indices consisted of balance, walking speed, functional mobility, functional muscle endurance, and walking endurance, and serum levels of ghrelin, leptin, and testosterone were measured before and after the protocol. Results: Thirty subjects completed the study (23 females, 7 males; mean age =38.80 ± 9.50 yr). Statistical analysis demonstrated that EDSS in the WBV training group was significantly decreased (P=0.01), balance (P=0.01), and walking endurance significantly increased (P=0.01) in MS patients (P<0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: The results suggest that low intensity exercise and WBV training have some beneficial impact on functional and physical indices of MS patients. PMID:26609037

  15. An array sensor consisting of a single indicator with multiple concentrations and its application in ion discrimination.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Jia, Mingyan; Askim, Jon R; Zhang, Yu; Duan, Chunfeng; Guan, Yafeng; Feng, Liang

    2014-12-18

    Optical sensor arrays typically require a large set of chemically responsive colorants to enhance discrimination capability. Conversely, we have proven that by using multiple concentrations of one indicator, the discrimination of various analytes could be realized.

  16. An array sensor consisting of a single indicator with multiple concentrations and its application in ion discrimination.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Jia, Mingyan; Askim, Jon R; Zhang, Yu; Duan, Chunfeng; Guan, Yafeng; Feng, Liang

    2014-12-18

    Optical sensor arrays typically require a large set of chemically responsive colorants to enhance discrimination capability. Conversely, we have proven that by using multiple concentrations of one indicator, the discrimination of various analytes could be realized. PMID:25350153

  17. [Multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Abe, Masahiro; Miki, Hirokazu; Nakamura, Shingen

    2016-03-01

    Owing to the positive clinical benefits obtained with new agents, complete remission (CR) can be used as a surrogate for overall survival, and should be achieved. Although multiple myeloma is a heterogeneous disease in terms of myeloma cell- and patient-related risk factors, patients should receive the most effective combination therapy based on proteasome inhibitors and/or immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) as backbone medication irrespective of the risks encountered in the setting of induction therapy ("one-size-fits-all" therapy), followed by consolidation/maintenance therapy to achieve CR with the ultimate goal of extended survival. Myeloma-defining biomarkers have been established to identify high-risk smoldering myeloma requiring treatment. The development of salvage treatments yielding better outcomes for relapsed/refractory myeloma is urgently needed. Upcoming novel molecular targeting agents with different modes of action and immunotherapeutic agents will be integrated into myeloma treatment regimens with a great therapeutic impact, and further evolution of the treatment paradigm for multiple myeloma is eagerly anticipated. PMID:27076236

  18. MULTIPLE TIDAL DISRUPTIONS AS AN INDICATOR OF BINARY SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Wegg, Christopher; Nate Bode, J.

    2011-09-01

    We find that the majority of systems hosting multiple tidal disruptions (TDs) are likely to contain hard binary supermassive black hole (SMBH) systems, and also show that the rates of these repeated events are high enough to be detected by the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) over its lifetime. Therefore, these multiple TD events provide a novel method for identifying SMBH binary systems with parsec to subparsec separations. The rates of TDs are investigated using simulations of non-interacting stars initially orbiting a primary SMBH and the potential of the model stellar cusp. The stars are then evolved forward in time and perturbed by a secondary SMBH inspiraling from the edge of the cusp to its stalling radius. We find with conservative magnitude estimates that the next-generation transient survey LSST should detect multiple TDs in approximately three galaxies over five years of observation, though less conservative estimates could increase this rate by an order of magnitude.

  19. Essential Indicators Identifying Chronic Inorganic Mercury Intoxication: Pooled Analysis across Multiple Cross-Sectional Studies

    PubMed Central

    Doering, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background The continuous exposure to inorganic mercury vapour in artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) areas leads to chronic health problems. It is therefore essential to have a quick, but reliable risk assessing tool to diagnose chronic inorganic mercury intoxication. This study re-evaluates the state-of-the-art toolkit to diagnose chronic inorganic mercury intoxication by analysing data from multiple pooled cross-sectional studies. The primary research question aims to reduce the currently used set of indicators without affecting essentially the capability to diagnose chronic inorganic mercury intoxication. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on established biomonitoring exposure limits for mercury in blood, hair, urine and urine adjusted by creatinine, where the biomonitoring exposure limits are compared to thresholds most associated with chronic inorganic mercury intoxication in artisanal small-scale gold mining. Methods Health data from miners and community members in Indonesia, Tanzania and Zimbabwe were obtained as part of the Global Mercury Project and pooled into one dataset together with their biomarkers mercury in urine, blood and hair. The individual prognostic impact of the indicators on the diagnosis of mercury intoxication is quantified using logistic regression models. The selection is performed by a stepwise forward/backward selection. Different models are compared based on the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and Cohen`s kappa is used to evaluate the level of agreement between the diagnosis of mercury intoxication based on the currently used set of indicators and the result based on our reduced set of indicators. The sensitivity analysis of biomarker exposure limits of mercury is based on a sequence of chi square tests. Results The variable selection in logistic regression reduced the number of medical indicators from thirteen to ten in addition to the biomarkers. The estimated level of agreement using ten of thirteen medical

  20. [Multiple apheresis].

    PubMed

    Coffe, C

    2007-05-01

    Multiple apheresis makes it possible to obtain at least two labile blood components from a single donor using a cell separator. It can be either multicomponent apheresis leading to the preparation of at least two different blood component types or red blood cell apheresis providing two identical red blood cell concentrates. These techniques available in addition to whole blood donation, are modifying collection strategies in many Etablissements Français du Sang and will contribute to improve stock logistics in the future. In areas with insufficient stock, these procedures will help achieve blood component self-sufficiency. The author first describes the principle underlying different--current or future--techniques as well as their advantages and drawbacks. He finally addresses the potential impact of these processes on the evolution of blood collection and the advantages to be gained. PMID:17521944

  1. Adolescent Non-Involvement in Multiple Risk Behaviors: An Indicator of Successful Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Busseri, Michael A.; Bosacki, Sandra; Dupont, Diane; Marini, Zopito; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Sadava, Stan; Ward, Anthony; Woloshyn, Vera

    2007-01-01

    Based on the conceptualization of successful development as the joint maximization of desirable outcomes and minimization of undesirable outcomes (Baltes, 1997), the present study examined connections between adolescent non-involvement in multiple risk behaviors and positive developmental status. Results from a survey of 7290 high school students…

  2. Multiple Episodes of Recent Gully Activity Indicated by Gully Fan Stratigraphy in Eastern Promethei Terra, Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schon, S.; Head, J.; Fassett, C.

    2008-09-01

    outer crater (0.121 compared to 0.073), consistent with young Martian craters [17]. Both the outer and inner craters have classically-defined gullies, preferentially developed on their pole-facing walls. Polygons are observed in gully alcoves of the outer crater, but not in alcoves of the inner crater, implying a difference in substrate or thermal cycling time [18]. The outer crater is floored by ejecta from the inner crater and mantling deposits. There is no evidence of an underlying concentric crater fill deposit or other altered fill unit typical of older Amazonian altered craters [19]. The inner crater is floored by unconsolidated sediment and contains a small collection of dunes. No evidence of pits, hummocky texture or other sublimation features are observed indicating that the crater interior is not a periglacial terrain. We interpret the inner crater as younger than the most recent episode of mantling deposition (~0.4Ma) [20] due to the exposed spur and talus slope development on the equator-facing wall, a slope and orientation that preferentially preserves smooth mantle texture in this latitude regime [21]. One superposed crater (~45 mdiameter) is observed in HiRISE coverage. Using the technique of Hartmann and Quantin-Nataf [22], who dated Gratteri crater by counting small craters superposed on the floor, the inner crater is on the order of 100Ka. Based upon these observations and the relative proximity of secondary craters to the outer crater rim (making it unlikely they originated from the outer crater), the 7 km-diameter inner crater is the likely source of the rays and secondary craters of interest on the gully fan lobe. Acknowledgments: Special thanks to the Mars Recognisance Orbiter and HiRISE teams as well as the Odyssey and THEMIS teams. This research was funded by NASA. Conclusions This study has identified a gully system fan in Eastern Promethei Terra with morphology requiring multiple periods of activity for its construction. At least one lobe of

  3. Multiple indices method for real-time tsunami inundation forecast using a dense offshore observation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, N.; Aoi, S.; Hirata, K.; Suzuki, W.; Kunugi, T.; Nakamura, H.

    2015-12-01

    We started to develop a new methodology for real-time tsunami inundation forecast system (Aoi et al., 2015, this meeting) using densely offshore tsunami observations of the Seafloor Observation Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis (S-net), which is under construction along the Japan Trench (Kanazawa et al., 2012, JpGU; Uehira et al., 2015, IUGG). In our method, the most important concept is involving any type and/or form uncertainties in the tsunami forecast, which cannot be dealt with any of standard linear/nonlinear least square approaches. We first prepare a Tsunami Scenario Bank (TSB), which contains offshore tsunami waveforms at the S-net stations and tsunami inundation information calculated from any possible tsunami source. We then quickly select several acceptable tsunami scenarios that can explain offshore observations by using multiple indices and appropriate thresholds, after a tsunami occurrence. At that time, possible tsunami inundations coupled with selected scenarios are forecasted (Yamamoto et al., 2014, AGU). Currently, we define three indices: correlation coefficient and two variance reductions, whose L2-norm part is normalized either by observations or calculations (Suzuki et al., 2015, JpGU; Yamamoto et al., 2015, IUGG). In this study, we construct the TSB, which contains various tsunami source models prepared for the probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment in the Japan Trench region (Hirata et al., 2014, AGU). To evaluate the propriety of our method, we adopt the fault model based on the 2011 Tohoku earthquake as a pseudo "observation". We also calculate three indices using coastal maximum tsunami height distributions between observation and calculation. We then obtain the correlation between coastal and offshore indices. We notice that the index value of coastal maximum tsunami heights is closer to 1 than the index value of offshore waveforms, i.e., the coastal maximum tsunami height may be predictable within appropriate thresholds defined for

  4. Multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Massimo; Preziosa, Paolo; Rocca, Maria A

    2016-01-01

    Due to its sensitivity to the different multiple sclerosis (MS)-related abnormalities, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an established tool to diagnose MS and to monitor its evolution. MRI has been included in the diagnostic workup of patients with clinically isolated syndromes suggestive of MS, and ad hoc criteria have been proposed and are regularly updated. In patients with definite MS, the ability of conventional MRI techniques to explain patients' clinical status and progression of disability is still suboptimal. Several advanced MRI-based technologies have been applied to estimate overall MS burden in the different phases of the disease. Their use has allowed the heterogeneity of MS pathology in focal lesions, normal-appearing white matter and gray matter to be graded in vivo. Recently, additional features of MS pathology, including macrophage infiltration and abnormal iron deposition, have become quantifiable. All of this, combined with functional imaging techniques, is improving our understanding of the mechanisms associated with MS evolution. In the near future, the use of ultrahigh-field systems is likely to provide additional insight into disease pathophysiology. However, the utility of advanced MRI techniques in clinical trial monitoring and in assessing individual patients' response to treatment still needs to be assessed. PMID:27432676

  5. Dysregulated Class I histone deacetylases are indicators of poor prognosis in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Mithraprabhu, Sridurga; Kalff, Anna; Chow, Annie; Khong, Tiffany; Spencer, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) control gene expression through their ability to acetylate proteins, thereby influencing a diverse range of cellular functions. Class I HDAC (HDAC1–3 and 8) and HDAC6 are predominantly upregulated in malignancies and their altered expression in some cancers has a significant prognostic implication. The expression and prognostic consequence of dysregulated Class I HDAC and HDAC6, key players in multiple myeloma (MM), are unknown. This study hypothesized that HDAC are dysregulated in MM and patients with high expression have significantly poorer prognostic outcomes. Quantitative PCR for 11 HDAC (Class I, II, and IV) was performed in genetically heterogeneous human myeloma cell lines (HMCL) and primary MM and compared to normal plasma cells (PC). In HMCL, HDAC1–3 and 8 (Class I), and HDAC5 and HDAC10 (Class II) were significantly upregulated compared to normal PC. In primary MM, the median expression level of all of the HDAC, except HDAC1 and HDAC11, were elevated when compared to normal PC. Patients with higher levels of HDAC1–3, HDAC4, HDAC6, and HDAC11 transcripts demonstrated a significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS). Immunohistochemical staining for HDAC1 and HDAC6 on bone marrow trephines from a uniformly treated cohort of transplant eligible MM patients revealed that HDAC1 protein was detectable in most patients and that higher levels of MM cell HDAC1 protein expression (≥90 % versus ≤20 % MM cell positivity) correlated with both shorter PFS (P = 0 .07) and shorter overall survival (P = 0 .003). Conversely, while the majority of patients expressed HDAC6, there was no correlation between HDAC6 levels and patient outcome. Together, these results indicate that overexpression of Class I HDAC, particularly HDAC1, is associated with poor prognosis in MM. PMID:25482492

  6. Human health risk implications of multiple sources of faecal indicator bacteria in a recreational waterbody.

    PubMed

    Soller, Jeffrey A; Schoen, Mary E; Varghese, Arun; Ichida, Audrey M; Boehm, Alexandria B; Eftim, Sorina; Ashbolt, Nicholas J; Ravenscroft, John E

    2014-12-01

    We simulate the influence of multiple sources of enterococci (ENT) as faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in recreational water bodies on potential human health risk by considering waters impacted by human and animal sources, human and non-pathogenic sources, and animal and non-pathogenic sources. We illustrate that risks vary with the proportion of culturable ENT in water bodies derived from these sources and estimate corresponding ENT densities that yield the same level of health protection that the recreational water quality criteria in the United States seeks (benchmark risk). The benchmark risk is based on epidemiological studies conducted in water bodies predominantly impacted by human faecal sources. The key result is that the risks from mixed sources are driven predominantly by the proportion of the contamination source with the greatest ability to cause human infection (potency), not necessarily the greatest source(s) of FIB. Predicted risks from exposures to mixtures comprised of approximately 30% ENT from human sources were up to 50% lower than the risks expected from purely human sources when contamination is recent and ENT levels are at the current water quality criteria levels (35 CFU 100 mL(-1)). For human/non-pathogenic, human/gull, human/pig, and human/chicken faecal mixtures with relatively low human contribution, the predicted culturable enterococci densities that correspond to the benchmark risk are substantially greater than the current water quality criteria values. These findings are important because they highlight the potential applicability of site specific water quality criteria for waters that are predominantly un-impacted by human sources.

  7. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Cause (MIMIC) model of respiratory health and household factors in Chinese children: the seven Northeastern cities (SNEC) study.

    PubMed

    Dong, Guang-Hui; Qian, Zhengmin; Fu, Qiang; Wang, Jing; Trevathan, Edwin; Ma, Wenjun; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da; Ren, Wan-Hui; Ong, Kee-Hean; Ferguson, Tekeda Freeman; Riley, Erin; Simckes, Maayan

    2014-01-01

    In China, with the rapid economic development and improvement of living standards over the past few decades, the household living environment has shifted dramatically. The aim of the present study is to assess the impact of home environment factors on respiratory symptoms and asthma in Chinese children. Investigators analyzed data collected in the 25 districts from the seven Northeastern cities to examine health effects on respiratory symptoms and asthma in 31,049 children aged 2-14 years. Factor analysis was used to reduce 33 children's lifestyle and household variables to six new 'factor' variables. The multiple indicators multiple causes approach was used to examine the relationship between indoor air pollution and respiratory health status, controlling for covariates. Factor analyses generated six factor variables of potential household risk factors from an original list of 33 variables. The respiratory symptoms and asthma were significantly associated with the recent home renovation factor (estimate = 0.076, p < 0.001), pet ownership factor (estimate = 0.095, p < 0.001), environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure factor (estimate = 0.181, p < 0.001) and PVC-flooring factor (estimate = 0.031, p = 0.007). Home ventilation factor was not related to any respiratory condition (estimate = 0.028, p = 0.074). Independent respiratory health effects existed for multiple household environmental factors recent home renovation, pet ownership, ETS, and PVC-flooring. PMID:23440490

  8. Multiple System Atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multiple System Atrophy Information Page Condensed from Multiple System Atrophy ... Trials Organizations Publicaciones en Español What is Multiple System Atrophy? Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive ...

  9. Multiple sclerosis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - multiple sclerosis ... The following organizations provide information on multiple sclerosis : Multiple Sclerosis Foundation -- www.msfocus.org National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/multiple_sclerosis National ...

  10. An Enriched Teaching Program for Reducing Resistance and Indices of Unhappiness among Individuals with Profound Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Carolyn W.; Reid, Dennis H.; Rollyson, Jeannia H.; Passante, Susan C.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated an enriched teaching program for reducing resistance and indices of unhappiness displayed by 3 individuals with profound multiple disabilities during teaching sessions. The program involved presentation of preferred activities before, during, and after each teaching session, discontinuation of identified nonpreferred activities, and a…

  11. Using Multiple Calibration Indices in Order to Capture the Complex Picture of What Affects Students' Accuracy of Feeling of Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekaerts, Monique; Rozendaal, Jeroen S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study used multiple calibration indices to capture the complex picture of fifth graders' calibration of feeling of confidence in mathematics. Specifically, the effects of gender, type of mathematical problem, instruction method, and time of measurement (before and after problem solving) on calibration skills were investigated. Fourteen…

  12. Are maintenance and continuous therapies indicated for every patient with multiple myeloma?

    PubMed

    Musto, Pellegrino; Montefusco, Vittorio

    2016-08-01

    Maintenance therapy after autologous stem cell transplantation, as well as continuous regimens for older, transplant ineligible patients, are emerging as an effective strategy to control the minimal residual disease that persists after response to initial treatments and is the main cause of relapse in patients affected by multiple myeloma (MM). However, though such approaches have consistently demonstrated in clinical trials to be able to delay disease recurrence, thus improving progression-free survival and, at least in some studies, overall survival, the use of these long term therapies (LTTs) in the daily clinical practice is not uniformly applied and some questions remains unanswered. This article aims to provide a synthetic discussion of the most consistent data on novel agent-based LTTs in newly diagnosed MM, to recognize the best candidate for these treatments and to describe a landscape of their possible future application. PMID:27268855

  13. Impact of Melatonin on Motor, Cognitive and Neuroimaging Indices in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Roostaei, Tina; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Hajeaghaee, Sara; Gholipour, Taha; Togha, Mansoureh; Siroos, Bahaadin; Mansouri, Sepideh; Mohammadshirazi, Zahra; Aghazadeh Alasti, Maryam; Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-12-01

    A series of preclinical and clinical studies have shown the immunomodulatory effect of  melatonin, especially in the state of chronic inflammation. A double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial was designed to study the tolerability and efficacy of supplemental therapy with melatonin (3 mg/day) in comparison to placebo in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients receiving once weekly interferon beta. Patients were followed up for 12 months. Primary outcomes consisted of the number of relapses, change in Extended Disability Status Scale (EDSS), and the number and volume of new T2 and gadolinium-enhancing brain lesions. Secondary outcomes included change in performance on Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) as well as change in fatigue and depression. The outcomes were evaluated every three months. Twenty-six patients (13 in each group) were recruited in the study. All participants, except for one patient in the placebo group, completed the study. No patient reported serious adverse events. There was no significant difference either in primary or secondary outcomes between melatonin and placebo arm. However, a trend for beneficial effect was observed for melatonin on change in MSFC performance and the cognitive subscore of the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (p=0.05 and 0.006, respectively, not corrected for multiple comparisons). We found no significant effect for treatment with melatonin on measures of clinical and functional disability and development of brain lesions in our small sample-size study. Studies with higher statistical power and longer follow up are needed to further evaluate the potential immunomodulatory effect of melatonin in RRMS treatment.

  14. Ischemia modified albumin is an indicator of oxidative stress in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Ozgur; Ellidag, Hamit Yasar; Eren, Esin; Kurtulus, Fatma; Yaman, Aylin; Yılmaz, Necat

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Oligodendrocytes need iron in processes of energy generation and myelination. However, excessive levels of iron may exert iron induced oxidative stress and thus lead to tissue degeneration. Monitoring oxidative stress will be of paramount importance in follow-up of patients with many diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to measure total anti-oxidative status (TAS), total oxidative status (TOS) and ischemia modified albumin (IMA) in stable relapse remitting MS (RRMS) patients. Materials and methods: Thirty-five RRMS patients (15 males and 20 females; median age 42 (20–55) years) and thirty-five age-sex matched healthy controls (13 males and 22 females; median age 37 (21–60) years) were included in this study. All patients were diagnosed with MS according to the criteria of McDonald. Results: IMA levels were significantly higher in RRMS patients (P < 0.001), while TAS and TOS did not show any significant difference between groups (P = 0.870 and P = 0.460, respectively). Conclusions: Our results suggest IMA as a more efficient serum marker than TAS and TOS in detecting the oxidative stress in MS patients. Serum oxidative stress markers should be included in future study protocols besides clinical and radiological parameters. PMID:25351357

  15. Reproducibility of multiple breath washout indices in the unsedated preterm neonate.

    PubMed

    Sinhal, Sanjay; Galati, John; Baldwin, David N; Stocks, Janet; Pillow, J Jane

    2010-01-01

    Multiple breath inert gas washout (MBW) is gaining popularity for measurements of resting lung volume and ventilation inhomogeneity. Test reproducibility is an important determinant of the clinical applicability of diagnostic tests. The between-test reproducibility of variables derived from MBW tests in newborn infants is unknown. We aimed to determine the within-test repeatability and short-term between-test reproducibility of MBW variables in unsedated preterm infants. We hypothesized that measurements obtained within a 3-day interval in clinically stable preterm infants would be reproducible and suitable for use as an objective clinical outcome measurement. In this cross-sectional observational study, clinically stable hospitalized preterm infants whose parents had given informed consent for MBW studies were tested twice within 72 hr during quiet, unsedated sleep. Functional residual capacity (FRC), lung clearance index (LCI), and the first and second to zeroeth moment ratios (M(1):M(0); M(2):M(0)) were computed from MBW traces obtained using a mainstream ultrasonic flowmeter and 4% sulphur hexafluoride (MBW(SF6)). Within-test repeatability and between-test reproducibility were determined. Within-test repeatability (expressed as a coefficient of variability (C(v))) for differences between two and four replicate measurements on the same test occasion, were 9.3% (FRC), 9.0% (LCI), 7.6% (M(1):M(0)), and 15.6% (M(2):M(0)), respectively. The within-test C(v)'s were not statistically different to the between-tests C(v)'s, which were 7.7% (FRC), 10.3% (LCI), 6.1% (M(1):M(0)), and 13.0% (M(2):M(0)), respectively. Among unsedated preterm infants, between-test reproducibility over a 3-day interval was similar to within-test repeatability. The wide limits of agreement may limit the application of these measures to detect a clinically significant change in condition in small preterm infants. PMID:20025050

  16. Incorporating Environmental Justice into Second Generation Indices of Multiple Deprivation: Lessons from the UK and Progress Internationally.

    PubMed

    Fairburn, Jon; Maier, Werner; Braubach, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Second generation area-based indices of multiple deprivation have been extensively used in the UK over the last 15 years. They resulted from significant developments in political, technical, and conceptual spheres for deprivation data. We review the parallel development of environmental justice research and how and when environmental data was incorporated into these indices. We explain the transfer of these methods from the UK to Germany and assess the progress internationally in developing such indices. Finally, we illustrate how billions of pounds in the UK was allocated by using these tools to tackle neighbourhood deprivation and environmental justice to address the determinants of health. PMID:27472347

  17. Incorporating Environmental Justice into Second Generation Indices of Multiple Deprivation: Lessons from the UK and Progress Internationally

    PubMed Central

    Fairburn, Jon; Maier, Werner; Braubach, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Second generation area-based indices of multiple deprivation have been extensively used in the UK over the last 15 years. They resulted from significant developments in political, technical, and conceptual spheres for deprivation data. We review the parallel development of environmental justice research and how and when environmental data was incorporated into these indices. We explain the transfer of these methods from the UK to Germany and assess the progress internationally in developing such indices. Finally, we illustrate how billions of pounds in the UK was allocated by using these tools to tackle neighbourhood deprivation and environmental justice to address the determinants of health. PMID:27472347

  18. Genetic structure of Phytophthora infestans populations in China indicates multiple migration events.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liyun; Zhu, Xiao-Qiong; Hu, Chia-Hui; Ristaino, Jean Beagle

    2010-10-01

    One hundred isolates of Phytophthora infestans collected from 10 provinces in China between 1998 and 2004 were analyzed for mating type, metalaxyl resistance, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype, allozyme genotype, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with the RG-57 probe. In addition, herbarium samples collected in China, Russia, Australia, and other Asian countries were also typed for mtDNA haplotype. The Ia haplotype was found during the first outbreaks of the disease in China (1938 and 1940), Japan (1901, 1930, and 1931), India (1913), Peninsular Malaysia (1950), Nepal (1954), The Philippines (1910), Australia (1917), Russia (1917), and Latvia (1935). In contrast, the Ib haplotype was found after 1950 in China on both potato and tomato (1952, 1954, 1956, and 1982) and in India (1968 and 1974). Another migration of a genotype found in Siberia called SIB-1 (Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase [Gpi] 100/100, Peptidase [Pep] 100/100, IIa mtDNA haplotype) was identified using RFLP fingerprints among 72% of the isolates and was widely distributed in the north and south of China and has also been reported in Japan. A new genotype named CN-11 (Gpi 100/111, Pep 100/100, IIb mtDNA haplotype), found only in the south of China, and two additional genotypes (Gpi 100/100, Pep 100/100, Ia mtDNA haplotype) named CN-9 and CN-10 were identified. There were more diverse genotypes among isolates from Yunnan province than elsewhere. The SIB-1 (IIa) genotype is identical to those from Siberia, suggesting later migration of this genotype from either Russia or Japan into China. The widespread predominance of SIB-1 suggests that this genotype has enhanced fitness compared with other genotypes found. Movement of the pathogen into China via infected seed from several sources most likely accounts for the distribution of pathogen genotypes observed. MtDNA haplotype evidence and RFLP data suggest multiple migrations of the pathogen into China after the initial introduction of the

  19. Evaluating multiple indices of agricultural water use efficiency and productivity to improve comparisons between sites and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Approximately 70% of global available freshwater supplies are used in the agricultural sector. Increased demands for water to meet growing population food requirements, and expected changes in the reliability of freshwater supplies due to climate change, threaten the sustainability of water supplies worldwide - not only on farms, but in connected cities and industries. Researchers concerned with agricultural water use sustainability use a variety of theoretical and empirical measures of efficiency and productivity to gain insight into the sustainability of agricultural water use. However, definitions of measures, or indices, vary between different natural and political boundaries, across regions, states and nations and between their respective research, industry, and environmental groups. Index development responds to local data availability and local agendas, and there is debate about the validity of various indices. However, real differences in empirical index measures are not well-understood across the multiple disciplines that study agricultural water use, including engineering and hydrology, agronomy, climate and soil sciences, and economics. Nevertheless reliable, accessible, and generalizable indices are required for planners and policymakers to promote sustainable water use systems. This study synthesizes a set of water use efficiency and productivity indices based on academic, industry and government literature in California and Australia, two locations with similarly water-stressed and valuable agricultural industries under pressure to achieve optimal water use efficiency and productivity. Empirical data at the irrigation district level from the California San Joaquin Valley and Murray Darling Basin states of Victoria and New South Wales in Australia are used to compute indices that estimate efficiency, yield productivity, and economic productivity of agricultural water use. Multiple index estimates of same time-series data demonstrate historical spread

  20. Databased comparison of Sparse Bayesian Learning and Multiple Linear Regression for statistical downscaling of low flow indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Deepti; St-Hilaire, André; Daigle, Anik; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryThis study attempts to compare the performance of two statistical downscaling frameworks in downscaling hydrological indices (descriptive statistics) characterizing the low flow regimes of three rivers in Eastern Canada - Moisie, Romaine and Ouelle. The statistical models selected are Relevance Vector Machine (RVM), an implementation of Sparse Bayesian Learning, and the Automated Statistical Downscaling tool (ASD), an implementation of Multiple Linear Regression. Inputs to both frameworks involve climate variables significantly (α = 0.05) correlated with the indices. These variables were processed using Canonical Correlation Analysis and the resulting canonical variates scores were used as input to RVM to estimate the selected low flow indices. In ASD, the significantly correlated climate variables were subjected to backward stepwise predictor selection and the selected predictors were subsequently used to estimate the selected low flow indices using Multiple Linear Regression. With respect to the correlation between climate variables and the selected low flow indices, it was observed that all indices are influenced, primarily, by wind components (Vertical, Zonal and Meridonal) and humidity variables (Specific and Relative Humidity). The downscaling performance of the framework involving RVM was found to be better than ASD in terms of Relative Root Mean Square Error, Relative Mean Absolute Bias and Coefficient of Determination. In all cases, the former resulted in less variability of the performance indices between calibration and validation sets, implying better generalization ability than for the latter.

  1. Factorial Invariance in Multiple Populations: A Multiple Testing Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2013-01-01

    A multiple testing method for examining factorial invariance for latent constructs evaluated by multiple indicators in distinct populations is outlined. The procedure is based on the false discovery rate concept and multiple individual restriction tests and resolves general limitations of a popular factorial invariance testing approach. The…

  2. Defining, validating, and increasing indices of happiness among people with profound multiple disabilities.

    PubMed Central

    Green, C W; Reid, D H

    1996-01-01

    In this study we attempted to operationalize, measure, and increase happiness among people with profound disabilities. Happiness indices were defined and observed among 5 individuals. Validation measures indicated that (a) increases in happiness indices were observed when individuals were presented with most preferred stimuli relative to least preferred stimuli, (b) increases in unhappiness indices were observed when they were presented with least preferred relative to most preferred stimuli, and (c) practitioner ratings of participant happiness coincided with observed indices. Subsequently, classroom staff increased happiness indices through presentation and contingent withdrawal of activities. Results suggested that a behavioral approach can enhance happiness as one aspect of quality of life among people with profound disabilities. Research directions are offered that focus on using a behavioral approach to investigate other private events that are important among people with disabilities. PMID:8881345

  3. An Evaluation of Multiple Single-Case Outcome Indicators Using Convergent Evidence Scaling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Ryan J.; Busse, R. T.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the consistency of five single-case outcome indicators, used to assess response-to-intervention data from a pilot Tier 2 reading intervention that was implemented at an elementary school. Using convergent evidence scaling, the indicators were converted onto a common interpretive scale for each case…

  4. Testing congruence among multiple grazing indicators: a multi-site study across the Tibetan plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun; Lehnert, Lukas; Holzapfel, Maika; Schultz, Roland; Heberling, Gwendolyn; Görzen, Eugen; Meyer, Hanna; Seeber, Elke; Pinkert, Stefan; Ritz, Markus; Ansorge, Hermann; Bendix, Jörg; Seifert, Bernhard; Miehe, Georg; Long, Ruijun; Yang, Yongping; Wesche, Karsten

    2015-04-01

    Aim Animal husbandry is one of the most widespread land use types, and grazing is a key topic in grassland management. A wide range of indicators are employed in grazing assessments and they often yield widely differing estimates on the associated level of degradation threat. Covering Tibet as a large grassland region with long history of pastoralism, we selected representative indicators to test: (1) how grazing responses change along large-scale climatic gradients, and (2) whether their responses to both grazing intensities and local abiotic conditions are congruent. Location Tibetan Plateau Methods Biotic indicators including species and growth form compositions of vascular plants, richness and abundance of small mammals and ants, together with soil nutrients and field spectra were compared in pairs of high and low grazing intensity at 18 sites across large climatic gradients. Altitude, temperature, and precipitation were considered as potentially influential abiotic factors. Responses of indicators to grazing intensity and environmental gradients were explored by multivariate and univariate analyses. Results All indicators responded strongly to environmental changes, but the response patterns and the most influential abiotic factors varied among indicators. Grazing responses showed low overall congruence. Only vegetation cover, soil nutrient concentrations, and spectral indices were sensitive to grazing across large spatial scales. Grazing effects were significant only when local abiotic factors were taken into account. Main conclusions The results imply that grazing assessments require both appropriate indicators and local calibration. Overall, the threat of grassland degradation across the Tibetan Plateau is not as severe as is commonly assumed.

  5. A consistent picture of the hydroclimatic response to global warming from multiple indices: Models and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, F.; Coppola, E.; Raffaele, F.

    2014-10-01

    We analyze trends of six daily precipitation-based and physically interconnected hydroclimatic indices in an ensemble of historical and 21st century climate projections under forcing from increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP)8.5), along with gridded (land only) observations for the late decades of the twentieth century. The indices include metrics of intensity (SDII) and extremes (R95) of precipitation, dry (DSL), and wet spell length, the hydroclimatic intensity index (HY-INT), and a newly introduced index of precipitation area (PA). All the indices in both the 21st century and historical simulations provide a consistent picture of a predominant shift toward a hydroclimatic regime of more intense, shorter, less frequent, and less widespread precipitation events in response to GHG-induced global warming. The trends are larger and more spatially consistent over tropical than extratropical regions, pointing to the importance of tropical convection in regulating this response, and show substantial regional spatial variability. Observed trends in the indices analyzed are qualitatively and consistently in line with the simulated ones, at least at the global and full tropical scale, further supporting the robustness of the identified prevailing hydroclimatic responses. The HY-INT, PA, and R95 indices show the most consistent response to global warming, and thus offer the most promising tools for formal hydroclimatic model validation and detection/attribution studies. The physical mechanism underlying this response and some of the applications of our results are also discussed.

  6. Health-Related Quality of Life and Functional Status Quality Indicators for Older Persons with Multiple Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Dy, Sydney M.; Pfoh, Elizabeth R.; Salive, Marcel E.; Boyd, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To explore central challenges with translating self-reported measurement tools for functional status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) into ambulatory quality indicators for older people with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs). DESIGN Review. SETTING Sources including the National Quality Measures Clearinghouse and National Quality Forum were reviewed for existing ambulatory quality indicators relevant to functional status, HRQOL, and people with MCCs. PARTICIPANTS Seven informants with expertise in indicators using functional status and HRQOL. MEASUREMENTS Informant interviews were conducted to explore knowledge about these types of indicators, particularly usability and feasibility. RESULTS Nine important existing indicators were identified in the review. For process, identified indicators addressed whether providers assessed functional status; outcome indicators addressed quality of life. In interviews, informants agreed that indicators using self-reported data were important in this population. Challenges identified included concerns about usability due to inability to discriminate quality of care adequately between organizations and feasibility concerns regarding high data collection burden, with a correspondingly low response rate. Validity was also a concern because evidence is mixed that healthcare interventions can improve HRQOL or functional status for this population. As a possible first step, a structural standard could be systematic collection of these measures in a specific setting. CONCLUSION Although functional status and HRQOL are important outcomes for older people with MCCs, few relevant ambulatory quality indicators exist, and there are concerns with usability, feasibility, and validity. Further research is needed on how best to incorporate these outcomes into quality indicators for people with MCCs. PMID:24320819

  7. Multiple origins of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, D. M.; Valentine, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    There is some indication that life may have originated readily under primitive earth conditions. If there were multiple origins of life, the result could have been a polyphyletic biota today. Using simple stochastic models for diversification and extinction, we conclude: (1) the probability of survival of life is low unless there are multiple origins, and (2) given survival of life and given as many as 10 independent origins of life, the odds are that all but one would have gone extinct, yielding the monophyletic biota we have now. The fact of the survival of our particular form of life does not imply that it was unique or superior.

  8. Weighting and Aggregation in Composite Indicator Construction: A Multiplicative Optimization Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, P.; Ang, B. W.; Zhou, D. Q.

    2010-01-01

    Composite indicators (CIs) have increasingly been accepted as a useful tool for benchmarking, performance comparisons, policy analysis and public communication in many different fields. Several recent studies show that as a data aggregation technique in CI construction the weighted product (WP) method has some desirable properties. However, a…

  9. Development of Vulnerability Indicators for Deltaic Social-Ecological Systems Facing Multiple Environmental and Anthropogenic Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebesvari, Z.; Hagenlocher, M.; Haas, S.; Renaud, F.

    2015-12-01

    Deltas are low-lying coastal areas that form where rivers flow into the ocean. Hosting dense populations, featuring rich biodiversity and being hot spots of both agricultural and industrial production, they are considered of great economic and ecological importance. Long-term sustainability of deltas is increasingly under threat due to the consequences of natural and man-made hazards, including large-scale human interventions such as dam construction and extraction of underground resources. Understanding prevailing vulnerabilities in these deltaic systems is becoming increasingly important for the development of spatially-targeted adaptation options at the sub-delta scale (coastal regions, floodplains etc.) which is imperative for the sustainability and in some cases even for the survival of deltaic social-ecological systems (SES). We developed an inclusive SES-centered framework for vulnerability assessments, allowing for different sets of vulnerability indicators to be identified which can then be combined for deltas globally in a modular way. The modular structure allows being responsive to the specific multi-hazard settings of a given delta SES while also considering the interactions between the hazards in one given location. It therefore represents a departure from the usual fixed set of indicators used in existing vulnerability assessments. We present (1) the methods applied for indicator development, including local stakeholder consultations and a systematic literature review, as well as (2) the resulting modular set of indicators to be used in future spatially explicit vulnerability assessments. The approach aims to provide a ʾblueprintʿ for delta vulnerability assessments worldwide. Due to its modular structure it fosters both transferability and reproducibility. This work is part of a global project on 'Catalyzing action towards sustainability of deltaic systems (DELTAS)' funded by the Belmont Forum and the 2015 Sustainable Deltas Initiative, endorsed

  10. Neural network models for earthquake magnitude prediction using multiple seismicity indicators.

    PubMed

    Panakkat, Ashif; Adeli, Hojjat

    2007-02-01

    Neural networks are investigated for predicting the magnitude of the largest seismic event in the following month based on the analysis of eight mathematically computed parameters known as seismicity indicators. The indicators are selected based on the Gutenberg-Richter and characteristic earthquake magnitude distribution and also on the conclusions drawn by recent earthquake prediction studies. Since there is no known established mathematical or even empirical relationship between these indicators and the location and magnitude of a succeeding earthquake in a particular time window, the problem is modeled using three different neural networks: a feed-forward Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation (LMBP) neural network, a recurrent neural network, and a radial basis function (RBF) neural network. Prediction accuracies of the models are evaluated using four different statistical measures: the probability of detection, the false alarm ratio, the frequency bias, and the true skill score or R score. The models are trained and tested using data for two seismically different regions: Southern California and the San Francisco bay region. Overall the recurrent neural network model yields the best prediction accuracies compared with LMBP and RBF networks. While at the present earthquake prediction cannot be made with a high degree of certainty this research provides a scientific approach for evaluating the short-term seismic hazard potential of a region.

  11. Socioeconomic status and age at menarche: An examination of multiple indicators in an ethnically diverse cohort

    PubMed Central

    Deardorff, Julianna; Abrams, Barbara; Ekwaru, J. Paul; Rehkopf, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Ethnic disparities exist in US girls' ages at menarche. Overweight and low socioeconomic status (SES) may contribute to these disparities but past research has been equivocal. We sought to determine which SES indicators were associated uniquely with menarche, for which ethnic groups, and whether associations operated through overweight. Methods Using National Longitudinal Study of Youth data, we examined associations between SES indicators and age at menarche. Participants were 4851 girls and their mothers. We used survival analyses to examine whether SES, at various time points, was associated with menarche, whether body mass index (BMI) mediated associations, and whether race/ethnicity modified associations. Results Black and Hispanic girls experienced menarche earlier than whites. After adjusting for SES, there was a 50% reduction in the effect estimate for “being Hispanic” and 40% reduction for “being Black” versus “being white” on menarche. SES indicators were associated uniquely with earlier menarche, including mother's unmarried status and lower family income. Associations varied by race/ethnicity. BMI did not mediate associations. Conclusion Racial differences in menarche may in large part be due to SES differences. Future experimental or quasi-experimental studies should examine whether intervening on SES factors could have benefits for delaying menarche among Blacks and Hispanics. PMID:25108688

  12. Inter-comparison of drought indicators derived from multiple precipitation datasets in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumann, Gustavo; Dutra, Emanuel; Barbosa, Paulo; Pappenberger, Florian; Wetterhall, Fredrik

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates the potential of implementing different drought indicators to improve drought monitoring capabilities at continental scale. Several global and continental datasets based on re-analysis, gridded observation, and remote sensing data were tested. At regional level the capabilities of each indicator and dataset on five regions on the African continent (Oum er-rbia, Blue Nile, Upper Niger, Limpopo and the Great Horn of Africa) were compared. The five precipitation datasets used were the ERA - Interim reanalysis (0.5°x0.5° resolution from 1979 to 2010), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite monthly rainfall product 3B43 (0.25°x0.25° resolution from 1998 to 2010), the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) gridded precipitation dataset V.5 (1°x1° resolution from 1901 to 2010), the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Global Monthly Merged Precipitation Analyses (2.5°x2.5° resolution from 1979 to 2010), and the Climate Prediction Center Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP, 2.5°x2.5° resolution from 1979 to 2010). The set of indicators proposed included Standardized Precipitation index (SPI), Standardized Precipitation-Evaporation Index (SPEI), Standardized Run-off index (SRI), Soil Moisture Anomalies (SMA). A comparison of the annual cycle and monthly precipitation time series shows a general agreement in the timing of the peaks including the Great Horn of Africa where there are two rainy seasons. The main differences are observed thus in the ability to represent the magnitude of the wet seasons and extremes. Moreover, for the areas that are under drought, all the datasets agree with the certain time of onset and recovery but there are sometimes disagreements on the area affected. The agreement between datasets depends on the threshold selected to define the drought conditions. The comparison between SPI estimations suggest that the main sources of uncertainties (due by lack of ground information

  13. Evaluation of ecological instream flow using multiple ecological indicators with consideration of hydrological alterations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Gu, Xihui; Singh, Vijay P.; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-10-01

    Dam-induced hydrological alterations and related ecological problems have been arousing considerable concern from hydrologists, ecologists, and policy-makers. The East River basin in China is the major provider of water resources for mega-cities within the Pearl River Delta and meets 80% of annual water demand of Hong Kong. In this study, ecodeficit and ecosurplus were analyzed to determine the ecological impact of water impoundments. Also, Do and DHRAM were employed to evaluate the degree of alteration of hydrological regimes, and ERHIs were analyzed to evaluate the influence of hydrological alterations on ecological diversity. Results indicate that: (1) the magnitude and frequency of high flows decrease and those of low flows increase due to the regulation of reservoirs; (2) variations of annual ecosurplus are mainly the result of precipitation changes and the annual ecodeficit is significantly influenced by reservoirs. However, ecodeficit and ecosurplus in other seasons, particularly autumn and winter, are more influenced by reservoir regulation; (3) impacts of reservoirs on hydrological regimes and eco-flow regimes are different from one station to another due to different degrees of influence of reservoirs on hydrological processes at different stations. The longer the distance between a reservoir and a hydrological station is, the weaker the influence the water reservoir has on the hydrological processes; (4) ecodeficit and ecosurplus can be accepted in the evaluation of alterations of hydrological processes at annual and seasonal time scales. Results of Shannon Index indicate decreasing biological diversity after the construction of water reservoirs, implying negative impacts of water reservoirs on biological diversity of a river basin and this should arouse considerable human concerns. This study provides a theoretical background for water resources management with consideration of eco-flow variations due to reservoir regulation in other highly

  14. Characterizing grazing disturbance in semiarid ecosystems across broad spatial scales using multiple indices.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beever, Erik A.; Tausch, Robin J.; Brussard, Peter F.

    2003-01-01

    Although management and conservation strategies continue to move toward broader spatial scales and consideration of many taxonomic groups simultaneously, researchers have struggled to characterize responses to disturbance at these scales. Most studies of disturbance by feral grazers investigate effects on only one or two ecosystem elements across small spatial scales, limiting their applicability to ecosystem-level management. To address this inadequacy, in 1997 and 1998 we examined disturbance created by feral horses (Equus caballus) in nine mountain ranges of the western Great Basin, USA, using plants, small mammals, ants, and soil compaction as indicators. Nine horse-occupied and 10 horse-removed sites were stratified into high- and low-elevation groups, and all sites at each elevation had similar vegetation type, aspect, slope gradient, and recent (≥15-yr) fire and livestock-grazing histories. Using reciprocal averaging and TWINSPAN analyses, we compared relationships among sites using five data sets: abiotic variables, percent cover by plant species, an index of abundance by plant species, 10 disturbance-sensitive response variables, and grass and shrub species considered “key” indicators by land managers. Although reciprocal averaging and TWINSPAN analyses of percent cover, abiotic variables, and key species suggested relationships between sites influenced largely by biogeography (i.e., mountain range), disturbance-sensitive variables clearly segregated horse-occupied and horse-removed sites. These analyses suggest that the influence of feral horses on many Great Basin ecosystem attributes is not being detected by monitoring only palatable plant species. We recommend development of an expanded monitoring strategy based not only on established vegetation measurements investigating forage consumption, but also including disturbance-sensitive variables (e.g., soil surface hardness, abundance of ant mounds) that more completely reflect the suite of effects

  15. The Effects of Multiple Cold Water Immersions on Indices of Muscle Damage

    PubMed Central

    Goodall, Stuart; Howatson, Glyn

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to elucidate the efficacy of repeated cold water immersions (CWI) in the recovery of exercise induced muscle damage. A randomised group consisting of eighteen males, mean ± s age, height and body mass were 24 ± 5 years, 1.82 ± 0.06 m and 85.7 ± 16.6 kg respectively, completed a bout of 100 drop jumps. Following the bout of damaging exercise, participants were randomly but equally assigned to either a 12 min CWI (15 ± 1 °C; n = 9) group who experienced immersions immediately post-exercise and every 24 h thereafter for the following 3 days, or a control group (no treatment; n = 9). Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the knee extensors, creatine kinase activity (CK), muscle soreness (DOMS), range of motion (ROM) and limb girth were measured pre-exercise and then for the following 96 h at 24 h increments. In addition MVC was also recorded immediately post-exercise. Significant time effects were seen for MVC, CK, DOMS and limb girth (p < 0.05) indicating muscle damage was evident, however there was no group effect or interaction observed showing that CWI did not attenuate any of the dependent variables (p > 0.05). These results suggest that repeated CWI do not enhance recovery from a bout of damaging eccentric contractions. Key pointsCryotherapy, particularly cold water immersions are one of the most common interventions used in order to enhance recovery post-exercise.There is little empirical evidence demonstrating benefits from cold water immersions. Research evidence is equivocal, probably due to methodological inconsistencies.Our results show that the cryotherapy administered did not attenuate any markers of EIMD or enhance the recovery of function.We conclude that repeated cold water immersions are ineffective in the recovery from heavy plyometric exercise and suggest athletes and coaches should use caution before using this intervention as a recovery strategy PMID:24149455

  16. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiles Indicate CD8+ T Cell Hypermethylation in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Steffan D.; Page, Christian M.; Andreassen, Bettina K.; Elboudwarej, Emon; Gustavsen, Marte W.; Briggs, Farren; Quach, Hong; Leikfoss, Ingvild S.; Bjølgerud, Anja; Berge, Tone; Harbo, Hanne F.; Barcellos, Lisa F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Determine whether MS-specific DNA methylation profiles can be identified in whole blood or purified immune cells from untreated MS patients. Methods Whole blood, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell DNA from 16 female, treatment naïve MS patients and 14 matched controls was profiled using the HumanMethylation450K BeadChip. Genotype data were used to assess genetic homogeneity of our sample and to exclude potential SNP-induced DNA methylation measurement errors. Results As expected, significant differences between CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and whole blood DNA methylation profiles were observed, regardless of disease status. Strong evidence for hypermethylation of CD8+ T cell, but not CD4+ T cell or whole blood DNA in MS patients compared to controls was observed. Genome-wide significant individual CpG-site DNA methylation differences were not identified. Furthermore, significant differences in gene DNA methylation of 148 established MS-associated risk genes were not observed. Conclusion While genome-wide significant DNA methylation differences were not detected for individual CpG-sites, strong evidence for DNA hypermethylation of CD8+ T cells for MS patients was observed, indicating a role for DNA methylation in MS. Further, our results suggest that large DNA methylation differences for CpG-sites tested here do not contribute to MS susceptibility. In particular, large DNA methylation differences for CpG-sites within 148 established MS candidate genes tested in our study cannot explain missing heritability. Larger studies of homogenous MS patients and matched controls are warranted to further elucidate the impact of CD8+ T cell and more subtle DNA methylation changes in MS development and pathogenesis. PMID:25734800

  17. Predictive value of strength loss as an indicator of muscle damage across multiple drop jumps.

    PubMed

    Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Venckūnas, Tomas; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the time-course of indirect symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage after 50 and 100 drop jumps. A high-force, low intensity exercise protocol was used to avoid discrepancies regarding metabolic fatigue immediately after exercise. Healthy untrained men performed 50 ("50 group", n = 13) or 100 ("100 group", n = 13) intermittent (30-s interval between each jump) drop jumps, respectively, from the height of 0.5 m with a counter-movement to a 90° knee flexion angle and immediate maximal rebound. Voluntary and electrically evoked knee extensor strength was assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer immediately before and at 2 min after exercise, as well as 3, 7, and 14 days after exercise. Creatine kinase (CK) activity and muscle soreness within 7 days after exercise were also determined. The results showed that the decrease in voluntary isometric and isokinetic torque as well as 100 Hz stimulation torque at the end of the 50 and 100 drop jumps was very similar, while substantial differences were found in low-frequency fatigue, shift in optimal knee joint angle, muscle soreness, and CK activity. In addition, there was slower muscle strength recovery after the 100 drop jumps. It is concluded that the predictive value of strength loss immediately after exercise as an indicator of muscle damage decreases as the jump number increases. Still, stimuli must be large enough for muscle torque to reach the reduction plateau. Therefore, magnitude of exercise becomes a major factor in accuracy of muscle damage predictions. PMID:21574783

  18. A pair of mouse KRAB zinc finger proteins modulates multiple indicators of female reproduction.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Christopher J; Robins, Diane M

    2010-04-01

    Krüppel-associated box-zinc finger proteins (KRAB-ZFPs) are the largest class of transcriptional regulators in mammals, yet few have been assigned biological roles. Cloning the genes underlying the regulator of sex-limitation (rsl) phenotype, in which the normally male-specific sex-limited protein (SLP) is expressed in female mice, identified two KRAB-ZFPs, Rsl1 and Rsl2, as influencing sexually dimorphic liver gene expression. Combined absence of both repressors in rsl mice leads to increased expression in female liver of major urinary proteins (MUPs) and certain enzymes of steroid metabolism, as well as SLP. We hypothesized that this altered gene expression might affect reproductive physiology in rsl females. Urinary MUP (uMUP) concentration varied with the estrous cycle in both wt and rsl females but was consistently higher in rsl urine. A behavioral odor test revealed that wild-type (wt) males preferred rsl to wt females, possibly due to elevated uMUPs providing greater pheromone presentation. To ascribe activity to Rsl1, Rsl2, or both, the genes were individually expressed as liver-specific transgenes. RSL2 overexpression accentuated uMUP fluctuations across the estrous cycle, whereas RSL1 overexpression did not. In addition, puberty onset, as indicated by vaginal opening (VO), occurred 2 days earlier in rsl females, and excess RSL2, but not RSL1, restored VO timing to wt. Hence, transcriptional repression by RSL in liver modifies female mouse reproduction via targets that likely impact both hormonal and pheromonal cues. The large and rapidly diversifying KRAB-ZFP family may modulate biological processes, including reproduction, to confer individual differences that may isolate populations and ultimately lead to speciation.

  19. Enclave Compositions Indicate Multiple Felsic Components at Chaos Crags, Lassen Volcanic National Park, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, E. R.; Hammersley, L. C.; Clynne, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Chaos Crags, located in Lassen Volcanic National Park, is a series of 6 rhyodacite domes that exhibit dramatic evidence of magma mixing. Mafic enclaves from the Chaos Crags form two distinct textural groups: a finer-grained group containing abundant plagioclase crystals from the host rhyodacite, and a coarser-grained group generally lacking host phenocrysts. Enclave samples were collected from Dome B of the Chaos Crags with the intent of obtaining complete suites of the two textural groups. Geochemical data for the enclaves shows a weak correlation between texture and geochemistry. Notably, the geochemical data also shows two distinct chemical trends that appear to represent mixing with two different felsic components. The dominant trend shows mixing between the host rhyodacite and the mafic end member. The second trend is interpreted to result from mixing between the mafic end member and a cryptic felsic component that is distinct from the host rhyodacite. Modeling of major oxides, selected trace elements and rare earth elements suggests that, although the two clusters of enclaves mix towards different felsic end members, they appear start from the same mafic end member, which has a composition of approximately: SiO2 51.84%, CaO 10.45%, K2O 0.69%, P2O5 0.10%, MgO 5.35%, Na2O 2.8%, FeO 8.25%, Fe2O3 1.84%, Al2O3 19.47% and TiO2 0.76%, a composition common in the Lassen region. Preliminary modeling results indicate that, at 75% SiO2, the cryptic felsic component has a composition of: K2O 5.25%, P2O5 1.2%, Na2O 8.25%, Al2O3 14.65%, Fe2O3 0.18%, FeO 0.88% and TiO2 1.46%, with negligible amounts of CaO and MgO. At 70% SiO2 this composition is approximately: K2O 4.3%, P2O5 0.95%, Na2O 7.05%, Al2O3 15.66%, TiO2 1.31%, FeO 2.51% and Fe2O3 0.55% with negligible amounts of CaO and MgO. It is likely that this previously unrecognized mixing trend represents crustal contamination of the mafic end member. A suite of samples with compositions intermediate between these two trends

  20. Topographic Roughness of Hawaiian Volcanic Terrains: Analysis of Multiple Datasets Indicates Length Scales are Critical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, A. R.; Anderson, F. S.; Mouginis-Mark, P.; Haldemann, A.; Brooks, B.; Foster, J.

    2007-12-01

    The roughness of a natural surface is often defined by the topography of the surface at scales of a few tens of meters or less. To ensure the safety of rovers and scientific instruments on Mars, these scales are of critical importance during landing site selection and rover traverse operations. Published work on terrestrial and Martian topography datasets has demonstrated that statistical values such as the Hurst exponent can be used in conjunction with related statistical measures such as RMS slope or deviation to quantify the relationship between scale-dependent roughness values and the morphology of a surface. In our detailed studies of the statistical behavior of meter-scale surface roughness on Earth, we determine that the length scales used to calculate the surface roughness affect the resulting roughness statistics and must be taken into account when analyzing planetary surface roughness. Extensive airborne Light Detection and Ranging (a-LiDAR) coverage of the summit of Kilauea volcano on the Big Island of Hawaii (1 m DEM) provides an opportunity for simulating higher resolution Martian topography data such as will be obtained from photoclinometry and stereo imaging using the HiRISE camera on MRO. In addition to the a-LiDAR data, we use high-resolution topography (2 cm DEM) generated from a tripod-mounted scanning LiDAR system (t-LiDAR). Previous authors have described techniques for calculating roughness statistics in one dimension using topographic profiles. We adapt the 1D method for use with 2D topographic datasets to generate maps of the Hurst exponent of Martian analog flows in Hawaii. Results from the surface roughness analysis suggest that the calculated RMS deviation or slope and Hurst exponent exhibit systematic variations as the length of a profile segment (in 1D studies) or size of the cell (in 2D studies) changes. These new results, combined with previously described data, indicate that the length scales used to calculate roughness statistics

  1. A contribution to examination of propidium iodide and annexin V plasma cells indices in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Scudla, V; Ordeltova, M; Bacovsky, J; Vytrasova, M; Sumna, E; Martinek, A; Horak, P

    2003-01-01

    chemotherapy. There was observed a statistically significant difference in the PC-AI in comparison of SMM group versus group of all patients examined at the time of MM diagnosis (p=0.001) or in various phases of this disease (p=0.015) and the group of MGUS patients compared with patients evaluated at the time of MM diagnosis (p=0.03). Very significant statistical differences of plasma cell proliferative (PC-PI) and apoptotic (PC-AI) activity were found when comparing the levels of both the indices of MGUS, SMM and stable/plateau MM group versus the active (progression/relapse) form of MM marked by a higher level of PC-PI (3.2%, p=0.000) and PC-AI (4.8%, p=0.000) in the whole cohort of MM patients, but also in comparison with both the active forms at the time of MM diagnosis or active forms evaluated during various phases of the disease after chemotherapy. Highly significant inverse relationship between PC-PI versus PC-AI was also revealed in the group of patients in the active (progression/relapse) phase of MM (p=0.000). These results revealed importance of measurement not only of proliferative but also of apoptotic plasma cells indices for a complex evaluation of the cells kinetics of plasma cells compartments in patients with MGUS or MM. This study confirmed the initial hypothesis of a common 'inverse relationship between the proliferative (PC-PI) and the apoptosis activity (PC-AI) in plasma cells compartments in patients with MGUS, smoldering, stable/plateau and active (progression/ relapse) forms of MM'. PMID:14628090

  2. Multiple-Ring Digital Communication Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold

    1992-01-01

    Optical-fiber digital communication network to support data-acquisition and control functions of electric-power-distribution networks. Optical-fiber links of communication network follow power-distribution routes. Since fiber crosses open power switches, communication network includes multiple interconnected loops with occasional spurs. At each intersection node is needed. Nodes of communication network include power-distribution substations and power-controlling units. In addition to serving data acquisition and control functions, each node acts as repeater, passing on messages to next node(s). Multiple-ring communication network operates on new AbNET protocol and features fiber-optic communication.

  3. Fatigue and Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Fatigue - National Multiple Sclerosis Society Skip to navigation Skip to content Menu Navigation National Multiple Sclerosis Society Sign In In Your Area ... help* daily life for: positive-mom* The National MS Society is Here to Help Need More Information? ...

  4. What Is Multiple Myeloma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... other tissues. If someone has only a single plasma cell tumor, the disease is called an isolated (or solitary ) plasmacytoma . If someone has more than one plasmacytoma, they have multiple myeloma . Multiple myeloma is ...

  5. Challenges of Parenting Multiples

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parenting Multiples There are many psychological, social, and economic issues associated with multiple pregnancies. These issues should ... births can also be helpful during difficult times. ECONOMIC ISSUES • The health care cost for delivery and ...

  6. National Multiple Sclerosis Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Join the Community Stay Informed Corporate Support National Multiple Sclerosis Society Our Mission: People affected by MS can ... 10.5 Million in New Research to Stop Multiple Sclerosis, Restore Function and End MS Forever October 11, ...

  7. MultipleColposcopyJCO

    Cancer.gov

    Performing multiple biopsies during a procedure known as colposcopy—visual inspection of the cervix—is more effective than performing only a single biopsy of the worst-appearing area for detecting cervical cancer precursors. This multiple biopsy approach

  8. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cancerous (malignant) tumors or grow excessively without forming tumors. Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes are caused by ... This Article Generic Name Select Brand Names corticotropin H.P. ACTHAR GEL epinephrine ADRENALIN Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia ...

  9. Multiple Core Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R.H.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Nuclei of galaxies often show complicated density structures and perplexing kinematic signatures. In the past we have reported numerical experiments indicating a natural tendency for galaxies to show nuclei offset with respect to nearby isophotes and for the nucleus to have a radial velocity different from the galaxy's systemic velocity. Other experiments show normal mode oscillations in galaxies with large amplitudes. These oscillations do not damp appreciably over a Hubble time. The common thread running through all these is that galaxies often show evidence of ringing, bouncing, or sloshing around in unexpected ways, even though they have not been disturbed by any external event. Recent observational evidence shows yet another phenomenon indicating the dynamical complexity of central regions of galaxies: multiple cores (M31, Markarian 315 and 463 for example). These systems can hardly be static. We noted long-lived multiple core systems in galaxies in numerical experiments some years ago, and we have more recently followed up with a series of experiments on multiple core galaxies, starting with two cores. The relevant parameters are the energy in the orbiting clumps, their relative.masses, the (local) strength of the potential well representing the parent galaxy, and the number of cores. We have studied the dependence of the merger rates and the nature of the final merger product on these parameters. Individual cores survive much longer in stronger background potentials. Cores can survive for a substantial fraction of a Hubble time if they travel on reasonable orbits.

  10. Temporal variation (seasonal and interannual) of vegetation indices of maize and soybeans across multiple years in central Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prueger, J. H.; Hatfield, J. L.

    2015-09-01

    Remotely sensed reflectance parameters from corn and soybean surfaces can be correlated to crop production. Surface reflectance of a typical Upper Midwest corn /soybean region in central Iowa across multiple years reveal subtle dynamics in vegetative surface response to a continually varying climate. From 2006 through 2014 remotely sensed data have been acquired over production fields of corn and soybeans in central IA, U.S.A. with the fields alternating between corn and soybeans. The data have been acquired using ground-based radiometers with 16 wavebands covering the visible, near infrared, shortwave infrared wavebands and combined into a series of vegetative indices. These data were collected on clear days with the goal of collecting data at a minimum of once per week from prior to planting until after fall tillage operations. Within each field, five sites were established and sampled during the year to reduce spatial variation and allow for an assessment of changes in the vegetative indices throughout the growing season. Ancillary data collected for each crop included the phenological stage at each sampling date along with biomass sampled at the onset of the reproductive stage and at physiological maturity. Evaluation of the vegetative indices for the different years revealed that patterns were related to weather effects on corn and soybean growth. Remote sensing provides a method to evaluate changes within and among growing seasons to assess crop growth and development as affected by differences in weather variability.

  11. Effects of Yoga on Physiological Indices, Anxiety and Social Functioning in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hasanpour-Dehkordi, Ali; Solati, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Multiple sclerosis (MS) as a chronic disease could affect patients’ various domains of life. Aim This study was conducted to study the effect of yoga on the physiological indices, anxiety and social functioning of patients with MS in southwest, Iran. Materials and Methods In this clinical trial study, 60 MS patients were enrolled according to inclusion criteria and randomly assigned to two groups of 30 each. Prior to and after intervention, the patients’ vital signs were measured. For case group yoga exercises were performed three sessions a week for 12 weeks while control group performed no exercise. The data were gathered by questionnaire and analysed by descriptive and analytical statistics in SPSS. Results Prior to intervention, there was no significant difference in fatigue severity and pain between the two groups but the mean fatigue severity and pain in case group decreased compared to the control group after the intervention. Prior to intervention, there was no significant difference in mean physiological indices between the two groups but the mean physiological indices in case group decreased significantly after the intervention (p<0.05). Conclusion Yoga is likely to increase self-efficacy of MS patients through enhancing physical activity, increasing the strength of lower limbs and balance, and decreasing fatigue and pain, and finally to promote social functioning and to relieve stress and anxiety in these patients. PMID:27504387

  12. Quantifying and modeling long-range cross correlations in multiple time series with applications to world stock indices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Duan; Podobnik, Boris; Horvatić, Davor; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-04-01

    We propose a modified time lag random matrix theory in order to study time-lag cross correlations in multiple time series. We apply the method to 48 world indices, one for each of 48 different countries. We find long-range power-law cross correlations in the absolute values of returns that quantify risk, and find that they decay much more slowly than cross correlations between the returns. The magnitude of the cross correlations constitutes "bad news" for international investment managers who may believe that risk is reduced by diversifying across countries. We find that when a market shock is transmitted around the world, the risk decays very slowly. We explain these time-lag cross correlations by introducing a global factor model (GFM) in which all index returns fluctuate in response to a single global factor. For each pair of individual time series of returns, the cross correlations between returns (or magnitudes) can be modeled with the autocorrelations of the global factor returns (or magnitudes). We estimate the global factor using principal component analysis, which minimizes the variance of the residuals after removing the global trend. Using random matrix theory, a significant fraction of the world index cross correlations can be explained by the global factor, which supports the utility of the GFM. We demonstrate applications of the GFM in forecasting risks at the world level, and in finding uncorrelated individual indices. We find ten indices that are practically uncorrelated with the global factor and with the remainder of the world indices, which is relevant information for world managers in reducing their portfolio risk. Finally, we argue that this general method can be applied to a wide range of phenomena in which time series are measured, ranging from seismology and physiology to atmospheric geophysics. PMID:21599254

  13. Quantifying and modeling long-range cross correlations in multiple time series with applications to world stock indices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Duan; Podobnik, Boris; Horvatić, Davor; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-04-01

    We propose a modified time lag random matrix theory in order to study time-lag cross correlations in multiple time series. We apply the method to 48 world indices, one for each of 48 different countries. We find long-range power-law cross correlations in the absolute values of returns that quantify risk, and find that they decay much more slowly than cross correlations between the returns. The magnitude of the cross correlations constitutes "bad news" for international investment managers who may believe that risk is reduced by diversifying across countries. We find that when a market shock is transmitted around the world, the risk decays very slowly. We explain these time-lag cross correlations by introducing a global factor model (GFM) in which all index returns fluctuate in response to a single global factor. For each pair of individual time series of returns, the cross correlations between returns (or magnitudes) can be modeled with the autocorrelations of the global factor returns (or magnitudes). We estimate the global factor using principal component analysis, which minimizes the variance of the residuals after removing the global trend. Using random matrix theory, a significant fraction of the world index cross correlations can be explained by the global factor, which supports the utility of the GFM. We demonstrate applications of the GFM in forecasting risks at the world level, and in finding uncorrelated individual indices. We find ten indices that are practically uncorrelated with the global factor and with the remainder of the world indices, which is relevant information for world managers in reducing their portfolio risk. Finally, we argue that this general method can be applied to a wide range of phenomena in which time series are measured, ranging from seismology and physiology to atmospheric geophysics.

  14. Quantifying and modeling long-range cross correlations in multiple time series with applications to world stock indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Duan; Podobnik, Boris; Horvatić, Davor; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-04-01

    We propose a modified time lag random matrix theory in order to study time-lag cross correlations in multiple time series. We apply the method to 48 world indices, one for each of 48 different countries. We find long-range power-law cross correlations in the absolute values of returns that quantify risk, and find that they decay much more slowly than cross correlations between the returns. The magnitude of the cross correlations constitutes “bad news” for international investment managers who may believe that risk is reduced by diversifying across countries. We find that when a market shock is transmitted around the world, the risk decays very slowly. We explain these time-lag cross correlations by introducing a global factor model (GFM) in which all index returns fluctuate in response to a single global factor. For each pair of individual time series of returns, the cross correlations between returns (or magnitudes) can be modeled with the autocorrelations of the global factor returns (or magnitudes). We estimate the global factor using principal component analysis, which minimizes the variance of the residuals after removing the global trend. Using random matrix theory, a significant fraction of the world index cross correlations can be explained by the global factor, which supports the utility of the GFM. We demonstrate applications of the GFM in forecasting risks at the world level, and in finding uncorrelated individual indices. We find ten indices that are practically uncorrelated with the global factor and with the remainder of the world indices, which is relevant information for world managers in reducing their portfolio risk. Finally, we argue that this general method can be applied to a wide range of phenomena in which time series are measured, ranging from seismology and physiology to atmospheric geophysics.

  15. Nutrition for Multiples.

    PubMed

    Luke, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    In 2012 there were 135,943 infants of multiple pregnancies born in the United States, nearly a 2-fold increase since 1980, with twins accounting for 96% of all multiple births. To date, most perinatal morbidities associated with multiple births have proven resistant to technological or pharmaceutical interventions. Maternal nutrition can have a profound effect on the course and outcome of multiple pregnancy, with the goal of achieving optimal intrauterine growth and birthweights, and minimizing prenatal and perinatal complications for the mother and her children.

  16. Long-Term Effects of the Family Bereavement Program on Multiple Indicators of Grief in Parentally Bereaved Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Irwin N.; Ma, Yue; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Ayers, Tim S.; Wolchik, Sharlene; Kennedy, Cara; Millsap, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This article reports on results from a randomized experimental trial of the effects of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP) on multiple measures of grief experienced by parentally bereaved children and adolescents over a 6-year period. Method: Participants were 244 youths (ages 8-16, mean age = 11.4 years) from 156 families that had…

  17. Multiple-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis in R--A Tutorial in Measurement Invariance with Continuous and Ordinal Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschfeld, Gerrit; von Brachel, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA) is among the most productive extensions of structural equation modeling. Many researchers conducting cross-cultural or longitudinal studies are interested in testing for measurement and structural invariance. The aim of the present paper is to provide a tutorial in MG-CFA using the freely…

  18. Home food availability is associated with multiple socio-economic indicators in 50 year olds from Canterbury, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Renée; Gearry, Richard B; Grant, Emily; Pearson, John; Skidmore, Paula Ml

    2014-01-01

    Financial restraints and poverty lead to poor diets and poor health outcomes. Limited research shows that socioeconomic status is related to home availability of certain foods. However, studies in this area have used different socio-economic indicators, which may not equally influence eating-related behaviors. Using multiple indicators of socio-economic status may provide a more accurate picture of these relationships. The aim of this study was to investigate whether several socio-economic indicators are independently associated with home availability of selected foods known to influence chronic disease risk in 50 year olds from Canterbury, New Zealand, participating in the CHALICE study. Participants were selected randomly from health research extracts from Canterbury. Data from 216 participants (110 females, 106 males) were included. The presence (but not quantity) of foods/beverages in the home was measured by a validated home food inventory. Linear regression analyses were performed for the following home food inventory scores: fruit, vegetables, lower fat dairy, obesogenic foods and sweetened beverages with household income, standard of living and education using multivariate models. Higher household income and standard of living were individually associated with a 2% to 3% higher fruit and vegetables (3 to 5 types/forms) and total food scores (6 to 9 types/forms) (p<0.03). Higher education level was associated with a 2.5% increase in fruit and vegetables score (4 types/forms) and an 8% decrease in sweetened beverages score (0.4 beverages) (p<0.02). These results suggest that using only one measure of socio-economic status cannot accurately capture the effects of social inequalities in food availability. Those experiencing the most social disadvantage had a lesser availability of fruit and vegetables which may be detrimental to good health. PMID:25516330

  19. Phylogenetic analysis with multiple markers indicates repeated loss of the adult medusa stage in Campanulariidae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Annette F; Boero, Ferdinando; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2006-03-01

    The Campanulariidae is a group of leptomedusan hydroids (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria) that exhibit a diverse array of life cycles ranging from species with a free medusa stage to those with a reduced or absent medusa stage. Perhaps the best-known member of the taxon is Obelia which is often used as a textbook model of hydrozoan life history. However, Obelia medusae have several unique features leading to a hypothesis that Obelia arose, in a saltational fashion, from an ancestor that lacked a medusa, possibly representing an example of a rare evolutionary reversal. To address the evolution of adult sexual stages in Campanulariidae, a molecular phylogenetic approach was employed using two nuclear (18S rDNA and calmodulin) and two mitochondrial (16S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) genes. Prior to the main analysis, we conducted a preliminary analysis of leptomedusan taxa which suggests that Campanulariidae as presently considered needs to be redefined. Campanulariid analyses are consistent with morphological understanding in that three major clades are recovered. However, several recognized genera are not monophyletic calling into question some "diagnostic" features. Furthermore, ancestral states were reconstructed using parsimony, and a sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate possible evolutionary transitions in life-history stages. The results indicate that life-cycle transitions have occurred multiple times, and that Obelia might be derived from an ancestor with Clytia-like features.

  20. The use of multiple indices of physiological activity to access viability in chlorine disinfected Escherichia coli O157:H7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisle, J. T.; Pyle, B. H.; McFeters, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    A suite of fluorescent intracellular stains and probes was used, in conjunction with viable plate counts, to assess the effect of chlorine disinfection on membrane potential (rhodamine 123; Rh123 and bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol; DiBAC4(3)), membrane integrity (LIVE/DEAD BacLight kit), respiratory activity (5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride; CTC) and substrate responsiveness (direct viable counts; DVC) in the commensal pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7. After a 5 min exposure to the disinfectant, physiological indices were affected in the following order: viable plate counts > substrate responsiveness > membrane potential > respiratory activity > membrane integrity. In situ assessment of physiological activity by examining multiple targets, as demonstrated in this study, permits a more comprehensive determination of the site and extent of injury in bacterial cells following sublethal disinfection with chlorine. This approach to assessing altered bacterial physiology has application in various fields where detection of stressed bacteria is of interest.

  1. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOEpatents

    Alger, Terry W.

    1994-01-01

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed wh provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation.

  2. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOEpatents

    Alger, T.W.

    1994-09-06

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed which provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation. 4 figs.

  3. Multiple Myeloma Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... it is multiple myeloma . Stay on top of discoveries, trials, research and more. Click here to sign up for the MMRF Newsletter First name Last name E-mail address CLOSE News & Press Multiple Myeloma Knowledge Center Privacy Policy Donor Privacy Policy Terms of ...

  4. Orchestrating Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Seana; Kornhaber, Mindy; Gardner, Howard

    2006-01-01

    Education policymakers often go astray when they attempt to integrate multiple intelligences theory into schools, according to the originator of the theory, Howard Gardner, and his colleagues. The greatest potential of a multiple intelligences approach to education grows from the concept of a profile of intelligences. Each learner's intelligence…

  5. Twins, Triplets, Multiple Births

    MedlinePlus

    ... from alone. Multiple births are up in the United States. More women are having babies after age 30 and more are taking fertility drugs. Both boost the chance of carrying more than one baby. A family history of twins also makes multiples more likely. Years ...

  6. Prediction in Multiple Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.

    2000-01-01

    Presents the concept of prediction via multiple regression (MR) and discusses the assumptions underlying multiple regression analyses. Also discusses shrinkage, cross-validation, and double cross-validation of prediction equations and describes how to calculate confidence intervals around individual predictions. (SLD)

  7. [Multiple pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma].

    PubMed

    Haro, M; Ruiz, J; Vila, X; Avellanet, M; Izquierdo, J

    1994-01-01

    The causes of multiple pulmonary nodules are many, with metastasis being the most feared. A rare but possible etiology, however, is hyalinizing multiple granuloma. We present a case that allows us to review this condition and its course, as well as a variety of associated immunological changes and possible complications. PMID:8087395

  8. Applying Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christodoulou, Joanna A.

    2009-01-01

    The ideas of multiple intelligences introduced by Howard Gardner of Harvard University more than 25 years ago have taken form in many ways, both in schools and in other sometimes-surprising settings. The silver anniversary of Gardner's learning theory provides an opportunity to reflect on the ways multiple intelligences theory has taken form and…

  9. Constraining Multiple Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue. Multiple Grammars advances the claim that optionality is a constitutive characteristic of any one grammar, with interlanguage grammars being perhaps the clearest examples of a…

  10. Current multiplication by using multiple thyristors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Pemen, A J M; Van Heesch, E J M; Winands, G J J

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a circuit topology to obtain current multiplication by using multiple thyristors. To gain insight into this technique, an equivalent circuit model is introduced. Proper operation of the topology was demonstrated by experiments on a small-scale setup including three thyristors. One thyristor is triggered by a trigger circuit; the other two are autotriggered and require no external trigger circuit. The three thyristors could be synchronized automatically in sequence. During the closing process, the discharging of the energy storage capacitors via the thyristors is prevented. The discharging starts when all thyristors are closed, and the currents through each thyristor are simultaneous and identical. The output current is exactly three times the switching current.

  11. Using multiple chemical indicators to assess sources of nitrate and age of groundwater in a karstic spring basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.; Copeland, R.; Greenhalgh, T.; Ceryak, R.; Zwanka, W.

    2005-01-01

    Human health and ecological concerns have arisen due to a steady increase in nitrate-N concentrations during the past 40 years in Fannin Springs (0.3-4.7 mg/L), a regional discharge point with an average flow of >2.8 m3/second (>100 ft3/second) for water from the karstic Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). Multiple chemical indicators (major dissolved species, 15N and 18O of nitrate, dissolved gases, 78 pesticides and degradates, and 67 organic compounds typically found in domestic and industrial wastewater) and transient tracers (3H/3He, chlorofluorocarbons [CFCs], sulfur hexafluoride [SF6]) were analyzed in water samples from nine wells along three transects and in spring water to assess groundwater age and potential contaminant sources. Land use is predominantly agricultural (52 percent) and forest (31 percent) in the 320 km2 (124 mi2) spring basin, which was delineated from a potentiometric-surface map of the UFA using high-resolution water-level data. Nitrate-N concentrations were highly variable in the oxic UFA and ranged from <0.02 to 4.7 mg/L. ?? 15N-NO3 values (3.4-9.9 per mil) indicated that nitrate contamination originated from inorganic sources (synthetic fertilizer) and organic sources (manure spreading or waste disposal). Higher nitrate concentrations and the younger age of spring water relative to water from upgradient wells indicate better communication with N sources at the surface. Apparent ages of groundwater correlated positively with well depth (P < 0.05) and were younger in water from wells nearer to the spring (<8 years) compared with other wells (10-50 years). Most transient tracer concentrations were consistent with binary mixing curves representing mixtures of water recharged during the past 10 years and older water (recharged before 1940). Young water mixing fractions ranged from 0.07 to 0.90. Trace levels of herbicides found in groundwater and spring water were indicative of applications for vegetative control in agricultural and other land

  12. On Multiple-Layered Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to find ways to make vortex flow fields decompose more quickly, photographs and observations are presented of vortex flow fields that indicate the presence of multiple layers of fluid rotating about a common axis. A survey of the literature indicates that multiple-layered vortices form in waterspouts, tornadoes and lift-generated vortices of aircraft. An explanation for the appearance of multiple-layered structures in vortices is suggested. The observations and data presented are intended to improve the understanding of the formation and persistence of vortex flow fields.

  13. [Current therapy of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Antonio García Merino, J

    2014-12-01

    Since the introduction of interferon beta 1 b for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, there has been a progressive increase in the number of drugs available for this disease. Currently, 11 drugs have been approved in Spain, and their indications depend on specific clinical characteristics. The present article reviews these indications and also discusses other medications without official approval that have also been used in multiple sclerosis. PMID:25732945

  14. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in child malnutrition in Vietnam: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Kien, Vu Duy; Lee, Hwa-Young; Nam, You-Seon; Oh, Juhwan; Giang, Kim Bao; Van Minh, Hoang

    2016-01-01

    Background Child malnutrition is not only a major contributor to child mortality and morbidity, but it can also determine socioeconomic status in adult life. The rate of under-five child malnutrition in Vietnam has significantly decreased, but associated inequality issues still need attention. Objective This study aims to explore trends, contributing factors, and changes in inequalities for under-five child malnutrition in Vietnam between 2000 and 2011. Design Data were drawn from the Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey for the years 2000 and 2011. The dependent variables used for the study were stunting, underweight, and wasting of under-five children. The concentration index was calculated to see the magnitude of child malnutrition, and the inequality was decomposed to understand the contributions of determinants to child malnutrition. The total differential decomposition was used to identify and explore factors contributing to changes in child malnutrition inequalities. Results Inequality in child malnutrition increased between 2000 and 2011, even though the overall rate declined. Most of the inequality in malnutrition was due to ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The total differential decomposition showed that the biggest and second biggest contributors to the changes in underweight inequalities were age and socioeconomic status, respectively. Socioeconomic status was the largest contributor to inequalities in stunting. Conclusions Although the overall level of child malnutrition was improved in Vietnam, there were significant differences in under-five child malnutrition that favored those who were more advantaged in socioeconomic terms. The impact of socioeconomic inequalities in child malnutrition has increased over time. Multifaceted approaches, connecting several relevant ministries and sectors, may be necessary to reduce inequalities in childhood malnutrition. PMID:26950558

  15. The Empirical Power and Type I Error Rates of the GBT and [omega] Indices in Detecting Answer Copying on Multiple-Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zopluoglu, Cengiz; Davenport, Ernest C., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The generalized binomial test (GBT) and [omega] indices are the most recent methods suggested in the literature to detect answer copying behavior on multiple-choice tests. The [omega] index is one of the most studied indices, but there has not yet been a systematic simulation study for the GBT index. In addition, the effect of the ability levels…

  16. [Psychoneuroimmunology and multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Mel'nikov, M V; Pashchenkov, M V; Boĭko, A N

    2015-01-01

    In this review, the authors discuss interactions between mental, nervous and immune systems in multiple sclerosis, an impact of psycho-emotional stress on disease development and progression as well as possible mechanisms of these interactions.

  17. Multiple shell fusion targets

    DOEpatents

    Lindl, J.D.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1975-10-31

    Multiple shell fusion targets for use with electron beam and ion beam implosion systems are described. The multiple shell targets are of the low-power type and use a separate relatively low Z, low density ablator at large radius for the outer shell, which reduces the focusing and power requirements of the implosion system while maintaining reasonable aspect ratios. The targets use a high Z, high density pusher shell placed at a much smaller radius in order to obtain an aspect ratio small enough to protect against fluid instability. Velocity multiplication between these shells further lowers the power requirements. Careful tuning of the power profile and intershell density results in a low entropy implosion which allows breakeven at low powers. For example, with ion beams as a power source, breakeven at 10-20 Terrawatts with 10 MeV alpha particles for imploding a multiple shell target can be accomplished.

  18. The Multiplicative Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between three critical elements, and the associated mathematical language, to assist students to make the critical transition from additive to multiplicative thinking are examined in this article by Chris Hurst.

  19. Pomalidomide for Multiple Myeloma

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from a phase III trial that compared the combination of pomalidomide (Pomalyst®) and low-dose dexamethasone versus high-dose dexamethasone alone in patients with multiple myeloma that has progressed despite other treatments.

  20. Multiple beam ptychography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, Robert; Bevis, Charles; Lopez-Rios, Raymond; Reichanadter, Jonathan; Gardner, Dennis F.; Porter, Christina; Shanblatt, Elisabeth; Tanksalvala, Michael; Mancini, Giulia F.; Murnane, Margaret; Kapteyn, Henry; Adams, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    We present an extension to ptychography that allows simultaneous deconvolution of multiple, spatially separate, illuminating probes. This enables an increased field of view and hence, an increase in imaging throughput, without increased exposure times. This technique can be used for any non-interfering probes: demonstrated with multiple wavelengths and orthogonal polarizations. The latter of which gives us spatially resolved polarization spectroscopy from a single scan.

  1. Mobile multiple access study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Multiple access techniques (FDMA, CDMA, TDMA) for the mobile user and attempts to identify the current best technique are discussed. Traffic loading is considered as well as voice and data modulation and spacecraft and system design. Emphasis is placed on developing mobile terminal cost estimates for the selected design. In addition, design examples are presented for the alternative techniques of multiple access in order to compare with the selected technique.

  2. Multiple stage multiple filter hydrate store

    DOEpatents

    Bjorkman, Jr., Harry K.

    1983-05-31

    An improved hydrate store for a metal halogen battery system is disclosed which employs a multiple stage, multiple filter means or separating the halogen hydrate from the liquid used in forming the hydrate. The filter means is constructed in the form of three separate sections which combine to substantially cover the interior surface of the store container. Exit conduit means is provided in association with the filter means for transmitting liquid passing through the filter means to a hydrate former subsystem. The hydrate former subsystem combines the halogen gas generated during the charging of the battery system with the liquid to form the hydrate in association with the store. Relief valve means is interposed in the exit conduit means for controlling the operation of the separate sections of the filter means, such that the liquid flow through the exit conduit means from each of the separate sections is controlled in a predetermined sequence. The three separate sections of the filter means operate in three discrete stages to provide a substantially uniform liquid flow to the hydrate former subsystem during the charging of the battery system. The separation of the liquid from the hydrate causes an increase in the density of the hydrate by concentrating the hydrate along the filter means.

  3. Trousseau's syndrome: multiple definitions and multiple mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    In 1865, Armand Trousseau noted that unexpected or migratory thrombophlebitis could be a forewarning of an occult visceral malignancy. An analysis by Sack and colleagues in 1977 extended the term Trousseau's syndrome to include chronic disseminated intravascular coagulopathy associated with microangiopathy, verrucous endocarditis, and arterial emboli in patients with cancer, often occurring with mucin-positive carcinomas. In recent times the term has been ascribed to various clinical situations, ranging all the way from these classic descriptions to any kind of coagulopathy occurring in the setting of any kind of malignancy. These multiple definitions of Trousseau's syndrome are partly the consequence of multiple pathophysiologic mechanisms that apparently contribute to the hypercoagulability associated with cancer. Even the classic syndrome probably represents a spectrum of disorders, ranging from exaggerated fluid-phased thrombosis dependent on prothrombotic agents such as tissue factor to a platelet- and endotheliumum-based selectin-dependent microangiopathy associated with mucin-producing carcinomas, along with thrombin and fibrin production. Also considered here are recent hypotheses about genetic pathways within tumor cells that might trigger these thrombotic phenomena, and the reasons why therapy with heparins of various kinds remain the preferred treatment, probably because of their salutary actions on several of the proposed pathologic mechanisms. PMID:17496204

  4. Multiple stage multiple filter hydrate store

    DOEpatents

    Bjorkman, H.K. Jr.

    1983-05-31

    An improved hydrate store for a metal halogen battery system is disclosed which employs a multiple stage, multiple filter means for separating the halogen hydrate from the liquid used in forming the hydrate. The filter means is constructed in the form of three separate sections which combine to substantially cover the interior surface of the store container. Exit conduit means is provided in association with the filter means for transmitting liquid passing through the filter means to a hydrate former subsystem. The hydrate former subsystem combines the halogen gas generated during the charging of the battery system with the liquid to form the hydrate in association with the store. Relief valve means is interposed in the exit conduit means for controlling the operation of the separate sections of the filter means, such that the liquid flow through the exit conduit means from each of the separate sections is controlled in a predetermined sequence. The three separate sections of the filter means operate in three discrete stages to provide a substantially uniform liquid flow to the hydrate former subsystem during the charging of the battery system. The separation of the liquid from the hydrate causes an increase in the density of the hydrate by concentrating the hydrate along the filter means. 7 figs.

  5. Breast-feeding multiples.

    PubMed

    Flidel-Rimon, O; Shinwell, E S

    2002-06-01

    Human breast milk is the best nutrition for human infants. Its advantages over the milk of other species, such as cows, include both a reduced risk for infections, allergies and chronic diseases, together with the full nutritional requirements for growth and development. Breast-feeding is as important for multiples as for singletons. Despite the advantages, multiples receive less breast-feeding than singletons. Common reasons for not breast-feeding multiples include the fear of not fulfilling the infants' needs and the difficulty of coping with the demands on the mother's time. In addition, many multiples are delivered prematurely and by Caesarean section. Maternal pain and discomfort together with anxiety over the infants' condition are not conducive to successful breast-feeding. During lactation, the mother needs to add calories to her daily diet. It has been recommended to add approximately 500-600 kcal/day for each infant. Thus, between eating, nursing and sleeping, life is very busy for the mother of multiples. However, there is evidence that, with appropriate nutrition, one mother can nourish more than one infant. Also, simultaneous breast-feeding can save much time. Combined efforts of parents, close family, friends and the medical team can help to make either full or partial breast-feeding of multiples possible. However, when breast-feeding is not possible, health care workers need to carefully avoid judgmental approaches that may induce feelings of guilt.

  6. IRON IN MULTIPLE MYELOMA

    PubMed Central

    VanderWall, Kristina; Daniels-Wells, Tracy R; Penichet, Manuel; Lichtenstein, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a non-curable B cell malignancy in which iron metabolism plays an important role. Patients with this disorder almost universally suffer from a clinically significant anemia, which is often symptomatic, and which is due to impaired iron utilization. Recent studies indicate that the proximal cause of dysregulated iron metabolism and anemia in these patients is cytokine-induced upregulation of hepcidin expression. Malignant myeloma cells are dependent on an increased influx of iron and therapeutic efforts are being made to target this requirement. The studies detailing the characteristics and biochemical abnormalities in iron metabolism causing anemia and the initial attempts to target iron therapeutically are described in this review. PMID:23879589

  7. Hand washing behavior and associated factors in Vietnam based on the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    To, Kien Gia; Lee, Jong-Koo; Nam, You-Seon; Trinh, Oanh Thi Hoang; Van Do, Dung

    2016-01-01

    Background Handwashing is a cost-effective way of preventing communicable diseases such as respiratory and food-borne illnesses. However, handwashing rates are low in developing countries. Target 7C of the seventh Millennium Development Goals was to increase by half the proportion of people with sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation by 2015. Studies have found that better access to improved water sources and sanitation is associated with higher rates of handwashing. Objective Our goal was to describe handwashing behaviour and identify the associated factors in Vietnamese households. Design Data from 12,000 households participating in the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011 were used. The survey used a multistage sampling method to randomly select 100 clusters and 20 households per cluster. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data from a household representative. Demographic variables, the presence of a specific place for handwashing, soap and water, access to improved sanitation, and access to improved water sources were tested for association with handwashing behaviour in logistic regression. Results Almost 98% of households had a specific place for handwashing, and 85% had cleansing materials and water at such a place. The prevalence of handwashing in the sample was almost 85%. Educational level, ethnicity of the household head, and household wealth were factors associated with handwashing practice (p<0.05). Those having access to an improved sanitation facility were more likely to practise handwashing [odds ratio (OR)=1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.37–2.09, p<0.001], as were those with access to improved water sources (OR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.37–2.21, p<0.001). Conclusions Households with low education, low wealth, belonging to ethnic minorities, and with low access to improved sanitation facilities and water sources should be targeted for interventions implementing handwashing practice. In addition

  8. Low Serum miR-19a Expression as a Novel Poor Prognostic Indicator in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Mu; Zang, Meirong; Wendlandt, Erik; Xu, Yan; An, Gang; Gong, Dasen; Li, Fei; Qi, Fang; Zhang, Yanru; Yang, Ye; Zhan, Fenghuang; Qiu, Lugui

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic malignancy characterized by the clonal expansion of plasma cells. Despite continuing advances, novel biomarkers are needed for diagnosis and prognosis of MM. In this study we characterized the diagnostic and prognostic potential of circulating miRNAs in MM. Serum miRNA levels were analyzed in 108 newly diagnosed symptomatic MM patients and 56 healthy donors (HD). Our analysis identified ninety-five dysregulated miRNAs in newly diagnosed MM patients. Of the ninety-five dysregulated miRNAs, dysregulation of miR-19a, miR-92a, miR-214-3p, miR-135b-5p, miR-4254, miR-3658 and miR-33b were confirmed by RT-qPCR. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that a combination of miR-19a and miR-4254 can distinguish MM from HD with a sensitivity of 91.7% and specificity of 90.5%. Decreased expression of miR-19a was positively correlated with international staging system advancement, del(13q14) and 1q21 amplification. Furthermore, down-regulation of miR-19a resulted in significantly decreased progression free and overall survival. Our analysis indicated that the poor prognostic correlation of miR-19a expression was independent of genetic abnormalities in MM. Multivariate analysis revealed that miR-19a was a significant predictor of shortened PFS and OS. Interestingly, although miR-19a levels portend a poor prognosis, patients with low miR-19a levels had an improved response to bortezomib compared to patients with high miR-19a profile. Patients with down-regulated miR-19a experienced a significantly extended survival upon bortezomib based therapy. These data demonstrate that the expression patterns of serum microRNAs are altered in MM and miR-19a levels are a valuable prognostic marker to identify high-risk MM. PMID:25220540

  9. Neuromaturation of multiples.

    PubMed

    Allen, Marilee C; Donohue, Pamela K

    2002-06-01

    Etiology of preterm birth and degree of maturation are the primary determinants of a preterm infant's survival and complications. Multiple gestation increases the likelihood of preterm birth but its influence on rate of maturation or complications of prematurity has been controversial, primarily because of confounding variables (e.g. race, aetiology of preterm delivery, degree of prematurity and pregnancy complications). Very low birthweight preterm multiples have virtually the same rates of neonatal mortality, complications and neuromaturation as preterm singletons of the same gestational age. There is no advantage of delivering twins or higher order multiples before 30 weeks gestation, unless a fetus decompensates in utero. Survival improves for near term intermediate-size preterm multiples while intrauterine growth decelerates and placental and fetal neuromaturation accelerate. These data and the high fetal death rate at term support delivery of multiples as soon as there is fetal lung maturity, and consideration of elective delivery of twins at 35-38 weeks gestation and triplets at 33-35 weeks gestation.

  10. Detection of multiple enteric virus strains within a foodborne outbreak of gastroenteritis: an indication of the source of contamination.

    PubMed

    Gallimore, C I; Pipkin, C; Shrimpton, H; Green, A D; Pickford, Y; McCartney, C; Sutherland, G; Brown, D W G; Gray, J J

    2005-02-01

    An outbreak of acute gastroenteritis of suspected viral aetiology occurred in April 2003 in the British Royal Fleet Auxiliary ship (RFA) Argus deployed in the Northern Arabian Gulf. There were 37 cases amongst a crew of 400 personnel. Of 13 samples examined from cases amongst the crew, six enteric viruses were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Five different viruses were identified including, three norovirus genotypes, a sapovirus and a rotavirus. No multiple infections were detected. A common food source was implicated in the outbreak and epidemiological analysis showed a statistically significant association with salad as the source of the outbreak, with a relative risk of 3.41 (95% confidence interval of 1.7-6.81) of eating salad on a particular date prior to the onset of symptoms. Faecal contamination of the salad at source was the most probable explanation for the diversity of viruses detected and characterized. PMID:15724709

  11. Detection of multiple enteric virus strains within a foodborne outbreak of gastroenteritis: an indication of the source of contamination.

    PubMed

    Gallimore, C I; Pipkin, C; Shrimpton, H; Green, A D; Pickford, Y; McCartney, C; Sutherland, G; Brown, D W G; Gray, J J

    2005-02-01

    An outbreak of acute gastroenteritis of suspected viral aetiology occurred in April 2003 in the British Royal Fleet Auxiliary ship (RFA) Argus deployed in the Northern Arabian Gulf. There were 37 cases amongst a crew of 400 personnel. Of 13 samples examined from cases amongst the crew, six enteric viruses were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Five different viruses were identified including, three norovirus genotypes, a sapovirus and a rotavirus. No multiple infections were detected. A common food source was implicated in the outbreak and epidemiological analysis showed a statistically significant association with salad as the source of the outbreak, with a relative risk of 3.41 (95% confidence interval of 1.7-6.81) of eating salad on a particular date prior to the onset of symptoms. Faecal contamination of the salad at source was the most probable explanation for the diversity of viruses detected and characterized.

  12. Multiple Determinations of Sperm DNA Fragmentation Show That Varicocelectomy Is Not Indicated for Infertile Patients with Subclinical Varicocele

    PubMed Central

    García-Peiró, Agustín; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Oliver-Bonet, María; Navarro, Joaquima; Checa, Miguel A.; Nikolaou, Alexandros; Amengual, María J.; Abad, Carlos; Benet, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Varicocele is one of the most common causes of low semen quality, which is reflected in high percentages of sperm cells with fragmented DNA. While varicocelectomy is usually performed to ameliorate a patient's fertility, its impact on sperm DNA integrity in the case of subclinical varicocele is poorly documented. In this study, multiple DNA fragmentation analyses (TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA) were performed on semen samples from sixty infertile patients with varicocele (15 clinical varicoceles, 19 clinical varicoceles after surgical treatment, 16 subclinical varicoceles, and 10 subclinical varicoceles after surgical treatment). TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA assays all showed substantial sperm DNA fragmentation levels that were comparable between subclinical and clinical varicocele patients. Importantly, varicocelectomy did improve sperm quality in patients with clinical varicocele; however, this was not the case in patients with subclinical varicocele. In summary, although infertile patients with clinical and subclinical varicocele have similar sperm DNA quality, varicocelectomy should only be advised for patients with clinical varicocele. PMID:24967335

  13. Genetics Home Reference: multiple sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions multiple sclerosis multiple sclerosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Multiple sclerosis is a condition characterized by areas of damage ( ...

  14. Multiple noncontiguous spine fractures.

    PubMed

    Henderson, R L; Reid, D C; Saboe, L A

    1991-02-01

    The data from a prospective study of 508 spine injuries were reviewed to determine the incidence of multiple noncontiguous spine fractures. All patients were examined at admission and at 1 and 2 years postinjury. This series identified 77 (15.2%) multilevel fractures. Motor vehicle accidents were the primary cause of these fractures. The incidence of neurologic injury was not significantly different between multiple noncontiguous and single fractures. Failure to use seat belts and ejection from the vehicle were the main factors associated with multiple noncontiguous spine injuries. Seven major fracture patterns were identified, which accounted for 60% of these injuries. The prognosis for multilevel spine fractures was not significantly worse that that for single-level injuries. PMID:2011766

  15. Enhancing multiple disciplinary teamwork.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Terri E

    2008-01-01

    Multiple disciplinary research provides an opportunity to bring together investigators across disciplines to provide new views and develop innovative approaches to important questions. Through this shared experience, novel paradigms are formed, original frameworks are developed, and new language is generated. Integral to the successful construction of effective cross-disciplinary teams is the recognition of antecedent factors that affect the development of the team such as intrapersonal, social, physical environmental, organizational, and institutional influences. Team functioning is enhanced with well-developed behavioral, affective, interpersonal, and intellectual processes. Outcomes of effective multiple disciplinary research teams include novel ideas, integrative models, new training programs, institutional change, and innovative policies that can also influence the degree to which antecedents and processes contribute to team performance. Ongoing evaluation of team functioning and achievement of designated outcomes ensures the continued development of the multiple disciplinary team and confirmation of this approach as important to the advancement of science.

  16. MAVID multiple alignment server.

    PubMed

    Bray, Nicolas; Pachter, Lior

    2003-07-01

    MAVID is a multiple alignment program suitable for many large genomic regions. The MAVID web server allows biomedical researchers to quickly obtain multiple alignments for genomic sequences and to subsequently analyse the alignments for conserved regions. MAVID has been successfully used for the alignment of closely related species such as primates and also for the alignment of more distant organisms such as human and fugu. The server is fast, capable of aligning hundreds of kilobases in less than a minute. The multiple alignment is used to build a phylogenetic tree for the sequences, which is subsequently used as a basis for identifying conserved regions in the alignment. The server can be accessed at http://baboon.math.berkeley.edu/mavid/.

  17. Multiple sort flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Engh, G. van den; Esposito, R.J.

    1996-01-09

    A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane. 8 figs.

  18. Neutron multiplicity analysis tool

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Scott L

    2010-01-01

    I describe the capabilities of the EXCOM (EXcel based COincidence and Multiplicity) calculation tool which is used to analyze experimental data or simulated neutron multiplicity data. The input to the program is the count-rate data (including the multiplicity distribution) for a measurement, the isotopic composition of the sample and relevant dates. The program carries out deadtime correction and background subtraction and then performs a number of analyses. These are: passive calibration curve, known alpha and multiplicity analysis. The latter is done with both the point model and with the weighted point model. In the current application EXCOM carries out the rapid analysis of Monte Carlo calculated quantities and allows the user to determine the magnitude of sample perturbations that lead to systematic errors. Neutron multiplicity counting is an assay method used in the analysis of plutonium for safeguards applications. It is widely used in nuclear material accountancy by international (IAEA) and national inspectors. The method uses the measurement of the correlations in a pulse train to extract information on the spontaneous fission rate in the presence of neutrons from ({alpha},n) reactions and induced fission. The measurement is relatively simple to perform and gives results very quickly ({le} 1 hour). By contrast, destructive analysis techniques are extremely costly and time consuming (several days). By improving the achievable accuracy of neutron multiplicity counting, a nondestructive analysis technique, it could be possible to reduce the use of destructive analysis measurements required in safeguards applications. The accuracy of a neutron multiplicity measurement can be affected by a number of variables such as density, isotopic composition, chemical composition and moisture in the material. In order to determine the magnitude of these effects on the measured plutonium mass a calculational tool, EXCOM, has been produced using VBA within Excel. This

  19. Multiple sort flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Van den Engh, Ger; Esposito, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane.

  20. Multiple Intelligences and Business Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce

    2003-01-01

    Results from 97 business students with substantial work histories indicate that the Multiple Intelligence Preference Inventory gives a valid and reliable indication of their preferred intelligences. Awareness of these results is associated with assessments of self and others as knowledge sources. This information can help in recognizing,…

  1. [Multiple bowenoid arsenic keratoses].

    PubMed

    Leyh, F; Rothlaender, J P

    1985-01-01

    Case report of multiple keratoses and chronic lymphatic leukemia after arsenic poisoning 30 years ago during a one-year exposure to copper acetoarsenate in a pesticide factory. Absorption through the skin with local arsenic skin damage is discussed. Etretinate therapy (1 mg/kg b. w.) was ineffective.

  2. Multiple Cutaneous Reticulohistiocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Hemmady, Karishma D; Someshwar, Shylaja S; Jerajani, Hemangi R

    2016-01-01

    Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis characterized in its full form by severe destructive arthritis, cutaneous nodules, and systemic manifestations. Cutaneous lesions may precede, accompany, or more commonly develop later than other features in this disease. We describe a case of multiple cutaneous reticulohistiocytoma without any systemic associations after thorough investigations. PMID:26955136

  3. Managing Multiple Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePascale, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    Regardless of how one might feel about the recent developments in teacher evaluation systems, No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and adequate yearly progress (AYP), or student assessments for high-stakes promotion decisions, educators overwhelmingly agree that use of multiple measures is better than reliance on a single measure such as a large-scale,…

  4. Automatic multiple applicator electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Easy-to-use, economical device permits electrophoresis on all known supporting media. System includes automatic multiple-sample applicator, sample holder, and electrophoresis apparatus. System has potential applicability to fields of taxonomy, immunology, and genetics. Apparatus is also used for electrofocusing.

  5. [Smoldering multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Fouquet, G; Guidez, S; Herbaux, C; Demarquette, H; Leleu, X

    2014-04-01

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic plasma cell neoplasia, characterized by monoclonal plasma cell proliferation in the absence of end-organ damage, but with a high risk of progression to multiple myeloma. It has therefore to be distinguished from monoclonal gammapathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), which has a much lower risk of progression, but also from multiple myeloma, which remains an incurable disease and requires a specific treatment. The critical question in the management of SMM is whether an early therapeutic strategy could help delaying the progression to multiple myeloma, in order to lower the risk of serious complications related to this progression, or even to cure the disease. This early treatment could not be proposed to all SMM patients, who are indeed asymptomatic, and in whom the risk of toxicity could make it difficult to justify the potential benefit obtained. The challenge is to target early at diagnosis SMM patients with a high risk of progression, using available routine tests sufficiently reliable to warrant the therapeutic sanction which relies on it. Today however, apart from randomized studies, recommendations are to maintain therapeutic abstention in SMM patients. PMID:24050785

  6. Patterns in Multiples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robold, Alice I.

    1982-01-01

    Activities that allow students to represent patterns concretely before showing the patterns in color on paper are presented. Three basic activities are described, with suggestions made for extensions that allow further pupil exploration of multiples. Student discovery of relationships not found by the teacher is expected. (MP)

  7. Higher-order Multiples.

    PubMed

    Stone, Joanne; Kohari, Katherine S

    2015-09-01

    Higher-order multiple gestations have increased since the advent of advanced reproductive technologies. These pregnancies present unique risks to both mothers and fetuses. It is imperative that early diagnosis of chronicity be determined and that proper counseling is performed, so patients understand the risks, evaluation, and management needed.

  8. Multiple Primary Cancer Monograph

    Cancer.gov

    To identify groups of cancer survivors that are at increased risk for multiple primary cancers, investigators led an effort to provide the first comprehensive population-based analysis of the risk of subsequent cancer in the U.S., resulting in a monograph.

  9. Multiple gap photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Dalal, Vikram L.

    1981-01-01

    A multiple gap photovoltaic device having a transparent electrical contact adjacent a first cell which in turn is adjacent a second cell on an opaque electrical contact, includes utilizing an amorphous semiconductor as the first cell and a crystalline semiconductor as the second cell.

  10. Multiple Grammars and MOGUL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscott, John

    2014-01-01

    Optionality is a central phenomenon in second language acquisition (SLA), for which any adequate theory must account. Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) offer an appealing approach to it, using Roeper's Multiple Grammars Theory, which was created with first language in mind but which extends very naturally to SLA. They include…

  11. Mastering the Multiplication Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Ettorre, Jenna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to share the results of a six-week research project (after baseline data was collected) that focused on three different strategies (flashcards, interactive games, and music) and their effectiveness in helping fifth grade students memorize the basic multiplication facts. Many teachers face a serious problem when their…

  12. Multiple Access Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motamedi, Masoud

    1990-01-01

    The Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) strawman design uses a hybrid Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)/Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) implementation. TDMA is used for the forward direction (from Suppliers to Users), and FDMA for the return direction (from Users to Suppliers). An alternative architecture is proposed that will require minimal real time coordination and yet provide a fast access method by using random access Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). The CDMA system issues are addressed such as connecting suppliers and users, both of whom may be located anywhere in the CONUS, when the user terminals are constrained in size and weight; and providing efficient traffic routing under highly variable traffic requirements. It is assumed that bandwidth efficiency is not of paramount importance. CDMA or Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (SSMA) communication is a method in which a group of carriers operate at the same nominal center frequency but are separable from each other by the low cross correlation of the spreading codes used. Interference and multipath rejection capability, ease of selective addressing and message screening, low density power spectra for signal hiding and security, and high resolution ranging are among the benefits of spread spectrum communications.

  13. Performance of Multiple Pulse Multiple Delay Modulated UWB Signals in a Multiple Access Indoor Wireless Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Nekoogar, F

    2003-06-12

    In this paper, the performance of a two user UWB multiple access (UWB-MA) system based on multiple-pulse multiple-delay (MPMD) modulation scheme in an indoor wireless channel is evaluated by computer simulations. The indoor multipath propagation channel model used in this study is based on the modified statistical Saleh-Valenzuela model proposed by Foerester and Li from Intel. The simulation results indicate that the multipath performance of MPMD modulated signals in a multiple access system outperforms the nonmultipath case as the number of autocorrelation function (ACF) sampling points increases for each user. This is an unusual but important result, since MPMD receiver exploits multipath phenomenon in indoor wireless channels to increase the BER performance, hence the transmission rate in a UWB-MA system.

  14. Viruses and Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Gregory P.; Gilden, Don; Burgoon, Mark P.; Yu, Xiaoli; Bennett, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disorder of unknown etiology, possibly caused by a virus or virus-triggered immunopathology. The virus might reactivate after years of latency and lyse oligodendrocytes, as in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, or initiate immunopathological demyelination, as in animals infected with Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus or coronaviruses. The argument for a viral cause of MS is supported by epidemiological analyses and studies of MS in identical twins, indicating that disease is acquired. However, the most important evidence is the presence of bands of oligoclonal IgG (OCBs) in MS brain and CSF that persist throughout the lifetime of the patient. OCBs are found almost exclusively in infectious CNS disorders, and antigenic targets of OCBs represent the agent that causes disease. Here, the authors review past attempts to identify an infectious agent in MS brain cells and discuss the promise of using recombinant antibodies generated from clonally expanded plasma cells in brain and CSF to identify disease-relevant antigens. They show how this strategy has been used successfully to analyze antigen specificity in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a chronic encephalitis caused by measles virus, and in neuromyelitis optica, a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disease produced by antibodies directed against the aquaporin-4 water channel. PMID:22130640

  15. Viruses and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Owens, Gregory P; Gilden, Don; Burgoon, Mark P; Yu, Xiaoli; Bennett, Jeffrey L

    2011-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disorder of unknown etiology, possibly caused by a virus or virus-triggered immunopathology. The virus might reactivate after years of latency and lyse oligodendrocytes, as in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, or initiate immunopathological demyelination, as in animals infected with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus or coronaviruses. The argument for a viral cause of MS is supported by epidemiological analyses and studies of MS in identical twins, indicating that disease is acquired. However, the most important evidence is the presence of bands of oligoclonal IgG (OCBs) in MS brain and CSF that persist throughout the lifetime of the patient. OCBs are found almost exclusively in infectious CNS disorders, and antigenic targets of OCBs represent the agent that causes disease. Here, the authors review past attempts to identify an infectious agent in MS brain cells and discuss the promise of using recombinant antibodies generated from clonally expanded plasma cells in brain and CSF to identify disease-relevant antigens. They show how this strategy has been used successfully to analyze antigen specificity in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a chronic encephalitis caused by measles virus, and in neuromyelitis optica, a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disease produced by antibodies directed against the aquaporin-4 water channel. PMID:22130640

  16. [Familial multiple cavernomatosis].

    PubMed

    Terriza, F; Amrani, Y; Asencio, J J; Goberna, E; Casado, A; Peralta, J I

    1997-04-01

    We present a family study of multiple cavernomatosis which affected a boy of six, his mother and two brothers. It was seen clinically as epileptic crises, focal neurological defects and frequent headaches. In our case, the condition started as a syndrome of intracranial hypertension with progressive headache and vomiting. During the illness, localizing neurological signs due to bleeding were seen. Amongst these were acute left hemiparesia and paralysis of vertical gaze. Other members of the family remain symptom-free. In a search for angiomas at other sites none were found in the patient or his family. Recently the gene giving rise to the familial cerebral cavernosa malformation has been found to be a locus on chromosome 7. We discuss the findings on neuro-imaging, emphasizing the importance of magnetic resonance (MR) both in diagnosis and finding affected asymptomatic family members, because of its great sensitivity and specificity. Angiography is not a suitable technique for this since they behave as hidden malformations. We also point out its importance as a way of following-up the illness and for evaluation of possible complications due to progressive growth or sudden haemorrhage, which may indicate the need for treatment. Finally we emphasize the different characteristics of MR signals in this type of lesion since cavernomatasa malformations are dynamic lesions. PMID:9172920

  17. Multiplicative Calculus and Student Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Duff

    1999-01-01

    Multiplicative calculus is based on a multiplicative rate of change whereas the usual calculus is based on an additive rate of change. Describes some student investigations into multiplicative calculus, including an original student idea about multiplicative Euler's Method. (Author/ASK)

  18. Comparison of ductus venosus blood flow waveform indices of 607 singletons with 133 multiples at 10-14 weeks gestation. An evaluation in uncomplicated pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Germer, U; Kohl, T; Smrcek, J M; Geipel, A; Berg, C; Krapp, M; Friedrich, H J; Diedrich, K; Gembruch, U

    2002-08-01

    Abnormal flow profiles in the ductus venosus during early pregnancy may aid in diagnosing chromosomopathies, malformations, congenital heart disease, and twin-twin transfusion syndrome in monochorionic twins. Whereas reference values of ductus venosus flow velocities and waveform indices for the late first and early second trimester have been reported in singletons, similar reference values for multiple pregnancies have not been established in this age group. Therefore, the aim of the present ultrasound study in 119 multichorionic and 14 monochorionic multiples in human fetuses between 10-14 weeks of gestation was to establish reference values for ductus venosus flow waveform indices for multiple pregnancies. Data in multiples were compared with those of 607 singletons. Analysis of the ductus venosus (DV) flow velocity waveforms consisted of the calculation of the pulsatility index (PIV) and peak velocity index (PVIV) for veins. Comparing the data of singletons and multichorionic multiples, no statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups in any of the assessed Doppler parameters. The DV Doppler parameters of the 14 monochorionic twins that were analysed separately in order to avoid any potential bias from preclinical twin-twin transfusion syndrome were also found within the normal ranges. In the study population fetal heart rate did neither significantly correlate with PIV nor with PVIV. PIV and PVIV decreased from 10 to 14 weeks gestation. A 2.9% rate of absent or reverse flow during atrial contraction in normal fetuses at 10-14 weeks gestation was found and needs to be taken into consideration when this pattern is defined abnormal in screening tests for fetal chromosomopathies or congenital heart disease.

  19. Multiple gene analyses of caligid copepods indicate that the reduction of a thoracic appendage in Pseudocaligus represents convergent evolution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Caligidae is a family of parasitic copepods containing over 30 recognised genera. They are commercially important parasites as they cause disease in numerous finfish aquaculture facilities globally. Morphological features are used to distinguish between the genera and Pseudocaligus has traditionally been differentiated from Caligus solely by the presence of a much reduced form of the fourth thoracic leg. Currently there are numerous DNA sequences available for Caligus spp. but only the type species, Pseudocaligus brevipedis, has molecular data available, so systematic studies using molecular phylogenetic analyses have been limited. Methods Three gene regions, SSU rDNA, 16S and CO1, for Pseudocaligus fugu from puffer fish from Japan and Pseudocaligus uniartus from rabbit fish from Indonesia are sequenced and molecular phylogenetic analyses performed in order to infer phylogenetic relationships between Pseudocaligus and other caligid copepods. Results The analysis revealed that there was no discrete grouping of Pseudocaligus spp. and that they had a polyphyletic distribution within Caligus taxa. Pseudocaligus fugu grouped with Caligus elongatus and contained a unique synapomorphy in the SSU rDNA region only seen in members of that clade. Pseudocaligus uniartus formed a well-supported group, in the SSU rDNA analyses, with a Caligus sp. that also infects rabbit fish, but was unresolved in the other analyses. Pseudocaligus brevipedis consistently and robustly grouped with Caligus curtus and C. centrodonti in all analyses. The majority of Lepeophtheirus spp. form a monophyletic sister group to the Caligus clade; however, L. natalensis is unresolved in all analyses and does not form part of the main Lepeophtheirus clade. Conclusions These findings do not support the morphological-based distinction between Pseudocaligus and Caligus, suggesting that the reduced fourth leg is a feature that has evolved on multiple occasions throughout caligid evolution

  20. Progression of a Fracture Site Impaction as a Prognostic Indicator of Impacted Femoral Neck Fracture Treated with Multiple Pinning

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Pil Whan; Shin, Young Ho; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Yoon, Kang Sup

    2012-01-01

    Background We evaluated the clinical and radiologic results of impacted femoral neck fractures treated with multiple pinning and determined the influence of the progression of impaction at the fracture site on clinical outcome. Methods There were 34 patients with a mean age of 65.5 years. The mean follow-up period was 3.4 years. Progression of fracture site impaction was measured using an articulo-trochanteric distance index and the percentage decrease in the articulo-trochanteric distance index between follow-up intervals. The failure of treatment was clarified as non-union and avascular necrosis. Other characteristics of the patients, including mean waiting time for surgery, preoperative Singh index score, and body mass index, were also measured to evaluate the influence on the clinical outcome of surgery. Results There were 6 fractures which were not treated successfully (3 non-union, 8.8% and 3 avascular necrosis, 8.8%). The mean percentage decrease of the articulo-trochanteric distance index within the first 6 weeks after surgery was 4.5% in the successful group and 25.1% in the failure group (p < 0.001). There was also a significant mean percentage decrease in the articulo-trochanteric distance index between 6 weeks and 3 months (p < 0.001). Conclusions Primary stabilization with Knowles pins for impacted femoral neck fractures had a reasonable clinical outcome with low morbidity. Despite a significant difference of a mean percentage decrease in the articulo-trochanteric distance index between the successful group and the failure group, we could not verify it as a risk factor for failure of treatment because the odds ratio was not statistically significant. PMID:22379557

  1. Long-term Effects of the Family Bereavement Program on Multiple Indicators of Grief in Parentally Bereaved Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, Irwin N.; Ma, Yue; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Ayers, Tim S.; Wolchik, Sharlene; Kennedy, Cara L.; Millsap, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Objectives This paper reports on results from a randomized experimental trial of the effects of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP) on multiple measures of grief experienced by parentally-bereaved children and adolescents over a six year period of time. Method Participants were 244 youth (ages 8–16, mean age = 11.4 years) from 156 families that had experienced the death of a parent. The sample consisted of 53% boys; ethnicity was 67% non-Hispanic white and 33% ethnic minority. Families were randomly assigned to the FBP (N=135) or a literature control condition (N=109). Two grief measures, the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief (TRIG) and the Intrusive Grief Thoughts Scale (IGTS) were administered at four times over six years, pre-test, post-test, eleven-month and six-year follow-ups. A third measure, an adaptation of the Inventory of Traumatic Grief (ITG) was administered only at the six-year follow-up. Results The FBP showed a greater reduction as compared to controls in their level of problematic grief (IGTS) at post-test and six-year follow-up and in the percent at clinical levels of problematic grief at the post-test. The FBP also reduced scores on a dimension of the ITG, Social Detachment/Insecurity, at six-year follow-up for three subgroups; those who experienced lower levels of grief at program entry, older youth, and boys. Conclusion These are the first findings from a randomized trial with long-term follow-up of the effects of a program to reduce problematic levels of grief of parentally-bereaved youth. PMID:20350025

  2. Core multiplication in childhood.

    PubMed

    McCrink, Koleen; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2010-08-01

    A dedicated, non-symbolic, system yielding imprecise representations of large quantities (approximate number system, or ANS) has been shown to support arithmetic calculations of addition and subtraction. In the present study, 5-7-year-old children without formal schooling in multiplication and division were given a task requiring a scalar transformation of large approximate numerosities, presented as arrays of objects. In different conditions, the required calculation was doubling, quadrupling, or increasing by a fractional factor (2.5). In all conditions, participants were able to represent the outcome of the transformation at above-chance levels, even on the earliest training trials. Their performance could not be explained by processes of repeated addition, and it showed the critical ratio signature of the ANS. These findings provide evidence for an untrained, intuitive process of calculating multiplicative numerical relationships, providing a further foundation for formal arithmetic instruction. PMID:20537618

  3. Multiple zeros of polynomials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    For polynomials of higher degree, iterative numerical methods must be used. Four iterative methods are presented for approximating the zeros of a polynomial using a digital computer. Newton's method and Muller's method are two well known iterative methods which are presented. They extract the zeros of a polynomial by generating a sequence of approximations converging to each zero. However, both of these methods are very unstable when used on a polynomial which has multiple zeros. That is, either they fail to converge to some or all of the zeros, or they converge to very bad approximations of the polynomial's zeros. This material introduces two new methods, the greatest common divisor (G.C.D.) method and the repeated greatest common divisor (repeated G.C.D.) method, which are superior methods for numerically approximating the zeros of a polynomial having multiple zeros. These methods were programmed in FORTRAN 4 and comparisons in time and accuracy are given.

  4. Multiple pulse laser

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.S.; Jernigan, J.L.

    1981-02-10

    A multiple pulse laser from a single resonant cavity is disclosed. An acousto-optic cell is used to modulate coherent light from a lasing element. Either multiple chirp signals or a masked mirror are used to provide distinct pulses of light. Through proper choice of materials for the acousto-optic cell and use of divergent optics, a higher power level is obtained. Use of a multi-tapped delay line permits a shorter period between pulses due to the linear superposition principle. When the mask embodiment is used, the acousto-optic cell focuses light which scans across the mask. Whenever the focused light passes through the mask, lasing occurs which generates an output pulse.

  5. Portable multiplicity counter

    DOEpatents

    Newell, Matthew R.; Jones, David Carl

    2009-09-01

    A portable multiplicity counter has signal input circuitry, processing circuitry and a user/computer interface disposed in a housing. The processing circuitry, which can comprise a microcontroller integrated circuit operably coupled to shift register circuitry implemented in a field programmable gate array, is configured to be operable via the user/computer interface to count input signal pluses receivable at said signal input circuitry and record time correlations thereof in a total counting mode, coincidence counting mode and/or a multiplicity counting mode. The user/computer interface can be for example an LCD display/keypad and/or a USB interface. The counter can include a battery pack for powering the counter and low/high voltage power supplies for biasing external detectors so that the counter can be configured as a hand-held device for counting neutron events.

  6. Multiple wavelength diffractive imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bo; Dilanian, Ruben A.; Teichmann, Sven; Abbey, Brian; Peele, Andrew G.; Williams, Garth J.; Hannaford, Peter; van Dao, Lap; Quiney, Harry M.; Nugent, Keith A.

    2009-02-01

    We demonstrate coherent diffraction imaging using multiple harmonics from a high-harmonic generation source. An algorithm is presented that builds the known incident spectrum into the reconstruction procedure with the result that the useable flux is increased by more than an order of magnitude. Excellent images are obtained with a resolution of (165±5)nm and compare very well with images from a scanning electron microscope.

  7. Multiple muons in MACRO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinz, R.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the multiple muon events in the Monopole Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Observatory detector was conducted to determine the cosmic ray composition. Particular emphasis is placed on the interesting primary cosmic ray energy region above 2000 TeV/nucleus. An extensive study of muon production in cosmic ray showers has been done. Results were used to parameterize the characteristics of muon penetration into the Earth to the location of a detector.

  8. Universality of particle multiplicities

    SciTech Connect

    Goulianos, K. |

    1994-09-01

    We discuss the scaling properties and universality aspects of the rapidity and multiplicity distributions of particles produced in high energy hadronic and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions. This paper is based on material presented in three lectures on pomeron phenomenology, which included a review of traditional soft pomeron physics and selected topics on hard diffraction processes probing the structure function of the pomeron.

  9. Multiple quantum coherence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Nathan A; Yurs, Lena A; Block, Stephen B; Pakoulev, Andrei V; Kornau, Kathryn M; Wright, John C

    2009-08-20

    Multiple quantum coherences provide a powerful approach for studies of complex systems because increasing the number of quantum states in a quantum mechanical superposition state increases the selectivity of a spectroscopic measurement. We show that frequency domain multiple quantum coherence multidimensional spectroscopy can create these superposition states using different frequency excitation pulses. The superposition state is created using two excitation frequencies to excite the symmetric and asymmetric stretch modes in a rhodium dicarbonyl chelate and the dynamic Stark effect to climb the vibrational ladders involving different overtone and combination band states. A monochromator resolves the free induction decay of different coherences comprising the superposition state. The three spectral dimensions provide the selectivity required to observe 19 different spectral features associated with fully coherent nonlinear processes involving up to 11 interactions with the excitation fields. The different features act as spectroscopic probes of the diagonal and off-diagonal parts of the molecular potential energy hypersurface. This approach can be considered as a coherent pump-probe spectroscopy where the pump is a series of excitation pulses that prepares a multiple quantum coherence and the probe is another series of pulses that creates the output coherence. PMID:19507812

  10. MULTIPLE OSCILLATION STABILIZING CONTROL.

    SciTech Connect

    YUE,M.; SCHLUETER,R.; AZARM,M.; BARI,R.

    2004-07-23

    This paper presents a strategy that may be used to guide stabilizing control design for multiple oscillations, which are difficult to control using conventional control design procedures. A multiple oscillation phenomena is observed in an example power system. A local bifurcation and an interarea bifurcation develop in an example power system due to multiple bifurcation parameter variations. The dynamic behaviors of the bifurcating system are complex due to the overlapping of the two different bifurcation subsystems and are shown to be difficult to control. The double bifurcations are studied in this paper and in order to stabilize them, three kind of {mu}-synthesis robust controls are designed, (a) {mu}-synthesis power system stabilizer (MPSS); (b) {mu}-synthesis SVC control (MSVC); and (c) a mixed MPSS/MSVC control. Based on the bifurcation subsystem analysis, the measurement signals and locations of the controls are selected. The control performances of three kind of controls are evaluated and compared. The conclusions are given according to the analysis and time simulation results.

  11. Dynamic determination of kinetic parameters for the interaction between polypeptide hormones and cell-surface receptors in the perfused rat liver by the multiple-indicator dilution method

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, H.; Sugiyama, Y.; Sawada, Y.; Iga, T.; Sakamoto, S.; Fuwa, T.; Hanano, M. )

    1988-11-01

    Hepatic elimination of epidermal growth factor (EGF) via receptor-mediated endocytosis was studied by a multiple-indicator dilution method in the isolated perfused rat liver, in which cell polarity and spatial organization are maintained. In this method EGF was given with inulin, an extracellular reference, as a bolus into the portal vein, and dilution curves of both compounds in the hepatic vein effluent were analyzed. Analysis of the dilution curve for EGF, compared with that for somatostatin, which showed no specific binding to isolated liver plasma membranes, resulted as follows: (i) both extraction ratio and distribution volume of {sup 125}I-labeled EGF decreased as the injected amount of unlabeled EGF increased; (ii) the ratio plot of the dilution curve for EGF exhibited an upward straight line initially for a short period of time, whereas the ratio plot of somatostatin gradually decreased. The multiple-indicator dilution method was used for other peptides also. Insulin and glucagon, known to have hepatocyte receptors, behaved similarly to EGF in shape of their ratio plots. The kinetic parameters calculated by this analysis were comparable with reported values obtained by in vitro direct binding measurements at equilibrium using liver homogenates. They conclude that the multiple-indicator dilution method is a good tool for analyzing the dynamics of peptide hormones-cell-surface receptor interaction under a condition in which spatial architecture of the liver is maintained.

  12. Injectable Multiple Sclerosis Medications

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Zung Vu

    2012-01-01

    Although injection-site reactions (ISRs) occur with US Food and Drug Administration–approved injectable disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis, there are currently few reports of real-world data on ISR management strategies or possible correlations between ISRs and patient demographics, disease characteristics, and missed injections. Patient-reported data on the use of DMTs, patient demographic and disease characteristics, missed injections, and ISR reduction strategies were collected via e-mail, a patient registry (www.ms-cam.org), and a Web-based survey. Of the 1380 respondents, 1201 (87%) indicated that they had used injectable DMTs, of whom 377 (31%) had used intramuscular (IM) interferon beta-1a (IFNβ-1a), 172 (14%) had used subcutaneous (SC) IFNβ-1a, 183 (15%) had used SC IFNβ-1b, and 469 (39%) had used glatiramer acetate (GA). The majority of respondents were older (73% were ≥40 years), female (79%), married or living with a partner (72%), white (94%), and nonsmoking (82%). Injection-site reaction incidence, grouped according to severity, varied among DMTs, with IM IFNβ-1a causing significantly (P < .001) fewer mild, moderate, or severe ISRs than the other therapies. Female sex and younger age were significantly (P < .05) associated with more moderate ISRs among users of IM IFNβ-1a, SC IFNβ-1b, and GA. Nonwhites reported severe ISRs more often than whites. For all DMTs injection-site massage and avoidance of sensitive sites were the most frequently used strategies to minimize ISRs. These data may help identify patients with characteristics associated with a higher risk for ISRs, allowing health-care professionals to provide anticipatory guidance to patients at risk for decreased adherence or discontinuation. PMID:24453732

  13. Multiple myeloma: evaluation by CT

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiman, J.S.; McLeod, R.A.; Kyle, R.A.; Beabout, J.W.

    1985-02-01

    Although patients who have multiple myeloma usually have straightforward clinical symptoms and corroborative radiographs, in some instances, these patients will present atypically, with symptoms suggesting active disease but radiographs that are normal or nonspecific. The authors reviewed the records of 32 patients who had documented multiple myeloma and had undergone CT examinations, assessing the value of those examinations. Although CT is not indicated in all patients who have multiple myeloma, it is especially useful in patients who have bone pain and normal or nonspecific radiographs. CT provided confirmatory information in all cases in which lesions were seen on radiographs. CT also frequently demonstrated a greater extent of disease than could be appreciated on the radiographs.

  14. Multiple sclerosis and infections.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Arun

    2015-01-01

    The intersection between infections and multiple sclerosis (MS) is complex and bidirectional. Numerous infectious agents have been posited to play a role in the initiation of MS, while emerging evidence suggests a potential relationship between established MS and the gut microbiome. As both systemic and CNS infections are major complications of MS, the clinical manifestations and evolving epidemiology of these infections over the lifespan of the MS patient are examined in this review. Data from animal models and human studies are discussed. PMID:26611265

  15. Multiple-chemical sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Glinton, Gloria J

    2005-12-01

    Multiple-chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a condition in which individuals have an acute hypersensitivity to low levels of chemicals found in everyday substances, such as household cleaning agents, pesticides, fresh paint, new carpeting, synthetic building materials, newsprint, perfume, and numerous other petrochemical products. This condition continues to remain somewhat of a mystery to the medical community, and its true prevalence rate is unknown because many cases are not identified and reported as MCS. This article will inform the reader about the condition of MCS.

  16. Multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Piper, A

    1994-05-01

    Five aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of multiple personality disorder (MPD) were examined. The following five conclusions were made: the contemporary diagnostic criteria are vague and overinclusive; the recent alleged increase in prevalence of the disorder is almost certainly artefactual; legal proceedings involving MPD patients raise disturbing questions about personal responsibility; there is little literature support for the theory that MPD results from childhood trauma; and many of the techniques used to diagnose and treat the condition reinforce its symptoms. A careful revision of diagnostic criteria for the disorder is recommended.

  17. Multiple granular cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Jones, J K; Kuo, T T; Griffiths, C M; Itharat, S

    1980-10-01

    Eleven cases of granular cell tumor were reviewed. In two of the cases multiple sites of involvement were seen. The tumor occurred in the oral cavity in both of these cases and each was initially wrongly diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. The most common site was the subcutaneous tissue (nine patients) and the tongue was involved in three cases. In one patient the parotid gland was involved. Eight of the patients were females and three were males; seven were black and four were white. The importance of differentiating between squamous cell carcinoma and granular cell tumor is stressed, as is the need for a simple wide surgical excision. PMID:7421377

  18. A comparison of multiple indicator kriging and area-to-point Poisson kriging for mapping patterns of herbivore species abundance in Kruger National Park, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kerry, Ruth; Goovaerts, Pierre; Smit, Izak P.J.; Ingram, Ben R.

    2015-01-01

    Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, provides protected habitats for the unique animals of the African savannah. For the past 40 years, annual aerial surveys of herbivores have been conducted to aid management decisions based on (1) the spatial distribution of species throughout the park and (2) total species populations in a year. The surveys are extremely time consuming and costly. For many years, the whole park was surveyed, but in 1998 a transect survey approach was adopted. This is cheaper and less time consuming but leaves gaps in the data spatially. Also the distance method currently employed by the park only gives estimates of total species populations but not their spatial distribution. We compare the ability of multiple indicator kriging and area-to-point Poisson kriging to accurately map species distribution in the park. A leave-one-out cross-validation approach indicates that multiple indicator kriging makes poor estimates of the number of animals, particularly the few large counts, as the indicator variograms for such high thresholds are pure nugget. Poisson kriging was applied to the prediction of two types of abundance data: spatial density and proportion of a given species. Both Poisson approaches had standardized mean absolute errors (St. MAEs) of animal counts at least an order of magnitude lower than multiple indicator kriging. The spatial density, Poisson approach (1), gave the lowest St. MAEs for the most abundant species and the proportion, Poisson approach (2), did for the least abundant species. Incorporating environmental data into Poisson approach (2) further reduced St. MAEs. PMID:25729318

  19. Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Y; Chitnis, Tanuja

    2016-04-01

    Pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory neurologic disease that is challenging to diagnose and treat. Although there are many clinical parallels between pediatric-onset MS and adult-onset MS, there is also accumulating evidence of distinguishing clinical features that may, in part, arise from development-specific, neuroimmune processes governing MS pathogenesis in children. Here the authors describe the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric MS, with a particular focus on describing clinical features and highlighting new developments that promise a better understanding of pediatric MS pathogenesis. An important task that lies ahead for pediatric neurologists is better understanding the early gene-environment interaction that precipitates the first demyelinating event in pediatric MS. This area is of particular importance for understanding the MS etiology and the natural history of pediatric MS. Such understanding should in turn inform new developments in diagnostic tools, long-term therapies, and much-needed biomarkers. Such biomarkers are not only valuable for defining the disease onset, but also for monitoring both the treatment response and a disease evolution that spans multiple decades in children with MS. PMID:27116721

  20. Albumin and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    LeVine, Steven M

    2016-04-12

    Leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a common pathological feature in multiple sclerosis (MS). Following a breach of the BBB, albumin, the most abundant protein in plasma, gains access to CNS tissue where it is exposed to an inflammatory milieu and tissue damage, e.g., demyelination. Once in the CNS, albumin can participate in protective mechanisms. For example, due to its high concentration and molecular properties, albumin becomes a target for oxidation and nitration reactions. Furthermore, albumin binds metals and heme thereby limiting their ability to produce reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Albumin also has the potential to worsen disease. Similar to pathogenic processes that occur during epilepsy, extravasated albumin could induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and affect the ability of astrocytes to maintain potassium homeostasis thereby possibly making neurons more vulnerable to glutamate exicitotoxicity, which is thought to be a pathogenic mechanism in MS. The albumin quotient, albumin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/albumin in serum, is used as a measure of blood-CSF barrier dysfunction in MS, but it may be inaccurate since albumin levels in the CSF can be influenced by multiple factors including: 1) albumin becomes proteolytically cleaved during disease, 2) extravasated albumin is taken up by macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes, and 3) the location of BBB damage affects the entry of extravasated albumin into ventricular CSF. A discussion of the roles that albumin performs during MS is put forth.

  1. Smoldering multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Minjie; Yang, Guang; Kong, Yuanyuan; Wu, Xiaosong; Shi, Jumei

    2015-01-01

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic precursor stage of multiple myeloma (MM) characterized by clonal bone marrow plasma cells (BMPC) ≥ 10% and/or M protein level ≥ 30 g/L in the absence of end organ damage. It represents an intermediate stage between monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and symptomatic MM. The risk of progression to symptomatic MM is not uniform, and several parameters have been reported to predict the risk of progression. These include the level of M protein and the percentage of BMPC, the proportion of immunophenotypically aberrant plasma cells, and the presence of immunoparesis, free light-chain (FLC) ratio, peripheral blood plasma cells (PBPC), pattern of serum M protein evolution, abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cytogenetic abnormalities, IgA isotype, and Bence Jones proteinuria. So far treatment is still not recommended for SMM, because several trials suggested that patients with SMM do not benefit from early treatment. However, the Mateos et al. trial showed a survival benefit after early treatment with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone in patients with high-risk SMM. This trial has prompted a reevaluation of early treatment in an asymptomatic patient population. PMID:26000300

  2. Smoldering Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Minjie; Yang, Guang; Kong, Yuanyuan; Wu, Xiaosong; Shi, Jumei

    2015-01-01

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic precursor stage of multiple myeloma (MM) characterized by clonal bone marrow plasma cells (BMPC) ≥ 10% and/or M protein level ≥ 30 g/L in the absence of end organ damage. It represents an intermediate stage between monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and symptomatic MM. The risk of progression to symptomatic MM is not uniform, and several parameters have been reported to predict the risk of progression. These include the level of M protein and the percentage of BMPC, the proportion of immunophenotypically aberrant plasma cells, and the presence of immunoparesis, free light-chain (FLC) ratio, peripheral blood plasma cells (PBPC), pattern of serum M protein evolution, abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cytogenetic abnormalities, IgA isotype, and Bence Jones proteinuria. So far treatment is still not recommended for SMM, because several trials suggested that patients with SMM do not benefit from early treatment. However, the Mateos et al. trial showed a survival benefit after early treatment with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone in patients with high-risk SMM. This trial has prompted a reevaluation of early treatment in an asymptomatic patient population. PMID:26000300

  3. Smoldering multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Landgren, Ola; Mateos, María-Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic clonal plasma cell disorder. SMM is distinguished from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance by a much higher risk of progression to multiple myeloma (MM). There have been major advances in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of SMM in the last few years. These include a revised disease definition, identification of several new prognostic factors, a classification based on underlying cytogenetic changes, and new treatment options. Importantly, a subset of patients previously considered SMM is now reclassified as MM on the basis of biomarkers identifying patients with an ≥80% risk of progression within 2 years. SMM has assumed greater significance on the basis of recent trials showing that early therapy can be potentially beneficial to patients. As a result, there is a need to accurately diagnose and risk-stratify patients with SMM, including routine incorporation of modern imaging and laboratory techniques. In this review, we outline current concepts in diagnosis and risk stratification of SMM, and provide specific recommendations on the management of SMM. PMID:25838344

  4. Smoldering multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, S Vincent; Landgren, Ola; Mateos, María-Victoria

    2015-05-14

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic clonal plasma cell disorder. SMM is distinguished from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance by a much higher risk of progression to multiple myeloma (MM). There have been major advances in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of SMM in the last few years. These include a revised disease definition, identification of several new prognostic factors, a classification based on underlying cytogenetic changes, and new treatment options. Importantly, a subset of patients previously considered SMM is now reclassified as MM on the basis of biomarkers identifying patients with an ≥80% risk of progression within 2 years. SMM has assumed greater significance on the basis of recent trials showing that early therapy can be potentially beneficial to patients. As a result, there is a need to accurately diagnose and risk-stratify patients with SMM, including routine incorporation of modern imaging and laboratory techniques. In this review, we outline current concepts in diagnosis and risk stratification of SMM, and provide specific recommendations on the management of SMM. PMID:25838344

  5. Multiple symbol differential detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A differential detection technique for multiple phase shift keying (MPSK) signals is provided which uses a multiple symbol observation interval on the basis of which a joint decision is made regarding the phase of the received symbols. In accordance with the invention, a first difference phase is created between first and second received symbols. Next, the first difference phase is correlated with the possible values thereof to provide a first plurality of intermediate output signals. A second difference phase is next created between second and third received symbols. The second difference phase is correlated with plural possible values thereof to provide a second plurality of intermediate output signals. Next, a third difference phase is created between the first and third symbols. The third difference phase is correlated with plural possible values thereof to provide a third plurality of intermediate output signals. Each of the first plurality of intermediate outputs are combined with each of the second plurality of intermediate outputs and each of the third plurality of intermediate outputs to provide a plurality of possible output values. Finally, a joint decision is made by choosing from the plurality of possible output values the value which represents the best combined correlation of the first, second and third difference values with the possible values thereof.

  6. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Initially known as multiple system organ failure, the term multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) was first described in the 1960s in adults with bleeding, respiratory failure, and sepsis. It is defined as "the development of potentially reversible physiologic derangement involving two or more organ systems not involved in the disorder that resulted in ICU admission, and arising in the wake of a potentially life threatening physiologic insult."(3) There are many risk factors predisposing to MODS; however, the most common risk factors are shock due to any cause, sepsis, and tissue hypoperfusion. A dysregulated immune response, or immuneparalysis, in which the homeostasis between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory reaction is lost is thought to be key in the development of MODS. The clinical course and evolution of MODS is dependent on a combination of acquired and genetic factors. There are several nonspecific therapies for the prevention and resolution of MODS, mostly care is supportive. Mortality from MODS in septic pediatric patients varies between 11% and 54%.

  7. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Dovichi, Norman J.; Zhang, Jian Z.

    1995-01-01

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibres to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands.

  8. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

    1995-08-08

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibers to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands. 21 figs.

  9. Albumin and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    LeVine, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a common pathological feature in multiple sclerosis (MS). Following a breach of the BBB, albumin, the most abundant protein in plasma, gains access to CNS tissue where it is exposed to an inflammatory milieu and tissue damage, e.g., demyelination. Once in the CNS, albumin can participate in protective mechanisms. For example, due to its high concentration and molecular properties, albumin becomes a target for oxidation and nitration reactions. Furthermore, albumin binds metals and heme thereby limiting their ability to produce reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Albumin also has the potential to worsen disease. Similar to pathogenic processes that occur during epilepsy, extravasated albumin could induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and affect the ability of astrocytes to maintain potassium homeostasis thereby possibly making neurons more vulnerable to glutamate exicitotoxicity, which is thought to be a pathogenic mechanism in MS. The albumin quotient, albumin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/albumin in serum, is used as a measure of blood-CSF barrier dysfunction in MS, but it may be inaccurate since albumin levels in the CSF can be influenced by multiple factors including: 1) albumin becomes proteolytically cleaved during disease, 2) extravasated albumin is taken up by macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes, and 3) the location of BBB damage affects the entry of extravasated albumin into ventricular CSF. A discussion of the roles that albumin performs during MS is put forth. PMID:27067000

  10. The Functions of Multiple Representations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Shaaron

    1999-01-01

    Discusses multiple representations and multimedia learning environments; describes a functional taxonomy of MERs (multiple external representations); and considers how MERs are used to support cognitive processes in learning and problem solving with computers. (Contains 41 references.) (Author/LRW)

  11. EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLAND INDICATORS USING MULTIPLE TAXONOMIC GROUPS: GEOGRAPHIC AND GEOMORPHIC INFLUENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work arises from a MED collaboration with the GLEI consortium funded by and EPA Star Grant. Results confirm that developing effective indicators for Great Lakes coastal wetlands requires determination of the geographic range and ecosystem type where indicators are appropriat...

  12. Constructing and Validating a Multiple-Indicator Construct of Economic Hardship in a National Sample of Adolescents with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Christopher; Doren, Bonnie; Gau, Jeff M.; Zvoch, Keith; Seeley, John R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop a multi-indicator construct of economic hardship among adolescents with disabilities (N = 9,230) participating in the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, the largest, most comprehensive investigation of adolescents with disabilities ever conducted. Five theoretically relevant indicators (i.e.,…

  13. Screening and testing in multiples.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mark I; Andriole, Stephanie

    2010-09-01

    The same principles for diagnosis and screening in singleton pregnancies apply to multiples. However, there can be significant differences in the safety and efficacy of all approaches with multiple gestations. This article deals with specific aspects of screening in multiple pregnancies.

  14. Bayes multiple decision functions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wensong; Peña, Edsel A

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of simultaneously making many (M) binary decisions based on one realization of a random data matrix X. M is typically large and X will usually have M rows associated with each of the M decisions to make, but for each row the data may be low dimensional. Such problems arise in many practical areas such as the biological and medical sciences, where the available dataset is from microarrays or other high-throughput technology and with the goal being to decide which among of many genes are relevant with respect to some phenotype of interest; in the engineering and reliability sciences; in astronomy; in education; and in business. A Bayesian decision-theoretic approach to this problem is implemented with the overall loss function being a cost-weighted linear combination of Type I and Type II loss functions. The class of loss functions considered allows for use of the false discovery rate (FDR), false nondiscovery rate (FNR), and missed discovery rate (MDR) in assessing the quality of decision. Through this Bayesian paradigm, the Bayes multiple decision function (BMDF) is derived and an efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal Bayes action is described. In contrast to many works in the literature where the rows of the matrix X are assumed to be stochastically independent, we allow a dependent data structure with the associations obtained through a class of frailty-induced Archimedean copulas. In particular, non-Gaussian dependent data structure, which is typical with failure-time data, can be entertained. The numerical implementation of the determination of the Bayes optimal action is facilitated through sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The theory developed could also be extended to the problem of multiple hypotheses testing, multiple classification and prediction, and high-dimensional variable selection. The proposed procedure is illustrated for the simple versus simple hypotheses setting and for the composite hypotheses setting

  15. Comparison of heavy metal contamination during the last decade along the coastal sediment of Pakistan: Multiple pollution indices approach.

    PubMed

    Saher, Noor Us; Siddiqui, Asmat Saleem

    2016-04-15

    Heavy metals concentrations (Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Co, Pb, and Cd) were scrutinized during two monitoring years (2001 and 2011) in the coastal sediment of Pakistan. The status of metal contamination in coastal sediment was interpreted using sediment quality guidelines, and single and combined metal pollution indices. Ni, Cr, and Cd were recognized for their significant (p<0.05) intensification in the sediment during the last decade. Sediment quality guidelines recognized the frequent adverse biological effect of Ni and the occasional adverse biological effect of Cu, Cr, Pb and Cd. Single metal pollution indices (Igeo, EF, CF, and ER) revealed that sediment pollution is predominantly caused by Pb and Cd. Low to moderate contamination was appraised along the coast by multi-metal pollution indices (CD and PERI). Correlation study specifies that heavy metals were presented diverse affiliations and carriers for distribution in the sediment during the last decade.

  16. Multiple-scale study of fracture indicators at eight sites across the Appalachian orogen in Pennsylvania: Summary of results

    SciTech Connect

    Shuman, C.A. . Dept. of Geosciences)

    1992-01-01

    Four scales of remote sensing were used to investigate fracture indicators (lineaments and fracture traces) at 8 study areas: (1) 1:500,000 Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper; (2) 1:250,000 Side-Looking Airborne Radar mosaics; (3) 1:80,000 National High-Altitude Program aerial photographs; and (4) 1:20,000 Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service aerial photographs. To allow for inter-comparison of results, two traverses of four study areas were arranged across the four major physiographic regions in the Appalachian orogen, (1) Plateau, (2) Ridge and Valley, (3) Great Valley; and (4) Piedmont. The remote sensing results for the Plateau and Ridge and Valley areas indicate that observed orientations are concentrated in the NW to NNW. Orientation peaks for the areas are less well defined but tend to be parallel and perpendicular to Mesozoic features. These findings indicate that causal relationships exist between bedrock paleo-stress trajectories and observed fracture indicator maxima. The results of the geomorphic parameter studies indicate that these features are complexly controlled by factors other than bedrock fracture fabric, most notably bedrock strike. Other findings of this study may generally characterize relationships between classes of fracture indicators. As imagery scale number increases: the average degree of expression of lineament features decreases; lineament frequency over each study area decreases in a decay curve; plots of average lineament length show a positive trend for the three larger scales; and total lineament length over the study area shows a decay curve. Other results define potentially useful relationships between feature length, type, and degree of expression.

  17. MULTIPLE GALAXY COLLISIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Here is a sampling of 15 ultraluminous infrared galaxies viewed by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Hubble's sharp vision reveals more complexity within these galaxies, which astronomers are interpreting as evidence of a multiple-galaxy pileup. These images, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are part of a three-year study of 123 galaxies within 3 billion light-years of Earth. The study was conducted in 1996, 1997, and 1999. False colors were assigned to these photos to enhance fine details within these coalescing galaxies. Credits: NASA, Kirk Borne (Raytheon and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.), Luis Colina (Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Spain), and Howard Bushouse and Ray Lucas (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md.)

  18. MULTIPLE SPARK GAP SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Schofield, A.E.

    1958-07-22

    A multiple spark gap switch of unique construction is described which will permit controlled, simultaneous discharge of several capacitors into a load. The switch construction includes a disc electrode with a plurality of protuberances of generally convex shape on one surface. A firing electrode is insulatingly supponted In each of the electrode protuberances and extends substantially to the apex thereof. Individual electrodes are disposed on an insulating plate parallel with the disc electrode to form a number of spark gaps with the protuberances. These electrodes are each connected to a separate charged capacitor and when a voltage ls applied simultaneously between the trigger electrodes and the dlsc electrode, each spark gap fires to connect its capacitor to the disc electrode and a subsequent load.

  19. Multiple asteroid rendezvous missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, D. F.; Friedlander, A. L.

    1979-01-01

    Asteroid missions, centered on multiple asteroid rendezvous missions to main belt asteroids, are discussed and the required solar electric propulsion for these missions as well as the current performance estimates are examined. A brief statistical analysis involving asteroid availability transfer requirements and propulsion system capabilities is given, leading to a prediction that 5 to 8 asteroids can be encountered with a single launch. Measurement techniques include visual imaging, radio tracking, magnetometry, and in the case of landers, seismometry. The spacecraft will be propelled by a solar electric system with a power level of 25 kW to 40 kW and tour possibilities for 13 different asteroids have been developed. Preliminary estimates of asteroid triaxiality are made to calculate the effect of close orbits.

  20. Multiple-port valve

    DOEpatents

    Doody, Thomas J.

    1978-08-22

    A multiple-port valve assembly is designed to direct flow from a primary conduit into any one of a plurality of secondary conduits as well as to direct a reverse flow. The valve includes two mating hemispherical sockets that rotatably receive a spherical valve plug. The valve plug is attached to the primary conduit and includes diverging passageways from that conduit to a plurality of ports. Each of the ports is alignable wih one or more of a plurality of secondary conduits fitted into one of the hemispherical sockets. The other hemispherical socket includes a slot for the primary conduit such that the conduit's motion along that slot with rotation of the spherical plug about various axes will position the valve-plug ports in respect to the secondary conduits.

  1. Multiple detectors "Influence Method".

    PubMed

    Rios, I J; Mayer, R E

    2016-05-01

    The "Influence Method" is conceived for the absolute determination of a nuclear particle flux in the absence of known detector efficiency and without the need to register coincidences of any kind. This method exploits the influence of the presence of one detector in the count rate of another detector, when they are placed one behind the other and define statistical estimators for the absolute number of incident particles and for the efficiency (Rios and Mayer, 2015a). Its detailed mathematical description was recently published (Rios and Mayer, 2015b) and its practical implementation in the measurement of a moderated neutron flux arising from an isotopic neutron source was exemplified in (Rios and Mayer, 2016). With the objective of further reducing the measurement uncertainties, in this article we extend the method for the case of multiple detectors placed one behind the other. The new estimators for the number of particles and the detection efficiency are herein derived.

  2. On multiple Einstein rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, M. C.; An, J.; Evans, N. W.

    2008-12-01

    A number of recent surveys for gravitational lenses have found examples of double Einstein rings. Here, we analytically investigate the occurrence of multiple Einstein rings. We prove, under very general assumptions, that at the most one Einstein ring can arise from a mass distribution in a single plane lensing a single background source. Two or more Einstein rings can therefore only occur in multiplane lensing. Surprisingly, we show that it is possible for a single source to produce more than one Einstein ring. If two point masses, or two isothermal spheres, in different planes are aligned with observer and source on the optical axis, we show that there are up to three Einstein rings. We also discuss the image morphologies for these two models if axisymmetry is broken, and give the first instances of magnification invariants in the case of two-lens planes.

  3. Multiple detectors "Influence Method".

    PubMed

    Rios, I J; Mayer, R E

    2016-05-01

    The "Influence Method" is conceived for the absolute determination of a nuclear particle flux in the absence of known detector efficiency and without the need to register coincidences of any kind. This method exploits the influence of the presence of one detector in the count rate of another detector, when they are placed one behind the other and define statistical estimators for the absolute number of incident particles and for the efficiency (Rios and Mayer, 2015a). Its detailed mathematical description was recently published (Rios and Mayer, 2015b) and its practical implementation in the measurement of a moderated neutron flux arising from an isotopic neutron source was exemplified in (Rios and Mayer, 2016). With the objective of further reducing the measurement uncertainties, in this article we extend the method for the case of multiple detectors placed one behind the other. The new estimators for the number of particles and the detection efficiency are herein derived. PMID:26943904

  4. Swamp Works- Multiple Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carelli, Jonathan M.; Schuler, Jason M.; Chandler, Meredith L.

    2013-01-01

    My Surface Systems internship over the summer 2013 session covered a broad range of projects that utilized multiple fields of engineering and technology. This internship included a project to create a command center for a 120 ton regolith bin, for the design and assembly of a blast shield to add further protection for the Surface Systems engineers, for the design and assembly of a portable four monitor hyper wall strip that could extend as large as needed, research and programming a nano drill that could be utilized on a next generation robot or rover, and social media tasks including the making of videos, posting to social networking websites and creation of a new outreach program to help spread the word about the Swamp Works laboratory.

  5. Immunology of Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sospedra, Mireia; Martin, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered a prototypic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). A complex genetic background with the HLA-DR15 haplotype as the main genetic risk factor and over 100 mostly immune-related minor risk alleles as well as several environmental factors contribute to the etiology of MS. With respect to pathomechanisms, autoimmune inflammation in early MS is primarily mediated by adaptive immune responses and involves autoreactive T cells, B cells, and antibodies, while the later, chronic stages of MS are characterized by a compartmentalized immune response in the CNS with activated microglia and macrophages. A host of immune cells and mediators can contribute to the autoimmune process, but CNS-related factors such as localization of lesions, vulnerability of oligodendrocytes, neurons/axons, and secondary metabolic changes all play a role in the heterogeneous expression of the disease, including different pathologic lesion patterns, neuroimaging findings, disease courses, and severity and response to treatment. PMID:27116718

  6. Aging and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sanai, Shaik Ahmed; Saini, Vasu; Benedict, Ralph Hb; Zivadinov, Robert; Teter, Barbara E; Ramanathan, Murali; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca

    2016-05-01

    The life expectancy and average age of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) have increased significantly during the last two decades. The introduction of disease-modifying therapies and a better delineation and understanding of the superimposed comorbidities often diagnosed in MS patients are probably the most important factors accountable for the increase in aging MS population worldwide. Healthcare teams must therefore address the problems arising due to advancing age superimposed on this chronic neurologic disease. In this review, we focus on the physiology of aging, its effects on MS disease course, and the pathological and immunological changes associated with aging and disease progression. Additionally, we discuss the common comorbidities that occur in aging persons with MS that may arise either as a result of the aging process or from relentless chronic MS disease progression as well as the challenges on differentiating the two processes for a more appropriate therapeutic approach. PMID:26895718

  7. Multiple layer insulation cover

    DOEpatents

    Farrell, James J.; Donohoe, Anthony J.

    1981-11-03

    A multiple layer insulation cover for preventing heat loss in, for example, a greenhouse, is disclosed. The cover is comprised of spaced layers of thin foil covered fabric separated from each other by air spaces. The spacing is accomplished by the inflation of spaced air bladders which are integrally formed in the cover and to which the layers of the cover are secured. The bladders are inflated after the cover has been deployed in its intended use to separate the layers of the foil material. The sizes of the material layers are selected to compensate for sagging across the width of the cover so that the desired spacing is uniformly maintained when the cover has been deployed. The bladders are deflated as the cover is stored thereby expediting the storage process and reducing the amount of storage space required.

  8. Mixed Mode Matrix Multiplication

    SciTech Connect

    Meng-Shiou Wu; Srinivas Aluru; Ricky A. Kendall

    2004-09-30

    In modern clustering environments where the memory hierarchy has many layers (distributed memory, shared memory layer, cache,...), an important question is how to fully utilize all available resources and identify the most dominant layer in certain computations. When combining algorithms on all layers together, what would be the best method to get the best performance out of all the resources we have? Mixed mode programming model that uses thread programming on the shared memory layer and message passing programming on the distributed memory layer is a method that many researchers are using to utilize the memory resources. In this paper, they take an algorithmic approach that uses matrix multiplication as a tool to show how cache algorithms affect the performance of both shared memory and distributed memory algorithms. They show that with good underlying cache algorithm, overall performance is stable. When underlying cache algorithm is bad, superlinear speedup may occur, and an increasing number of threads may also improve performance.

  9. Aging and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sanai, Shaik Ahmed; Saini, Vasu; Benedict, Ralph Hb; Zivadinov, Robert; Teter, Barbara E; Ramanathan, Murali; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca

    2016-05-01

    The life expectancy and average age of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) have increased significantly during the last two decades. The introduction of disease-modifying therapies and a better delineation and understanding of the superimposed comorbidities often diagnosed in MS patients are probably the most important factors accountable for the increase in aging MS population worldwide. Healthcare teams must therefore address the problems arising due to advancing age superimposed on this chronic neurologic disease. In this review, we focus on the physiology of aging, its effects on MS disease course, and the pathological and immunological changes associated with aging and disease progression. Additionally, we discuss the common comorbidities that occur in aging persons with MS that may arise either as a result of the aging process or from relentless chronic MS disease progression as well as the challenges on differentiating the two processes for a more appropriate therapeutic approach.

  10. Vaccines in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Eric M L; Chahin, Salim; Berger, Joseph R

    2016-04-01

    Vaccinations help prevent communicable disease. To be valuable, a vaccine's ability to prevent disease must exceed the risk of adverse effects from administration. Many vaccines present no risk of infection as they are comprised of killed or non-infectious components while other vaccines consist of live attenuated microorganisms which carry a potential risk of infection-particularly, in patients with compromised immunity. There are several unique considerations with respect to vaccination in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population. First, there has been concern that vaccination may trigger or aggravate the disease. Second, disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) employed in the treatment of MS may increase the risk of infectious complications from vaccines or alter their efficacy. Lastly, in some cases, vaccination strategies may be part of the treatment paradigm in attempts to avoid complications of therapy. PMID:26922172

  11. Vaccines in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Eric M L; Chahin, Salim; Berger, Joseph R

    2016-04-01

    Vaccinations help prevent communicable disease. To be valuable, a vaccine's ability to prevent disease must exceed the risk of adverse effects from administration. Many vaccines present no risk of infection as they are comprised of killed or non-infectious components while other vaccines consist of live attenuated microorganisms which carry a potential risk of infection-particularly, in patients with compromised immunity. There are several unique considerations with respect to vaccination in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population. First, there has been concern that vaccination may trigger or aggravate the disease. Second, disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) employed in the treatment of MS may increase the risk of infectious complications from vaccines or alter their efficacy. Lastly, in some cases, vaccination strategies may be part of the treatment paradigm in attempts to avoid complications of therapy.

  12. Multiplicity of Solutions in Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupont, M

    1927-01-01

    One of the most striking phenomena which accompany the flow of fluids such as air and water about bodies, is that of changes in character. This phenomena is still very little understood. We will first discuss the nature of these changes and then show that pure theory leads to a multiplicity of characters of flow, among which we will endeavor to indicate those bearing some analogy to experimental results.

  13. Comparison of Sewage and Animal Fecal Microbiomes by using Oligotyping Reveals Potential Human Fecal Indicators in Multiple Taxonomic Groups

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) approaches target host-associated organisms within the order Bacteroidales, but human and other animal gut microbiota contain an array of other taxonomic groups that might serve as indicators for sources of fecal pollution. High thr...

  14. Social Support and Well-Being in Contemporary Greek Society: Examination of Multiple Indicators at Different Levels of Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafetsios, Konstantinos

    2006-01-01

    An extensive and coherent body of social and psychological research has identified social ties and supportive relationships as important predictors of well-being and quality of life. This paper examines the relationships between structural and functional indicators of supportive relations and well-being in Greece at different levels of analysis…

  15. Base Rates, Multiple Indicators, and Comprehensive Forensic Evaluations: Why Sexualized Behavior Still Counts in Assessments of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2012-01-01

    Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…

  16. Comparison of the Multiple-sample means with composite sample results for fecal indicator bacteria by quantitative PCR and culture

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: Few studies have addressed the efficacy of composite sampling for measurement of indicator bacteria by QPCR. In this study, composite results were compared to single sample results for culture- and QPCR-based water quality monitoring. Composite results for both methods ...

  17. Development of multiple linear regression models as predictive tools for fecal indicator concentrations in a stretch of the lower Lahn River, Germany.

    PubMed

    Herrig, Ilona M; Böer, Simone I; Brennholt, Nicole; Manz, Werner

    2015-11-15

    Since rivers are typically subject to rapid changes in microbiological water quality, tools are needed to allow timely water quality assessment. A promising approach is the application of predictive models. In our study, we developed multiple linear regression (MLR) models in order to predict the abundance of the fecal indicator organisms Escherichia coli (EC), intestinal enterococci (IE) and somatic coliphages (SC) in the Lahn River, Germany. The models were developed on the basis of an extensive set of environmental parameters collected during a 12-months monitoring period. Two models were developed for each type of indicator: 1) an extended model including the maximum number of variables significantly explaining variations in indicator abundance and 2) a simplified model reduced to the three most influential explanatory variables, thus obtaining a model which is less resource-intensive with regard to required data. Both approaches have the ability to model multiple sites within one river stretch. The three most important predictive variables in the optimized models for the bacterial indicators were NH4-N, turbidity and global solar irradiance, whereas chlorophyll a content, discharge and NH4-N were reliable model variables for somatic coliphages. Depending on indicator type, the extended mode models also included the additional variables rainfall, O2 content, pH and chlorophyll a. The extended mode models could explain 69% (EC), 74% (IE) and 72% (SC) of the observed variance in fecal indicator concentrations. The optimized models explained the observed variance in fecal indicator concentrations to 65% (EC), 70% (IE) and 68% (SC). Site-specific efficiencies ranged up to 82% (EC) and 81% (IE, SC). Our results suggest that MLR models are a promising tool for a timely water quality assessment in the Lahn area. PMID:26318647

  18. Neutron-multiplication measurement instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results.

  19. Phylogeographical analysis of mtDNA data indicates postglacial expansion from multiple glacial refugia in woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou).

    PubMed

    Klütsch, Cornelya F C; Manseau, Micheline; Wilson, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    Glacial refugia considerably shaped the phylogeographical structure of species and may influence intra-specific morphological, genetic, and adaptive differentiation. However, the impact of the Quaternary ice ages on the phylogeographical structure of North American temperate mammalian species is not well-studied. Here, we surveyed ~1600 individuals of the widely distributed woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) using mtDNA control region sequences to investigate if glacial refugia contributed to the phylogeographical structure in this subspecies. Phylogenetic tree reconstruction, a median-joining network, and mismatch distributions supported postglacial expansions of woodland caribou from three glacial refugia dating back to 13544-22005 years. These three lineages consisted almost exclusively of woodland caribou mtDNA haplotypes, indicating that phylogeographical structure was mainly shaped by postglacial expansions. The putative centres of these lineages are geographically separated; indicating disconnected glacial refugia in the Rocky Mountains, east of the Mississippi, and the Appalachian Mountains. This is in congruence with the fossil record that caribou were distributed in these areas during the Pleistocene. Our results suggest that the last glacial maximum substantially shaped the phylogeographical structure of this large mammalian North American species that will be affected by climatic change. Therefore, the presented results will be essential for future conservation planning in woodland caribou. PMID:23285137

  20. Molecular screening of microbial communities for candidate indicators of multiple metal impacts in marine sediments from northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Cornall, Alyssa; Rose, Alea; Streten, Claire; McGuinness, Keith; Parry, David; Gibb, Karen

    2016-02-01

    Coastal sediments accumulate metals from anthropogenic sources and as a consequence industry is required to monitor sediment health. The total concentration of a metal does not necessarily reflect its potential toxicity or biological impact, so biological assessment tools are useful for monitoring. Rapid biological assessment tools sensitive enough to detect relatively small increases in metal concentrations would provide early warning of future ecosystem impact. The authors investigated in situ populations of Archaea and Bacteria as potential tools for rapid biological assessment in sediment at 4 northern Australian coastal locations over 2 yr, in both wet and dry seasons. The 1 M HCl-extractable concentrations of metals in sediment were measured, and Archaeal and Bacterial community profiles were obtained by next-generation sequencing of sediment deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Species response curves were used to identify several taxonomic groups with potential as biological indicators of metal impact. Spatial variation, sediment grain size, water depth, and dissolved oxygen also correlated with microbial population shifts. Seasonal variation was less important than geographic location. Metal-challenge culture trials supported the identification of metal-resistant and -sensitive taxa. In situ Archaea and Bacteria are potentially sensitive indicators for changes in bioavailable concentrations of metals; however, the complexity of the system suggests it is important to identify metal-specific functional genes that may be informed by these sequencing surveys, and thus provide a useful addition to identity-based assays.

  1. Phylogeographical Analysis of mtDNA Data Indicates Postglacial Expansion from Multiple Glacial Refugia in Woodland Caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou)

    PubMed Central

    Klütsch, Cornelya F. C.; Manseau, Micheline; Wilson, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Glacial refugia considerably shaped the phylogeographical structure of species and may influence intra-specific morphological, genetic, and adaptive differentiation. However, the impact of the Quaternary ice ages on the phylogeographical structure of North American temperate mammalian species is not well-studied. Here, we surveyed ∼1600 individuals of the widely distributed woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) using mtDNA control region sequences to investigate if glacial refugia contributed to the phylogeographical structure in this subspecies. Phylogenetic tree reconstruction, a median-joining network, and mismatch distributions supported postglacial expansions of woodland caribou from three glacial refugia dating back to 13544–22005 years. These three lineages consisted almost exclusively of woodland caribou mtDNA haplotypes, indicating that phylogeographical structure was mainly shaped by postglacial expansions. The putative centres of these lineages are geographically separated; indicating disconnected glacial refugia in the Rocky Mountains, east of the Mississippi, and the Appalachian Mountains. This is in congruence with the fossil record that caribou were distributed in these areas during the Pleistocene. Our results suggest that the last glacial maximum substantially shaped the phylogeographical structure of this large mammalian North American species that will be affected by climatic change. Therefore, the presented results will be essential for future conservation planning in woodland caribou. PMID:23285137

  2. Phylogeographical analysis of mtDNA data indicates postglacial expansion from multiple glacial refugia in woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou).

    PubMed

    Klütsch, Cornelya F C; Manseau, Micheline; Wilson, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    Glacial refugia considerably shaped the phylogeographical structure of species and may influence intra-specific morphological, genetic, and adaptive differentiation. However, the impact of the Quaternary ice ages on the phylogeographical structure of North American temperate mammalian species is not well-studied. Here, we surveyed ~1600 individuals of the widely distributed woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) using mtDNA control region sequences to investigate if glacial refugia contributed to the phylogeographical structure in this subspecies. Phylogenetic tree reconstruction, a median-joining network, and mismatch distributions supported postglacial expansions of woodland caribou from three glacial refugia dating back to 13544-22005 years. These three lineages consisted almost exclusively of woodland caribou mtDNA haplotypes, indicating that phylogeographical structure was mainly shaped by postglacial expansions. The putative centres of these lineages are geographically separated; indicating disconnected glacial refugia in the Rocky Mountains, east of the Mississippi, and the Appalachian Mountains. This is in congruence with the fossil record that caribou were distributed in these areas during the Pleistocene. Our results suggest that the last glacial maximum substantially shaped the phylogeographical structure of this large mammalian North American species that will be affected by climatic change. Therefore, the presented results will be essential for future conservation planning in woodland caribou.

  3. Evaluating the Spatial Distribution of Toxic Air Contaminants in Multiple Ecosystem Indicators in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanus, L.; Simonich, S. L.; Rocchio, J.; Flanagan, C.

    2013-12-01

    Toxic air contaminants originating from agricultural areas of the Central Valley in California threaten vulnerable sensitive receptors including surface water, vegetation, snow, sediments, fish, and amphibians in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region. The spatial distribution of toxic air contaminants in different ecosystem indicators depends on variation in atmospheric concentrations and deposition, and variation in air toxics accumulation in ecosystems. The spatial distribution of organic air toxics and mercury at over 330 unique sampling locations and sample types over two decades (1990-2009) in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region were compiled and maps were developed to further understand spatial patterns and linkages between air toxics deposition and ecological effects. Potential ecosystem impacts in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region include bioaccumulation of air toxics in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, reproductive disruption, and immune suppression. The most sensitive ecological end points in the region that are affected by bioaccumulation of toxic air contaminants are fish. Mercury was detected in all fish and approximately 6% exceeded human consumption thresholds. Organic air toxics were also detected in fish yielding variable spatial patterns. For amphibians, which are sensitive to pesticide exposure and potential immune suppression, increasing trends in current and historic use pesticides are observed from north to south across the region. In other indicators, such as vegetation, pesticide concentrations in lichen increase with increasing elevation. Current and historic use pesticides and mercury were also observed in snowpack at high elevations in the study area. This study shows spatial patterns in toxic air contaminants, evaluates associated risks to sensitive receptors, and identifies data gaps. Future research on atmospheric modeling and information on sources is needed in order to predict which ecosystems are the

  4. Comparison of Sewage and Animal Fecal Microbiomes by Using Oligotyping Reveals Potential Human Fecal Indicators in Multiple Taxonomic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jenny C.; Eren, A. Murat; Green, Hyatt C.; Shanks, Orin C.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Vineis, Joseph H.; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2015-01-01

    Most DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) approaches target host-associated organisms within the order Bacteroidales, but the gut microbiota of humans and other animals contain organisms from an array of other taxonomic groups that might provide indicators of fecal pollution sources. To discern between human and nonhuman fecal sources, we compared the V6 regions of the 16S rRNA genes detected in fecal samples from six animal hosts to those found in sewage (as a proxy for humans). We focused on 10 abundant genera and used oligotyping, which can detect subtle differences between rRNA gene sequences from ecologically distinct organisms. Our analysis showed clear patterns of differential oligotype distributions between sewage and animal samples. Over 100 oligotypes of human origin occurred preferentially in sewage samples, and 99 human oligotypes were sewage specific. Sequences represented by the sewage-specific oligotypes can be used individually for development of PCR-based assays or together with the oligotypes preferentially associated with sewage to implement a signature-based approach. Analysis of sewage from Spain and Brazil showed that the sewage-specific oligotypes identified in U.S. sewage have the potential to be used as global alternative indicators of human fecal pollution. Environmental samples with evidence of prior human fecal contamination had consistent ratios of sewage signature oligotypes that corresponded to the trends observed for sewage. Our methodology represents a promising approach to identifying new bacterial taxa for MST applications and further highlights the potential of the family Lachnospiraceae to provide human-specific markers. In addition to source tracking applications, the patterns of the fine-scale population structure within fecal taxa suggest a fundamental relationship between bacteria and their hosts. PMID:26231648

  5. Comparison of Sewage and Animal Fecal Microbiomes by Using Oligotyping Reveals Potential Human Fecal Indicators in Multiple Taxonomic Groups.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jenny C; Eren, A Murat; Green, Hyatt C; Shanks, Orin C; Morrison, Hilary G; Vineis, Joseph H; Sogin, Mitchell L; McLellan, Sandra L

    2015-10-01

    Most DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) approaches target host-associated organisms within the order Bacteroidales, but the gut microbiota of humans and other animals contain organisms from an array of other taxonomic groups that might provide indicators of fecal pollution sources. To discern between human and nonhuman fecal sources, we compared the V6 regions of the 16S rRNA genes detected in fecal samples from six animal hosts to those found in sewage (as a proxy for humans). We focused on 10 abundant genera and used oligotyping, which can detect subtle differences between rRNA gene sequences from ecologically distinct organisms. Our analysis showed clear patterns of differential oligotype distributions between sewage and animal samples. Over 100 oligotypes of human origin occurred preferentially in sewage samples, and 99 human oligotypes were sewage specific. Sequences represented by the sewage-specific oligotypes can be used individually for development of PCR-based assays or together with the oligotypes preferentially associated with sewage to implement a signature-based approach. Analysis of sewage from Spain and Brazil showed that the sewage-specific oligotypes identified in U.S. sewage have the potential to be used as global alternative indicators of human fecal pollution. Environmental samples with evidence of prior human fecal contamination had consistent ratios of sewage signature oligotypes that corresponded to the trends observed for sewage. Our methodology represents a promising approach to identifying new bacterial taxa for MST applications and further highlights the potential of the family Lachnospiraceae to provide human-specific markers. In addition to source tracking applications, the patterns of the fine-scale population structure within fecal taxa suggest a fundamental relationship between bacteria and their hosts.

  6. Expression Analysis and Binding Assays in the Chemosensory Protein Gene Family Indicate Multiple Roles in Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao-Qun; Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Jun-Yu; Zhu, Jing; Cui, Jin-Jie; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2015-05-01

    Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) have been proposed to capture and transport hydrophobic chemicals to receptors on sensory neurons. We identified and cloned 24 CSP genes to better understand the physiological function of CSPs in Helicoverpa armigera. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays indicate that CSP genes are ubiquitously expressed in adult H. armigera tissues. Broad expression patterns in adult tissues suggest that CSPs are involved in a diverse range of cellular processes, including chemosensation as well as other functions not related to chemosensation. The H. armigera CSPs that were highly transcribed in sensory organs or pheromone glands (HarmCSPs 6, 9, 18, 19), were recombinantly expressed in bacteria to explore their function. Fluorescent competitive binding assays were used to measure the binding affinities of these CSPs against 85 plant volatiles and 4 pheromone components. HarmCSP6 displays high binding affinity for pheromone components, whereas the other three proteins do not show affinities for any of the compounds tested. HarmCSP6 is expressed in numerous cells located in or close to long sensilla trichodea on the antennae of both males and females. These results suggest that HarmCSP6 may be involved in transporting female sex pheromones in H. armigera. PMID:25893790

  7. An examination of main and interactive effects of substance abuse recovery housing on multiple indicators of adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Olson, Bradley D.; Ferrari, Joseph R.; Majer, John M.; Alvarez, Josefina; Stout, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Aims To assess the effectiveness of community-based supports in promoting abstinence from substance use and related problems. Design and participants Individuals (n = 150) discharged from residential substance abuse treatment facilities were assigned randomly to either an Oxford House recovery home or usual after-care condition and then interviewed every 6 months for a 24-month period. Intervention Oxford Houses are democratic, self-run recovery homes. Measurements Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the effect of predictive variables on wave trajectories of substance use, employment, self-regulation and recent criminal charges. Regressions first examined whether predictor variables modeled wave trajectories by condition (Oxford House versus usual after-care), psychiatric comorbidity, age and interactions. Findings At the 24-month follow-up, there was less substance abuse for residents living in Oxford Houses for 6 or more months (15.6%), compared both to participants with less than 6 months (45.7%) or to participants assigned to the usual after-care condition (64.8%). Results also indicated that older residents and younger members living in a house for 6 or more months experienced better outcomes in terms of substance use, employment and self-regulation. Conclusions Oxford Houses, a type of self-governed recovery setting, appear to stabilize many individuals who have substance abuse histories. PMID:17567399

  8. Marine and Human Systems: Addressing Multiple Scales and Multiple Stressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, E. E.; Bundy, A.; Chuenpagdee, R.; Maddison, L.; Svendsen, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Marine Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research (IMBER) project aims to develop a comprehensive understanding of, and predictive capacity of ocean responses to accelerating global change and the consequent effects on the Earth System and human society. Understanding the changing ecology and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems and their sensitivity and resilience to multiple drivers, pressures and stressors is critical to developing responses that will help reduce the vulnerability of marine-dependent human communities. The cumulative pressure of anthropogenic activities on marine systems is already apparent and is projected to increase in the next decades. Policy- and decision-makers need assessments of the status and trends of marine habitats, species, and ecosystems to promote sustainable human activities in the marine environment, particularly in light of global environmental change and changing social systems and human pressures. The IMBER community recently undertook a synthesis and evaluation of approaches for ecosystem-based marine governance, integrated modeling of marine social-ecological systems, and the social and ecological consequences of changing marine ecosystems. The outcomes of this activity provide assessments of current understanding, indicate approaches needed to predict the effects of multiple stressors, at multiple scales, on marine ecosystems and dependent human populations, and highlight approaches for developing innovative societal responses to changing marine ecosystems.

  9. Multiple tree-ring isotopes as environmental indicators of diffuse atmospheric pollution in a peri-urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doucet, A.; Savard, M. M.; Bégin, C.; Ouarda, T. B.; Marion, J.

    2010-12-01

    The combined analyses of tree-ring δ13C, δ18O, δ15N, 206Pb/207Pb, 206Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/208Pb isotope ratios of three red spruce specimens from the Tantaré ecological reserve located 40 km northwest of Québec City (Canada) were studied with the aim of reconstructing environmental conditions and unravel past air-quality changes of the 1880-2007 period. To separate the tree-ring δ18O and δ13C patterns induced by natural conditions from those generated by anthropogenic perturbations, a linear regression was applied between the most explicative meteorological parameters and the isotopic series for the period of low pollution (1880 to 1909). The model equations were then applied to the most recent part of the series (1910-2007) to verify if climatic conditions have remained the main driver of the tree-ring isotopic variations. The good fit between the modeled and measured δ18O series for the entire studied period suggests that the assimilation of oxygen by red spruce trees is not significantly affected by pollution stress near Québec City. However, the deviation between the measured and modeled δ13C values for the 1944-2007 period indicates that diffuse pollution affected carbon assimilation by the investigated trees. To independently validate if atmospheric pollution could have generated the deviation between the measured and the estimated δ13C values, a linear regression was applied between the portion of the residual δ13C values and atmospheric pollution (Canadian fossil fuel proxy from 1958 to 2000). The nice fit between the modeled δ13C values from the combination of the two regression analyses based on climate and emission proxy strongly supports the hypothesis that there is a natural and an anthropogenic portion in the δ13C variations of the studied specimens. The short-term variations of the red spruce δ15N series are correlated with the instrumentally measured amounts of provincial N emissions for the 1990 to 2006 period (longest measurements

  10. Multiple valence superatoms.

    PubMed

    Reveles, J U; Khanna, S N; Roach, P J; Castleman, A W

    2006-12-01

    We recently demonstrated that, in gas phase clusters containing aluminum and iodine atoms, an Al(13) cluster behaves like a halogen atom, whereas an Al(14) cluster exhibits properties analogous to an alkaline earth atom. These observations, together with our findings that Al(13)(-) is inert like a rare gas atom, have reinforced the idea that chosen clusters can exhibit chemical behaviors reminiscent of atoms in the periodic table, offering the exciting prospect of a new dimension of the periodic table formed by cluster elements, called superatoms. As the behavior of clusters can be controlled by size and composition, the superatoms offer the potential to create unique compounds with tailored properties. In this article, we provide evidence of an additional class of superatoms, namely Al(7)(-), that exhibit multiple valences, like some of the elements in the periodic table, and hence have the potential to form stable compounds when combined with other atoms. These findings support the contention that there should be no limitation in finding clusters, which mimic virtually all members of the periodic table.

  11. [Smoking and multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Arruti, Maialen; Castillo-Triviño, Tamara; Egüés, Nerea; Olascoaga, Javier

    2015-02-16

    Introduccion. La esclerosis multiple (EM) es una enfermedad autoinmune de etiologia compleja, hoy por hoy desconocida, en la que factores geneticos y ambientales determinan la susceptibilidad. En los ultimos años, el efecto del tabaco ha sido uno de los factores ambientales que ha emergido en la EM, y se ha asociado tanto a un aumento de la susceptibilidad como a un aumento de la progresion. Objetivo. Revisar la evidencia actual sobre el papel del tabaco en la EM. Desarrollo. Se incluye una actualizacion de los estudios publicados que han analizado distintos aspectos del tabaco en la EM: vias patogenicas implicadas, asociacion del tabaco y riesgo de EM, interaccion con otros factores de riesgo y efecto del tabaco en el curso de la enfermedad. Conclusiones. Los estudios observacionales demuestran que el tabaquismo incrementa de forma significativa el riesgo de EM (odds ratio ~ 1,5) y es un factor de riesgo independiente. Sin embargo, la EM es una enfermedad compleja y el aumento de riesgo por el tabaco puede diferir en funcion de la interaccion con otros factores geneticos y ambientales. El papel del tabaco como factor de progresion es mas controvertido, con resultados contradictorios y estudios de gran variabilidad, lo que dificulta establecer una conclusion firme. Los mecanismos por los que el tabaquismo modifica el riesgo y posiblemente la progresion de la enfermedad no son aun conocidos.

  12. Viruses and Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Virtanen, Jussi Oskari; Jacobson, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a heterogeneous disease that develops as an interplay between the immune system and environmental stimuli in genetically susceptible individuals. There is increasing evidence that viruses may play a role in MS pathogenesis acting as these environmental triggers. However, it is not known if any single virus is causal, or rather several viruses can act as triggers in disease development. Here, we review the association of different viruses to MS with an emphasis on two herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). These two agents have generated the most impact during recent years as possible co-factors in MS disease development. The strongest argument for association of EBV with MS comes from the link between symptomatic infectious mononucleosis and MS and from seroepidemiological studies. In contrast to EBV, HHV-6 has been found significantly more often in MS plaques than in MS normal appearing white matter or non-MS brains and HHV-6 re-activation has been reported during MS clinical relapses. In this review we also suggest new strategies, including the development of new infectious animal models of MS and antiviral MS clinical trials, to elucidate roles of different viruses in the pathogenesis of this disease. Furthermore, we introduce the idea of using unbiased sequence-independent pathogen discovery methodologies, such as next generation sequencing, to study MS brain tissue or body fluids for detection of known viral sequences or potential novel viral agents. PMID:22583435

  13. Neuroimaging in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zivadinov, Robert; Cox, Jennifer L

    2007-01-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has routinely been used to improve the accuracy of multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosis and prognosis. Metrics derived from conventional MRI are now routinely used to detect therapeutic effects and extend clinical observations. However, conventional MRI measures, such as the use of lesion volume and count of gadolinium-enhancing and T2 lesions, have insufficient sensitivity and specificity to reveal the true degree of pathological changes occurring in MS. They cannot distinguish between inflammation, edema, demyelination, Wallerian degeneration, and axonal loss. In addition, they do not show a reliable correlation with clinical measures of disability and do not provide a complete assessment of therapeutic outcomes. Recent neuropathologic studies of typical chronic MS brains reveal macroscopic demyelination in cortical and deep gray matter (GM) that cannot be detected by currently available MRI techniques. Therefore, there is a pressing need for the development of newer MRI techniques to detect these lesions. Newer metrics of MRI analysis, including T1-weighted hypointense lesions, central nervous system atrophy measures, magnetization transfer imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and diffusion tensor imaging, are able to capture a more global picture of the range of tissue alterations caused by inflammation and neurodegeneration. At this time, they provide the only proof--albeit indirect--that important occult pathology is occurring in the GM. However, evidence is increasing that these nonconventional MRI measures correlate better with both existing and developing neurological impairment and disability when compared to conventional metrics. PMID:17531854

  14. MULTIPLE SHAFT TOOL HEAD

    DOEpatents

    Colbert, H.P.

    1962-10-23

    An improved tool head arrangement is designed for the automatic expanding of a plurality of ferruled tubes simultaneously. A plurality of output shafts of a multiple spindle drill head are driven in unison by a hydraulic motor. A plurality of tube expanders are respectively coupled to the shafts through individual power train arrangements. The axial or thrust force required for the rolling operation is provided by a double acting hydraulic cylinder having a hollow through shaft with the shaft cooperating with an internally rotatable splined shaft slidably coupled to a coupling rigidly attached to the respectlve output shaft of the drill head, thereby transmitting rotary motion and axial thrust simultaneously to the tube expander. A hydraulic power unit supplies power to each of the double acting cylinders through respective two-position, four-way valves, under control of respective solenoids for each of the cylinders. The solenoids are in turn selectively controlled by a tool selection control unit which in turn is controlled by signals received from a programmed, coded tape from a tape reader. The number of expanders that are extended in a rolling operation, which may be up to 42 expanders, is determined by a predetermined program of operations depending upon the arrangement of the ferruled tubes to be expanded in the tube bundle. The tape reader also supplies dimensional information to a machine tool servo control unit for imparting selected, horizontal and/or vertical movement to the tool head assembly. (AEC)

  15. Multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Peeraully, Tasneem

    2014-04-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare adult-onset synucleinopathy associated with dysautonomia and the variable presence of poorly levodopa-responsive parkinsonism and/or cerebellar ataxia. Other clinical symptoms that can be associated with MSA include hyperreflexia, stridor, sleep apnea, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Mean survival from time of diagnosis ranges between 6 to 10 years, and definitive diagnosis is made on autopsy with demonstration of oligodendroglial cytoplasmic inclusions consisting of fibrillar α-synuclein. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be positive for cruciform T2 hyperintensity within the pons (the "hot cross bun sign"), volume loss in the pons and cerebellum, and T2 signal loss in the dorsolateral putamen with hyperintense rim on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequencing. Although most cases are sporadic, genetic polymorphisms have been identified both in familial and sporadic cases of MSA, and influence observed phenotypes. Treatment is symptomatic, with both pharmacological and nonpharmacological strategies. There are currently no consensus guidelines on management. Current and future research is aimed at identifying biomarkers and developing disease-modifying therapies.

  16. Progressive multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ontaneda, Daniel; Fox, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose to Review To highlight the pathological features and clinical aspects of progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS). To highlight results of clinical trial experience to date and review ongoing clinical trials and perspective new treatment options. Explain the challenges of clinical trial design in PMS. Recent Findings MS has been identified as a chronic immune mediated disease, and the progressive phase of the disease appears to have significant neurodegenerative mechanisms. The classification of the course of PMS has been re-organized into categories of active vs. inactive inflammatory disease and the presence vs. absence of gradual disease progression. This differentiation allows clearer conceptualization of PMS and possibly even more efficient recruitment of PMS subjects into clinical trials. Clinical trial experience to date in PMS has been negative with anti-inflammatory medications used in relapsing MS. Simvastatin was recently tested in a phase II trial and showed a 43% reduction on annualized atrophy progression in secondary progressive MS. Ongoing PMS trials are currently being conducted with the phosphodiesterase inhibitor ibudilast, S1P modulator siponimod, and anti-B-cell therapy ocrelizumab. Several efforts for development of outcome measures in PMS are ongoing. Summary PMS represents a significant challenge, as the pathogenesis of the disease is not well understood, no validated outcome metrics have been established, and clinical trial experience to date has been disappointing. Advances in the understanding of the disease and lessons learned in previous clinical trials are paving the way for successful development of disease modifying agents for this disease. PMID:25887766

  17. Multiple valence superatoms

    PubMed Central

    Reveles, J. U.; Khanna, S. N.; Roach, P. J.; Castleman, A. W.

    2006-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that, in gas phase clusters containing aluminum and iodine atoms, an Al13 cluster behaves like a halogen atom, whereas an Al14 cluster exhibits properties analogous to an alkaline earth atom. These observations, together with our findings that Al13− is inert like a rare gas atom, have reinforced the idea that chosen clusters can exhibit chemical behaviors reminiscent of atoms in the periodic table, offering the exciting prospect of a new dimension of the periodic table formed by cluster elements, called superatoms. As the behavior of clusters can be controlled by size and composition, the superatoms offer the potential to create unique compounds with tailored properties. In this article, we provide evidence of an additional class of superatoms, namely Al7−, that exhibit multiple valences, like some of the elements in the periodic table, and hence have the potential to form stable compounds when combined with other atoms. These findings support the contention that there should be no limitation in finding clusters, which mimic virtually all members of the periodic table. PMID:17121987

  18. Multiple stage railgun

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, Ronald S.; Scudder, Jonathan K.; Aaland, Kristian

    1982-01-01

    A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator (10) for accelerating a projectile (15) by movement of a plasma arc (13) along the rails (11,12). The railgun (10) is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages (10a-n) which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources (14a-n) as the projectile (15) moves through the bore (17) of the railgun (10). Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end (29) of the railgun (10) can be prevented by connection of the energy sources (14a-n) to the rails (11,12) through isolation diodes (34a-n). Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails (11,12) into electrically isolated rail sections (11a-n, 12a-n). In such case means (55a-n) are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse (31) or laser device (61) is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage.

  19. [Diet and multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Pozuelo-Moyano, Beatriz; Benito-León, Julián

    2014-05-16

    Introduccion. El tipo de dieta se ha relacionado con el proceso inflamatorio que forma parte de la esclerosis multiple (EM). En los ultimos años, distintas lineas de investigacion han generado una gran cantidad de conocimiento sobre la participacion de la dieta en la patogenesis de la EM. Objetivo. Elucidar de modo critico las evidencias que relacionan distintos tipos de dietas y alimentos con la EM. Desarrollo. Se incluye una actualizacion de los estudios publicados mas significativos que han analizado el papel de la dieta en la patogenesis y en el tratamiento de la EM. Para explorar la asociacion entre la dieta y el riesgo de EM se ha revisado la evidencia disponible hasta el momento, pasando por estudios observacionales hasta terminar con estudios de intervencion. Conclusiones. Se necesita mas investigacion sobre la nutricion como factor de riesgo, ya que podria tener relacion con la enfermedad, y el control de esta podria llevar a una disminucion significativa de la incidencia o progresion de la patologia.

  20. Swamp Works- Multiple Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carelli, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    My Surface Systems internship over the summer 2013 session covered a broad range of projects that ranged multiple aspects and fields of engineering and technology. This internship included a project to create a command center for a 120 ton regolith bin, a design and build for a blast shield to add further protection for the Surface Systems engineers, a design for a portable four monitor hyper wall that can extend as large as needed, research and programming a nano drill for a next generation robot, and social media tasks including the making of videos, posting to social networking websites and implementation of a new weekly outreach program to help spread the word about the Swamp Works laboratory. The objectives for the command center were to create a central computer controlled area for the still in production lunar regolith bin. It needed to be easy to use and the operating systems had to be Linux. The objectives for the hyper wall were to build a mobile transport of monitors that could potentially attach to one another. It needed to be light but sturdy, and have the ability to last. The objectives for the blast shield included a robust design that could withstand a small equipment malfunction, while also being convenient for use. The objectives for the nano-drill included the research and implementation of programming for vertical and horizontal movement. The hyper wall and blasts shield project were designed by me in the Pro/Engineer/Creo2 software. Each project required a meeting with the Swamp Works engineers and was declared successful.

  1. Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) is a common genetically and clinically heterogeneous skeletal dysplasia characterized by early-onset osteoarthritis, mainly in the hip and knee, and mild-to-moderate short stature. Here we report on a 6-generation MED family with 17 affected members. Method The clinical and radiographic data on the 12 affected members still living were scrutinized. A structured inquiry comprising state of health and MED-related symptoms since birth up to the present time and the osteoarthritis outcome (KOOS) questionnaire were sent to all living family members with MED. The 5 known gene loci for autosomal dominant MED were analyzed for linkage, using fluorescence-labeled microsatellite markers. Linkage was ascertained with markers close to the COL9A2 gene, which was analyzed for mutations by sequencing. Results We identified an exon 3 donor splice mutation in the COL9A2 gene in all affected family members. Clinical, radiographic, and questionnaire data from affected family members suggested that MED caused by COL9A2 mutations starts in early childhood with knee pain accompanied by delayed ossification of femoral epiphyses. The disease then either stabilizes during puberty or progresses with additional joints becoming affected; joint surgery might be necessary. The progression of the disease also affects muscles, with increasing atrophy, resulting in muscle fatigue and pain. Muscular atrophy has not been reported earlier in cases with COL9A2 mutations. Interpretation In a patient with clinically suspected or verified MED, it is important to perform DNA-based analysis to identify a possible disease-causing mutation. This information can be used to carry out genetic risk assessment of other family members and to achieve an early and correct diagnosis in the children. PMID:19995321

  2. Zinc in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup

    2016-01-01

    In the last 35 years, zinc (Zn) has been examined for its potential role in the disease multiple sclerosis (MS). This review gives an overview of the possible role of Zn in the pathogenesis of MS as well as a meta-analysis of studies having measured Zn in serum or plasma in patients with MS. Searching the databases PubMed and EMBASE as well as going through reference lists in included articles 24 studies were found measuring Zn in patients with MS. Of these, 13 met inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The result of the meta-analysis shows a reduction in serum or plasma Zn levels in patients with MS with a 95% CI of [−3.66, −0.93] and a p value of .001 for the difference in Zn concentration in μM. One of six studies measuring cerebrospinal fluid, Zn levels found a significant increase in patients with MS with controls. The studies measuring whole blood and erythrocyte Zn levels found up to several times higher levels of Zn in patients with MS compared with healthy controls with decreasing levels during attacks in relapsing-remitting MS patients. Future studies measuring serum or plasma Zn are encouraged to analyze their data through homogenous MS patient subgroups on especially age, sex, and disease subtype since the difference in serum or plasma Zn in these subgroups have been found to be significantly different. It is hypothesized that local alterations of Zn may be actively involved in the pathogenesis of MS. PMID:27282383

  3. Multiple chronic benign pulmonary nodules.

    PubMed

    Kalifa, L G; Schimmel, D H; Gamsu, G

    1976-11-01

    Four cases are discussed in which were found unusual multiple chronic pulmonary nodules: leiomyomatous hamartomas, rheumatoid nodules, multiple histoplasmomas, and possible multiple plasma cell granulomas (hyalinizing pulmonary nodules). In each case the initial impression of metastic malignancy was countered by more than 2 years' observation, during which time the lesions appeared to be benign. Histologic examination is necessary to exclude malignancy, although a definitive diagnosis may be difficult to establish. PMID:981596

  4. Multiplicative Thinking: Much More than Knowing Multiplication Facts and Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Chris; Hurrell, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Multiplicative thinking is accepted as a "big idea" of mathematics that underpins important mathematical concepts such as fraction understanding, proportional reasoning, and algebraic thinking. It is characterised by understandings such as the multiplicative relationship between places in the number system, basic and extended number…

  5. Multiple-hypothesis multiple-model line tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, Donald W.; Owen, Mark W.; Cox, Henry

    2000-07-01

    Passive sonar signal processing generally includes tracking of narrowband and/or broadband signature components observed on a Lofargram or on a Bearing-Time-Record (BTR) display. Fielded line tracking approaches to date have been recursive and single-hypthesis-oriented Kalman- or alpha-beta filters, with no mechanism for considering tracking alternatives beyond the most recent scan of measurements. While adaptivity is often built into the filter to handle changing track dynamics, these approaches are still extensions of single target tracking solutions to multiple target tracking environment. This paper describes an application of multiple-hypothesis, multiple target tracking technology to the sonar line tracking problem. A Multiple Hypothesis Line Tracker (MHLT) is developed which retains the recursive minimum-mean-square-error tracking behavior of a Kalman Filter in a maximum-a-posteriori delayed-decision multiple hypothesis context. Multiple line track filter states are developed and maintained using the interacting multiple model (IMM) state representation. Further, the data association and assignment problem is enhanced by considering line attribute information (line bandwidth and SNR) in addition to beam/bearing and frequency fit. MHLT results on real sonar data are presented to demonstrate the benefits of the multiple hypothesis approach. The utility of the system in cluttered environments and particularly in crossing line situations is shown.

  6. The Distributive Property: The Core of Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzer, Cathy J.; Stanford, Ted

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a sequence of learning activities that lead to using the area model of multiplication to understand the distributive property (DP). The connection between area and multiplication is an important one, both for algebraic thinking and for geometry, as indicated in two of the critical areas for the third grade in the Common Core…

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of the Australian trans-Bass Strait millipede genus Pogonosternum (Carl, 1912) (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae) indicates multiple glacial refugia in southeastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study documents the first detailed phylogenetic analysis of an Australian paradoxosomatid millipede genus. Two mitochondrial genes (partial COI and 16S) as well as partial nuclear 28S rDNA were amplified and sequenced for 41 individuals of the southeastern Australian genus Pogonosternum Jeekel, 1965. The analysis indicates that five species groups of Pogonosternum occur across New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania: Pogonosternum nigrovirgatum (Carl, 1912), Pogonosternum adrianae Jeekel, 1982, Pogonosternum laetificum Jeekel, 1982 and two undescribed species. Pogonosternum coniferum (Jeekel, 1965) specimens cluster within Pogonosternum nigrovirgatum. Most of these five species groups exhibit a pattern of high intraspecific genetic variability and highly localized haplotypes, suggesting that they were confined to multiple Pleistocene refugia on the southeastern Australian mainland. The phylogenetic data also show that northwestern Tasmania was colonized by Pogonosternum nigrovirgatum, probably from central Victoria, and northeastern Tasmania by an as yet undescribed species from eastern Victoria. PMID:27110194

  8. Heredity in multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Soma, Hiroyuki; Yabe, Ichiro; Takei, Asako; Fujiki, Naoto; Yanagihara, Tetsuro; Sasaki, Hidenao

    2006-01-15

    We investigated the family histories of 157 Japanese patients with probable or possible multiple system atrophy (MSA). A family history of neurodegenerative disorders was only detected in three MSA patients (1.9%). We evaluated these patients by careful neurological examination, neuroimaging studies, and genetic studies to exclude hereditary spinocerebellar ataxia with a similar clinical phenotype to MSA. The results indicated that one of them had a family history of MSA. Although the familial presence of neurodegenerative disorders is rare in MSA patients, the existence of such cases suggests that MSA may have a genetic background.

  9. Use of modern contraceptives among married women in Vietnam: a multilevel analysis using the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (2011) and the Vietnam Population and Housing Census (2009)

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Lan Thi Hoang; Oh, Juhwan; Bui, Quyen Thi-Tu; Le, Anh Thi-Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of modern contraceptive use is an important indicator that reflects accessibility to reproductive health services. Satisfying unmet needs for family planning alone could reduce the number of maternal deaths by almost a third. This study uses multiple data sources to examine multilevel factors associated with the use of modern contraceptives among married women in Vietnam aged 15–49 years. Design Data from different national surveys (Vietnam Population and Housing Census, Vietnam Living Standard Survey, and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey) were linked to create a dataset including individual and contextual (provincial) variables (N=8,341). Multilevel modeling was undertaken to examine the impact of both individual and provincial characteristics on modern contraceptive use. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are reported. Results Individual factors significantly associated with the use of modern contraceptives were age 30–34 years (reference 15–19 years) (OR=1.63); high socioeconomic status (SES) (OR=0.8); having two living children (OR=2.4); and having a son (OR=1.4). The provincial poverty rate mediated the association between the individual's SES and the likelihood of using modern contraceptives. Conclusions The proportion of women in Vietnam using modern contraceptive methods has remained relatively high in recent years with significant variation across Vietnam's 63 provinces. Women of lower SES are more likely to use modern contraceptive methods, especially in the poorer provinces. Achieving access to universal reproductive health is one of the Millennium Development Goals. Vietnam must continue to make progress in this area. PMID:26950565

  10. Bent Bonds and Multiple Bonds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Edward A.; Gillespie, Ronald J.

    1980-01-01

    Considers carbon-carbon multiple bonds in terms of Pauling's bent bond model, which allows direct calculation of double and triple bonds from the length of a CC single bond. Lengths of these multiple bonds are estimated from direct measurements on "bent-bond" models constructed of plastic tubing and standard kits. (CS)

  11. Multiple Intelligences and Lab Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colannino, Noreen M.; Hoyt, William L.; Murray, Ann

    2004-01-01

    Science teachers who are committed to excellence in the classroom continually seek ways to improve teaching and learning, and the concept of multiple intelligences holds promise as a method for accomplishing this. The essence of the theory of multiple intelligences is to understand the many differences among students, the variations in the ways…

  12. Multiple Intelligences for Differentiated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, R. Bruce

    2007-01-01

    There is an intricate literacy to Gardner's multiple intelligences theory that unlocks key entry points for differentiated learning. Using a well-articulated framework, rich with graphic representations, Williams provides a comprehensive discussion of multiple intelligences. He moves the teacher and students from curiosity, to confidence, to…

  13. Multiple fractional Fourier transform holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yangsu; Zhang, Yixiao; Gao, Feng; Gao, Fuhua; Huang, Xiaoyang; Guo, Yongkang

    2002-04-01

    In this paper, we introduce the recording and reconstruction theories of the multiple fractional Fourier transform hologram (M-FRTH). We fabricated a multiple fractional Fourier transform hologram, and obtained satisfying reconstruction results. The experimental result shows that the M-FRTH has a high anti-counterfeiting capacity and can be used in the fabrication of the trademark, ID, and the notes.

  14. Adult Multiple Intelligences and Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Meg Ryback

    In the Adult Multiple Intelligences (AMI) study, 10 teachers of adults from the northeastern region of the United States explored for 18 months the ways that multiple intelligences (MI) theory could support instruction and assessment in various adult learning contexts. The results of this research were published in a book by Julie Viens called MI…

  15. Symptomatic therapy in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Frohman, Teresa C.; Castro, Wanda; Shah, Anjali; Courtney, Ardith; Ortstadt, Jeffrey; Davis, Scott L.; Logan, Diana; Abraham, Thomas; Abraham, Jaspreet; Remington, Gina; Treadaway, Katherine; Graves, Donna; Hart, John; Stuve, Olaf; Lemack, Gary; Greenberg, Benjamin; Frohman, Elliot M.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common disabling neurological disease of young adults. The ability to impact the quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis should not only incorporate therapies that are disease modifying, but should also include a course of action for the global multidisciplinary management focused on quality of life and functional capabilities. PMID:21694806

  16. The problem with multiple robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Marcus J.; Kenny, Patrick G.

    1994-01-01

    The issues that can arise in research associated with multiple, robotic agents are discussed. Two particular multi-robot projects are presented as examples. This paper was written in the hope that it might ease the transition from single to multiple robot research.

  17. Electroconvulsive Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Steen, Katie; Narang, Puneet; Lippmann, Steven

    2015-01-01

    We performed a literature search regarding the safety and efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis and comorbid psychiatric symptoms. Literature review was conducted via PubMed databases. Of the cases we reviewed, most subjects with multiple sclerosis reported significant psychiatric symptom relief, with only a handful reporting neurologic deterioration. There was some evidence that active white matter lesions may be predictive of neurologic deterioration when electroconvulsive therapy is used in patients with multiple sclerosis. A brief description of the pathophysiology and effects of depression in patients with multiple sclerosis is also provided. Although no clinical recommendations or meaningful conclusions can be drawn without further investigation, the literature suggests that electroconvulsive therapy for treatment of psychiatric illnesses in patients with multiple sclerosis is safe and efficacious.

  18. Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Leray, E; Moreau, T; Fromont, A; Edan, G

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most frequently seen demyelinating disease, with a prevalence that varies considerably, from high levels in North America and Europe (>100/100,000 inhabitants) to low rates in Eastern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa (2/100,000 population). Knowledge of the geographical distribution of the disease and its survival data, and a better understanding of the natural history of the disease, have improved our understanding of the respective roles of endogenous and exogenous causes of MS. Concerning mortality, in a large French cohort of 27,603 patients, there was no difference between MS patients and controls in the first 20 years of the disease, although life expectancy was reduced by 6-7 years in MS patients. In 2004, the prevalence of MS in France was 94.7/100,000 population, according to data from the French National Health Insurance Agency for Salaried Workers (Caisse nationale d'assurance maladie des travailleurs Salariés [CNAM-TS]), which insures 87% of the French population. This prevalence was higher in the North and East of France. In several countries, including France, the gender ratio for MS incidence (women/men) went from 2/1 to 3/1 from the 1950s to the 2000s, but only for the relapsing-remitting form. As for risk factors of MS, the most pertinent environmental factors are infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), especially if it arises after childhood and is symptomatic. The role of smoking in MS risk has been confirmed, but is modest. In contrast, vaccines, stress, traumatic events and allergies have not been identified as risk factors, while the involvement of vitamin D has yet to be confirmed. From a genetic point of view, the association between HLA-DRB1*15:01 and a high risk of MS has been known for decades. More recently, immunogenetic markers have been identified (IL2RA, IL7RA) and, in particular thanks to studies of genome-wide associations, more than 100 genetic variants have been reported. Most of these are involved in

  19. Symptomatic fatigue in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Freal, J E; Kraft, G H; Coryell, J K

    1984-03-01

    Symptomatic fatigue has not been investigated previously in a multiple sclerosis population. Potential subjects were the 78% of 656 individuals with multiple sclerosis who indicated in a previous study that they experienced symptomatic fatigue. Three hundred nine subjects (60%) returned a follow-up questionnaire on symptomatic fatigue. Ninety percent described fatigue as "tiredness or the need to rest," but 43% of them indicated that "sleepiness" was part of the symptomatology. In 48% fatigue made other MS symptoms worse. Fatigue tended to occur in the late afternoon and evening. It occurred almost daily for more than 66% of the subjects. In 47% of the subjects fatigue usually subsided within a few hours; in other subjects occurrences were of variable length (40%) or lasted between 6 and 24 hours (8%). Ninety percent said that fatigue was worse at warmer environmental temperatures. Fatigue was worse for 83% after "vigorous exercise" and for 64% after "moderate exercise" although 15% reported that moderate exercise helped to reduce fatigue. Meditation, some drugs, and cooling with water reduced fatigue in a majority of the small proportion of the population trying these techniques. A planned daily schedule of activity and rest seemed to be a partially effective response to symptomatic fatigue for the majority of subjects studied.

  20. Multiple small "imaging" branch-duct type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) in familial pancreatic cancer: indicator for concomitant high grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia?

    PubMed

    Bartsch, D K; Dietzel, K; Bargello, M; Matthaei, E; Kloeppel, G; Esposito, I; Heverhagen, J T; Gress, T M; Slater, E P; Langer, P

    2013-03-01

    Most screening programs for familial pancreatic cancer are currently based on endoscopic ultrasonography and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cystic lesions, especially those suspicious for small intraductal pancreatic mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the branch ducts, can be visualized in up to 40 % of individuals at risk, but their pathological importance in the setting of FPC is yet not well established. Individuals at risk from a prospective screening program for familial pancreatic cancer with small "imaging" IPMNs of the branch-duct type (BD-IPMN) who underwent pancreatic resection were analysed regarding clinico-pathological data and the locations of pancreatic lesions. Five of 125 individuals at risk who underwent screening had multiple small (size 2-10 mm) unicystic lesions and/or multicystic single lesions in the pancreatic body and tail suspicious for BD-IPMNs upon MRI imaging and decided to undergo surgical resection after interdisciplinary counselling, although none fulfilled the consensus criteria for IPMN resection. Histological examination revealed BD-IPMNs with low or moderate dysplasia of the gastric type in combination with multifocal PanIN2 and PanIN3 lesions in 4 individuals. The remaining patient had only tiny ductectasias in the pancreatic tail with multifocal PanIN 2 lesions in the entire gland and one PanIN3 lesion in the pancreatic head. Intriguingly, the location of the most dysplastic histological lesions (PanIN3) did not correspond to the preoperatively detected lesions and were not visible in preoperative imaging. In the setting of FPC, the presence of multiple small "imaging" BD-IPMNs may indicate the presence of high-grade PanIN lesions elsewhere in the pancreas.

  1. Multiple Access in Ultra-Wideband Communications Using Multiple Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Nekoogar, F; Dowla, F

    2003-04-11

    Multiple access (MA) in UWB communication is an area of active research. To date several time-division or code-division pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) or pulse position modulation (PPM) schemes have been proposed to separate multiple users in UWB communications. Conventionally, all users employ the same pulse shape and modulate the transmit pulse based on changing amplitude or position. One concern with using the same pulse for all channels is that the multiple access interference (MAI) increases as the number of users increase. This is due to increased cross-correlation between similar pulses of the different channels, raising thus the noise floor in such systems. In this paper we introduce and study the performance of a new MA scheme in the context of multiple orthogonal transmitted-reference (T-R) short duration (nsec) chirp pulses in the presence of multipath and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN).

  2. Using multiple chemical indicators to characterize and determine the age of groundwater from selected vents of the silver springs group, Central Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knowles, L.; Katz, B.G.; Toth, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    The Silver Springs Group, Florida (USA), forms the headwaters of the Silver River and supports a diverse ecosystem. The 30 headwater springs divide into five subgroups based on chemistry. Five selected spring vents were sampled in 2007 to better understand the contaminant sources and groundwater flow system. Elevated nitrate-N concentrations (>0.8mg/L) in the five spring vents likely originate from inorganic (fertilizers) and organic sources, based on nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate. Evidence for denitrification in the Lost River Boil spring includes enriched ??15N and ??18O, excess N2 gas, and low dissolved O2 concentrations (<0.5mg/L). Multiple age-tracer data (SF6, 3H, tritiogenic 3He) for the two uppermost springs (Mammoth East and Mammoth West) indicate a binary mixture dominated by recent recharge water (mean age 6-7 years, and 87-97% young water). Tracer data for the three downstream spring vents (Lost River Boil, Catfish Hotel-1, and Catfish Conventional Hall-1) indicate exponential mixtures with mean ages of 26-35 years. Contamination from non-atmospheric sources of CFCs and SF5CF3 precluded their use as age tracers here. Variations in chemistry were consistent with mean groundwater age, as nitrate-N and dissolved O2 concentrations were higher in younger waters, and the Ca/Mg ratio decreased with increasing mean age. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag (outside the USA).

  3. Multiple polymersomes for programmed release of multiple components.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin-Hyun; Shum, Ho Cheung; Kim, Jin Woong; Cho, Jun-Cheol; Weitz, David A

    2011-09-28

    Long-term storage and controlled release of multiple components while avoiding cross-contamination have potentially important applications for pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Polymersomes are very promising delivery vehicles but cannot be used to encapsulate multiple independent components and release them in a controlled manner. Here, we report a microfluidic approach to produce multiple polymersomes, or polymersomes-in-polymersome by design, enabling encapsulation and programmed release of multiple components. Monodisperse polymersomes are prepared from templates of double-emulsion drops, which in turn are injected as the innermost phase to form the second level of double-emulsion drops, producing double polymersomes. Using the same strategy, higher-order polymersomes are also prepared. In addition, incorporation of hydrophobic homopolymer into the different bilayers of the multiple polymersomes enables controlled and sequential dissociation of the different bilayer membranes in a programmed fashion. The high encapsulation efficiency of this microfluidic approach, as well as its programmability and the biocompatibility of the materials used to form the polymersomes, will provide new opportunities for practical delivery systems of multiple components. PMID:21838246

  4. Multiple polymersomes for programmed release of multiple components.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin-Hyun; Shum, Ho Cheung; Kim, Jin Woong; Cho, Jun-Cheol; Weitz, David A

    2011-09-28

    Long-term storage and controlled release of multiple components while avoiding cross-contamination have potentially important applications for pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Polymersomes are very promising delivery vehicles but cannot be used to encapsulate multiple independent components and release them in a controlled manner. Here, we report a microfluidic approach to produce multiple polymersomes, or polymersomes-in-polymersome by design, enabling encapsulation and programmed release of multiple components. Monodisperse polymersomes are prepared from templates of double-emulsion drops, which in turn are injected as the innermost phase to form the second level of double-emulsion drops, producing double polymersomes. Using the same strategy, higher-order polymersomes are also prepared. In addition, incorporation of hydrophobic homopolymer into the different bilayers of the multiple polymersomes enables controlled and sequential dissociation of the different bilayer membranes in a programmed fashion. The high encapsulation efficiency of this microfluidic approach, as well as its programmability and the biocompatibility of the materials used to form the polymersomes, will provide new opportunities for practical delivery systems of multiple components.

  5. [Syndrome of multiple organ failure].

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, P; Suisse, A

    1990-11-01

    The multiple organ failure syndrome (MOF) is a relatively new entity defined as the successive occurrence of respiratory (ARDS), hepatic, renal, myocardial, gastro-intestinal or neurological failure in patients with hyperkinetic haemodynamic and hypermetabolic states. The etiologies are: infection, septic and non-septic shock, burns and multiple injuries. The MOF syndrome is considered to be a generalised "inflammatory reaction" to tissue aggression involving a cascade of mediatory factors (TNF, interleukines...) of macrophagic, lymphocytic origin, causing multiple organ failure. The treatment depends on early correction of cellular hypoxia related to circulatory disturbances, nutritional support, anti-infective therapy and, in the near future, "control of mediator activity" (immunotherapy).

  6. [Future challenges in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Fernández, Óscar

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis occurs in genetically susceptible individuals, in whom an unknown environmental factor triggers an immune response, giving rise to a chronic and disabling autoimmune disease. Currently, significant progress is being made in our knowledge of the frequency and distribution of multiple sclerosis and its risk factors, genetics, pathology, pathogenesis, diagnostic and prognostic markers, and treatment. This has radically changed patients' and clinicians' expectations of multiple sclerosis and has raised hope that there will soon be a way to control the disease. PMID:25732950

  7. Autonomic dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Racosta, Juan Manuel; Kimpinski, Kurt; Morrow, Sarah Anne; Kremenchutzky, Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    Autonomic dysfunction is a prevalent and significant cause of disability among patients with multiple sclerosis. Autonomic dysfunction in multiple sclerosis is usually explained by lesions within central nervous system regions responsible for autonomic regulation, but novel evidence suggests that other factors may be involved as well. Additionally, the interactions between the autonomic nervous system and the immune system have generated increased interest about the role of autonomic dysfunction in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. In this paper we analyze systematically the most relevant signs and symptoms of autonomic dysfunction in MS, considering separately their potential causes and implications.

  8. MULTIPLE ECH LAUNCHER CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    GREEN,M.T; PONCE,D; GRUNLOH,H.J; ELLIS,R.A; GROSNICKLE,W.H; HUMPHREY,R.L

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 The addition of new, high power gyrotrons to the heating and current drive arsenal at DIII-D, required a system upgrade for control of fully steerable ECH Launchers. Each launcher contains two pointing mirrors with two degrees of mechanical freedom. The two flavors of motion are called facet and tilt. Therefore up to four channels of motion per launcher need to be controlled. The system utilizes absolute encoders to indicate mirror position and therefore direction of the microwave beam. The launcher movement is primarily controlled by PLC, but future iterations of design, may require this control to be accomplished by a CPU on fast bus such as Compact PCI. This will be necessary to accomplish real time position control. Safety of equipment and personnel is of primary importance when controlling a system of moving parts. Therefore multiple interlocks and fault status enunciators have been implemented. This paper addresses the design of a Multiple ECH Launcher Control System, and characterizes the flexibility needed to upgrade to a real time position control system in the future.

  9. Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Jongen, P J; Ter Horst, A T; Brands, A M

    2012-04-01

    Cognitive impairment occurs in 40-65% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, typically involving complex attention, information processing speed, (episodic) memory and executive functions. It is seen in the subclinical radiologically isolated syndrome, clinically isolated syndrome, and all phases of clinical MS. In pediatric-onset MS cognition is frequently impaired and worsens relatively rapidly. Cognitive impairment often affects personal life and vocational status. Depression, anxiety and fatigue aggravate symptoms, whereas cognitive reserve partially protects. Cognitive dysfunction correlates to brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesion volumes and (regional) atrophy, and degree of and increase in MRI abnormalities predict further worsening. Experimental MRI indicates a crucial role for (focal) cortical lesions and atrophy, abnormal cortical integrity, and early changes in normal appearing brain tissue. Functional MRI suggests compensatory reorganization and adaptation changes in neural activities. Screening tools are the Brief Repeatable Neuropsychological Battery, Symbol Digit Modalities Test and Audio Recorded Cognitive Screen. The Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is used for formal neuropsychological evaluation. What constitutes a clinically relevant change and how to optimally monitor cognition are issues to be settled. In relapsing-remitting MS timely and adequate disease modifying drug treatment may stabilize or possibly improve cognition. There is no evidence-based symptomatic drug treatment, nor are there optimal non-pharmacological approaches. Leisure activities enhance cognitive reserve. Cognitive rehabilitation in MS patients is still in its infancy. Cognitive behavioral therapy, exercise, and education programs are promising psychosocial interventions to improve coping and lessen cognitive symptoms.

  10. Multiple myeloma. Houses and spouses

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, R.A.; Greipp, P.R.

    1983-02-15

    Two families in which successive spouses who lived in the same house developed multiple myeloma are reported. In the first instance, a man whose first wife died of multiple myeloma remarried, and his second wife also developed myeloma. In the second family, a woman's first husband died of multiple myeloma and her second husband did too. Radiation studies of the houses and yards showed no increased radioactivity. No evidence was found for excessive exposure to chemicals or other environmental agents, for contact with other patients having similar malignancies, or for exposure to viruses or other transmissible factors. The significance of the occurrence of multiple myeloma in subsequent spouses is unknown. It is hoped that this report will stimulate research for other instances and lead to careful epidemiologic, radiologic, and virologic studies.

  11. Multiple Regression and Its Discontents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel C.; Marsh, Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Multiple regression is part of a larger statistical strategy originated by Gauss. The authors raise questions about the theory and suggest some changes that would make room for Mandelbrot and Serendipity.

  12. Humanizing Outgroups Through Multiple Categorization

    PubMed Central

    Prati, Francesca; Crisp, Richard J.; Meleady, Rose; Rubini, Monica

    2016-01-01

    In three studies, we examined the impact of multiple categorization on intergroup dehumanization. Study 1 showed that perceiving members of a rival university along multiple versus simple categorical dimensions enhanced the tendency to attribute human traits to this group. Study 2 showed that multiple versus simple categorization of immigrants increased the attribution of uniquely human emotions to them. This effect was explained by the sequential mediation of increased individuation of the outgroup and reduced outgroup threat. Study 3 replicated this sequential mediation model and introduced a novel way of measuring humanization in which participants generated attributes corresponding to the outgroup in a free response format. Participants generated more uniquely human traits in the multiple versus simple categorization conditions. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings and consider their role in informing and improving efforts to ameliorate contemporary forms of intergroup discrimination. PMID:26984016

  13. MULTIPLE SCALES FOR SUSTAINABLE RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This session will highlight recent research that incorporates the use of multiple scales and innovative environmental accounting to better inform decisions that affect sustainability, resilience, and vulnerability at all scales. Effective decision-making involves assessment at mu...

  14. Multiple test tubes stirred mechanically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, H. J.; Strong, I. J.

    1965-01-01

    Mechanical device simultaneously stirs multiple test tubes under controlled laboratory conditions. The invention provides a variable stirring rate, minimal amount of contamination of tube contents, unattended and simple operation, and easy maintenance and cleaning.

  15. Using d15 N in Fish Larvae as an Indicator of Watershed Sources of Anthropogenic Nitrogen: Response at Multiple Spatial Scales

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nitrogen stable isotope, 15N, is an effective tool to track anthropogenic N sources to aquatic ecosystems. It may be difficult to identify potential N sources, however, where 15N responds similarly to multiple, concurrent activities in the watershed that cause higher nutrient...

  16. Changes and inequalities in early birth registration and childhood care and education in Vietnam: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2006 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Giang, Kim Bao; Oh, Juhwan; Kien, Vu Duy; Hoat, Luu Ngoc; Choi, Sugy; Lee, Chul Ou; Van Minh, Hoang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Early birth registration, childhood care, and education are essential rights for children and are important for their development and education. This study investigates changes and socioeconomic inequalities in early birth registration and indicators of care and education in children aged under 5 years in Vietnam. Design The analyses reported here used data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) in 2006 and 2011. The sample sizes in 2006 and 2011 were 2,680 and 3,678 for children under 5 years of age. Four indicators of childcare and preschool education were measured: birth registration, possession of books, preschool education attendance, and parental support for early childhood education. The concentration index (CI) was used to measure inequalities in gender, maternal education, geographical area, place of residence, ethnicity, and household wealth. Results There were some improvements in birth registration (86.4% in 2006; 93.8% in 2011), preschool education attendance (57.1% in 2006; 71.9% in 2011), and parental support for early childhood education (68.9 and 76.8%, respectively). However, the possession of books was lower (24.7% in 2006; 19.6% in 2011) and became more unequal over time (i.e. CI=0.370 in 2006; CI=0.443 in 2011 in wealth inequality). Inequalities in the care and education of children were still persistent. The largest inequalities were for household wealth and rural versus urban areas. Conclusion Although there have been some improvements in this area, inequalities still exist. Policy efforts in Vietnam should be directed towards closing the gap between different socioeconomic groups for the care and education of children under 5 years old. PMID:26950564

  17. Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2003 in Afghanistan: Outdated Sampling Frame and the Effect of Sampling Weights on Estimates of Maternal and Child Health Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Shuaib, Muhammad; Becker, Stan; Rahman, Md. Mokhlesur; Peters, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Due to an urgent need for information on the coverage of health service for women and children after the fall of Taliban regime in Afghanistan, a multiple indicator cluster survey (MICS) was conducted in 2003 using the outdated 1979 census as the sampling frame. When 2004 pre-census data became available, population-sampling weights were generated based on the survey-sampling scheme. Using these weights, the population estimates for seven maternal and child healthcare-coverage indicators were generated and compared with the unweighted MICS 2003 estimates. The use of sample weights provided unbiased estimates of population parameters. Results of the comparison of weighted and unweighted estimates showed some wide differences for individual provincial estimates and confidence intervals. However, the mean, median and absolute mean of the differences between weighted and unweighted estimates and their confidence intervals were close to zero for all indicators at the national level. Ranking of the five highest and the five lowest provinces on weighted and unweighted estimates also yielded similar results. The general consistency of results suggests that outdated sampling frames can be appropriate for use in similar situations to obtain initial estimates from household surveys to guide policy and programming directions. However, the power to detect change from these estimates is lower than originally planned, requiring a greater tolerance for error when the data are used as a baseline for evaluation. The generalizability of using outdated sampling frames in similar settings is qualified by the specific characteristics of the MICS 2003—low replacement rate of clusters and zero probability of inclusion of clusters created after the 1979 census. PMID:21957678

  18. Spearfishing Regulation Benefits Artisanal Fisheries: The ReGS Indicator and Its Application to a Multiple-Use Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Rocklin, Delphine; Tomasini, Jean-Antoine; Culioli, Jean-Michel; Pelletier, Dominique; Mouillot, David

    2011-01-01

    The development of fishing efficiency coupled with an increase of fishing effort led to the overexploitation of numerous natural marine resources. In addition to this commercial pressure, the impact of recreational activities on fish assemblages remains barely known. Here we examined the impact of spearfishing limitation on resources in a marine protected area (MPA) and the benefit it provides for the local artisanal fishery through the use of a novel indicator. We analysed trends in the fish assemblage composition using artisanal fisheries data collected in the Bonifacio Strait Natural Reserve (BSNR), a Mediterranean MPA where the spearfishing activity has been forbidden over 15% of its area. Fish species were pooled into three response groups according to their target level by spearfishing. We developed the new flexible ReGS indicator reflecting shifts in species assemblages according to the relative abundance of each response group facing external pressure. The catch per unit effort (CPUE) increased by ca. 60% in the BSNR between 2000 and 2007, while the MPA was established in 1999. The gain of CPUE strongly depended on the considered response group: for the highly targeted group, the CPUE doubled while the CPUE of the untargeted group increased by only 15.5%. The ReGS value significantly increased from 0.31 to 0.45 (on a scale between 0 and 1) in the general perimeter of this MPA while it has reached a threshold of 0.43, considered as a reference point, in the area protected from spearfishing since 1982. Our results demonstrated that limiting recreational fishing by appropriate zoning in multiple-use MPAs represents a real benefit for artisanal fisheries. More generally we showed how our new indicator may reveal a wide range of impacts on coastal ecosystems such as global change or habitat degradation. PMID:21966357

  19. Criteria for performing multiple dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, C.D.; Gupta, V.P.; Pryor, K.H.

    1995-10-01

    When radiation fields vary spatially as a result of job- or location-specific conditions, the use of more than one dosimeter may be necessary for a variety of radiation protection purposes. This paper contains a methodology for when and how to use multiple dosimeters under conditions incident to routine activities in the presence of ionizing radiation. It also describes a methodology for determining the effective dose equivalent when the use of multiple dosimeters has been deemed necessary by radiation protection professionals.

  20. Multiple phases of protien gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annaka, Masahiko; Tanaka, Toyoichi

    1994-03-01

    A multiple phase transition was observed in gels made by covalently cross-linking proteins in either native or denatured state. The enzymatic activity of the gels prepared from native α-chymotrypsin was determined for each of the multiple phases. The reversibility of the swelling degrees and the enzymatic reaction rates upon phase transition suggests that the protein is at a free energy minimum and thus in a phase.

  1. Multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Velasquez, G.; Glass, T.A.; D'Souza, V.J.; Formanek, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Renal oncocytoma, although rare, is being diagnosed more frequently, and criteria to differentiate it from other tumors have been described. Multiple oncocytomas have been reported, but an association between multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma in the same kidney has not been described. The authors report a case with two oncocytomas and a renal carcinoma in the right kidney as well as a right adrenal adenoma.

  2. The INEL beryllium multiplication experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.; King, J.J.

    1991-03-01

    The experiment to measure the multiplication of 14-MeV neutrons in bulk beryllium has been completed. The experiment consists of determining the ratio of {sup 56}Mn activities induced in a large manganese bath by a central 14-MeV neutron source, with and without a beryllium sample surrounding the source. In the manganese bath method a neutron source is placed at the center of a totally-absorbing aqueous solution of MnSo{sub 4}. The capture of neutrons by Mn produces a {sup 56}Mn activity proportional to the emission rate of the source. As applied to the measurement of the multiplication of 14- MeV neutrons in bulk beryllium, the neutron source is a tritium target placed at the end of the drift tube of a small deuteron accelerator. Surrounding the source is a sample chamber. When the sample chamber is empty, the neutrons go directly to the surrounding MnSO{sub 4} solution, and produce a {sup 56}Mn activity proportional to the neutron emission rate. When the chamber contains a beryllium sample, the neutrons first enter the beryllium and multiply through the (n,2n) process. Neutrons escaping from the beryllium enter the bath and produce a {sup 56}Mn activity proportional to the neutron emission rate multiplied by the effective value of the multiplication in bulk beryllium. The ratio of the activities with and without the sample present is proportional to the multiplication value. Detailed calculations of the multiplication and all the systematic effects were made with the Monte Carlo program MCNP, utilizing both the Young and Stewart and the ENDF/B-VI evaluations for beryllium. Both data sets produce multiplication values that are in excellent agreement with the measurements for both raw and corrected values of the multiplication. We conclude that there is not real discrepancy between experimental and calculated values for the multiplication of neutrons in bulk beryllium. 12 figs., 11 tabs., 18 refs.

  3. Multiple tumours in survival estimates.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Stefano; De Angelis, Roberta; Ciccolallo, Laura; Carrani, Eugenio; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Grande, Enrico; Zigon, Giulia; Brenner, Hermann

    2009-04-01

    In international comparisons of cancer registry based survival it is common practice to restrict the analysis to first primary tumours and exclude multiple cancers. The probability of correctly detecting subsequent cancers depends on the registry's running time, which results in different proportions of excluded patients and may lead to biased comparisons. We evaluated the impact on the age-standardised relative survival estimates of also including multiple primary tumours. Data from 2,919,023 malignant cancers from 69 European cancer registries participating in the EUROCARE-4 collaborative study were used. A total of 183,683 multiple primary tumours were found, with an overall proportion of 6.3% over all the considered cancers, ranging from 0.4% (Naples, Italy) to 12.9% (Iceland). The proportion of multiple tumours varied greatly by type of tumour, being higher for those with high incidence and long survival (breast, prostate and colon-rectum). Five-year relative survival was lower when including patients with multiple cancers. For all cancers combined the average difference was -0.4 percentage points in women and -0.7 percentage points in men, and was greater for older registries. Inclusion of multiple tumours led to lower survival in 44 out of 45 cancer sites analysed, with the greatest differences found for larynx (-1.9%), oropharynx (-1.5%), and penis (-1.3%). Including multiple primary tumours in survival estimates for international comparison is advisable because it reduces the bias due to different observation periods, age, registration quality and completeness of registration. The general effect of inclusion is to reduce survival estimates by a variable amount depending on the proportion of multiple primaries and cancer site.

  4. A multiple armature railgun launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challita, Antonios; Maas, Brian L.; Bauer, David P.; Heyse, Mark

    1993-01-01

    Railgun launchers with multiple armatures, which can distribute the accelerating force on the projectile, supply each armature with gun current for acceleration through its own set of rails. Test results are reported which confirm the feasibility of this concept; it is shown that the control of current distribution to multiple armatures is possible. Attention is given to gun behavior for the case of high length/diameter projectiles.

  5. Multiple myeloma involving the orbit.

    PubMed

    Fay, A M; Leib, M L; Fountain, K S

    1998-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell malignancy often associated with destructive skeletal lesions. Orbital involvement in multiple myeloma is rare. Risk factors for orbital involvement have not been established, although risk may vary with immunoglobulin subtype. Early detection of orbital plasmacytoma may affect treatment and clinical course. A case is reported of multiple myeloma without elevated serum immunoglobulins that involves the orbit, and the implications of early detection are discussed. The patient was first examined by an ophthalmologist 13 months after multiple myeloma was diagnosed and 5 months after the external appearance of an orbital tumor. Urine protein electrophoresis demonstrated kappa light chains. Hypergammaglobulinemia was not detected. Plain-film roentgenography showed orbital involvement at the time of initial diagnosis. An impressive clinical response to external beam radiation therapy was seen. Attention to immunoprotein characteristics in multiple myeloma may help to identify risk factors for orbital involvement. Early detection may permit safer and equally effective treatment. All patients with multiple myeloma should undergo thorough ophthalmic examination at the time of initial diagnosis.

  6. Therapeutics for multiple sclerosis symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ben-Zacharia, Aliza Bitton

    2011-01-01

    Symptoms management in multiple sclerosis is an integral part of its care. Accurate assessment and addressing the different symptoms provides increased quality of life among patients with multiple sclerosis. Multiple sclerosis symptoms may be identified as primary, secondary, or tertiary symptoms. Primary symptoms, such as weakness, sensory loss, and ataxia, are directly related to demyelination and axonal loss. Secondary symptoms, such as urinary tract infections as a result of urinary retention, are a result of the primary symptoms. Tertiary symptoms, such as reactive depression or social isolation, are a result of the social and psychological consequences of the disease. Common multiple sclerosis symptoms include fatigue and weakness; decreased balance, spasticity and gait problems; depression and cognitive issues; bladder, bowel, and sexual deficits; visual and sensory loss; and neuropathic pain. Less-common symptoms include dysarthria and dysphagia, vertigo, and tremors. Rare symptoms in multiple sclerosis include seizures, hearing loss, and paralysis. Symptom management includes nonpharmacological methods, such as rehabilitation and psychosocial support, and pharmacological methods, ie, medications and surgical procedures. The keys to symptom management are awareness, knowledge, and coordination of care. Symptoms have to be recognized and management needs to be individualized. Multiple sclerosis therapeutics include nonpharmacological strategies that consist of lifestyle modifications, rehabilitation, social support, counseling, and pharmacological agents or surgical procedures. The goal is vigilant management to improve quality of life and promote realistic expectations and hope.

  7. Progress in Multiple Sclerosis Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Goris, An; Pauwels, Ine; Dubois, Bénédicte

    2012-01-01

    A genetic component in the susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS) has long been known, and the first and major genetic risk factor, the HLA region, was identified in the 1970’s. However, only with the advent of genome-wide association studies in the past five years did the list of risk factors for MS grow from 1 to over 50. In this review, we summarize the search for MS risk genes and the latest results. Comparison with data from other autoimmune and neurological diseases and from animal models indicates parallels and differences between diseases. We discuss how these translate into an improved understanding of disease mechanisms, and address current challenges such as genotype-phenotype correlations, functional mechanisms of risk variants and the missing heritability. PMID:23730204

  8. Combining multiple altimeter missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, G. A.; Mitchell, J. L.

    1997-10-01

    Viewing altimeter data only at the points where separate altimeter missions' ground tracks cross provides a method to observe long time period sea surface height (SSH) variations and avoids many of the problems inherent in combining separate altimeter data sets through an independently determined geoid. TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) data over the time period from January 1, 1993, to December 31, 1995, form a mean SSH that is used as a reference by other altimeter data sets. A least squares analysis of the mean T/P SSH determines the portion of the Geographically Correlated Orbit Error (GCOE) that may be observed through crossover differences and removes this portion of the GCOE. The analysis removes errors of 0.86 cm RMS at 1 cycle per orbit revolution (cpr) and indicates negligible errors at higher frequencies. After the GCOE removal, the accuracy of the T/P reference mean is better than 1 cm RMS as measured by crossover differences. The GCOE contained in the Geosat-Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) and ERS 1 data with orbit solutions using the Joint Gravity Model (JGM) 3 is evaluated through an adjustment to the T/P reference mean surface. The Geosat-ERM data indicate a bias of about 28 cm averaged over the globe, and the ERS 1 bias is 44 cm. The T/P data used here is not corrected for the oscillator drift correction error so that the actual bias is less by about 13 cm. Both the Geosat-ERM and ERS 1 GCOE are mainly 1 cpr. GCOE estimates at frequencies above 1 cpr indicate little actual orbit error but are more correlated to instrument correction errors (particularly water vapor). Simultaneous T/P and ERS 1 SSH anomalies to the T/P mean indicate good correlation.

  9. A Qualitative Study of Multiple Health Behaviors in Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Golding, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence regarding inflammatory pathways, elevated cardiovascular risk, and negative effects of secondary conditions on disability progression provide a strong rationale for promoting multiple health behaviors in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, many unanswered questions remain about the best ways to design multiple behavior change interventions for adults with MS. We sought to identify facilitators and barriers to engaging in multiple health behaviors (physical activity, nutrition, and sleep) and to gain further insights into how to develop multiple health behavior change interventions based on preferences of adults with MS. Methods: Focus groups and one-on-one interviews were conducted with 17 participants with MS. Results: Five qualitative themes were identified as either facilitating or hindering engagement in multiple health behaviors: 1) roles, priorities, and preferences; 2) sense of duty; 3) the fatigue and mobility problem; 4) taking control; and 5) resiliency. Participants identified advantages and disadvantages of delivery formats (eg, face-to-face group vs. telephone), frequency of contacts, and intervention strategies based on their individual circumstances and obligations. Participants felt that discussing the benefits of engaging in multiple health behaviors, developing action plans, accommodating preferences, and addressing health problems would be helpful strategies to include in a multiple behavior change intervention. Conclusions: These findings indicate that there may be common facilitators and barriers that can be targeted to promote multiple behavior changes. Future research should explore the best ways to tailor multiple behavior change interventions to preferences, symptoms, psychological traits, and social cognitions. PMID:27803640

  10. Controlling multiple groups of robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hor, MawKae

    1992-11-01

    Coordinating multiple robots has attracted researchers' interests for many years. However, most of the problems being studied deal with multiple robots acted only within a single group. Coordinated robots are categorized into different groups when the coordination involves robots interchange or heterogeneous motion during the manipulation process. In such a case, coordination between robot groups has to be considered. This is required in certain types of coordinated manipulations such as passing an object, held by multiple robots, between groups of robots or rotating or rolling an object, held by multiple robots, continuously. In the former task, coordinations are made between two isotropic groups of robots whereas in the latter task, coordinations are made between non-isotropic groups of robots. This paper investigates problems related to the control and coordinating of multiple groups of robots. We analyze various kind of tasks of these types and propose a hierarchical control mechanism in achieving these coordinations. Scenarios and limitations for these tasks are presented and discussed. A hybrid force and position control principle is employed in both global and local planning and control. A hierarchical architecture is used to control different levels of the control and planning primitives. The primitives developed for controlling individual robot group can be adopted in this architecture. The primitives in one level offer services only to those in its neighboring levels and hides them from the details of actual service implementations hence reducing the system designing complexity.

  11. Biological auctions with multiple rewards.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Johannes G; Kanodia, Ayush; Gupta, Raghav; Nowak, Martin A; Chatterjee, Krishnendu

    2015-08-01

    The competition for resources among cells, individuals or species is a fundamental characteristic of evolution. Biological all-pay auctions have been used to model situations where multiple individuals compete for a single resource. However, in many situations multiple resources with various values exist and single reward auctions are not applicable. We generalize the model to multiple rewards and study the evolution of strategies. In biological all-pay auctions the bid of an individual corresponds to its strategy and is equivalent to its payment in the auction. The decreasingly ordered rewards are distributed according to the decreasingly ordered bids of the participating individuals. The reproductive success of an individual is proportional to its fitness given by the sum of the rewards won minus its payments. Hence, successful bidding strategies spread in the population. We find that the results for the multiple reward case are very different from the single reward case. While the mixed strategy equilibrium in the single reward case with more than two players consists of mostly low-bidding individuals, we show that the equilibrium can convert to many high-bidding individuals and a few low-bidding individuals in the multiple reward case. Some reward values lead to a specialization among the individuals where one subpopulation competes for the rewards and the other subpopulation largely avoids costly competitions. Whether the mixed strategy equilibrium is an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) depends on the specific values of the rewards. PMID:26180069

  12. Biological auctions with multiple rewards.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Johannes G; Kanodia, Ayush; Gupta, Raghav; Nowak, Martin A; Chatterjee, Krishnendu

    2015-08-01

    The competition for resources among cells, individuals or species is a fundamental characteristic of evolution. Biological all-pay auctions have been used to model situations where multiple individuals compete for a single resource. However, in many situations multiple resources with various values exist and single reward auctions are not applicable. We generalize the model to multiple rewards and study the evolution of strategies. In biological all-pay auctions the bid of an individual corresponds to its strategy and is equivalent to its payment in the auction. The decreasingly ordered rewards are distributed according to the decreasingly ordered bids of the participating individuals. The reproductive success of an individual is proportional to its fitness given by the sum of the rewards won minus its payments. Hence, successful bidding strategies spread in the population. We find that the results for the multiple reward case are very different from the single reward case. While the mixed strategy equilibrium in the single reward case with more than two players consists of mostly low-bidding individuals, we show that the equilibrium can convert to many high-bidding individuals and a few low-bidding individuals in the multiple reward case. Some reward values lead to a specialization among the individuals where one subpopulation competes for the rewards and the other subpopulation largely avoids costly competitions. Whether the mixed strategy equilibrium is an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) depends on the specific values of the rewards.

  13. Determinants of early childhood morbidity and proper treatment responses in Vietnam: results from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Van Huy, Nguyen; Choi, Sugy

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite significant achievements in health indicators during previous decades, Vietnam lags behind other developing countries in reducing common early childhood illnesses, such as diarrhea and respiratory infections. To date, there has been little research into factors that contribute to the prevalence and treatment of childhood morbidity in Vietnam. Objective This study examines the determinants of diarrhea and ‘illness with a cough’ and treatments for each of the conditions among young children in Vietnam, and describes trends over time. Design Data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys in 2000, 2006, and 2011 were used. Multivariable logistic regressions were undertaken to investigate factors associated with these childhood illnesses and proper treatment patterns. Results Between 2000 and 2011, the prevalence of diarrhea among children under the age of five declined from 11 to 7%, while having illness with a cough increased to 40% in 2011 after falling from 69 to 28% between 2000 and 2006. During the same period, the prevalence of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) for treating diarrhea increased from 13 to 46%, whereas the rate of seeking formal treatment for illnesses with a cough fell from 24 to 7%. Multivariable models indicated that children who were older than 2 years (odds ration [OR]: 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.37–0.53, p<0.001), male (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 0.64–2.37, p<0.05), living in rural areas (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.00–1.64, p<0.05), or of Kinh ethnicity (OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.56–0.87, p<0.01) were more likely to suffer from diarrhea. Ethnic differences and higher household wealth were factors significantly associated with having illness with a cough. In particular, the effect of level of wealth on illness with a cough varied in each wave. Mothers with higher levels of education had higher odds of seeking ORT compared with mothers with the lowest level of education. Seeking formal treatment for children who have

  14. Analysis of the long control region of bovine papillomavirus type 1 associated with sarcoids in equine hosts indicates multiple cross-species transmission events and phylogeographical structure

    PubMed Central

    Trewby, Hannah; Ayele, Gizachew; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe; Brandt, Sabine; Campo, M. Saveria; Del Fava, Claudia; Marais, Johan; Leonardi, Leonardo; Vanselow, Barbara; Biek, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Papillomaviruses are a family of slowly evolving DNA viruses and their evolution is commonly linked to that of their host species. However, whilst bovine papillomavirus-1 (BPV-1) primarily causes warts in its natural host, the cow, it can also cause locally aggressive and invasive skin tumours in equids, known as sarcoids, and thus provides a rare contemporary example of cross-species transmission of a papillomavirus. Here, we describe the first phylogenetic analysis of BPV-1 in equine sarcoids to our knowledge, allowing us to explore the evolutionary history of BPV-1 and investigate its cross-species association with equids. A phylogenetic analysis of the BPV-1 transcriptional promoter region (the long control region or LCR) was conducted on 15 bovine and 116 equine samples from four continents. Incorporating previous estimates for evolutionary rates in papillomavirus implied that the genetic diversity in the LCR variants was ancient and predated domestication of both equids and cattle. The phylogeny demonstrated geographical segregation into an ancestral group (African, South American and Australian samples), and a more recently derived, largely European clade. Whilst our data are consistent with BPV-1 originating in cattle, we found evidence of multiple, probably relatively recent, cross-species transmission events into horses. We also demonstrated the high prevalence of one particular sequence variant (variant 20), and suggest this may indicate that this variant shows a fitness advantage in equids. Although strong host specificity remains the norm in papillomaviruses, our results demonstrate that exceptions to this rule exist and can become epidemiologically relevant. PMID:25185436

  15. Changes and socioeconomic factors associated with attitudes towards domestic violence among Vietnamese women aged 15–49: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2006–2011

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, Oanh Thi Hoang; Oh, Juhwan; Choi, Sugy; To, Kien Gia; Van Do, Dung

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women is important for designing effective policies to prevent this behavior. Previous studies have largely overlooked risk factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes by women in Vietnam. Objective This paper explores and identifies socioeconomic factors that contribute to domestic violence–supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Design Secondary data from two cross-sectional studies (MICS 3, 2006, and MICS 4, 2011) with representative samples (9,471 and 11,663 women, respectively) in Vietnam were analyzed. The prevalence of supportive attitudes toward domestic violence and associations with age, residence region, area, education level, household wealth index, ethnicity, and marital status were estimated using descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson models, giving estimates of relative risk. Results Overall, the prevalence of acceptance of domestic violence declined between 2006 and 2011 in Vietnam (65.1% vs. 36.1%). Socioeconomic factors associated with women's condoning of domestic violence were age, wealth, education level, and living area. In particular, younger age and low educational attainment were key factors associated with violence-supportive attitudes, and these associations have become stronger over time. Conclusion Higher educational attainment in women is an important predictor of women's attitudes toward domestic violence. To date, Doi Moi and the Vietnamese government's commitment to the Millennium Development Goals may have positively contributed to lowering the acceptance of domestic violence. Tailored interventions that focus on education will be important in further changing attitudes toward domestic violence. PMID:26950567

  16. Factors associated with utilization of antenatal care services in Balochistan province of Pakistan: An analysis of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffar, Abdul; Pongponich, Sathirakorn; Ghaffar, Najma; Mehmood, Tahir

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The study was conducted to identify factors affecting the utilization of Antenatal Care (ANC) in Balochistan Province, Pakistan. Methods: Data on ANC utilization, together with social and economic determinants, were derived from a Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) conducted in Balochistan in 2010. The analysis was conducted including 2339 women who gave birth in last two years preceding the survey. The researchers established a model to identify influential factors contributing to the utilization of ANC by logistic regression; model selection was by Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). Results: Household wealth, education, health condition, age at first marriage, number of children and spouse violence justification were found to be significantly associated with ANC coverage. Literate mothers are 2.45 times more likely to have ANC, and women whose newborns showed symptoms of illness at birth that needed hospitalization are 0.47 times less likely to access ANC. Women with an increase in the number of surviving children are 1.07 times less likely to have ANC, and those who think their spouse violence is socially justified are 1.36 times less likely to have ANC. The results draw attention towards evidence based planning of factors associated with utilization of ANC in the Balochistan province. Conclusion: The study reveals that women from high wealth index and having education had more chances to get ANC. Factors like younger age of the women at first marriage, increased number of children, symptoms of any illness to neonates at birth that need hospitalization and women who justify spouse violence had less chances to get ANC. Among components of ANC urine sampling and having tetanus toxoid (TT) in the last pregnancy increased the frequency of visits. ANC from a doctor decreased the number of visits. There is dire need to reduce disparities for wealth index, education and urban/rural living. PMID:26870113

  17. Multiple Myeloma Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huff, Carol Ann; Matsui, William

    2008-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is characterized by the clonal expansion of neoplastic plasma cells within the bone marrow, elevated serum immunoglobulin, and osteolytic bone disease. The disease is highly responsive to a wide variety of anticancer treatments including conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, corticosteroids, radiation therapy, and a growing number of agents with novel mechanisms of action. However, few if any patients are cured with these modalities and relapse remains a critical issue. A better understanding of clonogenic multiple myleoma cells is essential to ultimately improving long-term outcomes, but the nature of the cells responsible for myeloma regrowth and disease relapse is unclear. We review evidence that functional heterogeneity exists in multiple myeloma and discuss potential strategies and clinical implications of the stem-cell model of cancer in this disease. PMID:18539970

  18. Spontaneous Preterm Birth in Multiples.

    PubMed

    Biggio, Joseph R; Anderson, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    The number of multiple gestations has increased over the last several decades and preterm birth is one of the leading causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality for these pregnancies. While screening and treatment strategies have achieved moderate success in singleton gestations, screening strategies are less effective in multiple gestations. In addition, to date no intervention aimed at preventing preterm birth has been conclusively shown to either prolong gestation or improve neonatal outcomes for multiple gestations. As in singleton gestations, cervical length is one of the strongest predictors of preterm birth. While not conclusive, emerging data suggest that vaginal progesterone or cervical pessary may be able to prevent preterm birth in twin gestations with a short cervix.

  19. Multiple smart weapons employment mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    McGlynn, M.P.; Meiklejohn, W.D.

    1993-07-20

    A digital communications armament network adaptor is described for carrying multiple smart weapons on a single wing pylon station of an aircraft, comprising: an aircraft having a weapons controller configured in compliance with MIL-STD 1553; multiple wing-mounted pylons on said aircraft, each providing a weapons station with communications and ejection and release mechanisms electrically connected to said controller for the airborne launch of smart weapons; a multiple ejector rack affixed to at least one pylon, said rack holding a plurality of smart weapons; and an electronic digital network connected between the controller and said rack-mounted smart weapons, said network located in said rack and including circuitry which receives coded digital communications from said controller and selectively rebroadcasts said communications to one of said smart weapons on said rack designated by said coded communications, thereby controlling all required functions of said designated smart weapon.

  20. On the Performance of Multiple Pulse Multiple Delay UWB Modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Nekoogar, F; Dowla, F U

    2003-05-23

    Multiple access (MA) in UWB communication is an area of active research. In this paper we introduce and study the performance of a new MA scheme in the context of multiple transmitted-reference short duration (nsec) chirp pulses in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). The transmitted-reference (T-R) receiver is extended using multiple orthogonal pulses. The proposed UWB receiver samples the receiver autocorrelation function (ACF) at both zero- and non-zero lags, thus sampling and matching the shape of ACFs rather than just the shape of the received pulses. Sampling of non-zero ACF lags is a significant new approach. The scheme proposed in this paper is a step towards combining the multi-pulse approach and T-R modulation in a multiple access ultra wideband (MA-UWB) communications system. Improved bit error rate performance over a conventional zero-lag receiver (i.e. energy detection receiver) is demonstrated by simulation. Analytical expressions for the system BER are also derived and confirmed through simulations for the system.

  1. The properties of close multiple stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fekel, F. C., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A reexamination of the properties of close multiple systems is conducted, taking into account recent numerical, analytical, and observational results. The orbital elements of 43 spectroscopic multiple systems are presented in a table. Tables with photometry data of the systems and data describing their properties are also provided. Attention is given to period ratios, mass ratios, orbital coplanarity, stability, lithium abundances and age estimates, and prospects of future observations. Numerical studies indicate that fragmentation produces binary components with mass ratios usually close to 1.0, while fission usually produces mass ratios in the range 0.1-0.5. Using analytical stability criteria, all 27 close multiple systems considered are stable if they are corotating. If they are counter-rotating, four systems are possibly unstable. However, other factors suggest that even these four are probably stable. The solar-type close multiple systems ranged in age from 100 million years to 2,000 million years.

  2. [Oral treatments in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Meca-Lallana, José Eustasio; Hernández-Clares, Rocío; Carreón-Guarnizo, Ester

    2014-12-01

    The development of new disease-modifying drugs (DMD) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), which share the common denominator of oral administration, considerably improves patient expectations in terms of effectiveness, tolerability and treatment adherence compared with currently available drugs. However, the common route of administration of these drugs does not mean that they are equivalent, since the heading of "oral route" encompasses drugs with distinct indications and mechanisms of action, as well as heterogeneous results in terms of efficacy and safety, allowing treatment to be personalized according to the each patient' s characteristics. Currently, four oral DMD are available or in an advanced stage of clinical development: fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate and laquinimod. In pivotal trials versus placebo, these molecules reduced the annualized rate of exacerbations versus placebo by 54%, 31%, 53% and 23%, respectively, the risk of progression of disability by 31%, 30%, 38% and 36%, and the number of active lesions showing contrast uptake on magnetic resonance imaging by 82%, 80%, 90% and 37%, respectively. Based on the risk/benefit ratio, fingolimod is indicated in patients with suboptimal response to initial DMD or in severe rapidly progressing RRMS, while the remaining drugs can be used as first-line options. Clinical experience with these treatments will provide new data on safety and effectiveness, which will be determinant when establishing therapeutic algorithms. PMID:25732946

  3. Evoked potentials in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kraft, George H

    2013-11-01

    Before the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), evoked potentials (EPs)-visual evoked potentials, somatosensory evoked potentials, and brain stem auditory evoked responses-were commonly used to determine a second site of disease in patients being evaluated for possible multiple sclerosis (MS). The identification of an area of the central nervous system showing abnormal conduction was used to supplement the abnormal signs identified on the physical examination-thus identifying the "multiple" in MS. This article is a brief overview of additional ways in which central nervous system (CNS) physiology-as measured by EPs-can still contribute value in the management of MS in the era of MRIs.

  4. Multiple resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, E.M.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1985-06-19

    A multiple repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. A plurality of serially connected paired parallel rails are powered by similar power supplies. Each supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles. The multiple serial operation permits relatively small energy components to deliver overall relatively large amounts of energy to the projectiles being propelled.

  5. Multiple resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, Emanuel M.; Nunnally, William C.

    1988-01-01

    A multiple repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. A plurality of serially connected paired parallel rails are powered by similar power supplies. Each supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles. The multiple serial operation permits relatively small energy components to deliver overall relatively large amounts of energy to the projectiles being propelled.

  6. [Current description of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Río, Jordi; Montalbán, Xavier

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a multifocal demyelinating disease leading to progressive neurodegeneration caused by an autoimmune response in genetically predisposed individuals. In the last few years, the knowledge and management of this disease has been revolutionized by a series of findings. The present article reviews pathological features of the disease, in which cortical involvement is increasingly implicated, and aspects related to novel pathogenic mechanisms, such as the role of the microbiota in the genesis of multiple sclerosis, as well as recent contributions from the fields of epidemiology and genetics. Also reviewed are the latest diagnostic criteria, which currently allow a much earlier diagnosis, with clear therapeutic implications. PMID:25732942

  7. Multiple order common path spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

  8. Multiple McNemar Tests

    PubMed Central

    Westfall, Peter H.; Troendle, James F.; Pennello, Gene

    2010-01-01

    Summary Methods for performing multiple tests of paired proportions are described. A broadly applicable method using McNemar's exact test and the exact distributions of all test statistics is developed; the method controls the familywise error rate in the strong sense under minimal assumptions. A closed form (not simulation-based) algorithm for carrying out the method is provided. A bootstrap alternative is developed to account for correlation structures. Operating characteristics of these and other methods are evaluated via a simulation study. Applications to multiple comparisons of predictive models for disease classification and to post-market surveillance of adverse events are given. PMID:20345498

  9. Management of multiple impacted teeth

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Nidhi; Valiathan, Ashima; Bansal, Kshitij; Parkar, Farhan

    2012-01-01

    An impacted or missing permanent tooth can add significant complications to an otherwise straightforward case. When multiple impacted teeth are present, the case complexity increases further. Developing a treatment sequence, determining appropriate anchorage, and planning and executing sound biomechanics can be a challenge. The following case report illustrates a patient with three retained primary teeth and three impacted permanent canines. After careful treatment planning and extraction of multiple primary teeth;, followed by attempted guided eruption of impacted teeth, the patient finished with a significantly improved functional and aesthetic result. PMID:22557915

  10. [Current description of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Río, Jordi; Montalbán, Xavier

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a multifocal demyelinating disease leading to progressive neurodegeneration caused by an autoimmune response in genetically predisposed individuals. In the last few years, the knowledge and management of this disease has been revolutionized by a series of findings. The present article reviews pathological features of the disease, in which cortical involvement is increasingly implicated, and aspects related to novel pathogenic mechanisms, such as the role of the microbiota in the genesis of multiple sclerosis, as well as recent contributions from the fields of epidemiology and genetics. Also reviewed are the latest diagnostic criteria, which currently allow a much earlier diagnosis, with clear therapeutic implications.

  11. Multiple sequence alignment with DIALIGN.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    DIALIGN is a software tool for multiple sequence alignment by combining global and local alignment features. It composes multiple alignments from local pairwise sequence similarities. This approach is particularly useful to discover conserved functional regions in sequences that share only local homologies but are otherwise unrelated. An anchoring option allows to use external information and expert knowledge in addition to primary-sequence similarity alone. The latest version of DIALIGN optionally uses matches to the PFAM database to detect weak homologies. Various versions of the program are available through Göttingen Bioinformatics Compute Server (GOBICS) at http://www.gobics.de/department/software.

  12. Epidemiology in multiple sclerosis: a pilgrim's progress.

    PubMed

    Kurtzke, John F

    2013-09-01

    There was more neurology taught under Harold G. Wolff at Cornell University Medical College in New York than perhaps anywhere else in the country when I attended from 1948 to 1952. I took my residency at the Veterans Administration Hospital in the Bronx, New York, a teaching hospital of Cornell, with Wolff as my Director of Training. While a resident, we thought we had found a treatment for multiple sclerosis. To test our conclusion, the first Class 1 treatment trial ever conducted for multiple sclerosis was performed. This showed no effect, but the participants began investigating multiple sclerosis among the 16 million persons at prime age for symptom onset who had served in the military in World War II. This led me to study its epidemiology worldwide, beginning with a detailed review of all published population-based estimates of frequency. Among these were nationwide surveys from Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland and later Norway and Finland, which showed in each country a concentration of the significantly high regions into contiguous areas forming a single 'focus' in each land, maximal in Denmark under the age of 15 years. The primary locus of high frequency multiple sclerosis seemed to be in the south-central inland lake region of Sweden, with spread to its contiguous neighbours. These concentrations in time and space indicated that multiple sclerosis was a disease probably acquired in early adolescence. Migration studies supported this: moves from high to low showed retention of birthplace risk only for those aged >15 years, whereas opposite moves indicated susceptibility limited to some 11-45 year olds. Epidemics of multiple sclerosis would suggest the disease is not only acquired but also infectious. If an infectious origin were true, transmission would have to occur before clinical onset, and would have to involve a much greater number of subjects than clinically involved. I believe there have been epidemics in Iceland, Shetland-Orkney and the Faroe Islands

  13. Multiple embryos in the Lepidocyclina pustulosa group as possible indicators of palaeoenvironmental conditions: The case of the Late Eocene Toluviejo Formation (Sinú Domain, Caribbean, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner-Mora, Claudia; Baumgartner, Peter O.; Rincón Martínez, Daniel; Salazar Ortiz, Edward A.

    2016-04-01

    The Middle-Late Eocene Toluviejo Formation of the Sinú-San Jacinto folded belt (Caribbean, Colombia) contains 15-75 m thick, grey, massive limestone sequences that are interbedded with terrigenous nearshore to offshore mudstones to quartzose sandstones and conglomerates. The formation accumulated in a transitional continent-ocean setting, probably on oceanic crust. We studied over 80 polished thin sections under light microscopy and cathodoluminescence (CL) to analyse carbonate microfacies and Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBF). The overall facies distribution is 3-fold: (1) Facies close to the shoreline are dominated by low diversity operculinid assemblages, rich in detrital elements. (2) Shallow offshore facies are characterized by round lepidocyclinids, associated with, and often encrusted by, corallinacean algae, Sporolithon and structureless microbial crusts. The matrix is rich in carbonate/detrital mud and sand-sized detritals. (3) Distal offshore facies on structural highs show abundance of flat, current-sorted lepidoclinids without a noticeable detrital component. Facies 1 and 2 are clearly under the influence of suspension- and dissolved-nutrient input, probably carried offshore by freshwater lids of river plumes. Facies (2) contains abundant specimens of the Lepidocyclina pustulosa group of which the macrospheric forms show complicated embryonic apparatuses, which suppose double or multiple embryos. Detailed observation under CL allows to count up to 6-8 embryos, often seen aligned in the equatorial plane. The embryonic apparatus occupies often more than half of the diameter of specimens. The tendency towards large, very flat embryonic apparatuses (diameter measured in axial cuts up to 2,5 mm for a thickness of 0.2-0.3 mm) is closely correlated with abundant coralgal and microbial encrustations, oxide-stained carbonate/detrital mud and probably some preserved organic matter. The presence of multiple embryos has been reported by several authors and has

  14. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Multiple Cropping Indices in the North China Plain Using a Long Remote Sensing Data Time Series.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Bai, Linyan; Feng, Jianzhong; Lin, Xiaosong; Wang, Li; Xu, Lijun; Ran, Qiyun; Wang, Kui

    2016-04-19

    Multiple cropping provides China with a very important system of intensive cultivation, and can effectively enhance the efficiency of farmland use while improving regional food production and security. A multiple cropping index (MCI), which represents the intensity of multiple cropping and reflects the effects of climate change on agricultural production and cropping systems, often serves as a useful parameter. Therefore, monitoring the dynamic changes in the MCI of farmland over a large area using remote sensing data is essential. For this purpose, nearly 30 years of MCIs related to dry land in the North China Plain (NCP) were efficiently extracted from remotely sensed leaf area index (LAI) data from the Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS). Next, the characteristics of the spatial-temporal change in MCI were analyzed. First, 2162 typical arable sample sites were selected based on a gridded spatial sampling strategy, and then the LAI information was extracted from the samples. Second, the Savizky-Golay filter was used to smooth the LAI time-series data of the samples, and then the MCIs of the samples were obtained using a second-order difference algorithm. Finally, the geo-statistical Kriging method was employed to map the spatial distribution of the MCIs and to obtain a time-series dataset of the MCIs of dry land over the NCP. The results showed that all of the MCIs in the NCP showed an increasing trend over the entire study period and increased most rapidly from 1982 to 2002. Spatially, MCIs decreased from south to north; also, high MCIs were mainly concentrated in the relatively flat areas. In addition, the partial spatial changes of MCIs had clear geographical characteristics, with the largest change in Henan Province.

  15. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Multiple Cropping Indices in the North China Plain Using a Long Remote Sensing Data Time Series.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Bai, Linyan; Feng, Jianzhong; Lin, Xiaosong; Wang, Li; Xu, Lijun; Ran, Qiyun; Wang, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Multiple cropping provides China with a very important system of intensive cultivation, and can effectively enhance the efficiency of farmland use while improving regional food production and security. A multiple cropping index (MCI), which represents the intensity of multiple cropping and reflects the effects of climate change on agricultural production and cropping systems, often serves as a useful parameter. Therefore, monitoring the dynamic changes in the MCI of farmland over a large area using remote sensing data is essential. For this purpose, nearly 30 years of MCIs related to dry land in the North China Plain (NCP) were efficiently extracted from remotely sensed leaf area index (LAI) data from the Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS). Next, the characteristics of the spatial-temporal change in MCI were analyzed. First, 2162 typical arable sample sites were selected based on a gridded spatial sampling strategy, and then the LAI information was extracted from the samples. Second, the Savizky-Golay filter was used to smooth the LAI time-series data of the samples, and then the MCIs of the samples were obtained using a second-order difference algorithm. Finally, the geo-statistical Kriging method was employed to map the spatial distribution of the MCIs and to obtain a time-series dataset of the MCIs of dry land over the NCP. The results showed that all of the MCIs in the NCP showed an increasing trend over the entire study period and increased most rapidly from 1982 to 2002. Spatially, MCIs decreased from south to north; also, high MCIs were mainly concentrated in the relatively flat areas. In addition, the partial spatial changes of MCIs had clear geographical characteristics, with the largest change in Henan Province. PMID:27104536

  16. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Multiple Cropping Indices in the North China Plain Using a Long Remote Sensing Data Time Series

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan; Bai, Linyan; Feng, Jianzhong; Lin, Xiaosong; Wang, Li; Xu, Lijun; Ran, Qiyun; Wang, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Multiple cropping provides China with a very important system of intensive cultivation, and can effectively enhance the efficiency of farmland use while improving regional food production and security. A multiple cropping index (MCI), which represents the intensity of multiple cropping and reflects the effects of climate change on agricultural production and cropping systems, often serves as a useful parameter. Therefore, monitoring the dynamic changes in the MCI of farmland over a large area using remote sensing data is essential. For this purpose, nearly 30 years of MCIs related to dry land in the North China Plain (NCP) were efficiently extracted from remotely sensed leaf area index (LAI) data from the Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS). Next, the characteristics of the spatial-temporal change in MCI were analyzed. First, 2162 typical arable sample sites were selected based on a gridded spatial sampling strategy, and then the LAI information was extracted from the samples. Second, the Savizky-Golay filter was used to smooth the LAI time-series data of the samples, and then the MCIs of the samples were obtained using a second-order difference algorithm. Finally, the geo-statistical Kriging method was employed to map the spatial distribution of the MCIs and to obtain a time-series dataset of the MCIs of dry land over the NCP. The results showed that all of the MCIs in the NCP showed an increasing trend over the entire study period and increased most rapidly from 1982 to 2002. Spatially, MCIs decreased from south to north; also, high MCIs were mainly concentrated in the relatively flat areas. In addition, the partial spatial changes of MCIs had clear geographical characteristics, with the largest change in Henan Province. PMID:27104536

  17. Multiple-mask chemical etching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, D. L.

    1969-01-01

    Multiple masking techniques use lateral etching to reduce the total area of the high etch-rate oxide exposed to the chemical etchant. One method uses a short-term etch to remove the top layer from the silicon oxide surface, another acts before the top layer is grown.

  18. Some discrete multiple orthogonal polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvesú, J.; Coussement, J.; van Assche, W.

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, we extend the theory of discrete orthogonal polynomials (on a linear lattice) to polynomials satisfying orthogonality conditions with respect to r positive discrete measures. First we recall the known results of the classical orthogonal polynomials of Charlier, Meixner, Kravchuk and Hahn (T.S. Chihara, An Introduction to Orthogonal Polynomials, Gordon and Breach, New York, 1978; R. Koekoek and R.F. Swarttouw, Reports of the Faculty of Technical Mathematics and Informatics No. 98-17, Delft, 1998; A.F. Nikiforov et al., Classical Orthogonal Polynomials of a Discrete Variable, Springer, Berlin, 1991). These polynomials have a lowering and raising operator, which give rise to a Rodrigues formula, a second order difference equation, and an explicit expression from which the coefficients of the three-term recurrence relation can be obtained. Then we consider r positive discrete measures and define two types of multiple orthogonal polynomials. The continuous case (Jacobi, Laguerre, Hermite, etc.) was studied by Van Assche and Coussement (J. Comput. Appl. Math. 127 (2001) 317-347) and Aptekarev et al. (Multiple orthogonal polynomials for classical weights, manuscript). The families of multiple orthogonal polynomials (of type II) that we will study have a raising operator and hence a Rodrigues formula. This will give us an explicit formula for the polynomials. Finally, there also exists a recurrence relation of order r+1 for these multiple orthogonal polynomials of type II. We compute the coefficients of the recurrence relation explicitly when r=2.

  19. Multiple pass laser amplifier system

    DOEpatents

    Brueckner, Keith A.; Jorna, Siebe; Moncur, N. Kent

    1977-01-01

    A laser amplification method for increasing the energy extraction efficiency from laser amplifiers while reducing the energy flux that passes through a flux limited system which includes apparatus for decomposing a linearly polarized light beam into multiple components, passing the components through an amplifier in delayed time sequence and recombining the amplified components into an in phase linearly polarized beam.

  20. Drugs Approved for Multiple Myeloma

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for multiple myeloma and other plasma cell neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  1. Multiple Literacies Theory: Exploring Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masny, Diana

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the contributions of philosophy, art and science to education through the conceptual, theoretical, and methodological usefulness of a Deleuze-Guattarian conceptual framework that informs multiple literacies theory (MLT). Education lends itself to Deleuze's notion of connecting and creating through philosophy, art and…

  2. Fashion, Paper Dolls and Multiplicatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ura, Suzana Kaori; Stein-Barana, Alzira C. M.; Munhoz, Deisy P.

    2011-01-01

    The multiplicative principle is the tool allowing the counting of groups that can be described by a sequence of events. An event is a subset of sample space, i.e. a collection of possible outcomes, which may be equal to or smaller than the sample space as a whole. It is important that students understand this basic principle early on and know how…

  3. Multiple Regression: A Leisurely Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Larry G.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    Multiple regression is a useful statistical technique when the researcher is considering situations in which variables of interest are theorized to be multiply caused. It may also be useful in those situations in which the researchers is interested in studies of predictability of phenomena of interest. This paper provides an introduction to…

  4. Multiple Pathways for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, Lee Anna

    2012-01-01

    Maine has been focusing on the importance of postsecondary training. Maine's Skowhegan Area High School (SAHS) and Somerset Career and Technical Center (SCTC) have partnered in a Multiple Pathways initiative (funded by the Nellie Mae Education Foundation) to increase students' high school completion rate and to increase enrollment in postsecondary…

  5. Improving Inferences from Multiple Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shotland, R. Lance; Mark, Melvin M.

    1987-01-01

    Multiple evaluation methods (MEMs) can cause an inferential challenge, although there are strategies to strengthen inferences. Practical and theoretical issues involved in the use by social scientists of MEMs, three potential problems in drawing inferences from MEMs, and short- and long-term strategies for alleviating these problems are outlined.…

  6. Multigenre, Multiple Intelligences, and Transcendentalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggieri, Colleen A.

    2002-01-01

    Explains an eleventh grade literature unit on Transcendentalism which employed a wide variety of supplemental materials and literary connections and which provided alternate assessment opportunities. Details how this unit revealed meaningful connections through comics, music, free reading, and multiple intelligences. Concludes that many students…

  7. Accommodations for Multiple Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trammell, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Students with learning or learning-related disabilities frequently struggle with multiple choice assessments due to difficulty discriminating between items, filtering out distracters, and framing a mental best answer. This Practice Brief suggests accommodations and strategies that disability service providers can utilize in conjunction with…

  8. Childhood Multiple Sclerosis: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, Amy; O'Connor, Erin; Tennekoon, Gihan

    2006-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that is increasingly recognized as a disease that affects children. Similar to adult-onset MS, children present with visual and sensory complaints, as well as weakness, spasticity, and ataxia. A lumbar puncture can be helpful in diagnosing MS when…

  9. Assessment of Multiplication Fact Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Marilyn Sue; Usnick, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    This project had two major goals: to determine the usefulness of individually-administered interview process to access elementary students' fluency with basic multiplication facts, and to determine whether a developmental sequence found in Australian mathematics education literature applied to elementary students in the United States. Students in…

  10. Multiple Intelligences in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Kathleen M.

    Within the context of school improvement and school reform, it is important to examine Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (MI theory). His work has far-reaching implications for curriculum development and classroom implementation. Gardner believes that the culture defines intelligence too narrowly. He sought to broaden the scope of…

  11. Kinesiology: Challenges of Multiple Agendas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, Karl M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge of how the field of kinesiology can exploit the advantages of multiple agendas while minimizing the disadvantages. Agendas here are the scholarly themes that help organize the field of study explicitly or implicitly and that give emphases to it with respect to its content and impact in society. The issue of…

  12. Characteristics of Multiple Comparison Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusuf, Mian Muhammad; And Others

    Multiple comparison procedures (MCPs), in the context of analysis of variance, are becoming more popular than the overall F tests. An attempt is made to clarify confusion among the different MCPs by systematically comparing and contrasting the procedures in terms of their purposes, restrictions, robustness to assumptions, and other special…

  13. Overhearing Single and Multiple Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.

    2008-01-01

    In 2 spontaneous speech experiments, this study found that multiple perspectives improved overhearers' abilities to select abstract shapes from an array, although single-perspective descriptions were more detailed. Prior findings that overhearers performed better when listening in on dialogues (Fox Tree, 1999) can best be understood as an…

  14. Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Thomas

    The model presented in this book provides a language for talking about the inner gifts of children, especially those students who have accumulated labels such as Learning Disabled (LD) and Attention Deficit Disorders (ADD) during their school careers, and describes how educators can bring Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (MI), a…

  15. Multiple Intelligence for Every Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Pokey

    2003-01-01

    An overview is presented of multiple intelligence (MI) theory along with practical applications of the model. Three basic aspects of the theory (teaching strategies, curricular adaptations, and student assessment) are described relative to the infusion of MI theory in general education classrooms to ensure appropriate inclusion for students with…

  16. Multiple Forms of Dynamic Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Shaaron; VanLabeke, Nicolas

    2004-01-01

    The terms dynamic representation and animation are often used as if they are synonymous, but in this paper we argue that there are multiple ways to represent phenomena that change over time. Time-persistent representations show a range of values over time. Time-implicit representations also show a range of values but not the specific times when…

  17. Becoming a Multiple Intelligences School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerr, Thomas R.

    The motivation to help students learn has moved many educators to explore multiple intelligences (MI) theory as a tool to help more children succeed. This book relates a decade of experiences in applying MI theory at New City School, an independent St. Louis elementary school. Directed toward educational leaders, the book focuses on the centrality…

  18. Multiple Segment Factorial Vignette Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    The multiple segment factorial vignette design (MSFV) combines elements of experimental designs and probability sampling with the inductive, exploratory approach of qualitative research. MSFVs allow researchers to investigate topics that may be hard to study because of ethical or logistical concerns. Participants are presented with short stories…

  19. Investigations on Multiplication of Fractions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sai, Khoo Phon; Inder, Walter R. D.

    1984-01-01

    Three different models with continuous materials, discontinuous materials, and number lines were used to study the operation concept in six investigations on multiplication with fractions with pupils aged 11-12 in a Penang International School. All approaches could be understood by pupils, but they preferred the area and fractional models. (MNS)

  20. Enhancing Learning through Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Pinar; Guneysu, Sibel; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether there was a significant difference between multiple intelligence instruction (MII) and traditionally designed science instruction (TDSI) on fourth grade students' understanding of concepts associated with the "Diversity of Living Things" unit. Students' intelligence types were also examined. There were two…

  1. Defining secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lorscheider, Johannes; Buzzard, Katherine; Jokubaitis, Vilija; Spelman, Tim; Havrdova, Eva; Horakova, Dana; Trojano, Maria; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Girard, Marc; Duquette, Pierre; Prat, Alexandre; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Grand'Maison, François; Grammond, Pierre; Hupperts, Raymond; Alroughani, Raed; Sola, Patrizia; Boz, Cavit; Pucci, Eugenio; Lechner-Scott, Jeanette; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Iuliano, Gerardo; Van Pesch, Vincent; Granella, Franco; Ramo-Tello, Cristina; Spitaleri, Daniele; Petersen, Thor; Slee, Mark; Verheul, Freek; Ampapa, Radek; Amato, Maria Pia; McCombe, Pamela; Vucic, Steve; Sánchez Menoyo, José Luis; Cristiano, Edgardo; Barnett, Michael H; Hodgkinson, Suzanne; Olascoaga, Javier; Saladino, Maria Laura; Gray, Orla; Shaw, Cameron; Moore, Fraser; Butzkueven, Helmut; Kalincik, Tomas

    2016-09-01

    A number of studies have been conducted with the onset of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis as an inclusion criterion or an outcome of interest. However, a standardized objective definition of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis has been lacking. The aim of this work was to evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of an objective definition for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, to enable comparability of future research studies. Using MSBase, a large, prospectively acquired, global cohort study, we analysed the accuracy of 576 data-derived onset definitions for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and first compared these to a consensus opinion of three neurologists. All definitions were then evaluated against 5-year disease outcomes post-assignment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: sustained disability, subsequent sustained progression, positive disability trajectory, and accumulation of severe disability. The five best performing definitions were further investigated for their timeliness and overall disability burden. A total of 17 356 patients were analysed. The best definition included a 3-strata progression magnitude in the absence of a relapse, confirmed after 3 months within the leading Functional System and required an Expanded Disability Status Scale step ≥4 and pyramidal score ≥2. It reached an accuracy of 87% compared to the consensus diagnosis. Seventy-eight per cent of the identified patients showed a positive disability trajectory and 70% reached significant disability after 5 years. The time until half of all patients were diagnosed was 32.6 years (95% confidence interval 32-33.6) after disease onset compared with the physicians' diagnosis at 36 (35-39) years. The identified patients experienced a greater disease burden [median annualized area under the disability-time curve 4.7 (quartiles 3.6, 6.0)] versus non-progressive patients [1.8 (1.2, 1.9)]. This objective definition of secondary progressive multiple

  2. Defining secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lorscheider, Johannes; Buzzard, Katherine; Jokubaitis, Vilija; Spelman, Tim; Havrdova, Eva; Horakova, Dana; Trojano, Maria; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Girard, Marc; Duquette, Pierre; Prat, Alexandre; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Grand'Maison, François; Grammond, Pierre; Hupperts, Raymond; Alroughani, Raed; Sola, Patrizia; Boz, Cavit; Pucci, Eugenio; Lechner-Scott, Jeanette; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Iuliano, Gerardo; Van Pesch, Vincent; Granella, Franco; Ramo-Tello, Cristina; Spitaleri, Daniele; Petersen, Thor; Slee, Mark; Verheul, Freek; Ampapa, Radek; Amato, Maria Pia; McCombe, Pamela; Vucic, Steve; Sánchez Menoyo, José Luis; Cristiano, Edgardo; Barnett, Michael H; Hodgkinson, Suzanne; Olascoaga, Javier; Saladino, Maria Laura; Gray, Orla; Shaw, Cameron; Moore, Fraser; Butzkueven, Helmut; Kalincik, Tomas

    2016-09-01

    A number of studies have been conducted with the onset of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis as an inclusion criterion or an outcome of interest. However, a standardized objective definition of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis has been lacking. The aim of this work was to evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of an objective definition for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, to enable comparability of future research studies. Using MSBase, a large, prospectively acquired, global cohort study, we analysed the accuracy of 576 data-derived onset definitions for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and first compared these to a consensus opinion of three neurologists. All definitions were then evaluated against 5-year disease outcomes post-assignment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: sustained disability, subsequent sustained progression, positive disability trajectory, and accumulation of severe disability. The five best performing definitions were further investigated for their timeliness and overall disability burden. A total of 17 356 patients were analysed. The best definition included a 3-strata progression magnitude in the absence of a relapse, confirmed after 3 months within the leading Functional System and required an Expanded Disability Status Scale step ≥4 and pyramidal score ≥2. It reached an accuracy of 87% compared to the consensus diagnosis. Seventy-eight per cent of the identified patients showed a positive disability trajectory and 70% reached significant disability after 5 years. The time until half of all patients were diagnosed was 32.6 years (95% confidence interval 32-33.6) after disease onset compared with the physicians' diagnosis at 36 (35-39) years. The identified patients experienced a greater disease burden [median annualized area under the disability-time curve 4.7 (quartiles 3.6, 6.0)] versus non-progressive patients [1.8 (1.2, 1.9)]. This objective definition of secondary progressive multiple

  3. Budgeting and controllable cost variances. The case of multiple diagnoses, multiple services, and multiple resources.

    PubMed

    Broyles, R W; Lay, C M

    1982-12-01

    This paper examines an unfavorable cost variance in an institution which employs multiple resources to provide stay specific and ancillary services to patients presenting multiple diagnoses. It partitions the difference between actual and expected costs into components that are the responsibility of an identifiable individual or group of individuals. The analysis demonstrates that the components comprising an unfavorable cost variance are attributable to factor prices, the use of real resources, the mix of patients, and the composition of care provided by the institution. In addition, the interactive effects of these factors are also identified. PMID:7183731

  4. Household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in Vietnam and associated factors: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Lee, Jong-Koo; Oh, Juhwan; Van Minh, Hoang; Ou Lee, Chul; Hoan, Le Thi; Nam, You-Seon; Long, Tran Khanh

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite progress made by the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) number 7.C, Vietnam still faces challenges with regard to the provision of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. Objective This paper describes household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities separately, and analyses factors associated with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in combination. Design Secondary data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in 2000, 2006, and 2011 were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and tests of significance describe trends over time in access to water and sanitation by location, demographic and socio-economic factors. Binary logistic regressions (2000, 2006, and 2011) describe associations between access to water and sanitation, and geographic, demographic, and socio-economic factors. Results There have been some outstanding developments in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities from 2000 to 2011. In 2011, the proportion of households with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities reached 90% and 77%, respectively, meeting the 2015 MDG targets for safe drinking water and basic sanitation set at 88% and 75%, respectively. However, despite these achievements, in 2011, only 74% of households overall had access to combined improved drinking water and sanitation facilities. There were also stark differences between regions. In 2011, only 47% of households had access to both improved water and sanitation facilities in the Mekong River Delta compared with 94% in the Red River Delta. In 2011, households in urban compared to rural areas were more than twice as likely (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9–2.5) to have access to improved water and sanitation facilities in combination, and households in the highest compared with the lowest wealth quintile were over 40 times more likely (OR: 42.3; 95% CI: 29.8–60.0). Conclusions More

  5. Mechanisms of multiple chemical sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Winder, Chris

    2002-03-10

    Sensitivity to chemicals is a toxicological concept, contained in the dose-response relationship. Sensitivity also includes the concept of hypersensitivity, although controversy surrounds the nature of effects from very low exposures. The term multiple chemical sensitivity has been used to describe individuals with a debilitating, multi-organ sensitivity following chemical exposures. Many aspects of this condition extend the nature of sensitivity to low levels of exposure to chemicals, and is a designation with medical, immunological, neuropsychological and toxicological perspectives. The basis of MCS is still to be identified, although a large number of hypersensitivity, immunological, psychological, neurological and toxicological mechanisms have been suggested, including: allergy; autosuggestion; cacosomia; conditioned response; immunological; impairment of biochemical pathways involved in energy production; impairment of neurochemical pathways; illness belief system; limbic kindling; olfactory threshold sensitivity; panic disorder; psychosomatic condition; malingering; neurogenic inflammation; overload of biotransformation pathways (also linked with free radical production); psychological or psychiatric illness; airway reactivity; sensitisation of the neurological system; time dependent sensitisation, toxicant induced loss of tolerance. Most of these theories tend to break down into concepts involving: (1) disruption in immunological/allergy processes; (2) alteration in nervous system function; (3) changes in biochemical or biotransformation capacity; (4) changes in psychological/neurobehavioural function. Research into the possible mechanisms of MCS is far from complete. However, a number of promising avenues of investigation indicate that the possibility of alteration of the sensitivity of nervous system cells (neurogenic inflammation, limbic kindling, cacosomia, neurogenic switching) are a possible mechanism for MCS.

  6. Multiple-Mouse MRI with Multiple Arrays of Receive Coils

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Marc S.; Esparza-Coss, Emilio; Bankson, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Compared to traditional single-animal imaging methods, multiple-mouse MRI has been shown to dramatically improve imaging throughput and reduce the potentially prohibitive cost for instrument access. To date, up to a single radiofrequency coil has been dedicated to each animal being simultaneously scanned, thus limiting the sensitivity, flexibility, and ultimate throughput. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of multiple-mouse MRI with a phased-array coil dedicated to each animal. A dual-mouse imaging system, consisting of a pair of two-element phased-array coils, was developed and used to achieve acceleration factors greater than the number of animals scanned at once. By simultaneously scanning two mice with a retrospectively gated cardiac cine MRI sequence, a three-fold acceleration was achieved with SNR in the heart that is equivalent to that achieved with an unaccelerated scan using a commercial mouse birdcage coil. PMID:20146352

  7. Effect of multiple oral doses of androgenic anabolic steroids on endurance performance and serum indices of physical stress in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Baume, Norbert; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; Sottas, Pierre-Edouard; Bagutti, Carlo; Cauderay, Michel; Mangin, Patrice; Saugy, Martial

    2006-11-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are doping agents that are mostly used for improvement of strength and muscle hypertrophy. In some sports, athletes reported that the intake of AAS is associated with a better recovery, a higher training load capacity and therefore an increase in physical and mental performances. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, the effect of multiple doses of AAS on different physiological parameters that could indirectly relate the physical state of athletes during a hard endurance training program. In a double blind settings, three groups (n = 9, 8 and 8) were orally administered placebo, testosterone undecanoate or 19-norandrostenedione, 12 times during 1 month. Serum biomarkers (creatine kinase, ASAT and urea), serum hormone profiles (testosterone, cortisol and LH) and urinary catecholamines (noradrenalin, adrenalin and dopamine) were evaluated during the treatment. Running performance was assessed before and after the intervention phase by means of a standardized treadmill test. None of the measured biochemical variables showed significant impact of AAS on physical stress level. Data from exercise testing on submaximal and maximal level did not reveal any performance differences between the three groups or their response to the treatment. In the present study, no effect of multiple oral doses of AAS on endurance performance or bioserum recovery markers was found.

  8. Effect of multiple oral doses of androgenic anabolic steroids on endurance performance and serum indices of physical stress in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Baume, Norbert; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; Sottas, Pierre-Edouard; Bagutti, Carlo; Cauderay, Michel; Mangin, Patrice; Saugy, Martial

    2006-11-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are doping agents that are mostly used for improvement of strength and muscle hypertrophy. In some sports, athletes reported that the intake of AAS is associated with a better recovery, a higher training load capacity and therefore an increase in physical and mental performances. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, the effect of multiple doses of AAS on different physiological parameters that could indirectly relate the physical state of athletes during a hard endurance training program. In a double blind settings, three groups (n = 9, 8 and 8) were orally administered placebo, testosterone undecanoate or 19-norandrostenedione, 12 times during 1 month. Serum biomarkers (creatine kinase, ASAT and urea), serum hormone profiles (testosterone, cortisol and LH) and urinary catecholamines (noradrenalin, adrenalin and dopamine) were evaluated during the treatment. Running performance was assessed before and after the intervention phase by means of a standardized treadmill test. None of the measured biochemical variables showed significant impact of AAS on physical stress level. Data from exercise testing on submaximal and maximal level did not reveal any performance differences between the three groups or their response to the treatment. In the present study, no effect of multiple oral doses of AAS on endurance performance or bioserum recovery markers was found. PMID:16896724

  9. Pre-operative factors indicating risk of multiple operations versus a single operation in women undergoing surgery for screen detected breast cancer.

    PubMed

    O'Flynn, E A M; Currie, R J; Mohammed, K; Allen, S D; Michell, M J

    2013-02-01

    We aim to identify preoperative factors at diagnosis which could predict whether women undergoing wide local excision (WLE) would require further operations. 1593 screen-detected invasive and non-invasive breast cancers were reviewed. Age, presence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive cancer size on mammography, mammographic sign, tumour type, grade and confidence of the radiologist in malignancy were compared. 83%(1315/1593) of women had a WLE. Of these, 70%(919/1315) had a single operation, and 30%(396/1315) multiple operations. These included repeat WLE to clear margins (60%(238/396)), mastectomy (34%(133/396)) and axillary dissection (6%(25/396)). The presence of mammographic microcalcification, lobular carcinoma and grade 2 malignancy on core biopsy were independent risk factors for multiple operations on multivariate analysis. Women with mammographic DCIS >30 mm were 3.4 times more likely to undergo repeat surgery than those with smaller foci. The multidisciplinary team should pay particular attention to these factors when planning surgery.

  10. Navigation solution for a multiple satellite and multiple ground architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, Abraham M.

    This research presents the phased development of an algorithm to plan impulsive orbital maneuvers based on the relative motion between multiple satellites and multiple ground locations. The algorithm leverages the state transition matrix derived from the equations of motion and the equations of variation for the non-spherical Earth and air drag effects. The algorithm determines the impulsive maneuver to achieve the user-defined terminal conditions. The first phase solves for the first burn of an orbital transfer between user-defined altitudes. The optimum trajectory is determined and compared to the first burn in a Hohmann Transfer. The results are expanded to include varying the inclination and eccentricity of the initial orbit. The second phase solves for the minimum time trajectory resulting from a fixed fuel maneuver to transfer a satellite between user-defined altitudes. The results include the transfer time and transfer angle for the minimum time trajectory. The third phase places a satellite within a sphere, of user-defined radius, centered on a non-maneuvering satellite within a constrained time. The results are presented for prograde orbits. An empirical method to determine the optimum DeltaV is provided. The fourth phase places a satellite within the overlapping spheres, of user-defined radii, centered on multiple non-maneuvering satellites, within a constrained time. Empirical methods are presented to determine the separation distance and optimum DeltaV. The final phase culminates by delivering a satellite within the overlapping spheres, centered on multiple non-maneuvering satellites and ground locations, constrained by range and elevation angle, within a constrained time. An empirical model to calculate the optimum DeltaV is shown. All results illustrate mission design trade-offs including ballistic coefficient, orbit inclinations, eccentricity and orbit sizes.

  11. Iron chelation and multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Weigel, Kelsey J.; Lynch, Sharon G.; LeVine, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Histochemical and MRI studies have demonstrated that MS (multiple sclerosis) patients have abnormal deposition of iron in both gray and white matter structures. Data is emerging indicating that this iron could partake in pathogenesis by various mechanisms, e.g., promoting the production of reactive oxygen species and enhancing the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Iron chelation therapy could be a viable strategy to block iron-related pathological events or it can confer cellular protection by stabilizing hypoxia inducible factor 1α, a transcription factor that normally responds to hypoxic conditions. Iron chelation has been shown to protect against disease progression and/or limit iron accumulation in some neurological disorders or their experimental models. Data from studies that administered a chelator to animals with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model of MS, support the rationale for examining this treatment approach in MS. Preliminary clinical studies have been performed in MS patients using deferoxamine. Although some side effects were observed, the large majority of patients were able to tolerate the arduous administration regimen, i.e., 6–8 h of subcutaneous infusion, and all side effects resolved upon discontinuation of treatment. Importantly, these preliminary studies did not identify a disqualifying event for this experimental approach. More recently developed chelators, deferasirox and deferiprone, are more desirable for possible use in MS given their oral administration, and importantly, deferiprone can cross the blood–brain barrier. However, experiences from other conditions indicate that the potential for adverse events during chelation therapy necessitates close patient monitoring and a carefully considered administration regimen. PMID:24397846

  12. Dean's Great Discovery: Multiplication, Division and Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, Colleen; Davies, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Multiplication, division and fractions are "hotspots" for students in the middle years with many students experiencing difficulty with these concepts. Arrays effectively model multiplication and help children develop multiplicative thinking and learn multiplication facts. In this article the authors show how an open-ended array problem enabled a…

  13. [Multiple calcifications and ossifications of tendons].

    PubMed

    Gaucher, A; Péré, P; Gillet, P

    1991-06-21

    Multiple calcifications and ossifications of tendons are, as a rule, associated with similar lesions of other articular and/or periarticular structures. The nature and multiplicity of these lesions gives them an unquestionable diagnostic and nosological value. Multiple calcifications are part of the apatite arthritis or of diffuse articular chondrocalcinosis. Multiple ossifications of tendons often suggest Forestier's disease and ankylosing spondylitis.

  14. Kidney Disease and Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Rennke, Helmut G.; Laubach, Jacob P.; Richardson, Paul G.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Kidney injury is a common complication of multiple myeloma and other plasma cell dyscrasias, and it is associated with increased mortality. Multiple pathogenic mechanisms can contribute to kidney injury in the patient with myeloma, some of which are the result of nephrotoxic monoclonal Ig and some of which are independent of paraprotein deposition. The pathogenic mechanisms that underlie paraprotein-related kidney disease are increasingly well understood. A novel assay allowing the quantification of free light chains in the serum has aided the diagnosis of new onset disease and allowed for the earlier detection of relapse. Novel myeloma agents have shown considerable promise in reversing renal failure in some patients and improving outcomes. Stem cell transplantation remains a mainstay of management for younger patients with myeloma who are suitable candidates for intensive therapy, whereas the role of new drugs, plasma exchange, and kidney transplantation continues to evolve. PMID:23868898

  15. Multiple Osteomas in Middle Ear

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongxin; Li, Qiuhuan; Gong, Shusheng; Liu, Honggang; Yu, Zilong; Zhang, Luo

    2012-01-01

    Since the first description of middle ear osteomas by Thomas in 1964, only few reports were published within the English literatures (Greinwalid et al., 1998; Shimizu et al., 2003; Cho et al., 2005; and Jang et al., 2009), and only one case of the multiple osteomas in middle ear was described by Kim et al., 2006, which arose from the promontory, lateral semicircular canal, and epitympanum. Here we describe a patient with multiple middle ear osteomas arising from the promontory, incus, Eustachian tube, and bony semicanal of tensor tympani muscle. This patient also contracted the chronic otitis media in the ipsilateral ear. The osteomas were successfully removed by performing type III tympanoplasty in one stage. PMID:22928138

  16. Multiple sclerosis - New treatment modalities

    PubMed Central

    Totaro, Rocco; Di Carmine, Caterina; Marini, Carmine; Carolei, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Ever since the introduction of the first disease modifying therapies, the concept of multiple sclerosis treatment algorithms developed ceaselessly. The increasing number of available drugs is paralleled by impelling issue of ensuring the most appropriate treatment to the right patient at the right time. The purpose of this review is to describe novel agents recently approved for multiple sclerosis treatment, namely teriflunomide, alemtuzumab and dimethylfumarate, focusing on mechanism of action, efficacy data in experimental setting, safety and tolerability. The place in therapy of newer treatment implies careful balancing of risk-benefit profile as well as accurate patient selection. Hence the widening of therapeutic arsenal provides greater opportunity for personalized therapy but also entails a complex trade-off between efficacy, tolerability, safety and eventually patient preference. PMID:26831413

  17. Multiple Exciton Generation Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luther, J. M.; Semonin, O. E.; Beard, M. C.; Gao, J.; Nozik, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Heat loss is the major factor limiting traditional single junction solar cells to a theoretical efficiency of 32%. Multiple Exciton Generation (MEG) enables efficient use of the solar spectrum yielding a theoretical power conversion efficiency of 44% in solar cells under 1-sun conditions. Quantum-confined semiconductors have demonstrated the ability to generate multiple carriers but present-day materials deliver efficiencies far below the SQ limit of 32%. Semiconductor quantum dots of PbSe and PbS provide an active testbed for developing high-efficiency, inexpensive solar cells benefitting from quantum confinement effects. Here, we will present recent work of solar cells employing MEG to yield external quantum efficiencies exceeding 100%.

  18. Harmonic multiplication using resonant tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sollner, T. C. L. G.; Brown, E. R.; Goodhue, W. D.; Correa, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of resonant-tunneling diodes as varistors for harmonic multiplication. It is shown that efficient odd-harmonic conversion is possible and that even harmonics do not appear because of the antisymmetry of the current-voltage (I-V) curve. It is also shown that, with the proper choice of resonant-tunneling structure and pump amplitude, most of the harmonic output power can be confined to a single odd-harmonic frequency. Fifth-harmonic multiplication was demonstrated with an output at 21.75 GHz and a power conversion efficiency of 0.5 percent, and a fifth-harmonic efficiency of 2.7 percent was achieved in a circuit simulation using an improved I-V curve.

  19. Multiple Disease Resistance in Plants.

    PubMed

    Wiesner-Hanks, Tyr; Nelson, Rebecca

    2016-08-01

    Many plants, both in nature and in agriculture, are resistant to multiple diseases. Although much of the plant innate immunity system provides highly specific resistance, there is emerging evidence to support the hypothesis that some components of plant defense are relatively nonspecific, providing multiple disease resistance (MDR). Understanding MDR is of fundamental and practical interest to plant biologists, pathologists, and breeders. This review takes stock of the available evidence related to the MDR hypothesis. Questions about MDR are considered primarily through the lens of forward genetics, starting at the organismal level and proceeding to the locus level and, finally, to the gene level. At the organismal level, MDR may be controlled by clusters of R genes that evolve under diversifying selection, by dispersed, pathogen-specific genes, and/or by individual genes providing MDR. Based on the few MDR loci that are well-understood, MDR is conditioned by diverse mechanisms at the locus and gene levels. PMID:27296142

  20. Artifactual hypercalcemia in multiple myeloma

    SciTech Connect

    Annesley, T.M.; Burritt, M.F.; Kyle, R.A.

    1982-09-01

    A calcium-binding IgG K monoclonal protein in a patient with multiple myeloma and asymptomatic hypercalcemia was recognized, isolated, and characterized. In addition to binding by the whole IgG molecules, calcium was bound by purified Fab fragments and recombined heavy and light chains. In a competitive binding study, the isolated myeloma protein did not bind magnesium. Recognition of calcium-binding myeloma proteins is important in order to avoid therapy for hypercalcemia.

  1. Multiple-Segment Climbing Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James; May, Edward; Eklund, Wayne

    1994-01-01

    Multiple-segment climbing robots developed to perform such tasks as inspection, sandblasting, welding, and painting on towers and other structures. Look and move like caterpillars. Video camera mounted on one of segments rotated to desired viewing angle. Used in remote inspection of structure, to view motion of robot and/or provides video feedback for control of motion, and/or to guide operation of head mounted on foremost segment with motorized actuators.

  2. Protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.

  3. Protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.

  4. Multiple man-machine interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, L.; Cook, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    The multiple man machine interfaces inherent in military pilot training, their social implications, and the issue of possible negative feedback were explored. Modern technology has produced machines which can see, hear, and touch with greater accuracy and precision than human beings. Consequently, the military pilot is more a systems manager, often doing battle against a target he never sees. It is concluded that unquantifiable human activity requires motivation that is not intrinsic in a machine.

  5. Multiple target laser ablation system

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, Douglas N.

    1996-01-01

    A laser ablation apparatus and method are provided in which multiple targets consisting of material to be ablated are mounted on a movable support. The material transfer rate is determined for each target material, and these rates are stored in a controller. A position detector determines which target material is in a position to be ablated, and then the controller controls the beam trigger timing and energy level to achieve a desired proportion of each constituent material in the resulting film.

  6. Multiple target laser ablation system

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, D.N.

    1996-01-09

    A laser ablation apparatus and method are provided in which multiple targets consisting of material to be ablated are mounted on a movable support. The material transfer rate is determined for each target material, and these rates are stored in a controller. A position detector determines which target material is in a position to be ablated, and then the controller controls the beam trigger timing and energy level to achieve a desired proportion of each constituent material in the resulting film. 3 figs.

  7. Olfactory loss in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zivadinov, R; Zorzon, M; Monti Bragadin, L; Pagliaro, G; Cazzato, G

    1999-10-15

    The objectives of the present study were to test odor identification ability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to examine possible correlations between smell identification test scores and various clinical variables. We performed a case-control study comparing the Cross Cultural Smell Identification Test scores of 40 patients with definite multiple sclerosis with those obtained in 40 age-, sex- and smoking-habit-matched healthy controls. The neurological impairment, the disability, the cognitive performances and the psychological functioning were also assessed. Patients with multiple sclerosis scored significantly poorer than controls on the Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test (P<0.001). Olfactory function was borderline normal in four (10%) and abnormal in five (12.5%) MS patients, whereas it was normal in all controls (P<0.02). Significant correlations between the smell identification score and symptoms of anxiety (r=-0.43, P=0.006), depression (r=-0.42, P=0. 008) and severity of neurological impairment (r=-0.32, P=0.05) were found. Only two (5%) patients with multiple sclerosis reported having episodes of smell loss, suggesting a low level of awareness of this problem. Although smell changes are rarely reported, olfactory function is impaired in a considerable number of patients with MS. The observed association between decreased odor identification ability and symptoms of anxiety and depression in our patients suggests that mood and anxiety disorders have to be considered in assessing olfaction in MS patients. Clearly, smell disturbances deserve greater attention from health professionals and caregivers dealing with such patients.

  8. [Special cases of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Mendibe Bilbao, Mar

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease that usually occurs in young people and affects them for the rest of their lives. Patients and their families usually have a series of doubts and questions on everyday matters and all types of situations that occur during the distinct stages of life and which can influence the course of the disease. The aim of this review is to provide specific answers to these questions. PMID:25732948

  9. [Special cases of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Mendibe Bilbao, Mar

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease that usually occurs in young people and affects them for the rest of their lives. Patients and their families usually have a series of doubts and questions on everyday matters and all types of situations that occur during the distinct stages of life and which can influence the course of the disease. The aim of this review is to provide specific answers to these questions.

  10. CHARGED PARTICLE MULTIPLICITIES AT BRAHMS.

    SciTech Connect

    DEBBE, R., FOR THE BRAHMS COLLABORATION

    2001-07-30

    This report presents the measurement of charged particle multiplicity densities dN/d{eta} in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions as function of {eta} and the centrality of the collisions. This distributions were extracted from data collected by the BRAHMS collaboration during the first RHK run with gold ions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 130A {center_dot} GeV. The analysis method is described and, results are compared to some model predictions.

  11. Update on multiple sclerosis treatments.

    PubMed

    Bridel, Claire; Lalive, Patrice H

    2014-01-01

    Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) management has dramatically changed over the past decade. New drugs have arrived on the market, allowing for more individualised treatment selection. However, this diversity has increased the complexity of RRMS patient follow-up. In this review, we provide summarised information about treatment efficacy, potential side-effects, follow-up recommendations, vaccinations, and pregnancy safety issues for all currently available disease modifying therapies and those awaiting approval. PMID:25247669

  12. Multiple Myeloma, Version 2.2016

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kenneth C.; Alsina, Melissa; Atanackovic, Djordje; Biermann, J. Sybil; Chandler, Jason C.; Costello, Caitlin; Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Fung, Henry C.; Gasparetto, Cristina; Godby, Kelly; Hofmeister, Craig; Holmberg, Leona; Holstein, Sarah; Huff, Carol Ann; Kassim, Adetola; Krishnan, Amrita Y.; Kumar, Shaji K.; Liedtke, Michaela; Lunning, Matthew; Raje, Noopur; Singhal, Seema; Smith, Clayton; Somlo, George; Stockerl-Goldstein, Keith; Treon, Steven P.; Weber, Donna; Yahalom, Joachim; Shead, Dorothy A.; Kumar, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant neoplasm of plasma cells that accumulate in bone marrow, leading to bone destruction and marrow failure. Recent statistics from the American Cancer Society indicate that the incidence of MM is increasing. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) included in this issue address management of patients with solitary plasmacytoma and newly diagnosed MM. PMID:26553768

  13. Genetics Reasoning with Multiple External Representations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsui, Chi-Yan; Treagust, David F.

    2003-01-01

    Explores a case study of a class of 10th grade students whose learning of genetics involved activities using BioLogica, a computer program that features multiple external representations (MERs). Findings indicate that the MERs in BioLogica contributed to students' development of genetics reasoning by engendering their motivation and interest but…

  14. Coping with Multiple Sclerosis Scale

    PubMed Central

    Parkerson, Holly A.; Kehler, Melissa D.; Sharpe, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Coping with Multiple Sclerosis Scale (CMSS) was developed to assess coping strategies specific to multiple sclerosis (MS). Despite its wide application in MS research, psychometric support for the CMSS remains limited to the initial factor analytic investigation by Pakenham in 2001. Methods: The current investigation assessed the factor structure and construct validity of the CMSS. Participants with MS (N = 453) completed the CMSS, as well as measures of disability related to MS (Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale), quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief Scale), and anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Results: The original factor structure reported by Pakenham was a poor fit to the data. An alternate seven-factor structure was identified using exploratory factor analysis. Although there were some similarities with the existing CMSS subscales, differences in factor content and item loadings were found. Relationships between the revised CMSS subscales and additional measures were assessed, and the findings were consistent with previous research. Conclusions: Refinement of the CMSS is suggested, especially for subscales related to acceptance and avoidance strategies. Until further research is conducted on the revised CMSS, it is recommended that the original CMSS continue to be administered. Clinicians and researchers should be mindful of lack of support for the acceptance and avoidance subscales and should seek additional scales to assess these areas. PMID:27551244

  15. Multiple primary cancers: An enigma

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Amitabh; Patnayak, Rashmi; Lakshmi, Amancharla Yadagiri; Manilal, Banoth; Reddy, Mandyam Kumaraswamy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Incidence of multiple primary cancers though uncommon, is being frequently reported now-a-days owing to better diagnostic techniques, the prolonged life span and the increased incidence of long-term survival of cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study. Cases of multiple malignancies diagnosed histopathologically were retrieved from the archives of department of surgical oncology. Clinical data were obtained from the medical records. They were categorized as synchronous malignancies if the interval between them was less or equal to 6 months and metachronous, if the interval was more than 6 months. Results: A total of 13 cases were encountered in the 5 year study period. Out of them two were in the metachronous category and the rest were synchronous as the 2nd malignancy was detected mostly during clinical evaluation of the patients for the primary malignancy. There was female predominance with age range being 43-68 years. Majority of the cases were in the 7th decade. The most common organ involved was breast, followed by cervix. Apart from bilateral breast malignancies, there were combinations like breast with uterine endometrial carcinoma, cervical carcinoma and even papillary thyroid carcinoma. Conclusion: Detection of multiple primary malignancies is becoming increasingly common in day-to-day practice. Greater awareness of this is required among both cancer patients and their treating clinicians. PMID:27169120

  16. Entropy content of multiplicity distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, C. S.

    1989-02-01

    We argue that the entropy S is an important variable to consider for multiparticle productions. A prediction of the width parameter 1//k of multiplicity distributions can be made at superhigh energies by extrapolating the entropy variable S, considered as a function of the average multiplicity Nmacr;. This is done explicitly for the negative binomial distributions and the Furry-Yule distributions, though the method is applicable to other distributions. We also argue that direct extrapolation in the variable 1//k is not advisable. Further evidence for SSZ scaling is given, and a power law for the average multiplicity N¯ as a function of the collision energy √s is derived. It is a pleasure to thank Rudy Hwa and David Kiang for discussions and help. I am also grateful to Dr. V. Šimák and Dr. M. Šumbera for a correspondence pointing out a numerical error in the earlier version of this work. This work is supported in part by the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the Québec Department of Education.

  17. Optical multiple object tracking techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1989-01-01

    Two multichannel multiple-object tracking techniques are reviewed. In the diffraction grating technique, the input scene is picked up by a TV camera and imaged onto a liquid-crystal light valve (LCLV), and the output side of the light valve is illuminated with a suitably polarized and collimated coherent laser beam to yield a reflected beam with polarization modulated according to the intensity of the incoherent input. This reflected beam passes through a beam splitter cube and an analyzer, resulting in an intensity modulated coherent image. An array of spectrum islands containing the information of the input appears after crossing a contact screen/lens combination. In the multiple-focus hololens technique, the scene of moving objects is sent into the LCTVSLM through a camera; a collimated laser beam is incident upon the LCTV screen; a low-pass filter is inserted between the LCTVSLM and the hololens for the removal of the high order diffractions due to the grid structure of the LCTV. The feasibility of the LCTVSLM and multiple-focus hololens technique is demonstrated.

  18. A multiple armature railgun launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyse, Mark W.; Challita, Antonios; Maas, Brian L.; Bauer, David P.

    1993-01-01

    As longer projectiles are accelerated, the efficiency (projectile mass/launch mass) of the launch package decreases. The reduction in efficiency makes launching projectiles with a L/D (length-to-diameter ratio) greater than 20 undesirable. EM guns have several launch characteristics that differ from conventional guns. Higher launch velocities are achievable in EM guns because sonic gas velocities do not limit the projectile velocity. Acceleration profiles for EM guns are more constant. The acceleration forces can be distributed on the projectile easily because the accelerating force can be distributed with multiple armatures. These characteristics combine to make EN guns a very attractive approach for launching very long (i.e.. high L/D ratio) projectiles. Railgun launchers with multiple armatures can distribute the accelerating force. Each armature is supplied gun current for acceleration through its own set of rails. This multi-rail, multi-armature concept was tested at the railgun test facility. The results demonstrated feasibility. We were able to control current distribution to multiple armatures. This paper describes the theory and test results for multi-armature launch of high L/D projectiles.

  19. Taste dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Doty, Richard L; Tourbier, Isabelle A; Pham, Dzung L; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L; Udupa, Jayaram K; Karacali, Bilge; Beals, Evan; Fabius, Laura; Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Moonis, Gul; Kim, Taehoon; Mihama, Toru; Geckle, Rena J; Yousem, David M

    2016-04-01

    Empirical studies of taste function in multiple sclerosis (MS) are rare. Moreover, a detailed assessment of whether quantitative measures of taste function correlate with the punctate and patchy myelin-related lesions found throughout the CNS of MS patients has not been made. We administered a 96-trial test of sweet (sucrose), sour (citric acid), bitter (caffeine) and salty (NaCl) taste perception to the left and right anterior (CN VII) and posterior (CN IX) tongue regions of 73 MS patients and 73 matched controls. The number and volume of lesions were assessed using quantitative MRI in 52 brain regions of 63 of the MS patients. Taste identification scores were significantly lower in the MS patients for sucrose (p = 0.0002), citric acid (p = 0.0001), caffeine (p = 0.0372) and NaCl (p = 0.0004) and were present in both anterior and posterior tongue regions. The percent of MS patients with identification scores falling below the 5th percentile of controls was 15.07 % for caffeine, 21.9 % for citric acid, 24.66 % for sucrose, and 31.50 % for NaCl. Such scores were inversely correlated with lesion volumes in the temporal, medial frontal, and superior frontal lobes, and with the number of lesions in the left and right superior frontal lobes, right anterior cingulate gyrus, and left parietal operculum. Regardless of the subject group, women outperformed men on the taste measures. These findings indicate that a sizable number of MS patients exhibit taste deficits that are associated with MS-related lesions throughout the brain. PMID:26810729

  20. Time-domain multiple-quantum NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Weitekamp, D.P.

    1982-11-01

    The development of time-domain multiple-quantum nuclear magnetic resonance is reviewed through mid 1982 and some prospects for future development are indicated. Particular attention is given to the problem of obtaining resolved, interpretable, many-quantum spectra for anisotropic magnetically isolated systems of coupled spins. New results are presented on a number of topics including the optimization of multiple-quantum-line intensities, analysis of noise in two-dimensional spectroscopy, and the use of order-selective excitation for cross polarization between nuclear-spin species.

  1. Multiple spiral patterns in a cardiac tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zhanguo; Li, Xia

    2009-11-01

    Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is the major cause of sudden cardiac death, the leading cause of death in the industrialized world. However, the mechanisms for its onset are still not well understood. Recent experiments indicate that VF is induced by transitions of cardiac electric propagationg waves from a single spiral wave to multiple waves. To further understand the underlying mechanism of VF, we investigated the interaction between two waves in a two-dimensional excitable media. Three types of multiple spirals including multi-arm spirals have been found depending on the rotation direction and the distance among spiral waves.

  2. Multiple memory systems as substrates for multiple decision systems.

    PubMed

    Doll, Bradley B; Shohamy, Daphna; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2015-01-01

    It has recently become widely appreciated that value-based decision making is supported by multiple computational strategies. In particular, animal and human behavior in learning tasks appears to include habitual responses described by prominent model-free reinforcement learning (RL) theories, but also more deliberative or goal-directed actions that can be characterized by a different class of theories, model-based RL. The latter theories evaluate actions by using a representation of the contingencies of the task (as with a learned map of a spatial maze), called an "internal model." Given the evidence of behavioral and neural dissociations between these approaches, they are often characterized as dissociable learning systems, though they likely interact and share common mechanisms. In many respects, this division parallels a longstanding dissociation in cognitive neuroscience between multiple memory systems, describing, at the broadest level, separate systems for declarative and procedural learning. Procedural learning has notable parallels with model-free RL: both involve learning of habits and both are known to depend on parts of the striatum. Declarative memory, by contrast, supports memory for single events or episodes and depends on the hippocampus. The hippocampus is thought to support declarative memory by encoding temporal and spatial relations among stimuli and thus is often referred to as a relational memory system. Such relational encoding is likely to play an important role in learning an internal model, the representation that is central to model-based RL. Thus, insofar as the memory systems represent more general-purpose cognitive mechanisms that might subserve performance on many sorts of tasks including decision making, these parallels raise the question whether the multiple decision systems are served by multiple memory systems, such that one dissociation is grounded in the other. Here we investigated the relationship between model-based RL and

  3. Gaussian quadrature for multiple orthogonal polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coussement, Jonathan; van Assche, Walter

    2005-06-01

    We study multiple orthogonal polynomials of type I and type II, which have orthogonality conditions with respect to r measures. These polynomials are connected by their recurrence relation of order r+1. First we show a relation with the eigenvalue problem of a banded lower Hessenberg matrix Ln, containing the recurrence coefficients. As a consequence, we easily find that the multiple orthogonal polynomials of type I and type II satisfy a generalized Christoffel-Darboux identity. Furthermore, we explain the notion of multiple Gaussian quadrature (for proper multi-indices), which is an extension of the theory of Gaussian quadrature for orthogonal polynomials and was introduced by Borges. In particular, we show that the quadrature points and quadrature weights can be expressed in terms of the eigenvalue problem of Ln.

  4. Role of Chlamydia in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, M V; Kolkova, N I; Morgunova, E Yu; Pashko, Yu P; Zigangirova, N A; Zakharova, M N

    2015-09-01

    Chlamydia and antibodies to them were detected by serological, molecular biological, and culture methods in the sera and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis and in the reference groups of subjects without neurological diseases. Correlations between the agent presence in the biological fluids of patients and clinical characteristics of the disease were analyzed. C. pneumoniae were more incident in the biological liquids of patients with multiple sclerosis than in healthy volunteers. On the other hand, the incidence of the agent in the patients was not high and its presence did not correlate with the clinical manifestations. C. trachomatis was equally rare in the patients and volunteers. The studies indicated the existence of a group of patients infected by C. pneumoniae in the cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis, but the impact of this agent for the disease course remains unclear.

  5. Lidar for multiple backscattering and depolarization observations.

    PubMed

    Allen, R J; Platt, C M

    1977-12-01

    A lidar system that can measure multiple scattering and depolarization in the atmosphere is being used to study the climatic effects of cirrus clouds and to perform other investigations. The lidar system and its novel aspects are described in this paper. The influence of multiple scattering on noise, signal, and SNR is considered. Special receiver field stops incorporated for multiple scattering measurements, use of low voltage to control the photomultiplier tube gain, and a precision power/energy monitor are described. A technique for aligning transmitter and receiver axes and measuring transmitter beamwidth is presented. The multiple-scattered components of backscattered light are determined by inserting a center-blocked field stop to restrict the receiver field of view to the region outside of the diverging transmitted beam. Typical returns with and without the opaque field stop indicate the amplitude of multiple scattering from cirrus clouds and prove the feasibility of this technique. The depolarization ratio delta and backscatter coefficients from an altostratus cloud illustrate the potential of these quantities for the study of cloud structure and phase.

  6. Modeling Multiple Causes of Carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T D

    1999-01-24

    An array of epidemiological results and databases on test animal indicate that risk of cancer and atherosclerosis can be up- or down-regulated by diet through a range of 200%. Other factors contribute incrementally and include the natural terrestrial environment and various human activities that jointly produce complex exposures to endotoxin-producing microorganisms, ionizing radiations, and chemicals. Ordinary personal habits and simple physical irritants have been demonstrated to affect the immune response and risk of disease. There tends to be poor statistical correlation of long-term risk with single agent exposures incurred throughout working careers. However, Agency recommendations for control of hazardous exposures to humans has been substance-specific instead of contextually realistic even though there is consistent evidence for common mechanisms of toxicological and carcinogenic action. That behavior seems to be best explained by molecular stresses from cellular oxygen metabolism and phagocytosis of antigenic invasion as well as breakdown of normal metabolic compounds associated with homeostatic- and injury-related renewal of cells. There is continually mounting evidence that marrow stroma, comprised largely of monocyte-macrophages and fibroblasts, is important to phagocytic and cytokinetic response, but the complex action of the immune process is difficult to infer from first-principle logic or biomarkers of toxic injury. The many diverse database studies all seem to implicate two important processes, i.e., the univalent reduction of molecular oxygen and breakdown of aginuine, an amino acid, by hydrolysis or digestion of protein which is attendant to normal antigen-antibody action. This behavior indicates that protection guidelines and risk coefficients should be context dependent to include reference considerations of the composite action of parameters that mediate oxygen metabolism. A logic of this type permits the realistic common-scale modeling of

  7. Sequence Factorization with Multiple References

    PubMed Central

    Wandelt, Sebastian; Leser, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The success of high-throughput sequencing has lead to an increasing number of projects which sequence large populations of a species. Storage and analysis of sequence data is a key challenge in these projects, because of the sheer size of the datasets. Compression is one simple technology to deal with this challenge. Referential factorization and compression schemes, which store only the differences between input sequence and a reference sequence, gained lots of interest in this field. Highly-similar sequences, e.g., Human genomes, can be compressed with a compression ratio of 1,000:1 and more, up to two orders of magnitude better than with standard compression techniques. Recently, it was shown that the compression against multiple references from the same species can boost the compression ratio up to 4,000:1. However, a detailed analysis of using multiple references is lacking, e.g., for main memory consumption and optimality. In this paper, we describe one key technique for the referential compression against multiple references: The factorization of sequences. Based on the notion of an optimal factorization, we propose optimization heuristics and identify parameter settings which greatly influence 1) the size of the factorization, 2) the time for factorization, and 3) the required amount of main memory. We evaluate a total of 30 setups with a varying number of references on data from three different species. Our results show a wide range of factorization sizes (optimal to an overhead of up to 300%), factorization speed (0.01 MB/s to more than 600 MB/s), and main memory usage (few dozen MB to dozens of GB). Based on our evaluation, we identify the best configurations for common use cases. Our evaluation shows that multi-reference factorization is much better than single-reference factorization. PMID:26422374

  8. Therapeutic advancements in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Gozzetti, Alessandro; Candi, Veronica; Papini, Giulia; Bocchia, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma survival has significantly improved in the latest years due to a broad spectrum of novel agents available for treatment. The introduction of thalidomide, bortezomib, and lenalidomide together with autologous stem-cell transplantation has considerably increased complete remission rate and progression-free survival resulting ultimately in prolonged survival in myeloma patients. Moreover, novel strategies of treatment such as consolidation and maintenance are being used to further implement responses. Finally, a number of new drugs such as carfilzomib and pomalidomide are already in clinical practice, making the future of myeloma patients brighter. PMID:25237651

  9. Coordination of multiple robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.; Soloway, D.

    1987-01-01

    Kinematic resolved-rate control from one robot arm is extended to the coordinated control of multiple robot arms in the movement of an object. The structure supports the general movement of one axis system (moving reference frame) with respect to another axis system (control reference frame) by one or more robot arms. The grippers of the robot arms do not have to be parallel or at any pre-disposed positions on the object. For multiarm control, the operator chooses the same moving and control reference frames for each of the robot arms. Consequently, each arm then moves as though it were carrying out the commanded motions by itself.

  10. Symptomatic management in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Pushkar

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the commonest cause of disability in young adults. While there is increasing choice and better treatments available for delaying disease progression, there are still, very few, effective symptomatic treatments. For many patients such as those with primary progressive MS (PPMS) and those that inevitably become secondary progressive, symptom management is the only treatment available. MS related symptoms are complex, interrelated, and can be interdependent. It requires good understanding of the condition, a holistic multidisciplinary approach, and above all, patient education and empowerment. PMID:26538847

  11. Multiple piece turbine rotor blade

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Russell B; Fedock, John A

    2013-05-21

    A multiple piece turbine rotor blade with a shell having an airfoil shape and secured between a spar and a platform with the spar including a tip end piece. a snap ring fits around the spar and abuts against the spar tip end piece on a top side and abuts against a shell on the bottom side so that the centrifugal loads from the shell is passed through the snap ring and into the spar and not through a tip cap dovetail slot and projection structure.

  12. Therapeutic Advancements in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Gozzetti, Alessandro; Candi, Veronica; Papini, Giulia; Bocchia, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma survival has significantly improved in the latest years due to a broad spectrum of novel agents available for treatment. The introduction of thalidomide, bortezomib, and lenalidomide together with autologous stem-cell transplantation has considerably increased complete remission rate and progression-free survival resulting ultimately in prolonged survival in myeloma patients. Moreover, novel strategies of treatment such as consolidation and maintenance are being used to further implement responses. Finally, a number of new drugs such as carfilzomib and pomalidomide are already in clinical practice, making the future of myeloma patients brighter. PMID:25237651

  13. [Multiple agenesis and prosthetic restoration].

    PubMed

    Renault, P

    1990-03-01

    Cases of multiple agenesia present some difficulties in the treatment planing. Three situations may be encountered: limited agenesia, restored by a fixed, bonded or cemented prosthesis, multiple uni- or bimaxillary agenesia without remaining of deciduous teeth, restored by a fixed, bonded or cemented prosthesis or the partial adjacent prosthesis, multiple uni- or bimaxillary agenesia with remaining of deciduous teeth, restored by means of a supra-dental prosthesis. The first two situations have been described in dental literature and are relatively easy to treat. The same is not true for the third situation, where the decision to keep the temporary teeth considerably increases the difficulty of prosthetic restoration. This subject will be illustrated by the presentation of a clinical case of multiple bi-maxillary agenesia. The patient has: on the maxilla: an absence of 9 permanent teeth (18, 15, 14, 12, 22, 23, 24, 25, 28) and the presence of 4 deciduous teeth (62, 63, 64, 65), on the mandible: an absence of all permanent teeth, with the exception of 36 and 46, and the remaining of 4 deciduous teeth (75, 73, 83, 84). The remaining of deciduous teeth and the presence of a very high inter-arch space led to opting for dental coverage so as to keep the deciduous teeth and a proper vertical dimension. The patient wished to solve his "problem" in the maxilla first, and is not wanting to undergo the extraction of his deciduous teeth. The following therapeutic proposal was adapted: On the maxilla, a three-step procedure: first step: building of metal copings on 13, 16 and 26 and metal-ceramic crowns on 11 and 21, second step: building of telescop crowns on 16 and 26 and clasps on 13, 11 and 21, third step: casting of the removable partial denture framework and soldering to the telescop crowns and clasps. On the mandible, a provisional restoration using a supra-dental resin removable partial denture with ceramic occlusal surfaces was adopted. The aesthetic and functional

  14. Multiple bleeds in haemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Aronstam, A; Painter, M J; Eddey, J V

    1979-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-one bleeding episodes involving two sites simultaneously were noted during a survey of 4935 bleeding episodes, an incidence of 3.7%. Elbows, knees and ankles were the commonest sites involved in double bleeds, while the thigh, upper arm and elbow were the commonest sites involved in the double bleeds needing most transfusions. The overall transfusion requirements were less than for single bleeds. The frequency of multiple bleeds correlated significantly with the overall bleeding frequency, but not with the number of days under observation.

  15. Smart card multiple function badge

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    Smart cards are credit card-sized computers with integrated data storage, an operating system to manage the data, and built-in security features that protect the data. They are used to distribute information to remote sites, providing the same or greater reliability, data integrity, and information security than a network system. However, smart cards may provide greater functionality at a lower cost than network systems. The US Department of Energy Hanford Site is developing the smart card to be used as a multiple function identification badge that will service various data management requirements on the Site. This paper discusses smart card technology and the proposed Hanford Site applications.

  16. [Driving ability with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Küst, J; Dettmers, C

    2014-07-01

    Driving is an important issue for young patients, especially for those whose walking capacity is impaired. Driving might support the patient's social and vocational participation. The question as to whether a patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) is restricted in the ability to drive a car depends on neurological and neuropsychological deficits, self-awareness, insight into deficits and ability to compensate for loss of function. Because of the enormous variability of symptoms in MS the question is highly individualized. A practical driving test under supervision of a driving instructor (possibly accompanied by a neuropsychologist) might be helpful in providing both patient and relatives adequate feedback on driving abilities. PMID:24906536

  17. Multiple frequency atmospheric radar techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stitt, Gary Richard

    The use of multiple frequency coding to improve the vertical resolution of pulsed-Doppler very high frequency atmospheric radars, especially with regards to the two-frequency techniques known as frequency domain interferometry (FDI), is presented. This technique consists of transmitting alternate pulses on two distinct carrier frequencies. The two resulting time series are used to evaluate the normalized cross-correlation function, whose magnitude and phase are related to the thickness and position of a scattering layer. These same time series are also used to evaluate cross-spectra, which yield magnitude and phase values for each Doppler frequency component of the return signal.

  18. [Multiple finger geodes in children].

    PubMed

    Hoeffel, J C; Oprisescu, B; Bresson, A; Ploier, R; Vidailhet, M

    1993-06-01

    Three pediatric patients with multiple geodes in the fingers are reported. This condition occurs mainly between one and three years and at seven years of age and is more common in winter. Affected fingers are swollen. Roentgenograms disclose several small lucent defects which are usually located in the middle phalanx. Several fingers are usually involved. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate is increased in virtually every case. Resolution occurs spontaneously within a few weeks or months. There is no tendency towards recurrence. Although the condition is inflammatory, exposure to cold is probably a precipitating factor.

  19. Evolutionary Processes in Multiple Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Eggleton, P P; Kisseleva-Eggleton, L

    2006-02-14

    There are several ways in which triple stars can evolve in somewhat unusual ways. They discuss two situations where Case A Roche-lobe overflow, followed by a merger, can produce anomalous wide binaries such as {gamma} Per; and Kozai cycles in triples with non-parallel orbits, which can produce merged rapidly-rotating stars like AB Dor, and which can also lead to the delayed ejection of one component of a multiple, as may have been observed in T Tau in 1998.

  20. Stroke after multiple bee sting.

    PubMed

    Rajendiran, C; Puvanalingam, A; Thangam, D; Ragunanthanan, S; Ramesh, D; Venkatesan, S; Sundar, C

    2012-02-01

    Bee stings are commonly encountered worldwide. Various manifestations after bee sting have been described. Local reactions are common. Unusually, manifestations like vomiting, diarrhea, dyspnea, generalized edema, acute renal failure, hypotension and collapse may occur. Rarely vasculitis, serum sickness, neuritis and encephalitis have been described which generally develop days to weeks after a sting. We report a case of a 25-year-old male who developed left sided monoparesis and transient visual loss following multiple bee stings. Unlike the previous case reports, in our case there has been involvement of both the anterior circulation and posterior circulation territory to the brain. We report this case due to it's rarity. PMID:22715562

  1. Neurotherapeutic Strategies for Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Frohman, Teresa C; Beh, Shin C; Kildebeck, Eric J; Narayan, Ram; Treadaway, Katherine; Greenberg, Benjamin; Frohman, Elliot M

    2016-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common disabling neurologic disease of young adults. There are now 16 US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved disease-modifying therapies for MS as well as a cohort of other agents commonly used in practice when conventional therapies prove inadequate. This article discusses approved FDA therapies as well as commonly used practice-based therapies for MS, as well as those therapies that can be used in patients attempting to become pregnant, or in patients with an established pregnancy, who require concomitant treatment secondary to recalcitrant disease activity. PMID:27445239

  2. Ordering Multiple Soft Gluon Emissions.

    PubMed

    Ángeles Martínez, René; Forshaw, Jeffrey R; Seymour, Michael H

    2016-05-27

    We present an expression for the QCD amplitude for a general hard scattering process with any number of soft gluon emissions, to one-loop accuracy. The amplitude is written in two different but equivalent ways: as a product of operators ordered in dipole transverse momentum and as a product of loop-expanded currents. We hope that these results will help in the development of an all-orders algorithm for multiple emissions that includes the full color structure and both the real and imaginary contributions to the amplitude. PMID:27284651

  3. Newer therapies for multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Coles, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    The newer immunotherapies for multiple sclerosis (fingolimod, natalizumab, dimethyl fumarate, teriflunomide, alemtuzumab) offer advantages of efficacy or tolerability over the injectable therapies of the 1990s. But they also have greater risks. As further treatments emerge (daclizumab and ocrelizumab are likely to be licensed in the next two years), the physician needs to be able to place them within a complex landscape of drugs and a specific treatment strategy, which may be an “escalation” or “induction” approach. Whilst on treatment, neurologist and patient need to be vigilant to signs of disease breakthrough or adverse effects. PMID:26538846

  4. Newer therapies for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Coles, Alasdair

    2015-09-01

    The newer immunotherapies for multiple sclerosis (fingolimod, natalizumab, dimethyl fumarate, teriflunomide, alemtuzumab) offer advantages of efficacy or tolerability over the injectable therapies of the 1990s. But they also have greater risks. As further treatments emerge (daclizumab and ocrelizumab are likely to be licensed in the next two years), the physician needs to be able to place them within a complex landscape of drugs and a specific treatment strategy, which may be an "escalation" or "induction" approach. Whilst on treatment, neurologist and patient need to be vigilant to signs of disease breakthrough or adverse effects. PMID:26538846

  5. Developments in multiple headspace extraction.

    PubMed

    Hakkarainen, Minna

    2007-03-10

    This paper reviews new developments in multiple headspace extraction (MHE), especially its combination with two miniaturized extraction techniques, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and single-drop microextraction (SDME). The combination of the techniques broadens the applicability of SPME and SDME to quantitative determination of analytes in complex liquid and solid matrixes. These new methods offer several advantages over traditional liquid-solid, liquid-liquid and headspace extraction techniques. The potential applications include extraction of volatiles and semivolatiles from environmental and physiological samples and from different polymer products such as medical and biomedical materials, food packaging and building materials. The theoretical principals of the techniques are also briefly reviewed. PMID:17081616

  6. Multiple Linear Regression Analysis Indicates Association of P-Glycoprotein Substrate or Inhibitor Character with Bitterness Intensity, Measured with a Sensor.

    PubMed

    Yano, Kentaro; Mita, Suzune; Morimoto, Kaori; Haraguchi, Tamami; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Miyako; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Uchida, Takahiro; Ogihara, Takuo

    2015-09-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) regulates absorption of many drugs in the gastrointestinal tract and their accumulation in tumor tissues, but the basis of substrate recognition by P-gp remains unclear. Bitter-tasting phenylthiocarbamide, which stimulates taste receptor 2 member 38 (T2R38), increases P-gp activity and is a substrate of P-gp. This led us to hypothesize that bitterness intensity might be a predictor of P-gp-inhibitor/substrate status. Here, we measured the bitterness intensity of a panel of P-gp substrates and nonsubstrates with various taste sensors, and used multiple linear regression analysis to examine the relationship between P-gp-inhibitor/substrate status and various physical properties, including intensity of bitter taste measured with the taste sensor. We calculated the first principal component analysis score (PC1) as the representative value of bitterness, as all taste sensor's outputs shared significant correlation. The P-gp substrates showed remarkably greater mean bitterness intensity than non-P-gp substrates. We found that Km value of P-gp substrates were correlated with molecular weight, log P, and PC1 value, and the coefficient of determination (R(2) ) of the linear regression equation was 0.63. This relationship might be useful as an aid to predict P-gp substrate status at an early stage of drug discovery.

  7. Unraveling Multiple MHC Gene Associations with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Model Choice Indicates a Role for HLA Alleles and Non-HLA Genes in Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Morris, David L.; Taylor, Kimberly E.; Fernando, Michelle M.A.; Nititham, Joanne; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Barcellos, Lisa F.; Behrens, Timothy W.; Cotsapas, Chris; Gaffney, Patrick M.; Graham, Robert R.; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Harley, John B.; Hauser, Stephen L.; Hom, Geoffrey; Langefeld, Carl D.; Noble, Janelle A.; Rioux, John D.; Seldin, Michael F.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Vyse, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    We have performed a meta-analysis of the major-histocompatibility-complex (MHC) region in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) to determine the association with both SNPs and classical human-leukocyte-antigen (HLA) alleles. More specifically, we combined results from six studies and well-known out-of-study control data sets, providing us with 3,701 independent SLE cases and 12,110 independent controls of European ancestry. This study used genotypes for 7,199 SNPs within the MHC region and for classical HLA alleles (typed and imputed). Our results from conditional analysis and model choice with the use of the Bayesian information criterion show that the best model for SLE association includes both classical loci (HLA-DRB1∗03:01, HLA-DRB1∗08:01, and HLA-DQA1∗01:02) and two SNPs, rs8192591 (in class III and upstream of NOTCH4) and rs2246618 (MICB in class I). Our approach was to perform a stepwise search from multiple baseline models deduced from a priori evidence on HLA-DRB1 lupus-associated alleles, a stepwise regression on SNPs alone, and a stepwise regression on HLA alleles. With this approach, we were able to identify a model that was an overwhelmingly better fit to the data than one identified by simple stepwise regression either on SNPs alone (Bayes factor [BF] > 50) or on classical HLA alleles alone (BF > 1,000). PMID:23084292

  8. JAWS multiple Doppler derived winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmore, Kimberly L.

    1987-01-01

    An elementary working knowledge is given of the advantages and limitations of the multiple Doppler radar analyses that have recently become available from the Joint Airport Weather Studies (JAWS) project. What Doppler radar is and what it does is addressed and the way Doppler radars were used in the JAWS project to gather wind shear data is described. The working definition of wind shear used is winds that affect aircraft flight over a span of 15 to 45 seconds and turbulence is defined as air motion that cause abrupt aircraft motions. The JAWS data current available contain no turbulence data. The concept of multiple Doppler analysis and the geometry of how it works are described, followed by an explanation of how data gathered in radar space are interpolated to a common Cartesian coordinate system and the limitations involved. A discussion is also presented of the analysis grid and how it was constructed. What the user actually gets is discussed, followed by a discussion of the expected errors in the three orthogonal wind components. Finally, a discussion is presented of why JAWS data are significant.

  9. A heuristic multiple target tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaupre, J. C. F.; Farooq, M.; Roy, J. M. J.

    1992-04-01

    The potential of applying recent developments in expert systems to multiple target tracking (MTT) is investigated. Standard MTT algorithms can generate relatively unreliable target state estimates. The multiple hypotheses tracker (MHT) is a very powerful algorithm, and demanding in computer resources, which can handle difficult situations by differing the formulation of hard decisions and which forms hypothetical tracks with associated probability values. It is proposed that heuristics can be formulated to improve MHT performance. These rules act on the tracks, hypotheses, and corresponding probability values to decide which hypotheses are most representative of reality. In effect, the MHT algorithm is modified to accept and process knowledge of the context or environment in which it operates and on its own strengths and weaknesses. To evaluate the performance of this concept, a prototype has been built which simulates the environment of a small military flight training school as viewed through the returns of a modified area surveillance radar. In a scenario involving nine targets behaving within regulated directives, the tracking prototype successfully displays timely, accurate, and dependable information.

  10. Full potential multiple scattering theory

    SciTech Connect

    MacLaren, J.M.

    1994-10-20

    A practical method for performing self-consistent electronic structure calculations based upon full-potential multiple-scattering theory is presented. Solutions to the single site Schroedinger equation are obtained by solving coupled channel integral equations for a potential which is analytically continued out to the circumscribing sphere. This potential coincides with the full cell potential inside each atomic cell. Scattering matrices and wavefunctions for the full cell potential are obtained from surface Wronskian relations. The charge density is obtained from the single particle Green`s function. This Green`s function is computed using the cell scattering matrices and wavefunctions using the layer multiple scattering theory. Self consistent solutions require a solution at each iteration to the Poisson equation. The Poisson equation is solved using a variational cellular method. In the approach a local solution to each cell is augmented by adding a series of regular harmonics (solutions to Laplace`s equation). Minimizing the coulomb energy, subject to continuity of the potential across all cell boundary provides an expression for the coefficients of the regular harmonics. This method is applied to BCC Nb. Calculated properties converge well in angular momentum and show comparable accuracy to full potential linearized muffin-tin orbital calculations.

  11. Multiple channel data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Crawley, H. Bert; Rosenberg, Eli I.; Meyer, W. Thomas; Gorbics, Mark S.; Thomas, William D.; McKay, Roy L.; Homer, Jr., John F.

    1990-05-22

    A multiple channel data acquisition system for the transfer of large amounts of data from a multiplicity of data channels has a plurality of modules which operate in parallel to convert analog signals to digital data and transfer that data to a communications host via a FASTBUS. Each module has a plurality of submodules which include a front end buffer (FEB) connected to input circuitry having an analog to digital converter with cache memory for each of a plurality of channels. The submodules are interfaced with the FASTBUS via a FASTBUS coupler which controls a module bus and a module memory. The system is triggered to effect rapid parallel data samplings which are stored to the cache memories. The cache memories are uploaded to the FEBs during which zero suppression occurs. The data in the FEBs is reformatted and compressed by a local processor during transfer to the module memory. The FASTBUS coupler is used by the communications host to upload the compressed and formatted data from the module memory. The local processor executes programs which are downloaded to the module memory through the FASTBUS coupler.

  12. Multiple protocol fluorometer and method

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Zbigniew S.; Falkowski, Paul G.

    2000-09-19

    A multiple protocol fluorometer measures photosynthetic parameters of phytoplankton and higher plants using actively stimulated fluorescence protocols. The measured parameters include spectrally-resolved functional and optical absorption cross sections of PSII, extent of energy transfer between reaction centers of PSII, F.sub.0 (minimal), F.sub.m (maximal) and F.sub.v (variable) components of PSII fluorescence, photochemical and non-photochemical quenching, size of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool, and the kinetics of electron transport between Q.sub.a and PQ pool and between PQ pool and PSI. The multiple protocol fluorometer, in one embodiment, is equipped with an excitation source having a controlled spectral output range between 420 nm and 555 nm and capable of generating flashlets having a duration of 0.125-32 .mu.s, an interval between 0.5 .mu.s and 2 seconds, and peak optical power of up to 2 W/cm.sup.2. The excitation source is also capable of generating, simultaneous with the flashlets, a controlled continuous, background illumination.

  13. Multiple Waveband Temperature Sensor (MWTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandara, Sumith V.; Gunapala, Sarath; Wilson, Daniel; Stirbl, Robert; Blea, Anthony; Harding, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of Multiple Waveband Temperature Sensor (MWTS). The MWTS project will result in a highly stable, monolithically integrated, high resolution infrared detector array sensor that records registered thermal imagery in four infrared wavebands to infer dynamic temperature profiles on a laser-irradiated ground target. An accurate surface temperature measurement of a target in extreme environments in a non-intrusive manner is required. The development challenge is to: determine optimum wavebands (suitable for target temperatures, nature of the targets and environments) to measure accurate target surface temperature independent of the emissivity, integrate simultaneously readable multiband Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIPs) in a single monolithic focal plane array (FPA) sensor and to integrate the hardware/software and system calibration for remote temperature measurements. The charge was therefore to develop and demonstrate a multiband infrared imaging camera with the detectors simultaneously sensitive to multiple distinct color bands for front surface temperature measurements Wavelength ( m) measurements. Amongst the requirements are: that the measurement system will not affect target dynamics or response to the laser irradiation and that the simplest criterion for spectral band selection is to choose those practically feasible spectral bands that create the most contrast between the objects or scenes of interest in the expected environmental conditions. There is in the presentation a review of the modeling and simulation of multi-wave infrared temperature measurement and also a review of the detector development and QWIP capacities.

  14. Multiple channel data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Crawley, H.B.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Meyer, W.T.; Gorbics, M.S.; Thomas, W.D.; McKay, R.L.; Homer, J.F. Jr.

    1990-05-22

    A multiple channel data acquisition system for the transfer of large amounts of data from a multiplicity of data channels has a plurality of modules which operate in parallel to convert analog signals to digital data and transfer that data to a communications host via a FASTBUS. Each module has a plurality of submodules which include a front end buffer (FEB) connected to input circuitry having an analog to digital converter with cache memory for each of a plurality of channels. The submodules are interfaced with the FASTBUS via a FASTBUS coupler which controls a module bus and a module memory. The system is triggered to effect rapid parallel data samplings which are stored to the cache memories. The cache memories are uploaded to the FEBs during which zero suppression occurs. The data in the FEBs is reformatted and compressed by a local processor during transfer to the module memory. The FASTBUS coupler is used by the communications host to upload the compressed and formatted data from the module memory. The local processor executes programs which are downloaded to the module memory through the FASTBUS coupler. 25 figs.

  15. A multiple imputation strategy for sequential multiple assignment randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Shortreed, Susan M; Laber, Eric; Scott Stroup, T; Pineau, Joelle; Murphy, Susan A

    2014-10-30

    Sequential multiple assignment randomized trials (SMARTs) are increasingly being used to inform clinical and intervention science. In a SMART, each patient is repeatedly randomized over time. Each randomization occurs at a critical decision point in the treatment course. These critical decision points often correspond to milestones in the disease process or other changes in a patient's health status. Thus, the timing and number of randomizations may vary across patients and depend on evolving patient-specific information. This presents unique challenges when analyzing data from a SMART in the presence of missing data. This paper presents the first comprehensive discussion of missing data issues typical of SMART studies: we describe five specific challenges and propose a flexible imputation strategy to facilitate valid statistical estimation and inference using incomplete data from a SMART. To illustrate these contributions, we consider data from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trial of Intervention and Effectiveness, one of the most well-known SMARTs to date. PMID:24919867

  16. Effects of multiple herb formula SEC-22 supplementation on dietary intake, picky eating behaviors, and growth indices in thin preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kijoon; Lee, Joonsuk; Paik, Hee Young; Yoon, Jihyun; Ryu, Bongha

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Thin children may have insufficient intake of energy and nutrients, resulting in reduced immune function and growth. This study aimed to identify the effects of multiple herb formula SEC-22 supplementation on growth, dietary changes, and picky eating behaviors in thin children. SUBJECTS/METHODS A double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted on 79 children aged 2-5 years with poor appetites, BMI percentile < 25, and without any illness. Subjects were given either SEC-22 (n = 35) or placebo (n = 44) for 2 months and followed for an additional 2 months. Three-day dietary records, questionnaires on picky eating behaviors, and anthropometric measures were collected. RESULTS Energy, carbohydrate intake, and feeding difficulty improved in both groups during the intervention period. However, changes were maintained only in the SEC-22 group after 2 months of follow-up post-supplementation. 'Frequency of trying to feed' was improved in the SEC-22 group compared to the placebo group after the first month of follow-up (P < 0.05). Intakes of potassium and thiamine were improved in the SEC-22 group compared to the placebo group after the first month of intervention (P < 0.05). 'Frequency of food reward', eating amount, and intakes of carbohydrate, potassium, and vitamin C showed significant improvement compared to the placebo group after the second month of follow-up (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that SEC-22 supplementation can improve parental feeding difficulty resulting from insufficient eating amount or picky eating as well as increase nutrient intake in thin children. Although these improvements were observable at least 2 months after supplementation, effects beyond this time frame need to be confirmed. PMID:26244078

  17. Altered expression of oligodendrocyte and neuronal marker genes predicts the clinical onset of autoimmune encephalomyelitis and indicates the effectiveness of multiple sclerosis-directed therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Evangelidou, Maria; Karamita, Maria; Vamvakas, Sotiris-Spyros; Szymkowski, David E; Probert, Lesley

    2014-05-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a valuable model for studying immunopathology in multiple sclerosis (MS) and for exploring the interface between autoimmune responses and CNS tissue that ultimately leads to lesion development. In this study, we measured gene expression in mouse spinal cord during myelin oligodendrocyte gp35-55 peptide-induced EAE, using quantitative RT-PCR, to identify gene markers that monitor individual hallmark pathological processes. We defined a small panel of genes whose longitudinal expression patterns provided insight into the timing, interrelationships, and mechanisms of individual disease processes and the efficacy of therapeutics for the treatment of MS. Earliest transcriptional changes were upregulation of Il17a and sharp downregulation of neuronal and oligodendrocyte marker genes preceding clinical disease onset, whereas neuroinflammatory markers progressively increased as symptoms and tissue lesions developed. EAE-induced gene-expression changes were not altered in mice deficient in IKKβ in cells of the myeloid lineage compared with controls, but the administration of a selective inhibitor of soluble TNF to mice from the day of immunization delayed changes in the expression of innate inflammation, myelin, and neuron markers from the presymptomatic phase. Proof of principle that the gene panel shows drug screening potential was obtained using a well-established MS therapeutic, glatiramer acetate. Prophylactic treatment of mice with glatiramer acetate normalized gene marker expression, and this correlated with the level of therapeutic success. These results show that neurons and oligodendrocytes are highly sensitive to CNS-directed autoimmunity before the development of clinical symptoms and immunopathology and reveal a role for soluble TNF in mediating the earliest changes in gene expression.

  18. Diabetic Diet - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Diabetic Diet URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Diabetic Diet - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  19. Refractive Errors - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Refractive Errors URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Refractive Errors - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  20. Dietary Fats - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Dietary Fats URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Dietary Fats - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  1. Smokeless Tobacco - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Smokeless Tobacco URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Smokeless Tobacco - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  2. Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cosmetic Dentistry URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  3. Oil Spills - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Oil Spills URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Oil Spills - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  4. Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Diabetic Foot URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  5. Accelerated Cure Project for Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... main content Accelerating research toward a cure for multiple sclerosis Home Contact Us Search form Search Connect Volunteer ... is to accelerate efforts toward a cure for multiple sclerosis by rapidly advancing research that determines its causes ...

  6. Lead Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Lead Poisoning URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Lead Poisoning - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  7. Medication Errors - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Medication Errors URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Medication Errors - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  8. Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Rotavirus Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  9. Chlamydia Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Chlamydia Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Chlamydia Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  10. Child Nutrition - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Nutrition URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Nutrition - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  11. Teaching Multiplication Algorithms from Other Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Cheng-Yao

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a number of multiplication algorithms from different cultures around the world: Hindu, Egyptian, Russian, Japanese, and Chinese. Students can learn these algorithms and better understand the operation and properties of multiplication.

  12. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  13. The Multiple Control of Verbal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Jack; Palmer, David C; Sundberg, Mark L

    2011-01-01

    Amid the novel terms and original analyses in Skinner's Verbal Behavior, the importance of his discussion of multiple control is easily missed, but multiple control of verbal responses is the rule rather than the exception. In this paper we summarize and illustrate Skinner's analysis of multiple control and introduce the terms convergent multiple control and divergent multiple control. We point out some implications for applied work and discuss examples of the role of multiple control in humor, poetry, problem solving, and recall. Joint control and conditional discrimination are discussed as special cases of multiple control. We suggest that multiple control is a useful analytic tool for interpreting virtually all complex behavior, and we consider the concepts of derived relations and naming as cases in point. PMID:22532752

  14. Peptic Ulcer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Peptic Ulcer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Peptic Ulcer - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  15. Parasitic Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Parasitic Diseases URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Parasitic Diseases - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  16. Some Simple Computational Formulas for Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Lewis R., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Short-cut formulas are presented for direct computation of the beta weights, the standard errors of the beta weights, and the multiple correlation coefficient for multiple regression problems involving three independent variables and one dependent variable. (Author)

  17. Multiple embryos, multiple nepionts and multiple equatorial layers in Cycloclypeus carpenteri.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briguglio, Antonino; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Wolfgring, Erik; Hohenegger, Johann

    2016-04-01

    In this study, 17 specimens of Cycloclypeus carpenteri have been analyzed by means of microCT scanning. We used CT scanning technique as it enables the visualization and the quantifications of internal structures of hollow specimens without their destruction. It has been observed that many specimens possessing the natural morphology of this taxon, actually contain multiple embryos (up to 16 in one single specimen) and, in some few cases, multiple nepionts each with its own heterosteginid chambers (up to three separated nepionts). The diameter of each proloculus has been measured, and as a result, they are very variable even within the same specimen, therefore questioning the long known theory that schizonts have smaller proloculi than gamonts and also questioning the fact that proloculi in the same species should all have comparable size. Furthermore, we have observed the presence of additional equatorial planes on several specimens. Such additional planes are always connected to what seems to be the main equatorial plane. Such connections are T-shaped and are located at the junction between two equatorial layers; these junctions are made by a chamberlet, which possesses an unusually higher number of apertures. The connections between equatorial planes are always perfectly synchronized with the relative growth step and the same chamber can be therefore followed along the multiple equatorial planes. Apparently there is a perfect geometric relationship between the creation of additional equatorial planes and the position of the nepionts. Whenever the nepionts are positioned on different planes, additional planes are created and the angle of the nepionts is related to the banding angle of the equatorial planes. The presence of additional planes do not hamper the life of the cell, on the contrary, it seems that the cell is still able to build nicely shaped chamberlets and, after volumetric calculations, it seems all specimens managed to keep their logistic growth

  18. The Multiple Control of Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Jack; Palmer, David C.; Sundberg, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Amid the novel terms and original analyses in Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", the importance of his discussion of multiple control is easily missed, but multiple control of verbal responses is the rule rather than the exception. In this paper we summarize and illustrate Skinner's analysis of multiple control and introduce the terms "convergent…

  19. Identifying the Multiple Intelligences of Your Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Joyce A.; Conti, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    One way of addressing individual differences among adult learners is to identify the Multiple Intelligences of the learner. Multiple Intelligences refers to the concept developed by Howard Gardner that challenges the traditional view of intelligence and explains the presence of nine different Multiple Intelligences. The purpose of this study was…

  20. 7 CFR 1437.13 - Multiple benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multiple benefits. 1437.13 Section 1437.13... General Provisions § 1437.13 Multiple benefits. (a) If a producer is eligible to receive payments under..., but shall not be eligible for both. The limitation on multiple benefits prohibits a producer...

  1. Breast feeding twins and high multiples.

    PubMed

    Flidel-Rimon, O; Shinwell, E S

    2006-09-01

    Breast feeding offers major health advantages for all infants, whether born singleton or from multiple pregnancy. Adequate quantity and quality of milk production has been documented even for high multiples. Combined efforts of parents, close family, friends, and the medical team can help to make either full or partial breast feeding of multiples possible.

  2. 29 CFR 20.30 - Multiple debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Multiple debts. 20.30 Section 20.30 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor FEDERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION Administrative Offset § 20.30 Multiple debts. When collecting multiple debts by administrative offset, agencies should apply the recovered amounts to those debts,...

  3. 29 CFR 20.30 - Multiple debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Multiple debts. 20.30 Section 20.30 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor FEDERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION Administrative Offset § 20.30 Multiple debts. When collecting multiple debts by administrative offset, agencies should apply the recovered amounts to those debts,...

  4. 14 CFR 1261.505 - Multiple debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multiple debts. 1261.505 Section 1261.505...) Administrative Offset of Claims § 1261.505 Multiple debts. When collecting multiple debts by administrative offset, NASA will apply the recovered amounts to those debts in accordance with the best interests of...

  5. 14 CFR 1261.505 - Multiple debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Multiple debts. 1261.505 Section 1261.505...) Administrative Offset of Claims § 1261.505 Multiple debts. When collecting multiple debts by administrative offset, NASA will apply the recovered amounts to those debts in accordance with the best interests of...

  6. Functional Multiple-Set Canonical Correlation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun; Jung, Kwanghee; Takane, Yoshio; Woodward, Todd S.

    2012-01-01

    We propose functional multiple-set canonical correlation analysis for exploring associations among multiple sets of functions. The proposed method includes functional canonical correlation analysis as a special case when only two sets of functions are considered. As in classical multiple-set canonical correlation analysis, computationally, the…

  7. Cross-Validation, Shrinkage, and Multiple Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Kevin

    One aspect of multiple regression--the shrinkage of the multiple correlation coefficient on cross-validation is reviewed. The paper consists of four sections. In section one, the distinction between a fixed and a random multiple regression model is made explicit. In section two, the cross-validation paradigm and an explanation for the occurrence…

  8. Lattice Multiplication in a Preservice Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Patricia M.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the algorithm for multiplication that is referred to as lattice multiplication. Evidence of how the author's preservice students' conceptual understanding of the algorithm grew through the semester is given. In addition, the author extends the conceptualization of the algorithm from the multiplication of whole numbers to the…

  9. The Many Meanings of "Multiple Measures"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Professional assessment organizations almost universally endorse the use of multiple measures for making education decisions. In practice, however, the concept of multiple measures is defined and applied in many different ways, depending on how we answer two questions--What counts as a "measure"? and How are the multiple measures combined?…

  10. Multiple Intelligences: Current Trends in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Marsha J.; Kordinak, S. Thomas; Bruce, A. Jerry

    2009-01-01

    With his theory of multiple intelligences, Howard Gardner challenged the presumption that intelligence is a single innate entity. He maintained that multiple intelligences exist and are related to specific brain areas and symbol systems. Each of the intelligences has its merits and limits, but by using a multiple intelligences approach, more…

  11. Deconstructing Calculation Methods, Part 3: Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ian

    2008-01-01

    In this third of a series of four articles, the author deconstructs the primary national strategy's approach to written multiplication. The approach to multiplication, as set out on pages 12 to 15 of the primary national strategy's "Guidance paper" "Calculation" (DfES, 2007), is divided into six stages: (1) mental multiplication using…

  12. Induction of multiple follicular development for IVF.

    PubMed

    Fleming, R; Coutts, J R

    1990-07-01

    It is now accepted, almost universally, that multiple follicular development is a pre-requisite for a successful assisted conception programme. The reasons for this are based on abundant clinical evidence from the major IVF and GIFT centres of the world indicating the benefits of having multiple gametes available for transfer. The more embryos transferred, the better the pregnancy rate; the more embryos available for cryopreservation the better the chances of subsequent survival and replacement. However, the vast majority of patients in IVF/GIFT programmes have normal ovarian and pituitary function designed to produce a single dominant follicle and oocyte each month. Obtaining multiple follicular growth requires pharmacological manipulation of ovarian function and complicating factors may arise from both ovarian and pituitary sources. Methods employed to achieve multiple follicular growth vary considerably in the different centres and experiments continue in attempts to find either the simplest or the perfect system, or both. This would provide abundant oocytes and the ideal hormone environment for implantation, with no interfering factors at either the ovarian or endometrial level, while avoiding the drawbacks commonly encountered such as pre-operative ovulation or hyperstimulation syndrome. It should also be inexpensive, although in reality cost-effectiveness is more important. PMID:2207596

  13. Clonal Evolution in Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Bita; Vij, Ravi

    2016-08-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic malignancy encountered among patients in the United States. The last decade has seen incremental improvements in the survival of patients with MM. These advances are, to a large extent, attributable to the addition of proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs to the armamentarium of treatment options. The adoption of these drug classes was the result of an empiric research paradigm. However, with the application of next generation sequencing technologies, we are now starting to unravel the genomic landscape of MM. It is hoped that this will allow us to better disentangle the biology of the disease and allow for identification of new therapeutic targets. In this article, we review what we have learned to date about the mutational profile, clonal architecture, and evolution of the disease, and discuss the potential clinical implications of these findings. PMID:27521309

  14. Moral enhancement requires multiple virtues.

    PubMed

    Hughes, James J

    2015-01-01

    Some of the debates around the concept of moral enhancement have focused on whether the improvement of a single trait, such as empathy or intelligence, would be a good in general, or in all circumstances. All virtue theories, however, both secular and religious, have articulated multiple virtues that temper and inform one another in the development of a mature moral character. The project of moral enhancement requires a reengagement with virtue ethics and contemporary moral psychology to develop an empirically grounded model of the virtues and a fuller model of character development. Each of these virtues may be manipulable with electronic, psychopharmaceutical, and genetic interventions. A set of interdependent virtues is proposed, along with some of the research pointing to ways such virtues could be enhanced.

  15. Recency effect in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Godoy, J F; Perez, M; Sanchez-Barrera, M B; Muela, J A; Mari-Beffa, P; Puente, A

    1996-05-01

    The main object of this study was to test acquisition-retrieval deficits in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients A Spanish version of the Rey Auditory-Verbal Test (RAVLT) (Rey 1964) was used with an MS group (n=10 subjects) and a control group (n=10) Different measurements were obtained with the RAVLT memory span, a learning curve, and a curve of serial position of words The results revealed no differences between groups in memory span and learning curve, but significant differences were found in the curve of serial position No revency effect in the immediate form of theRAVLT was seen These results are discussed with reference to the work of Baddelaey and Hitch (1993) regarding recency effects and related literature on the acquisition-retrieval deficits in MS patients.

  16. Hereditary Multiple Exostoses with Pseudoaneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Hadidy, Azmy M. Al-Smady, Moa'ath M.; Haroun, Azmi A.; Hamamy, Hanan A.; Ghoul, Suha M.; Shennak, Akram O.

    2007-06-15

    A 16-year-old male patient with hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) was found to have a pseudoaneurysm of the left popliteal artery caused by osteochondroma in the lower femur. The diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography without the need to perform an angiogram. The osteochondroma was excised and the popliteal artery was repaired with a saphenous graft. Vascular complications are extremely rare in HME, pseudoaneurysm being the most common and mostly located in the popliteal artery. This complication should be considered in young HME patients with a mass at the knee region. The radiological spectrum of investigations allows the diagnosis of this complication with proper and less invasive management procedures for the patient.

  17. Intrathoracic chemodectoma with multiple localisations.

    PubMed Central

    Lacquet, L K; Moulijn, A C; Jongerius, C M; Limburg, M; Rensing, J B

    1977-01-01

    In 1958 a mediastinal tumour was discovered in an asymptomatic woman with a history of vomiting and an oesophageal anomaly which had not been treated. A tumour of the anterosuperior mediastinum in relation to the aortic arch was extirpated and proved to be a chemodectoma or non-chromaffin paraganglioma. At subsequent follow-ups the mediastinum was never normal and the heart size progressively increased, the oesophageal anomaly remaining unchanged. A small opacity appeared in the left lung in 1974. An operation performed in 1975 revealed an osteochondroma in the lung, pericarditis, and an intrapericardial chemodectoma. The oesophagus was not explored. An intrathoracic chemodectoma is rare. The importance of angiography in its diagnosis is emphasised. Malignant degeneration is seldom observed. Therapy is surgical, the tumour being radioresistant. The possibility to be considered in our patient was either relapse of the tumour with degeneration or multiple localisations of the tumour. Images PMID:194350

  18. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Olavarrieta, C; Cummings, J L; Velazquez, J; Garcia de la Cadena, C

    1999-01-01

    The range of neuropsychiatric symptoms in multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been prospectively assessed. The authors, working at a tertiary medical center in Mexico City, used the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) to evaluate neuropsychiatric symptoms prospectively in 44 MS patients who were stable between relapses and 25 control subjects of similar age, education, and cognitive function. Neuropsychiatric symptoms were present in 95% of patients and 16% of control subjects. Changes present were depressive symptoms (79%), agitation (40%), anxiety (37%), irritability (35%), apathy (20%), euphoria (13%), disinhibition (13%), hallucinations (10%), aberrant motor behavior (9%), and delusions (7%). The only relationships with MRI were between euphoria and hallucinations and moderately severe MRI abnormalities. The authors conclude that diverse types of neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in MS; symptoms are present between exacerbations; and there are variable correlations with MRI abnormalities.

  19. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) is an autosomal-dominant cancer syndrome characterized by variable penetrance of medullary thyroid carcinoma(MTC), pheochromocytoma (PHEO), and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). MEN2 consists of two clinical subtypes, MEN2A and MEN2B. Familial medullary thyroid cancer is now viewed as a phenotypic variant of MEN2A with decreased penetrance for PHEO and PHPT rather than a distinct entity. All subtypes are caused by gain-of-function mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. Genotype-phenotype correlations exist that help predict the presence of other associated endocrine neoplasms as well as the timing of thyroid cancer development. Recognition of the clinical entity in individuals and families at risk of harboring a germline RET mutation is crucial for the management and prevention of associated malignancies. Recent guidelines released by the American Thyroid Association regarding the management of MTC will be summarized in this chapter.

  20. Moral enhancement requires multiple virtues.

    PubMed

    Hughes, James J

    2015-01-01

    Some of the debates around the concept of moral enhancement have focused on whether the improvement of a single trait, such as empathy or intelligence, would be a good in general, or in all circumstances. All virtue theories, however, both secular and religious, have articulated multiple virtues that temper and inform one another in the development of a mature moral character. The project of moral enhancement requires a reengagement with virtue ethics and contemporary moral psychology to develop an empirically grounded model of the virtues and a fuller model of character development. Each of these virtues may be manipulable with electronic, psychopharmaceutical, and genetic interventions. A set of interdependent virtues is proposed, along with some of the research pointing to ways such virtues could be enhanced. PMID:25473861

  1. Hughes syndrome and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Uthman, I; Noureldine, M H A; Berjawi, A; Skaf, M; Haydar, A A; Merashli, M; Hughes, G R V

    2015-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) share common clinical, laboratory and radiological features. We reviewed all the English papers on MS and APS published in the literature from 1965 to 2014 using PubMed and Google Scholar. We found that APS can mimic antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL)-positive MS in many ways in its clinical presentation. Nevertheless, APS diagnosis, clinical manifestations and management differ from those of MS. aPL were found in MS patients with titers ranging from 2% to 88%. The distribution and volume of lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may help to differentiate MS from primary APS. In addition, atypical MS presentation can guide physicians toward an alternative diagnosis, especially when features of thrombosis and/or history of connective tissue disease are present. In that case, an anticoagulation trial could be worthwhile. PMID:25326228

  2. Vision Disturbances in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Costello, Fiona

    2016-04-01

    Visual disturbances are frequently encountered in multiple sclerosis (MS), and include problems with how affected individuals see the world (afferent visual pathway symptoms) and how their eyes move together (efferent visual pathway disorders). Optic neuritis is the most common afferent visual pathway manifestation of MS, from which visual recovery is often incomplete. Visual field defects caused by lesions in the retrochiasmal or retrogeniculate regions of the afferent visual pathway also occur, albeit less frequently. Efferent visual pathway lesions causing ocular misalignment and nystagmus may lead to diplopia and oscillopsia, respectively. Vision loss has a major impact on perceptions regarding quality of life in MS. Therefore, it is important for clinicians to be able to identify and localize the underlying basis of visual disturbances to provide the best care possible for their patients. PMID:27116725

  3. Standardized multiple output power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragusa, E. V.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive program to develop a prototype model of a standardized multiple output power supply for use in space flight applications is described. The prototype unit was tested and evaluated to assure that the design would provide near optimum performance for the planned application. The prototype design used a dc-to-dc converter incorporating reqenerative current feedback with a time-ratio controlled duty cycle to achieve high efficiency over a wide variation of input voltage and output loads. The packaging concept uses a mainframe capable of accommodating up to four inverter/regulator modules with one common input filter and housekeeping module. Each inverter/regulator module provides a maximum of 100 watts or 10 amperes. Each module is adaptable to operate at any voltage between 4.0 volts and 108 volts. The prototype unit contains +5, + or - 15 and +28 volt modules.

  4. Personality aspects in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Diana, R; Grosz, A; Mancini, E

    1985-12-01

    To test the claim that peculiar personality bias is detectable in multiple sclerosis (MS) we used the Szondi test to investigate the psychodynamic aspects of 110 MS patients in comparison with 200 healthy subjects. MS patients appeared to have a greater need for love in a passive form than normal people, rigid defense mechanisms, difficulty in resolving their inner conflicts either by sublimation or by internalization of satisfactory new emotional experiences, feelings of autoaggressiveness, and many symptoms of depression. Some of these aspects correlate with the severity of the disease, others seem to date back to early childhood as peculiar personality patterns. An investigation of childhood events in 110 controls confirmed that MS patients had had many more unhappy experiences in childhood than might commonly be expected. Further, the oft-reported psychiatric troubles preceding MS clinical onset suggest that at least in some MS patients there are specific gaps in personality structure dating back to early phases of their development. PMID:4086262

  5. Diagnostic Advances in Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Barley, Kevin; Chari, Ajai

    2016-04-01

    There have been several advances in the diagnosis of multiple myeloma (MM) in recent years. Serum free light chains have improved the ability to diagnose light chain MM; however, there are still difficulties in the serologic diagnosis of MM in some cases, particularly IgA MM. A novel heavy/light chain assay is able to improve the accuracy of diagnosis in these cases. Free light chains may also improve the diagnosis of extramedullary disease in difficult cases such as disease involving the central nervous system, pleura, or ascites. Advances in imaging such as whole body low-dose computed tomography (CT) whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) have improved sensitivity in identifying lytic bone lesions, which would enable earlier treatment, and monitoring of osseous disease particularly in non- or oligosecretory disease. New techniques such as fused PET/MRI may further enhance the diagnosis of both bone lesions and extramedullary disease.

  6. [Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Niino, Masaaki; Miyazaki, Yusei

    2016-04-01

    While cognitive impairment is a major symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS), it is commonly overlooked. This may be explained by the fact that it is difficult to evaluate cognitive function in patients with MS using screening batteries for the detection of dementia such as the mini-mental state examination. Further more, cognitive impairment in MS typically involves domain-specific deficits such as imparement of sustained attention and information processing speed rather than global cognitive decline. Cognitive impairment may influence the daily living and social lines of affected patients. This review discusses the characteristics of cognitive impairment, appropreate tests to evaluate its symptoms, and the current status of clinical trials for the treatment of MS. PMID:27056855

  7. Lightweight multiple output converter development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kisch, J. J.; Martinelli, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    A high frequency, multiple output power conditioner was developed and breadboarded using an eight-stage capacitor diode voltage multiplier to provide +1200 Vdc, and a three-stage for -350 Vdc. In addition, two rectifier bridges were capacitively coupled to the eight-stage multiplier to obtain 0.5 and 0.65 a dc constant current outputs referenced to +1200 Vdc. Total power was 120 watts, with an overall efficiency of 85 percent at the 80 kHz operating frequency. All outputs were regulated to three percent or better, with complete short circuit protection. The power conditioner component weight and efficiency were compared to the equivalent four outputs of the 10 kHz conditioner for the 8 cm ion engine. Weight reduction for the four outputs was 557 grams; extrapolated in the same ratio to all nine outputs, it would be 1100 to 1400 grams.

  8. Multiple-stage integrating accelerometer

    DOEpatents

    Devaney, Howard F.

    1986-01-01

    An accelerometer assembly is provided for use in activating a switch in response to multiple acceleration pulses in series. The accelerometer includes a housing forming a chamber. An inertial mass or piston is slidably disposed in the chamber and spring biased toward a first or reset position. A damping system is also provided to damp piston movement in response to first and subsequent acceleration pulses. Additionally, a cam, including a Z-shaped slot, and cooperating follower pin slidably received therein are mounted to the piston and the housing. The middle or cross-over leg of the Z-shaped slot cooperates with the follower pin to block or limit piston movement and prevent switch activation in response to a lone acceleration pulse. The switch of the assembly is only activated after two or more separate acceleration pulses are sensed and the piston reaches the end of the chamber opposite the reset position.

  9. Multiple-stage integrating accelerometer

    DOEpatents

    Devaney, H.F.

    1984-06-27

    An accelerometer assembly is provided for use in activating a switch in response to multiple acceleration pulses in series. The accelerometer includes a housing forming a chamber. An inertial mass or piston is slidably disposed in the chamber and spring biased toward a first or reset position. A damping system is also provided to damp piston movement in response to first and subsequent acceleration pulses. Additionally, a cam, including a Z-shaped slot, and cooperating follower pin slidably received therein are mounted to the piston and the housing. The middle or cross-over leg of the Z-shaped slot cooperates with the follower pin to block or limit piston movement and prevent switch activation in response to a lone acceleration pulse. The switch of the assembly is only activated after two or more separate acceleration pulses are sensed and the piston reaches the end of the chamber opposite the reset position.

  10. Autonomic Dysregulation in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Pintér, Alexandra; Cseh, Domonkos; Sárközi, Adrienn; Illigens, Ben M.; Siepmann, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive central neurological disease characterized by inflammation and demyelination. In patients with MS, dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system may present with various clinical symptoms including sweating abnormalities, urinary dysfunction, orthostatic dysregulation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and sexual dysfunction. These autonomic disturbances reduce the quality of life of affected patients and constitute a clinical challenge to the physician due to variability of clinical presentation and inconsistent data on diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis and initiation of individualized interdisciplinary and multimodal strategies is beneficial in the management of autonomic dysfunction in MS. This review summarizes the current literature on the most prevalent aspects of autonomic dysfunction in MS and provides reference to underlying pathophysiological mechanisms as well as means of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26213927

  11. [Emerging therapies for multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    de Lorenzo-Pinto, Ana; Rodríguez-González, Carmen Guadalupe; Ais-Larisgoitia, Arantza

    2013-01-19

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated inflammatory disease of the central nervous system considered the second cause of disability in young adults. The prognosis of MS has improved significantly since the approval of the first interferon β in 1993 but, compared to other diseases, few new therapeutic products have been commercialized in the last years. However, currently, there are more than 600 ongoing clinical trials and new drugs that aim to improve efficacy and a more convenient schedule of administration, will appear shortly on the market. On the other hand, new safety issues will arise as well as a significant economic impact on the health system. The main efficacy and safety results of these drugs are reviewed in this paper. They can be classified into 2 groups: oral (fingolimod, laquinimod, teriflunomide, BG-12 [dimethyl fumarate], oral cladribine, dalfampridine) and monoclonal antibodies (rituximab, ocrelizumab, ofatumumab, daclizumab, alemtuzumab). PMID:22766059

  12. Oral agents in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lorefice, L; Fenu, G; Frau, J; Coghe, G C; Marrosu, M G; Cocco, E

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Disease-modifying drugs licensed for MS treatment have been developed to reduce relapse rates and halt disease progression. The majority of current MS drugs involve regular, parenteral administration, affecting long-term adherence and thus reducing treatment efficacy. Over the last two decades great progress has been made towards developing new MS therapies with different modes of action and biologic effects. In particular, oral drugs have generated much interest because of their convenience and positive impact on medication adherence. Fingolimod was the first launched oral treatment for relapsing-remitting MS; recently, Teriflunomide and Dimethyl fumarate have also been approved as oral disease-modifying agents. In this review, we summarize and discuss the history, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and safety of oral agents that have been approved or are under development for the selective treatment of MS. PMID:25924620

  13. [Current immunotherapy of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Paul, F; Ruprecht, K

    2015-08-01

    Following the introduction of interferon beta 1b as the first immunomodulatory therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS) in 1993, there are currently nine substances or substance classes approved for the treatment of MS (i.e. alemtuzumab, azathioprine, dimethyl fumarate, fingolimod, glatiramer acetate, interferon beta, mitoxantrone, natalizumab and teriflunomide). Major developments during the last 5 years include the approval of orally administered medications (i.e. fingolimod, teriflunomide and dimethyl fumarate), a monoclonal antibody (alemtuzumab), as well as glatiramer acetate with an administration frequency three times a week and a pegylated formulation of interferon beta 1a. The broadened therapeutic options enable a more differentiated and individualized therapy of MS; however, evidence-based data for therapeutic decision-making relevant in clinical practice are not always available. Rare but potentially severe and even life-threatening side effects of immunotherapies for MS require continuous pharmacovigilance and adherence to risk management plans. PMID:26253589

  14. 2014 multiple sclerosis therapeutic update.

    PubMed

    Cree, Bruce A C

    2014-04-01

    Rapid advances are occurring in multiple sclerosis disease modifying therapies. Recent therapeutic advances include modifications to improve tolerability of existing products (e.g. interferon beta and glatiramer acetate), development of novel anti-neuroinflammatory medications (e.g. fingolimod, teriflunomide and dimethyl fumarate, daclizumab, alemtuzumab, ocrelizumab) and investigation of treatments in progressive MS (e.g. natalizumab, mastinib, natalizumab, siponimod). The impact of vitamin D supplementation on the disease course in relapsing MS patients is also being studied in several clinical trials. This article reviews the current state of the field with a forward look to the next phase of MS research that could focus on strategies to promote remyelination and provide neuronal protection. PMID:24707333

  15. Immunological treatment of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Diebold, Martin; Derfuss, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    Treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been a challenge since its first description by Charcot. The advent of immunomodulatory drugs in the mid 1990s brought the first big change in the treatment of MS patients. During the last 10 years there has been an ongoing tremendous evolution of novel treatment options for relapsing-remitting MS. These options include monoclonal antibodies, which inhibit migration of lymphocytes (natalizumab), deplete lymphocytes (alemtuzumab), or block the cytokine receptor interleukin (IL)-2 (daclizumab), teriflunomide that inhibits proliferation of activated lymphocytes, fingolimod that modulates the sphingosine-receptor system, and dimethylfumarate that combines features of immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive drugs. The topic of this review is to discuss currently available treatments and provide an outlook into the near future. PMID:27312167

  16. Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Harandi, Asghar Amini; Harandi, Ali Amini; Pakdaman, Hossein; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease and also is one of the most common disabling neurological disorders in young and middle-aged adults. The main pathogenesis of MS has long been thought to be an immune mediated disorder of the central nervous system. The function of the immune system is under the influence of vitamin D which as a modulator of immune response could play a role in autoimmune diseases including MS. Deficiency of vitamin D or variations in DNA sequence (polymorphism) of vitamin D receptor gene diminishes its optimal function on immune system that consequently could lead to increasing risk of MS. However, its role in development and modulating the course of MS is still under investigation. In this review we aimed to discuss the role of vitamin D in body, immune system and consequently altering the risk of MS. PMID:24800040

  17. Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Harandi, Ali Amini; Pakdaman, Hossein; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease and also is one of the most common disabling neurological disorders in young and middle-aged adults. The main pathogenesis of MS has long been thought to be an immune mediated disorder of the central nervous system. The function of the immune system is under the influence of vitamin D which as a modulator of immune response could play a role in autoimmune diseases including MS. Deficiency of vitamin D or variations in DNA sequence (polymorphism) of vitamin D receptor gene diminishes its optimal function on immune system that consequently could lead to increasing risk of MS. However, its role in development and modulating the course of MS is still under investigation. In this review we aimed to discuss the role of vitamin D in body, immune system and consequently altering the risk of MS. PMID:24800040

  18. Migraine: multiple processes, complex pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Burstein, Rami; Noseda, Rodrigo; Borsook, David

    2015-04-29

    Migraine is a common, multifactorial, disabling, recurrent, hereditary neurovascular headache disorder. It usually strikes sufferers a few times per year in childhood and then progresses to a few times per week in adulthood, particularly in females. Attacks often begin with warning signs (prodromes) and aura (transient focal neurological symptoms) whose origin is thought to involve the hypothalamus, brainstem, and cortex. Once the headache develops, it typically throbs, intensifies with an increase in intracranial pressure, and presents itself in association with nausea, vomiting, and abnormal sensitivity to light, noise, and smell. It can also be accompanied by abnormal skin sensitivity (allodynia) and muscle tenderness. Collectively, the symptoms that accompany migraine from the prodromal stage through the headache phase suggest that multiple neuronal systems function abnormally. As a consequence of the disease itself or its genetic underpinnings, the migraine brain is altered structurally and functionally. These molecular, anatomical, and functional abnormalities provide a neuronal substrate for an extreme sensitivity to fluctuations in homeostasis, a decreased ability to adapt, and the recurrence of headache. Advances in understanding the genetic predisposition to migraine, and the discovery of multiple susceptible gene variants (many of which encode proteins that participate in the regulation of glutamate neurotransmission and proper formation of synaptic plasticity) define the most compelling hypothesis for the generalized neuronal hyperexcitability and the anatomical alterations seen in the migraine brain. Regarding the headache pain itself, attempts to understand its unique qualities point to activation of the trigeminovascular pathway as a prerequisite for explaining why the pain is restricted to the head, often affecting the periorbital area and the eye, and intensifies when intracranial pressure increases.

  19. Care Partners and Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Quig, Mary Elizabeth; Tyry, Tuula; Marrie, Ruth Ann; Cutter, Gary; Shearin, Edward; Johnson, Kamau; Simsarian, James

    2015-01-01

    Background: Caring for someone with multiple sclerosis (MS) can be a stressful experience that requires clinical attention. We investigated the impact of caregiver stress on the emotional well-being and physical health of the MS care partner using the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) Registry. Methods: Care partners of NARCOMS participants were invited to complete an online questionnaire that captured demographic characteristics, health status, caregiver burden as measured by the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview, and impact of caregiving on employment. Results: Of 1446 care partners who agreed to participate, 1333 had complete data. Most were men (n = 825, 61.9%), with a mean (SD) age of 51.1 (11.2) years. The mean (SD) Zarit total score was 24.6 (15.1), placing the overall group in the mild caregiver burden range. Compared with male care partners, female care partners reported higher levels of burden and stress and more medication use for stress/anxiety and mood disorders. Male care partners were more likely to report physical concerns. Care partners of people with primary progressive MS reported greater perceived burden than did partners of people with secondary progressive MS and relapsing-remitting MS. More than 40% of care partners (559 of 1288) had missed work during the past year owing to caregiving responsibilities. Conclusions: Care partners of people with MS have substantial physical and psychological health concerns and experience an adverse impact on employment. Future research should evaluate how to mitigate the adverse effects of caregiving and evaluate positive aspects of the role. PMID:26664330

  20. Novel therapy in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Avilés, Agustin; Neri, Natividad; Nambo, M Jesús; Cleto, Sergio; Castañeda, Claudia; González, Martha; Talavera, Alejandra; Huerta-Guzmán, Judith

    2005-10-01

    Treatment in patients with multiple myeloma remain to be defined. Younger patients (defined as a cut-off level < 65 years old) will be treated with chemotherapy and transplant procedures. However, most patients > 65 years old are not candidates for this therapeutic approach and the use of intensive chemotherapy could be associated to severe toxicity. We developed an new, not-cytotoxic regimen with dexamethasone 30 mg/m(2), iv, days 1 to 4, all trans retinoic acid 45 mg/m(2), po, days 5 to 14 and interferon alfa 2a 4.5 MU, sc, daily, days 5 to 14 (DAI regimen) administered every 28 days in number of 6 cycles, at this point patients were restaging, if they showed complete response, objective response or partial response they were conducted to received thalidomide 100-200 mg po, daily and dexamethasone 10 mg/2, po days 1 to 4 at monthly intervals, for 18 months. Forty one patients were enrolled in an Phase II study. In an intent to treat analysis all patients were evaluable. Complete response was observed in 18 cases (43%), objective response in 10 patients (24%) and partial response in 5 patients (12%), overall response rate was 80%. Eight patients were considered failures. At an median of 36 months, no relapse of progression disease has been observed, thus actuarial curves at 3-years showed that event free survival is 100% and overall survival is 91%. Toxicity was mild, all patients received the planned dose in time. This regimen appear to be useful in older patients with multiple myeloma, the response rate is higher and toxicity was mild. Controlled clinical trials comparing with conventional chemotherapy will be conducted to define the role of this therapeutic approach. PMID:16133792