Science.gov

Sample records for multiple injection zones

  1. Flow Rates Measurement and Uncertainty Analysis in Multiple-Zone Water-Injection Wells from Fluid Temperature Profiles.

    PubMed

    Reges, José E O; Salazar, A O; Maitelli, Carla W S P; Carvalho, Lucas G; Britto, Ursula J B

    2016-07-13

    This work is a contribution to the development of flow sensors in the oil and gas industry. It presents a methodology to measure the flow rates into multiple-zone water-injection wells from fluid temperature profiles and estimate the measurement uncertainty. First, a method to iteratively calculate the zonal flow rates using the Ramey (exponential) model was described. Next, this model was linearized to perform an uncertainty analysis. Then, a computer program to calculate the injected flow rates from experimental temperature profiles was developed. In the experimental part, a fluid temperature profile from a dual-zone water-injection well located in the Northeast Brazilian region was collected. Thus, calculated and measured flow rates were compared. The results proved that linearization error is negligible for practical purposes and the relative uncertainty increases as the flow rate decreases. The calculated values from both the Ramey and linear models were very close to the measured flow rates, presenting a difference of only 4.58 m³/d and 2.38 m³/d, respectively. Finally, the measurement uncertainties from the Ramey and linear models were equal to 1.22% and 1.40% (for injection zone 1); 10.47% and 9.88% (for injection zone 2). Therefore, the methodology was successfully validated and all objectives of this work were achieved.

  2. Flow Rates Measurement and Uncertainty Analysis in Multiple-Zone Water-Injection Wells from Fluid Temperature Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Reges, José E. O.; Salazar, A. O.; Maitelli, Carla W. S. P.; Carvalho, Lucas G.; Britto, Ursula J. B.

    2016-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the development of flow sensors in the oil and gas industry. It presents a methodology to measure the flow rates into multiple-zone water-injection wells from fluid temperature profiles and estimate the measurement uncertainty. First, a method to iteratively calculate the zonal flow rates using the Ramey (exponential) model was described. Next, this model was linearized to perform an uncertainty analysis. Then, a computer program to calculate the injected flow rates from experimental temperature profiles was developed. In the experimental part, a fluid temperature profile from a dual-zone water-injection well located in the Northeast Brazilian region was collected. Thus, calculated and measured flow rates were compared. The results proved that linearization error is negligible for practical purposes and the relative uncertainty increases as the flow rate decreases. The calculated values from both the Ramey and linear models were very close to the measured flow rates, presenting a difference of only 4.58 m³/d and 2.38 m³/d, respectively. Finally, the measurement uncertainties from the Ramey and linear models were equal to 1.22% and 1.40% (for injection zone 1); 10.47% and 9.88% (for injection zone 2). Therefore, the methodology was successfully validated and all objectives of this work were achieved. PMID:27420068

  3. Non-Stationary Hydrologic Transport in the Vadose Zone: Experimental Results of Multiple Tracer Injections in Lysimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queloz, P.; Rao, P. C.; Rinaldo, A.

    2012-12-01

    Travel and residence times are well-known descriptors of hydrologic and solute transport in the vadose zone. It has been observed that their probability density functions are stationary only under specific conditions, rarely encountered in natural catchments. This study aims at demonstrating the emergence of non-stationary solute transport in a highly monitored system, and identifying the factors controlling the variations of the observed solute travel-times. 2-meters deep weighing lysimeters are exposed to stochastic rainfall sequences. Multiple derivatives of difluorobenzoate compounds are sequentially injected at different times in the system, and are analyzed in the drainage flux at the bottom outlet and at different depth within the soil profiles. Willow trees planted in the systems create a stochastic soil water deficit by evapotranspiration. As each tracer injected is analytically differentiable from the others, the computation of the tracer breakthrough curves at the lysimeter outlet allows measuring the solute travel-time distributions conditional on the injection time. The observed breakthrough curves display a large variability, emphasizing the effects of the initial conditions at the injection time and the subsequent states encountered in the system on solute transport. Two types of climate have been simulated on the lysimeters. With the precision load cells installed under each lysimeter and the water content probes deployed in the soil profiles, a detailed comparison of the water balance and storage dynamics and their influence on solute transport timing can be done.

  4. High-Throughput Analysis of Lidocaine in Pharmaceutical Formulation by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis Using Multiple Injections in a Single Run

    PubMed Central

    Valese, Andressa C.; Spudeit, Daniel A.; Dolzan, Maressa D.; Bretanha, Lizandra C.; Micke, Gustavo A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a subminute separation method by capillary zone electrophoresis in an uncoated capillary using multiple injection procedure for the determination of lidocaine in samples of pharmaceutical formulations. The separation was performed in less than a minute leading to doing four injections in a single run. The cathodic electroosmotic flow contributed to reducing the analyses time. The background electrolyte was composed of 20 mmol L−1 2-amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol and 40 mmol L−1 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid at pH 6.1. The internal standard used was benzylamine. Separations were performed in a fused uncoated silica capillary (32 cm total length, 23.5 cm effective length, and 50 μm internal diameter) with direct UV detection at 200 nm. Samples and standards were injected hydrodynamically using 40 mbar/3 s interspersed with spacer electrolyte using 40 mbar/7 s. The electrophoretic system was operated under constant voltage of 30 kV with positive polarity on the injection side. The evaluation of some analytical parameters of the method showed good linearity (r2 > 0.999), a limit of detection 0.92 mg L−1, intermediate precision better than 3.2% (peak area), and recovery in the range of 92–102%. PMID:27069712

  5. Injectivity Testing for Vapour Dominated Feed Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Clotworthy, A.W.; Hingoyon, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Wells with vapor dominated feed zones yield abnormal pressure data. This is caused by the condensation of vapor during water injection. A revised injectivity test procedure currently applied by PNOC at the Leyte Geothermal Power Project has improved the injectivity test results.

  6. Persulfate injection into a gasoline source zone.

    PubMed

    Sra, Kanwartej S; Thomson, Neil R; Barker, Jim F

    2013-07-01

    One pore volume of unactivated sodium persulfate was delivered into an emplaced gasoline residual source zone at CFB Borden. Concentrations of inorganic species (S2O8(2-), SO4(2-), Na(+), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)) and selected gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene) were monitored across a transect equipped with 90 multilevel sampling points for >10months post-injection. Mass loading (M˙) of compounds constructed from the transect data was used for assessment purposes. Breakthrough of inorganic species was observed when the injection slug crossed the monitoring transect. An increase in [Formula: see text] indicated persulfate consumption during oxidation of gasoline compounds or degradation due to the interaction with aquifer materials. M˙DIC increased by >100% suggesting some mineralization of gasoline compounds during treatment. Mass loading for all the monitored gasoline compounds reduced by 46 to 86% as the inorganic slug crossed the monitoring transect. The cumulative mass discharge across the monitoring transect was 19 to 58% lower than that expected without persulfate injection. After the inorganic injection slug was flushed from the source zone a partial rebound (40 to 80% of baseline levels) of mass discharge of the monitored gasoline compounds was observed. The ensemble of data collected provides insight into the fate and transport of the injected persulfate solution, and the accompanying treatment of a gasoline the source zone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Magnetic detection of ferrofluid injection zones

    SciTech Connect

    Borglin, S.; Moridis, G.; Becker, A.

    1998-03-01

    Ferrofluids are stable colloidal suspensions of magnetic particles that can be stabilized in various carrier liquids. In this study the authors investigate the potential of ferrofluids to trace the movement and position of liquids injected in the subsurface using geophysical methods. An ability to track and monitor the movement and position of injected liquids is essential in assessing the effectiveness of the delivery system and the success of the process. Ferrofluids can also provide a significant detection and verification tool in containment technologies, where they can be injected with the barrier liquids to provide a strong signature allowing determination of the barrier geometry, extent, continuity and integrity. Finally, ferrofluids may have unique properties as tracers for detecting preferential flow features (such as fractures) in the subsurface, and thus allow the design of more effective remediation systems. In this report the authors review the results of the investigation of the potential of ferrofluids to trace the movement and position of liquids injected in the subsurface using geophysical methods. They demonstrate the feasibility of using conventional magnetometry for detecting subsurface zones of injected ferrofluids used to trace liquids injected for remediation or barrier formation. The geometrical shapes considered were a sphere, a thin disk, a rectangular horizontal slab, and a cylinder. Simple calculations based on the principles of magnetometry are made to determine the detection depths of FTs. Experiments involving spherical, cylindrical and horizontal slabs show a very good agreement between predictions and measurements.

  8. Diesel engine emissions reduction by multiple injections having increasing pressure

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf D.; Thiel, Matthew P.

    2003-01-01

    Multiple fuel charges are injected into a diesel engine combustion chamber during a combustion cycle, and each charge after the first has successively greater injection pressure (a higher injection rate) than the prior charge. This injection scheme results in reduced emissions, particularly particulate emissions, and can be implemented by modifying existing injection system hardware. Further enhancements in emissions reduction and engine performance can be obtained by using known measures in conjunction with the invention, such as Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR).

  9. Multiple-orifice liquid injection into hypersonic air streams.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, W. L.

    1972-01-01

    Review of oblique water and fluorocarbon injection test results obtained in experimental studies of the effects of multiple-orifice liquid injection into hypersonic air streams. The results include the finding that maximum lateral penetration from such injections increases linearly with the square root of the jet-to-freestream dynamic-pressure ratio and is proportional to an equivalent orifice diameter.

  10. Flow injection titration basing on the merging-zone technique.

    PubMed

    Wójtowicz, Marzena; Kozak, Joanna; Danielewska, Karolina; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2009-09-15

    The proposed approach relies on titration of a sample that is gradually diluted in strictly controlled way in the flow injection system developed. On each step of sample dilution equal volumes of the sample and titrant solutions are simultaneously injected into two carrier streams and the zones are merged with each other. Then, they are mixed completely in the mixing chamber, merged with a stream of indicator and directed to a detector. It has been revealed that the method provides the results with accuracy better than +/-3.3% (RE) and with mean repeatability lower than 1.0% (RSD). When the analyte concentration in a sample is too low to be determined directly, the procedure of titration with standard addition is exploited. The proposed approach has been successfully applied to the determination of total acidity in vinegar and magnesium and calcium in pharmaceutical products. The results obtained were comparable with those provided by the reference methods. The proposed procedure is characterized by low consumption of sample (usually less than 2 mL), titrant (about 3 mL) and indicator (about 0.6 mL). Average time of a single analysis is similar to time of traditional batch analysis.

  11. Separation window dependent multiple injection (SWDMI) for large scale analysis of therapeutic antibody N-glycans.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Zsuzsanna; Szarka, Máté; Szigeti, Márton; Guttman, András

    2016-09-05

    There is a growing demand in the biopharmaceutical industry for large scale N-glycosylation analysis of biotherapeutics, especially monoclonal antibodies. To fulfill this high throughput analysis requirement with single column separation systems in most instances require finishing the entire analysis cycle including conditioning, injection and separation between sample injections. While in liquid chromatography it represents a challenge, multiple sample injection in capillary electrophoresis has already been demonstrated for one or two sample components by utilizing the concept of introducing sequential sample and buffer zones into the capillary tubing before the start of the separation process. It was also demonstrated in CE-MS mode, mostly to follow one sample component, identified by precise mass measurement. Here we introduce a novel multiple injection approach for rapid large scale capillary electrophoresis analysis of samples with biopharmaceutical interest supporting multicomponent optical detection with laser induced fluorescence. In Separation Window Dependent Multiple Injection (SWDMI) mode, the samples are consecutively injected in predefined time intervals, based on the window that covers the separation of all sample components. As a practical example, this newly developed SWDMI protocol was applied to rapid and large scale analysis of APTS labeled monoclonal antibody N-glycans using a short (20cm effective length) capillary column. Full analysis of 96 samples (injected from a well plate) was obtained in 4h, in contrast to consecutive individual separation cycle processing of the same samples that required 12h. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Freja observations of multiple injection events in cusp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberg, O.; Yamauchi, M.; Eliasson, L.; Lundin, R.

    The TICS (Three-dimensional Ion Composition Spectrometer) instrument on board the Freja satellite provides particle data with high spatial, temporal, spectral, and mass resolution. The Freja orbit (inclination 63°) is suitable for studies of the cusp since the satellite traverses this region longitudinally when the cusp is located lower than 75° geomagnetic latitude, i.e. when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) points southward. The satellite traverses the dayside polar region during two weeks every 100 days due to orbit precession, and nearly 50 cusp traversals were recorded during the first year of operation. Both multiple injections and single injections are clearly identified and distinguished, the former being more frequently observed than the latter. Freja has also resolved overlapping injections (special cases of multiple injections), for the first time at low altitudes.

  13. Multiple pulse injection of a picosecond regenerative ring amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Paddock, C.A.; Russell, G.F.; Voss, D.F.; Miles, R.B.

    1984-04-01

    We report the development of a neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet regenerative ring amplifier seeded by multiple pulse injection. This method of injection allows us to avoid the difficulties and expense of low-power, single-pulse selection. We observed output energy up to 0.6 mJ/pulse ( +- 5% fluctuation). A saturable absorber in the cavity allowed compression down to 55 ps.

  14. Proposed Injection into “Thief” Zone in EE-3

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, Robert M.; Grigsby, Charles O.

    1983-08-18

    This report seeks to understand the nature of the "thief" zone inside the EE-3 by pumping 150-200K gallons of heated water into that zone. The questions they seek to answer are; does the thief zone represent a potential danger to future operations in the form of earthquakes, aquifers, damage to equipment or tubulars, or require that it be sealed; is a connection into the the thief zone from EE-2 a disaster point; could the connection into the thief zone provide a low back-pressure condition.

  15. Numerical Modeling of Wastewater Injection in the Denver Basin combined disposal zone in northeast Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. R. M.; Ge, S.; Sheehan, A. F.

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies have correlated seismicity with high rate injection at Underground Injection Control Class II wastewater disposal wells. In this study, we examine the impact of injection in the Denver Basin combined disposal zone that is used by numerous Class II wells. The disposal zone includes the Lyons Formation, a sandstone unit, and the Fountain Formation, an arkose unit just above the basement. Within a 30-km radius of the deep Class II injection well (NGL C4A) closest to the June 1, 2014 M3.2 Greeley earthquake, there are fifteen deep wastewater disposal wells injecting into the disposal zone and two shallow wastewater disposal wells injecting into the Lyons Formation only. One of the shallow wells is located at the same disposal facility as NGL-C4A and started injection in October 2004; the earliest deep injection in this region, at well NGL-C6, began in November 2007. The major episode of seismicity in the area started in November 2013. The timing of injection operation and seismicity occurrence raises several questions. Why did seismicity not begin in the area until nearly 10 years after the start of injection? Nine of the deep wastewater disposal wells began injection after the M3.2 earthquake on June 1, 2014; how does the large increase in the number of injection wells in the area change the pore-pressure in the disposal zone? How does the injection from the various wells interact? Does this increase the chances of induced seismicity? We conduct numerical modeling of 18 injection wells from 2004 to 2016 to explore these questions by better understanding the pore-pressure changes through time, pore-pressure changes in areas of induced earthquakes, and the interactions between injection wells. We include the asymmetry of the basin geometry in the model. We also use this case study to refine how well spacing and injection rate influences the occurrence of induced earthquakes.

  16. Multiple beam phased array for Space Station Control Zone Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halsema, P. B.

    The Space Station Communications Control Zone is a disk shaped region 40 nautical miles in diameter and 10 nautical miles thick centered about the Space Station. It is estimated that 6 simultaneous Multiple Access (MA) channels will be required to satisfy the projected communications needs within this zone. These channels will be used to communicate with MA users located anywhere within the Control Zone. This paper details the tradeoffs and design implementation of a multiple beam integrated phased array to provide antenna coverage of the Control Zone. The array is a compact, modular assembly using Gallium Arsenide circuits, microstrip elements, and advanced packaging techniques. This results in a small, reliable antenna system capable of meeting the projected Space Station requirements and flexible enough to grow and evolve as the Space Station communications needs develop.

  17. Parental attitudes toward multiple poliovirus injections following a provider recommendation.

    PubMed

    Kolasa, M S; Bisgard, K M; Prevots, D R; Desai, S N; Dibling, K

    2001-01-01

    Changes to the polio vaccination schedule, first to a sequential inactivated poliovirus/oral poliovirus (IPV/OPV) schedule in 1996 and most recently to an all-IPV schedule, require infants to receive additional injections. Some surveys show parental hesitation concerning extra injections, whereas others show that parents prefer multiple simultaneous injections over extra immunization visits. This study describes parental behavior and attitudes about the poliovirus vaccine recommendations and additional injections at the 2- and 4-month immunization visits. Beginning July 1, 1996, providers in eight public health clinics in Cobb and Douglas Counties, Georgia, informed parents of polio vaccination options and recommended the IPV/OPV sequential schedule. A cross-sectional clinic exit survey was conducted from July 15, 1996, to January 31, 1997, with parents whose infants (younger than 6 months) were eligible for a first poliovirus vaccination. Of approximately 405 eligible infants, parents of 293 infants were approached for an interview, and 227 agreed to participate. Of those 227 participants, 210 (92%) parents chose IPV for their infant and 17 (8%) chose OPV. Of greatest concern to most parents was vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP) (155, or 68.3%); the next greatest concern was an extra injection (22, or 9.7%). These parental concerns were unrelated to the number of injections the infant actually received. After receiving information on polio vaccination options and a provider recommendation, parents overwhelmingly chose IPV over OPV. Concern about VAPP was more common than objection to an extra injection. The additional injection that results from using IPV for an infant's first poliovirus vaccination appears to be acceptable to most parents.

  18. Patient satisfaction with an injection device for multiple sclerosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Cramer, J A; Cuffel, B J; Divan, V; Al-Sabbagh, A; Glassman, M

    2006-03-01

    To develop a measure of treatment satisfaction assessing attributes specific to injected interferon-beta-1a (IFN-beta-1a) for multiple sclerosis (MS), and to test pain and instrument sensitivity to change among patients changing injection devices. The MS Treatment Concerns Questionnaire (MSTCQ) was developed and tested with pain assessments before and 3 months after patients changed devices from Rebiject to Rebiject II. The MSTCQ was organized with two domains: Injection System Satisfaction and Side Effects (three subscales: Injection Site Reactions, Global Satisfaction, and Flu-Like Symptoms). Significant improvements (P = 0.002 to P < 0.001) occurred with the new injection device in all MSTCQ subscales (except Flu-Like Symptoms), and all pain measures (P < 0.0001). Clinically meaningful improvement was demonstrated in all scales, except Flu-Like Symptoms, by effect sizes (0.23-0.59). These statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements in MSTCQ and pain measures show the value of technologically advanced devices in domains of concern to patients.

  19. Measurement of injectivity indexes in geothermal wells with two permeable zones

    SciTech Connect

    Acuna, Jorge A.

    1994-01-20

    Injectivity tests in wells with two permeable zones and internal flow is analyzed in order to include the usually severe thermal transient effects. A theoretical analysis is performed and a method devised to obtain information from the thermal transient, provided that temperature is measured simultaneously with pressure. The technique is illustrated with two real tests performed at Miravalles, Costa Rica. It allows to estimate total injectivity index as well as the injectivity index of each one of the two zones separately. Correct position of measuring tools and nature of spontaneous internal flow is also discussed.

  20. Constructing a MEZOPED (Multiple Electronic Zone of Proximal Development).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murfin, Brian

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical background for using computer-mediated communication to link children and scientists in a multiple electronic zone of proximal development. It is postulated that students will be able to perform at higher cognitive levels as a result of this increased interment contact with many adults. (LZ)

  1. Multiple-Zone Diffractive Optic Element for Laser Ranging Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis A.

    2011-01-01

    A diffractive optic element (DOE) can be used as a beam splitter to generate multiple laser beams from a single input laser beam. This technology has been recently used in LRO s Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument to generate five laser beams that measure the lunar topography from a 50-km nominal mapping orbit (see figure). An extension of this approach is to use a multiple-zone DOE to allow a laser altimeter instrument to operate over a wider range of distances. In particular, a multiple-zone DOE could be used for applications that require both mapping and landing on a planetary body. In this case, the laser altimeter operating range would need to extend from several hundred kilometers down to a few meters. The innovator was recently involved in an investigation how to modify the LOLA instrument for the OSIRIS asteroid mapping and sample return mission. One approach is to replace the DOE in the LOLA laser beam expander assembly with a multiple-zone DOE that would allow for the simultaneous illumination of the asteroid with mapping and landing laser beams. The proposed OSIRIS multiple-zone DOE would generate the same LOLA five-beam output pattern for high-altitude topographic mapping, but would simultaneously generate a wide divergence angle beam using a small portion of the total laser energy for the approach and landing portion of the mission. Only a few percent of the total laser energy is required for approach and landing operations as the return signal increases as the inverse square of the ranging height. A wide divergence beam could be implemented by making the center of the DOE a diffractive or refractive negative lens. The beam energy and beam divergence characteristics of a multiple-zone DOE could be easily tailored to meet the requirements of other missions that require laser ranging data. Current single-zone DOE lithographic manufacturing techniques could also be used to fabricate a multiple-zone DOE by masking the different DOE zones during

  2. Multiple collagenase injections are safe for treatment of Dupuytren's contractures.

    PubMed

    Gajendran, Varun K; Hentz, Vincent; Kenney, Deborah; Curtin, Catherine M

    2014-07-01

    The authors report the case of a 65-year-old, right-hand-dominant man who had severe Dupuytren's disease with multiple cords and flexion contractures of the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints of both hands and underwent repeated collagenase injections for treatment. Collagenase has been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of Dupuytren's contractures when administered as a single dose, but the results of multiple injections over a prolonged period are unknown. Antibodies to collagenase develop in all patients after several treatments, raising concerns about safety and efficacy as a result of sensitization from repeated exposures. The antibodies generated as a result of repeated exposure to collagenase could theoretically render it less effective with time and could also lead to immune reactions as severe as anaphylaxis. The authors present the case of a single patient who experienced continued correction of his contractures with only minor and self-limited adverse reactions after administration of 12 collagenase doses through 15 injections during a 4-year period. Over time, the injections continued to be effective at correcting metacarpophalangeal joint contractures, but less effective at correcting proximal interphalangeal joint contractures. The patient did eventually require a fasciectomy, but the safety and modest success of the repeated collagenase injections shows promise for a less invasive treatment with a better risk profile than open fasciectomy. Although further studies are needed, repeated administration of collagenase appears to be safe and modestly effective for severe Dupuytren's contractures, although a fasciectomy may ultimately be required in the most severe cases.

  3. Induced seismicity and CO2 leakage through fault zones during large-scale underground injection in a multilayered sedimentary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pio Rinaldi, Antonio; Rutqvist, Jonny; Jeanne, Pierre; Cappa, Frederic; Guglielmi, Yves

    2014-05-01

    Overpressure caused by the direct injection of CO2 into a deep sedimentary system may produce changes in the state of stress, as well as, have an impact on the sealing capabilities of the targeted system. The importance of geomechanics including the potential for reactivating faults associated with large-scale geologic carbon sequestration operations has recently become more widely recognized. However, not withstanding the potential for triggering notable (felt) seismic events, the potential for buoyancy-driven CO2 to reach potable groundwater and the ground surface is more important from safety and storage-efficiency perspectives. In this context, this work extends previous studies on the geomechanical modeling of fault responses during underground carbon dioxide injection, focusing on both short- and long-term integrity of the sealing caprock, and hence of potential leakage of either brine or CO2 to shallow groundwater aquifers during active injection. The first part of this work aims to study the fault responses during underground carbon dioxide injection, focusing on the short-term (5 years) integrity of the CO2 repository, and hence on the potential leakage of CO2 to shallow groundwater aquifers. Increased pore pressure can alter the stress distribution on a fault/fracture zone, which may produce changes in the permeability related to the elastic and/or plastic strain (or stress) during single (or multiple) shear ruptures. We account for stress/strain-dependent permeability and study the leakage through the fault zone as its permeability changes along with strain and stress variations. We analyze several scenarios related to the injected amount of CO2 (and hence related to potential overpressure) involving both involving minor and major faults, and analyze the profile risks of leakage for different stress/strain permeability coupling functions, as well as increasing the complexity of the system in terms of hydromechanical heterogeneities. We conclude that

  4. Field characterization of elastic properties across a fault zone reactivated by fluid injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanne, Pierre; Guglielmi, Yves; Rutqvist, Jonny; Nussbaum, Christophe; Birkholzer, Jens

    2017-08-01

    We studied the elastic properties of a fault zone intersecting the Opalinus Clay formation at 300 m depth in the Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory (Switzerland). Four controlled water injection experiments were performed in borehole straddle intervals set at successive locations across the fault zone. A three-component displacement sensor, which allowed capturing the borehole wall movements during injection, was used to estimate the elastic properties of representative locations across the fault zone, from the host rock to the damage zone to the fault core. Young's moduli were estimated by both an analytical approach and numerical finite difference modeling. Results show a decrease in Young's modulus from the host rock to the damage zone by a factor of 5 and from the damage zone to the fault core by a factor of 2. In the host rock, our results are in reasonable agreement with laboratory data showing a strong elastic anisotropy characterized by the direction of the plane of isotropy parallel to the laminar structure of the shale formation. In the fault zone, strong rotations of the direction of anisotropy can be observed. The plane of isotropy can be oriented either parallel to bedding (when few discontinuities are present), parallel to the direction of the main fracture family intersecting the zone, and possibly oriented parallel or perpendicular to the fractures critically oriented for shear reactivation (when repeated past rupture along this plane has created a zone).

  5. Grid orientation effects in the simulation of cold water injection into depleted vapor zones

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.

    1991-01-01

    A considerable body of field experience with injection has been accumulated at Larderello, Italy and The Geysers, California; the results have been mixed. There are well documented cases where injection has increased flow rates of nearby wells. Return of injected fluid as steam from production wells has been observed directly through chemical and isotopic changes of produced fluids (Giovannoni et al., 1981; Nuti et al., 1981). In other cases injection has caused thermal interference and has degraded the temperature and pressure of production wells. Water injection into depleted vapor zones gives rise to complex two-phase fluid flow and heat transfer processes with phase change. These are further complicated by the fractured-porous nature of the reservoir rocks. An optimization of injection design and operating practice is desirable; this requires realistic and robust mathematical modeling capabilities.

  6. Intelligent emissions controller for substance injection in the post-primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers

    DOEpatents

    Reifman, Jaques; Feldman, Earl E.; Wei, Thomas Y. C.; Glickert, Roger W.

    2003-01-01

    The control of emissions from fossil-fired boilers wherein an injection of substances above the primary combustion zone employs multi-layer feedforward artificial neural networks for modeling static nonlinear relationships between the distribution of injected substances into the upper region of the furnace and the emissions exiting the furnace. Multivariable nonlinear constrained optimization algorithms use the mathematical expressions from the artificial neural networks to provide the optimal substance distribution that minimizes emission levels for a given total substance injection rate. Based upon the optimal operating conditions from the optimization algorithms, the incremental substance cost per unit of emissions reduction, and the open-market price per unit of emissions reduction, the intelligent emissions controller allows for the determination of whether it is more cost-effective to achieve additional increments in emission reduction through the injection of additional substance or through the purchase of emission credits on the open market. This is of particular interest to fossil-fired electrical power plant operators. The intelligent emission controller is particularly adapted for determining the economical control of such pollutants as oxides of nitrogen (NO.sub.x) and carbon monoxide (CO) emitted by fossil-fired boilers by the selective introduction of multiple inputs of substances (such as natural gas, ammonia, oil, water-oil emulsion, coal-water slurry and/or urea, and combinations of these substances) above the primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers.

  7. Multiple Convergence Zone Acoustic Telemetry Feasibility Test Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    oseq oseqr body Multiple Convergence Zone Acoustic Telemetry Feasibility Tesi ReportNovemrber 6. 199153 53 pack oseq=[ipfill([- 1 1 -1I1 -1 -111 -1 -1...Convergpnce Zonc Acoumtic Telcmetry Feasibdity Tesi Rertm.Nvcmbcr 6, 199180 80 oseq=oseq.*exp((sqrt(- I )*2*pi*(fO/fs))*(O: 1 :length(oseq)- I)); pnstrn...Stella Sanchez -Wade Pell Marine Science Library Documents Section University of Rhode Island Scripps Institution of Oceanography Narragansett Bay Campus

  8. Effects of multiple-injection of bone marrow mononuclear cells on spinal cord injury of rats.

    PubMed

    Kanekiyo, Kenji; Nakano, Norihiko; Homma, Tamami; Yamada, Yoshihiro; Tamachi, Masahiro; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Fukushima, Masanori; Saito, Fukuki; Ide, Chizuka

    2017-03-28

    The effects of multiple-injection of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMNCs) on spinal cord injury (SCI) were compared with those of single-injection in rats. BMNCs separated by density-gradient centrifugation from a bone marrow perfusate were injected 3 times (once weekly) through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via the 4th ventricle, and the locomotor improvement and tissue recovery, including axonal regeneration, were compared with those of single-injection. While the single-injection group showed a steep elevation of the BBB (Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan) score 1 week after transplantation, the multiple-injection group maintained a similar steep elevation for 2 weeks after transplantation, and the BBB scores of the multiple-injection group remained thereafter at a level around 2-3 points higher than those of the single-injection group until the end of the experiment. There were significant differences between the single- and multiple-injection groups at 3, 4, and 8 weeks after transplantation. The difference of BBB scores at 8 weeks after transplantation suggested that there was a marked difference in the quality of locomotor behaviors between the single-and multiple-injection groups at this stage. An extensive outgrowth of regenerating axons through the astrocyte-devoid areas, and a marked reduction of cavity formation were found in both the single- and multiple-injection groups. There were, however, no significant differences in the density of regenerating axons or volumes of cavities between the single- and multiple-injection groups. These results showed that, although tissue recoveries were similar between single- and multiple-injection, the multiple-injection of BMNCs was more beneficial for locomotor improvement than single-injection for the treatment of SCI. Considering the technically simple and low-cost procedures for the preparation and injection of BMNCs, multiple-injection of BMNCs by lumbar puncture has an advantage over single-injection on clinical

  9. Multiple dopant injection system for small rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakala, G. G.; Raines, N. G.

    1992-01-01

    The Diagnostics Test Facility (DTF) at NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) was designed and built to provide a standard rocket engine exhaust plume for use in the research and development of engine health monitoring instrumentation. A 1000 lb thrust class liquid oxygen (LOX)-gaseous hydrogen (GH2) fueled rocket engine is used as the subscale plume source to simulate the SSME during experimentation and instrument development. The ability of the DTF to provide efficient, and low cost test operations makes it uniquely suited for plume diagnostic experimentation. The most unique feature of the DTF is the Multiple Dopant Injection System (MDIS) that is used to seed the exhaust plume with the desired element or metal alloy. The dopant injection takes place at the fuel injector, yielding a very uniform and homogeneous distribution of the seeding material in the exhaust plume. The MDIS allows during a single test firing of the DTF, the seeding of the exhaust plume with up to three different dopants and also provides distilled water base lines between the dopants. A number of plume diagnostic-related experiments have already utilized the unique capabilities of the DTF.

  10. Multiple dopant injection system for small rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakala, G. G.; Raines, N. G.

    1992-07-01

    The Diagnostics Test Facility (DTF) at NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) was designed and built to provide a standard rocket engine exhaust plume for use in the research and development of engine health monitoring instrumentation. A 1000 lb thrust class liquid oxygen (LOX)-gaseous hydrogen (GH2) fueled rocket engine is used as the subscale plume source to simulate the SSME during experimentation and instrument development. The ability of the DTF to provide efficient, and low cost test operations makes it uniquely suited for plume diagnostic experimentation. The most unique feature of the DTF is the Multiple Dopant Injection System (MDIS) that is used to seed the exhaust plume with the desired element or metal alloy. The dopant injection takes place at the fuel injector, yielding a very uniform and homogeneous distribution of the seeding material in the exhaust plume. The MDIS allows during a single test firing of the DTF, the seeding of the exhaust plume with up to three different dopants and also provides distilled water base lines between the dopants. A number of plume diagnostic-related experiments have already utilized the unique capabilities of the DTF.

  11. Changes in permeability of the Nojima fault damage zone inferred from repeated water injection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, Yuichi; Kano, Yasuyuki

    2016-11-01

    In 1995, the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake ( M 7.3) ruptured the Nojima fault, Awaji Island, central Japan. To investigate the recovery process of a fault zone after a large earthquake, repeated water injection experiments have been conducted every few years in an 1800-m-long borehole near the Nojima fault since 1997. In addition, the groundwater discharge rate and pressure have been observed in an 800-m borehole. From the resulting data, the macroscopic permeability of the fault fracture zone was estimated to range roughly from 1 × 10-6 to 2 × 10-6 m/s. The macroscopic permeability of the fault fracture zone decreased until 2003, and then, it stabilized or increased slightly through 2006. These changes in permeability indicate that the fault fracture zone stabilized within 8 years after the occurrence of the earthquake.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Effect of inert gas injection on gas explosion in the process of sealing fire zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li-li; Li, Cheng-yu

    2017-03-01

    In order to study the influence of inert gas injection to gas explosion in the process of fire zone sealing, tunnel fire model was established by COMSOL software, and numerical simulation is carried out to study change laws of flow field and concentration field in the process of fire zone sealing. Through comparing the distribution law of flow field and concentration field whether the inert gas injection and different flows, obtained the influence of inert gas injection to gas explosion in the process of fire zone sealing. As the decrease of entrance average wind speed, the maximum wind speed in the centre vertical section of tunnel gradually reduces. when the entrance average wind speed is 1m/s, counter current layer is produced near the fire resource, length and thickness of counter current layer and maximum current speed rises with the declining of the entrance average wind speed, and swirl will be formed when the entrance average wind speed is less than 0.01m/s. In the process of fire zone sealing, the maximum gas concentration in the fire area and on the side of leeward goes up with the declining of the entrance average wind speed, the nitrogen concentration will gradually increase with the declining of entrance average wind speed.

  13. Investigation of Diesel combustion using multiple injection strategies for idling after cold start of passenger-car engines

    SciTech Connect

    Payri, F.; Broatch, A.; Salavert, J.M.; Martin, J.

    2010-10-15

    A comprehensive investigation was carried out in order to better understand the combustion behaviour in a low compression ratio DI Diesel engine when multiple injection strategies are applied just after the engine cold starts in low temperature conditions (idling). More specifically, the aim of this study was twofold: on one hand, to understand the effect of the multiple injection strategies on the indicated mean effective pressure; on the other hand, to contribute to the understanding of combustion stability characterized by the coefficient of variation of indicated mean effective pressure. The first objective was fulfilled by analyzing the rate of heat release obtained by in-cylinder pressure diagnosis. The results showed that the timing of the pilot injection closest to the main injection was the most influential parameter based on the behaviour of the rate of heat release (regardless of the multiple injection strategy applied). For the second objective, the combustion stability was found to be correlated with the combustion centroid angle. The results showed a trend between them and the existence of a range of centroid angles where the combustion stability is strong enough. In addition, it was also evident that convenient split injection allows shifting the centroid to such a zone and improves combustion stability after start. (author)

  14. Hydraulic performance analysis of a multiple injection-extraction well system

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Jian; Wu, Weimin; Carley, Jack M; Ruan, Chuanmin; Gu, Baohua; Jardine, Philip M; Criddle, Craig; Kitanidis, Peter K

    2007-01-01

    Investigating the hydraulic performance of the flow field created by a multiple injection extraction well system for groundwater remediation requires the design of novel strategies for tracer testing and efficient modeling. In this work, we report on tracer tests conducted in a well system comprising two injection and two extraction wells designed for an in situ bioremediation of uranium at Oak Ridge, TN, about 2 years after the start of operation. The domain of the flow field can be divided into an inner cell, an outer cell, and transition zones. To characterize advective dispersive transport, two tracer tests were performed with the injection of bromide solution. The system was operated as during groundwater remediation, and the tracer was partially recirculated. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) were measured in the extraction wells and the multi-level sampling (MLS) ports. The methods of transfer function and temporal moments were implemented to analyze the BTCs. By jointly evaluating the temporal moments of the BTCs in the extraction wells, we can conveniently estimate the recirculating flow fractions in different zones. This approach does not require the detailed characterization of the flow field. The parameters of transfer functions fitted at the MLS wells indicate the flow field may have changed over the tracer test period. This observation indicates that bioremediation influences the flow field even when the well pumping rates are kept constant, which suggests that aquifer characterization may need to be repeated during bioremediation. The methods of transfer functions and temporal moments with tracer tests are flexible, economical, and well-suited to evaluate the performance of the system during long periods of remediation.

  15. Enhancing resolution of free-flow zone electrophoresis via a simple sheath-flow sample injection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Kong, Fan-Zhi; Liu, Ji; Li, Jun-Min; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Li, Guo-Qing; Wang, Ju-Fang; Xiao, Hua; Fan, Liu-Yin; Cao, Cheng-Xi; Li, Shan

    2016-07-01

    In this work, a simple and novel sheath-flow sample injection method (SFSIM) is introduced to reduce the band broadening of free-flow zone electrophoresis separation in newly developed self-balance free-flow electrophoresis instrument. A needle injector was placed in the center of the separation inlet, into which the BGE and sample solution were pumped simultaneously. BGE formed sheath flow outside the sample stream, resulting in less band broadening related to hydrodynamics and electrodynamics. Hemoglobin and C-phycocyanin were successfully separated by the proposed method in contrast to the poor separation of free-flow electrophoresis with the traditional injection method without sheath flow. About 3.75 times resolution enhancement could be achieved by sheath-flow sample injection method.

  16. Mitigation of thermoacoustic instability utilizing steady air injection near the flame anchoring zone

    SciTech Connect

    Murat Altay, H.; Hudgins, Duane E.; Speth, Raymond L.; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2010-04-15

    The objective of this work is to investigate the effectiveness of steady air injection near the flame anchoring zone in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities driven by flame-vortex interaction mechanism. We perform a systematic experimental study which involves using two different configurations of air injection in an atmospheric pressure backward-facing step combustor. The first configuration utilizes a row of micro-diameter holes allowing for air injection in the cross-stream direction just upstream of the step. The second configuration utilizes an array of micro-diameter holes located on the face of the step, allowing for air injection in the streamwise direction. The effects of each of these configurations are analyzed to determine which one is more effective in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities at different operating conditions. The tests are conducted while varying the equivalence ratio and the inlet temperature. The secondary air temperature is always the same as the inlet temperature. We used pure propane or propane/hydrogen mixtures as fuels. Combustion dynamics are explored through simultaneous pressure and heat release-rate measurements, and high-speed video images. When the equivalence ratio of the reactant mixture is high, it causes the flame to flashback towards the inlet channel. When air is injected in the cross-stream direction, the flame anchors slightly upstream of the step, which suppresses the instability. When air is injected in the streamwise direction near the edge of step, thermoacoustic instability could be eliminated at an optimum secondary air flow rate, which depends on the operating conditions. When effective, the streamwise air injection prevents the shedding of an unsteady vortex, thus eliminating the flame-vortex interaction mechanism and resulting in a compact, stable flame to form near the step. (author)

  17. Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis of SQ Injection Using Multiple Chromatographic Technologies.

    PubMed

    Chau, Siu-Leung; Huang, Zhi-Bing; Song, Yan-Gang; Yue, Rui-Qi; Ho, Alan; Lin, Chao-Zhan; Huang, Wen-Hua; Han, Quan-Bin

    2016-08-19

    Quality control of Chinese medicine injections remains a challenge due to our poor knowledge of their complex chemical profile. This study aims to investigate the chemical composition of one of the best-selling injections, Shenqi Fuzheng (SQ) injection (SQI), via a full component quantitative analysis. A total of 15 representative small molecular components of SQI were simultaneously determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with quadrupole tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS); saccharide composition of SQI was also quantitatively determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) on an amino column before and after acid hydrolysis. The existence of polysaccharides was also examined on a gel permeation chromatography column. The method was well validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability, and was successfully applied to analyze 13 SQI samples. The results demonstrate that up to 94.69% (w/w) of this injection product are quantitatively determined, in which small molecules and monosaccharide/sucrose account for 0.18%-0.21%, and 53.49%-58.2%, respectively. The quantitative information contributes to accumulating scientific evidence to better understand the therapy efficacy and safety of complex Chinese medicine injections.

  18. A discrete-choice experiment to determine patient preferences for injectable multiple sclerosis treatments in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Poulos, Christine; Kinter, Elizabeth; Yang, Jui-Chen; Bridges, John F. P.; Posner, Joshua; Gleißner, Erika; Mühlbacher, Axel; Kieseier, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the relative importance of features of a hypothetical injectable disease-modifying treatment for patients with multiple sclerosis using a discrete-choice experiment. Methods: German residents at least 18 years of age with a self-reported physician diagnosis of multiple sclerosis completed a 25–30 minute online discrete-choice experiment. Patients were asked to choose one of two hypothetical injectable treatments for multiple sclerosis, defined by different levels of six attributes (disability progression, the number of relapses in the next 4 years, injection time, frequency of injections, presence of flu-like symptoms, and presence of injection-site reactions). The data were analyzed using a random-parameters logit model. Results: Of 202 adults who completed the survey, results from 189 were used in the analysis. Approximately 50% of all patients reported a diagnosis of relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis, and 31% reported secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Approximately 71% of patients had current or prior experience with injectable multiple sclerosis medication. Approximately 53% had experienced flu-like symptoms caused by their medication, and 47% had experienced mild injection-site reactions. At least one significant difference was seen between levels in all attributes, except injection time. The greatest change in relative importance between levels of an attribute was years until symptoms get worse from 1 to 4 years. The magnitude of this difference was about twice that of relapses in the next 4 years, frequency of injections, and flu-like symptoms. Conclusions: Most attributes examined in this experiment had an influence on patient preference. Patients placed a significant value on improvements in the frequency of dosing and disability progression. Results suggest that changes in injection frequency can be as important as changes in efficacy and safety attributes. Understanding which attributes of

  19. A discrete-choice experiment to determine patient preferences for injectable multiple sclerosis treatments in Germany.

    PubMed

    Poulos, Christine; Kinter, Elizabeth; Yang, Jui-Chen; Bridges, John F P; Posner, Joshua; Gleißner, Erika; Mühlbacher, Axel; Kieseier, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relative importance of features of a hypothetical injectable disease-modifying treatment for patients with multiple sclerosis using a discrete-choice experiment. German residents at least 18 years of age with a self-reported physician diagnosis of multiple sclerosis completed a 25-30 minute online discrete-choice experiment. Patients were asked to choose one of two hypothetical injectable treatments for multiple sclerosis, defined by different levels of six attributes (disability progression, the number of relapses in the next 4 years, injection time, frequency of injections, presence of flu-like symptoms, and presence of injection-site reactions). The data were analyzed using a random-parameters logit model. Of 202 adults who completed the survey, results from 189 were used in the analysis. Approximately 50% of all patients reported a diagnosis of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and 31% reported secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Approximately 71% of patients had current or prior experience with injectable multiple sclerosis medication. Approximately 53% had experienced flu-like symptoms caused by their medication, and 47% had experienced mild injection-site reactions. At least one significant difference was seen between levels in all attributes, except injection time. The greatest change in relative importance between levels of an attribute was years until symptoms get worse from 1 to 4 years. The magnitude of this difference was about twice that of relapses in the next 4 years, frequency of injections, and flu-like symptoms. Most attributes examined in this experiment had an influence on patient preference. Patients placed a significant value on improvements in the frequency of dosing and disability progression. Results suggest that changes in injection frequency can be as important as changes in efficacy and safety attributes. Understanding which attributes of injectable therapies influence patient

  20. Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation

    DOEpatents

    Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-02-26

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation through at least one production well that is located in at least two zones in the formation. The first zone has an initial permeability of at least 1 darcy. The second zone has an initial of at most 0.1 darcy. The two zones are separated by a substantially impermeable barrier.

  1. Neural Network approach to assess the thermal affected zone around the injection well in a groundwater heat pump system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Russo, Stefano; Taddia, Glenda; Verda, Vittorio

    2014-05-01

    The common use of well doublets for groundwater-sourced heating or cooling results in a thermal plume of colder or warmer re-injected groundwater known as the Thermal Affected Zone(TAZ). The plumes may be regarded either as a potential anthropogenic geothermal resource or as pollution, depending on downstream aquifer usage. A fundamental aspect in groundwater heat pump (GWHP) plant design is the correct evaluation of the thermally affected zone that develops around the injection well. Temperature anomalies are detected through numerical methods. Crucial elements in the process of thermal impact assessment are the sizes of installations, their position, the heating/cooling load of the building, and the temperature drop/increase imposed on the re-injected water flow. For multiple-well schemes, heterogeneous aquifers, or variable heating and cooling loads, numerical models that simulate groundwater and heat transport are needed. These tools should consider numerous scenarios obtained considering different heating/cooling loads, positions, and operating modes. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models are widely used in this field because they offer the opportunity to calculate the time evolution of the thermal plume produced by a heat pump, depending on the characteristics of the subsurface and the heat pump. Nevertheless, these models require large computational efforts, and therefore their use may be limited to a reasonable number of scenarios. Neural networks could represent an alternative to CFD for assessing the TAZ under different scenarios referring to a specific site. The use of neural networks is proposed to determine the time evolution of the groundwater temperature downstream of an installation as a function of the possible utilization profiles of the heat pump. The main advantage of neural network modeling is the possibility of evaluating a large number of scenarios in a very short time, which is very useful for the preliminary analysis of future multiple

  2. Predicting the spatial extent of injection-induced zones of enhanced permeability at the Northwest Geysers EGS Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, J.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Dobson, P.F.

    2010-02-01

    We present the results of coupled thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical (THM) modeling of a proposed stimulation injection associated with an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) demonstration project at the northwest part of The Geysers geothermal field, California. The project aims at creating an EGS by directly and systematically injecting cool water at relatively low pressure into a known High Temperature (about 280 to 350 C) Zone (HTZ) located under the conventional (240 C) steam reservoir at depths below 3 km. Accurate micro-earthquake monitoring from the start of the injection will be used as a tool for tracking the development of the EGS. We first analyzed historic injection and micro-earthquake data from an injection well (Aidlin 11), located about 3 miles to the west of the new EGS demonstration area. Thereafter, we used the same modeling approach to predict the likely extent of the zone of enhanced permeability for a proposed initial injection in two wells (Prati State 31 and Prati 32) at the new EGS demonstration area. Our modeling indicates that the proposed injection scheme will provide additional steam production in the area by creating a zone of permeability enhancement extending about 0.5 km from each injection well which will connect to the overlying conventional steam reservoir.

  3. Trigeminal root entry zone involvement in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Atsuhiko; Mori, Masahiro; Masuda, Hiroki; Uchida, Tomohiko; Muto, Mayumi; Uzawa, Akiyuki; Ito, Shoichi; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2015-08-15

    Trigeminal root entry zone abnormality on brain magnetic resonance imaging has been frequently reported in multiple sclerosis patients, but it has not been investigated in neuromyelitis optica patients. Brain magnetic resonance imaging of 128 consecutive multiple sclerosis patients and 46 neuromyelitis optica patients was evaluated. Trigeminal root entry zone abnormality was present in 11 (8.6%) of the multiple sclerosis patients and two (4.3%) of the neuromyelitis optica patients. The pontine trigeminal root entry zone may be involved in both multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rare complication of silicone fluid injection presenting as multiple calcification and skin defect in both legs: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Ho; Choi, Hwan Jun

    2015-03-01

    In the past, many materials have been injected for soft tissue augmentation including paraffin (mineral oil) and other non-biocompatible products. Liquid silicone as one of these materials has a long and notorious history as an injectable material for soft tissue augmentation. However, complications, including cellulitis, ulcerations, migration, and nodule formation, have also been reported with silicone injections. This article aims to demonstrate the diagnosis and treatment of multiple calcification and skin defect after silicone fluid injection for soft tissue augmentation. A 65-year-old female presented with skin defect and calcifications had been steadily increasing in size over a 3-month period. Examination confirmed pain, swelling, induration, and 5 × 5 cm sized skin defect with marginal and adjacent calcification in the left lateral malleolar area. She had been injected silicone fluid for soft tissue of lower extremity augmentation and contouring 30 years ago. Serial surgical debridement of this entire zone of calcification and ulceration was undertaken. The defect was closed by a split thickness skin graft. She was satisfied with the aesthetic appearance of the lateral malleolar area, relieving the symptoms of cellulitis.

  5. Multiple Sand Bar Formation in the Nearshore Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Absalonsen, L.; Dean, R.

    2011-12-01

    Sand bars are prominent features on many beaches, and can represent a major source of morphologic change in the cross-shore profile. The breaking waves are concentrated at the bar crests, resulting in reduced energy in the landward zone. Bars respond to different wave energy conditions, slowly moving shoreward with low waves and rapidly moving offshore with higher waves. However the formation and evolution of bars on multiple barred beaches is poorly understood. The presentation will describe preliminary efforts to predict the location of sand bars in the cross-shore profile, to quantify the number of sand bars under different hydrodynamic conditions and to illustrate the capability to predict profile evolution. A wave height transformation model (Dally model), a sediment transport model and conservation model are applied. The two-dimensional wave height model establishes wave height across the nearshore zone due to wave shoaling and breaking, including wave setup and bottom stress. This model utilizes two threshold values to predict the breaking position and after breaking, in the deeper water of the bar trough, the position where the waves stabilize and start to shoal again (stability criterion). Both criteria depend on the local water depth. At present, the sediment transport model consists of three components. First, the moment of momentum due to breaking waves is transferred to the bottom as a seaward shear stress concentrated somewhat landward of the bar crest. Secondly, the onshore shear stress is due to the nonlinearity of the breaking waves. Finally, the onshore transport is magnified by the proximity of turbulence to the bottom in shallow water. This model is of the "open loop" type, thus there is no guarantee of convergence to a stable profile. The capability of the model to predict bar locations on an actual profile is illustrated as follows. A profile consisting of three bars is selected from Volusia County along the northeast Florida Atlantic

  6. Effect of primary-zone water injection on pollutants from a combustor burning liquid ASTM A-1 and vaporized propane fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.; Norgren, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    A combustor segment 0.457 meter (18 in.) long with a maximum cross section of 0.153 by 0.305 meter (6 by 12 in.) was operated at inlet-air temperatures of 590 and 700 K, inlet-air pressures of 4 and 10 atmospheres, and fuel-air ratios of 0.014 and 0.018 to determine the effect of primary-zone water injection on pollutants from burning either propane or ASTM A-1 fuel. At a simulated takeoff condition of 10 atmospheres and 700 K, multiple-orifice nozzles used to inject water at 1 percent of the airflow rate reduced nitrogen oxides 75 percent with propane and 65 percent with ASTM A-1 fuel. Although carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons increased with water injection, they remained relatively low; and smoke numbers were well below the visibility limit.

  7. 3D Electrical resistivity tomography monitoring of an artificial tracer injected within the hyporheic zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houzé, Clémence; Pessel, Marc; Durand, Veronique

    2016-04-01

    Due to the high complexity level of hyporheic flow paths, hydrological and biogeochemical processes which occur in this mixing place are not fully understood yet. Some previous studies made in flumes show that hyporheic flow is strongly connected to the streambed morphology and sediment heterogeneity . There is still a lack of practical field experiment considering a natural environment and representation of natural streambed heterogeneities will be always limited in laboratories. The purpose of this project is to propose an innovative method using 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) monitoring of an artificial tracer injection directly within the streambed sediments in order to visualize the water pathways within the hyporheic zone. Field experiment on a small stream was conducted using a plastic tube as an injection piezometer and home-made electrodes strips arranged in a rectangular form made of 180 electrodes (15 strips of 12 electrodes each). The injection of tracer (NaCl) lasted approximatively 90 minutes, and 24h monitoring with increasing step times was performed. The physical properties of the water are controlled by CTD probes installed upstream and downstream within the river. Inverse time-lapse tomographs show development and persistence of a conductive water plume around the injection point. Due to the low hydraulic conductivity of streambed sediments (clay and overlying loess), the tracer movement is barely visible, as it dilutes gradually in the pore water. Impact of boundary conditions on inversion results can lead to significant differences on images, especially in the shallow part of the profiles. Preferential paths of transport are not highlighted here, but this experiment allows to follow spatially and temporarily the evolution of the tracer in a complex natural environment .

  8. Vadose Zone Injection Monitoring with Electrical Geophysics Using Steel Casings as Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, J. B.; Ward, A. L.; Gee, G. W.

    2001-12-01

    In 1991 the EPA announced that 346 billion gallons of liquid waste had been dumped on the Hanford Nuclear site in Washington state. This is enough waste (over one million acre-feet) to bury the entire 670 square miles of Hanford 2 and 1/2 feet deep! Over the years, a great deal of time, money, and effort has been spent on remediating above-ground facilities. In 2000, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) embarked on a study to determine what subsurface monitoring or imaging methods would be the most capable and cost effective for detecting and monitoring liquid waste in the vadose zone. Two existing test sites were used for the evaluation; a 20-year-old radio-nuclide injection test site (Sisson and Lu site) and a "cold" test facility containing a mock tank. Each site is unique in its history, setting, and cultural conditions. This discussion deals with the conductive electrical methods deployed at the two sites. The Sisson and Lu site was used for the initial evaluation. The test site consists of a "forest" of 32 six-inch steel casings spaced two meters apart on eight radials emanating from the central injection well. Test conditions (2000) involved measuring several 1000-gallon injections of Columbia River water. Each injection was "leaked" at approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). In each monitoring well, neutron data were gathered before injections, during all injections, and after the final injection, to be used as a baseline for comparison of method results. Several "leaks" were performed so that each selected system could be evaluated without interference. In 2001, the tests were repeated with a 30% solution of sodium thiosulfate and a 0.5% solution of sodium chloride. This high ionic-strength solution has a very high electrical conductivity, relatively high density, and better represents the liquids of concern; i.e. solutions possibly leaking from various storage facilities. The six-year-old mock-tank site consists of a partially buried, 50-foot

  9. Stimulation of biologically active zones (BAZ's) in porous media by electron-acceptor injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odencrantz, Joseph E.; Bae, Wookeun; Valocchi, Albert J.; Rittmann, Bruce E.

    1990-07-01

    A methodology involving laboratory-column experiments and computer modeling was utilized to investigate the formation of denitrifying biologically active zones (BAZ's) in a porous medium when a limiting electron (NO 3-) is injected along the flow path. Laboratory experiments conducted in a unique one-dimensional porous-medium column demonstrated the relationship between lateral injection of NO 3- and the location and extent of BAZ's when acetate was present as the sole carbon source. The phenomena of BAZ formation and the utilization of limiting and non-limiting substrates were expressed quantitatively in a computer model that coupled principles of one-dimensional solute transport and steady-state biofilm kinetics. A new, highly efficient solution algorithm was developed to solve directly for the steady-state profiles of the limiting substrate and biofilm mass, as well as for the non-limiting substrate. The predictive ability of the model was verified by successful simulation of particular laboratory experiments using independently determined kinetic parameters for acetate.

  10. Coastal Zone Color Scanner atmospheric correction algorithm: multiple scattering effects.

    PubMed

    Gordon, H R; Castaño, D J

    1987-06-01

    An analysis of the errors due to multiple scattering which are expected to be encountered in application of the current Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) atmospheric correction algorithm is presented in detail. This was prompted by the observations of others that significant errors would be encountered if the present algorithm were applied to a hypothetical instrument possessing higher radiometric sensitivity than the present CZCS. This study provides CZCS users sufficient information with which to judge the efficacy of the current algorithm with the current sensor and enables them to estimate the impact of the algorithm-induced errors on their applications in a variety of situations. The greatest source of error is the assumption that the molecular and aerosol contributions to the total radiance observed at the sensor can be computed separately. This leads to the requirement that a value epsilon'(lambda,lambda(0)) for the atmospheric correction parameter, which bears little resemblance to its theoretically meaningful counterpart, must usually be employed in the algorithm to obtain an accurate atmospheric correction. The behavior of '(lambda,lambda(0)) with the aerosol optical thickness and aerosol phase function is thoroughly investigated through realistic modeling of radiative transfer in a stratified atmosphere over a Fresnel reflecting ocean. A unique feature of the analysis is that it is carried out in scan coordinates rather than typical earth-sun coordinates allowing elucidation of the errors along typical CZCS scan lines; this is important since, in the normal application of the algorithm, it is assumed that the same value of can be used for an entire CZCS scene or at least for a reasonably large subscene. Two types of variation of ' are found in models for which it would be constant in the single scattering approximation: (1) variation with scan angle in scenes in which a relatively large portion of the aerosol scattering phase function would be examined

  11. Impact de l'utilisation des strategies d'injection multiple et de biodiesel sur un moteur diesel a rampe commune d'injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plamondon, Etienne

    Using biodiesel/diesel fuel blends and multiple injection strategies in diesel engines have shown promising results in improving the trade-off relationship between nitrous oxides and particulate matters, but their effects are still not completely understood. In this context, this thesis focuses on the characterization of the multiple injection strategies and biodiesel impacts on pollutant emissions, performances and injection system behavior. To reach this goal, an experimental campaign on a diesel engine was performed and a model simulating the injection process was developed. The engine tests at low load with pilot injection allowed the reduction of NOx emissions up to 27% and those of PM up to 22.3% compared to single injection, provided that a precise tuning of the injection parameters was previously realized. This simultaneous reduction is explained by the reduction of the premixed combustion phase and injected fuel quantity during principal injection when a pilot injection is used. With triple injection for the tested engine load, the post-injection did not result in PM reduction since it contributes by itself to the PM production while the preinjection occurred too soon to burn conveniently and caused perturbations in the injection system as well. Using B20 blend in single injection caused a PM increase and a NOx reduction which might be explained by the poorer fuel atomization. However, pilot injection with B20 allowed to get a simultaneous reduction of NOx and PM, as observed with diesel. An injection simulation model was also developed and experimentally validated for different injection pressures as well as different energizing times and dwell times. When comparing the use of biodiesel with diesel, simulation showed that there was a critical energizing time for which both fuels yielded the same injection duration. For shorter energizing times, the biodiesel injection duration was shorter than for diesel, while longer energizing times presented the

  12. CO2 migration in the vadose zone: experimental and numerical modelling of controlled gas injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    gasparini, andrea; credoz, anthony; grandia, fidel; garcia, david angel; bruno, jordi

    2014-05-01

    The mobility of CO2 in the vadose zone and its subsequent transfer to the atmosphere is a matter of concern in the risk assessment of the geological storage of CO2. In this study the experimental and modelling results of controlled CO2 injection are reported to better understanding of the physical processes affecting CO2 and transport in the vadose zone. CO2 was injected through 16 micro-injectors during 49 days of experiments in a 35 m3 experimental unit filled with sandy material, in the PISCO2 facilities at the ES.CO2 centre in Ponferrada (North Spain). Surface CO2 flux were monitored and mapped periodically to assess the evolution of CO2 migration through the soil and to the atmosphere. Numerical simulations were run to reproduce the experimental results, using TOUGH2 code with EOS7CA research module considering two phases (gas and liquid) and three components (H2O, CO2, air). Five numerical models were developed following step by step the injection procedure done at PISCO2. The reference case (Model A) simulates the injection into a homogeneous soil(homogeneous distribution of permeability and porosity in the near-surface area, 0.8 to 0.3 m deep from the atmosphere). In another model (Model B), four additional soil layers with four specific permeabilities and porosities were included to predict the effect of differential compaction on soil. To account for the effect of higher soil temperature, an isothermal simulation called Model C was also performed. Finally, the assessment of the rainfall effects (soil water saturation) on CO2 emission on surface was performed in models called Model D and E. The combined experimental and modelling approach shows that CO2 leakage in the vadose zone quickly comes out through preferential migration pathways and spots with the ranges of fluxes in the ground/surface interface from 2.5 to 600 g·m-2·day-1. This gas channelling is mainly related to soil compaction and climatic perturbation. This has significant implications to

  13. Fault-Tolerant, Multiple-Zone Temperature Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granger, James; Franklin, Brian; Michalik, Martin; Yates, Phillip; Peterson, Erik; Borders, James

    2008-01-01

    A computer program has been written as an essential part of an electronic temperature control system for a spaceborne instrument that contains several zones. The system was developed because the temperature and the rate of change of temperature in each zone are required to be maintained to within limits that amount to degrees of precision thought to be unattainable by use of simple bimetallic thermostats. The software collects temperature readings from six platinum resistance thermometers, calculates temperature errors from the readings, and implements a proportional + integral + derivative (PID) control algorithm that adjusts heater power levels. The software accepts, via a serial port, commands to change its operational parameters. The software attempts to detect and mitigate a host of potential faults. It is robust to many kinds of faults in that it can maintain PID control in the presence of those faults.

  14. A Multiple Zone Method for Supersonic Tactical Missiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    to missile shapes in supersonic flight. The explicit MacCormack scheme is used to advance interior points while a characteristic ...can be treated using a simple mapping. A sample zone structure for a body- wing - tail configuration is shown in Figure 3. This avoids...surface edges which models the flow in the vincinity of the edge. When the flow normal to the wing edge is sufficiently supersonic , this analysis

  15. The effect of multiple heat sources on exomoon habitable zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobos, Vera; Heller, René; Turner, Edwin L.

    2017-05-01

    With dozens of Jovian and super-Jovian exoplanets known to orbit their host stars in or near the stellar habitable zones, it has recently been suggested that moons the size of Mars could offer abundant surface habitats beyond the solar system. Several searches for such exomoons are now underway, and the exquisite astronomical data quality of upcoming space missions and ground-based extremely large telescopes could make the detection and characterization of exomoons possible in the near future. Here we explore the effects of tidal heating on the potential of Mars- to Earth-sized satellites to host liquid surface water, and we compare the tidal heating rates predicted by tidal equilibrium model and a viscoelastic model. In addition to tidal heating, we consider stellar radiation, planetary illumination and thermal heat from the planet. However, the effects of a possible moon atmosphere are neglected. We map the circumplanetary habitable zone for different stellar distances in specific star-planet-satellite configurations, and determine those regions where tidal heating dominates over stellar radiation. We find that the "thermostat effect" of the viscoelastic model is significant not just at large distances from the star, but also in the stellar habitable zone, where stellar radiation is prevalent. We also find that tidal heating of Mars-sized moons with eccentricities between 0.001 and 0.01 is the dominant energy source beyond 3-5 AU from a Sun-like star and beyond 0.4-0.6 AU from an M3 dwarf star. The latter would be easier to detect (if they exist), but their orbital stability might be under jeopardy due to the gravitational perturbations from the star.

  16. 78 FR 38582 - Safety Zones; Multiple Firework Displays in Captain of the Port, Puget Sound Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... Guard is establishing safety zones in Holmes Harbor, Elliot Bay Pier 90, and Southeast of Alki Point... Elliot Bay, Pier 90; and Tuxedo and Tennis Shoes Event on July 20, 2013, near Alki Point Light. All... Christening, Elliot Bay, Pier 90, Seattle, WA: All waters encompassed within a 300 yard radius around...

  17. 77 FR 35852 - Safety Zones; Multiple Firework Displays in Captain of the Port, Puget Sound Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Guard is establishing safety zones in Boston Harbor, Holmes Harbor, Port Gardner and Port Townsend for... Gardner near Everett, WA; and Port Townsend July 4th Fireworks on July 4, 2012 in Port Townsend near Point... around position 48 01.048' N, 122 31.866' W. (3) Everett Fourth of July Foundation, Port Gardner,...

  18. In situ bioremediation of nitrate and perchlorate in vadose zone soil for groundwater protection using gaseous electron donor injection technology.

    PubMed

    Evans, Patrick J; Trute, Mary M

    2006-12-01

    When present in the vadose zone, potentially toxic nitrate and perchlorate anions can be persistent sources of groundwater contamination. Gaseous electron donor injection technology (GEDIT), an anaerobic variation of petroleum hydrocarbon bioventing, involves injecting electron donor gases, such as hydrogen or ethyl acetate, into the vadose zone, to stimulate biodegradation of nitrate and perchlorate. Laboratory microcosm studies demonstrated that hydrogen and ethanol promoted nitrate and perchlorate reduction in vadose zone soil and that moisture content was an important factor. Column studies demonstrated that transport of particular electron donors varied significantly; ethyl acetate and butyraldehyde were transported more rapidly than butyl acetate and ethanol. Nitrate removal in the column studies, up to 100%, was best promoted by ethyl acetate. Up to 39% perchlorate removal was achieved with ethanol and was limited by insufficient incubation time. The results demonstrate that GEDIT is a promising remediation technology warranting further validation.

  19. Reducing airflow energy use in multiple zone vav systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tukur, Ahmed Gidado

    Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems are the most popular HVAC systems in commercial buildings. VAV systems are designed to deliver airflows at design conditions which only occur for a few hours in a year. Minimizing energy use in VAV systems requires reducing the amount of airflow delivered through the system at part load conditions. Air Handling Unit (AHU) fans are the major drivers of airflow in VAV systems and installing a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) is the most common method of regulating airflow in VAV systems. A VFD drive does not necessarily save energy without use of an appropriate control strategy. Static pressure reset (SPR) is considered to be the most energy efficient control strategy for AHU fans with VFDs installed. The implementation of SPR however has many challenges; for example, rogue zones--zones which have faulty sensors or failed controls and actuators, system dynamics like hunting and system diversity. By investigating the parameters associated with the implementation of SPR in VAV systems, a new, improved, more stable SPR algorithm was developed and validated. This approach was further improved using Fault Detection and Diagnostics (FDD) to eliminate rogue zones. Additionally, a CO2-Demand Control Ventilation (DCV) based minimum airflow control was used to further reduce ventilation airflow and save more energy from SPR. Energy savings ranging from 25% to 51% were recorded in actual buildings with the new SPR algorithm. Finally, a methodology that utilizes historical VAV data was developed to estimate the potential savings that could be realized using SPR. The approach employed first determines an effective system loss coefficient as a function of mean damper position using the historical duct static pressure, VAV damper positions and airflows. Additionally, the historical data is used to identify the maximum mean duct damper position realizable as a result of insuring a sufficient number of VAVs are fully open at any time. Savings are

  20. Simultaneous determination of three species with a single-injection step using batch injection analysis with multiple pulse amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Jhonys Machado; Oliveira, Thiago da Costa; Gimenes, Denise Tofanello; Munoz, Rodrigo Alejandro Abarza; Richter, Eduardo Mathias

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the possibility of simultaneous determination of three compounds with a single-injection step using batch injection analysis with multiple pulse amperometric detection (BIA-MPA) is demonstrated for the first time. A sequence of three potential pulses (+1.25 V, +1.60 V, and +1.80 V) was applied with the acquisition of three separate amperograms. 8-Chlorotheophylline was detected selectively at +1.25 V, both 8-chlorotheophylline and pyridoxine at +1.60V and 8-chlorotheophylline, pyridoxine, and diphenhydramine at +1.80 V. Subtraction between the currents detected at the three amperograms (with the help of correction factors) was used for the selective determination of pyridoxine and diphenhydramine. The proposed method is simple, inexpensive, fast (60 injections h(-1)), and present selectivity for the determination of the three compounds in pharmaceutical samples, with results similar to those obtained by HPLC (95% confidence level). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Monitoring in situ deformation induced by a fluid injection in a fault zone in shale using seismic velocity changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivet, D.; De Barros, L.; Guglielmi, Y.; Castilla, R.

    2015-12-01

    We monitor seismic velocity changes during an experiment at decametric scale aimed at artificially reactivate a fault zone by a high-pressure hydraulic injection in a shale formation of the underground site of Tournemire, South of France. A dense and a multidisciplinary instrumentation, with measures of pressure, fluid flow, strain, seismicity, seismic properties and resistivity allow for the monitoring of this experiment. We couple hydromechanical and seismic observations of the fault and its adjacent areas to better understand the deformation process preceding ruptures, and the role played by fluids. 9 accelerometers recorded repeated hammers shots on the tunnel walls. For each hammer shot we measured small travel time delays on direct P and S waves. We then located the seismic velocity perturbations using a tomography method. At low injection pressure, i.e. P< 15 Bars, we observe an increase of P-waves velocity around the injection, while we measure no change in S waves velocity. When the pressure overcomes 15 Bars, velocity perturbations dramatically increase with both P and S waves affected. A decrease of velocity is observed close to the injection point and is surrounded by regions of increasing velocity. Our observations are consistent with hydromechanical measures. Below 15 Bars, we interpret the P-wave velocity increase to be related to the compression of the fault zone around the injection chamber. Above 15 Bars, we measure a shear and dilatant fault movement, and a rapid increase in the injected fluid flow. At this step, our measures are coherent with a poroelastic opening of the fault with velocities decrease at the injection source and velocities increase related to stress transfer in the far field. Velocity changes prove to be efficient to monitor stress/strain variation in an activated fault, even if these observations might produce complex signals due to the highly contrasted hydromechanical responses in a heterogeneous media such as a fault zone.

  2. Improving combustion characteristics and NO(x) emissions of a down-fired 350 MW(e) utility boiler with multiple injection and multiple staging.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Min; Li, Zhengqi; Xu, Shantian; Zhu, Qunyi

    2011-04-15

    Within a Mitsui Babcock Energy Limited down-fired pulverized-coal 350 MW(e) utility boiler, in situ experiments were performed, with measurements taken of gas temperatures in the burner and near the right-wall regions, and of gas concentrations (O(2) and NO) from the near-wall region. Large combustion differences between zones near the front and rear walls and particularly high NO(x) emissions were found in the boiler. With focus on minimizing these problems, a new technology based on multiple-injection and multiple-staging has been developed. Combustion improvements and NO(x) reductions were validated by investigating three aspects. First, numerical simulations of the pulverized-coal combustion process and NO(x) emissions were compared in both the original and new technologies. Good agreement was found between simulations and in situ measurements with the original technology. Second, with the new technology, gas temperature and concentration distributions were found to be symmetric near the front and rear walls. A relatively low-temperature and high-oxygen-concentration zone formed in the near-wall region that helps mitigate slagging in the lower furnace. Third, NO(x) emissions were found to have decreased by as much as 50%, yielding a slight decrease in the levels of unburnt carbon in the fly ash.

  3. Crustal Stress Coherency at Multiple Scales: Utilization for Assessing Potential Fault Slip in Response to Fluid Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund Snee, J. E.; Zoback, M. D.; Walsh, F. R. R.

    2016-12-01

    Mapping of crustal stress orientations using compressive and tensile wellbore failures has been well established for several decades. Combining wellbore stress observations with stress orientation and relative magnitude information from inversion of earthquake focal plane mechanisms can be used to predict the likelihood of fault slip in response to fluid injection. In this talk, I will review several case studies that demonstrate the coherence of the crustal stress field at multiple scales and illustrate how detailed information about stress orientation and relative magnitude can be used to assess the potential for slip on known faults in response to pore pressure changes arising from fluid injection. At the largest scale, the state of stress and its relation to both natural and induced seismicity throughout the central and eastern U.S. will be considered, and more detailed studies will be discussed involving natural earthquakes occurring in the New Madrid seismic zone, both injection-induced and natural earthquakes in central Oklahoma and apparently induced earthquakes at four sites in Texas.

  4. Multiple routes of drug administration and HIV risk among injecting drug users

    PubMed Central

    Vorobjov, Sigrid; Uusküla, Anneli; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Talu, Ave; Rüütel, Kristi

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses relationships between drug administration routes and HIV serostatus, drug-use and sexual behaviors among current injecting drug users (IDUs) in Tallinn, Estonia. We recruited 350 IDUs for a cross-sectional risk behavior survey. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) were calculated to explore injection risk behavior, sexual behavior and HIV serostatus associated with multiple route use. Focus groups explored reasons why injectors might use non-injecting routes of administration. Those reporting multiple drug administration routes were less likely to be HIV seropositive (AOR 0.49; 95%CI 0.25-0.97), had almost twice the odds of having more than one sexual partner (AOR 1.90; 95%CI 1.01-3.60) and of reporting having sexually transmitted diseases (AOR 2.38; 95%CI 1.02-5.59). IDUs who engage in non-injecting drug use may be reducing their risk of acquiring HIV though sharing injection equipment, but if infected may be a critical group for sexual transmission of HIV to people who do not inject drugs. PMID:22116012

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Multiple Drug Use and Overdose Among Young People Who Inject Drugs.

    PubMed

    Riley, Elise D; Evans, Jennifer L; Hahn, Judith A; Briceno, Alya; Davidson, Peter J; Lum, Paula J; Page, Kimberly

    2016-05-01

    To determine the association between multiple drug use and nonfatal overdose among young people (younger than 30 years) who inject drugs. We completed a longitudinal study of 173 injection drug users younger than 30 years living in San Francisco, California, between April 2012 and February 2014. The odds of nonfatal overdose increased significantly as heroin and benzodiazepine pill-taking days increased and when alcohol consumption exceeded 10 drinks per day compared with 0 drinks per day. Heroin, benzodiazepine, and alcohol use were independently associated with nonfatal overdose over time among young people who inject drugs. Efforts to address multiple central nervous system depressant use remain an important component of a comprehensive approach to overdose, particularly among young people.

  6. Acceptance of the Administration of Multiple Injectable Vaccines in a Single Immunization Visit in Albania.

    PubMed

    Preza, Iria; Subaiya, Saleena; Harris, Jennifer B; Ehlman, Daniel C; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Wallace, Aaron S; Huseynov, Shahin; Hyde, Terri B; Nelaj, Erida; Bino, Silvia; Hampton, Lee M

    2017-07-01

    Albania introduced inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into its immunization system in May 2014, increasing the maximum recommended number of injectable vaccines given in a single visit from 2 to 3. Health-care providers and caregivers were interviewed at 42 health facilities in Albania to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding injectable vaccine administration. Immunization register data were abstracted from December 2014 to July 2015 at the same facilities to explore the number of injectable vaccines children received during their 2- and 4-month visits. The majority of children (87%) identified in the record review at either their 2- or 4-month immunization visit received all 3 injectable vaccines in a single visit. Almost all children who did not receive the vaccines in a single visit were subsequently fully immunized, most within a 2-week period. Over half of caregivers whose children got 3 or more injectable vaccines in a single visit reported being only comfortable with 1 or 2 injectable vaccines in a single visit. Despite most caregivers expressing hesitation regarding children receiving multiple injectable vaccines in a single visit, most children received vaccines according to the recommended schedule. Almost all children eventually received all recommended vaccines.

  7. Enlargement of thermal ablation zone by the combination of ethanol injection and radiofrequency ablation in excised bovine liver.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Seishiro; Kurokohchi, Kazutaka; Masaki, Tsutomu; Miyauchi, Yoshiaki; Funaki, Toshiharu; Inoue, Hideyuki; Himoto, Takashi; Kita, Yuko; Uchida, Naohito; Touge, Tetsuo; Tatsukawa, Toshiaki; Kuriyama, Shigeki

    2004-02-01

    The efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and RFA with concurrent ethanol injection (EI-RFA) was compared. RFA (3-cm-electrode) was applied to bovine liver using three types of RFA equipment; Radionics, RITA and Radio Therapeutics Corporation (RTC). For EI-RFA, 5 ml of 99.5% ethanol was injected around the electrode. A total number of 40 RFA and EI-RFA treatments were performed. We compared RFA with EI-RFA by examining the size, shape of ablation zone, treatment time, power, and needle tip temperature. Liver specimens were examined for pathological changes. EI-RFA produced a larger zone of ablation than RFA alone using Radionics and RITA (Radionics, 35.3+/-7.4 cm(3) vs 23.2+/-7.7 cm(3), p<0.05; RITA, 30.7+/-10.3 cm(3) vs 19.7+/-4.7 cm(3), p<0.05), corresponding to shortest diameters of coagulation zone (Radionics, 3.7+/-0.4 cm vs 3.0+/-0.4 cm, p<0.05; RITA, 3.8+/-0.4 cm vs 3.1+/-0.3 cm, p<0.01). However, a larger ablation zone was not seen with the RTC device. The ablated volume per energy and the ablated volume per current density administered were greater with EI-RFA than with RFA using Radionics (p<0.05). The shape of the ablated zone changed from ellipsoid to spherical with EI-RFA using Radionics. No pathological differences between RFA and EI-RFA samples were detected. For a given amount of energy and current administered, ethanol injection caused a better ablation effect, in terms of the size and shape of the ablated zone, than RFA with Radionics and RITA equipment.

  8. Characterizing multiple timescales of stream and storage zone interaction that affect solute fate and transport in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choi, J.; Harvey, J.W.; Conklin, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    The fate of contaminants in streams and rivers is affected by exchange and biogeochemical transformation in slowly moving or stagnant flow zones that interact with rapid flow in the main channel. In a typical stream, there are multiple types of slowly moving flow zones in which exchange and transformation occur, such as stagnant or recirculating surface water as well as subsurface hyporheic zones. However, most investigators use transport models with just a single storage zone in their modeling studies, which assumes that the effects of multiple storage zones can be lumped together. Our study addressed the following question: Can a single-storage zone model reliably characterize the effects of physical retention and biogeochemical reactions in multiple storage zones? We extended an existing stream transport model with a single storage zone to include a second storage zone. With the extended model we generated 500 data sets representing transport of nonreactive and reactive solutes in stream systems that have two different types of storage zones with variable hydrologic conditions. The one storage zone model was tested by optimizing the lumped storage parameters to achieve a best fit for each of the generated data sets. Multiple storage processes were categorized as possessing I, additive; II, competitive; or III, dominant storage zone characteristics. The classification was based on the goodness of fit of generated data sets, the degree of similarity in mean retention time of the two storage zones, and the relative distributions of exchange flux and storage capacity between the two storage zones. For most cases (> 90%) the one storage zone model described either the effect of the sum of multiple storage processes (category I) or the dominant storage process (category III). Failure of the one storage zone model occurred mainly for category II, that is, when one of the storage zones had a much longer mean retention time (t(s) ratio > 5.0) and when the dominance of

  9. Whole-body computed tomography for multiple traumas using a triphasic injection protocol.

    PubMed

    Loupatatzis, Christos; Schindera, Sebastian; Gralla, Jan; Hoppe, Hanno; Bittner, Jan; Schröder, Ralph; Srivastav, Sudesh; Bonel, Harald Marcel

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate a triphasic injection protocol for whole-body multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in patients with multiple trauma. Fifty consecutive patients (41 men) were examined. Contrast medium (300 mg/mL iodine) was injected starting with 70 mL at 3 mL/s, followed by 0.1 mL/s for 8 s, and by another bolus of 75 mL at 4 mL/s. CT data acquisition started 50 s after the beginning of the first injection. Two experienced, blinded readers independently measured the density in all major arteries, veins, and parenchymatous organs. Image quality was assessed using a five-point ordinal rating scale and compared to standard injection protocols [n = 25 each for late arterial chest, portovenous abdomen, and MDCT angiography (CTA)]. With the exception of the infrarenal inferior caval vein, all blood vessels were depicted with diagnostic image quality using the multiple-trauma protocol. Arterial luminal density was slightly but significantly smaller compared to CTA (P < 0.01). Veins and parenchymatous organs were opacified significantly better compared to all other protocols (P < 0.01). Arm artifacts reduced the density of spleen and liver parenchyma significantly (P < 0.01). Similarly high image quality is achieved for arteries using the multiple-trauma protocol compared to CTA, and parenchymatous organs are depicted with better image quality compared to specialized protocols. Arm artifacts should be avoided.

  10. [Hepatectomy combined with cryoablation and ethanol injection for unresectable multiple liver metastases from colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei-qun; Yu, Nan-rong; Liu, Hai-ying

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of hepatectomy combined with cryoablation and ethanol injection in patients with unresectable multiple liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Clinical data of 23 patients with multiple liver metastases form colorectal cancer in the Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College between January 2005 and December 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. There were 15 males and 8 females with average age of 52.2 years. All the patients underwent hepatectomy combined with ultrasound-guided cryoablation and ethanol injection intraoperatively. Among 98 lesions in 23 patients, 45 were removed intraoperatively and 53 were treated by cryoablation and ethanol injection. Operative time for liver lesions ranged from 27 to 96 minutes and intraoperative blood loss 50 to 450 ml. One patient developed pleural effusion and 1 myoglobinuria after operation. All the patients were followed up with a median follow-up time of 34 months(8 to 70 months). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 83.2%, 45.5% and 37.6% respectively. Hepatectomy combined with cryoablation and ethanol injection is an effective and safe treatment option for patients with unresectable multiple liver metastases from colorectal cancer.

  11. Audit of multiple insulin injection regimens in a large outpatient diabetic population.

    PubMed

    Gordon, D; Wilson, M; Paterson, K R; Semple, C G

    1992-08-01

    One hundred out-patients treated by multiple insulin injection regimens underwent clinical audit by retrospective analysis of their case-notes. Patients had been on multiple insulin injection therapy (MIIT) for 1.0-4.5 years (median, 3.6 years) and had had diabetes for 2 months-33 years (median, 8.7 years) at the time of starting pen therapy. Median daily insulin dose per patient did not differ significantly following stabilisation on MIIT or at latest follow-up. The median glycated haemoglobin did not change during each of the 4 years of follow-up. During the year prior to commencing MIIT the patients showed no significant alteration in body weight. Patients' weights rose significantly during each subsequent year. Median weight gains were 0.9 kg (P less than 0.005) during the first year, 1.4 kg (P less than 0.005) during the second year, 0.9 kg (P less than 0.05) during the third year and 1.4 kg (P less than 0.05) during year 4. No such weight gain was recorded in a control group of 30 patients matched for age and duration of diabetes and treated by twice daily insulin injections. Multiple insulin injection regimens used over prolonged periods in a routine clinic setting do not alter metabolic control. However, continuing weight gain appears to occur despite similar daily insulin doses.

  12. Meralgia paraesthetica: Ultrasound-guided injection at multiple levels with 12-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Klauser, Andrea S; Abd Ellah, Mohamed M H; Halpern, Ethan J; Sporer, Isabella; Martinoli, Carlo; Tagliafico, Alberto; Sojer, Martin; Taljanovic, Mihra S; Jaschke, Werner R

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound (US)-guided injections around the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN) at different levels in meralgia paraesthetica (MP) patients. The study was approved by the university ethics committee and informed oral and written consent were obtained from all patients. Between June 2008 and August 2013, 20 patients with symptoms of MP, including nine men (mean age, 61.33 years) and 11 women (mean age 61.18 years), were treated with US-guided injection of steroids along the LFCN at three different levels in a mean of 2.25 sessions. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure symptoms before, immediately after and 12 months after treatment. Complete resolution of symptoms was documented in 15/20 patients (mean VAS decreased from 82 to 0), and partial resolution in the remaining five (mean VAS decreased from 92 to 42), which was confirmed at 12-month follow-up. By using the different levels of injection approach overall significantly better symptom relief was obtained (p < 0.05). The outcome of US-guided injection along the LFCN can be further improved by injections at different levels (p < 0.05), which was confirmed at 12-month long-term follow-up. Meralgia paraesthetica is an entrapment neuropathy of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. Ultrasound proved effective in diagnosis and in guiding injection therapy. Injection at the anterior superior iliac spine has been used previously. Multiple injections along the nerve course were used in this study. Long-term follow-up (12 months) confirmed the results.

  13. Intra-community implications of implementing multiple tsunami-evacuation zones in Alameda, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Jeff; Wood, Nathan J.; Wilson, Rick; Miller, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Tsunami-evacuation planning in coastal communities is typically based on maximum evacuation zones for a single scenario or a composite of sources; however, this approach may over-evacuate a community and overly disrupt the local economy and strain emergency-service resources. To minimize the potential for future over-evacuations, multiple evacuation zones based on arrival time and inundation extent are being developed for California coastal communities. We use the coastal city of Alameda, California (USA), as a case study to explore population and evacuation implications associated with multiple tsunami-evacuation zones. We use geospatial analyses to estimate the number and type of people in each tsunami-evacuation zone and anisotropic pedestrian evacuation models to estimate pedestrian travel time out of each zone. Results demonstrate that there are tens of thousands of individuals in tsunami-evacuation zones on the two main islands of Alameda, but they will likely have sufficient time to evacuate before wave arrival. Quality of life could be impacted by the high number of government offices, schools, day-care centers, and medical offices in certain evacuation zones and by potentially high population density at one identified safe area after an evacuation. Multi-jurisdictional evacuation planning may be warranted, given that many at-risk individuals may need to evacuate to neighboring jurisdictions. The use of maximum evacuation zones for local tsunami sources may be warranted given the limited amount of available time to confidently recommend smaller zones which would result in fewer evacuees; however, this approach may also result in over-evacuation and the incorrect perception that successful evacuations are unlikely.

  14. Mechanical design of multiple zone plates precision alignment apparatus for hard X-ray focusing in twenty-nanometer scale

    DOEpatents

    Shu, Deming; Liu, Jie; Gleber, Sophie C.; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Lai, Barry; Maser, Jorg M.; Roehrig, Christian; Wojcik, Michael J.; Vogt, Franz Stefan

    2017-04-04

    An enhanced mechanical design of multiple zone plates precision alignment apparatus for hard x-ray focusing in a twenty-nanometer scale is provided. The precision alignment apparatus includes a zone plate alignment base frame; a plurality of zone plates; and a plurality of zone plate holders, each said zone plate holder for mounting and aligning a respective zone plate for hard x-ray focusing. At least one respective positioning stage drives and positions each respective zone plate holder. Each respective positioning stage is mounted on the zone plate alignment base frame. A respective linkage component connects each respective positioning stage and the respective zone plate holder. The zone plate alignment base frame, each zone plate holder and each linkage component is formed of a selected material for providing thermal expansion stability and positioning stability for the precision alignment apparatus.

  15. Multiple-orifice liquid injection into hypersonic airstreams and applications to ram C-3 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, W. L.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental data are presented for the oblique injection of water and three electrophilic liquids (fluorocarbon compounds) through multiple-orifice nozzles from a flat plate and the sides of a hemisphere-cone (0.375 scale of RAM C spacecraft) into hypersonic airstreams. The nozzle patterns included single and multiple orifices, single rows of nozzles, and duplicates of the RAM C-III nozzles. The flat-plate tests were made at Mach 8. Total pressure was varied from 3.45 MN/m2 to 10.34 MN/m2, Reynolds number was varied form 9,840,000 per meter to 19,700,000 per meter, and liquid injection pressure was varied from 0.69 MN/m2 to 3.5 MN/m2. The hemisphere-cone tests were made at Mach 7.3. Total pressure was varied from 1.38 MN/m2, to 6.89 MN/m2, Reynolds number was varied from 3,540,000 per meter to 17,700,000 per meter, and liquid-injection pressure was varied from 0.34 MN/m2 to 4.14 MN/m2. Photographs of the tests and plots of liquid-penetration and spray cross-section area are presented. Maximum penetration was found to vary as the square root of the dynamic-pressure ratio and the square root of the total injection nozzle area. Spray cross-section area was linear with maximum penetration. The test results are used to compute injection parameters for the RAM C-3 flight injection experiment.

  16. The Curtain Effect in a Multiple Convergence Zone Environment: Part 1. Implications for Ambient Noise.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-24

    prepared under Project No. A20022, principal investigator P. Herstein . It contains the oral and written presentation, "The Curtain Effect in a Multiple...Convergence Zone Environment: Part 1 - Implications for Ambient Noise." The authors wish to express their graditude to Peter D. Herstein (Code 33A) for

  17. Improved diabetic control in adolescents using the Penject syringe for multiple insulin injections.

    PubMed

    McCaughey, E S; Betts, P R; Rowe, D J

    1986-05-01

    Eleven adolescent diabetics, aged 15.1 +/- 1.3 years (mean +/- 1SD) in poor glycaemic control (HbA1 12.0 +/- 1.5% at entry) were commenced on a four times daily insulin injection regimen using the Penject fountain-pen syringe with Initard (50:50 mixture of porcine soluble and isophane) insulin on a sliding scale. Diabetic control improved over a 3-month period, assessed by a reduction in both the mean preprandial blood glucose concentrations (10.9 +/- 3.3 mmol/l to 7.7 +/- 2.3 mmol/l) and mean glycosylated haemoglobin concentrations (12.0 +/- 1.5% to 9.5 +/- 0.9%). Further improvement was again seen in 5 patients who remained on four daily injections for an additional 3 months (mean HbA1: 9.6 +/- 0.9% to 8.4 +/- 1.0%), whereas diabetic control in 6 patients who returned to twice daily injections deteriorated (mean HbA1 rose from 9.5 +/- 1.0% to 10.6 +/- 1.6%). Multiple insulin injections using an injection pen are acceptable to adolescent diabetics and improve their control.

  18. COMPARISON OF INTRAVITREAL INJECTION OF RANIBIZUMAB VERSUS LASER THERAPY FOR ZONE II TREATMENT-REQUIRING RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoming; Yang, Mingmin; Zeng, Jian; Vakros, Georgios; Su, Kangjin; Chen, Miaohong; Li, Huilin; Tian, Ruyin; Li, Na; Tang, Song; He, Honghui; Tan, Wenjing; Song, Xiangmei; Zhuang, Runsen

    2017-04-01

    To compare the efficacy of intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (IVR) monotherapy and laser therapy for treatment-requiring retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in Zone II. A prospective, randomized, controlled single-center trial was applied from January 2014 to December 2014; infants who were diagnosed as Zone II treatment-requiring ROP (i.e., Zone II Stage 2 or 3 ROP with plus disease) were randomly assigned to receive IVR monotherapy or laser therapy, and the follow-up interval was at least 6 months. Any eyes that developed recurrence of ROP underwent crossover re-treatment. A total of 100 eyes of 50 ethnic Han Chinese infants were enrolled. At the last follow-up, 26 eyes of 13 infants developed recurrence of ROP in the IVR group and 2 eyes of 1 infant developed recurrence of ROP in the laser therapy group. There was a significant statistical difference in the rate of ROP recurrence between IVR and laser therapy to treat Zone II treatment-requiring ROP (P = 0.001). Although IVR appears to regress ROP to certain levels and continue to promote the vascularization of peripheral retinal vessels, a substantial proportion of infants developed recurrence of ROP after a single-dose IVR. Therefore, IVR is not recommended as a single-dose monotherapy for Zone II treatment-requiring ROP.

  19. Filler migration to the forehead due to multiple filler injections in a patient addicted to cosmetic fillers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hua; Chiang, Chien-Ping; Wu, Bai-Yao; Gao, Hong-Wei

    2017-04-01

    Filler migration is a potential complication following the injection of multiple fillers. With the increasing popularity of multiple filler injections, migrated granulomas should be an essential differential diagnosis for newly growing facial lumps. It is important for all physicians to be aware that complication induced by dermal fillers can occur in locations other than the planned injected sites. We described a case of filler migration to the forehead in a patient addicted to cosmetic fillers. To our knowledge, it has never been published in dermatology literature so far. A detailed history of cosmetic procedures from the patient addicted to filler injections is necessary for accurate diagnosis. Because account of previous cosmetic filler injections is not always reliable, an early skin biopsy with pathological examination is the gold standard for determining whether multiple filler injections have been performed.

  20. Modeling of fault activation and seismicity by injection directly into a fault zone associated with hydraulic fracturing of shale-gas reservoirs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    LBNL, in consultation with the EPA, expanded upon a previous study by injecting directly into a 3D representation of a hypothetical fault zone located in the geologic units between the shale-gas reservoir and the drinking water aquifer.

  1. An Enhanced Method Using MODFLOW to simulate Groundwater Extraction/Injection through Wells Penetrating Multiple Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teasdale, E.; Zhang, J.; Parrish, K.

    2007-12-01

    In a MODFLOW simulation of groundwater extraction and/or injection through a well penetrating multiple aquifers, the conventional method is to represent this type of well with a group of single-layer wells, each open to one of the model layers penetrated by the multi-layer wells Each of the single-layer wells have an individual rate specified for each stress period. Using this method, the total extraction and/or injection rate must be allocated among the individual layers. A common method of doing this is to divide the extraction and/or injection rates in proportion to the layer transmissivities. This partitioning has to be implemented by the user externally to MODFLOW for each multi-layer well and for each stress period in the MODFLOW well package. This approach fails to take into account the interconnection between various layers penetrated by the well, and is thus an incomplete solution to the problem. In both theory and practice, the extraction and/or injection rates through those well-penetrated aquifers also depend on the storativity and hydraulic head. Using transmissivity alone to partition the extraction and/or injection rates is only appropriate if both storativity and hydraulic head are very close for all well-penetrated aquifers. In cases where the top well-penetrated aquifer is unconfined, this method does not work because the storativity in an unconfined aquifer is often much higher than that of a confined aquifer. In addition, for transient flow simulations, the transmissivity of an unconfined aquifer changes with time due to the groundwater table variations resulting from extraction and/or injection (induced by constant or time-variable extraction/injection rates) or other time-variable boundary conditions such as seasonal groundwater recharge. This paper presents an enhanced method to resolve the above problem. With the new method, only the total extraction and/or injection rate of the well needs to be specified, and MODFLOW automatically allocates

  2. Testing toxicity of multiple intravitreal injections of bevacizumab in rabbit eyes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weiqi; Wang, Hong; Wang, Fenghua; Jiang, Yuan; Zhang, Xian; Wang, Wenqiu; Qian, Jin; Xu, Xun; Sun, Xiaodong

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the potential toxicity of repeated intravitreal injections of bevacizumab in rabbit eyes. Randomized, placebo-controlled experimental animal study. Fourteen chinchilla rabbits; 12 assigned to the experimental group and 2 assigned to the normal control group. Three sequential, biweekly, intravitreal injections of bevacizumab in doses of 2.5 mg/0.1 mL or 5.0 mg/0.2 mL were performed on each rabbit. Evaluations included intraocular pressure (IOP), aqueous flare, B-scan ultrasound, fundus photography, ultrasound biomicroscopy, electroretinography (ERG), and visually evoked potentials (VEPs) performed at baseline and during the follow-up period. The eyes were enucleated at 1 week and 4 weeks after the last intravitreal injection, and underwent light and electron microscopic evaluations, as well as testing for apoptotic activity. After intravitreal injections, no changes were found by regular clinical observation and IOP tests. There was no significant difference in the anterior chamber inflammatory activity evaluated by the laser flare meter. No evidence of retinal toxicity was seen after intravitreal bevacizumab at doses of 2.5 and 5.0 mg by either ERG or flash VEPs. Electron microscopy did show the presence of inflammatory cells and some ultrastructural changes in the photoreceptor cells in the 5.0 mg experimental group 1 week after the third injection. Mild to moderate apoptosis of photoreceptors was detected in the 5.0 mg group at the same time. The biweekly, multiple intravitreal injections of bevacizumab did not result in evidence of toxicity in regular clinical and functional observations at both 2.5 mg and 5.0 mg doses. The 5.0 mg dose may induce transient inflammation, ultrastructural abnormalities, and apoptosis.

  3. Effect of multiple intravenous injections of butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin on the metabolism of periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fürll, M; Deniz, A; Westphal, B; Illing, C; Constable, P D

    2010-09-01

    Numerous adjunct therapeutic agents have been investigated for the treatment or control of fat mobilization syndrome in periparturient dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of multiple i.v. injections of 10% butaphosphan and 0.005% cyanocobalamin combination (Catosal, Bayer Animal Health, Leverkusen, Germany) between 1 and 2 wk antepartum (a.p.) on the metabolism and health of dairy cows. Forty-five late-gestation Holstein-Friesian cows (second pregnancy) were allocated randomly to 1 of 3 groups with 15 cows/group: group C6 (6 daily i.v. injections of butaphosphan at 10 mg/kg of body weight (BW) and cyanocobalamin at 5 microg/kg of BW in the last 2 wk of gestation); group C3 (3 daily i.v. injections of butaphosphan at 10 mg/kg of BW and cyanocobalamin at 5 microg/kg of BW in the last week of gestation); and group C0 (equivolume daily i.v. injections of 0.9% NaCl solution). Serum biochemical analysis was performed on jugular venous blood samples that were periodically obtained a.p. and postpartum (p.p.). Health status and milk production were monitored p.p. Serum cyanocobalamin concentration increased in groups C6 and C3 p.p. Multiple daily i.v. injections of Catosal before parturition increased p.p. glucose availability, as evaluated by p.p. serum glucose concentration, and decreased peripheral fat mobilization and ketone body formation, as evaluated by p.p. serum nonesterified fatty acid and beta-OH butyrate concentrations. The number of puerperal infections in the first 5 d after calving was decreased in group C6, relative to group C0. We conclude that multiple injections of Catosal during the close-up period have a beneficial effect on the metabolism of periparturient dairy cows. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that high-producing dairy cows in early lactation may have a relative or actual deficiency of cyanocobalamin.

  4. A rapid and accurate method for determining protein content in dairy products based on asynchronous-injection alternating merging zone flow-injection spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qin-Qin; Li, Yong-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    An accurate and rapid method and a system to determine protein content using asynchronous-injection alternating merging zone flow-injection spectrophotometry based on reaction between coomassie brilliant blue G250 (CBBG) and protein was established. Main merit of our approach is that it can avoid interferences of other nitric-compounds in samples, such as melamine and urea. Optimized conditions are as follows: Concentrations of CBBG, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), NaCl and HCl are 150 mg/l, 30 mg/l, 0.1 mol/l and 1.0% (v/v), respectively; volumes of the sample and reagent are 150 μl and 30 μl, respectively; length of a reaction coil is 200 cm; total flow rate is 2.65 ml/min. The linear range of the method is 0.5-15 mg/l (BSA), its detection limit is 0.05 mg/l, relative standard deviation is less than 1.87% (n=11), and analytical speed is 60 samples per hour.

  5. Multiple zone coal degasification potential in the Warrior coal field of Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, S.L.; Patton, A.F.; Beavers, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    The upper Pottsville Formation in the Warrior coal field of Alabama has 7 recognized groups of bituminous coal seams. Three of these groups, the Pratt, Mary Lee, and Black Creek, consist of seams containing commercially significant quantities of methane. Each group has several seams within a vertical interval that, in many areas, can be collectively stimulated. In parts of the Warrior coal field, where all 3 groups can be penetrated in one vertical borehole, the potential production from multiple zone completion wells can result in commercially profitable wells. Various open hole and through-the-casing completion procedures are being applied, resulting in successful methane production from these multiple-zone-coal-gas wells.

  6. Multiple zone coal degasification potential in Warrior coal field of Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, S.L.; Patton, A.F.; Beavers, W.M.

    1983-09-01

    The upper Pottsville Formation in the Warrior coal field of Alabama has seven recognized groups of bituminous coal seams. Three of these groups, the Pratt, Mary Lee, and Black Creek, consist of seams containing commercially significant quantities of methane. Each group has several seams within a vertical interval that, in many areas, can be stimulated collectively. In parts of the Warrior coal field, where all three groups can be penetrated in one vertical borehole, the potential production from multiple zone completion wells can result in commerically profitable wells. Various open-hole and through-the-casing completion procedures are being applied, resulting in successful methane production from these multiple zone coal gas wells.

  7. Solutions multiples thermocapillaires en zone flottante à gravité nulle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chénier, E.; Delcarte, C.; Labrosse, G.

    1998-04-01

    An original model is adopted to analyse the melted phase hydrodynamics, in the floating zone technique configuration for crystal growth. In particular, a small capillary scale located near the fusion fronts is taken into account. Its size turns out to influence significantly the flow structure. For the first time, multiple solutions are exhibited in zero gravity. Un modèle original a été adopté pour analyser l'hydrodynamique de la phase fondue pour la technique de la zone flottante, en croissance cristalline. En particulier, une petite échelle capillaire, située près des fronts de fusion, est prise en considération. Son extension se révèle influencer significativement la structure des écoulements. L'existence de solutions multiples est, pour la première fois, mise en évidence en gravité zéro.

  8. Comparison of peripheral nerve stimulator versus ultrasonography guided axillary block using multiple injection technique

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Alok; Sharma, DK; Sibi, Maj. E; Datta, Barun; Gogoi, Biraj

    2014-01-01

    Background: The established methods of nerve location were based on either proper motor response on nerve stimulation (NS) or ultrasound guidance. In this prospective, randomised, observer-blinded study, we compared ultrasound guidance with NS for axillary brachial plexus block using 0.5% bupivacaine with the multiple injection techniques. Methods: A total of 120 patients receiving axillary brachial plexus block with 0.5% bupivacaine, using a multiple injection technique, were randomly allocated to receive either NS (group NS, n = 60), or ultrasound guidance (group US, n = 60) for nerve location. A blinded observer recorded the onset of sensory and motor blocks, skin punctures, needle redirections, procedure-related pain and patient satisfaction. Results: The median (range) number of skin punctures were 2 (2–4) in group US and 3 (2–5) in group NS (P < 0.001). No differences were observed in the onset of sensory block in group NS (6.17 ± 1.22 min) and in group US (6.33 ± 0.48 min) (P = 0.16), and in onset of motor block (23.33 ± 1.26 min) in group US and (23.17 ± 1.79 min) in group NS; P > =0.27). Insufficient block was observed in three patient (5%) of group US and four patients (6.67%) of group NS (P > =0.35). Patient acceptance was similarly good in the two groups. Conclusion: Multiple injection axillary blocks with ultrasound guidance provided similar success rates and comparable incidence of complications as compared with NS guidance with 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine. PMID:25624532

  9. Transverse Electron Motion and Multiple Electron Injection in Blowout Bubble of Laser Wakefield Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, T.; McGuffey, C.; Cummings, P. G.; Horovitz, Y.; Dollar, F.; Schumaker, W.; Chvykov, V.; Kalintchenko, G.; Rousseau, P.; Yanovsky, V.; Bulanov, S. S.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Maksimchuk, A.; Krushelnick, K.

    2010-11-01

    An analytical formula for electron motion in a spherical bubble was compared with data from electron acceleration experiments using the HERCULES laser system showing reasonable agreement. This also provides evidence for continuous injection of electrons into the bubble with multiple bunches in the bubble separated both transversely and longitudinally. The only free parameter in the analytical model was radius of the bubble (rb) which was found to be close to the matched spot size for self focusing. The RMS electron beam divergence is found to increase with bunch charge also suggesting tradeoff between beam divergence and photon number in applications for such beams as an x-ray source.

  10. Rapid generation of entry trajectory with multiple no-fly zone constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Rui-zhi; Liu, Lu-hua; Tang, Guo-jian; Bao, Wei-min

    2017-10-01

    An entry trajectory planning algorithm that generates flyable trajectories satisfying multiple no-fly zones and other path and terminal constraints is presented. The algorithm divides the entry trajectory into initial and glide phases. In the initial phase, the maximum value of heating rate is controlled accurately as the altitude of the quasi-equilibrium glide condition (QEGC) transition point is adjusted with a nominal angle of attack and a parameterized bank angle. In the glide phase, a geometry based planning algorithm that relies on the center positions and radius of the multiple no-fly zones, is proposed to calculate the waypoints of the virtual flight path. The magnitude and reversal point of the bank angle in each sub-phase are searched based on a reduced-order lateral system with the predictor-corrector method. The altitude is designed as an analytical function of energy, and the QEGC is employed to analytically solve the remaining state variables. Finally, a linear quadratic regulator is used to test the realization of the 3D trajectory. The algorithm is tested using the common aero vehicle-H model. The results demonstrate that the algorithm can rapidly generate the entry trajectory with multiple no-fly zone constraints and achieve complex flight missions satisfying all flight constraints.

  11. Energy Simulation of Integrated Multiple-Zone Variable Refrigerant Flow System

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Rice, C Keith; Baxter, Van D

    2013-01-01

    We developed a detailed steady-state system model, to simulate the performance of an integrated five-zone variable refrigerant flow (VRF)heat pump system. The system is multi-functional, capable of space cooling, space heating, combined space cooling and water heating, and dedicated water heating. Methods were developed to map the VRF performance in each mode, based on the abundant data produced by the equipment system model. The performance maps were used in TRNSYS annual energy simulations. Using TRNSYS, we have successfully setup and run cases for a multiple-split, VRF heat pump and dehumidifier combination in 5-zone houses in 5 climates that control indoor dry-bulb temperature and relative humidity. We compared the calculated energy consumptions for the VRF heat pump against that of a baseline central air source heat pump, coupled with electric water heating and the standalone dehumidifiers. In addition, we investigated multiple control scenarios for the VRF heat pump, i.e. on/off control, variable indoor air flow rate, and using different zone temperature setting schedules, etc. The energy savings for the multiple scenarios were assessed.

  12. Efficacy and tolerability of oral versus injectable disease-modifying therapies for multiple sclerosis in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Longbrake, Erin E; Cross, Anne H; Salter, Amber

    2016-01-01

    Background The advent of oral disease-modifying therapies fundamentally changed the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Nevertheless, impressions of their relative efficacy and tolerability are primarily founded on expert opinion. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether oral disease-modifying therapies were better tolerated and/or more effective for controlling multiple sclerosis compared to injectable therapies in clinical practice. Methods Single-center, retrospective cohort study. 480 patients initiated oral (fingolimod, teriflunomide, or dimethyl fumarate) or injectable therapy between March 2013–March 2015 and follow-up data was collected for 5–31 months. Outcomes included on-drug multiple sclerosis activity and drug discontinuation. Cox proportional hazards models were used to control for baseline differences and sensitivity analyses using propensity-weighted matching were performed. Results A higher proportion of teriflunomide-treated patients experienced multiple sclerosis activity compared to those treated with injectable therapies (p = 0.0053) in the adjusted model. Breakthrough multiple sclerosis was equally prevalent among fingolimod and dimethyl fumarate-treated compared to injectable therapy-treated patients. Of patients initiating a disease-modifying therapy, 32–46% discontinued or switched treatments during the study. After controlling for baseline differences, discontinuation rates were comparable across treatment groups. Conclusions In this cohort, oral and injectable disease-modifying therapies were equally well tolerated, but teriflunomide appeared less effective for controlling multiple sclerosis activity than injectable therapies. Further study is needed. PMID:28280599

  13. A prospective randomised study of local anaesthetic injection after multiple rubber band ligation of haemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Gokalp, Avni; Baskonus, Ilyas; Maralcan, Gokturk

    2003-01-01

    One hundred and forty-two patients with second and third degree internal haemorrhoids were randomised to rubber band ligation only (n = 72) or rubber band ligation + local anaesthetic injection (n = 70). Pain was assessed by the patients at intervals of 6 hours and 1, 2, 3 and 4 days after banding. Other symptoms, complications, analgesic requirements and patient satisfaction were also recorded for 10 days following the treatment. There was a significant reduction in pain at 60 minutes and 6 hours after the procedure in the rubber band ligation plus local anaesthetic injection patients compared with the rubber band ligation only group (P < 0.05), but there was no reduction in pain when local anaesthetic was used compared with rubber band ligation only on days 1, 2, 3 and 4 days after ligation. On day 10 after banding, there was no difference between the two groups with respect to symptoms such as nausea, feeling of heaviness and/or tenesmus, fainting; complications, analgesic consumption or overall patient satisfaction. Bupivacaine injection after multiple rubber band ligation may be useful in reducing pain during the first 6 hours of the postbanding period.

  14. Pneumatic Microvalve-Based Hydrodynamic Sample Injection for High-Throughput, Quantitative Zone Electrophoresis in Capillaries

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Ryan T.; Wang, Chenchen; Rausch, Sarah J.; Lee, Cheng S.; Tang, Keqi

    2014-07-01

    A hybrid microchip/capillary CE system was developed to allow unbiased and lossless sample loading and high throughput repeated injections. This new hybrid CE system consists of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchip sample injector featuring a pneumatic microvalve that separates a sample introduction channel from a short sample loading channel and a fused silica capillary separation column that connects seamlessly to the sample loading channel. The sample introduction channel is pressurized such that when the pneumatic microvalve opens briefly, a variable-volume sample plug is introduced into the loading channel. A high voltage for CE separation is continuously applied across the loading channel and the fused silica capillary separation column. Analytes are rapidly separated in the fused silica capillary with high resolution. High sensitivity MS detection after CE separation is accomplished via a sheathless CE/ESI-MS interface. The performance evaluation of the complete CE/ESI-MS platform demonstrated that reproducible sample injection with well controlled sample plug volumes could be achieved by using the PDMS microchip injector. The absence of band broadening from microchip to capillary indicated a minimum dead volume at the junction. The capabilities of the new CE/ESI-MS platform in performing high throughput and quantitative sample analyses were demonstrated by the repeated sample injection without interrupting an ongoing separation and a good linear dependence of the total analyte ion abundance on the sample plug volume using a mixture of peptide standards. The separation efficiency of the new platform was also evaluated systematically at different sample injection times, flow rates and CE separation voltages.

  15. Pneumatic microvalve-based hydrodynamic sample injection for high-throughput, quantitative zone electrophoresis in capillaries.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ryan T; Wang, Chenchen; Rausch, Sarah J; Lee, Cheng S; Tang, Keqi

    2014-07-01

    A hybrid microchip/capillary electrophoresis (CE) system was developed to allow unbiased and lossless sample loading and high-throughput repeated injections. This new hybrid CE system consists of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchip sample injector featuring a pneumatic microvalve that separates a sample introduction channel from a short sample loading channel, and a fused-silica capillary separation column that connects seamlessly to the sample loading channel. The sample introduction channel is pressurized such that when the pneumatic microvalve opens briefly, a variable-volume sample plug is introduced into the loading channel. A high voltage for CE separation is continuously applied across the loading channel and the fused-silica capillary separation column. Analytes are rapidly separated in the fused-silica capillary, and following separation, high-sensitivity MS detection is accomplished via a sheathless CE/ESI-MS interface. The performance evaluation of the complete CE/ESI-MS platform demonstrated that reproducible sample injection with well controlled sample plug volumes could be achieved by using the PDMS microchip injector. The absence of band broadening from microchip to capillary indicated a minimum dead volume at the junction. The capabilities of the new CE/ESI-MS platform in performing high-throughput and quantitative sample analyses were demonstrated by the repeated sample injection without interrupting an ongoing separation and a linear dependence of the total analyte ion abundance on the sample plug volume using a mixture of peptide standards. The separation efficiency of the new platform was also evaluated systematically at different sample injection times, flow rates, and CE separation voltages.

  16. Safety, sterility and stability of direct-from-vial multiple dosing intravitreal injection of bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Das, Taraprasad; Volety, Srinivas; Ahsan, Saad M; Thakur, Abhay K; Sharma, Savitri; Padhi, Tapas R; Basu, Soumyava; Rao, Ch Mohan

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to determine the stability, sterility and safety of bevacizumab multiple dosing from a single vial without prior aliquoting. In-vitro and human study. Six bevacizumab vials, used in multiple patients on a single day by direct withdrawal from the vial, and stored in 4°C up to a variable period, were tested for stability (high-performance liquid chromatography; [HPLC]), sterility (culture), conformational stability by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy and the rubber cork structural integrity (electron microscopy [EM]). HPLC of all six samples of used bevacizumab and the control bevacizumab sample were similar; culture was negative; and the EM of rubber corks did not show an open communication. Spectroscopic studies indicated drug conformational stability. Further, there was no infection or inflammation in 221 consecutive patients (973 injections) when bevacizumab was stored at 4°C and used for one week. Bevacizumab does not lose stability when stored at 4°C. It may be used for a week by direct withdrawal from the vial without fear of infection or inflammation if all standard precautions related to intravitreal injection are adhered to. © 2014 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  17. Stagnation region gas film cooling: Spanwise angled injection from multiple rows of holes. [gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckey, D. W.; Lecuyer, M. R.

    1981-01-01

    The stagnation region of a cylinder in a cross flow was used in experiments conducted with both a single row and multiple rows of spanwise angled (25 deg) coolant holes for a range of the coolant blowing ratio with a freestream to wall temperature ratio approximately equal to 1.7 and R(eD) = 90,000. Data from local heat flux measurements are presented for injection from a single row located at 5 deg, 22.9 deg, 40.8 deg, 58.7 deg from stagnation using a hole spacing ratio of S/d(o) = 5 and 10. Three multiple row configurations were also investigated. Data are presented for a uniform blowing distribution and for a nonuniform blowing distribution simulating a plenum supply. The data for local Stanton Number reduction demonstrated a lack of lateral spreading by the coolant jets. Heat flux levels larger than those without film cooling were observed directly behind the coolant holes as the blowing ratio exceeded a particular value. The data were spanwise averaged to illustrate the influence of injection location, blowing ratio and hole spacing. The large values of blowing ratio for the blowing distribution simulating a plenum supply resulted in heat flux levels behind the holes in excess of the values without film cooling. An increase in freestream turbulence intensity from 4.4 to 9.5 percent had a negligible effect on the film cooling performance.

  18. Ultrafast dynamics of multiple exciton harvesting in the CdSe-ZnO system: electron injection versus Auger recombination.

    PubMed

    Zídek, Karel; Zheng, Kaibo; Abdellah, Mohamed; Lenngren, Nils; Chábera, Pavel; Pullerits, Tõnu

    2012-12-12

    We study multiple electron transfer from a CdSe quantum dot (QD) to ZnO, which is a prerequisite for successful utilization of multiple exciton generation for photovoltaics. By using ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopy we observe competition between electron injection into ZnO and quenching of multiexcitons via Auger recombination. We show that fast electron injection dominates over biexcitonic Auger recombination and multiple electrons can be transferred into ZnO. A kinetic component with time constant of a few tens of picoseconds was identified as the competition between injection of the second electron from a doubly excited QD and a trion Auger recombination. Moreover, we demonstrate that the multiexciton harvesting efficiency changes significantly with QD size. Within a narrow QD diameter range from 2 to 4 nm, the efficiency of electron injection from a doubly excited QD can vary from 30% to 70% in our system.

  19. Multiple roles for the active zone protein RIM1alpha in late stages of neurotransmitter release.

    PubMed

    Calakos, Nicole; Schoch, Susanne; Südhof, Thomas C; Malenka, Robert C

    2004-06-24

    The active zone protein RIM1alpha interacts with multiple active zone and synaptic vesicle proteins and is implicated in short- and long-term synaptic plasticity, but it is unclear how RIM1alpha's biochemical interactions translate into physiological functions. To address this question, we analyzed synaptic transmission in autaptic neurons cultured from RIM1alpha-/- mice. Deletion of RIM1alpha causes a large reduction in the readily releasable pool of vesicles, alters short-term plasticity, and changes the properties of evoked asynchronous release. Lack of RIM1alpha, however, had no effect on synapse formation, spontaneous release, overall Ca2+ sensitivity of release, or synaptic vesicle recycling. These results suggest that RIM1alpha modulates sequential steps in synaptic vesicle exocytosis through serial protein-protein interactions and that this modulation is the basis for RIM1alpha's role in synaptic plasticity. Copyright 2004 Cell Press

  20. Optoelectronic imaging using a millimeter-wave, optically controlled, photo-injected Fresnel-zone plate antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallacher, Tom F.; Robertson, Duncan A.; Smith, Graham M.

    2012-11-01

    We present results for a rapid, precise, and wide field-of-view scanning antenna for use at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths, based on the photo-injected Fresnel-zone plate antenna (piFZPA) method. In this paper, we demonstrate the potential of this technology as a viable solution for a range of applications demanding real-time imagery or high flexibility and beam fidelity at these frequencies. We present proof-of-principle experiments at 94 GHz that incorporate a commercial display technology operating at visible wavelengths. The 100-mm-diameter piFZPA achieves 37-dBi directivity, excellent beam symmetry, beam steering in two dimensions over a ±20-deg field of view, and precise beam control and repeatability. Preliminary results of a piFZPA-based, short-range, 94-GHz, three-dimensional imaging radar are also presented.

  1. Multicommutated stepwise injection determination of ascorbic acid in medicinal plants and food samples by capillary zone electrophoresis ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Falkova, Marina T; Bulatov, Andrey V; Pushina, Maria O; Ekimov, Aleksey A; Alekseeva, Galina M; Moskvin, Leonid N

    2015-02-01

    An automation of the extraction of analytes from solid samples into the aqueous phase based on multicommutated stepwise injection analysis concept has been suggested. The feasibility of the approach has been demonstrated by determination of ascorbic acid as model analyte. The method includes automated extraction of ascorbic acid from solid sample into borate buffer solution pH 8 in mixing chamber during vigorous mixing by nitrogen stream, and subsequent detection by capillary zone electrophoresis at 254 nm. The method has a linear range of 0.1-5.0 mg g(-1) for ascorbic acid with the LOD of 0.03 mg g(-1). The sample throughput was 7 h(-1). This method was applied for determination of ascorbic acid in various medicinal plants and food samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Using reusable learning objects (rlos) in injection skills teaching: Evaluations from multiple user types.

    PubMed

    Williams, Julia; O'Connor, Mórna; Windle, Richard; Wharrad, Heather J

    2015-12-01

    Clinical skills are a critical component of pre-registration nurse education in the United Kingdom, yet there is widespread concern about the clinical skills displayed by newly-qualified nurses. Novel means of supporting clinical skills education are required to address this. A package of Reusable Learning Objects (RLOs) was developed to supplement pre-registration teaching on the clinical skill of administering injection medication. RLOs are electronic resources addressing a single learning objective whose interactivity facilitates learning. This article evaluates a package of five injection RLOs across three studies: (1) questionnaires administered to pre-registration nursing students at University of Nottingham (UoN) (n=46) evaluating the RLO package as a whole; (2) individual RLOs evaluated in online questionnaires by educators and students from UoN; from other national and international institutions; and healthcare professionals (n=265); (3) qualitative evaluation of the RLO package by UoN injection skills tutors (n=6). Data from all studies were assessed for (1) access to, (2) usefulness, (3) impact and (4) integration of the RLOs. Study one found that pre-registration nursing students rate the RLO package highly across all categories, particularly underscoring the value of their self-test elements. Study two found high ratings in online assessments of individual RLOs by multiple users. The global reach is particularly encouraging here. Tutors reported insufficient levels of student-RLO access, which might be explained by the timing of their student exposure. Tutors integrate RLOs into teaching and agree on their use as teaching supplements, not substitutes for face-to-face education. This evaluation encompasses the first years postpackage release. Encouraging data on evaluative categories in this early review suggest that future evaluations are warranted to track progress as the package is adopted and evaluated more widely. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  3. Automated multiple flow-injection analysis in clinical chemistry: determination of total protein with Biuret reagent.

    PubMed

    Shideler, C E; Stewart, K K; Crump, J; Wills, M R; Savory, J; Renoe, B W

    1980-09-01

    We have examined the feasibility of the automated multiple flow-injection technique for application to clinical chemistry by adapting to this system the biuret method for the determination of total protein. Samples were discretely and rapidly introduced into a continuously flowing, nonsegmented reagent stream by means of an automatic sampler and high-pressure injection valve. Pumps operating at 1380-2070 kPa (200-300 psi) were utilized to introduce the biuret reagent and saline diluent into the system separately at flow rates of 72 and 47 microL/s, respectively. Use of 20-microL sample and a 3.0-s reaction-delay coil was adequately sensitive for analysis for total protein by this method. Samples were analyzed at a rate of 150/h with no detectable between-sample carryover. Within-run precision studies yielded relative standard deviations of 2.5% and less. Total protein values obtained by this method correlated well with those obtained by centrifugal analyzer and bubble-segmented continuous-flow biuret methods.

  4. Multiple infections and associated risk factors among non-injecting cocaine users in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Diana; Radulich, Graciela; Muzzio, Estela; Naveira, Jorge; Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Rey, Jorge; Griemberg, Gloria; Friedman, Samuel R; Martínez-Peralta, Liliana; Weissenbacher, Mercedes

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV, core antibody), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis infections and analyze associated risk factors among 504 non-injecting cocaine users (NICU) in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Participants were interviewed in face-to-face sessions through a short structured questionnaire. Using venipuncture, 10 mL of blood was collected. Seroprevalence rates were: HIV (6.3%), HBV (9%), HCV (7.5%), and VDRL (4.2%). The risk of being infected with HIV, HBV, and HCV was significantly associated with having had a sex partner who was either a drug injector or who was known to be HIV positive. HIV and HCV infections were associated with former imprisonment, and HCV was associated with having been tattooed. Because of the rising number of NICU and the multiple infections detected, it is essential to implement prevention strategies focused on this population.

  5. Geomechanical effects on CO2 leakage through fault zones during large-scale underground injection

    SciTech Connect

    Rinaldi, Antonio P.; Rutqvist, Jonny; Cappa, Frédéric

    2013-12-01

    The importance of geomechanics—including the potential for faults to reactivate during large-scale geologic carbon sequestration operations—has recently become more widely recognized. However, notwithstanding the potential for triggering notable (felt) seismic events, the potential for buoyancy-driven CO2 to reach potable groundwater and the ground surface is actually more important from public safety and storage-efficiency perspectives. In this context, this paper extends the previous studies on the geomechanical modeling of fault responses during underground carbon dioxide injection, focusing on the short-term integrity of the sealing caprock, and hence on the potential for leakage of either brine or CO2 to reach the shallow groundwater aquifers during active injection. We consider stress/strain-dependent permeability and study the leakage through the fault zone as its permeability changes during a reactivation, also causing seismicity. We analyze several scenarios related to the volume of CO2 injected (and hence as a function of the overpressure), involving both minor and major faults, and analyze the profile risks of leakage for different stress/strain-permeability coupling functions. We conclude that whereas it is very difficult to predict how much fault permeability could change upon reactivation, this process can have a significant impact on the leakage rate. Moreover, our analysis shows that induced seismicity associated with fault reactivation may not necessarily open up a new flow path for leakage. Results show a poor correlation between magnitude and amount of fluid leakage, meaning that a single event is generally not enough to substantially change the permeability along the entire fault length. Finally, and consequently, even if some changes in permeability occur, this does not mean that the CO2 will migrate up along the entire fault, breaking through the caprock to enter the overlying aquifer.

  6. Multiple, zonal and multi-zone adenoma detection rates according to quality of cleansing during colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Cesare; Maselli, Roberta; Pontone, Paolo; Angelini, Rita; Brighi, Manuela; Patrizi, Gregorio; Pironi, Daniele; Magliocca, Fabio Massimo; Filippini, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Background The safety and diagnostic accuracy of colonoscopy depend on the quality of colon cleansing. The adenoma detection rate is usually used as a quality measurement score. Objective We aimed to introduce and evaluate three new parameters to determine polyps and adenomas segmental localization and their distribution in association with different bowel preparation levels during colonoscopy. We introduce the multiple adenoma detection rate (the percentage of patients with >2 adenomas diagnosed during colonoscopy), the zonal adenoma detection rate (the percentage of patients with >2 adenomas diagnosed during colonoscopy in different colon areas (rectum, sigmoid, descending, transverse, ascending and cecum colon)), and multi-zone adenoma detection rate (the percentage of patients with >2 adenomas diagnosed during colonoscopy in different colon areas with at least a segment between them with or without lesions (i.e. rectum and descending colon with or without lesions in the sigmoid)). Methods We prospectively enrolled outpatients who underwent colonoscopy from January 2013 to October 2014. The bowel preparation quality, according to the Aronchick modified scale, number and location of lesions, Paris classification and histology, were recorded. The multiple adenoma/polyp detection rate, zonal adenoma/polyp detection rate, and multi-zone adenoma/polyp detection rate were determined. Results In total, 519 consecutive patients (266/253 M/F; mean age 55.3 ± 12.8 years) were enrolled. The adenoma and polyp detection rates were 21% and 35%, respectively. Multiple adenomas were detected in 28 patients. Adenoma and polyp detection rate and new parameters were statistically significantly higher in the optimal as compared with the adequate bowel preparation. Conclusions An optimal level of bowel preparation was strongly associated not only with a higher adenoma detection rate, but also with a higher chance of detecting multiple clinically relevant lesions in adjacent or

  7. Multiple injected and natural conservative tracers quantify mixing in a stream confluence affected by acid mine drainage near Silverton, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schemel, Laurence E.; Cox, Marisa H.; Runkel, Robert L.; Kimball, Briant A.

    2006-08-01

    The acidic discharge from Cement Creek, containing elevated concentrations of dissolved metals and sulphate, mixed with the circumneutral-pH Animas River over a several hundred metre reach (mixing zone) near Silverton, CO, during this study. Differences in concentrations of Ca, Mg, Si, Sr, and SO42- between the creek and the river were sufficiently large for these analytes to be used as natural tracers in the mixing zone. In addition, a sodium chloride (NaCl) tracer was injected into Cement Creek, which provided a Cl- reference tracer in the mixing zone. Conservative transport of the dissolved metals and sulphate through the mixing zone was verified by mass balances and by linear mixing plots relative to the injected reference tracer. At each of seven sites in the mixing zone, five samples were collected at evenly spaced increments of the observed across-channel gradients, as determined by specific conductance. This created sets of samples that adequately covered the ranges of mixtures (mixing ratios, in terms of the fraction of Animas River water, %AR). Concentratis measured in each mixing zone sample and in the upstream Animas River and Cement Creek were used to compute %AR for the reference and natural tracers. Values of %AR from natural tracers generally showed good agreement with values from the reference tracer, but variability in discharge and end-member concentrations and analytical errors contributed to unexpected outlier values for both injected and natural tracers. The median value (MV) %AR (calculated from all of the tracers) reduced scatter in the mixing plots for the dissolved metals, indicating that the MV estimate reduced the effects of various potential errors that could affect any tracer.

  8. Multiple injected and natural conservative tracers quantify mixing in a stream confluence affected by acid mine drainage near Silverton, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, L.E.; Cox, M.H.; Runkel, R.L.; Kimball, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    The acidic discharge from Cement Creek, containing elevated concentrations of dissolved metals and sulphate, mixed with the circumneutral-pH Animas River over a several hundred metre reach (mixing zone) near Silverton, CO, during this study. Differences in concentrations of Ca, Mg, Si, Sr, and SO42- between the creek and the river were sufficiently large for these analytes to be used as natural tracers in the mixing zone. In addition, a sodium chloride (NaCl) tracer was injected into Cement Creek, which provided a Cl- 'reference' tracer in the mixing zone. Conservative transport of the dissolved metals and sulphate through the mixing zone was verified by mass balances and by linear mixing plots relative to the injected reference tracer. At each of seven sites in the mixing zone, five samples were collected at evenly spaced increments of the observed across-channel gradients, as determined by specific conductance. This created sets of samples that adequately covered the ranges of mixtures (mixing ratios, in terms of the fraction of Animas River water, %AR). Concentrations measured in each mixing zone sample and in the upstream Animas River and Cement Creek were used to compute %AR for the reference and natural tracers. Values of %AR from natural tracers generally showed good agreement with values from the reference tracer, but variability in discharge and end-member concentrations and analytical errors contributed to unexpected outlier values for both injected and natural tracers. The median value (MV) %AR (calculated from all of the tracers) reduced scatter in the mixing plots for the dissolved metals, indicating that the MV estimate reduced the effects of various potential errors that could affect any tracer.

  9. Efficacy and safety of concurrent collagenase clostridium histolyticum injections for multiple Dupuytren contractures.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Stephen; Gilpin, David; Kaplan, F Thomas D; Houston, Anthony; Kaufman, Gregory J; Cohen, Brian M; Jones, Nigel; Tursi, James P

    2014-01-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of 2 concurrent injections of collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) in the same hand to treat multiple Dupuytren flexion contractures. In a multicenter, open-label phase IIIb study, 60 patients received two 0.58-mg CCH doses injected into cords affecting 2 joints in the same hand during 1 visit, followed by finger extension approximately 24 hours later. Efficacy at postinjection day 30 (change in flexion contracture and active range of motion, patient satisfaction, physician-rated improvement, and rates of clinical success [flexion contracture 5° or less]) and adverse events were summarized. The concurrent injections were most commonly administered in cords affecting metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints on the same finger (47%) or 2 MCP joints on different fingers of the same hand (37%). Mean total (sum of the 2 treated joints) flexion contracture decreased 76%, from 87° to 24° (MCP joints: 86%; PIP joints: 66%). Mean total range of motion increased from 100° to 161°. Clinical success was 76% for MCP joints and 33% for PIP joints. Most patients were very satisfied (60%) or quite satisfied (28%) with treatment. Most investigators rated treated joints as very much improved (55%) or much improved (37%). The most common treatment-related adverse events (> 75% of patients) were contusion, pain in extremity, and edema peripheral (local edema). Most adverse events were mild to moderate in severity. Serious complications included 1 pulley rupture related to study medication and 1 flexor tendon rupture (following conclusion of the study). There were no systemic complications. Results suggest that 2 affected joints can be effectively and safely treated with concurrent CCH injections. There was an increased incidence of some adverse events with concurrent treatment (pruritus, lymphadenopathy, blood blister, and skin laceration) compared with treatment of a single joint. High degrees of patient

  10. Field amplified sample injection-capillary zone electrophoresis for the analysis of amprolium in eggs.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Villalba, Anna; Núñez, Oscar; Moyano, Encarnación; Galceran, M Teresa

    2013-03-01

    Veterinary medicines are widely administered to farm animals since they keep animals healthy at overcrowded conditions. Nevertheless the continuous administration of medicines to farm animals can frequently lead to the presence of residues of veterinary drugs in consumption products. Amprolium is a quaternary ammonium compound used in the treatment of coccidiosis. In this paper, a method based on CZE to analyze residues of amprolium in eggs was developed and validated for the first time. Parameters such as electrolyte type, concentration, and pH were optimized. In order to improve sensitivity, field-amplified sample injection (FASI) was used for in-line preconcentration after a quick and simple sample treatment based on SPE (Envi-Carb). During method-validation studies using egg samples, a matrix interference was found at the migration time of amprolium. This compound was identified as thiamine and confirmed by MS(n) experiments using CE coupled to MS (CE-MS) with an ion-trap mass analyzer. CZE conditions were reoptimized to separate thiamine from amprolium allowing the quantification of amprolium in eggs at concentrations down to 75 μg/kg, which are far below the MRL-legislated values. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Separation and determination of cefotaxime enantiomers in injections by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Jia, Zheng-Ping; Fan, Jun-Jie; Ma, Jun; Hua, Xie; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Juan

    2009-03-01

    Cefotaxime enantiomers have specific effects on Gram-negative bacteria. For quality control of cefotaxime it was necessary to establish a method for enantioseparation by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) using cyclodextrin (CD) as a chiral selector. The effects of various parameters on enantioseparation were studied. A fused silica capillary (40 cm effective length x 75 microm ID) was used. The cefotaxime enantiomers were separated on the baseline under conditions of 0.5 mmol/L CM-beta-CD, 75 mmol/L NaH2PO4 buffer at pH 7.0 using UV detection at 280 nm. Applied voltage and capillary temperature were 20 kV and 25 degrees C, respectively. Under these conditions for enantioseparation, linear calibration curves were obtained in the range 2 approximately 160 microg/mL. The limit of detection for both isomers was less than 0.5 microg/mL. The method was used for analysis of pharmaceutical preparations (dosage forms) of cefotaxime from various factories. A simple and specific CZE method was successfully demonstrated for the separation of cefotaxime enantiomers. The enantioseparation method should be established and this method should be used to control the quality of cefotaxime.

  12. Multiple versus single injections of fluorescent microspheres for the determination of regional organ blood flow in septic sheep.

    PubMed

    Lange, Matthias; Hamahata, Atsumori; Traber, Daniel L; Nakano, Yoshimitsu; Traber, Lillian D; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei

    2013-07-01

    Determination of regional blood flow by the injection of microspheres in sepsis models is crucial for the experimental evaluation of the influence of experimental treatment strategies on organ perfusion. However, multiple injections may critically increase the total quantity of microspheres, thereby restricting regional microcirculation and altering the results of blood flow measurements. This study was designed to compare the results of multiple versus single injections of microspheres in an established ovine sepsis model. Injury was induced by smoke inhalation and instillation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa into the lungs. Twenty sheep were studied for 4, 8, 12, 18, or 24 h, respectively. Microspheres were injected at the end of the study period and the animals were euthanized and organ tissues were harvested. Another four sheep were studied for 24 h and multiple microsphere injections were performed at the above indicated time points in the same animals. Tracheal blood flow significantly increased and blood flow to the pancreas and ileum significantly decreased versus baseline in both groups (P < 0.05 each). Blood flow to the ileum, renal cortex and skin did not significantly change versus baseline in both groups (P > 0.05). Blood flow was higher to the trachea in the multiple injection group at 18 h (P = 0.048) and to the ileum at 12 h (P = 0.049), and lower to the skin at 18 h (P = 0.015). In conclusion, the results indicate that multiple versus single microsphere injections induced no or negligible alterations during ovine sepsis. This finding may help reduce the quantity of animals needed in future experiments.

  13. One session treatment for pediatric blood-injection-injury phobia: A controlled multiple baseline trial.

    PubMed

    Oar, Ella L; Farrell, Lara J; Waters, Allison M; Conlon, Elizabeth G; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2015-10-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a modified One Session Treatment (OST), which included an e-therapy homework maintenance program over 4 weeks for Blood-Injection-Injury (BII) phobia in children and adolescents. Using a single case, non-concurrent multiple-baseline design, 24 children and adolescents (8-18 years; 7 males, 17 females) with a primary diagnosis of BII phobia were randomly assigned to a one, two or three week baseline prior to receiving OST. Primary outcome measures included diagnostic severity, diagnostic status, and child and parent fear ratings. Secondary outcome measures included avoidance during behavioural avoidance tasks (BAT), global functioning and self and parent reported anxiety, fear and depression. Efficacy was assessed at post-treatment, 1-month, and 3-month follow-up. BII symptoms and diagnostic severity remained relatively stable during the baseline periods and then significantly improved following implementation of the intervention. Treatment response was supported by changes across multiple measures, including child, parent and independent clinician ratings. At post-treatment 8 of the 24 (33.33%) children were BII diagnosis free. Treatment gains improved at follow-ups with 14 (58.33%) children diagnosis free at 1-month follow-up and 15 (62.5%) diagnosis free at 3-month follow-up. Preliminary findings support the effectiveness of a modified OST approach for BII phobic youth with treatment outcomes improving over follow-up intervals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Comparison of Combustion Dynamics for Multiple 7-Point Lean Direct Injection Combustor Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, K. M.; Hicks, Y. R.

    2017-01-01

    The combustion dynamics of multiple 7-point lean direct injection (LDI) combustor configurations are compared. LDI is a fuel-lean combustor concept for aero gas turbine engines in which multiple small fuel-air mixers replace one traditionally-sized fuel-air mixer. This 7-point LDI configuration has a circular cross section, with a center (pilot) fuel-air mixer surrounded by six outer (main) fuel-air mixers. Each fuel-air mixer consists of an axial air swirler followed by a converging-diverging venturi. A simplex fuel injector is inserted through the center of the air swirler, with the fuel injector tip located near the venturi throat. All 7 fuel-air mixers are identical except for the swirler blade angle, which varies with the configuration. Testing was done in a 5-atm flame tube with inlet air temperatures from 600 to 800 F and equivalence ratios from 0.4 to 0.7. Combustion dynamics were measured using a cooled PCB pressure transducer flush-mounted in the wall of the combustor test section.

  15. Therapeutic efficacy of monthly subcutaneous injection of daclizumab in relapsing multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Cohan, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of multiple disease-modifying therapies for relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS), there remains a need for highly efficacious targeted therapy with a favorable benefit–risk profile and attributes that encourage a high level of treatment adherence. Daclizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against CD25, the α subunit of the high-affinity interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor, that reversibly modulates IL-2 signaling. Daclizumab treatment leads to antagonism of proinflammatory, activated T lymphocyte function and expansion of immunoregulatory CD56bright natural killer cells, and has the potential to, at least in part, rectify the imbalance between immune tolerance and autoimmunity in relapsing MS. The clinical pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of subcutaneous daclizumab have been evaluated extensively in a large clinical study program. In pivotal studies, daclizumab demonstrated superior efficacy in reducing clinical and radiologic measures of MS disease activity compared with placebo or intramuscular interferon beta-1a, a standard-of-care therapy for relapsing MS. The risk of hepatic disorders, cutaneous events, and infections was modestly increased. The monthly subcutaneous self-injection dosing regimen of daclizumab may be advantageous in maintaining patient adherence to treatment, which is important for optimal outcomes with MS disease-modifying therapy. Daclizumab has been approved in the US and in the European Union and represents an effective new treatment option for patients with relapsing forms of MS, and is currently under review by other regulatory agencies. PMID:27672308

  16. A discrete choice experiment to determine patient preferences for injection devices in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Shingler, S L; Swinburn, P; Ali, S; Perard, R; Lloyd, A J

    2013-08-01

    Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) is usually managed with disease modifying drugs (DMDs), most commonly administered via self-injection. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence that different treatment-related attributes have for MS patients on their choice of MS DMD device. By establishing the relative importance of these characteristics for patients it should be possible to better understand the acceptability of a given device and to optimize the development of future devices. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) survey was developed on the basis of a review of published literature. Attributes identified for inclusion in the survey were: ease of use; comfort of use; presence of additional functions, needle visibility; practicality and efficacy. Choice sets were presented as pairs of hypothetical treatments based upon a fractional factorial design. One-hundred device-using MS patients completed the survey online. Analysis was conducted using a mixed-logit approach. Analysis of the DCE data revealed that all attributes significantly predicted treatment choice. Efficacy exhibited the largest effect on treatment selection and this provided context for understanding the magnitude of impact for the other attributes. Reducing the discomfort associated with device use and eliminating the necessity for assembly or drug reconstitution were highly valued. The addition of reminder and time-stamping functions, improved needlestick injury prevention, and reduction in device size were secondary concerns but still deemed desirable. Efficacy is of primary importance to MS patients, but characteristics of drug delivery devices can play an important role in treatment decision-making. Not all device characteristics could be included, and results are based upon 100 participants only. Findings suggest there is significant potential value in developing self-injection devices that are not only efficacious but also convenient and comfortable to use. Reducing barriers

  17. Multiple episodes of hydrothermal circulation, thermal metamorphism, and magma injection beneath The Geysers steam field, California. [Abstract only

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, R.J.; Moore, D.E.; Sorg, D.H.; McKee, E.H.

    1983-03-01

    Thermal metamorphic and hydrothermal mineral assemblages in drill cores and cuttings, K-Ar ages, and regional geologic relations indicate that The Geysers has been a locus of multiple intrusion and heat rejuvenation for more than 2.0 My, probably as the result of episodic crustal extension within the San Andreas fault system. Early episodes of magma injection beneath the steam field are indicated by hypabyssal rhyolitic and dacitic rocks that intruded to within a kilometer of the surface, dated by the Union Oil Co. at 1.6 to 2.5 My; and by small rhyolite extrusive bodies dated by the US Geological Survey at about 2.0 My. Later intrusion of magma is indicated by the rhyolite and dacite domes and flows on nearby Cobb Mountain, which are dated at 1.0 to 1.1 My. Episodes of magma injection were accompanied in the subsurface by fracturing of the intruded wallrocks and tourmalinization (probably at greater than or equal to 350/sup 0/C) in contact zones around the intrusions. High-temperature (greater than or equal to 290/sup 0/C) hot water circulation below 920 m is indicated by vein assemblages of epidote +- pyrrhotite. At depths as shallow as 100 m, lower temperature (greater than or equal to 210/sup 0/C) hot-water circulation is suggested by later veins of quartz +- adularis +- chlorite +- white mica +- pyrite; the paragenetically late adularia is dated at 0.69 +- 0.03 My. These lower temperature shallower vein assemblages were followed locally by deposition of datolite, pyrite, galena, sphalerite, minor cinnabar, and calcite in veinlets, cavities, and vugs. This latest hydrothermal mineral assemblage may record an increase in temperature or decrease in pressure, possibly associated with flipover to a vapor-dominated system. These data suggest that the present vapor-dominated system at The Geysers evolved from a hot water system in which the periodic influx of magma has sustained hydrothermal circulation for at least 0.7 My.

  18. Simultaneous Segmentation of Prostatic Zones Using Active Appearance Models With Multiple Coupled Levelsets

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Robert; Ribault, Justin; Gentile, John; Sperling, Dan; Madabhushi, Anant

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present an improvement to the popular Active Appearance Model (AAM) algorithm, that we call the Multiple-Levelset AAM (MLA). The MLA can simultaneously segment multiple objects, and makes use of multiple levelsets, rather than anatomical landmarks, to define the shapes. AAMs traditionally define the shape of each object using a set of anatomical landmarks. However, landmarks can be difficult to identify, and AAMs traditionally only allow for segmentation of a single object of interest. The MLA, which is a landmark independent AAM, allows for levelsets of multiple objects to be determined and allows for them to be coupled with image intensities. This gives the MLA the flexibility to simulataneously segmentation multiple objects of interest in a new image. In this work we apply the MLA to segment the prostate capsule, the prostate peripheral zone (PZ), and the prostate central gland (CG), from a set of 40 endorectal, T2-weighted MRI images. The MLA system we employ in this work leverages a hierarchical segmentation framework, so constructed as to exploit domain specific attributes, by utilizing a given prostate segmentation to help drive the segmentations of the CG and PZ, which are embedded within the prostate. Our coupled MLA scheme yielded mean Dice accuracy values of .81, .79 and .68 for the prostate, CG, and PZ, respectively using a leave-one-out cross validation scheme over 40 patient studies. When only considering the midgland of the prostate, the mean DSC values were .89, .84, and .76 for the prostate, CG, and PZ respectively. PMID:23997571

  19. Simultaneous Segmentation of Prostatic Zones Using Active Appearance Models With Multiple Coupled Levelsets.

    PubMed

    Toth, Robert; Ribault, Justin; Gentile, John; Sperling, Dan; Madabhushi, Anant

    2013-09-01

    In this work we present an improvement to the popular Active Appearance Model (AAM) algorithm, that we call the Multiple-Levelset AAM (MLA). The MLA can simultaneously segment multiple objects, and makes use of multiple levelsets, rather than anatomical landmarks, to define the shapes. AAMs traditionally define the shape of each object using a set of anatomical landmarks. However, landmarks can be difficult to identify, and AAMs traditionally only allow for segmentation of a single object of interest. The MLA, which is a landmark independent AAM, allows for levelsets of multiple objects to be determined and allows for them to be coupled with image intensities. This gives the MLA the flexibility to simulataneously segmentation multiple objects of interest in a new image. In this work we apply the MLA to segment the prostate capsule, the prostate peripheral zone (PZ), and the prostate central gland (CG), from a set of 40 endorectal, T2-weighted MRI images. The MLA system we employ in this work leverages a hierarchical segmentation framework, so constructed as to exploit domain specific attributes, by utilizing a given prostate segmentation to help drive the segmentations of the CG and PZ, which are embedded within the prostate. Our coupled MLA scheme yielded mean Dice accuracy values of .81, .79 and .68 for the prostate, CG, and PZ, respectively using a leave-one-out cross validation scheme over 40 patient studies. When only considering the midgland of the prostate, the mean DSC values were .89, .84, and .76 for the prostate, CG, and PZ respectively.

  20. Calculating the habitable zones of multiple star systems with a new interactive Web site

    SciTech Connect

    Müller, Tobias W. A.; Haghighipour, Nader

    2014-02-10

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology and an interactive Web site for calculating the habitable zone (HZ) of multiple star systems. Using the concept of spectral weight factor, as introduced in our previous studies of the calculations of HZ in and around binary star systems, we calculate the contribution of each star (based on its spectral energy distribution) to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet, and use the models of the HZ of the Sun to determine the boundaries of the HZ in multiple star systems. Our interactive Web site for carrying out these calculations is publicly available at http://astro.twam.info/hz. We discuss the details of our methodology and present its application to some of the multiple star systems detected by the Kepler space telescope. We also present the instructions for using our interactive Web site, and demonstrate its capabilities by calculating the HZ for two interesting analytical solutions of the three-body problem.

  1. Unnecessary multiple epidural steroid injections delay surgery for massive lumbar disc: Case discussion and review

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidural steroid injections (ESI) in the lumbar spine are not effective over the long-term for resolving “surgical” lesions. Here, we present a patient with a massive L2–L3 lumbar disk herniation whose surgery was delayed for 4 months by multiple unnecessary ESI, resulting in a cauda equina syndrome. Methods: A 54-year-old male acutely developed increased low back and radiating left leg pain in October of 2014. In December of 2014, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed a massive central/left sided disk herniation at the L2–L3 level resulting in marked thecal sac and left L2 foraminal and L3 lateral recess root compression. Despite the marked degree of neural compression, pain management treated him with 3 ESI over the next 3 months. Results: At the end of April of 2015, he presented to spine surgeon with a cauda equina syndrome. When the new MRI scan confirmed the previously documented massive central-left sided L2–L3 disk herniation, the patient emergently underwent an L1–L3 laminectomy with central-left sided L2–L3 lateral/foraminal diskectomy. Postoperatively, the patient was neurologically intact. Conclusions: Pain specialists performed multiple unnecessary lumbar ESI critically delaying spinal surgery for 4 months in this patient with a massive lumbar disk herniation who ultimately developed a cauda equina syndrome. Unfortunately, pain specialists (e.g., radiologists, anesthesiologists, and physiatrists), not specifically trained to perform neurological examinations or spinal surgery, are increasingly mismanaging spinal disease with ESI/variants. It is time for spine surgeons to speak out against this, and “take back” the care of patients with spinal surgical disease. PMID:26425398

  2. Bioequivalence of Two Intravenous Artesunate Products with Its Active Metabolite Following Single and Multiple Injections

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qigui; Xie, Lisa; Melendez, Victor; Weina, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In animal species and humans, artesunate (AS) undergoes extensive and complex biotransformation to an active metabolite, dihydroartemisinin (DHA). The bioequivalence of two intravenous AS pharmaceutical products with 5% NaHCO3 (China Formulation) or 0.3 M PBS (WRAIR Formulation) was determined in rats in a two-formulation, two-period, and two-sequence crossover experimental design. Following single and multiple intravenous administrations, a series of blood samples was collected by using an automated blood sampler and drug concentrations were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The 90% CI of the difference between the two intravenous formulations was contained within 80–125% of the geometric mean of pharmacokinetic parameters for AS and DHA in all animals dosed. Hematological effects were studied on days 1 and 3 after the final dosing, and a rapidly reversible hematological toxicity (significant reductions in reticulocyte levels) was seen in the peripheral blood of the rats treated with each formulation. The results showed that bioequivalence with the parent compound and active metabolite was fulfilled in the 82.3–117.7% ranges of all parameters (AUC0−t, Cmax, concentration average and degree of fluctuation) in the two-period and two-sequence crossover studies following single and repeated intravenous injections. For the metabolite, the equivalence was satisfied in most pharmacokinetic parameters tested due to the variability in the hydrolysis rate of AS to DHA. The WRAIR formulation of AS was considered to be bioequivalent to the Chinese formulation at steady-state according to the total drug exposure, in terms of both parent drug and active metabolite, rapidly reversal in reticulocyte decline, and extension of single and multiple administrations. Therefore, the parent drug and active metabolites should play similar important roles in the determination of efficacy and safety of the drug.

  3. Effects of dead zones in multiple-quantum-well binary-phase modulators on optical interconnections.

    PubMed

    Inbar, H; Taghizadeh, M R

    1998-02-10

    We investigate the effects of inactive regions [dead zones (DZ's)] in multiple-quantum-well binary-phase modulators used for free-space dynamic optical interconnection applications. Results, however, have implications for other types of pixelated spatial light modulators (SLM's). To our knowledge, the effects of DZ's in SLM's have not before been thoroughly studied in a context other than optical correlation. We investigate the DZ's (considered to be either opaque or transmissive) as a feature that may be exploited in system design, calculating light efficiency and fidelity as a function of DZ fractional width. It is shown that in particular cases an appropriate choice of DZ width would lead to an optical interconnection with substantially improved cross-talk performance.

  4. Delivery and Establishing Slow Release Carbon Source to the Hanford Vadose Zone Using Colloidal Silica Suspension Injection and Subsequent Gelation - Laboratory Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, L.; Lee, M. H.; Lee, B.; Yang, S.

    2016-12-01

    Delivery of nutrient to and establish a slow release carbon source in the vadose zone and capillary fringe zone is essential for setting up of a long-lasting bioremediation of contaminations in those zones. Conventional solution-based injection and infiltration approaches are facing challenges to achieve the delivery and remedial goals. Aqueous silica suspensions undergo a delayed gelation process under favorite geochemical conditions. The delay in gelation provides a time window for the injection of the suspension into the subsurface; and the gelation of the amendment-silica suspension enables the amendment-laden gel to stay in the target zone and slowly release the constituents for contaminant remediation. This approach can potentially be applied to deliver bio-nutrients to the vadose zone and capillary fringe zone for enhanced bioremediation and achieve remedial goals. This research was conducted to demonstrate delayed gelation of colloidal silica suspensions when carbon sources were added and to prove the gelation occurs in sediments under vadose conditions. Sodium lactate, vegetable oil, ethanol, and molasses were tested as the examples of carbon source (or nutrient) amendments. The rheological properties of the silica suspensions during the gelation were characterized. The influence of silica, salinity, nutrient concentrations, and the type of nutrients was studied. The kinetics of nutrient release from silica-nutrient gel was quantified using molasses as the example, and the influence of suspension gelation time was evaluated. The injection behavior of the suspensions was investigated by monitoring their viscosity changes and the injection pressures when the suspensions were delivered into sediment columns.

  5. Prediction of Probabilistic Sleep Distributions Following Travel Across Multiple Time Zones

    PubMed Central

    Darwent, David; Dawson, Drew; Roach, Greg D.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To parameterize and validate a model to estimate average sleep times for long-haul aviation pilots during layovers following travel across multiple time zones. The model equations were based on a weighted distribution of domicile- and local-time sleepers, and included algorithms to account for sleep loss and circadian re-synchronization. Design: Sleep times were collected from participants under normal commercial operating conditions using diaries and wrist activity monitors. Participants: Participants included a total of 306 long-haul pilots (113 captains, 120 first officers, and 73 second officers). Measurement and Results: The model was parameterized based on the average sleep/wake times observed during international flight patterns from Australia to London and Los Angeles (global R2 = 0.72). The parameterized model was validated against the average sleep/wake times observed during flight patterns from Australia to London (r2 = 0.85), Los Angeles (r2 = 0.79), New York (r2 = 0.80), and Johannesburg (r2 = 0.73). Goodness-of-fit was poorer when the parameterized model equations were used to predict the variance across the sleep/wake cycles of individual pilots (R2 = 0.42, 0.35, 0.31, and 0.28 for the validation flight patterns, respectively), in part because of substantial inter-individual variability in sleep timing and duration. Conclusions: It is possible to estimate average sleep times during layovers in international patterns with a reasonable degree of accuracy. Models of this type could form the basis of a stand-alone application to estimate the likelihood that a given duty schedule provides pilots, on average, with an adequate opportunity to sleep. Citation: Darwent D; Dawson D; Roach GD. Prediction of probabilistic sleep distributions following travel across multiple time zones. SLEEP 2010;33(2):185-195. PMID:20175402

  6. Curative resection of multiple gastrinomas aided by selective arterial secretin injection test and intraoperative secretin test.

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, M; Takahashi, K; Isobe, Y; Hattori, Y; Satomura, K; Tobe, T

    1989-01-01

    Recently a number of surgeons have recommended radical resection of gastrinomas in Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES). We have developed a useful technique for preoperative localization of gastrinomas--the selective arterial secretin injection test (SASI)--and we recommend an intraoperative secretin test (IOS) for deciding the radicality of resection of gastrinomas. Here the results of SASI and IOS tests in 11 patients with ZES are examined and compared with the results of other techniques. The SASI test localized gastrinomas in all of the patients, while the sensitivity of ultrasonography, computed tomography, arteriography, or portal venous blood samplings was between 1/11 and 5/11. On the basis of the results of the SASI test, radical resection of gastrinoma was performed in four patients (three pancreatoduodenectomies and one extirpation). After pancreatoduodenectomy, immunohistologic study of the specimen revealed multiple microgastrinomas and lymph node metastases in two patients and the coexistence of a microgastrinoma and a gastinoma in one patient. The IOS test was useful in the estimation of the advisability of radicality, and in two patients total gastrectomy was not performed because of the results of the IOS test. These four patients are well and have returned to work, and their serum gastrin levels are below 35 pg/mL. Thus we believe SASI and IOS tests are helpful for planning curative resection of gastrinomas. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. PMID:2589884

  7. H.P. Acthar Gel (repository corticotropin injection) treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kutz, Christen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) relapses can be complex in patients with concomitant diabetes. Corticosteroids and adrenocorticotropic hormones are known to cause alterations in glucose tolerance. Many patients have poor tolerability to therapy, necessitating alternative treatment options. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (H.P. Acthar Gel, repository corticotropin injection, Mallinckrodt ARD Inc., Hazelwood, MO, USA) is currently indicated for the treatment of MS relapses. Objectives: The objective of this study was to review patients’ experiences of Acthar Gel for the treatment of MS exacerbations in patients with MS and diabetes. Methods: A retrospective review of 13 patients’ experiences with treatment. Qualified healthcare providers completed a questionnaire following Acthar Gel treatment for MS relapse. Results: Previous corticosteroid treatment with either intravenous methylprednisolone or prednisone was reported by 84.6% of patients; eight patients had complications following administration of prior steroid treatment, seven of whom experienced elevated blood glucose levels. Acthar Gel was administered daily for a mean of 5.3 days, with 61.5% of patients reporting relapse resolution. Two patients experienced elevated blood glucose. Conclusion: The majority of patients experienced a timely resolution of their MS relapse with few hyperglycemic adverse events. Although more studies are necessary, these data suggest that Acthar Gel may be a well-tolerated and effective treatment option for patients with diabetes experiencing an MS relapse. PMID:27433309

  8. Switching from multiple daily injections to CSII pump therapy: insulin expenditures in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    David, Guy; Gill, Max; Gunnarsson, Candace; Shafiroff, Jeff; Edelman, Steven

    2014-11-01

    To identify variations in expenditures and utilization of insulin and other antidiabetes medications by comparing patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) pump therapy versus multiple daily injection (MDI) therapy. Truven Health Analytics MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Database and Medicare Supplemental Database for 2006 to 2010 were used in a difference-in-differences approach that took advantage of variation in the timing of the switch from MDI therapy to CSII pump therapy. Continuous users of MDI therapy throughout the study period were compared with those who switched to the CSII pump therapy during this period. Specifications included: coefficient estimates from cross-sectional ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions with: 1) no additional controls, 2) controls for patient demographics and comorbidities, and 3) patient fixed effects. Propensity score matching at baseline mitigated concerns regarding patient selection bias. While insulin expenditures rose during the study period, switching to CSII pump therapy led to sizable reductions in insulin expenditures. This reduction in insulin expenditures due to switching varied between $657 (standard error [SE] $126; P<.01) and $1011 (SE $250.60; P<.01) per year. This study demonstrated a significant reduction in insulin expenditures among MDI patients who switched to CSII pump therapy at various times throughout the study period.

  9. Multiple Intravitreal Ranibizumab Injections for Persistant Choroidal Neovascularization Associated with Presumed Ocular Histoplasmosis Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz, Turgut; Dikci, Seyhan; Genç, Oğuzhan; Mutlu, Kayhan

    2017-01-01

    Presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (POHS) is a clinical entity that is characterized by small, round, discrete, macular or mid peripheral atrophic (punched out) chorioretinal lesions (histo spots), peripapillary scarring, choroidal neovascularization (CNV), and the absence of anterior uveitis and vitritis. Diagnosis of this disorder is based upon characteristic clinical findings and a positive histoplasmin skin test or residence in an endemic region for Histoplasma capsulatum. There is no active systemic disease during diagnosis of POHS. Disciform scarring and macular CNV secondary to POHS is a well-known complication which leads to loss of visual acuity or visual disturbance. Without therapy, the visual prognosis in these patients is unfavorable. Submacular surgery, radiation, steroids, photodynamic therapy, and most recently anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy are current therapeutic options for this condition. We report a case with persistent CNV secondary to POHS in a middle-aged woman with moderate myopia and the clinical course of treatment with multiple intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis®, Novartis) injections. PMID:28405488

  10. Suppression of tumor growth by a heterologous antibody directed against multiple myeloma dominant CD38 antigen in SCID mice injected with multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Barabas, Arpad Z; Cole, Chad D; Graeff, Richard M; Kovacs, Zoltan B; Lafreniere, Rene

    2016-01-01

    Employing passive immunization - using a heterologous anti-CD38 IgG antibody containing serum - in SCID mice injected subcutaneously with human multiple myeloma cells, we have shown that treatments with the antiserum - especially in the presence of complement - significantly decreased cancer growth. However, administered antibody and complement was not sufficient in amount to prevent cancer cell multiplication and cancer growth expansion to a satisfactory degree. Larger volumes of the same components more than likely would have further reduced cancer growth and prolonged the life of mice. In control mice, cancer growth progressed faster proving that lytic immune response against multiple myeloma cells is necessary for cancer cell kill.

  11. Transformation kinetics of trace-level halogenated organic contaminants in a biologically active zone (BAZ) induced by nitrate injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Wookeun; Odencrantz, Joseph E.; Rittmann, Bruce E.; Valocchi, Albert J.

    1990-07-01

    Laboratory experiments and numerical modeling were conducted to evaluate the secondary utilization of eight trace-concentration halogenated solvents in a denitrifying biologically active zone (BAZ) induced by nitrate injection into an acetate-fed porous-medium column. Results of column experiments indicated that carbon tetrachloride was removed most completely by the denitrifying BAZ, while bromoform, dibromoethane, tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, and 1,2- and 1,3-dichlorobenzenes were removed, but to lesser degrees. 1,1,1-trichloroethane removal was slight. Compounds were removed to higher degrees when the BAZ contact time was increased. The steady-state, one-dimensional solute-transport equation was solved using an iterative finite-difference scheme and by employing a quasilinearization technique for the biofilm-reaction term. The model solved directly for the steady-state profiles of secondary substrates. One set of experimental results was used to obtain best-fit values of kinetic parameteres, which were then used to predict the removal at different liquid velocities. The model predictions correctly described all experimental trends: removal of the halogenated compounds in the BAZ, greater removal with increased BAZ contact time, and reduced specific removal rates caused by diffusion limitation in the biofilm.

  12. Experimental and Computational Investigation of Multiple Injection Ports in a Convergent-Divergent Nozzle for Fluidic Thrust Vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waithe, Kenrick A.; Deere, Karen A.

    2003-01-01

    A computational and experimental study was conducted to investigate the effects of multiple injection ports in a two-dimensional, convergent-divergent nozzle, for fluidic thrust vectoring. The concept of multiple injection ports was conceived to enhance the thrust vectoring capability of a convergent-divergent nozzle over that of a single injection port without increasing the secondary mass flow rate requirements. The experimental study was conducted at static conditions in the Jet Exit Test Facility of the 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel Complex at NASA Langley Research Center. Internal nozzle performance was obtained at nozzle pressure ratios up to 10 with secondary nozzle pressure ratios up to 1 for five configurations. The computational study was conducted using the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code PAB3D with two-equation turbulence closure and linear Reynolds stress modeling. Internal nozzle performance was predicted for nozzle pressure ratios up to 10 with a secondary nozzle pressure ratio of 0.7 for two configurations. Results from the experimental study indicate a benefit to multiple injection ports in a convergent-divergent nozzle. In general, increasing the number of injection ports from one to two increased the pitch thrust vectoring capability without any thrust performance penalties at nozzle pressure ratios less than 4 with high secondary pressure ratios. Results from the computational study are in excellent agreement with experimental results and validates PAB3D as a tool for predicting internal nozzle performance of a two dimensional, convergent-divergent nozzle with multiple injection ports.

  13. Experimental and Computational Investigation of Multiple Injection Ports in a Convergent-Divergent Nozzle for Fluidic Thrust Vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waithe, Kenrick A.; Deere, Karen A.

    2003-01-01

    A computational and experimental study was conducted to investigate the effects of multiple injection ports in a two-dimensional, convergent-divergent nozzle, for fluidic thrust vectoring. The concept of multiple injection ports was conceived to enhance the thrust vectoring capability of a convergent-divergent nozzle over that of a single injection port without increasing the secondary mass flow rate requirements. The experimental study was conducted at static conditions in the Jet Exit Test Facility of the 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel Complex at NASA Langley Research Center. Internal nozzle performance was obtained at nozzle pressure ratios up to 10 with secondary nozzle pressure ratios up to 1 for five configurations. The computational study was conducted using the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code PAB3D with two-equation turbulence closure and linear Reynolds stress modeling. Internal nozzle performance was predicted for nozzle pressure ratios up to 10 with a secondary nozzle pressure ratio of 0.7 for two configurations. Results from the experimental study indicate a benefit to multiple injection ports in a convergent-divergent nozzle. In general, increasing the number of injection ports from one to two increased the pitch thrust vectoring capability without any thrust performance penalties at nozzle pressure ratios less than 4 with high secondary pressure ratios. Results from the computational study are in excellent agreement with experimental results and validates PAB3D as a tool for predicting internal nozzle performance of a two dimensional, convergent-divergent nozzle with multiple injection ports.

  14. Reproducing system-level bulk current injection test in direct power injection setup for multiple-port DUTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miropolsky, S.; Frei, S.

    2013-07-01

    Many investigations have been published on the transferability of RF immunity test results between system and IC-levels. The RF signal level at DUT (Device under Test) inputs, i.e. either RF voltage amplitude or RF input current, is used as a reference value for the load on the DUT. Existing approaches analyze the DUT response as a function of the RF signal level at a single input pin, e.g. supply voltage. Sufficient accuracy of such an approach could be shown in several cases, but results are not sufficient as a general solution for complex DUT. This paper proposes both theoretical analysis and practical implementation of a DPI setup, where a disturbance, equivalent to system-level BCI setup, can be delivered to multiple DUT input ports.

  15. Administering Multiple Injectable Vaccines During a Single Visit-Summary of Findings From the Accelerated Introduction of Inactivated Polio Vaccine Globally.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Samantha B; Patel, Manish; Hampton, Lee M; Burnett, Eleanor; Ehlman, Daniel C; Garon, Julie; Cloessner, Emily; Chmielewski, Elizabeth; Hyde, Terri B; Mantel, Carsten; Wallace, Aaron S

    2017-07-01

    In 2013, the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) recommended that all 126 countries using only oral polio vaccine (OPV) introduce at least 1 dose of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into their routine immunization schedules by the end of 2015. In many countries, the addition of IPV would necessitate delivery of multiple injectable vaccines (hereafter, "multiple injections") during a single visit, with infants receiving IPV alongside pentavalent vaccine (which covers diphtheria, tetanus, and whole-cell pertussis; hepatitis B; and Haemophilus influenzae type b) and pneumococcal vaccine. Unanticipated concerns emerged from countries over acceptability of multiple injections, sites of administration, and safety. We contextualized the issues surrounding multiple injections by documenting concerns associated with administration of ≥3 injections, existing evidence in the published literature, and findings of a systematic review on administration practices and techniques. Concerns associated with multiple-injection visits were documented from meetings and personal communications with immunization program managers. Published literature on the acceptability of multiple injections by providers and caregivers was summarized, and a systematic review of the literature on administration practices was completed on the following topics: spacing between injection sites (ie, vaccine spacing), site of injection, route of injection, and procedural preparedness. WHO and United Nations Children's Fund data from 2013-2015 were used to assess multiple-injection visits included in national immunization schedules. Healthcare provider and caregiver attitudes and practices indicated concerns about infant pain, potential adverse effects, and uncertainty about vaccine effectiveness with multiple-injection visits. Published literature reinforced the record of safety and acceptance of the recommended schedule of IPV by the SAGE, but the evidence was

  16. Dual-injection system with multiple injections for determining bidimensional retention indexes in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bieri, Stefan; Marriott, Philip J

    2008-02-01

    A new instrumental approach for collection of retention index data in the first (1D) and second (2D) dimensions of a comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography (GCxGC) experiment has been developed. First-dimension indexes were determined under conventional linear programmed temperature conditions (Van den Dool indexes). To remove the effect that the short secondary column imposes on derived 1D indexes, as well as to avoid handling of pulsed GCxGC peaks, the proposed approach uses a flow splitter to divert part of the primary column flow to a supplementary detector to simultaneously generate a conventional 1D chromatogram, along with the GCxGC chromatogram. The critical 2D indexes (KovAts indexes) are based upon isovolatility curves of normal alkanes in 2D space, providing a reference scale against which to correlate each individual target peak throughout the entire GCxGC run. This requires the alkanes to bracket the analytes in order to allow retention interpolation. Exponential curves produced in the 2D separation space require a novel approach for delivery of alkane standards into the 2D column by using careful solvent-free solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling. Sequential introduction of alkane mixtures during GCxGC runs was performed by thermal desorption in a second injector which was directly coupled through a short transfer line to the entrance of the secondary column, just prior to the modulator so that they do not have to travel through the 1D column. Thus, each alkane mixture injection was quantitatively focused by the cryogenic trap, then launched at predetermined times onto the 2D column. The system permitted construction of an alkane retention map upon which bidimensional indexes of a 25-perfume ingredient mixture could be derived. Comparison of results with indexes determined in temperature-variable one-dimensional (1D) GC showed good correlation. Plotting of the separation power in the second dimension was possible by mapping

  17. Multiple-Step Injection Molding for Fibrin-Based Tissue-Engineered Heart Valves

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Miriam; Gonzalez de Torre, Israel; Moreira, Ricardo; Frese, Julia; Oedekoven, Caroline; Alonso, Matilde; Rodriguez Cabello, Carlos J.

    2015-01-01

    Heart valves are elaborate and highly heterogeneous structures of the circulatory system. Despite the well accepted relationship between the structural and mechanical anisotropy and the optimal function of the valves, most approaches to create tissue-engineered heart valves (TEHVs) do not try to mimic this complexity and rely on one homogenous combination of cells and materials for the whole construct. The aim of this study was to establish an easy and versatile method to introduce spatial diversity into a heart valve fibrin scaffold. We developed a multiple-step injection molding process that enables the fabrication of TEHVs with heterogeneous composition (cell/scaffold material) of wall and leaflets without the need of gluing or suturing components together, with the leaflets firmly connected to the wall. The integrity of the valves and their functionality was proved by either opening/closing cycles in a bioreactor (proof of principle without cells) or with continuous stimulation over 2 weeks. We demonstrated the potential of the method by the two-step molding of the wall and the leaflets containing different cell lines. Immunohistology after stimulation confirmed tissue formation and demonstrated the localization of the different cell types. Furthermore, we showed the proof of principle fabrication of valves using different materials for wall (fibrin) and leaflets (hybrid gel of fibrin/elastin-like recombinamer) and with layered leaflets. The method is easy to implement, does not require special facilities, and can be reproduced in any tissue-engineering lab. While it has been demonstrated here with fibrin, it can easily be extended to other hydrogels. PMID:25654448

  18. Multiple-frequency tomography of the upper mantle beneath the African/Iberian collision zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnin, Mickaël; Nolet, Guust; Villaseñor, Antonio; Gallart, Josep; Thomas, Christine

    2014-09-01

    During the Cenozoic, the geodynamics of the western Mediterranean domain has been characterized by a complex history of subduction of Mesozoic oceanic lithosphere. The final stage of these processes is proposed to have led to the development of the Calabria and Gibraltar arcs, whose formation is still under debate. In this study, we take advantage of the dense broad-band station networks now available in the Alborán Sea region, to develop a high-resolution 3-D tomographic P velocity model of the upper mantle beneath the African/Iberian collision zone that will better constraint the past dynamics of this zone. The model is based on 13200 teleseismic arrival times recorded between 2008 and 2012 at 279 stations for which cross-correlation delays are measured with a new technique in different frequency bands centred between 0.03 and 1.0 Hz, and for the first time interpreted using multiple frequency tomography. Our model shows, beneath the Alborán Sea, a strong (4 per cent) fast vertically dipping anomaly observed to at least 650 km depth. The arched shape of this anomaly, and its extent at depth, are coherent with a lithospheric slab, thus favouring the hypothesis of a westward consumption of the Ligurian ocean slab by roll-back during Cenozoic. In addition to this fast anomaly in the deep upper mantle, high intensity slow anomalies are widespread in the lithosphere and asthenosphere beneath Morocco and southern Spain. These anomalies are correlated at the surface with the position of the Rif and Atlas orogens and with Cenozoic volcanic fields. We thus confirm the presence, beneath Morocco, of an anomalous (hot?) upper mantle, but without clear indication for a lateral spreading of the Canary plume to the east.

  19. Methylprednisolone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic reactions. Methylprednisolone injection is used in the management of multiple sclerosis (a disease in which the ... laboratory test, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are using methylprednisolone injection.If you ...

  20. Hydrocortisone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrocortisone injection is used to treat symptoms of low corticosteroid levels (lack of certain substances that are usually produced ... also used to treat severe allergic reactions. Hydrocortisone injection is used in the management of multiple sclerosis ( ...

  1. Injectable interferon beta-1b for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Jankovic, Slobodan M

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease with either a progressive (10%–15%) or relapsing-remitting (85%–90%) course. The pathological hallmarks of MS are lesions of both white and grey matter in the central nervous system. The onset of the disease is usually around 30 years of age. The patients experience an acute focal neurologic dysfunction which is not characteristic, followed by partial or complete recovery. Acute episodes of neurologic dysfunction with diverse signs and symptoms will then recur throughout the life of a patient, with periods of partial or complete remission and clinical stability in between. Currently, there are several therapeutic options for MS with disease-modifying properties. Immunomodulatory therapy with interferon beta-1b (IFN-β1b) or -1a, glatiramer and natalizumab shows similar efficacy; in a resistant or intolerant patient, the most recently approved therapeutic option is mitoxantrone. IFN-β1b in patients with MS binds to specific receptors on surface of immune cells, changing the expression of several genes and leading to a decrease in quantity of cell-associated adhesion molecules, inhibition of major histocompatibility complex class II expression and reduction in inflammatory cells migration into the central nervous system. After 2 years of treatment, IFN-β1b reduces the risk of development of clinically defined MS from 45% (with placebo) to 28% (with IFN-β1b). It also reduces relapses for 34% (1.31 exacerbations annually with placebo and 0.9 with higher dose of IFN-β1b) and makes 31% more patients relapse-free. In secondary-progressive disease annual rate of progression is 3% lower with IFN-β1b. In recommended doses IFN-β1b causes the following frequent adverse effects: injection site reactions (redness, discoloration, inflammation, pain, necrosis and non-specific reactions), insomnia, influenza-like syndrome, asthenia, headache, myalgia, hypoesthesia, nausea, paresthesia, myasthenia

  2. High Resistant Sand Injected Marl and Low Resistant Damaged Marl to Locate and Characterize the Thénia Fault Zone in Boumerdes City (North-Central Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulouel, Hakim; Bensalem, Rabah; Machane, Djamel; Bendaoud, Abderrahmane; Gharbi, Sofiane; Oubaiche, El-Hadi; Ousalem, Hassane; Skendri, Walid

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to locate and characterize the Thénia Fault Zone (TFZ) in the urban area of Boumerdes city; geological and electrical resistivity tomography surveys have targeted the Plaisancian marl and its Quaternary cover. As a whole, data indicate a complex near-vertical fault zone with an asymmetric and zoned internal structure of at least 150 m wide and with a straight N120° overall trending. The fault zone is traversed with two elongated parallel fault branches (FB1 and FB2), generally, 70 m distant from each other. These fault branches locate two intense damage zones (IDZs) of 10-15 m thick each, situated at the margin of two damage zones each having a thickness of several tens of meters. Downward sand injections into IDZs during Pleistocene epoch, possible pulverization of Plaisancian marl rocks, systematic deflection of actual stream channels, and vertical displacement of at least 30 m affecting Quaternary alluvial deposits show that the area would have undergone active tectonic driven by the TFZ.

  3. Assessment of Corneal Sensation, Innervation and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Patients Treated with Multiple Intravitreal Ranibizumab Injections

    PubMed Central

    Belviranli, Selman; Malik, Rayaz A.; Kerimoglu, Hurkan; Satirtav, Gunhal; Zengin, Nazmi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects of repeated intravitreal ranibizumab injections on corneal sensitivity, corneal sub-basal nerve plexus (SBNP) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Sixty-six eyes of 33 patients who had received unilateral repeated intravitreal ranibizumab injections (0.5 mg/0.05 ml) for the treatment of AMD and 25 eyes of 25 healthy subjects were included in the study. Central corneal sensation was measured using the contact Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer. The laser scanning in vivo corneal confocal microscope was used to determine corneal SBNP parameters. The peripapillary RNFL thickness was assessed with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Data obtained from the ranibizumab-injected eyes were compared with those of the fellow non-treated eyes and the eyes of the healthy control subjects. Results The mean number of ranibizumab injections per eye was 8.9±5.0 (range 3–20). There were no statistically significant differences in the central corneal sensitivity threshold and corneal SBNP parameters between the ranibizumab-injected eyes and the fellow untreated eyes or between those with neovascular AMD and the healthy control group (P>0.05 for all). The average peripapillary RNFL thickness of the treated eyes did not differ significantly to the fellow eyes (P = 0.237), and the eyes of healthy control subjects (P = 0.918). There were no significant correlations between the number of ranibizumab injections and any of the study parameters. Conclusions Multiple intravitreal injections of ranibizumab seem to have no harmful effects on corneal sensitivity, innervation and peripapillary RNFL thickness in patients with AMD. PMID:28085965

  4. Performance of a High-Speed Compression-Ignition Engine Using Multiple Orifice Fuel Injection Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanogle, J A; Foster, H H

    1930-01-01

    This report presents test results obtained at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics during an investigation to determine the relative performance of a single-cylinder, high-speed, compression-ignition engine when using fuel injection valve nozzles with different numbers, sizes, and directions of round orifices. A spring-loaded, automatic injection valve was used, centrally located at the top of a vertical disk-type combustion chamber formed between horizontally opposed inlet and exhaust valves of a 5 inch by 7 inch engine.

  5. Experiences with provider and parental attitudes and practices regarding the administration of multiple injections during infant vaccination visits: lessons for vaccine introduction.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Aaron S; Mantel, Carsten; Mayers, Gill; Mansoor, Osman; Gindler, Jacqueline S; Hyde, Terri B

    2014-09-15

    An increasing proportion of childhood immunization visits include administration of multiple injections. Future introduction of vaccines to protect against multiple diseases will further increase the number of injections at routine immunization childhood visits, particularly in developing countries that are still scaling up introductions. Parental and healthcare provider attitudes toward multiple injections may affect acceptance of recommended vaccines, and understanding these attitudes may help to inform critical decisions about vaccine introduction. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to examine factors underlying reported parental and healthcare provider concerns and practices related to administration of multiple injections during childhood vaccination visits. Forty-four articles were identified; 42 (95%) were from high income countries, including 27 (61%) from the USA. Providers and parents report concerns about multiple injections, which tend to increase with increasing numbers of injections. Common parental and provider concerns included apprehension about the pain experienced by the child, worry about potential side effects, and uncertainty about vaccine effectiveness. Multiple studies reported that a positive provider recommendation to the parent and a high level of concern about the severity of the target disease were significantly associated with parental acceptance of all injections. Providers often significantly overestimated parental concerns about multiple injections. Providers may play a critical role in the decision for a child to receive all recommended injections. Their overestimation of parental concerns may lead them to postpone recommended vaccinations, which may result in extra visits and delayed vaccination. More research is needed on interventions to overcome provider and parental concern about multiple injections, particularly in developing countries. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. A Journey Through the Mantle Transition Zone Under Western US From Single and Multiple Scattered Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauzin, B.; Trampert, J.; van der Hilst, R.; Wittlinger, G.; Vergne, J.

    2011-12-01

    Using data from the US Transportable Array, we combine observations of P-to-S single and multiple scattered waves to constrain the transition zone (TZ) structure beneath the Western US. From stacking the data by common conversion points along profiles, we produce depth images of seismic discontinuities. Systematic depth and amplitude measurements are performed for the '410', the '660', and some other minor seismic discontinuities identified as sharp reductions of wave velocities at ˜350 km depth (the '350') and ˜590 km depth (the '590'). The Gorda plate, subducted under Northern California, is traced back to the TZ where it seems to flatten and induces, due to cold temperatures or a high water content, a significant uplift of the '410' under Northern Nevada. The geographical maps of the '410'/'660' amplitude/topography reveal an anomalous TZ at the borders between Washington, Oregon and Idaho with: (i) a thickened TZ, (ii) a sharp jump in the topography of the '660' both in a South-North and West-East direction, and (iii) reduced '410' amplitudes at the North. Such anomalous structure might be inherited from the past history of plate subduction/accretion. A thinned TZ under the Yellowstone is likely the result of a deep hot thermal plume. Both the '350' and the '590' negative discontinuities extend over very large areas. They might be related either to an increased water content in the TZ and/or significant amount of oceanic material accumulated through the past 100 My. An estimation of the TZ water content is now possible based on observation of PPS reverberated phases on the '410' and '660' interfaces.

  7. Clinical experience with repository corticotropin injection in patients with multiple sclerosis experiencing mood changes with intravenous methylprednisolone: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Stacey; Woo, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The elevated prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms and disorders among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is well recognized, as are potential neuropsychiatric side effects of treatment with corticosteroids. Both methylprednisolone (MP) and repository corticotropin injection (HP Acthar® gel) have demonstrated efficacy in reducing short-term disability after exacerbations of MS. Although historical data are limited, repository corticotropin injection has not generally been associated with detrimental neuropsychiatric effects. We describe six cases of patients with relapsing-remitting MS who had previously experienced detrimental mood changes with MP treatment. Some of these patients had previous histories of mood disorders or other neuropsychiatric symptoms prior to MS diagnosis. All six patients were subsequently treated with repository corticotropin injection for MS exacerbations and each demonstrated improvements in MS symptoms. This clinical experience suggests that repository corticotropin injection should be considered as an alternative for patients who do not tolerate corticosteroids or have difficulties associated with intravenous medication. Furthermore, the rate of neuropsychiatric side effects observed in these patients was low. These observations support repository corticotropin injection as a viable alternative for the treatment of acute exacerbations of MS, particularly in patients who have a history of neuropsychiatric disorders or symptoms either independently or in response to MP treatment. In reviewing both the published data and our own clinical experience regarding potential neuropsychiatric adverse events with treatment for MS exacerbations, we hope to stimulate further research into the potential efficacy and safety of repository corticotropin injection among patients with some form of neuropsychiatric complications that must be considered when establishing a treatment plan for MS. PMID:27134674

  8. Long-Term Persistence with Injectable Therapy in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: An 18-Year Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhornitsky, Simon; Greenfield, Jamie; Koch, Marcus W.; Patten, Scott B.; Harris, Colleen; Wall, Winona; Alikhani, Katayoun; Burton, Jodie; Busche, Kevin; Costello, Fiona; Davenport, Jeptha W.; Jarvis, Scott E.; Lavarato, Dina; Parpal, Helene; Patry, David G.; Yeung, Michael; Metz, Luanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Disease modifying therapies (DMTs) reduce the frequency of relapses and accumulation of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). Long-term persistence with treatment is important to optimize treatment benefit. This long-term, cohort study was conducted at the Calgary MS Clinic. All consenting adults with relapsing-remitting MS who started either glatiramer acetate (GA) or interferon-β 1a/1b (IFN-β) between January 1st, 1996 and July 1st, 2011 were included. Follow-up continued to February 1st, 2014. Time-to-discontinuation of the initial and subsequently-prescribed DMTs (switches) was analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival analyses. Group differences were compared using log-rank tests and multivariable Cox regression models. Analysis included 1471 participants; 906 were initially prescribed GA and 565 were initially prescribed IFN-β. Follow-up information was available for 87%; 29 (2%) were lost to follow-up and 160 (11%) moved from Southern Alberta while still using DMT. Median time-to-discontinuation of all injectable DMTs was 11.1 years. Participants with greater disability at treatment initiation, those who started treatment before age 30, and those who started between 2006 and 2011 were more likely to discontinue use of all injectable DMTs. Median time-to-discontinuation of the initial DMT was 8.6 years. Those initially prescribed GA remained on treatment longer. Of 610 participants who discontinued injectable DMT, 331 (54%) started an oral DMT, or a second-line DMT, or resumed injectable DMT after 90 days. Persistence with injectable DMTs was high in this long-term population-based study. Most participants who discontinued injectable DMT did not remain untreated. Further research is required to understand treatment outcomes and outcomes after stopping DMT. PMID:25867095

  9. Long-term persistence with injectable therapy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: an 18-year observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zhornitsky, Simon; Greenfield, Jamie; Koch, Marcus W; Patten, Scott B; Harris, Colleen; Wall, Winona; Alikhani, Katayoun; Burton, Jodie; Busche, Kevin; Costello, Fiona; Davenport, Jeptha W; Jarvis, Scott E; Lavarato, Dina; Parpal, Helene; Patry, David G; Yeung, Michael; Metz, Luanne M

    2015-01-01

    Disease modifying therapies (DMTs) reduce the frequency of relapses and accumulation of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). Long-term persistence with treatment is important to optimize treatment benefit. This long-term, cohort study was conducted at the Calgary MS Clinic. All consenting adults with relapsing-remitting MS who started either glatiramer acetate (GA) or interferon-β 1a/1b (IFN-β) between January 1st, 1996 and July 1st, 2011 were included. Follow-up continued to February 1st, 2014. Time-to-discontinuation of the initial and subsequently-prescribed DMTs (switches) was analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival analyses. Group differences were compared using log-rank tests and multivariable Cox regression models. Analysis included 1471 participants; 906 were initially prescribed GA and 565 were initially prescribed IFN-β. Follow-up information was available for 87%; 29 (2%) were lost to follow-up and 160 (11%) moved from Southern Alberta while still using DMT. Median time-to-discontinuation of all injectable DMTs was 11.1 years. Participants with greater disability at treatment initiation, those who started treatment before age 30, and those who started between 2006 and 2011 were more likely to discontinue use of all injectable DMTs. Median time-to-discontinuation of the initial DMT was 8.6 years. Those initially prescribed GA remained on treatment longer. Of 610 participants who discontinued injectable DMT, 331 (54%) started an oral DMT, or a second-line DMT, or resumed injectable DMT after 90 days. Persistence with injectable DMTs was high in this long-term population-based study. Most participants who discontinued injectable DMT did not remain untreated. Further research is required to understand treatment outcomes and outcomes after stopping DMT.

  10. Combining steam injection with hydraulic fracturing for the in situ remediation of the unsaturated zone of a fractured soil polluted by jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Bertel; Tzovolou, Dimitra; Jeczalik, Maciej; Kasela, Tomasz; Slack, William; Klint, Knud E; Haeseler, Frank; Tsakiroglou, Christos D

    2011-03-01

    A steam injection pilot-scale experiment was performed on the unsaturated zone of a strongly heterogeneous fractured soil contaminated by jet fuel. Before the treatment, the soil was stimulated by creating sub-horizontal sand-filled hydraulic fractures at three depths. The steam was injected through one hydraulic fracture and gas/water/non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) was extracted from the remaining fractures by applying a vacuum to extraction wells. The injection strategy was designed to maximize the heat delivery over the entire cell (10 m × 10 m × 5 m). The soil temperature profile, the recovered NAPL, the extracted water, and the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the gas phase were monitored during the field test. GC-MS chemical analyses of pre- and post-treatment soil samples allowed for the quantitative assessment of the remediation efficiency. The growth of the heat front followed the configuration of hydraulic fractures. The average concentration of total hydrocarbons (g/kg of soil) was reduced by ∼ 43% in the upper target zone (depth = 1.5-3.9 m) and by ∼ 72% over the entire zone (depth = 1.5-5.5 m). The total NAPL mass removal based on gas and liquid stream measurements and the free-NAPL product were almost 30% and 2%, respectively, of those estimated from chemical analyses of pre- and post-treatment soil samples. The dominant mechanisms of soil remediation was the vaporization of jet fuel compounds at temperatures lower than their normal boiling points (steam distillation) enhanced by the ventilation of porous matrix due to the forced convective flow of air. In addition, the significant reduction of the NAPL mass in the less-heated deeper zone may be attributed to the counter-current imbibition of condensed water from natural fractures into the porous matrix and the gravity drainage associated with seasonal fluctuations of the water table.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin after single and multiple subcutaneous injections in domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus).

    PubMed

    Clothier, K A; Leavens, T; Griffith, R W; Wetzlich, S E; Baynes, R E; Riviere, J E; Tell, L A

    2011-10-01

    Tulathromycin, a novel triamilide in the macrolide class, is labeled for treatment of bacterial pneumonia in cattle and swine. This manuscript evaluates pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin in goats. In two different studies, six juvenile and ten market-age goats received a single injection of 2.5 mg/kg of tulathromycin subcutaneously; in a third study, 18 juvenile goats were treated with 2.5, 7.5, or 12.5 mg/kg tulathromycin weekly with three subcutaneous injections. Pharmacokinetic parameters estimated from the plasma concentrations from single injections were similar between the two groups of goats and to previously reported parameters in cattle and swine. Mean terminal half-lives were 59.1 ± 7.6 and 61.2 ± 8.7 h for juvenile and market-age goats, respectively. In the multi-dose study, pharmacokinetic parameters estimated from plasma concentrations demonstrated significant differences at P < 0.05 among repeated injections but not among doses. Overall, pharmacokinetic parameters in goats are similar to those reported in cattle and swine, and tulathromycin may prove a useful drug for treating respiratory disease in goats.

  12. Factors that influence adherence and strategies to maintain adherence to injected therapies for patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Carol; Caon, Christina; Smrtka, Jennifer; Shoemaker, Jennifer

    2010-10-01

    A key aspect of the management of care for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is identifying which patients are struggling with adherence. Disease-modifying therapies for the treatment of MS are primarily preventative, with modest efficacy, and they can possibly cause significant side effects. These factors can lead patients to stop taking their medication because they continue to experience symptoms or relapses of the disease, and/or they have painful injection-site reactions on most parts of their bodies. However, striving for 100% adherence to the prescribed treatment regimen remains the goal and is the surest way to reap all the benefits associated with immunomodulatory therapy. Building trust, promoting injection self-efficacy, and educating patients about proper injection techniques to prevent injection-site reactions have the greatest impact on patient adherence. Factors including family involvement, financial stability and support, hope, and faith can also have a positive impact on adherence. Identifying patients who may be struggling with depression, which is easily treatable but often not well addressed, and providing access to mental health services are important. Although many strides have been made with regard to MS patient care, outlining strategies that can maintain or encourage adherence can provide practitioners with tools to facilitate their patients' health and well-being.

  13. Determination of five sesquiterpenoids in Xingnaojing injection by quantitative analysis of multiple components with a single marker.

    PubMed

    Pan, Weidong; Yang, Lixin; Feng, Weihong; Lin, Limei; Li, Chun; Liu, Weiwei; Gan, Guofeng; Fan, Junhong; Zou, Jigao; Wang, Zhimin; Pan, Haifeng

    2015-10-01

    A quantitative analysis of multiple components with a single-marker method was established for the simultaneous determination of five sesqutiterpenoids in Xingnaojing injection. This method was established with Xingnaojing injection determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection. The durability and system suitability of the established method were evaluated, and the reliable relative correction factors were obtained with curdione selected as an internal reference. The contents of the five components in all Xingnaojing injections were determined by external standard method and the contents of curcumenone, curcumenol, curzerenone, and germacrone were also calculated with the obtained relative correction factors. Then, relative error was investigated to estimate the difference of the two methods. As a result, the established new method possesses good adaptability, and there is no significant difference between the two methods, except for the content of curzerenone in eight samples. To put the established method into practice, the limits of quantitation of the established method of the five components were proposed and defined. Thus, the developed methodology can also be utilized to the quality evaluation of Xingnaojing injection, in spite of the difference found in the content of curzerenone between the external standard method and the newly established method.

  14. Is the gamma interferon assay in cattle influenced by multiple tuberculin injections?

    PubMed

    Rangen, Sheila A; Surujballi, Om P; Lutze-Wallace, Cyril; Lees, V Wayne

    2009-03-01

    Along with other developed countries, Canada is interested in adopting the gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) assay to test for bovine tuberculosis (TB). This study compared results of using the IFN-gamma assay in a large number of field-tested cattle in Manitoba, some previously tested with a caudal fold test (CFT) only, and others injected with tuberculins for both a CFT and a comparative cervical test (CCT). Parallel testing further compared the IFN-gamma assay and CCT results with the confirmed TB status of the animal (culture, histopathologic examination, polymerase chain reaction). Results from IFN-gamma assays did not differ following the CFT versus CFT and CCT injections. Parallel testing demonstrated an apparent higher prevalence of tuberculosis for the IFN-gamma assay versus CCT, which will assist in earlier removal of exposed animals and, ultimately, prevent populations from becoming infected.

  15. Testing and comparison of four ionic tracers to measure stream flow loss by multiple tracer injection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zellweger, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    An injectate containing lithium, sodium, chloride and bromide was added continuously at five sites along a 507 m study reach of St Kevin Gulch, Lake County, Colorado to determine which sections of the stream were losing water to the stream bed and to ascertain how well the four tracers performed. The acidity of the stream (pH 3.6) made it possible for lithium and sodium, which are normally absorbed by ion exchange with stream bed sediment, to be used as conservative tracers. Net flow losses as low as 0.81 s-1, or 8% of flow, were calculated between measuring sites. By comparing the results of simultaneous injection it was determined whether subsections of the study reach were influent or effluent. Evaluation of tracer concentrations along 116 m of stream indicated that all four tracers behaved conservatively. Discharges measured by Parshall flumes were 4-18% greater than discharges measured by tracer dilution. -from Author

  16. Achilles tendon rupture in an elite athlete following multiple injection therapies.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Bruce; Remedios, Denis; Loosemore, Mike; Maffulli, Nicola

    2008-11-01

    Achilles tendinopathy is common, and its management continues to be challenging, especially in elite athletes. Despite a wide range of novel management options, none guarantees a rapid return to high level sporting activity. Eccentric exercise has been shown to reduce symptoms and normalise imaging abnormalities, but time constraints on professional athletes often make this an unrewarding isolated management strategy. Eccentric exercises concurrent with ongoing training may not be as successful as eccentric training alone, reducing one's confidence in this modality for the "in-season" tendinopathy in the elite athlete. When a professional athlete is faced with a tendinopathy recalcitrant to eccentric exercise, manual therapy and orthotics, a more invasive approach is often attempted to expedite a return to unencumbered training. Numerous injection therapies are described, ranging from homeopathic products to glucocorticosteroids. The robustness of the literature surrounding these techniques is variable, but when an athlete is desperate to return to full training, clinicians working with elite athletes are often tempted to utilise more empirical management options. We present a patient who illustrates the potential dangers of injection therapy in the elite athlete, in particular sequential injection therapy involving vascular sclerosants, which to our knowledge has not previously been described. Written consent for the presentation of this case was obtained from the athlete concerned.

  17. Multiple lines of evidence to demonstrate vinyl chloride aerobic biodegradation in the vadose zone, and factors controlling rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, B. M.; Aravena, R.; Davis, G. B.; Furness, A. J.; Bastow, T. P.; Bouchard, D.

    2013-10-01

    A field-based investigation was conducted at a contaminated site where the vadose zone was contaminated with a range of chlorinated hydrocarbons. The investigation consisted of groundwater and multilevel soil-gas monitoring of a range of contaminants and gases, along with isotope measurements and microbiology studies. The investigation provided multiple lines of evidence that demonstrated aerobic biodegradation of vinyl chloride (VC) was occurring in the vadose zone (i) above the on-site source zone, and (ii) above the downgradient off-site groundwater plume location. Data from both the on-site and off-site locations were consistent in showing substantially greater (an order of magnitude greater) rates of VC removal from the aerobic vadose zone compared to more recalcitrant contaminants trichloroethene (TCE) and tetrachloroethene (PCE). Soil gas VC isotope analysis showed substantial isotopic enrichment of VC (δ13C - 5.2 to - 10.9‰) compared to groundwater (δ13C - 39.5‰) at the on-site location. Soil gas CO2 isotope analysis at both locations showed that CO2 was highly isotopically depleted (δ13C - 28.8 to - 33.3‰), compared to soil gas CO2 data originating from natural sediment organic matter (δ13C = - 14.7 to - 21.3‰). The soil gas CO2 δ13C values were consistent with near-water table VC groundwater δ13C values (- 36.8 to - 39.5‰), suggesting CO2 originating from aerobic biodegradation of VC. Bacteria that had functional genes (ethene monooxygenase (etnC) and epoxyalkane transferase (etnE) involved in ethene metabolism and VC oxidation were more abundant at the source zone where oxygen co-existed with VC. The distribution of VC and oxygen vadose zone vapour plumes, together with long-term changes in soil gas CO2 concentrations and temperature, provided information to elucidate the factors controlling aerobic biodegradation of VC in the vadose zone. Based on the overlapping VC and oxygen vadose zone vapour plumes, aerobic vapour biodegradation

  18. Design requirements for ERD in diffusion-dominated media: how do injection interval, bioactive zones and reaction kinetics affect remediation performance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambon, J.; Lemming, G.; Manoli, G.; Broholm, M. M.; Bjerg, P.; Binning, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination (ERD) has been successfully used in high permeability media, such as sand aquifers, and is considered to be a promising technology for low permeability settings. Pilot and full-scale applications of ERD at several sites in Denmark have shown that the main challenge is to get contact between the injected bacteria and electron donor and the contaminants trapped in the low-permeability matrix. Sampling of intact cores from the low-permeability matrix has shown that the bioactive zones (where degradation occurs) are limited in the matrix, due to the slow diffusion transport processes, and this affects the timeframes for the remediation. Due to the limited ERD applications and the complex transport and reactive processes occurring in low-permeability media, design guidelines are currently not available for ERD in such settings, and remediation performance assessments are limited. The objective of this study is to combine existing knowledge from several sites with numerical modeling to assess the effect of the injection interval, development of bioactive zones and reaction kinetics on the remediation efficiency for ERD in diffusion-dominated media. A numerical model is developed to simulate ERD at a contaminated site, where the source area (mainly TCE) is located in a clayey till with fractures and interbedded sand lenses. Such contaminated sites are common in North America and Europe. Hydro-geological characterization provided information on geological heterogeneities and hydraulic parameters, which are relevant for clay till sites in general. The numerical model couples flow and transport in the fracture network and low-permeability matrix. Sequential degradation of TCE to ethene is modeled using Monod kinetics, and the kinetic parameters are obtained from laboratory experiments. The influence of the reaction kinetics on remediation efficiency is assessed by varying the biomass concentration of the specific degraders. The injected

  19. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion versus multiple daily injections of insulin for pregnant women with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Diane; Tuffnell, Derek J; West, Jane; West, Helen M

    2016-06-07

    Diabetes results in a rise in blood glucose above normal physiological levels; if untreated this may cause damage to many systems including the cardiovascular and renal systems. Pregnancy increases resistance to insulin action; for those women who have pre-gestational diabetes, this results in an increasing insulin requirement. There are several methods of administering insulin. Conventionally, insulin has been administered subcutaneously, formally referred to as intensive conventional treatment, but now more usually referred to as multiple daily injections (MDI). An alternative method of insulin administration is the continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pump (CSII). To compare CSII with MDI of insulin for pregnant women with pre-existing and gestational diabetes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised trials comparing CSII with MDI for pregnant women with diabetes. Three review authors independently assessed studies and two review authors extracted data. Disagreements were resolved through discussion with the third author. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included five single-centre trials (undertaken in Italy) with 153 women and 154 pregnancies in this review.There were no clear differences in the primary outcomes reported between CSII and MDI in the included trials: caesarean section (risk ratio (RR) 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66 to 1.77; three trials, 71 women, evidence graded very low), large-for-gestational age (RR 4.15, 95% CI 0.49 to 34.95; three trials, 73 infants; evidence graded very low), and perinatal mortality (RR 2.33, 95% CI 0.38 to 14.32; four trials, 83 infants, evidence graded very low). Other primary outcomes were not reported in these trials (hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, development of type 2 diabetes, composite outcome of serious neonatal outcomes, and neurosensory disability

  20. Insulin pump therapy, multiple daily injections, and cardiovascular mortality in 18 168 people with type 1 diabetes: observational study

    PubMed Central

    Cederholm, Jan; Eliasson, Björn; Rawshani, Araz; Eeg-Olofsson, Katarina; Svensson, Ann-Marie; Zethelius, Björn; Avdic, Tarik; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Jendle, Johan; Gudbjörnsdóttir, Soffia

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the long term effects of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (insulin pump therapy) on cardiovascular diseases and mortality in people with type 1 diabetes. Design Observational study. Setting Swedish National Diabetes Register, Sweden 2005-12. Participants 18 168 people with type 1 diabetes, 2441 using insulin pump therapy and 15 727 using multiple daily insulin injections. Main outcome measures Cox regression analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios for the outcomes, with stratification of propensity scores including clinical characteristics, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, treatments, and previous diseases. Results Follow-up was for a mean of 6.8 years until December 2012, with 114 135 person years. With multiple daily injections as reference, the adjusted hazard ratios for insulin pump treatment were significantly lower: 0.55 (95% confidence interval 0.36 to 0.83) for fatal coronary heart disease, 0.58 (0.40 to 0.85) for fatal cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease or stroke), and 0.73 (0.58 to 0.92) for all cause mortality. Hazard ratios were lower, but not significantly so, for fatal or non-fatal coronary heart disease and fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular disease. Unadjusted absolute differences were 3.0 events of fatal coronary heart disease per 1000 person years; corresponding figures were 3.3 for fatal cardiovascular disease and 5.7 for all cause mortality. When lower body mass index and previous cardiovascular diseases were excluded, results of subgroup analyses were similar to the results from complete data. A sensitivity analysis of unmeasured confounders in all individuals showed that an unmeasured confounders with hazard ratio of 1.3 would have to be present in >80% of the individuals treated with multiple daily injections versus not presence in those treated with pump therapy to invalidate the significantly lower hazard ratios for fatal cardiovascular disease. Data on patient education and

  1. Insulin pump therapy, multiple daily injections, and cardiovascular mortality in 18,168 people with type 1 diabetes: observational study.

    PubMed

    Steineck, Isabelle; Cederholm, Jan; Eliasson, Björn; Rawshani, Araz; Eeg-Olofsson, Katarina; Svensson, Ann-Marie; Zethelius, Björn; Avdic, Tarik; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Jendle, Johan; Gudbjörnsdóttir, Soffia

    2015-06-22

    To investigate the long term effects of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (insulin pump therapy) on cardiovascular diseases and mortality in people with type 1 diabetes. Observational study. Swedish National Diabetes Register, Sweden 2005-12. 18,168 people with type 1 diabetes, 2441 using insulin pump therapy and 15,727 using multiple daily insulin injections. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios for the outcomes, with stratification of propensity scores including clinical characteristics, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, treatments, and previous diseases. Follow-up was for a mean of 6.8 years until December 2012, with 114,135 person years. With multiple daily injections as reference, the adjusted hazard ratios for insulin pump treatment were significantly lower: 0.55 (95% confidence interval 0.36 to 0.83) for fatal coronary heart disease, 0.58 (0.40 to 0.85) for fatal cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease or stroke), and 0.73 (0.58 to 0.92) for all cause mortality. Hazard ratios were lower, but not significantly so, for fatal or non-fatal coronary heart disease and fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular disease. Unadjusted absolute differences were 3.0 events of fatal coronary heart disease per 1000 person years; corresponding figures were 3.3 for fatal cardiovascular disease and 5.7 for all cause mortality. When lower body mass index and previous cardiovascular diseases were excluded, results of subgroup analyses were similar to the results from complete data. A sensitivity analysis of unmeasured confounders in all individuals showed that an unmeasured confounders with hazard ratio of 1.3 would have to be present in >80% of the individuals treated with multiple daily injections versus not presence in those treated with pump therapy to invalidate the significantly lower hazard ratios for fatal cardiovascular disease. Data on patient education and frequency of blood glucose monitoring were missing, which might have

  2. Millimeter wave imaging at up to 40 frames per second using an optoelectronic photo-injected Fresnel zone plate lens antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Duncan A.; Gallacher, Thomas F.; Søndenâ, Rune; Macfarlane, David G.

    2016-05-01

    Optoelectronic methods are promising for rapid and highly reconfigurable beam steering across the microwave to the terahertz range. In particular, the photo-injected Fresnel zone plate antenna (piFZPA) offers high speed, wide angle, precise beam steering with good beam quality, to enable video rate millimeter wave imagery with no moving parts. We present a piFZPA demonstrator based on a commercial digital light projector (DLP) and high power laser which achieves steering rates up to 17,500 beams per second at 94 and 188 GHz. We also demonstrate radar imaging at 94 GHz at frame rates of 40 Hz (2D PPI) and 7 Hz (3D volumetric).

  3. Immune response to an endotoxin challenge involves multiple immune parameters and is consistent among the annual-cycle stages of a free-living temperate zone bird.

    PubMed

    Hegemann, Arne; Matson, Kevin D; Versteegh, Maaike A; Villegas, Auxiliadora; Tieleman, B Irene

    2013-07-15

    Trade-offs between immune function and other physiological and behavioural processes are central in ecoimmunology, but one important problem is how to distinguish a reallocation of resources away from the immune system from a reallocation or redistribution within the immune system. While variation in baseline values of individual immune parameters is well established, studies in wild animals on multiple parameters during an immune response are lacking. It also remains to be tested whether and how immune responses correlate with baseline values that vary, for example, over the course of an annual cycle. We studied immunological responses to an endotoxin challenge in skylarks (Alauda arvensis), a partial migrant bird breeding in temperate zones. We compared birds injected with the endotoxin LPS with un-injected controls, characterizing immunological responses with leukocyte profiles, titres of lytic enzymes and natural antibodies, and concentrations of haptoglobin and heat shock proteins. We did this in five annual-cycle stages to test whether the response varied throughout the year. The endotoxin challenge affected six of 10 measured parameters. Lysis titres and proportions of heterophils increased; haptoglobin concentrations and proportions of lymphocytes, basophils and eosinophils decreased. The variable effects on different immune components demonstrate the complexity of an immune response. We found no evidence that the response differed between annual-cycle stages. The response was independent of baseline measures taken directly upon capture in the field, indicating that birds were facing no immunological ceiling when mounting an immune response. Values of five parameters collected under field conditions were significantly related to values taken under standardized laboratory conditions. We conclude that multiple parts of the immune system are modulated during an immunological response and that responses are not re-organized throughout the annual cycle.

  4. Multiple origins for zoned cathodoluminescent and noncathodoluminescent calcite cements in Pennsylvanian limestones

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, R.H.; Anderson, J.E.; Phares, R.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Noncathodoluminescent calcite containing brightly to moderately luminescent zones is a common early cement in limestones. Three such cements in Upper Pennsylvanian limestones from different areas were studied. All three units are overlain up-section by Permian evaporites and consist of carbonate-siliciclastic 'cyclothems' in which individual cycles were subject to subaerial exposure. With such similar settings, one might predict that petrographically similar calcite cements would have similar origins. In the Holder Formation (New Mexico), the zoned calcite predates compaction, and cross-cutting relationships with cycle-capping paleosols show that zoned cements precipitated during 15 events of subaerial exposure. Therefore, cements precipitated from freshwater during early and repeated subaerial exposure. For the Lansing-Kansas City groups in northwestern Kansas, the zoned calcite cements commonly are among the first precipitated but may postdate some compaction. All-liquid fluid inclusions indicated precipitation below about 50C, from brines of approximately 23 weight %. NaCl equivalent. The brines may have refluxed downward during deposition of Permian evaporites. A limestone of the Lansing-Kansas City groups of west-central Kansas contains early zoned calcite cement that predates compaction. The cement contains all-liquid fluid inclusions indicating precipitation below about 50C. The presence of nonluminescent calcite containing bright subzones is not indicative of a single diagenetic environment. Petrographically similar cements from similar settings may originate in markedly different diagenetic environments.

  5. Improvement of blood glucose control in Type 1 diabetic patients treated with lispro and multiple NPH injections.

    PubMed

    Colombel, A; Murat, A; Krempf, M; Kuchly-Anton, B; Charbonnel, B

    1999-04-01

    To evaluate a multiple daily injections (MDI) regimen combining lispro with multiple NPH insulin injections in order to replace basal insulin optimally. Twenty-five C-peptide negative Type 1 patients already trained to MDI were randomized to lispro (lispro + NPH 5 min before breakfast and lunch, lispro before dinner, NPH at bedtime) or soluble insulin (20-30 min before each meal and NPH at bed-time) for 3 months before crossing over to the other regimen for another 3 months. The mean initial HbA1c level was 8.32+/-1.5%. The variability of capillary blood glucose values was significantly lower with lispro (MAGE 0.75+/-0.36 g/l vs. 0.99+/-0.50, P<0.01; MODD 0.64+/-0.26 g/l vs. 0.80+/-0.40, P<0.05). There was a nonsignificant reduction in HbA1c with lispro: -0.40+/-0.86 vs. -0.08+/-0.71. Mean daily blood glucose levels were significantly lower with lispro (1.53+/-0.48 g/l vs. 1.82+/-0.57 g/l, P<0.05). The frequency of all hypoglycaemic episodes was the same with both regimens but the number of severe hypoglycaemic events was reduced with lispro, P = 0.048. At the end of the study, 75% of the patients chose the lispro associated with multiple NPH regimen for their own treatment. The total insulin doses was the same with both regimens but the proportion of NPH was higher with lispro (53% vs. 34%). An MDI regimen using lispro combined with multiple NPH compared to a standard MDI regimen using soluble insulin reduced day-to-day blood glucose fluctuations, was generally preferred by patients and was associated with a reduced incidence of severe hypoglycaemia with no loss of overall control.

  6. Multiple beam splitter using volumetric multiplexed Fresnel zone plates fabricated by ultrafast laser-writing.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jiyeon; Ramme, Mark; Richardson, Martin

    2012-08-15

    A simple approach to producing a 1×N beam splitter is demonstrated by fabricating a volumetric multiplex phase Fresnel zone plate in bulk transparent material. This comprised four layers of zone plates created in borosilicate glass by femtosecond laser direct-writing, each shifted laterally relative to the illumination axis, creating four separate beamlets. Since the power transmitted in each beamlet is proportional to the diffraction efficiency of the corresponding zone plate, the power ratios can be customized by adjusting the fabrication parameters of each layer. This approach demonstrates the potential of femtosecond laser direct-writing for the fabrication of complex optical elements in transparent media as components of integrated monolithic photonic devices.

  7. Time-lapse ERT interpretation methodology for leachate injection monitoring based on multiple inversions and a clustering strategy (MICS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audebert, M.; Clément, R.; Touze-Foltz, N.; Günther, T.; Moreau, S.; Duquennoi, C.

    2014-12-01

    Leachate recirculation is a key process in municipal waste landfills functioning as bioreactors. To quantify the water content and to assess the leachate injection system, in-situ methods are required to obtain spatially distributed information, usually electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). This geophysical method is based on the inversion process, which presents two major problems in terms of delimiting the infiltration area. First, it is difficult for ERT users to choose an appropriate inversion parameter set. Indeed, it might not be sufficient to interpret only the optimum model (i.e. the model with the chosen regularisation strength) because it is not necessarily the model which best represents the physical process studied. Second, it is difficult to delineate the infiltration front based on resistivity models because of the smoothness of the inversion results. This paper proposes a new methodology called MICS (multiple inversions and clustering strategy), which allows ERT users to improve the delimitation of the infiltration area in leachate injection monitoring. The MICS methodology is based on (i) a multiple inversion step by varying the inversion parameter values to take a wide range of resistivity models into account and (ii) a clustering strategy to improve the delineation of the infiltration front. In this paper, MICS was assessed on two types of data. First, a numerical assessment allows us to optimise and test MICS for different infiltration area sizes, contrasts and shapes. Second, MICS was applied to a field data set gathered during leachate recirculation on a bioreactor.

  8. Joints and decollement zones in Middle Devonian shales. Evidence for multiple deformation events in the central Appalachian Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.A. )

    1994-04-01

    Fractures in oriented Middle Devonian shale cores from the Appalachian Plateau province provide evidence for multiple deformation events associated with the Alleghanian orogeny, post-orogenic stress relaxation, and neotectonic ( ) stresses. The orientation, distribution, and mineral paragenesis of these fractures are used to establish the timing, regional extent, and stress orientation of each deformation event. During the Alleghanian orogeny, the Middle Devonian shale section was a regional decollement zone in the central Appalachian Plateau province. The decollement extends from the Appalachian Structural Front to northwestern Pennsylvania and east-central Ohio. It is defined by abundant joints, veins, and slick-ensided fractures localized within multiple zones of organic-rich brown and black shale. These zones are distributed over tens to hundreds of meters of the Middle Devonian shale section. The shale cores record a continuous counterclockwise rotation of the maximum compressive stress direction in the west-central Appalachians during the Alleghanian orogeny. Three stages are recognized. 68 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Multiple energetic injections in a strong spike-like solar burst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufmann, P.; Correia, E.; Costa, J. E. R.; Dennis, B. R.; Hurford, G. H.; Brown, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    An intense and fast spike-like solar burst was built up of short time scale structures superimposed on an underlying gradual emission, the time evolution of which shows remarkable proportionality between hard X-ray and microwave fluxes. The finer time structure were best defined at mm-microwaves. At the peak of the event, the finer structures repeat every 30x60ms. The more slowly varying component with a time scale of about 1 second was identified in microwave hard X-rays throughout the burst duration. It is suggested that X-ray fluxes might also be proportional to the repetition rate of basic units of energy injection (quasi-quantized). The relevant parameters of one primary energy release site are estimated both in the case where hard X-rays are produced primarily by thick-target bremsstrahlung, and when they are purely thermal. The relation of this figure to global energy considerations is discussed.

  10. Three Year Old Male with Multiple Dieulafoy Lesions Treated with Epinephrine Injections via Therapeutic Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wilsey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Dieulafoy lesions, vascular anomalies typically found along the gastrointestinal tract, have been viewed as rare and obscure causes of sudden intestinal bleeding, especially in pediatric patients. Since their discovery in the late 19th century, the reported incidence has increased. This is due to an increased awareness of, and knowledge about, their presentation and to advanced endoscopic diagnosis and therapy. Our patient was a three-year-old male, without a complex medical history. He presented to the emergency department with acute hematemesis with blood clots and acute anemia requiring blood transfusion. Endoscopy revealed four isolated Dieulafoy lesions along the lesser curvature of the stomach, which were treated with an epinephrine injection. The Dieulafoy lesion, although thought to be rare, should be considered when investigating an acute gastrointestinal bleed. These lesions have been successfully treated endoscopically. Appropriate anticipation and preparation for diagnosis and therapy can lead to optimal outcomes for the pediatric patient. PMID:28090473

  11. Determination of dasatinib in the tablet dosage form by ultra high performance liquid chromatography, capillary zone electrophoresis, and sequential injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Aroa Garcia; Taraba, Lukáš; Hraníček, Jakub; Kozlík, Petr; Coufal, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Dasatinib is a novel oral prescription drug proposed for treating adult patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Three analytical methods, namely ultra high performance liquid chromatography, capillary zone electrophoresis, and sequential injection analysis, were developed, validated, and compared for determination of the drug in the tablet dosage form. The total analysis time of optimized ultra high performance liquid chromatography and capillary zone electrophoresis methods was 2.0 and 2.2 min, respectively. Direct ultraviolet detection with detection wavelength of 322 nm was employed in both cases. The optimized sequential injection analysis method was based on spectrophotometric detection of dasatinib after a simple colorimetric reaction with folin ciocalteau reagent forming a blue-colored complex with an absorbance maximum at 745 nm. The total analysis time was 2.5 min. The ultra high performance liquid chromatography method provided the lowest detection and quantitation limits and the most precise and accurate results. All three newly developed methods were demonstrated to be specific, linear, sensitive, precise, and accurate, providing results satisfactorily meeting the requirements of the pharmaceutical industry, and can be employed for the routine determination of the active pharmaceutical ingredient in the tablet dosage form. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The multiplicity of flow and transport models in unsaturated zone – curse or blessing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many conceptually different models have been developed to simulate flow and transport in vadose zone. For practical purposes, parameters in these models are often estimated from readily available data using pedotransfer functions. Many pedotransfer functions have been developed, and it is not known ...

  13. Multiple intravenous injections of allogeneic equine mesenchymal stem cells do not induce a systemic inflammatory response but do alter lymphocyte subsets in healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Kol, Amir; Wood, Joshua A; Carrade Holt, Danielle D; Gillette, Jessica A; Bohannon-Worsley, Laurie K; Puchalski, Sarah M; Walker, Naomi J; Clark, Kaitlin C; Watson, Johanna L; Borjesson, Dori L

    2015-04-15

    Intravenous (IV) injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is used to treat systemic human diseases and disorders but is not routinely used in equine therapy. In horses, MSCs are isolated primarily from adipose tissue (AT) or bone marrow (BM) and used for treatment of orthopedic injuries through one or more local injections. The objective of this study was to determine the safety and lymphocyte response to multiple allogeneic IV injections of either AT-derived MSCs (AT-MSCs) or BM-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) to healthy horses. We injected three doses of 25 × 10(6) allogeneic MSCs from either AT or BM (a total of 75 × 10(6) MSCs per horse) into five and five, respectively, healthy horses. Horses were followed up for 35 days after the first MSC infusion. We evaluated host inflammatory and immune response, including total leukocyte numbers, serum cytokine concentration, and splenic lymphocyte subsets. Repeated injection of allogeneic AT-MSCs or BM-MSCs did not elicit any clinical adverse effects. Repeated BM-MSC injection resulted in increased blood CD8(+) T-cell numbers. Multiple BM-MSC injections also increased splenic regulatory T cell numbers compared with AT-MSC-injected horses but not controls. These data demonstrate that multiple IV injections of allogeneic MSCs are well tolerated by healthy horses. No clinical signs or clinico-pathologic measurements of organ toxicity or systemic inflammatory response were recorded. Increased numbers of circulating CD8(+) T cells after multiple IV injections of allogeneic BM-MSCs may indicate a mild allo-antigen-directed cytotoxic response. Safety and efficacy of allogeneic MSC IV infusions in sick horses remain to be determined.

  14. Multiple mantle upwellings through the transition zone beneath the Afar Depression?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, J. O.; Kendall, J. M.; Stuart, G. W.; Thompson, D. A.; Ebinger, C. J.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.; Goitom, B.; Ogubazghi, G.

    2012-12-01

    Previous seismic studies using regional deployments of sensors in East-Africa show that low seismic velocities underlie Africa, but their resolution is limited to the top 200-300km of the Earth. Thus, the connection between the low velocities in the uppermost mantle and those imaged in global studies in the lower mantle is unclear. We have combined new data from Afar, Ethiopia with 7 other regional experiments and global network stations across Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti and Yemen, to produce high-resolution models of upper mantle P- and S-wave velocities to the base of the transition zone. Relative travel time tomographic inversions show that within the transition zone two focussed sharp-sided low velocity regions exist: one beneath the Western Ethiopian plateau outside the rift valley, and the other beneath the Afar depression. Estimates of transition zone thickness suggest that this is unlikely to be an artefact of mantle discontinuity topography as a transition zone of normal thickness underlies the majority of Afar and surrounding regions. However, a low velocity layer is evident directly above the 410 discontinuity, co-incident with some of the lowest seismic velocities suggesting that smearing of a strong low velocity layer of limited depth extent may contribute to the tomographic models in north-east Afar. The combination of seismic constraints suggests that small low temperature (<50K) upwellings may rise from a broader low velocity plume-like feature in the lower mantle. This interpretation is supported by numerical and analogue experiments that suggest the 660km phase change and viscosity jump may impede flow from the lower to upper mantle creating a thermal boundary layer at the base of the transition zone. This allows smaller, secondary upwellings to initiate and rise to the surface. These, combined with possible evidence of melt above the 410 discontinuity can explain the seismic velocity models. Our images of secondary upwellings suggest that

  15. Fast injection of the relativistic electrons into the inner zone and the formation of the split-zone structure during the Bastille Day storm in July 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung-Chan; Shprits, Yuri Y.; Blake, J. Bernard

    2016-09-01

    During the July 2000 geomagnetic storm, known as the Bastille Day storm, Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX)/Heavy Ion Large Telescope (HILT) observed a strong injection of 1 MeV electrons into the slot region (L 2.5) during the storm main phase. Then, during the following month, electrons were clearly seen diffusing inward down to L = 2 and forming a pronounced split structure encompassing a narrow, newly formed slot region around L = 3. SAMPEX observations are first compared with electron and proton observations on HEO-3 and NOAA-15 to validate that the observed unusual dynamics was not caused by proton contamination of the SAMPEX instrument. The time-dependent 3-D Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) simulation of 1 MeV electron flux evolution is compared with the SAMPEX/HILT observations. The results show that the VERB code predicts overall time evolution of the observed split structure. The simulated split structure is produced by pitch angle scattering into the Earth atmosphere of 1 MeV electrons by plasmaspheric hiss.

  16. A Patient Care Program for Adjusting the Autoinjector Needle Depth According to Subcutaneous Tissue Thickness in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis Receiving Subcutaneous Injections of Glatiramer Acetate

    PubMed Central

    Masid, Maria Luisa Sánchez; Ocaña, Rosalía Horno; Gil, María Jesús Díaz; Ramos, Maria Concepción Ramírez; Roig, Matilde Escutia; Carreño, Maria Rosario Coll; Morales, Jaime Cordero; Carrasco, Maria Luisa Vergara; Hidalgo, Leonor Mariana Rubio; Felices, Ana Maria Bernad; Castaño, Adela Harto; Romero, Purificación Castañeda; Martinez, Pablo Francoli; Sánchez-De la Rosa, Rainel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The perceived pain on injection site caused by subcutaneous (SC) self-injection may negatively affect acceptance and adherence to treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Pain on injection may be caused by inaccurate injection technique, inadequate needle length adjustment, or repeated use of the same injection body area. However, information is lacking concerning the optimal needle depth to minimize the injection pain. Objective: The purpose of this program was to characterize the perceived injection-site pain associated with the use of various injection depths of the autoinjector of glatiramer acetate (GA) based on SC tissue thickness (SCT) of the injection site. Methods: This was a pilot program performed by MS-specialized nurses in patients with MS new to GA. Patients were trained by MS nurses on the preparation and administration of SC injection and on an eight-site rotation (left and right arms, thighs, abdomen, and upper quadrant of the buttock). The needle length setting was selected based on SCT measures as follows: 4 or 6 mm for SCT < 25 mm, 6 or 8 mm for SCT between 25 and 50 mm, and 8 or 10 mm for SCT > 50 mm. Injection pain was rated using a visual analog scale (VAS) at 5- and 40-minute postinjection and during two 24-day treatment periods. Results: Thirty-eight patients with MS were evaluated. The mean SCT ranged from 15.5 mm in the upper outer quadrant of the buttocks to 29.2 mm in the thighs. The mean perceived pain on injection was below 3 for all the injection sites, at both time points (5 and 40 minutes) and during both 24-day evaluation periods. The mean VAS scores were significantly greater after 5 minutes of injection compared with that reported 40-minute postinjection during both 24-day treatment periods and for all the injection areas. Mean VAS measures at 5- and 40-minute postinjection significantly decreased during the second 24-day treatment period with respect to that reported during the first 24 SC

  17. A patient care program for adjusting the autoinjector needle depth according to subcutaneous tissue thickness in patients with multiple sclerosis receiving subcutaneous injections of glatiramer acetate.

    PubMed

    Masid, Maria Luisa Sánchez; Ocaña, Rosalía Horno; Gil, María Jesús Díaz; Ramos, Maria Concepción Ramírez; Roig, Matilde Escutia; Carreño, Maria Rosario Coll; Morales, Jaime Cordero; Carrasco, Maria Luisa Vergara; Hidalgo, Leonor Mariana Rubio; Felices, Ana Maria Bernad; Castaño, Adela Harto; Romero, Purificación Castañeda; Martinez, Pablo Francoli; Sánchez-De la Rosa, Rainel

    2015-02-01

    The perceived pain on injection site caused by subcutaneous (SC) self-injection may negatively affect acceptance and adherence to treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Pain on injection may be caused by inaccurate injection technique, inadequate needle length adjustment, or repeated use of the same injection body area. However, information is lacking concerning the optimal needle depth to minimize the injection pain. The purpose of this program was to characterize the perceived injection-site pain associated with the use of various injection depths of the autoinjector of glatiramer acetate (GA) based on SC tissue thickness (SCT) of the injection site. This was a pilot program performed by MS-specialized nurses in patients with MS new to GA. Patients were trained by MS nurses on the preparation and administration of SC injection and on an eight-site rotation (left and right arms, thighs, abdomen, and upper quadrant of the buttock). The needle length setting was selected based on SCT measures as follows: 4 or 6 mm for SCT < 25 mm, 6 or 8 mm for SCT between 25 and 50 mm, and 8 or 10 mm for SCT > 50 mm. Injection pain was rated using a visual analog scale (VAS) at 5- and 40-minute postinjection and during two 24-day treatment periods. Thirty-eight patients with MS were evaluated. The mean SCT ranged from 15.5 mm in the upper outer quadrant of the buttocks to 29.2 mm in the thighs. The mean perceived pain on injection was below 3 for all the injection sites, at both time points (5 and 40 minutes) and during both 24-day evaluation periods. The mean VAS scores were significantly greater after 5 minutes of injection compared with that reported 40-minute postinjection during both 24-day treatment periods and for all the injection areas. Mean VAS measures at 5- and 40-minute postinjection significantly decreased during the second 24-day treatment period with respect to that reported during the first 24 SC injections for all injection sites. Our findings suggest

  18. Geochemical consequences of flow differentiation in a multiple injection dike (Trinity ophiolite, N. California)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brouxel, M.

    1991-01-01

    A clinopyroxene-rich dike of the Trinity ophiolite sheeted-dike complex shows three different magmatic pulses, probably injected in a short period of time (no well developed chilled margin) and important variations of the clinopyroxene and plagioclase percentages between its core (highly porphyritic) and margins (aphyric). This variation, interpreted as related to a flow differentiation phenomenon (mechanical phenocryst redistribution), has important geochemical consequences. It produces increases in the FeO, MgO, CaO, Cr and Ni contents from the margin to the core, together with increases in the clinopyroxene percentage, and decreases in the SiO2, Zr, Y, Nb and REE contents together with a decrease in the percentage of the fine-grained groundmass toward the core of the dike. This mineralogical redistribution, which also affects the incompatible trace element ratios because of the difference in plagioclase and clinopyroxene mineral/liquid partition coefficients, illustrate the importance of fractionation processes outside of a magma chamber. ?? 1991.

  19. Multiple energetic injections in a strong spike-like solar burst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufmann, P.; Correia, E.; Costa, J. E. R.; Dennis, B. R.; Hurford, G. J.; Brown, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    An intense and fast spike-like solar burst was built up of short time scale structures superimposed on an underlying gradual emission, the time evolution of which shows remarkable proportionality between hard X-ray and microwave fluxes. The finer time structures were best defined at mm-microwaves. At the peak of the event, the finer structures repeat every 30 x 60 ms. The more slowly varying component with a time scale of about 1 second was identified in microwave hard X-rays throughout the burst duration. It is suggested that X-ray fluxes might also be proportional to the repetition rate of basic units of energy injection (quasi-quantized). The relevant parameters of one primary energy release site are estimated both in the case where hard X-rays are produced primarily by thick-target bremsstrahlung, and when they are purely thermal. The relation of this figure to global energy considerations is discussed. Previously announced in STAR as N83-35983

  20. A Comparison of Combustion Dynamics for Multiple 7-Point Lean Direct Injection Combustor Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, Kathleen M.; Hicks, Yolanda R.

    2017-01-01

    The combustion dynamics of two 7-point lean direct injection (LDI) combustor configurations are compared. This 7-point LDI configuration has a circular cross section, with a center ("pilot") fuel-air mixer surrounded by six outer ("main") fuel-air mixers. Each fuel-air mixer consists of an axial air swirler followed by a converging-diverging venturi. A simplex fuel injector is inserted through the center of the air swirler, with the fuel injector tip located near the venturi throat. All 7 fuel-air mixers are identical except for the swirler blade angle. In the 'all-60' configuration, the swirler blade angle was 60 deg for all fuel-air mixers. In the '45-60' configuration, the swirler blade angle was 60 deg on the center and 45 deg on the outer fuel-air mixers. Testing was done in a 5-atm flame tube with inlet air temperatures from 630 to 830 F and equivalence ratios from 0.2 to 0.7. Combustion dynamics were measured using a cooled PCB pressure transducer flush-mounted in the wall of the combustor test section. Both configurations had large pressure fluctuations (greater than 2 psi peak-peak) near 730 Hz, the quarter-wave frequency. The all-60 configuration also had large pressure fluctuations near 1170 Hz; the 45-60 configuration did not. The 45-60 configuration had large pressure fluctuations near 480 Hz; the all-60 configuration did not.

  1. Annular core liquid-salt cooled reactor with multiple fuel and blanket zones

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Per F.

    2013-05-14

    A liquid fluoride salt cooled, high temperature reactor having a reactor vessel with a pebble-bed reactor core. The reactor core comprises a pebble injection inlet located at a bottom end of the reactor core and a pebble defueling outlet located at a top end of the reactor core, an inner reflector, outer reflector, and an annular pebble-bed region disposed in between the inner reflector and outer reflector. The annular pebble-bed region comprises an annular channel configured for receiving pebble fuel at the pebble injection inlet, the pebble fuel comprising a combination of seed and blanket pebbles having a density lower than the coolant such that the pebbles have positive buoyancy and migrate upward in said annular pebble-bed region toward the defueling outlet. The annular pebble-bed region comprises alternating radial layers of seed pebbles and blanket pebbles.

  2. Preoperative computed tomography-guided dye injection to localize multiple lung nodules for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yao-Hui; Lee, Yee-Fan; Hsieh, Min-Shu; Chien, Ning; Ko, Wei-Chun; Chen, Jo-Yu; Lee, Jang-Ming; Huang, Pei-Ming; Lin, Mong-Wei; Chen, Jin-Shing

    2016-01-01

    Background Preoperative computed tomography (CT)-guided localization of small lung nodules is important for accurate and efficient video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Resection of multiple small pulmonary nodules in one VATS procedure can aid in patient management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of CT-guided Patent Blue V (PBV) dye localization in patients with multiple pulmonary nodules who underwent VATS. Methods This retrospective study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2015. One hundred consecutive patients (59.9±10.5 years of age) with 217 nodules who underwent preoperative CT-guided PBV dye localization for multiple (2 to 4) nodules before VATS were enrolled. Results The mean nodule size was 0.8±0.4 cm, with a mean depth from the pleura or fissure of 0.7±0.7 cm. The mean procedure duration was 50±20 minutes. The mean amount of injected PBV dye was 0.2±0.1 mL per nodule. The overall success rate was 99% by nodule. Failed localization of two nodules in two patients was due to poor dye visualization (n=1) and significant pneumothorax (n=1). Cases of hemorrhage (24%) were mild and asymptomatic, and none of the patients had hemoptysis. None of the cases of pneumothorax (40%) required chest tube placement before VATS. One (1%) patient developed anaphylaxis. The mean post-operative hospital stay was 6.4±4.4 days. Conclusions CT-guided PBV dye localization for multiple small pulmonary nodules before VATS is a safe, feasible, and accurate method with high success rate. This approach makes it easy to perform multiple nodule resections during one VATS operation. PMID:28066667

  3. Single, double or multiple-injection techniques for non-ultrasound guided axillary brachial plexus block in adults undergoing surgery of the lower arm.

    PubMed

    Chin, Ki Jinn; Cubillos, Javier E; Alakkad, Husni

    2016-09-02

    Regional anaesthesia comprising axillary block of the brachial plexus is a common anaesthetic technique for distal upper limb surgery. This is an update of a review first published in 2006 and previously updated in 2011 and 2013. To compare the relative effects (benefits and harms) of three injection techniques (single, double and multiple) of axillary block of the brachial plexus for distal upper extremity surgery. We considered these effects primarily in terms of anaesthetic effectiveness; the complication rate (neurological and vascular); and pain and discomfort caused by performance of the block. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1946 to April Week 1 2016), Embase (1947 to April 18 2016) and reference lists of trials. We contacted trial authors. The date of the last search was April 2016 (updated from March 2013). We included randomized controlled trials that compared double with single-injection techniques, multiple with single-injection techniques, or multiple with double-injection techniques for axillary block in adults undergoing surgery of the distal upper limb. We excluded trials using ultrasound-guided techniques. Independent study selection, 'Risk of bias' assessment and data extraction were performed by at least two investigators. We undertook meta-analysis. We included one new trial involving 45 participants in this updated review. In total we included 22 trials involving a total of 2193 participants who received regional anaesthesia for hand, wrist, forearm or elbow surgery. 'Risk of bias' assessment indicated that trial design and conduct were generally adequate; the most common areas of weakness were in blinding and allocation concealment.Nine trials comparing double versus single injections showed a statistically significant decrease in primary anaesthesia failure (risk ratio (RR) 0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34 to 0.89, high-quality evidence). Subgroup analysis by method of

  4. Vertebroplasty in multiple myeloma with osteolysis or fracture of the posterior vertebral wall. Usefulness of a delayed cement injection.

    PubMed

    Basile, Antonio; Cavalli, Maide; Fiumara, Paolo; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Mundo, Elena; Caltabiano, Giuseppe; Arcerito, Flavio; Patti, Maria Teresa; Granata, Antonio; Tsetis, Dimitrios

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this study was to specifically address the incidence of dorsal leakage when performing vertebroplasty in patients with posterior wall osteolysis or fracture, by using a delayed injection of cement with the aim of increasing its viscosity. We prospectively reviewed the records of 24 patients (13 women, 11 men; age range 42-67 years; mean age 54.7) with diagnosis of multiple myeloma (MM) who underwent 34 vertebroplasties between January 2007 and January 2010 for painful osteolytic localization of MM with dorsal cortical osteolysis or fracture. All vertebroplasties were performed with an 8 min delay, which was half of the allotted injecting time given for the chosen cement. In 11 cases there were fractures involving the posterior wall, in 1 case with dorsal fragment dislocation, and in 33 cases there was dorsal cortical osteolysis. All of the patients showed no response to standard treatments such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and analgesic treatments. Technical success was achieved in all cases. In 20 patients, we treated only one high-risk vertebral lesion, in six patients we treated two segments, and in one patient we treated three segments. All patients experienced improvement in symptoms after the procedure as demonstrated by improved visual analogue scores (VAS) and performance status (PS) and decreased doses of analgesic. There was a dorsal leakage in 2/34 (5.8%) treated vertebral bodies in which an epidural space tumor extension was also diagnosed, without increasing neurological symptoms after the intervention. From these results vertebroplasty with delayed injection of cement is safe and effective in the treatment of vertebral localization of myeloma with osteolysis or fracture of the posterior vertebral wall.

  5. Study of magnetic helicity injection in the active region NOAA 9236 producing multiple flare-associated coronal mass ejection events

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sung-Hong; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Bong, Su-Chan; Kumar, Pankaj; Kim, Yeon-Han; Park, Young-Deuk; Kusano, Kanya; Chae, Jongchul; Park, So-Young

    2013-11-20

    To better understand a preferred magnetic field configuration and its evolution during coronal mass ejection (CME) events, we investigated the spatial and temporal evolution of photospheric magnetic fields in the active region NOAA 9236 that produced eight flare-associated CMEs during the time period of 2000 November 23-26. The time variations of the total magnetic helicity injection rate and the total unsigned magnetic flux are determined and examined not only in the entire active region but also in some local regions such as the main sunspots and the CME-associated flaring regions using SOHO/MDI magnetogram data. As a result, we found that (1) in the sunspots, a large amount of positive (right-handed) magnetic helicity was injected during most of the examined time period, (2) in the flare region, there was a continuous injection of negative (left-handed) magnetic helicity during the entire period, accompanied by a large increase of the unsigned magnetic flux, and (3) the flaring regions were mainly composed of emerging bipoles of magnetic fragments in which magnetic field lines have substantially favorable conditions for making reconnection with large-scale, overlying, and oppositely directed magnetic field lines connecting the main sunspots. These observational findings can also be well explained by some MHD numerical simulations for CME initiation (e.g., reconnection-favored emerging flux models). We therefore conclude that reconnection-favored magnetic fields in the flaring emerging flux regions play a crucial role in producing the multiple flare-associated CMEs in NOAA 9236.

  6. Modeling of fault activation and seismicity by injection directly into a fault zone associated with hydraulic fracturing of shale-gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Rinaldi, Antonio P.; Cappa, Frédéric; Moridis, George J.

    2015-03-01

    We conducted three-dimensional coupled fluid-flow and geomechanical modeling of fault activation and seismicity associated with hydraulic fracturing stimulation of a shale-gas reservoir. We simulated a case in which a horizontal injection well intersects a steeply dip- ping fault, with hydraulic fracturing channeled within the fault, during a 3-hour hydraulic fracturing stage. Consistent with field observations, the simulation results show that shale-gas hydraulic fracturing along faults does not likely induce seismic events that could be felt on the ground surface, but rather results in numerous small microseismic events, as well as aseismic deformations along with the fracture propagation. The calculated seismic moment magnitudes ranged from about -2.0 to 0.5, except for one case assuming a very brittle fault with low residual shear strength, for which the magnitude was 2.3, an event that would likely go unnoticed or might be barely felt by humans at its epicenter. The calculated moment magnitudes showed a dependency on injection depth and fault dip. We attribute such dependency to variation in shear stress on the fault plane and associated variation in stress drop upon reactivation. Our simulations showed that at the end of the 3-hour injection, the rupture zone associated with tensile and shear failure extended to a maximum radius of about 200 m from the injection well. The results of this modeling study for steeply dipping faults at 1000 to 2500 m depth is in agreement with earlier studies and field observations showing that it is very unlikely that activation of a fault by shale-gas hydraulic fracturing at great depth (thousands of meters) could cause felt seismicity or create a new flow path (through fault rupture) that could reach shallow groundwater resources.

  7. Modeling of fault activation and seismicity by injection directly into a fault zone associated with hydraulic fracturing of shale-gas reservoirs

    DOE PAGES

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Rinaldi, Antonio P.; Cappa, Frédéric; ...

    2015-03-01

    We conducted three-dimensional coupled fluid-flow and geomechanical modeling of fault activation and seismicity associated with hydraulic fracturing stimulation of a shale-gas reservoir. We simulated a case in which a horizontal injection well intersects a steeply dip- ping fault, with hydraulic fracturing channeled within the fault, during a 3-hour hydraulic fracturing stage. Consistent with field observations, the simulation results show that shale-gas hydraulic fracturing along faults does not likely induce seismic events that could be felt on the ground surface, but rather results in numerous small microseismic events, as well as aseismic deformations along with the fracture propagation. The calculated seismicmore » moment magnitudes ranged from about -2.0 to 0.5, except for one case assuming a very brittle fault with low residual shear strength, for which the magnitude was 2.3, an event that would likely go unnoticed or might be barely felt by humans at its epicenter. The calculated moment magnitudes showed a dependency on injection depth and fault dip. We attribute such dependency to variation in shear stress on the fault plane and associated variation in stress drop upon reactivation. Our simulations showed that at the end of the 3-hour injection, the rupture zone associated with tensile and shear failure extended to a maximum radius of about 200 m from the injection well. The results of this modeling study for steeply dipping faults at 1000 to 2500 m depth is in agreement with earlier studies and field observations showing that it is very unlikely that activation of a fault by shale-gas hydraulic fracturing at great depth (thousands of meters) could cause felt seismicity or create a new flow path (through fault rupture) that could reach shallow groundwater resources.« less

  8. Using Oil and Gas Well Log Records to Understand Possible Connections Between Wastewater Injection Zones and Usable Groundwater Aquifers in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimabukuro, D.; Haugen, E. A.; Battistella, C.; Treguboff, E. W.; Kale, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Although the disposal of produced water in wastewater injection wells has been occurring in California for decades, it is not clear whether injected fluids may be migrating into usable groundwater aquifers. One problem is the poor characterization of federally-protected (<10,000 ppm TDS) water in the state. Another is the lack of publically-accessible information about the hydrological properties of confining strata adjacent to injection zones. In effort to better understand these two problems, we have begun studying the archived oil and gas well records collected by the California Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (DOGGR). These scanned records contain two useful sources of information. First, geophysical well logs, such those measuring resistivity and porosity, can be used to determine aquifer salinity. This allows a three-dimensional understanding of the distribution of protected groundwater. Second, driller's logs contain lithological descriptions at depth. These lithologies can be used to construct a three-dimensional texture model, which can then be used in a groundwater flow model. A large number of undergraduate researchers at CSU Sacramento and CSU Long Beach have been collecting information on well records in the Ventura Basin and the Southern San Joaquin Valley. Each well record is examined with basic metadata entered into an online database in an effort to identify appropriate geophysical well logs and driller's logs. High-quality driller's logs are coded and used to create three-dimensional framework models for each well field. The geophysical logs are digitized and will be used to determine aquifer salinity. In addition, we are using information from the DOGGR well records to investigate wellbore integrity, waste disposal and waterflood injection volumes, and the possibility of induced seismicity. This project is part of the broader effort of the California State Water Resources Control Board to implement Senate Bill 4.

  9. [A prospective multicenter clinical study of Xuebijing injection in the treatment of sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Kong, Lingbo; Liu, Si; Feng, Zhiqiao; Shen, Hong; Liu, Qingquan

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of Xuebijing injection in treatment of sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). A prospective multicenter clinical study was conducted. The patients with sepsis, severe sepsis, or MODS admitted to Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine of 70 hospitals across the country during 2006 to 2008 were enrolled. All of the patients received the basis treatment of conventional therapy, plus Xuebijing injection of 50-100 mL, 2-3 times a day for 5-7 days, and the dose might be increased in serious cases. The vital signs, 24-hour urine output, Glasgow coma score (GCS), white blood cell count (WBC), platelet count (PLT), Marshall score, gastrointestinal function score, syndrome of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), blood lactate (Lac), blood glucose, serum creatinine (SCr), and total bilirubin (TBil) were observed before treatment, 1, 3, and 5 days after treatment, and at the end of the treatment. The results of above mentioned parameters after the treatment were compared with that before treatment in each patient. At the same time, the occurrence and the degree of adverse reactions were recorded to evaluate the safety of Xuebijing injection. A total of 2,574 patients were enrolled, and in 2,509 cases the treatment was completed in, with a drop of 65 cases. 704 cases were diagnosed to have sepsis, 768 with severe sepsis, and 1,037 with MODS. According to TCM, in 1,951 cases syndrome of stasis-toxin in the interior, and in 558 syndrome of excessive exuberance of heat-toxic in the interior were diagnosed. After the treatment of Xuebijing injection combined with conventional therapy, the temperature, heart rate, respiration rate, blood pressure, WBC, PLT, GCS, 24-hour urine output, blood glucose, Lac, SCr, TBil, Marshall score, gastrointestinal function score, as well as the symptoms, signs and TCM tongue condition and pulse condition, and TCM scores were significantly improved in all patients as well as the

  10. Simultaneous determination of free and total glycerol in biodiesel by capillary electrophoresis using multiple short-end injection.

    PubMed

    Spudeit, Daniel Alfonso; Piovezan, Marcel; Dolzan, Maressa D; Vistuba, Jacqueline Pereira; Azevedo, Mônia Stremel; Vitali, Luciano; Leal Oliveira, Marcone Augusto; Oliveira Costa, Ana Carolina; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu

    2013-12-01

    A rapid method for the simultaneous determination of free glycerol (FG) and total glycerol (TG) in biodiesel by CE using a short-end multiple injection (SE/MI) configuration system is described. The sample preparation for FG involves the extraction of glycerol with water and for TG a saponification reaction is carried out followed by extraction as in the case of FG. The glycerol extracted in both cases is submitted to periodate oxidation and the iodate ions formed are measured on a CE-SE/MI system. The relevance of this study lies in the fact that no analytical procedure has been previously reported for the determination of TG (or of FG and TG simultaneously) by CE. The optimum conditions for the saponification/extraction process were 1.25% KOH and 25°C, with a time of only 5 min, and biodiesel mass in the range of 50.0-200.0 mg can be used. Multiple injections were performed hydrodynamically with negative pressure as follows: 50 mbar/3s (FG sample); 50 mbar/6s (electrolyte spacer); 50 mbar/3s (TG sample). The linear range obtained was 1.55-46.5 mg/L with R(2) > 0.99. The LOD and LOQ were 0.16 mg/L and 0.47 mg/L, respectively for TG. The method provides acceptable throughput for application in quality control and monitoring biodiesel synthesis process. In addition, it offers simple sample preparation (saponification process), it can be applied to a variety biodiesel samples (soybean, castor, and waste cooking oils) and it can be used for the determination of two key parameters related to the biodiesel quality with a fast separation (less than 30 s) using an optimized CE-SE/MI system.

  11. Multiple lines of evidence to demonstrate vinyl chloride aerobic biodegradation in the vadose zone, and factors controlling rates.

    PubMed

    Patterson, B M; Aravena, R; Davis, G B; Furness, A J; Bastow, T P; Bouchard, D

    2013-10-01

    A field-based investigation was conducted at a contaminated site where the vadose zone was contaminated with a range of chlorinated hydrocarbons. The investigation consisted of groundwater and multilevel soil-gas monitoring of a range of contaminants and gases, along with isotope measurements and microbiology studies. The investigation provided multiple lines of evidence that demonstrated aerobic biodegradation of vinyl chloride (VC) was occurring in the vadose zone (i) above the on-site source zone, and (ii) above the downgradient off-site groundwater plume location. Data from both the on-site and off-site locations were consistent in showing substantially greater (an order of magnitude greater) rates of VC removal from the aerobic vadose zone compared to more recalcitrant contaminants trichloroethene (TCE) and tetrachloroethene (PCE). Soil gas VC isotope analysis showed substantial isotopic enrichment of VC (δ¹³C -5.2 to -10.9‰) compared to groundwater (δ¹³C -39.5‰) at the on-site location. Soil gas CO₂ isotope analysis at both locations showed that CO₂ was highly isotopically depleted (δ¹³C -28.8 to -33.3‰), compared to soil gas CO₂ data originating from natural sediment organic matter (δ¹³C= -14.7 to -21.3‰). The soil gas CO2 δ¹³C values were consistent with near-water table VC groundwater δ¹³C values (-36.8 to -39.5‰), suggesting CO₂ originating from aerobic biodegradation of VC. Bacteria that had functional genes (ethene monooxygenase (etnC) and epoxyalkane transferase (etnE)) involved in ethene metabolism and VC oxidation were more abundant at the source zone where oxygen co-existed with VC. The distribution of VC and oxygen vadose zone vapour plumes, together with long-term changes in soil gas CO₂ concentrations and temperature, provided information to elucidate the factors controlling aerobic biodegradation of VC in the vadose zone. Based on the overlapping VC and oxygen vadose zone vapour plumes, aerobic vapour

  12. Industrial Application of an Improved Multiple Injection and Multiple Staging Combustion Technology in a 600 MWe Supercritical Down-Fired Boiler.

    PubMed

    Song, Minhang; Zeng, Lingyan; Chen, Zhichao; Li, Zhengqi; Zhu, Qunyi; Kuang, Min

    2016-02-02

    To solve the water wall overheating in lower furnace, and further reduce NOx emissions and carbon in fly ash, continuous improvement of the previously proposed multiple injection and multiple staging combustion (MIMSC) technology lies on three aspects: (1) along the furnace arch breadth, changing the previously centralized 12 burner groups into a more uniform pattern with 24 burners; (2) increasing the mass ratio of pulverized coal in fuel-rich flow to that in fuel-lean flow from 6:4 to 9:1; (3) reducing the arch-air momentum by 23% and increasing the tertiary-air momentum by 24%. Industrial-size measurements (i.e., adjusting overfire air (OFA) damper opening of 20-70%) uncovered that, compared with the prior MIMSC technology, the ignition distance of fuel-rich coal/air flow shortened by around 1 m. The gas temperature in the lower furnace was symmetric and higher, the flame kernel moved upward and therefore made the temperature in near-wall region of furnace hopper decrease by about 400 °C, the water wall overheating disappeared completely. Under the optimal OFA damper opening (i.e, 55%), NOx emissions and carbon in fly ash attained levels of 589 mg/m(3) at 6% O2 and 6.18%, respectively, achieving NOx and carbon in fly ash significant reduction by 33% and 37%, respectively.

  13. International aircrew sleep and wakefulness after multiple time zone flights - A cooperative study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graeber, R. Curtis; Lauber, John K.; Connell, Linda J.; Gander, Philippa H.

    1986-01-01

    An international research team has carried out an electroencephalographic study of sleep and wakefulness in flight crews operating long-haul routes across seven or eight time zones. Following baseline recordings, volunteer crews (n = 56) from four airlines spent their first outbound layover at a sleep laboratory. This paper provides an overview of the project's history, its research design, and the standardization of procedures. The overall results are remarkably consistent among the four participating laboratories and strongly support the feasibility of cooperative international sleep research in the operational arena.

  14. Multiple Looser zones of osteomalacia in Byler disease with associated vitamin D deficiency, phosphaturia, and elevated FGF23

    PubMed Central

    Tarazi, M.; Ellanti, P.; McKenna, M.J.; Kilbane, M.; McCormick, P.A.; Hurson, C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Byler disease (progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis) is associated metabolic bone disease as a consequence of chronic malabsorption. Case presentation A 33-year-old man with decompensated liver disease secondary to Byler disease was referred to the orthopaedic department with progressive pain over this right proximal tibia. On examination, he had an antalgic gait. Tenderness was localised to the proximal tibia just distal to the tibial tubercle and bilateral foot swelling. Radiographs showed multiple stress fractures characteristic of Looser zones at various stages of healing in both tibia, metatarsals (third, fourth, and fifth on the right side, and second and fourth on the left) and left femur. Bone mineral density was extremely low. Subsequent investigations were consistent with severe osteomalacia due to a combination of vitamin D deficiency and phosphaturia with elevated fibroblast factor 23 (FGF23). A good clinical response was achieved following supplementation with calcium 1000 mg and vitamin D 20 μg daily. Discussion Stress fractures are often associated with delay in diagnosis. Our patient presented to the orthopaedic service with multiple Looser zones that had not been previously detected. As expected, there was biochemical evidence of vitamin D deficiency. An unexpected finding was phosphaturia that was associated with marked elevation in FGF23, which has never been reported previously. Conclusion Byler disease may result in Looser zones of osteomalacia due to chronic malabsorption. Renal phosphorus wasting as a consequence of unexplained marked elevation in FGF23 is thought to have contributed to the onset of osteomalacia. PMID:26771453

  15. Convergence zones for Type I migration: an inward shift for multiple planet systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossou, C.; Raymond, S. N.; Pierens, A.

    2013-05-01

    Earth-mass planets embedded in gaseous protoplanetary disks undergo Type I orbital migration. In radiative disks an additional component of the corotation torque scaling with the entropy gradient across the horseshoe region can counteract the general inward migration, Type I migration can then be directed either inward or outward depending on the local disk properties. Thus, special locations exist in the disk toward which planets migrate in a convergent way. Here we present N-body simulations of the convergent migration of systems of low-mass (M = 1-10M⊕) planets. We show that planets do not actually converge in convergence zones. Rather, they become trapped in chains of mean motion resonances. This causes the planets' eccentricities to increase to high enough values to affect the structure of the horseshoe region and weaken the positive corotation torque. The zero-torque equilibrium point of the resonant chain of planets is determined by the sum of the attenuated corotation torques and unattenuated differential Lindblad torques acting on each planet. The effective convergence zone is shifted inward. Systems with several planets can experience stochastic migration as a whole due to continuous perturbations from planets entering and leaving resonances.

  16. Beam Injection into RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mackay, W. W.; Tsoupas, N.

    1997-05-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. We describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks, the application program to steer the beam and the injection kickers. We report on the commissioning of the injection systems and on measurements of the kickers.

  17. Millimeter-wave beam forming and dynamic steering using an optically controlled photo-injected Fresnel zone plate antenna at 94 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallacher, Tom F.; Robertson, D. A.; Smith, G. M.

    2012-06-01

    We present results for a rapid, precise and wide field-of-view scanning antenna for use at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths, based on the photo-injected Fresnel zone plate antenna (piFZPA) method. Our work demonstrates the potential of this technology as a viable solution to a range of applications demanding video rate imagery at these frequencies. This technique is based on optically exciting free carriers in a semiconductor substrate, to form a plasma-based Fresnel zone plate antenna, which focuses and steers incident millimeter-wave beams. By reconfiguring the optically projected pattern, it is possible to dynamically, and rapidly, manipulate (sub) millimeter-wave beams within a 3D volume. It is believed that the little attention devoted to this method since it was first demonstrated 20 years ago has been due to the high illumination densities required for sufficient plasma injection. Our work has made significant improvements in addressing this requirement and the technique is demonstrated using simple, commercially available hardware. We present proof-of-principle experiments at 94GHz incorporating a commercial data projector. The 100mm diameter piFZPA achieves 37dBi directivity, excellent beam symmetry, beam steering in two dimensions over a +/-30° field-of-view, and precise beam control and repeatability. Whilst current demonstrations are restricted to less than 20 beams per second with the current implementation, the technique is capable of achieving beam scanning rates of more than 10,000 beams per second, suitable for video-rate imagery. We also present, believed to be for the first time, results of a piFZPA integrated into a short range, 94GHz, 3D imaging radar.

  18. Rich catalytic injection

    SciTech Connect

    Veninger, Albert

    2008-12-30

    A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

  19. Deep low-frequency earthquakes in tremor localize to the plate interface in multiple subduction zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Justin R.; Beroza, Gregory C.; Ide, Satoshi; Ohta, Kazuaki; Shelly, David R.; Schwartz, Susan Y.; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Thorwart, M.; Kao, Honn

    2009-01-01

    Deep tremor under Shikoku, Japan, consists primarily, and perhaps entirely, of swarms of low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) that occur as shear slip on the plate interface. Although tremor is observed at other plate boundaries, the lack of cataloged low-frequency earthquakes has precluded a similar conclusion about tremor in those locales. We use a network autocorrelation approach to detect and locate LFEs within tremor recorded at three subduction zones characterized by different thermal structures and levels of interplate seismicity: southwest Japan, northern Cascadia, and Costa Rica. In each case we find that LFEs are the primary constituent of tremor and that they locate on the deep continuation of the plate boundary. This suggests that tremor in these regions shares a common mechanism and that temperature is not the primary control on such activity.

  20. Evolution of heterogeneous genome differentiation across multiple contact zones in a crow species complex

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Nagarjun; Bossu, Christen M.; Poelstra, Jelmer W.; Weissensteiner, Matthias H.; Suh, Alexander; Kryukov, Alexey P.; Wolf, Jochen B. W.

    2016-01-01

    Uncovering the genetic basis of species diversification is a central goal in evolutionary biology. Yet, the link between the accumulation of genomic changes during population divergence and the evolutionary forces promoting reproductive isolation is poorly understood. Here, we analysed 124 genomes of crow populations with various degrees of genome-wide differentiation, with parallelism of a sexually selected plumage phenotype, and ongoing hybridization. Overall, heterogeneity in genetic differentiation along the genome was best explained by linked selection exposed on a shared genome architecture. Superimposed on this common background, we identified genomic regions with signatures of selection specific to independent phenotypic contact zones. Candidate pigmentation genes with evidence for divergent selection were only partly shared, suggesting context-dependent selection on a multigenic trait architecture and parallelism by pathway rather than by repeated single-gene effects. This study provides insight into how various forms of selection shape genome-wide patterns of genomic differentiation as populations diverge. PMID:27796282

  1. Deep low-frequency earthquakes in tremor localize to the plate interface in multiple subduction zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, J.R.; Beroza, G.C.; Ide, S.; Ohta, K.; Shelly, D.R.; Schwartz, S.Y.; Rabbel, W.; Thorwart, M.; Kao, H.

    2009-01-01

    Deep tremor under Shikoku, Japan, consists primarily, and perhaps entirely, of swarms of low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) that occur as shear slip on the plate interface. Although tremor is observed at other plate boundaries, the lack of cataloged low-frequency earthquakes has precluded a similar conclusion about tremor in those locales. We use a network autocorrelation approach to detect and locate LFEs within tremor recorded at three subduction zones characterized by different thermal structures and levels of interplate seismicity: southwest Japan, northern Cascadia, and Costa Rica. In each case we find that LFEs are the primary constituent of tremor and that they locate on the deep continuation of the plate boundary. This suggests that tremor in these regions shares a common mechanism and that temperature is not the primary control on such activity. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Simulations of Convection Zone Flows and Measurements from Multiple Viewing Angles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, Thomas L.; Hanasoge, Shravan

    2011-01-01

    A deep-focusing time-distance measurement technique has been applied to linear acoustic simulations of a solar interior perturbed by convective flows. The simulations are for the full sphere for r/R greater than 0.2. From these it is straightforward to simulate the observations from different viewing angles and to test how multiple viewing angles enhance detectibility. Some initial results will be presented.

  3. Hydrogeological characterization of shallow-depth zone for CO2 injection and leak test at a CO2 environmental monitoring site in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. S.; Kim, T. W.; Kim, H. H.; Ha, S. W.; Jeon, W. T.; Lee, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    The main goal of the this study is to evaluate the importance of heterogeneities in controlling the field-scale transport of CO2 are originated from the CO2 injected at saturated zone below the water table for monitoring and prediction of CO2 leakage from a reservoir. Hydrogeological and geophysical data are collected to characterize the site, prior to conducting CO2 injection experiment at the CO2 environmental monitoring site at Eumseong, Korea. The geophysical data were acquired from borehole electromagnetic flowmeter tests, while the hydraulic data were obtained from pumping tests, slug tests, and falling head permeability tests. Total of 13 wells to perform hydraulic and geophysical test are established along groundwater flow direction in regular sequence, revealed by the results of borehole electromagnetic flowmeter test. The results of geophysical tests indicated that hydraulic gradient is not identical with the topographic gradient. Groundwater flows toward the uphill direction in the study area. Then, the hydraulic tests were conducted to identify the hydraulic properties of the study site. According to the results of pumping and slug tests at the study site, the hydraulic conductivity values show ranges between 4.75 x 10-5 cm/day and 9.74 x 10-5 cm/day. In addition, a portable multi-level sampling and monitoring packer device which remains inflated condition for a long period developed and used to isolate designated depths to identify vertical distribution of hydrogeological characteristics. Hydrogeological information obtained from this study will be used to decide the injection test interval of CO2-infused water and gaseous CO2. Acknowledgement: Financial support was provided by "R&D Project on Environmental Mangement of Geologic CO2 Storage" from the KEITI (Project Number: 2014001810003).

  4. Mycobacterium abscessus post-injection abscesses from extrinsic contamination of multiple-dose bottles of normal saline in a rural clinic.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jun; Liu, Yufei; Yang, Zhicong; Cai, Yanshan; Deng, Zhiai; Qin, Pengzhe; Li, Tiegang; Dong, Zhiqiang; Yan, Ziqiang; Zhou, Duanhua; Luo, Huiming; Ma, Huilai; Pang, Xinglin; Fontaine, Robert E

    2009-09-01

    We investigated an outbreak of gluteal abscesses following intramuscular (IM) injections given at a clinic in rural China to identify the causative agent, source, and method of exposure. We defined a case as an abscess that appeared at the site of an injection given since June 1, 2006. We compared case rates by injection route, medication, and diluents. We reviewed injection practices, and cultured abscesses and environmental sites for mycobacteria. From October through December 2006, 5.8% (n=35) of 604 persons who had received injections at the clinic developed a case. All 35 cases occurred in 184 patients (attack rate=19.0%) who had received IM injections with various drugs that had been mixed with normal saline (NS); risk ratio=infinity; p<0.0001. No cases occurred in the absence of NS exposure. We identified Mycobacterium abscessus from eight abscesses and from the clinic water supply, and observed the inappropriate reuse of a 16-gauge needle left in the rubber septum of 100 ml multiple-dose bottles of NS in the clinic. Fourteen percent (n=527) of the 3887 registered residents of this village had been treated with IM drugs over a three-month period, often for minor illnesses. This outbreak of M. abscessus occurred from exposure to extrinsically contaminated NS through improper injection practices. Frequent treatment of minor illnesses with IM injections of antibiotics was likely an important contributing factor to the size of this outbreak.

  5. Improvement in morning hyperglycaemia with basal human ultratard and prandial human actrapid insulin--a comparison of multiple injection regimens.

    PubMed

    Davies, R R; McEwen, J; Moreland, T A; Durnin, C; Newton, R W

    1988-10-01

    Three 'pen'-administered multiple injection regimens have been compared with twice daily insulin injection regimens by means of 24-h profiles of plasma glucose and free insulin concentrations. Ten Type 1 diabetic patients received their usual twice daily insulin regimen and were then randomized to receive the same total daily insulin dose in four divided doses using (1) 50:50 premixed soluble and isophane, (2) 30:70 premixed soluble and isophane, and (3) preprandial soluble and evening crystalline-zinc insulins. Profiles were performed after 1 week on each regimen. Plasma glucose concentrations were similar during the twice daily regimen and the two premixed regimens, rising during the early hours of the morning to a peak between 0900 and 0930 h of 13.8 +/- 2.8 (+/- SD) mmol l-1 on the twice daily regimen, 13.6 +/- 5.3 mmol l-1 on the premixed 50:50 regimen, and 13.5 +/- 4.2 mmol-1 on the premixed 30:70 regimen. With the basal and prandial regimen, overnight plasma glucose concentrations were higher than with the other regimens between 2400 and 0300 h (p less than 0.05). Concentrations then fell until breakfast, and rose after this meal to a peak of 9.5 +/- 4.3 mmol l-1 (p less than 0.01). Mean plasma glucose concentrations were significantly lower than on the other three regimens between 0830 and 1100 h (p less than 0.05). Less variability was observed in 24-h mean plasma glucose concentrations during the basal and prandial regimen than during the other three regimens.

  6. Multiple-event relocation of historic earthquakes along Blanco Transform Fault Zone, NE Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, Vincent S.; Sverdrup, Keith A.

    2003-10-01

    Blanco Transform Fault Zone (BTFZ) is part of the Juan de Fuca Ridge system located ~200-500 km west of the Oregon coastline. Individually located epicenters reported by the International Seismological Center (ISC) and National Earthquake Information Center along the BTFZ are not well correlated spatially with the active transform boundary. More accurate locations of 120 mb >= 5.0 earthquakes relative to each other have been obtained using a joint-relocation process that yields improved epicenter locations relative to each other. Six of these earthquakes have been independently located using data from the U.S. Navy's SOSUS hydrophone array, enabling specification of a static correction to improve absolute locations for all 120 relocated epicenters relative to the BTFZ. The final locations average ~34.6 +/- 15.2 km toward azimuth 196° +/- 28° relative to the original ISC locations. The 95% confidence ellipses of most of the relocated epicenters fall on or very near active structural features along the BTFZ.

  7. Multiple Igneous Bodies for Nakhlites and Chassignites as Inferred from Olivine Cooling Rates using Calcium Zoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikouchi, T.; Takenouchi, A.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2017-01-01

    Nakhlites and chassignites are ultramafic cumulate rocks of clinopyroxene and olivine, respec-tively, considered to have been formed in a thick lava flow or shallow intrusion near the Martian surface [e.g., 1,2]. Although more than 100 Martian meteorites have been found so far, most of them are shergottites and only nine nakhlites and three chassignites are known (considering paired samples) [3]. In contrast to shergottites which show large variations in both mineralogy and ages, nakhlites and chassignites are suggested to have been petrogenetically related, crystallized at about the same time and been ejected by the same impact event because of their identical crystallization (approximately 1.3 Ga) and cosmic-ray exposure (10-11 My) ages [e.g., 1]. In this study we discuss the possibility of a common igneous body for all samples belonging to these two groups as suggested by previous studies [e.g., 4]. To do this we estimated cooling rates of olivine using Ca zoning profiles, especially by paying attention to the newest samples of each group (NWA 10720 nakhlite and NWA 8694 chassignite).

  8. The role of multiple-point statistics and model selection in quantitative hydrogeophysical studies of the critical zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linde, N.

    2015-12-01

    Geophysical data are routinely used to provide qualitative insights about the main lithologies and the distribution of soil moisture in the critical zone. Quantitative hydrogeophysical inferences of critical zone properties and processes are much more challenging because of the multitude of interacting physical, biological and chemical gradients that may affect the geophysical measurement response. In this context, it is essential to incorporate the geophysical data within a wider modeling framework that centers on a conceptual model that describes the properties and processes under study together with appropriate boundary conditions. Based on recent groundwater applications, I describe how it is now possible to build geologically meaningful realizations of subsurface structure using multiple-point statistics (MPS) and to make uncertainty estimates. I will demonstrate conditioning of MPS simulations to geophysical tomograms, inclusion of summary statistics derived from MPS simulations within a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) inversion, and full MPS MCMC inversion based on fast (speed-up of 40 times) model proposal algorithms that we have adapted from computer vision. For future applications in the critical zone, I suggest that MPS simulations should be used to derive and perturb primary lithological properties and that biological, chemical, and hydrological state variables (given appropriate boundary conditions) are subsequently simulated using domain-specific algorithms. The geophysical data (an individual snap shot or time-series) are then used to guide the model update of the primary properties (and nuisance parameters such as petrophysical parameters) that in turn influence the predicted state variables and their associated fluxes. Instead of classical parameter estimation, I argue that it is often more appropriate to focus on model selection, in which alternative conceptual models of the subsurface are compared and ranked given the available data.

  9. Multiple mafic and felsic magma interaction as exhibited in the Dartmouth Pluton, Avalon zone, southeastern Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Hamidzada, N.A.; Hermes, O.D.; Murray, D.P. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Dioritic to quartz monzonitic rocks of the Dartmouth Pluton exhibit excellently preserved, diverse features produced by mingling and mixing of mafic and felsic magma during multiple events. The related mafic and hybridized intermediate composition rocks occur both as discrete outcrop-sized masses or as enclaves within quartz monzonite or early-stage mixed rocks. Enclaves are rounded, lack chilled margins, and in some cases exhibit cuspate margins; they range in size from 1m--<1cm. Outcrops dominated by dioritic rock consist of well developed mafic pillows with inter-pillow infillings of hybridized rock that had been subjected to magma mixing during or prior to the final mingling process. Dioritic rocks are fine-grained with sparse plagioclase phenocrysts; they contain small, darker-colored enclaves indicative of preceding magma interaction. Major and trace element variation diagrams for this suite of rocks exhibit general linear trends consistent with mixing processes. Overall, field, petrographic, and geochemical relationships in the Dartmouth Pluton demonstrate: (1) widespread mingling of mafic and felsic magma, (2) variable degrees of mafic and felsic magma mixing, and (3) multiple and repeated episodes of mafic and felsic magma interaction. Significantly, some spatially associated dioritic and granitic rocks, including a 595 Ma alkali feldspar granite formerly considered to be part of the Dartmount Pluton, are geochemically related. Field mapping demonstrates that rocks of the mixed suite are intrusive into these rocks, thus establishing a maximum age, but raising the questions that the suite may be considerably younger.

  10. Comparison of Whole-stream and Hyporheic-zone Estimates of Denitrification Determined Simultaneously During an Isotope Tracer Injection in a Nitrate-Rich Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J. W.; Bohlke, J. K.; Voytek, M. A.

    2005-05-01

    15N labeled nitrate is increasingly being used as a reactive tracer in stream tracer tests to estimate whole-stream denitrification averaged at a spatial scale large enough to allow comparisons across disparate stream ecosystems. No matter how valuable, these whole-stream estimates are not very informative about controlling processes and will have limited transfer value unless processes controlling denitrification are investigated simultaneously at finer scales. Insights about the processes that influence the whole-stream rates could be especially informative if simultaneous rate measurements are made representing variable hydrologic and biogeochemical conditions near reactive surfaces in the stream and in the streambed. Our approach was to investigate factors that control denitrification by simultaneously measuring denitrification in-situ in a variety of streambed environments by sampling evolution of the (15NO3-) tracer during transport through shallow hyporheic flow paths. Here we report results from two tracer studies conducted in Sugar Creek, western Indiana, in a basin dominated by corn and soybean agriculture. The two tracer experiments were conducted in September 2001 and September 2003, when streamflows (40 and 20 L s-1) and stream NO3- concentrations (70 and 175 μmoles L-1) in the two reaches were near their annual minimum values. The experiments involved co-injection of conservative (Br), reactive (15NO3-), and dissolved gas (SF6) tracers into streamflow allowing quantification of advection, dispersion, gas evasion, hydrologic retention in "storage" zones, and also allowing in-situ estimation of denitrification within selected hyporheic flow paths. The experiments resulted in estimates of both whole-stream and hyporheic-zone rates of denitrification and related nitrogen reactions. The streambed of Sugar Creek is covered in most areas with a relatively thin layer (ranging from <1 to 3 cm) of fine granular and organic sediment and periphyton, overlying a

  11. Functional traits drive the contribution of solar radiation to leaf litter decomposition among multiple arid-zone species

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xu; Song, Yao-Bin; Liu, Guo-Fang; Hu, Yu-Kun; Ye, Xue-Hua; Cornwell, William K.; Prinzing, Andreas; Dong, Ming; Cornelissen, Johannes H.C.

    2015-01-01

    In arid zones, strong solar radiation has important consequences for ecosystem processes. To better understand carbon and nutrient dynamics, it is important to know the contribution of solar radiation to leaf litter decomposition of different arid-zone species. Here we investigated: (1) whether such contribution varies among plant species at given irradiance regime, (2) whether interspecific variation in such contribution correlates with interspecific variation in the decomposition rate under shade; and (3) whether this correlation can be explained by leaf traits. We conducted a factorial experiment to determine the effects of solar radiation and environmental moisture for the mass loss and the decomposition constant k-values of 13 species litters collected in Northern China. The contribution of solar radiation to leaf litter decomposition varied significantly among species. Solar radiation accelerated decomposition in particular in the species that already decompose quickly under shade. Functional traits, notably specific leaf area, might predict the interspecific variation in that contribution. Our results provide the first empirical evidence for how the effect of solar radiation on decomposition varies among multiple species. Thus, the effect of solar radiation on the carbon flux between biosphere and atmosphere may depend on the species composition of the vegetation. PMID:26282711

  12. Functional traits drive the contribution of solar radiation to leaf litter decomposition among multiple arid-zone species.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xu; Song, Yao-Bin; Liu, Guo-Fang; Hu, Yu-Kun; Ye, Xue-Hua; Cornwell, William K; Prinzing, Andreas; Dong, Ming; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2015-08-18

    In arid zones, strong solar radiation has important consequences for ecosystem processes. To better understand carbon and nutrient dynamics, it is important to know the contribution of solar radiation to leaf litter decomposition of different arid-zone species. Here we investigated: (1) whether such contribution varies among plant species at given irradiance regime, (2) whether interspecific variation in such contribution correlates with interspecific variation in the decomposition rate under shade; and (3) whether this correlation can be explained by leaf traits. We conducted a factorial experiment to determine the effects of solar radiation and environmental moisture for the mass loss and the decomposition constant k-values of 13 species litters collected in Northern China. The contribution of solar radiation to leaf litter decomposition varied significantly among species. Solar radiation accelerated decomposition in particular in the species that already decompose quickly under shade. Functional traits, notably specific leaf area, might predict the interspecific variation in that contribution. Our results provide the first empirical evidence for how the effect of solar radiation on decomposition varies among multiple species. Thus, the effect of solar radiation on the carbon flux between biosphere and atmosphere may depend on the species composition of the vegetation.

  13. Multiple-code benchmark simulation study of coupled THMC processesin the excavation disturbed zone associated with geological nuclear wasterepositories

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, J.; Feng, X-T.; Hudson, J.; Jing, L.; Kobayashi, A.; Koyama, T.; Pan, P-Z.; Lee, H-S.; Rinne, M.; Sonnenthal, E.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2006-05-10

    An international, multiple-code benchmark test (BMT) studyis being conducted within the international DECOVALEX project to analysecoupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processesin the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) around emplacement drifts of anuclear waste repository. This BMT focuses on mechanical responses andlong-term chemo-mechanical effects that may lead to changes in mechanicaland hydrological properties in the EDZ. This includes time-de-pendentprocesses such as creep, and subcritical crack, or healing of fracturesthat might cause "weakening" or "hardening" of the rock over the longterm. Five research teams are studying this BMT using a wide range ofmodel approaches, including boundary element, finite element, and finitedifference, particle mechanics, and elasto-plastic cellular automatamethods. This paper describes the definition of the problem andpreliminary simulation results for the initial model inception part, inwhich time dependent effects are not yet included.

  14. Seismic‐wave attenuation determined from tectonic tremor in multiple subduction zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yabe, Suguru; Baltay, Annemarie S.; Ide, Satoshi; Beroza, Gregory C.

    2014-01-01

    Tectonic tremor provides a new source of observations that can be used to constrain the seismic attenuation parameter for ground‐motion prediction and hazard mapping. Traditionally, recorded earthquakes of magnitude ∼3–8 are used to develop ground‐motion prediction equations; however, typical earthquake records may be sparse in areas of high hazard. In this study, we constrain the distance decay of seismic waves using measurements of the amplitude decay of tectonic tremor, which is plentiful in some regions. Tectonic tremor occurs in the frequency band of interest for ground‐motion prediction (i.e., ∼2–8  Hz) and is located on the subducting plate interface, at the lower boundary of where future large earthquakes are expected. We empirically fit the distance decay of peak ground velocity from tremor to determine the attenuation parameter in four subduction zones: Nankai, Japan; Cascadia, United States–Canada; Jalisco, Mexico; and southern Chile. With the large amount of data available from tremor, we show that in the upper plate, the lower crust is less attenuating than the upper crust. We apply the same analysis to intraslab events in Nankai and show the possibility that waves traveling from deeper intraslab events experience more attenuation than those from the shallower tremor due to ray paths that pass through the subducting and highly attenuating oceanic crust. This suggests that high pore‐fluid pressure is present in the tremor source region. These differences imply that the attenuation parameter determined from intraslab earthquakes may underestimate ground motion for future large earthquakes on the plate interface.

  15. New Conceptual Model for Soil Treatment Units: Formation of Multiple Hydraulic Zones during Unsaturated Wastewater Infiltration.

    PubMed

    Geza, Mengistu; Lowe, Kathryn S; Huntzinger, Deborah N; McCray, John E

    2013-07-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems are commonly used in the United States to reclaim domestic wastewater. A distinct biomat forms at the infiltrative surface, causing resistance to flow and decreasing soil moisture below the biomat. To simulate these conditions, previous modeling studies have used a two-layer approach: a thin biomat layer (1-5 cm thick) and the native soil layer below the biomat. However, the effect of wastewater application extends below the biomat layer. We used numerical modeling supported by experimental data to justify a new conceptual model that includes an intermediate zone (IZ) below the biomat. The conceptual model was set up using Hydrus 2D and calibrated against soil moisture and water flux measurements. The estimated hydraulic conductivity value for the IZ was between biomat and the native soil. The IZ has important implications for wastewater treatment. When the IZ was not considered, a loading rate of 5 cm d resulted in an 8.5-cm ponding. With the IZ, the same loading rate resulted in a 9.5-cm ponding. Without the IZ, up to 3.1 cm d of wastewater could be applied without ponding; with the IZ, only up to 2.8 cm d could be applied without ponding. The IZ also plays a significant role in soil moisture distribution. Without the IZ, near-saturation conditions were observed only within the biomat, whereas near-saturation conditions extended below the biomat with the IZ. Accurate prediction of ponding is important to prevent surfacing of wastewater. The degree of water and air saturation influences pollutant treatment efficiency through residence time, volatility, and biochemical reactions.

  16. Nicotinic Receptor Transduction Zone: Invariant Arginine Couples to Multiple Electron-Rich Residues

    PubMed Central

    Mukhtasimova, Nuriya; Sine, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Gating of the muscle-type acetylcholine receptor (AChR) channel depends on communication between the ACh-binding site and the remote ion channel. A key region for this communication is located within the structural transition zone between the ligand-binding and pore domains. Here, stemming from β-strand 10 of the binding domain, the invariant αArg209 lodges within the hydrophobic interior of the subunit and is essential for rapid and efficient channel gating. Previous charge-reversal experiments showed that the contribution of αArg209 to channel gating depends strongly on αGlu45, also within this region. Here we determine whether the contribution of αArg209 to channel gating depends on additional anionic or electron-rich residues in this region. Also, to reconcile diverging findings in the literature, we compare the dependence of αArg209 on αGlu45 in AChRs from different species, and compare the full agonist ACh with the weak agonist choline. Our findings reveal that the contribution of αArg209 to channel gating depends on additional nearby electron-rich residues, consistent with both electrostatic and steric contributions. Furthermore, αArg209 and αGlu45 show a strong interdependence in both human and mouse AChRs, whereas the functional consequences of the mutation αE45R depend on the agonist. The emerging picture shows a multifaceted network of interdependent residues that are required for communication between the ligand-binding and pore domains. PMID:23442857

  17. Nicotinic receptor transduction zone: invariant arginine couples to multiple electron-rich residues.

    PubMed

    Mukhtasimova, Nuriya; Sine, Steven M

    2013-01-22

    Gating of the muscle-type acetylcholine receptor (AChR) channel depends on communication between the ACh-binding site and the remote ion channel. A key region for this communication is located within the structural transition zone between the ligand-binding and pore domains. Here, stemming from β-strand 10 of the binding domain, the invariant αArg209 lodges within the hydrophobic interior of the subunit and is essential for rapid and efficient channel gating. Previous charge-reversal experiments showed that the contribution of αArg209 to channel gating depends strongly on αGlu45, also within this region. Here we determine whether the contribution of αArg209 to channel gating depends on additional anionic or electron-rich residues in this region. Also, to reconcile diverging findings in the literature, we compare the dependence of αArg209 on αGlu45 in AChRs from different species, and compare the full agonist ACh with the weak agonist choline. Our findings reveal that the contribution of αArg209 to channel gating depends on additional nearby electron-rich residues, consistent with both electrostatic and steric contributions. Furthermore, αArg209 and αGlu45 show a strong interdependence in both human and mouse AChRs, whereas the functional consequences of the mutation αE45R depend on the agonist. The emerging picture shows a multifaceted network of interdependent residues that are required for communication between the ligand-binding and pore domains. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural evolution of fault zones in sandstone by multiple deformation mechanisms: Moab fault, southeast Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davatzes, N.C.; Eichhubl, P.; Aydin, A.

    2005-01-01

    Faults in sandstone are frequently composed of two classes of structures: (1) deformation bands and (2) joints and sheared joints. Whereas the former structures are associated with cataclastic deformation, the latter ones represent brittle fracturing, fragmentation, and brecciation. We investigated the distribution of these structures, their formation, and the underlying mechanical controls for their occurrence along the Moab normal fault in southeastern Utah through the use of structural mapping and numerical elastic boundary element modeling. We found that deformation bands occur everywhere along the fault, but with increased density in contractional relays. Joints and sheared joints only occur at intersections and extensional relays. In all locations , joints consistently overprint deformation bands. Localization of joints and sheared joints in extensional relays suggests that their distribution is controlled by local variations in stress state that are due to mechanical interaction between the fault segments. This interpretation is consistent with elastic boundary element models that predict a local reduction in mean stress and least compressive principal stress at intersections and extensional relays. The transition from deformation band to joint formation along these sections of the fault system likely resulted from the combined effects of changes in remote tectonic loading, burial depth, fluid pressure, and rock properties. In the case of the Moab fault, we conclude that the structural heterogeneity in the fault zone is systematically related to the geometric evolution of the fault, the local state of stress associated with fault slip , and the remote loading history. Because the type and distribution of structures affect fault permeability and strength, our results predict systematic variations in these parameters with fault evolution. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  19. Microstructure of the multiple-filamentation zone formed by femtosecond laser radiation in a solid dielectric

    SciTech Connect

    Geints, Yu E; Zemlyanov, A A; Kabanov, A M; Petrov, A V; Golik, S S

    2016-02-28

    The regularities of multiple filamentation of gigawatt femtosecond laser pulses in a solid dielectric (optical glass) have been considered. The fine spatial structure of the plasma region that is formed under glass photoionisation and accompanies the formation of light filaments is analysed experimentally and by means of numerical simulation. The dependence of the number, position, and extension of individual 'generations' of plasma channels on the laser pulse energy has been investigated for the first time. It is found that the distribution of the number of plasma channels over the length of a dielectric sample has a maximum, the position of which correlates well with the position of the nonlinear focus of the light beam as a whole; at the same time, the average channel length decreases with increasing pulse power, whereas the number of successive channel 'generations', on the contrary, increases. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  20. Modeling carbon turnover in five terrestrial ecosystems in the boreal zone using multiple criteria of acceptance.

    PubMed

    Karlberg, Louise; Gustafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik

    2006-12-01

    Estimates of carbon fluxes and turnover in ecosystems are key elements in the understanding of climate change and in predicting the accumulation of trace elements in the biosphere. In this paper we present estimates of carbon fluxes and turnover times for five terrestrial ecosystems using a modeling approach. Multiple criteria of acceptance were used to parameterize the model, thus incorporating large amounts of multi-faceted empirical data in the simulations in a standardized manner. Mean turnover times of carbon were found to be rather similar between systems with a few exceptions, even though the size of both the pools and the fluxes varied substantially. Depending on the route of the carbon through the ecosystem, turnover times varied from less than one year to more than one hundred, which may be of importance when considering trace element transport and retention. The parameterization method was useful both in the estimation of unknown parameters, and to identify variability in carbon turnover in the selected ecosystems.

  1. Influence of temperature on the mechanism of carrier injection in light-emitting diodes based on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Prudaev, I. A. Golygin, I. Yu.; Shirapov, S. B.; Romanov, I. S.; Khludkov, S. S.; Tolbanov, O. P.

    2013-10-15

    The experimental current-voltage characteristics and dependences of the external quantum yield on the current density of light-emitting diodes based on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells for the wide temperature range T = 10-400 K are presented. It is shown that, at low-temperatures T < 100 K, the injection of holes into the quantum wells occurs from localized acceptor states. The low-temperature injection of electrons into p-GaN occurs due to quasi-ballistic transport in the region of multiple quantum wells. An increase in temperature leads to an increase in the current which is governed by thermally activated hole and electron injection from the allowed bands of GaN.

  2. Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Mehnke, Frank Kuhn, Christian; Guttmann, Martin; Reich, Christoph; Kolbe, Tim; Rass, Jens; Wernicke, Tim; Kueller, Viola; Knauer, Arne; Lapeyrade, Mickael; Einfeldt, Sven; Weyers, Markus; Kneissl, Michael

    2014-08-04

    The design and Mg-doping profile of AlN/Al{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}N electron blocking heterostructures (EBH) for AlGaN multiple quantum well (MQW) light emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting below 250 nm was investigated. By inserting an AlN electron blocking layer (EBL) into the EBH, we were able to increase the quantum well emission power and significantly reduce long wavelength parasitic luminescence. Furthermore, electron leakage was suppressed by optimizing the thickness of the AlN EBL while still maintaining sufficient hole injection. Ultraviolet (UV)-C LEDs with very low parasitic luminescence (7% of total emission power) and external quantum efficiencies of 0.19% at 246 nm have been realized. This concept was applied to AlGaN MQW LEDs emitting between 235 nm and 263 nm with external quantum efficiencies ranging from 0.002% to 0.93%. After processing, we were able to demonstrate an UV-C LED emitting at 234 nm with 14.5 μW integrated optical output power and an external quantum efficiency of 0.012% at 18.2 A/cm{sup 2}.

  3. Steady, modest slip over multiple earthquake cycles on the Owens Valley and Little Lake fault zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amos, C. B.; Haddon, E. K.; Burgmann, R.; Zielke, O.; Jayko, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    A comprehensive picture of current plate-boundary deformation requires integration of short-term geodetic records with longer-term geologic strain. Comparing rates of deformation across these time intervals highlights potential time-dependencies in both geodetic and geologic records and yields critical insight into the earthquake deformation process. The southern Walker Lane Belt in eastern California represents one location where short-term strain recorded by geodesy apparently outpaces longer-term geologic fault slip measured from displaced rocks and landforms. This discrepancy persists both for individual structures and across the width of the deforming zone, where ~1 cm/yr of current dextral shear exceeds Quaternary slip rates summed across individual faults. The Owens Valley and Little Lake fault systems form the western boundary of the southern Walker Lane and host a range of published slip rate estimates from ~1 - 7 mm/yr over varying time intervals based on both geodetic and geologic measurements. New analysis of offset geomorphic piercing lines from airborne lidar and field measurements along the Owens Valley fault provides a snapshot of deformation during individual earthquakes and over many seismic cycles. Viewed in context of previously reported ages from pluvial and other landforms in Owens Valley, these offsets suggest slip rates of ~0.6 - 1.6 mm/yr over the past 103 - 105 years. Such rates agree with similar estimates immediately to the south on the Little Lake fault, where lidar measurements indicate dextral slip averaging ~0.6 - 1.3 mm/yr over comparable time intervals. Taken together, these results suggest steady, modest slip in the absence of significant variations over the Mid-to-Late Quaternary for a ~200 km span of the southwestern Walker Lane. Our findings argue against the presence of long-range fault interactions and slip-rate variations for this portion of the larger, regional fault network. This result also suggests that faster slip

  4. Mechanism of hole injection enhancement in light-emitting diodes by inserting multiple hole-reservoir layers in electron blocking layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yukun; Yun, Feng; Wang, Shuai; Feng, Lungang; Su, Xilin; Li, Yufeng; Guo, Maofeng; Ding, Wen; Zhang, Ye

    2016-03-01

    In this study, gallium nitride (GaN) based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with single and multiple hole-reservoir layers (HRLs) inserted in the electron-blocking layer (EBL) have been investigated numerically and experimentally. According to simulation results, a better electron confinement and a higher hole injection level can be achieved by the multiple HRLs inserted in the EBL region. To further reveal the underlying mechanism of hole injection enhancement experimentally, the active regions were intentionally designed to emit photons with three different wavelengths of 440 nm, 460 nm, and 480 nm, respectively. Based on the experimental results of photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved PL (TRPL) measurements conducted at 298 K, the remarkable enhancement (148%) of PL intensities and significant increase in the decay times of the quantum wells close to p-GaN can be obtained. Therefore, the mechanism is proposed that carriers are able to reserve in the EBL region with multiple HRLs for a much longer time. Meanwhile, carriers could diffuse into the active region by tunnelling and/or thermo-electronic effect and then recombine efficiently, leading to the better carrier reservoir effect and higher hole injection in LEDs. As a result, by inserting multiple HRLs in the EBL region instead of single HRL, the experimental external quantum efficiency is enhanced by 19.8%, while the serious droop ratio is markedly suppressed from 37.0% to 27.6% at the high current injection of 100 A/cm2.

  5. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion versus multiple daily injections in individuals with type 1 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Benkhadra, Khalid; Alahdab, Fares; Tamhane, Shrikant U; McCoy, Rozalina G; Prokop, Larry J; Murad, Mohammad Hassan

    2017-01-01

    The relative efficacy of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and multiple daily injections in individuals with type 1 diabetes is unclear. We sought to synthesize the existing evidence about the effect of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion on glycosylated hemoglobin, hypoglycemic events, and time spent in hypoglycemia compared to multiple daily injections. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus from January 2008 through November 2015 for randomized controlled trials that enrolled children or adults with type 1 diabetes. Trials identified in a previous systematic review and published prior to 2008 were also included. We included 25 randomized controlled trials at moderate risk of bias. Meta-analysis showed a significant reduction in glycosylated hemoglobin in patients treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion compared to multiple daily injections (mean difference 0.37; 95 % confidence interval, 0.24-0.51). This effect was demonstrated in both children and adults. There was no significant difference in minor or severe hypoglycemic events. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion was associated with lower incidence of nocturnal hypoglycemia. There was no significant difference in the time spent in hypoglycemia. In children and adults with type 1 diabetes and compared to multiple daily injections, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion is associated with a modest reduction in glycosylated hemoglobin. There was no difference in severe or minor hypoglycemia, but likely a lower incidence of nocturnal hypoglycemia with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion.

  6. Cell-matrix adhesion characterization using multiple shear stress zones in single stepwise microchannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Ji; Doh, Il; Bae, Gab-Yong; Cha, Hyuk-Jin; Cho, Young-Ho

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a cell chip capable to characterize cell-matrix adhesion by monitoring cell detachment rate. The proposed cell chip can supply multiple levels of shear stress in single stepwise microchannel. As epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), one of hallmarks of cancer metastasis is closely associated to the interaction with extracelluar matrix (ECM), we took advantage of two lung cancer cell models with different adhesion properties to ECM depending their epithelial or mesenchymal properties, including the pair of lung cancer cells with (A549sh) or without E-cadherin expression (A549sh-Ecad), which would be optimal model to examine the alteration of adhesion properties after EMT induction. The cell-matrix adhesion resisting to shear stress appeared to be remarkably differed between lung cancer cells. The detachment rate of epithelial-like H358 and mesenchymal-like H460 cells was 53%-80% and 25%-66% in the shear stress range of 34-60 dyn/cm2, respectively. A549sh-Ecad cells exhibits lower detachment rate (5%-9%) compared to A549sh cells (14%-40%). By direct comparison of adhesion between A549sh and A549sh-Ecad, we demonstrated that A549shE-cad to mimic EMT were more favorable to the ECM attachment under the various levels of shear stress. The present method can be applied to quantitative analysis of tumor cell-ECM adhesion.

  7. Minimizing systematic errors from atmospheric multiple scattering and satellite viewing geometry in coastal zone color scanner level IIA imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, D. L.; Perry, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    Water-leaving radiances and phytoplankton pigment concentrations are calculated from coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) radiance measurements by removing atmospheric Rayleigh and aerosol radiances from the total radiance signal measured at the satellite. The single greatest source of error in CZCS atmospheric correction algorithms in the assumption that these Rayleigh and aerosol radiances are separable. Multiple-scattering interactions between Rayleigh and aerosol components cause systematic errors in calculated aerosol radiances, and the magnitude of these errors is dependent on aerosol type and optical depth and on satellite viewing geometry. A technique was developed which extends the results of previous radiative transfer modeling by Gordon and Castano to predict the magnitude of these systematic errors for simulated CZCS orbital passes in which the ocean is viewed through a modeled, physically realistic atmosphere. The simulated image mathematically duplicates the exact satellite, Sun, and pixel locations of an actual CZCS image. Errors in the aerosol radiance at 443 nm are calculated for a range of aerosol optical depths. When pixels in the simulated image exceed an error threshhold, the corresponding pixels in the actual CZCS image are flagged and excluded from further analysis or from use in image compositing or compilation of pigment concentration databases. Studies based on time series analyses or compositing of CZCS imagery which do not address Rayleigh-aerosol multiple scattering should be interpreted cautiously, since the fundamental assumption used in their atmospheric correction algorithm is flawed.

  8. Active seismic monitoring of changes of the reflection response of a crystalline shear zone due to fluid injection in the crust at the Continental Deep Drilling Site, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beilecke, T.; Kurt, B.; Stefan, B.

    2005-12-01

    In theory and in the laboratory variations of the hydraulic pressure can be detected with seismic methods: A lowering of the hydraulic pressure leads to the closure of micro-cracks within the rock (increase of the differential or effective pressure). Subsequently, the seismic velocities increase. An increase of the hydraulic pressure leads to reverse seismic effects. Consequently, seismic impedance contrasts and associated reflection amplitudes vary in the case of a propagating fluid pressure front in a rock matrix with inhomogeneous permeability - as is the case at shear zones. The largest amplitude changes can be expected with vertical ray inclination on the impedance contrast. Generally, the expected effects are small however (Kaselow, 2004). The practical utilization of active seismics for the detection of pressure changes at large scale in hard rock is currently being studied at the Continental Deep Drilling Site (KTB). The injection of water (200 l/min) in a depth of about 4000 m into the so-called SE2 shear zone in the KTB pilot hole was monitored with active seismics between May 2004 and April 2005. The core of the experiment layout is a fixed 5-arm geophone array consisting of 24 3-component geophones, buried at about 70 cm depth. The source signal is a vertical vibrator sweep of 30 s length with the spectrum 30-120 Hz. The signal is sent into the ground 32 times during each cycle, detected with the array and recorded separately for each geophone channel, without prior correlation with the source signal. This allows maximum post-processing with seismic processing and analysis tools and especially permits the use of array properties to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. Critical parameters of the experiment are the repeatability of the source signal as well as the stability of the receiver properties. Another pivot is the hydraulic pressure and its distribution built up within the rock matrix. Estimations based on model calculations show that a change of

  9. Preclinical antitumor efficacy of the polyamine analogue N1, N11-diethylnorspermine administered by multiple injection or continuous infusion.

    PubMed

    Bernacki, R J; Oberman, E J; Seweryniak, K E; Atwood, A; Bergeron, R J; Porter, C W

    1995-08-01

    DENSPM. The rapidly growing human LOX melanoma xenograft, however, demonstrated poor induction of N1-acetyltransferase activity and the poorest response to DENSPM treatment. In nude athymic mice with MALME-3M melanoma xenografts, constant infusion delivery of DENSPM resulted in prolonged inhibition of tumor growth and long-term tumor regressions comparable to those produced by multiple i.p. injections. On the basis of the unique structure of DENSPM, novel target and mode of intervention, mild host toxicity, and activity against different human solid tumor xenografts, DENSPM is currently being developed as an antitumor agent in humans.

  10. [Pharmacokinetics and safety of aripiprazole long-acting injection, following multiple deltoid administrations in schizophrenia patients in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ishigooka, Jun; Noda, Takamasa; Nishiyama, Kosuke; Tamaru, Noriko; Shima, Tomoko; Yamasaki, Yumiko; Tadori, Yoshihiro

    2016-06-01

    Aripiprazole once-monthly (AOM) was previously approved for treatment of schizophrenia as monthly injections in the gluteal muscle. The deltoid muscle provides a more accessible injection site. The present study was conducted in Japanese schizophrenia patients as a 24-week, open-label trial that assessed the pharmacokinetics and safety of 5 sequential doses of AOM 400 mg (AOM 400) once every 4 weeks administered in the deltoid muscle. Patients treated with an oral atypical antipsychotic (other than aripiprazole) continued to receive their pre-study medication up to 14 days after the first AOM 400 injection. The completion rate was 76.5% (n = 13/17). Mean aripiprazole plasma C(min) almost reached steady-state by the fourth AOM 400 injection. After the fifth AOM 400 injection, mean aripiprazole AUC(28d), C(max) and C(min) were 165 μg x h/ml, 331 ng/ml and 201 ng/ml, respectively, which were similar to previously published pharmacokinetic parameters after the fifth gluteal injection of AOM 400. The most common treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) was injection site pain (35.3%). Most TEAEs were classified as mild in intensity. In conclusion, the deltoid injection of AOM can be considered an alternative route of administration, as deltoid and gluteal injections are interchangeable in terms of aripiprazole plasma concentrations, with no additional safety issues.

  11. Long-term effect on quality of life of repeat detrusor injections of botulinum neurotoxin-A for detrusor overactivity in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shahid; Game, Xavier; Kalsi, Vinay; Gonzales, Gwen; Panicker, Jalesh; Elneil, Sohier; Apostolidis, Apostolos; Hamid, Rizwan; Dasgupta, Prokar; Kessler, Thomas M; Fowler, Clare J

    2011-04-01

    We studied the effect of repeat detrusor botulinum neurotoxin type A injections on urinary symptoms, health and quality of life in patients with refractory neurogenic detrusor overactivity secondary to multiple sclerosis. This was a prospective, open label, single center study in 137 patients with multiple sclerosis treated with detrusor injections of botulinum neurotoxin type A with observations made from 2002 to 2009. A minimally invasive outpatient technique was used for injection. Patients were asked to contact the department if and when they required repeat treatment. Recurrent detrusor overactivity was then identified on urodynamics. The primary outcomes measured were the change in symptoms and quality of life, as assessed by the Urogenital Distress Inventory, Incontinence Impact Questionnaire and EuroQol-5 Dimensions questionnaires (www.ion.ucl.ac.uk/departments/repair/themes/uroneurology) before and 4 weeks after botulinum treatment. Continence status, the need for clean intermittent self-catheterization before and after injections, and interinjection intervals were also analyzed. Mean Urogenital Distress Inventory and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire 7 scores showed considerable improvement 4 weeks after each treatment even when repeated 6 times. Almost all patients relied on clean intermittent self-catheterization after treatment. Before the first treatment 83% of patients were incontinent but 4 weeks after the first treatment 76% (104 of 137) became completely dry. This efficacy was sustained with repeat injections. The median interval between re-treatments remained constant at 12 to 13 months. Repeated detrusor botulinum neurotoxin type A injections for refractory neurogenic detrusor overactivity in patients with multiple sclerosis have a consistent effect on bladder control, resulting in sustained improvement in quality of life. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  12. A high-speed liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry platform using multiplexed multiple-injection chromatography controlled by single software and its application in discovery ADME screening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Vath, Marianne; Ferraro, Cheryl; Li, Ying; Murphy, Keeley; Zvyaga, Tatyana; Weller, Harold; Shou, Wilson

    2013-04-15

    Multiplexed liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with multiple-injection-chromatogram acquisition has emerged as the method of choice for high-speed discovery bioanalysis, because it significantly reduces injection-to-injection cycle time while maintaining the chromatography quality. Historically, systems utilizing this approach had been custom built, and therefore relied on custom software tools to communicate with multiple vendor software for system control, which lacked transferability, flexibility and robustness. In this study, we refined a multiplexed bioanalytical system previously reported, by implementing open-deck auto-sampler manifold and multiple-injection-chromatogram acquisition, all on a commercially available system with single software control. As a result of these improvements, the developed LC/tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method on the system was nearly three times faster than the previous method, while demonstrating comparable analytical accuracy, precision and robustness. This system has been evaluated for in vitro ADME screening assays including metabolic stability, CYP inhibition and Caco-2. The biological data generated on the developed system displayed good correlation with those from the previous LC/MS/MS approaches. The developed platform demonstrated applicability to the in vitro screening assays evaluated and has been successfully implemented to support the high-throughput metabolic stability assay, with a significantly improved bioanalytical throughput, capacity and data turnaround. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. On-Line Organic Solvent Field Enhanced Sample Injection in Capillary Zone Electrophoresis for Analysis of Quetiapine in Beagle Dog Plasma.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yuqing; Wen, Jun; Zhou, Tingting; Fan, Guorong

    2016-01-21

    A rapid and sensitive capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method with field enhanced sample injection (FESI) was developed and validated for the determination of quetiapine fumarate in beagle dog plasma, with a sample pretreatment by LLE in 96-well deep format plate. The optimum separation was carried out in an uncoated 31.2 cm × 75 μm fused-silica capillary with an applied voltage of 13 kV. The electrophoretic analysis was performed by 50 mM phosphate at pH 2.5. The detection wavelength was 210 nm. Under these optimized conditions, FESI with acetonitrile enhanced the sensitivity of quetiapine about 40-50 folds in total. The method was suitably validated with respect to stability, specificity, linearity, lower limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision and extraction recovery. Using mirtazapine as an internal standard (100 ng/mL), the response of quetiapine was linear over the range of 1-1000 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification was 1 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions for the assay were within 4.8% and 12.7%, respectively. The method represents the first application of FESI-CZE to the analysis of quetiapine fumarate in beagle dog plasma after oral administration.

  14. Patient-Identified Factors That Influence Spasticity in People with Stroke and Multiple Sclerosis Receiving Botulinum Toxin Injection Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Janice; Rancourt, Amanda; Di Poce, Stephanie; Levine, Amy; Hoang, Jessica; Ismail, Farooq; Boulias, Chris

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe the nature, extent, and impact of spasticity; determine factors that are perceived to influence its severity; and examine the relationship between time since diagnosis and impact of spasticity on daily activities in people with stroke and multiple sclerosis (MS) who are receiving botulinum toxin injection treatments. Methods: After a cross-sectional telephone survey, descriptive statistics and correlations were analyzed separately for the stroke and MS groups. Results: A total of 29 people with stroke and 10 with MS were surveyed. Both groups perceived increased spasticity with outdoor cold (69% stroke, 60% MS), muscle fatigue (59% stroke, 80% MS), and mental stress (59% stroke, 90% MS). No statistically significant correlations were found between time since diagnosis and perceived impact of spasticity on function in the stroke (r=0.07, p=0.37) or MS (r=0.16, p=0.33) groups. The MS group experienced bilateral and more severe perception of spasticity in the legs than the stroke group and identified more factors as worsening their spasticity (p<0.05). Severity of leg (but not arm) spasticity was significantly correlated with severity of impact of the following factors in the MS group only: lying on the back (r=0.70, p<0.05), outdoor heat (r=0.61, p<0.05), and morning (r=0.59, p<0.05). Conclusion: Intrinsic and extrinsic triggers can influence the perception of spasticity differently depending on individual factors, severity, location (arm vs. leg), and distribution of spasticity (unilateral vs. bilateral). Clinicians can use the findings to better understand, educate, and treat people with stroke and MS. PMID:25931667

  15. Patient-identified factors that influence spasticity in people with stroke and multiple sclerosis receiving botulinum toxin injection treatments.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Janice; Rancourt, Amanda; Di Poce, Stephanie; Levine, Amy; Hoang, Jessica; Ismail, Farooq; Boulias, Chris; Phadke, Chetan P

    2015-01-01

    To describe the nature, extent, and impact of spasticity; determine factors that are perceived to influence its severity; and examine the relationship between time since diagnosis and impact of spasticity on daily activities in people with stroke and multiple sclerosis (MS) who are receiving botulinum toxin injection treatments. After a cross-sectional telephone survey, descriptive statistics and correlations were analyzed separately for the stroke and MS groups. A total of 29 people with stroke and 10 with MS were surveyed. Both groups perceived increased spasticity with outdoor cold (69% stroke, 60% MS), muscle fatigue (59% stroke, 80% MS), and mental stress (59% stroke, 90% MS). No statistically significant correlations were found between time since diagnosis and perceived impact of spasticity on function in the stroke (r=0.07, p=0.37) or MS (r=0.16, p=0.33) groups. The MS group experienced bilateral and more severe perception of spasticity in the legs than the stroke group and identified more factors as worsening their spasticity (p<0.05). Severity of leg (but not arm) spasticity was significantly correlated with severity of impact of the following factors in the MS group only: lying on the back (r=0.70, p<0.05), outdoor heat (r=0.61, p<0.05), and morning (r=0.59, p<0.05). Intrinsic and extrinsic triggers can influence the perception of spasticity differently depending on individual factors, severity, location (arm vs. leg), and distribution of spasticity (unilateral vs. bilateral). Clinicians can use the findings to better understand, educate, and treat people with stroke and MS.

  16. Comparison of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and multiple daily insulin injections in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Honghong; Heng, Xueyuan; Liang, Cuige; Liu, Xiaomeng; Du, Wenhua; Li, Shoujie; Wang, Yueli; Dong, Qingyu; Li, Wenxia; Pan, Zhenyu; Gong, Qian; Gao, Guanqi

    2014-08-01

    To investigate prospectively the insulin dose requirements of Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with either multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy during a 2-week therapeutic intervention. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly assigned to MDI or CSII therapy. The effects of the two treatment methods were determined based on blood glucose parameters, total daily insulin dose and rates of hypoglycaemia. A total of 609 patients were enrolled in the study. Glycaemic goals were achieved after a mean ± SD of 6.90 ± 2.10 and 5.44 ± 2.22 days' treatment in the MDI and CSII groups, respectively. Once stabilized, the mean ± SD total daily insulin doses were 37.12 ± 10.19 IU and 32.58 ± 8.78 IU for the MDI and CSII groups, respectively. Once stabilized, the mean ± SD total basal and bolus doses were 19.46 ± 7.95 IU/day and 17.66 ± 3.53 IU/day for the MDI group, and 22.79 ± 7.55 IU/day and 9.81 ± 2.64 IU/day for the CSII group, respectively. There were significant differences in the total, basal and bolus insulin doses between the two groups. CSII therapy may be considered as an effective method to achieve good glycaemic control in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Insulin pump treatment compared with multiple daily injections for treatment of type 2 diabetes (OpT2mise): a randomised open-label controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Reznik, Yves; Cohen, Ohad; Aronson, Ronnie; Conget, Ignacio; Runzis, Sarah; Castaneda, Javier; Lee, Scott W

    2014-10-04

    Many patients with advanced type 2 diabetes do not meet their glycated haemoglobin targets and randomised controlled studies comparing the efficacy of pump treatment and multiple daily injections for lowering glucose in insulin-treated patients have yielded inconclusive results. We aimed to resolve this uncertainty with a randomised controlled trial (OpT2mise). We did this multicentre, controlled trial at 36 hospitals, tertiary care centres, and referal centres in Canada, Europe, Israel, South Africa, and the USA. Patients with type 2 diabetes who had poor glycaemic control despite multiple daily injections with insulin analogues were enrolled into a 2-month dose-optimisation run-in period. After the run-in period, patients with glycated haemoglobin of 8·0-12·0% (64-108 mmol/mol) were randomly assigned (1:1) by a computer-generated randomisation sequence (block size 2 with probability 0·75 and size 4 with probability 0·25) to pump treatment or to continue with multiple daily injections. Neither patients nor investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was change in mean glycated haemoglobin between baseline and end of the randomised phase for the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01182493. 495 of 590 screened patients entered the run-in phase and 331 were randomised (168 to pump treatment, 163 to multiple daily injections). Mean glycated haemoglobin at baseline was 9% (75 mmol/mol) in both groups. At 6 months, mean glycated haemoglobin had decreased by 1·1% (SD 1·2; 12 mmol/mol, SD 13) in the pump treatment group and 0·4% (SD 1·1; 4 mmol/mol, SD 12) in the multiple daily injection group, resulting in a between-group treatment difference of -0·7% (95% CI -0·9 to -0·4; -8 mmol/mol, 95% CI -10 to -4, p<0·0001). At the end of the study, the mean total daily insulin dose was 97 units (SD 56) with pump treatment versus 122 units (SD 68) for multiple daily injections (p<0·0001

  18. Groundwater Hydrology and Chemistry in and near an Emulsified Vegetable-Oil Injection Zone, Solid Waste Management Unit 17, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, 2004-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conlon, Kevin J.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast investigated the hydrology and groundwater chemistry in the vicinity of an emulsified vegetable-oil injection zone at Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 17, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina. In May 2004, Solutions-IES initiated a Phase-I pilot-scale treatability study at SWMU17 involving the injection of an edible oil emulsion into the aquifer near wells 17PS-01, 17PS-02, and 17PS-03 to treat chlorinated solvents. The Phase-I injection of emulsified vegetable oil resulted in dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE), but the dechlorination activity appeared to stall at cDCE, with little further dechlorination of cDCE to vinyl chloride (VC) or to ethene. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the groundwater hydrology and chemistry in and near the injection zone to gain a better understanding of the apparent remediation stall. It is unlikely that the remediation stall was due to the lack of an appropriate microbial community because groundwater samples showed the presence of Dehalococcoides species (sp.) and suitable enyzmes. The probable causes of the stall were heterogeneous distribution of the injectate and development of low-pH conditions in the injection area. Because groundwater pH values in the injection area were below the range considered optimum for dechlorination activity, a series of tests was done to examine the effect on dechlorination of increasing the pH within well 17PS-02. During and following the in-well pH-adjustment tests, VC concentrations gradually increased in some wells in the injection zone that were not part of the in-well pH-adjustment tests. These data possibly reflect a gradual microbial acclimation to the low-pH conditions produced by the injection. In contrast, a distinct increase in VC concentration was observed in well 17PS-02 following the in-well pH increase. Adjustment

  19. Changes in Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness after Multiple Injections of Novel VEGF Decoy Receptor Conbercept for Various Retinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhihua; Yang, Xiaolu; Jin, Huiyi; Qu, Yuan; Zhang, Yuan; Liu, Kun; Xu, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Conbercept is a recombinant fusion protein with high affinity for all vascular endothelial growth factor isoforms and placental growth factor. The repeated intravitreal injection of conbercept may cause intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuations and long-term suppression of neurotrophic cytokines, which could lead to retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) damage. This retrospective fellow-eye controlled study included 98 eyes of 49 patients. The changes in IOP and RNFL thickness as well as the correlation between RNFL changes and associated factors were evaluated. The IOP value between the baseline and the last follow-up visit in the injection group and the IOP value of the last follow-up visit between the injection and non-injection groups were not significantly different (p = 0.452 and 0.476, respectively). The global average thickness of the RNFL (μm) in the injection group decreased from 108.9 to 106.1; however, the change was not statistically significant (p = 0.118). No significant difference in the average RNFL thickness was observed at the last follow-up visit between the injection and non-injection groups (p = 0.821). The type of disease was the only factor associated with RNFL thickness changes. In conclusion, repeated intravitreal injections with 0.05 mL conbercept revealed an excellent safety profile for RNFL thickness, although short-term IOP changes were observed. PMID:27922068

  20. Beam injection into RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Zhang, W.

    1997-07-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. The authors describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks. They report on the commissioning of the injection system, on beam based measurements of the kickers and the application program to steer the beam.

  1. Detection of Multiple Innervation Zones from Multi-Channel Surface EMG Recordings with Low Signal-to-Noise Ratio Using Graph-Cut Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Farahi, Morteza; Rojas, Monica; Mañanas, Miguel Angel; Farina, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the location of muscle Innervation Zones (IZs) is important in many applications, e.g. for minimizing the quantity of injected botulinum toxin for the treatment of spasticity or for deciding on the type of episiotomy during child delivery. Surface EMG (sEMG) can be noninvasively recorded to assess physiological and morphological characteristics of contracting muscles. However, it is not often possible to record signals of high quality. Moreover, muscles could have multiple IZs, which should all be identified. We designed a fully-automatic algorithm based on the enhanced image Graph-Cut segmentation and morphological image processing methods to identify up to five IZs in 60-ms intervals of very-low to moderate quality sEMG signal detected with multi-channel electrodes (20 bipolar channels with Inter Electrode Distance (IED) of 5 mm). An anisotropic multilayered cylinder model was used to simulate 750 sEMG signals with signal-to-noise ratio ranging from -5 to 15 dB (using Gaussian noise) and in each 60-ms signal frame, 1 to 5 IZs were included. The micro- and macro- averaged performance indices were then reported for the proposed IZ detection algorithm. In the micro-averaging procedure, the number of True Positives, False Positives and False Negatives in each frame were summed up to generate cumulative measures. In the macro-averaging, on the other hand, precision and recall were calculated for each frame and their averages are used to determine F1-score. Overall, the micro (macro)-averaged sensitivity, precision and F1-score of the algorithm for IZ channel identification were 82.7% (87.5%), 92.9% (94.0%) and 87.5% (90.6%), respectively. For the correctly identified IZ locations, the average bias error was of 0.02±0.10 IED ratio. Also, the average absolute conduction velocity estimation error was 0.41±0.40 m/s for such frames. The sensitivity analysis including increasing IED and reducing interpolation coefficient for time samples was performed

  2. Thinking science with thinking machines: The multiple realities of basic and applied knowledge in a research border zone.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Steve G

    2015-04-01

    Some scholars dismiss the distinction between basic and applied science as passé, yet substantive assumptions about this boundary remain obdurate in research policy, popular rhetoric, the sociology and philosophy of science, and, indeed, at the level of bench practice. In this article, I draw on a multiple ontology framework to provide a more stable affirmation of a constructivist position in science and technology studies that cannot be reduced to a matter of competing perspectives on a single reality. The analysis is grounded in ethnographic research in the border zone of Artificial Intelligence science. I translate in-situ moments in which members of neighboring but differently situated labs engage in three distinct repertoires that render the reality of basic and applied science: partitioning, flipping, and collapsing. While the essences of scientific objects are nowhere to be found, the boundary between basic and applied is neither illusion nor mere propaganda. Instead, distinctions among scientific knowledge are made real as a matter of course.

  3. Inflammation-induced subventricular zone dysfunction leads to olfactory deficits in a targeted mouse model of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tepavčević, Vanja; Lazarini, Françoise; Alfaro-Cervello, Clara; Kerninon, Christophe; Yoshikawa, Kazuaki; Garcia-Verdugo, José Manuel; Lledo, Pierre-Marie; Nait-Oumesmar, Brahim; Baron-Van Evercooren, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) persist in defined brain niches, including the subventricular zone (SVZ), throughout adulthood and generate new neurons destined to support specific neurological functions. Whether brain diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) are associated with changes in adult NSCs and whether this might contribute to the development and/or persistence of neurological deficits remains poorly investigated. We examined SVZ function in mice in which we targeted an MS-like pathology to the forebrain. In these mice, which we refer to herein as targeted EAE (tEAE) mice, there was a reduction in the number of neuroblasts compared with control mice. Altered expression of the transcription factors Olig2 and Dlx2 in the tEAE SVZ niche was associated with amplification of pro-oligodendrogenic transit-amplifying cells and decreased neuroblast generation, which resulted in persistent reduction in olfactory bulb neurogenesis. Altered SVZ neurogenesis led to impaired long-term olfactory memory, mimicking the olfactory dysfunction observed in MS patients. Importantly, we also found that neurogenesis was reduced in the SVZ of MS patients compared with controls. Thus, our findings suggest that neuroinflammation induces functional alteration of adult NSCs that may contribute to olfactory dysfunction in MS patients. PMID:22056384

  4. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchip-based immunoassay with multiple reaction zones: Toward on-chip multiplex detection platform

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Guocheng; Wang, Jun; Li, Zhaohui; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Wang, Wanjun; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-09-20

    In this work, a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchip-based immuno-sensing platform with integrated pneumatic micro valves is described. The microchip was fabricated with multiple layer soft lithography technology. By controlling the activation status of corresponding valves, reagent flows in the microchannel network can be well manipulated so that immuno-reactions only take place at designated reaction zones (DRZs). Four DRZs are included in the prototype microchip. Since these DRZs are all isolated from each other by micro valves, cross contamination is prevented. Using the inner surface of the all-PDMS microchannel as immunoassay substrate, on-chip sandwich format solid phase immunoassay was performed to demonstrate the feasibility of this immuno-sensing platform. Mouse IgG and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) were used as the model analyte and the signal reporter respectively. Only 10 ul sample is needed for the assay and low detection limit of 5 ng/ml (≈33 pM) was achieved though low-cost polyclonal antibodies were used in our experiment for feasibility study only. The encouraging results from mouse IgG immunoassay proved the feasibility of our microchip design. With slight modification of the assay protocol, the same chip design can be used for multi-target detection and can provide a simple, cost-effective and integrated microchip solution for multiplex immunoassay applications.

  5. Capillary zone electrophoresis-multiple reaction monitoring from 100 pg of RAW 264.7 cell lysate digest

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liangliang; Li, Yihan; Champion, Matthew M.; Zhu, Guijie; Wojcik, Roza; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2013-01-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis-multiple/single reaction monitoring (CZE-MRM/SRM), which employed an electrokinetically driven sheath-flow electrospray interface, was used for the rapid and highly sensitive detection of protein analytes in complex tryptic digests. MRM channels were developed against a commercial exponential mixture of bovine proteins. Five proteins spanning four orders of magnitude concentration range were confidently detected from only 2.5 ng of the digest mixture; the mass detection limits (S/N=3) of two detected proteins, alpha-casein and glutamate dehydrogenasewere about 600 zmole and 30 amole, respectively. This technique was then applied to a RAW 264.7 cell lysate digest. Three proteins were confidently and reproducibly detected from 100 pg of this digest. The sample amount corresponds to the approximate protein content from a single cell, which suggests that CZE-MRM may be a useful analytical tool in chemical cytometry. In addition to providing highly sensitive detection of proteins in complex mixtures, this system is highly rapid; migration time of the protein digests was less than 10 min. PMID:23591184

  6. Architectural Characteristics and Distribution of Hydromechanical Properties within a Small Strike-Slip Fault Zone in a Carbonates Reservoir: Impact on fault stability, induced seismicity, and leakage during CO2 injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanne, P.; Cappa, F.; Guglielmi, Y.; Rinaldi, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    Within the LSBB National Underground Research Laboratory (France), we performed an in situ multidisciplinary and multi-scale analysis of a small fault zone intersecting a layered carbonates reservoir. The study area is located in a gallery at 250 m depth in the unsaturated and unaltered zone of the reservoir. In order to study the distribution of the fault zone properties, we took advantage of the gallery wall and of three vertical 20 m long boreholes located near the fault core, in the damage zone, and in the host rock. Geological, petrophysical (porosity observations and measurements), geotechnical (Q-value) and geophysical measurements (acoustic velocities, uniaxial compressive strength, electrical resistivity, borehole logging), and injection tests were conducted at various scales. We show that horizontal and vertical variations in hydromechanical properties within the damage zone are related to the initial petrophysical properties of the host rock. In the initial low-porosity and fractured layers, the deformations are accommodated by fractures and micro-cracks extending significantly from the fault core. In these layers, the Young modulus of the rock mass (Em) is low and the permeability of the rock mass (Km) is high. In the initial porous and low fractured layers, deformations are accommodated by micro-mechanical processes resulting in a decrease in micro-porosity near the fault core. There is a rapid attenuation of the damage zone. In these layers, Em is high and Km is low. The seismic signature of this kind of fault is complex and the seismic visibility low making them hard to detect. Finally, to assess fault zone stability in case of CO2 injection and the risk of CO2 leakage through the fault itself, we performed some geomechanical numerical simulations and some field hydromechanical tests. We show that the presence of hydromechanical heterogeneity favors the fluid accumulation but strengthen the fault zone and impede fluid migration upward along the fault.

  7. Clinical and pathological effects of intrathecal injection of mesenchymal stem cell-derived neural progenitors in an experimental model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Harris, Violaine K; Yan, Qi Jiang; Vyshkina, Tamara; Sahabi, Sadia; Liu, Xinhe; Sadiq, Saud A

    2012-02-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with irreversible disability in a significant proportion of patients. At present, there is no treatment to halt or reverse the progression of established disability. In an effort to develop cell therapy-based strategies for progressive MS, we investigated the pre-clinical efficacy of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived neural progenitors (MSC-NPs) as an autologous source of stem cells. MSC-NPs consist of a subpopulation of bone marrow MSCs with neural progenitor and immunoregulatory properties, and a reduced capacity for mesodermal differentiation, suggesting that this cell population may be appropriate for clinical application in the CNS. We investigated whether MSC-NPs could promote repair and recovery after intrathecal injection into mice with EAE. Multiple injections of MSC-NPs starting at the onset of the chronic phase of disease improved neurological function compared to controls, whereas a single injection had no effect on disease scores. Intrathecal injection of MSC-NPs correlated with reduced immune cell infiltration, reduced area of demyelination, and increased number of endogenous nestin-positive progenitor cells in EAE mice. These observations suggest that MSC-NPs may influence the rate of repair through effects on endogenous progenitors in the spinal cord. This study supports the use of autologous MSC-NPs in MS patients as a means of promoting CNS repair.

  8. V-Go Insulin Delivery System Versus Multiple Daily Insulin Injections for Patients With Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Winter, Abigail; Lintner, Michaela; Knezevich, Emily

    2015-04-21

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus affects over 29.1 million Americans, diagnosed and undiagnosed. Achieving and maintaining glycemic control for these patients is of extreme importance when working to prevent complications and improve quality of life for patients. The V-Go is a newly developed insulin delivery system. The push of a button inserts a needle into the patient once daily and remains attached for 24 hours. The V-Go is designed to release a set basal rate throughout the day, while allowing patients to provide up to 36 units of on-demand bolus insulin with the manual click of 2 buttons. It is a spring-loaded device filled daily with rapid-acting insulin that runs without the use of batteries or computer software. The main objective of this prospective active comparator study was to observe the A1C lowering effects of multiple daily insulin injections (MDII) versus the use of the V-Go insulin delivery system for patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus over a 3-month period. In addition, the effect on insulin requirement for these patients was assessed with secondary comparisons of weight, blood pressure, prevalence of hypoglycemic events, and quality of life before and after 3 months of intensified insulin therapy with regular monitoring by a clinical pharmacist at an internal medicine clinic. The average A1C lowering experienced by the 3 patients in the V-Go group was 1.5%, while the average A1C change in the 3 patients in the MDII group was an increase of 0.2%. All patients in the V-Go group experienced a decrease in insulin total daily dose (TDD), with an average decrease of 26.3 units. All patients in the MDII group experienced an increase in insulin TDD with an average of 15 units daily to achieve therapeutic goals individualized for each patient. All patients who underwent intensification of insulin therapy experienced an increase in subjective quality of life (QOL) as determined using the Diabetes-39 (D-39) questionnaire, though QOL results lacked

  9. Mechanism of hole injection enhancement in light-emitting diodes by inserting multiple hole-reservoir layers in electron blocking layer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yukun; Wang, Shuai; Feng, Lungang; Li, Yufeng; Ding, Wen; Yun, Feng; Su, Xilin; Guo, Maofeng; Zhang, Ye

    2016-03-14

    In this study, gallium nitride (GaN) based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with single and multiple hole-reservoir layers (HRLs) inserted in the electron-blocking layer (EBL) have been investigated numerically and experimentally. According to simulation results, a better electron confinement and a higher hole injection level can be achieved by the multiple HRLs inserted in the EBL region. To further reveal the underlying mechanism of hole injection enhancement experimentally, the active regions were intentionally designed to emit photons with three different wavelengths of 440 nm, 460 nm, and 480 nm, respectively. Based on the experimental results of photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved PL (TRPL) measurements conducted at 298 K, the remarkable enhancement (148%) of PL intensities and significant increase in the decay times of the quantum wells close to p-GaN can be obtained. Therefore, the mechanism is proposed that carriers are able to reserve in the EBL region with multiple HRLs for a much longer time. Meanwhile, carriers could diffuse into the active region by tunnelling and/or thermo-electronic effect and then recombine efficiently, leading to the better carrier reservoir effect and higher hole injection in LEDs. As a result, by inserting multiple HRLs in the EBL region instead of single HRL, the experimental external quantum efficiency is enhanced by 19.8%, while the serious droop ratio is markedly suppressed from 37.0% to 27.6% at the high current injection of 100 A/cm{sup 2}.

  10. Performance of multiple mini-tube heat exchangers as an internal heat exchanger of a vapor-injection cycle heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jin Yong; Jeong, Ji Hwan

    2016-04-01

    A multiple mini-tube (MMT) heat exchanger was considered as an internal heat exchanger of vapor-injection cycle heat pump. Heat transfer and pressure drop in multiple mini-tube heat exchangers were numerically and experimentally investigated. Results show that the best performance of the MMT heat exchanger can be obtained when the intermediate-pressure two-phase refrigerant is supplied to the shell-side and this refrigerant reaches a saturated vapor state at the exit of the heat exchanger.

  11. Patient assessment of an electronic device for subcutaneous self-injection of interferon β-1a for multiple sclerosis: an observational study in the UK and Ireland

    PubMed Central

    D’Arcy, Caroline; Thomas, Del; Stoneman, Dee; Parkes, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Background Injectable disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) reduce the number of relapses and delay disability progression in patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Regular self-injection can be stressful and impeded by MS symptoms. Auto-injection devices can simplify self-injection, overcome injection-related issues, and increase treatment satisfaction. This study investigated patient responses to an electronic auto-injection device. Methods Patients with RRMS (n = 63), aged 18–65 years, naïve to subcutaneous (sc) interferon (IFN) β-1a therapy, were recruited to a Phase IV, observational, open-label, multicenter study (NCT01195870). Patients self-injected sc IFN β-1a using the RebiSmart™ (Merck Serono S.A. – Geneva, Switzerland) electronic auto-injector for 12 weeks, including an initial titration period if recommended by the prescribing physician. In week 12, patients completed a questionnaire comprising of a visual analog scale (VAS) to rate how much they liked using the device, a four-point response question on ease of use (‘very difficult’, ‘difficult’, ‘easy’, or ‘very easy’), and a list of ten device functions to rank, based upon their experiences. Results Six patients (9.5%) discontinued the study: one switched to manual injection; two discontinued all treatment; three changed therapy. In total, 59 out of 63 patients (93.7%) completed the VAS; 54 out of 59 (91.5%; 95% confidence interval: 81.3%–97.2%) ‘liked’ using the electronic auto-injector (score ≥6), whereas 57 out of 59 (96.6%) rated the device overall as ‘easy’ or ‘very easy’ to use. Device features rated as most useful were the hidden needle (mean [standard deviation] score: 3.3 [3.01]; n = 56), confirmation sound (3.9 [2.45]), and multidose cartridge (4.6 [2.32]). The least useful functions were the dose history list (8.0 [2.57]) and dose history calendar (7.5 [2.30]). Conclusions These findings suggest that the electronic auto-injector may

  12. Patient assessment of an electronic device for subcutaneous self-injection of interferon β-1a for multiple sclerosis: an observational study in the UK and Ireland.

    PubMed

    D'Arcy, Caroline; Thomas, Del; Stoneman, Dee; Parkes, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Injectable disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) reduce the number of relapses and delay disability progression in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Regular self-injection can be stressful and impeded by MS symptoms. Auto-injection devices can simplify self-injection, overcome injection-related issues, and increase treatment satisfaction. This study investigated patient responses to an electronic auto-injection device. Patients with RRMS (n = 63), aged 18-65 years, naïve to subcutaneous (sc) interferon (IFN) β-1a therapy, were recruited to a Phase IV, observational, open-label, multicenter study (NCT01195870). Patients self-injected sc IFN β-1a using the RebiSmart™ (Merck Serono S.A. - Geneva, Switzerland) electronic auto-injector for 12 weeks, including an initial titration period if recommended by the prescribing physician. In week 12, patients completed a questionnaire comprising of a visual analog scale (VAS) to rate how much they liked using the device, a four-point response question on ease of use ('very difficult', 'difficult', 'easy', or 'very easy'), and a list of ten device functions to rank, based upon their experiences. Six patients (9.5%) discontinued the study: one switched to manual injection; two discontinued all treatment; three changed therapy. In total, 59 out of 63 patients (93.7%) completed the VAS; 54 out of 59 (91.5%; 95% confidence interval: 81.3%-97.2%) 'liked' using the electronic auto-injector (score ≥6), whereas 57 out of 59 (96.6%) rated the device overall as 'easy' or 'very easy' to use. Device features rated as most useful were the hidden needle (mean [standard deviation] score: 3.3 [3.01]; n = 56), confirmation sound (3.9 [2.45]), and multidose cartridge (4.6 [2.32]). The least useful functions were the dose history list (8.0 [2.57]) and dose history calendar (7.5 [2.30]). These findings suggest that the electronic auto-injector may be suitable for patients who are new to injectable DMD therapy. Devices

  13. Solid-phase extraction and field-amplified sample injection-capillary zone electrophoresis for the analysis of benzophenone UV filters in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Purrà, Miquel; Cinca, Roser; Legaz, Jessica; Núñez, Oscar

    2014-10-01

    A field-amplified sample injection-capillary zone electrophoresis (FASI-CZE) method for the analysis of benzophenone (BP) UV filters in environmental water samples was developed, allowing the separation of all compounds in less than 8 min. A 9- to 25-fold sensitivity enhancement was obtained with FASI-CZE, achieving limits of detection down to 21-59 μg/L for most of the analyzed BPs, with acceptable run-to-run and day-to-day precisions (relative standard deviations lower than 17%). In order to remove water sample salinity and to enhance FASI sensitivity, an off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure using a Strata X polymeric reversed-phase sorbent was used and afforded recoveries up to 72-90% for most BPs. With the combination of off-line SPE and FASI-CZE, limits of detection in the range 0.06-0.6 μg/L in a river water matrix, representing a 2,400- to 6,500-fold enhancement, were obtained. Method performance was evaluated by quantifying a blank river water sample spiked at 1 μg/L. For a 95% confidence level, no statistical differences were observed between found concentrations and spiked concentrations (probability at the confidence level, p value, of 0.60), showing that the proposed off-line SPE-FASI-CZE method is suitable for the analysis of BP UV filters in environmental water samples at low microgram per liter levels. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of BPs in river water samples collected up- and downstream of industrialized and urban areas, and in some drinking water samples.

  14. Application of a new NMR well logging porosity/permeability calibration to the Arbuckle injection zone of the Wellington CO2 demonstration site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, H. E.; Smith, M. M.; Hao, Y.; Carroll, S.

    2016-12-01

    Carbonate reservoirs hold significant potential for carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects. Target formations for carbon dioxide (CO2) storage must have suitable porosity and permeability properties to ensure adequate long term storage. Of these, permeability can be difficult to estimate in carbonate reservoirs due to the orders of magnitude differences in pore sizes, and the complex geometry of existing pore networks or those developed due to reactive CO2 acidified fluids. One of the primary methods for assessing porosity and permeability of reservoirs is down well nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging tools. Our work has been focused on constraining new porosity/permeability relationships in carbonate rocks using micro X-ray computed tomography (µXRCT) to characterize the pore networks to inform on the observed NMR relaxation behavior. This effort has shown that standard NMR methodologies can produce permeability estimates for carbonate rocks that differ by several orders of magnitude from directly measured values. Our new calibrations have rectified these discrepancies by identifying and accounting for the main properties of these rocks that contribute the measured NMR relaxation properties. Properties such as mineralogy, Fe and Mn content, pore geometry, and pore network tortuosity all contribute to the relaxation behavior observed by NMR and are now accomodated in this new calibration procedure. This work has led to new understanding of the properties of these rock types that control the permeability measured by NMR well logging. In this presentation, we apply the results of a lab measured calibration of porosity and permeability to a high resolution NMR well log produced for the Arbucke injection zone of the Wellington CO2 demonstration sites. This application illustrates the applicability of this new calibration method for carbonate reservoirs and helps advance our understanding of the permeability and porosity relationships in these complex rock

  15. Patient adherence to subcutaneous IFN beta-1a injections using the RebiSmart® injection device: a retrospective real-world study among Dutch and German patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Krol, Marieke; de Voer, Gert; Osowski, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Long-term treatment adherence among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is a general concern, with an established correlation with clinical efficacy. Closely monitoring patients’ treatment behavior may have a beneficial effect on adherence. This study assessed adherence, in daily life, to subcutaneous (sc) IFN beta-1a, self-administered using the RebiSmart® electronic injection device (the IFN beta-Ia autoinjector device), in patients with MS. Patients and methods This was a retrospective observational study analyzing treatment adherence based on injection data, eg, injection date and dose, extracted from the IFN beta-Ia autoinjector devices collected from patients in Germany and the Netherlands. Results Data recorded in the period from 2007 to 2012 by the IFN beta-Ia autoinjector devices from 1,682 (79.7% from Germany, 20.3% from the Netherlands) patients were analyzed. A mean of 94.8% of the multi-dose cartridges (containing sc IFN beta-1a for three injections) were used completely, indicating a low incidence of application errors and drug wastage. The mean adherence rate was 90.7% and 82.9% over the entire observation period (mean treatment duration: 150.1 weeks). Median adherence rates were similar between German and Dutch patients (97.9% vs 99.0%). Conclusion In daily clinical practice, patients using the IFN beta-Ia autoinjector device were highly adherent to sc IFN beta-1a. The injection data stored electronically in the device may help patients to adhere to treatment regimens and, if viewed by physicians, promote discussion of adherence issues with patients. PMID:28744108

  16. Patient adherence to subcutaneous IFN beta-1a injections using the RebiSmart(®) injection device: a retrospective real-world study among Dutch and German patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Krol, Marieke; de Voer, Gert; Osowski, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Long-term treatment adherence among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is a general concern, with an established correlation with clinical efficacy. Closely monitoring patients' treatment behavior may have a beneficial effect on adherence. This study assessed adherence, in daily life, to subcutaneous (sc) IFN beta-1a, self-administered using the RebiSmart(®) electronic injection device (the IFN beta-Ia autoinjector device), in patients with MS. This was a retrospective observational study analyzing treatment adherence based on injection data, eg, injection date and dose, extracted from the IFN beta-Ia autoinjector devices collected from patients in Germany and the Netherlands. Data recorded in the period from 2007 to 2012 by the IFN beta-Ia autoinjector devices from 1,682 (79.7% from Germany, 20.3% from the Netherlands) patients were analyzed. A mean of 94.8% of the multi-dose cartridges (containing sc IFN beta-1a for three injections) were used completely, indicating a low incidence of application errors and drug wastage. The mean adherence rate was 90.7% and 82.9% over the entire observation period (mean treatment duration: 150.1 weeks). Median adherence rates were similar between German and Dutch patients (97.9% vs 99.0%). In daily clinical practice, patients using the IFN beta-Ia autoinjector device were highly adherent to sc IFN beta-1a. The injection data stored electronically in the device may help patients to adhere to treatment regimens and, if viewed by physicians, promote discussion of adherence issues with patients.

  17. Tulathromycin assay validation and tissue residues after single and multiple subcutaneous injections in domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus).

    PubMed

    Clothier, K A; Leavens, T; Griffith, R W; Wetzlich, S E; Baynes, R E; Riviere, J E; Tell, L A

    2012-04-01

    Tulathromycin is a macrolide antimicrobial labeled for treatment of bacterial pneumonia in cattle and swine. The purpose of the present research was to evaluate tissue concentrations of tulathromycin in the caprine species. A tandem mass spectrometry regulatory analytical method that detects the common fragment of tulathromycin in cattle and swine was validated with goat tissues. The method was used to study tulathromycin depletion in goat tissues (liver, kidney, muscle, fat, injection site, and lung) over time. In two different studies, six juvenile and 25 market-age goats received a single injection of 2.5 mg/kg of tulathromycin subcutaneously; in a third study, 18 juvenile goats were treated with 2.5, 7.5, or 12.5 mg/kg tulathromycin weekly with three subcutaneous injections. Mean tulathromycin tissue concentrations were highest at injection site samples in all studies and all doses. Lung tissue concentrations were greatest at day 5 in market-age goats while in the multi-dose animals concentrations demonstrated dose-dependent increases. Concentrations were below limit of quantification in injection site and lung by day 18 and in liver, kidney, muscle, and fat at all time points. This study demonstrated that tissue levels in goats are very similar to those seen in swine and cattle.

  18. Increasing the instrumental throughput of gas chromatography method using multiple injections in a single experimental run: application in determination of friedelan-3-ol and friedelin in Maytenus ilicifolia.

    PubMed

    Vistuba, Jacqueline Pereira; Piovezan, Marcel; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Rebelo, Andrey Martinez; Azevedo, Mônia Stremel; Vitali, Luciano; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Amadeu Micke, Gustavo

    2013-01-25

    The aim of this study was to develop a separation method using multiple injections in a single experimental run (MISER) employing gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) for the first time, without instrument modification, to increase the instrumental throughput. The method was applied to the determination of the triterpenes friedelan-3-ol and friedelin in a plant extract obtained from Maytenus ilicifolia leaves. The column used in the chromatography system was a ZB-50 (30 m × 0.25 mm × 0.15 μm) with 50% phenyl-50% methyl-polysiloxane. The samples (1.0 μL) were injected using the split mode (1:90), with the injector at 280 °C and FID detector at 320 °C. The column temperature was programmed to isothermal mode at 300°C. Helium was used as the carrier gas with a constant flow of 1.5 mL min(-1). It was possible to perform three injections in the same run using the MISER method. An increase in the instrumental throughput by a factor of around 2.6 was observed when the use of multiple injections was compared with the single injection method. This method showed good linearity for both analytes with R(2)>0.99 and the values for the limit of detection were 0.24 mg L(-1) and 0.44 mg L(-1), for friedelan-3-ol and friedelin, respectively. Furthermore, the values for the limits of quantification were 0.79 mg L(-1) for friedelan-3-ol and 1.16 mg L(-1) for friedelin. The proposed method has potential for other GC applications, allowing an increase in the instrumental throughput of the methods by applying this separation technique.

  19. Direct measurements at Mach 6 of turbulent skin-friction reduction by injection from single and multiple flush slots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srokowski, A. J.; Howard, F. G.; Feller, W. V.

    1976-01-01

    The surface skin-friction reduction downstream of one to four successive flush slots injecting at an angle of 10 deg into a turbulent Mach 6 boundary layer has been determined from direct measurements of surface shear. Increasing the number of succeeding slots increases the skin-friction reduction, but this trend reverses at high injection rates. The incremental improvement in skin-friction reduction decreases with increasing number of slots. Comparison with previously reported step slot data indicates that step slots with tangential injection are more effective in reducing skin friction than the present flush slot configuration. Finite-difference predictions are in reasonable agreement with skin-friction and boundary-layer profile data.

  20. Cost savings of home bortezomib injection in patients with multiple myeloma treated by a combination care in Outpatient Hospital and Hospital care at Home.

    PubMed

    Touati, Mohamed; Lamarsalle, Ludovic; Moreau, Stéphane; Vergnenègre, Françoise; Lefort, Sophie; Brillat, Catherine; Jeannet, Laetitia; Lagarde, Aline; Daulange, Annick; Jaccard, Arnaud; Vergnenègre, Alain; Bordessoule, Dominique

    2016-12-01

    At home injectable chemotherapy for patients receiving treatment for hematological diseases is still in debate. Given the expense of new innovative medicines, at home treatment has been proposed as a suitable option for improving patient quality of life and decreasing treatment costs. We decided to assess the cost of bortezomib administration in France among multiple myeloma patients from an economic standpoint. Patients in this study were treated within a regional hematological network combining outpatient hospital care and Hospital care at Home administration. To make the cost comparison, our team simulated outpatient hospital care expenses. Fifty-four consecutive multiple myeloma patients who received at least one injection of bortezomib in Hospital care at Home from January 2009 to December 2011 were included in the study. The median number of injections was 12 (range 1-44) at home and 6 (range 0-30) in the outpatient care unit. When compared with the cost simulation of outpatient hospital care alone, bortezomib administration with combined care was significantly less expensive for the National Health Insurance (NHI) budget. The mean total cost per patient and per injection was 954.20 € for combined outpatient and Hospital care at Home vs 1143.42 € for outpatient hospital care alone. This resulted in an estimated 16.5 % cost saving (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0.0001). The greatest savings were observed in administration costs (37.5 % less) and transportation costs (68.1 % less). This study reflects results for a regionally implemented program for multiple myeloma patients treated with bortezomib in routine practice in a large rural area.

  1. Single or multiple injections of methamphetamine increased dopamine turnover but did not decrease tyrosine hydroxylase levels or cleave caspase-3 in caudate-putamen.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Frederico Costa; Lourenço, Elita Santos; Borges, Fernanda; Morgadinho, Teresa; Ribeiro, Carlos Fontes; Macedo, Tice Reis; Ali, Syed F

    2006-09-01

    Methamphetamine (METH), leading to striatal dopamine (DA) nerve terminal toxicity in mammals, is also thought to induce apoptosis of striatal neurons in rodents. We investigated the acute effects induced by multiple injections of METH (4 x 5 mg/kg, i.p.) at 2-h intervals or a single injection of METH (20 mg/kg, i.p.) on terminal dopaminergic toxicity markers, including DA levels, DA turnover, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity in rat caudate-putamen (CPu). We further investigated whether both treatment paradigms would change Bax and activate caspase-3 expression, thus triggering striatal apoptotic mitochondria-dependent biochemical cascades. The first injection of METH (5 mg/kg, i.p.) produced a significant release of DA that peaked 30 min and stayed above control levels up to 1.5 h within CPu. In another set of experiments, rats were killed 1 and 24 h following the last injection, for tissue DA and metabolite content measurement and Western blot analysis (24 h). Multiple doses induced DA depletion and increased turnover at both endpoints. Single-dose METH reproduced these effects at 24 h; however, turnover was significantly higher than that evoked by the multiple doses at 24 h. Although both paradigms evoked similar DA depletion, however, none of the dosing regimens induced changes in TH expression at 24 h. The former paradigm produced an increase in Bax expression in CPu not sufficient to induce cleavage of caspase-3 proenzyme at 24 h. This study suggests that both paradigm induced changes in striatal dopaminergic markers that are independent of terminal degeneration and striatal apoptotic mitochondria-dependent caspase-3 driven cascade within 24 h.

  2. Multiple epidural steroid injections and body mass index linked with occurrence of epidural lipomatosis: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidural lipomatosis (EL) is an increase of adipose tissue, normally occurring in the epidural space, sufficient to distort the thecal sac and compress neural elements. There is a lack of knowledge of risk factors, impact on patient’s symptoms, and its possible association with epidural steroid injections. Methods History, physical examination, patient chart, and MRI were analyzed from 856 outpatients referred for epidural steroid injections. Seventy patients with signs of EL on MRI comprised the study group. Thirty-four randomly selected patients comprised the control group. The severity of EL was determined by the MRI assessment. The impact of EL was determined by the patient’s history and physical examination. Logistic regression was used to correlate the probability of developing EL with BMI and epidural steroid injections. Results EL was centered at L5 and S1 segments. The average BMI for patients with EL was significantly greater than that of control group (36.0 ± 0.9 vs. 29.2 ± 0.9, p <0.01). The probability of developing EL with increasing BMI was linear up to the BMI of 35 after which it plateaued. Triglycerides were significantly higher for the EL group as compared to controls (250 ± 30 vs. 186 ± 21 mg/dL p < 0.01). The odds of having EL were 60% after two epidural steroid injections, 90% after three epidural steroid injections and approached 100% with further injections, independent of BMI. Other risk factors considered included alcohol abuse, use of protease inhibitors, levels of stress, hypothyroidism and genetic predisposition. However there were insufficient quantities to determine statistical significance with a degree of confidence. The impact of EL on patient’s symptoms correlated with EL severity with Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.73 at p < 0.01 significance level. Conclusions The BMI and triglycerides levels were found to be significantly elevated for the EL group, pointing to an increased

  3. Paradoxical effects of injection stress and nicotine exposure experienced during adolescence on learning in a serial multiple choice (SMC) task in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Samantha M; Pickens, Laura R G; Fountain, Stephen B

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine exposure in adolescent rats has been shown to cause learning impairments that persist into adulthood long after nicotine exposure has ended. This study was designed to assess the extent to which the effects of adolescent nicotine exposure on learning in adulthood can be accounted for by adolescent injection stress experienced concurrently with adolescent nicotine exposure. Female rats received either 0.033 mg/h nicotine (expressed as the weight of the free base) or bacteriostatic water vehicle by osmotic pump infusion on postnatal days 25-53 (P25-53). Half of the nicotine-exposed rats and half of the vehicle rats also received twice-daily injection stress consisting of intraperitoneal saline injections on P26-53. Together these procedures produced 4 groups: No Nicotine/No Stress, Nicotine/No Stress, No Nicotine/Stress, and Nicotine/Stress. On P65-99, rats were trained to perform a structurally complex 24-element serial pattern of responses in the serial multiple choice (SMC) task. Four general results were obtained in the current study. First, learning for within-chunk elements was not affected by either adolescent nicotine exposure, consistent with past work (Pickens, Rowan, Bevins, and Fountain, 2013), or adolescent injection stress. Thus, there were no effects of adolescent nicotine exposure or injection stress on adult within-chunk learning typically attributed to rule learning in the SMC task. Second, adolescent injection stress alone (i.e., without concurrent nicotine exposure) caused transient but significant facilitation of adult learning restricted to a single element of the 24-element pattern, namely, the "violation element," that was the only element of the pattern that was inconsistent with pattern structure. Thus, adolescent injection stress alone facilitated violation element acquisition in adulthood. Third, also consistent with past work (Pickens et al., 2013), adolescent nicotine exposure, in this case both with and without adolescent

  4. Paradoxical Effects of Injection Stress and Nicotine Exposure Experienced During Adolescence on Learning in a Serial Multiple Choice (SMC) Task in Adult Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Renaud, Samantha M.; Pickens, Laura R. G.; Fountain, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine exposure in adolescent rats has been shown to cause learning impairments that persist into adulthood long after nicotine exposure has ended. This study was designed to assess the extent to which the effects of adolescent nicotine exposure on learning in adulthood can be accounted for by adolescent injection stress experienced concurrently with adolescent nicotine exposure. Female rats received either 0.033 mg/hr nicotine (expressed as the weight of the free base) or bacteriostatic water vehicle by osmotic pump infusion on postnatal days 25-53 (P25-53). Half of the nicotine-exposed rats and half of the vehicle rats also received twice-daily injection stress consisting of intraperitoneal saline injections on P26-53. Together these procedures produced 4 groups: No Nicotine / No Stress, Nicotine / No Stress, No Nicotine / Stress, and Nicotine / Stress. On P65-99, rats were trained to perform a structurally complex 24-element serial pattern of responses in the serial multiple choice (SMC) task. Four general results were obtained in the current study. First, learning for within-chunk elements was not affected by either adolescent nicotine exposure, consistent with past work (Pickens, Rowan, Bevins, & Fountain, 2013), or adolescent injection stress. Thus, there were no effects of adolescent nicotine exposure or injection stress on adult within-chunk learning typically attributed to rule learning in the SMC task. Second, adolescent injection stress alone (i.e., without concurrent nicotine exposure) caused transient but significant facilitation of adult learning restricted to a single element of the 24-element pattern, namely, the “violation element,” that was the only element of the pattern that was inconsistent with pattern structure. Thus, adolescent injection stress alone facilitated violation element acquisition in adulthood. Third, also consistent with past work (Pickens et al., 2013), adolescent nicotine exposure, in this case both with and without

  5. Chemical constituents in groundwater from multiple zones in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2009-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hopkins, Candice B.; Maimer, Neil V.

    2015-01-01

    Tritium concentrations in relation to basaltic flow units indicate the presence of wastewater influence in multiple basalt flow groups; however, tritium is most abundant in the South Late Matuyama flow group in the southern boundary wells. The concentrations of wastewater constituents in deep zones in wells Middle 2051, USGS 132, USGS 105, and USGS 103 support the concept of groundwater flow deepening in the southwestern corner of the INL, as indicated by the INL groundwater-flow model.

  6. Optimising geological storage of CO2 by development of multiple injection sites in regionally extensive storage sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhurst, Maxine; McDermott, Christopher; Williams, John; Mackay, Eric; Jin, Min; Tucker, Owain; Mallows, Tom; Hannis, Sarah; Pearce, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Carbon capture, transport and storage (CCS) is considered a key technology to provide secure, low-carbon energy supply and industrial processes to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to the adverse effects of climatic change. Geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2), captured during hydrocarbon production at the Sleipner Field, in strata beneath the Norwegian sector of the North Sea has been in operation since 1996. Projects to store CO2 captured at power plants in strata underlying the North Sea are currently in design. Storage of the CO2 is planned in depleted hydrocarbon fields or regionally extensive sandstones containing brine (saline aquifer sandstones). The vast majority of the UK potential storage resource is within brine-saturated sandstone formations. The sandstone formations are each hundreds to thousands of square kilometres in extent and underlie all sectors of the North Sea. The immense potential to store CO2 in these rocks can only be fully achieved by the operation of more than one injection site within each formation. Here we report an investigation into the operation of more than one injection site within a storage formation using a UK North Sea case study of the Captain Sandstone and the included Goldeneye Field, which is part of the mature hydrocarbon province offshore Scotland. Research by the CO2MultiStore project was targeted to increase understanding and confidence in the operation of two sites within the Captain Sandstone. Methods were implemented to reduce the effort and resources needed to characterise the sandstone, and increase understanding of its stability and performance during operation of more than one injection site. Generic learning was captured throughout the research relevant to the characterisation of extensive storage sandstones, management of the planned injection operations and monitoring of CO2 injection at two (or more) sites within any connected sandstone formation. The storage of CO2 can be optimised

  7. Chemical Constituents in Groundwater from Multiple Zones in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2005-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Twining, Brian V.

    2010-01-01

    From 2005 to 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey's Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Project office, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected water-quality samples from multiple water-bearing zones in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Water samples were collected from six monitoring wells completed in about 350-700 feet of the upper part of the aquifer, and the samples were analyzed for major ions, selected trace elements, nutrients, selected radiochemical constituents, and selected stable isotopes. Each well was equipped with a multilevel monitoring system containing four to seven sampling ports that were each isolated by permanent packer systems. The sampling ports were installed in aquifer zones that were highly transmissive and that represented the water chemistry of the top four to five model layers of a steady-state and transient groundwater-flow model. The model's water chemistry and particle-tracking simulations are being used to better define movement of wastewater constituents in the aquifer. The results of the water chemistry analyses indicated that, in each of four separate wells, one zone of water differed markedly from the other zones in the well. In four wells, one zone to as many as five zones contained radiochemical constituents that originated from wastewater disposal at selected laboratory facilities. The multilevel sampling systems are defining the vertical distribution of wastewater constituents in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and the concentrations of wastewater constituents in deeper zones in wells Middle 2051, USGS 132, and USGS 103 support the concept of groundwater flow deepening in the southwestern part of the INL.

  8. Hole injection from the sidewall of V-shaped pits into c-plane multiple quantum wells in InGaN light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xiaoming; Liu, Junlin Jiang, Fengyi

    2015-10-28

    The role which the V-shaped pits (V-pits) play in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) light emitting diodes (LEDs) has been proposed to enable the formation of sidewall MQWs, whose higher bandgap than that of the c-plane MQWs is considered to act as an energy barrier to prevent carriers from reaching the dislocations. Here, with increasing proportion of current flowing via the V-pits, the emission of the c-plane MQWs broadens across the short-wavelength band and shows a blueshift successively. This phenomenon is attributed to hole injection from the sidewall of V-pits into the c-plane MQWs, which is a new discovery in the injection mechanism of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs.

  9. Injection and Propagation of Multiple Relativistic Electron Beams into Preformed Plasma Channels for High-Power X-Ray Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    and a surface - flashover prepulse switch were added to the focused-beam diodes. These changes have improved the pinch stability of the focused beam... plasma channel-front expansion velocities from the exploding wire as inferred from the experi- mental data are 0.8 mm per microsecond for the 760 Torr...27.3 INJECTION AND PROPAGATION OF ~1ULTIPLE RELATIVISTIC ELECTRON BEAMS INTO PREFORMED PLASMA CHANNELS FOR HIGH-POWER X-RAY PRODUCTION F. J

  10. Biodistribution of a High Dose of Diamond, Graphite, and Graphene Oxide Nanoparticles After Multiple Intraperitoneal Injections in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kurantowicz, Natalia; Strojny, Barbara; Sawosz, Ewa; Jaworski, Sławomir; Kutwin, Marta; Grodzik, Marta; Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Lipińska, Ludwika; Mitura, Katarzyna; Chwalibog, André

    2015-12-01

    Carbon nanoparticles have recently drawn intense attention in biomedical applications. Hence, there is a need for further in vivo investigations of their biocompatibility and biodistribution via various exposure routes. We hypothesized that intraperitoneally injected diamond, graphite, and graphene oxide nanoparticles may have different biodistribution and exert different effects on the intact organism. Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: the control and treated with nanoparticles by intraperitoneal injection (4 mg of nanoparticles/kg body weight) eight times during the 4-week period. Blood was collected for evaluation of blood morphology and biochemistry parameters. Photographs of the general appearance of each rat's interior were taken immediately after sacrifice. The organs were excised and their macroscopic structure was visualized using a stereomicroscope. The nanoparticles were retained in the body, mostly as agglomerates. The largest agglomerates (up to 10 mm in diameter) were seen in the proximity of the injection place in the stomach serous membrane, between the connective tissues of the abdominal skin, muscles, and peritoneum. Numerous smaller, spherical-shaped aggregates (diameter around 2 mm) were lodged among the mesentery. Moreover, in the connective and lipid tissue in the proximity of the liver and spleen serosa, small aggregates of graphite and graphene oxide nanoparticles were observed. However, all tested nanoparticles did not affect health and growth of rats. The nanoparticles had no toxic effects on blood parameters and growth of rats, suggesting their potential applicability as remedies or in drug delivery systems.

  11. Biodistribution of a High Dose of Diamond, Graphite, and Graphene Oxide Nanoparticles After Multiple Intraperitoneal Injections in Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurantowicz, Natalia; Strojny, Barbara; Sawosz, Ewa; Jaworski, Sławomir; Kutwin, Marta; Grodzik, Marta; Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Lipińska, Ludwika; Mitura, Katarzyna; Chwalibog, André

    2015-10-01

    Carbon nanoparticles have recently drawn intense attention in biomedical applications. Hence, there is a need for further in vivo investigations of their biocompatibility and biodistribution via various exposure routes. We hypothesized that intraperitoneally injected diamond, graphite, and graphene oxide nanoparticles may have different biodistribution and exert different effects on the intact organism. Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: the control and treated with nanoparticles by intraperitoneal injection (4 mg of nanoparticles/kg body weight) eight times during the 4-week period. Blood was collected for evaluation of blood morphology and biochemistry parameters. Photographs of the general appearance of each rat's interior were taken immediately after sacrifice. The organs were excised and their macroscopic structure was visualized using a stereomicroscope. The nanoparticles were retained in the body, mostly as agglomerates. The largest agglomerates (up to 10 mm in diameter) were seen in the proximity of the injection place in the stomach serous membrane, between the connective tissues of the abdominal skin, muscles, and peritoneum. Numerous smaller, spherical-shaped aggregates (diameter around 2 mm) were lodged among the mesentery. Moreover, in the connective and lipid tissue in the proximity of the liver and spleen serosa, small aggregates of graphite and graphene oxide nanoparticles were observed. However, all tested nanoparticles did not affect health and growth of rats. The nanoparticles had no toxic effects on blood parameters and growth of rats, suggesting their potential applicability as remedies or in drug delivery systems.

  12. Dose-Dependent Effects of Multiple Acute Cocaine Injections on Maternal Behavior and Aggression in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Josephine M.; Nelson, Christina J.; Meter, Kathleen E.; Lubin, Deborah A.; Couch, C. Destine; Ayers, Andy; Walker, Cheryl H.

    2011-01-01

    Rat dams, which had no prior drug treatment, were either nontreated controls or were injected subcutaneously 4 times during a 10-day period with a single dose of 30, 15 or 7.5 mg/kg of cocaine hydrochloride HCl, or normal saline. Injections were given immediately postpartum following delivery of their final pup (PPD 1), and again on postpartum day 3 (PPD 3), postpartum day 6 (PPD 6) and postpartum day 10 (PPD 10). Dams were observed 30 min following injections for maternal behavior (MB) towards 8 surrogate male pups on PPD 1 and PPD 3 and for aggression towards a male or female intruder in the presence of their litter on PPD 6 and PPD 10. Compared to saline and untreated controls, cocaine-treated dams exhibited more disruptions in MB on both PPD 1 and PPD 3 and were less aggressive towards an intruder, regardless of intruder sex, on PPD 6 and PPD 10. In most cases MB was altered in a dose-dependent manner with the higher doses of cocaine resulting in a greater disruption of behavior. PMID:9858841

  13. Dose-dependent effects of multiple acute cocaine injections on maternal behavior and aggression in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Johns, J M; Nelson, C J; Meter, K E; Lubin, D A; Couch, C D; Ayers, A; Walker, C H

    1998-01-01

    Rat dams, which had no prior drug treatment, were either nontreated controls or were injected subcutaneously 4 times during a 10-day period with a single dose of 30, 15 or 7.5 mg/kg of cocaine hydrochloride HCl, or normal saline. Injections were given immediately postpartum following delivery of their final pup (PPD 1), and again on postpartum day 3 (PPD 3), postpartum day 6 (PPD 6) and postpartum day 10 (PPD 10). Dams were observed 30 min following injections for maternal behavior (MB) towards 8 surrogate male pups on PPD 1 and PPD 3 and for aggression towards a male or female intruder in the presence of their litter on PPD 6 and PPD 10. Compared to saline and untreated controls, cocaine-treated dams exhibited more disruptions in MB on both PPD 1 and PPD 3 and were less aggressive towards an intruder, regardless of intruder sex, on PPD 6 and PPD 10. In most cases MB was altered in a dose-dependent manner with the higher doses of cocaine resulting in a greater disruption of behavior.

  14. Protocol for a prospective observational study of cortical lower urinary tract control changes following intradetrusor injection of botulinum toxin-A in patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Elizondo, Rodolfo A; Karmonik, Christof; Boone, Timothy B; Khavari, Rose

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a severe debilitating disease that affects patients' quality of life. Up to 90% of patients with MS will develop lower urinary tract dysfunction within the first 18 years of the disease. If oral pharmacotherapy with anticholinergics, behavioural modifications and pelvic floor physical therapy are unsuccessful, intradetrusor injection of botulinum toxin-A (OnaBotA; Botox Allergan, Dublin, Ireland) is a highly effective option for these patients. The local effects of OnaBotA are well understood, but not much is known of its afferent/sensory effects while treating the end organ. Our study will use functional MRI (fMRI) and task-related blood oxygen level-dependent signals to evaluate patients with MS and neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) prior to, and after, intradetrusor injection of OnaBotA with simultaneous urodynamic evaluation. Urinary concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor will also be collected since it has been shown that patients with an overactive bladder have higher concentrations of these neuropeptides. Methods and analysis Female patients with MS and lower urinary tract symptoms who previously have undergone urodynamic screening and are refractory to conservative and oral pharmacotherapy management for NDO and are interested in OnaBotA intradetrusor injection will be invited to participate in the study. An fMRI will be performed preintradetrusor injection and postintradetrusor injection of OnaBotA with simultaneous MRI compatible with material urodynamics. Images will be collected and analysed accordingly. Ethics and dissemination All of the patients are properly consented before enrolling in this study that has been previously approved by the Institutional Review Board. Results of neural connectivity activation will be presented at national and international meetings and published in scholarly journals. PMID:28159850

  15. [Continuous insulin therapy versus multiple insulin injections in the management of type 1 diabetes: a longitutinal study].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Maria Estela Bellini; Del Roio Liberatore Junior, Raphael; Custodio, Rodrigo; Martinelli Junior, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    To compare multiple doses of insulin and continuous insulin infusion therapy as treatment for type 1 diabetes melito. 40 patients with type 1 diabetes melito (21 female) with ages between 10 and 20 years (mean=14.2) and mean duration of diabetes of 7 years used multiple doses of insulin for at least 6 months and after that, continuous insulin infusion therapy for at least 6 months. Each one of the patients has used multiple doses of insulin and continuous insulin infusion therapy. For analysis of HbA1c, mean glycated hemoglobin levels (mHbA1c) were obtained during each treatment period (multiple doses of insulin and continuous insulin infusion therapy period). Although mHbA1c levels were lower during continuous insulin infusion therapy the difference was not statistically significant. During multiple doses of insulin, 14.2% had mHbA1c values below 7.5% vs. 35.71% while on continuous insulin infusion therapy; demonstrating better glycemic control with the use of continuous insulin infusion therapy. During multiple doses of insulin, 15-40 patients have severe hypoglycemic events versus 5-40 continuous insulin infusion therapy. No episodes of ketoacidosis events were recorded. This is the first study with this design comparing multiple doses of insulin and continuous insulin infusion therapy in Brazil showing no significant difference in HbA1c; hypoglycemic events were less frequent during continuous insulin infusion therapy than during multiple doses of insulin and the percentage of patients who achieved a HbA1c less than 7.5% was greater during continuous insulin infusion therapy than multiple doses of insulin therapy. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Continuous insulin therapy versus multiple insulin injections in the management of type 1 diabetes: a longitutinal study

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Maria Estela Bellini; Liberatore, Raphael Del Roio; Custodio, Rodrigo; Martinelli, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare multiple doses of insulin and continuous insulin infusion therapy as treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Methods: 40 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (21 female) with ages between 10 and 20 years (mean=14.2) and mean duration of diabetes of 7 years used multiple doses of insulin for at least 6 months and after that, continuous insulin infusion therapy for at least 6 months. Each one of the patients has used multiple doses of insulin and continuous insulin infusion therapy. For analysis of HbA1c, mean glycated hemoglobin levels (mHbA1c) were obtained during each treatment period (multiple doses of insulin and continuous insulin infusion therapy period). Results: Although mHbA1c levels were lower during continuous insulin infusion therapy the difference was not statistically significant. During multiple doses of insulin, 14.2% had mHbA1c values below 7.5% vs. 35.71% while on continuous insulin infusion therapy; demonstrating better glycemic control with the use of continuous insulin infusion therapy. During multiple doses of insulin, 15–40 patients have severe hypoglycemic events versus 5–40 continuous insulin infusion therapy. No episodes of ketoacidosis events were recorded. Conclusions: This is the first study with this design comparing multiple doses of insulin and continuous insulin infusion therapy in Brazil showing no significant difference in HbA1c; hypoglycemic events were less frequent during continuous insulin infusion therapy than during multiple doses of insulin and the percentage of patients who achieved a HbA1c less than 7.5% was greater during continuous insulin infusion therapy than multiple doses of insulin therapy. PMID:26826879

  17. Efficacy and safety of alcohol sclerotherapy involving single-session multiple injections to treat simple renal cysts: a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-zhong; Li, Ming-xing; Wang, Tao; Yang, Li-chuan; Feng, Ping; Gou, Zhong-ping; Yuan, Jia-ying; Zhang, Wei

    2013-03-01

    Alcohol has been used for treating simple renal cysts since 1981. Since then, various observational studies have examined the technique, but they differ significantly in the details of the procedures and efficacy measures used. This has made it difficult to assess the safety and efficacy of this technique. We carried out a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided alcohol sclerotherapy involving single-session multiple injections to treat simple renal cysts. A total of 144 patients with simple renal cysts were randomly allocated to either the treatment group (ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage and alcohol sclerotherapy with single-session multiple injections) or control group (ultrasound-guided simple percutaneous drainage). Follow-up CT scans of ablated cysts were collected 3 and 6 months after the procedure. The outcome was considered successful if cyst volume between baseline and 6 months decreased by at least 87.5%. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed an average volume reduction of 94.2% in the treatment group and 50.8% in the control group (P < 0.0001). The percentage of patients achieving successful outcomes was 88.9% (95%CI 77.0% - 100.0%) in the treatment group and 22.2% (95%CI 6.54% - 37.9%) in the control group (P < 0.0001). The corresponding results in the per-protocol analysis were an average volume reduction of 96.4% in the treatment group and 50.8% in the control group (P < 0.0001). The percentage of patients achieving a successful outcome was 94.3% (95%CI 85.6% - 100.0%) in the treatment group and 22.2% (95%CI 6.54% - 37.9%) in the control group (P < 0.0001). Alcohol sclerotherapy involving single-session multiple injections is safe and efficacious in the treatment of renal cysts.

  18. Relative effectiveness of insulin pump treatment over multiple daily injections and structured education during flexible intensive insulin treatment for type 1 diabetes: cluster randomised trial (REPOSE).

    PubMed

    2017-03-30

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of insulin pumps with multiple daily injections for adults with type 1 diabetes, with both groups receiving equivalent training in flexible insulin treatment.Design Pragmatic, multicentre, open label, parallel group, cluster randomised controlled trial (Relative Effectiveness of Pumps Over MDI and Structured Education (REPOSE) trial).Setting Eight secondary care centres in England and Scotland.Participants Adults with type 1 diabetes who were willing to undertake intensive insulin treatment, with no preference for pumps or multiple daily injections. Participants were allocated a place on established group training courses that taught flexible intensive insulin treatment ("dose adjustment for normal eating," DAFNE). The course groups (the clusters) were then randomly allocated in pairs to either pump or multiple daily injections.Interventions Participants attended training in flexible insulin treatment (using insulin analogues) structured around the use of pump or injections, followed for two years.Main outcome measures The primary outcomes were a change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) values (%) at two years in participants with baseline HbA1c value of ≥7.5% (58 mmol/mol), and the proportion of participants achieving an HbA1c value of <7.5%. Secondary outcomes included body weight, insulin dose, and episodes of moderate and severe hypoglycaemia. Ancillary outcomes included quality of life and treatment satisfaction.Results 317 participants (46 courses) were randomised (156 pump and 161 injections). 267 attended courses and 260 were included in the intention to treat analysis, of which 235 (119 pump and 116 injection) had baseline HbA1c values of ≥7.5%. Glycaemic control and rates of severe hypoglycaemia improved in both groups. The mean change in HbA1c at two years was -0.85% with pump treatment and -0.42% with multiple daily injections. Adjusting for course, centre, age, sex, and accounting for missing values, the

  19. Managing the critical zone to obtain and sustain multiple benefits from working landscapes: The value of partnerships between LTAR and NSF CZO networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohse, K. A.; Seyfried, M. S.; Pierson, F. B.

    2015-12-01

    The Critical Zone Observatories add value to earth system science and society by addressing research gaps to understand the critical zone, the surface skin of the earth that extends from the top of the tree canopy to the lower limits of the groundwater. The Critical Zone (CZ) sustains life on earth and provides food, shelter, forage, and fuel and other services to human well-being. This Zone is also where most of human activities take place and thus subject to change and degradation. Managing the critical zone to obtain and sustain these services will require initiatives, policies and incentives that maintain and enhance this zone. The Critical Zone Observatories are seeking to address major gaps in understanding how earth surface evolves over time and how it will respond to future changes. Many of these gaps in our understanding occur at the interface between disciplines, across space and deep time scales, and multiple dimensions. For example, the Reynolds Creek CZO seeks to understand the role of soil environmental variables such as soil moisture and depth that vary across complex terrain in governing soil carbon storage and turnover in a semi-arid environment. For this reason, soil samples are being collected to depth of bedrock. Other networks and agencies such as the new LTAR and NEON are quantifying soil carbon at more shallow depths that will likely capture the variability in near surface soil carbon that is more sensitive to management and climate changes but may underestimate the total stores of carbon on the landscape. The CZOs also provide a platform to conduct interdisciplinary to transdisciplinary science by integrating across geological, soil, hydrologic, ecological, and social sciences to understand the critical zone. The emergence of the CZO Network and the LTAR network brings the opportunity to standardize methods and test hypotheses and ask questions across broad environmental conditions and gradients that could not be achieved with single

  20. Naturally Existing Oncolytic Virus M1 Is Nonpathogenic for the Nonhuman Primates After Multiple Rounds of Repeated Intravenous Injections.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haipeng; Lin, Yuan; Li, Kai; Liang, Jiankai; Xiao, Xiao; Cai, Jing; Tan, Yaqian; Xing, Fan; Mai, Jialuo; Li, Yuan; Chen, Wenli; Sheng, Longxiang; Gu, Jiayu; Zhu, Wenbo; Yin, Wei; Qiu, Pengxin; Su, Xingwen; Lu, Bingzheng; Tian, Xuyan; Liu, Jinhui; Lu, Wanjun; Dou, Yunling; Huang, Yijun; Hu, Bing; Kang, Zhuang; Gao, Guangping; Mao, Zixu; Cheng, Shi-Yuan; Lu, Ling; Bai, Xue-Tao; Gong, Shoufang; Yan, Guangmei; Hu, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Cancers figure among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The number of new cases is expected to rise by about 70% over the next 2 decades. Development of novel therapeutic agents is urgently needed for clinical cancer therapy. Alphavirus M1 is a Getah-like virus isolated from China with a genome of positive single-strand RNA. We have previously identified that alphavirus M1 is a naturally existing oncolytic virus with significant anticancer activity against different kinds of cancer (e.g., liver cancer, bladder cancer, and colon cancer). To support the incoming clinical trial of intravenous administration of alphavirus M1 to cancer patients, we assessed the safety of M1 in adult nonhuman primates. We previously presented the genome sequencing data of the cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), which was demonstrated as an ideal animal species for virus infection study. Therefore, we chose cynomolgus macaques of either sex for the present safety study of oncolytic virus M1. In the first round of administration, five experimental macaques were intravenously injected with six times of oncolytic virus M1 (1 × 10(9) pfu/dose) in 1 week, compared with five vehicle-injected control animals. The last two rounds of injections were further completed in the following months in the same way as the first round. Body weight, temperature, complete blood count, clinical biochemistries, cytokine profiles, lymphocytes subsets, neutralizing antibody, and clinical symptoms were closely monitored at different time points. Magnetic resonance imaging was also performed to assess the possibility of encephalitis or arthritis. As a result, no clinical, biochemical, immunological, or medical imaging or other pathological evidence of toxicity was found during the whole process of the study. Our results in cynomolgus macaques suggested the safety of intravenous administration of oncolytic virus M1 in cancer patients in the future.

  1. Efficiency droop suppression in GaN-based light-emitting diodes by chirped multiple quantum well structure at high current injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yu-Kun; Li, Yu-Feng; Huang, Ya-Ping; Wang, Hong; Su, Xi-Lin; Ding, Wen; Yun, Feng

    2015-05-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with chirped multiple quantum well (MQW) structures have been investigated experimentally and numerically in this paper. Compared to conventional LEDs with uniform quantum wells (QWs), LEDs with chirped MQW structures have better internal quantum efficiency (IQE) and carrier injection efficiency. The droop ratios of LEDs with chirped MQW structures show a remarkable improvement at 600 mA/mm2, reduced down from 28.6% (conventional uniform LEDs) to 23.7% (chirped MQWs-a) and 18.6% (chirped MQWs-b), respectively. Meanwhile, the peak IQE increases from 76.9% (uniform LEDs) to 83.7% (chirped MQWs-a) and 88.6% (chirped MQWs-b). The reservoir effect of chirped MQW structures is the significant reason as it could increase hole injection efficiency and radiative recombination. The leakage current and Auger recombination of chirped MQW structures can also be suppressed. Furthermore, the chirped MQWs-b structure with lower potential barriers can enhance the reservoir effect and obtain further improvement of the carrier injection efficiency and radiative recombination, as well as further suppressing efficiency droop. Project suppored by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2014AA032608), the Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Material of Xi’an Jiaotong University, China (Grant No. 20121201), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China.

  2. Multiple antibiotic resistance of heterotrophic bacteria in the littoral zone of Lake Shira as an indicator of human impact on the ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Lobova, Tatiana I; Barkhatov, Yuri V; Salamatina, Ol'ga V; Popova, Lyudmila Yu

    2008-01-01

    Resistance to Ampicillin and Kanamycin displayed by heterotrophic bacteria isolated in Summer and in Spring from the littoral and the central parts of Lake Shira (a therapeutic lake in the Khakasia Republic, Russia) has been investigated. It has been found that in Summer, human and animal microflora featuring multiple antibiotic resistance (to Ampicillin and Kanamycin) predominates in all the studied stations of the littoral zone of the lake. In Spring, concentrations of bacteria featuring multiple antibiotic resistance decrease significantly and bacteria sensitive to antibiotics predominate in the lake. Emergence of multiple antibiotic resistance in bacteria of Lake Shira is caused by the input of allochthonous bacteria into the lake; this feature of heterotrophic bacteria of Lake Shira can be used to monitor the impact on the ecosystem made by health resorts.

  3. 76 FR 33155 - Safety Zones; Multiple Firework Displays in Captain of the Port, Puget Sound Area of Responsibility

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    .... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing safety zones in Holmes Harbor, Boston Harbor, Port Gardner... Port Gardner near Everett, WA; Tenold-Jordan Wedding on July 23, 2011 in Shilshole Bay, Seattle, WA... yard radius around position 47 08.5' N, 122 54.2' W. 3. Everett Fourth of July Foundation, Port Gardner...

  4. Student Teaching in the Contact Zone: Learning to Teach Amid Multiple Interests in a Vocational English Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smagorinsky, Peter; Jakubiak, Cori; Moore, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    This case study investigates the decision making of Joni, a high school English teacher, during her student teaching in an Applied Communications II teaching assignment, comprised of students in the lowest tier of a four-track senior English curriculum. This course served as a "contact zone" for a set of competing interests: Joni's stated beliefs…

  5. An Exclusion Zone for Ca2+ Channels around Docked Vesicles Explains Release Control by Multiple Channels at a CNS Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Daniel; Babai, Norbert; Kochubey, Olexiy; Han, Yunyun; Markram, Henry; Schürmann, Felix; Schneggenburger, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The spatial arrangement of Ca2+ channels and vesicles remains unknown for most CNS synapses, despite of the crucial importance of this geometrical parameter for the Ca2+ control of transmitter release. At a large model synapse, the calyx of Held, transmitter release is controlled by several Ca2+ channels in a "domain overlap" mode, at least in young animals. To study the geometrical constraints of Ca2+ channel placement in domain overlap control of release, we used stochastic MCell modelling, at active zones for which the position of docked vesicles was derived from electron microscopy (EM). We found that random placement of Ca2+ channels was unable to produce high slope values between release and presynaptic Ca2+ entry, a hallmark of domain overlap, and yielded excessively large release probabilities. The simple assumption that Ca2+ channels can be located anywhere at active zones, except below a critical distance of ~ 30 nm away from docked vesicles ("exclusion zone"), rescued high slope values and low release probabilities. Alternatively, high slope values can also be obtained by placing all Ca2+ channels into a single supercluster, which however results in significantly higher heterogeneity of release probabilities. We also show experimentally that high slope values, and the sensitivity to the slow Ca2+ chelator EGTA-AM, are maintained with developmental maturation of the calyx synapse. Taken together, domain overlap control of release represents a highly organized active zone architecture in which Ca2+ channels must obey a certain distance to docked vesicles. Furthermore, domain overlap can be employed by near-mature, fast-releasing synapses. PMID:25951120

  6. Multiple geochemical and isotopic approaches for assessing ground water NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} elimination in a riparian zone

    SciTech Connect

    Mengis, M.; Schiff, S.L.; Aravena, R.; Elgood, R.J.; Harris, M.; English, M.C.; MacLean, A.

    1999-05-01

    During the last 40 years, nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) has become one of the most common ground water contaminants. Stream riparian zones are considered important ecological ecotones that decrease the NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} load of ground water discharging into streams. This study uses NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/Cl{sup {minus}} ratios, natural abundances of {sup 15}N and {sup 18}O in NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, and an in situ {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} tracer experiment to evaluate NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} reducing processes occurring in ground water within a narrow grassed buffer strip bordering a stream in an agricultural watershed. The NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/Cl{sup {minus}} ratios indicate that both NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} consuming processes and mixing of two ground water flow regimes with different NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} loads contribute to the drop observed in ground water NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} concentrations within the riparian zone. {delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 18}O of the ground water NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} within the riparian zone were enriched compared to the ground water below the adjacent cultivated field. A significant linear relationship between ground water {delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 18}O in NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} was found, which is consistent with NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} consumption by microbial denitrification. The estimated enrichment factors for {sup 15}N are a factor of 1.5 higher than for {sup 18}O. The in situ {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} tracer experiment conclusively confirmed that denitrification is occurring within the ground water of the riparian zone and demonstrates that denitrification rates can be directly measured in situ.

  7. A novel needle for subcutaneous injection of interferon beta-1a: effect on pain in volunteers and satisfaction in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Amer; Bozzato, Gian B; Vedrine, Lionel; Prais, Wes A; Berube, Julie; Laurent, Philippe E

    2008-10-10

    To reduce injection pain and improve satisfaction, a thinner (29-gauge [29G]), sharper (5-bevel) needle than the 27G/3-bevel needle used previously to inject interferon (IFN) beta-1a, 44 or 22 mcg subcutaneously (sc) three times weekly (tiw), was developed for use in multiple sclerosis (MS). Two clinical trials in healthy volunteers and five surveys of patients with MS were conducted to assess whether the 29G/5-bevel needle with a Thermo Plastic Elastomer (TPE) needle shield (a sleeve that houses the tip of the needle in a secure location) is an improvement over the 27G/3-bevel needle with a rubber shield for injection of IFN beta-1a, 44 or 22 mcg sc tiw. Parameters assessed were: pain and ease of insertion (healthy volunteer and nurse responses on subjective pain measurement scales); and patient satisfaction (surveys of patients with MS). In healthy volunteers, the 29G/5-bevel needle with TPE shield was associated with the least perceived pain on the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Verbal VAS (VB-VAS); mean VAS pain scores decreased by 40% and skin penetration improved by 69% compared with the 27G/3-bevel needle with standard rubber shield (p < 0.01). Pooled results from surveys of patients with MS indicated that 63% of patients thought that injections were less painful with the 29G/5-bevel needle than the 27G/3-bevel needle. Results from individual surveys indicated that the 29G/5-bevel needle was an improvement over the 27G/3-bevel needle for ease of insertion, injection-site reactions, bruising, burning and stinging. Together these studies indicate that the 29G/5-bevel needle with the TPE shield is an improvement over the 27G/3-bevel needle with standard rubber shield in terms of pain, ease of insertion and patient satisfaction. These improvements are expected to result in improved compliance in patients with MS treated with IFN beta-1a, 44 or 22 mcg sc tiw.

  8. An evaluation of adherence in patients with multiple sclerosis newly initiating treatment with a self-injectable or an oral disease-modifying drug

    PubMed Central

    Munsell, Michael; Frean, Molly; Menzin, Joseph; Phillips, Amy L

    2017-01-01

    Objective As the multiple sclerosis (MS) disease-modifying drug (DMD) treatment options have expanded to include oral therapies, it is important to understand whether route of administration is associated with DMD adherence. The objective of this study was to compare adherence to DMDs in patients with MS newly initiating treatment with a self-injectable versus an oral DMD. Methods This retrospective database study used IMS Health Real World Data Adjudicated Claims – US data between July 1, 2010 and June 30, 2014. Adherence was measured by medication possession ratio (MPR), calculated as the total number of treated days divided by the total number of days from the first treated day until the end of 12-month follow-up. A binary measure representing adherence (MPR ≥0.8) versus nonadherence (MPR <0.8) to therapy was used. Logistic regression evaluated the likelihood of adherence to index DMD type (self-injectable vs oral). Covariates included patient baseline characteristics (ie, age, sex, comorbidities) and index DMD type. Results The analysis included 7,207 self-injectable and 1,175 oral DMD-treated patients with MS. In unadjusted analyses, the proportion of patients adherent to therapy (MPR ≥0.8) did not differ significantly between the self-injectable (54.1%) and the oral DMD cohorts (53.0%; P=0.5075). After controlling for covariates, index DMD type was not a significant predictor of adherence (odds ratio [OR] 1.062; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.937–1.202; P=0.3473). Higher likelihood of adherence was associated with male sex (OR 1.20; 95% CI: 1.085–1.335; P=0.0005) and age groups older than 18–34 years (ORs 1.220–1.331; P<0.01). Depression was associated with a lower likelihood of adherence (OR 0.618; 95% CI: 0.511–0.747; P<0.0001). Conclusion Male sex and age older than 18–34 years were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of adherence, while depression was associated with a lower likelihood of adherence. Index DMD type

  9. Investigation of confined placental mosaicism (CPM) at multiple sites in post-delivery placentas derived through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

    PubMed

    Minor, Agata; Harmer, Karynn; Peters, Nicole; Yuen, Basil Ho; Ma, Sai

    2006-01-01

    Although earlier studies on pregnancies derived through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) reported increased non-mosaic aneuploidy among ICSI children, undetected mosaicism, such as confined placental mosaicism (CPM) has not been evaluated. We investigated the incidence of CPM in post-delivery placentas derived from ICSI, evaluated whether CPM was increased and whether it was a contributing factor to negative pregnancy outcome. [Fifty-one post-delivery placentas were collected from patients who underwent ICSI with a normal or negative pregnancy outcome]. Trophoblast and chorionic stroma from three sites were analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and flow cytometry. Detected abnormalities were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The incidence of CPM in the ICSI population was compared to the general population from published data. We detected three cases of CPM in our study. One abnormality was found by CGH analysis; partial trisomy 7q and a partial monosomy Xp limited to the trophoblast at two sites. The abnormality was associated with a child affected by spina bifida. Two cases of mosaic tetraploidy were observed by flow cytometry in pregnancies with a normal outcome. All three abnormalities were confirmed by FISH analysis. The incidence of CPM in the ICSI study population was 5.88% (3/51), which was not statistically different from published reports in the general population (5.88% (42/714), Chi square, P > 0.05). The post-ICSI population was not at risk for CPM in this study.

  10. A nanoparticulate injectable hydrogel as a tissue engineering scaffold for multiple growth factor delivery for bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Dyondi, Deepti; Webster, Thomas J; Banerjee, Rinti

    2013-01-01

    Gellan xanthan gels have been shown to be excellent carriers for growth factors and as matrices for several tissue engineering applications. Gellan xanthan gels along with chitosan nanoparticles of 297 ± 61 nm diameter, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) were employed in a dual growth factor delivery system to promote the differentiation of human fetal osteoblasts. An injectable system with ionic and temperature gelation was optimized and characterized. The nanoparticle loaded gels showed significantly improved cell proliferation and differentiation due to the sustained release of growth factors. A differentiation marker study was conducted, analyzed, and compared to understand the effect of single vs dual growth factors and free vs encapsulated growth factors. Dual growth factor loaded gels showed a higher alkaline phosphatase and calcium deposition compared to single growth factor loaded gels. The results suggest that encapsulation and stabilization of growth factors within nanoparticles and gels are promising for bone regeneration. Gellan xanthan gels also showed antibacterial effects against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis, the common pathogens in implant failure. PMID:23293519

  11. Structural evolution of the Irtysh Shear Zone: implication for the Late Paleozoic amalgamation of multiple arc systems in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengfei; Sun, Min; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2015-04-01

    The NW-SE Irtysh Shear Zone represents a major tectonic boundary in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, recording the amalgamation history between the peri-Siberian orogenic system and the Kazakhstan orogenic system. The structural evolution and geodynamics of this shear zone is still poorly documented. Here we present new structural data complemented by chronological data in an attempt to unravel the geodynamic significance of the Irtysh Shear Zone in the context of accretion history of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Our results show three episodes of deformation for the shear zone. D1 foliation is locally recognized in low strain area and recorded by garnet inclusions, whereas D2 is represented by a sub-horizontal fabric and related NW-SE lineation. D3 is characterized by a transpersonal deformation event, to form a series of NW-SE mylonitic belts with sinistral kinematics, and to overprint D2 fabric forming regional-scale NW-SE upright folds. A paragneiss sample from the shear zone yielded the youngest detrital zircon peaks in the late Carboniferous, placing a maximum age constraint on the deformation, which overlaps in time with the late Paleozoic collision between the Chinese Altai and the intraoceanic arc system of the East Junggar and West Junggar. We interpret three episodes of deformation to represent orogenic thickening (D1), collapse (D2) and thickening (D3) in response to this collisional event. Sinistral shearing (D3) together with the coeval dextral shearing in the Tianshan accommodate eastward extrusion of the Kazakhstan orogenic system during the late Paleozoic amalgamation of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Acknowledgements: This study was financially supported by the Major Basic Research Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant: 2014CB440801), Hong Kong Research Grant Council (HKU705311P and HKU704712P), National Science Foundation of China (41273048, 41273012) and a HKU CRCG grant. The work is a contribution of the Joint

  12. Cycle-to-cycle extraction synchronization of the Fermilab Booster for multiple batch injection to the Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Zwaska, R.; Kopp, S.; Pellico, W.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    We report on a system to ensure cycle-to-cycle synchronization of beam extraction from the Fermilab Booster accelerator to the Main Injector. Such synchronization is necessary for multiple batch operation of the Main Injector for the Run II upgrade of anti-proton production using slip-stacking in the Main Injector, and for the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) neutrino beam. To perform this task a system of fast measurements and feedback controls the longitudinal progress of the Booster beam throughout its acceleration period by manipulation of the transverse position maintained by the LLRF (Low-level Radio Frequency) system.

  13. Compound porcine cerebroside and ganglioside injection attenuates cerebral ischemia–reperfusion injury in rats by targeting multiple cellular processes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingyang; Zhang, Yi; Feng, Lu; Zheng, Ji; Fan, Shujie; Liu, Junya; Yang, Nan; Liu, Yanyong; Zuo, Pingping

    2017-01-01

    Background Compound porcine cerebroside and ganglioside injection (CPCGI) is a neurotrophic drug used clinically to treat certain functional disorders of brain. Despite its extensive usage throughout China, the exact mechanistic targets of CPCGI are unknown. This study was carried out to investigate the protective effect of CPCGI against ischemic neuronal damage in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) reperfusion injury and to investigate the neuroprotective mechanisms of CPCGI. Materials and methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to MCAO surgery for 2 hours followed by reperfusion. The rats were administered CPCGI once a day for 14 days after reperfusion, and behavioral tests were performed 1, 3, 7, and 14 days post MCAO. Hematoxylin–eosin staining was used to measure infarct volume, and immunohistochemical analysis was performed to determine the number of NeuN-positive neurons in the ischemic cortex penumbra. Finally, the relative expression levels of proteins associated with apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax, and GADD45α), synaptic function (Synaptophysin, SNAP25, Syntaxin, and Complexin-1/2), and mitochondrial function (KIFC2 and UCP3) were determined by Western blot. Results CPCGI treatment reduced infarct size, decreased neurological deficit scores, and accelerated the recovery of somatosensory function 14 days after MCAO. In addition, CPCGI reduced the loss of NeuN-positive cells in the ischemic cortex penumbra. In the ischemic cortex, CPCGI treatment decreased GADD45α expression, increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, augmented Synaptophysin, SNAP25, and Complexin-1/2 expression, and increased the expression of KIFC2 and UCP3 compared with sham rats 14 days after MCAO reperfusion injury. Conclusion CPCGI displays neuroprotective properties in rats subjected to MCAO injury by inhibiting apoptosis and improving synaptic and mitochondrial function. PMID:28392696

  14. Injection of Aβ1-40 into hippocampus induced cognitive lesion associated with neuronal apoptosis and multiple gene expressions in the tree shrew.

    PubMed

    Lin, Na; Xiong, Liu-Lin; Zhang, Rong-Ping; Zheng, Hong; Wang, Lei; Qian, Zhong-Yi; Zhang, Piao; Chen, Zhi-Wei; Gao, Fa-Bao; Wang, Ting-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) can incur significant health care costs to the patient, their families, and society; furthermore, effective treatments are limited, as the mechanisms of AD are not fully understood. This study utilized twelve adult male tree shrews (TS), which were randomly divided into PBS and amyloidbetapeptide1-40 (Aβ1-40) groups. AD model was established via an intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of Aβ1-40 after being incubated for 4 days at 37 °C. Behavioral, pathophysiological and molecular changes were evaluated by hippocampal-dependent tasks, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), silver staining, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, TUNEL assay and gene sequencing, respectively. At 4 weeks post-injection, as compared with the PBS group, in Aβ1-40 injected animals: cognitive impairments happened, and the hippocampus had atrophied indicated by MRI findings; meanwhile, HE staining showed the cells of the CA3 and DG were significantly thinner and smaller. The average number of cells in the DG, but not the CA3, was also significantly reduced; furthermore, silver staining revealed neurotic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the hippocampi; TUNEL assay showed many cells exhibited apoptosis, which was associated with downregulated BCL-2/BCL-XL-associated death promoter (Bad), inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP), Cytochrome c (CytC) and upregulated tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1); lastly, gene sequencing reported a total of 924 mobilized genes, among which 13 of the downregulated and 19 of the upregulated genes were common to the AD pathway. The present study not only established AD models in TS, but also reported on the underlying mechanism involved in neuronal apoptosis associated with multiple gene expression.

  15. Combining Phylogeography with Distribution Modeling: Multiple Pleistocene Range Expansions in a Parthenogenetic Gecko from the Australian Arid Zone

    PubMed Central

    Strasburg, Jared L.; Kearney, Michael; Moritz, Craig; Templeton, Alan R.

    2007-01-01

    Phylogenetic and geographic evidence suggest that many parthenogenetic organisms have evolved recently and have spread rapidly. These patterns play a critical role in our understanding of the relative merits of sexual versus asexual reproductive modes, yet their interpretation is often hampered by a lack of detail. Here we present a detailed phylogeographic study of a vertebrate parthenogen, the Australian gecko Heteronotia binoei, in combination with statistical and biophysical modeling of its distribution during the last glacial maximum. Parthenogenetic H. binoei occur in the Australian arid zone and have the widest range of any known vertebrate parthenogen. They are broadly sympatric with their sexual counterparts, from which they arose via hybridization. We have applied nested clade phylogeographic, effective migration, and mismatch distribution analyses to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences obtained for 319 individuals sampled throughout the known geographic ranges of two parthenogenetic mitochondrial lineages. These analyses provide strong evidence for past range expansion events from west to east across the arid zone, and for continuing eastward range expansion. Parthenogen formation and range expansion events date to the late Pleistocene, with one lineage expanding from the northwest of its present range around 240,000 years ago and the second lineage expanding from the far west around 70,000 years ago. Statistical and biophysical distribution models support these inferences of recent range expansion, with suitable climatic conditions during the last glacial maximum most likely limited to parts of the arid zone north and west of much of the current ranges of these lineages. Combination of phylogeographic analyses and distribution modeling allowed considerably stronger inferences of the history of this complex than either would in isolation, illustrating the power of combining complementary analytical approaches. PMID:17712408

  16. Architecture, implementation, and testing of a multiple-shell gas injection system for high current implosions on the Z accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Mahadevan; Elliott, Kristi Wilson; Madden, Robert E.; Coleman, P. L.; Thompson, John R.; Bixler, Alex; Lamppa, D. C.; McKenney, J. L.; Strizic, T.; Johnson, D.; Johns, O.; Vigil, M. P.; Jones, B.; Ampleford, D. J.; Savage, M. E.; Cuneo, M. E.; Jones, M. C.

    2013-06-01

    Tests are ongoing to conduct ˜20 MA z-pinch implosions on the Z accelerator at Sandia National Laboratory using Ar, Kr, and D2 gas puffs as the imploding loads. The relatively high cost of operations on a machine of this scale imposes stringent requirements on the functionality, reliability, and safety of gas puff hardware. Here we describe the development of a prototype gas puff system including the multiple-shell nozzles, electromagnetic drivers for each nozzle's valve, a UV pre-ionizer, and an inductive isolator to isolate the ˜2.4 MV machine voltage pulse present at the gas load from the necessary electrical and fluid connections made to the puff system from outside the Z vacuum chamber. This paper shows how the assembly couples to the overall Z system and presents data taken to validate the functionality of the overall system.

  17. Architecture, implementation, and testing of a multiple-shell gas injection system for high current implosions on the Z accelerator.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Mahadevan; Elliott, Kristi Wilson; Madden, Robert E; Coleman, P L; Thompson, John R; Bixler, Alex; Lamppa, D C; McKenney, J L; Strizic, T; Johnson, D; Johns, O; Vigil, M P; Jones, B; Ampleford, D J; Savage, M E; Cuneo, M E; Jones, M C

    2013-06-01

    Tests are ongoing to conduct ~20 MA z-pinch implosions on the Z accelerator at Sandia National Laboratory using Ar, Kr, and D2 gas puffs as the imploding loads. The relatively high cost of operations on a machine of this scale imposes stringent requirements on the functionality, reliability, and safety of gas puff hardware. Here we describe the development of a prototype gas puff system including the multiple-shell nozzles, electromagnetic drivers for each nozzle's valve, a UV pre-ionizer, and an inductive isolator to isolate the ~2.4 MV machine voltage pulse present at the gas load from the necessary electrical and fluid connections made to the puff system from outside the Z vacuum chamber. This paper shows how the assembly couples to the overall Z system and presents data taken to validate the functionality of the overall system.

  18. Multiple-state interfacial electron injection competes with excited state relaxation and de-excitation to determine external quantum efficiencies of organic dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Yang, Lin; Yan, Cancan; Ma, Wentao; Wang, Peng

    2014-10-14

    A comprehensive description of the complicated dynamics of excited state evolution and charge transfer at the photochemical interface in dye-sensitized solar cells is crucial to understand the mechanism of converting solar photons to clean electricity, providing an informative basis for the future development of advanced organic materials. By selecting two triarylamine-based organic donor-acceptor dyes characteristic of the respective benzoic acid and cyanoacrylic acid anchors, in this paper we reveal stepwise excited state relaxations and multiple-state electron injections at a realistic titania/dye/electrolyte interface based upon ultrafast spectroscopic measurements and theoretical simulations. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations show that the optically generated "hot" excited state of the dye molecules can undergo a significant conformational relaxation via multistage torsional motions, and thereby transform into an equilibrium quinonoid structure characteristic of a more planar conjugated backbone. A set of kinetic parameters derived from the target analysis of femtosecond transient absorption spectra have been utilized to estimate the electron injection yield, which is in good accord with the maximum of external quantum efficiencies.

  19. Precise and high-speed control of partial pressures of multiple gas species in plasma process chamber using pulse-controlled gas injection

    SciTech Connect

    Morishita, Sadaharu; Goto, Tetsuya; Nagase, Masaaki; Ohmi, Tadahiro

    2009-05-15

    Multiprocesses in a single plasma process chamber with high throughput require precise, sequential, high-speed alteration of partial pressures of multiple gas species. A conventional gas-distribution system cannot realize this because the system seriously overshoots gas pressure immediately following valve operation. Furthermore, chamber volume and conductance of gas piping between the system and chamber should both be considered because they delay the stabilizing time of gas pressure. Therefore, the authors proposed a new gas-distribution system without overshoot by controlling gas flow rate based on pressure measurement, as well as a method of pulse-controlled gas injection immediately following valve operation. Time variation of measured partial pressure agrees well with a calculation based on an equivalent-circuit model that represents the chamber and gas piping between the system and chamber. Using pulse-controlled gas injection, the stabilizing time can be reduced drastically to 0.6 s for HBr added to pure Ar plasma, and 0.7 s for O{sub 2} added to Ar/HBr plasma; without the pulse control, the stabilizing times are 3 and 7 s, respectively. In the O{sub 2} addition case, rapid stabilization can be achieved during the period of line/space pattern etching of poly-Si on a thin SiO{sub 2} film. This occurs without anomalous etching of the underlying SiO{sub 2} film or the Si substrate near the sidewall, thus obtaining a wide process margin with high throughput.

  20. Current-injection two-color lasing in a wafer-bonded coupled multilayer cavity with InGaAs multiple quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, Yasuo; Ota, Hiroto; Lu, Xiangmeng; Kumagai, Naoto; Kitada, Takahiro; Isu, Toshiro

    2017-04-01

    Current-injection two-color lasing has been demonstrated using a GaAs/AlGaAs coupled multilayer cavity that is a good candidate for novel terahertz-emitting devices based on difference-frequency generation (DFG) inside the structure. The coupled cavity structure was fabricated by the direct wafer bonding of (001)- and (113)B-oriented epitaxial wafers for the efficient DFG of two modes in the (113)B side cavity, and two types of InGaAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs) were introduced only in the (001) side cavity as optical gain materials. The threshold behavior was clearly observed in the current–light output curve even at room temperature. Two-color lasing was successfully observed when the gain peaks of MQWs were considerably tuned to the cavity modes by the operating temperature.

  1. Screening for multiple phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor drugs in dietary supplement materials by flow injection mass spectrometry and their quantification by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Song, Fenhong; El-Demerdash, Aref; Lee, Shwn-Ji Susie H

    2012-11-01

    A flow injection tandem mass spectrometry method (FI-MS/MS) has been developed to detect enzyme phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, including tadalafil, sildenafil, and vardenafil. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used to detect the drugs and product ion ratios were used for identification. FI-MS/MS was used for semi-quantification and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for further confirmation and quantification. One of 13 samples has been found to be adulterated with prescription levels of tadalafil and also low level of sildenafil. The method can be used for screening large numbers of herbal products for adulteration since it takes less than 1 min without chromatographic separation on a column.

  2. Experimental validation of spatial Fourier transform-based multiple sound zone generation with a linear loudspeaker array.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Takuma; Sakaguchi, Atsushi

    2017-03-01

    Generating acoustically bright and dark zones using loudspeakers is gaining attention as one of the most important acoustic communication techniques for such uses as personal sound systems and multilingual guide services. Although most conventional methods are based on numerical solutions, an analytical approach based on the spatial Fourier transform with a linear loudspeaker array has been proposed, and its effectiveness has been compared with conventional acoustic energy difference maximization and presented by computer simulations. To describe the effectiveness of the proposal in actual environments, this paper investigates the experimental validation of the proposed approach with rectangular and Hann windows and compared it with three conventional methods: simple delay-and-sum beamforming, contrast maximization, and least squares-based pressure matching using an actually implemented linear array of 64 loudspeakers in an anechoic chamber. The results of both the computer simulations and the actual experiments show that the proposed approach with a Hann window more accurately controlled the bright and dark zones than the conventional methods.

  3. Microstructures and strain variation: Evidence of multiple splays in the North Almora Thrust Zone, Kumaun Lesser Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Gaurav; Agarwal, Amar; Agarwal, K. K.; Srivastava, Samriddhi; Alva Valdivia, L. M.

    2017-01-01

    The North Almora Thrust zone (NATZ) marks the boundary of the Almora Crystalline Complex (ACC) against the Lesser Himalayan Sedimentary sequence (LHS) in the north. Its southern counterpart, the South Almora Thrust (SAT), is a sharply marked contact between the ACC and the LHS in the south. Published studies argue various contradictory emplacement modes of the North Almora Thrust. Recent studies have implied splays of smaller back thrusts in the NATZ. The present study investigates meso- and microstructures, and strain distribution in the NATZ and compares it with strain distribution across the SAT. In the NATZ, field evidence reveals repeated sequence of 10-500 m thick slices of proto- to ultra-mylonite, thrust over the Lesser Himalayan Rautgara quartzite. In accordance with the field evidence, the strain analysis reveals effects of splays of smaller thrust in the NATZ. The study therefore, argues that contrary to popular nomenclature the northern contact of the ACC with the LHS is not a single thrust plane, but a thrust zone marked by numerous thrust splays.

  4. Etanercept Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection comes as a solution (liquid) in a prefilled syringe and an automatic injection device, and as a ... etanercept injection.If your medication comes in a prefilled syringe or automatic injection device, use each syringe or ...

  5. Characterizing multiple sources and interaction in the critical zone through Sr-isotope tracing of surface and groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrel, Philippe; Pauwels, Hélène

    2017-04-01

    The Critical Zone (CZ) is the lithosphere-atmosphere boundary where complex physical, chemical and biological processes occurs and control the transfer and storage of water and chemical elements. This is the place where life-sustaining resources are, where nutrients are being released from the rocks. Because it is the place where we are living, this is a fragile zone, a critical zone as a perturbed natural ecosystem. Water resources in hard-rocks commonly involve different hydrogeological compartments such as overlying sediments, weathered rock, the weathered-fissured zone, and fractured bedrock. Streams, lakes and wetlands that drain such environments can drain groundwater, recharge groundwater, or do both. Groundwater resources in many countries are increasingly threatened by growing demand, wasteful use, and contamination. Surface water and shallow groundwater are particularly vulnerable to pollution, while deeper resources are more protected from contamination. Here, we first report on Sr isotope data as well as major ions, from shallow and deep groundwater in several granite and schist areas over France with intensive agriculture covering large parts of these catchments. In three granite and Brioverian 'schist' areas of the Armorican Massif, the range in Sr contents in groundwater from different catchments agrees with previous work on groundwater sampled from granites in France. The Sr content is well correlated with Mg and both are partly related to agricultural practices and water rock interaction. The relationship between Sr- isotope and Mg/Sr ratios allow defining the different end-members, mainly rain, agricultural practice and water-rock interaction. The data from the Armorican Massif and other surface and groundwater for catchment draining silicate bedrocks (300-450Ma) like the Hérault, Seine, Moselle, Garonne, Morvan, Margeride, Cantal, Pyrénées and Vosges are scattered between at least three geochemical signatures. These include fertilizer and

  6. Multiplicity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    practice as a "[descent] into that inner circle of the Inferno where the damned endlessly degate multiplicity for sentencing." United States v. Barnard...select the charges to be brought in a particular case"). 19 Brown v. Ohio, 432 U.S. 161, 165 (1977). 20 Whalen v. United States, 445 U.S. at 689. 21...parte Lange, 8-5 U.S. (19 Wall.) 163 (1874). Cf. Brown v. Ohio, 432 U.S. at 165 ("once the legislature has acted courts may not impose more than one

  7. Clostridial antibody response from injection-site lesions in beef cattle, long-term response to single or multiple doses, and response in newborn beef calves.

    PubMed

    Troxel, T R; Gadberry, M S; Wallace, W T; Kreider, D L; Shockey, J D; Colburn, E A; Widel, P; Nicholson, I

    2001-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare clostridial antibody response of beef heifers that do and do not develop injection-site lesions, evaluate long-term antibody response of a single- and multiple-dose toxoid, and evaluate the ability of a clostridial toxoid to elicit an active antibody response in newborn calves. In Exp. 1, 37 weaned heifers were vaccinated (d 0) with a clostridial vaccine (Alpha-7, 2 mL, s.c.). Serum samples were collected on d 0, 28, 56, 84, and 112 to determine clostridial antibody titers. On d 28, heifers were visually inspected and palpated for injection-site lesions. The percentage of heifers that developed lesions was 64.9%. Lesioned heifers had elevated antibody titers for Clostridium chauvoei (CC) on d 28 (P < 0.08) and 84 (P < 0.07) compared with non-lesioned heifers. Clostridium sordellii (CS) and perfringens type D (CPD) antibody titers were greater in lesioned heifers than in non-lesioned heifers on d 28 and 56. In Exp. 2, long-term antibody response of Alpha-7 (A7) and Ultrabac 7 (UB7) was investigated in stocker heifers. The A7 heifers (n = 15) received one 2-mL vaccination (d 0), and the UB7 heifers (n = 15) received a 5-mL vaccination on d 0 and 28. Blood samples were collected on d 0, 28, 56, 84, 112, 140, and 180. Clostridium chauvoei, CPD, and Cl. novyi (CN) antibody titers from the A7 heifers were greater than those from the UB7 heifers on d 28. Due to the second UB7 injection, CC, CS, CN, and Cl. perfringens type C (CPC) antibody titers were greater in UB7 heifers than in A7 heifers on d 56. By d 112, titers were not different, and by d 140 all antibody titers were below detectable levels. In Exp. 3, 58 pregnant, mature, crossbred cows were vaccinated with A7 before calving. At birth, calves were carefully observed to ensure consumption of colostrum. Calves were blocked according to parturition date, and calves in each block were randomly allocated to receive A7 (s.c. at 3 +/- 3 d of age) or remain unvaccinated controls

  8. Clinical evaluation of expanded mesh connective tissue graft in the treatment for multiple adjacent gingival recessions in the esthetic zone

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, M.; Shivakumar, B.; Meenapriya, B.; Anitha, V.; Ashwath, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multiple approaches have been used to replace lost, damaged or diseased gingival tissues. The connective tissue graft (CTG) procedure is the golden standard method for root coverage. Although multiple sites often need grafting, the palatal mucosa supplies only a limited area of grafting material. To overcome this limitation, expanded mesh graft provides a method whereby a graft can be stretched to cover a large area. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and the predictability of expanded mesh CTG (e-MCTG) in the treatment of adjacent multiple gingival recessions. Materials and Methods: Sixteen patients aged 20–50 years contributed to 55 sites, each site falling into at least three adjacent Miller's Class 1 or Class 2 gingival recession. The CTG obtained from the palatal mucosa was expanded to cover the recipient bed, which was 1.5 times larger than the graft. Clinical measurements were recorded at baseline and 3 months, 12 months postoperatively. Results: A mean coverage of 1.96 mm ± 0.66 mm and 2.22 mm ± 0.68 mm was obtained at the end of 3rd and 12th month, respectively. Twelve months after surgery a statistically significant increase in CAL (2.2 mm ± 0.68 mm, P < 0.001) and increasing WKT (1.75 ± 0.78, P < 0.001) were obtained. In 80% of the treated sites, 100% root coverage was achieved (mean 93.5%). Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated that multiple adjacent recessions were treated by using e-MCTG technique can be applied and highly predictable root coverage can be achieved. PMID:26321829

  9. Cloud point sample clean-up and capillary zone electrophoresis with field enhanced sample injection and micelle to solvent stacking for the analysis of herbicides in milk.

    PubMed

    Kukusamude, Chunyapuk; Srijaranai, Supalax; Kato, Masaru; Quirino, Joselito P

    2014-07-18

    Sample clean-up by cloud point phase separation and analysis by capillary electrophoresis with stacking was developed for quaternary ammonium herbicides (i.e., paraquat and diquat) in milk. For sample clean-up, a mixture of 845μL of milk sample, 5μL of 100mM phosphoric acid, and 150μL of Triton X-114 was heated (60°C for 2min) and centrifugated (3000rpm for 2min) in 2-mL Eppendorf tube. The upper phase was directly analysed by capillary electrophoresis via electrokinetic injection at 10kV for 150s. The separation electrolyte was 100mM phosphate buffer with 20% acetonitrile at pH 2.5. Before sample injection, a micellar solution (10mM SDS in 80mM phosphate buffer at pH 2.5) and an organic solvent rich solution (30% ACN) was hydrodynamically introduced into the capillary. These solutions provided the necessary conditions for stacking the cationic herbicides via the combination of field enhanced sample injection and micelle to solvent stacking. The LODs (S/N=3) obtained from the entire strategy for paraquat and diquat in milk was 0.004 and 0.018μg/mL, respectively. This is 1.5 to >2 orders of magnitude better than the corresponding LODs obtained from the electrophoretic analysis of herbicide standards prepared in the separation electrolyte. The strategy was also successfully applied to 5 milk samples available in the market. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Coupled Formulation for Vadose Zone Transport of Multiple Gas Species With Plant Exchange Under Variable Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stothoff, S. A.

    2008-12-01

    Most plants require a balance between water availability and oxygen availability in the rooting zone. Procedures for raising plants under microgravity conditions, such as might be encountered in long-term space missions, face a special challenge: water redistribution is not affected by gravity, leading to difficulty in maintaining both water and oxygen levels in the rooting zone because flow is dominated by capillary properties. The plant substrate used for microgravity conditions is typically a coarse material that drains extremely rapidly under the fluctuating gravity conditions (0 to 1.8 G) experienced on KC-135 aircraft during flight parabolas. To evaluate control strategies for meeting plant water uptake and respiration needs under microgravity and to characterize flow redistribution under fluctuating gravity, a single formulation considering partial to full saturation was developed to cover this range of conditions. The fully coupled system of equations considers N>1 gaseous species, including water, that are all constituents in the liquid phase and in equilibrium between the gas and liquid phases where both phases are present. Plants are considered as separate quasi steady continua. Plant uptake and respiration, when considered, are defined using (possibly age dependent) transfer functions characterized by root length density. The formulation avoids complexities arising from switching variables when going from very dry to saturated conditions by using variables that are continuous throughout the domain: liquid pressure and N-1 mass fraction variables, expressed as partial capillary pressure. The mass fractions of all species in both phases are recovered from the standard equilibrium conditions used to define the partial capillary pressures. The use of partial capillary pressure state variables is inspired by mass balance considerations near saturation (where capillary pressure is almost zero), because mass balance convergence rates are dominated by the phase

  11. Ducted fuel injection: A new approach for lowering soot emissions from direct-injection engines

    DOE PAGES

    Mueller, Charles J.; Nilsen, Christopher W.; Ruth, Daniel J.; ...

    2017-07-18

    Designers of direct-injection compression-ignition engines use a variety of strategies to improve the fuel/charge-gas mixture within the combustion chamber for increased efficiency and reduced pollutant emissions. Strategies include the use of high fuel-injection pressures, multiple injections, small injector orifices, flow swirl, long-ignition-delay conditions, and oxygenated fuels. This is the first journal publication paper on a new mixing-enhancement strategy for emissions reduction: ducted fuel injection. The concept involves injecting fuel along the axis of a small cylindrical duct within the combustion chamber, to enhance the mixture in the autoignition zone relative to a conventional free-spray configuration (i.e., a fuel spray thatmore » is not surrounded by a duct). Finally, the results described herein, from initial proof-of-concept experiments conducted in a constant-volume combustion vessel, show dramatically lower soot incandescence from ducted fuel injection than from free sprays over a range of charge-gas conditions that are representative of those in modern direct-injection compression-ignition engines.« less

  12. Improved engraftment of human cord blood stem cells in NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice after irradiation or multiple-day injections into unirradiated recipients.

    PubMed

    Lowry, P A; Shultz, L D; Greiner, D L; Hesselton, R M; Kittler, E L; Tiarks, C Y; Rao, S S; Reilly, J; Leif, J H; Ramshaw, H; Stewart, F M; Quesenberry, P J

    1996-02-01

    Human lymphoematopoietic stem cells engraft in irradiated immunodeficient mice that are homozygous for the severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) mutation. Engraftment levels in C.B-17-scid/scid mice, however, have been low and transient, decreasing the utility of this model for investigation of the development potential and function of human stem cells. In the present study, we have used NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice as recipients and human cord blood as a source of donor stem cells. Our results demonstrate that NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice support approximately fivefold higher levels of human stem cell marrow engraftment than do C.B-17-scid/scid mice. Human CD34+ cells are present in the marrow of recipient mice, and the engrafted cells readily peripheralize to the circulation of the host. Terminal differentiation of the stem and progenitor cells into mature progeny is limited. Using a multiple-day injection protocol developed in mice, which allows engraftment of stem cells between congenic mice in the absence of irradiation preconditioning, we observed high levels of human cell engraftment in unirradiated NOD/LtSz-scid/scid recipients after three or five consecutive-day injections. These results demonstrate that NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice support high levels of human stem cell engraftment and that xenogeneic lymphohematopoietic stem cells can engraft in unirradiated hosts without the need for ablative reconditioning. This model will be useful for the in vivo investigation of human stem cells and for the preclinical analysis of human stem cells for transplantation.

  13. Quality of life in Danish children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion or multiple daily injections.

    PubMed

    Birkebaek, N H; Kristensen, L J; Mose, A H; Thastum, M

    2014-12-01

    The aims of the study were to compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a National Danish population of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) treated with either continuous subcutaneous insulin injection (CSII) or multiple daily insulin injections (MDI), and to investigate whether HRQoL assessments were influenced by treatment duration. Participants were recruited through the Danish Registry for Diabetes in Childhood and Adolescence. A total of 700 children and adolescents (360 girls), 8-17 years, were included. Of these, 295 were treated with CSII (160 for more than one year) and 405 with MDI (238 for more than one year). Participants and their parents completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Diabetes and Generic Module. HbA1c was analyzed centrally. Parents reported children and adolescents on CSII for more than one year to have less diabetes-related symptoms and worry, less problems in communicating diabetes, and better generic functioning compared with those on MDI. Children and adolescents on CSII for more than one year reported less diabetes-related symptoms, but more treatment problems, and better generic functioning in all subscales except social functioning compared with those on MDI for more than one year. Comparing those on CSII and MDI for less than one year, no differences in HRQoL ratings were found, apart from better rating of treatment barriers in the MDI group. This Danish national study on HRQoL in children and adolescents on CSII or MDI showed better HRQoL in children and adolescents on long time CSII, particularly concerning generic HRQoL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ExtaviJect® 30G device for subcutaneous self-injection of interferon beta-1b for multiple sclerosis: a prospective European study

    PubMed Central

    Boeru, Gabriel; Milanov, Ivan; De Robertis, Francesca; Kozubski, Wojciech; Lang, Michael; Rojas-Farreras, Sònia; Tomlinson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background The ExtaviJect® 30G autoinjector was developed to facilitate parenteral self-administration of interferon beta-1b (Extavia®), a first-line disease-modifying therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis. Our aim was to assess patient compliance with treatment when using the autoinjector, patients’ and nurses’ experiences of using the device, its tolerability, and patient satisfaction. Methods This was a 12-week, real-world, prospective, observational, noninterventional study conducted in nine European countries. Questionnaires were used to measure patient compliance and to assess patients’ and nurses’ experiences. All adverse events were recorded by severity, including injection site reactions or pain. Patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life were assessed using the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication-9 (TSQM-9) and EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) instruments, respectively. Results Of 582 patients enrolled, 568 (98%) received at least one injection and attended the first follow-up visit at 6 weeks, and 542 (93%) attended the second follow-up visit at 12 weeks. For the whole study, 548 of 568 (97%) patients were compliant with treatment. Among the various questions assessing whether the device was easy and quick to use accurately, without fear of the needle, 56%–98% of patients and 59%–98% of nurses were in agreement. There were nine serious adverse events (four disease-related) reported among the 227 (39%) patients reporting adverse events. Scores increased in the TSQM-9 convenience domain between weeks 6 and 12 (P=0.0009), and in the EQ-5D visual analog scale between baseline and week 12 (P<0.0001), indicating improvement in health-related quality of life. Conclusion ExtaviJect 30G was convenient to use and was associated with high levels of compliance. PMID:24255602

  15. Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of intravenous ibuprofen injection in healthy Chinese volunteers: a randomized, open-label, single- and multiple-dose study
.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huili; Xu, Wei; Wu, Guolan; Wu, Lihua; Shentu, Jianzhong; Pan, Zhengfei; Hu, Shuai; Liu, Yang

    2016-11-01

    Recently a formulation of intravenous (IV) ibuprofen was developed in China for management of mild to moderate pain in patients who could not take oral medications or where intravenous administration was preferable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties and tolerability of single and multiple doses of ibuprofen injection in healthy Chinese volunteers. This open-label, single- and multiple-dose study was conducted in healthy Chinese volunteers. In the single-dose phase, subjects were randomized to receive a single dose of ibuprofen injection 0.2, 0.4, or 0.8 g administered as a 30-minute IV infusion with a 1-week washout between periods. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals from 0 to 12.5 hours after drug administration and were analyzed using a validated LC-MS/MS method. In the multiple-dose phase, subjects received 0.4 g ibuprofen every 6 hours for 9 doses. Blood samples were obtained before the 7th, 8th, and 9th administration to determine the Cmin at steady state; on the 9th intravenous administration, blood samples were also collected for 12.5 hours after drug administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using a noncompartmental model. Tolerability was determined using clinical evaluation and monitoring of adverse events (AEs). A total of 12 healthy male (n = 6) and female (n = 6) Chinese volunteers were enrolled and completed the trial. After IV administration of single dose, the mean (SD) Cmax value increased from 35.77 (6.98) to 117.12 (19.78) µg/mL, and the mean (SD) AUC0-t value increased from 67.63 (10.30) to 230.50 (33.55) µg×h/mL in the range of 0.2-g to 0.8-g dose. The terminal half-life in plasma was ~ 2.0 hours. After IV administration of 9 doses of ibuprofen 400 mg every 6 hours, the mean (SD) Cmax was 66.49 (8.49) µg/mL, the AUC0-t was 135.65 (26.91) µg×h/mL, the t1

  16. Multiple mantle upwellings in the transition zone beneath the northern East-African Rift system from relative P-wave travel-time tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civiero, Chiara; Hammond, James O. S.; Goes, Saskia; Fishwick, Stewart; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Ayele, Atalay; Doubre, Cecile; Goitom, Berhe; Keir, Derek; Kendall, J.-Michael; Leroy, Sylvie; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Rümpker, Georg; Stuart, Graham W.

    2015-09-01

    Mantle plumes and consequent plate extension have been invoked as the likely cause of East African Rift volcanism. However, the nature of mantle upwelling is debated, with proposed configurations ranging from a single broad plume connected to the large low-shear-velocity province beneath Southern Africa, the so-called African Superplume, to multiple lower-mantle sources along the rift. We present a new P-wave travel-time tomography model below the northern East-African, Red Sea, and Gulf of Aden rifts and surrounding areas. Data are from stations that span an area from Madagascar to Saudi Arabia. The aperture of the integrated data set allows us to image structures of ˜100 km length-scale down to depths of 700-800 km beneath the study region. Our images provide evidence of two clusters of low-velocity structures consisting of features with diameter of 100-200 km that extend through the transition zone, the first beneath Afar and a second just west of the Main Ethiopian Rift, a region with off-rift volcanism. Considering seismic sensitivity to temperature, we interpret these features as upwellings with excess temperatures of 100 ± 50 K. The scale of the upwellings is smaller than expected for lower mantle plume sources. This, together with the change in pattern of the low-velocity anomalies across the base of the transition zone, suggests that ponding or flow of deep-plume material below the transition zone may be spawning these upper mantle upwellings. This article was corrected on 28 SEP 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  17. ESTIMATING FATE AND TRANSPORT OF MULTIPLE CONTAMINANTS IN THE VADOSE ZONE USING A MULTI-LAYERED SOIL COLUMN AND THREE-PHASE EQUILIBRIUM PARTITIONING MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Rucker, G

    2007-05-01

    Soils at waste sites must be evaluated for the potential of residual soil contamination to leach and migrate to the groundwater beneath the disposal area. If migration to the aquifer occurs, contaminants can travel vast distances and contaminate drinking water wells, thus exposing human receptors to harmful levels of toxins and carcinogens. To prevent groundwater contamination, a contaminant fate and transport analysis is necessary to assess the migration potential of residual soil contaminates. This type of migration analysis is usually performed using a vadose zone model to account for complex geotechnical and chemical variables including: contaminant decay, infiltration rate, soil properties, vadose zone thickness, and chemical behavior. The distinct advantage of using a complex model is that less restrictive, but still protective, soil threshold levels may be determined avoiding the unnecessary and costly remediation of marginally contaminated soils. However, the disadvantage of such modeling is the additional cost for data collection and labor required to apply these models. In order to allay these higher costs and to achieve a less restrictive but still protective clean-up level, a multiple contaminant and multi layered soil column equilibrium partitioning model was developed which is faster, simpler and less expensive to use.

  18. Estimating fate and transport of multiple contaminants in the vadose zone using a multi-layered soil column and three-phase equilibrium partitioning model

    SciTech Connect

    Rucker, Gregory G.

    2007-07-01

    Soils at waste sites must be evaluated for the potential of residual soil contamination to leach and migrate to the groundwater beneath the disposal area. If migration to the aquifer occurs, contaminants can travel vast distances and pollute drinking water wells, thus exposing human receptors to harmful levels of toxins and carcinogens. To prevent groundwater contamination, a contaminant fate and transport analysis is necessary to assess the migration potential of residual soil contaminants. This type of migration analysis is usually performed using a vadose zone model to account for complex geotechnical and chemical variables including: decay processes, infiltration rate, soil properties, vadose zone thickness, and chemical behavior. The distinct advantage of using a complex model is that less restrictive, but still protective, soil threshold levels may be determined avoiding the unnecessary and costly remediation of marginally contaminated soils. However, the disadvantage of such modeling is the additional cost for data collection and labor required to apply these models. In order to allay these higher costs and to achieve a less restrictive but still protective clean-up level, a multiple contaminant and multi layered soil column equilibrium partitioning model was developed which is faster, simpler and less expensive to use. (authors)

  19. Multiple-Code BenchMaek Simulation Stidy of Coupled THMC Processes IN the EXCAVATION DISTURBED ZONE Associated with Geological Nuclear Waste Repositories

    SciTech Connect

    J. Rutqvist; X. Feng; J. Hudson; L. Jing; A. Kobayashi; T. Koyama; P.Pan; H. Lee; M. Rinne; E. Sonnenthal; Y. Yamamoto

    2006-05-08

    An international, multiple-code benchmark test (BMT) study is being conducted within the international DECOVALEX project to analyze coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes in the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) around emplacement drifts of a nuclear waste repository. This BMT focuses on mechanical responses and long-term chemo-mechanical effects that may lead to changes in mechanical and hydrological properties in the EDZ. This includes time-dependent processes such as creep, and subcritical crack, or healing of fractures that might cause ''weakening'' or ''hardening'' of the rock over the long term. Five research teams are studying this BMT using a wide range of model approaches, including boundary element, finite element, and finite difference, particle mechanics, and elasto-plastic cellular automata methods. This paper describes the definition of the problem and preliminary simulation results for the initial model inception part, in which time dependent effects are not yet included.

  20. Geochemical evidence of multiple isolated magma batches in the paired Mamaku and Ohakuri eruption, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bégué, F.; Deering, C. D.; Gravley, D.; kennedy, B.; Chambefort, I. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Central Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) is a rifted-arc where dominantly rhyolitic volcanism is closely related with extensional tectonism. The 240ka paired Mamaku (>145km3) and Ohakuri (>100km3) eruption evacuated rhyolitic magma from the Rotorua and Ohakuri calderas, respectively, which are situated ~35km apart. Structural links between these two calderas have already been mapped, with collateral subsidence features having formed simultaneously as the calderas collapsed. The Mamaku and Ohakuri ignimbrites share pronounced geochemical similarities; they co-erupted three different pumice types each, from a rhyo-dacite (Type 3) to more evolved high-silica rhyolite compositions (Type 2 and 1), with the same mineral assemblage (plagioclase, quartz, orthopyroxene, Fe-Ti oxides), and nearly identical bulk pumice and matrix glass compositions for Type 1 and 2. New data on quartz-hosted melt inclusions, however, show that each type from the Mamaku and the Ohakuri has a distinct signature. The Mamaku melt is distinct from the Ohakuri based on its lower U content (Ma<1ppm, Oh.2-4ppm), higher Cs content (Ma.5-7ppm, Oh.2-5ppm), higher Li (Ma.60-90ppm, Oh.20-55ppm), and higher water by difference (WBD, Ma.~5.2wt%, Oh.~4.4wt%). Likewise, Type 1 and 2 data for the Mamaku and Ohakuri, plot along distinct trends for major and trace elements (e.g. CaO, Rb, Sr). These results rule out crystal fractionation as a potential mechanism for generation of a Type 1 rhyolite from a Type 2, as has been suggested by previous authors. The Ohakuri airfall, which was the first to erupt and is interbedded with the Mamaku ignimbrite, shows geochemical characteristics distinct from Type 1 and 2 melt inclusions from both Mamaku and Ohakuri ignimbrites. While matrix glass compositions are identical to the Type 1 pumice, melt inclusions differ, in recording higher Li and Cs contents. Furthermore no mixing or mingling is observed in the pumices (i.e. melt inclusion from a certain type only occur in the

  1. Carbohydrate counting with an automated bolus calculator helps to improve glycaemic control in children with type 1 diabetes using multiple daily injection therapy: an 18-month observational study.

    PubMed

    Rabbone, Ivana; Scaramuzza, Andrea E; Ignaccolo, Maria Giovanna; Tinti, Davide; Sicignano, Sabrina; Redaelli, Francesca; De Angelis, Laura; Bosetti, Alessandra; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Cerutti, Franco

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of carbohydrate counting (carbC), with or without an automated bolus calculator (ABC), in children with type 1 diabetes treated with multiple daily insulin injections. We evaluated 85 children, aged 9-16 years, with type 1 diabetes, divided into four groups: controls (n=23), experienced carbC (n=19), experienced carbC+ABC (n=18) and non-experienced carbC+ABC (n=25). Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin use, and glycaemic variability - evaluated as high blood glucose index (HBGI) and low blood glucose index (LBGI) - were assessed at baseline and after 6 and 18 months. At baseline, age, disease duration, BMI, HbA1c, insulin use, and HBGI (but not LBGI; p=0.020) were similar for all groups. After 6 months, HbA1c improved from baseline, although not significantly - patients using ABC (according to manufacturer's recommendations) HbA1c 7.14 ± 0.41% at 6 months vs. 7.35 ± 0.53% at baseline, (p=0.136) or without carbC experience HbA1c 7.61±0.62% vs. 7.95 ± 0.99% (p=0.063). Patients using ABC had a better HBGI (p=0.001) and a slightly worse LBGI (p=0.010) than those not using ABC. ABC settings were then personalised. At 18 months, further improvements in HbA1c were seen in children using the ABC, especially in the non-experienced carbC group (-0.42% from baseline; p=0.018). CarbC helped to improve glycaemic control in children with type 1 diabetes using multiple daily injections. ABC use led to greater improvements in HbA1c, HBGI and LBGI compared with patients using only carbC, regardless of experience with carbC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Talimogene Laherparepvec Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Talimogene laherparepvec injection is used to treat certain melanoma (a type of skin cancer) tumors that cannot ... had radiation treatment in the area of the melanoma tumors, multiple myeloma (cancer of the plasma cells ...

  3. Nano- and Macroscale Responses of the Deep Pink Sea Urchin, Strongylocentrotus fragilis, to Multiple Stressors Associated with the Oxygen Minimum Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, K.; Jung, J. Y.; Levin, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    The rapid pace of deoxygenation and ocean acidification associated with anthropogenic climate change on upwelling margins will have differing effects on marine species from the population level down to the nanoscale. Driven by the understudied effects of climate change in the deep sea, we address the question, how will dominant echinoid urchins respond to future changes in multiple stressors (i.e. ocean acidification, deoxygenation, and shoaling of hypoxic water and calcium carbonate saturation horizons) on the southern California continental slope? Samples of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus fragilis, were collected along gradients of multiple hydrographic variables and analyzed for phenotypic variation with respect to multiple climate change stressors (oxygen, pH, and temperature). We compare fitness traits of S. fragilis collected along the continental slope and through the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ), which include growth rate, morphology, and reproductive output, in addition to nanoscale structural and biomechanical test properties. Our results indicate that growth rate of S. fragilis is directly correlated with dissolved oxygen and pH, but not depth or temperature. Reproductive output, as measured by a standard gonad index, was found to be sensitive at the OMZ core (pH 7.40; O2 0.25 mL/L), which suggests a nonlinear response to chemical stressors. Preliminary analysis of mineral density in test pieces imaged using micro- and nano- computed tomography indicates exposure to conditions in the OMZ reduces calcification. This improved understanding of how continental margin urchins differ along natural physicochemical gradients will provide modern-day insight into the threshold tolerances of species to multiple stressors and will help guide future manipulation experiments as well as fisheries and spatial management.

  4. Multiple magmatism in an evolving suprasubduction zone mantle wedge: The case of the composite mafic-ultramafic complex of Gaositai, North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Santosh, M.; Tsunogae, T.; Tang, Li; Teng, Xueming

    2017-07-01

    The suprasubduction zone mantle wedge of active convergent margins is impregnated by melts and fluids leading to the formation of a variety of magmatic and metasomatic rock suites. Here we investigate a composite mafic-ultramafic intrusion at Gaositai, in the northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC). The hornblende gabbro-serpentinite-dunite-pyroxenite-gabbro-diorite suite surrounded by hornblendites of this complex has long been considered to represent an ;Alaskan-type; zoned pluton. We present petrologic, mineral chemical, geochemical and zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf data from the various rock types from Gaositai including hornblende gabbro, serpentinite, dunite, pyroxenite, diorite and the basement hornblendite which reveal the case of multiple melt generation and melt-peridotite interaction. Our new mineral chemical data from the mafic-ultramafic suite exclude an ;Alaskan-type; affinity, and the bulk geochemical features are consistent with subduction-related magmatism with enrichment of LILE (K, Rb, and Ba) and LREE (La and Ce), and depletion of HFSE (Nb, Ta, Zr, and Hf) and HREE. Zircon U-Pb geochronology reveals that the hornblendites surrounding the Gaositai complex are nearly 2 billion years older than the intrusive complex and yield early Paleoproterozoic emplacement ages (2433-2460 Ma), followed by late Paleoproterozoic metamorphism (1897 Ma). The serpentinites trace the history of a long-lived and replenished ancient sub-continental lithospheric mantle with the oldest zircon population dated as 2479 Ma and 1896 Ma, closely corresponding with the ages obtained from the basement rock, followed by Neoproterozoic and Phanerozoic zircon growth. The oldest member in the Gaositai composite intrusion is the dunite that yields emplacement age of 755 Ma, followed by pyroxenite formed through the interaction of slab melt and wedge mantle peridotite at 401 Ma. All the rock suites also carry multiple population of younger zircons ranging in age from Paleozoic to

  5. Expression of multiple Sox genes through embryonic development in the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi is spatially restricted to zones of cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, Christine E; Simmons, David K; Pang, Kevin; Martindale, Mark Q; Baxevanis, Andreas D

    2014-01-01

    The Sox genes, a family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of a high mobility group (HMG) box domain, are among the central groups of developmental regulators in the animal kingdom. They are indispensable in progenitor cell fate determination, and various Sox family members are involved in managing the critical balance between stem cells and differentiating cells. There are 20 mammalian Sox genes that are divided into five major groups (B, C, D, E, and F). True Sox genes have been identified in all animal lineages but not outside Metazoa, indicating that this gene family arose at the origin of the animals. Whole-genome sequencing of the lobate ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi allowed us to examine the full complement and expression of the Sox gene family in this early-branching animal lineage. Our phylogenetic analyses of the Sox gene family were generally in agreement with previous studies and placed five of the six Mnemiopsis Sox genes into one of the major Sox groups: SoxB (MleSox1), SoxC (MleSox2), SoxE (MleSox3, MleSox4), and SoxF (MleSox5), with one unclassified gene (MleSox6). We investigated the expression of five out of six Mnemiopsis Sox genes during early development. Expression patterns determined through in situ hybridization generally revealed spatially restricted Sox expression patterns in somatic cells within zones of cell proliferation, as determined by EdU staining. These zones were located in the apical sense organ, upper tentacle bulbs, and developing comb rows in Mnemiopsis, and coincide with similar zones identified in the cydippid ctenophore Pleurobrachia. Our results are consistent with the established role of multiple Sox genes in the maintenance of stem cell pools. Both similarities and differences in juvenile cydippid stage expression patterns between Mnemiopsis Sox genes and their orthologs from Pleurobrachia highlight the importance of using multiple species to characterize the evolution of development within a given

  6. Expression of multiple Sox genes through embryonic development in the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi is spatially restricted to zones of cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Sox genes, a family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of a high mobility group (HMG) box domain, are among the central groups of developmental regulators in the animal kingdom. They are indispensable in progenitor cell fate determination, and various Sox family members are involved in managing the critical balance between stem cells and differentiating cells. There are 20 mammalian Sox genes that are divided into five major groups (B, C, D, E, and F). True Sox genes have been identified in all animal lineages but not outside Metazoa, indicating that this gene family arose at the origin of the animals. Whole-genome sequencing of the lobate ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi allowed us to examine the full complement and expression of the Sox gene family in this early-branching animal lineage. Results Our phylogenetic analyses of the Sox gene family were generally in agreement with previous studies and placed five of the six Mnemiopsis Sox genes into one of the major Sox groups: SoxB (MleSox1), SoxC (MleSox2), SoxE (MleSox3, MleSox4), and SoxF (MleSox5), with one unclassified gene (MleSox6). We investigated the expression of five out of six Mnemiopsis Sox genes during early development. Expression patterns determined through in situ hybridization generally revealed spatially restricted Sox expression patterns in somatic cells within zones of cell proliferation, as determined by EdU staining. These zones were located in the apical sense organ, upper tentacle bulbs, and developing comb rows in Mnemiopsis, and coincide with similar zones identified in the cydippid ctenophore Pleurobrachia. Conclusions Our results are consistent with the established role of multiple Sox genes in the maintenance of stem cell pools. Both similarities and differences in juvenile cydippid stage expression patterns between Mnemiopsis Sox genes and their orthologs from Pleurobrachia highlight the importance of using multiple species to characterize the evolution of

  7. Vertical distribution, transport, and exchange of carbon in the northeast Pacific Ocean: evidence for multiple zones of biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, David M.; Knauer, George A.

    1984-03-01

    A sediment trap experiment was conducted to investigate the production, decomposition, and transport of organic matter from 0 to 2000 m at a station 100 km northeast of Point Sur, California. Parameters measured included (1) rates of autotrophic production of carbon, (2) vertical depth distributions of total carbon, nitrogen, and living biomass, and (3) downward flux of organic carbon, nitrogen, ATP, RNA, and fecal pellets. Metabolic activity and microbial growth rates (RNA and DNA synthesis) were also estimated in situ, for both the 'suspended' (i.e., samples captured in standard water bottles) and 'sinking' (i.e., samples captured in sediment traps) particles. Daily depth-integrated rates of primary production averaged 564 mg C m -2, of which 10 to 15% was removed from the euphotic zone by sinking, assuming steady-state conditions. The profiles of suspended carbon, nitrogen, C:N ratios, and ATP conformed to previously published concentration-depth profiles from the region. The vertical flux profiles of organic matter, however, revealed two important features that were not evident in the suspended particulate matter profiles. First, there was an obvious mid-water depth increase (i.e., an increase in organic carbon and nitrogen flux with increasing depth) between 700 and 900 m, suggesting horizontal advection or in situ production. Similar flux profiles were also observed for ATP, RNA, and total fecal pellets. Second, the C:N ratios for the sediment trap materials collected at mid-ocean depths (600 to 1200 m) were low compared to values measured for 'suspended' particulate organic materials collected from comparable depths, supporting the in situ production hypothesis. An observed maximum in the rate of RNA and DNA synthesis for microorganisms associated with particles collected at 700 m confirmed that the flux anomalies were the result of in situ microbiological processes rather than horizontal advection. We hypothesize that the in situ activity measured at 700 m

  8. Network Location and Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission among Injecting Drug Users: Results of Multiple Membership Multilevel Modeling of Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Shahesmaeili, Armita; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Soori, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the implementation of harm reduction program, some injecting drug users (IDU) continue to engage in high-risk behaviors. It seems that there are some social factors that contribute to risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission in IDUs. The aim of this study was to analysis the social network of IDUs and examines the effect of network location on HIV transmission risk using the multiple membership multilevel models. Methods From October 2013 to March 2014 we conducted face-to-face interviews on 147 IDUs. We asked participants to nominate up to 20 people whom they had more than causal contact with them during the last month and specify if each nominee is drug injector or not. We defined four Network locations as Core and Peripheries of main components. The risk of HIV transmission for each individual was measured based on 7 items scale. We applied Multiple Membership Multilevel Linear Regression analysis to examine the relationship between network location and HIV transmission risk. We used Stata and UCINET software’s for the analysis of data. Findings The mean age of participants was 37 ± 9.32. Most of the individuals were male, single and educated up to guidance school. Being a core member of the main component as like as being a member of other small components in comparison with Isolates/unlinked significantly increased the HIV Transmission risk. Engagement in methadone maintenance therapies (MMT) was associated with a decrease in HIV transmission score. Conclusion Network analysis is a useful guide to find the most influential members of IDUs network and may have a complementary role for harm reduction program. The efficacy of interventions programs can be reinforced by addressing them to core individuals within the network. Furthermore, it provides the harm reduction staff to find the broader number of IDUs who are usually hard to reach by routine outreach case-finding tasks. PMID:26322205

  9. The carbocyanine dye DiD labels in vitro and in vivo neural stem cells of the subventricular zone as well as myelinated structures following in vivo injection in the lateral ventricle.

    PubMed

    Carradori, Dario; Barreau, Kristell; Eyer, Joël

    2016-02-01

    Carbocyanines are fluorescent lipophilic cationic dyes used since the early 1980s as neuronal tracers. Several applications of these compounds have been developed thanks to their low cell toxicity, lateral diffusion within the cellular membranes, and good photostability. 1,1'-Dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindodicarbocyanine 4-chlorobenzenesulfonate (DiD) is an interesting component of this family because, in addition to the classic carbocyanine properties, it has a longer wavelength compared with its analogues. That makes DiD an excellent carbocyanine for labeling cells and tissues with significant intrinsic fluorescence. Drug encapsulation, drug delivery, and cellular transplantation are also fields using DiD-based systems where having detailed knowledge about its behavior as a single entity is important. Recently, promising studies concerned neural stem cells from the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle in the brain (their natural niche) and their potential therapeutic use. Here, we show that DiD is able to label these stem cells in vitro and present basilar information concerning its pharmacokinetics, concentrations, and microscope protocols. Moreover, when DiD is injected in vivo in the cerebrospinal fluid present in the lateral ventricle of rat, it also labels stem cells as well as myelinated structures of the caudoputamen. This analysis provides a database to consult when planning experiments concerning DiD and neural stem cells from the subventricular zone. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. 40 CFR 148.20 - Petitions to allow injection of a waste prohibited under subpart B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... free of known transmissive faults of fractures and that there is a confining zone above the injection... transmissive faults or fractures and that there is a confining zone above the injection zone. (d) A...

  11. 40 CFR 148.20 - Petitions to allow injection of a waste prohibited under subpart B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... free of known transmissive faults of fractures and that there is a confining zone above the injection... transmissive faults or fractures and that there is a confining zone above the injection zone. (d) A...

  12. Pegfilgrastim Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pegfilgrastim comes as a solution (liquid) in prefilled injection syringes and in a pre-filled automatic injection device (On-body Injector) to inject subcutaneously (under the skin). If you are using pegfilgrastim to ...

  13. Cabazitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used along with prednisone to treat prostate cancer (cancer of a male reproductive organ) that has ... cabazitaxel injection is usually used in men with prostate cancer. If used by pregnant women, cabazitaxel injection can ...

  14. Ondansetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Zofran® Injection ... Ondansetron injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and surgery. Ondansetron is in a ... medications: or any of the ingredients in ondansetron injection. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ...

  15. [Prevalence of Dental Caries in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Treated with Multiple Insulin Injections and that of Individuals without Diabetes].

    PubMed

    Machado, Diogo; Coelho, Ana; Paula, Anabela; Caramelo, Francisco; Carrilho, Francisco; Barros, Luísa; Batista, Carla; Melo, Miguel; Ferreira, Manuel Marques; Carrilho, Eunice

    2017-05-31

    In addition to macro and microvascular complications that are associated with the disease, hyperglycaemia is also a risk factor for several oral complications. The aim of this study is to establish a relationship between dental caries in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus treated with multiple insulin injections and that of individuals without diabetes. It is also an aim to characterize the oral hygiene habits of this population. An observational clinical study of analytical and cross-sectional nature was conducted. Thirty patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 30 individuals without diabetes were observed and questioned about information regarding their medical history. Oral examination was conducted according to the standards of the World Health Organization and ICDAS was used for caries detection. Statistical analysis was performed and the significance level was set at 5%. Patients with diabetes mellitus showed similar caries levels to that of individuals without diabetes. Patients with diabetes mellitus had a higher dental plaque index. Only 10% of the patients having episodes of nocturnal hypoglycaemia brush their teeth after glucose intake. Although there's some controversy in the literature regarding the prevalence of caries in patients with diabetes mellitus, the results are in agreement with a great number of studies. However, patients with diabetes mellitus have a higher plaque index which can be associated with a higher risk for developing certain oral pathologies. No statistically significant association was found between type 1 diabetes mellitus and dental caries.

  16. High resolution surface deformation measurements in Iceland's Northern Volcanic Zone: Unraveling multiple deformation sources using InSAR and GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaans, K. H.; Sigmundsson, F.; Hreinsdóttir, S.; Öfeigsson, B. G.

    2012-04-01

    We study crustal deformation in the Krafla and Theistareykir volcanic systems in the Northern Volcanic Zone of Iceland. Krafla experienced a major rifting episode in 1975-1984, and is also the site of a 60 MW geothermal power station. About 20 km to the north-west of Krafla, Theistareykir is mainly known for its geothermal activity, and plans exist to use the area for geothermal energy extraction. Previous studies have shown several deformation signals in the area, including continuous subsidence of the Krafla caldera, intrusive activity in the Theistareykir central volcano and a broad uplift signal to the north of Krafla. Poor spatial and/or temporal resolution in measurements used during previous studies have made it difficult to correctly identify and separate different signals. Here we present results from a combined study of InSAR and GPS data, which yields deformation maps over wide areas around Krafla and Theistareykir with unprecedented resolution. This allows us to not only obtain new constraints on previously identified displacements, but also reveals a subsidence source at Bjarnarflag geothermal field, in the southern part of Krafla's central volcano. We used Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) time series analysis covering the period 1992-2010, and over 10 years of Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements in the area. For the InSAR analysis, we applied the StaMPS method to analyse data from the ERS-1/2 and the Envisat missions. This resulted in a relative surface displacement map in the radar line-of-sight (LOS) with high spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. GPS measurements provide highly accurate measurements in three dimensions with respect to an absolute reference frame. Campaign GPS measurements in Krafla and Theistareykir have been performed for over 10 years, with an increasingly dense network of stations. In the fall of 2011, we installed a continuous GPS station in both the Krafla and Theistareykir area to further

  17. Multiple mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue organs involving marginal zone B cell lymphoma: organ-specific relationships and the prognostic factors. Consortium for improving survival of lymphoma study.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sung Yong; Kim, Won Seog; Kim, Jin Seok; Kim, Seok Jin; Lee, Suee; Lee, Dae Ho; Won, Jong-Ho; Hwang, In Gyu; Kim, Min Kyoung; Lee, Soon Il; Chae, Yee Soo; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Kang, Hye Jin; Choi, Chul Won; Park, Jinny; Kim, Hyo Jung; Kwon, Jung Hye; Lee, Ho Sup; Lee, Gyeong-Won; Eom, Hyeon Seok; Kwak, Jae-Yong; Lee, Won Sik; Suh, Cheolwon; Kim, Hyo-Jin

    2010-10-01

    According to a previous review, multiple mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-organs involving marginal zone B cell lymphomas (MZLs) are present in 10-30% of patients. However, the clinical features and specific relationships among involved organs are yet to be clearly identified. In this study, we conducted retrospective analyses of multiple MALT organs involving MZLs (MM-MZLs) to identify their clinical features, treatment, prognosis, and specific relationships among involved organs. For analysis, between June 1987 and June 2009, a total of 55 patients from 17 different institutions in Korea, all of whom were histologically diagnosed with MM-MZL, were included in this study. MM-MZL was defined as MZL involving more than 2 different MALT organs. Multiple involvements within one MALT organ (e.g. both side ocular lesions, multiple lung nodules, and multiple stomach lesions, etc.) were excluded from this study. The male/female ratio of the 55 patients was 41/14. The median age of our subjects was 59 years (range 30-82 years). MM-MZL without lymph node (LN) was detected only in 9 patients (36.2%). Bone marrow (BM) involvement was observed in 17 patients (30.9%). The most common site of involvement was the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (25 patients, 45.5%) followed by the lung (40%), Waldeyer's ring (WR) (27.3%), and ocular area (25.5%). Ocular MZLs were commonly accompanied with WR- or lung-MZLs. GI-MZLs were WR or GI-MZLs. Lung-MZLs were frequently observed with ocular and GI-MZLs. WR-MZLs were ocular or GI-MZLs. A total of 53 patients were treated, and 2 on watchful wait. As much as 48 patients received chemotherapy-based treatment. Among them, CR or PR was achieved in 38 patients (79.2%, 95% CI 67-91%). Median time to progression (TTP) was 2.3 years (95% CI 1.4-3.2 years). Cause-specific overall survival (OS) did not reach the median value. The 5-year OS rate was 84.9%. MM-MZLs tend to be an indolent disease, characterized by prolonged survival with frequent

  18. Patient-rated suitability of a novel electronic device for self-injection of subcutaneous interferon beta-1a in relapsing multiple sclerosis: an international, single-arm, multicentre, Phase IIIb study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) currently requires long-term treatment with disease-modifying drugs, administered parenterally up to once daily. The need for regular self-injection can be a barrier to treatment for many patients. Autoinjectors can help patients overcome problems or concerns with self-injection and could, therefore, improve treatment adherence. This study was performed to assess the suitability of a new electronic device for the subcutaneous (sc) administration of interferon (IFN) beta-1a, 44 mcg three times weekly, for relapsing MS. Methods In this Phase IIIb, multicentre, single-arm study, patients with relapsing MS who had been consistently self-injecting sc IFN beta-1a using an autoinjector for at least 6 weeks were taught to use the new device and self-administered treatment for 12 weeks thereafter. Patient-rated suitability of the device was assessed at the end of Week 12 using the Patient User Trial Questionnaire. Patient satisfaction with, and evaluation of, the injection process was assessed using the MS Treatment Concern Questionnaire. Trainers evaluated the device using the Trainer User Trial Questionnaire. Results At Week 12, 71.6% (73/102) of patients considered the device 'very suitable' or 'suitable' for self-injection; 92.2% (94/102) reported some degree of suitability and only 7.8% (8/102) found the device 'not at all suitable'. At Weeks 4, 8 and 12, most patients reported that injection preparation and clean-up, performing injections and ease of device use in the previous 4 weeks compared favourably with, or was equivalent to, their previous experience of self-injection. Injection-related pain, injection reactions and 'flu-like' symptoms remained stable over the 12 weeks. Each device feature was rated 'very useful' or 'useful' by at least 80% of patients. All trainers and 95.2% (99/104) of patients found device functions 'very easy' or 'easy' to use. Overall convenience was considered the most important benefit of the device

  19. Ibandronate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Boniva® Injection ... Ibandronate injection is used to treat osteoporosis (a condition in which the bones become thin and weak and break ... Ibandronate injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be injected into a vein by a doctor or nurse in ...

  20. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Leuprolide injection comes as a long-acting suspension (Lupron) that is injected intramuscularly (into a muscle) by a doctor or nurse in a medical ... Depot-4 month, Lupron Depot-6 Month). Leuprolide injection also comes as a long-acting suspension (Eligard) that is injected subcutaneously (just under ...

  1. Cost-effectiveness of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion versus multiple daily injections of insulin in Type 1 diabetes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Roze, S; Smith-Palmer, J; Valentine, W; de Portu, S; Nørgaard, K; Pickup, J C

    2015-11-01

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is increasingly used in clinical practice for the management of selected patients with Type 1 diabetes. Several cost-effectiveness studies comparing CSII vs. multiple insulin injections (MDI) have been reported. The aim was systematically to review these analyses and test the hypothesis that CSII is a cost-effective use of healthcare resources across settings. A literature review was performed using MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and other databases. No time limit or language restrictions were applied. After two rounds of screening, 11 cost-effectiveness analyses were included in the final review, of which nine used the CORE Diabetes Model. A narrative synthesis was conducted and mean cost effectiveness calculated. CSII was considered cost-effective vs. MDI in Type 1 diabetes in all 11 studies in 8 countries, with a mean (95% CI) incremental cost effectiveness ratio of €30 862 (17 997-43 727), US$40 143 (23 409-56 876) per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. CSII was associated with improved life expectancy and quality-adjusted life expectancy (0.4-1.1 QALYs in adults), driven by lower HbA(1c) and lower frequency of hypoglycaemic events vs. MDI. CSII was associated with higher lifetime direct costs due to higher treatment costs but this was partially offset by cost-savings from reduced diabetes-related complications. Published cost-effectiveness analyses show that in Type 1 diabetes CSII is cost-effective vs. MDI across a number of settings for patients who have poor glycaemic control and/or problematic hypoglycaemia on MDI, with cost-effectiveness highly sensitive to the reduction in HbA1c and hypoglycaemia frequency associated with CSII. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  2. A Comparison of Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion vs. Multiple Daily Insulin Injection in Children with Type I Diabetes in Kuwait: Glycemic Control, Insulin Requirement, and BMI

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Mohammad; Al-Mahdi, Maria; Al-Sanaa, Hala; Al-Kandari, Hessa

    2015-01-01

    Objective Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) are two methods currently used to manage type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Here we compare our experiences with CSII and MDI in a large cohort of pediatric patients in Kuwait. Methods Data on 326 patients with T1DM who were started on CSII between 2007 and 2012 were retrospectively compared with those of 326 patients on MDI. They were matched for sex, age at diagnosis, T1DM duration, glycemic control, insulin requirement, and body mass index (BMI). Data were collected at baseline and every three months and included glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin dose, and adverse events (severe hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, and skin problems). Results The main reason for switching to CSII was to achieve better glycemic control (37%), followed by reducing hypoglycemia, and improving the quality of life (13.3% each). Although HbA1c decrease was most significant in the first year, it continued to be significantly lower in the CSII group compared to the MDI throughout the study period. Total daily insulin requirements were significantly lower in the CSII group. BMI increased in both groups, but the difference was significant only at the end of the fifth year. There was no significant change in the rate of diabetic ketoacidosis in either group. The CSII patients had more severe hypoglycemic episodes at baseline; however, it significantly decreased throughout the study period. Only five patients discontinued CSII therapy and two of these restarted within three months. Conclusion CSII is a safe intensive insulin therapy in youngsters with T1DM and achieved markedly fewer severe hypoglycemic episodes and lower daily insulin requirements PMID:26421114

  3. Sustained efficacy of insulin pump therapy compared with multiple daily injections in type 2 diabetes: 12-month data from the OpT2mise randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Aronson, R; Reznik, Y; Conget, I; Castañeda, J A; Runzis, S; Lee, S W; Cohen, O

    2016-05-01

    To compare insulin pump therapy and multiple daily injections (MDI) in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving basal and prandial insulin analogues. After a 2-month dose-optimization period, 331 patients with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels ≥8.0% and ≤12% were randomized to pump therapy or continued MDI for 6 months [randomization phase (RP)]. The MDI group was subsequently switched to pump therapy during a 6-month continuation phase (CP). The primary endpoint was the between-group difference in change in mean HbA1c from baseline to the end of the RP. The mean HbA1c at baseline was 9% in both groups. At the end of the RP, the reduction in HbA1c was significantly greater with pump therapy than with MDI (-1.1 ± 1.2% vs -0.4 ± 1.1%; p < 0.001). The pump therapy group maintained this improvement to 12 months while the MDI group, which was switched to pump therapy, showed a 0.8% reduction: the final HbA1c level was identical in both arms. In the RP, total daily insulin dose (TDD) was 20.4% lower with pump therapy than with MDI and remained stable in the CP. The MDI-pump group showed a 19% decline in TDD, such that by 12 months TDD was equivalent in both groups. There were no differences in weight gain or ketoacidosis between groups. In the CP, one patient in each group experienced severe hypoglycaemia. Pump therapy has a sustained durable effect on glycaemic control in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes. © 2016 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Injection current dependences of electroluminescence transition energy in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light emitting diodes under pulsed current conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Feng; Ikeda, Masao Liu, Jianping; Zhang, Shuming; Zhou, Kun; Yang, Hui; Liu, Zongshun

    2015-07-21

    Injection current dependences of electroluminescence transition energy in blue InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light emitting diodes (LEDs) with different quantum barrier thicknesses under pulsed current conditions have been analyzed taking into account the related effects including deformation caused by lattice strain, quantum confined Stark effects due to polarization field partly screened by carriers, band gap renormalization, Stokes-like shift due to compositional fluctuations which are supposed to be random alloy fluctuations in the sub-nanometer scale, band filling effect (Burstein-Moss shift), and quantum levels in finite triangular wells. The bandgap renormalization and band filling effect occurring at high concentrations oppose one another, however, the renormalization effect dominates in the concentration range studied, since the band filling effect arising from the filling in the tail states in the valence band of quantum wells is much smaller than the case in the bulk materials. In order to correlate the carrier densities with current densities, the nonradiative recombination rates were deduced experimentally by curve-fitting to the external quantum efficiencies. The transition energies in LEDs both with 15 nm quantum barriers and 5 nm quantum barriers, calculated using full strengths of theoretical macroscopic polarization given by Barnardini and Fiorentini [Phys. Status Solidi B 216, 391 (1999)] are in excellent accordance with experimental results. The LED with 5 nm barriers has been shown to exhibit a higher transition energy and a smaller blue shift than those of LED with 15 nm barriers, which is mainly caused by the smaller internal polarization field in the quantum wells.

  5. Multiple response optimization for Cu, Fe and Pb determination in naphtha by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with sample injection as detergent emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brum, Daniel M.; Lima, Claudio F.; Robaina, Nicolle F.; Fonseca, Teresa Cristina O.; Cassella, Ricardo J.

    2011-05-01

    The present paper reports the optimization for Cu, Fe and Pb determination in naphtha by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) employing a strategy based on the injection of the samples as detergent emulsions. The method was optimized in relation to the experimental conditions for the emulsion formation and taking into account that the three analytes (Cu, Fe and Pb) should be measured in the same emulsion. The optimization was performed in a multivariate way by employing a three-variable Doehlert design and a multiple response strategy. For this purpose, the individual responses of the three analytes were combined, yielding a global response that was employed as a dependent variable. The three factors related to the optimization process were: the concentration of HNO 3, the concentration of the emulsifier agent (Triton X-100 or Triton X-114) in aqueous solution used to emulsify the sample and the volume of solution. At optimum conditions, it was possible to obtain satisfactory results with an emulsion formed by mixing 4 mL of the samples with 1 mL of a 4.7% w/v Triton X-100 solution prepared in 10% v/v HNO 3 medium. The resulting emulsion was stable for 250 min, at least, and provided enough sensitivity to determine the three analytes in the five samples tested. A recovery test was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the optimized procedure and recovery rates, in the range of 88-105%; 94-118% and 95-120%, were verified for Cu, Fe and Pb, respectively.

  6. Injectable barriers for waste isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Persoff, P.; Finsterle, S.; Moridis, G.J.; Apps, J.; Pruess, K.; Muller, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    In this paper the authors report laboratory work and numerical simulation done in support of development and demonstration of injectable barriers formed from either of two fluids: colloidal silica or polysiloxane. Two principal problems addressed here are control of gel time and control of plume emplacement in the vadose zone. Gel time must be controlled so that the viscosity of the barrier fluid remains low long enough to inject the barrier, but increases soon enough to gel the barrier in place. During injection, the viscosity must be low enough to avoid high injection pressures which could uplift or fracture the formation. To test the grout gel time in the soil, the injection pressure was monitored as grouts were injected into sandpacks. When grout is injected into the vadose zone, it slumps under the influence of gravity, and redistributes due to capillary forces as it gels. The authors have developed a new module for the reservoir simulator TOUGH2 to model grout injection into the vadose zone, taking into account the increase of liquid viscosity as a function of gel concentration and time. They have also developed a model to calculate soil properties after complete solidification of the grout. The numerical model has been used to design and analyze laboratory experiments and field pilot tests. The authors present the results of computer simulations of grout injection, redistribution, and solidification.

  7. Loss of galectin-3 decreases the number of immune cells in the subventricular zone and restores proliferation in a viral model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    James, Rachel E; Hillis, James; Adorján, István; Gration, Betty; Mundim, Mayara V; Iqbal, Asif J; Majumdar, Moon-Moon; Yates, Richard L; Richards, Maureen M H; Goings, Gwendolyn E; DeLuca, Gabriele C; Greaves, David R; Miller, Stephen D; Szele, Francis G

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) frequently starts near the lateral ventricles, which are lined by subventricular zone (SVZ) progenitor cells that can migrate to lesions and contribute to repair. Because MS-induced inflammation may decrease SVZ proliferation and thus limit repair, we studied the role of galectin-3 (Gal-3), a proinflammatory protein. Gal-3 expression was increased in periventricular regions of human MS in post-mortem brain samples and was also upregulated in periventricular regions in a murine MS model, Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection. Whereas TMEV increased SVZ chemokine (CCL2, CCL5, CCL, and CXCL10) expression in wild type (WT) mice, this was inhibited in Gal-3(-/-) mice. Though numerous CD45+ immune cells entered the SVZ of WT mice after TMEV infection, their numbers were significantly diminished in Gal-3(-/-) mice. TMEV also reduced neuroblast and proliferative SVZ cell numbers in WT mice but this was restored in Gal-3(-/-) mice and was correlated with increased numbers of doublecortin+ neuroblasts in the corpus callosum. In summary, our data showed that loss of Gal-3 blocked chemokine increases after TMEV, reduced immune cell migration into the SVZ, reestablished SVZ proliferation and increased the number of progenitors in the corpus callosum. These results suggest Gal-3 plays a central role in modulating the SVZ neurogenic niche's response to this model of MS.

  8. Paleostress Determination Based on Multiple-Inverse Method using Calcite Twins and Fault-Slip Data in the East Walanae Fault Zone South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaya, Asri; Nishikawa, Osamu

    2013-04-01

    Paleostress reconstructions from calcite twin and fault-slip data were performed to constrain the activity of the East Walanae Fault (EWF) South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The multiple-inverse method, which has been widely used with fault-slip data, was applied to calcite twin data in this study. Both independent data sets yield consistent stress states and provides a reliable stress tensors (maximum and minimum principal stresses: ?1and ?3, and stress ratio: ?), a predominance of NE-SW trending ?1and vertical to moderately-south-plunging ?3 with generally low ?. These stress states could have activated the EWF as a reverse fault with a dextral shear component and account for contractional deformation structures and landform around the trace of the fault. Most of the calcite twins and mesoscale faults were activated during the latest stage of folding or later. Based on the morphology and width of twin lamellae in the carbonate rocks, twinning of calcite in the deformation zone along the EWF may have occurred under the temperature of 200° C or lower. Inferred paleostress states around the EWF were most likely generated under the tectonic conditions influenced by the collision of Sulawesi with the Australian fragments since the Late Miocene. Radiocarbon dating from sheared soil collected from the outcrop along a major fault yielded ages between 3050 cal BP and 3990 cal BP suggesting a present activity of the EWF.

  9. Simple vaginal trachelectomy as a fertility-sparing treatment to manage high-grade dyskaryosis following multiple large loop excision of the transformation zone.

    PubMed

    Scrivener, Claire Grace; Gornall, Robert; Rolland, Philip

    2016-06-28

    A 34-year-old nullipara, wishing to start a family, presented to colposcopy clinic. Her most recent cervical cytology result showed high-grade dyskaryosis. Having undergone four large loop excisions of the transformation zone during the past 6 years, this woman had no remaining vaginal cervix. In order to excise presumed high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia while mitigating obstetric risk, she underwent a simple vaginal trachelectomy and isthmic cerclage. 6 months later, the patient had a negative test of cure. 7 months following surgery she became pregnant naturally. At 29 weeks she had antenatal sepsis of unknown cause, which was treated with intravenous antibiotics. She delivered by caesarean section at 37 weeks and now has a healthy child. This report will discuss the obstetric impact of colposcopic treatment, and simple vaginal trachelectomy as a fertility-sparing treatment option for women who have had multiple loop excision procedures to treat premalignant lesions. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  10. Self-optimizing MPC of melt temperature in injection moulding.

    PubMed

    Dubay, R

    2002-01-01

    The parameters in plastic injection moulding are highly nonlinear and interacting. Good control of plastic melt temperature for injection moulding is very important in reducing operator setup time, assuring consistent product quality, and preventing thermal degradation of the melt. Step response testing was performed on the barrel heating zones on an industrial injection moulding machine (IMM). The open loop responses indicated a high degree of process coupling between the heating zones. From these experimental step responses, a multiple-input-multiple-output model predictive control strategy was developed and practically implemented. The requirement of negligible overshoot is important to the plastics industry for preventing material overheating and wastage, and reducing machine operator setup time. A generic learning and self-optimizing MPC methodology was developed and implemented on the IMM to control melt temperature for any polymer to be moulded on any machine having different electrical heater capacities. The control performance was tested for varying setpoint trajectories typical of normal machine operations. The results showed that the predictive controller provided good control of melt temperature for all zones with negligible oscillations, and, therefore, eliminated material degradation and extended machine setup time.

  11. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  12. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2012-06-05

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons including mobilized hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  13. Cascading ecohydrological transitions: Multiple changes in vegetation and hydrology over the past 500 years for a semiarid forest/woodland boundary zone in New Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Craig D.

    2010-05-01

    On decadal and centennial time scales, multiple drivers can cause substantial changes in vegetation cover, which can trigger associated changes in runoff and erosion patterns and processes, with consequent feedbacks to the vegetation - cumulatively this can lead to a cascading series of non-equilibrial ecosystem changes through time. The work reported here provides a relatively detailed 500-year perspective of such changes on the mesas the eastern Jemez Mountains in northern New Mexico (USA), which today exhibit vegetation transitions along an elevational gradient between semiarid ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests, mixed woodlands dominated by piñon (Pinus edulis) and one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma), and juniper savannas. Using multiple lines of evidence, a history of major ecosystem changes since ca. 1500 A.D. is reconstructed for a dynamic transition zone on one such mesa (Frijolito Mesa). Evidence includes intensive archaeological surveys, dendrochronological reconstructions of the demographic and spatial patterns of establishment and mortality for these three main tree species, dendrochronological reconstructions of fire regimes and climate patterns, broad-scale mapping of vegetation changes from historic aerial photographs since 1935, monitoring of vegetation from permanent transects since 1991, detailed soil maps and interpretations, intensive ecohydrological studies since 1993 on portions of this mesa, and research on the ecosystem effects of an experimental tree-thinning experiment conducted in 1997. Frijolito Mesa was fully occupied by large numbers of Native American farmers from the A.D. 1200's until the late 1500's, when they left these mesas for settlements in the adjoining Rio Grande Valley. Archaeological evidence and tree ages indicate that the mesa was likely quite deforested when abandoned, followed by episodic tree establishment dominated by ponderosa pine during the Little Ice Age. By the late 1700's Frijolito Mesa included

  14. Acupuncture Injection Combined with Electrokinetic Injection for Polydimethylsiloxane Microfluidic Devices

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We recently reported acupuncture sample injection that leads to reproducible injection of nL-scale sample segments into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel for microchip capillary electrophoresis. The advantages of the acupuncture injection in microchip capillary electrophoresis include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware and capability of introducing sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. However, the challenge in the previous study was to achieve reproducible, pL-scale sample injections into PDMS microchannels. In the present study, we introduce an acupuncture injection technique combined with electrokinetic injection (AICEI) technique to inject pL-scale sample segments for microchip capillary electrophoresis. We carried out the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) separation of FITC and fluorescein, and the mixture of 10 μM FITC and 10 μM fluorescein was separated completely by using the AICEI method. PMID:28326222

  15. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... body and causes pain, swelling, and damage) including: rheumatoid arthritis (condition in which the body attacks its own ... doctor.If golimumab injection is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, it may also be injected intravenously (into a ...

  16. Adalimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes pain, swelling, and damage) including the following: rheumatoid arthritis (a condition in which the body attacks its ... If you are using adalimumab injection to treat rheumatoid arthritis, your doctor may tell you to inject the ...

  17. Ipilimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while receiving ipilimumab injection, call your doctor. Ipilimumab injection may cause your baby to be born too early or to die before birth.

  18. Teniposide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... in men. You should not become pregnant or breast-feed while you are receiving teniposide injection. If you or your partner become pregnant while receiving teniposide injection, call your doctor. Teniposide may harm the fetus.

  19. Dexrazoxane Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart damage caused by doxorubicin in women who ... with doxorubicin. Dexrazoxane injection (Totect) is used to decrease damage to the skin and tissues that may ...

  20. Colistimethate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Colistimethate injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work ...

  1. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work ...

  2. Natalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... your condition. Keep all appointments to receive natalizumab injection even if you feel well. ... tests to check your body's response to natalizumab injection.It is important ... you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or ...

  3. Methylnaltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... taking opioid medications, you should stop using methylnaltrexone injection as well.You should stop taking other laxative medications when you start using methylnaltrexone injection. However, be sure to let your doctor know ...

  4. Triptorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to treat the symptoms associated with advanced prostate cancer. Triptorelin injection (Triptodur) is used to treat central ... a medical office or clinic. When used for prostate cancer, an injection of 3.75 mg of triptorelin ( ...

  5. Degarelix Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Degarelix injection is used to treat advanced prostate cancer (cancer that begins in the prostate [a male reproductive gland]). Degarelix injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ...

  6. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of birth control but does not prevent the spread of human ... you have been using a different method of birth control and are switching to medroxyprogesterone injection, your doctor ...

  7. Dolasetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery. Dolasetron injection should not be used to prevent ... a single injection just before the end of surgery or as soon as nausea or vomiting occurs. ...

  8. Levoleucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Levoleucovorin injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of cancer. Levoleucovorin injection is also used to treat people ...

  9. Etelcalcetide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Etelcalcetide injection is used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism (condition in which the body produces too much parathyroid ... blood when the kidneys are not working properly.) Etelcalcetide injection is in a class of medications called ...

  10. Dupilumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat the symptoms of eczema (atopic dermatitis; a skin disease that causes the ... use other medications for their condition or whose eczema has not responded to other medications. Dupilumab injection ...

  11. Clindamycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... your treatment with clindamycin injection or during the first several months after your treatment is finished: watery or bloody stools, diarrhea, stomach cramps, or fever.Talk to your doctor about the risks of receiving clindamycin injection.

  12. Obinutuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Obinutuzumab injection is used with chlorambucil (Leukeran) to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white blood cells). Obinutuzumab injection is in a class of medications called ...

  13. Ferumoxytol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... and may cause the kidneys to stop working). Ferumoxytol injection is in a class of medications called ...

  14. Pralatrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pralatrexate injection is used to treat peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL; a form of cancer that begins in a ... come back after treatment with other medications. Pralatrexate injection has not been shown to help people who ...

  15. Cyanocobalamin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cyanocobalamin injection is used to treat and prevent a lack of vitamin B12 that may be caused by any ... organs) and permanent damage to the nerves. Cyanocobalamin injection also may be given as a test to ...

  16. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Paclitaxel injection manufactured with human albumin is used to treat breast cancer that has not improved or that has come back after treatment with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to ...

  17. Peramivir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Peramivir injection is used to treat some types of influenza infection ('flu') in people who have had symptoms of ... flu for no longer than 2 days. Peramivir injection is in a class of medications called neuraminidase ...

  18. Cefotetan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cefotetan injection is used to treat infections of the lungs, skin, bones, joints, stomach area, blood, female reproductive organs, and urinary tract. Cefotetan injection is also used before surgery to prevent infections. ...

  19. Mipomersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Mipomersen injection is used to decrease levels of cholesterol and other fatty substances in the blood in people who ... that removes LDL from the blood), but mipomersen injection should not be used along with this treatment. ...

  20. Romiplostim Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Romiplostim injection is used to increase the number of platelets (cells that help the blood to clot) in order ... low number of platelets in the blood). Romiplostim injection should only be used in people who cannot ...

  1. Palivizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Palivizumab injection is used to help prevent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; common virus that can cause serious lung infections) ... or have certain heart or lung diseases. Palivizumab injection is not used to treat the symptoms of ...

  2. Naltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large amounts of alcohol to avoid drinking again. Naltrexone injection is also used along with counseling and social ...

  3. Tesamorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Tesamorelin injection is used to decrease the amount of extra fat in the stomach area in adults with human ... fat in certain areas of the body). Tesamorelin injection is not used to help with weight loss. ...

  4. Tigecycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Tigecycline injection used to treat certain serious infections including community acquired pneumonia (a lung infection that developed in a ... area between the chest and the waist). Tigecycline injection should not be used to treat pneumonia that ...

  5. Eculizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Eculizumab injection is used to treat paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH: a type of anemia in which too many red ... oxygen to all parts of the body). Eculizumab injection is also used to treat atypical hemolytic uremic ...

  6. Pembrolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pembrolizumab injection is used to treat melanoma (a type of skin cancer) that cannot be treated with surgery or ... spread to other parts of the body. Pembrolizumab injection is also used to treat a certain type ...

  7. Oxacillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat infections caused by certain bacteria. Oxacillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as oxacillin injection will not work ...

  8. Cefoxitin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work ...

  9. Nafcillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat infections caused by certain types of bacteria. Nafcillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as nafcillin injection will not work ...

  10. Doripenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract, kidney, and abdomen that are caused by bacteria. Doripenem injection is not approved by the Food ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work ...

  11. Simultaneous determination of pyridine-triphenylborane anti-fouling agent and its degradation products in paint-waste samples using capillary zone electrophoresis with field-amplified sample injection.

    PubMed

    Kaewchuay, Netnapit; Fukushi, Keiichi; Tsuboi, Ai; Okamura, Hideo; Saito, Keiitsu; Hirokawa, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    We proposed a capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) procedure using field-amplified sample injection (FASI) for the simultaneous determination of pyridine-triphenylborane (PTPB) and its degradation products: diphenylborinic acid (DPB), phenylboronic acid (MPB), and phenol. The LODs for PTPB, DPB, MPB, and phenol were, respectively, 0.85, 0.88, 44, and 28 μg L(-1). The RSDs (n = 4) for the analytes listed above were in respective ranges of 6.2 - 14, 5.9 - 10, and 0.49 - 0.62% for the peak area, peak height, and migration time. The compounds were extracted from paint-waste samples collected from shipyards using a siliga-gel column. The extract was dissolved with acetonitrile containing 1% (v/v) pyridine. The samples were then analyzed using CZE, revealing respective concentrations of 0.076 - 0.53, 0.015 - 0.36, 1.7 - 22, and 1.2 - 13 μg g(-1). The proposed FASI-CZE method is a simple and promising procedure that is expected to be useful for the determination of PTPB and its degradation products in paint wastes.

  12. Changes in first-line injectable disease-modifying therapy for multiple sclerosis: predictors of non-adherence, switching, discontinuation, and interruption of drugs.

    PubMed

    Degli Esposti, Luca; Piccinni, Carlo; Sangiorgi, Diego; Perrone, Valentina; Aledda, Lucia; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Lombardo, Fabio

    2017-01-11

    This study was aimed to describe changes of Disease-Modifying Treatments (DMT) in an Italian cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to identify predictors of therapeutic modifications. Patients with MS and treated with the first-line injectable DMT (interferons-IFNs or glatiramer) between 1/7/2009 and 31/10/2012 were selected from administrative databases of the MS Center of Cagliari (Sardinia, Italy). Socio-demographic, therapeutic, and clinical information was collected in the 6 months preceding the index date. All patients were followed for 36 months to evaluate therapeutic changes in terms of non-adherence, switch, temporary discontinuation, and permanent interruption. Predictors of changes were estimated by multivariable regression models. Data on 1698 patients were collected: glatiramer was prescribed in 27% of cases, IFNβ-1b in 22%, IFNβ-1a-im in 20%, IFNβ-1a-sc-44mcg in 19%, and IFNβ-1a-sc-22mcg in 12%. Non-adherence was observed in 25% of cases, therapeutic switch in 30%, discontinuation in 37%, and permanent interruption in 28%. The risk of non-adherence was higher for IFNβ-1b, compared with IFNβ-1a-im (adjOR = 1.73). Therapeutic switch occurred especially in patients recently diagnosed (each year from diagnosis causes a decrease of this risk adjHR = 0.97); the risk of discontinuation was higher with EDSS = 4-6 and 7-9 (adjHR = 1.52 and 4.42, respectively). The risk of permanent interruption increased with the augmentation of disability (adjHR = 1.67 and 5.43 for EDSS 4-6 and 7-9). This study mirrored a detailed framework of DMT prescription and identified factors related to changes in the MS therapy. These findings could support healthcare providers in the evaluation and maximization of benefits associated with a long-term DMT.

  13. Use and Effectiveness of Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII) and Multiple Daily Insulin Injection Therapy (MIT) in Children, Adolescents and Young Adults with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Schiel, R; Burgard, D; Perenthaler, T; Stein, G; Kramer, G; Steveling, A

    2016-02-01

    Today continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is frequently used in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The present cross-sectional trial aimed to document current practice, quality of diabetes control and incidence of acute complications in different age-groups under CSII vs. multiple daily insulin injection therapy (MIT). Moreover the survey analyzed socio-demographic backgrounds of the patients. A total of 901 patients (age 11.5±4.0, diabetes duration 4.0±3.6 years) was entered in the database. Clinical data, laboratory parameters and, using a standardized questionnaire, socio-demographic data were assessed. For age-related analyses patients were allocated to 4 groups: pre-school children (< 6 years), pre-adolescents (≥ 6 and<11 years), adolescents (≥ 11 and<16 years) and young adults (≥ 16 and<22 years). Of the cohort n=194 had a CSII, n=707 had a MIT. Patients with CSII vs. MIT had a longer diabetes duration, they used more frequently insulin analogues, performed more frequently blood-glucose self-tests and had a lower insulin dosage per kilogram body weight. In respect of HbA1c, the mean amplitude of blood-glucose excursions, but also of lipids, creatinine, microalbuminuria and blood pressure, there were no differences in neither age-group between patients with CSII and MIT. In patients with CSII and MIT, there was a tendency (p<0.05) towards an increase in HbA1c in adolescents and young adults and there was a decrease (p<0.05 for tendency) in the frequency of hypoglycaemia from the age group of young adults to pre-school children. Adolescents and young adults with CSII had a higher educational level. Pre-adolescents, adolescents and young adults with CSII have also better diabetes-related knowledge. Moreover, in all age-groups, the parents of patients with CSII had mostly a lower unemployment rate and higher educational levels. The present analyses demonstrate that in all age-groups CSII provides convenient and

  14. A 16-Week Open-Label, Multicenter Pilot Study Assessing Insulin Pump Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Suboptimally Controlled with Multiple Daily Injections

    PubMed Central

    Frias, Juan P; Bode, Bruce W; Bailey, Timothy S; Kipnes, Mark S; Brunelle, Rocco; Edelman, Steven V

    2011-01-01

    Background We assessed the efficacy, safety, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) of insulin pump therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who were suboptimally controlled with a multiple daily injection (MDI) regimen. Methods In this subanalysis of a 16-week multicenter study, 21 insulin-pump-naïve patients [age 57 ± 13 years, hemoglobin A1c (A1C) 8.4 ± 1.0%, body weight 98 ± 20 kg, total daily insulin dose 99 ± 65 U, mean ± standard deviation] treated at baseline with MDI therapy with or without oral antidiabetic agents discontinued all diabetes medications except metformin and initiated insulin pump therapy. Insulin was titrated to achieve the best possible glycemic control with the simplest possible dosing regimen. Outcome measures included A1C, fasting and postprandial glucose, body weight, incidence of hypoglycemia, and PROs. Results Glycemic control improved significantly after 16 weeks: A1C 7.3 ± 1.0% (−1.1 ± 1.2%, p < .001), fasting glucose 133 ± 33mg/dl (−32 ± 74 mg/dl, p < .005), and postprandial glucose 153 ± 35 mg/dl (−38 ± 46 mg/dl, p < .001). At week 16, the mean daily basal, bolus, and total insulin doses were 66 ± 36, 56 ± 40, and 122 ± 72 U (1.2 U/kg), respectively, and 90% of patients were treated with two or fewer daily basal rates. Body weight increased by 2.8 ± 2.6 kg (p < .001). Mild hypoglycemia was experienced by 81% of patients at least once during the course of the study with no episodes of severe hypoglycemia. There were significant improvements in PRO measures. Conclusions Insulin pump therapy using a relatively simple dosing regimen safely improved glucose control and PROs in patients with T2DM who were unable to achieve glycemic targets with MDI therapy. Controlled trials are needed to further assess the clinical benefits and cost-effectiveness of insulin pumps in this patient population. PMID:21880230

  15. Cidofovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... in babies whose mothers received cidofovir injection during pregnancy. You should not use cidofovir injection while you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant unless your doctor decides that this is the best treatment for your condition.Cidofovir injection has caused tumors ...

  16. Albiglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood) when other medications did not control levels well enough. Albiglutide injection is not used to treat type 1 diabetes ( ... does not cure it. Continue to use albiglutide injection even if you feel well. Do not stop using albiglutide injection without talking ...

  17. Nalbuphine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your doctor may adjust your dose of nalbuphine injection during your treatment, depending on how well your pain is controlled and on the side effects that you experience. Talk to your doctor about how you are feeling ... nalbuphine injection.You may receive nalbuphine injection in a hospital, ...

  18. Liraglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood) when other medications did not control levels well enough. Liraglutide injection (Victoza) is not used to treat type 1 ... does not cure it. Continue to use liraglutide injection even if you feel well. Do not stop using liraglutide injection without talking ...

  19. Meperidine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your doctor may adjust your dose of meperidine injection during your treatment, depending on how well your pain is controlled and on the side effects that you experience. Talk to your doctor about how you are feeling ... meperidine injection.If you have used meperidine injection for longer ...

  20. Dulaglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood) when other medications did not control levels well enough. Dulaglutide injection is not used to treat type 1 diabetes ( ... does not cure it. Continue to use dulaglutide injection even if you feel well. Do not stop using dulaglutide injection without talking ...

  1. Morphine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your doctor may adjust your dose of morphine injection during your treatment, depending on how well your pain is controlled and on the side effects that you experience. Talk to your doctor about how you are feeling ... with morphine injection.If you have used morphine injection for longer ...

  2. Busulfan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Busulfex® Injection ... Busulfan injection is used to treat a certain type of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML; a type of cancer of ... of 16 doses) before bone marrow transplant.Busulfan injection may cause seizures during therapy with the medication. ...

  3. Appearance and vanishing of a spinal intradural arachnoid cyst after multiple epidural corticosteroid injections. A spontaneously resolving cause of symptomatic lumbar stenosis.

    PubMed

    Mailleux, P; Milbouw, G; Koerts, G; Verbeek, P; Willems, X

    2014-01-01

    Spinal intradural arachnoid cyst is a rare lesion, sometimes acquired. To describe the appearance and later spontaneous disappearence of a lumbar intradural arachnoid cyst, following perineural corticoid injections. Review of the clinical data and imaging, with final spontaneous return to initial state. Atypical intradural arachnoid cysts can be related to perineural injections and can cause symptoms of spinal stenosis. Its spontaneous vanishing is a very rare event, up to now unreported.

  4. Comparative study on treatment satisfaction and health perception in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus on multiple daily injection of insulin, insulin pump and sensor-augmented pump therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Tara; Akle, Mariette; Nagelkerke, Nico; Deeb, Asma

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Diabetes management imposes considerable demands on patients. Treatment method used has an impact on treatment satisfaction. We aim to examine the relationship between treatment satisfaction and health perception with the method used for treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. Subjects and method: We have interviewed patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus using questionnaires to assess treatment satisfaction and health perception. Patients were divided into three groups based on treatment used: multiple daily injection, insulin pump and sensor-augmented pump therapy. Comparison of scores was done between the groups. Results: A total of 72 patients were enrolled (36 males). Mean age (standard deviation) was 11.4 (4.4) years and duration of diabetes of 4.9 (3.5) years. Mean (standard deviation) HbA1c was 8.1 (1.2). Median (range) duration of sensor use was 17.7 (3–30) days/month. Mean scale for treatment satisfaction and health perception questions was 25.3, 29.7 and 31.7 and 60, 79.7 and 81 for the multiple daily injection, pump and sensor-augmented pump, respectively (p = 0.00). Significant difference was seen between the multiple daily injection and both other groups. Sensor-augmented pump group scored higher than the pump group. However, the difference was not statistically significant. Duration of sensor use showed no correlation with treatment satisfaction. Conclusion: The method used for diabetes treatment has an impact on patients’ satisfaction and health perception in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Insulin pump users have a higher treatment satisfaction and better health perception than those on multiple daily injection. Augmenting pump therapy with sensor use adds value to treatment satisfaction without correlation with the duration of the sensors use. PMID:28321303

  5. Comparative study on treatment satisfaction and health perception in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus on multiple daily injection of insulin, insulin pump and sensor-augmented pump therapy.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Tara; Akle, Mariette; Nagelkerke, Nico; Deeb, Asma

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes management imposes considerable demands on patients. Treatment method used has an impact on treatment satisfaction. We aim to examine the relationship between treatment satisfaction and health perception with the method used for treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. We have interviewed patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus using questionnaires to assess treatment satisfaction and health perception. Patients were divided into three groups based on treatment used: multiple daily injection, insulin pump and sensor-augmented pump therapy. Comparison of scores was done between the groups. A total of 72 patients were enrolled (36 males). Mean age (standard deviation) was 11.4 (4.4) years and duration of diabetes of 4.9 (3.5) years. Mean (standard deviation) HbA1c was 8.1 (1.2). Median (range) duration of sensor use was 17.7 (3-30) days/month. Mean scale for treatment satisfaction and health perception questions was 25.3, 29.7 and 31.7 and 60, 79.7 and 81 for the multiple daily injection, pump and sensor-augmented pump, respectively (p = 0.00). Significant difference was seen between the multiple daily injection and both other groups. Sensor-augmented pump group scored higher than the pump group. However, the difference was not statistically significant. Duration of sensor use showed no correlation with treatment satisfaction. The method used for diabetes treatment has an impact on patients' satisfaction and health perception in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Insulin pump users have a higher treatment satisfaction and better health perception than those on multiple daily injection. Augmenting pump therapy with sensor use adds value to treatment satisfaction without correlation with the duration of the sensors use.

  6. Safety Zones

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These are established primarily to reduce the accidental spread of hazardous substances by workers or equipment from contaminated areas to clean areas. They include the exclusion (hot) zone, contamination reduction (warm) zone, and support (cold) zone.

  7. Integration of paleoseismic data from multiple sites to develop an objective earthquake chronology: Application to the Weber segment of the Wasatch fault zone, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DuRoss, C.B.; Personius, S.F.; Crone, A.J.; Olig, S.S.; Lund, W.R.

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to evaluate and integrate paleoseismic data from multiple sites into a single, objective measure of earthquake timing and recurrence on discrete segments of active faults. We apply this method to the Weber segment (WS) of the Wasatch fault zone using data from four fault-trench studies completed between 1981 and 2009. After systematically reevaluating the stratigraphic and chronologic data from each trench site, we constructed time-stratigraphic OxCal models that yield site probability density functions (PDFs) of the times of individual earthquakes. We next qualitatively correlated the site PDFs into a segment-wide earthquake chronology, which is supported by overlapping site PDFs, large per-event displacements, and prominent segment boundaries. For each segment-wide earthquake, we computed the product of the site PDF probabilities in common time bins, which emphasizes the overlap in the site earthquake times, and gives more weight to the narrowest, best-defined PDFs. The product method yields smaller earthquake-timing uncertainties compared to taking the mean of the site PDFs, but is best suited to earthquakes constrained by broad, overlapping site PDFs. We calculated segment-wide earthquake recurrence intervals and uncertainties using a Monte Carlo model. Five surface-faulting earthquakes occurred on the WS at about 5.9, 4.5, 3.1, 1.1, and 0.6 ka. With the exception of the 1.1-ka event, we used the product method to define the earthquake times. The revised WS chronology yields a mean recurrence interval of 1.3 kyr (0.7-1.9-kyr estimated two-sigma [2??] range based on interevent recurrence). These data help clarify the paleoearthquake history of the WS, including the important question of the timing and rupture extent of the most recent earthquake, and are essential to the improvement of earthquake-probability assessments for the Wasatch Front region.

  8. Integration of paleoseismic data from multiple sites to develop an objective earthquake chronology: Application to the Weber segment of the Wasatch fault zone, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DuRoss, Christopher B.; Personius, Stephen F.; Crone, Anthony J.; Olig, Susan S.; Lund, William R.

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to evaluate and integrate paleoseismic data from multiple sites into a single, objective measure of earthquake timing and recurrence on discrete segments of active faults. We apply this method to the Weber segment (WS) of the Wasatch fault zone using data from four fault-trench studies completed between 1981 and 2009. After systematically reevaluating the stratigraphic and chronologic data from each trench site, we constructed time-stratigraphic OxCal models that yield site probability density functions (PDFs) of the times of individual earthquakes. We next qualitatively correlated the site PDFs into a segment-wide earthquake chronology, which is supported by overlapping site PDFs, large per-event displacements, and prominent segment boundaries. For each segment-wide earthquake, we computed the product of the site PDF probabilities in common time bins, which emphasizes the overlap in the site earthquake times, and gives more weight to the narrowest, best-defined PDFs. The product method yields smaller earthquake-timing uncertainties compared to taking the mean of the site PDFs, but is best suited to earthquakes constrained by broad, overlapping site PDFs. We calculated segment-wide earthquake recurrence intervals and uncertainties using a Monte Carlo model. Five surface-faulting earthquakes occurred on the WS at about 5.9, 4.5, 3.1, 1.1, and 0.6 ka. With the exception of the 1.1-ka event, we used the product method to define the earthquake times. The revised WS chronology yields a mean recurrence interval of 1.3 kyr (0.7–1.9-kyr estimated two-sigma [2δ] range based on interevent recurrence). These data help clarify the paleoearthquake history of the WS, including the important question of the timing and rupture extent of the most recent earthquake, and are essential to the improvement of earthquake-probability assessments for the Wasatch Front region.

  9. Direct measurements and analysis of skin friction and cooling downstream of multiple flush-slot injection into a turbulent Mach 6 boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, F. G.; Strokowski, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the reduction in surface skin friction and the effectiveness of surface cooling downstream of one to four successive flush slots injecting cold air at an angle of 10 deg into a turbulent Mach 6 boundary layer. Data were obtained by direct measurement of surface shear and equilibrium temperatures, respectively. Increasing the number of slots decreased the skin friction, but the incremental improvement in skin-friction reduction decreased as the number of slots was increased. Cooling effectiveness was found to improve, for a given total mass injection, as the number of slots was increased from one to four. Comparison with previously reported step-slot data, however, indicated that step slots with tangential injection are more effective for both reducing skin friction and cooling than the present flush-slot configuration. Finite-difference predictions are in reasonable agreement with skin-friction data and with boundary-layer profile data.

  10. Prediction of soil organic carbon in an intensively managed reclamation zone of eastern China: A comparison of multiple linear regressions and the random forest model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan; Wu, Pengbao; Yin, Aijing; Yang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Ming; Gao, Chao

    2017-08-15

    Organic carbon is a key component of soils and plays a fundamental role in soil fertility and climate change. Determining the importance of potential drivers of soil organic carbon (SOC) and thus predicting the distribution of SOC are important for measuring carbon sequestration or emissions. Coastal wetlands are precious land resources that are currently undergoing rapid reclamation in China. The alternations in soil physicochemical conditions caused by reclamation can strongly impact the cycle of organic carbon. However, identification of the important drivers of SOC dynamics and prediction of SOC using the potential drivers remain largely unclear. In this study, we used classification and regression tree (CART) to identify the importance of the potential drivers of SOC at 241 sites from an intensively managed reclamation zone of eastern China. Multiple linear regressions (MLR) and random forest (RF) models were applied to predict the distribution of SOC using continuous variables, such as the contents of Cl, CaO, Fe2O3, Al2O3, SiO2, clay, silt, and sand as well as the soil pH, along with categorical variables, such as land use and reclamation duration. The results indicate that the soil/sediment pH was the most important variable impacting SOC, followed by the Cl and silt contents. The RF and MLR involving all predictor variables produced much higher R(2) and lower error indices than the RF and MLR models involving independent variables (pH and CaO). RF performed much better than MLR as it revealed much lower error indices (ME, MSE, and RMSE) and a higher R(2) than MLR. The superiority of RF in predicting SOC is related to its capability to deal with non-linear and hierarchical relationships between SOC and predictors. Analyses of land use effects on SOC dynamics indicated that paddy soils were superior in sequestering SOC than other land use types, which is likely ascribed to the rapid desalination and dealkalization of paddy field management. Therefore, paddy

  11. Excavation multiple up drafting tunnels in coastal mountains: A simple solution to resist against the severe drought in sub tropical zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daei, Mohammad Ali; Daei, Manizheh; Daei, Bijan

    2017-04-01

    At many sub tropical places in the globe, including the Persian Gulf in the south of Iran, there is continuously a tremendous amount of steam in the air, but it fails to transform to cloud because of the surrounding overheated lands. Reduction in precipitation in these regions has been extraordinary in recent years. The most probable reason is the global warming phenomena. Many dried forest remains, in these regions are referring to much more precipitations not long ago. All around the Persian Gulf, Oman Sea, Arab sea, and red sea there are enough steam to produce good precipitation nearly year round. The main missed requirement in this zone is the coldness. This fact can be well understand from a narrow green strip in Dhofar which is indebted to a cold oceanic stream that approaches to local shore during four months yearly. This natural cold stream helps a better condensation of water vapor and more precipitation but only in a narrow mountainous land. Based on this natural phenomenon, we hypothesize a different design to cool the water vapor with the same result. Prevention of close contact between the water vapors and hot lands by shooting the steam directly into the atmosphere may help to produce more cloud and rain. Making multiple vertical tunnels in mountains for upright conducting of humid air into the atmosphere can be a solution. Fortunately there are a few high mountain ranges alongside of the coastline in south part of Iran. So excavation of drafting tunnels in these mountains seems reasonable. These structures act passively, but for long term do their work without consuming energy, and making pollution. These earth tubes in some aspects resemble to Kariz, another innovative structure which invented by ancient Iranians, thousands of years ago in order to extract water from dry lands in deserts. Up drafting earth channels can be supposed as a wide vertical kariz which conduct water vapor into the atmosphere from the hot land near a warm sea, something

  12. Multiple episodes of breccia formation by particle fluidization in fault zones: implications repeated, rupture-controlled fluid flow and seismicity styles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Breccias in the Rusey Fault (Cornwall, UK) provide insights about the dynamics of fault behaviour, fluid flow and flow velocities when fault ruptures breach overpressured reservoirs of hydrothermal fluid. The 3 m wide fault core comprises a mix of breccias, banded cataclasites, probable psuedotachylites and extension veins. The damage products are dominated by high dilation breccias with cockade-like textures in which rock fragments are mantled by spheroidal overgrowths of quartz. Although none of the rock fragment cores of accretionary spheroids are in contact with their neighbours, the spheroidal overgrowths do contact each other and are at least partially cemented together. The hydrothermal overgrowths mostly comprise either outwards coarsening crystals that radiate from the surface of the core particle, or finer-grained, inequigranular to mesh-like intergrowths. Concentric textural banding and oscillatory growth zones are present in some hydrothermal overgrowths. The breccias occur as fault-parallel layers and lenses, each up to several tens of centimeter thick. Adjacent layers are characterised by texturally-distinct ranges of clast sizes and different proportions of clasts to hydrothermal overgrowths. Many texturally-distinct breccia layers are present within the fault core. Some breccia layers truncate others and many breccia layers exhibit grainsize grading or banding. Clasts in the breccias include fragments of wall-rock, veins and various fault damage products, including fragments of earlier generations of cemented breccia. As brecciation was episodic and separated by periods of cementation, the breccias are interpreted to have formed as a consequence of repeated seismogenic failure. The distinctive textures in the breccias are interpreted to have formed by fluidization of fault damage products in a high fluid flux regime, with each breccia layer being the product of one, rupture-related flow episode. Hydrothermal coatings developed while clasts were in a

  13. Hydromorphone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your doctor may adjust your dose of hydromorphone injection during your treatment, depending on how well your pain is controlled and on the side ... to have pain after you finish the hydromorphone injection, call your doctor.It ... you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or ...

  14. Ixabepilone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor will order laboratory tests to see how well your liver is working before and during your treatment. If the tests show that you have liver problems, your doctor will probably not give you ixabepilone injection and capecitabine (Xeloda). Treatment with both ixabepilone injection ...

  15. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... group of cancers of the immune system that first appear as skin rashes) in people who have already been treated with at least one other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a class of medications called histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. It ...

  16. Nusinersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Nusinersen injection is used for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy (an inherited condition that reduces muscle strength and movement). Nusinersen injection is in a class of medications called antisense ... a certain protein necessary for the muscles and nerves to work normally.

  17. Musculoskeletal Injection

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Ficalora, Robert D.; Mason, Thomas G.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Patients commonly present to primary care physicians with musculoskeletal symptoms. Clinicians certified in internal medicine must be knowledgeable about the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal diseases, yet they often receive inadequate postgraduate training on this topic. The musculoskeletal problems most frequently encountered in our busy injection practice involve, in decreasing order, the knees, trochanteric bursae, and glenohumeral joints. This article reviews the clinical presentations of these problems. It also discusses musculoskeletal injections for these problems in terms of medications, indications, injection technique, and supporting evidence from the literature. Experience with joint injection and the pharmacological principles described in this article should allow primary care physicians to become comfortable and proficient with musculoskeletal injections. PMID:19720781

  18. Fuel injection system for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Holmer, H.E.

    1981-06-16

    A fuel injection system is disclosed for direct injection diesel engines with a depression in the tops of the pistons. A first injection pump has a regulator and accompanying first injector for each cylinder , the injectors being disposed to spray the fuel in a zone around the center axis of the respective piston depression. A second injection pump has a regulator and accompanying second injector for each cylinder, the second injectors being disposed to inject fuel obliquely from the side into the respective piston depression in a direction counter to the rotation of the intake air before the fuel from the first injectors is injected.

  19. Patients with multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella due to DNAH1 mutations have a good prognosis following intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Wambergue, Clémentine; Zouari, Raoudha; Fourati Ben Mustapha, Selima; Martinez, Guillaume; Devillard, Françoise; Hennebicq, Sylviane; Satre, Véronique; Brouillet, Sophie; Halouani, Lazhar; Marrakchi, Ouafi; Makni, Mounir; Latrous, Habib; Kharouf, Mahmoud; Amblard, Florence; Arnoult, Christophe; Ray, Pierre F; Coutton, Charles

    2016-06-01

    Does DNAH1 status influence intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes for patients with multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella (MMAF)? Despite a highly abnormal morphology, sperm from MMAF patients with DNAH1 mutations have a low aneuploidy rate and good nuclear quality, leading to good embryonic development following ICSI and a high pregnancy rate. Teratozoospermia represents a heterogeneous group including a wide range of phenotypes. Among all these qualitative defects, a flagellar phenotype called MMAF is characterized by a mosaic of morphological abnormalities of the flagellum, including coiled, bent, irregular, short or/and absent flagella, mainly due to the absence of the axonemal central pair microtubules. We previously demonstrated that homozygous mutations in the DNAH1 gene, encoding an inner arm heavy chain dynein, are frequently found in patients with MMAF (28% of the patients from the initial cohort). Numerous studies have reported an increased rate of aneuploidy and a poor sperm nuclear quality related to sperm flagellar abnormalities, which could impede ICSI outcome. Moreover, success rates after ICSI may be influenced by the type of ultrastructural flagellar defects and/or by the gene defects carried by the patients. This retrospective cohort study included 6 infertile males with MMAF due to deleterious homozygous DNAH1 mutations and their respective spouses, who underwent 9 ISCI cycles, with 16 embryos being transferred. ICSI results were compared with two control populations of 13 MMAF men without DNAH1 mutations and an aged-matched control group of 1431 non-MMAF couples. All ICSI attempts took place between 2000 and 2012. Clinical and biological data were collected from patients treated for infertility at the CPSR les Jasmins in Tunis (Tunisia). We compared the ICSI outcomes obtained with couples including DNAH1 mutated and nonmutated patients and non-MMAF couples. For the analysis of the chromosomal status, fluorescence

  20. Zone lines

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith

    2001-01-01

    Zone lines are narrow, usually dark markings formed in decaying wood. Zone lines are found most frequently in advanced white rot of hardwoods, although they occasionally are associated both with brown rot and with softwoods.

  1. Quantitative analysis of fragrance in selectable one dimensional or two dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with simultaneous detection of multiple detectors in single injection.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hui Peng; Wan, Tow Shi; Min, Christina Liew Shu; Osborne, Murray; Ng, Khim Hui

    2014-03-14

    A selectable one-dimensional ((1)D) or two-dimensional ((2)D) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system coupled with flame ionization detector (FID) and olfactory detection port (ODP) was employed in this study to analyze perfume oil and fragrance in shower gel. A split/splitless (SSL) injector and a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) injector are connected via a 2-way splitter of capillary flow technology (CFT) in this selectable (1)D/(2)D GC-MS/FID/ODP system to facilitate liquid sample injections and thermal desorption (TD) for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) technique, respectively. The dual-linked injectors set-up enable the use of two different injector ports (one at a time) in single sequence run without having to relocate the (1)D capillary column from one inlet to another. Target analytes were separated in (1)D GC-MS/FID/ODP and followed by further separation of co-elution mixture from (1)D in (2)D GC-MS/FID/ODP in single injection without any instrumental reconfiguration. A (1)D/(2)D quantitative analysis method was developed and validated for its repeatability - tR; calculated linear retention indices (LRI); response ratio in both MS and FID signal, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), as well as linearity over a concentration range. The method was successfully applied in quantitative analysis of perfume solution at different concentration level (RSD≤0.01%, n=5) and shower gel spiked with perfume at different dosages (RSD≤0.04%, n=5) with good recovery (96-103% for SSL injection; 94-107% for stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption (SBSE-TD).

  2. Abaloparatide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a natural human hormone called parathyroid hormone (PTH). It works by causing the body to build ... container.You should know that abaloparatide injection may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, and fainting when you get up ...

  3. Sumatriptan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to sound and light). Sumatriptan injection is also used to treat the ... children. Store it at room temperature, away from light, excess heat, and moisture (not in the bathroom). ...

  4. Certolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... has not improved when treated with other medications, rheumatoid arthritis (a condition in which the body attacks its ... continues. When certolizumab injection is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, it is usually given every other week and ...

  5. Acyclovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... chickenpox in the past) in people with weak immune systems. It is also used to treat first-time ... from time to time) in people with normal immune systems. Acyclovir injection is used to treat herpes simplex ...

  6. Doxercalciferol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Doxercalciferol injection is used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism (a condition in which the body produces too much parathyroid hormone [PTH; a natural substance needed to control the amount of calcium in ...

  7. Evolocumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... how to inject this medication.Remove the prefilled syringe or prefilled autoinjector from the refrigerator and allow it to ... before using it. Do not warm the prefilled syringe or prefilled autoinjector in hot water, microwave, or place in ...

  8. Ixekizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a as a solution (liquid) in a prefilled syringe, and as a prefilled autoinjector to inject subcutaneously ( ... dispose of the puncture-resistant container.Remove the prefilled syringe or autoinjector from the refrigerator. Place it on ...

  9. Alirocumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... how to inject this medication.Remove the prefilled syringe or prefilled dosing pen from the refrigerator and allow it ... hours or longer. Do not put the prefilled syringe or prefilled dosing pen back in the refrigerator after it ...

  10. Daclizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Daclizumab comes as a solution (liquid) in a prefilled syringe to inject subcutaneously (under the skin). It is ... or tattooed.Never reuse or share needles or prefilled syringes of medication. Throw away used syringes in a ...

  11. Sarilumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... receive any vaccines. You should not receive any vaccinations while you are using sarilumab injection without talking ... pregnant, tellyour doctor before the baby receives any vaccinations.if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, ...

  12. Zidovudine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... zidovudine injection does not cure HIV, it may decrease your chance of developing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) ... sex and making other life-style changes may decrease the risk of transmitting (spreading) the HIV virus ...

  13. Rasburicase Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as tumors break down) in people with certain types of cancer who are being treated with chemotherapy medications. Rasburicase injection is in a class of medications called enzymes. It works by breaking down uric acid so ...

  14. Haloperidol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... release injection are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual thinking, loss of ... medications); medications for anxiety, depression, irritable bowel disease, mental illness, motion sickness, Parkinson's disease, seizures, ulcers, or urinary ...

  15. Risperidone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual thinking, loss of ... ropinirole (Requip); medications for anxiety, blood pressure, or mental illness; medications for seizures such as carbamazepine (Carbatrol, Epitol, ...

  16. Thiotepa Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... that begins in the female reproductive organs where eggs are formed), breast, and bladder cancer. It is ... comes as a powder to be mixed with liquid to be injected intravenously (into a vein) by ...

  17. Methotrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Methotrexate injection is also used to treat severe psoriasis (a skin disease in which red, scaly patches ... slowing the growth of cancer cells. Methotrexate treats psoriasis by slowing the growth of skin cells to ...

  18. Cefazolin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including skin, bone, joint, genital, blood, heart valve, ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefazolin injection will not work ...

  19. Trastuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... completed for up to 52 weeks. When trastuzumab injection is used to treat stomach cancer, it is usually given once every 3 weeks. The length of your treatment depends on how well your body responds to the medication and the ...

  20. Bendamustine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white blood cells). Bendamustine injection is also used to treat a ... NHL: cancer that begins in a type of white blood cell that normally fights infection) that is slow spreading, ...

  1. Palonosetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may occur several days after receiving certain chemotherapy medications. Palonosetron injection is in a class of medications called 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. It works by blocking the action of serotonin, a natural ...

  2. Doxycycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause ... are allergic to doxycycline, minocycline (Dynacin, Minocin, Solodyn), tetracycline (Achromycin V), any other medications, or any of ...

  3. Dexamethasone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe allergic reactions. It is used in the management of certain types of edema (fluid retention and ... needed for normal body functioning) and in the management of certain types of shock. Dexamethasone injection is ...

  4. Levofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections. Levofloxacin injection is also used to prevent anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on ... in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air and treat and prevent ...

  5. Omalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... steroids. Omalizumab is also used to treat chronic hives without a known cause that cannot successfully be ... is not used to treat other forms of hives or allergic conditions. Omalizumab injection is in a ...

  6. Plerixafor Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... used along with a granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) medication such as filgrastim (Neupogen) or pegfilgrastim ( ... injection will begin after you have received a G-CSF medication once a day for 4 days, ...

  7. Avelumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor or nurse in a medical facility or infusion center. It is usually given once every 2 ... Avelumab injection may cause serious reactions during the infusion of the medication. You may be given other ...

  8. Alemtuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection, the medication is usually given three times weekly on alternate days (usually Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) ... that you eat foods that are rich in iron such as meats, leafy green vegetables, and fortified ...

  9. Dinutuximab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat neuroblastoma (a cancer that begins in nerve cells) in children who have responded to other treatments. Dinutuximab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies. It works by killing cancer cells.

  10. Cyclosporine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... transplanted organ by the immune system of the person receiving the organ) in people who have received kidney, liver, and heart transplants. Cyclosporine injection should only be used to treat people who are unable to take cyclosporine by mouth. ...

  11. Denosumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... menstrual periods), who have an increased risk for fractures (broken bones) or who cannot take or did ... receiving certain treatments that increase their risk for fractures. Denosumab injection (Xgeva) is used to reduce fractures ...

  12. Epinephrine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... emergency medical treatment to treat life-threatening allergic reactions caused by insect bites or stings, foods, medications, ... at the first sign of a serious allergic reaction. Use epinephrine injection exactly as directed; do not ...

  13. Aflibercept Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD; an ongoing disease of the eye that ... that leads to blurry vision and vision loss), diabetic macular edema (an eye disease caused by diabetes that can ...

  14. Fondaparinux Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the leg), which can lead to pulmonary embolism (PE; a blood clot in the lung), in people ... with warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) to treat DVT or PE. Fondaparinux injection is in a class of medications ...

  15. Panitumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a solution (liquid) to be given by infusion (injected into a vein). It is usually given ... doctor or nurse in a doctor's office or infusion center. Panitumumab is usually given once every 2 ...

  16. Topotecan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... organs where eggs are formed) and small cell lung cancer (a type of cancer that begins in the ... topotecan injection is used to treat ovarian or lung cancer, it is usually given once a day for ...

  17. Gemcitabine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with surgery. Gemcitabine is also used to treat cancer of the pancreas that has spread to other parts of the ... 4 weeks. When gemcitabine is used to treat cancer of pancreas it may be injected once every week. The ...

  18. Lacosamide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with other medications to control certain types of seizures in people who cannot take oral medications. Lacosamide ... If you suddenly stop using lacosamide injection, your seizures may happen more often. Your doctor will probably ...

  19. Pegloticase Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor if you have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (an inherited blood disease). Your doctor may test you for G6PD deficiency before you start to receive pegloticase injection. If ...

  20. Ibritumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It works by attaching to cancer ... you receive ibritumomab injection, your body may develop antibodies (substances in the blood that help the immune ...

  1. Oxytocin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Oxytocin injection is used to begin or improve contractions during labor. Oxytocin also is used to reduce bleeding after childbirth. ... other medications or procedures to end a pregnancy. Oxytocin is in a class of medications called oxytocic ...

  2. Edaravone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Edaravone injection is used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease; a condition in which the nerves that control muscle movement slowly die, causing the muscles to shrink and ...

  3. Pentamidine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pentamidine injection is used to treat pneumonia caused by a fungus called Pneumocystis carinii. It is in a class of medications called antiprotozoals. It works by stopping the growth of protozoa that can cause pneumonia.

  4. Diphenhydramine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... or along with other medications to control abnormal movements in people who have Parkinsonian syndrome (a disorder of the nervous system that causes difficulties with movement, muscle control, and balance). Diphenhydramine injection should not ...

  5. Docetaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic to docetaxel injection or drugs made with polysorbate 80, an ingredient found in some medications. Ask ... if a medication you are allergic to contains polysorbate 80. If you experience any of the following ...

  6. Octreotide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... hormone (a natural substance) produced by people with acromegaly (condition in which the body produces too much ... Octreotide long-acting injection is used to control acromegaly, carcinoid tumors, and VIP-omas in people who ...

  7. Vedolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for several hours afterward. A doctor or ... of the following symptoms during or after your infusion: rash; itching; swelling of the face, eyes, mouth, ...

  8. Granisetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may occur after surgery. Granisetron extended-release (long-acting) injection is used with other medications to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy that may occur immediately ...

  9. Fluconazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat fungal infections, including yeast infections of the mouth, throat, esophagus (tube leading ... by fungus. Fluconazole is also used to prevent yeast infections in patients who are likely to become ...

  10. Intravitreal injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may have this procedure if you have: Macular degeneration : An eye disorder that slowly destroys sharp, central ... injection References American Academy of Ophthalmology. Age-related macular degeneration PPP - updated 2015. Aao.org web site. Updated ...

  11. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia; and infections of the skin, ... of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin injection ...

  12. Tobramycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as tobramycin injection will not work ...

  13. Ceftriaxone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as gonorrhea (a sexually transmitted disease), pelvic ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftriaxone injection will not work ...

  14. Moxifloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia; ; and , skin, and abdominal (stomach ... antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing the bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as moxifloxacin injection ...

  15. Daptomycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... in adults or serious skin infections caused by bacteria in adults and children 1 year of age ... called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as daptomycin injection will not work ...

  16. Amikacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as amikacin injection will not work ...

  17. Meropenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin and abdominal (stomach area) infections caused by bacteria and meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround ... of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as meropenem injection ...

  18. Cefepime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia, and skin, urinary tract, and kidney ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work ...

  19. Ertapenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... abdominal (stomach area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. It is also used for the prevention of ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ertapenem injection will not work ...

  20. Aztreonam Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria, including respiratory tract (including pneumonia and bronchitis), urinary ... abdominal (stomach area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. Aztreonam injection also may be used before, during, ...

  1. Ceftaroline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections and pneumonia (lung infection) caused by certain bacteria. Ceftaroline is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftaroline injection will not work ...

  2. Cefotaxime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotaxime injection will not work ...

  3. Cefuroxime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefuroxime injection will not work ...

  4. Ampicillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ampicillin injection will not work ...

  5. Gentamicin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as gentamicin injection will not work ...

  6. Screening for multiple weight loss and related drugs in dietary supplement materials by flow injection tandem mass spectrometry and their confirmation by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Song, Fenhong; Monroe, Douglas; El-Demerdash, Aref; Palmer, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    A new method has been developed using flow injection tandem mass spectrometry to semi-quantitatively screen for weight loss drugs, including sibutramine, N-desmethylsibutramine, N-didesmethylsibutramine, and phenolphthalein in dietary supplements. Positive identification of these drugs in samples was further confirmed and quantified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The degradation products of sibutramine were observed and identified by LC-MS/MS which include N-desmethylsibutramine, N-didesmethylsibutramine, N-formyldesmethylsibutramine, and N-formyldidesmethylsibutramine. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. MEDICAL INJECTION

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-06-10

    S62-08371 (1962) --- The automatic medical injectors carried on the Mercury-Atlas 9 flight. The injectors provide the astronaut with injection tubes of Tigan, for preventing motion sickness and Demerol, for relieving pain. The tubes encased in the block are stowed in the astronauts survival kit. The single injection tubes are placed in a pocket of the astronauts spacesuit. Photo credit: NASA

  8. Injection overview

    SciTech Connect

    Prestwich, S.

    1983-12-01

    The test program was initiated at the Raft River Geothermal Field in southern Idaho in September 1982. A series of eight short-term injection and backflow tests, followed by a long-term injection test, were conducted on one well in the field. Tracers were added during injection and monitored during backflow as well. The principal objective was to determine if tracers could be effectively used as a means to assess reservoir characteristics in a one-well test. The test program resulted in a unique data set which shows promise as a means to improve understanding of the reservoir characteristics. In December 1982, an RFP was issued to obtain an industrial partner to obtain follow-on data on the injection/backflow technique in a second field, and to study any alternate advanced concepts for injection testing which the industrial community might recommend. The East Mesa Geothermal Field was selected for the second test series. Two wells were utilized for testing, and a series of ten tests were conducted in July and August 1983, aimed principally at further evaluation of the injection/backflow technique.

  9. Optimization of Injection Molding Parameters for HDPE/TiO₂ Nanocomposites Fabrication with Multiple Performance Characteristics Using the Taguchi Method and Grey Relational Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pervez, Hifsa; Mozumder, Mohammad S; Mourad, Abdel-Hamid I

    2016-08-22

    The current study presents an investigation on the optimization of injection molding parameters of HDPE/TiO₂ nanocomposites using grey relational analysis with the Taguchi method. Four control factors, including filler concentration (i.e., TiO₂), barrel temperature, residence time and holding time, were chosen at three different levels of each. Mechanical properties, such as yield strength, Young's modulus and elongation, were selected as the performance targets. Nine experimental runs were carried out based on the Taguchi L₉ orthogonal array, and the data were processed according to the grey relational steps. The optimal process parameters were found based on the average responses of the grey relational grades, and the ideal operating conditions were found to be a filler concentration of 5 wt % TiO₂, a barrel temperature of 225 °C, a residence time of 30 min and a holding time of 20 s. Moreover, analysis of variance (ANOVA) has also been applied to identify the most significant factor, and the percentage of TiO₂ nanoparticles was found to have the most significant effect on the properties of the HDPE/TiO₂ nanocomposites fabricated through the injection molding process.

  10. Optimization of Injection Molding Parameters for HDPE/TiO2 Nanocomposites Fabrication with Multiple Performance Characteristics Using the Taguchi Method and Grey Relational Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pervez, Hifsa; Mozumder, Mohammad S.; Mourad, Abdel-Hamid I.

    2016-01-01

    The current study presents an investigation on the optimization of injection molding parameters of HDPE/TiO2 nanocomposites using grey relational analysis with the Taguchi method. Four control factors, including filler concentration (i.e., TiO2), barrel temperature, residence time and holding time, were chosen at three different levels of each. Mechanical properties, such as yield strength, Young’s modulus and elongation, were selected as the performance targets. Nine experimental runs were carried out based on the Taguchi L9 orthogonal array, and the data were processed according to the grey relational steps. The optimal process parameters were found based on the average responses of the grey relational grades, and the ideal operating conditions were found to be a filler concentration of 5 wt % TiO2, a barrel temperature of 225 °C, a residence time of 30 min and a holding time of 20 s. Moreover, analysis of variance (ANOVA) has also been applied to identify the most significant factor, and the percentage of TiO2 nanoparticles was found to have the most significant effect on the properties of the HDPE/TiO2 nanocomposites fabricated through the injection molding process. PMID:28773830

  11. Glatiramer Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which the nerves do ... minutes, but do not rub it. Glatiramer controls multiple sclerosis but does not cure it. Continue to use ...

  12. Long-term adherence of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis to subcutaneous self-injections of interferon β-1a using an electronic device: the RIVER study.

    PubMed

    Lugaresi, Alessandra; De Robertis, Francesca; Clerico, Marinella; Brescia Morra, Vincenzo; Centonze, Diego; Borghesan, Stefano; Maniscalco, Giorgia Teresa

    2016-07-01

    The BRIDGE study has previously shown a high short-term (12 weeks) adherence rate (>85%) of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) to subcutaneous self-injections of interferon β-1a using an electronic auto-injection device (RebiSmart®). The primary goal of the RIVER study was to investigate in a real-life setting the long-term adherence to the use of RebiSmart among patients enrolled in the parent BRIDGE study. The RIVER study was designed as a real-life extension study of the BRIDGE trial. RRMS patients who completed BRIDGE and still had an indication for treatment were included. Data were collected prospectively through the RebiSmart device, and analyzed retrospectively. Long term adherence (administration of ≥ 80% of injections) to and safety of RebiSmart were assessed. The expected follow-up period ranged from 19 to 26 months. A total of 57 RRMS patients participated in the follow-up study. The mean observation period was 20.5 ± 5.7 months. The overall adherence to the use of RebiSmart in the entire study cohort was 79.8% (median = 85.2%, range = 16-100%). There were 36 patients (63.2%) who completed at least 80% of the scheduled injections. No statistically significant differences were found between adherent and non-adherent patients in terms of age, sex, duration of the observation period, and occurrence of relapses. No serious treatment-related adverse events occurred. This study showed a high level of long-term adherence to the use of RebiSmart, with 63.2% of participants meeting the criterion for adherence to treatment.

  13. Multiple electron injection dynamics in linearly-linked two dye co-sensitized nanocrystalline metal oxide electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qing; Ogomi, Yuhei; Park, Byung-wook; Inoue, Takafumi; Pandey, Shyam S; Miyamoto, Akari; Fujita, Shinsuke; Katayama, Kenji; Toyoda, Taro; Hayase, Shuzi

    2012-04-07

    Understanding the electron transfer dynamics at the interface between dye sensitizer and semiconductor nanoparticle is very important for both a fundamental study and development of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), which are a potential candidate for next generation solar cells. In this study, we have characterized the ultrafast photoexcited electron dynamics in a newly produced linearly-linked two dye co-sensitized solar cell using both a transient absorption (TA) and an improved transient grating (TG) technique, in which tin(IV) 2,11,20,29-tetra-tert-butyl-2,3-naphthalocyanine (NcSn) and cis-diisothiocyanato-bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato)ruthenium(II) bis(tetrabutylammonium) (N719) are molecularly and linearly linked and are bonded to the surface of a nanocrystalline tin dioxide (SnO(2)) electrode by a metal-O-metal linkage (i.e. SnO(2)-NcSn-N719). By comparing the TA and TG kinetics of NcSn, N719, and hybrid NcSn-N719 molecules adsorbed onto both of the SnO(2) and zirconium dioxide (ZrO(2)) nanocrystalline films, the forward and backward electron transfer dynamics in SnO(2)-NcSn-N719 were clarified. We found that there are two pathways for electron injection from the linearly-linked two dye molecules (NcSn-N719) to SnO(2). The first is a stepwise electron injection, in which photoexcited electrons first transfer from N719 to NcSn with a transfer time of 0.95 ps and then transfer from NcSn to the conduction band (CB) of SnO(2) with two timescales of 1.6 ps and 4.2 ps. The second is direct photoexcited electron transfer from N719 to the CB of SnO(2) with a timescale of 20-30 ps. On the other hand, back electron transfer from SnO(2) to NcSn is on a timescale of about 2 ns, which is about three orders of magnitude slower compared to the forward electron transfer from NcSn to SnO(2). The back electron transfer from NcSn to N719 is on a timescale of about 40 ps, which is about one order slower compared to the forward electron transfer from N719 to Nc

  14. Enhanced carrier injection in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells LED with polarization-induced electron blocking barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengguo; Liu, Hongfei; Chua, Soo Jin

    2016-03-01

    In this report, we designed a light emitting diode (LED) structure in which an N-polar p-GaN layer is grown on top of Ga-polar In0.1Ga0.9N/GaN quantum wells (QWs) on an n-GaN layer. Numerical simulation reveals that the large polarization field at the polarity inversion interface induces a potential barrier in the conduction band, which can block electron overflow out of the QWs. Compared with a conventional LED structure with an Al0.2Ga0.8N electron blocking layer (EBL), the proposed LED structure shows much lower electron current leakage, higher hole injection, and a significant improvement in the internal quantum efficiency (IQE). These results suggest that the polarization induced barrier (PIB) is more effective than the AlGaN EBL in suppressing electron overflow and improving hole transport in GaN-based LEDs.

  15. Multiple daily injection of insulin regimen for a 10-month-old infant with type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic ketoacidosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Hyun; Shin, So Young; Shim, Ye Jee; Choi, Jin Hyeok

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes is increasing worldwide, and the greatest increase has been observed in very young children under 4 years of age. A case of infantile diabetic ketoacidosis in a 10-month-old male infant was encountered by these authors. The infant's fasting glucose level was 490 mg/dL, his PH was 7.13, his pCO2 was 15 mmHg, and his bicarbonate level was 5.0 mmol/L. The glycosylated hemoglobin level had increased to 9.4%. Ketonuria and glucosuria were detected in the urinalysis. The fasting C-peptide and insulin levels had decreased. The infant was positive for anti-insulin and antiglutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies. Immediately after the infant's admission, fluid therapy and intravenous insulin infusion therapy were started. On the second day of the infant's hospitalization and after fluid therapy, he recovered from his lethargic condition, and his general condition improved. Feeding was started on the third day, and he was fed a formula 5 to 7 times a day and ate rice, vegetables, and lean meat. Due to the frequent feeding, the frequency of rapid-acting insulin injection was increased from 3 times before feeding to 5 times, adjusted according to the feeding frequency. The total dose of insulin that was injected was 0.8–1.1 IU/kg/day, and the infant was discharged on the 12th day of his hospitalization. The case is presented herein with a brief review of the relevant literature. PMID:27462587

  16. Modeling field-scale multiple tracer injection at a low-level waste disposal site in fractured rocks: effect of multiscale heterogeneity and source term uncertainty on conceptual understanding of mass transfer processes.

    PubMed

    Gwo, Jin-Ping; Jardine, Philip M; Sanford, William E

    2005-03-01

    Multiple factors may affect the scale-up of laboratory multi-tracer injection into structured porous media to the field. Under transient flow conditions and with multiscale heterogeneities in the field, previous attempts to scale-up laboratory experiments have not answered definitely the questions about the governing mechanisms and the spatial extent of the influence of small-scale mass transfer processes such as matrix diffusion. The objective of this research is to investigate the effects of multiscale heterogeneity, mechanistic and site model conceptualization, and source term density effect on elucidating and interpreting tracer movement in the field. Tracer release and monitoring information previously obtained in a field campaign of multiple, conservative tracer injection under natural hydraulic gradients at a low-level waste disposal site in eastern Tennessee, United States, is used for the research. A suite of two-pore-domain, or fracture-matrix, groundwater flow and transport models are calibrated and used to conduct model parameter and prediction uncertainty analyses. These efforts are facilitated by a novel nested Latin-hypercube sampling technique. Our results verify, at field scale, a multiple-pore-domain, multiscale mechanistic conceptual model that was used previously to interpret only laboratory observations. The results also suggest that, integrated over the entire field site, mass flux rates attributable to small-scale mass transfer are comparable to that of field-scale solute transport. The uncertainty analyses show that fracture spacing is the most important model parameter and model prediction uncertainty is relatively higher at the interface between the preferred flow path and its parent bedrock. The comparisons of site conceptual models indicate that the effect of matrix diffusion may be confined to the immediate neighborhood of the preferential flow path. Finally, because the relatively large amount of tracer needed for field studies, it is

  17. Steam injection profile control agent and process

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, P.

    1992-04-14

    This patent describes a method for controlling a formation's profile where temperatures higher than 400 degrees F. are encountered in a substantially silica or sand containing formation, it comprises: injecting an aqueous solution of an alkali metal silicate into a zone of higher permeability; injecting a solvent solution containing a calcium salt in an amount sufficient to react with the alkali metal silicate as the solvent solution flows a front evenly through the zone thereby forming a calcium silicate cement which binds silica containing particles in the zone while decreasing the permeability of the zone and retaining a desired permeability of the higher permeability zone; and initiating a thermal oil recovery method in a zone of lesser permeability within the formation and removing hydrocarbonaceous fluids therefrom where the recovery method causes the formation to be heated to a temperature in excess of about 400 degrees F.

  18. A novel injectable formulation of diclofenac compared with intravenous ketorolac or placebo for acute moderate-to-severe pain after abdominal or pelvic surgery: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, multiple-dose study.

    PubMed

    Gan, Tong J; Daniels, Stephen E; Singla, Neil; Hamilton, Douglas A; Carr, Daniel B

    2012-11-01

    Injectable formulations of diclofenac have long been available in Europe and other countries. These formulations use a default dose of 75 mg of diclofenac delivered IV over 30 to 120 minutes or as an IM injection. A novel formulation of injectable diclofenac sodium, Dyloject®, is solubilized with hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) so that it can be given IV or IM in a small volume bolus. In this multicenter, multiple-dose, multiple-day, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group phase 3 study, we investigated whether lower doses of HPβCD diclofenac delivered as a small volume bolus would be effective for the management of acute pain after abdominal or pelvic surgery. Adults with moderate and severe pain, defined as ≥50 mm on a 0 to 100 mm visual analog scale, within 6 hours after surgery were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1 ratio) to receive HPβCD diclofenac, 18.75 mg or 37.5 mg; ketorolac tromethamine 30 mg; or placebo. Patients in all treatment arms received a bolus IV injection every 6 hours until discharged. They were observed for at least 48 h, and for up to 5 days. Rescue IV morphine was available any time, up to a total of 7.5 mg over a 3-hour period. The primary efficacy measure was the sum of pain intensity differences from 0 to 48 hours after study drug initiation. Three hundred thirty-one patients received ≥1 dose of study drug. Over the first 48 hours, both IV HPβCD diclofenac doses, as well as ketorolac, produced significant reductions in pain intensity over placebo (all P < 0.05), as well as significant reductions in the need for rescue morphine administration. Both doses of HPβCD diclofenac, as well as ketorolac, significantly reduced rescue morphine dosages, as compared to placebo (P < 0.0001), and time to rescue morphine administration was significantly increased by treatment with 18.75 mg diclofenac and ketorolac. The overall incidence of treatment-related adverse events was 20.2%. No treatment-related serious adverse events were reported in

  19. Use of Polyphosphate to Decrease Uranium Leaching in Hanford 300 Area Smear Zone Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.

    2012-09-30

    The primary objective of this study is to summarize the laboratory investigations performed to evaluate short- and long-term effects of phosphate treatment on uranium leaching from 300 area smear zone sediments. Column studies were used to compare uranium leaching in phosphate-treated to untreated sediments over a year with multiple stop flow events to evaluate longevity of the uranium leaching rate and mass. A secondary objective was to compare polyphosphate injection, polyphosphate/xanthan injection, and polyphosphate infiltration technologies that deliver phosphate to sediment.

  20. Ganciclovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests to check your body's response to ganciclovir injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or ...