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Sample records for multiple lymphoid nodules

  1. Multiple chronic benign pulmonary nodules.

    PubMed

    Kalifa, L G; Schimmel, D H; Gamsu, G

    1976-11-01

    Four cases are discussed in which were found unusual multiple chronic pulmonary nodules: leiomyomatous hamartomas, rheumatoid nodules, multiple histoplasmomas, and possible multiple plasma cell granulomas (hyalinizing pulmonary nodules). In each case the initial impression of metastic malignancy was countered by more than 2 years' observation, during which time the lesions appeared to be benign. Histologic examination is necessary to exclude malignancy, although a definitive diagnosis may be difficult to establish. PMID:981596

  2. Detection of Quiescent Infections with Multiple Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesviruses (EEHVs), Including EEHV2, EEHV3, EEHV6, and EEHV7, within Lymphoid Lung Nodules or Lung and Spleen Tissue Samples from Five Asymptomatic Adult African Elephants

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Jian-Chao; Heaggans, Sarah Y.; Long, Simon Y.; Latimer, Erin M.; Nofs, Sally A.; Bronson, Ellen; Casares, Miguel; Fouraker, Michael D.; Pearson, Virginia R.; Richman, Laura K.

    2015-01-01

    involves a variety of strains of EEHV1, whose natural host has been unclear. Here, we carried out genotype analyses by partial PCR sequencing of necropsy tissue from five asymptomatic African elephants and identified multiple simultaneous infections by several different EEHV types, including high concentrations in lymphoid lung nodules. Overall, the results provide strong evidence that EEHV2, EEHV3, EEHV6, and EEHV7 represent natural ubiquitous infections in African elephants, whereas Asian elephants harbor EEHV1A, EEHV1B, EEHV4, and EEHV5. Although a single case of fatal cross-species infection by EEHV3 is known, the results do not support the previous concept that highly pathogenic EEHV1A crossed from African to Asian elephants in zoos. PMID:26719245

  3. Benign Lymphoid Hyperplasia Presenting as Bilateral Scleral Nodules.

    PubMed

    Cumba, Ricardo J; Vazquez-Botet, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of transient lymphoid hyperplasia presenting as bilateral nodular scleral mass in a young male patient. Design. Observational case report. Methods. Chart review. Causes of scleritis were considered and excluded based on detailed history, physical examination, and laboratory investigations. Results. Excisional biopsy of scleral lesions indicated lymphoid tissue. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a polyclonal population of T and B cells consistent with a benign reactive process. Conclusions. Chronic exposure of the ocular adnexa to many allergens and irritants may lead to activation of the inflammatory cascade. In severely allergic patients activation may be exponential and elicit an immune-mediated response resulting in a transient lymphoid reactive process.

  4. Benign Lymphoid Hyperplasia Presenting as Bilateral Scleral Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Cumba, Ricardo J.; Vazquez-Botet, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of transient lymphoid hyperplasia presenting as bilateral nodular scleral mass in a young male patient. Design. Observational case report. Methods. Chart review. Causes of scleritis were considered and excluded based on detailed history, physical examination, and laboratory investigations. Results. Excisional biopsy of scleral lesions indicated lymphoid tissue. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a polyclonal population of T and B cells consistent with a benign reactive process. Conclusions. Chronic exposure of the ocular adnexa to many allergens and irritants may lead to activation of the inflammatory cascade. In severely allergic patients activation may be exponential and elicit an immune-mediated response resulting in a transient lymphoid reactive process. PMID:26421203

  5. Total lymphoid irradiation for multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Devereux, C.K.; Vidaver, R.; Hafstein, M.P.; Zito, G.; Troiano, R.; Dowling, P.C.; Cook, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Although chemical immunosuppression has been shown to benefit patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), it appears that chemotherapy has an appreciable oncogenic potential in patients with multiple sclerosis. Accordingly, we developed a modified total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) regimen designed to reduce toxicity and applied it to a randomized double blind trial of TLI or sham irradiation in MS. Standard TLI regimens were modified to reduce dose to 1,980 rad, lowering the superior mantle margin to midway between the thyroid cartilage and angle of the mandible (to avert xerostomia) and the lower margin of the mantle field to the inferior margin of L1 (to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity by dividing abdominal radiation between mantle and inverted Y), limiting spinal cord dose to 1,000 rad by custom-made spine blocks in the mantle and upper 2 cm of inverted Y fields, and also protecting the left kidney even if part of the spleen were shielded. Clinical efficacy was documented by the less frequent functional scale deterioration of 20 TLI treated patients with chronic progressive MS compared to to 20 sham-irradiated progressive MS patients after 12 months (16% versus 55%, p less than 0.03), 18 months (28% versus 63%, p less than 0.03), and 24 months (44% versus 74%, N.S.). Therapeutic benefit during 3 years follow-up was related to the reduction in lymphocyte count 3 months post-irradiation (p less than 0.02). Toxicity was generally mild and transient, with no instance of xerostomia, pericarditis, herpes zoster, or need to terminate treatment in TLI patients. However, menopause was induced in 2 patients and staphylococcal pneumonia in one.

  6. [Factors of multiple resistance to antibiotics in nodule bacteria].

    PubMed

    Pariĭskaia, A N; Gorelova, O P

    1976-01-01

    Multiple resistance to antibiotics (penicillin, levomycetin, neomycin, tetracycline) was found in 15% of collection strains of nodule bacteria and in strains isolated from natural environment. PMID:1050635

  7. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma presenting as multiple cavitary calcified nodules.

    PubMed

    Patel, Y; Ishikawa, S; MacDonnell, K F

    1991-12-01

    We describe a patient with PHG who presented with multiple cavitary calcified nodules. Laboratory evaluations revealed that she had serum immune abnormalities, and a histoplasmin skin test yielded positive results. Her Histoplasma infection may have produced a hyperimmune reaction that resulted in PHG and the calcified nodules. PMID:1720371

  8. Formation of multiple pulmonary nodules during treatment with leflunomide*

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Gilberto Toshikawa; Dias, George Alberto da Silva; Fujihara, Satomi; Silva, Luigi Ferreira e; Cruz, Lorena de Britto Pereira; Fuzii, Hellen Thais; Koyama, Roberta Vilela Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary involvement is one of the extra-articular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis and can be due to the disease itself or secondary to the medications used in order to treat it. We report the case of a 60-year-old woman who had been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis and developed multiple pulmonary nodules during treatment with leflunomide. PMID:26176527

  9. Multiple Cavitary Pulmonary Nodules Caused by Mycobacterium intracellulare

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Sang Hoon; Kim, Seo Ree; Choi, Joon Young; Choi, Jae Woo; Ko, Yu Mi; Jang, Sun Hee; Park, Jun Kyu; Sung, Ye Gyu; Park, Yun Jung; Oh, Su Yun; Bahk, Se Young; Lee, Ju Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been increasingly recognized as an important cause of chronic pulmonary infections. The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), which is composed of two species, Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracelluare, is the most commonly encountered pathogen associated with NTM lung disease. MAC pulmonary infection typically presents in a fibrocavitary form or a nodular bronchiectatic form. However, there have been atypical presentations of MAC pulmonary infections, including solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN). There have been several previous reports of SPN due to MAC infection in the United States, Japan, and Korea. In 2009, Sekine and colleagues reported a case of MAC pulmonary infection presenting with multiple nodules. To date, however, there have been no cases of NTM lung infection with multiple cavitary pulmonary nodules, and neither a fibrotic change nor nodular bronchiectasis. The present case showed a multiple cavitating nodular lung infection due to MAC, which is very rare and different from the typical presentation of MAC pulmonary infections. We also showed that percutaneous transthoracic needle aspiration can be a useful diagnostic tool to evaluate a case of multiple cavitary nodules. PMID:27468344

  10. Pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma accompanied by bilateral multiple calcified nodules in lung

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (PEH) is a rare vascular tumor. It can present either as one solitary nodule or bilateral multiple nodules, usually without calcification. We describe here an unusual case of PEH in a 42-year-old female with a 6.0 cm dominant mass along with bilateral multiple calcified small nodules measuring 0.2-1.0 cm in diameter with a 25-year plus followup history. Overall histologic findings of the solitary tumor accorded with conventional PEH. While multiple calcified small nodules were composed predominantly of intra-alveolar homogeneously eosinophilic matrix, and only a few bland small cells were embedded in it. This lesion has never been reported in the literature. After comprehensive analysis of morphology, radiography, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and differential diagnoses, PEH presenting multiple calcified small nodules was confirmed. PMID:21418612

  11. Total lymphoid irradiation in multiple sclerosis: blood lymphocytes and clinical course

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, S.D.; Devereux, C.; Troiano, R.; Zito, G.; Hafstein, M.; Lavenhar, M.; Hernandez, E.; Dowling, P.C.

    1987-11-01

    We have found a significant relationship between blood lymphocyte count and prognosis in 45 patients receiving either total lymphoid irradiation or sham irradiation for chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. Patients with sustained lymphocyte counts less than 900 mm-3 for prolonged periods after treatment showed less rapid progression over the ensuing 3 years than did patients with multiple sclerosis who had lymphocyte counts above this level (p less than 0.01). Our results suggest that a simple laboratory test, the absolute blood lymphocyte count, may serve as a valuable barometer for monitoring the amount of immunosuppressive therapy needed to prevent progression in patients with multiple sclerosis, and possibly other autoimmune diseases.

  12. Systemic lupus erythematosus with multiple calcified fibrous nodules of the spleen.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, H; Kitamura, H; Ito, T; Kanisawa, M; Kato, K

    1985-01-01

    An autopsy case of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a 39-year-old woman with peculiar multiple splenic nodules is reported. Multiple calcific nodular shadows were incidentally found in the left hypochondrial region on chest and abdominal X-ray films taken at admission. The patient died of chronic heart failure due to massive pericardial effusion as one of the manifestations of SLE with 2 and a half years' clinical course. Lupus nephritis and terminal miliary tuberculosis were the other conspicuous autopsy findings. The splenic nodules were almost evenly distributed on each cut-surface of the spleen at the density of about 5/cm2. Each nodule was spherical in shape and 1 to 3 mm in diameter. Most of the nodules were calcified in variable degrees. Semi-serial sectionings and reconstruction procedure of the nodules disclosed that they were formed around the central or penicillary arteries and had a close relation to so called "onion-skin lesion" of the spleen in SLE. The true nature, pathogenesis, and relation of the nodules to SLE are discussed. PMID:4003091

  13. Multiple nodules on the sole of the foot

    PubMed Central

    Miceli, Alyssa J.; Junkins-Hopkins, Jacqueline M.; Polley, Dennis C.; Elston, Dirk M.

    2015-01-01

    Ledderhose disease, or plantar fibromatosis, is a benign hyperproliferative disorder of the plantar aponeurosis. It presents as one or more round, firm slow-growing plaques or nodules on the plantar surface of the foot, typically on the medial side. The etiology is unknown, though it has been associated with trauma, liver disease, diabetes mellitus, epilepsy and alcoholism. Histopathological examination of plantar fibromatosis reveals dense fibrocellular tissue with parallel and nodular arrays of fibrocytes and fibrillar collagen with a distinctive cork-screw morphology. The differential diagnosis includes various fibroblastic and myofibroblastic proliferations. PMID:26753144

  14. Multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules masquerading as pulmonary metastasis; a case of nodular sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Mostafa; Farrokh, Donya; Mohammadpanah, Najmeh

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multi-system inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology that is manifested by the presence of non-caseating granulomas. Multiple pulmonary nodules are rare presentations of sarcoidosis. We report a case of nodular sarcoidosis in a young male of Middle-East origin who had initially presented with bilateral painful ankle edema. His chest X-ray showed multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules. A high resolution computed tomography scan of the chest demonstrated multiple pulmonary nodular lesions and also mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy. Subsequent biopsies revealed non-necrotizing granuloma with multi-nucleated giant cells indicative of sarcoidosis. An appropriate work-up was done to confirm the true nature of the nodules and facilitate treatment. PMID:27757192

  15. Intravenous leiomyomatosis with inferior vena cava or intracardiac extension and concurrent bilateral multiple pulmonary nodules

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guorui; Yu, Xin; Lang, Jinghe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Intravenous leiomyomatosis is a special type of uterine leiomyoma and features formation and growth of benign leiomyoma tissue within vascular wall. Benign metastatic leiomyoma refers to benign leiomyoma metastasizing to extra-uterine sites, dominantly lung. Solitary or multiple small nodules in the lung can be seen in image scans. Methods: We report 2 cases of intravenous leiomyomatosis with inferior vena cava or intracardiac extension and concurrent multiple nodules in bilateral lungs. Results: Case 1 was a 40-year-old woman with a large mass in pelvic cavity, masses in heart chambers, and disseminates pulmonary nodules detected at preoperative image scans. Masses in pelvic cavity and heart were resected in a 2-stage surgery. Histology examination confirmed the diagnosis of intravenous leiomyomatosis. Pulmonary nodules stayed stable during follow-up. Case 2 was a 37-year-old woman with 3 times of uterine-related surgeries. A pelvic mass appeared again and filling defect was observed in left ovarian vein, right renal vein, right common iliac vein, and inferior vena cava. Tumors in pelvic cavity and within vessels were removed in a 1-stage surgery. Histology examination confirmed the diagnosis of intravenous leiomyomatosis. Pulmonary nodules remained stable during follow-up. Conclusion: The incidence of benign metastatic leiomyoma in patients with intravenous leiomyomatosis might be relatively high. Metastasis of intravenous leiomyomatosis lesions was a possible source of benign metastatic leiomyoma in these cases. PMID:27583911

  16. A 40-year-old woman with multiple pulmonary nodules. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma.

    PubMed

    Ussavarungsi, Kamonpun; Khoor, Andras; Jolles, Howard I; Mira-Avendano, Isabel

    2014-12-01

    A 40-year-old woman (a nonsmoker) with history of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and a platelet count > 90,000 cells/μL without specific medication was referred to pulmonary clinic for evaluation of multiple pulmonary nodules. The patient presented to an outside hospital with fatigue, lack of energy, and dyspnea on exertion for 2 years. She denied fever, cough, chest pain, or weight loss. An initial chest radiograph showed bilateral multiple pulmonary nodules. A chest CT scan revealed multiple nodular lesions, varying in size, in all lobes of both lungs. There was no mediastinal lymphadenopathy or pleural effusion. There was no significant hypermetabolic activity on a subsequent fluorodeoxyglucose PET scan/CT scan, and there had been no significant change. She underwent CT scan-guided percutaneous transthoracic biopsy and bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsies, all of which were inconclusive. An open lung biopsy was considered. PMID:25451362

  17. Single-stage bilateral pulmonary resections by video-assisted thoracic surgery for multiple small nodules

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Feng; Yang, Haitang

    2016-01-01

    Background Surgical treatment is thought to be the most effective strategy for multiple small nodules. However, in general, one-stage bilateral resection is not recommended due to its highly invasive nature. Methods Clinical records of patients undergoing one-stage bilateral resections of multiple pulmonary nodules between January 2009 and September 2014 in a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Results Simultaneous bilateral pulmonary resection by conventional video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) was undertaken in 29 patients. Ground glass opacity (GGO) accounted for 71.9% (46/64) of total lesions, including 26 pure GGO and 20 mixed GGO lesions. One case underwent bilateral lobectomy that was complicated by postoperative dyspnea. Lobar-sublobar (L/SL) resection and bilateral sublobar resection (SL-SL) were conducted in 16 and 12 cases, respectively, and most of these cases had uneventful postoperative courses. There was no significant difference with regard to postoperative complications (P=0.703), duration of use of chest drains (P=0.485), between one- and two-stage groups. Mean postoperative follow-up in cases of primary lung cancer was 31.4 (range, 10–51) months. There was neither recurrence nor deaths at final follow-up. Conclusions Single-stage bilateral surgery in selected cases with synchronous bilateral multiple nodules (SBMNs) is feasible and associated with satisfactory outcomes. PMID:27076942

  18. Hepatitis B virus-related polyarteritis nodosa presenting with multiple lung nodules and cavitary lesions.

    PubMed

    Naniwa, Taio; Maeda, Tomoyo; Shimizu, Shigeki; Ito, Rei

    2010-07-01

    The patient presented here is a 59-year-old Japanese man with active chronic hepatitis B with precore and core promoter mutated virus, presenting with high fever, bloody sputum, and multiple lung nodules with excavation. Surgical biopsy of the lung nodule showed necrotizing vasculitis affecting pulmonary arteries without granulomatous changes. The pulmonary manifestations of this patient resembled Wegener granulomatosis. However, the pathologic findings showing nongranulomatous necrotizing vasculitis involving the small pulmonary arteries, presence of circulating immune complex, absence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, and excellent response to the combination therapy of corticosteroid and an anti-hepatitis B virus agent, entecavir, led us to the diagnosis of hepatitis B virus-related polyarteritis nodosa (PAN). Radiographic evidence of lung nodules or cavitations seen in systemic vasculitis patients has been considered a sign suggestive of granulomatous disease and a diagnostic surrogate marker for necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis, but a clinical relevance to hepatitis B virus-related PAN has not been reported before this case. PMID:20605819

  19. Pulmonary mass and multiple lung nodules mimicking a lung neoplasm as amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-García, J L.; García-Nieto, J C.; Ballesta, F; Prieto, E; Villanueva, M A.; Gallardo, J

    2001-07-01

    Amiodarone is an effective anti-arrhythmic agent. However, during long-term therapy, patients can develop severe adverse pulmonary reactions that are potentially life-threatening. A case of amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity is presented in a 78-year-old woman. She developed dyspnea and a pulmonary mass with associated multiple lung nodules mimicking a lung cancer following 5 years of treatment with amiodarone for atrial fibrillation. After drug withdrawal, and without any additional treatment, clinical and radiological improvement was observed, and radiological findings resolved completely within 6 months.

  20. Multiple Myeloma Relapse Following Autologous Stem Cell Transplant Presenting With Diffuse Pulmonary Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Sumrall, Bradley; Diethelm, Lisa; Brown, Archie

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple myeloma is a common disease, accounting for about 10% of hematologic malignancies in the United States. For eligible patients, the treatment of choice includes induction therapy (usually involving newer biologic agents) followed by autologous stem cell transplant; however, this treatment is generally not considered curative, and relapses usually occur. However, extramedullary relapse is an uncommon presentation, and relapses that involve the lungs have only rarely been described. Case Report We report the case of a patient who underwent an autologous stem cell transplant for multiple myeloma and subsequently relapsed with diffuse pulmonary nodules. She then had a rapid clinical and serologic response following initiation of salvage therapy. Conclusion This case is remarkable for both the radiographic appearance of the pulmonary involvement, as well as the rapid resolution of these findings after 2 cycles of treatment with bortezomib, dexamethasone, and lenalidomide. PMID:24358007

  1. Multiple polyploidy events in the early radiation of nodulating and nonnodulating legumes.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Steven B; McKain, Michael R; Harkess, Alex; Nelson, Matthew N; Dash, Sudhansu; Deyholos, Michael K; Peng, Yanhui; Joyce, Blake; Stewart, Charles N; Rolf, Megan; Kutchan, Toni; Tan, Xuemei; Chen, Cui; Zhang, Yong; Carpenter, Eric; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Doyle, Jeff J; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Unresolved questions about evolution of the large and diverse legume family include the timing of polyploidy (whole-genome duplication; WGDs) relative to the origin of the major lineages within the Fabaceae and to the origin of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Previous work has established that a WGD affects most lineages in the Papilionoideae and occurred sometime after the divergence of the papilionoid and mimosoid clades, but the exact timing has been unknown. The history of WGD has also not been established for legume lineages outside the Papilionoideae. We investigated the presence and timing of WGDs in the legumes by querying thousands of phylogenetic trees constructed from transcriptome and genome data from 20 diverse legumes and 17 outgroup species. The timing of duplications in the gene trees indicates that the papilionoid WGD occurred in the common ancestor of all papilionoids. The earliest diverging lineages of the Papilionoideae include both nodulating taxa, such as the genistoids (e.g., lupin), dalbergioids (e.g., peanut), phaseoloids (e.g., beans), and galegoids (=Hologalegina, e.g., clovers), and clades with nonnodulating taxa including Xanthocercis and Cladrastis (evaluated in this study). We also found evidence for several independent WGDs near the base of other major legume lineages, including the Mimosoideae-Cassiinae-Caesalpinieae (MCC), Detarieae, and Cercideae clades. Nodulation is found in the MCC and papilionoid clades, both of which experienced ancestral WGDs. However, there are numerous nonnodulating lineages in both clades, making it unclear whether the phylogenetic distribution of nodulation is due to independent gains or a single origin followed by multiple losses. PMID:25349287

  2. Multiple polyploidy events in the early radiation of nodulating and nonnodulating legumes.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Steven B; McKain, Michael R; Harkess, Alex; Nelson, Matthew N; Dash, Sudhansu; Deyholos, Michael K; Peng, Yanhui; Joyce, Blake; Stewart, Charles N; Rolf, Megan; Kutchan, Toni; Tan, Xuemei; Chen, Cui; Zhang, Yong; Carpenter, Eric; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Doyle, Jeff J; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Unresolved questions about evolution of the large and diverse legume family include the timing of polyploidy (whole-genome duplication; WGDs) relative to the origin of the major lineages within the Fabaceae and to the origin of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Previous work has established that a WGD affects most lineages in the Papilionoideae and occurred sometime after the divergence of the papilionoid and mimosoid clades, but the exact timing has been unknown. The history of WGD has also not been established for legume lineages outside the Papilionoideae. We investigated the presence and timing of WGDs in the legumes by querying thousands of phylogenetic trees constructed from transcriptome and genome data from 20 diverse legumes and 17 outgroup species. The timing of duplications in the gene trees indicates that the papilionoid WGD occurred in the common ancestor of all papilionoids. The earliest diverging lineages of the Papilionoideae include both nodulating taxa, such as the genistoids (e.g., lupin), dalbergioids (e.g., peanut), phaseoloids (e.g., beans), and galegoids (=Hologalegina, e.g., clovers), and clades with nonnodulating taxa including Xanthocercis and Cladrastis (evaluated in this study). We also found evidence for several independent WGDs near the base of other major legume lineages, including the Mimosoideae-Cassiinae-Caesalpinieae (MCC), Detarieae, and Cercideae clades. Nodulation is found in the MCC and papilionoid clades, both of which experienced ancestral WGDs. However, there are numerous nonnodulating lineages in both clades, making it unclear whether the phylogenetic distribution of nodulation is due to independent gains or a single origin followed by multiple losses.

  3. Multiple Polyploidy Events in the Early Radiation of Nodulating and Nonnodulating Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Steven B.; McKain, Michael R.; Harkess, Alex; Nelson, Matthew N.; Dash, Sudhansu; Deyholos, Michael K.; Peng, Yanhui; Joyce, Blake; Stewart, Charles N.; Rolf, Megan; Kutchan, Toni; Tan, Xuemei; Chen, Cui; Zhang, Yong; Carpenter, Eric; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Doyle, Jeff J.; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Unresolved questions about evolution of the large and diverse legume family include the timing of polyploidy (whole-genome duplication; WGDs) relative to the origin of the major lineages within the Fabaceae and to the origin of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Previous work has established that a WGD affects most lineages in the Papilionoideae and occurred sometime after the divergence of the papilionoid and mimosoid clades, but the exact timing has been unknown. The history of WGD has also not been established for legume lineages outside the Papilionoideae. We investigated the presence and timing of WGDs in the legumes by querying thousands of phylogenetic trees constructed from transcriptome and genome data from 20 diverse legumes and 17 outgroup species. The timing of duplications in the gene trees indicates that the papilionoid WGD occurred in the common ancestor of all papilionoids. The earliest diverging lineages of the Papilionoideae include both nodulating taxa, such as the genistoids (e.g., lupin), dalbergioids (e.g., peanut), phaseoloids (e.g., beans), and galegoids (=Hologalegina, e.g., clovers), and clades with nonnodulating taxa including Xanthocercis and Cladrastis (evaluated in this study). We also found evidence for several independent WGDs near the base of other major legume lineages, including the Mimosoideae–Cassiinae–Caesalpinieae (MCC), Detarieae, and Cercideae clades. Nodulation is found in the MCC and papilionoid clades, both of which experienced ancestral WGDs. However, there are numerous nonnodulating lineages in both clades, making it unclear whether the phylogenetic distribution of nodulation is due to independent gains or a single origin followed by multiple losses. PMID:25349287

  4. Multiple cavitary pulmonary nodules in association with pyoderma gangrenosum: case report.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Maraya de Jesus Semblano; Soares, Luciana Fontenele Brito; Lobato, Lilia Sampaio; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Leandro, Helandro Stuart Castro; Fonseca, Diana Mendes da

    2012-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare neutrophilic disease of unknown origin that is associated with systemic diseases in 50% of cases. It is characterized by erythematous-violaceous nodular lesions that quickly progress to painful ulcers, with undermined edges, necrotic-hemorrhagic, varying in size and depth, located mainly in the lower limbs. Extracutaneous locations of pyoderma gangrenosum are rare, usually involving the lungs; the main differential diagnosis in these cases is Wegener granulomatosis. We report a case of pyoderma gangrenosum, which showed multiple cavitary lung nodules, with good response to high doses of steroids. Once excluded the possibility of Wegener granulomatosis, the authors concluded that it was the manifestation of systemic pyoderma gangrenosum with pulmonary involvement. PMID:22570038

  5. Multiple Sub-Epidermal Calcified Nodule Mimicking Eruptive Xanthoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ozuguz, Pinar; Balta, Ilknur; Bozkurt, Ozlem; Unverdi, Hatice; Dostbil, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Sub-epidermal calcified nodule (SCN) is an uncommon form of idiopathic calcinosis. It usually occurs in children, particularly in the head and neck region, presenting as a solitary, painless, yellow-white nodule with papillomatous features. These lesions occur twice as common in males compared with females. The pathogenesis is uncertain, but the clinical and histological features of this lesion are distinctive. We report a case of 22-year-old man with multiple nodules bilaterally located on the dorsum of hands simulating eruptive xanthoma. Histopathological examination of one of the excised lesion confirmed the diagnosis showing epidermal and sub-epidermal deposition of calcium. This paper presents a review of the literature and adds a new case of SCN. PMID:24082201

  6. A case of systemic lupus erythematosus with multiple nodules in the bilateral lungs and vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Takuma Tsuzuki; Sato, Kojiro; Mimura, Toshihide

    2016-01-01

    We encountered a case of a middle-aged woman with systemic lupus erythematosus. As the patient had progressive peripheral neuropathy including foot drop, we intended to treat her with intensive immunosuppressive therapy as soon as possible. Pretreatment assessment, however, revealed multiple nodular lesions in the lungs and bones, suggesting disseminated tumor metastasis or miliary tuberculosis. To our surprise, gallium and bone scintigraphy as well as cytodiagnosis revealed no sign of malignancy or infection, leading us to suspect the presence of another multisystem disorder. The presence of subependymal nodules and a periungual fibroma strongly suggested tuberous sclerosis (TS). A genetic test revealed a mutation in the TSC1 gene and confirmed the diagnosis. Thus, the multiple nodular lesions were most likely a hyperplasia due to TS. Although the odds of a comorbidity of more than one multisystem disorder are considered to be quite low, it should be kept in mind that when such a situation does exist, the comorbidity may make the presenting symptoms extremely diverse.

  7. Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis: unusual manifestations of multiple large pulmonary nodules with retroperitoneal lymph node involvement mimicking metastatic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Jung; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Yong-A; Han, Daehee; Moon, Hyeon Jong; Cheon, Hey Won; Chung, Hee Soon; Kim, Deog Kyeom

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, idiopathic disorder that predominantly affects the lung parenchyma of women of childbearing age. While the characteristic radiographic finding of pulmonary LAM consists of multiple well-defined thin-walled cysts, we describe a very unusual case of pulmonary LAM with multiple bilateral large pulmonary nodules and retroperitoneal involvement mimicking metastatic malignancy. A 48-year-old woman who had never smoked with a history of bilateral pneumothorax presented with progressive exertional dyspnea and abdominal discomfort. Imaging studies revealed multiple enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes, ascites and bilateral multiple large pulmonary nodules ranging from 3 to 18 mm in diameter. Exploratory laparoscopic surgery for intra-abdominal lesions and video-assisted thoracoscopic wedge resection of lung nodules were carried out to rule out metastatic malignancy. Pathology showed benign looking smooth muscle cell proliferation and immunoreactivity for α-smooth muscle actin and HMB-45 in both specimens. After treatment with GnRH antagonist, the patient was well over a 6-month period without evidence of disease progression.

  8. RORγt Expression and Lymphoid Neogenesis in the Brain of Patients with Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Barbara; Rosicarelli, Barbara; Veroni, Caterina; Zhou, Ling; Reali, Camilla; Aloisi, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    Ectopic B-cell follicle-like structures (ELS) are found in the meninges of patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). Because cells expressing the transcriptional regulator retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor-γt (RORγt) and producing interleukin 17 (IL17), e.g. T helper 17 cells and lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells, have been implicated in the formation of ELS, we studied RORγt and IL17 expression in brain tissue from patients with SPMS an assessed their relationships to immune infiltrates and meningeal ELS. By immunohistochemistry, small numbers of RORγt-positive cells were detected in the meninges of 6 of 12 SPMS cases analyzed. RORγt-positive cells were localized in B-cell follicles or aggregates and nearby diffuse meningeal infiltrates, and predominantly co-expressed CD3. Only a few RORγt-positive, CD3-negative cells were observed, suggesting the presence of group 3 innate lymphoid cells, which comprise the LTi cell subset. Some IL17-positive cells, co-expressing in part RORγt and predominantly CD3, were found in meningeal B-cell follicles from 4 SPMS cases. Rare RORγt-positive and IL17-positive cells were detected in white matter. Gene expression analysis of laser dissected meningeal infiltrates and white matter lesions confirmed low frequencies and virtual absence of RORγt and IL17 signals, respectively. Thus, there is selective migration or survival of RORγt-positive cells in MS patient meninges and an association of these cells with ELS.

  9. Intrathoracic Desmoid Tumor Presenting as Multiple Lung Nodules 13 Years after Previous Resection of Abdominal Wall Desmoid Tumor.

    PubMed

    Koo, Gun Woo; Chung, Sung Jun; Kwak, Joo Hee; Oh, Chang Kyo; Park, Dong Won; Kwak, Hyeon Jung; Moon, Ji-Yong; Kim, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Jang Won; Yoon, Ho Joo; Shin, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Soo; Oh, Young-Ha; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Kim, Tae-Hyung

    2015-07-01

    Desmoid tumors are rare soft tissue tumors considered to have locally infiltrative features without distant metastasis until now. Although they are most commonly intraabdominal, very few cases have extra-abdominal locations. The origin of intrathoracic desmoid tumors is predominantly the chest wall with occasional involvement of pleura. True intrathoracic primary desmoid tumors with no involvement of the chest wall or pleura are extremely rare. We recently experienced a case of true intrathoracic desmoid tumor presenting as multiple lung nodules at 13 years after resection of a previous intraabdominal desmoid tumor.

  10. Ectopic micronodular thymoma with lymphoid stroma in the cervical region: a rare case associated with Langerhans cells proliferation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Min; Meng, Yuan; Xu, Bin; Zhao, Lin; Zhang, Qingfu

    2016-01-01

    Micronodular thymoma (MNT) with lymphoid stroma is a rare thymic epithelial neoplasm with the characteristics of multiple nodules separated by abundant lymphoid stroma. MNTs mainly arise in the anterior mediastinum and thymus, while ectopic MNTs are extremely rarely seen. Here, we report an ectopic MNT that occurred in the neck of a 62-year-old woman. There were also scattered eosinophilic granulocytes and S100(+)/CD1a(+) Langerhans cells within the tumor. This case provides a better understanding of such rare, poorly understood cases. PMID:27486334

  11. Ectopic micronodular thymoma with lymphoid stroma in the cervical region: a rare case associated with Langerhans cells proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Min; Meng, Yuan; Xu, Bin; Zhao, Lin; Zhang, Qingfu

    2016-01-01

    Micronodular thymoma (MNT) with lymphoid stroma is a rare thymic epithelial neoplasm with the characteristics of multiple nodules separated by abundant lymphoid stroma. MNTs mainly arise in the anterior mediastinum and thymus, while ectopic MNTs are extremely rarely seen. Here, we report an ectopic MNT that occurred in the neck of a 62-year-old woman. There were also scattered eosinophilic granulocytes and S100+/CD1a+ Langerhans cells within the tumor. This case provides a better understanding of such rare, poorly understood cases. PMID:27486334

  12. Protein Ubiquitination in Lymphoid Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yibin; Staudt, Louis M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Human lymphoid malignancies inherit gene expression networks from their normal B-cell counterpart and co-opt them for their own oncogenic purpose, which is usually governed by transcriptional factors and signaling pathways. These transcriptional factors and signaling pathways are precisely regulated at multiple steps, including ubiquitin modification. With a function involved in almost all cellular events, protein ubiquitination plays a role in many human diseases. In the past few years, multiple studies have expanded the role of ubiquitination in the genesis of diverse lymphoid malignancies. Here we discuss our current understanding of both proteolytic and nonproteolytic functions of the protein ubiquitination system and describe how it is involved in the pathogenesis of human lymphoid cancers. Lymphoid-restricted ubiquitination mechanisms, including ubiquitin E3 ligases and deubiquitinating enzymes, provide great opportunities for the development of targeted therapies for lymphoid cancers. PMID:25510281

  13. Multiple pulmonary cavitary nodules with pyoderma gangrenosum in patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Be, Miae; Cha, Hee Jeong; Park, Chanho; Park, Yongtae; Jung, Hwasik; Lee, Yoeunim; Jegal, Yangjin

    2016-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare ulcerative neutrophilic disorder of skin. Its pulmonary manifestations are uncommon and only less than forty cases have been reported in the literature previously. PG is associated with variable systemic diseases, most commonly inflammatory bowel disease and hematologic malignancies. It reported rarely in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We report a case of PG lung involvement in patient with RA associated interstitial lung disease. A 66-year-old woman presented with productive cough and recurrent ulcerative lesion on her left ankle. She had a 15-year history of RA associated interstitial lung disease and treated with methotrexate, sulfasalazine, hydroxychloroquine and methylprednisolone. On physical examination, there were a few tender, erythematous subcutaneous nodules ranging from 1 to 3 cm in diameter on her left thigh and left elbow. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) are negative. Her chest CT scan demonstrated multifocal cavitary consolidations on the background of reticular opacity and honeycombing. Punch biopsy of erythematous nodule on thigh showed neutrophilic abscess with necrotic debris. The skin and lung lesions were rapidly improved with 0.5 mg/kg/day of prednisolone. PMID:26889492

  14. Multiple pulmonary cavitary nodules with pyoderma gangrenosum in patient with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Be, Miae; Cha, Hee Jeong; Park, Chanho; Park, Yongtae; Jung, Hwasik; Lee, Yoeunim

    2016-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare ulcerative neutrophilic disorder of skin. Its pulmonary manifestations are uncommon and only less than forty cases have been reported in the literature previously. PG is associated with variable systemic diseases, most commonly inflammatory bowel disease and hematologic malignancies. It reported rarely in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We report a case of PG lung involvement in patient with RA associated interstitial lung disease. A 66-year-old woman presented with productive cough and recurrent ulcerative lesion on her left ankle. She had a 15-year history of RA associated interstitial lung disease and treated with methotrexate, sulfasalazine, hydroxychloroquine and methylprednisolone. On physical examination, there were a few tender, erythematous subcutaneous nodules ranging from 1 to 3 cm in diameter on her left thigh and left elbow. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) are negative. Her chest CT scan demonstrated multifocal cavitary consolidations on the background of reticular opacity and honeycombing. Punch biopsy of erythematous nodule on thigh showed neutrophilic abscess with necrotic debris. The skin and lung lesions were rapidly improved with 0.5 mg/kg/day of prednisolone. PMID:26889492

  15. Multiple pulmonary cavitary nodules with pyoderma gangrenosum in patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Be, Miae; Cha, Hee Jeong; Park, Chanho; Park, Yongtae; Jung, Hwasik; Lee, Yoeunim; Jegal, Yangjin

    2016-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare ulcerative neutrophilic disorder of skin. Its pulmonary manifestations are uncommon and only less than forty cases have been reported in the literature previously. PG is associated with variable systemic diseases, most commonly inflammatory bowel disease and hematologic malignancies. It reported rarely in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We report a case of PG lung involvement in patient with RA associated interstitial lung disease. A 66-year-old woman presented with productive cough and recurrent ulcerative lesion on her left ankle. She had a 15-year history of RA associated interstitial lung disease and treated with methotrexate, sulfasalazine, hydroxychloroquine and methylprednisolone. On physical examination, there were a few tender, erythematous subcutaneous nodules ranging from 1 to 3 cm in diameter on her left thigh and left elbow. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) are negative. Her chest CT scan demonstrated multifocal cavitary consolidations on the background of reticular opacity and honeycombing. Punch biopsy of erythematous nodule on thigh showed neutrophilic abscess with necrotic debris. The skin and lung lesions were rapidly improved with 0.5 mg/kg/day of prednisolone.

  16. Production of Multiple Brain-Like Ganglioside Species Is Dispensable for Fas-Induced Apoptosis of Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Carpentier, Stéphane; Levade, Thierry; Cuvillier, Olivier; Portoukalian, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Activation of an acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) leading to a biosynthesis of GD3 disialoganglioside has been associated with Fas-induced apoptosis of lymphoid cells. The present study was undertaken to clarify the role of this enzyme in the generation of gangliosides during apoptosis triggered by Fas ligation. The issue was addressed by using aSMase-deficient and aSMase-corrected cell lines derived from Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) patients. Fas cross-linking elicited a rapid production of large amounts of complex a- and b-series species of gangliosides with a pattern and a chromatographic behavior as single bands reminiscent of brain gangliosides. The gangliosides were synthesized within the first ten minutes and completely disappeared within thirty minutes after stimulation. Noteworthy is the observation that GD3 was not the only ganglioside produced. The production of gangliosides and the onset of apoptotic hallmarks occurred similarly in both aSMase-deficient and aSMase-corrected NPD lymphoid cells, indicating that aSMase activation is not accountable for ganglioside generation. Hampering ganglioside production by inhibiting the key enzyme glucosylceramide synthase did not abrogate the apoptotic process. In addition, GM3 synthase-deficient lymphoid cells underwent Fas-induced apoptosis, suggesting that gangliosides are unlikely to play an indispensable role in transducing Fas-induced apoptosis of lymphoid cells. PMID:21629700

  17. Gastric involvement of sarcoidosis in a patient with multiple lung nodules

    PubMed Central

    Ceylan, Emel; Şen, Serdar; Coşkun, Adil; Meteoğlu, İbrahim; Demirtaş, Nimet; Çildağ, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disorder mostly could involve intrathoracic structures. The gastric involvement is rare and the symptoms may be non-specific. We herein report a case of a 56-year-old female patient who was admitted due to chest tightness and discomfort. Computed tomography (CT) of the thorax revealed bilaterally nodular lesions in the lower lobes of the lung and pleural effusion on the left side. Positron emission tomography/CT showed lung nodules and gastric involvement with mesenteric lymphadenomegalies with pathological uptake of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose. Pathological examination of the lung biopsy taken by thoracotomy demonstrated non-caseating granulomas. The gastric biopsies taken by endoscopy also showed non-caseating granulomas consistent with a diagnosis of sarcoidosis. PMID:26487882

  18. Does Disease-Irrelevant Intrathecal Synthesis in Multiple Sclerosis Make Sense in the Light of Tertiary Lymphoid Organs?

    PubMed Central

    Bonnan, Mickael

    2014-01-01

    Although partly disease-irrelevant, intrathecal immunoglobulins (Ig) synthesis is a typical feature of multiple sclerosis (MS) and is driven by the tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO). A long-known hallmark of this non-specific intrathecal synthesis is the MRZ pattern, an intrathecal synthesis of Ig against measles, rubella, and zoster viruses. This non-specific intrathecal synthesis could also be directed against a wide range of pathogens. However, it is highly problematic since brain TLO should not be able to drive the clonal expansion of lymphocytes against alien antigens that are thought to be absent in MS brain. We propose to explain the paradox of non-specific intrathecal synthesis by discussing the natural properties of TLO. In fact, besides local antigen-driven clonal expansion, circulating plasmablasts and plasma cells (PC) are non-specifically recruited from blood and gain access to survival niches in the inflammatory CNS. This mechanism, which has been described in other inflammatory disorders, takes place in the TLO. As a consequence, PCs recruited in brain mirror the individual’s history of immunization and intrathecal synthesis of IgG in MS may target a broad range of common infectious agents, a hypothesis in line with epidemiological data. Moreover, the immunization schedule and its timing may interfere with PC recruitment. If this hypothesis is correct, the reaction against EBV appears paradoxical: although early infection of MS patients is systematic, intrathecal synthesis is far lower than expected, suggesting a crucial interaction between MS onset and timing of EBV infection. A growing body of evidence suggests that the non-specific intrathecal synthesis observed in MS is also common in many chronic CNS inflammatory disorders. Assuming that cortical TLO in MS are associated with typical sub-pial lesions, we have coined the concept of “TLO-pathy” to describe these lesions and take examples of them from non-MS disorders. Lastly, we propose that

  19. Effects of N(6)-benzylaminopurine and Indole Acetic Acid on In Vitro Shoot Multiplication, Nodule-like Meristem Proliferation and Plant Regeneration of Malaysian Bananas (Musa spp.).

    PubMed

    Sipen, Philip; Davey, Michael R

    2012-12-01

    Different concentrations of N(6)-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and indole acetic acid (IAA) in Murashige and Skoog based medium were assessed for their effects on shoot multiplication, nodule-like meristem proliferation and plant regeneration of the Malaysian banana cultivars Pisang Mas, Pisang Nangka, Pisang Berangan and Pisang Awak. BAP at 1-14 mg L(-1) with or without 0.2 mg L(-1) IAA, or BAP at 7-14 mg L(-1) with the same concentration of IAA, was evaluated for shoot multiplication from shoot tips and the proliferation of nodule-like meristems from scalps, respectively. Plant regeneration from scalps was assessed using 1 mg L(-1) BAP and 0.2 mg L(-1) IAA separately, or a combination of these two growth regulators. Data on shoot multiplication, the proliferation of nodule-like meristems with associated plant regeneration were recorded after 30 days of culture. A maximum of 5 shoots per original shoot tip was achieved on medium supplemented with BAP at 5 mg L(-1) (Pisang Nangka), 6 mg L(-1) (Pisang Mas and Pisang Berangan), or 7 mg L(-1) (Pisang Awak), with 0.2 mg L(-1) IAA. BAP at 11 mg L(-1) with 0.2 mg L(-1) IAA induced the most highly proliferating nodule-like meristems in the four banana cultivars. Plant regeneration from scalps was optimum in all cases on medium containing 1 mg L(-1) BAP and 0.2 mg L(-1) IAA. This is the first report on the successful induction of highly proliferating nodule-like meristems and plant regeneration from scalps of the Malaysian banana cultivars Pisang Mas, Pisang Nangka, Pisang Berangan and Pisang Awak.

  20. Manganese nodules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, James R.; Harff, Jan; Petersen, Sven; Thiede, Jorn

    2014-01-01

    The existence of manganese (Mn) nodules (Fig. 1) has been known since the late 1800s when they were collected during the Challenger expedition of 1873–1876. However, it was not until after WWII that nodules were further studied in detail for their ability to adsorb metals from seawater. Many of the early studies did not distinguish Mn nodules from Mn crusts. Economic interest in Mn nodules began in the late 1950s and early 1960s when John Mero finished his Ph.D. thesis on this subject, which was published...

  1. Geochemistry of ferromanganese nodules from DOMES site a, Northern Equatorial Pacific: Multiple diagenetic metal sources in the deep sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calvert, S.E.; Piper, D.Z.

    1984-01-01

    The major and minor element composition of ferromanganese nodules from DOMES Site A has been determined by X-ray fluorescence methods. Three phases appear to control the bulk compositions: Mn and Fe oxyhydroxides and aluminosilicates. Relatively wide compositional variations are evident throughout the area. Nodules with high Mn/Fe ratios, high Cu, Mg, Mo, Ni and Zn concentrations and high todorokite/??-MnO2 ratios have granular surface textures and are confined to an east-west trending depression with thin Quaternary sediment cover. Nodules with low Mn/Fe ratios, high concentrations of As, Ca, Ce, Co, La, P, Sr, Ti, V, Y and Zr and low todorokite/??-MnO2 ratios have smooth surfaces and are confined to shallower areas with relatively thick Quaternary sediment to the north and south of the depression. All nodules in the area have compositions which are influenced by diagenesis, but those with the most marked diagenetic signature (high Mn/Fe and Cu/Ni ratios, low Ce/La ratios and more todorokite) are found in areas of very slow or non-existent sedimentation; many of these nodules are actually in contact with outcropping Tertiary sediment. This paradox may be resolved by postulating, by analogy with some shallow-water occurrences, that the nodules accrete from bottom waters which have enhanced particulate and dissolved metal contents derived from diagenetic reaction in areas remote from the site of nodule formation. The metals are supplied in a bottom flow (probably Antarctic Bottom Water) which also erodes, or prevents modern sedimentation in, the depression. Nodules on the flanks of the depression are not evidently affected by this flow and derive at least pan of their constituent metals from diagenetic reaction in the underlying Quaternary sediment. Apparently, abyssal diagenetic nodules can have an immediate and a remote diagenetic metal source. Metal fluxes derived from pore water dissolved metal gradients may not be relevant to particular accreting nodules if a

  2. Ferromanganese nodules from MANOP Sites H, S, and R-Control of mineralogical and chemical composition by multiple accretionary processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dymond, J.; Lyle, M.; Finney, B.; Piper, D.Z.; Murphy, K.; Conard, R.; Pisias, N.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical composition of ferromanganese nodules from the three nodule-bearing MANOP sites in the Pacific can be accounted for in a qualitative way by variable contributions of distinct accretionary processes. These accretionary modes are: 1. (1) hydrogenous, i.e., direct precipitation or accumulation of colloidal metal oxides in seawater, 2. (2) oxic diagenesis which refers to a variety of ferromanganese accretion processes occurring in oxic sediments; and 3. (3) suboxic diagenesis which results from reduction of Mn+4 by oxidation of organic matter in the sediments. Geochemical evidence suggests processes (1) and (2) occur at all three MANOP nodule-bearing sites, and process (3) occurs only at the hemipelagic site, H, which underlies the relatively productive waters of the eastern tropical Pacific. A normative model quantitatively accounts for the variability observed in nearly all elements. Zn and Na, however, are not well explained by the three end-member model, and we suggest that an additional accretionary process results in greater variability in the abundances of these elements. Variable contributions from the three accretionary processes result in distinct top-bottom compositional differences at the three sites. Nodule tops from H are enriched in Ni, Cu, and Zn, instead of the more typical enrichments of these elements in nodule bottoms. In addition, elemental correlations typical of most pelagic nodules are reversed at site H. The three accretionary processes result in distinct mineralogies. Hydrogenous precipitation produces ??MnO2. Oxic diagenesis, however, produces Cu-Ni-rich todorokite, and suboxic diagenesis results in an unstable todorokite which transforms to a 7 A?? phase ("birnessite") upon dehydration. The presence of Cu and Ni as charge-balancing cations influence the stability of the todorokite structure. In the bottoms of H nodules, which accrete dominantly by suboxic diagenesis, Na+ and possibly Mn+2 provide much of the charge balance for

  3. Occupation and lymphoid neoplasms.

    PubMed Central

    La Vecchia, C.; Negri, E.; D'Avanzo, B.; Franceschi, S.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between occupation and exposure to a number of occupational agents and lymphoid neoplasms was investigated in a case-control study of 69 cases of Hodgkin's disease, 153 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 110 multiple myelomas and 396 controls admitted for acute diseases to a network of teaching and general hospitals in the greater Milan area. Among the cases, there was a significant excess of individuals ever occupied in agriculture and food processing: the multivariate relative risks (RR) were 2.1 (95% confidence interval, CI = 1.0-3.8) for Hodgkin's disease, 1.9 (95% CI = 1.2-3.0) for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and 2.0 (95% CI = 1.1-3.5) for multiple myeloma. Significant trends for duration of exposure to herbicides were observed for lymphomas, but the association was stronger for overall occupation in agriculture than with the specific question of herbicide use. History of occupation in the chemical industry was more frequent among Hodgkin's disease (RR = 4.3, 95% CI = 1.4-10.2), and a significant trend in risk was observed between duration of exposure to benzene and other solvents and multiple myeloma. No significant relation was found between any of the lymphoid neoplasms considered and rubber, dye, painting, printing, tanning leather, photography, pharmaceuticals, wood, coal/gas and nuclear industries. PMID:2789947

  4. Spontaneous regression of multiple pulmonary nodules in a patient with unclassified renal cell carcinoma following laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    UEDA, KOSUKE; SUEKANE, SHIGETAKA; MITANI, TOMOTARO; CHIKUI, KATSUAKI; EJIMA, KAZUHISA; SUYAMA, SHUNSUKE; NAKIRI, MAKOTO; NISHIHARA, KIYOAKI; MATSUO, MITSUNORI; IGAWA, TSUKASA

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous regression of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rare, but well-documented in clear cell RCC. However, there are no reports on spontaneous regression of unclassified RCC. Since the radiological findings of pulmonary infarcts and inflammatory pseudotumors are similar to those of metastases from RCC, a definitive diagnosis is difficult without performing a histological examination. A 56-year-old woman underwent medical examination by a physician. An abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a 22-mm mass with a cystic area in the right kidney, as well as multiple enlarged lymph nodes in the common iliac, external iliac and groin areas, bilaterally. A chest CT revealed multiple pulmonary nodules bilaterally, the largest measuring 15 mm. Since the right renal tumor was suspected to be an RCC, laparoscopic partial nephrectomy was performed. The final pathological diagnosis of the renal tumor was unclassified RCC. One month following surgery, a CT scan revealed spontaneous regression of the pulmonary nodules. We herein present a rare case of spontaneous regression of pulmonary nodules in a patient with unclassified RCC following laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of spontaneous regression in unclassified RCC. PMID:27330764

  5. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on functional status in chronic multiple sclerosis: importance of lymphopenia early after treatment--the pros

    SciTech Connect

    Devereux, C.; Troiano, R.; Zito, G.; Devereux, R.B.; Kopecky, K.J.; Friedman, R.; Dowling, P.C.; Hafstein, M.P.; Rohowsky-Kochan, C.; Cook, S.D.

    1988-07-01

    To determine whether immunosuppression by total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) slowed deterioration of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), functional impairment score and blood lymphocyte counts were compared at 6-month intervals through 4 years following treatment of MS patients by either TLI (n = 27) or sham irradiation (n = 21). At each interval, 20 to 30% fewer TLI-treated patients had deteriorated (p less than 0.05 at 6, 12, and 18 months), and the difference in mean functional impairment score between groups became progressively greater (p less than 0.01 at 42 and 48 months). Benefit accrued principally to the 17 TLI-treated patients with absolute blood lymphocyte counts less than 900/mm3 3 months after treatment, whose mean functional impairment score remained within 0.6 units of baseline (p = NS), whereas the ten TLI patients with higher post-treatment lymphocyte counts had progressive deterioration (p less than 0.05 to p less than 0.001 versus TLI-treated patients with lower lymphocyte counts at all intervals except 30 months) and had deteriorated by more than 5 functional scale units by 42 and 48 months. Side effects were minor and complications rare in TLI-treated patients, but one TLI-treated patient developed staphylococcal sepsis. Thus, TLI slows deterioration of chronic progressive MS, with what appears to be enduring benefit through 4 years compartmented to patients with greater induced lymphopenia. Modification of lymphoid irradiation regimens to increase the proportion of MS patients who achieve a favorable degree of lymphopenia and to avert functional hyposplenism may further improve the benefit/risk ratio.

  6. Thyroid nodule

    MedlinePlus

    ... food Nodules that produce thyroid hormones will likely cause symptoms of overactive thyroid gland , including: Warm, sweaty skin Fast pulse Increased appetite Nervousness Restlessness Skin blushing or flushing Weight loss Irregular menstrual periods Older ...

  7. Kinome-wide RNAi studies in human multiple myeloma identify vulnerable kinase targets, including a lymphoid-restricted kinase, GRK6

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yuan Xiao; Schmidt, Jessica; Yin, Hongwei; Shi, Chang-Xin; Que, Qiang; Basu, Gargi; Azorsa, David; Perkins, Louise M.; Braggio, Esteban; Fonseca, Rafael; Bergsagel, P. Leif; Mousses, Spyro; Stewart, A. Keith

    2010-01-01

    A paucity of validated kinase targets in human multiple myeloma has delayed clinical deployment of kinase inhibitors in treatment strategies. We therefore conducted a kinome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) lethality study in myeloma tumor lines bearing common t(4;14), t(14;16), and t(11;14) translocations to identify critically vulnerable kinases in myeloma tumor cells without regard to preconceived mechanistic notions. Fifteen kinases were repeatedly vulnerable in myeloma cells, including AKT1, AK3L1, AURKA, AURKB, CDC2L1, CDK5R2, FES, FLT4, GAK, GRK6, HK1, PKN1, PLK1, SMG1, and TNK2. Whereas several kinases (PLK1, HK1) were equally vulnerable in epithelial cells, others and particularly G protein–coupled receptor kinase, GRK6, appeared selectively vulnerable in myeloma. GRK6 inhibition was lethal to 6 of 7 myeloma tumor lines but was tolerated in 7 of 7 human cell lines. GRK6 exhibits lymphoid-restricted expression, and from coimmunoprecipitation studies we demonstrate that expression in myeloma cells is regulated via direct association with the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) chaperone. GRK6 silencing causes suppression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation associated with reduction in MCL1 levels and phosphorylation, illustrating a potent mechanism for the cytotoxicity of GRK6 inhibition in multiple myeloma (MM) tumor cells. As mice that lack GRK6 are healthy, inhibition of GRK6 represents a uniquely targeted novel therapeutic strategy in human multiple myeloma. PMID:19996089

  8. [A Case Strongly Suspected of Being Pulmonary Toxocariasis Showing Multiple Pulmonary Nodules with a Disappearing and Reappearing Halo Sign].

    PubMed

    Takakura, Akira; Harada, Shinya; Katono, Ken; Igawa, Satoshi; Katagiri, Masato; Yanase, Nobuo; Masuda, Noriyuki

    2015-03-01

    We report herein on a case strongly suspected of being pulmonary toxocariasis. A 22-year-old Indonesian man referred to our hospital presented with abnormal chest shadows upon medical examination. He had no symptoms. He did not have any pets nor did he eat raw beef or chicken. Hematological examination revealed eosinophilia and elevation of IgE. Chest computed tomography revealed 3 pulmonary nodules with the halo sign. We suspected a parasite infection and performed antiparasite antibody testing. Ascaris suum was slightly positive on the screening test. As specific antibody against the larval excretory-secretory products of Toxocara canis, measured at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, was positive (level 3 up to 8). Subsequently, the abnormal chest shadows disappeared. However, two months later, 2 pulmonary nodules with the halo sign reappeared in other places. Diagnostic therapy with albendazole was performed for 8 weeks. Mild hepatic impairment emerged during therapy, but it was within the allowed range. Thereafter, the results improved for the imaging findings, eosinophilia, serum IgE level, and specific antibody. The antibody level became negative two months after the treatment had ended. We should consider toxocariasis in the differential diagnosis of migratory nodular shadows with the halo sign on chest computed tomography, and immunoserological testing is useful for the diagnosis. PMID:26552124

  9. Characterization of multiple mRNA species of simian immunodeficiency virus from macaques in a CD4+ lymphoid cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Park, I W; Steen, R; Li, Y

    1991-01-01

    Cytoplasmic poly(A)+ RNA was isolated from CEMX721.174 cells 5 to 10 days after infection with molecularly cloned simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239. Expression of SIV RNA was analyzed by Northern (RNA) blot hybridization and by sequencing of cDNA clones. As expected, a splice donor site was demonstrated in the untranslated leader sequence outside the left long terminal repeat. The region between pol and env was found to contain at least two splice donor and six splice acceptor sites. Splice acceptor and donor sites in the intergenic region were suitably positioned for expression of vpx, vpr, tat, and rev. Splice acceptor sites at nucleotides 8802 and 8805 were demonstrated in singly and doubly spliced RNAs with the potential of expressing nef and the second exons of tat and rev. Our results demonstrate a complex pattern of alternative splicing of SIV mRNAs. The results are very similar to what has been observed in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected cells, suggesting that both human and simian immunodeficiency viruses are subject to multiple levels of regulation. Images PMID:1674547

  10. Innate lymphoid cells in secondary lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Bar-Ephraïm, Yotam E; Mebius, Reina E

    2016-05-01

    The family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) has attracted attention in recent years as its members are important regulators of immunity, while they can also cause pathology. In both mouse and man, ILCs were initially discovered in developing lymph nodes as lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. These cells form the prototypic members of the ILC family and play a central role in the formation of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). In the absence of LTi cells, lymph nodes (LN) and Peyer's Patches (PP) fail to form in mice, although the splenic white pulp can develop normally. Besides LTi cells, the ILC family encompasses helper-like ILCs with functional distinctions as seen by T-helper cells, as well as cytotoxic natural killer (NK) cells. ILCs are still present in adult SLOs where they have been shown to play a role in lymphoid tissue regeneration. Furthermore, ILCs were implicated to interact with adaptive lymphocytes and influence the adaptive immune response. Here, we review the recent literature on the role of ILCs in secondary lymphoid tissue from the formation of SLOs to mature SLOs in adults, during homeostasis and pathology.

  11. Innate lymphoid cells in secondary lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Bar-Ephraïm, Yotam E; Mebius, Reina E

    2016-05-01

    The family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) has attracted attention in recent years as its members are important regulators of immunity, while they can also cause pathology. In both mouse and man, ILCs were initially discovered in developing lymph nodes as lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. These cells form the prototypic members of the ILC family and play a central role in the formation of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). In the absence of LTi cells, lymph nodes (LN) and Peyer's Patches (PP) fail to form in mice, although the splenic white pulp can develop normally. Besides LTi cells, the ILC family encompasses helper-like ILCs with functional distinctions as seen by T-helper cells, as well as cytotoxic natural killer (NK) cells. ILCs are still present in adult SLOs where they have been shown to play a role in lymphoid tissue regeneration. Furthermore, ILCs were implicated to interact with adaptive lymphocytes and influence the adaptive immune response. Here, we review the recent literature on the role of ILCs in secondary lymphoid tissue from the formation of SLOs to mature SLOs in adults, during homeostasis and pathology. PMID:27088915

  12. Total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  13. Intestinal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia and extraintestinal lymphoma--a rare association.

    PubMed

    Monsanto, P; Lérias, C; Almeida, N; Lopes, S; Cabral, J E; Figueiredo, P; Silva, M; Julião, M; Gouveia, H; Sofia, C

    2012-06-01

    Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the gastrointestinal tract is characterized by the presence of innumerable small discrete nodules involving a variable segment of the gastrointestinal tract. The association between nodular lymphoid hyperplasia and other benign and malignant diseases has been clearly described, with an increased risk of gastrointestinal tumours, namely gastrointestinal lymphoma. However, the association with extraintestinal lymphoma seems extremely rare. The authors present a clinical case of a patient with nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the small and large intestine that subsequently developed an extraintestinal lymphoma (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma).

  14. Ectopic Lymphoid Structures: Powerhouse of Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Corsiero, Elisa; Nerviani, Alessandra; Bombardieri, Michele; Pitzalis, Costantino

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic lymphoid structures (ELS) often develop at sites of inflammation in target tissues of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren’s syndrome, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. ELS are characterized by the formation of organized T/B cells aggregates, which can acquire follicular dendritic cells network supporting an ectopic germinal center response. In this review, we shall summarize the mechanisms that regulate the formation of ELS in tertiary lymphoid organs, with particular emphasis on the role of lymphoid chemokines in both formation and maintenance of ELS, the role of emerging positive and negative regulators of ELS development and function, including T follicular helper cells and IL-27, respectively. Finally, we shall discuss the main functions of ELS in supporting the affinity maturation, clonal selection, and differentiation of autoreactive B cells contributing to the maintenance and perpetuation of humoral autoimmunity. PMID:27799933

  15. Lymphoid microenvironments and innate lymphoid cells in the gut.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Claire; Uhlig, Holm H; Powrie, Fiona

    2012-06-01

    Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is a sensor region for luminal content and plays an important role in lymphoid maturation, activation and differentiation. It comprises isolated and aggregated lymphoid follicles, cryptopatches (CPs) and tertiary lymphoid tissue. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play a central role within GALT. Prenatal GALT development is dependent on ILC lymphoid-inducer function. Postnatally, these cells rapidly respond to commensal and pathogenic intestinal bacteria, parasites and food components by polarized cytokine production [such as interleukin (IL)-22, IL-17 or IL-13] and further contribute to GALT formation and function. Here, we discuss how ILCs shape lymphoid intestinal microenvironments and act as amplifier cells for innate and adaptive immune responses.

  16. Diagnostic and functional structure of a high-resolution thyroid nodule clinic.

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, José Carlos; Mancha-Doblas, Isabel; Ortega-Jiménez, María Victoria; Ruiz-Escalante, José Francisco; Castells-Fusté, Ignasi; Tofé-Povedano, Santiago; Argüelles-Jiménez, Iñaki; Tinahones, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    Appearance of a thyroid nodule has become a daily occurrence in clinical practice. Adequate thyroid nodule assessment requires several diagnostic tests and multiple medical appointments, which results in a substantial delay in diagnosis. Implementation of a high-resolution thyroid nodule clinic largely avoids these drawbacks by condensing in a single appointment all tests required for adequate evaluation of thyroid nodule. This paper reviews the diagnostic and functional structure of a high-resolution thyroid nodule clinic.

  17. Whole exome sequencing in a case of sporadic multiple meningioma reveals shared NF2, FAM109B, and TPRXL mutations, together with unique SMARCB1 alterations in a subset of tumor nodules.

    PubMed

    Torres-Martín, Miguel; Kusak, M Elena; Isla, Alberto; Burbano, Rommel R; Pinto, Giovanny R; Melendez, Barbara; Castresana, Javier S; Rey, Juan A

    2015-06-01

    Meningiomas are common intracranial tumors derived from arachnoid cells. Multiple meningiomas are occasionally present even in patients with no history of neurofibromatosis type 2, a condition that can cause the formation of this neoplasm. Previous studies have shown that most multiple meningiomas are monoclonal in origin. In this study, exome sequencing was performed on four meningiomas and the corresponding peripheral blood DNA from a 61-year-old woman with sporadic multiple meningioma. At least three common mutational events (at the NF2, FAM109B, and TPRXL genes) were detected in the tumors' DNA when they were compared with the lymphocyte DNA from the patient as control. Additionally, an array of unique mutations was detected in each tumor, including in SMARCB1 in two of the samples, a gene whose alteration leads to the development of meningioma. Mutations in other genes, such as IRS4, GULP1, NHSL1, and C10orf53, accounted for one alteration in each meningioma nodule. Our data suggest a monoclonal origin of the meningiomas in this patient, although the numerous alterations contained in each sample indicated multiple secondary variable changes in each tumor nodule. Whether the alterations described in this work are drivers of tumorigenesis or are simply passengers requires further study. PMID:25981829

  18. Bioengineering of Artificial Lymphoid Organs.

    PubMed

    Nosenko, M A; Drutskaya, M S; Moisenovich, M M; Nedospasov, S A

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cytokine signaling pathways regulating these processes. We describe various polymeric materials, as scaffolds, for artificial tissue engineering. Finally, published studies in which artificial lymphoid organs were generated are reviewed and possible future directions in the field are discussed.

  19. A weighted rule based method for predicting malignancy of pulmonary nodules by nodule characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Aydın; Can, Ahmet Burak

    2015-08-01

    Predicting malignancy of solitary pulmonary nodules from computer tomography scans is a difficult and important problem in the diagnosis of lung cancer. This paper investigates the contribution of nodule characteristics in the prediction of malignancy. Using data from Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) database, we propose a weighted rule based classification approach for predicting malignancy of pulmonary nodules. LIDC database contains CT scans of nodules and information about nodule characteristics evaluated by multiple annotators. In the first step of our method, votes for nodule characteristics are obtained from ensemble classifiers by using image features. In the second step, votes and rules obtained from radiologist evaluations are used by a weighted rule based method to predict malignancy. The rule based method is constructed by using radiologist evaluations on previous cases. Correlations between malignancy and other nodule characteristics and agreement ratio of radiologists are considered in rule evaluation. To handle the unbalanced nature of LIDC, ensemble classifiers and data balancing methods are used. The proposed approach is compared with the classification methods trained on image features. Classification accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of classifiers are measured. The experimental results show that using nodule characteristics for malignancy prediction can improve classification results.

  20. The Innate Lymphoid Cell Precursor.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Isabel E; Constantinides, Michael G; Gudjonson, Herman; Bendelac, Albert

    2016-05-20

    The discovery of tissue-resident innate lymphoid cell populations effecting different forms of type 1, 2, and 3 immunity; tissue repair; and immune regulation has transformed our understanding of mucosal immunity and allergy. The emerging complexity of these populations along with compounding issues of redundancy and plasticity raise intriguing questions about their precise lineage relationship. Here we review advances in mapping the emergence of these lineages from early lymphoid precursors. We discuss the identification of a common innate lymphoid cell precursor characterized by transient expression of the transcription factor PLZF, and the lineage relationships of innate lymphoid cells with conventional natural killer cells and lymphoid tissue inducer cells. We also review the rapidly growing understanding of the network of transcription factors that direct the development of these lineages.

  1. Penile Epithelioid Angiomatoid Nodule.

    PubMed

    Pirpiris, Athina; Gilbourd, Daniel; Ranasinghe, Anudini; Dill, Tony; Lynnhtun, Kyaw; Rindani, Rahul

    2015-10-01

    Cutaneous epithelioid angiomatoid nodule is a rare clinical entity that is common on the trunk and limbs. This is the first report of penile cutaneous epithelioid angiomatoid nodule. Although it is a benign entity, it must be differentiated from vascular neoplasms, as it can bear similar clinical and pathologic features. PMID:26171823

  2. The composite nodule. A structural and functional unit of the reactive human lymph node.

    PubMed Central

    van den Oord, J. J.; de Wolf-Peeters, C.; Desmet, V. J.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between T nodules and adjacent B-lymphoid follicles was investigated in 37 reactive lymph nodes by light microscopy and combined enzyme immunohistochemistry. In 16 cases (43%), T nodules and adjacent B-lymphoid follicles were unified in an ovoid, distinct nodular structure termed a "composite nodule." The composite nodule comprises two separate domains. The peripheral, subcapsular B domain contains all stationary and migratory elements of the B-lymphoid follicle, ie, B1+ B-cells, OKT4+, Leu 3a+ helper/inducer T cells, HLA-DR+ dendritic reticulum cells, and ANAE+, AcPhase+ tangible body macrophages and is surrounded by a B1+, HLA-DR+ lymphocytic corona displaying focal adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and alkaline phosphatase (AlkPhase) activity. The deep, paracortical T-domain contains all elements of the T nodule, ie, OKT4+, Leu3a+ helper/inducer T cells, high endothelial venules and HLA-DR+, ATPase+ interdigitating reticulum cells. The composite nodule is surrounded by a rim of ATPase+, AlkPhase+ high endothelial venules. Both domains are subject to changes in volume; thus, in follicular hyperplasia, the B domain enlarges at the cost of the T domain, and the reverse may occur in T-zone hyperplasia. Based on the striking resemblance between the composite nodule and the white pulp of the spleen, it is suggested that the composite nodule plays a major role in the triggering, helper-T-cell-dependent stimulation and subsequent maturation of antigen-responsive B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2934988

  3. Bioengineering of Artificial Lymphoid Organs.

    PubMed

    Nosenko, M A; Drutskaya, M S; Moisenovich, M M; Nedospasov, S A

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cytokine signaling pathways regulating these processes. We describe various polymeric materials, as scaffolds, for artificial tissue engineering. Finally, published studies in which artificial lymphoid organs were generated are reviewed and possible future directions in the field are discussed. PMID:27437136

  4. Bioengineering of Artificial Lymphoid Organs

    PubMed Central

    Nosenko, M. A.; Drutskaya, M. S.; Moisenovich, M. M.; Nedospasov, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cytokine signaling pathways regulating these processes. We describe various polymeric materials, as scaffolds, for artificial tissue engineering. Finally, published studies in which artificial lymphoid organs were generated are reviewed and possible future directions in the field are discussed. PMID:27437136

  5. [Therapy of thyroid nodules].

    PubMed

    Schott, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Thyroid nodules are frequent in Germany. In about every fourth person thyroid nodules can be detected. Most of them are benign. Signs for malignancy are hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, an unregular margin and increased blood perfusion. There is no strict indication for the treatment of benign nodules. In most cases iodine supplementation is sufficient. A combination therapy with levothyroxine and iodine is more efficient for the treatment of larger nodules. Subclinical hyperthyroidism caused by an adenoma does not necessarily need to be treated, whereas manifest hyperthyroidism needs to treated in most cases with antithyroid drug therapy. Radioiodine therapy is the classical indication for the treatment of unifocal autonomous adenomas. A largely increased thyroid gland with and without uni- / multifocal adenomas are often operated. PMID:25831118

  6. Follicular lymphoid hyperplasia of the hard palate simulating lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Harsany, D L; Ross, J; Fee, W E

    1980-01-01

    Follicular lymphoid hyperplasia of the hard palate is a slowly growing, soft, nontender swelling that may grow to involve the entire hard palate. The overlying mucosa is normal. This appearance naturally prompts biopsy, and both clinically and microscopically might be confused with lymphoma. Four case histories are presented with histologic description: normal palatal submucosal structures are replaced with benign reactive lymphoid tissue replete with well-developed germinal centers. Surrounding these centers are dense populations of small, regular, bland lymphocytes. Minor salivary glands, except for some atrophied residue, are notably absent; also absent are the epimyoepithelial islands characteristic of the benign lymphoepithelial lesion (Mikulicz's disease). Etiologic factors remain obscure. One of our patients had two recurrences following local excision; in another patient nodules of benign lymphoid hyperplasia developed in the cheek and upper neck. These four patients are alive and free of any malignant process 4, 7, 9, and 12 years after the onset of their palatal swellings. We urge caution in distinguishing these lesions from palatal lymphoma, and recommend local excision as the treatment of choice.

  7. Nodule-Specific Polypeptides from Effective Alfalfa Root Nodules and from Ineffective Nodules Lacking Nitrogenase 1

    PubMed Central

    Lang-Unnasch, Naomi; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    1985-01-01

    In addition to leghemoglobin, at least nine nodule-specific polypeptides from the alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-Rhizobium meliloti symbiosis were identified by immune assay. Some of these polypeptides may be subunits of larger proteins but none appeared to be subunits of the same multimeric protein. All nine of the nodule-specific polypeptides were localized to within the plant cytosol; they were not found in extracts of bacteroids or in the peribacteroid space. At least one of these nodule-specific polypeptides was found to be antigenically related to nodule-specific polypeptides in pea and/or soybean. Ineffective nodules elicited by R. meliloti strains containing mutations in four different genes required for nitrogenase synthesis contained reduced concentrations of leghemoglobin and of several of the nodule-specific polypeptides. Other nodule-specific polypeptides were unaltered or actually enriched in the ineffective nodules. Many of the differences between the ineffective and effective nodules were apparent in nodules harvested shortly after the nodules became visible. These differences were greatly amplified in older nodules. When the four ineffective nodule types were compared to one another, there were clear quantitative differences in the concentrations of several of the nodule-specific polypeptides. These differences suggest that lack of a functional nitrogenase does not have a single direct effect on nodule development. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:16664146

  8. [Cytoarchitecture of lymphoid tissue in tracheal mucosa as affected by diamond dust].

    PubMed

    Garmaeva, D K

    2005-01-01

    The effect of diamond dust on lymphoid aggregates in tracheal mucosa after the exposure for various time periods was studied in mature Wistar rats, which were placed under the natural conditions of diamond-processing factory. Exposure to diamond dust resulted in the changes of cell content of lymphoid aggregates in tracheal mucosa already at the early stages of an experiment (Day 3). The proportion of small lymphocytes was decreased, while the content of medium lymphocytes and undifferentiated cells was increased simultaneously with the augmentation of the number of macrophages and cells undergoing destruction. At Day 30 in subepithelial area and in the basal region of lymphoid nodules, the reduction of the number of small lymphocytes was also accompanied by the significant increase of macrophages and cells undergoing destruction.

  9. Ectopic lymphoid tissues and local immunity

    PubMed Central

    Carragher, Damian M.; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Randall, Troy D.

    2008-01-01

    Ectopic or tertiary lymphoid tissues develop at sites of inflammation or infection in peripheral, non-lymphoid organs. These tissues are architecturally similar to conventional secondary lymphoid organs, with separated B and T cell areas, specialized populations of dendritic cells, well-differentiated stromal cells and high endothelial venules. Ectopic lymphoid tissues are often associated with the local pathology that results from chronic infection or chronic inflammation. However, there are also examples in which ectopic lymphoid tissues appear to contribute to local protective immune responses. Here we review how ectopic lymphoid structures develop and function in the context of local immunity and pathology. PMID:18243731

  10. Role of group 3 innate lymphoid cells in antibody production

    PubMed Central

    Magri, Giuliana; Cerutti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) constitute a heterogeneous family of effector lymphocytes of the innate immune system that mediate lymphoid organogenesis, tissue repair, immunity and inflammation. The initial view that ILCs exert their protective functions solely during the innate phase of an immune response has been recently challenged by evidence indicating that ILCs shape adaptive immunity by establishing both contact-dependent and contact-independent interactions with multiple hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells, including B cells. Some of these interactions enhance antibody responses both systemically and at mucosal sites of entry. PMID:25621842

  11. Evidence that somatostatin is localized and synthesized in lymphoid organs

    SciTech Connect

    Aguila, M.C.; McCann, S.M. ); Dees, W.L.; Haensly, W.E. )

    1991-12-15

    Because several peptides originally found in the pituitary as within the central nervous system have been localized in lymphoid tissues and because somatostatin (somatotropin-release-inhibiting hormone, SRIH) can act on cells of the immune system, the authors searched for this peptide in lymphoid organs. The authors demonstrated that SRIH mRNA exists in lymphoid tissue, albeit in smaller levels that in the periventricular region of the hypothalamus, the brain region that contains the highest level of this mRNA. SRIH mRNA was found in the spleen and thymus of male rats and in the spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius of the chicken. Its localization in the Bursa indicates that the peptide must be present in B lymphocytes since this is the site of origin of B lymphocytes in birds. The SRIH concentration in these lymphoid organs as determined by radioimmunoassay was greater in the thymus than in the spleen of the rat. Fluorescence immunocytochemistry revealed the presence of SRIH-positive cells in clusters inside the white pulp and more dispersed within the red pulp of the spleen of both the rat and the chicken. The thymus from these species also contained SRIH-positive cells within the medulla and around the corticomedullary junction. In the chicken, there were large cluster of SRIH-positive cells in the medullary portion of each nodule of the bursa of Fabricius. The results indicate that SRIH is synthesized and stored in cells of the immune system. SRIH may be secreted from these cells to exert paracrine actions that alter the function of immune cells in spleen and thymus.

  12. Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the liver mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma: incidental finding of two cases.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ang; Liu, Wendy; Qian, Hong-Gang; Leng, Jia-Hua; Hao, Chun-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia is a rare disease that forms a mass-like lesion and is characterized by the proliferation of non-neoplastic, polyclonal lymphocytes forming follicles. We recently encountered 2 cases of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of liver, both of which were asymptomatic and mimicked hepatocellular carcinoma by various imaging modalities. Based on the clinical impression of hepatocellular carcinoma, surgical resections were performed. Microscopic findings revealed that both lesions consisted of an aggregation of lymphocytes consisting of predominantly B-cells, with multiple lymphoid follicles positive for CD10 and negative for bcl-2, consistent with the diagnosis of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Polyclonality of both lesions was further confirmed by B cell receptor gene rearrangement study. The incidence of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia in the liver is exceedingly rare, and it is difficult to differentiate such lesions from hepatic malignancies based upon clinical grounds. The clinicopathological findings and literature review of this report may be helpful to improve the clinical decision-making.

  13. Solitary pulmonary nodule

    MedlinePlus

    ... chest x-ray Pulmonary nodule, solitary - CT scan Respiratory system References Gotway MB, Panse PM, Gruden JF, Elicker BM. Thoracic radiology. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  14. African Lungfish Reveal the Evolutionary Origins of Organized Mucosal Lymphoid Tissue in Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Tacchi, Luca; Larragoite, Erin T; Muñoz, Pilar; Amemiya, Chris T; Salinas, Irene

    2015-09-21

    One of the most remarkable innovations of the vertebrate adaptive immune system is the progressive organization of the lymphoid tissues that leads to increased efficiency of immune surveillance and cell interactions. The mucosal immune system of endotherms has evolved organized secondary mucosal lymphoid tissues (O-MALT) such as Peyer's patches, tonsils, and adenoids. Primitive semi-organized lymphoid nodules or aggregates (LAs) were found in the mucosa of anuran amphibians, suggesting that O-MALT evolved from amphibian LAs ∼250 million years ago. This study shows for the first time the presence of O-MALT in the mucosa of the African lungfish, an extant representative of the closest ancestral lineage to all tetrapods. Lungfish LAs are lymphocyte-rich structures associated with a modified covering epithelium and express all IGH genes except for IGHW2L. In response to infection, nasal LAs doubled their size and increased the expression of CD3 and IGH transcripts. Additionally, de novo organogenesis of inducible LAs resembling mammalian tertiary lymphoid structures was observed. Using deep-sequencing transcriptomes, we identified several members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily, and subsequent phylogenetic analyses revealed its extraordinary diversification within sarcopterygian fish. Attempts to find AICDA in lungfish transcriptomes or by RT-PCR failed, indicating the possible absence of somatic hypermutation in lungfish LAs. These findings collectively suggest that the origin of O-MALT predates the emergence of tetrapods and that TNF family members play a conserved role in the organization of vertebrate mucosal lymphoid organs.

  15. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vallentin, Blandine; Barlogis, Vincent; Piperoglou, Christelle; Cypowyj, Sophie; Zucchini, Nicolas; Chéné, Matthieu; Navarro, Florent; Farnarier, Catherine; Vivier, Eric; Vély, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    The world of lymphocytes has recently expanded. A group of cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILC), has been defined. It includes lymphoid cells that have been known for decades, such as natural killer (NK) cells and lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells. NK cells recognize a vast array of tumor cells, which they help to eliminate through cytotoxicity and the production of cytokines, such as IFNγ. Advances in our understanding of NK-cell biology have led to a growing interest in the clinical manipulation of these cells in cancer. The other ILCs are found mostly in the mucosae and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues, where they rapidly initiate immune responses to pathogens without the need for specific sensitization. Here, we outline the basic features of ILCs and review the role of ILCs other than NK cells in cancer. Much of the role of these ILCs in cancer remains unknown, but several findings should lead to further efforts to dissect the contribution of different ILC subsets to the promotion, maintenance, or elimination of tumors at various anatomic sites. This will require the development of standardized reagents and protocols for monitoring the presence and function of ILCs in human blood and tissue samples.

  16. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vallentin, Blandine; Barlogis, Vincent; Piperoglou, Christelle; Cypowyj, Sophie; Zucchini, Nicolas; Chéné, Matthieu; Navarro, Florent; Farnarier, Catherine; Vivier, Eric; Vély, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    The world of lymphocytes has recently expanded. A group of cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILC), has been defined. It includes lymphoid cells that have been known for decades, such as natural killer (NK) cells and lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells. NK cells recognize a vast array of tumor cells, which they help to eliminate through cytotoxicity and the production of cytokines, such as IFNγ. Advances in our understanding of NK-cell biology have led to a growing interest in the clinical manipulation of these cells in cancer. The other ILCs are found mostly in the mucosae and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues, where they rapidly initiate immune responses to pathogens without the need for specific sensitization. Here, we outline the basic features of ILCs and review the role of ILCs other than NK cells in cancer. Much of the role of these ILCs in cancer remains unknown, but several findings should lead to further efforts to dissect the contribution of different ILC subsets to the promotion, maintenance, or elimination of tumors at various anatomic sites. This will require the development of standardized reagents and protocols for monitoring the presence and function of ILCs in human blood and tissue samples. PMID:26438443

  17. Root nodulation of Sesbania rostrata.

    PubMed Central

    Ndoye, I; de Billy, F; Vasse, J; Dreyfus, B; Truchet, G

    1994-01-01

    The tropical legume Sesbania rostrata can be nodulated by Azorhizobium caulinodans on both its stem and its root system. Here we investigate in detail the process of root nodulation and show that nodules develop exclusively at the base of secondary roots. Intercellular infection leads to the formation of infection pockets, which then give rise to infection threads. Concomitantly with infection, cortical cells of the secondary roots dedifferentiate, forming a meristem which has an "open-basket" configuration and which surrounds the initial infection site. Bacteria are released from the tips of infection threads into plant cells via "infection droplets," each containing several bacteria. Initially, nodule differentiation is comparable to that of indeterminate nodules, with the youngest meristematic cells being located at the periphery and the nitrogen-fixing cells being located at the nodule center. Because of the peculiar form of the meristem, Sesbania root nodules develop uniformly around a central axis. Nitrogen fixation is detected as early as 3 days following inoculation, while the nodule meristem is still active. Two weeks after inoculation, meristematic activity ceases, and nodules then show the typical histology of determinate nodules. Thus, root nodule organogenesis in S. rostrata appears to be intermediate between indeterminate and determinate types. Images PMID:8106317

  18. Evaluation of a thyroid nodule

    PubMed Central

    Bomeli, Steven R.; LeBeau, Shane O.; Ferris, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    The thyroid specialist frequently evaluates thyroid nodules because they may represent malignancy. Nodules are typically found on physical exam or incidentally when other imaging studies are performed. Malignant or symptomatic nodules that compress nearby structures warrant surgical excision. Yet, the majority of thyroid nodules are asymptomatic and benign, so the thyroid surgeon must rely on diagnostic studies to determine when surgery is indicated. Ultrasound is the preferred imaging modality for thyroid nodules, and the ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the preferred method of tissue sampling. Nodules one centimeter or larger, or nodules with suspicious sonographic appearance warrant cytologic analysis to better quantify the risk of malignancy. Molecular biomarkers are a powerful adjunct to cytology, as detecting malignancy pre-operatively allows total thyroidectomy in a single operation without the need for frozen section or a second operation for completion thyroidectomy if malignancy is found during the initial thyroid lobectomy. PMID:20510711

  19. Subpleural pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma presenting as a solitary pulmonary nodule.

    PubMed

    Na, Kook Joo; Song, Sang Yun; Kim, Jo Heon; Kim, Young Chul

    2007-08-01

    We introduce a case of pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma presented as a solitary pulmonary nodule located subpleurally. The patient was a 57-year-old man who had abnormal chest roentgenograms showing a solitary pulmonary nodule in the right lower lung field. The nodule was resected for definitive diagnosis and histopathologically proved to be pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma. In previously reported cases, most patients had ill-defined margins and usually bilateral, multiple lesions radiographically. In our case, the subpleural location is an uncommon location of this rare entity. PMID:17762348

  20. B-cell gene rearrangement in benign and malignant lymphoid proliferations of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Torlakovic, E; Cherwitz, D L; Jessurun, J; Scholes, J; McGlennen, R

    1997-02-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to study patterns of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangement (GR) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens of lymphomas and reactive conditions of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) and lymph node. DNA amplification was performed directly on sections obtained from paraffin blocks. Five patterns of PCR products were observed: a single band, two or more discrete bands, smearing, a single band overlying a smear, and two or more bands over a smear. A pure polyclonal pattern (smear) was observed in all of the reactive lymph nodes but in only 15% of cases of Helicobacter pylori (HP) gastritis with lymphoid hyperplasia, 25% of cases of HP gastritis without lymphoid hyperplasia, and 37% of colonic specimens of various types. Patterns consisting of multiple bands with or without background smearing were common in gastritis, colitis, and gastric lymphomas. Single bands or dominant bands were present in all lymph node and salivary gland lymphomas, 12 of 14 cases of gastric lymphoma, and 17 of 20 cases of HP gastritis with lymphoid hyperplasia. These bands were reproducible in deeper sections from the same paraffin block or similar areas sampled in different blocks in all of the lymph node and salivary gland lymphomas, 11 of 12 gastric lymphomas, but only 1 of 17 cases of HP gastritis with lymphoid hyperplasia. Bands were also found in 3 of 20 cases of HP gastritis without lymphoid hyperplasia and 17 of 38 colonic specimens, but these were not reproducible. The complexity of patterns of IgH GR in acquired MALT compared with lymph nodes may be the result of a relative paucity of B-cell clones or preferential proliferation of B-cell clones with a limited area of distribution.

  1. Strigolactones promote nodulation in pea.

    PubMed

    Foo, Eloise; Davies, Noel W

    2011-11-01

    Strigolactones are recently defined plant hormones with roles in mycorrhizal symbiosis and shoot and root architecture. Their potential role in controlling nodulation, the related symbiosis between legumes and Rhizobium bacteria, was explored using the strigolactone-deficient rms1 mutant in pea (Pisum sativum L.). This work indicates that endogenous strigolactones are positive regulators of nodulation in pea, required for optimal nodule number but not for nodule formation per se. rms1 mutant root exudates and root tissue are almost completely deficient in strigolactones, and rms1 mutant plants have approximately 40% fewer nodules than wild-type plants. Treatment with the synthetic strigolactone GR24 elevated nodule number in wild-type pea plants and also elevated nodule number in rms1 mutant plants to a level similar to that seen in untreated wild-type plants. Grafting studies revealed that nodule number and strigolactone levels in root tissue of rms1 roots were unaffected by grafting to wild-type scions indicating that strigolactones in the root, but not shoot-derived factors, regulate nodule number and provide the first direct evidence that the shoot does not make a major contribution to root strigolactone levels.

  2. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma presenting as cavitating lung nodules.

    PubMed

    Loukeri, Angeliki A; Pantazopoulos, Ioannis N; Tringidou, Rodoula; Giampoudakis, Pantelis; Valaskatzi, Argyro; Loukeri, Pinelopi A; Kampolis, Christos F

    2014-07-01

    Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) was initially used to describe single or multiple pulmonary nodules composed of proliferating smooth muscle cells (lacking cellular atypia) in premenopausal females 3 months to 20 y after hysterectomy for uterine leiomyoma. The lung is the most commonly involved site, thus including many malignant and benign entities in the differential diagnosis. The present case refers to a 47-y-old premenopausal woman with a history of subtotal hysterectomy for a uterine leiomyoma presenting with bilateral cavitating pulmonary nodules. A number of nodules were resected by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. The histological findings in correlation with the immunohistochemical results were consistent with the diagnosis of BML. A bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed, combined with complete removal of the remaining cervix. One year later, the subject remains asymptomatic, and the pulmonary nodules are stable with regard to number, size, location, and morphology. PMID:24255161

  3. Management of solitary pulmonary nodules.

    PubMed

    Lillington, G A

    1991-05-01

    The solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN), a single intrapulmonary spherical lesion that is fairly well circumscribed, is a common clinical problem. About half of SPNs seen in clinical practice are malignant, usually bronchogenic carcinomas. Some nodules are primary tumors of other kinds or metastatic. Virtually all benign SPNs are tuberculous or fungal granulomas. The standard management of the SPN of unknown cause is prompt surgical removal unless benignity is established by prior chest roentgenograms showing that the nodule has been stable (i.e., showing no growth) for 2 years or by the presence of a "benign" pattern of calcification. Less universally accepted criteria for benignity include (1) transthoracic needle aspiration biopsy (TNAB) showing a specific benign process, and (2) patient's age under 30 to 35 years. Bronchoscopy has a low diagnostic yield, particularly for benign nodules. SPNs usually grow at constant rates, expressed as the "doubling time" (DT). A nodule with a DT between 20 and 400 days is usually malignant. Benign nodules usually have a DT greater than 400 days. The prospective determination of DT by serial chest roentgenograms (the "wait and watch" strategy) is widely criticized but has clinical utility in special circumstances, particularly if the likelihood of malignancy is low and/or the anticipated surgical mortality is high. The presence and pattern of calcification are best shown by high-resolution thin-section computed tomography (CT). Diffuse, laminated, central or "popcorn" patterns of calcification indicate benignity. An eccentric calcium deposit or a stippled pattern does not rule out malignancy. CT densitometry will often show "occult" calcification in nodules that show no direct visual evidence of calcium deposition. The characteristics of the edge of the nodule correlate with the likelihood of malignancy. Nodules with irregular or spiculated margins are almost always malignant. The probability that the nodule is malignant (pCA) is

  4. Histological and three dimensional organizations of lymphoid tubules in normal lymphoid organ of Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Duangsuwan, Pornsawan; Phoungpetchara, Ittipon; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Sobhon, Prasert

    2008-04-01

    The normal lymphoid organ of Penaeus monodon (which tested negative for WSSV and YHV) was composed of two parts: lymphoid tubules and interstitial spaces, which were permeated with haemal sinuses filled with large numbers of haemocytes. There were three permanent types of cells present in the wall of lymphoid tubules: endothelial, stromal and capsular cells. Haemocytes penetrated the endothelium of the lymphoid tubule's wall to reside among the fixed cells. The outermost layer of the lymphoid tubule was covered by a network of fibers embedded in a PAS-positive extracellular matrix, which corresponded to a basket-like network that covered all the lymphoid tubules as visualized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Argyrophilic reticular fibers surrounded haemal sinuses and lymphoid tubules. Together they formed the scaffold that supported the lymphoid tubule. Using vascular cast and SEM, the three dimensional structure of the subgastric artery that supplies each lobe of the lymphoid organ was reconstructed. This artery branched into highly convoluted and blind-ending terminal capillaries, each forming the lumen of a lymphoid tubule around which haemocytes and other cells aggregated to form a cuff-like wall. Stromal cells which form part of the tubular scaffold were immunostained for vimentin. Examination of the whole-mounted lymphoid organ, immunostained for vimentin, by confocal microscopy exhibited the highly branching and convoluted lymphoid tubules matching the pattern of the vascular cast observed in SEM.

  5. Pathologic and prognostic characteristics of splenomegaly in dogs due to fibrohistiocytic nodules: 98 cases.

    PubMed

    Spangler, W L; Kass, P H

    1998-11-01

    Ninety-eight canine splenectomy specimens consisting of combined nodular lymphoid and fibrohistiocytic cell proliferation were evaluated for seven light microscopic characteristics. Electron microscopic features in eight primary and two metastatic nodules (liver) were also evaluated. Nodular fibrohistiocytic proliferation in the canine spleen is characterized by a mixed population of histiocytoid and/or spindle cells in varying proportions intermixed with hematopoietic elements, plasma cells, and/or lymphocytes. These nodules seem to form a continuum between splenic lymphoid nodular hyperplasia and malignant splenic stromal neoplasms (malignant fibrous histiocytoma). Immunohistochemical methods used on 32/98 specimens showed uniform and strong positive staining among fibrohisiocytic cells for vimentin and desmin; S100 protein was similarly stained in general abundance. Individual cells strongly stained with smooth muscle actin were sparse but widely distributed. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen was not useful in the subjective differentiation of nodules taken from dogs that died of spleen-related causes and those surviving 12 months following splenectomy. A spectrum of cell types were observed by electron microscopy within each nodule. Fibroblasts, macrophages, intermediate fibrohistiocytic types, and several forms of splenic reticular cells were present. There were no consistent alterations in hematology or serum chemistry profiles of these dogs to provide useful diagnostic/prognostic information. Among the 93/98 dogs with complete (12 month) follow-up information, 48% (45/93) were alive and 52% (48/93) were dead. Dogs that died or were euthanatized during the follow-up period had a median survival of 5 and 5.5 months, respectively (range 0-15 months). Forty-four percent (21/48) died from causes linked to their splenic disease, and 35% (17/48) died from competing causes. The cause of death in 21% (10/48) was unknown. Lymphoid:fibrohistiocytic proportion and

  6. Extranodal noncutaneous lymphoid hyperplasias represent a continuous spectrum of B-cell neoplasia: demonstration by molecular genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Knowles, D M; Athan, E; Ubriaco, A; McNally, L; Inghirami, G; Wieczorek, R; Finfer, M; Jakobiec, F A

    1989-05-01

    We investigated 16 lymphoid proliferations occurring in the ocular adnexa, salivary glands, breast, and thyroid gland and satisfying the histopathologic and immunophenotypic criteria of benign lymphoid hyperplasia for the presence of clonal rearrangements of the antigen receptor, c-myc, bcl-1, and bcl-2 genes and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA sequences. Each of these 16 extranodal, noncutaneous lymphoid neoplasms exhibited clonal immunoglobulin heavy and/or light chain and lacked T-cell receptor (TCR) beta-chain gene rearrangements. The patterns of immunoglobulin gene rearrangements included solitary and multiple barely perceptible to faint bands, solitary clear and definite bands, and solitary high-intensity bands superimposed on a background of multiple less-intense bands. Three ocular adnexal lymphoid neoplasms exhibited bcl-1 or bcl-2 gene rearrangements. None of the 16 lymphoid neoplasms contained EBV DNA sequences. Two patients developed a histopathologically confirmed malignant lymphoma in an extranodal site. None of the remaining 14 patients developed additional lymphoid neoplasms during a mean follow-up period of 30 months, despite conservative therapy. These results demonstrate that extranodal, noncutaneous lymphoid neoplasms meeting the histopathologic and immunophenotypic criteria for benign lymphoid hyperplasia frequently contain occult monoclonal and oligoclonal B-cell populations representing a continuous and progressive spectrum of B-cell neoplasia up to and including malignant lymphoma.

  7. The outer membrane TolC-like channel HgdD is part of tripartite resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) efflux systems conferring multiple-drug resistance in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Alexander; Stevanovic, Mara; Mirus, Oliver; Lytvynenko, Iryna; Pos, Klaas Martinus; Schleiff, Enrico

    2013-10-25

    The TolC-like protein HgdD of the filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 is part of multiple three-component "AB-D" systems spanning the inner and outer membranes and is involved in secretion of various compounds, including lipids, metabolites, antibiotics, and proteins. Several components of HgdD-dependent tripartite transport systems have been identified, but the diversity of inner membrane energizing systems is still unknown. Here we identified six putative resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) type factors. Four of them are expressed during late exponential and stationary growth phase under normal growth conditions, whereas the other two are induced upon incubation with erythromycin or ethidium bromide. The constitutively expressed RND component Alr4267 has an atypical predicted topology, and a mutant strain (I-alr4267) shows a reduction in the content of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol as well as an altered filament shape. An insertion mutant of the ethidium bromide-induced all7631 did not show any significant phenotypic alteration under the conditions tested. Mutants of the constitutively expressed all3143 and alr1656 exhibited a Fox(-) phenotype. The phenotype of the insertion mutant I-all3143 parallels that of the I-hgdD mutant with respect to antibiotic sensitivity, lipid profile, and ethidium efflux. In addition, expression of the RND genes all3143 and all3144 partially complements the capability of Escherichia coli ΔacrAB to transport ethidium. We postulate that the RND transporter All3143 and the predicted membrane fusion protein All3144, as homologs of E. coli AcrB and AcrA, respectively, are major players for antibiotic resistance in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. PMID:24014018

  8. The Outer Membrane TolC-like Channel HgdD Is Part of Tripartite Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division (RND) Efflux Systems Conferring Multiple-drug Resistance in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120*

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Alexander; Stevanovic, Mara; Mirus, Oliver; Lytvynenko, Iryna; Pos, Klaas Martinus; Schleiff, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    The TolC-like protein HgdD of the filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 is part of multiple three-component “AB-D” systems spanning the inner and outer membranes and is involved in secretion of various compounds, including lipids, metabolites, antibiotics, and proteins. Several components of HgdD-dependent tripartite transport systems have been identified, but the diversity of inner membrane energizing systems is still unknown. Here we identified six putative resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) type factors. Four of them are expressed during late exponential and stationary growth phase under normal growth conditions, whereas the other two are induced upon incubation with erythromycin or ethidium bromide. The constitutively expressed RND component Alr4267 has an atypical predicted topology, and a mutant strain (I-alr4267) shows a reduction in the content of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol as well as an altered filament shape. An insertion mutant of the ethidium bromide-induced all7631 did not show any significant phenotypic alteration under the conditions tested. Mutants of the constitutively expressed all3143 and alr1656 exhibited a Fox− phenotype. The phenotype of the insertion mutant I-all3143 parallels that of the I-hgdD mutant with respect to antibiotic sensitivity, lipid profile, and ethidium efflux. In addition, expression of the RND genes all3143 and all3144 partially complements the capability of Escherichia coli ΔacrAB to transport ethidium. We postulate that the RND transporter All3143 and the predicted membrane fusion protein All3144, as homologs of E. coli AcrB and AcrA, respectively, are major players for antibiotic resistance in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. PMID:24014018

  9. Hydrogenase in actinorhizal root nodules and root nodule homogenates.

    PubMed Central

    Benson, D R; Arp, D J; Burris, R H

    1980-01-01

    Hydrogenases were measured in intact actinorhizal root nodules and from disrupted nodules of Alnus glutinosa, Alnus rhombifolia, Alnus rubra, and Myrica pensylvanica. Whole nodules took up H2 in an O2-dependent reaction. Endophyte preparations oxidized H2 through the oxyhydrogen reaction, but rates were enhanced when hydrogen uptake was coupled to artificial electron acceptors. Oxygen inhibited artifical acceptor-dependent H2 uptake. The hydrogenase system from M. pensylvanica had a different pattern of coupling to various electron acceptors than the hydrogenase systems from the alders; only the bayberry system evolved H2 from reduced viologen dyes. PMID:6989799

  10. Hepatic regenerating nodules in hereditary tyrosinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Day, D.L.; Letourneau, J.G.; Allan, B.T.; Sharp, H.L.; Ascher, N.; Dehner, L.P.; Thompson, W.M.

    1987-08-01

    Hereditary tyrosinemia is an autosomal recessive, enzymatic disorder that results in micro- and macronodular cirrhosis in early childhood. Hepatocellular carcinoma occurs in approximately one-third of affected children. We evaluated the imaging studies performed in five children with this disorder. Pathologic examination of all five of the livers revealed cirrhosis and multiple regenerating nodules; hepatocellular carcinoma was present in two of the five livers. All five patients had high-attenuation or high- and low-attenuation foci within the liver. These high-attenuation foci were not apparent as focal lesions in three of four hepatic sonograms or in one of two hepatic nuclear scans. Angiography showed tumor vascularity in one patient with a focal hepatocellular carcinoma, but was indeterminate in a second patient with severe cirrhosis and multifocal hepatocellular carcinoma. Children with cirrhosis due to tyrosinemia may develop regenerating nodules that appear as high-attenuation hepatic foci on CT scans. It is difficult to differentiate regenerating nodules from multifocal hepatocellular carcinoma in these patients.

  11. Development and comparison of projection and image space 3D nodule insertion techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robins, Marthony; Solomon, Justin; Sahbaee, Pooyan; Samei, Ehsan

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to develop and compare two methods of inserting computerized virtual lesions into CT datasets. 24 physical (synthetic) nodules of three sizes and four morphologies were inserted into an anthropomorphic chest phantom (LUNGMAN, KYOTO KAGAKU). The phantom was scanned (Somatom Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare) with and without nodules present, and images were reconstructed with filtered back projection and iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) at 0.6 mm slice thickness using a standard thoracic CT protocol at multiple dose settings. Virtual 3D CAD models based on the physical nodules were virtually inserted (accounting for the system MTF) into the nodule-free CT data using two techniques. These techniques include projection-based and image-based insertion. Nodule volumes were estimated using a commercial segmentation tool (iNtuition, TeraRecon, Inc.). Differences were tested using paired t-tests and R2 goodness of fit between the virtually and physically inserted nodules. Both insertion techniques resulted in nodule volumes very similar to the real nodules (<3% difference) and in most cases the differences were not statistically significant. Also, R2 values were all <0.97 for both insertion techniques. These data imply that these techniques can confidently be used as a means of inserting virtual nodules in CT datasets. These techniques can be instrumental in building hybrid CT datasets composed of patient images with virtually inserted nodules.

  12. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma: a rare cause of a solitary pulmonary nodule.

    PubMed

    Eschelman, D J; Blickman, J G; Lazar, H L; O'Keane, J C; Schechter, M

    1991-04-01

    Pulmonary hyalinizing granulomata are unusual, noninfectious lesions of the lung of uncertain etiology that probably represent an exaggerated immune response. They present radiographically as noncalcified solitary or multiple pulmonary nodules, thereby mimicking primary or metastatic malignancy. The article discusses a case of this rare entity that presented as a solitary pulmonary nodule. PMID:1713275

  13. A novel lymphoid progenitor cell population (LSK(low)) is restricted by p18(INK4c).

    PubMed

    Dong, Fang; Hao, Sha; Ma, Shihui; Cheng, Hui; Wang, Yajie; Zhou, Wen; Yuan, Weiping; Ema, Hideo; Cheng, Tao

    2016-09-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN2C (p18(INK4c)) restrains self-renewal in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and participates in the development and maturation of lymphoid cells. Deficiency in p18 predisposes mice and humans to hematopoietic lymphoid malignancies such as T-cell leukemia and multiple myeloma. However, the mechanism by which p18 regulates differentiation from HSCs to lymphoid cells is poorly understood. In this study, we found that a progenitor population characterized by its expression of surface markers, Lin(-) Sca-1(+) c-Kit(low) (LSK(low)), was markedly expanded in the bone marrow of p18 knock-out (p18(-/-)) mice. This novel population possessed lymphoid differentiation potential, but not myeloid differentiation potential, both in vitro and in vivo. Whereas LSK(low) cells and common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) overlapped functionally in generating lymphoid cells, they were distinct cell populations, because they had different gene expression profiles. Unlike CLPs, LSK(low) cells did not express the interleukin-7 receptor. LSK(low) cells were derived from HSCs and were independent of the p18-deleted microenvironment. This cell population may represent a previously unappreciated transitional stage from HSCs to lymphoid progenitors that is strictly restricted by p18 under physiological conditions. Likewise, LSK(low) might serve as a new cellular target of lymphoid malignances in the absence of p18.

  14. African Lungfish Reveal the Evolutionary Origins of Organized Mucosal Lymphoid Tissue in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Tacchi, Luca; Larragoite, Erin T.; Muñoz, Pilar; Amemiya, Chris T.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY One of the most remarkable innovations of the vertebrate adaptive immune system is the progressive organization of the lymphoid tissues that leads to increased efficiency of immune surveillance and cell interactions. The mucosal immune system of endotherms has evolved organized secondary mucosal lymphoid tissues (O-MALT) such as Peyer’s patches, tonsils, and adenoids. Primitive semi-organized lymphoid nodules or aggregates (LAs) were found in the mucosa of anuran amphibians [1], suggesting that O-MALT evolved from amphibian LAs_250 million years ago [1–4]. This study shows for the first time the presence of O-MALT in the mucosa of the African lungfish, an extant representative of the closest ancestral lineage to all tetrapods. Lungfish LAs are lymphocyte-rich structures associated with a modified covering epithelium and express all IGH genes except for IGHW2L. In response to infection, nasal LAs doubled their size and increased the expression of CD3 and IGH transcripts. Additionally, de novo organogenesis of inducible LAs resembling mammalian tertiary lymphoid structures was observed. Using deep-sequencing transcriptomes, we identified several members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily, and subsequent phylogenetic analyses revealed its extraordinary diversification within sarcopterygian fish. Attempts to find AICDA in lungfish transcriptomes or by RT-PCR failed, indicating the possible absence of somatic hypermutation in lungfish LAs. These findings collectively suggest that the origin of O-MALT predates the emergence of tetrapods and that TNF family members play a conserved role in the organization of vertebrate mucosal lymphoid organs. PMID:26344090

  15. Innate lymphoid cells involve in tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhiqiang; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C; Wu, Yuzhang; Ni, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) promptly initiate cytokine responses to pathogen exposure in the mucosa and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues. ILCs were recently categorized as being of the lymphoid lineage and have been classified into three groups. ILCs play important roles in immunity against pathogens, and an anti-tumor immune-related function was recently demonstrated. In this review we discuss whether and how ILCs involve in the tumorigenesis, providing new insights into the mechanisms underlying the particular functions of ILCs as well as the potential targets for tumor intervention.

  16. [Genetic resources of nodule bacteria].

    PubMed

    Rumiantseva, M L

    2009-09-01

    Nodule bacteria (rhizobia) form highly specific symbiosis with leguminous plants. The efficiency of accumulation of biological nitrogen depends on molecular-genetic interaction between the host plant and rhizobia. Genetic characteristics of microsymbiotic strains are crucial in developing highly productive and stress-resistant symbiotic pairs: rhizobium strain-host plant cultivar (species). The present review considers the issue of studying genetic resources of nodule bacteria to identify genes and their blocks, responsible for the ability of rhizobia to form highly effective symbiosis in various agroecological conditions. The main approaches to investigation of intraspecific and interspecific genetic and genomic diversity of nodule bacteria are considered, from MLEE analysis to the recent methods of genomic DNA analysis using biochips. The data are presented showing that gene centers of host plants are centers of genetic diversification of nodule bacteria, because the intraspecific polymorphism of genetic markers of the core and the accessory rhizobial genomes is extremely high in them. Genotypic features of trapped and nodule subpopulations of alfalfa nodule bacteria are discussed. A survey of literature showed that the genomes of natural strains in alfalfa gene centers exhibit significant differences in genes involved in control of metabolism, replication, recombination, and the formation of defense response (hsd genes). Natural populations of rhizobia are regarded as a huge gene pool serving as a source of evolutionary innovations.

  17. Presence of J chain in human lymphoid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mestecky, J; Preud'homme, J L; Crago, S S; Mihaesco, E; Prchal, J T; Okos, A J

    1980-01-01

    The presence of J chain in normal lymphoid cells (examined at various stages of differentiation) and in lymphocytes and plasma cells from patients with malignant haematologie disorders was determined by the immunofluorescence technique. J chain was not detectable in the cytoplasm or on the surface of either pre-B or B cells, but was present in a few peripheral blood lymphocytes that contained intracellular immunoglobulins of various classes. After pokeweed mitogen stimulation, intracellular synthesis of J chain and immunoglobulins appeared simultaneoulsy and was most pronounced during early days of culture. These data indicate that J chain is not expressed during the earliest stages (pre-B and B cells) of differentiation of lymphoid cells and that the synthesis of J chain is closely linked to the production of immunoglobulin chains, irrespective of the class. Examination of lymphoid cells from bone marrow and peripheral blood of patients with various lymphoproliferative diseases (secretory and non-secretory multiple myeloma or Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia, H- or L-chain diseases, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, plasma cell leukaemia, and angioimmunoblastic lymphoma) revealed that J chain was present in various proportions of the cells that contained monomeric (IgG, IgD or IgA) or polymeric (IgA or IgM) immunoglobulins, as well as in cells from patients with H- or L-chain diseases. No correlation was apparent between the presence of J chain in lymphoid cells and their ability to secrete their product. Preliminary data indicate that J chain may participate in the intracellular assembly of immunoglobulins from their component chains. Images p374-a FIG. 2 PMID:6771076

  18. Addition of Rice Bran Arabinoxylan to Curcumin Therapy May Be of Benefit to Patients With Early-Stage B-Cell Lymphoid Malignancies (Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance, Smoldering Multiple Myeloma, or Stage 0/1 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia): A Preliminary Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Golombick, Terry; Diamond, Terrence H; Manoharan, Arumugam; Ramakrishna, Rajeev

    2016-06-01

    Hypothesis Prior studies on patients with early B-cell lymphoid malignancies suggest that early intervention with curcumin may lead to delay in progressive disease and prolonged survival. These patients are characterized by increased susceptibility to infections. Rice bran arabinoxylan (Ribraxx) has been shown to have immunostimulatory, anti-inflammatory, and proapoptotic effects. We postulated that addition of Ribraxx to curcumin therapy may be of benefit. Study design Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)/smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) or stage 0/1 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients who had been on oral curcumin therapy for a period of 6 months or more were administered both curcumin (as Curcuforte) and Ribraxx. Methods Ten MGUS/SMM patients and 10 patients with stage 0/1 CLL were administered 6 g of curcumin and 2 g Ribraxx daily. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 2-month intervals for a period of 6 months, and various markers were monitored. MGUS/SMM patients included full blood count (FBC); paraprotein; free light chains/ratio; C-reactive protein (CRP)and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR); B2 microglobulin and immunological markers. Markers monitored for stage 0/1 CLL were FBC, CRP and ESR, and immunological markers. Results Of 10 MGUS/SMM patients,5 (50%) were neutropenic at baseline, and the Curcuforte/Ribraxx combination therapy showed an increased neutrophil count, varying between 10% and 90% among 8 of the 10 (80%) MGUS/SMM patients. An additional benefit of the combination therapy was the potent effect in reducing the raised ESR in 4 (44%) of the MGUS/SMM patients. Conclusion Addition of Ribraxx to curcumin therapy may be of benefit to patients with early-stage B-cell lymphoid malignancies. PMID:27154182

  19. Metastatic prostatic pulmonary nodules with normal bone image

    SciTech Connect

    Petras, A.F.; Wollett, F.C.

    1983-11-01

    Asymptomatic prostatic caricnoma presented as multiple bilateral pulmonary modules in a patient without any evidence of skeletal involvement by normal bone image. Percutaneous biopsy provided the initial clue to diagnosis. The authors recommend that asymptomatic prostatic carcinoma be included in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules, even when there is no evidence of skeletal metastasis.

  20. Total lymphoid irradiation in alloimmunity and autoimmunity

    SciTech Connect

    Strober, S.

    1987-12-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation has been used as an immunosuppressive regimen in autoimmune disease and organ transplantation. The rationale for its use originated from studies of patients with Hodgkin disease, in whom this radiotherapy regimen was noted to induce profound and long-lasting immune suppression and yet was well tolerated, with few long-term side effects. Total lymphoid irradiation is a unique immunosuppressive regimen that produces a selective (and long-lasting) reduction in the number and function of helper T cells and certain subsets of B cells. Conventional immunosuppressive drugs show little selectivity, and their effects are short-lived. The most important aspect of total lymphoid irradiation is the potential for achieving transplantation tolerance and permanent remissions in autoimmune disease in laboratory animals. Attempts are being made to achieve similar goals in humans given total lymphoid irradiation, so that immunosuppressive drugs can be ultimately withdrawn from transplant recipients and patients with lupus nephritis. 28 references.

  1. Total lymphoid irradiation and discordant cardiac xenografts

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, E.; Dresdale, A.R.; Diehl, J.T.; Katzen, N.A.; Aronovitz, M.J.; Konstam, M.A.; Payne, D.D.; Cleveland, R.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation can prolong concordant cardiac xenografts. The effects of total lymphoid irradiation in a discordant xenograft model (guinea pig to rat) were studied with and without adjuvant pharmacologic immunosuppression. Inbred Lewis rats were randomly allocated to one of four groups. Group 1 (n = 6) served as a control group and rats received no immunosuppression. Group 2 (n = 5) received triple-drug therapy that consisted of intraperitoneal azathioprine (2 mg/kg), cyclosporine (20 mg/kg), and methylprednisolone (1 mg/kg) for 1 week before transplantation. Group 3 animals (n = 5) received 15 Gy of total lymphoid irradiation in 12 divided doses over a 3-week period. Group 4 (n = 6) received both triple-drug therapy and total lymphoid irradiation as described for groups 2 and 3. Complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay was performed to determine if a correlation between complement-dependent cytotoxicity and rejection-free interval existed. Rejection was defined as cessation of graft pulsation and was confirmed by histologic test results. Only groups 1 and 2 showed a difference in survival (group 1, 6.9 +/- 1.0 minutes; group 2, 14.2 +/- 2.7 minutes, p = 0.02). Although total lymphoid irradiation did decrease complement-dependent cytotoxicity, linear regression revealed no correlation between complement-dependent cytotoxicity and graft survival (coefficient of correlation, 0.30). Unlike concordant cardiac xenografts, total lymphoid irradiation with or without triple-drug therapy does not prolong graft survival.

  2. New Nodule-Newer Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Atul C; Wang, Juan; Abuqayyas, Sami; Garcha, Puneet; Lane, Charles Randy; Tsuang, Wayne; Budev, Marie; Akindipe, Olufemi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate frequency and temporal relationship between pulmonary nodules (PNs) and transbronchial biopsy (TBBx) among lung transplant recipients (LTR). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 100 records of LTR who underwent flexible bronchoscopy (FB) with TBBx, looking for the appearance of peripheral pulmonary nodule (PPN). If these patients had chest radiographs within 50 d of FB, they were included in the study. Data was compared with 30 procedures performed among non-transplant patients. Information on patient’s demographics, antirejection medications, anticoagulation, indication and type of lung transplantation, timing of the FB and the appearance and disappearance of the nodules and its characteristics were gathered. RESULTS: Nineteen new PN were found in 13 procedures performed on LTR and none among non-transplant patients. Nodules were detected between 4-47 d from the procedure and disappeared within 84 d after appearance without intervention. CONCLUSION: FB in LTR is associated with development of new, transient PPN at the site of TBBx in 13% of procedures. We hypothesize that these nodules are related to local hematoma and impaired lymphatic drainage. Close observation is a reasonable management approach. PMID:27011920

  3. Nodulation: an unexplored cellular defense mechanism in insects.

    PubMed

    Satyavathi, Valluri V; Minz, Asha; Nagaraju, Javaregowda

    2014-08-01

    Nodulation is a highly conserved process that involves aggregation of cells around microorganisms, leading to their entrapment with the help of cellular milieu. In insects upon infection, the humoral and cellular arms of the innate immune system orchestrate recognition of pathogens facilitating effector responses through various signaling pathways. Existing data suggests a wide range of immune functions for multiple pattern recognition molecules but their role in nodulation is not known. Hence, an in-depth knowledge of components implicated in the signaling pathways across diverse species is crucial for understanding their evolutionary conservation. Here, we attempted to consolidate available information on the nodulation response in insects and made an analogy with other known systems.

  4. Novel immunotherapies in lymphoid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Batlevi, Connie Lee; Matsuki, Eri; Brentjens, Renier J.; Younes, Anas

    2016-01-01

    The success of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab in the treatment of lymphoid malignancies provided proof-of-principle for exploiting the immune system therapeutically. Since the FDA approval of rituximab in 1997, several novel strategies that harness the ability of T cells to target cancer cells have emerged. Reflecting on the promising clinical efficacy of these novel immunotherapy approaches, the FDA has recently granted ‘breakthrough’ designation to three novel treatments with distinct mechanisms. First, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T-cell therapy is promising for the treatment of adult and paediatric relapsed and/or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Second, blinatumomab, a bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE®) antibody, is now approved for the treatment of adults with Philadelphia-chromosome-negative relapsed and/or refractory B-precursor ALL. Finally, the monoclonal antibody nivolumab, which targets the PD-1 immune-checkpoint receptor with high affinity, is used for the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma following treatment failure with autologous-stem-cell transplantation and brentuximab vedotin. Herein, we review the background and development of these three distinct immunotherapy platforms, address the scientific advances in understanding the mechanism of action of each therapy, and assess the current clinical knowledge of their efficacy and safety. We also discuss future strategies to improve these immunotherapies through enhanced engineering, biomarker selection, and mechanism-based combination regimens. PMID:26525683

  5. Genetic methylation and lymphoid malignancies: biomarkers of tumor progression and targeted therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Lymphoid malignancies, mainly including lymphocytic leukemia and lymphoma, are a group of heterogeneous diseases. Although the clinical outcome of patients has been significantly improved with current immuno-chemotherapy, definitive biomarkers remain to be investigated, particularly those reflecting the malignant behavior of tumor cells and those helpful for developing optimal targeted therapy. Recently, genome-wide analysis reveals that altered genetic methylations play an important role in tumor progression through regulation of multiple cellular transduction pathways. This review describes the pathogenetic effect of the aberrant genetic methylation in lymphoid malignancies, with special emphasis on potential therapeutic strategies targeting key signaling networks. PMID:24252620

  6. Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the liver mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma: incidental finding of two cases.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ang; Liu, Wendy; Qian, Hong-Gang; Leng, Jia-Hua; Hao, Chun-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia is a rare disease that forms a mass-like lesion and is characterized by the proliferation of non-neoplastic, polyclonal lymphocytes forming follicles. We recently encountered 2 cases of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of liver, both of which were asymptomatic and mimicked hepatocellular carcinoma by various imaging modalities. Based on the clinical impression of hepatocellular carcinoma, surgical resections were performed. Microscopic findings revealed that both lesions consisted of an aggregation of lymphocytes consisting of predominantly B-cells, with multiple lymphoid follicles positive for CD10 and negative for bcl-2, consistent with the diagnosis of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Polyclonality of both lesions was further confirmed by B cell receptor gene rearrangement study. The incidence of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia in the liver is exceedingly rare, and it is difficult to differentiate such lesions from hepatic malignancies based upon clinical grounds. The clinicopathological findings and literature review of this report may be helpful to improve the clinical decision-making. PMID:26191310

  7. Selected topics on lymphoid lesions in the head and neck regions.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Wesley O; Wang, Sa A

    2011-03-01

    Lymphoid tissue located in the head and neck region include multiple regional lymph node chains as well as mucosa associated lymphoid tissue of the conjunctiva, buccal and nasopharyngeal cavities (Waldeyer's ring), and thyroid and salivary glands. This region is a rich source of antigenic stimuli including infectious agents coming from the outside environment. Many reactive conditions that affect lymphoid tissue in this region may mimic neoplasia. In fact, distinguishing between benign and malignant lymphoid proliferations in the head and neck region is a relatively frequent diagnostic challenge and in many instances, this distinction is not straightforward. It therefore behooves the practicing pathologist to be able to recognize the benign lymphoproliferative disorders that affect this region so as to effectively guide the appropriate clinical management of such patients. Kimura disease, Epstein Barr lymphadenitis, HIV associated salivary gland disease and chronic sialadenitis are benign conditions that not infrequently affect lymphoid tissue in the head and neck region and that share certain overlapping features with malignant lymphoma. In this brief review, we discuss these conditions and highlight clinicopathological features that may help distinguish them from neoplastic lymphoproliferations that may share similar features.

  8. Polyphenol oxidase affects normal nodule development in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)

    PubMed Central

    Webb, K. Judith; Cookson, Alan; Allison, Gordon; Sullivan, Michael L.; Winters, Ana L.

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) may have multiple functions in tissues depending on its cellular or tissue localization. Here we use PPO RNAi transformants of red clover (Trifolium pratense) to determine the role PPO plays in normal development of plants, and especially in N2-fixing nodules. In red clover, PPO was not essential for either growth or nodule production, or for nodule function in plants grown under optimal, N-free conditions. However, absence of PPO resulted in a more reduced environment in all tissues, as measured by redox potential, and caused subtle developmental changes in nodules. Leaves and, to a lesser extent nodules, lacking PPO tended to accumulate phenolic compounds. A comparison of nodules of two representative contrasting clones by microscopy revealed that nodules lacking PPO were morphologically and anatomically subtly altered, and that phenolics accumulated in different cells and tissues. Developing nodules lacking PPO were longer, and there were more cell layers within the squashed cell layer (SCL), but the walls of these cells were less thickened and the cells were less squashed. Within the N2-fixing zone, bacteroids appeared more granular and were less tightly packed together, and were similar to developmentally compromised bacteroids elicited by catalase mutant rhizobia reported elsewhere. PMID:25566275

  9. Lymphoid-specific antigen: distribution and behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Potworowski, E. F.; Nairn, R. C.

    1968-01-01

    The distribution of a lymphoid-specific antigen has been studied by immunofluorescence in the thymus and other lymphoid organs of the rat and in the thymuses of other vertebrate species. It was demonstrable in all rat lymphocytes except those of the bone marrow. The thymic lymphocytes of all warm-blooded vertebrates also reacted with the lymphoid-specific serum. Plasma cells in antigenically stimulated lymph nodes did not seem to possess the antigen but similar cells appearing in lymph nodes of rats which had been irradiated and injected with marrow cells of the same strain showed a strong reaction with the antiserum. The antigen is depleted in human and murine leukaemic lymphocytes. X-irradiation did not appear to affect the antigen significantly in cells surviving the treatment. ImagesFIG. 1-6 PMID:4871349

  10. Structural basis for regulation of rhizobial nodulation and symbiosis gene expression by the regulatory NolR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The symbiosis between rhizobial microbes and host plants involves the coordinated expression of multiple genes, which leads to nodule formation and nitrogen fixation. As part of the transcriptional machinery for nodulation and symbiosis across a range of Rhizobium, NolR serves as a global regulatory...

  11. Rhizobial gibberellin negatively regulates host nodule number

    PubMed Central

    Tatsukami, Yohei; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    In legume–rhizobia symbiosis, the nodule number is controlled to ensure optimal growth of the host. In Lotus japonicus, the nodule number has been considered to be tightly regulated by host-derived phytohormones and glycopeptides. However, we have discovered a symbiont-derived phytohormonal regulation of nodule number in Mesorhizobium loti. In this study, we found that M. loti synthesized gibberellic acid (GA) under symbiosis. Hosts inoculated with a GA-synthesis-deficient M. loti mutant formed more nodules than those inoculated with the wild-type form at four weeks post inoculation, indicating that GA from already-incorporated rhizobia prevents new nodule formation. Interestingly, the genes for GA synthesis are only found in rhizobial species that inhabit determinate nodules. Our findings suggest that the already-incorporated rhizobia perform GA-associated negative regulation of nodule number to prevent delayed infection by other rhizobia. PMID:27307029

  12. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma. Bilateral pulmonary nodules associated with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    Satti, Mohamed B; Batouk, Abdelnasir A; Abdelaziz, Muntasir M; Ahmad, Mohamed F; Abdelaal, Mohamed A

    2005-09-01

    We report a case of a 30-year-old female who had been treated periodically with steroids for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura ITP over the last 10 years. Recently, during the course of investigation, she was found to have incidental asymptomatic multiple pulmonary nodules on chest CT. Following a needle biopsy to exclude malignancy, 2 nodules were excised and were histologically confirmed as pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma PHG. The remaining 2 nodules regressed on increasing her dose of steroids. The case is discussed with emphasis on the histological and radiological differential diagnosis, in addition to including ITP among the spectrum of immunologic conditions associated with PHG. PMID:16155671

  13. Increase of Natural 15N Enrichment of Soybean Nodules with Mean Nodule Mass 1

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, Georgia; Bryan, Barbara A.; Kohl, Daniel H.

    1984-01-01

    The 15N abundance of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill var Harosoy) nodules is usually greater than it is for other tissues or for atmospheric N2. Results of experiments in which nodules were separated by size show that the magnitude of the 15N enrichment is correlated with nodule mass. The results support the hypothesis that 15N enrichment of nodules results from differential N isotopic fractionation for synthesis of nodule tissue versus synthesis of compounds for export from the nodule. The physiological significance of this hypothesis is that it requires that a substantial fraction of the N for nodule tissue synthesis in 15N-enriched nodules be N recently fixed within the same nodule. PMID:16663917

  14. Lipopolysaccharide Profiles from Nodules as Markers of Bradyrhizobium Strains Nodulating Wild Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Santamaría, Mónica; Gutiérrez-Navarro, Ángel M.; Corzo, Javier

    1998-01-01

    To develop the use of electrophoretic lipopolysaccharide profiles for Bradyrhizobium strain identification, we studied the feasibility of using electrophoresis of whole legume nodule homogenates to obtain distinctive lipopolysaccharide profiles. The electrophoretic patterns were the same whether we used nodule extracts, bacteroids, or cultured bacteria as samples, and there was no evidence of changes in the ladder-like pattern during the nodulation process. To assess the reliability of using lipopolysaccharide profiling performed with individual nodules for studying the diversity and microdistribution of the rhizobia nodulating wild shrub legumes, we used a population of Adenocarpus foliolosus seedlings. We obtained 75 different profiles from the 147 nodules studied. There was no dominant profile in the sample, and a plant with different nodules generally produced different profiles. Electrophoresis of legume root nodules proved to be a fast and discriminating technique for determining the diversity of a bradyrhizobial population, although it did not allow the genetic relationships among the nodulating strains to be studied. PMID:16349529

  15. The new WHO nomenclature: lymphoid neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Leclair, Susan J; Rodak, Bernadette F

    2002-01-01

    The development of the WHO classification of lymphoid neoplasms is a remarkable example of cooperation and communication between pathologists and oncologists from around the world. Joint classification committees of the major hematopathology societies will periodically review and update this classification, facilitating further progress in the understanding and treatment of hematologic malignancies.

  16. Metagenomic and Phylogenetic Analysis of Deep-Sea Ferromanganese Nodules from the South Pacific Gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tully, B.; Horn, G.; Edwards, K. J.; Nelson, W.; Heidelberg, J.

    2012-12-01

    Ferromanganese/polymetallic nodules form at the sediment-water interface in deep-sea environments (4,000-6,000 m). They are primarily composed of manganese (Mn), iron (Fe) and other metals including copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), and rare trace metals, but composition can vary from nodule to nodule and area to area. Globally, it is estimated that ferromanganese nodules contain more than 2 × 10E14 kg of Mn and Fe. There is much debate as to how these nodules form and the extent to which the process is controlled/mediated by microorganisms, specifically bacteria and archaea. Ferromanganese nodules from 3 different sites (4 different nodules; 59 subsamples) were aseptically collected on the site survey expedition to the South Pacific Gyre (KNOX-02RR, Dec. 2006 - Jan. 2007). Microbial community structure was determined using high-throughput 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing. Subsequently, samples were subjected to multiple displacement amplification (MDA) and shotgun metagenomics was performed using both the GS FLX Titanium XL+ chemistry. Metagenomic sequences were assembled and analyzed. Preliminary results have revealed a high abundance of sequences related to 'marine group-1' Thaumarchaea, to date, a group that contains only autotrophic, ammonia-oxidizing organisms. Furthermore, there appears to be limited correlation between community composition and the layer of the nodule from which DNA was extracted. The community composition of the nodule from area with the lowest sedimentation and organic carbon burial rates was significantly different from the other nodules, with a community dominated by heterotrophic organisms. Metagenomic results support the community structure and produced several scaffolds (longest ~12 kbp) that have begun to reveal the genomic potential in the microbial community. Further, the data has been used to identify two previously unsequenced Microviridae viral genomes. And further metagenomic analysis is currently ongoing. Community

  17. Pedunculated Nodules as a Variant of Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jung; Hur, Min Seok; Choi, Byung Gon; Kim, Soo Young; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom

    2016-01-01

    Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare disease of dermal fibroblastic origin that accounts for less than 5% of all soft tissue sarcomas in adults. DFSP grows slowly and is an asymptomatic lesion at the initial diagnosis. Herein, we report a case of multiple pedunculated nodules as a variant of DFSP. A 47-year-old man presented with a 7-month history of multiple well-circumscribed, firm, pedunculated nodules on the inguinal area. Histopathologic examination results showed densely packed uniform spindle cells with a storiform and cartwheel pattern, and positivity for CD34. Wide excision and skin graft were performed and at the 6-month follow-up, there was no evidence of recurrence or metastasis.

  18. Volume estimation of multidensity nodules with thoracic computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Gavrielides, Marios A; Li, Qin; Zeng, Rongping; Myers, Kyle J; Sahiner, Berkman; Petrick, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on volume estimation of "multidensity" lung nodules in a phantom computed tomography study. Eight objects were manufactured by enclosing spherical cores within larger spheres of double the diameter but with a different density. Different combinations of outer-shell/inner-core diameters and densities were created. The nodules were placed within an anthropomorphic phantom and scanned with various acquisition and reconstruction parameters. The volumes of the entire multidensity object as well as the inner core of the object were estimated using a model-based volume estimator. Results showed percent volume bias across all nodules and imaging protocols with slice thicknesses [Formula: see text] ranging from [Formula: see text] to 6.6% for the entire object (standard deviation ranged from 1.5% to 7.6%), and within [Formula: see text] to 5.7% for the inner-core measurement (standard deviation ranged from 2.0% to 17.7%). Overall, the estimation error was larger for the inner-core measurements, which was expected due to the smaller size of the core. Reconstructed slice thickness was found to substantially affect volumetric error for both tasks; exposure and reconstruction kernel were not. These findings provide information for understanding uncertainty in volumetry of nodules that include multiple densities such as ground glass opacities with a solid component. PMID:26844235

  19. Runner with gout and an aortic valve nodule.

    PubMed

    Moore, G E; Anderson, A L

    1995-05-01

    A 33-yr-old male ran 10 miles, drank some beer, and developed pain in his left knee and ankle. He took some leftover antibiotics but was no better after 6 d, when a heart murmur and an aortic valve nodule were discovered. He was presumed to have endocarditis with septic arthritis and was started on intravenous antibiotics. On the second hospital day, synovial fluid analysis revealed acute gout, and the patient improved very rapidly on anti-gout therapy. The valvular nodule remained unexplained, but one very rare cause of valvular heart nodules is visceral gout. An unsuccessful attempt to resorb the nodule was made by using allopurinol. This patient demonstrates several points about gout in endurance athletes: 1) acute gout can mimic infectious endocarditis, 2) misdiagnosed or undertreated gout often leads to multiple joint involvement and sometimes to visceral tophi, and 3) athletes who exercise in warm weather and quench their thirst with cold beer are at risk for acute gout. PMID:7674864

  20. Sustained improvement of intractable rheumatoid arthritis after total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Field, E.H.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.; Calin, A.; Engleman, E.G.; Kotzin, B.L.; Tanay, A.S.; Calin, H.J.; Terrell, C.P.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1983-08-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) was administered to 11 patients who had intractable rheumatoid arthritis that was unresponsive to conventional medical therapy, including aspirin, multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, gold salts, and D-penicillamine. Total lymphoid irradiation was given as an alternative to cytotoxic drugs such as azathioprine and cyclophosphamide. After radiotherapy, 9 of the 11 patients showed a marked improvement in clinical disease activity as measured by morning stiffness, joint tenderness, joint swelling, and overall functional abilities. The mean improvement of disease activity in all patients ranged from 40-70 percent and has persisted throughout a 13-28 month followup period. This improvement permitted the mean daily steroid dose to be reduced by 54%. Complications included severe fatigue and other constitutional symptoms during radiotherapy, development of Felty's syndrome in 1 patient, and an exacerbation of rheumatoid lung disease in another. After therapy, all patients exhibited a profound T lymphocytopenia, and a reversal in their T suppressor/cytotoxic cell to helper cell ratio. The proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and allogeneic leukocytes (mixed leukocyte reaction) were markedly reduced, as was in vitro immunoglobulin synthesis after stimulation with pokeweed mitogen. Alterations in T cell numbers and function persisted during the entire followup period, except that the mixed leukocyte reaction showed a tendency to return to normal values.

  1. Primary Pulmonary Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma: A Rare Cause of PET-Negative Pulmonary Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Cazzuffi, Riccardo; Calia, Nunzio; Ravenna, Franco; Pasquini, Claudio; Saturni, Sara; Cavallesco, Giorgio Narciso; Quarantotto, Francesco; Rinaldi, Rosa; Cogo, Annaluisa; Caramori, Gaetano; Papi, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    We report here a case of primary pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma diagnosed in a 67-year-old Caucasian man, presenting with exertion dyspnoea, dry cough, and multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules revealed by computed tomography. At the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, these nodules were negative. The histopathological diagnosis was made on a pulmonary wedge resection (performed during video-thoracoscopic surgery). PMID:21869893

  2. Automatic lung nodule classification with radiomics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jingchen; Wang, Qian; Ren, Yacheng; Hu, Haibo; Zhao, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Lung cancer is the first killer among the cancer deaths. Malignant lung nodules have extremely high mortality while some of the benign nodules don't need any treatment .Thus, the accuracy of diagnosis between benign or malignant nodules diagnosis is necessary. Notably, although currently additional invasive biopsy or second CT scan in 3 months later may help radiologists to make judgments, easier diagnosis approaches are imminently needed. In this paper, we propose a novel CAD method to distinguish the benign and malignant lung cancer from CT images directly, which can not only improve the efficiency of rumor diagnosis but also greatly decrease the pain and risk of patients in biopsy collecting process. Briefly, according to the state-of-the-art radiomics approach, 583 features were used at the first step for measurement of nodules' intensity, shape, heterogeneity and information in multi-frequencies. Further, with Random Forest method, we distinguish the benign nodules from malignant nodules by analyzing all these features. Notably, our proposed scheme was tested on all 79 CT scans with diagnosis data available in The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA) which contain 127 nodules and each nodule is annotated by at least one of four radiologists participating in the project. Satisfactorily, this method achieved 82.7% accuracy in classification of malignant primary lung nodules and benign nodules. We believe it would bring much value for routine lung cancer diagnosis in CT imaging and provide improvement in decision-support with much lower cost.

  3. Mixed Nodule Infection in Sinorhizobium meliloti–Medicago sativa Symbiosis Suggest the Presence of Cheating Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Checcucci, Alice; Azzarello, Elisa; Bazzicalupo, Marco; Galardini, Marco; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Mancuso, Stefano; Marti, Lucia; Marzano, Maria C.; Mocali, Stefano; Squartini, Andrea; Zanardo, Marina; Mengoni, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    In the symbiosis between rhizobia and legumes, host plants can form symbiotic root nodules with multiple rhizobial strains, potentially showing different symbiotic performances in nitrogen fixation. Here, we investigated the presence of mixed nodules, containing rhizobia with different degrees of mutualisms, and evaluate their relative fitness in the Sinorhizobium meliloti–Medicago sativa model symbiosis. We used three S. meliloti strains, the mutualist strains Rm1021 and BL225C and the non-mutualist AK83. We performed competition experiments involving both in vitro and in vivo symbiotic assays with M. sativa host plants. We show the occurrence of a high number (from 27 to 100%) of mixed nodules with no negative effect on both nitrogen fixation and plant growth. The estimation of the relative fitness as non-mutualist/mutualist ratios in single nodules shows that in some nodules the non-mutualist strain efficiently colonized root nodules along with the mutualist ones. In conclusion, we can support the hypothesis that in S. meliloti–M. sativa symbiosis mixed nodules are formed and allow non-mutualist or less-mutualist bacterial partners to be less or not sanctioned by the host plant, hence allowing a potential form of cheating behavior to be present in the nitrogen fixing symbiosis. PMID:27379128

  4. Mixed Nodule Infection in Sinorhizobium meliloti-Medicago sativa Symbiosis Suggest the Presence of Cheating Behavior.

    PubMed

    Checcucci, Alice; Azzarello, Elisa; Bazzicalupo, Marco; Galardini, Marco; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Mancuso, Stefano; Marti, Lucia; Marzano, Maria C; Mocali, Stefano; Squartini, Andrea; Zanardo, Marina; Mengoni, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    In the symbiosis between rhizobia and legumes, host plants can form symbiotic root nodules with multiple rhizobial strains, potentially showing different symbiotic performances in nitrogen fixation. Here, we investigated the presence of mixed nodules, containing rhizobia with different degrees of mutualisms, and evaluate their relative fitness in the Sinorhizobium meliloti-Medicago sativa model symbiosis. We used three S. meliloti strains, the mutualist strains Rm1021 and BL225C and the non-mutualist AK83. We performed competition experiments involving both in vitro and in vivo symbiotic assays with M. sativa host plants. We show the occurrence of a high number (from 27 to 100%) of mixed nodules with no negative effect on both nitrogen fixation and plant growth. The estimation of the relative fitness as non-mutualist/mutualist ratios in single nodules shows that in some nodules the non-mutualist strain efficiently colonized root nodules along with the mutualist ones. In conclusion, we can support the hypothesis that in S. meliloti-M. sativa symbiosis mixed nodules are formed and allow non-mutualist or less-mutualist bacterial partners to be less or not sanctioned by the host plant, hence allowing a potential form of cheating behavior to be present in the nitrogen fixing symbiosis. PMID:27379128

  5. Mixed Nodule Infection in Sinorhizobium meliloti-Medicago sativa Symbiosis Suggest the Presence of Cheating Behavior.

    PubMed

    Checcucci, Alice; Azzarello, Elisa; Bazzicalupo, Marco; Galardini, Marco; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Mancuso, Stefano; Marti, Lucia; Marzano, Maria C; Mocali, Stefano; Squartini, Andrea; Zanardo, Marina; Mengoni, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    In the symbiosis between rhizobia and legumes, host plants can form symbiotic root nodules with multiple rhizobial strains, potentially showing different symbiotic performances in nitrogen fixation. Here, we investigated the presence of mixed nodules, containing rhizobia with different degrees of mutualisms, and evaluate their relative fitness in the Sinorhizobium meliloti-Medicago sativa model symbiosis. We used three S. meliloti strains, the mutualist strains Rm1021 and BL225C and the non-mutualist AK83. We performed competition experiments involving both in vitro and in vivo symbiotic assays with M. sativa host plants. We show the occurrence of a high number (from 27 to 100%) of mixed nodules with no negative effect on both nitrogen fixation and plant growth. The estimation of the relative fitness as non-mutualist/mutualist ratios in single nodules shows that in some nodules the non-mutualist strain efficiently colonized root nodules along with the mutualist ones. In conclusion, we can support the hypothesis that in S. meliloti-M. sativa symbiosis mixed nodules are formed and allow non-mutualist or less-mutualist bacterial partners to be less or not sanctioned by the host plant, hence allowing a potential form of cheating behavior to be present in the nitrogen fixing symbiosis.

  6. Nodule Regression in Adults With Nodular Gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Wan; Lee, Sun-Young; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Sung, In-Kyung; Park, Hyung Seok; Shim, Chan-Sup; Han, Hye Seung

    2015-01-01

    Background Nodular gastritis (NG) is associated with the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection, but there are controversies on nodule regression in adults. The aim of this study was to analyze the factors that are related to the nodule regression in adults diagnosed as NG. Methods Adult population who were diagnosed as NG with H. pylori infection during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) at our center were included. Changes in the size and location of the nodules, status of H. pylori infection, upper gastrointestinal (UGI) symptom, EGD and pathology findings were analyzed between the initial and follow-up tests. Results Of the 117 NG patients, 66.7% (12/18) of the eradicated NG patients showed nodule regression after H. pylori eradication, whereas 9.9% (9/99) of the non-eradicated NG patients showed spontaneous nodule regression without H. pylori eradication (P < 0.001). Nodule regression was more frequent in NG patients with antral nodule location (P = 0.010), small-sized nodules (P = 0.029), H. pylori eradication (P < 0.001), UGI symptom (P = 0.007), and a long-term follow-up period (P = 0.030). On the logistic regression analysis, nodule regression was inversely correlated with the persistent H. pylori infection on the follow-up test (odds ratio (OR): 0.020, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.003 - 0.137, P < 0.001) and short-term follow-up period < 30.5 months (OR: 0.140, 95% CI: 0.028 - 0.700, P = 0.017). Conclusions In adults with NG, H. pylori eradication is the most significant factor associated with nodule regression. Long-term follow-up period is also correlated with nodule regression, but is less significant than H. pylori eradication. Our findings suggest that H. pylori eradication should be considered to promote nodule regression in NG patients with H. pylori infection.

  7. Isolated lymphoid follicles are not IgA inductive sites for recombinant Salmonella

    SciTech Connect

    Hashizume, Tomomi; Momoi, Fumiki; Kurita-Ochiai, Tomoko; Kaminogawa, Shuichi; Hosono, Akira; Kataoka, Kosuke; Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Kweon, Mi-Na; Yamamoto, Masafumi . E-mail: yamamoto.masafumi@nihon-u.ac.jp

    2007-08-24

    In this study, we investigated whether isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF) play a role in the regulation of intestinal IgA antibody (Ab) responses. The transfer of wild type (WT) bone marrow (BM) to lymphotoxin-{alpha}-deficient (LT{alpha}{sup -/-}) mice resulted in the formation of mature ILF containing T cells, B cells, and FDC clusters in the absence of mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. Although the ILF restored total IgA Abs in the intestine, antigen (Ag)-specific IgA responses were not induced after oral immunization with recombinant Salmonella expressing fragment C of tetanus toxin. Moreover, Ag-specific cell proliferation was not detected in the ILF. Interestingly, no IgA anti-LPS Abs were detected in the fecal extracts of LT{alpha}{sup -/-} mice reconstituted with WT BM. On the basis of these findings, ILF can be presumed to play a role in the production of IgA Abs, but lymphoid nodules are not inductive sites for the regulation of Ag-specific intestinal IgA responses to recombinant Salmonella.

  8. Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in Cancer Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Ino, Yoshinori; Yamazaki-Itoh, Rie

    2016-01-01

    Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are induced postnatally in non-lymphoid tissues such as those affected by chronic infections, autoimmune diseases, and chronic allograft rejection, and also in cancer tissues. TLOs are thought to provide important lymphocytic functional environments for both cellular and humoral immunity, similar to lymph nodes or Peyer’s patches. TLOs have a structure similar to that of lymph nodes or Peyer’s patches, including T cell zones, B cell follicles, and high endothelial venules (HEV) without encapsulation. Here, we review recent advances in our knowledge of TLOs in human solid cancers, including their location, structure, methods of evaluation, and clinicopathological impact. We also discuss the formation and/or maintenance of TLOs in cancer tissues in association with the tumor immune microenvironment, cancer invasion, and the tissue structure of the cancer stroma. PMID:27446075

  9. Innate lymphoid cells in inflammation and immunity.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Andrew N J; Spits, Hergen; Eberl, Gerard

    2014-09-18

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) were first described as playing important roles in the development of lymphoid tissues and more recently in the initiation of inflammation at barrier surfaces in response to infection or tissue damage. It has now become apparent that ILCs play more complex roles throughout the duration of immune responses, participating in the transition from innate to adaptive immunity and contributing to chronic inflammation. The proximity of ILCs to epithelial surfaces and their constitutive strategic positioning in other tissues throughout the body ensures that, in spite of their rarity, ILCs are able to regulate immune homeostasis effectively. Dysregulation of ILC function might result in chronic pathologies such as allergies, autoimmunity, and inflammation. A new role for ILCs in the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis has started to emerge, underlining their importance in fundamental physiological processes beyond infection and immunity.

  10. STUDIES ON TRANSMISSIBLE LYMPHOID LEUCEMIA OF MICE.

    PubMed

    Furth, J; Strumia, M

    1931-04-30

    Lymphoid leucemia of the mouse is readily transmitted by intravenous inoculations. The majority of the mice inoculated successfully develop leucemic, a smaller number of them, aleucemic lymphadenosis. The data presented favor the view that leucemic and aleucemic lymphadenosis are essentially the same condition. Leucemia produced by transmission is preceded by an aleucemic stage, in which the lymph nodes and the spleen are uniformly enlarged, and the white blood count and the percentage of lymphocytes are within the normal range but immature lymphocytes are numerous in the circulating blood. Young as well as old mice may develop leucemia if leucotic material enters their circulation. Studies of transmissible leucemia favor the view that leucemia of mammals is a neoplastic disease. The basic problem of leucemia would seem to be determination of the factors that bring about a malignant transformation of lymphoid cells.

  11. Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in Cancer Tissues.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Ino, Yoshinori; Yamazaki-Itoh, Rie

    2016-01-01

    Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are induced postnatally in non-lymphoid tissues such as those affected by chronic infections, autoimmune diseases, and chronic allograft rejection, and also in cancer tissues. TLOs are thought to provide important lymphocytic functional environments for both cellular and humoral immunity, similar to lymph nodes or Peyer's patches. TLOs have a structure similar to that of lymph nodes or Peyer's patches, including T cell zones, B cell follicles, and high endothelial venules (HEV) without encapsulation. Here, we review recent advances in our knowledge of TLOs in human solid cancers, including their location, structure, methods of evaluation, and clinicopathological impact. We also discuss the formation and/or maintenance of TLOs in cancer tissues in association with the tumor immune microenvironment, cancer invasion, and the tissue structure of the cancer stroma. PMID:27446075

  12. Benign lymphoid hyperplasia of the palate.

    PubMed

    Bradley, G; Main, J H; Birt, B D; From, L

    1987-01-01

    Seven patients with benign lymphoid hyperplasia of the palate are reported. Clinically, these lesions presented as painless non-ulcerated masses that were unilateral in 6 of the cases and bilateral in one. Microscopically, the lesions were characterized by a mixed lymphoid infiltrate, germinal centres and vascular channels with hyperplasia of endothelial cells. The patients were followed for 3-10 years subsequent to diagnosis. One patient had 2 sequential lesions on opposite sides of the palate. Another patient with lesions of both submandibular salivary glands in addition to the palate developed rheumatoid arthritis, xerophthalmia and serologic changes consistent with systemic autoimmune disease. To date, none of the patients developed signs and symptoms of lymphoma or leukemia. The etiology of these lesions is unknown. Their distinction from lymphoma of the palate, as well as their possible relationship to the benign lymphoepithelial lesion of palatal mucous glands, is discussed.

  13. Lymphoid proliferations of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Harris, N L

    1999-01-01

    Lymphoid proliferations of the salivary glands can be either reactive or neoplastic. Reactive lesions include cystic lymphoid hyperplasia--a multicystic ductal proliferation with reactive germinal centers, seen most often in intravenous drug users infected with HIV--and the lymphoepithelial sialadenitis of Sjögren's syndrome (so-called benign lymphoepithelial lesion [BLEL] or myoepithelial sialadenitis [MESA]). This lymphoid proliferation involves infiltration of ductal epithelium by lymphocytes of marginal zone or monocytoid B-cell type, forming lymphoepithelial lesions (epimyoepithelial islands). Patients with lymphoepithelial sialadenitis have a 44-fold increased risk of developing salivary gland or extrasalivary lymphoma, of which 80% are marginal zone/MALT type. Broad strands of marginal zone or monocytoid B cells around lymphoepithelial lesions and monotypic immunoglobulin detection by immunohistochemistry are considered diagnostic of MALT lymphoma. B-cell clones are detected in over 50% of cases of MESA by molecular genetic methods, but this does not correlate with overlymphoma. "Nodal" type B-cell lymphomas of the salivary glands are either follicular lymphoma (35%), which may arise in intrasalivary gland lymph nodes and behave similarly to follicular lymphoma in other sites, or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (30%), which may arise de novo or secondary to either MALT or follicular lymphomas.

  14. Change descriptors for determining nodule malignancy in national lung screening trial CT screening images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, Benjamin; Hawkins, Samuel; Hall, Lawrence O.; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Gatenby, Robert A.; Gillies, Robert J.

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary nodules are effectively diagnosed in CT scans, but determining their malignancy has been a challenge. The rate of change of the volume of a pulmonary nodule is known to be a prognostic factor for cancer development. In this study, we propose that other changes in imaging characteristics are similarly informative. We examined the combination of image features across multiple CT scans, taken from the National Lung Screening Trial, with individual scans of the same patient separated by approximately one year. By subtracting the values of existing features in multiple scans for the same patient, we were able to improve the ability of existing classification algorithms to determine whether a nodule will become malignant. We trained each classifier on 83 nodules determined to be malignant by biopsy and 172 nodules determined to be benign by their clinical stability through two years of no change; classifiers were tested on 77 malignant and 144 benign nodules, using a set of features that in a test-retest experiment were shown to be stable. An accuracy of 83.71% and AUC of 0.814 were achieved with the Random Forests classifier on a subset of features determined to be stable via test-retest reproducibility analysis, further reduced with the Correlation-based Feature Selection algorithm.

  15. Primary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of Thyroid with the Serial Ultrasound Findings

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Eon Ju; Shon, Ho Sang; Jung, Eui Dal

    2016-01-01

    Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) of the thyroid gland is uncommon. Even though its natural history is not well defined, it is known to be indolent course. We present a case of primary MALT thyroid lymphoma with the serial sonographic findings in the patient presenting as the focal nodule. A 45-year-old woman visited our hospital for neck examination. Initially, fine-needle aspiration cytology in the focal hypoechoic lesion in the left thyroid lobe on ultrasound sonography was performed and consistent with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, the results of serial ultrasounds and core-needle biopsy revealed an extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of MALT on 4-year follow-up. Patients with a focal hypoechoic nodule with linear echogenic strands and segmental pattern in the background of Hashimoto's thyroiditis on ultrasonography should undergo careful surveillance for malignancy. Serial sonographic features in this case are meaningful in the understanding of the natural history of the extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of MALT of the thyroid. PMID:27099797

  16. The mineralogy of Lake Malawi ferromanganese nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalindekafe, L. S. N.

    1993-08-01

    In Lake Malawi, ferromanganese nodules and oolites occur in oxic areas at water depths of 80 to 160 m at the facies boundary between sands and muds. In most cases, the nodules have been found at the water/sediment interface. The nodules and micronodules range in colour from dark brown to rusty or yellowish. Some tend to be of metallic lustre on the outside. The size of the nodules ranges from about a millimeter to about a centimeter in diameter while the average is 3 mm. Three main mineral species have been identified in Lake Malawi nodules: 1) manganite (λ-MnOOH); 2) geothite [∝-FeO (OH)] and 3) vivianite [Fe 3 (PO 4) 2. 8H 2O]. A likely origin of Fe and Mn that form the nodules in Lake Malawi is from tthe sediments themselves. Another possible source can be through the movement of deep waters from the geothermally active areas of the lake to the shallow oxic areas where nodules are presently forming. The vivianite in the vivianite-rich nodules originates from dissolution of apatite (from fish debris) within the sediment and redeposition as Fe-phosphate under reducing conditions. Studies of the vivianite-rich micronodules using a scanning electron microscope (S.E.M.) and an electron microprobe have shown that in some samples, vivianite is associated with nontronite [(Ca Mg).5Fe 2(Si Al) 4O 10]. The nontronite occurs as a coating around the vivianite.

  17. Lymphoid-specific transcriptional activation by components of the IgH enhancer: studies on the E2/E3 and octanucleotide elements.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, G P; Neuberger, M S

    1990-01-01

    The IgH enhancer is a strong lymphoid-specific activator and is composed of multiple factor-binding motifs. One of these, the octamer, is common to enhancer and promoter, binds ubiquitous and lymphoid-specific factors and is able to act as a lymphoid-specific transcriptional activator. However, it is also found as an essential component of promoters active in non-lymphoid cells. From analysis of the activities of synthetic promoters, we suggest that recruitment of the lymphoid-specific octamer-binding protein next to the TATA is sufficient to create a functional lymphoid-specific promoter whereas the ubiquitous octamer binding protein is not active in single copy but can act in concert with other promoter binding factors. However, the activity of the IgH enhancer is not dependent on the octamer and we identify the E2/E3 elements as also being sufficient to confer lymphoid-specificity on a linked gene. Activity of the E2/E3 region results from the synergistic activity of the two motifs, E2 alone being able to confer a low level of activity which is dramatically increased by the adjacent E3. Thus, in the case of both the E2/E3 and the octamer motifs, interactions between adjacent elements can play a critical role in determining the tissue specificity of activity. Images PMID:2114013

  18. Rheumatoid nodule presenting as Morton's neuroma.

    PubMed

    Chaganti, S; Joshy, S; Hariharan, K; Rashid, M

    2013-09-01

    Among 101 feet that presented with symptoms and signs similar to Morton's neuroma, intermetatarsal rheumatoid nodules were found in five feet (three patients). Two patients had bilateral involvement. Histology of the excised tissue showed the presence of a rheumatoid nodule and Morton's neuroma in four feet and a rheumatoid nodule with unremarkable nerve bundles in one. A rheumatoid nodule can coexist with Morton's neuroma, as seen in our patients, and the presentation is often similar to that of a Morton's neuroma. Our patients were rendered asymptomatic with surgical treatment and went on to have appropriate management of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid nodule should be considered in the differential diagnosis of Morton's neuroma in not only rheumatoid arthritis patients but also asymptomatic patients who have never been tested for rheumatoid antibodies.

  19. Proteolytic Activity in Soybean Root Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Nancy E.; Torres, Cecilia M.; Wagner, Fred W.

    1983-01-01

    Root nodules were harvested from chamber-grown soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill cv Woodworth) plants throughout development. Apparent nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction) peaked before seeds began to develop, but a significant amount of activity remained as the seeds matured. Nodule senescence was defined as the period in which residual nitrogenase activity was lost. During this time, soluble protein and leghemoglobin levels in the host cell cytosol decreased, and proteolytic activity against azocasein increased. Degradative changes were not detected in bacteroids during nodule senescence. Total soluble bacteroid protein per gram of nodule remained constant, and an increase in proteolytic activity in bacteroid extracts was not observed. These results are consistent with the view that soybean nodule bacteroids are capable of redifferentiation into free-living bacteria upon deterioration of the legume-rhizobia symbiosis. PMID:16662910

  20. Computer-aided diagnostic scheme for distinction between benign and malignant nodules in thoracic low-dose CT by use of massive training artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kenji; Li, Feng; Sone, Shusuke; Doi, Kunio

    2005-09-01

    Low-dose helical computed tomography (LDCT) is being applied as a modality for lung cancer screening. It may be difficult, however, for radiologists to distinguish malignant from benign nodules in LDCT. Our purpose in this study was to develop a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for distinction between benign and malignant nodules in LDCT scans by use of a massive training artificial neural network (MTANN). The MTANN is a trainable, highly nonlinear filter based on an artificial neural network. To distinguish malignant nodules from six different types of benign nodules, we developed multiple MTANNs (multi-MTANN) consisting of six expert MTANNs that are arranged in parallel. Each of the MTANNs was trained by use of input CT images and teaching images containing the estimate of the distribution for the "likelihood of being a malignant nodule," i.e., the teaching image for a malignant nodule contains a two-dimensional Gaussian distribution and that for a benign nodule contains zero. Each MTANN was trained independently with ten typical malignant nodules and ten benign nodules from each of the six types. The outputs of the six MTANNs were combined by use of an integration ANN such that the six types of benign nodules could be distinguished from malignant nodules. After training of the integration ANN, our scheme provided a value related to the "likelihood of malignancy" of a nodule, i.e., a higher value indicates a malignant nodule, and a lower value indicates a benign nodule. Our database consisted of 76 primary lung cancers in 73 patients and 413 benign nodules in 342 patients, which were obtained from a lung cancer screening program on 7847 screenees with LDCT for three years in Nagano, Japan. The performance of our scheme for distinction between benign and malignant nodules was evaluated by use of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Our scheme achieved an Az (area under the ROC curve) value of 0.882 in a round-robin test. Our scheme correctly

  1. A novel spherical shell filter for reducing false positives in automatic detection of pulmonary nodules in thoracic CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Leemput, Sil; Dorssers, Frank; Ehteshami Bejnordi, Babak

    2015-03-01

    Early detection of pulmonary nodules is crucial for improving prognosis of patients with lung cancer. Computer-aided detection of lung nodules in thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans has a great potential to enhance the performance of the radiologist in detecting nodules. In this paper we present a computer-aided lung nodule detection system for computed tomography (CT) scans that works in three steps. The system first segments the lung using thresholding and hole filling. From this segmentation the system extracts candidate nodules using Laplacian of Gaussian. To reject false positives among the detected candidate nodules, multiple established features are calculated. We propose a novel feature based on a spherical shell filter, which is specifically designed to distinguish between vascular structures and nodular structures. The performance of the proposed CAD system was evaluated by partaking in the ANODE09 challenge, which presents a platform for comparing automatic nodule detection programs. The results from the challenge show that our CAD system ranks third among the submitted works, demonstrating the efficacy of our proposed CAD system. The results also show that our proposed spherical shell filter in combination with conventional features can significantly reduce the number of false positives from the detected candidate nodules.

  2. A STUDY OF THE RELATION OF TREPONEMA PALLIDUM TO LYMPHOID TISSUES IN EXPERIMENTAL SYPHILIS

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Louise; Brown, Wade H.

    1922-01-01

    A widespread dissemination of Treponema pallidum from a local focus of inoculation in the rabbit constantly occurs by way of the lymphatics. Spirochetes were regularly recovered from the satellite lymph nodes by animal inoculation after scrotal inoculation; they were present as early as 2 days, when no specific primary reaction was detected, and at later periods of from 5 to 61 days after inoculation. Other superficial nodes at remote sites such as the popliteals and with no syphilitic lesions in the drainage area have also been shown to harbor active organisms. Although spirochetes were found in relatively few of the lymph node emulsions, the orchitis resulting from their injection was of a rapidly progressive type with an incubation period but slightly longer than that produced by a testicular or skin nodule emulsion rich in spirochetes. It has further been shown that a syphilitic infection is sufficiently established in the rabbit body within 48 hours after scrotal inoculation so that the primary lesion is no longer essential for its maintenance. Active treponemata survive in the popliteal lymph nodes for long periods of time and have been regularly recovered from them in cases of true latency. The lymph nodes, therefore, function as reservoirs of the organisms. The ability to recover the spirochetes from lymphoid tissue through successive generations is seen in the serial passage of lymph node emulsion to testicle during an 18 months period. The persistence of spirochetes in lymphoid tissue irrespective of the presence or absence of syphilitic lesions is a characteristic and fundamental feature of syphilis of the rabbit. The existence of infection, therefore, may be demonstrated at any time by the recovery of spirochetes from the popliteal lymph nodes by animal inoculation. This fact is of great practical importance in the therapy of the infection and may be profitably utilized in determining the ultimate effect of a therapeutic agent. These experiments

  3. [Cystic lymphoid hyperplasia of the parotid in relation to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV+). Apropos of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Vaillant, J M; Chomette, G; Talbi, M; Labrousse, F; Szpirglas, H; Raphael, B; Gentilini, M; Auriol, M; Guilbert, F

    1989-01-01

    Cystic lymphoid hyperplasia of the parotid, a rare disease, was recently described in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We reported here 2 new cases of this illness. The 2 HIV+ patients showed an enlargement of parotid gland. A superficial parotidectomy was performed. The histological and immunohistochemical studies were completed in one case by a histoenzymological and ultrastructural study. We could see numerous cystic cavities lined with a cylindrical or metaplastic malpighian epithelium and surrounded by a lymphoid tissue, similar to a true lymph node with germinal centers. In these lymphoid structures, we could find some epithelial remnants and numerous epimyoepithelial islands. Besides, anomalies similar to those described in persistent generalized lymphadenopathies were obvious: hyperplastic germinal centers with multiplication of B lymphocytes and thin mantle zone, perifollicular hypervascularization, numerous macrophages, plasmocytes and T lymphocytes with increase of T8 cytotoxic subset in interfollicular and paracortical areas. An early opportunist infection is suggested in the histogenesis of this disease. PMID:2727611

  4. Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Roots and Nodules of Alnus glutinosa1

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Peter R.; Coker, George T.; Schubert, Karel R.

    1983-01-01

    Detached roots and nodules of the N2-fixing species, Albus glutinosa (European black alder), actively assimilate CO2. The maximum rates of dark CO2 fixation observed for detached nodules and roots were 15 and 3 micromoles CO2 fixed per gram dry weight per hour, respectively. The net incorporation of CO2 in these tissues was catalyzed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase which produces organic acids, some of which are used in the synthesis of the amino acids, aspartate, glutamate, and citrulline and by carbamyl phosphate synthetase. The latter accounts for approximately 30 to 40% of the CO2 fixed and provides carbamyl phosphate for the synthesis of citrulline. Results of labeling studies suggest that there are multiple pools of malate present in nodules. The major pool is apparently metabolically inactive and of unknown function while the smaller pool is rapidly utilized in the synthesis of amino acids. Dark CO2 fixation and N2 fixation in nodules decreased after treatment of nodulated plants with nitrate while the percentage of the total 14C incorporated into organic acids increased. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and carbamyl phosphate synthetase play key roles in the synthesis of amino acids including citrulline and in the metabolism of N2-fixing nodules and roots of alder. PMID:16662882

  5. Effect of CAD on radiologists' detection of lung nodules on thoracic CT scans: observer performance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahiner, Berkman; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Shi, Jiazheng; Cascade, Philip N.; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Zhou, Chuan; Wei, Jun; Chughtai, Aamer R.; Poopat, Chad; Song, Thomas; Nojkova, Jadranka S.; Frank, Luba; Attili, Anil

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) on radiologists' performance for the detection of lung nodules on thoracic CT scans. Our computer system was designed using an independent training set of 94 CT scans in our laboratory. The data set for the observer performance study consisted of 48 CT scans. Twenty scans were collected from patient files at the University of Michigan, and 28 scans by the Lung Imaging Database Consortium (LIDC). All scans were read by multiple experienced thoracic radiologists to determine the true nodule locations, defined as any region identified by one or more expert radiologists as containing a nodule larger than 3 mm in diameter. Eighteen CT examinations were nodule-free, while the remaining 30 CT examinations contained a total of 73 nodules having a median size of 5.5 mm (range 3.0-36.4 mm). Four other study radiologists read the CT scans first without and then with CAD, and provided likelihood of nodule ratings for suspicious regions. Two of the study radiologists were fellowship trained in cardiothoracic radiology, and two were cardiothoracic radiology fellows. Freeresponse receiver-operating characteristic (FROC) curves were used to compare the two reading conditions. The computer system had a sensitivity of 79% (58/73) with an average of 4.9 marks per normal scan (88/18). Jackknife alternative FROC (JAFROC) analysis indicated that the improvement with CAD was statistically significant (p=0.03).

  6. Tertiary lymphoid organs in infection and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Neyt, Katrijn; Perros, Frédéric; GeurtsvanKessel, Corine H; Hammad, Hamida; Lambrecht, Bart N

    2012-06-01

    The lymph nodes (LNs) and spleen have an optimal structure that allows the interaction between T cells, B cells and antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) on a matrix made up by stromal cells. Such a highly organized structure can also be formed in tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) at sites of infection or chronic immune stimulation. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms of TLO formation and maintenance, the controversies surrounding the nature of the inducing events, and the functions of these structures in infection, transplantation and autoimmunity. PMID:22622061

  7. Aspartate Aminotransferase in Alfalfa Root Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Farnham, Mark W.; Griffith, Stephen M.; Miller, Susan S.; Vance, Carroll P.

    1990-01-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) plays an important role in nitrogen metabolism in all plants and is particularly important in the assimilation of fixed N derived from the legume-Rhizoblum symbiosis. Two isozymes of AAT (AAT-1 and AAT-2) occur in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Antibodies against alfalfa nodule AAT-2 do not recognize AAT-1, and these antibodies were used to study AAT-2 expression in different tissues and genotypes of alfalfa and also in other legume and nonlegume species. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis indicated that nodules of 38-day-old alfalfa plants contained about eight times more AAT-2 than did nodules of 7-day-old plants, confirming the nodule-enhanced nature of this isozyme. AAT-2 was estimated to make up 16, 15, 5, and 8 milligrams per gram of total soluble protein in mature nodules, roots, stems, and leaves, respectively, of effective N2-fixing alfalfa. The concentration of AAT-2 in nodules of ineffective non-N2-fixing alafalfa genotypes was about 70% less than that of effective nodules. Western blots of soluble protein from nodules of nine legume species indicated that a 40-kilodalton polypeptide that reacts strongly with AAT-2 antibodies is conserved in legumes. Nodule AAT-2 immunoprecipitation data suggested that amide- and ureide-type legumes may differ in expression and regulation of the enzyme. In addition, Western blotting and immunoprecipitations of AAT activity demonstrated that antibodies against alfalfa AAT-2 are highly cross-reactive with AAT enzyme protein in leaves of soybean (Glycine max L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and maize (Zea mays L.) and in roots of maize, but not with AAT in soybean and wheat roots. Results from this study indicate that AAT-2 is structurally conserved and localized in similar tissues among diverse species. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:16667896

  8. Role of Thyroid Ultrasound in the Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodules with Atypia of Undetermined Significance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Zhu, Qing-Li; Li, Wen-Bo; Jiang, Yu-Xin; Meng, Zhi-Lan; Bi, Ya-Lan; Zhao, Yu

    2016-08-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of ultrasound for thyroid nodules with atypia of undetermined significance(AUS).Methods From January 2014 to December 2015,83 thyroid nodules with AUS diagnosed by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy were collected from 1984 subjects. On the basis of ultrasonic features,each thyroid nodule was prospectively classified into one of three categories: low suspicion for malignancy,intermediate suspicion for malignancy,and high suspicion for malignancy. Results Among 83 lesions,19 lesions(22.9%) were confirmed malignant,8 lesions (9.6%)were benign,56 lesions (67.5%)had no abnormal changes during clinical follow-up. The nodules were solitary in 36 cases (43.4%)and multiple in 47 cases(56.6%).The maximum diameter was (1.2±0.7)cm. Based on the ultrasonic feature of 19 malignant cases,16 cases (84.2%) were classified as high suspicion for malignancy,2 cases(10.5%) as intermediate suspicion for malignancy,and 1 case(5.3%) for low suspicion for malignancy. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that the degree of malignancy of thyroid nodules was significantly associated with ultrasound image classification[OR=9.23(2.96-28.79),P=0.00],but not with age,gender,nodule number,and nodule size (all P>0.05).Conclusion Ultrasound diagnosis by using the present thyroid ultrasound classification system can be helpful for distinguishing malignant and benign AUS thyroid nodules. PMID:27594147

  9. Relationship of anthropometric measurements to thyroid nodules in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weimin; Chen, Zexin; Li, Na; Liu, Hui; Huo, Liangliang; Huang, Yangmei; Jin, Xingyi; Deng, Jin; Zhu, Sujuan; Zhang, Shanchun; Yu, Yunxian

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have found that overweight and obesity are related to numerous diseases, including thyroid cancer and thyroid volume. This study evaluates the relationship between body size and the presence of thyroid nodules in a Chinese population. Methods A total of 6793 adults and 2410 children who underwent thyroid ultrasonography were recruited in this cross-sectional study in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China, from March to October, 2010. Sociodemographic characteristics and potential risk factors of thyroid nodules were collected by questionnaire. Height and weight were measured using standard protocols. Associations of height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and body surface area (BSA) with the presence of thyroid nodules were evaluated using multiple logistic regression models. Results After adjustment for potential risk factors, an increased risk of thyroid nodule incidence was associated with height (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.30), weight (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.58), BMI (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.42) and BSA (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.62) in all adults, but most obviously in women. In children, similar associations were observed between risk of thyroid nodule incidence and weight, BMI and BSA, but not height. BSA was the measurement most significantly associated with thyroid nodules in both adults and children. Conclusions This study identified that the presence of thyroid nodules was positively associated with weight, height, BMI and BSA in both women and girls. It suggests that tall, obese individuals have increased susceptibility to thyroid nodules. Trial registration number: NCT01838629. PMID:26692553

  10. Oxidation state of marine manganese nodules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, D.Z.; Basler, J.R.; Bischoff, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Analyses of the bulk oxidation state of marine manganese nodules indicates that more than 98% of the Mn in deep ocean nodules is present as Mn(IV). The samples were collected from three quite different areas: the hemipelagic environment of the Guatemala Basin, the pelagic area of the North Pacific, and seamounts in the central Pacific. Results of the study suggest that todorokite in marine nodules is fully oxidized and has the following stoichiometry: (K, Na, Ca, Ba).33(Mg, Cu, Ni).76Mn5O22(H2O)3.2. ?? 1984.

  11. Malignant lymphomas of the skin: their differentiation from lymphoid and nonlymphoid cutaneous infiltrates that simulate lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Burke, J S

    1985-08-01

    Malignant lymphomas of the skin, excluding mycosis fungoides, are pathologically, immunologically, and clinically heterogeneous. Varying patterns and degrees of cutaneous infiltration are encountered in all histologic subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Immunologic studies have shown relatively equal numbers of cases with B and T cell phenotypes, but true histiocytic lymphomas of the skin also occur. Patients may be of any age, and they may have lymphoma in any clinical stage. A low clinical stage and a low-grade histologic subtype are significant factors for long survival. The differential diagnosis includes a variety of lymphoid infiltrates that are referred to as a group as cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia; it also includes lymphomatoid papulosis as well as nonlymphoid cutaneous infiltrates such as myeloid leukemias, histiocytosis X, malignant histiocytosis, regressing atypical histiocytosis, and neuroendocrine (Merkel) cell carcinoma. Distinction of cutaneous lymphomas from these entities requires comprehension of multiple variables, including immunologic as well as morphologic and clinical factors.

  12. [Multiple pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma].

    PubMed

    Haro, M; Ruiz, J; Vila, X; Avellanet, M; Izquierdo, J

    1994-01-01

    The causes of multiple pulmonary nodules are many, with metastasis being the most feared. A rare but possible etiology, however, is hyalinizing multiple granuloma. We present a case that allows us to review this condition and its course, as well as a variety of associated immunological changes and possible complications. PMID:8087395

  13. Quantitative CT of lung nodules: Dependence of calibration on patient body size, anatomic region, and calibration nodule size for single- and dual-energy techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Goodsitt, Mitchell M.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Way, Ted W.; Schipper, Mathew J.; Larson, Sandra C.; Christodoulou, Emmanuel G.

    2009-07-15

    Calcium concentration may be a useful feature for distinguishing benign from malignant lung nodules in computer-aided diagnosis. The calcium concentration can be estimated from the measured CT number of the nodule and a CT number vs calcium concentration calibration line that is derived from CT scans of two or more calcium reference standards. To account for CT number nonuniformity in the reconstruction field, such calibration lines may be obtained at multiple locations within lung regions in an anthropomorphic phantom. The authors performed a study to investigate the effects of patient body size, anatomic region, and calibration nodule size on the derived calibration lines at ten lung region positions using both single energy (SE) and dual energy (DE) CT techniques. Simulated spherical lung nodules of two concentrations (50 and 100 mg/cc CaCO{sub 3}) were employed. Nodules of three different diameters (4.8, 9.5, and 16 mm) were scanned in a simulated thorax section representing the middle of the chest with large lung regions. The 4.8 and 9.5 mm nodules were also scanned in a section representing the upper chest with smaller lung regions. Fat rings were added to the peripheries of the phantoms to simulate larger patients. Scans were acquired on a GE-VCT scanner at 80, 120, and 140 kVp and were repeated three times for each condition. The average absolute CT number separations between the calibration lines were computed. In addition, under- or overestimates were determined when the calibration lines for one condition (e.g., small patient) were used to estimate the CaCO{sub 3} concentrations of nodules for a different condition (e.g., large patient). The authors demonstrated that, in general, DE is a more accurate method for estimating the calcium contents of lung nodules. The DE calibration lines within the lung field were less affected by patient body size, calibration nodule size, and nodule position than the SE calibration lines. Under- or overestimates in Ca

  14. Investigating the low-dose limits of multidetector CT in lung nodule surveillance.

    PubMed

    Paul, N S; Siewerdsen, J H; Patsios, D; Chung, T B

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors limiting nodule detection in thoracic computed tomography (CT) and to determine whether prior knowledge of nodule size and attenuation, available from a baseline CT study, influences the minimum radiation dose at which nodule surveillance CT scans can be performed while maintaining current levels of nodule detectability. Multiple nodules varying in attenuation (-509 to + 110 HU) and diameter (1.6 to 9.5 mm) were layered in random and ordered sequences within 2 lung cylinders made of Rando lung material and suspended within a custom-built CT phantom. Multiple CT scans were performed at varying kVp (120, 100, and 80), mA (200, 150, 100, 50, 20, and 10), and beam collimation (5, 2.5, and 1.25 mm) on a four-row multidetector scanner (Lightspeed, General Electric, Milwaukee, WI) using 0.8 s gantry rotation. The corresponding range of radiation dose over which images were acquired was 0.3-26.4 mGy. Nine observers independently performed three specific tasks, namely: (1) To detect a 3.2 mm nodule of 23 HU; (2) To detect 3.2 mm nodules of varying attenuation (-509 to -154 HU); and (3) To detect nodules varying in size (1.6-9 mm) and attenuation (-509 to 110 HU). A two-alternative forced-choice test was used in order to determine the limits of nodule detection in terms of the proportion of correct responses (Pcorr, related to the area under the ROC curve) as a summary metric of observer performance. The radiation dose levels for detection of 99% of nodules in each task were as follows: Task 1 (1 mGy); Task 2 (5 mGy); and Task 3 (7 mGy). The corresponding interobserver confidence limits were 1, 5, and 10 mGy for Tasks 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There was a fivefold increase in the radiation dose required for detection of lower-density nodules (Tasks 1 to 2). Absence of prior knowledge of the nodule size and density (Task 3) corresponds to a significant increase in the minimum required radiation dose. Significant image

  15. [Surgical therapy of the autonomous thyroid nodule].

    PubMed

    Zanella, E

    1993-12-01

    Indications for the surgical removal of autonomous nodule are mainly based upon the failure of therapeutical options. The histological definition may be advantageous for detecting the rare but possible association between autonomous goiter and carcinoma of the thyroid. In personal experience, based on 176 hyperfunctioning goiter (among which there were 40 cases of autonomous nodules) 6 carcinomas of the gland were observed, 2 of these were associated with autonomous nodules. The extension of thyroidectomy is related to the size of the adenomas considering the incidence of postoperative complications, very low for this type of surgery. Surgical treatment of autonomous nodules of the thyroid is a low risk surgery and is therefore suitable for the treatment of this disease.

  16. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    Arda, I; Yildirim, S; Demirhan, B; Firat, S

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) is a routine diagnostic technique for evaluating thyroid nodules. Many reports in adults consider that FNA is superior to thyroid ultrasonography (USG) and radionuclide scanning (RS). Only five studies have been published on FNA of childhood thyroid nodules.
AIMS—To investigate the reliability of FNA in the evaluation and management of thyroid nodules, and compare the results of FNA, USG, and RS with regard to final histopathological diagnosis.
METHODS—FNA was performed in 46 children with thyroid nodules after USG and RS examination. We investigated the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of USG, RS, and FNA in their management.
RESULTS—Six patients who had malignant or suspicious cells on FNA examination underwent immediate surgery. The other 40 patients received medical treatment according to their hormonal status. Fifteen of these nodules either disappeared or decreased in number and/or size. Surgery was performed in 25 patients who did not respond to therapy. Statistical analysis revealed sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values respectively as follows: 60%, 59%, 59%, 15%, and 92% for USG; 30%, 42%, 39%, 12%, and 68% for SC; 100%, 95%, 95%, 67%, and 100% for FNAB.
CONCLUSION—FNAB is as reliable in children as in adults for definitive diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Using this technique avoids unnecessary thyroid surgery in children.

 PMID:11567941

  17. Incidentally diagnosed pulmonary nodule: a diagnostic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Dziedzic, Robert; Rzyman, Witold

    2014-12-01

    Asymptomatic solitary pulmonary nodules incidentally revealed by computed tomography has become a serious medical problem. Depending on their diameter, solid, part-solid, or pure ground-glass pulmonary nodules may be observed, diagnosed radiologically/invasively, or resected in accordance with international guidelines. Pure ground-glass nodules, semi-solid lesions, or solid lesions smaller than 8 mm should be monitored by serial low-dose computed tomography. In the case of solid nodules greater than 8 mm, the assessment of the risk of malignancy is recommended. Patients at high risk of lung cancer with pulmonary lesions should undergo diagnostic investigation, or the nodule should be resected. If the risk of lung cancer is low, the patients may be monitored. Needle aspiration biopsy is the most important invasive method of tumor diagnosis. Cytological or histopathological diagnosis is helpful in appropriate clinical decision making that reduces the risk of unnecessary surgery, decreasing the rate of benign nodule resections and thus reducing the costs of medical treatment.

  18. [Thyroid nodule. Study of 88 cases].

    PubMed

    González Treviño, O; Bolaños Gil, F; Lerman Garber, I; García-Rubí, E; Maisterrena Fernández, J A

    1993-01-01

    We present a prospective study of 88 patients with thyroid nodules seen in our institution in 1985-86 and the results of a 5 year follow up. The algorithm for resolution among different therapeutic options was established in regard to the clinical characteristics, imaging and particularly the histopathologic studies. Their age ranged from 18 to 79 years; 94% of the patients were females. Most of the nodules were solid (69%) and measured 1-4 cm in diameter. The image of 62% of the thyroid scans was of a non-functioning nodule and 13% were hyperfunctioning. In 80% the ultrasonographic pattern was solid or mixed. Surgery was undertaken in 19 patients (21%). In 58%, a diagnosis of malignancy was established. The biopsy (aspiration and tru-cut) suggested the presence of the malignant tumors when taken together in 90% of the cases. Hormonal treatment was given to 62 patients; in 40-45% of them there was a significant reduction in the size of the nodule. Aspiration and sclerosis of cystic nodules were performed in 19 patients with significant shrinkage in 82%. Radioactive iodine was used in 11 patients. Our algorithm reduces costs and precludes unnecessary morbidity in patients with thyroid nodules.

  19. Polyphenol oxidase affects normal nodule development in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) may have multiple functions in tissues, depending on its cellular or tissue localization. We used PPO RNAi transformants of red clover (Trifolium pratense) to determine the role PPO plays in normal development of plants, and especially in nitrogen-fixing nodules. In red clov...

  20. [Lymphoid myelofibrosis or hairy cell leukemia].

    PubMed

    Lovisetto, P; Pellegrino, P; Tallone, M V; Biarese, V; La Rosa, G F

    1977-05-26

    By lymphoid myelofibrosis or hairy cell leukaemia or tricholeukaemia is meant an unusual haemopathic condition known only for the past few years. It is characterized pathognomonically by the presence of lymphocyte type cells with villous extroflexions, hence the name "hairy cell". Clinically the disease presents as an involutive myelopathy associated with splenomegaly, generally without any particular lymph gland involvement. The attention of students today is concentrated on the nature of the hairy cells; while some are inclined to admit their monocyte or histiocyte derivation, others consider that they derive from B lymphocytes. Therapeutically, almost everybody agrees that splenectomy is the only valid step. A case of H.C.L., which was typical from the clinical and laboratory viewpoints is reported. It is probable that certain haemopathic pictures once classified among atypical leucoses and lymphomas, would today be more correctly classed as hairy cell leukaemia. PMID:327348

  1. Innate lymphoid cells and the MHC.

    PubMed

    Robinette, M L; Colonna, M

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a new class of immune cells that include natural killer (NK) cells and appear to be the innate counterparts to CD4(+) helper T cells and CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells based on developmental and functional similarities. Like T cells, both NK cells and other ILCs also show connections to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In human and mouse, NK cells recognize and respond to classical and nonclassical MHC I molecules as well as structural homologues, whereas mouse ILCs have recently been shown to express MHC II. We describe the history of MHC I recognition by NK cells and discuss emerging roles for MHC II expression by ILC subsets, making comparisons between both mouse and human when possible.

  2. False positive reduction for lung nodule CAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Luyin; Boroczky, Lilla; Drysdale, Jeremy; Agnihotri, Lalitha; Lee, Michael C.

    2007-03-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithms 'automatically' identify lung nodules on thoracic multi-slice CT scans (MSCT) thereby providing physicians with a computer-generated 'second opinion'. While CAD systems can achieve high sensitivity, their limited specificity has hindered clinical acceptance. To overcome this problem, we propose a false positive reduction (FPR) system based on image processing and machine learning to reduce the number of false positive lung nodules identified by CAD algorithms and thereby improve system specificity. To discriminate between true and false nodules, twenty-three 3D features were calculated from each candidate nodule's volume of interest (VOI). A genetic algorithm (GA) and support vector machine (SVM) were then used to select an optimal subset of features from this pool of candidate features. Using this feature subset, we trained an SVM classifier to eliminate as many false positives as possible while retaining all the true nodules. To overcome the imbalanced nature of typical datasets (significantly more false positives than true positives), an intelligent data selection algorithm was designed and integrated into the machine learning framework, thus further improving the FPR rate. Three independent datasets were used to train and validate the system. Using two datasets for training and the third for validation, we achieved a 59.4% FPR rate while removing one true nodule on the validation datasets. In a second experiment, 75% of the cases were randomly selected from each of the three datasets and the remaining cases were used for validation. A similar FPR rate and true positive retention rate was achieved. Additional experiments showed that the GA feature selection process integrated with the proposed data selection algorithm outperforms the one without it by 5%-10% FPR rate. The methods proposed can be also applied to other application areas, such as computer-aided diagnosis of lung nodules.

  3. Transmembrane adaptor molecules: a new category of lymphoid-cell markers.

    PubMed

    Tedoldi, Sara; Paterson, Jennifer C; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; Natkunam, Yasodha; Rüdiger, Thomas; Angelisova, Pavla; Du, Ming Q; Roberton, Helen; Roncador, Giovanna; Sanchez, Lydia; Pozzobon, Michela; Masir, Noraidah; Barry, Richard; Pileri, Stefano; Mason, David Y; Marafioti, Teresa; Horejsí, Václav

    2006-01-01

    Transmembrane adaptor proteins (of which 7 have been identified so far) are involved in receptor signaling in immune cells. They have only a short extracellular region, with most of the molecule comprising a substantial intracytoplasmic region carrying multiple tyrosine residues that can be phosphorylated by Src- or Syk-family kinases. In this paper, we report an immunohistologic study of 6 of these molecules in normal and neoplastic human tissue sections and show that they are restricted to subpopulations of lymphoid cells, being present in either T cells (LAT, LIME, and TRIM), B cells (NTAL), or subsets of both cell types (PAG and SIT). Their expression in neoplastic lymphoid cells broadly reflects that of normal lymphoid tissue, including the positivity of plasma cells and myeloma/plasmacytoma for LIME, NTAL, PAG, and SIT. However, this study also revealed some reactions that may be of diagnostic/prognostic value. For example, lymphocytic lymphoma and mantle-cell lymphoma showed similar profiles but differed clearly from follicle-center lymphoma, whereas PAG tended to be selectively expressed in germinal center-derived subsets of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. These molecules represent a potentially important addition to the panel of immunophenotypic markers detectable in routine biopsies that can be used in hematopathologic studies. PMID:16160011

  4. c-Rel Regulates Ezh2 Expression in Activated Lymphocytes and Malignant Lymphoid Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Neo, Wen Hao; Lim, Jun Feng; Grumont, Raelene; Gerondakis, Steve; Su, I-hsin

    2014-01-01

    The polycomb group protein Ezh2 is a histone methyltransferase that modifies chromatin structure to alter gene expression during embryonic development, lymphocyte activation, and tumorigenesis. The mechanism by which Ezh2 expression is regulated is not well defined. In the current study, we report that c-Rel is a critical activator of Ezh2 transcription in lymphoid cells. In activated primary murine B and T cells, plus human leukemia and multiple myeloma cell lines, recruitment of c-Rel to the first intron of the Ezh2 locus promoted Ezh2 mRNA expression. This up-regulation was abolished in activated c-Rel-deficient lymphocytes and by c-Rel knockdown in Jurkat T cells. Treatment of malignant cells with the c-Rel inhibitor pentoxifylline not only reduced c-Rel nuclear translocation and Ezh2 expression, but also enhanced their sensitivity to the Ezh2-specific drug, GSK126 through increased growth inhibition and cell death. In summary, our demonstration that c-Rel regulates Ezh2 expression in lymphocytes and malignant lymphoid cells reveals a novel transcriptional network in transformed lymphoid cells expressing high levels of Ezh2 that provides a molecular justification for combinatorial drug therapy. PMID:25266721

  5. Ezrin and Moesin Are Required for Efficient T Cell Adhesion and Homing to Lymphoid Organs

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Emily J. H.; Shaffer, Meredith H.; Williamson, Edward K.; Huang, Yanping; Burkhardt, Janis K.

    2013-01-01

    T cell trafficking between the blood and lymphoid organs is a complex, multistep process that requires several highly dynamic and coordinated changes in cyto-architecture. Members of the ezrin, radixin and moesin (ERM) family of actin-binding proteins have been implicated in several aspects of this process, but studies have yielded conflicting results. Using mice with a conditional deletion of ezrin in CD4+ cells and moesin-specific siRNA, we generated T cells lacking ERM proteins, and investigated the effect on specific events required for T cell trafficking. ERM-deficient T cells migrated normally in multiple in vitro and in vivo assays, and could undergo efficient diapedesis in vitro. However, these cells were impaired in their ability to adhere to the β1 integrin ligand fibronectin, and to polarize appropriately in response to fibronectin and VCAM-1 binding. This defect was specific for β1 integrins, as adhesion and polarization in response to ICAM-1 were normal. In vivo, ERM-deficient T cells showed defects in homing to lymphoid organs. Taken together, these results show that ERM proteins are largely dispensable for T cell chemotaxis, but are important for β1 integrin function and homing to lymphoid organs. PMID:23468835

  6. Benign metastasizing leiomyomatosis (BML): A rare cause of cavitary and cystic pulmonary nodules.

    PubMed

    Jolissaint, Joshua S; Kilbourne, Sarah K; LaFortune, Kristen; Patel, Manojkumar; Lau, Christine L

    2015-01-01

    Benign metastasizing leiomyomatosis (BML) is a rare cause of pulmonary lesions found in reproductive age women who have undergone a hysterectomy for uterine leiomyoma. Given the relative rarity of the disease, the management of these lesions varies from surgical (oopherectomy) or medical antiestrogen hormonal therapy to clinical observation and survelliance. The disease generally presents asymptomatically with multiple, well-defined pulmonary nodules discovered incidentally on imaging. We report an atypical presentation of a 46-year-old woman with incidentally found bilateral pulmonary cavitating nodules and cysts, concerning for lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), who was ultimately diagnosed with BML. PMID:26744676

  7. Innate lymphoid cells and natural killer T cells in the gastrointestinal tract immune system.

    PubMed

    Montalvillo, Enrique; Garrote, José Antonio; Bernardo, David; Arranz, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is equipped with a highly specialized intrinsic immune system. However, the intestine is exposed to a high antigenic burden that requires a fast, nonspecific response -so-called innate immunity- to maintain homeostasis and protect the body from incoming pathogens. In the last decade multiple studies helped to unravel the particular developmental requirements and specific functions of the cells that play a role in innate immunity. In this review we shall focus on innate lymphoid cells, a newly discovered, heterogeneous set of cells that derive from an Id2-dependent lymphoid progenitor cell population. These cells have been categorized on the basis of the pattern of cytokines that they secrete, and the transcription factors that regulate their development and functions. Innate lymphoid cells play a role in the early response to pathogens, the anatomical contention of the commensal flora, and the maintenance of epithelial integrity.Amongst the various innate lymphoid cells we shall lay emphasis on a subpopulation with several peculiarities, namely that of natural killer T cells, a subset of T lymphocytes that express both T-cell and NK-cell receptors. The most numerous fraction of the NKT population are the so-called invariant NKT or iNKT cells. These iNKT cells have an invariant TCR and recognize the glycolipidic structures presented by the CD1d molecule, a homolog of class-I MHC molecules. Following activation they rapidly acquire cytotoxic activity and secrete both Th1 and Th2 cytokines, including IL-17. While their specific role is not yet established, iNKT cells take part in a great variety of intestinal immune responses ranging from oral tolerance to involvement in a number of gastrointestinal conditions.

  8. Vitamin A Controls the Presence of RORγ+ Innate Lymphoid Cells and Lymphoid Tissue in the Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Goverse, Gera; Labao-Almeida, Carlos; Ferreira, Manuela; Molenaar, Rosalie; Wahlen, Sigrid; Konijn, Tanja; Koning, Jasper; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique; Mebius, Reina E

    2016-06-15

    Changes in diet and microbiota have determining effects on the function of the mucosal immune system. For example, the active metabolite of vitamin A, retinoic acid (RA), has been described to maintain homeostasis in the intestine by its influence on both lymphocytes and myeloid cells. Additionally, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), important producers of cytokines necessary for intestinal homeostasis, are also influenced by vitamin A in the small intestines. In this study, we show a reduction of both NCR(-) and NCR(+) ILC3 subsets in the small intestine of mice raised on a vitamin A-deficient diet. Additionally, the percentages of IL-22-producing ILCs were reduced in the absence of dietary vitamin A. Conversely, mice receiving additional RA had a specific increase in the NCR(-) ILC3 subset, which contains the lymphoid tissue inducer cells. The dependence of lymphoid tissue inducer cells on vitamin A was furthermore illustrated by impaired development of enteric lymphoid tissues in vitamin A-deficient mice. These effects were a direct consequence of ILC-intrinsic RA signaling, because retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt-Cre × RARα-DN mice had reduced numbers of NCR(-) and NCR(+) ILC3 subsets within the small intestine. However, lymphoid tissue inducer cells were not affected in these mice nor was the formation of enteric lymphoid tissue, demonstrating that the onset of RA signaling might take place before retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt is expressed on lymphoid tissue inducer cells. Taken together, our data show an important role for vitamin A in controlling innate lymphoid cells and, consequently, postnatal formed lymphoid tissues within the small intestines.

  9. Secondary lymphoid organs: responding to genetic and environmental cues in ontogeny and the immune response.

    PubMed

    Ruddle, Nancy H; Akirav, Eitan M

    2009-08-15

    Secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) include lymph nodes, spleen, Peyer's patches, and mucosal tissues such as the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue, adenoids, and tonsils. Less discretely anatomically defined cellular accumulations include the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue, cryptopatches, and isolated lymphoid follicles. All SLOs serve to generate immune responses and tolerance. SLO development depends on the precisely regulated expression of cooperating lymphoid chemokines and cytokines such as LTalpha, LTbeta, RANKL, TNF, IL-7, and perhaps IL-17. The relative importance of these factors varies between the individual lymphoid organs. Participating in the process are lymphoid tissue initiator, lymphoid tissue inducer, and lymphoid tissue organizer cells. These cells and others that produce crucial cytokines maintain SLOs in the adult. Similar signals regulate the transition from inflammation to ectopic or tertiary lymphoid tissues. PMID:19661265

  10. Clinical drawbacks of total lymphoid irradiation: the cons

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, L.W.; Ellison, G.W.; Fahey, J.L.; Tesler, A.; Gottlieb, M.S.

    1988-07-01

    Success has been reported with use of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in organ transplant recipients and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. In a well-conducted randomized double blind clinical trial, Cook et al have found that TLI was superior to sham irradiation of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, it is clear from looking at this data that not all patients responded to TLI and that with time disease activity returned. Our own experience with TLI in two MS patients was very disappointing. Despite its apparent benefit in some conditions, considerable drawbacks are associated with TLI. These include high financial cost, unpleasant treatment-related side effects, and the possibility that more serious morbidity as well as mortality may be treatment-related. Furthermore, the optimum therapeutic regimen for TLI has not yet been established. Issues related to cumulative dose, dose per fraction, frequency of fractions, field of irradiation, and interaction with other therapies still need clarification. For these reasons we do not recommend TLI as a treatment for MS.

  11. Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Larynx

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Min; Liu, Bailong; Liu, Bin; Cui, Xiangyan; Yang, Shuo; Wang, Qiang; Dong, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The clinicopathological characteristics and rational treatment of primary laryngeal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma are still unclear and need to be further defined due to the paucity of this separate lymphoma. Herein, a supraglottic primary MALT lymphoma was described with detailed clinical course, intervention, and follow-up. To date, research of laryngeal MALT lymphoma has seldom been initiated. Our experience in this case will help to expand our understanding of this unique disease. A 58-year-old female presented with a history of progressive hoarseness for about 10 months. Multiple laryngoscopy examinations revealed severe hypertrophy of left ventricular band. She was admitted to our department with residual MALT lymphoma of supraglottic region after partial resection by laser. After systemic evaluation, she was staged as IEA, International Prognostic Index score 0. Irradiation of intensity modulated radiotherapy technique with a dose of 30.6 Gy/17f to the tumor and 25.5 Gy/17f to the related lymphatic drainage area achieved a complete remission. The disease-free survival has reached to 4 years. The irradiation related acute and late side effects were mild. Radiotherapy is the first option for limited-stage primary laryngeal MALT lymphoma because of excellent treatment outcome. PMID:25929928

  12. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonising roots and root nodules of New Zealand kauri Agathis australis.

    PubMed

    Padamsee, Mahajabeen; Johansen, Renee B; Stuckey, S Alexander; Williams, Stephen E; Hooker, John E; Burns, Bruce R; Bellgard, Stanley E

    2016-05-01

    As the only endemic member in New Zealand of the ancient conifer family, Araucariaceae, Agathis australis is an ideal species to study putatively long-evolved mycorrhizal symbioses. However, little is known about A. australis root and nodular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), and how mycorrhizal colonisation occurs. We used light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy to characterise colonisation, and 454-sequencing to identify the AMF associated with A. australis roots and nodules. We interpreted the results in terms of the edaphic characteristics of the A. australis-influenced ecosystem. Representatives of five families of Glomeromycota were identified via high-throughput pyrosequencing. Imaging studies showed that there is abundant, but not ubiquitous, colonisation of nodules, which suggests that nodules are mostly colonised by horizontal transmission. Roots were also found to harbour AMF. This study is the first to demonstrate the multiple Glomeromycota lineages associated with A. australis including some that may not have been previously detected. PMID:27109376

  13. Management dilemma of thyroid nodules in patients with malignant struma ovarii

    PubMed Central

    Sternlieb, Sarah J.; Satija, Celine; Pointer, David T.; Crawford, Byron E.; Sullivan, Lacey

    2016-01-01

    Struma ovarii is a rare type of ovarian teratoma comprised of at least 50% thyroid tissue. While most are benign, 70% of malignant cases are diagnosed as papillary carcinoma. Management of patients with thyroid nodules following gynecologic surgery remains controversial and variable. Historically, the treatment of choice has been surgical removal to rule out ovarian carcinoma. Thyroid follow-up and further treatment options are guided by tumor characteristics. The patient in this case presented to the endocrine surgeon with multiple thyroid nodules, dysphagia and a history of struma ovarii that was surgically treated at an outside hospital. Fine needle aspiration demonstrated benign histology. However, due to compressive symptoms and uncertainty of other nodules, the patient underwent a total thyroidectomy. Due to limited published data and treatment guidelines regarding thyroid nodules in patients with a history of malignant struma ovarii, surgery was recommended to rule out papillary thyroid carcinoma and relieve the patient’s dysphagia. More research focused on treatment and outcomes of struma ovarii patients with thyroid nodules is essential to establish treatment guidelines for these patients. PMID:27563566

  14. The genetic and biochemical basis for nodulation of legumes by rhizobia

    SciTech Connect

    Pueppke, S.G.

    1996-05-01

    Soil bacteria of the genera Azorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Rhizobium are collectively termed rhizobia. They share the ability to penetrate legume roots and elicit morphological responses that lead to the appearance of nodules. Bacteria within these symbiotic structures fix atmosphere nitrogen and thus are of immense ecological and agricultural significance. Although modern genetic analysis of rhizobia began less than 20 years ago, dozens of nodulation genes have now been identified, some in multiple species of rhizobia. These genetic advances have led to the discovery of a host surveillance system encoded by nodD and to the identification of Nod factor signals. These derivatives of oligochitin are synthesized by the protein products of nodABC, nodFE, NodPQ, and other nodulation genes: they provoke symbiotic responses on the part of the host and have generated immense interest in recent years. The symbiotic functions of other nodulation genes are nonetheless uncertain, and there remain significant gaps in the knowledge of several large groups of rhizobia with interesting biological properties. This review focuses on the nodulation genes of rhizobia, with particular emphasis on the concept of biological specificity of symbiosis with legume host plants. 419 refs.

  15. Management dilemma of thyroid nodules in patients with malignant struma ovarii.

    PubMed

    Sternlieb, Sarah J; Satija, Celine; Pointer, David T; Crawford, Byron E; Sullivan, Lacey; Kandil, Emad

    2016-08-01

    Struma ovarii is a rare type of ovarian teratoma comprised of at least 50% thyroid tissue. While most are benign, 70% of malignant cases are diagnosed as papillary carcinoma. Management of patients with thyroid nodules following gynecologic surgery remains controversial and variable. Historically, the treatment of choice has been surgical removal to rule out ovarian carcinoma. Thyroid follow-up and further treatment options are guided by tumor characteristics. The patient in this case presented to the endocrine surgeon with multiple thyroid nodules, dysphagia and a history of struma ovarii that was surgically treated at an outside hospital. Fine needle aspiration demonstrated benign histology. However, due to compressive symptoms and uncertainty of other nodules, the patient underwent a total thyroidectomy. Due to limited published data and treatment guidelines regarding thyroid nodules in patients with a history of malignant struma ovarii, surgery was recommended to rule out papillary thyroid carcinoma and relieve the patient's dysphagia. More research focused on treatment and outcomes of struma ovarii patients with thyroid nodules is essential to establish treatment guidelines for these patients. PMID:27563566

  16. Molecular Signals Controlling the Inhibition of Nodulation by Nitrate in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    van Noorden, Giel E.; Verbeek, Rob; Dinh, Quy Dung; Jin, Jian; Green, Alexandra; Ng, Jason Liang Pin; Mathesius, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    The presence of nitrogen inhibits legume nodule formation, but the mechanism of this inhibition is poorly understood. We found that 2.5 mM nitrate and above significantly inhibited nodule initiation but not root hair curling in Medicago trunatula. We analyzed protein abundance in M. truncatula roots after treatment with either 0 or 2.5 mM nitrate in the presence or absence of its symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti after 1, 2 and 5 days following inoculation. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry was used to identify 106 differentially accumulated proteins responding to nitrate addition, inoculation or time point. While flavonoid-related proteins were less abundant in the presence of nitrate, addition of Nod gene-inducing flavonoids to the Sinorhizobium culture did not rescue nodulation. Accumulation of auxin in response to rhizobia, which is also controlled by flavonoids, still occurred in the presence of nitrate, but did not localize to a nodule initiation site. Several of the changes included defense- and redox-related proteins, and visualization of reactive oxygen species indicated that their induction in root hairs following Sinorhizobium inoculation was inhibited by nitrate. In summary, the presence of nitrate appears to inhibit nodulation via multiple pathways, including changes to flavonoid metabolism, defense responses and redox changes. PMID:27384556

  17. Multiple polyploidy events in the early radiation of nodulating and non-nodulating legumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unresolved questions about evolution of the large and diverse legume family include the timing of polyploidy (whole-genome duplication; WGDs) relative to the origin of the major lineages within the Fabaceae and to the origin of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Previous work has established that a WGD af...

  18. Morphology of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in odontocetes.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fernanda M O; Guimarães, Juliana P; Vergara-Parente, Jociery E; Carvalho, Vitor L; Carolina, Ana; Meirelles, O; Marmontel, Miriam; Oliveira, Bruno S S P; Santos, Silvanise M; Becegato, Estella Z; Evangelista, Janaina S A M; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2016-09-01

    This study describes the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in odontocetes from the Brazilian coast and freshwater systems. Seven species were evaluated and tissue samples were analyzed by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry. Laryngeal tonsil was a palpable oval mass located in the larynx, composed of a lymphoepithelial complex. Dense collections of lymphocytes were found in the skin of male fetus and calf. Clusters of lymphoid tissue were found in the uterine cervix of a reproductively active juvenile female and along the pulmonary artery of an adult female. Lymphoid tissues associated with the gastrointestinal tract were characterized by diffusely arranged or organized lymphocytes. The anal tonsil was composed of an aggregate of lymphoid tissue occurring exclusively in the anal canal, being composed of squamous epithelium branches. MALT was present in different tissues and organic systems of cetaceans, providing constant protection against mucosal pathogens present in their environment.

  19. Morphology of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in odontocetes.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fernanda M O; Guimarães, Juliana P; Vergara-Parente, Jociery E; Carvalho, Vitor L; Carolina, Ana; Meirelles, O; Marmontel, Miriam; Oliveira, Bruno S S P; Santos, Silvanise M; Becegato, Estella Z; Evangelista, Janaina S A M; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2016-09-01

    This study describes the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in odontocetes from the Brazilian coast and freshwater systems. Seven species were evaluated and tissue samples were analyzed by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry. Laryngeal tonsil was a palpable oval mass located in the larynx, composed of a lymphoepithelial complex. Dense collections of lymphocytes were found in the skin of male fetus and calf. Clusters of lymphoid tissue were found in the uterine cervix of a reproductively active juvenile female and along the pulmonary artery of an adult female. Lymphoid tissues associated with the gastrointestinal tract were characterized by diffusely arranged or organized lymphocytes. The anal tonsil was composed of an aggregate of lymphoid tissue occurring exclusively in the anal canal, being composed of squamous epithelium branches. MALT was present in different tissues and organic systems of cetaceans, providing constant protection against mucosal pathogens present in their environment. PMID:27380767

  20. Total lymphoid irradiation for treatment of intractable cardiac allograft rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, S.A.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.; Stinson, E.B. )

    1991-03-01

    The ability of postoperative total lymphoid irradiation to reverse otherwise intractable cardiac allograft rejection was examined in a group of 10 patients in whom conventional rejection therapy (including pulsed steroids and monoclonal or polyclonal anti-T-cell antibody therapy) had failed to provide sustained freedom from rejection. Follow-up periods range from 73 to 1119 days since the start of total lymphoid irradiation. No patient died or sustained serious morbidity because of the irradiation. Three patients have had no further rejection (follow-up periods, 105 to 365 days). Two patients died--one in cardiogenic shock during the course of total lymphoid irradiation, the other with recurrent rejection caused by noncompliance with his medical regimen. Total lymphoid irradiation appears to be a safe and a moderately effective immunosuppressive modality for 'salvage' therapy of cardiac allograft rejection unresponsive to conventional therapy.

  1. Proteome reference maps of the Lotus japonicus nodule and root.

    PubMed

    Dam, Svend; Dyrlund, Thomas F; Ussatjuk, Anna; Jochimsen, Bjarne; Nielsen, Kasper; Goffard, Nicolas; Ventosa, Miguel; Lorentzen, Andrea; Gupta, Vikas; Andersen, Stig U; Enghild, Jan J; Ronson, Clive W; Roepstorff, Peter; Stougaard, Jens

    2014-02-01

    Legume symbiosis with rhizobia results in the formation of a specialized organ, the root nodule, where atmospheric dinitrogen is reduced to ammonia. In Lotus japonicus (Lotus), several genes involved in nodule development or nodule function have been defined using biochemistry, genetic approaches, and high-throughput transcriptomics. We have employed proteomics to further understand nodule development. Two developmental stages representing nodules prior to nitrogen fixation (white) and mature nitrogen fixing nodules (red) were compared with roots. In addition, the proteome of a spontaneous nodule formation mutant (snf1) was determined. From nodules and roots, 780 and 790 protein spots from 2D gels were identified and approximately 45% of the corresponding unique gene accessions were common. Including a previous proteomics set from Lotus pod and seed, the common gene accessions were decreased to 7%. Interestingly, an indication of more pronounced PTMs in nodules than in roots was determined. Between the two nodule developmental stages, higher levels of pathogen-related 10 proteins, HSPs, and proteins involved in redox processes were found in white nodules, suggesting a higher stress level at this developmental stage. In contrast, protein spots corresponding to nodulins such as leghemoglobin, asparagine synthetase, sucrose synthase, and glutamine synthetase were prevalent in red nodules. The distinct biochemical state of nodules was further highlighted by the conspicuous presence of several nitrilases, ascorbate metabolic enzymes, and putative rhizobial effectors.

  2. Endometrial Stromal Nodule: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Fdili Alaoui, F. Z.; Chaara, H.; Bouguern, H.; Melhouf, M. A.; Fatemi, H.; Belmlih, A.; Amarti, A.

    2011-01-01

    Endometrial stromal nodule (ESN) is the least common of the endometrial stromal tumors. They are rare neoplasms which are diagnosed in most instances by light microscopy. Although such nodules are benign, hysterectomy has been considered the treatment of choice to determine the margins of the tumor required for diagnosis and to differentiate it from invasive stromal sarcoma Whose prognosis is totally different. We report a case of a 45 years old woman, with presurgical diagnosis of adnexal mass or uterine tumor. She underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy. Pathologic examination revealed an endometrial stromal nodule. Through this observation, we insist on the fact that the ESNs are rare and benign entities which must be differentiated from the other invasive malignant stromal tumors; this can change the final prognosis. PMID:21423543

  3. Endometrial stromal nodule: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Fdili Alaoui, F Z; Chaara, H; Bouguern, H; Melhouf, M A; Fatemi, H; Belmlih, A; Amarti, A

    2011-01-01

    Endometrial stromal nodule (ESN) is the least common of the endometrial stromal tumors. They are rare neoplasms which are diagnosed in most instances by light microscopy. Although such nodules are benign, hysterectomy has been considered the treatment of choice to determine the margins of the tumor required for diagnosis and to differentiate it from invasive stromal sarcoma Whose prognosis is totally different. We report a case of a 45 years old woman, with presurgical diagnosis of adnexal mass or uterine tumor. She underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy. Pathologic examination revealed an endometrial stromal nodule. Through this observation, we insist on the fact that the ESNs are rare and benign entities which must be differentiated from the other invasive malignant stromal tumors; this can change the final prognosis. PMID:21423543

  4. Deep-ocean ferromanganese crusts and nodules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, James R.; Koschinsky, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Ferromanganese crusts and nodules may provide a future resource for a large variety of metals, including many that are essential for emerging high- and green-technology applications. A brief review of nodules and crusts provides a setting for a discussion on the latest (past 10 years) research related to the geochemistry of sequestration of metals from seawater. Special attention is given to cobalt, nickel, titanium, rare earth elements and yttrium, bismuth, platinum, tungsten, tantalum, hafnium, tellurium, molybdenum, niobium, zirconium, and lithium. Sequestration from seawater by sorption, surface oxidation, substitution, and precipitation of discrete phases is discussed. Mechanisms of metal enrichment reflect modes of formation of the crusts and nodules, such as hydrogenetic (from seawater), diagenetic (from porewaters), and mixed diagenetic–hydrogenetic processes.

  5. Nodules Initiated by Rhizobium meliloti Exopolysaccharide Mutants Lack a Discrete, Persistent Nodule Meristem 1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cheng; Signer, Ethan R.; Hirsch, Ann M.

    1992-01-01

    Infection of alfalfa with Rhizobium meliloti exo mutants deficient in exopolysaccharide results in abnormal root nodules that are devoid of bacteria and fail to fix nitrogen. Here we report further characterization of these abnormal nodules. Tightly curled root hairs or shepherd's crooks were found after inoculation with Rm 1021-derived exo mutants, but curling was delayed compared with wild-type Rm 1021. Infection threads were initiated in curled root hairs by mutants as well as by wild-type R. meliloti, but the exo mutant-induced threads aborted within the peripheral cells of the developing nodule. Also, nodules elicited by Rm 1021-derived exo mutants were more likely to develop on secondary roots than on the primary root. In contrast with wild-type R. meliloti-induced nodules, the exo mutant-induced nodules lacked a well defined apical meristem, presumably due to the abortion of the infection threads. The relationship of these findings to the physiology of nodule development is discussed. ImagesFigure 3Figure 1Figure 2Figure 4 PMID:16668605

  6. Nodule performance within a changing environmental context.

    PubMed

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Arrese-Igor, Cesar; Molero, Gemma

    2014-07-15

    Global climate models predict that future environmental conditions will see alterations in temperature, water availability and CO2 concentration ([CO2]) in the atmosphere. Climate change will reinforce the need to develop highly productive crops. For this purpose it is essential to identify target traits conditioning plant performance in changing environments. N2 fixing plants represent the second major crop of agricultural importance worldwide. The current review provides a compilation of results from existing literature on the effects of several abiotic stress conditions on nodule performance and N2 fixation. The environmental factors analysed include water stress, salinity, temperature, and elevated [CO2]. Despite the large number of studies analysing [CO2] effects in plants, frequently they have been conducted under optimal growth conditions that are difficult to find in natural conditions where different stresses often occur simultaneously. This is why we have also included a section describing the current state of knowledge of interacting environmental conditions in nodule functioning. Regardless of the environmental factor considered, it is evident that some general patterns of nodule response are observed. Nodule carbohydrate and N compound availability, together with the presence of oxygen reactive species (ROS) have proven to be the key factors modulating N2 fixation at the physiological/biochemical levels. However, with the exception of water availability and [CO2], it should also be considered that nodule performance has not been characterised in detail under other limiting growth conditions. This highlights the necessity to conduct further studies considering these factors. Finally, we also observe that a better understanding of these metabolic effects of changing environment in nodule functioning would require an integrated and synergistic investigation based on widely used and novel protocols such as transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and

  7. Solid component evaluation in mixed ground glass nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odry, Benjamin L.; Huo, Jing; Zhang, Li; Novak, Carol L.; Naidich, David P.

    2007-03-01

    Multi-Slice Computed Tomography (MSCT) imaging of the lungs allow for detection and follow-up of very small lesions including solid and ground glass nodules (GGNs). However relatively few computer-based methods have been implemented for GGN segmentation. GGNs can be divided into pure GGNs and mixed GGNs, which contain both nonsolid and solid components (SC). This latter category is especially of interest since some studies indicate a higher likelihood of malignancy in GGNs with SC. Due to their characteristically slow growth rate, GGNs are typically monitored with multiple follow-up scans, making measurement of the volume of both solid and non-solid component especially desirable. We have developed an automated method to estimate the SC percentage within a segmented GGN. First, the SC algorithm uses a novel method to segment out the solid structures, while excluding any vessels passing near or through the nodule. A gradient distribution analysis around solid structures validates the presence or absence of SC. We tested 50 GGNs, split between three groups: 15 GGNs with SC, 15 GGNs with a solid nodule added to simulate SC, and 20 GGNs without SC. With three defined satisfaction levels for the segmentation (A: succeed, B: acceptable, C: failed), the first group resulted in 60% with score A, 40% with score B, 0% with score C. The second group resulted in 66.7% with score A and 33.3% with score B. In testing the first and 3rd groups, the algorithm correctly detected SC in all cases where it was present (sensitivity of 100%) and correctly determined absence of SC in 15 out of 20 cases (specificity 75%).

  8. Intestinal absorption of colostral lymphoid cells in newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Tuboly, S; Bernáth, S; Glávits, R; Medveczky, I

    1988-12-01

    Intestinal absorption of colostral lymphoid cells was studied in 23 piglets of four sows (sows A, B, C and D). From the colostrum and blood of the sows the lymphoid cells were isolated with Ficoll-Paque and labelled with technetium (Na99mTcO4). In the 7th hour after birth, 5-ml volumes of the cell suspensions were injected, following laparotomy, directly into the stomach (piglets of sow A) or into the jejunum (piglets of sow B), whereas piglets of sows C and D received the suspensions through a naso-oesophageal tube. Cryostat sections of duodenum, jejunum and lymph node samples of piglets killed by bleeding 8 h after the treatment were examined by autoradiography. It was found that lymphoid cells present in the colostrum of a piglet's own mother were absorbed from the digestive tract and, via the lymphatic vessels, were transported to the mesenteric lymph nodes. Electron microscopy revealed that absorption took place intercellularly. Colostral cells of sows other than a piglet's own mother were observed only in the epithelial layer of the mucous membrane. The lymphoid cells isolated from the sows' blood and heat-treated colostral lymphoid cells were not absorbed. The results indicate that in the pig, an animal having an epitheliochorial placenta, the colostral lymphoid cells are absorbed from the digestive tract and, hence, they can confer an active cellular immunity on the newborn piglets.

  9. Lymphoid-Tissue-Resident Commensal Bacteria Promote Members of the IL-10 Cytokine Family to Establish Mutualism.

    PubMed

    Fung, Thomas C; Bessman, Nicholas J; Hepworth, Matthew R; Kumar, Nitin; Shibata, Naoko; Kobuley, Dmytro; Wang, Kelvin; Ziegler, Carly G K; Goc, Jeremy; Shima, Tatsuichiro; Umesaki, Yoshinori; Sartor, R Balfour; Sullivan, Kaede V; Lawley, Trevor D; Kunisawa, Jun; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Sonnenberg, Gregory F

    2016-03-15

    Physical separation between the mammalian immune system and commensal bacteria is necessary to limit chronic inflammation. However, selective species of commensal bacteria can reside within intestinal lymphoid tissues of healthy mammals. Here, we demonstrate that lymphoid-tissue-resident commensal bacteria (LRC) colonized murine dendritic cells and modulated their cytokine production. In germ-free and antibiotic-treated mice, LRCs colonized intestinal lymphoid tissues and induced multiple members of the IL-10 cytokine family, including dendritic-cell-derived IL-10 and group 3 innate lymphoid cell (ILC3)-derived IL-22. Notably, IL-10 limited the development of pro-inflammatory Th17 cell responses, and IL-22 production enhanced LRC colonization in the steady state. Furthermore, LRC colonization protected mice from lethal intestinal damage in an IL-10-IL-10R-dependent manner. Collectively, our data reveal a unique host-commensal-bacteria dialog whereby selective subsets of commensal bacteria interact with dendritic cells to facilitate tissue-specific responses that are mutually beneficial for both the host and the microbe. PMID:26982365

  10. Radiofrequency ablation for benign thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, S; Stacul, F; Zecchin, M; Dobrinja, C; Zanconati, F; Fabris, B

    2016-09-01

    Benign thyroid nodules are an extremely common occurrence. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is gaining ground as an effective technique for their treatment, in case they become symptomatic. Here we review what are the current indications to RFA, its outcomes in terms of efficacy, tolerability, and cost, and also how it compares to the other conventional and experimental treatment modalities for benign thyroid nodules. Moreover, we will also address the issue of treating with this technique patients with cardiac pacemakers (PM) or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD), as it is a rather frequent occurrence that has never been addressed in detail in the literature.

  11. Pulmonary nodules in an immunocompetent child with cat scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Anuja; Burrage, Lindsay C; Gonzalez, Blanca E

    2013-12-01

    We describe an immunocompetent child with cat scratch disease and pulmonary nodules as part of her initial presentation. Although pulmonary manifestations have been reported with cat scratch disease, nodules are rare in the normal host.

  12. Lymphoid-Like Structures with Distinct B Cell Areas in Kidney Allografts are not Predictive for Graft Rejection. A Non-human Primate Study.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Margreet; Wubben, Jacqueline A M; 't Hart, Bert A; Haanstra, Krista G

    2015-12-01

    Kidney allograft biopsies were analyzed for the presence of B cell clusters/aggregates using CD20 staining. Few B cells were found in the diffuse interstitial infiltrates, but clusters of B cells were found in nodular infiltrates. These nodular infiltrates were smaller shortly after transplantation, and their size increased over time. At the time of clinical rejection, the nodules often presented as tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) with lymphoid-like follicles. The presence of small B cell clusters during the first 2 months after transplantation was not associated with early rejection. Even in animals that did not reject their allograft, TLS-like structures were present and could disappear over time. Although TLS were more often found in samples with interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IFTA), TLS were also present in samples without IFTA. The presence and density of clusters resembling tertiary lymphoid structures most likely reflect an ongoing immune response inside the graft and do not necessarily signify a poor graft outcome or IFTA.

  13. Therapeutic Potential of Resveratrol in Lymphoid Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Khan, Omar S; Bhat, Ajaz A; Krishnankutty, Roopesh; Mohammad, Ramzi M; Uddin, Shahab

    2016-01-01

    Natural products have always been sought as a dependable source for the cure of many fatal diseases including cancer. Resveratrol (RSV), a naturally occurring plant polyphenol, has been of recent research interest and is being investigated for its beneficial biological properties that include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, proapoptotic, and growth inhibitory activities. These effects are mainly mediated by cell cycle arrest, upregulation of proapoptotic proteins, loss of mitochondrial potential, and generation of reactive oxygen species. Among the beneficial properties of RSV, the anticancer property has been of the prime focus and extensively explored during the last few years. Although reports exist on the chemopreventive role of RSV in many solid tumors, limited information is available on the antiproliferative activity of RSV in human lymphoma cells and experimental models. Potential mechanisms for its antiproliferative effect include induction of cell differentiation, apoptosis, and inhibition of DNA synthesis. In this review, the different kinds of lymphoid malignancies and the main mechanisms of cell death induced by resveratrol are discussed. The challenges are limiting in vivo experimental studies involving resveratrol. An attempt for the translation of this compound into a clinical drug also forms a part of this review. PMID:27028800

  14. [Characteristics of the lymphoid cells of rabbits].

    PubMed

    Bondarev, I M; Selitskaia, R P; Mikhaĭlov, A B

    1978-01-01

    By means of scanning electron microscopy it has been stated that the thymus gland, spleen, paratracheal lymph node, Peyer's patches and appendix in an intact rabbit of "Shinshilla" strain have T- and B-lymphocytes in different proportion. T-lymphocytes are seen as spherical cells with rough surface, with a few microprocesses, have 3.0 +/- 0.1 mcm--4.7 +/- 0.2 mcm in diameter depending on their location. B-lymphocytes are seen as spherical cells with a considerable amount of microvilli on their surface, have 2.9 +/- 0.1 mcm--4.4 +/- 0.1 mcm in diameter depending also on their location. In the thymus gland, cells with rough surface, a few microprocesses and crater-like hollows prevail. In the spleen and lymph node, most of the cells are of similar diameter and have microvilli on the surface. Lymphoid population in the Peyer's patch and appendix is represented by large cells with microprocesses. PMID:305239

  15. Phosphoserine aminotransferase in soybean root nodules : demonstration and localization.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, P H; Blevins, D G

    1986-05-01

    Phosphoserine aminotransferase activity was detected in the plant and bacteroid fractions from soybean (Glycine max) root nodules. Both total and specific activities increased in the plant fraction during nodule development. Serine-pyruvate aminotransferase activity was not detectable in the plant or bacteroid fractions of these nodules. Sucrose density gradient fractionation indicated a proplastid localization for phosphoserine aminotransferase. The data presented support a role for this enzyme in carbon supply to purine biosynthesis in the pathway of ureide biogenesis in soybean nodules.

  16. Multiple Cutaneous Reticulohistiocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Hemmady, Karishma D; Someshwar, Shylaja S; Jerajani, Hemangi R

    2016-01-01

    Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis characterized in its full form by severe destructive arthritis, cutaneous nodules, and systemic manifestations. Cutaneous lesions may precede, accompany, or more commonly develop later than other features in this disease. We describe a case of multiple cutaneous reticulohistiocytoma without any systemic associations after thorough investigations. PMID:26955136

  17. A Rapid Regulatory Response Governing Nodulation in Soybean 1

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Margaret; Bauer, Wolfgang D.

    1983-01-01

    The number of nodules which develop on the primary root of soybean seedlings (Glycine max L. Merr) after inoculation with Rhizobium japonicum is substantially diminished in the region of the root developmentally 10 to 15 hours younger than the region maximally susceptible to nodulation at the time of inoculation. This rapid inhibition of nodulation has been investigated by inoculating soybean seedlings with rhizobia at two different times, 15 hours apart. Living R. japonicum cells, but not heterologous rhizobia or UV-killed cells of the homologous bacterium, were capable of eliciting the rapid inhibitory response. Nodulation responses to varying inoculum concentrations showed that bacterial dosages could be superoptimal, resulting in reduced nodulation and reduced inhibition of nodulation. When suspensions of R. japonicum were dripped uniformly onto the root surfaces, the degree of inhibition of nodulation in developmentally younger regions of the root was correlated with the number of nodules formed in the older and initially most susceptible region of the root. Nodulation in the developmentally younger region of the root, however, was affected very little if the first inoculum was restricted to contact with root cells in the region initially most susceptible to nodulation. The rapid regulatory response may be an important factor contributing to the clustering of nodules in the crown region of soybean roots in field-grown plants and the sparse nodulation commonly observed in younger regions of the root. PMID:16663209

  18. Infection and nodulation of clover by nonmotile Rhizobium trifolii

    SciTech Connect

    Napoli, C.; Albersheim, P.

    1980-02-01

    Nonmotile mutants of Rhizobium trifolii were isolated to determine whether bacterial motility is required for the infection and nodulation of clover. The nonmotile mutants were screened for their ability to infect and nodulate clover seedlings in Fahraeus glass slide assemblies, plastic growth pouches, and vermiculite-sand-filled clay pots. In each system, the nonmotile mutants were able to infect and nodulate clover.

  19. Nodulation outer proteins: double-edged swords of symbiotic rhizobia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizobia are nitrogen-fixing bacteria that establish a nodule symbiosis with legumes. Nodule formation is the result of a complex bacterial infection process, which depends on signals and surface determinants produced by both symbiotic partners. Among them, rhizobial nodulation outer proteins (Nops)...

  20. The solitary pulmonary nodule-deciding when to act?

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Donald R; Ost, David E

    2013-12-01

    Solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) are commonly encountered in pulmonary practice. Their management is complex, and multiple clinical factors must be considered. The three common management strategies applied to solitary pulmonary nodules are careful observation, diagnostic testing, and surgery. Fundamental concepts derived from decision analysis can be used to help clinicians choose optimal management strategies for individual patients with SPNs. This process begins with estimating the pretest probability of cancer. Then the consequences of treatment are considered-including the benefit of surgery if the patient has cancer and the harm of treatment if the patient does not have cancer. Patient comorbidities and competing risks affect the consequences of treatment. Knowledge of the benefits and harms of treatment allows clinicians to determine the treatment threshold and then rationally develop the optimal management plan. Probability revision using the pretest probability, test characteristics, and Bayes theorem is used to refine the probability of cancer until a decision threshold is reached and definitive treatment can be determined. Patients with very low pretest probability of cancer are managed with a strategy of careful observation by serial computed tomography (CT). Patients who have a high pretest probability of cancer merit surgical diagnosis. Patients with an intermediate pretest probability of cancer go on to further diagnostic testing, primarily with CT-guided fine needle aspiration or positron-emission tomography. Patient preferences are considered throughout the process because the absolute difference in outcome between some strategies may be small.

  1. Pneumocystis Pneumonia Presenting as an Enlarging Solitary Pulmonary Nodule

    PubMed Central

    Diacovo, Maria Julia; Martinez-Galvez, Nydia

    2016-01-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia is a life threatening infection that usually presents with diffuse bilateral ground-glass infiltrates in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of a single nodular granulomatous Pneumocystis pneumonia in a male with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma after R-CHOP therapy. He presented with symptoms of productive cough, dyspnea, and right-sided pleuritic chest pain that failed to resolve despite treatment with multiple antibiotics. Chest X-ray revealed right lower lobe atelectasis and CT of chest showed development of 2 cm nodular opacity with ground-glass opacities. Patient underwent bronchoscopy and biopsy that revealed granulomatous inflammation in a background of organizing pneumonia pattern with negative cultures. Respiratory symptoms resolved but the solitary nodular opacity increased in size prompting a surgical wedge resection which revealed granulomatous Pneumocystis pneumonia infection. This case is the third documented report of Pneumocystis pneumonia infection within a solitary pulmonary nodule in an individual with hematologic neoplasm. Although Pneumocystis pneumonia most commonly occurs in patients with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and with diffuse infiltrates, the diagnosis should not be overlooked when only a solitary nodule is present. PMID:27648318

  2. Pneumocystis Pneumonia Presenting as an Enlarging Solitary Pulmonary Nodule.

    PubMed

    Patel, Krunal Bharat; Gleason, James Benjamin; Diacovo, Maria Julia; Martinez-Galvez, Nydia

    2016-01-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia is a life threatening infection that usually presents with diffuse bilateral ground-glass infiltrates in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of a single nodular granulomatous Pneumocystis pneumonia in a male with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma after R-CHOP therapy. He presented with symptoms of productive cough, dyspnea, and right-sided pleuritic chest pain that failed to resolve despite treatment with multiple antibiotics. Chest X-ray revealed right lower lobe atelectasis and CT of chest showed development of 2 cm nodular opacity with ground-glass opacities. Patient underwent bronchoscopy and biopsy that revealed granulomatous inflammation in a background of organizing pneumonia pattern with negative cultures. Respiratory symptoms resolved but the solitary nodular opacity increased in size prompting a surgical wedge resection which revealed granulomatous Pneumocystis pneumonia infection. This case is the third documented report of Pneumocystis pneumonia infection within a solitary pulmonary nodule in an individual with hematologic neoplasm. Although Pneumocystis pneumonia most commonly occurs in patients with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and with diffuse infiltrates, the diagnosis should not be overlooked when only a solitary nodule is present. PMID:27648318

  3. Iris hamartomas (Lisch nodules) in a case of segmental neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Weleber, R G; Zonana, J

    1983-12-01

    Iris hamartomas (Lisch nodules), previously reported in cases of peripheral neurofibromatosis, were found in a 14-year-old girl with segmental neurofibromatosis. The girl was in the 75th percentile for height (168 cm), the 90th percentile for weight (63 kg), and the 50th percentile for head circumference (55 cm). Her blood pressure was 105/70 mm Hg. Her visual acuity (20/20 and J 1), ocular motility, pupillary responses, visual fields, color vision, stereopsis, and intraocular pressure were within normal limits. Biomicroscopy showed several tan elevated nodular hamartomas on the anterior surface of the right peripheral iris but none elsewhere in the right eye and none in the left eye. Café-au-lait spots and freckling were also limited to the right side of the body. The child had no palpable neurofibromas and was in good health and of normal intelligence. There was no family history of neurofibromatosis, multiple café-au-lait spots, axillary freckling, macrocephaly, or learning disabilities. The absence of iris hamartomas has been used to distinguish segmental neurofibromatosis from the peripheral and central or acoustic forms. Thus, their presence in this case is clinically significant. The segmental form not only produces fewer complications but carries less genetic risk. In segmental neurofibromatosis, the Lisch nodules would be expected to be unilateral rather than bilateral, ipsilateral to the side of the cutaneous involvement, and more frequently associated with contiguous cutaneous lesions.

  4. Actinorhizal root nodule symbioses: what is signalling telling on the origins of nodulation?

    PubMed

    Svistoonoff, Sergio; Hocher, Valérie; Gherbi, Hassen

    2014-08-01

    Two groups of bacteria are able to induce the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules: proteobacteria called rhizobia, which associate with Legumes or Parasponia and actinobateria from the genus Frankia which are able to interact with ∼220 species belonging to eight families called actinorhizal plants. Legumes and different lineages of actinorhizal plants differ in bacterial partners, nodule organogenesis and infection patterns and have independent evolutionary origins. However, recent technical achievements are revealing a variety of conserved signalling molecules and gene networks. Actinorhizal interactions display several primitive features and thus provide the ideal opportunity to determine the minimal molecular toolkit needed to build a nodule and to understand the evolution of root nodule symbioses. PMID:24691197

  5. Expression of 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in human lymphoid and non lymphoid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, A; Piantelli, M; Musiani, P; Larocca, L M; Revoltella, R P; Ranelletti, F O

    1986-01-01

    Expression of 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20 alpha-SDH), a putative T cell marker in the murine system, has been examined in human haematopoietic cells. Higher levels of enzymatic activity were expressed by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in comparison with thymocytes. When PBMC were fractionated into T and non T cell subsets, the greatest values of 20 alpha-SDH activity were associated with the non T cell population. Cells from bone marrow exhibited lower levels of 20 alpha-SDH than PBMC and thymocytes. Both myeloid and lymphoid leukaemic cells expressed significant 20 alpha-SDH activity. In addition our data in U-937 and CM-S human cell lines indicate that cells belonging to the myelomonocytic precursor compartment constitutively expressed 20 alpha-SDH activity. Furthermore, this activity was less expressed when these cells were induced to monocyte-macrophage differentiation. In conclusion, our data in the human system indicate that 20 alpha-SDH should not be viewed as a lymphoid lineage-restricted marker enzyme. PMID:3485485

  6. Manganese nodules: thorium-230: protactinium-231 ratios.

    PubMed

    Sackett, W M

    1966-11-01

    The Th(230): Pa(231) activity ratio in 7 of 11 manganese nodules is less than 10.8, the theoretical production ratio of activities in the ocean. This finding indicates difierential accumulation of these nuclides in authigenic deposits of manganese-iron oxide.

  7. Manganese nodules: thorium-230: protactinium-231 ratios.

    PubMed

    Sackett, W M

    1966-11-01

    The Th(230): Pa(231) activity ratio in 7 of 11 manganese nodules is less than 10.8, the theoretical production ratio of activities in the ocean. This finding indicates difierential accumulation of these nuclides in authigenic deposits of manganese-iron oxide. PMID:17778807

  8. Milker’s nodule - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Adriano, André Ricardo; Quiroz, Carlos Daniel; Acosta, Martha Liliana; Jeunon, Thiago; Bonini, Flávia

    2015-01-01

    Milker's nodule is an occupational viral skin disease of universal distribution, caused by the Paravaccinia virus and that occurs in individuals who deal with dairy cattle herds. We describe a case acquired due to lack of use of PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) and perform a literature review. PMID:26131876

  9. Coexistence of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in a context of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Levy-Blitchtein, Saul; Plasencia-Rebata, Stefany; Morales Luna, Domingo; Del Valle Mendoza, Juana

    2016-08-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) represents 80-85% of thyroid cancer and its prevalence has been rising in the last decades. Primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) accounts for 3% of extranodal lymphomas and about 5% of thyroid malignancies, having a prevalence of one or two cases per million people. Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue lymphoma represents approximately 30% of PTL. Both entities have an indolent course and a very good prognosis. Diagnosis is made by ultrasound and fine needle aspiration (FNA) or surgery specimen pathology. They have also been associated with HT, but pathogenesis and its links remains to be known. Treatment remains controversial and surgery is generally accepted in cases of disease limited to thyroid, as the present. Patients with thyroid nodules should be observed and followed. If there is an enlargement by ultrasound or clinical symptoms, FNA should be performed promptly. Patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) deserve additional surveillance, since this condition is associated with both PTC and PTL. In this case, the management with surgery and radioactive iodine ablation therapy was effective for both entities. Patients with thyroid nodules should be properly evaluated with ultrasound and thyroid function tests. If there is an enlargement of the neck, reported by symptoms or ultrasound, it requires further investigation. HT is associated to both PTC and PTL so if the enlargement of the nodules is on this context additional tests such as FNA should be performed. In this case, the patient was managed with surgery and radioactive iodine ablation therapy and it was effective for both entities. PMID:27569894

  10. Nitrate Effects on Nodule Oxygen Permeability and Leghemoglobin (Nodule Oximetry and Computer Modeling).

    PubMed Central

    Denison, R. F.; Harter, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    Two current hypotheses to explain nitrate inhibition of nodule function both involve decreased O2 supply for respiration in support of N2 fixation. This decrease could result from either (a) decreased O2 permeability (PO) of the nodule cortex, or (b) conversion of leghemoglobin (Lb) to an inactive, nitrosyl form. These hypotheses were tested using alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv Weevlchek) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L. cv Fergus) plants grown in growth pouches under controlled conditions. Nodulated roots were exposed to 10 mM KNO3 or KCI. Fractional oxygenation of Lb under air (FOLair), relative concentration of functional Lb, apparent PO, and O2-saturated central zone respiration rate were all monitored by nodule oximetry. Apparent PO and FOLair in nitrate-treated nodules decreased to <50% of values for KCI controls within 24 h, but there was no decrease in functional Lb concentration during the first 72 h. In nitrate-treated alfalfa, but not in birdsfoot trefoil, FOLair, apparent PO, and O2-saturated central zone respiration rate decreased during each light period and recovered somewhat during the subsequent dark period. This species difference could be explained by greater reliance on photoreduction of nitrate in alfalfa than in birdsfoot trefoil. Computer simulations extended the experimental results, showing that previously reported decreases in apparent PO of Glycine max nodules with nitrate exposure cannot be explained by hypothetical decreases in the concentration or O2 affinity of Lb. PMID:12228439

  11. Close Encounters of Lymphoid Cells and Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Adalia, Aranzazu; Veiga, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    During infections, the first reaction of the host against microbial pathogens is carried out by innate immune cells, which recognize conserved structures on pathogens, called pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Afterward, some of these innate cells can phagocytose and destroy the pathogens, secreting cytokines that would modulate the immune response to the challenge. This rapid response is normally followed by the adaptive immunity, more specific and essential for a complete pathogen clearance in many cases. Some innate immune cells, usually named antigen-presenting cells, such as macrophages or dendritic cells, are able to process internalized invaders and present their antigens to lymphocytes, triggering the adaptive immune response. Nevertheless, the traditional boundary of separated roles between innate and adaptive immunity has been blurred by several studies, showing that very specialized populations of lymphocytes (cells of the adaptive immunity) behave similarly to cells of the innate immunity. These “innate-like” lymphocytes include γδ T cells, invariant NKT cells, B-1 cells, mucosal-associated invariant T cells, marginal zone B cells, and innate response activator cells, and together with the newly described innate lymphoid cells are able to rapidly respond to bacterial infections. Strikingly, our recent data suggest that conventional CD4+ T cells, the paradigm of cells of the adaptive immunity, also present innate-like behavior, capturing bacteria in a process called transinfection. Transinfected CD4+ T cells digest internalized bacteria like professional phagocytes and secrete large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines, protecting for further bacterial challenges. In the present review, we will focus on the data showing such innate-like behavior of lymphocytes following bacteria encounter. PMID:27774092

  12. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Lackner, Andrew A; Veazey, Ronald S

    2015-12-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) type 3, also known as lymphoid tissue inducer cells, plays a major role in both the development and remodeling of organized lymphoid tissues and the maintenance of adaptive immune responses. HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection causes breakdown of intestinal barriers resulting in microbial translocation, leading to systemic immune activation and disease progression. However, the effects of HIV/SIV infection on ILC3 are unknown. Here, we analyzed ILC3 from mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues in chronically SIV-infected macaques and uninfected controls. ILC3 cells were defined and identified in macaque lymphoid tissues as non-T, non-B (lineage-negative), c-Kit(+)IL-7Rα(+) (CD117(+)CD127(+)) cells. These ILC3 cells highly expressed CD90 (∼ 63%) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor and produced IL-17 (∼ 63%), IL-22 (∼ 36%), and TNF-α (∼ 72%) but did not coexpress CD4 or NK cell markers. The intestinal ILC3 cell loss correlated with the reduction of total CD4(+) T cells and T helper (Th)17 and Th22 cells in the gut during SIV infection (P < 0.001). Notably, ILC3 could be induced to undergo apoptosis by microbial products through the TLR2 (lipoteichoic acid) and/or TLR4 (LPS) pathway. These findings indicated that persistent microbial translocation may result in loss of ILC3 in lymphoid tissues in SIV-infected macaques, further contributing to the HIV-induced impairment of gut-associated lymphoid tissue structure and function, especially in mucosal tissues.

  13. Inhibition of autophagy overcomes glucocorticoid resistance in lymphoid malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lei; Xu, Lingzhi; Xie, Jiajun; Li, Sisi; Guan, Yanchun; Zhang, Yan; Hou, Zhijie; Guo, Tao; Shu, Xin; Wang, Chang; Fan, Wenjun; Si, Yang; Yang, Ya; Kang, Zhijie; Fang, Meiyun; Liu, Quentin

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) resistance remains a major obstacle to successful treatment of lymphoid malignancies. Till now, the precise mechanism of GC resistance remains unclear. In the present study, dexamethasone (Dex) inhibited cell proliferation, arrested cell cycle in G0/G1-phase, and induced apoptosis in Dex-sensitive acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. However, Dex failed to cause cell death in Dex-resistant lymphoid malignant cells. Intriguingly, we found that autophagy was induced by Dex in resistant cells, as indicated by autophagosomes formation, LC3-I to LC3-II conversion, p62 degradation, and formation of acidic autophagic vacuoles. Moreover, the results showed that Dex reduced the activity of mTOR pathway, as determined by decreased phosphorylation levels of mTOR, Akt, P70S6K and 4E-BP1 in resistant cells. Inhibition of autophagy by either chloroquine (CQ) or 3-methyladenine (3-MA) overcame Dex-resistance in lymphoid malignant cells by increasing apoptotic cell death in vitro. Consistently, inhibition of autophagy by stably knockdown of Beclin1 sensitized Dex-resistant lymphoid malignant cells to induction of apoptosis in vivo. Thus, inhibition of autophagy has the potential to improve lymphoid malignancy treatment by overcoming GC resistance.

  14. Diagnosis of liver nodules within and outside screening programs.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of a liver nodule detected with ultrasound includes the recovery of a detailed medical history, a physical exam, appropriate contrast imaging examinations and, in selected cases, histopathology. In this setting, identification of liver disease accompanying a liver nodule helps distinction between benign nodules and metastatic malignant nodules from primary liver cancer, as recommended by scientific liver societies. Diagnostic algorithms for a liver nodule in patients with liver disease involve contrast CT scan, magnetic resonance imaging or contrast enhanced ultrasounds to show the typical neoplastic pattern of early arterial hyperenhancement wash-in followed by hypoenhancement in the late portal phase wash out. The flow charts developed by western societies utilize the discriminant criterion of tumor size i.e. the radiological diagnosis being endorsed in a nodule equal or greater than 1 cm whereas eastern societies rely on the recognition of a typical vascular pattern of the node, independently of size. Differential diagnosis should be obtained to differentiate liver related nodules like regenerative macronodules (more than 20% of the cases) and the less frequent intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (~2% of the cases) from liver disease unrelated nodules like hemangioma (~4%), neuroendocrine metastatic nodules (~1%) and focal nodular hyperplasia. In patients without liver disease, the most common liver nodules in the liver are hemangioma (~1.5%), focal nodular hyperplasia (0.03%) and hepatocellular adenoma (up to 0.004% in long term users of oral contraceptives). Optimization of management of patients with a liver nodule requires establishment of a multidisciplinary clinic.

  15. [An ovarian mucinous borderline tumour with mixed mural nodules].

    PubMed

    Dhouibi, A; Denoux, Y; Touil, N; Devouassoux Shisheboran, M; Carbonnel, M; Baglin, A C

    2011-09-01

    The occurrence of mural nodules in serous or mucinous ovarian tumours is not frequent. Mural nodule can be developed in benign, borderline or malignant tumours. They can be benign, malignant or mixed type. Thus the prognosis of the ovarian tumour can be dramatically modified by the presence if these nodules. Eighty-two cases of mural nodules were reported in the literature, among which we account four cases of mixed nodules type. We report an additional case of mixed type mural nodules of anaplastic carcinoma and sarcoma-like developed in an ovarian mucinous borderline tumour at a 60-year-old woman.We give details about the classification, the differential diagnosis and prognosis of theses nodules.

  16. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma: a cause of pulmonary nodules.

    PubMed

    Chalaoui, J; Grégoire, P; Sylvestre, J; Lefebvre, R; Amyot, R

    1984-07-01

    The radiological and histological appearance of pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma (PHG) and its pathogenesis are described. The histological features bear a striking resemblance to fibrosing mediastinitis. Patients present clinically with nonspecific respiratory or general symptoms. Slowly growing solitary or, more often, multiple nodules are found on radiographs of the chest, suggesting neoplastic disease. Four patients with PHG are described. Four patients with PHG are described. One had lesions in the kidneys that were pathologically identical to those of PHG. There is no clear etiology for this disease, but from the cases reported here and those reported previously it is postulated that diverse etiologic factors might lead to a common immunological response. Inflammatory agents such as tubercle bacilli or fungal organisms (e.g., Histoplasma), or a collagen or autoimmune disease may act as trigger mechanisms for the induction of PHG. PMID:6203137

  17. Intraoperative Near-Infrared Imaging Can Identify Pulmonary Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Okusanya, Olugbenga T.; Holt, David; Heitjan, Daniel; Deshpande, Charuhas; Venegas, Ollin; Jiang, Jack; Judy, Ryan; DeJesus, Elizabeth; Madajewski, Brian; Oh, Kenny; Albelda, Steven M.; Nie, Shuming; Singhal, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    Background Over 80,000 people undergo pulmonary resection for a lung nodule in the United States each year. Small nodules are frequently missed or difficult to find despite preoperative imaging. We hypothesized that near-infrared (NIR) imaging technology could be used to identify and locate lung nodules during surgery. Methods We enrolled 18 patients who were diagnosed with a pulmonary nodule that required resection. All patients had a fine-cut 1mm computed tomography scan preoperatively. The patients were given systemic 5 mg/kg indocyanine green (ICG) and then underwent an open thoracotomy 24 hours later. NIR imaging was used to identify the primary nodule and search for additional nodules that were not found by visual inspection or manual palpation of the ipsilateral lung. Results Manual palpation and visual inspection identified all 18 primary pulmonary nodules and no additional lesions. Intraoperative NIR imaging detected 16 out of the 18 primary nodules. NIR imaging also identified 5 additional subcentimeter nodules: 3 metastatic adenocarcinomas and 2 metastatic sarcomas. This technology could identify nodules as small as 0.2 cm and as deep as 1.3 cm from the pleural surface. This approach discovered 3 nodules that were in different lobes than the primary tumor. Nodule fluorescence was independent of size, metabolic activity, histology, tumor grade and vascularity. Conclusions This is the first-in-human demonstration of identifying pulmonary nodules during Thoracic surgery with NIR imaging without a priori knowledge of their location or existence. NIR imaging can detect pulmonary nodules during lung resections that are poorly visualized on computed tomography and difficult to discriminate on finger palpation. PMID:25106680

  18. Biosynthesis and degradation of nodule-specific Rhizobium loti compounds in Lotus nodules.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, D B; Wilson, R; Shaw, G J; Petit, A; Tempe, J

    1987-01-01

    Two nodule-specific Rhizobium loti compounds were identified in Lotus tenuis and Lotus pedunculatus nodules induced by strain NZP2037. One, a silver nitrate-positive cation called rhizolotine, has been characterized as the riboside of a novel alpha-hydroxyimino acid containing a 1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidine ring (G. J. Shaw, R. D. Wilson, G. A. Lane, L. D. Kennedy, D. B. Scott, and G. J. Gainsford, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun., p. 180-181, 1986), and the other, yellow-1, stains yellow with ninhydrin. Both compounds were degraded by R. loti NZP2037 but not by strains of Rhizobium meliloti, Rhizobium trifolii, or Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Under the conditions tested neither compound was able to serve as a sole source of C or N for growth of R. loti NZP2037. Rhizolotine and yellow-1 were found in nodules from a range of different legumes inoculated with NZP2037, suggesting that the Rhizobium and not the host plant determines their synthesis. Neither compound was found in nodulelike structures of L. pedunculatus induced by transposon Tn5-induced noninfectious (Inf-) mutants of NZP2037 or in similar structures induced by a transconjugant of NZP2037 containing the symbiotic (Sym) cointegrate plasmid pPN1 of R. trifolii. Both compounds were also absent in the ineffective nodules induced by the bacterial-release-negative (Bar-) mutant, strain PN239. However, both compounds were present in nodules induced by the fixation-negative (Fix-) mutant PN235 and in Fix+ nodules formed by a plasmid-cured derivative of NZP2037. These results would suggest that infection and bacterial release from the infection thread are necessary for nodule (symbiotic) synthesis of these compounds. Images PMID:3025173

  19. [Primary Sjögren's syndrome with lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary multiple cystic lesions].

    PubMed

    Hayasaka, S; Fujino, N; Yoshinaga, T; Kiyama, T; Maemoto, H; Outsuka, Y

    1999-10-01

    We report a case of primary Sjögren's syndrome with lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia and multiple cystic lesions. The patient was a 64-year-old woman. Abnormal chest shadows were detected by x-ray and computed tomographic (CT) examinations. The patient had no family history of disease and had never smoked. She had complained of dryness in the eyes and mouth for about 10 years. Laboratory tests were positive for anti-nuclear antigen, anti-SS-A antigen, and anti-SS-B antigen. Sialography revealed marked destruction of the salivary glands, yielding a diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome. Chest X-ray films and CT scans showed multiple cystic lesions in both lungs, measuring from a few mm to 3 cm in diameter, as well as fine centrilobular nodules. Slight anemia and hyper gamma globlinemia were also detected. Pulmonary function tests showed mild obstructive disturbance. Bronchoalveolar lavage analysis disclosed an elevated lymphocytic fraction (28.6%), but transbronchial lung biopsy provided no adequate specimens for diagnosis. Thoracoscopic lung biopsy specimens demonstrated marked infiltration of lymphocytes and histiocytes through the interstitium of alveolar walls and peri-bronchovascular sheath, with some lymphoid follicles. The overall appearance was compatible with lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia. The cysts themselves were nonspecific, and no cellular infiltration was noted in the cyst walls. Because of the predominantly peribronchial distribution of the lesions, we suspected that the cysts were formed by the check valve mechanism. However, no definitive evidence was obtained. PMID:10586590

  20. Differential distribution of calpain in human lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, R V; Goust, J M; Banik, N L

    1993-07-01

    Calpain, a calcium-activated neutral proteinase, is ubiquitously present in human tissues. To determine if lymphoid cells implicated in pathogenesis of demyelination may harbor calpain in a functionally active form, we determined both muCalpain and mCalpain activities in human lymphoid cell lines. DEAE-cellulose and phenylsepharose column chromatography were used to isolate the enzyme from the natural inhibitor, calpastatin. Lymphocytic lines (CCRF-CEM, MOLT-3, MOLT-4, M.R.) showed predominance of muCalpain (55-80%) whereas the monocytic line (U-937) showed predominance of mCalpain (77%). Proportion and subcellular distribution of both isoforms varied among cell lines. Calpains isolated from U-937 cells degraded myelin basic protein. These results indicate that human lymphoid cells harbor functionally active calpain that can degrade myelin components in vitro. The study suggests a degradative role for calpain in demyelinating diseases. PMID:7690115

  1. Changes in lymphoid populations of ageing CBA and NZB mice

    PubMed Central

    Zatz, Marion M.; Mellors, R. C.; Lance, E. M.

    1971-01-01

    Changes in subpopulations of lymphoid cells of normal (CBA) and autoimmune (NZB) mice were studied as a function of age, by observing migration patterns of 51Cr labelled lymph node, spleen and thymus cells from donors aged 8 days to 12 months. The method permits analysis of the proportions and numbers of recirculating and non-recirculating lymphocytes in lymphoid compartments. Changes in the lymphoid populations of CBA mice were found, which could be attributed to the normal processes of maturation and senescence. In NZB mice relative and absolute decreases in the recirculating cell content of lymph node and spleen were observed which coincided with the time of development of autoimmunity. The significance of these results, in relation to altered immunocompetence with age, is discussed. PMID:5576663

  2. Quantitative Image Analysis of HIV-1 Infection in Lymphoid Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, Ashley T.; Henry, Keith; Zupancic, Mary; Sedgewick, Gerald; Faust, Russell A.; Melroe, Holly; Cavert, Winston; Gebhard, Kristin; Staskus, Katherine; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Dailey, Peter J.; Balfour, Henry H., Jr.; Erice, Alejo; Perelson, Alan S.

    1996-11-01

    Tracking human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection at the cellular level in tissue reservoirs provides opportunities to better understand the pathogenesis of infection and to rationally design and monitor therapy A quantitative technique was developed to determine viral burden in two important cellular compartments in lymphoid tissues. Image analysis and in situ hybridization were combined to show that in the presymptomatic stages of infection there is a large, relatively stable pool of virions on the surfaces of follicular dendritic cells and a smaller pool of productively infected cells Despite evidence of constraints on HIV-1 replication in the infected cell population in lymphoid tissues, estimates of the numbers of these cells and the virus they could produce are consistent with the quantities of virus that have been detected in the bloodstream. The cellular sources of virus production and storage in lymphoid tissues can now be studied with this approach over the course of infection and treatment.

  3. Iron mineral structure, reactivity, and isotopic composition in a South Pacific Gyre ferromanganese nodule over 4 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, Matthew A.; Edwards, Katrina J.; Gueguen, Bleuenn; Fakra, Sirine C.; Horn, Gregory; Jelinski, Nicolas A.; Rouxel, Olivier; Sorensen, Jeffry; Toner, Brandy M.

    2015-12-01

    Deep-sea ferromanganese nodules accumulate trace elements from seawater and underlying sediment porewaters during the growth of concentric mineral layers over millions of years. These trace elements have the potential to record past ocean geochemical conditions. The goal of this study was to determine whether Fe mineral alteration occurs and how the speciation of trace elements responds to alteration over ∼3.7 Ma of marine ferromanganese nodule (MFN) formation, a timeline constrained by estimates from 9Be/10Be concentrations in the nodule material. We determined Fe-bearing phases and Fe isotope composition in a South Pacific Gyre (SPG) nodule. Specifically, the distribution patterns and speciation of trace element uptake by these Fe phases were investigated. The time interval covered by the growth of our sample of the nodule was derived from 9Be/10Be accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The composition and distribution of major and trace elements were mapped at various spatial scales, using micro-X-ray fluorescence (μXRF), electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Fe phases were characterized by micro-extended X-ray absorption fine structure (μEXAFS) spectroscopy and micro-X-ray diffraction (μXRD). Speciation of Ti and V, associated with Fe, was measured using micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (μXANES) spectroscopy. Iron isotope composition (δ56/54Fe) in subsamples of 1-3 mm increments along the radius of the nodule was determined with multiple-collector ICP-MS (MC-ICP-MS). The SPG nodule formed through primarily hydrogeneous inputs at a rate of 4.0 ± 0.4 mm/Ma. The nodule exhibited a high diversity of Fe mineral phases: feroxyhite (δ-FeOOH), goethite (α-FeOOH), lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH), and poorly ordered ferrihydrite-like phases. These findings provide evidence that Fe oxyhydroxides within the nodule undergo alteration to more stable phases over millions of years. Trace Ti and V were

  4. Predicting Malignancy in Thyroid Nodules: Molecular Advances

    PubMed Central

    Melck, Adrienne L.; Yip, Linwah

    2016-01-01

    Over the last several years, a clearer understanding of the genetic alterations underlying thyroid carcinogenesis has developed. This knowledge can be utilized to tackle one of the greatest challenges facing thyroidologists: management of the indeterminate thyroid nodule. Despite the accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology, many patients undergo invasive surgery in order to determine if a follicular or Hurthle cell neoplasm is malignant, and better diagnostic tools are required. A number of biomarkers have recently been studied and show promise in this setting. In particular, BRAF, RAS, PAX8-PPARγ, microRNAs and loss of heterozygosity have each been demonstrated as useful molecular tools for predicting malignancy and can thereby guide decisions regarding surgical management of nodular thyroid disease. This review summarizes the current literature surrounding each of these markers and highlights our institution’s prospective analysis of these markers and their subsequent incorporation into our management algorithms for thyroid nodules. PMID:21818817

  5. Solitary pulmonary nodule: pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Ward, Robert C; Birnbaum, Ariel E; Aswad, Bassam I; Healey, Terrance T

    2014-05-01

    Pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma (PPSS) is an extremely rare primary malignancy of the lung. We present a case of a middle-aged female with PPSS that was initially discovered as an incidental indeterminate nodule on chest radiograph. Following evaluation with computed tomography (CT), the patient went on to positron-emission tomography (PET)/CT for work-up of the solitary pulmonary nodule, which demonstrated mild FDG-avidity and no other evidence of FDG-avid disease. The patient then underwent thoracotomy and right upper lobectomy for definitive treatment. Only after evaluation of the gross pathology, histology, immunohistochemistry and cytogenetics was the diagnosis of synovial sarcoma made. Importantly, the preceding PET/CT, in addition to physical exam of the upper and lower extremities, helped exclude the more common extra-thoracic soft-tissue variety of synovial sarcoma, which frequently metastasizes to lung, carrying a worse prognosis. Discussion of synovial sarcoma and PPSS follows. PMID:24791267

  6. Congenital high-grade sarcoma presenting as skin nodules and respiratory distress in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Powers, J W; Teitell, M; Milisavljevic, V

    2008-02-01

    We report, to our knowledge, the first case of a congenital, widespread, aggressive high-grade sarcoma, presented as multiple skin nodules and respiratory distress in a neonate that had a t(9;22)(q22;q11-12) cytogenetic abnormality suggestive of a more indolent extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC). EMC is generally thought of as a slow-growing tumor that presents between the fourth and sixth decades of life. Our patient was a 45,XY, t(13;14) newborn who presented at birth with subcutaneous nodules involving the face, scalp, back and extremities, as well as multiple intrathoracic, intraabdominal and intracranial masses. Diagnosis was made using electron microscopy and immunohistochemical and cytogenetic studies. Despite attempts to control rapid growth of lesions using high-dose steroids and cis-retinoic acid, patient's clinical status continued to deteriorate and life support was withdrawn at the 26 day of life.

  7. Detection of pulmonary nodule growth with dose reduced chest tomosynthesis: a human observer study using simulated nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderman, Christina; Johnsson, Ã. se; Vikgren, Jenny; Rossi Norrlund, Rauni; Molnar, David; Mirzai, Maral; Svalkvist, Angelica; Mânsson, Lars Gunnar; Bâth, Magnus

    2016-03-01

    Chest tomosynthesis may be a suitable alternative to computed tomography for the clinical task of follow up of pulmonary nodules. The aim of the present study was to investigate the detection of pulmonary nodule growth suggestive of malignancy using chest tomosynthesis. Previous studies have indicated remained levels of detection of pulmonary nodules at dose levels corresponding to that of a conventional lateral radiograph, approximately 0.04 mSv, which motivated to perform the present study this dose level. Pairs of chest tomosynthesis image sets, where the image sets in each pair were acquired of the same patient at two separate occasions, were included in the study. Simulated nodules with original diameters of approximately 8 mm were inserted in the pairs of image sets, simulating situations where the nodule had remained stable in size or increased isotropically in size between the two different imaging occasions. Four different categories of nodule growth were included, corresponding to a volume increase of approximately 21 %, 68 %, 108 % and 250 %. All nodules were centered in the depth direction in the tomosynthesis images. All images were subjected to a simulated dose reduction, resulting in images corresponding to an effective dose of 0.04 mSv. Four observers were given the task of rating their confidence that the nodule was stable in size or not on a five-level rating scale. This was done both before any size measurements were made of the nodule as well as after measurements were performed. Using Receiver operating characteristic analysis, the rating data for the nodules that were stable in size was compared to the rating data for the nodules simulated to have increased in size. Statistically significant differences between the rating distributions for the stable nodules and all of the four nodule growth categories were found. For the three largest nodule growths, nearly perfect detection of nodule growth was seen. In conclusion, the present study

  8. Molecular Pathology: Predictive, Prognostic, and Diagnostic Markers in Lymphoid Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Ho, Caleb; Kluk, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    Lymphoid neoplasms show great diversity in morphology, immunophenotypic profile, and postulated cells of origin, which also reflects the variety of genetic alterations within this group of tumors. This review discusses many of the currently known genetic alterations in selected mature B-cell and T-cell lymphoid neoplasms, and their significance as diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic markers. Given the rapidly increasing number of genetic alterations that have been described in this group of tumors, and that the clinical significance of many is still being studied, this is not an entirely exhaustive review of all of the genetic alterations that have been reported. PMID:27523974

  9. [Clonality lymphoid study through rearrangement analysis of antigen receptor].

    PubMed

    Villamizar-Rivera, Nicolás; Olaya, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    As a rule, malignant lymphoid proliferations are clonal. While most of the time the biological potential can be established through routine pathologic examination and auxiliary techniques, some cases are difficult to classify. Moreover, there are situations in which there are dominant clones whose analysis are important, such as occur in autoimmune diseases and immunodeficiency. This paper presents in an understandable way the main techniques for the study of clonality in lymphoid lesions, i.e. the analysis of rearrangements of antigen receptor genes by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based tests.

  10. Use of Electromagnetic Navigational Transthoracic Needle Aspiration (E-TTNA) for Sampling of Lung Nodules.

    PubMed

    Arias, Sixto; Lee, Hans; Semaan, Roy; Frimpong, Bernice; Ortiz, Ricardo; Feller-Kopman, David; Oakjones-Burgess, Karen; Yarmus, Lonny

    2015-05-23

    Lung nodule evaluation represents a clinical challenge especially in patients with intermediate risk for malignancy. Multiple technologies are presently available to sample nodules for pathological diagnosis. Those technologies can be divided into bronchoscopic and non-bronchoscopic interventions. Electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy is being extensively used for the endobronchial approach to peripheral lung nodules but has been hindered by anatomic challenges resulting in a 70% diagnostic yield. Electromagnetic navigational guided transthoracic needle lung biopsy is novel non-bronchoscopic method that uses a percutaneous electromagnetic tip tracked needle to obtain core biopsy specimens. Electromagnetic navigational transthoracic needle aspiration complements bronchoscopic techniques potentially allowing the provider to maximize the diagnostic yield during one single procedure. This article describes a novel integrated diagnostic approach to pulmonary lung nodules. We propose the use of endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) for mediastinal staging; radial EBUS, navigational bronchoscopy and E-TTNA during one single procedure to maximize diagnostic yield and minimize the number of invasive procedures needed to obtain a diagnosis. This manuscript describes in detail how the navigation transthoracic procedure is performed. Additional clinical studies are needed to determine the clinical utility of this novel technology.

  11. Sarcoma-Like Mural Nodule in a Borderline Mucinous Tumour of Ovary.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rabia; Din, Hafeez Ud; Hashmi, Shoaib Naiyar; Muhammad, Iqbal

    2016-05-01

    A 37-year female presented with complaint of lower abdominal pain and amenorrhoea to the Military Hospital, Rawalpindi. Ultrasound of pelvis showed a right adnexal cystic lesion. On investigation, CA-125 was raised. Her MRI scan of pelvis revealed a right adnexal mass of fluid intensity measuring 15.2 x 12.9 x 9.2 cm. Right ovarian cystectomy was performed and the specimen was sent for histopathological examination. Grossly, the mass was cystic in appearance and measured 13.5 x 10 x 10 cm. On sectioning, it was unilocular and filled with turbid material. The cyst wall showed multiple papillary structures along with a nodule measuring 1.1 x 1 cm. Microscopically, the sections revealed borderline mucinous tumour with a sarcoma-like mural nodule composed of spindle shaped cells and epulis-like giant cells. Sarcoma-like mural nodules are rare nodules which are associated with mucinous tumours of the ovary. However, they have excellent prognosis and should not be interpreted as malignant.

  12. Pemphigus vulgaris with solitary toxic thyroid nodule.

    PubMed

    Alfishawy, Mostafa; Anwar, Karim; Elbendary, Amira; Daoud, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background. Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune vesiculobullous disease, affecting the skin and mucous membranes. It is reported to be associated with other autoimmune diseases including autoimmune thyroid diseases. However we report herein a case of pemphigus vulgaris associated with autonomous toxic nodule. Case Presentation. A 51-year-old woman was evaluated for blisters and erosions that develop on her trunk, face, and extremities, with a five-year history of progressively enlarging neck mass, and a past medical history of pemphigus vulgaris seven years ago. The condition was associated with palpitation, dyspnea, and heat intolerance. Thyroid function tests and thyroid scan were compatible with the diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis due to autonomous toxic nodule. Exacerbation of pemphigus vulgaris was proved by skin biopsy from the patient which revealed histologic picture of pemphigus vulgaris. Conclusion. Autoimmune thyroid diseases are reported to associate pemphigus vulgaris. To our knowledge, this case is the first in the English literature to report association between pemphigus vulgaris and autonomous toxic nodule and highlights the possibility of occurrence of pemphigus vulgaris with a nonautoimmune thyroid disease raising the question: is it just a coincidence or is there an explanation for the occurrence of both conditions together? PMID:25309761

  13. The development of innate lymphoid cells requires TOX-dependent generation of a common innate lymphoid cell progenitor.

    PubMed

    Seehus, Corey R; Aliahmad, Parinaz; de la Torre, Brian; Iliev, Iliyan D; Spurka, Lindsay; Funari, Vincent A; Kaye, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Diverse innate lymphoid cell (ILC) subtypes have been defined on the basis of effector function and transcription factor expression. ILCs derive from common lymphoid progenitors, although the transcriptional pathways that lead to ILC-lineage specification remain poorly characterized. Here we found that the transcriptional regulator TOX was required for the in vivo differentiation of common lymphoid progenitors into ILC lineage-restricted cells. In vitro modeling demonstrated that TOX deficiency resulted in early defects in the survival or proliferation of progenitor cells, as well as ILC differentiation at a later stage. In addition, comparative transcriptome analysis of bone marrow progenitors revealed that TOX-deficient cells failed to upregulate many genes of the ILC program, including genes that are targets of Notch, which indicated that TOX is a key determinant of early specification to the ILC lineage.

  14. Single-cell analysis defines the divergence between the innate lymphoid cell lineage and lymphoid tissue-inducer cell lineage.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Isabel E; Chea, Sylvestre; Gudjonson, Herman; Constantinides, Michael G; Dinner, Aaron R; Bendelac, Albert; Golub, Rachel

    2016-03-01

    The precise lineage relationship between innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells is poorly understood. Using single-cell multiplex transcriptional analysis of 100 lymphoid genes and single-cell cultures of fetal liver precursor cells, we identified the common proximal precursor to these lineages and found that its bifurcation was marked by differential induction of the transcription factors PLZF and TCF1. Acquisition of individual effector programs specific to the ILC subsets ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 was initiated later, at the common ILC precursor stage, by transient expression of mixed ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 transcriptional patterns, whereas, in contrast, the development of LTi cells did not go through multilineage priming. Our findings provide insight into the divergent mechanisms of the differentiation of the ILC lineage and LTi cell lineage and establish a high-resolution 'blueprint' of their development.

  15. Nicotianamine synthase specifically expressed in root nodules of Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Hakoyama, T; Watanabe, H; Tomita, J; Yamamoto, A; Sato, S; Mori, Y; Kouchi, H; Suganuma, N

    2009-07-01

    In dicotyledonous plants, nicotianamine synthase (NAS) is thought to play a role in the intercellular transport of iron (Fe). Fe is an essential metal for nitrogen-fixing root nodules of legumes, prompting us to characterize the role of the NAS gene in detail. We previously compared gene-expression profiles in ineffective nodules formed on a Lotus japonicus Fix(-) mutant, sen1, with those in wild-type-effective nodules, and showed that expression of an expressed sequence tag (EST) clone encoding an NAS (EC 2.5.1.43) homologue was repressed in the ineffective nodules. In the present study, two EST clones encoding NAS homologues were found in the EST database. We named them LjNAS1 and LjNAS2. Both were detected as single-copy genes in the L. japonicus genome, and conferred NAS activities in transformed Saccharomyces cerevisiae. LjNAS2 was expressed only in nodules, but LjNAS1 was expressed mainly in leaves, stems, and cotyledons. The level of LjNAS2 transcripts was highest in the nodules 24 days after inoculation with Mesorhizobium loti, and was localized in vascular bundles within the nodules. Expression of LjNAS2 was suppressed in ineffective nodules formed on Fix(-) mutants other than sen1. By contrast, nitrogenase activities of nodules were not influenced in LjNAS2-suppressed plants. We discuss the role of LjNAS2 from the aspect of Fe translocation in nodules.

  16. Diffuse Neuroendocrine Hyperplasia with Obliterative Bronchiolitis and Usual Interstitial Pneumonia: An Unusual "Headcheese Pattern" with Nodules.

    PubMed

    Pietrangeli, V; Piciucchi, S; Tomassetti, S; Ravaglia, C; Gurioli, C; Gurioli, Ch; Cavazza, A; Dubini, A; Poletti, V

    2015-12-01

    A 74-year-old non-smoker female presented to our attention with a history of dyspnea and cough. CT scan revealed multiple areas of patchy ground glass attenuation associated to a diffuse mosaic oligoemia. Scattered bilateral subcentimetric pulmonary nodules were also present. Patient underwent a surgical lung biopsy. Specimens showed features of diffuse neuroendocrine hyperplasia, microhoneycombing, fibroblast foci. A final diagnosis of diffuse neuroendocrine hyperplasia with obliterative bronchiolitis and UIP was rendered. PMID:26446675

  17. Computer-aided diagnosis in lung nodule assessment.

    PubMed

    Goldin, Jonathan G; Brown, Matthew S; Petkovska, Iva

    2008-05-01

    Computed tomography (CT) imaging is playing an increasingly important role in cancer detection, diagnosis, and lesion characterization, and it is the most sensitive test for lung nodule detection. Interpretation of lung nodules involves characterization and integration of clinical and other imaging information. Advances in lung nodule management using CT require optimization of CT data acquisition, postprocessing tools, and computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). The goal of CAD systems being developed is to both assist radiologists in the more sensitive detection of nodules and noninvasively differentiate benign from malignant lesions; the latter is important given that malignant lesions account for between 1% and 11% of pulmonary nodules. The aim of this review is to summarize the current state of the art regarding CAD techniques for the detection and characterization of solitary pulmonary nodules and their potential applications in the clinical workup of these lesions.

  18. ID’ing Innate and Innate-like Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Verykokakis, Mihalis; Zook, Erin C.; Kee, Barbara L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The immune system can be divided into innate and adaptive components that differ in their rate and mode of cellular activation, with innate immune cells being the first responders to invading pathogens. Recent advances in the identification and characterization of innate lymphoid cells have revealed reiterative developmental programs that result in cells with effector fates that parallel those of adaptive lymphoid cells and are tailored to effectively eliminate a broad spectrum of pathogenic challenges. However, activation of these cells can also be associated with pathologies such as autoimmune disease. One major distinction between innate and adaptive immune system cells is the constitutive expression of ID proteins in the former and inducible expression in the latter. ID proteins function as antagonists of the E protein transcription factors that play critical roles in lymphoid specification as well as B and T-lymphocyte development. In this review, we examine the transcriptional mechanisms controlling the development of innate lymphocytes, including natural killer cells and the recently identified innate lymphoid cells (ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3), and innate-like lymphocytes, including natural killer T cells, with an emphasis on the known requirements for the ID proteins. PMID:25123285

  19. Transgenic dissection of HIV genes involved in lymphoid depletion.

    PubMed Central

    Tinkle, B T; Ueda, H; Ngo, L; Luciw, P A; Shaw, K; Rosen, C A; Jay, G

    1997-01-01

    Transgenic mice carrying an HIV provirus, with selective deletion of all three structural genes, developed extensive lymphoid depletion which was detected not only in the spleen and lymph nodes but also in the thymus. Mice with a high level of HIV gene expression developed acute disease which resulted in premature death, and mice with a low level of viral transcripts developed chronic disease with long-term survival. Neither HIV replication nor the envelope glycoprotein (gp120) was required for T cell depletion. Despite abundant viral gene expression early in life, cell death did not become evident until about the time of full lymphoid maturation, suggesting that thymopoiesis was not affected. The more mature T cells in the peripheral lymphoid organs and in the thymic medulla were less sensitive to the apoptotic process than the immature T cells in the thymic cortex. Gradual depletion of the T cell compartment in the peripheral lymphoid organs was intimately accompanied by the reciprocal expansion of the B cell compartment, resulting in the almost complete replacement of T lymphocytes with B immunoblasts in lymph nodes. Unlike T cells, which showed abundant HIV gene expression, B cells did not. The transgenic approach may help identify the HIV nonstructural gene(s) responsible for immune deficiency and help facilitate dissection of its role in inducing apoptosis. PMID:9202054

  20. Developmental acquisition of regulomes underlies innate lymphoid cell functionality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play key roles in host defense, barrier integrity, and homeostasis, and they mirror adaptive CD4+ T helper (Th) cell subtypes in both usages of effector molecules and ·transcription factors. To better understand ILC subsets and their relationship with Th cells, we measur...

  1. Quantitative image analysis of HIV-1 infection in lymphoid tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, A.T.; Zupancic, M.; Cavert, W.

    1996-11-08

    Tracking human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection at the cellular level in tissue reservoirs provides opportunities to better understand the pathogenesis of infection and to rationally design and monitor therapy. A quantitative technique was developed to determine viral burden in two important cellular compartments in lymphoid developed to determine viral burden in two important cellular compartments in lymphoid tissues. Image analysis and in situ hybridization were combined to show that in the presymptomatic stages of infection there is a large, relatively stable pool of virions on the surfaces of follicular dendritic cells and a smaller pool of productivity infected cells. Despite evidence of constraints on HIV-1 replication in the infected cell population in lymphoid tissues, estimates of the numbers of these cells and the virus they could produce are consistent with the quantities of virus that have been detected in the bloodstream. The cellular sources of virus production and storage in lymphoid tissues can now be studied with this approach over the course of infection and treatment. 22 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. 9 CFR 113.31 - Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 113.31 Section 113.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Plant Health Inspection Service that the agent used to inactivate the vaccine virus would also... lymphoid leukosis virus can be propagated on cell culture during the 21-day growth period. If a...

  3. 9 CFR 113.31 - Detection of avian lymphoid leukosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 113.31 Section 113.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Plant Health Inspection Service that the agent used to inactivate the vaccine virus would also... lymphoid leukosis virus can be propagated on cell culture during the 21-day growth period. If a...

  4. Avian dendritic cells: Phenotype and ontogeny in lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Nándor; Bódi, Ildikó; Oláh, Imre

    2016-05-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are critically important accessory cells in the innate and adaptive immune systems. Avian DCs were originally identified in primary and secondary lymphoid organs by their typical morphology, displaying long cell processes with cytoplasmic granules. Several subtypes are known. Bursal secretory dendritic cells (BSDC) are elongated cells which express vimentin intermediate filaments, MHC II molecules, macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), and produce 74.3+ secretory granules. Avian follicular dendritic cells (FDC) highly resemble BSDC, express the CD83, 74.3 and CSF1R molecules, and present antigen in germinal centers. Thymic dendritic cells (TDC), which express 74.3 and CD83, are concentrated in thymic medulla while interdigitating DC are found in T cell-rich areas of secondary lymphoid organs. Avian Langerhans cells are a specialized 74.3-/MHC II+ cell population found in stratified squamous epithelium and are capable of differentiating into 74.3+ migratory DCs. During organogenesis hematopoietic precursors of DC colonize the developing lymphoid organ primordia prior to immigration of lymphoid precursor cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of the ontogeny, cytoarchitecture, and immunophenotype of avian DC, and offers an antibody panel for the in vitro and in vivo identification of these heterogeneous cell types.

  5. 'Managing' the immune system with total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Strober, S.

    1981-06-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), which in the past was limited to the treatment of malignant disease, is now emerging as a practical technique in the management of unwanted immune reactions in the areas of transplant tolerance and various autoimmune diseases. Current studies are particularly promising for application of TLI in rheumatoid arthritis and lupus nephritis.

  6. Uranium-Bearing Carbonaceous Nodules of Southwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, James Wilcott

    1956-01-01

    Uranium-bearing carbonaceous nodules have been found along the north flank of the Wichita uplift in southwestern Oklahoma. The carbonaceous nodules are black, hard, and predominantly nodular shaped. One specimen, by analyses, was found to contain approximately 42 percent carbon and 3 percent hydrogen. The uranium, vanadium, cobalt, arsenic, nickel, lead and iron contents each range between 1 and 10 percent. It is concluded that the carbonaceous nodules are epigenetic and that the organic and inorganic constituents were derived from, mobile soluttons.

  7. Cholangicarcinoma Presenting as a Sister Mary Joseph Nodule

    PubMed Central

    Rangegowda, Devaraja; Vyas, Tanmay; Grover, Shrruti; Joshi, YK; Sharma, Chhagan; Sahney, Amrish

    2016-01-01

    Sister Mary Joseph nodules represent metastatic cancer of the umbilicus. More than half of these cases are attributable to gastrointestinal malignancies including gastric, colonic, and pancreatic cancer. In addition, gynecologic (ovarian, uterine cancer), unknown primary tumors, and, rarely, bladder or respiratory malignancies may cause umbilical metastasis. We report the case of a Sister Mary Joseph nodule originating from a hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Umbilical nodules should prompt clinical evaluation, as these tumors are usually associated with poor prognosis. PMID:27144207

  8. Thermal Ablation for Benign Thyroid Nodules: Radiofrequency and Laser

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Hyun; Valcavi, Roberto; Pacella, Claudio M.; Rhim, Hyunchul; Na, Dong Gyu

    2011-01-01

    Although ethanol ablation has been successfully used to treat cystic thyroid nodules, this procedure is less effective when the thyroid nodules are solid. Radiofrequency (RF) ablation, a newer procedure used to treat malignant liver tumors, has been valuable in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules regardless of the extent of the solid component. This article reviews the basic physics, techniques, applications, results, and complications of thyroid RF ablation, in comparison to laser ablation. PMID:21927553

  9. MEF2C protects bone marrow B-lymphoid progenitors during stress haematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenyuan; Org, Tonis; Montel-Hagen, Amélie; Pioli, Peter D.; Duan, Dan; Israely, Edo; Malkin, Daniel; Su, Trent; Flach, Johanna; Kurdistani, Siavash K.; Schiestl, Robert H.; Mikkola, Hanna K. A.

    2016-01-01

    DNA double strand break (DSB) repair is critical for generation of B-cell receptors, which are pre-requisite for B-cell progenitor survival. However, the transcription factors that promote DSB repair in B cells are not known. Here we show that MEF2C enhances the expression of DNA repair and recombination factors in B-cell progenitors, promoting DSB repair, V(D)J recombination and cell survival. Although Mef2c-deficient mice maintain relatively intact peripheral B-lymphoid cellularity during homeostasis, they exhibit poor B-lymphoid recovery after sub-lethal irradiation and 5-fluorouracil injection. MEF2C binds active regulatory regions with high-chromatin accessibility in DNA repair and V(D)J genes in both mouse B-cell progenitors and human B lymphoblasts. Loss of Mef2c in pre-B cells reduces chromatin accessibility in multiple regulatory regions of the MEF2C-activated genes. MEF2C therefore protects B lymphopoiesis during stress by ensuring proper expression of genes that encode DNA repair and B-cell factors. PMID:27507714

  10. Murine isolated lymphoid follicles contain follicular B lymphocytes with a mucosal phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Caihong; McDonald, Keely G.; McDonough, Jacquelyn S.; Newberry, Rodney D.

    2006-01-01

    Isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs) are organized intestinal lymphoid structures whose formation can be induced by luminal stimuli. ILFs have been demonstrated to act as inductive sites for the generation of immune responses directed toward luminal stimuli; however, the phenotype of the immune response initiated within ILFs has largely been uninvestigated. To gain a better understanding of the immune responses initiated within ILFs, we examined phenotypic and functional aspects of the largest cellular component of the murine ILF lymphocyte population, B lymphocytes. We observed that murine ILF B lymphocytes are composed of a relatively homogenous population of follicular B-2 B lymphocytes. Consistent with their proximity to multiple stimuli, ILF B lymphocytes displayed a more activated phenotype compared with their counterparts in the spleen and Peyer’s patch (PP). ILF B lymphocytes also expressed higher levels of immunomodulatory B7 and CD28 family members B7X and programmed death-1 compared with their counterparts in the spleen and PP. ILF B lymphocytes preferentially differentiate into IgA-producing plasma cells and produce more IL-4 and IL-10 and less interferon-γ compared with their counterparts in the spleen. Immunoglobulin repertoire analysis from individual ILFs demonstrated that ILFs contain a polyclonal population of B lymphocytes. These findings indicate that murine ILFs contain a polyclonal population of follicular B-2 B lymphocytes with a phenotype similar to PP B lymphocytes and that, in unchallenged animals, ILFs promote immune responses with a homeostatic phenotype. PMID:16782693

  11. Nonselective inhibition of the epigenetic transcriptional regulator BET induces marked lymphoid and hematopoietic toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong U; Katavolos, Paula; Palanisamy, Gopinath; Katewa, Arna; Sioson, Charly; Corpuz, Janice; Pang, Jodie; DeMent, Kevin; Choo, Edna; Ghilardi, Nico; Diaz, Dolores; Danilenko, Dimitry M

    2016-06-01

    Bromo and extra terminal (BET) proteins (BRD2, BRD3, BRD4 and BRDT) are epigenetic transcriptional regulators required for efficient expression of growth promoting, cell cycle progression and antiapoptotic genes. Through their bromodomain, these proteins bind to acetylated lysine residues of histones and are recruited to transcriptionally active chromatin. Inhibition of the BET-histone interaction provides a tractable therapeutic strategy to treat diseases that may have epigenetic dysregulation. JQ1 is a small molecule that blocks BET interaction with histones. It has been shown to decrease proliferation of patient-derived multiple myeloma in vitro and to decrease tumor burden in vivo in xenograft mouse models. While targeting BET appears to be a viable and efficacious approach, the nonclinical safety profile of BET inhibition remains to be well-defined. We report that mice dosed with JQ1 at efficacious exposures demonstrate dose-dependent decreases in their lymphoid and immune cell compartments. At higher doses, JQ1 was not tolerated and due to induction of significant body weight loss led to early euthanasia. Flow cytometry analysis of lymphoid tissues showed a decrease in both B- and T-lymphocytes with a concomitant decrease in peripheral white blood cells that was confirmed by hematology. Further investigation with the inactive enantiomer of JQ1 showed that these in vivo effects were on-target mediated and not elicited through secondary pharmacology due to chemical structure. PMID:27078884

  12. Tertiary lymphoid organ development coincides with determinant spreading of the myelin-specific T cell response.

    PubMed

    Kuerten, Stefanie; Schickel, Achim; Kerkloh, Christian; Recks, Mascha S; Addicks, Klaus; Ruddle, Nancy H; Lehmann, Paul V

    2012-12-01

    While the role of T cells has been studied extensively in multiple sclerosis (MS), the pathogenic contribution of B cells has only recently attracted major attention, when it was shown that B cell aggregates can develop in the meninges of a subset of MS patients and were suggested to be correlates of late-stage and more aggressive disease in this patient population. However, whether these aggregates actually exist has subsequently been questioned and their functional significance has remained unclear. Here, we studied myelin basic protein (MBP)-proteolipid protein (PLP)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which is one of the few animal models for MS that is dependent on B cells. We provide evidence that B cell aggregation is reflective of lymphoid neogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS) in MBP-PLP-elicited EAE. B cell aggregation was present already few days after disease onset. With disease progression CNS B cell aggregates increasingly displayed the phenotype of tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs). Our results further imply that these TLOs were not merely epiphenomena of the disease, but functionally active, supporting intrathecal determinant spreading of the myelin-specific T cell response. Our data suggest that the CNS is not a passive "immune-privileged" target organ, but rather a compartment, in which highly active immune responses can perpetuate and amplify the autoimmune pathology and thereby autonomously contribute to disease progression.

  13. Can Ultrasound Predict Malignancy in Patient with Thyroid Cold Nodule?

    PubMed Central

    Wiyanto, Joko; Kartamihardja, Achmad Hussein Sundawa; Nugrahadi, Trias

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid nodule is one of the most common endocrine diseases in the world; it occurs in 4–7% of the general population. Depending on the method of discovery, 4–8% nodules are discovered using palpation, 10–41% with ultrasound (US), and 50% through autopsy where only 20% or less of cold thyroid nodules are caused by cancerous lesions. The aim of this study was to assess US as supporting modality for thyroid scintigraphy to predict malignancy in patient with thyroid cold nodules. In a retrospective study between 2009 and 2013, we analyzed 399 subjects with cold thyroid nodule, where 39 subjects (36 women and 3 men) presented with malignant thyroid cold nodule and 19 subjects underwent US. The US showed malignancy parameters in 8 (42.11%) subjects, while the rest of the 11 (57.89%) subject were benign. Out of all the subjects who underwent US in this study, only 8 (42.11%) subjects shown malignancy characteristics in cold thyroid nodule with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). That means US parameters of malignant thyroid nodule do not always show up in malignant cold thyroid nodule. PMID:27651738

  14. Can Ultrasound Predict Malignancy in Patient with Thyroid Cold Nodule?

    PubMed

    Wiyanto, Joko; Kartamihardja, Achmad Hussein Sundawa; Nugrahadi, Trias

    2016-09-01

    Thyroid nodule is one of the most common endocrine diseases in the world; it occurs in 4-7% of the general population. Depending on the method of discovery, 4-8% nodules are discovered using palpation, 10-41% with ultrasound (US), and 50% through autopsy where only 20% or less of cold thyroid nodules are caused by cancerous lesions. The aim of this study was to assess US as supporting modality for thyroid scintigraphy to predict malignancy in patient with thyroid cold nodules. In a retrospective study between 2009 and 2013, we analyzed 399 subjects with cold thyroid nodule, where 39 subjects (36 women and 3 men) presented with malignant thyroid cold nodule and 19 subjects underwent US. The US showed malignancy parameters in 8 (42.11%) subjects, while the rest of the 11 (57.89%) subject were benign. Out of all the subjects who underwent US in this study, only 8 (42.11%) subjects shown malignancy characteristics in cold thyroid nodule with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). That means US parameters of malignant thyroid nodule do not always show up in malignant cold thyroid nodule. PMID:27651738

  15. Can Ultrasound Predict Malignancy in Patient with Thyroid Cold Nodule?

    PubMed Central

    Wiyanto, Joko; Kartamihardja, Achmad Hussein Sundawa; Nugrahadi, Trias

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid nodule is one of the most common endocrine diseases in the world; it occurs in 4–7% of the general population. Depending on the method of discovery, 4–8% nodules are discovered using palpation, 10–41% with ultrasound (US), and 50% through autopsy where only 20% or less of cold thyroid nodules are caused by cancerous lesions. The aim of this study was to assess US as supporting modality for thyroid scintigraphy to predict malignancy in patient with thyroid cold nodules. In a retrospective study between 2009 and 2013, we analyzed 399 subjects with cold thyroid nodule, where 39 subjects (36 women and 3 men) presented with malignant thyroid cold nodule and 19 subjects underwent US. The US showed malignancy parameters in 8 (42.11%) subjects, while the rest of the 11 (57.89%) subject were benign. Out of all the subjects who underwent US in this study, only 8 (42.11%) subjects shown malignancy characteristics in cold thyroid nodule with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). That means US parameters of malignant thyroid nodule do not always show up in malignant cold thyroid nodule.

  16. Reversible Dark-Induced Senescence of Soybean Root Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, N. E.; Malik, Nasir S. A.; Wagner, Fred W.

    1983-01-01

    Nodule senescence was induced in intact soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merr., cv Woodworth] plants by an 8-day dark treatment. Dark-induced senescence resulted in the complete loss of acetylene reduction activity, a 67% loss of total soluble protein, and an almost complete loss in total leghemoglobin of nodule extracts. Isoelectric focusing gels demonstrated a preferential loss of certain proteins, which was correlated with an increase in endoprotease specific activity toward azocasein. Nodules were completely green after the 8-day dark treatment. If plants were returned to a normal photoperiod after 8 days in the dark, nodules recovered from the dark treatment in 12 to 16 days. Acetylene reduction activity returned to normal, and both total soluble protein and leghemoglobin were resynthesized while protease activity against azocasein decreased to the level of control nodules. The nodule population that had turned green after 8 days in the dark exhibited a progressive increase in red color starting nearest the exterior of the nodule, and after 16 days of recovery nodules were indistinguishable from control nodules maintained under a normal photoperiod. Images Fig. 4 PMID:16662836

  17. A Chemokine Expressed in Lymphoid High Endothelial Venules Promotes the Adhesion and Chemotaxis of Naive T Lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunn, Michael D.; Tangemann, Kirsten; Tam, Carmen; Cyster, Jason G.; Rosen, Steven D.; Williams, Lewis T.

    1998-01-01

    Preferential homing of naive lymphocytes to secondary lymphoid organs is thought to involve the action of chemokines, yet no chemokine has been shown to have either the expression pattern or the activities required to mediate this process. Here we show that a chemokine represented in the EST database, secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine (SLC), is expressed in the high endothelial venules of lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, in the T cell areas of spleen, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches, and in the lymphatic endothelium of multiple organs. SLC is a highly efficacious chemoattractant for lymphocytes with preferential activity toward naive T cells. Moreover, SLC induces firm adhesion of naive T lymphocytes via β 2 integrin binding to the counter receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, a necessary step for lymphocyte recruitment. SLC is the first chemokine demonstrated to have the characteristics required to mediate homing of lymphocytes to secondary lymphoid organs. In addition, the expression of SLC in lymphatic endothelium suggests that the migration of lymphocytes from tissues into efferent lymphatics may be an active process mediated by this molecule.

  18. Peptidohydrolases of Soybean Root Nodules 12

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Nasir S. A.; Pfeiffer, N. E.; Williams, D. R.; Wagner, Fred W.

    1981-01-01

    Nodule extracts prepared from Glycine max var Woodworth possessed endopeptidase, aminopeptidase, and carboxypeptidase activities. Three distinct endopeptidase activities could be resolved by disc-gel electrophoresis at pH 8.8. According to their order of increasing electrophoretic mobility, the first of these enzymes hydrolyzed azocasein and n-benzoyl-l-Leu-β-naphthylamide, while the second hydrolyzed n-benzoyl-l-Arg-β-naphthylamine (Bz-l-Arg-βNA), n-benzoyl-l-Arg-p-nitroanilide (Bz-l-Arg-pNA), and azocasein. The third endopeptidase hydrolyzed Bz-l-Arg-βNA, Bz-l-Arg-pNA, and hemoglobin. Fractions of these enzymes extracted from electrophoresis gels were shown to have pH optima from 7.5 to 9.8. All of the endopeptidases were completely inhibited by diisopropylphosphorofluoridate, demonstrating that they were serine proteases. Aminopeptidase activity was measured using amino acyl-β-naphthylamides. Electrophoresis of nodule extracts at pH 6.8 resolved the aminopeptidase activity of nodule extracts into at least four fractions based on mobility and on activities toward amino acyl-β-naphthylamides. The major activity of two of the aminopeptidases was directed toward l-Leu- and l-Met-β-naphthylamide, while the other two aminopeptidases exhibited broader specificity and were capable of hydrolyzing a large number of amino acyl-β-naphthylamides. Two of the aminopeptidases extracted from electrophoresis gels were classified as thiol type enzymes, and all four aminopeptidases had neutral to basic pH optima. Images PMID:16661922

  19. Tumor-associated lymphoid proliferation in the parotid gland. A potential diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Auclair, P L

    1994-01-01

    A substantial proportion of neoplastic and nonneoplastic parotid diseases have a prominent lymphoid component. The lymphoid element in lesions such as papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum, sebaceous lymphadenoma, and lymphoepithelial carcinoma are readily recognized as a required diagnostic element. However, when other types of benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms demonstrate tumor-associated lymphoid proliferation, the tumor may be either misclassified or misinterpreted as metastatic disease. Examples of primary benign and malignant parotid neoplasms exhibiting tumor-associated lymphoid proliferation are documented and illustrated. Other parotid lesions that may have a lymphoid element include sialadenitis, cysts with associated lymphoid tissue, parenchymal neoplasms with an expected lymphoid component or those that arise within an intraparotid lymph node, autoimmune disease, malignant lymphoma, and metastatic disease. An approach to recognition and separation of these entities is discussed.

  20. Structural basis for regulation of rhizobial nodulation and symbiosis gene expression by the regulatory protein NolR

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soon Goo; Krishnan, Hari B.; Jez, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    The symbiosis between rhizobial microbes and host plants involves the coordinated expression of multiple genes, which leads to nodule formation and nitrogen fixation. As part of the transcriptional machinery for nodulation and symbiosis across a range of Rhizobium, NolR serves as a global regulatory protein. Here, we present the X-ray crystal structures of NolR in the unliganded form and complexed with two different 22-base pair (bp) double-stranded operator sequences (oligos AT and AA). Structural and biochemical analysis of NolR reveals protein–DNA interactions with an asymmetric operator site and defines a mechanism for conformational switching of a key residue (Gln56) to accommodate variation in target DNA sequences from diverse rhizobial genes for nodulation and symbiosis. This conformational switching alters the energetic contributions to DNA binding without changes in affinity for the target sequence. Two possible models for the role of NolR in the regulation of different nodulation and symbiosis genes are proposed. To our knowledge, these studies provide the first structural insight on the regulation of genes involved in the agriculturally and ecologically important symbiosis of microbes and plants that leads to nodule formation and nitrogen fixation. PMID:24733893

  1. Structural basis for regulation of rhizobial nodulation and symbiosis gene expression by the regulatory protein NolR.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soon Goo; Krishnan, Hari B; Jez, Joseph M

    2014-04-29

    The symbiosis between rhizobial microbes and host plants involves the coordinated expression of multiple genes, which leads to nodule formation and nitrogen fixation. As part of the transcriptional machinery for nodulation and symbiosis across a range of Rhizobium, NolR serves as a global regulatory protein. Here, we present the X-ray crystal structures of NolR in the unliganded form and complexed with two different 22-base pair (bp) double-stranded operator sequences (oligos AT and AA). Structural and biochemical analysis of NolR reveals protein-DNA interactions with an asymmetric operator site and defines a mechanism for conformational switching of a key residue (Gln56) to accommodate variation in target DNA sequences from diverse rhizobial genes for nodulation and symbiosis. This conformational switching alters the energetic contributions to DNA binding without changes in affinity for the target sequence. Two possible models for the role of NolR in the regulation of different nodulation and symbiosis genes are proposed. To our knowledge, these studies provide the first structural insight on the regulation of genes involved in the agriculturally and ecologically important symbiosis of microbes and plants that leads to nodule formation and nitrogen fixation.

  2. Penile nodules in the penal system.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Jack; Horowitz, David

    2012-05-01

    The insertion of inert spherical objects under the skin of the penile shaft with the intent of enhancing the sexual experience of one's partner has been reported mostly among Southeast Asian men. This practice is gaining popularity among the Hispanic jail population and prison inmates in southern California. We present a case series of 4 inmate patients with genital modifications (artificial penis nodules [APNs]), including one patient with vitiligo that was induced by his APN. Additionally, we review the literature pertaining to this practice and the relevant clinical implications.

  3. Different cytokinin histidine kinase receptors regulate nodule initiation as well as later nodule developmental stages in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Boivin, Stéphane; Kazmierczak, Théophile; Brault, Mathias; Wen, Jiangqi; Gamas, Pascal; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Frugier, Florian

    2016-10-01

    Legume plants adapt to low nitrogen by developing an endosymbiosis with nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria to form a new specific organ: the nitrogen-fixing nodule. In the Medicago truncatula model legume, the MtCRE1 cytokinin receptor is essential for this symbiotic interaction. As three other putative CHASE-domain containing histidine kinase (CHK) cytokinin receptors exist in M. truncatula, we determined their potential contribution to this symbiotic interaction. The four CHKs have extensive redundant expression patterns at early nodulation stages but diverge in differentiated nodules, even though MtCHK1/MtCRE1 has the strongest expression at all stages. Mutant and knock-down analyses revealed that other CHKs than MtCHK1/CRE1 are positively involved in nodule initiation, which explains the delayed nodulation phenotype of the chk1/cre1 mutant. In addition, cre1 nodules exhibit an increased growth, whereas other chk mutants have no detectable phenotype, and the maintained nitrogen fixation capacity in cre1 requires other CHK genes. Interestingly, an AHK4/CRE1 genomic locus from the aposymbiotic Arabidopsis plant rescues nodule initiation but not the nitrogen fixation capacity. This indicates that different CHK cytokinin signalling pathways regulate not only nodule initiation but also later developmental stages, and that legume-specific determinants encoded by the MtCRE1 gene are required for later nodulation stages than initiation. PMID:27341695

  4. Rapid Growth of Lung Nodules due to Combined Pulmonary Vasculitis, Silicoanthracosis, and Chondrocalcinosis

    PubMed Central

    Distler, Oliver; Kolios, Antonios G. A.; Weder, Walter; Franzen, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background. Silicoanthracosis is a pneumoconiosis due to occupational inhalation of silica and carbon dusts. Clinically, it can be associated with vasculitis or rheumatoid arthritis. In association with these diseases, silicoanthracosis can present within the lung with multiple pulmonary nodules which, as a differential diagnosis, can mimic metastatic disease or multiple abscesses. Case Presentation. We present the case of a 62-year old former pit worker with pulmonary nodules, chondrocalcinosis due to calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD), and a history of renal cancer. Within a short period of time, pulmonary nodules grew rapidly. Thoracoscopically, the resected lung specimen revealed silicoanthracosis associated with small-to-medium-size vasculitis in the presence of antineutrophil cytoplasmatic autoantibodies (c-ANCA). Conclusion. Pulmonary silicoanthracotic lesions on the base of ANCA-associated vasculitis and CPPD arthritis can rapidly grow. A mutual correlation between silicoanthracosis, ANCA-associated vasculitis, and CPPD seems possible. Apart from this, consideration of metastatic disease should be obligatory in patients with a history of cancer at the same time being immunosuppressed. PMID:27478398

  5. Rapid Growth of Lung Nodules due to Combined Pulmonary Vasculitis, Silicoanthracosis, and Chondrocalcinosis.

    PubMed

    Jungraithmayr, Wolfgang; Tzafos, Stefanos; Distler, Oliver; Kolios, Antonios G A; Weder, Walter; Franzen, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background. Silicoanthracosis is a pneumoconiosis due to occupational inhalation of silica and carbon dusts. Clinically, it can be associated with vasculitis or rheumatoid arthritis. In association with these diseases, silicoanthracosis can present within the lung with multiple pulmonary nodules which, as a differential diagnosis, can mimic metastatic disease or multiple abscesses. Case Presentation. We present the case of a 62-year old former pit worker with pulmonary nodules, chondrocalcinosis due to calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD), and a history of renal cancer. Within a short period of time, pulmonary nodules grew rapidly. Thoracoscopically, the resected lung specimen revealed silicoanthracosis associated with small-to-medium-size vasculitis in the presence of antineutrophil cytoplasmatic autoantibodies (c-ANCA). Conclusion. Pulmonary silicoanthracotic lesions on the base of ANCA-associated vasculitis and CPPD arthritis can rapidly grow. A mutual correlation between silicoanthracosis, ANCA-associated vasculitis, and CPPD seems possible. Apart from this, consideration of metastatic disease should be obligatory in patients with a history of cancer at the same time being immunosuppressed. PMID:27478398

  6. Biosynthesis of Ascorbic Acid in Legume Root Nodules1

    PubMed Central

    Matamoros, Manuel A.; Loscos, Jorge; Coronado, Maria J.; Ramos, Javier; Sato, Shusei; Testillano, Pilar S.; Tabata, Satoshi; Becana, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a major antioxidant and redox buffer, but is also involved in other critical processes of plants. Recently, the hypothesis has been proposed that legume nodules are unable to synthesize ascorbate and have to import it from the shoot or root, thus providing a means by which the plant regulates nodule senescence. The last step of ascorbate biosynthesis in plants is catalyzed by l-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GalLDH). The mRNAs encoding GalLDH and three other enzymes involved in ascorbate biosynthesis are clearly detectable in nodules. Furthermore, an active membrane-bound GalLDH enzyme is present in nodule mitochondria. Biochemical assays on dissected nodules reveal that GalLDH activity and ascorbate are correlated in nodule tissues and predominantly localized in the infected zone, with lower levels of both parameters (relative to the infected tissues) in the apex (87%) and senescent region (43%) of indeterminate nodules and in the peripheral tissues (65%) of determinate nodules. In situ RNA hybridization showed that the GalLDH mRNA is particularly abundant in the infected zone of indeterminate and determinate nodules. Thus, our results refute the hypothesis that ascorbate is not synthesized in nodules and lend support to a previous conclusion that ascorbate in the infected zone is primarily involved in the protection of host cells against peroxide damage. Likewise, the high ascorbate and GalLDH activity levels found in the apex of indeterminate nodules strongly suggest a participation of ascorbate in additional functions during symbiosis, possibly related to cell growth and division and to molecular signaling. PMID:16766673

  7. Genetic diversity of root nodule bacteria nodulating Lotus corniculatus and Anthyllis vulneraria in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ampomah, Osei Yaw; Huss-Danell, Kerstin

    2011-06-01

    Very little is known about the genetic diversity and phylogeny of rhizobia nodulating Lotus species in northern temperate regions. We have therefore studied the genetic diversity among a total of 61 root nodule bacteria isolated from Lotus corniculatus and Anthyllis vulneraria from different geographic sites and habitats in Sweden by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the internal transcribed spacer between their 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA (IGS) region. A high diversity consisting of 26 IGS types from 54 L. corniculatus isolates and five IGS types from seven A. vulneraria isolates was found. The 16S rRNA sequences and phylogeny of representatives of the different IGS types showed four interesting exceptions from the majority of the isolates belonging to the genus Mesorhizobium: Two isolates were both found to be closely related to Rhodococcus spp., and two other isolates showed close relationship with Geobacillus spp. and Paenibacillus spp., respectively. The nodA sequences and phylogeny showed that all the isolates, including those not belonging to the traditional rhizobia genera, harbored nodA sequences which were typical of Mesorhizobium loti. Generally, the 16S rRNA and nodA phylogenetic trees were not congruent in that isolates with similar 16S rRNA sequences were associated with isolates harboring different nodA sequences. All the isolates were confirmed to nodulate L. corniculatus in an inoculation test. This is the first report of members of these non-rhizobia genera being able to nodulate legumes, and we suggest that they may have acquired their nodulating properties through lateral gene transfer.

  8. Pleural Nodules and Mediastinal Lymphadenopathy in a Smoker: An Unusual Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Desbuquoit, Damien; Van Hecke, Stijn; Even, Pjotr; Parizel, Paul M.; van Meerbeeck, Jan P.; Snoeckx, Annemie

    2016-01-01

    The authors report a case of thoracic splenosis, which is the autotransplantation of splenic tissue into the pleural cavity. Splenosis in the chest is a rare entity and most often an incidental finding on chest computed tomography, typically showing solitary or multiple well-defined, noncalcified pleural nodules of variable size in the left hemithorax. It is important to include this benign pathology in the differential diagnosis among other, generally malignant, pleural lesions. Imaging clues to the diagnosis are absence of the spleen and/or associated rib fractures. Early identification of thoracic splenosis as a cause of pleural nodules can prevent unnecessary and risky invasive procedures, such as biopsy or surgery. PMID:27721773

  9. Guideline on management of solitary pulmonary nodule.

    PubMed

    Álvarez Martínez, Carlos J; Bastarrika Alemañ, Gorka; Disdier Vicente, Carlos; Fernández Villar, Alberto; Hernández Hernández, Jesús R; Maldonado Suárez, Antonio; Moreno Mata, Nicolás; Rosell Gratacós, Antoni

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the proposed recommendations is be a tool to facilitate decision-making in patients with a solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN). For an optimal decision, accessibility to the different diagnostics techniques and patient preferences need to be incorporated. The first assessment, which includes a chest computed tomography scan, separates a group of patients with extrapulmonary neoplasm or a high surgical risk who require individualized management. Another two groups of patients are patients with SPN up to 8mm and those who have a subsolid SPN, for which specific recommendations are established. SPN larger than 8mm are classified according to their probability of malignancy into low (less than 5%), where observation is recommended, high (higher than 65%), which are managed with a presumptive diagnosis of localized stage carcinoma, and intermediate, where positron emission tomography-computed tomography has high yield for reclassifying them into high or low probability. In cases of intermediate or high probability of malignancy, transbronchial needle aspiration or biopsy of the nodule may be an option. Radiologic observation with low radiation computed tomography without contrast is recommended in SPN with low probability of malignancy, and resection with videothoracoscopy in undiagnosed cases with intermediate or high probability of malignancy. PMID:24630316

  10. Guideline on management of solitary pulmonary nodule.

    PubMed

    Álvarez Martínez, Carlos J; Bastarrika Alemañ, Gorka; Disdier Vicente, Carlos; Fernández Villar, Alberto; Hernández Hernández, Jesús R; Maldonado Suárez, Antonio; Moreno Mata, Nicolás; Rosell Gratacós, Antoni

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the proposed recommendations is be a tool to facilitate decision-making in patients with a solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN). For an optimal decision, accessibility to the different diagnostics techniques and patient preferences need to be incorporated. The first assessment, which includes a chest computed tomography scan, separates a group of patients with extrapulmonary neoplasm or a high surgical risk who require individualized management. Another two groups of patients are patients with SPN up to 8mm and those who have a subsolid SPN, for which specific recommendations are established. SPN larger than 8mm are classified according to their probability of malignancy into low (less than 5%), where observation is recommended, high (higher than 65%), which are managed with a presumptive diagnosis of localized stage carcinoma, and intermediate, where positron emission tomography-computed tomography has high yield for reclassifying them into high or low probability. In cases of intermediate or high probability of malignancy, transbronchial needle aspiration or biopsy of the nodule may be an option. Radiologic observation with low radiation computed tomography without contrast is recommended in SPN with low probability of malignancy, and resection with videothoracoscopy in undiagnosed cases with intermediate or high probability of malignancy.

  11. [Diagnostic work-up of pulmonary nodules : Management of pulmonary nodules detected with low‑dose CT screening].

    PubMed

    Wormanns, D

    2016-09-01

    Pulmonary nodules are the most frequent pathological finding in low-dose computed tomography (CT) scanning for early detection of lung cancer. Early stages of lung cancer are often manifested as pulmonary nodules; however, the very commonly occurring small nodules are predominantly benign. These benign nodules are responsible for the high percentage of false positive test results in screening studies. Appropriate diagnostic algorithms are necessary to reduce false positive screening results and to improve the specificity of lung cancer screening. Such algorithms are based on some of the basic principles comprehensively described in this article. Firstly, the diameter of nodules allows a differentiation between large (>8 mm) probably malignant and small (<8 mm) probably benign nodules. Secondly, some morphological features of pulmonary nodules in CT can prove their benign nature. Thirdly, growth of small nodules is the best non-invasive predictor of malignancy and is utilized as a trigger for further diagnostic work-up. Non-invasive testing using positron emission tomography (PET) and contrast enhancement as well as invasive diagnostic tests (e.g. various procedures for cytological and histological diagnostics) are briefly described in this article. Different nodule morphology using CT (e.g. solid and semisolid nodules) is associated with different biological behavior and different algorithms for follow-up are required. Currently, no obligatory algorithm is available in German-speaking countries for the management of pulmonary nodules, which reflects the current state of knowledge. The main features of some international and American recommendations are briefly presented in this article from which conclusions for the daily clinical use are derived. PMID:27495787

  12. BRISC-an open source pulmonary nodule image retrieval framework.

    PubMed

    Lam, Michael O; Disney, Tim; Raicu, Daniela S; Furst, Jacob; Channin, David S

    2007-11-01

    We have created a content-based image retrieval framework for computed tomography images of pulmonary nodules. When presented with a nodule image, the system retrieves images of similar nodules from a collection prepared by the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC). The system (1) extracts images of individual nodules from the LIDC collection based on LIDC expert annotations, (2) stores the extracted data in a flat XML database, (3) calculates a set of quantitative descriptors for each nodule that provide a high-level characterization of its texture, and (4) uses various measures to determine the similarity of two nodules and perform queries on a selected query nodule. Using our framework, we compared three feature extraction methods: Haralick co-occurrence, Gabor filters, and Markov random fields. Gabor and Markov descriptors perform better at retrieving similar nodules than do Haralick co-occurrence techniques, with best retrieval precisions in excess of 88%. Because the software we have developed and the reference images are both open source and publicly available they may be incorporated into both commercial and academic imaging workstations and extended by others in their research.

  13. Next Generation Metallic Iron Nodule Technology in Electric Furnace Steelmaking

    SciTech Connect

    2007-09-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose objective is to investigate reducing processing temperature, controlling the gas temperature and gas atmosphere over metallized iron nodules, and effectively using sub-bituminous coal as a reductant for producing high quality metallized iron nodules at low cost.

  14. Surgical and Pathological Changes after Radiofrequency Ablation of Thyroid Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Dobrinja, Chiara; Bernardi, Stella; Fabris, Bruno; Eramo, Rita; Makovac, Petra; Bazzocchi, Gabriele; Piscopello, Lanfranco; Barro, Enrica; de Manzini, Nicolò; Bonazza, Deborah; Pinamonti, Maurizio; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Stacul, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    Background. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been recently advocated as an effective technique for the treatment of symptomatic benign thyroid nodules. It is not known to what extent it may affect any subsequent thyroid surgery and/or histological diagnosis. Materials and Methods. RFA was performed on 64 symptomatic Thy2 nodules (benign nodules) and 6 symptomatic Thy3 nodules (follicular lesions/follicular neoplasms). Two Thy3 nodules regrew after the procedure, and these patients accepted to undergo a total thyroidectomy. Here we present how RFA has affected the operation and the final pathological features of the surgically removed nodules. Results and Conclusions. RFA is effective for the treatment of Thy2 nodules, but it should not be recommended as first-line therapy for the treatment of Thy3 nodules (irrespective of their mutational status), as it delays surgery in case of malignancy. Moreover, it is unknown whether RFA might promote residual tumor progression or neoplastic progression of Thy3 lesions. Nevertheless, here we show for the first time that one session of RFA does not affect subsequent thyroid surgery and/or histological diagnosis. PMID:26265914

  15. Primary pulmonary low-grade marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type with prominent hyalinosis. A case report.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Masaru; Nakamura, Shigeo; Ban, Satoshi; Inagaki, Masaharu; Sugihara, Shiro; Yoshida, Katsue; Masawa, Nobuhide

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of primary pulmonary low-grade marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type with prominent sclerosis, which morphologically resembled pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma (PHG) or inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) of the lung. The patient, a 66-year-old Japanese female with a history of Sjögren's syndrome and primary biliary cirrhosis, presented with a lower left lobe mass 6.8 cm in diameter. Histologically, the lesion is characterized by dense bundles of collagen with scattered plasma cells, mature small lymphocytes, and histiocytes among the collagen bundles. Only the peripheral area of the nodule contained dense lymphoplasmacytoid and histiocytoid infiltrates. A few centrocyte-like cells were obscured by the numerous plasma cells and plasmacytoid cells. In addition, lymphoepithelial lesions and colonalized lymphoid follicles were identified by immunohistochemistry alone. Although PHG and IPT are unlikely to be confused with pulmonary MALT-type lymphomas, the present case suggests that MALT-type lymphoma should be added to the list of differential diagnoses for PHG and IPT. PMID:12498224

  16. Long-term follow-up of thyroid nodule growth.

    PubMed

    Quadbeck, B; Pruellage, J; Roggenbuck, U; Hirche, H; Janssen, O E; Mann, K; Hoermann, R

    2002-10-01

    Benign thyroid nodules are common in iodine deficient countries. Although many recent studies have addressed the molecular basis and short-term outcome of treatment in nodular thyroid disease, data on the long-term follow-up of thyroid nodule growth are widely lacking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term behaviour of benign thyroid nodules growth. We followed 109 consecutive patients seen at yearly intervals in our Outpatient Clinic for at least 3 years (range 3-12 years, mean 4.9 +/- 2.6 years) presenting with 139 benign nodules in uni- or multinodular goiters. The size of the nodules and thyroid glands was analysed retrospectively. The study included a spectrum of benign thyroid nodules, 86 functioning and 53 non-functioning. 27 patients were treated with levothyroxine, 8 with iodide and 16 with a combination of both. 58 patients were not treated mainly because of thyroid functional autonomy. Patients with overt hyperthyroidism or suspected malignancy by fine-needle aspiration were excluded from the study. The nodules and glands were assessed by ultrasonography at yearly intervals and documented by photoprints. Relevant growth was defined as an increase in nodule volume of at least 30%. For statistical analyses, Cox Proportional Hazard Model and life-table analyses according to Kaplan-Meier were performed. Most thyroid nodules grew slowly but continuously during follow-up. After about 3 years, half of the nodules had increased their volume by at least 30%. Growth of the nodules was significantly faster than of the corresponding thyroid glands (p < 0.0001). Age and sex of the patients and size or function of the nodules at initial presentation were not significantly related to their growth. Suppression of TSH did not affect growth of the nodules irrespective of the source of thyroid hormones, endogenous or by administration of levothyroxine. In conclusion, benign thyroid nodules have a slow intrinsic growth potential, which is apparently

  17. Leguminous plants: inventors of root nodules to accommodate symbiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Suzaki, Takuya; Yoro, Emiko; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Legumes and a few other plant species can establish a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, which enables them to survive in a nitrogen-deficient environment. During the course of nodulation, infection with rhizobia induces the dedifferentiation of host cells to form primordia of a symbiotic organ, the nodule, which prepares plants to accommodate rhizobia in host cells. While these nodulation processes are known to be genetically controlled by both plants and rhizobia, recent advances in studies on two model legumes, Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula, have provided great insight into the underlying plant-side molecular mechanism. In this chapter, we review such knowledge, with particular emphasis on two key processes of nodulation, nodule development and rhizobial invasion.

  18. Immunosuppression and organ transplantation tolerance using total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Slavin, S.; Strober, S.; Fuks, Z.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1980-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is a method which delivers irradiation daily in fractionated doses (200 rads) to lymphoid organs while shielding bones, lungs, and the majority of the gastrointestinal tract. TLI is lymphocytopenic in mice, rats, dogs, and humans, and both T cells and B cells are eliminated from the circulation. TLI permits establishment of specific and long-lasting tolerance to alloantigens. Permanent acceptance of allogeneic bone marrow cells without graft-versus-host disease was achieved in rats and dogs across major histocompatibility barriers. Recipients were tolerant to allografts of skin, hearts, and kidney from animals syngeneic to marrow donors or to organs from the marrow donor. This approach may be suitable for pancreas transplantation in diabetes.

  19. Treatment of intractable rheumatoid arthritis with lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Strober, S.; Kotzin, B.L.; Hoppe, R.T.; Slavin, S.; Gottlieb, M.; Calin, A.; Fuks, Z.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1981-01-01

    Subdiaphragmatic lymphoid radiation was used as an alternative to cytotoxic drug therapy to treat six patients with progressive erosive rheumatoid arthritis. All were previously unresponsive to conventional therapy. Radiation (4,000 rad) was given to subdiaphragmatic lymphoid tissues in fractionated doses of 150 to 250 rad each. Three of the six patients demonstrated long-lasting clinical improvement with a decrease in synovitis and morning stiffness and an increase in joint function. All six patients showed a profound depression in the peripheral blood lymphocyte count which persisted for at least six months. The irradiation was well tolerated; there have been no serious complications due to radiotherapy with follow-up ranging from 13 to 36 months. The substantial efficacy in some patients and the lack of severe toxicity in all suggests that radiotherapy deserves further study as an alternative to cytotoxic drugs in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

  20. Beyond NK cells: the expanding universe of innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Cella, Marina; Miller, Hannah; Song, Christina

    2014-01-01

    For a long time, natural killer (NK) cells were thought to be the only innate immune lymphoid population capable of responding to invading pathogens under the influence of changing environmental cues. In the last few years, an increasing amount of evidence has shown that a number of different innate lymphoid cell (ILC) populations found at mucosal sites rapidly respond to locally produced cytokines in order to establish or maintain homeostasis. These ILC populations closely mirror the phenotype of adaptive T helper subsets in their repertoire of secreted soluble factors. Early in the immune response, ILCs are responsible for setting the stage to mount an adaptive T cell response that is appropriate for the incoming insult. Here, we review the diversity of ILC subsets and discuss similarities and differences between ILCs and NK cells in function and key transcriptional factors required for their development.

  1. Ontogeny of the lymphoid organs of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yun; Jiang, Guoliang; Zhang, Shicui

    2004-10-01

    Histological study on the ontogeny of the lymphoid organs, kidney, thymus and spleen of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, from hatching to 40 d was carried out. The pronephric kidney duct appeared early in hatching although the primordial haemopoietic stem cells were observed within a week after hatching. The spleen was first seen after 8d of hatching. The thymus appeared after 15d, situated near the pronephric kidney. Small lymphoid cells appeared during the later phase of the post-larval stage in the sequence of thymus, kidney and spleen. During the 40d of observations, there were no distinct inner or outer zones in thymus and no red or white pulp in spleen. These results suggest that the nonspecific defense immune system plays a very important role in the early larval stage of Japanese flounder.

  2. Inflammation-induced formation of fat-associated lymphoid clusters

    PubMed Central

    Bénézech, Cécile; Kruglov, Andrei A.; Loo, Yunhua; Nakamura, Kyoko; Zhang, Yang; Nayar, Saba; Jones, Lucy H.; Flores-Langarica, Adriana; McIntosh, Alistair; Marshall, Jennifer; Barone, Francesca; Besra, Gurdyal; Miles, Katherine; Allen, Judith E.; Gray, Mohini; Kollias, George; Cunningham, Adam F.; Withers, David R.; Toellner, Kai Michael; Jones, Nick D.; Veldhoen, Marc; Nedospasov, Sergei A.; McKenzie, Andrew N.J.; Caamaño, Jorge H.

    2015-01-01

    Fat-associated lymphoid clusters (FALCs) are a recently discovered type of lymphoid tissue associated with visceral fat. Here we show that distribution of FALCs was heterogeneous with the pericardium containing large numbers of these clusters. FALCs contributed to the retention of B-1 B cells in the peritoneal cavity through high expression of the chemokine CXCL13 and supported B cell proliferation and germinal center differentiation during peritoneal immune challenges. FALC formation was induced by inflammation, which triggered recruitment of myeloid cells that express tumor necrosis factor (TNF) necessary for TNF receptor-signaling in stromal cells. CD1d-restricted Natural killer T (NKT) cells were likewise required for inducible formation of FALCs. Thus, FALCs support and coordinate innate B and T cell activation during serosal immune responses. PMID:26147686

  3. Natural cytotoxicity of haemopoietic cell populations against murine lymphoid tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Burton, R. C.; Grail, D.; Warner, N. L.

    1978-01-01

    Homozygous nude and normal mice of 3 strains, BALB/c, CBA and C57BL, were used as sources of nucleated haemopoietic "natural killer" (NK) cells. These killer cells could lyse a wide range of syngeneic and allogeneic lymphoid tumour cell lines in vitro, and it was found that cell suspensions from nude mice were always significantly more active than those from normal mice, and that the most active effector population was a polymorph-enriched peritoneal-exudate cell suspension. Eosinophils did not appear to be involved in the phenomenon, and mononuclear peritoneal-exudate cell suspensions were actually highly inhibitory. Three non-lymphoid tumours, a carcinoma, a fibrosarcoma and a mastocytoma, were totally resistant to in vitro lysis. Although all susceptible tumour cell lines were C-type virus-associated, not all of these tumours were killed by all strain sources of spleen cells, indicating a specificity of killing. PMID:656308

  4. Regulation of intestinal health and disease by innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Sonnenberg, Gregory F

    2014-09-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently appreciated immune cell population that is constitutively found in the healthy mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract and associated lymphoid tissues. Translational studies have revealed that alterations in ILC populations are associated with GI disease in patients, such as inflammatory bowel disease, HIV infection and colon cancer, suggesting a potential role for ILCs in either maintaining intestinal health or promoting intestinal disease. Mouse models identified that ILCs have context-dependent protective and pathologic functions either during the steady state, or following infection, inflammation or tissue damage. This review will discuss the associations of altered intestinal ILCs with human GI diseases, and the functional consequences of targeting ILCs in mouse models. Collectively, our current understanding of ILCs suggests that the development of novel therapeutic strategies to modulate ILC responses will be of significant clinical value to prevent or treat human GI diseases.

  5. Total lymphoid irradiation in refractory systemic lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Chetrit, E.; Gross, D.J.; Braverman, A.; Weshler, Z.; Fuks, Z.; Slavin, S.; Eliakim, M.

    1986-07-01

    In two patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, conventional therapy was considered to have failed because of persistent disease activity and unacceptable side effects. Both were treated with total lymphoid irradiation without clinical benefit, despite adequate immunosuppression as documented by markedly reduced numbers of circulating T lymphocytes and T-lymphocyte-dependent proliferative responses in vitro. The first patient developed herpes zoster, gram-negative septicemia, neurologic symptoms, and deterioration of lupus nephritis. The second patient developed massive bronchopneumonia, necrotic cutaneous lesions, and progressive nephritis and died 2 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. These observations, although limited to two patients, indicate that total lymphoid irradiation in patients with severe systemic lupus erythematosus should be regarded as strictly experimental.

  6. Clinical outcomes of childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Pottern, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted to explore the relationship between childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia and the subsequent development of thyroid gland and other head and neck disorders. All individuals under 18 years of age who were x-irradiated for lymphoid hyperplasia during the years 1938-69 at Children's Hospital Medical Center, Boston comprised the exposed population. The comparison group consisted of non-exposed, surgically treated individuals. The study included a health questionnaire and a clinical examination component. A history of thyroid cancer was reported by 11 exposed subjects and no non-exposed subjects. Significantly elevated standardized incidence ratios of thyroid cancer were seen for both exposed males and females, 19.9 and 12.1, respectively. The average thyroid radiation dose was 25.8 rads and the mean latency period was 17.3 years.

  7. Treatment of refractory chronic demyelinating polyneuropathy with lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, N.L.; Lacy, J.R.; Kennaugh, R.C.; Holers, V.M.; Neville, H.E.; Kotzin, B.L.

    1985-03-01

    Four patients with refractory or poorly responsive chronic progressive demyelinating polyneuropathy (CPDP) were treated with total lymphoid irradiation (total dose, 2000 rad) in an uncontrolled feasibility study. All patients had previously failed conventional therapy for CPDP, as well as other unconventional treatments. During a follow-up period of 7 to 12 months after total lymphoid irradiation, there was a profound and sustained suppression of the absolute lymphocyte count and in vitro lymphocyte function, as well as an increase in the ratio of Leu-2 to Leu-3 T cells in the blood. Three of the four patients demonstrated improvement in distal muscle strength, and this was associated with increased functional capabilities in two patients. In contrast, no clinical improvement in sensation was noted in any patient. Nerve conduction studies showed patchy improvement in three patients. The results of this preliminary uncontrolled study indicate that radiotherapy deserves further study in the treatment of CPDP.

  8. Benign nasopharyngeal lymphoid tumors, lymphoepithelial lesions, and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Puterman, M; Fliss, D M; Goldstein, J; Zirkin, H

    1988-09-01

    A clinico-pathologic and immunologic case study of a 57-year-old woman who has shown progressive lymphoid proliferations and lymphocyte dysfunction over the course of 10 years is presented. Early in the course of her disease, she presented with recurrent benign nasopharyngeal lymphoid tumors. She subsequently developed benign lymphoepithelial lesions involving both a submandibular and then a parotid salivary gland. She eventually underwent pneumonectomy for lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis with marked cystic degeneration and lung destruction. Although frank malignancy has not been demonstrated review of her nasopharyngeal biopsies and of her pulmonary pathology shows a tendency toward distinct cellular uniformity with loss of follicles and germinal centers. Concurrently, immunologic studies have demonstrated abnormalities of cell mediated (T cell) function.

  9. Artery Tertiary Lymphoid Organs: Powerhouses of Atherosclerosis Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Changjun; Mohanta, Sarajo Kumar; Srikakulapu, Prasad; Weber, Christian; Habenicht, Andreas J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Artery tertiary lymphoid organs (ATLOs) are atherosclerosis-associated lymphoid aggregates with varying degrees of complexity ranging from small T/B-cell clusters to well-structured lymph node-like though unencapsulated lymphoid tissues. ATLOs arise in the connective tissue that surrounds diseased arteries, i.e., the adventitia. ATLOs have been identified in aged atherosclerosis-prone hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE−/−) mice: they are organized into distinct immune cell compartments, including separate T-cell areas, activated B-cell follicles, and plasma cell niches. Analyses of ATLO immune cell subsets indicate antigen-specific T- and B-cell immune reactions within the atherosclerotic arterial wall adventitia. Moreover, ATLOs harbor innate immune cells, including a large component of inflammatory macrophages, B-1 cells, and an aberrant set of antigen-presenting cells. There is marked neoangiogenesis, irregular lymphangiogenesis, neoformation of high endothelial venules, and de novo synthesis of lymph node-like conduits. Molecular mechanisms of ATLO formation remain to be identified though media vascular smooth muscle cells may adopt features of lymphoid tissue organizer-like cells by expressing lymphorganogenic chemokines, i.e., CXCL13 and CCL21. Although these data are consistent with the view that ATLOs participate in primary T- and B-cell responses against elusive atherosclerosis-specific autoantigens, their specific protective or disease-promoting roles remain to be identified. In this review, we discuss what is currently known about ATLOs and their potential impact on atherosclerosis and make attempts to define challenges ahead. PMID:27777573

  10. Fibroblasts as Efficient Antigen-Presenting Cells in Lymphoid Organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundig, Thomas M.; Bachmann, Martin F.; Dipaolo, Claudio; Simard, John J. L.; Battegay, Manuel; Lother, Heinz; Gessner, Andre; Kuhlcke, Klaus; Ohashi, Pamela S.; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    1995-06-01

    Only so-called "professional" antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of hematopoietic origin are believed capable of inducing T lymphocyte responses. However, fibroblasts transfected with viral proteins directly induced antiviral cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in vivo, without involvement of host APCs. Fibroblasts induced T cells only in the milieu of lymphoid organs. Thus, antigen localization affects self-nonself discrimination and cell-based vaccine strategies.

  11. Analytical Detection of Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Gene Rearrangements in Gastric Lymphoid Infiltrates by Peak Area Analysis of the Melting Curve in the LightCycler System

    PubMed Central

    Retamales, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Luis; Guzman, Leda; Aguayo, Francisco; Palma, Mariana; Backhouse, Claudia; Argandona, Jorge; Riquelme, Erick; Corvalan, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Because it is difficult to differentiate gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma from chronic gastritis in gastric lymphoid infiltrates, molecular detection of monoclonality through immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangements is commonly performed. However, heterogeneity in the performance and results obtained from IgH gene rearrangements has been reported. To improve the accuracy in the diagnosis of gastric lymphoid infiltrates, we developed an analytical approach based on one-peak area analysis of the melting curve in the LightCycler System. Using a training-testing approach, the likelihood ratio method was selected to find a discriminative function of 4.64 in the training set (10 gastric MALT lymphomas and 10 chronic gastritis cases). This discriminative function was validated in the testing set (five gastric MALT lymphomas, six abnormal lymphocytic infiltrates with subsequently demonstrated gastric MALT lymphomas, and six cases of chronic gastritis). All but one case of gastric MALT lymphoma, as well as abnormal lymphocytic infiltrates, clustered under 4.64, and all chronic gastritis cases clustered above 4.64. These results were validated by conventional electrophoreses confirming one or two sharp bands in cases of gastric MALT lymphomas and a smear of multiple bands in cases of chronic gastritis. Analytical detection of IgH gene rearrangement in gastric lymphoid infiltrates by one-peak area analysis correctly distinguishes gastric MALT lymphomas from chronic gastritis, even in cases with diagnosis of abnormal lymphocytic infiltrates. PMID:17591935

  12. Intracerebral expression of CXCL13 and BAFF is accompanied by formation of lymphoid follicle-like structures in the meninges of mice with relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Magliozzi, Roberta; Columba-Cabezas, Sandra; Serafini, Barbara; Aloisi, Francesca

    2004-03-01

    Given the abnormalities in B-cell activity occurring in the central nervous system (CNS) of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), we have explored the possibility that CNS inflammation induced in mouse models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) triggers expression of molecules that control the development and functional organization of lymphoid follicles, the sites where B-cell responses are initiated. By reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we find that gene expression of CXCL13, a chemokine involved in B-cell recruitment into lymphoid follicles, and BAFF, a key regulator of B-cell survival, is markedly and persistently upregulated in the CNS of mice with relapsing-remitting and chronic-relapsing EAE. Using immunohistochemical techniques, we also show the presence of lymphoid follicle-like structures containing B cells and a reticulum of CXCL13+ and FDC-M1+ follicular dendritic cells within the meninges of several mice undergoing progressive relapsing EAE. These observations indicate that, under chronic inflammatory conditions, the less immunoprivileged meningeal compartment is the site where ectopic lymphoid follicles preferentially develop and where pathogenic B-cell responses could be sustained in autoimmune disorders of the CNS.

  13. Experimental Determination of the Respiration Associated with Soybean/Rhizobium Nitrogenase Function, Nodule Maintenance, and Total Nodule Nitrogen Fixation 1

    PubMed Central

    Rainbird, Ross M.; Hitz, William D.; Hardy, Ralph W. F.

    1984-01-01

    The total metabolic cost of soybean (Glycine max L. Mer Clark) nodule nitrogen fixation was empirically separated into respiration associated with electron flow through nitrogenase and respiration associated with maintenance of nodule function. Rates of CO2 evolution and H2 evolution from intact, nodulated root systems under Ar:O2 atmospheres decreased in parallel when plants were maintained in an extended dark period. While H2 evolution approached zero after 36 hours of darkness at 22°C, CO2 evolution rate remained at 38° of the rate measured in light. Of the remaining CO2 evolution, 62% was estimated to originate from the nodules and represents a measure of nodule maintenance respiration. The nodule maintenance requirement was temperature dependent and was estimated at 79 and 137 micromoles CO2 (per gram dry weight nodule) per hour at 22°C and 30°C, respectively. The cost of N2 fixation in terms of CO2 evolved per electron pair utilized by nitrogenase was estimated from the slope of H2 evolution rate versus CO2 evolution rate. The cost was 2 moles CO2 evolved per mole H2 evolved and was independent of temperature. In this symbiosis, nodule maintenance consumed 22% of total respiratory energy while the functioning of nitrogenase consumed a further 52%. The remaining respiratory energy was calculated to be associated with ammonia assimilation, transport of reduced N, and H2 evolution. PMID:16663599

  14. Selective lymphoid irradiation. I. An approach to transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hardy, M A; Fawwaz, R A; Oluwole, S; Todd, G; Nowygrod, R; Reemtsma, K

    1979-08-01

    The kinetics, distribution, and radiobiologic effects of palladium (Pd)-109-hematoporphyrin were determined in the rat. In addition, we studied the effect on rat heart allograft survival of Pd-109-hematoporphyrin, with and without antilymphocyte serum (ALS). A single sublethal dose of Pd-109-hematoporphyrin (up to 36 muCi/kg) resulted in the following: predominant concentration in lymphoid tissue and proximal bone marrow, complete central and proximal bone marrow ablation with preservation of distal bone marrow, massive depletion of lymphocytes from lymph nodes and spleen, an 80% reduction in peripheral blood lymphocytes which was completed by the addition of ALS, full recovery of lymphoid tissue and blood cellularity within 60 days of administration of radionuclide, and a 100% animal survival rate. This method of selective lymphoid irradiation (SLI) prolongs indefinitely Fisher cardiac allografts in Lewis recipients and significantly prolongs cardiac allograft survival across major histocompatibility barries (ACI to Lewis or to Fisher). Specific tolerance to donor strains was demonstrated by the acceptance of Fisher skin by Lewis recipients carrying 150-day-old Fisher hearts. Third party (ACI) skin allografts were rapidly rejected by the same animals. Further studies of SLI in larger animals are required to determine the optimal safe dose of SLI in man. PMID:380034

  15. Human natural killer cell development in secondary lymphoid tissues.

    PubMed

    Freud, Aharon G; Yu, Jianhua; Caligiuri, Michael A

    2014-04-01

    For nearly a decade it has been appreciated that critical steps in human natural killer (NK) cell development likely occur outside of the bone marrow and potentially necessitate distinct microenvironments within extramedullary tissues. The latter include the liver and gravid uterus as well as secondary lymphoid tissues such as tonsils and lymph nodes. For as yet unknown reasons these tissues are naturally enriched with NK cell developmental intermediates (NKDI) that span a maturation continuum starting from an oligopotent CD34(+)CD45RA(+) hematopoietic precursor cell to a cytolytic mature NK cell. Indeed despite the detection of NKDI within the aforementioned tissues, relatively little is known about how, why, and when these tissues may be most suited to support NK cell maturation and how this process fits in with other components of the human immune system. With the discovery of other innate lymphoid subsets whose immunophenotypes overlap with those of NKDI, there is also need to revisit and potentially re-characterize the basic immunophenotypes of the stages of the human NK cell developmental pathway in vivo. In this review, we provide an overview of human NK cell development in secondary lymphoid tissues and discuss the many questions that remain to be answered in this exciting field.

  16. Approach to Cutaneous Lymphoid Infiltrates: When to Consider Lymphoma?

    PubMed Central

    Charli-Joseph, Yann Vincent; Gatica-Torres, Michelle; Pincus, Laura Beth

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates (CLIs) are common in routine dermatopathology. However, differentiating a reactive CLI from a malignant lymphocytic infiltrate is often a significant challenge since many inflammatory dermatoses can clinically and/or histopathologically mimic cutaneous lymphomas, coined pseudolymphomas. We conducted a literature review from 1966 to July 1, 2015, at PubMed.gov using the search terms: Cutaneous lymphoma, cutaneous pseudolymphoma, cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia, simulants/mimics/imitators of cutaneous lymphomas, and cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates. The diagnostic approach to CLIs and the most common differential imitators of lymphoma is discussed herein based on six predominant morphologic and immunophenotypic, histopathologic patterns: (1) Superficial dermal T-cell infiltrates (2) superficial and deep dermal perivascular and/or nodular natural killer/T-cell infiltrates (3) pan-dermal diffuse T-cell infiltrates (4) panniculitic T-cell infiltrates (5) small cell predominant B-cell infiltrates, and (6) large-cell predominant B-cell infiltrates. Since no single histopathological feature is sufficient to discern between a benign and a malignant CLI, the overall balance of clinical, histopathological, immunophenotypic, and molecular features should be considered carefully to establish a diagnosis. Despite advances in ancillary studies such as immunohistochemistry and molecular clonality, these studies often display specificity and sensitivity limitations. Therefore, proper clinicopathological correlation still remains the gold standard for the precise diagnosis of CLIs. PMID:27512181

  17. Treatment of intractable lupus nephritis with total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Strober, S.; Field, E.; Hoppe, R.T.; Kotzin, B.L.; Shemesh, O.; Engleman, E.; Ross, J.C.; Myers, B.D.

    1985-04-01

    Ten patients with lupus nephritis and marked proteinuria (3.9 g or more/d) that did not respond adequately to treatment with prednisone alone or prednisone in combination with azathioprine were treated with total lymphoid irradiation in an uncontrolled feasibility study. Within 6 weeks after the start of total lymphoid irradiation, the serum albumin level rose in all patients in association with a reduction in the serum level of anti-DNA antibodies, an increase in the serum complement level, or both. Improvement in these variables persisted in eight patients followed for more than 1 year, with the stabilization or reduction of the serum creatinine level. Urinary leakage of albumin was substantially reduced in all patients. Side effects associated with radiotherapy included transient constitutional complaints in ten patients, transient blood element depressions in three, localized viral and bacterial infections in four, and ovarian failure in one. The results suggest that total lymphoid irradiation may provide an alternative to cytotoxic drugs in the treatment of lupus nephritis.

  18. Identification of derepressed autoimmunocompetent B lymphoid cells in NZB mice

    PubMed Central

    DeHeer, D. H.; Edgington, T. S.

    1974-01-01

    Plaque assays for derepressed autoimmunocompetent B lymphoid cells with specificities for two murine erythrocyte surface autoantigens have been developed. Using purified anti-HB and anti-X anti-erythrocyte autoantibodies, fluid-phase complement fixation reactions were performed to determine the influence of pH and ionic strength on the efficiency of autoantibody-mediated cytolysis of murine erythrocytes. Anti-HB autoantibody exhibited optimal cytolysis of bromelin-treated erythrocytes at pH 7·0, ionic strength 0·15; haemolysis of intact erythrocytes by anti-X autoantibody was observed over a broad range with maximum sensitivity and specificity at pH 6·6, ionic strength 0·14. NZB spleen cells secreting anti-HB autoantibody were detected in modified direct haemolysis-in-gel assays, were neutralized by soluble HB autoantigen, and appeared to represent derepressed B lymphoid cells of anti-HB type. Anti-X plaque-forming cells, not demonstrable using conventional assays, were detected under conditions corresponding to the pH and ionic strength optima determined for complement-dependent cytolysis using purified autoantibody. NZB spleen cells secreting anti-X autoantibody were detected in indirect assays employing monolayers of erythrocytes, were neutralized by soluble X autoantigen, and appeared to represent derepressed B lymphoid cells of anti-X type. The distribution of observed plaque diameters in both HB and X assays suggested that more than 95% of all cells secreting autoantibody were detected. ImagesFIG. 3 PMID:4619784

  19. Nodulation gene factors and plant response in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. [Nodulation

    SciTech Connect

    Long, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    Our original application aimed to identify genes outside the common nod region involved in nodulation and host range of alfalfa. This has been revised by adding other studies on nodulation gene action and removing molecular studies of gene action. Our restated goals and progress are as follows. An early goal was identification and characterization of additional nodulation genes. By means of transposon mutagenesis, mapping and marker exchange we have established 87 independent mutations in a 20kb area represented by plasmid pRmJT5. We discovered four new genes: nodP, nodD3, syrA and syrM. The sequence, start site and protein product for nodFe, nodG, and nodH were also identified. Regulation of nod FEGH was studied. nod FEGH can be induced by luteolin in the presence of noodle; nodD1; noD3 and syrM, a symbiotic regulator gene also increase transcription of nod FEGH. syrA will interact with syrM; syrM also regulates exopolysaccharide genes and is believed to be a master regulator. As part of these studies, an in vitro transcription/translation system for Rhizobium was developed. Adjacent to nodP we discussed nodQ, nodPQ occurrs in two highly consumed copies. nodQ appears by sequence analysis to be similar to initiation and elongation factors, with the highest homology in the GDP binding domain. We have also investigated the nod strain, WL131. WL131 has an insertion, ISRm3, interrupting nodG, and a nonsase mutation in nodH, nodH is responsible for the lack of nodulation. We are currently investigating supernatant factors, host range effects C by spot inoculation, glucaronidase fusion proteins, and are developing, a single root hair inoculation protocol. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Fusobacterium necrophorum presenting as isolated lung nodules.

    PubMed

    Sonti, Rajiv; Fleury, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum causes Lemierre's syndrome - a dramatic and distinct condition beginning with pharyngitis before proceeding to internal jugular vein septic thrombophlebitis and respiratory tract infection in otherwise healthy individuals. It is rare, but by far the most common pathway to parenchymal lung disease with this organism. Here we describe we a 34 year old healthy lady who was nontoxic without any antecedent illness who presented with lung nodules due to fusobacterium necrophorum as the sole manifestation of disease. Leading diagnostic consideration prior to culture data was pulmonary vasculitis. Identifying her disease process was a somewhat chance occurrence, and it began to resolve prior to antibiotic therapy. Though it would be difficult to recommend keen awareness of this organism given its rarity, it is important to consider that its scope may be broader than traditionally considered. PMID:26236610

  1. Leghemoglobin green derivatives with nitrated hemes evidence production of highly reactive nitrogen species during aging of legume nodules

    PubMed Central

    Navascués, Joaquín; Pérez-Rontomé, Carmen; Gay, Marina; Marcos, Manuel; Yang, Fei; Walker, F. Ann; Desbois, Alain; Abián, Joaquín; Becana, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Globins constitute a superfamily of proteins widespread in all kingdoms of life, where they fulfill multiple functions, such as efficient O2 transport and modulation of nitric oxide bioactivity. In plants, the most abundant Hbs are the symbiotic leghemoglobins (Lbs) that scavenge O2 and facilitate its diffusion to the N2-fixing bacteroids in nodules. The biosynthesis of Lbs during nodule formation has been studied in detail, whereas little is known about the green derivatives of Lbs generated during nodule senescence. Here we characterize modified forms of Lbs, termed Lbam, Lbcm, and Lbdm, of soybean nodules. These green Lbs have identical globins to the parent red Lbs but their hemes are nitrated. By combining UV-visible, MS, NMR, and resonance Raman spectroscopies with reconstitution experiments of the apoprotein with protoheme or mesoheme, we show that the nitro group is on the 4-vinyl. In vitro nitration of Lba with excess nitrite produced several isomers of nitrated heme, one of which is identical to those found in vivo. The use of antioxidants, metal chelators, and heme ligands reveals that nitration is contingent upon the binding of nitrite to heme Fe, and that the reactive nitrogen species involved derives from nitrous acid and is most probably the nitronium cation. The identification of these green Lbs provides conclusive evidence that highly oxidizing and nitrating species are produced in nodules leading to nitrosative stress. These findings are consistent with a previous report showing that the modified Lbs are more abundant in senescing nodules and have aberrant O2 binding. PMID:22308405

  2. A Stromal Cell Niche for Human and Mouse Type 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    PubMed

    Hoorweg, Kerim; Narang, Priyanka; Li, Zhi; Thuery, Anne; Papazian, Natalie; Withers, David R; Coles, Mark C; Cupedo, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Adaptive immunity critically depends on the functional compartmentalization of secondary lymphoid organs. Mesenchymal stromal cells create and maintain specialized niches that support survival, activation, and expansion of T and B cells, and integrated analysis of lymphocytes and their niche has been instrumental in understanding adaptive immunity. Lymphoid organs are also home to type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3), innate effector cells essential for barrier immunity. However, a specialized stromal niche for ILC3 has not been identified. A novel lineage-tracing approach now identifies a subset of murine fetal lymphoid tissue organizer cells that gives rise exclusively to adult marginal reticular cells. Moreover, both cell types are conserved from mice to humans and colocalize with ILC3 in secondary lymphoid tissues throughout life. In sum, we provide evidence that fetal stromal organizers give rise to adult marginal reticular cells and form a dedicated stromal niche for innate ILC3 in adaptive lymphoid organs.

  3. [Differential diagnosis of multiple pulmonary coin lesions--pulmonary hyaline granuloma].

    PubMed

    Banaschak, S; Müller, K M

    1996-02-01

    In addition to metastases, the differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules also includes tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, and silicosis. Rarer diseases such as amyloid tumors, rheumatic nodules, and plasma-cell granulomas can, depending on the clinical situation, be the cause of this finding. For the example of the clinical picture of pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma, the differential diagnosis of multiple pulmonary nodules is illustrated under consideration of the pathognomonic, morphologic observations. PMID:8868595

  4. [A Case of Concurrent Primary Gastric Malignant T-Cell Lymphoma and Pulmonary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Tadayoshi; Tamura, Shigeyuki; Takeno, Atsushi; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Ishida, Tomo; Sato, Yasufumi; Morimoto, Yoshihiro; Kusama, Hiroki; Matsushita, Katsunori; Kimura, Kei; Katsura, Yoshiteru; Nitta, Kanae; Ohmura, Yoshiaki; Kagawa, Yoshinori; Okishiro, Masatsugu; Sakisaka, Hideki; Egawa, Chiyomi; Takeda, Yutaka; Kato, Takeshi

    2015-11-01

    A 71-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for epigastric pain. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a type 2- like ulcerative lesion in the posterior wall of the upper and middle part of the stomach. Endoscopic biopsies showed malignant T-cell lymphoma histologically. A chest CT scan revealed a nodule in the apex of right lung, suggestive of primary lung cancer. A total gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy and distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy was performed. Seventy-three days after surgery, the patient developed a lung abscess in the middle lobe of the right lung. A wedge-shaped resection of the upper lobe and total resection of the middle lobe of the right lung was performed. Histological examination revealed a primary pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in the upper lobe of right lung and an abscess caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the middle lobe of the right lung. Twelve months after surgery the man died of suffocation because of aspiration due to esophageal stenosis caused by progression of metastasis of the paraesophageal lymph node. PMID:26805184

  5. Nodules are induced on alfalfa roots by Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Rhizobium trifolii containing small segments of the Rhizobium meliloti nodulation region

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, A.M.; Drake, D.; Jacobs, T.W.; Long, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    Regions of the Rhizobium meliloti nodulation genes from the symbiotic plasmid were transferred to Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Rhizobium trifolii by conjugation. The A. tumefaciens and R. trifolii trans-conjugants were unable to elicit curling of alfalfa root hairs, but were able to induce nodule development at a low frequency. These were judged to be genuine nodules on the basis of cytological and developmental criteria. Like genuine alfalfa nodules, the nodules were initiated from divisions of the inner root cortical cells. They developed a distally positioned meristem and several peripheral vascular bundles. An endodermis separated the inner tissues of the nodule from the surrounding cortex. No infection threads were found to penetrate either root hairs or the nodule cells. Bacteria were found only in intercellular spaces. Thus, alfalfa nodules induced by A. tumefaciens and R. trifolii transconjugants carrying small nodulation clones of R. meliloti were completely devoid of intracellular bacteria. When these strains were inoculated onto white clover roots, small nodule-like protrusions developed that, when examined cytologically, were found to more closely resemble roots than nodules. Although the meristem was broadened and lacked a root cap, the protrusions had a central vascular bundle and other rootlike features. The results suggest that morphogenesis of alfalfa root nodules can be uncoupled from infection thread formation. The genes encoded in the 8.7-kilobase nodulation fragment are sufficient in A. tumefaciens or R. trifolii backgrounds for nodule morphogenesis.

  6. Seamless Insertion of Pulmonary Nodules in Chest CT Images.

    PubMed

    Pezeshk, Aria; Sahiner, Berkman; Zeng, Rongping; Wunderlich, Adam; Chen, Weijie; Petrick, Nicholas

    2015-12-01

    The availability of large medical image datasets is critical in many applications, such as training and testing of computer-aided diagnosis systems, evaluation of segmentation algorithms, and conducting perceptual studies. However, collection of data and establishment of ground truth for medical images are both costly and difficult. To address this problem, we are developing an image blending tool that allows users to modify or supplement existing datasets by seamlessly inserting a lesion extracted from a source image into a target image. In this study, we focus on the application of this tool to pulmonary nodules in chest CT exams. We minimize the impact of user skill on the perceived quality of the composite image by limiting user involvement to two simple steps: the user first draws a casual boundary around a nodule in the source, and, then, selects the center of desired insertion area in the target. We demonstrate the performance of our system on clinical samples, and report the results of a reader study evaluating the realism of inserted nodules compared to clinical nodules. We further evaluate our image blending techniques using phantoms simulated under different noise levels and reconstruction filters. Specifically, we compute the area under the ROC curve of the Hotelling observer (HO) and noise power spectrum of regions of interest enclosing native and inserted nodules, and compare the detectability, noise texture, and noise magnitude of inserted and native nodules. Our results indicate the viability of our approach for insertion of pulmonary nodules in clinical CT images. PMID:26080378

  7. NODULE INCEPTION Directly Targets NF-Y Subunit Genes to Regulate Essential Processes of Root Nodule Development in Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Soyano, Takashi; Kouchi, Hiroshi; Hirota, Atsuko; Hayashi, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    The interactions of legumes with symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria cause the formation of specialized lateral root organs called root nodules. It has been postulated that this root nodule symbiosis system has recruited factors that act in early signaling pathways (common SYM genes) partly from the ancestral mycorrhizal symbiosis. However, the origins of factors needed for root nodule organogenesis are largely unknown. NODULE INCEPTION (NIN) is a nodulation-specific gene that encodes a putative transcription factor and acts downstream of the common SYM genes. Here, we identified two Nuclear Factor-Y (NF-Y) subunit genes, LjNF-YA1 and LjNF-YB1, as transcriptional targets of NIN in Lotus japonicus. These genes are expressed in root nodule primordia and their translational products interact in plant cells, indicating that they form an NF-Y complex in root nodule primordia. The knockdown of LjNF-YA1 inhibited root nodule organogenesis, as did the loss of function of NIN. Furthermore, we found that NIN overexpression induced root nodule primordium-like structures that originated from cortical cells in the absence of bacterial symbionts. Thus, NIN is a crucial factor responsible for initiating nodulation-specific symbiotic processes. In addition, ectopic expression of either NIN or the NF-Y subunit genes caused abnormal cell division during lateral root development. This indicated that the Lotus NF-Y subunits can function to stimulate cell division. Thus, transcriptional regulation by NIN, including the activation of the NF-Y subunit genes, induces cortical cell division, which is an initial step in root nodule organogenesis. Unlike the legume-specific NIN protein, NF-Y is a major CCAAT box binding protein complex that is widespread among eukaryotes. We propose that the evolution of root nodules in legume plants was associated with changes in the function of NIN. NIN has acquired functions that allow it to divert pathways involved in the regulation of cell division to

  8. Nonfamilial Multiple Trichoepithelioma: Few and Far Between

    PubMed Central

    Sehrawat, Manu; Jairath, Vijayeeta; Jain, VK

    2016-01-01

    Trichoepithelioma is a rare benign adnexal tumor which may be of solitary nonfamilial type or multiple familial trichoepitheliomas. Here, we describe a rare presentation of nonfamilial case of trichoepithelioma in a 50-year-old female with multiple skin colored facial papules and nodules over the face, upper back, and extremities. PMID:26955100

  9. Efficiency of Nodule Initiation in Cowpea and Soybean 1

    PubMed Central

    Bhuvaneswari, T. V.; Lesniak, Andrew P.; Bauer, Wolfgang D.

    1988-01-01

    When serial dilutions of a suspension of Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain 138 were inoculated onto both soybean and cowpea roots, the formation of nodules in the initially susceptible region of the roots of both hosts was found to be linearly dependent on the log of the inoculum dosage until an optimum dosage was reached. Approximately 30- to 100-fold higher dosages were required to elicit half-maximal nodulation on cowpea than on soybean in the initially susceptible zone of the root. However, at optimal dosages, about six times as many nodules formed in this region on cowpea roots than on soybean roots. There was no appreciable difference in the apparent rate of nodule initiation on these two hosts nor in the number of inoculum bacteria in contact with the root. These results are consistent with the possibility that cowpea roots have a substantially higher threshold of response to symbiotic signals from the bacteria than do soybean roots. Storage of B. japonicum cells in distilled water for several weeks did not affect their viability or efficiency of nodule initiation on soybean. However, the nodulation efficiency of these same cells on cowpea diminished markedly over a 2 week period. These differential effects of water storage indicate that at least some aspects of signal production by the bacteria during nodule initiation are different on the two hosts. Mutants of B. japonicum 138 defective in synthesis of soybean lectin binding polysaccharide were defective in their efficiency of nodule initiation on soybean but not on cowpea. These results also suggest that B. japonicum may produce different substances to initiate nodules on these two hosts. PMID:16666056

  10. Nodulation of Cyclopia spp. (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) by Burkholderia tuberum

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Geoffrey N.; Chen, Wen-Ming; Bontemps, Cyril; Chou, Jui-Hsing; Young, J. Peter W.; Sprent, Janet I.; James, Euan K.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Species of the genus Burkholderia, from the Betaproteobacteria, have been isolated from legume nodules, but so far they have only been shown to form symbioses with species of Mimosa, sub-family Mimosoideae. This work investigates whether Burkholderia tuberum strains STM678 (isolated from Aspalathus carnosa) and DUS833 (from Aspalathus callosa) can nodulate species of the South African endemic papilionoid genera Cyclopia (tribe Podalyrieae) and Aspalathus (Crotalarieae) as well as the promiscuous legume Macroptilium atropurpureum (Phaseoleae). Method Bacterial strains and the phylogeny of their symbiosis-related (nod) genes were examined via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Seedlings were grown in liquid culture and inoculated with one of the two strains of B. tuberum or with Sinorhizobium strain NGR 234 (from Lablab purpureus), Mesorhizobium strain DUS835 (from Aspalathus linearis) or Methylobacterium nodulans (from Crotalaria podocarpa). Some nodules, inoculated with green fluorescence protein (GFP)-tagged strains, were examined by light and electron microscopy coupled with immunogold labelling with a Burkholderia-specific antibody. The presence of active nitrogenase was checked by immunolabelling of nitrogenase and by the acetylene reduction assay. B. tuberum STM678 was also tested on a wide range of legumes from all three sub-families. Key Results Nodules were not formed on any of the Aspalathus spp. Only B. tuberum nodulated Cyclopia falcata, C. galioides, C. genistoides, C. intermedia and C. pubescens. It also effectively nodulated M. atropurpureum but no other species tested. GFP-expressing inoculant strains were located inside infected cells of C. genistoides, and bacteroids in both Cyclopia spp. and M. atropurpureum were immunogold-labelled with antibodies against Burkholderia and nitrogenase. Nitrogenase activity was also shown using the acetylene reduction assay. This is the first demonstration that a β-rhizobial strain can effectively

  11. Dissecting the Root Nodule Transcriptome of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Chandra; Pradhan, Seema; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark trait of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), like other legumes, is the capability to convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3) in symbiotic association with Mesorhizobium ciceri. However, the complexity of molecular networks associated with the dynamics of nodule development in chickpea need to be analyzed in depth. Hence, in order to gain insights into the chickpea nodule development, the transcriptomes of nodules at early, middle and late stages of development were sequenced using the Roche 454 platform. This generated 490.84 Mb sequence data comprising 1,360,251 reads which were assembled into 83,405 unigenes. Transcripts were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO), Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways analysis. Differential expression analysis revealed that a total of 3760 transcripts were differentially expressed in at least one of three stages, whereas 935, 117 and 2707 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in the early, middle and late stages of nodule development respectively. MapMan analysis revealed enrichment of metabolic pathways such as transport, protein synthesis, signaling and carbohydrate metabolism during root nodulation. Transcription factors were predicted and analyzed for their differential expression during nodule development. Putative nodule specific transcripts were identified and enriched for GO categories using BiNGO which revealed many categories to be enriched during nodule development, including transcription regulators and transporters. Further, the assembled transcriptome was also used to mine for genic SSR markers. In conclusion, this study will help in enriching the transcriptomic resources implicated in understanding of root nodulation events in chickpea. PMID:27348121

  12. Dissecting the Root Nodule Transcriptome of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    PubMed

    Kant, Chandra; Pradhan, Seema; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark trait of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), like other legumes, is the capability to convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3) in symbiotic association with Mesorhizobium ciceri. However, the complexity of molecular networks associated with the dynamics of nodule development in chickpea need to be analyzed in depth. Hence, in order to gain insights into the chickpea nodule development, the transcriptomes of nodules at early, middle and late stages of development were sequenced using the Roche 454 platform. This generated 490.84 Mb sequence data comprising 1,360,251 reads which were assembled into 83,405 unigenes. Transcripts were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO), Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways analysis. Differential expression analysis revealed that a total of 3760 transcripts were differentially expressed in at least one of three stages, whereas 935, 117 and 2707 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in the early, middle and late stages of nodule development respectively. MapMan analysis revealed enrichment of metabolic pathways such as transport, protein synthesis, signaling and carbohydrate metabolism during root nodulation. Transcription factors were predicted and analyzed for their differential expression during nodule development. Putative nodule specific transcripts were identified and enriched for GO categories using BiNGO which revealed many categories to be enriched during nodule development, including transcription regulators and transporters. Further, the assembled transcriptome was also used to mine for genic SSR markers. In conclusion, this study will help in enriching the transcriptomic resources implicated in understanding of root nodulation events in chickpea. PMID:27348121

  13. Dissecting the Root Nodule Transcriptome of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    PubMed

    Kant, Chandra; Pradhan, Seema; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark trait of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), like other legumes, is the capability to convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3) in symbiotic association with Mesorhizobium ciceri. However, the complexity of molecular networks associated with the dynamics of nodule development in chickpea need to be analyzed in depth. Hence, in order to gain insights into the chickpea nodule development, the transcriptomes of nodules at early, middle and late stages of development were sequenced using the Roche 454 platform. This generated 490.84 Mb sequence data comprising 1,360,251 reads which were assembled into 83,405 unigenes. Transcripts were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO), Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways analysis. Differential expression analysis revealed that a total of 3760 transcripts were differentially expressed in at least one of three stages, whereas 935, 117 and 2707 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in the early, middle and late stages of nodule development respectively. MapMan analysis revealed enrichment of metabolic pathways such as transport, protein synthesis, signaling and carbohydrate metabolism during root nodulation. Transcription factors were predicted and analyzed for their differential expression during nodule development. Putative nodule specific transcripts were identified and enriched for GO categories using BiNGO which revealed many categories to be enriched during nodule development, including transcription regulators and transporters. Further, the assembled transcriptome was also used to mine for genic SSR markers. In conclusion, this study will help in enriching the transcriptomic resources implicated in understanding of root nodulation events in chickpea.

  14. Latitude gradients for lymphoid neoplasm subtypes in Australia support an association with ultraviolet radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Marina T; Turner, Jennifer J; Falster, Michael O; Meagher, Nicola S; Joske, David J; Grulich, Andrew E; Giles, Graham G; Vajdic, Claire M

    2013-08-15

    Given the uncertainty surrounding solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and risk of lymphoid neoplasms, we performed an ecological analysis of national Australian data for incident cases diagnosed between 2002 and 2006. Subtype-specific incidence was examined by latitude band (<29°S, 29-36°S, ≥37°S), a proxy for ambient UVR exposure, using multiple Poisson regression, adjusted for sex, age-group and calendar year. Incidence increased with distance from the equator for several mature B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, including diffuse large B-cell [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16-1.61 for latitude ≥37°S relative to <29°S], lymphoplasmacytic (IRR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.12-1.61), mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (IRR = 1.32; 95% CI: 0.97-1.80) and mantle cell lymphoma (IRR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.05-1.58), as well as plasmacytoma (IRR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.09-2.11) and plasma cell myeloma (IRR = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.03-1.27). A similar pattern was observed for several mature cutaneous T-cell neoplasms, including primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (IRR = 4.26; 95% CI: 1.85-9.84), mycosis fungoides/Sézary syndrome (IRR = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.20-2.46), and peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (NOS) (IRR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.17-2.00). Incidence of mixed cellularity/lymphocyte-depleted (IRR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.16-2.20) and nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma (IRR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.33-1.85) also increased with distance from the equator. Many of these subtypes have a known association with infection or immune dysregulation. Our findings support a possible protective effect of UVR exposure on the risk of several lymphoid neoplasms, possibly through vitamin D-related immune modulation critical in lymphomagenesis.

  15. Purpuric nodules and macules on the scalp of an 18-month-old boy.

    PubMed

    Malbora, Baris; Senel, Engin; Avci, Zekai; Ozbek, Namik

    2010-01-01

    An 18-month-old boy was consulted to a pediatric clinic with a 5-month history of purpuric macules and nodules on the scalp. He had a history of trauma (falling down from a chair) to the scalp about 6 months before the consultation. He had been brought to an emergency department after the trauma. Cranial computed tomography revealed a small crack on the temporal bone. Purpuric macules and nodules of the scalp had been noticed on the control 1 month later. Results of total blood tests had been within normal limits. Dermatologic examination disclosed multiple pink to violaceous infiltrated cutaneous nodules and purpuric macules with diameters of0.5 to 1.5 cm on his scalp (Figure 1). No petechiae or ecchymoses were seen. Cervical lymphadenopathy was detected during physical examination. There was no hepatosplenomegaly. A punch biopsy was obtained from one of the infiltrated nodules and was sent for histopathologic examination. Histopathologic examination revealed diffuse dermal and subcutaneous edema, erythrocyte extravasation and infiltration by monomorphic cells with large hyperchromatic nuclei, and high mitotic activity (Figure 2). Histopathologic staining was positive for leukocyte common antigen and CD68 in these cells. Results of complete blood cell count of the patient were as follows: hemoglobin: 8.44 g/dL; white blood cell count: 29.2 x 10(9)/L; and platelet count 55.6 x 10(9)/L. Bone marrow aspirate results showed 68.4% blast cells and a biopsy specimen confirmed the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia, with flow cytometry findings positive for acute monoblastic leukemia (AML) French-American-British (FAB)-M5 phenotype. We initiated induction chemotherapy for AML (AML-M5) according to the AML Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster 2004 protocol.' Complete resolution of the leukemia cutis lesions was attained with chemotherapy at the end of the first month of treatment.

  16. Tertiary Lymphoid Structures in Cancers: Prognostic Value, Regulation, and Manipulation for Therapeutic Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Lawand, Myriam; Giraldo, Nicolas A.; Kaplon, Hélène; Germain, Claire; Fridman, Wolf Herman; Dieu-Nosjean, Marie-Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) are ectopic lymphoid aggregates that reflect lymphoid neogenesis occurring in tissues at sites of inflammation. They are detected in tumors where they orchestrate local and systemic anti-tumor responses. A correlation has been found between high densities of TLS and prolonged patient’s survival in more than 10 different types of cancer. TLS can be regulated by the same set of chemokines and cytokines that orchestrate lymphoid organogenesis and by regulatory T cells. Thus, TLS offer a series of putative new targets that could be used to develop therapies aiming to increase the anti-tumor immune response. PMID:27752258

  17. An optimized protocol for isolating lymphoid stromal cells from the intestinal lamina propria.

    PubMed

    Stzepourginski, Igor; Eberl, Gérard; Peduto, Lucie

    2015-06-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells in lymphoid organs, also called lymphoid stromal cells (LSCs), play a pivotal role in immunity by forming specialized microenvironments that provide signals for leukocyte migration, positioning, and survival. Best characterized in lymphoid organs, LSCs are also abundant in the intestinal mucosa, which harbors a rich repertoire of immune cells. However, the lack of efficient procedures for isolation and purification of LSCs from the intestine has been a major limitation to their characterization. Here we report a new method to efficiently isolate, in addition to immune cells, viable lymphoid stromal cells and other stromal subsets from the intestinal lamina propria for subsequent phenotypic and functional analysis.

  18. Variability among Rhizobium Strains Originating from Nodules of Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    van Berkum, P; Beyene, D; Vera, F T; Keyser, H H

    1995-07-01

    Rhizobium strains from nodules of Vicia faba were diverse in plasmid content and serology. Results of multilocus gel electrophoresis and restriction fragment length polymorphism indicated several deep chromosomal lineages among the strains. Linkage disequilibrium among the chromosomal types was detected and may have reflected variation of Rhizobium strains in the different geographical locations from which the strains originated. An investigation of pea strains with antibodies prepared against fava bean strains and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses, targeting DNA regions coding for rRNA and nodulation, indicated that Rhizobium strains from V. faba nodules were distinguishable from those from Pisum sativum, V. villosa, and Trifolium spp. PMID:16535075

  19. Internal features, mineralogy and geochemistry of ferromanganese nodules from the Gulf of Cadiz: The role of the Mediterranean Outflow Water undercurrent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, F. J.; Somoza, L.; Lunar, R.; Martínez-Frías, J.; Rubí, J. A. Martín; Torres, T.; Ortiz, J. E.; Díaz-del-Río, V.

    2010-03-01

    A large suite of Fe-Mn nodules (561 samples) were recovered during the Anastasya2001 cruise (TASYO project) along the continental margin of the Gulf of Cadiz (Eastern Central Atlantic), at the confluence of the Mediterranean Sea with the Atlantic Ocean, where extensive nodule fields were discovered. Based on wide previous studies that included swath bathymetry, multi-channel and very high-resolution seismic reflection, gravimetry, magnetism, heat flow probes and underwater photography surveys, nodules were collected at water depths ranging from 850 to 1000 m, associated with hydrocarbon-derived Mg-calcite, ankerite and dolomite chimneys and crusts. Forty-six selected samples among the various morphological types were used for the laboratory analysis of physical properties (morphology, color, surface texture, sphericity, weight and size), mineralogy (XRD, optical and electronic microscopy), geochemistry (XRF, AAS, ICP-MS, ICP-AES, EPMA, and GC-MS) and stable isotopes. The nodules show a wide range of sizes, densities, weights and morphologies. They are formed by multiple millimeter-thick layers of Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides surrounding the nucleus composed of Early-Middle Miocene plastic marl and sediment, which were derived from underlying units by fluid venting. Massive, laminated, detrital and mottled to dendritic textural features were developed by the Fe and Mn oxyhydroxide layers. The main components are Goethite, lepidocrocite, Mn oxides (7 Å manganates and 10 Å manganates), quartz, and phyllosilicates. Accessory minerals are calcite, dolomite, siderite, rhodochrosite, kutnahorite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, potassium feldspar, zircon, rutile, ilmenite and chlorite. Fe-Mn carbonates from the siderite-rhodochrosite continuous series are the principal constituent of the nuclei. Framboidal, filamentous and globular textures are observed in Fe-Mn oxides and pyrite, suggesting biogenic origin. The nodules show a high mean abundance of Fe (38.6%), moderate Mn (6.0%) and

  20. Effect of reconstruction methods and x-ray tube current–time product on nodule detection in an anthropomorphic thorax phantom: A crossed-modality JAFROC observer study

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, J. D.; Chakraborty, D. P.; Szczepura, K.; Tootell, A. K.; Vamvakas, I.; Manning, D. J.; Hogg, P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate nodule detection in an anthropomorphic chest phantom in computed tomography (CT) images reconstructed with adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D (AIDR3D) and filtered back projection (FBP) over a range of tube current–time product (mAs). Methods: Two phantoms were used in this study: (i) an anthropomorphic chest phantom was loaded with spherical simulated nodules of 5, 8, 10, and 12 mm in diameter and +100, −630, and −800 Hounsfield units electron density; this would generate CT images for the observer study; (ii) a whole-body dosimetry verification phantom was used to ultimately estimate effective dose and risk according to the model of the BEIR VII committee. Both phantoms were scanned over a mAs range (10, 20, 30, and 40), while all other acquisition parameters remained constant. Images were reconstructed with both AIDR3D and FBP. For the observer study, 34 normal cases (no nodules) and 34 abnormal cases (containing 1–3 nodules, mean 1.35 ± 0.54) were chosen. Eleven observers evaluated images from all mAs and reconstruction methods under the free-response paradigm. A crossed-modality jackknife alternative free-response operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis method was developed for data analysis, averaging data over the two factors influencing nodule detection in this study: mAs and image reconstruction (AIDR3D or FBP). A Bonferroni correction was applied and the threshold for declaring significance was set at 0.025 to maintain the overall probability of Type I error at α = 0.05. Contrast-to-noise (CNR) was also measured for all nodules and evaluated by a linear least squares analysis. Results: For random-reader fixed-case crossed-modality JAFROC analysis, there was no significant difference in nodule detection between AIDR3D and FBP when data were averaged over mAs [F(1, 10) = 0.08, p = 0.789]. However, when data were averaged over reconstruction methods, a significant difference was seen between multiple pairs of mAs settings

  1. MicroRNA-125b expands hematopoietic stem cells and enriches for the lymphoid-balanced and lymphoid-biased subsets

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, A. G. Lisa; Sahoo, Debashis; Adorno, Maddalena; Wang, Yulei; Weissman, Irving L.; Park, Christopher Y.

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs profoundly impact hematopoietic cells by regulating progenitor cell-fate decisions, as well as mature immune effector function. However to date, microRNAs that regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function have been less well characterized. Here we show that microRNA-125b (miR-125b) is highly expressed in HSCs and its expression decreases in committed progenitors. Overexpression of miR-125b in mouse HSC enhances their function, demonstrated through serial transplantation of highly purified HSC, and enriches for the previously described Slamf1loCD34− lymphoid-balanced and the Slamf1negCD34− lymphoid-biased cell subsets within the multipotent HSC (CD34-KLS) fraction. Mature peripheral blood cells derived from the miR-125b–overexpressing HSC are skewed toward the lymphoid lineage. Consistent with this observation, miR-125b overexpression significantly increases the number of early B-progenitor cells within the spleen and induces the expansion and enrichment of the lymphoid-balanced and lymphoid-biased HSC subset via an antiapoptotic mechanism, reducing the mRNA expression levels of two proapoptotic targets, Bmf and KLF13. The antiapoptotic effect of miR-125b is more pronounced in the lymphoid-biased HSC subset because of their intrinsic higher baseline levels of apoptosis. These effects of miR-125b are associated with the development of lymphoproliferative disease, marked by expansion of CD8+ T lymphocytes. Taken together, these data reveal that miR-125b regulates HSC survival and can promote lymphoid-fate decisions at the level of the HSC by preferentially expanding lymphoid-balanced and lymphoid-biased HSC. PMID:21118986

  2. MicroRNA-125b expands hematopoietic stem cells and enriches for the lymphoid-balanced and lymphoid-biased subsets.

    PubMed

    Ooi, A G Lisa; Sahoo, Debashis; Adorno, Maddalena; Wang, Yulei; Weissman, Irving L; Park, Christopher Y

    2010-12-14

    MicroRNAs profoundly impact hematopoietic cells by regulating progenitor cell-fate decisions, as well as mature immune effector function. However to date, microRNAs that regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function have been less well characterized. Here we show that microRNA-125b (miR-125b) is highly expressed in HSCs and its expression decreases in committed progenitors. Overexpression of miR-125b in mouse HSC enhances their function, demonstrated through serial transplantation of highly purified HSC, and enriches for the previously described Slamf1(lo)CD34(-) lymphoid-balanced and the Slamf1(neg)CD34(-) lymphoid-biased cell subsets within the multipotent HSC (CD34-KLS) fraction. Mature peripheral blood cells derived from the miR-125b-overexpressing HSC are skewed toward the lymphoid lineage. Consistent with this observation, miR-125b overexpression significantly increases the number of early B-progenitor cells within the spleen and induces the expansion and enrichment of the lymphoid-balanced and lymphoid-biased HSC subset via an antiapoptotic mechanism, reducing the mRNA expression levels of two proapoptotic targets, Bmf and KLF13. The antiapoptotic effect of miR-125b is more pronounced in the lymphoid-biased HSC subset because of their intrinsic higher baseline levels of apoptosis. These effects of miR-125b are associated with the development of lymphoproliferative disease, marked by expansion of CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Taken together, these data reveal that miR-125b regulates HSC survival and can promote lymphoid-fate decisions at the level of the HSC by preferentially expanding lymphoid-balanced and lymphoid-biased HSC.

  3. Cytochemically demonstrable B-glucuronidase activity in normal and neoplastic human lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Machin, G A; Halper, J P; Knowles, D M

    1980-12-01

    Mononuclear cell suspensions were prepared from 40 normal peripheral blood and lymphoid tissue specimens and 42 neoplastic specimens obtained from patients with malignant lymphoma and lymphocytic leukemia. These suspensions were analyzed for la antigens, surface immunoglobulin (Slg), sheep erythrocyte (E) rosette formation and, in some instances, acid alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) activity. The results of these studies were correlated with the expression of cytochemically demonstrable BG activity. The percentage of BG+ lymphocytes was found to be comparable, within 10%, to the percentage of E+ (T) cells in the majority of normal, non-neoplastic peripheral blood, tonsil, spleen, and lymph node specimens examined. Occasionally, the percentage of E+ cells exceeded the percentage of BG+ cells by 20% or more, suggesting the presence of an E+BG- T cell subpopulation. BG+ B lymphocytes were only demonstrated in 1 of 40 non-neoplastic lymphoid specimens. The neoplastic B cells in each of 14 B cell (la+Slg+E-) lymphomas were BG-. However, a variable proportion of the neoplastic cells isolated from 6 cases of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and neoplastic plasma cells isolated from 7 cases of multiple myeloma expressed BG activity. Thus, it appears that both normal and neoplastic BG- and BG+ B lymphocyte populations exist; the latter may be related to a state of activation or a stage of B cell differentiation. The neoplastic cells isolated from 4 T cell (la-Slg-E+) malignancies were BG+ while those isolated from 3 T cell malignancies were BG-. The variable expression of BG activity by T cell malignancies may be related to T cell differentiation. Investigation of BG expression by T cell derived malignancies may prove useful in sorting out T cell phenotypes. PMID:7437515

  4. Early lymphoid lesions: conceptual, diagnostic and clinical challenges

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathi, Karthik A.; Pittaluga, Stefania; Odejide, Oreofe O.; Freedman, Arnold S.; Jaffe, Elaine S.

    2014-01-01

    There are no “benign lymphomas”, a fact due to the nature of lymphoid cells to circulate and home as part of their normal function. Thus, benign clonal expansions of lymphocytes are only rarely recognized when localized. Recent studies have identified a number of lymphoid proliferations that lie at the interface between benign and malignant. Some of these are clonal proliferations that carry many of the molecular hallmarks of their malignant counterparts, such as BCL2/IGH and CCND1/IGH translocations associated with the in situ forms of follicular lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma, respectively. There are other clonal B-cell proliferations with low risk of progression; these include the pediatric variants of follicular lymphoma and marginal zone lymphoma. Historically, early or incipient forms of T/NK-cell neoplasia also have been identified, such as lymphomatoid papulosis and refractory celiac disease. More recently an indolent form of T-cell lymphoproliferative disease affecting the gastrointestinal tract has been described. Usually, CD8+, the clonal cells are confined to the mucosa. The clinical course is chronic, but non-progressive. NK-cell enteropathy is a clinically similar condition, composed of cytologically atypical NK-cells that may involve the stomach, small bowel or colon. Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a cytologically alarming lesion that is self-limited if confined to the seroma cavity. Atypical lymphoid proliferations that lie at the border of benign and malignant can serve as instructive models of lymphomagenesis. It is also critical that they be correctly diagnosed to avoid unnecessary and potentially harmful therapy. PMID:25176983

  5. Aging impacts isolated lymphoid follicle development and function

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Immunosenescence is the age-related decline and dysfunction of protective immunity leading to a marked increase in the risk of infections, autoimmune disease, and cancer. The majority of studies have focused on immunosenescence in the systemic immune system; information concerning the effect of aging on intestinal immunity is limited. Isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs) are newly appreciated dynamic intestinal lymphoid structures that arise from nascent lymphoid tissues, or cryptopatches (CP), in response to local inflammatory stimuli. ILFs promote "homeostatic" responses including the production of antigen-specific IgA, thus playing a key role in mucosal immune protection. ILF dysfunction with aging could contribute to immunosenescence of the mucosal system, and accordingly we examined phenotypic and functional aspects of ILFs from young (2 month old) and aged (2 year old) mice. Results We observed that aged mice have increased numbers of ILFs and increased numbers of structures corresponding to an early stage of CPs transforming into ILFs. The cellular composition of ILFs in aged mice is altered with a smaller B-lymphocyte population and an increased T-lymphocyte population. The ILF T-lymphocyte population is notable by the presence of CD4+ CD8αα+ T-lymphocytes, which are absent from the systemic compartment. The smaller B-lymphocyte population in ILFs from aged mice is directly correlated with decreased mRNA and protein expression of CCL20 and CXCL13, two chemokines that play crucial roles in recruiting B-lymphocytes into ILFs. Aged mice had elevated levels of serum and fecal immunoglobulins and despite the decreased B-lymphocyte population, ILFs from aged mice displayed increased IgA production. The immunoglobulin repertoire was skewed in aged mice, and ILFs demonstrated a repertoire usage similar to that of the systemic pool in both young and aged mice. Conclusions Here we observed that ILF development, cellular composition, and immunoglobulin

  6. Fluid inclusion geobarometry from ejected Mt. Somma-Vesuvius nodules.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belkin, H.E.; de Vivo, B.; Roedder, E.; Cortini, M.

    1985-01-01

    The results of a microthermometric study of fluid inclusions from seven cumulate and three 'skarn' nodules collected from the pyroclastics of three non-Plinian eruptive episodes are presented. -J.A.Z.

  7. The aluminosilicate fraction of North Pacific manganese nodules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, J.L.; Piper, D.Z.; Leong, K.

    1981-01-01

    Nine nodules collected from throughout the deep North Pacific were analyzed for their mineralogy and major-element composition before and after leaching with Chester-Hughes solution. Data indicate that the mineral phillipsite accounts for the major part (> 75%) of the aluminosilicate fraction of all nodules. It is suggested that formation of phillipsite takes place on growing nodule surfaces coupled with the oxidation of absorbed manganous ion. All the nodules could be described as ternary mixtures of amorphous iron fraction (Fe-Ti-P), manganese oxide fraction (Mn-Mg Cu-Ni), and phillipsite fraction (Al-Si-K-Na), these fractions accounting for 96% of the variability of the chemical composition. ?? 1981.

  8. Lymphoid lesions of salivary glands: malignant and benign.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Gary L

    2007-12-01

    Lesions of salivary glands with a prominent lymphoid component are a heterogeneous group of diseases that include benign reactive lesions and malignant neoplasms. Occasionally, these pathologic entities present difficulties in the clinical and pathological diagnosis and prognosis. Lymphoepithelial sialadenitis, HIV-associated salivary gland disease, chronic sclerosing sialadenitis, Warthin tumor, and extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma are examples of this pathology that are sometimes problematic to differentiate from one another. In this paper the author reviewed the main clinical, pathological and prognostic features of these lesions.

  9. Abnormalities in the erythrocyte membrane in acute lymphoid leukaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, M; Basu, J; Chakrabarti, P; Rakshit, M M

    1989-01-01

    Erythrocytes from patients suffering from acute lymphoid leukaemia (ALL) show decreased proportions of spectrin tetrameters and altered spatial distribution of band 4.1 and ankyrins. These abnormalities of the cytoskeleton are probably responsible for altered membrane fluidity and transbilayer distribution of phosphatidylethanolamine in ALL. ALL is associated with severe anaemia and usually, but not always, with overproduction of lymphocytes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of abnormalities in the erythrocyte membrane in ALL which may, in part, be responsible for the observed anaemia. PMID:2730573

  10. Lymphoid Tissue Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Development and Tissue Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) are sites that facilitate cell-cell interactions required for generating adaptive immune responses. Nonhematopoietic mesenchymal stromal cells have been shown to play a critical role in SLO function, organization, and tissue homeostasis. The stromal microenvironment undergoes profound remodeling to support immune responses. However, chronic inflammatory conditions can promote uncontrolled stromal cell activation and aberrant tissue remodeling including fibrosis, thus leading to tissue damage. Despite recent advancements, the origin and role of mesenchymal stromal cells involved in SLO development and remodeling remain unclear. PMID:27190524

  11. Ethylene, a Hormone at the Center-Stage of Nodulation

    PubMed Central

    Guinel, Frédérique C.

    2015-01-01

    Nodulation is the result of a beneficial interaction between legumes and rhizobia. It is a sophisticated process leading to nutrient exchange between the two types of symbionts. In this association, within a nodule, the rhizobia, using energy provided as photosynthates, fix atmospheric nitrogen and convert it to ammonium which is available to the plant. Nodulation is recognized as an essential process in nitrogen cycling and legume crops are known to enrich agricultural soils in nitrogenous compounds. Furthermore, as they are rich in nitrogen, legumes are considered important as staple foods for humans and fodder for animals. To tightly control this association and keep it mutualistic, the plant uses several means, including hormones. The hormone ethylene has been known as a negative regulator of nodulation for almost four decades. Since then, much progress has been made in the understanding of both the ethylene signaling pathway and the nodulation process. Here I have taken a large view, using recently obtained knowledge, to describe in some detail the major stages of the process. I have not only reviewed the steps most commonly covered (the common signaling transduction pathway, and the epidermal and cortical programs), but I have also looked into steps less understood (the pre-infection step with the plant defense response, the bacterial release and the formation of the symbiosome, and nodule functioning and senescence). After a succinct review of the ethylene signaling pathway, I have used the knowledge obtained from nodulation- and ethylene-related mutants to paint a more complete picture of the role played by the hormone in nodule organogenesis, functioning, and senescence. It transpires that ethylene is at the center of this effective symbiosis. It has not only been involved in most of the steps leading to a mature nodule, but it has also been implicated in host immunity and nodule senescence. It is likely responsible for the activation of other hormonal

  12. How should pulmonary nodules be optimally investigated and managed?

    PubMed

    Callister, Matthew E J; Baldwin, David R

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary nodules are a common incidental finding on CT and the inexorable rise in the use of CT (10% increase per year in the UK over the last decade) means that the frequency of their detection is likely to increase over coming years. This may be augmented further if CT screening is implemented. Management has previously been influenced by North American guidelines, with the most widely used resource to date being the Fleischner Society guidelines published in 2005. These predominantly focus on the timing of CT scans arranged to survey small pulmonary nodules (≤ 8 mm), and the guideline authors chose not to offer specific recommendations regarding larger nodules. More recently, the society published specific guidelines for sub-solid nodules, reflecting the different prognosis that this subtype of nodules confers. The American College of Chest Physicians have published two guidelines on pulmonary nodules-the latest was completed in 2012 and published in Chest the following year. However, the investigation and management of pulmonary nodules is a rapidly evolving subject largely driven by evidence from the large CT screening studies. In 2012, The British Thoracic Society (BTS) convened a guideline development group to address the topic of pulmonary nodule investigation and management, with publication of the guideline in July 2015. One third of the 359 references included in the guideline date from 2012 onwards, and many of the differences between the recommendations made and previous guideline recommendations reflect this recent evidence. This article reviews specific evidence considered in formulating the BTS guidelines, and summarises the main guideline recommendations. PMID:26711934

  13. Applying reversible mutations of nodulation and nitrogen-fixation genes to study social cheating in Rhizobium etli-legume interaction.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jun; Zheng, Huiming; Katzianer, David S; Wang, Hui; Zhong, Zengtao; Zhu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Mutualisms are common in nature, though these symbioses can be quite permeable to cheaters in situations where one individual parasitizes the other by discontinuing cooperation yet still exploits the benefits of the partnership. In the Rhizobium-legume system, there are two separate contexts, namely nodulation and nitrogen fixation processes, by which resident Rhizobium individuals can benefit by cheating. Here, we constructed reversible and irreversible mutations in key nodulation and nitrogen-fixation pathways of Rhizobium etli and compared their interaction with plant hosts Phaseolus vulgaris to that of wild type. We show that R. etli reversible mutants deficient in nodulation factor production are capable of intra-specific cheating, wherein mutants exploit other Rhizobium individuals capable of producing these factors. Similarly, we show that R. etli mutants are also capable of cheating inter-specifically, colonizing the host legume yet contributing nothing to the partnership in terms of nitrogen fixation. Our findings indicate that cheating is possible in both of these frameworks, seemingly without damaging the stability of the mutualism itself. These results may potentially help explain observations suggesting that legume plants are commonly infected by multiple bacterial lineages during the nodulation process.

  14. A large mural nodule in branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous adenoma of the pancreas: a case report.

    PubMed

    Haruki, Koichiro; Wakiyama, Shigeki; Futagawa, Yasuro; Shiba, Hiroaki; Misawa, Takeyuki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2015-12-01

    Indications for resection of branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) remain controversial because of their low tendency to be malignant. Surgical resection should be recommended if any factors indicating malignancy are present. However, preoperative differentiation between benign and malignant tumors is very difficult, especially in cases of branch duct IPMNs. We herein report a case of branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous adenoma (IPMA) of the pancreas with a large mural nodule of 25 mm. A 74-year-old woman was admitted for examination and treatment for a cystic tumor in the head of the pancreas. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and computed tomography showed a cystic lesion, 50 mm in diameter, with an irregular mural nodule in the pancreatic head. Endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated a multicystic tumor connected with the main pancreatic duct (MPD). The mural nodule had a diameter of 18 mm, and the MPD had a slight dilation of 6 mm. These findings suggested a high potential for malignancy. The patient underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy with lymph node dissection. The excised pancreas showed multiple cysts located in the branch pancreatic duct with a maximum diameter of 75 mm. The mural nodule had a maximum diameter of 25 mm. The tumor was diagnosed as an IPMA by pathological examination. After operation, the patient was discharged without any complications. Two years after resection, the patient remains in remission with no evidence of tumor recurrence.

  15. Applying Reversible Mutations of Nodulation and Nitrogen-Fixation Genes to Study Social Cheating in Rhizobium etli-Legume Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Zhong, Zengtao; Zhu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Mutualisms are common in nature, though these symbioses can be quite permeable to cheaters in situations where one individual parasitizes the other by discontinuing cooperation yet still exploits the benefits of the partnership. In the Rhizobium-legume system, there are two separate contexts, namely nodulation and nitrogen fixation processes, by which resident Rhizobium individuals can benefit by cheating. Here, we constructed reversible and irreversible mutations in key nodulation and nitrogen-fixation pathways of Rhizobium etli and compared their interaction with plant hosts Phaseolus vulgaris to that of wild type. We show that R. etli reversible mutants deficient in nodulation factor production are capable of intra-specific cheating, wherein mutants exploit other Rhizobium individuals capable of producing these factors. Similarly, we show that R. etli mutants are also capable of cheating inter-specifically, colonizing the host legume yet contributing nothing to the partnership in terms of nitrogen fixation. Our findings indicate that cheating is possible in both of these frameworks, seemingly without damaging the stability of the mutualism itself. These results may potentially help explain observations suggesting that legume plants are commonly infected by multiple bacterial lineages during the nodulation process. PMID:23922937

  16. Quantitative analysis of echogenicity for patients with thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming-Hsun; Chen, Chiung-Nien; Chen, Kuen-Yuan; Ho, Ming-Chih; Tai, Hao-Chih; Wang, Yu-Hsin; Chen, Argon; Chang, King-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Hypoechogenicity has been described qualitatively and is potentially subject to intra- and inter-observer variability. The aim of this study was to clarify whether quantitative echoic indexes (EIs) are useful for the detection of malignant thyroid nodules. Overall, 333 participants with 411 nodules were included in the final analysis. Quantification of echogenicity was performed using commercial software (AmCAD-UT; AmCad BioMed, Taiwan). The coordinates of three defined regions, the nodule, thyroid parenchyma, and strap muscle regions, were recorded in the database separately for subsequent analysis. And the results showed that ultrasound echogenicity (US-E), as assessed by clinicians, defined hypoechogenicity as an independent factor for malignancy. The EI, adjusted EI (EIN-T; EIN-M) and automatic EI(N-R)/R values between benign and malignant nodules were all significantly different, with lower values for malignant nodules. All of the EIs showed similar percentages of sensitivity and specificity and had better accuracies than US-E. In conclusion, the proposed quantitative EI seems more promising to constitute an important advancement than the conventional qualitative US-E in allowing for a more reliable distinction between benign and malignant thyroid nodules. PMID:27762299

  17. Hormonal Control of Lateral Root and Nodule Development in Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Bensmihen, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Many plants can establish symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, some of which lead to nodulation, including legumes. Indeed, in the rhizobium/legume symbiosis, new root organs, called nodules, are formed by the plant in order to host the rhizobia in protective conditions, optimized for nitrogen fixation. In this way, these plants can benefit from the reduction of atmospheric dinitrogen into ammonia by the hosted bacteria, and in exchange the plant provides the rhizobia with a carbon source. Since this symbiosis is costly for the plant it is highly regulated. Both legume nodule and lateral root organogenesis involve divisions of the root inner tissues, and both developmental programs are tightly controlled by plant hormones. In fact, most of the major plant hormones, such as auxin, cytokinins, abscisic acid, and strigolactones, control both lateral root formation and nodule organogenesis, but often in an opposite manner. This suggests that the sensitivity of legume plants to some phytohormones could be linked to the antagonism that exists between the processes of nodulation and lateral root formation. Here, we will review the implication of some major phytohormones in lateral root formation in legumes, compare them with their roles in nodulation, and discuss specificities and divergences from non-legume eudicot plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:27135340

  18. Boron dependent membrane glycoproteins in symbiosome development and nodule organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Redondo-Nieto, Miguel; Reguera, María; Bonilla, Ildefonso

    2008-01-01

    During the last two decades, we have analyzed the roles of boron (B) in the development of the legume-rhizobia symbiosis and nodule organogenesis. As in other plant tissues, B is needed for the maintenance of nodule cell wall structure. Moreover, several symbiotic events including rhizobial infection, nodule cell invasion and symbiosome development that involve membrane related functions (i.e., vesicle targeting, secretion, or cell surface interactions) are affected by B deficiency. Using anti-rhamnogalacturonan II (anti-RGII) antiserum and immunological techniques, we recently described membrane glycoproteins (RGII-glycoproteins) developmentally regulated in Pisum sativum nodules, which are not detected by the antibody in B-deficient nodules. RGII-glycoproteins appeared related with development processes involving extensive membrane synthesis, like symbiosome maturation or cell growth, both of them negatively affected by B deficiency. Here, we suggest that, besides maintaining cell wall structure, B is both stabilizing components of the membrane glycocalyx and promoting interactions between cell surfaces glycoconjugates that are important during the establishment of the symbiosis and during nodule development. Moreover, we hypothesize that B is playing a similar role during plant or animal embryogenesis and development. PMID:19841651

  19. Hormonal Control of Lateral Root and Nodule Development in Legumes.

    PubMed

    Bensmihen, Sandra

    2015-08-07

    Many plants can establish symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, some of which lead to nodulation, including legumes. Indeed, in the rhizobium/legume symbiosis, new root organs, called nodules, are formed by the plant in order to host the rhizobia in protective conditions, optimized for nitrogen fixation. In this way, these plants can benefit from the reduction of atmospheric dinitrogen into ammonia by the hosted bacteria, and in exchange the plant provides the rhizobia with a carbon source. Since this symbiosis is costly for the plant it is highly regulated. Both legume nodule and lateral root organogenesis involve divisions of the root inner tissues, and both developmental programs are tightly controlled by plant hormones. In fact, most of the major plant hormones, such as auxin, cytokinins, abscisic acid, and strigolactones, control both lateral root formation and nodule organogenesis, but often in an opposite manner. This suggests that the sensitivity of legume plants to some phytohormones could be linked to the antagonism that exists between the processes of nodulation and lateral root formation. Here, we will review the implication of some major phytohormones in lateral root formation in legumes, compare them with their roles in nodulation, and discuss specificities and divergences from non-legume eudicot plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana.

  20. Auto Diagnostics of Lung Nodules Using Minimal Characteristics Extraction Technique

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Diego M.; Luo, Shouhua; Abdelgader, Abdeldime M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) systems provide useful tools and an advantageous process to physicians aiming to detect lung nodules. This paper develops a method composed of four processes for lung nodule detection. The first step employs image acquisition and pre-processing techniques to isolate the lungs from the rest of the body. The second stage involves the segmentation process using a 2D algorithm to affect every layer of a scan eliminating non-informative structures inside the lungs, and a 3D blob algorithm associated with a connectivity algorithm to select possible nodule shape candidates. The combinations of these algorithms efficiently eliminate the high rates of false positives. The third process extracts eight minimal representative characteristics of the possible candidates. The final step utilizes a support vector machine for classifying the possible candidates into nodules and non-nodules depending on their features. As the objective is to find nodules bigger than 4mm, the proposed approach demonstrated quite encouraging results. Among 65 computer tomography (CT) scans, 94.23% of sensitivity and 84.75% in specificity were obtained. The accuracy of these two results was 89.19% taking into consideration that 45 scans were used for testing and 20 for training. The rate of false positives was 0.2 per scan. PMID:26959065

  1. Benign and malignant thyroid nodules after neck irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fjaelling, M.T.; Tisell, L.E.; Carlsson, S.; Hansson, G.; Lundberg, L.M.; Oden, A.

    1986-09-15

    A total of 444 persons were examined for the presence of thyroid nodules on average of 43 years after having been treated with x-rays for cervical tuberculous adenitis. Of this total, 101 subjects had undergone surgery for thyroid nodules: 25 for carcinoma (6%) and 76 for benign nodules (17%). Carcinoma occurred with the same frequency in multinodular and uninodular glands. Because of the uneven age distribution in the current series, it could not be decided whether there was a higher susceptibility of the young thyroid to the induction of thyroid carcinoma or benign nodules. The dosage range for the whole series was 0.40 to 50.90 Gy (40-5090 rad). There was a positive correlation between the absorbed radiation dose and the probability of developing benign and malignant thyroid nodules, even after doses of 20 Gy or more. The risk of developing thyroid carcinoma was equal for men and women, while the female-to-male ratio for benign nodules was 2.9:1, indicating that risk factors associated with females are of less importance in irradiated than in nonirradiated populations. The median latency for carcinoma was 40 years, suggesting that the increased risk of thyroid carcinoma after irradiation remains for the rest of the patient's life.

  2. Inhibition of auxin signaling in Frankia species-infected cells in Casuarina glauca nodules leads to increased nodulation.

    PubMed

    Champion, Antony; Lucas, Mikael; Tromas, Alexandre; Vaissayre, Virginie; Crabos, Amandine; Diédhiou, Issa; Prodjinoto, Hermann; Moukouanga, Daniel; Pirolles, Elodie; Cissoko, Maïmouna; Bonneau, Jocelyne; Gherbi, Hassen; Franche, Claudine; Hocher, Valérie; Svistoonoff, Sergio; Laplaze, Laurent

    2015-03-01

    Actinorhizal symbioses are mutualistic interactions between plants and the soil bacteria Frankia spp. that lead to the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. The plant hormone auxin has been suggested to play a role in the mechanisms that control the establishment of this symbiosis in the actinorhizal tree Casuarina glauca. Here, we analyzed the role of auxin signaling in Frankia spp.-infected cells. Using a dominant-negative version of an endogenous auxin-signaling regulator, INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID7, we established that inhibition of auxin signaling in these cells led to increased nodulation and, as a consequence, to higher nitrogen fixation per plant even if nitrogen fixation per nodule mass was similar to that in the wild type. Our results suggest that auxin signaling in Frankia spp.-infected cells is involved in the long-distance regulation of nodulation in actinorhizal symbioses. PMID:25627215

  3. Inhibition of Auxin Signaling in Frankia Species-Infected Cells in Casuarina glauca Nodules Leads to Increased Nodulation1

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Antony; Lucas, Mikael; Tromas, Alexandre; Vaissayre, Virginie; Crabos, Amandine; Diédhiou, Issa; Prodjinoto, Hermann; Moukouanga, Daniel; Pirolles, Elodie; Cissoko, Maïmouna; Bonneau, Jocelyne; Gherbi, Hassen; Franche, Claudine; Hocher, Valérie; Svistoonoff, Sergio; Laplaze, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Actinorhizal symbioses are mutualistic interactions between plants and the soil bacteria Frankia spp. that lead to the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. The plant hormone auxin has been suggested to play a role in the mechanisms that control the establishment of this symbiosis in the actinorhizal tree Casuarina glauca. Here, we analyzed the role of auxin signaling in Frankia spp.-infected cells. Using a dominant-negative version of an endogenous auxin-signaling regulator, INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID7, we established that inhibition of auxin signaling in these cells led to increased nodulation and, as a consequence, to higher nitrogen fixation per plant even if nitrogen fixation per nodule mass was similar to that in the wild type. Our results suggest that auxin signaling in Frankia spp.-infected cells is involved in the long-distance regulation of nodulation in actinorhizal symbioses. PMID:25627215

  4. Trifolitoxin Production and Nodulation Are Necessary for the Expression of Superior Nodulation Competitiveness by Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii Strain T24 on Clover 1

    PubMed Central

    Triplett, Eric W.; Barta, Terese M.

    1987-01-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii T24 is ineffective in symbiotic nitrogen fixation, produces a potent antibiotic (referred to here as trifolitoxin) that is bacteriostatic to certain Rhizobium strains, and is very competitive for clover root nodulation (EA Schwinghamer, RP Belkengren 1968 Arch Mikrobiol 64: 130-145). The primary objective of this work was to demonstrate the roles of nodulation and trifolitoxin production in the expression of nodulation competitiveness by T24. Unlike wildtype T24, transposon mutants of T24 lacking trifolitoxin production were unable to decrease clover nodulation by an effective, trifolitoxin-sensitive strain of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii. A non-nodulating transposon mutant of T24 prevented clover nodulation by a trifolitoxin-sensitive R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii when co-inoculated with a T24 mutant lacking trifolitoxin production. Neither mutant alone prevented nodulation by the trifolitoxin-sensitive strain. These results demonstrate that trifolitoxin production and nodulation are required for the expression of nodulation competitiveness by strain T24. A trifolitoxin-sensitive strain of R. meliloti did not nodulate alfalfa when co-inoculated with T24 and a trifolitoxin-resistant strain of R. meliloti. Thus, a trifolitoxin-producing strain was useful in regulating nodule occupancy on a legume host other than clover. Trifolitoxin production was constitutive in both minimal and enriched media. Trifolitoxin was found to inhibit the growth of 95% of all strains of R. leguminosarum bvs. trifolii, viceae, and phaseoli tested. Strains of all 13 biotypes of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii were inhibited by trifolitoxin. Three strains of R. fredii were also inhibited. Strain T24 ineffectively nodulated 46 clover species, did not nodulate Trifolium ambiguum, and induced partially effective nodules on Trifolium micranthum. Since T24 produced partially effective nodules on T. micranthum and since a trifolitoxin-minus mutant of T24 induced

  5. [Mathematical simulation of the regulation of the size of the lymphoid population in relation to chronic lymphoid leukemia].

    PubMed

    Stepanova, N V; Feofanova, T V; Itkin, B Z

    1988-01-01

    A model was constructed of accumulation kinetics of labeled lymphocytes based on the experiments of long-term injection of 3H-thymidine label in vivo into the blood of healthy and suffering from chronic lympholeucosis animals. There was found an essential difference between the coefficients of reproduction and death of cells of the proliferating pool for the normal, initial and advanced stages of the disease. This served as a basis for the creation of the closed non-linear model of autoregulation of lymphoid population size describing different stages of leucosis development. PMID:3390484

  6. Ex vivo Co-culture of Lymphoid Tissue Stromal Cells and T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ming; Haase, Ashley T.

    2016-01-01

    Stromal cells within lymphoid tissues produce IL-7, which is critical for the survival and function of T cells. This protocol is to be used to isolate primary human lymphoid tissue stromal cells to study their impact on the survival of T cells in an ex vivo co-culture system.

  7. Lymphoid infiltrates of the salivary glands: pathology, biology and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    DiGiuseppe, J A; Corio, R L; Westra, W H

    1996-05-01

    Lymphoid infiltrates of the salivary glands are common to a variety of pathologic conditions including autoimmune disorders, malignant lymphomas, and immunoregulatory responses to parenchymal neoplasms. Clearly, the correct identification of these salivary gland lymphoid infiltrates has important implications regarding patient prognosis and management. Immunophenotypic and molecular analyses have demonstrated that many lesions formerly regarded as myoepithelial sialadentis or benign lymphoepithelial lesion in fact represent neoplastic lymphoid proliferations with the potential for extrasalivary dissemination. In the most recent classification scheme of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, these neoplasms fall within the spectrum of low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. In the early stages of HIV infection, patients may develop salivary gland enlargement resulting from cystic lymphoepithelial lesions. These lesions are thought to reflect a localized manifestation of persistent generalized lymphadenopathy. Although HIV-associated salivary gland disease is regarded as a benign condition, malignant lymphoma has been described in association with some of these lesions, and further work is required to define more precisely the risk of salivary gland lymphoma in HIV-infected patients. Tumor-associated lymphoid proliferation refers to a prominent lymphoid reaction accompanying certain epithelial tumors of the salivary glands. Although tumor-associated lymphoid proliferation has not received as much attention as other types of salivary lymphoid infiltrates, it is a common phenomenon that is sometimes mistaken for an intraparotid lymph node harboring metastatic carcinoma.

  8. Treatment of intractable rheumatoid arthritis with total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kotzin, B.L.; Strober, S.; Engleman, E.G.; Calin, A.; Hoppe, R.T.; Kansas, G.S.; Terrell, C.P.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1981-10-22

    Eleven patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis were treated with total lymphoid irradiation (total dose, 2000 rad) in an uncontrolled feasibility study, as an alternative to long-term therapy with cytotoxic drugs such as cyclophosphamide and azathioprine. During a follow-up period of five to 18 months after total lymphoid irradiation, there was a profound and sustained suppression of the absolute lymphocyte count and in vitro lymphocyte function, as well as an increase in the ratio of Leu-2 (suppressor/cytotoxic) to Leu-3 (helper) T cells in the blood. Persistent circulating suppressor cells of the mixed leukocyte response and of pokeweek mitogen-induced immunoglobulin secretion developed in most patients. In nine of the 11 patients, these changes in immune status were associated with relief of joint tenderness and swelling and with improvement in function scores. Maximum improvement occurred approximately six months after irradiation and continued for the remainder of the observation period. Few severe or chronic side effects were associated with the radiotherapy.

  9. Treatment of intractable rheumatoid arthritis with total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kotzin, B.L.; Strober, S.; Engleman, E.G.; Calin, A.; Hoppe, R.T.; Kansas, G.S.; Terrell, C.P.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1981-10-01

    Eleven patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis were treated with total lymphoid irradiation (total dose, 2000 rad) in an uncontrolled feasibility study, as an alternative to long-term therapy with cytotoxic drugs such as cyclophosphamide and azathioprine. During a follow-up period of five to 18 months after total lymphoid irradiation, there was a profound and sustained suppression of the absolute lymphocyte count and in vitro lymphocyte function, as well as an increase in the ratio of Leu-2 (suppressor/cytotoxic) to Leu-3 (helper) T cells in the blood. Persistent circulating suppressor cells of the mixed leukocyte response and of pokeweed mitogen-induced immunoglobulin secretion developed in most patients. In nine of the 11 patients, these changes in immune status were associated with relief of joint tenderness and swelling and with improvement in function scores. Maximum improvement occurred approximately six months after irradiation and continued for the remainder of the observation period. Few severe or chronic side effects were associated with the radiotherapy.

  10. Radiation therapy of conjunctival and orbital lymphoid tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Jereb, B.; Lee, H.; Jakobiec, F.A.; Kutcher, J.

    1984-07-01

    Lymphoid tumors of the conjuctiva and orbit are rare and remain localized in the majority of cases. Sometimes it is not possible either clinically or histologically to differentiate between a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and benign lymphoid hyperplasia. A series of 24 patients is reported. Nineteen were classified as having malignant NHL and 5 benign hyperplasia; 1 of these 5 later developed metastases, however. All patients had systemic work-up: 18 had Stage I, 1 had Stage II, and 5 had Stage IV disease. All patients received local radiation therapy with doses of 2400 to 2750 rad in 2-3 weeks for lesions of the eyelid and conjunctiva, and between 3000 and 3750 rad in 3-4 weeks for retrobulbar lesions. A method of shielding the lens with a lead block mounted on a low vac lens is described, and the dose distribution within the eye and orbit is presented. Patients who were treated with doses higher than 3000 rad experienced conjunctivitis and skin erythema that resolved completely. No other effects of radiation on normal structures of the ocular adnexa were observed in the 20 patients who are alive and without signs of tumor 10-46 months with a median follow-up time of 22 months.

  11. Expression of HOX C homeobox genes in lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, H J; Stage, K M; Mathews, C H; Detmer, K; Scibienski, R; MacKenzie, M; Migliaccio, E; Boncinelli, E; Largman, C

    1993-08-01

    The class I homeobox genes located in four clusters in mammalian genomes (HOX A, HOX B, HOX C, and HOX D) appear to play a major role in fetal development. Previous surveys of homeobox gene expression in human leukemic cell lines have shown that certain HOX A genes are expressed only in myeloid cell lines, whereas HOX B gene expression is largely restricted to cells with erythroid potential. We now report a survey of the expression patterns of 9 homeobox genes from the HOX C locus in a panel of 24 human and 7 murine leukemic cell lines. The most striking observation is the lymphoid-specific pattern of expression of HOX C4, located at the 3' end of the locus. A major transcript of 1.9 kilobases is observed in both T-cell and B-cell lines. HOX C4 expression is also detected in normal human marrow and peripheral blood lymphocytes, but not in mature granulocytes or monocytes. HOX C8 is also expressed in human lymphoid cells but is expressed in other blood cell types as well. However, the HOX C8 transcript pattern is lineage specific. These data, in conjunction with earlier findings, suggest that homeobox gene expression influences lineage determination during hematopoiesis.

  12. [Immunoglobulin genes in lymphoid cells and regulation of their transcription].

    PubMed

    Stepchenko, A G; Urakov, D N; Luchina, N N; Deev, S M; Polianovskiĭ, O L

    1990-01-01

    The hybridoma genomes contain polyploid sets of immunoglobulin genes. We have shown, that the hybridoma PTF-02 genome contains three genes of heavy chains and two genes of light chains. The genes responsible for antibody synthesis were cloned and their structure were determined. Investigation of the kappa gene transcription and its fragments which contain regulatory sequences revealed a nuclear factor. The latter interacts with the octanucleotide localized at the promoter region of the kappa gene. The purified factor activates the transcription of the kappa gene in a heterologous cell-free system. Together with the tissue-specific factor there is also an universal factor interacting with the octanucleotide sequence. We have shown an additional factor in lymphoid cells interact with the protein which binds to the octanucleotide sequence. We have shown an additional factor in lymphoid cells interacting with the protein which binds to the octanucleotide sequence. As a result, there is a family of factors which interact with ATTTGCAT sequence. One major factor (m.w. 60 +/- 2 kDa) is an obligatory component for the initiation of immunoglobulin genes transcription.

  13. Trafficking of. cap alpha. -L-fucosidase in lymphoid cells

    SciTech Connect

    DiCioccio, R.A.; Brown, K.S.

    1987-05-01

    The quantity of ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase in human serum is determined by heredity. The mechanism controlling levels of the enzyme in serum is unknown. To investigate this, lymphoid cell lines derived from individuals with either low, intermediate or high ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase in serum were established. Steady state levels of extracellular ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase protein and activity overlapped among the cell lines. Thus, in vivo serum phenotypes of ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase are not adequately expressed in this system. ..cap alpha..-L-Fucosidase was also metabolically labelled with /sup 35/S-methionine, immunoprecipitated, and examined by SDS-PAGE. Cells pulse-labelled from 0.25-2 h had a major intracellular form of enzyme (Mr = 58,000). Cells pulsed for 1.5 h and chased for 21 h with unlabeled methionine had an intracellular form of Mr = 60,000 and an extracellular form of Mr = 62,000. Cells treated with chloroquine had only the 58,000-form both intra- and extra-cellularly. Moreover, chloroquine did not effect the quantitative distribution of ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase between cells and medium. In fibroblasts, chloroquine enhanced the secretion of newly made lysosomal enzymes and blocked the processing of intercellular enzyme forms from a higher to a lower molecular mass. Thus, there are trafficking differences between ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase in lymphoid cells and lysosomal enzymes in fibroblasts. This suggests that alternative targeting mechanisms for lysosomal enzymes exist in these cells.

  14. (Genetics and biochemistry of Rhizobium meliloti acidic extracellular heteropolysaccharide and its role in nodulation): Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    We have been working with two polysaccharides secreted by Rhizobium meliloti that promote nodule invasion, succinoglycan and EPSb. R. meliloti mutants in succinoglycan synthesis are designated Exo-, and fail to invade alfalfa root nodules. Multiple forms of succinoglycan are produced by R. meliloti, and this raises the question, which form is involved in nodule invasion We observed that a low molecular weight oligosaccharide form is secreted by wild type R. meliloti as well as the high molecular weight polymer. The oligosaccharide, in turn, also has multiple forms. Recently we have found that multiple subfractions of the oligosaccharide are secreted that apparently differ in size. Although these fractions appeared identical by proton NMR spectroscopy, they migrated in at least three distinct fractions in anion exchange chromatography. Also, in a EPLC sizing system we have recently begun using, we observed distinct low molecular weight fractions. We are currently collaborating with Steve Levery and S. Hakomori of the Biomembrane Institute, Seattle, to measure the molecular weights of these fractions by mass spectrometry. One likely outcome is that the fractions represent one, two, three, and possibly greater numbers of subunits of succinoglycan. Recently we determined that the ratios of total sugar constituents to reducing ends is consistent with this interpretation.

  15. Immunosuppression in murine renal cell carcinoma. II. Identification of responsible lymphoid cell phenotypes and examination of elimination of suppression.

    PubMed

    Gregorian, S K; Battisto, J R

    1990-01-01

    In our companion paper we have reported that cell-mediated immunity of mice bearing renal cell carcinoma is profoundly suppressed. The non-responsiveness of such animals was found to be attributable to Renca cells themselves and to splenic lymphoid cells that down-regulate other fully capable lymphoid cells. In this communication the lymphoid cell source of suppression within Renca-bearing mice has been explored with the aim of identifying phenotypes of the responsible cells, the manner by which suppression is mediated, and initial ways by which suppression may be eliminated. A plastic-adherent cell bearing the Thy1.2 surface marker as well as the Lyt1 and Lyt2 antigens has been found to operate, perhaps in conjunction with macrophages, to down-regulate lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell development for natural killer (NK) and non-NK targets that include Renca cells themselves. The splenic suppressor cells lost the capacity to suppress the NK response of normal recipient mice upon shallow irradiation (250 rad) prior to adoptive transfer. Spleen cells, presumably macrophages, from Renca-bearing mice were found to suppress the generation of LAK and NK cells in vitro by synthesizing prostaglandins. Indomethacin, a prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, blocked the induction of suppression both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting the presence of endogenous prostaglandins in Renca-bearing mice. The suppression seen in Renca-bearing mice that derives from multiple sources and has been prevented by two separate methods has been discussed from the viewpoint of the inter-relatedness of the sources. PMID:1974826

  16. Immunosuppression in murine renal cell carcinoma. II. Identification of responsible lymphoid cell phenotypes and examination of elimination of suppression.

    PubMed

    Gregorian, S K; Battisto, J R

    1990-01-01

    In our companion paper we have reported that cell-mediated immunity of mice bearing renal cell carcinoma is profoundly suppressed. The non-responsiveness of such animals was found to be attributable to Renca cells themselves and to splenic lymphoid cells that down-regulate other fully capable lymphoid cells. In this communication the lymphoid cell source of suppression within Renca-bearing mice has been explored with the aim of identifying phenotypes of the responsible cells, the manner by which suppression is mediated, and initial ways by which suppression may be eliminated. A plastic-adherent cell bearing the Thy1.2 surface marker as well as the Lyt1 and Lyt2 antigens has been found to operate, perhaps in conjunction with macrophages, to down-regulate lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell development for natural killer (NK) and non-NK targets that include Renca cells themselves. The splenic suppressor cells lost the capacity to suppress the NK response of normal recipient mice upon shallow irradiation (250 rad) prior to adoptive transfer. Spleen cells, presumably macrophages, from Renca-bearing mice were found to suppress the generation of LAK and NK cells in vitro by synthesizing prostaglandins. Indomethacin, a prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, blocked the induction of suppression both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting the presence of endogenous prostaglandins in Renca-bearing mice. The suppression seen in Renca-bearing mice that derives from multiple sources and has been prevented by two separate methods has been discussed from the viewpoint of the inter-relatedness of the sources.

  17. Pulmonary nodule detection in CT images based on shape constraint CV model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bing; Tian, Xuedong; Wang, Qian; Yang, Ying; Xie, Hongzhi E-mail: xiehongzhi@medmail.com.cn; Zhang, Shuyang; Gu, Lixu E-mail: xiehongzhi@medmail.com.cn

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Accurate detection of pulmonary nodules remains a technical challenge in computer-aided diagnosis systems because some nodules may adhere to the blood vessels or the lung wall, which have low contrast compared to the surrounding tissues. In this paper, the analysis of typical shape features of candidate nodules based on a shape constraint Chan–Vese (CV) model combined with calculation of the number of blood branches adhered to nodule candidates is proposed to reduce false positive (FP) nodules from candidate nodules. Methods: The proposed scheme consists of three major stages: (1) Segmentation of lung parenchyma from computed tomography images. (2) Extraction of candidate nodules. (3) Reduction of FP nodules. A gray level enhancement combined with a spherical shape enhancement filter is introduced to extract the candidate nodules and their sphere-like contour regions. FPs are removed by analysis of the typical shape features of nodule candidates based on the CV model using spherical constraint and by investigating the number of blood branches adhered to the candidate nodules. The constrained shapes of CV model are automatically achieved from the extracted candidate nodules. Results: The detection performance was evaluated on 127 nodules of 103 cases including three types of challenging nodules, which are juxta-pleural nodules, juxta-vascular nodules, and ground glass opacity nodules. The free-receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curve shows that the proposed method is able to detect 88% of all the nodules in the data set with 4 FPs per case. Conclusions: Evaluation shows that the authors’ method is feasible and effective for detection of three types of nodules in this study.

  18. Comparison of the Nodule vs. Root Transcriptome of the Actinorhizal Plant Datisca glomerata: Actinorhizal Nodules Contain a Specific Class of Defensins

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Patricia; Plaszczyca, Marian; Pawlowski, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    Actinorhizal root nodule symbioses are very diverse, and the symbiosis of Datisca glomerata has previously been shown to have many unusual aspects. In order to gain molecular information on the infection mechanism, nodule development and nodule metabolism, we compared the transcriptomes of D. glomerata roots and nodules. Root and nodule libraries representing the 3′-ends of cDNAs were subjected to high-throughput parallel 454 sequencing. To identify the corresponding genes and to improve the assembly, Illumina sequencing of the nodule transcriptome was performed as well. The evaluation revealed 406 differentially regulated genes, 295 of which (72.7%) could be assigned a function based on homology. Analysis of the nodule transcriptome showed that genes encoding components of the common symbiosis signaling pathway were present in nodules of D. glomerata, which in combination with the previously established function of SymRK in D. glomerata nodulation suggests that this pathway is also active in actinorhizal Cucurbitales. Furthermore, comparison of the D. glomerata nodule transcriptome with nodule transcriptomes from actinorhizal Fagales revealed a new subgroup of nodule-specific defensins that might play a role specific to actinorhizal symbioses. The D. glomerata members of this defensin subgroup contain an acidic C-terminal domain that was never found in plant defensins before. PMID:24009681

  19. Economy of Photosynthate Use in Nitrogen-fixing Legume Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Layzell, David B.; Rainbird, Ross M.; Atkins, Craig A.; Pate, John S.

    1979-01-01

    The economy of C use by root nodules was examined in two symbioses, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (cv. Caloona):Rhizobium CB756 and Lupinus albus L. (cv. Ultra):Rhizobium WU425 over a 2-week period in early vegetative growth. Plants were grown in minus N water culture with cuvettes attached to the nodulated zone of their primary roots for collection of evolved CO2 and H2. Increments in total plant N and in C and N of nodules, and C:N weight ratios of xylem and phloem exudates were studied by periodic sampling from the plant populations. Itemized budgets were constructed for the partitioning and utilization of C in the two species. For each milligram N fixed and assimilated by the cowpea association, 1.54 ± 0.26 (standard error) milligrams C as CO2 and negligible H2 were evolved and 3.11 milligrams of translocated C utilized by the nodules. Comparable values for nodules of the lupin association were 3.64 ± 0.28 milligrams C as CO2, 0.22 ± 0.05 milligrams H2, and 6.58 milligrams C. More efficient use of C by cowpea nodules was due to a lesser requirement of C for synthesis of exported N compounds, a smaller allocation of C to nodule dry matter, and a lower evolution of CO2. The activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in nodule extracts and the rate of 14CO2 fixation by detached nodules were greater for the cowpea symbiosis (0.56 ± 0.06 and 0.22 milligrams C as CO2 fixed per gram fresh weight per hour, respectively) than for the lupin 0.06 ± 0.02 and 0.01 milligrams C as CO2 fixed per gram fresh weight per hour. The significance of the data was discussed in relation to current information on theoretical costs of nitrogenase functioning and associated nodule processes. PMID:16661076

  20. The development and function of mucosal lymphoid tissues: a balancing act with micro-organisms.

    PubMed

    Randall, T D; Mebius, R E

    2014-05-01

    Mucosal surfaces are constantly exposed to environmental antigens, colonized by commensal organisms and used by pathogens as points of entry. As a result, the immune system has devoted the bulk of its resources to mucosal sites to maintain symbiosis with commensal organisms, prevent pathogen entry, and avoid unnecessary inflammatory responses to innocuous antigens. These functions are facilitated by a variety of mucosal lymphoid organs that develop during embryogenesis in the absence of microbial stimulation as well as ectopic lymphoid tissues that develop in adults following microbial exposure or inflammation. Each of these lymphoid organs samples antigens from different mucosal sites and contributes to immune homeostasis, commensal containment, and immunity to pathogens. Here we discuss the mechanisms, mostly based on mouse studies, that control the development of mucosal lymphoid organs and how the various lymphoid tissues cooperate to maintain the integrity of the mucosal barrier. PMID:24569801

  1. The development and function of mucosal lymphoid tissues: a balancing act with micro-organisms.

    PubMed

    Randall, T D; Mebius, R E

    2014-05-01

    Mucosal surfaces are constantly exposed to environmental antigens, colonized by commensal organisms and used by pathogens as points of entry. As a result, the immune system has devoted the bulk of its resources to mucosal sites to maintain symbiosis with commensal organisms, prevent pathogen entry, and avoid unnecessary inflammatory responses to innocuous antigens. These functions are facilitated by a variety of mucosal lymphoid organs that develop during embryogenesis in the absence of microbial stimulation as well as ectopic lymphoid tissues that develop in adults following microbial exposure or inflammation. Each of these lymphoid organs samples antigens from different mucosal sites and contributes to immune homeostasis, commensal containment, and immunity to pathogens. Here we discuss the mechanisms, mostly based on mouse studies, that control the development of mucosal lymphoid organs and how the various lymphoid tissues cooperate to maintain the integrity of the mucosal barrier.

  2. Immunohistochemistry of the lymphoid tissues of the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii

    PubMed Central

    Old, Julie M; Deane, Elizabeth M

    2002-01-01

    The lymphoid tissues of the metatherian mammal, the adult tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, were investigated using immunohistochemical techniques. Five cross-reactive antibodies previously shown to recognize surface markers in marsupial tissues and five previously untested antibodies were used. The distribution of T-cells in the tissue beds of spleen, lymph node, thymus, gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) was documented using antibodies to CD3 and CD5. Similarly, B-cells were identified in the same tissues using anti-CD79b. Antibodies to CD8, CD31, CD79a and CD68 failed to recognize cells in these tissue beds. In general the pattern of cellular distribution identified using these antibodies was similar to that observed in other marsupial and eutherian lymphoid tissues. This study provides further information on the commonality of lymphoid tissue structure in the two major groups of extant mammals, metatherians and eutherians. PMID:12363276

  3. JAK2 in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Lymphoid Malignancies: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Fonseka, Lakshan N; Germán, Beatriz; Expósito, Francisco; Conde, Enrique; Bárcena, Sergio; Tirado, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    In 2016, there will be an estimated 6,590 new cases of acute lymphocytic leukemia and 18,960 new cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the United States. These and other lymphoid malignancies have a key player in common, JAK2, an enzyme from the Janus kinase (JAK) family. Deviations from the normal functioning of JAK2, particularly in the JAK-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway, can disrupt homeostasis and drive the accumulation of intermediate progenitors, contributing to the development of myeloid and lymphoid malignancies. In this review, the recent literature on JAK2 mutations in lymphoid malignancies is summarized, concluding with a discussion of the treatment of lymphoid malignancies. New directions for future research have been underlined to advance the clinical management of lymphoid malignancies. PMID:27606950

  4. Manganese nodule resources in the northeastern equatorial Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKelvey, V.E.; Wright, Nancy A.; Rowland, Robert W.

    1979-01-01

    Recent publication of maps at scale 1:1,000,000 of the northeastern equatorial Pacific region showing publicly available information on the nickel plus copper content of manganese nodules has made it possible to outline the prime area between the Clarion and Clipperton fracture zones which has been the focus of several recent scientific and commercial studies. The area, defined as that in which the nodules contain more than 1.8 percent nickel plus copper, is about 2o5 million km2. The available evidence suggests that about half of it contains nodules in concentration (reported in wet weight units) greater than 5 kg/m2 and averaging 11.9 kg/m2. If we assume that 20 percent of the nodules in this area of 1.25 million km2 are recoverable, its potential recoverable resources are about 2.1 billion dry metric tons of nodules averaging about 25 percent Mn, 1.3 percent Ni, 1.0 percent Cu, 0.22 percent Co, and 0.05 percent Mo—enough to support about 27 mining operations each producing an average of 75 million metric tons of nodules over their lifetimes. Estimates based on other plausible assumptions would be higher or lower, but of the same order of magnitude. Thus it seems probable that the magnitude of the potentially recoverable nodule resources of the Clarion-Clipperton prime area—the most promising now known—is at most in the range of several tens of the average-size operations postulated.

  5. Ovarian mucinous tumor with malignant mural nodules: dedifferentiation or collision?

    PubMed

    Desouki, Mohamed M; Khabele, Dineo; Crispens, Marta A; Fadare, Oluwole

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian mucinous tumors with mural nodules are rare surface epithelial-stromal tumors. The mural nodules are divergent neoplasms that may be benign or malignant. The latter may be in the form of a sarcoma, carcinosarcoma, anaplastic carcinoma, or a variety of other recognized histotypes of carcinoma, which raises the question of whether malignant mural nodules represent a form of dedifferentiation in ovarian mucinous tumors or whether they represent collision tumors. We recently reported the K-RAS gene mutation status in a case of ovarian mucinous adenocarcinoma with mural nodule of high-grade sarcoma. The mucinous and sarcomatous components revealed a mutation in codon 12 of the K-RAS gene of a different nucleotide substitution, indicating that these 2 tumor components were different clones of the same tumor. Herein, we are reporting another case of a 20-yr-old woman who presented with 22 cm pelvic mass, omental caking, and ascites. A diagnosis of invasive mucinous carcinoma with mural nodules of anaplastic carcinoma was rendered. K-RAS gene mutation studies revealed p.G12V, c.35G>T mutation in the 2 components of the tumor, which is the most common mutation reported in mucinous tumors of the ovary. The fact that sarcomatous or anaplastic carcinomatous mural nodules in ovarian mucinous tumors display the same K-RAS mutations as their underlying mucinous neoplasms provides supportive evidence that at least some malignant mural nodules represent a form of dedifferentiation in ovarian mucinous tumors, rather than a collision of 2 divergent tumor types.

  6. Dermatan Sulfate-Free Mice Display Embryological Defects and Are Neonatal Lethal Despite Normal Lymphoid and Non-Lymphoid Organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Stachtea, Xanthi N.; Tykesson, Emil; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Feinstein, Ricardo; Malmström, Anders; Reijmers, Rogier M.; Maccarana, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The epimerization of glucuronic acid into iduronic acid adds structural variability to chondroitin/dermatan sulfate polysaccharides. Iduronic acid-containing domains play essential roles in processes such as coagulation, chemokine and morphogen modulation, collagen maturation, and neurite sprouting. Therefore, we generated and characterized, for the first time, mice deficient in dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 and 2, two enzymes uniquely involved in dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. The resulting mice, termed DKO mice, were completely devoid of iduronic acid, and the resulting chondroitin sulfate chains were structurally different from the wild type chains, from which a different protein binding specificity can be expected. As a consequence, a vast majority of the DKO mice died perinatally, with greatly variable phenotypes at birth or late embryological stages such as umbilical hernia, exencephaly and a kinked tail. However, a minority of embryos were histologically unaffected, with apparently normal lung and bone/cartilage features. Interestingly, the binding of the chemokine CXCL13, an important modulator of lymphoid organogenesis, to mouse DKO embryonic fibroblasts was impaired. Nevertheless, the development of the secondary lymphoid organs, including the lymph nodes and spleen, was normal. Altogether, our results indicate an important role of dermatan sulfate in embryological development and perinatal survival. PMID:26488883

  7. CAD System for Pulmonary Nodule Detection Using Gabor Filtering and Template Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastawrous, Hany Ayad; Nitta, Norihisa; Tsudagawa, Masaru

    This paper aims at developing a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system used for the detection of pulmonary nodules in chest Computed Tomography (CT) images. These lung nodules include both solid nodules and Ground Glass Opacity (GGO) nodules. In our scheme, we apply Gabor filter on the CT image in order to enhance the detection process. After this we perform some morphological operations including threshold process and labeling to extract all the objects inside the lung area. Then, some feature analysis is used to examine these objects to decide which of them are likely to be potential cancer candidates. Following the feature examination, a template matching between the potential cancer candidates and some Gaussian reference models is performed to determine the similarity between them. The algorithm was applied on 715 slices containing 25 GGO nodules and 82 solid nodules and achieved detection sensitivity of 92% for GGO nodules and 95% for solid nodules with False Positive (FP) rate of 0.75 FP/slice for GGO nodules and 2.32 FP/slice for solid nodules. Finally, we used an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to reduce the number of FP findings. After using ANN, we were able to reduce the FP rate to 0.25 FP/slice for GGO nodules and 1.62 FP/slice for solid nodules but at the expense of detection sensitivity, which became 84 % for GGO nodules and 91% for solid nodules.

  8. Symbiotic root nodule bacteria isolated from yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus).

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Jenet B; Abe, Mikiko; Uchiumi, Toshiki; Suzuki, Akihiro; Higashi, Shiro

    2002-08-01

    A total of 25 isolates from root nodules of yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban), a tuber-producing leguminous plant, were characterized. All isolates formed effective nodules mainly on lateral roots while edible tubers were developed on the taproot. The root nodules formed were identified as the typical determinate type. By an analysis of the partial sequences of the 16S rRNA gene (approximately 300 bp) of 10 strains which were selected randomly, the isolated root nodule bacteria of yam bean were classified into two different genera, Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium. Two strains, YB2 (Bradyrhizobium group) and YB4 (Rhizobium group) were selected and used for further analyses. The generation time of each strain was shown to be 22.5 h for strain YB2 and 0.8 h for strain YB4, respectively. Differences between strains YB2 and YB4 were also reflected in the bacteroid state in the symbiosome. Symbiosome in nodule cells for the strain YB4 contained one bacteroid cell in a peribacteroid membrane, whereas a symbiosome for strain YB2 contained several bacteroid cells. PMID:12469317

  9. Thyroid Ultrasound Pitfalls: Esophageal Fibrovascular Polyp Mimicking Thyroid Nodule

    PubMed Central

    Brigante, G.; Madeo, B.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ultrasound (US) is the most accurate tool in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules if performed by expert physician. Misdiagnosis due to extrathyroidal lesions mimicking thyroid nodules is reported in literature. We describe the first case of an esophageal fibrovascular polyp misdiagnosed as a thyroid nodule on US examination. Patient Findings. A 54-year-old woman presented to emergency department for headache and underwent carotid Doppler extended to neck ultrasound with incidental finding of a nodule in the posterior side of the left thyroid lobe. A following thyroid US performed by an endocrinologist allowed the characterization of the lesion as an esophageal pathology, considering the extrathyroidal position, the typical peripheral hyperechoic spots and hypoechoic rim, the connection to the esophagus, and the swallowing connected movement. The patient was addressed to further investigations and finally to anterior pharyngotomy with histological diagnosis of esophageal fibrovascular polyp. Summary. Differential diagnosis between thyroid nodules and other neck lesions is important to prevent an unnecessary fine needle aspiration biopsy and to treat the extrathyroidal pathology. In this case, an US performed by an expert endocrinologist allowed detecting an esophageal fibrovascular polyp requiring surgical removal. In conclusion, the possibility of an esophageal pathology, and even fibrovascular polyp, should be considered during US thyroid examination. PMID:27022492

  10. A neural network approach to lung nodule segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yaoxiu; Menon, Prahlad G.

    2016-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) imaging is a sensitive and specific lung cancer screening tool for the high-risk population and shown to be promising for detection of lung cancer. This study proposes an automatic methodology for detecting and segmenting lung nodules from CT images. The proposed methods begin with thorax segmentation, lung extraction and reconstruction of the original shape of the parenchyma using morphology operations. Next, a multi-scale hessian-based vesselness filter is applied to extract lung vasculature in lung. The lung vasculature mask is subtracted from the lung region segmentation mask to extract 3D regions representing candidate pulmonary nodules. Finally, the remaining structures are classified as nodules through shape and intensity features which are together used to train an artificial neural network. Up to 75% sensitivity and 98% specificity was achieved for detection of lung nodules in our testing dataset, with an overall accuracy of 97.62%+/-0.72% using 11 selected features as input to the neural network classifier, based on 4-fold cross-validation studies. Receiver operator characteristics for identifying nodules revealed an area under curve of 0.9476.

  11. Multicellular contractility contributes to the emergence of mesothelioma nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czirok, Andras

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) nodules arise from the mesothelial lining of the pleural cavity by a poorly understood mechanism. We demonstrate that macroscopic multicellular aggregates, reminiscent of the MPM nodules found in patients, develop when MPM cell lines are cultured at high cell densities for several weeks. Surprisingly, the nodule-like aggregates do not arise by excessive local cell proliferation, but by myosin II-driven cell contractility. Contractile nodules contain prominent actin cables that can span several cells. Several features of the in vitro MPM nodule development can be explained by a computational model that assumes uniform and steady intercellular contractile forces within a monolayer of cells, and a mechanical load-dependent lifetime of cell-cell contacts. The model behaves as a self-tensioned Maxwell fluid and exhibits an instability that leads to pattern formation. Altogether, our findings suggest that inhibition of the actomyosin system may provide a hitherto not utilized therapeutic approach to affect MPM growth. NIH R01-GM102801.

  12. Imaging circulating cells and lymphoid tissues with iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Elias, Andrew; Tsourkas, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The use of nanometer-sized iron oxide nanoparticles and micron-sized iron oxide particles as magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents has garnered a high degree of interest in diverse areas of biology and medicine. Applications such as cell tracking, molecular imaging, gene detection, and lymphography are being explored to provide insight into disease mechanisms, monitor therapeutic efficacy, and facilitate diagnostic imaging. What makes iron oxide so appealing is a number of favorable properties including high detectability by MR, biodegradability and low toxicity. Here we describe the recent progress on the use of magnetic nanoparticles in imaging circulating cells and lymphoid tissues. The study of the lymph system and the biodistribution of various circulating immune cells is important in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of a wide range of diseases and is expected to have a profound effect on patient outcome.

  13. Immunophenotypic characterization of lymphoid cell infiltrates in vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Sosa, S; Aguirre-Lombardo, M; Jimenez-Brito, G; Ruiz-Argüelles, A

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenesis of vitiligo is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the nature of lymphoid cells infiltrating depigmented areas of skin in vitiligo. Immunochemical procedures were carried out in biopsies from 20 patients with active lesions to search for cells expressing CD1a, CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, CD20, CD25, CD30, CD56, CD68 and CD79a. Results indicate that early lesions are infiltrated mainly by dendritic cells, whereas older lesions display significantly lower proportions of these cells and increased percentages of mature T cells. This finding might suggest that the autoimmune reactivity towards melanocyte antigens might be T cell-dependent and antigen-driven. It is possible that a non-immune offence of melanocytes is responsible for the exposure of intracellular antigens, while autoreactivity might be a secondary, self-perpetuating mechanism. PMID:23607858

  14. Invasive fungal diseases in patients with acute lymphoid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Nicolato, Andrea; Nouér, Simone A; Garnica, Marcia; Portugal, Rodrigo; Maiolino, Angelo; Nucci, Marcio

    2016-09-01

    Invasive fungal disease (IFD) represents an important complication in patients with acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL). The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of IFD in ALL patients with neutropenia, identify factors associated with IFD, and estimate the impact of IFD on the outcome. All patients with ALL who developed febrile neutropenia from 1987 to 2013 were evaluated. Cases of IFD were classified as proven or probable. Factors associated with IFD were evaluated by comparing episodes with and without a diagnosis of IFD. Among 350 episodes of febrile neutropenia, 31 IFDs were diagnosed (8.8%). Prolonged neutropenia was the only factor associated with IFD caused by yeasts. Factors associated with IFD caused by molds by multivariate analysis were the period after 2008, receipt of allogeneic transplant, relapsed ALL and prolonged neutropenia. Patients in relapse should receive induction chemotherapy in rooms with HEPA filter and receive antifungal prophylaxis. PMID:26949001

  15. Complementarity and redundancy of IL-22-producing innate lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Lucille C.; Girard-Madoux, Mathilde J. H.; Seillet, Cyril; Mielke, Lisa A.; Kerdiles, Yann; Fenis, Aurore; Wieduwild, Elisabeth; Putoczki, Tracy; Mondot, Stanislas; Lantz, Olivier; Demon, Dieter; Papenfuss, Anthony T.; Smyth, Gordon K.; Lamkanfi, Mohamed; Carotta, Sebastian; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Shi, Wei; Carpentier, Sabrina; Soos, Tim; Arendt, Christopher; Ugolini, Sophie; Huntington, Nicholas D.; Belz, Gabrielle T.; Vivier, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal T cells and group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) control the composition of the microbiota and gut immune responses. Within the gut there coexists ILC3 subsets which either express or lack the Natural cytoxicity receptor (NCR) NKp46. We identify here the transcriptional signature associated with the T-bet-dependent differentiation of NCR− ILC3 into NCR+ ILC3. Contrary to the prevailing view, we show by conditional deletion of the key ILC3 genes Stat3, Il22, Tbx21 and Mcl1 that NCR+ ILC3 were redundant for the control of mouse colonic infections with Citrobacter rodentium in the presence of T cells. However, NCR+ ILC3 were essential for cecum homeostasis. Our data show that interplay between intestinal ILC3 and adaptive lymphocytes results in robust complementary fail-safe mechanisms ensuring gut homeostasis. PMID:26595889

  16. T-cell-predominant lymphoid hyperplasia in a tattoo*

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Erica Sales; Rocha, Bruno de Oliveira; Batista, Everton da Silva; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Ferreira; Farre, Lourdes; Bittencourt, Achilea Lisboa

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia (CLH) can be idiopathic or secondary to external stimuli, and is considered rare in tattoos. The infiltrate can be predominantly of B or T-cells, the latter being seldom reported in tattoos. We present a case of a predominantly T CLH, secondary to the black pigment of tattooing in a 35-year-old patient, with a dense infiltrate of small, medium and scarce large T-cells. Analysis of the rearrangement of T-cells receptor revealed a polyclonal proliferation. Since the infiltrate of CLH can simulate a T lymphoma, it is important to show that lesions from tattoos can have a predominance of T-cells. PMID:25387518

  17. Runx3 specifies lineage commitment of innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Ebihara, Takashi; Song, Christina; Ryu, Stacy H; Plougastel-Douglas, Beatrice; Yang, Liping; Levanon, Ditsa; Groner, Yoram; Bern, Michael D; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Colonna, Marco; Egawa, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Wayne M

    2015-11-01

    Subsets of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) reside in the mucosa and regulate immune responses to external pathogens. While ILCs can be phenotypically classified into ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 subsets, the transcriptional control of commitment to each ILC lineage is incompletely understood. Here we report that the transcription factor Runx3 was essential for the normal development of ILC1 and ILC3 cells but not of ILC2 cells. Runx3 controlled the survival of ILC1 cells but not of ILC3 cells. Runx3 was required for expression of the transcription factor RORγt and its downstream target, the transcription factor AHR, in ILC3 cells. The absence of Runx3 in ILCs exacerbated infection with Citrobacter rodentium. Therefore, our data establish Runx3 as a key transcription factor in the lineage-specific differentiation of ILC1 and ILC3 cells. PMID:26414766

  18. Artery tertiary lymphoid organs contribute to innate and adaptive immune responses in advanced mouse atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mohanta, Sarajo Kumar; Yin, Changjun; Peng, Li; Srikakulapu, Prasad; Bontha, Vineela; Hu, Desheng; Weih, Falk; Weber, Christian; Gerdes, Norbert; Habenicht, Andreas J R

    2014-05-23

    Tertiary lymphoid organs emerge in tissues in response to nonresolving inflammation. Recent research characterized artery tertiary lymphoid organs in the aorta adventitia of aged apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. The atherosclerosis-associated lymphocyte aggregates are organized into distinct compartments, including separate T-cell areas harboring conventional, monocyte-derived, lymphoid, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, as well as activated T-cell effectors and memory cells; B-cell follicles containing follicular dendritic cells in activated germinal centers; and peripheral niches of plasma cells. Artery tertiary lymphoid organs show marked neoangiogenesis, aberrant lymphangiogenesis, and extensive induction of high endothelial venules. Moreover, newly formed lymph node-like conduits connect the external lamina with high endothelial venules in T-cell areas and also extend into germinal centers. Mouse artery tertiary lymphoid organs recruit large numbers of naïve T cells and harbor lymphocyte subsets with opposing activities, including CD4(+) and CD8(+) effector and memory T cells, natural and induced CD4(+) regulatory T cells, and memory B cells at different stages of differentiation. These data suggest that artery tertiary lymphoid organs participate in primary immune responses and organize T- and B-cell autoimmune responses in advanced atherosclerosis. In this review, we discuss the novel concept that pro- and antiatherogenic immune responses toward unknown arterial wall-derived autoantigens may be organized by artery tertiary lymphoid organs and that disruption of the balance between pro- and antiatherogenic immune cell subsets may trigger clinically overt atherosclerosis.

  19. Lymphoid Organ-Resident Dendritic Cells Exhibit Unique Transcriptional Fingerprints Based on Subset and Site

    PubMed Central

    Elpek, Kutlu G.; Bellemare-Pelletier, Angelique; Malhotra, Deepali; Reynoso, Erika D.; Lukacs-Kornek, Veronika; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H.; Turley, Shannon J.

    2011-01-01

    Lymphoid organ-resident DC subsets are thought to play unique roles in determining the fate of T cell responses. Recent studies focusing on a single lymphoid organ identified molecular pathways that are differentially operative in each DC subset and led to the assumption that a given DC subset would more or less exhibit the same genomic and functional profiles throughout the body. Whether the local milieu in different anatomical sites can also influence the transcriptome of DC subsets has remained largely unexplored. Here, we interrogated the transcriptional relationships between lymphoid organ-resident DC subsets from spleen, gut- and skin-draining lymph nodes, and thymus of C57BL/6 mice. For this purpose, major resident DC subsets including CD4 and CD8 DCs were sorted at high purity and gene expression profiles were compared using microarray analysis. This investigation revealed that lymphoid organ-resident DC subsets exhibit divergent genomic programs across lymphoid organs. Interestingly, we also found that transcriptional and biochemical properties of a given DC subset can differ between lymphoid organs for lymphoid organ-resident DC subsets, but not plasmacytoid DCs, suggesting that determinants of the tissue milieu program resident DCs for essential site-specific functions. PMID:21886840

  20. Prolonged heart xenograft survival using combined total lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine

    SciTech Connect

    Knechtle, S.J.; Halperin, E.C.; Saad, T.; Bollinger, R.R.

    1986-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine have profound immunosuppressive properties and permit successful heart allotransplantation. Cyclosporine used alone has not permitted consistently successful transplantation between species in all cases. Total lymphoid irradiation has not been applied to xenotransplantation. The efficacy of total lymphoid irradiation alone and in combination with cyclosporine was examined using an animal model of heart xenotransplantation. Heterotopic heart transplants were performed using inbred Syrian hamsters as donors and Lewis rats as recipients. Total lymphoid irradiation was administered preoperatively over 3 weeks for a total dose of 15 gray. Cyclosporine was started on the day of surgery and was given as a daily intramuscular injection of 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day until rejection was complete. Neither total lymphoid irradiation nor cyclosporine alone markedly prolonged graft survival. However, combined total lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine, 5 or 10 mg/kg/day, dramatically prolonged graft survival to greater than 100 days in most recipients. There were no treatment-related deaths. In conclusion, combined total lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine permit successful long-term survival of heart xenotransplants in this hamster-to-rat model.

  1. Immunomodulatory nonablative conditioning regimen for B-cell lymphoid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Chinratanalab, Wichai; Reddy, Nishitha; Greer, John P.; Morgan, David; Engelhardt, Brian; Kassim, Adetola; Brandt, Stephen J.; Jagasia, Madan; Goodman, Stacey; Savani, Bipin N.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-six patients with recurrent CD20+ B-cell lymphoid malignancies received fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab–based nonablative conditioning followed by either matched related (n = 18) or unrelated (n = 8) donor allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) between March 2008 and May 2011. Median age of patients at transplantation was 59 years (range, 41–64 years). At diagnosis, 20 (77%) had stage IV disease; 23 (88%) received ≥3 regimens, 14 (54%) received ≥4 regimens, and 4 (15%) had earlier autologous-SCT. All patients had either chemosensitive or stable disease and nine (35%) were in complete remission before transplantation. At the time of analysis, 17 patients were alive with an estimated 2-year overall survival and progression-free survival rate of 63% and nonrelapse mortality of 25%. Grade II to IV acute graft-vs-host-disease occurred in 8 (31%) and chronic graft-vs-host-disease in 6 (23%) patients (extensive, n = 3). Causes of death include progressive disease in four, acute graft-vs-host-disease in two (both after receiving donor lymphocyte infusion for mixed chimerism with residual disease), infection in one, and other (e.g., substance abuse, leukoencephalopathy) in two. Six patients required rehospitalization within 100 days of SCT (mean = 10 days; range, 3–18 days). Our data support fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab–based nonablative conditioning allo-SCT in CD20+ B-cell lymphoid malignancies and it is time to compare this regimen with an alternative reduced-intensity conditioning regimen in B-cell malignancies. PMID:22269114

  2. GmEXPB2, a Cell Wall β-Expansin, Affects Soybean Nodulation through Modifying Root Architecture and Promoting Nodule Formation and Development.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinxin; Zhao, Jing; Tan, Zhiyuan; Zeng, Rensen; Liao, Hong

    2015-12-01

    Nodulation is an essential process for biological nitrogen (N2) fixation in legumes, but its regulation remains poorly understood. Here, a β-expansin gene, GmEXPB2, was found to be critical for soybean (Glycine max) nodulation. GmEXPB2 was preferentially expressed at the early stage of nodule development. β-Glucuronidase staining further showed that GmEXPB2 was mainly localized to the nodule vascular trace and nodule vascular bundles, as well as nodule cortical and parenchyma cells, suggesting that GmEXPB2 might be involved in cell wall modification and extension during nodule formation and development. Overexpression of GmEXPB2 dramatically modified soybean root architecture, increasing the size and number of cortical cells in the root meristematic and elongation zones and expanding root hair density and size of the root hair zone. Confocal microscopy with green fluorescent protein-labeled rhizobium USDA110 cells showed that the infection events were significantly enhanced in the GmEXPB2-overexpressing lines. Moreover, nodule primordium development was earlier in overexpressing lines compared with wild-type plants. Thereby, overexpression of GmEXPB2 in either transgenic soybean hairy roots or whole plants resulted in increased nodule number, nodule mass, and nitrogenase activity and thus elevated plant N and phosphorus content as well as biomass. In contrast, suppression of GmEXPB2 in soybean transgenic composite plants led to smaller infected cells and thus reduced number of big nodules, nodule mass, and nitrogenase activity, thereby inhibiting soybean growth. Taken together, we conclude that GmEXPB2 critically affects soybean nodulation through modifying root architecture and promoting nodule formation and development and subsequently impacts biological N2 fixation and growth of soybean.

  3. GmEXPB2, a Cell Wall β-Expansin, Affects Soybean Nodulation through Modifying Root Architecture and Promoting Nodule Formation and Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinxin; Zhao, Jing; Tan, Zhiyuan; Liao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Nodulation is an essential process for biological nitrogen (N2) fixation in legumes, but its regulation remains poorly understood. Here, a β-expansin gene, GmEXPB2, was found to be critical for soybean (Glycine max) nodulation. GmEXPB2 was preferentially expressed at the early stage of nodule development. β-Glucuronidase staining further showed that GmEXPB2 was mainly localized to the nodule vascular trace and nodule vascular bundles, as well as nodule cortical and parenchyma cells, suggesting that GmEXPB2 might be involved in cell wall modification and extension during nodule formation and development. Overexpression of GmEXPB2 dramatically modified soybean root architecture, increasing the size and number of cortical cells in the root meristematic and elongation zones and expanding root hair density and size of the root hair zone. Confocal microscopy with green fluorescent protein-labeled rhizobium USDA110 cells showed that the infection events were significantly enhanced in the GmEXPB2-overexpressing lines. Moreover, nodule primordium development was earlier in overexpressing lines compared with wild-type plants. Thereby, overexpression of GmEXPB2 in either transgenic soybean hairy roots or whole plants resulted in increased nodule number, nodule mass, and nitrogenase activity and thus elevated plant N and phosphorus content as well as biomass. In contrast, suppression of GmEXPB2 in soybean transgenic composite plants led to smaller infected cells and thus reduced number of big nodules, nodule mass, and nitrogenase activity, thereby inhibiting soybean growth. Taken together, we conclude that GmEXPB2 critically affects soybean nodulation through modifying root architecture and promoting nodule formation and development and subsequently impacts biological N2 fixation and growth of soybean. PMID:26432877

  4. Development and Function of Secondary and Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in the Small Intestine and the Colon

    PubMed Central

    Buettner, Manuela; Lochner, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The immune system of the gut has evolved a number of specific lymphoid structures that contribute to homeostasis in the face of microbial colonization and food-derived antigenic challenge. These lymphoid organs encompass Peyer’s patches (PP) in the small intestine and their colonic counterparts that develop in a programed fashion before birth. In addition, the gut harbors a network of lymphoid tissues that is commonly designated as solitary intestinal lymphoid tissues (SILT). In contrast to PP, SILT develop strictly after birth and consist of a dynamic continuum of structures ranging from small cryptopatches (CP) to large, mature isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF). Although the development of PP and SILT follow similar principles, such as an early clustering of lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and the requirement for lymphotoxin beta (LTβ) receptor-mediated signaling, the formation of CP and their further maturation into ILF is associated with additional intrinsic and environmental signals. Moreover, recent data also indicate that specific differences exist in the regulation of ILF formation between the small intestine and the colon. Importantly, intestinal inflammation in both mice and humans is associated with a strong expansion of the lymphoid network in the gut. Recent experiments in mice suggest that these structures, although they resemble large, mature ILF in appearance, may represent de novo-induced tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO). While, so far, it is not clear whether intestinal TLO contribute to the exacerbation of inflammatory pathology, it has been shown that ILF provide the critical microenvironment necessary for the induction of an effective host response upon infection with enteric bacterial pathogens. Regarding the importance of ILF for intestinal immunity, interfering with the development and maturation of these lymphoid tissues may offer novel means for manipulating the immune response during intestinal infection or inflammation. PMID

  5. Development and Function of Secondary and Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in the Small Intestine and the Colon

    PubMed Central

    Buettner, Manuela; Lochner, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The immune system of the gut has evolved a number of specific lymphoid structures that contribute to homeostasis in the face of microbial colonization and food-derived antigenic challenge. These lymphoid organs encompass Peyer’s patches (PP) in the small intestine and their colonic counterparts that develop in a programed fashion before birth. In addition, the gut harbors a network of lymphoid tissues that is commonly designated as solitary intestinal lymphoid tissues (SILT). In contrast to PP, SILT develop strictly after birth and consist of a dynamic continuum of structures ranging from small cryptopatches (CP) to large, mature isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF). Although the development of PP and SILT follow similar principles, such as an early clustering of lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and the requirement for lymphotoxin beta (LTβ) receptor-mediated signaling, the formation of CP and their further maturation into ILF is associated with additional intrinsic and environmental signals. Moreover, recent data also indicate that specific differences exist in the regulation of ILF formation between the small intestine and the colon. Importantly, intestinal inflammation in both mice and humans is associated with a strong expansion of the lymphoid network in the gut. Recent experiments in mice suggest that these structures, although they resemble large, mature ILF in appearance, may represent de novo-induced tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO). While, so far, it is not clear whether intestinal TLO contribute to the exacerbation of inflammatory pathology, it has been shown that ILF provide the critical microenvironment necessary for the induction of an effective host response upon infection with enteric bacterial pathogens. Regarding the importance of ILF for intestinal immunity, interfering with the development and maturation of these lymphoid tissues may offer novel means for manipulating the immune response during intestinal infection or inflammation.

  6. Development and Function of Secondary and Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in the Small Intestine and the Colon.

    PubMed

    Buettner, Manuela; Lochner, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The immune system of the gut has evolved a number of specific lymphoid structures that contribute to homeostasis in the face of microbial colonization and food-derived antigenic challenge. These lymphoid organs encompass Peyer's patches (PP) in the small intestine and their colonic counterparts that develop in a programed fashion before birth. In addition, the gut harbors a network of lymphoid tissues that is commonly designated as solitary intestinal lymphoid tissues (SILT). In contrast to PP, SILT develop strictly after birth and consist of a dynamic continuum of structures ranging from small cryptopatches (CP) to large, mature isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF). Although the development of PP and SILT follow similar principles, such as an early clustering of lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and the requirement for lymphotoxin beta (LTβ) receptor-mediated signaling, the formation of CP and their further maturation into ILF is associated with additional intrinsic and environmental signals. Moreover, recent data also indicate that specific differences exist in the regulation of ILF formation between the small intestine and the colon. Importantly, intestinal inflammation in both mice and humans is associated with a strong expansion of the lymphoid network in the gut. Recent experiments in mice suggest that these structures, although they resemble large, mature ILF in appearance, may represent de novo-induced tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO). While, so far, it is not clear whether intestinal TLO contribute to the exacerbation of inflammatory pathology, it has been shown that ILF provide the critical microenvironment necessary for the induction of an effective host response upon infection with enteric bacterial pathogens. Regarding the importance of ILF for intestinal immunity, interfering with the development and maturation of these lymphoid tissues may offer novel means for manipulating the immune response during intestinal infection or inflammation. PMID:27656182

  7. Regulation of legume nodulation by acidic growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Brett J; Lin, Meng-Han; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2013-03-01

    Legumes represent some of the most important crop species worldwide. They are able to form novel root organs known as nodules, within which biological nitrogen fixation is facilitated through a symbiotic interaction with soil-dwelling bacteria called rhizobia. This provides legumes with a distinct advantage over other plant species, as nitrogen is a key factor for growth and development. Nodule formation is tightly regulated by the plant and can be inhibited by a number of external factors, such as soil pH. This is of significant agricultural and economic importance as much of global legume crops are grown on low pH soils. Despite this, the precise mechanism by which low pH conditions inhibits nodule development remains poorly characterized.

  8. Incidental nodule management—should there be a formal process?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Indeterminate pulmonary nodules are commonly encountered and often result in costly and invasive procedures that eventually turn out to be unnecessary. Current prediction models can help to estimate the pretest probability of cancer and assist in determining a strategy of observation with serial imaging for a low pretest probability of cancer, and a more aggressive approach for those patients with a high pretest probability. However, the majority of patients will have an intermediate pretest probability which becomes complex. Decisions for further management are often based on preference by the clinician with the majority of physicians not following current guidelines in the management of pulmonary nodules. Poor adherence to pulmonary nodule guidelines is multifactorial with a variety of factors coming into play. These include inappropriate advice given by the radiologist, patient age, comorbidities, patient preference, and physician’s technical skill all influencing the decision making. PMID:27606078

  9. Studies on zinc nodules electrodeposited from acid electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Tobias, C.W.

    1984-12-01

    The development of morphology of electrodeposited zinc was investigated by studying the initial stages of deposition. Zinc was deposited galvanostatically from 1.0 M ZnCl/sub 2/ electrolyte (0.7 < pH < 4.6) on rotating disc electrodes at current densities from 5 to 130 ma/cm/sup 2/. Pine glassy carbon, Union Carbide pyrolytic graphite, Gould pyrolytic graphite, Exxon graphite loaded polymer, and platinum substrates were used. The number densities of nodules (diameter greater than 1 ..mu..m), typically encountered during incipient morphological development, were measured using scanning electron microscopy and image analysis. Nodule densities up to 7 x 10/sup 4/ nodules/mm/sup 2/ were measured.

  10. Incidental nodule management—should there be a formal process?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Indeterminate pulmonary nodules are commonly encountered and often result in costly and invasive procedures that eventually turn out to be unnecessary. Current prediction models can help to estimate the pretest probability of cancer and assist in determining a strategy of observation with serial imaging for a low pretest probability of cancer, and a more aggressive approach for those patients with a high pretest probability. However, the majority of patients will have an intermediate pretest probability which becomes complex. Decisions for further management are often based on preference by the clinician with the majority of physicians not following current guidelines in the management of pulmonary nodules. Poor adherence to pulmonary nodule guidelines is multifactorial with a variety of factors coming into play. These include inappropriate advice given by the radiologist, patient age, comorbidities, patient preference, and physician’s technical skill all influencing the decision making.

  11. Incidental nodule management-should there be a formal process?

    PubMed

    Sethi, Sonali; Parrish, Scott

    2016-07-01

    Indeterminate pulmonary nodules are commonly encountered and often result in costly and invasive procedures that eventually turn out to be unnecessary. Current prediction models can help to estimate the pretest probability of cancer and assist in determining a strategy of observation with serial imaging for a low pretest probability of cancer, and a more aggressive approach for those patients with a high pretest probability. However, the majority of patients will have an intermediate pretest probability which becomes complex. Decisions for further management are often based on preference by the clinician with the majority of physicians not following current guidelines in the management of pulmonary nodules. Poor adherence to pulmonary nodule guidelines is multifactorial with a variety of factors coming into play. These include inappropriate advice given by the radiologist, patient age, comorbidities, patient preference, and physician's technical skill all influencing the decision making. PMID:27606078

  12. South African Papilionoid Legumes Are Nodulated by Diverse Burkholderia with Unique Nodulation and Nitrogen-Fixation Loci

    PubMed Central

    Beukes, Chrizelle W.; Venter, Stephanus N.; Law, Ian J.; Phalane, Francina L.; Steenkamp, Emma T.

    2013-01-01

    The root-nodule bacteria of legumes endemic to the Cape Floristic Region are largely understudied, even though recent reports suggest the occurrence of nodulating Burkholderia species unique to the region. In this study, we considered the diversity and evolution of nodulating Burkholderia associated with the endemic papilionoid tribes Hypocalypteae and Podalyrieae. We identified distinct groups from verified rhizobial isolates by phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA and recA housekeeping gene regions. In order to gain insight into the evolution of the nodulation and diazotrophy of these rhizobia we analysed the genes encoding NifH and NodA. The majority of these 69 isolates appeared to be unique, potentially representing novel species. Evidence of horizontal gene transfer determining the symbiotic ability of these Cape Floristic Region isolates indicate evolutionary origins distinct from those of nodulating Burkholderia from elsewhere in the world. Overall, our findings suggest that Burkholderia species associated with fynbos legumes are highly diverse and their symbiotic abilities have unique ancestries. It is therefore possible that the evolution of these bacteria is closely linked to the diversification and establishment of legumes characteristic of the Cape Floristic Region. PMID:23874611

  13. South african papilionoid legumes are nodulated by diverse burkholderia with unique nodulation and nitrogen-fixation Loci.

    PubMed

    Beukes, Chrizelle W; Venter, Stephanus N; Law, Ian J; Phalane, Francina L; Steenkamp, Emma T

    2013-01-01

    The root-nodule bacteria of legumes endemic to the Cape Floristic Region are largely understudied, even though recent reports suggest the occurrence of nodulating Burkholderia species unique to the region. In this study, we considered the diversity and evolution of nodulating Burkholderia associated with the endemic papilionoid tribes Hypocalypteae and Podalyrieae. We identified distinct groups from verified rhizobial isolates by phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA and recA housekeeping gene regions. In order to gain insight into the evolution of the nodulation and diazotrophy of these rhizobia we analysed the genes encoding NifH and NodA. The majority of these 69 isolates appeared to be unique, potentially representing novel species. Evidence of horizontal gene transfer determining the symbiotic ability of these Cape Floristic Region isolates indicate evolutionary origins distinct from those of nodulating Burkholderia from elsewhere in the world. Overall, our findings suggest that Burkholderia species associated with fynbos legumes are highly diverse and their symbiotic abilities have unique ancestries. It is therefore possible that the evolution of these bacteria is closely linked to the diversification and establishment of legumes characteristic of the Cape Floristic Region. PMID:23874611

  14. Role of lymphotoxin and homeostatic chemokines in the development and function of local lymphoid tissues in the respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Carragher, Damian; Randall, Troy D

    2007-01-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs are strategically placed to recruit locally activated antigen presenting cells (APCs) as well as naïve, recirculating T and B cells. The structure of secondary lymphoid organs - separated B and T zones, populations of specialized stromal cells, high endothelial venules and lymphatic vessles - has also evolved to maximize encounters between APCs and lymphocytes and to facilitate the expansion and differentiation of antigen-stimulated T and B cells. Many of the general mechanisms that govern the development and organization of secondary lymphoid organs have been identified over the last decade. However, the specific cellular and molecular interactions involved in the development and organization of each secondary lymphoid organ are slightly different and probably reflect the cell types available at that time and location. Here we review the mechanisms involved in the development, organization and function of local lymphoid tissues in the respiratory tract, including Nasal Associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT) and inducible Bronchus Associated Lymphoid Tissue (iBALT).

  15. Potential of Cells and Cytokines/Chemokines to Regulate Tertiary Lymphoid Structures in Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Feifeng

    2016-01-01

    Tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) are ectopic lymphoid tissues involved in chronic inflammation, autoimmune diseases, transplant rejection and cancer. They exhibit almost all the characteristics of secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), which are associated with adaptive immune responses; as such, they contain organized B-cell follicles with germinal centers, distinct areas containing T cells and dendritic cells, high endothelial venules, and lymphatics. In this review, we briefly describe the formation of SLO, and describe the cellular subsets and molecular cues involved in the formation and maintenance of TLS. Finally, we discuss the associations of TLS with human diseases, especially autoimmune diseases, and the potential for therapeutic targeting. PMID:27799872

  16. Benign hyperplasia of duct-associated lymphoid tissue: report of a case and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Venkatesh Vishwanath; Belur, Jagdish

    2011-01-01

    Focal lymphoid tissue is ubiquitously present in the oral mucosa and serves as a barrier for entrapment of antigens. The mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue is generally dispersed and sometimes associated with the ducts of the minor salivary glands. Proliferation of the duct-associated lymphoid tissue (DALT) is rarely reported, though probably of common occurrence. We report a case of benign hyperplasia of DALT in the buccal mucosa of a 58-year-old male. The histogenesis and pathological implications of this tissue are discussed and the need for recognition of this entity is stressed.

  17. Catalase and superoxide dismutase in alfalfa root nodules. [Medicago sativa L

    SciTech Connect

    Becana, M.; Aparicio-Tejo, P.M.; Sanchez-Diaz, M.

    1986-04-01

    Catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), in scavenging H/sub 2/ O/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/, respectively, have been recently proposed to play a role in leghemoglobin protection. The occurrence of catalase and SOD activities in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) nodule cytosol is reported here. Enzymes were extracted at 0-4/sup 0/C from 0.5 g fresh nodules with 12 ml of a medium containing K-phosphate buffer 50 mM, pH 7.8 and Na/sub 2/EDTA 0.1 mM. The homogenate was filtered and centrifuged at 18,000 xg for 10 min, and the resulting supernatant was used for catalase assay. A further precipitation of leghemoglobin was required to avoid interferences with SOD determination. Catalase was determined by back-titration with KMnO/sub 4/. SOD was assayed by measuring the inhibition of nitro blue tetrazolium reduction. The sensitivity of SOD activity to CN/sup -/ was tested by including 1 mM KCN in the reaction mixture. Catalase activity of alfalfa nodule cytosol was 237 +/- 1 units/mg protein, decreasing very significantly (P < 0.01, Duncan's multiple range test) at 20 mM NO/sub 3//sup -/. Typical specific SOD activities were 94 +/- 5 and 65 +/- 4 units/mg protein, without CN/sup -/ and with CN/sup -/, respectively. Both activities increased very significantly at 20 mM NO/sub 3//sup -/. SOD activities with CN/sup -/ were 70-80% those without CN/sup -/ within the range of NO/sub 3//sup -/ investigated (0-20 mM).

  18. Geometrical characteristics and damage morphology of nodules grown from artificial seeds in multilayer coating

    SciTech Connect

    Shan Yongguang; He Hongbo; Wei Chaoyang; Li Shuhong; Zhou Ming; Li Dawei; Zhao Yuan'an

    2010-08-01

    Nodules have been planted in an HfO2/SiO2 multilayer system with absorptive gold nanoparticle seeds located on the surface of a substrate. The topography of nodules was scanned by an atomic force microscope and imaged by a scanning electron microscope. The underlying characteristics of nodules were revealed by a focused ion beam. The cross-sectional profiles reveal that nodules grown from small seeds have a continuous boundary and better mechanical stability. A laser-induced damage test shows that nodules decrease the laser-induced damage threshold by up to 3 times. The damage pits are exclusively caused by nodular ejection and triggered by the absorptive seeds. The distribution of electric field and average temperature rise in the nodules were analyzed. Theoretical results met experimental results very well. The strong absorptive seed and microlens effect of the nodule play important roles in laser-induced damage of a planted nodule.

  19. Geometrical characteristics and damage morphology of nodules grown from artificial seeds in multilayer coating.

    PubMed

    Shan, Yongguang; He, Hongbo; Wei, Chaoyang; Li, Shuhong; Zhou, Ming; Li, Dawei; Zhao, Yuan'an

    2010-08-01

    Nodules have been planted in an HfO(2)/SiO(2) multilayer system with absorptive gold nanoparticle seeds located on the surface of a substrate. The topography of nodules was scanned by an atomic force microscope and imaged by a scanning electron microscope. The underlying characteristics of nodules were revealed by a focused ion beam. The cross-sectional profiles reveal that nodules grown from small seeds have a continuous boundary and better mechanical stability. A laser-induced damage test shows that nodules decrease the laser-induced damage threshold by up to 3 times. The damage pits are exclusively caused by nodular ejection and triggered by the absorptive seeds. The distribution of electric field and average temperature rise in the nodules were analyzed. Theoretical results met experimental results very well. The strong absorptive seed and microlens effect of the nodule play important roles in laser-induced damage of a planted nodule. PMID:20676185

  20. In vitro sulfotransferase activity of NodH, a nodulation protein of Rhizobium meliloti required for host-specific nodulation.

    PubMed Central

    Ehrhardt, D W; Atkinson, E M; Faull, K F; Freedberg, D I; Sutherlin, D P; Armstrong, R; Long, S R

    1995-01-01

    Early stages of nodulation involve the exchange of signals between the bacterium and the host plant. Bacterial nodulation (nod) genes are required for Rhizobium spp. to synthesize lipooligosaccharide morphogens, termed Nod factors. The common nod genes encode enzymes that synthesize the factor core structure, which is modified by host-specific gene products. Here we show direct in vitro evidence that Rhizobium meliloti NodH, a host-specific nodulation gene, catalyzes the transfer of sulfate from 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate to the terminal 6-O position of Nod factors, and we show substrate requirements for the reaction. Our results indicate that polymerization of the chitooligosaccharide backbone likely precedes sulfation and that sulfation is not absolutely dependent on the presence or the particular structure of the N-acyl modification. NodH sulfation provides a tool for the enzymatic in vitro synthesis of novel Nod factors, or putative Nod factors intermediates, with high specific activity. PMID:7592390

  1. Heterogeneous fibroblasts underlie age-dependent tertiary lymphoid tissues in the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yuki; Mii, Akiko; Hamazaki, Yoko; Fujita, Harumi; Nakata, Hirosuke; Masuda, Kyoko; Nishiyama, Shingo; Shibuya, Shinsuke; Haga, Hironori; Ogawa, Osamu; Shimizu, Akira; Narumiya, Shuh; Kaisho, Tsuneyasu; Arita, Makoto; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Sharma, Kumar; Minato, Nagahiro; Kawamoto, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common clinical condition defined as a rapid decline in kidney function. AKI is a global health burden, estimated to cause 2 million deaths annually worldwide. Unlike AKI in the young, which is reversible, AKI in the elderly often leads to end-stage renal disease, and the mechanism that prevents kidney repair in the elderly is unclear. Here we demonstrate that aged but not young mice developed multiple tertiary lymphoid tissues (TLTs) in the kidney after AKI. TLT size was associated with impaired renal function and increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines and homeostatic chemokines, indicating a possible contribution of TLTs to sustained inflammation after injury. Notably, resident fibroblasts from a single lineage diversified into p75 neurotrophin receptor+ (p75NTR+) fibroblasts and homeostatic chemokine–producing fibroblasts inside TLTs, and retinoic acid–producing fibroblasts around TLTs. Deletion of CD4+ cells as well as late administration of dexamethasone abolished TLTs and improved renal outcomes. Importantly, aged but not young human kidneys also formed TLTs that had cellular and molecular components similar to those of mouse TLTs. Therefore, the inhibition of TLT formation may offer a novel therapeutic strategy for AKI in the elderly.

  2. Stage IV intramucosal gastric marginal zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type.

    PubMed

    Ohtaka, Masahiko; Sato, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Shouji; Sueki, Ryouta; Yamaguchi, Tatsuya; Uetake, Tomoyoshi; Ohtsuka, Hiroyuki; Iwao, Noriaki; Kirito, Keita; Enomoto, Nobuyuki

    2013-04-01

    A 45-year-old woman with no symptoms underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. A discolored area was noted at the greater curvature of the gastric upper body. Endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated thickening of the second sonographic layer indicating that the depth of invasion was confined to the mucosa. A urea breath test and anti-Helicobacter pylori antibody test were negative. A computed tomography scan showed a consolidation at the right lung. Gastric biopsy and transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) demonstrated a monotonous proliferation of atypical small lymphocytes. A diagnosis of gastric marginal zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (MALT lymphoma) was made. The clinical stage was stage IV. A genetic analysis showed rearrangement of the joining region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene and identical clones in both lesions. An API2-MALT1 fusion gene was detected in the gastric lesion. After H. pylori eradication treatment, combination treatment with rituximab plus CHOP (R-CHOP) was performed; 6 months later an endoscopy revealed complete disappearance of the lesion. Multiple gastric biopsies showed no infiltrating atypical lymphocytes. Similarly, the lesion in the lung showed complete remission (CR) on CT and TBLB. This report shows that a gastric MALT lymphoma located in the mucosa and disseminated to the lung maintained CR by R-CHOP. PMID:26181449

  3. Innate lymphoid cells in asthma: Will they take your breath away?

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Young; Umetsu, Dale T; Dekruyff, Rosemarie H

    2016-04-01

    Asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease that is characterized by airway hyper-reactivity (AHR) and airway inflammation. Although asthma was long thought to be driven by allergen-reactive TH 2 cells, it has recently become clear that the pathogenesis of asthma is more complicated and associated with multiple pathways and cell types. A very exciting recent development was the discovery of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) as key players in the pathogenesis of asthma. ILCs do not express antigen receptors but react promptly to "danger signals" from inflamed tissue and produce an array of cytokines that direct the ensuing immune response. The roles of ILCs may differ in distinct asthma phenotypes. ILC2s may be critical for initiation of adaptive immune responses in inhaled allergen-driven AHR, but may also function independently of adaptive immunity, mediating influenza-induced AHR. ILC2s also contribute to resolution of lung inflammation through their production of amphiregulin. Obesity-induced asthma is associated with expansion of IL-17A-producing ILC3s in the lungs. Furthermore, ILCs may also contribute to steroid-resistant asthma. Although the precise roles of ILCs in different types of asthma are still under investigation, it is clear that inhibition of ILC function represents a potential target that could provide novel treatments for asthma.

  4. Genetic association between a lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase (PTPN22) and type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weipeng; She, Jin-Xiong

    2005-03-01

    The lymphoid-specific phosphatase (LYP) encoded by PTPN22 is involved in preventing spontaneous T-cell activation by dephosphorylating and inactivating T-cell receptor-associated Csk kinase. We have genotyped 396 type 1 diabetic patients and 1,178 control subjects of Caucasian descent from north central Florida and report a strong association between type 1 diabetes and a polymorphism (R620W) in the PTPN22 gene. The homozygous genotype for the T allele encoding the 620W residue is associated with an increased risk for developing type 1 diabetes (odds ratio [OR] = 3.4, P < 0.008), and the heterozygous genotype C/T had an OR of 1.7 (P = 6 x 10(-6)). The C/C homozygous genotype is protective against type 1 diabetes (OR = 0.5, P = 6 x 10(-6)). Furthermore, transmission disequilibrium analysis of 410 affected sibpair and simplex families of Caucasian descent indicated that the type 1 diabetes-associated T allele is transmitted more often (57.2%) than randomly expected (P < 0.003). Together with previous reports of the association between PTPN22 and type 1 diabetes, as well as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, these results provide compelling evidence that LYP is a critical player in multiple autoimmune disorders. PMID:15734872

  5. Heterogeneous fibroblasts underlie age-dependent tertiary lymphoid tissues in the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yuki; Mii, Akiko; Hamazaki, Yoko; Fujita, Harumi; Nakata, Hirosuke; Masuda, Kyoko; Nishiyama, Shingo; Shibuya, Shinsuke; Haga, Hironori; Ogawa, Osamu; Shimizu, Akira; Narumiya, Shuh; Kaisho, Tsuneyasu; Arita, Makoto; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Sharma, Kumar; Minato, Nagahiro; Kawamoto, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common clinical condition defined as a rapid decline in kidney function. AKI is a global health burden, estimated to cause 2 million deaths annually worldwide. Unlike AKI in the young, which is reversible, AKI in the elderly often leads to end-stage renal disease, and the mechanism that prevents kidney repair in the elderly is unclear. Here we demonstrate that aged but not young mice developed multiple tertiary lymphoid tissues (TLTs) in the kidney after AKI. TLT size was associated with impaired renal function and increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines and homeostatic chemokines, indicating a possible contribution of TLTs to sustained inflammation after injury. Notably, resident fibroblasts from a single lineage diversified into p75 neurotrophin receptor+ (p75NTR+) fibroblasts and homeostatic chemokine–producing fibroblasts inside TLTs, and retinoic acid–producing fibroblasts around TLTs. Deletion of CD4+ cells as well as late administration of dexamethasone abolished TLTs and improved renal outcomes. Importantly, aged but not young human kidneys also formed TLTs that had cellular and molecular components similar to those of mouse TLTs. Therefore, the inhibition of TLT formation may offer a novel therapeutic strategy for AKI in the elderly. PMID:27699223

  6. Cardiac cavernous hemangioma and multiple pulmonary cavernous hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lili; Dai, Jun; Xiao, Ying; Cheng, Henghui; Ruan, Qiurong

    2014-02-01

    We describe for the first time a rare coexistence of a cardiac cavernous hemangioma with multiple pulmonary cavernous hemangiomas. Computed tomography revealed bilateral pulmonary nodules, left pleural effusion, and pericardial effusion. Positron emission tomography showed a pericardial neoplasm. Pathologically, multiple large dilated vascular spaces, lined by a single layer of endothelial cells and filled with blood, were revealed in both the cardiac tumor and the pulmonary nodules. Immunohistochemical examination of the lining cells showed positivity for CD31, FLI1, FVIII, and CD34. Taken together, these findings led to the diagnosis of cardiac cavernous hemangioma and multiple pulmonary cavernous hemangiomas.

  7. Characterization of lymphoid cells in the blood of healthy adults: sequential immunological, cytochemical and cytokinetic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hirt, A.; Wagner, H.P.

    1980-01-01

    With a new method, sequential immunological, cytochemical and cytokinetic studies were done on lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood of 12 healthy adults. Every single lymphoid cell could therefore be characterized by the following markers: surface immunoglobulins (sIg); rosetting with sheep red blood cells (E); unspecific acid alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE); and 3HdT incorporation. Significantly more E+sIg-ANAE-cells (51% and 22% of all lymphoid cells, respectively). Of all ANAE+ cells 90% were E+, but 64% of all ANAE- cells were also E+. In all individuals a subpopulation of E+sIg+ cells was found. The esterase pattern of these cells was similar to that of E-sIg+ cells. The overall labeling index of the lymphoid cells examined was less than or equal to 0.2%.

  8. Peripheral Lymphoid Volume Expansion and Maintenance Are Controlled by Gut Microbiota via RALDH+ Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zongde; Li, Jianjian; Zheng, Wencheng; Zhao, Guang; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Xiaofei; Guo, Yaqian; Qin, Chuan; Shi, Yan

    2016-02-16

    Lymphocyte homing to draining lymph nodes is critical for the initiation of immune responses. Secondary lymphoid organs of germ-free mice are underdeveloped. How gut commensal microbes remotely regulate cellularity and volume of secondary lymphoid organs remains unknown. We report here that, driven by commensal fungi, a wave of CD45(+)CD103(+)RALDH(+) cells migrates to the peripheral lymph nodes after birth. The arrival of these cells introduces high amounts of retinoic acid, mediates the neonatal to adult addressin switch on endothelial cells, and directs the homing of lymphocytes to both gut-associated lymphoid tissues and peripheral lymph nodes. In adult mice, a small number of these RALDH(+) cells might serve to maintain the volume of secondary lymphoid organs. Homing deficiency of these cells was associated with lymph node attrition in vitamin-A-deficient mice, suggesting a perpetual dependence on retinoic acid signaling for structural and functional maintenance of peripheral immune organs. PMID:26885858

  9. LncRNA profiling of human lymphoid progenitors reveals transcriptional divergence of B and T lineages

    PubMed Central

    Casero, David; Sandoval, Salemiz; Seet, Christopher S.; Scholes, Jessica; Zhu, Yuhua; Ha, Vi Luan; Luong, Annie; Parekh, Chintan; Crooks, Gay M.

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the transcriptional landscape that regulates human lymphoid commitment during postnatal life, we used RNA sequencing to assemble the long non-coding transcriptome across human bone marrow and thymic progenitors spanning the earliest stages of B and T lymphoid specification. Over 3000 novel long non-coding RNA genes (lncRNAs) were revealed through the analysis of these rare populations. Lymphoid commitment was characterized by lncRNA expression patterns that were highly stage-specific and more lineage-specific than protein coding patterns. Protein-coding genes co-expressed with neighboring lncRNA genes were enriched for ontologies related to lymphoid differentiation. The exquisite cell-type specificity of global lncRNA expression patterns independently revealed new developmental relationships between the earliest progenitors in the human bone marrow and thymus. PMID:26502406

  10. Peripheral Lymphoid Volume Expansion and Maintenance Are Controlled by Gut Microbiota via RALDH+ Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zongde; Li, Jianjian; Zheng, Wencheng; Zhao, Guang; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Xiaofei; Guo, Yaqian; Qin, Chuan; Shi, Yan

    2016-02-16

    Lymphocyte homing to draining lymph nodes is critical for the initiation of immune responses. Secondary lymphoid organs of germ-free mice are underdeveloped. How gut commensal microbes remotely regulate cellularity and volume of secondary lymphoid organs remains unknown. We report here that, driven by commensal fungi, a wave of CD45(+)CD103(+)RALDH(+) cells migrates to the peripheral lymph nodes after birth. The arrival of these cells introduces high amounts of retinoic acid, mediates the neonatal to adult addressin switch on endothelial cells, and directs the homing of lymphocytes to both gut-associated lymphoid tissues and peripheral lymph nodes. In adult mice, a small number of these RALDH(+) cells might serve to maintain the volume of secondary lymphoid organs. Homing deficiency of these cells was associated with lymph node attrition in vitamin-A-deficient mice, suggesting a perpetual dependence on retinoic acid signaling for structural and functional maintenance of peripheral immune organs.

  11. Bilateral mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas of parotid glands: a 13-year interval.

    PubMed

    Dunphy, C H; Grosso, L E; Rodriquez, J J; Dunphy, F R

    1996-05-01

    Benign lymphoepithelial lesions of salivary gland may have a population of monoclonal B cells. There is controversy regarding the clinical significance of monoclonality in these lesions. Morphologically and clinically, benign lymphoepithelial lesions of the salivary gland with monoclonal B cells falls within the spectrum of low-grade B-cell lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. We report a case of bilateral parotid lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, separated diagnostically by a 13-year interval. Polymerase chain reaction analysis detected similar clones in the bilateral parotid glands. This finding supports the natural history of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. In addition, because mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas have an unpredictable period of localized disease, recognition of monoclonality in benign lymphoepithelial lesions of salivary glands is important for local cure and can be aided by combining histologic with immunohistochemical, flow cytometric immunophenotyping, and Southern blot and/or polymerase chain reaction analysis.

  12. Soybean ureide transporters play a critical role in nodule development, function and nitrogen export.

    PubMed

    Collier, Ray; Tegeder, Mechthild

    2012-11-01

    Legumes can access atmospheric nitrogen through a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteroids that reside in root nodules. In soybean, the products of fixation are the ureides allantoin and allantoic acid, which are also the dominant long-distance transport forms of nitrogen from nodules to the shoot. Movement of nitrogen assimilates out of the nodules occurs via the nodule vasculature; however, the molecular mechanisms for ureide export and the importance of nitrogen transport processes for nodule physiology have not been resolved. Here, we demonstrate the function of two soybean proteins - GmUPS1-1 (XP_003516366) and GmUPS1-2 (XP_003518768) - in allantoin and allantoic acid transport out of the nodule. Localization studies revealed the presence of both transporters in the plasma membrane, and expression in nodule cortex cells and vascular endodermis. Functional analysis in soybean showed that repression of GmUPS1-1 and GmUPS1-2 in nodules leads to an accumulation of ureides and decreased nitrogen partitioning to roots and shoot. It was further demonstrated that nodule development, nitrogen fixation and nodule metabolism were negatively affected in RNAi UPS1 plants. Together, we conclude that export of ureides from nodules is mediated by UPS1 proteins, and that activity of the transporters is not only essential for shoot nitrogen supply but also for nodule development and function.

  13. Study of phenanthrene utilizing bacterial consortia associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root nodules.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ran; Crowley, David E; Wei, Gehong

    2015-02-01

    Many legumes have been selected as model plants to degrade organic contaminants with their special associated rhizosphere microbes in soil. However, the function of root nodules during microbe-assisted phytoremediation is not clear. A pot study was conducted to examine phenanthrene (PHE) utilizing bacteria associated with root nodules and the effects of cowpea root nodules on phytoremediation in two different types of soils (freshly contaminated soil and aged contaminated soil). Cowpea nodules in freshly-contaminated soil showed less damage in comparison to the aged-contaminated soil, both morphologically and ultra-structurally by scanning electron microscopy. The study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) attenuation conducted by high performance liquid chromatography revealed that more PAH was eliminated from liquid culture around nodulated roots than nodule-free roots. PAH sublimation and denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis were applied to analyze the capability and diversity of PAH degrading bacteria from the following four parts of rhizo-microzone: bulk soil, root surface, nodule surface and nodule inside. The results indicated that the surface and inside of cowpea root nodules were colonized with bacterial consortia that utilized PHE. Our results demonstrated that root nodules not only fixed nitrogen, but also enriched PAH-utilizing microorganisms both inside and outside of the nodules. Legume nodules may have biotechnological values for PAH degradation. PMID:25601371

  14. GS52 Ecto-Apyrase Plays a Critical Role during Soybean Nodulation1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajulu, Manjula; Kim, Sung-Yong; Libault, Marc; Berg, R. Howard; Tanaka, Kiwamu; Stacey, Gary; Taylor, Christopher G.

    2009-01-01

    Apyrases are non-energy-coupled nucleotide phosphohydrolases that hydrolyze nucleoside triphosphates and nucleoside diphosphates to nucleoside monophosphates and orthophosphates. GS52, a soybean (Glycine soja) ecto-apyrase, was previously shown to be induced very early in response to inoculation with the symbiotic bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Overexpression of the GS52 ecto-apyrase in Lotus japonicus increased the level of rhizobial infection and enhanced nodulation. These data suggest a critical role for the GS52 ecto-apyrase during nodulation. To further investigate the role of GS52 during nodulation, we used RNA interference to silence GS52 expression in soybean (Glycine max) roots using Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated root transformation. Transcript levels of GS52 were significantly reduced in GS52 silenced roots and these roots exhibited reduced numbers of mature nodules. Development of the nodule primordium and subsequent nodule maturation was significantly suppressed in GS52 silenced roots. Transmission electron micrographs of GS52 silenced root nodules showed that early senescence and infected cortical cells were devoid of symbiosome-containing bacteroids. Application of exogenous adenosine diphosphate to silenced GS52 roots restored nodule development. Restored nodules contained bacteroids, thus indicating that extracellular adenosine diphosphate is important during nodulation. These results clearly suggest that GS52 ecto-apyrase catalytic activity is critical for the early B. japonicum infection process, initiation of nodule primordium development, and subsequent nodule organogenesis in soybean. PMID:19036836

  15. Study of phenanthrene utilizing bacterial consortia associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root nodules.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ran; Crowley, David E; Wei, Gehong

    2015-02-01

    Many legumes have been selected as model plants to degrade organic contaminants with their special associated rhizosphere microbes in soil. However, the function of root nodules during microbe-assisted phytoremediation is not clear. A pot study was conducted to examine phenanthrene (PHE) utilizing bacteria associated with root nodules and the effects of cowpea root nodules on phytoremediation in two different types of soils (freshly contaminated soil and aged contaminated soil). Cowpea nodules in freshly-contaminated soil showed less damage in comparison to the aged-contaminated soil, both morphologically and ultra-structurally by scanning electron microscopy. The study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) attenuation conducted by high performance liquid chromatography revealed that more PAH was eliminated from liquid culture around nodulated roots than nodule-free roots. PAH sublimation and denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis were applied to analyze the capability and diversity of PAH degrading bacteria from the following four parts of rhizo-microzone: bulk soil, root surface, nodule surface and nodule inside. The results indicated that the surface and inside of cowpea root nodules were colonized with bacterial consortia that utilized PHE. Our results demonstrated that root nodules not only fixed nitrogen, but also enriched PAH-utilizing microorganisms both inside and outside of the nodules. Legume nodules may have biotechnological values for PAH degradation.

  16. Measuring blood delivery to solitary pulmonary nodules using perfusion magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; Wang, Zhifeng; Shen, Li; Gao, Ling; Ford, James C.; Makedon, Fillia S.; Pearlman, Justin D.

    2006-03-01

    With perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI), perfusion describes the amount of blood passing through a block of tissue in a certain period of time. In pMRI, the tissue having more blood passing through will show higher intensity value as more contrast-labeled blood arrives. Perfusion reflects the delivery of essential nutrients to a block of tissue, and is an important parameter for the tissue status. Considering solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN), perfusion differences between malignant and benign nodules have been studied by different techniques. Much effort has been put into its characterization. In this paper, we proposed and implemented extraction of the SPN time intensity profile to measure blood delivery to solitary pulmonary nodules, describing their perfusion effects. In this method, a SPN time intensity profile is created based on intensity values of the solitary pulmonary nodule in lung pMRI images over time. This method has two steps: nodule tracking and profile clustering. Nodule tracking aligns the solitary pulmonary nodule in pMRI images taken at different time points, dealing with nodule movement resulted from breathing and body movement. Profile clustering implements segmentation of the nodule region and extraction of the time intensity profile of a solitary pulmonary nodule. SPN time intensity profiles reflect patterns of blood delivery to solitary pulmonary nodules, giving us a description of perfusion effect and indirect evidence of tumor angiogenesis. Analysis on SPN time intensity profiles will help the diagnosis of malignant nodules for early lung cancer detection.

  17. ESR dating of calcrete nodules from Bala, Ankara (Turkey): preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Küçükuysal, Ceren; Engin, Birol; Türkmenoğlu, Asuman G; Aydaş, Canan

    2011-02-01

    The age of two calcrete nodules (C1 and C2) from the Bala section in the region of Ankara, Turkey, is determined by the Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) method. Three radiation-induced ESR signals at g=2.0056 (A signal), g=2.0006 (C signal) and g=2.0038 (broad signal, BL) were observed. The broad signal (BL) intensity was used as a dating signal. The properties of this dating signal are described in this manuscript. The calcrete nodules were irradiated with a (60)Co gamma source and measured with an ESR spectrometer (X-band) to obtain the signal intensity vs. dose curve and fitted well with the single exponential saturation functions. Based on this model, accumulated dose (D(E)) values for dating are obtained using the multiple-aliquot additive dose method. The D(E) values of C1 and C2 calcretes are 1880±207 and 671±67 Gy, respectively. The ESR ages of the two calcrete samples are obtained by assessing the annual dose rate (D) from the content of (238)U, (232)Th and K(2)O determined by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry. The results are 761±120 and 419±64 ka, respectively, falling into the Middle Pleistocene Epoch in the geological time scale in agreement with the positions of the stratigraphical record.

  18. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid presenting as periauricular cystic nodules: a series of four cases.

    PubMed

    Lehmer, Larisa M; Ragsdale, Bruce D; Crawford, Richard I; Bukachevsky, Roman; Hannah, Lauren A

    2012-07-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is a relatively common neoplasm of the major and minor salivary glands that can secondarily involve skin. In the vicinity of the ear lobe, mimicry of a benign cyst, both clinically and histopathologically is a diagnostic pitfall to avoid. The clinical manifestations, diagnostic histopathology, and clinical course of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland presenting as a clinically benign periauricular cystic nodule in four patients ranging in age from 11 to 63 years, are analyzed in the present report. Illustrating the challenge of accurate diagnosis, three of the four cases were initially misinterpreted on biopsy as benign cystic lesions. Multiple biopsies displayed foamy histiocytes around mucinous extravasations into dermis that mimicked ruptured epithelial cysts in two cases before malignancy was ascertained. This series demonstrates the need to include parotid tumor in the differential diagnosis of odd periauricular cyst-like expansions and adenosquamous proliferations. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma in particular can explain indolent, infra-auricular 'mucinous cysts'. Familiarity with this syndrome should arouse suspicion of parotid carcinoma when a 'cyst' or nodule is located near the earlobe. Delay in diagnosis results in larger surgical procedures than are otherwise necessary.

  19. The interbranchial lymphoid tissue of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L) extends as a diffuse mucosal lymphoid tissue throughout the trailing edge of the gill filament.

    PubMed

    Dalum, Alf S; Austbø, Lars; Bjørgen, Håvard; Skjødt, Karsten; Hordvik, Ivar; Hansen, Tom; Fjelldal, Per G; Press, Charles McL; Griffiths, David J; Koppang, Erling O

    2015-09-01

    The teleost gill forms an extensive, semipermeable barrier that must tolerate intimate contact with the surrounding environment and be able to protect the body from external pathogens. The recent discovery of the interbranchial lymphoid tissue (ILT) has initiated an anatomical and functional investigation of the lymphoid tissue of the salmonid gill. In this article, sectioning of gill arches in all three primary planes revealed an elongation of the ILT outward along the trailing edge of the primary filament to the very distal end, a finding not previously described. This newly found lymphoid tissue was investigated using a range of morphological and transcriptional tools. Avoiding potential salinity-related effects, the study focused on two fresh-water life stages-smoltifying juveniles and mature adults. Aggregates of T-cells continuous with the ILT were found within the thick epithelial lining of the trailing edge of the filament in considerably larger numbers than seen in the epithelium of the leading edge and of the interlamellar area. Only a few of these cells were identified as CD8α(+) -cells, and there was a significantly (P < 0.05) higher relative expression of CD4- than of CD8- related genes in all gill segments investigated. Numerous major histocompatibility complex class II(+) -cells were distributed uniformly throughout the filament epithelial tissue. Few Ig(+) -cells were detected. Overall, the morphological features and comparable immune gene expression of the previously described ILT and the filament trailing edge lymphoid tissue suggest a close functional and anatomical relationship. We propose that the anatomical definition of the ILT must be broadened to include both the previously described ILT (to be renamed proximal ILT) and the trailing edge lymphoid tissue (to be named distal ILT). This extended anatomical localisation identifies the ILT as a widely distributed mucosal lymphoid tissue in the gill of Atlantic salmon.

  20. Treatment of lupus nephritis with total lymphoid irradiation. Observations during a 12-79-month followup

    SciTech Connect

    Strober, S.; Farinas, M.C.; Field, E.H.; Solovera, J.J.; Kiberd, B.A.; Myers, B.D.; Hoppe, R.T.

    1988-07-01

    Seventeen patients with intractable lupus nephritis and nephrotic syndrome were treated with total lymphoid irradiation. Statistically significant improvement in mean renal disease and serologic activity parameters occurred within 3 months and persisted for at least 3 years. Although there was a marked reduction of T helper cell numbers and function after total lymphoid irradiation, recovery of these parameters was not associated with a return of disease activity. Risks of sterility, severe infections, and hematologic malignancy appeared to be lower than with alkylating agents.

  1. Persistence and diversity of rhizobial bacteria nodulating alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most alfalfa seed is treated with an inoculant consisting of several strains of the nitrogen fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti to enhance nodulation of seedlings. One strategy for increasing alfalfa forage yields, particularly in less fertile sites, is selection and use of highly competitive a...

  2. [BRAF V600E mutation in thyroid nodules in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Ilera, Verónica; Dourisboure, Ricardo; Colobraro, Antonio; Silva Croome, María Del Carmen; Olstein, Gustavo; Gauna, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    This prospective study analyzed the frequency of V600E mutation of oncogene BRAF in patients operated for benign thyroid nodules and for papillary thyroid cancer in an Argentine population. In patients with papillary thyroid cancer we compared clinicopathological characteristics between those harboring BRAF mutation and those without it. Twenty five consecutive patients operated for benign nodules and for papillary carcinoma were prospectively included. Fresh tissue samples of thyroid nodules and of adjacent thyroid parenchyma were obtained. DNA was extracted and amplified by amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS PCR). Direct sequencing was performed in four samples. Of those patients operated for papillary thyroid cancer, 77% harbored BRAF mutation. All samples from adjacent thyroid parenchyma and from patients operated for benign nodules tested negative for the mutation. Direct sequencing confirmed the results obtained by ARMS PCR. Patients with BRAF mutation were significantly older at the time of diagnosis (BRAF+ 47.7 ± 12.7 years vs. BRAF- 24.7 ± 8.1 years, p < 0.01). Nine out of ten papillary carcinomas with BRAF mutation corresponded to the classic histological subtype, which was not observed in BRAF negative tumors (p < 0.02). In conclusion, we found a high frequency of BRAF V600E mutation in this population of patients operated for papillary thyroid carcinoma in Argentina. These results are consistent with those reported in the literature. PMID:27576281

  3. [Thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer: Brazilian consensus].

    PubMed

    Maia, Ana Luiza; Ward, Laura S; Carvalho, Gisah A; Graf, Hans; Maciel, Rui M B; Maciel, Léa M Zanini; Rosário, Pedro W; Vaisman, Mario

    2007-07-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common manifestation of thyroid diseases. It is estimated that approximately 10% of adults have palpable thyroid nodules with the frequency increasing throughout life. The major concern on nodule evaluation is the risk of malignancy (5-10%). Differentiated thyroid carcinoma accounts for 90% of all thyroid malignant neoplasias. Although most patients with cancer have a favorable outcome, some individuals present an aggressive form of the disease and poor prognostic despite recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. Here, a set of clinical guidelines for the evaluation and management of patients with thyroid nodules or differentiated thyroid cancer was developed through consensus by 8 member of the Department of Thyroid, Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia. The participants are from different reference medical centers within Brazil, to reflect different practice patterns. Each committee participant was initially assigned to write a section of the document and to submit it to the chairperson, who revised and assembled the sections into a complete draft document, which was then circulated among all committee members for further revision. All committee members further revised and refined the document. The guidelines were developed based on the expert opinion of the committee participants, as well as on previously published information.

  4. [Cutaneous ulcerating nodules after many years of immunotherapy].

    PubMed

    Bouten, Hanneke; Nijsten, Tamar E C; Noordhoek Hegt, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    A 40-year-old female patient was referred to the department of Dermatology with subcutaneous nodules and ulcers years after starting with immunotherapy injections (Purethal) for hay fever. The skin reaction appeared to be due to aluminium hydroxide, which is used as an adjuvant to many injections and vaccins. Aluminium hydroxide can cause delayed granulomatous contact dermatitis or foreign body reactions.

  5. Diversity of field isolates of sinorhizobium meliloti nodulating alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most alfalfa seed is treated with a rhizobial inoculant consisting of one or more strains of Sinorhizobium meliloti before planting to enhance nodulation of seedlings. However, little is known about the persistence of inoculated strains later in the season. There is also a paucity of information on ...

  6. Manganese micro-nodules on ancient brick walls.

    PubMed

    López-Arce, P; García-Guinea, J; Fierro, J L G

    2003-01-20

    Romans, Jews, Arabs and Christians built the ancient city of Toledo (Spain) with bricks as the main construction material. Manganese micro-nodules (circa 2 microm in diameter) have grown under the external bio-film surface of the bricks. Recent anthropogenic activities such as industrial emissions, foundries, or traffic and housing pollution have further altered these old bricks. The energy-dispersive X-ray microanalyses (XPS) of micro-nodules show Al, Si, Ca, K, Fe and Mn, with some carbon species. Manganese atoms are present only as Mn(4+) and iron as Fe(3+) (FeOOH-Fe(2)O(3) mixtures). The large concentration of alga biomass of the River Tagus and the Torcón and Guajaraz reservoirs suggest manganese micro-nodules are formed either from water solutions rich in anthropogenic MnO(4)K in a reduction environment (from Mn(7+) to Mn(4+)) or by oxidation mechanisms from dissolved Mn(2+) (from Mn(2+) to Mn(4+)) linked to algae biofilm onto the ancient brick surfaces. Ancient wall surfaces were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and biological analyses of the waters around Toledo are also analysed for possible sources of manganese. Manganese micro-nodules on ancient brick walls are good indicators of manganese pollution. PMID:12526915

  7. Cryptococcus gattii: An emerging cause of pulmonary nodules

    PubMed Central

    Dewar, Gary J; Kelly, James K

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the fall of 1999, a new endemic focus of Cryptococcus gattii serotype B infection has emerged on Vancouver Island (Victoria, British Columbia), with infections occurring in both animals and humans. In the human cases, symptoms have manifested as pulmonary nodules, meningitis or both. This organism has added a new nonmalignant cause of pulmonary nodules to the literature, resulting in a change in the management of these nodules by health care professionals. METHODS: A search of the number of cases recorded and treated in hospitals of the Vancouver Island Health Authority, along with a review of the literature regarding this emerging organism, was undertaken. The pathology, epidemiology and clinical course of this previously uncommon fungus was determined, and representative cases were chosen for illustration. RESULTS: More than 130 cases were recorded in the six-year period from late 1999 to mid-July 2006. The number of cases increased steadily over this period, but appears to be levelling off. Representative cases with medical imaging, along with photos of the pathology, are included. Recommendations for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up are outlined. CONCLUSIONS: The emergence of cryptococcal lung and central nervous system lesions on Vancouver Island have made it important to include travel to or residence of the island as part of the history in patients with pulmonary nodules. A registry of patients from Vancouver Island has been established, and it may be of value to include nonisland patients who are found to be infected with this organism. PMID:18437258

  8. Pulmonary nodule detection using a cascaded SVM classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergtholdt, Martin; Wiemker, Rafael; Klinder, Tobias

    2016-03-01

    Automatic detection of lung nodules from chest CT has been researched intensively over the last decades resulting also in several commercial products. However, solutions are adopted only slowly into daily clinical routine as many current CAD systems still potentially miss true nodules while at the same time generating too many false positives (FP). While many earlier approaches had to rely on rather few cases for development, larger databases become now available and can be used for algorithmic development. In this paper, we address the problem of lung nodule detection via a cascaded SVM classifier. The idea is to sequentially perform two classification tasks in order to select from an extremely large pool of potential candidates the few most likely ones. As the initial pool is allowed to contain thousands of candidates, very loose criteria could be applied during this pre-selection. In this way, the chances that a true nodule is falsely rejected as a candidate are reduced significantly. The final algorithm is trained and tested on the full LIDC/IDRI database. Comparison is done against two previously published CAD systems. Overall, the algorithm achieved sensitivity of 0.859 at 2.5 FP/volume where the other two achieved sensitivity values of 0.321 and 0.625, respectively. On low dose data sets, only slight increase in the number of FP/volume was observed, while the sensitivity was not affected.

  9. Seamless insertion of real pulmonary nodules in chest CT exams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezeshk, Aria; Sahiner, Berkman; Zeng, Rongping; Wunderlich, Adam; Chen, Weijie; Petrick, Nicholas

    2014-03-01

    The availability of large medical image datasets is critical in many applications such as training and testing of computer aided diagnosis (CAD) systems, evaluation of segmentation algorithms, and conducting perceptual studies. However, collection of large repositories of clinical images is hindered by the high cost and difficulties associated with both the accumulation of data and establishment of the ground truth. To address this problem, we are developing an image blending tool that allows users to modify or supplement existing datasets by seamlessly inserting a real lesion extracted from a source image into a different location on a target image. In this study we focus on the application of this tool to pulmonary nodules in chest CT exams. We minimize the impact of user skill on the perceived quality of the blended image by limiting user involvement to two simple steps: the user first draws a casual boundary around the nodule of interest in the source, and then selects the center of desired insertion area in the target. We demonstrate examples of the performance of the proposed system on samples taken from the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) dataset, and compare the noise power spectrum (NPS) of blended nodules versus that of native nodules in simulated phantoms.

  10. The prevalence of lymphoid follicles in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis in patients with ulcers and non-ulcer dyspepsia.

    PubMed Central

    Zaitoun, A M

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To determine the prevalence of lymphoid follicles in Helicobacter pylori positive and negative gastritis in antral and body type gastric mucosa in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD), duodenal ulcer, or gastric ulcer; to correlate follicle presence with patient age; to evaluate the correlation between the prevalence of lymphoid follicles and active and inactive gastritis and its severity; and to assess the positive predictive value of lymphoid follicle prevalence with respect to H pylori infection. METHODS--Gastric biopsy specimens, graded according to the Sydney system, from 337 patients were studied. RESULTS--Lymphoid follicles occurred more often in antral mucosa (78%) than in body type mucosa (41%) and were observed in 85% of patients with H pylori positive gastritis. There was no significant difference between NUD and gastric and duodenal ulcer disease with regard to the presence of lymphoid follicles. The positive predictive value of the presence of lymphoid follicles in H pylori infection was 96%. Lymphoid follicles were more commonly observed in patients aged between 10 and 29 years. Lymphoid follicles were more frequently found in pangastritis of all subtypes than in antral gastritis and also in active gastritis than in inactive gastritis. The presence of lymphoid follicles correlated strongly with the degree and severity of gastritis. CONCLUSION--Lymphoid follicles are a constant morphological feature of H pylori associated gastritis. Images PMID:7615851

  11. Variability in CT lung-nodule quantification: Effects of dose reduction and reconstruction methods on density and texture based features

    PubMed Central

    Lo, P.; Young, S.; Kim, H. J.; Brown, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of dose level and reconstruction method on density and texture based features computed from CT lung nodules. Methods: This study had two major components. In the first component, a uniform water phantom was scanned at three dose levels and images were reconstructed using four conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) and four iterative reconstruction (IR) methods for a total of 24 different combinations of acquisition and reconstruction conditions. In the second component, raw projection (sinogram) data were obtained for 33 lung nodules from patients scanned as a part of their clinical practice, where low dose acquisitions were simulated by adding noise to sinograms acquired at clinical dose levels (a total of four dose levels) and reconstructed using one FBP kernel and two IR kernels for a total of 12 conditions. For the water phantom, spherical regions of interest (ROIs) were created at multiple locations within the water phantom on one reference image obtained at a reference condition. For the lung nodule cases, the ROI of each nodule was contoured semiautomatically (with manual editing) from images obtained at a reference condition. All ROIs were applied to their corresponding images reconstructed at different conditions. For 17 of the nodule cases, repeat contours were performed to assess repeatability. Histogram (eight features) and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) based texture features (34 features) were computed for all ROIs. For the lung nodule cases, the reference condition was selected to be 100% of clinical dose with FBP reconstruction using the B45f kernel; feature values calculated from other conditions were compared to this reference condition. A measure was introduced, which the authors refer to as Q, to assess the stability of features across different conditions, which is defined as the ratio of reproducibility (across conditions) to repeatability (across repeat contours) of each feature. Results: The

  12. Total lymphoid irradiation, high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation for chemotherapy-resistant Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Yahalom, J; Gulati, S; Shank, B; Clarkson, B; Fuks, Z

    1989-11-01

    Seventeen patients with advanced stage Hodgkin's disease who relapsed or failed to respond to multiple regimens of combination chemotherapy (mostly Mechlorethamine, Vincristine, Procarbarzine, Prednisone and Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vinblastine, Dacarbazine) were treated with accelerated hyperfractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation (AuBMT). Candidates for the protocol did not have prior radiation therapy and had no evidence of bone marrow involvement. Their bone marrow was initially harvested and cryopreserved. The treatment protocol consisted of reinduction with conventional doses of combination chemotherapy followed by boost local field irradiation to areas of residual disease (1500 cGy within 5 days) and total lymphoid irradiation (2004 cGy given in 12 fractions of 167 cGy each t.i.d. delivered within 4 days). The patients were treated with Etoposide (250 mg/m2/day I.V. X 3 days) and high-dose Cyclophosphamide (60 mg/kg/day I.V. X 2 days). Cryopreserved (unpurged) autologous bone marrow was infused 48 hr after completion of chemotherapy. Of the 17 patients treated, four were in relapse and 13 refractory to multiple regimens of combination chemotherapy. Four patients died during the immediate peritransplant period (2--septicemia, 2--pulmonary complications). Of the 13 surviving patients, 12 entered a complete remission and one had a partial remission and died of disease 6 months later. One patient relapsed 5 months after treatment and is currently alive with disease. Eleven patients (65%) are alive with no evidence of disease 4-35 months (median 20 months) following completion of therapy. Treatment with this protocol results in a high rate of complete remission and a potential for long-term disease-free survival in previously unirradiated patients with advanced stage refractory or relapsed Hodgkin's disease who have exhausted conventional modes of chemotherapy. PMID:2478511

  13. Classification of lymphoid neoplasms: the microscope as a tool for disease discovery

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Nancy Lee; Stein, Harald; Isaacson, Peter G.

    2008-01-01

    In the past 50 years, we have witnessed explosive growth in the understanding of normal and neoplastic lymphoid cells. B-cell, T-cell, and natural killer (NK)–cell neoplasms in many respects recapitulate normal stages of lymphoid cell differentiation and function, so that they can be to some extent classified according to the corresponding normal stage. Likewise, the molecular mechanisms involved the pathogenesis of lymphomas and lymphoid leukemias are often based on the physiology of the lymphoid cells, capitalizing on deregulated normal physiology by harnessing the promoters of genes essential for lymphocyte function. The clinical manifestations of lymphomas likewise reflect the normal function of lymphoid cells in vivo. The multiparameter approach to classification adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) classification has been validated in international studies as being highly reproducible, and enhancing the interpretation of clinical and translational studies. In addition, accurate and precise classification of disease entities facilitates the discovery of the molecular basis of lymphoid neoplasms in the basic science laboratory. PMID:19029456

  14. The Role of TOX in the Development of Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    PubMed

    Seehus, Corey R; Kaye, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    TOX, an evolutionarily conserved member of the HMG-box family of proteins, is essential for the development of various cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system. TOX is required for the development of CD4(+) T lineage cells in the thymus, including natural killer T and T regulatory cells, as well as development of natural killer cells and fetal lymphoid tissue inducer cells, the latter required for lymph node organogenesis. Recently, we have identified a broader role for TOX in the innate immune system, demonstrating that this nuclear protein is required for generation of bone marrow progenitors that have potential to give rise to all innate lymphoid cells. Innate lymphoid cells, classified according to transcription factor expression and cytokine secretion profiles, derive from common lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow and require Notch signals for their development. We discuss here the role of TOX in specifying CLP toward an innate lymphoid cell fate and hypothesize a possible role for TOX in regulating Notch gene targets during innate lymphoid cell development.

  15. Flt3 Ligand Regulates the Development of Innate Lymphoid Cells in Fetal and Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Baerenwaldt, Anne; von Burg, Nicole; Kreuzaler, Matthias; Sitte, Selina; Horvath, Edit; Peter, Annick; Voehringer, David; Rolink, Antonius G; Finke, Daniela

    2016-03-15

    Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) promotes survival of lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow and differentiation of dendritic cells (DCs), but its role in regulating innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) during fetal and adult life is not understood. By using Flt3L knockout and transgenic mice, we demonstrate that Flt3L controls ILC numbers by regulating the pool of α4β7(-) and α4β7(+) lymphoid tissue inducer cell progenitors in the fetal liver and common lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow. Deletion of flt3l severely reduced the number of fetal liver progenitors and lymphoid tissue inducer cells in the neonatal intestine, resulting in impaired development of Peyer's patches. In the adult intestine, NK cells and group 2 and 3 ILCs were severely reduced. This effect occurred independently of DCs as ILC numbers were normal in mice in which DCs were constitutively deleted. Finally, we could show that administration of Flt3L increased the number of NKp46(-) group 3 ILCs in wild-type and even in Il7(-/-) mice, which generally have reduced numbers of ILCs. Taken together, Flt3L significantly contributes to ILC and Peyer's patches development by targeting lymphoid progenitor cells during fetal and adult life.

  16. Impaired telomerase activity hinders proliferation and in vitro transformation of Penaeus monodon lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Jayesh, P; Vrinda, S; Priyaja, P; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

    2016-08-01

    Retaining terminal transferase activity of telomerase, the ribonucleoprotein enzyme which add telomeric repeats on chromosome end is thought to be required to prevent cellular ageing. Additionally, telomerase considered as a marker for cell proliferation and immortalization in eukaryotes. We examined telomerase activity in tissues and lymphoid cell culture of Penaeus monodon. Along with telomerase activity, telomere repeats and an attempt on identification of telomerase reverse transcriptase (PmTERT) were made. Telomeric repeat amplification protocol revealed that telomerase-dependent telomeric lengthening has been taking place in P. monodon and the adult tissues were retaining this capacity throughout their lifespan with the highest activity in ovary, testis and lymphoid organ. However, telomerase activity could not be detected in lymphoid cells in culture. The canonical telomeric repeats added by telomerase of lymphoid tissue extract were identified as TTAGG, but pentameric repeats GGTTA and AGGTT were also added by the telomerase. PmTERT protein sequence (partial) shared 100 % identity with the TERT sequence of Daphnia pulex, 27 % sequence identity with Purple sea urchin and 24-25 % with Zebra fish. Undetectable telomerase activity in lymphoid cell culture supports the hypothesis that the inadequate telomerase activity or gene expression may be a reason that prevents neoplastic transformation and spontaneous immortalization of the cells in vitro. Thus, it is envisaged that telomerase activation in lymphoid cells may surmount cellular ageing for in vitro transformation and cell line establishment.

  17. Maternal retinoids control type 3 innate lymphoid cells and set the offspring immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Pavert, Serge A.; Ferreira, Manuela; Domingues, Rita G.; Ribeiro, Hélder; Molenaar, Rosalie; Moreira-Santos, Lara; Almeida, Francisca F.; Ibiza, Sales; Barbosa, Inês; Goverse, Gera; Labão-Almeida, Carlos; Godinho-Silva, Cristina; Konijn, Tanja; Schooneman, Dennis; O'Toole, Tom; Mizee, Mark R.; Habani, Yasmin; Haak, Esther; Santori, Fabio R.; Littman, Dan R.; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Dzierzak, Elaine; Simas, J. Pedro; Mebius, Reina E.; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique

    2014-04-01

    The impact of nutritional status during fetal life on the overall health of adults has been recognized; however, dietary effects on the developing immune system are largely unknown. Development of secondary lymphoid organs occurs during embryogenesis and is considered to be developmentally programmed. Secondary lymphoid organ formation depends on a subset of type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) named lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. Here we show that mouse fetal ILC3s are controlled by cell-autonomous retinoic acid (RA) signalling in utero, which pre-sets the immune fitness in adulthood. We found that embryonic lymphoid organs contain ILC progenitors that differentiate locally into mature LTi cells. Local LTi cell differentiation was controlled by maternal retinoid intake and fetal RA signalling acting in a haematopoietic cell-autonomous manner. RA controlled LTi cell maturation upstream of the transcription factor RORγt. Accordingly, enforced expression of Rorgt restored maturation of LTi cells with impaired RA signalling, whereas RA receptors directly regulated the Rorgt locus. Finally, we established that maternal levels of dietary retinoids control the size of secondary lymphoid organs and the efficiency of immune responses in the adult offspring. Our results reveal a molecular link between maternal nutrients and the formation of immune structures required for resistance to infection in the offspring.

  18. Enzyme histochemistry of cecal lymphoid tissue during prenatal period of buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Kritima; Singh, Opinder

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to elucidate the histoenzymic distribution of enzymes, i.e., phosphatases, oxidoreductases, dehydrogenases, and diaphorases in cecal lymphoid tissue during its development in the prenatal period. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on cecum of 15 buffalo fetuses ranging from 16 cm curved crown-rump length (CVRL) (100 days) to 100 cm CVRL (full term). The fetuses were categorized into three groups based on their CVRL. Results: In Group I, the distribution of enzymes was uniformly weak in developing villi-like projections in cecum and completely absent from submucosa. In Group II, the enzymes showed a moderate to strong activity in epithelium lining tunica mucosa which progressively decreased as the fetus progresses toward late gestational age. However, the intense activity of enzymes was observed in developing lymphoid tissue in this group. In Group III, distribution of enzymes reduced in tunica mucosa of cecum with advancing age, whereas the intense activity was noticed in the developed lymphoid tissue complex. Conclusion: The distribution of enzymes was completely absent from submucosal region in cecum of Group I as there was no lymphoid tissue development at this age. In Group II, the enzymes showed a moderate to strong activity in epithelium lining tunica mucosa which progressively decreased toward late gestational age but an intense activity was observed in developing lymphoid tissue. In Group III, distribution of enzymes reduced in tunica mucosa with advancing age with intense activity noticed in the developed lymphoid tissue complex. PMID:27733804

  19. [Lymphoid neogenesis and lymphangiogenesis: two newcomers in the pathophysiology of chronic rejection].

    PubMed

    Attuil-Audenis, Valérie; Duthey, Aurélie; Patey, Natacha; Gautreau, Chantal; McGregor, Brigitte; Morelon, Emmanuel; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Nicoletti, Antonino; Thaunat, Olivier

    2009-04-01

    Chronic rejection is one of the main causes of late allograft failure and no therapy is currently available to prevent efficiently its development. Improving the comprehension of the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of chronic rejection is a mandatory step to propose innovative therapies that would prolong grafts' survival. Using the rat aortic interposition model of chronic vascular rejection, we have demonstrated that the intragraft inflammatory infiltrate progressively organized itself into a functional ectopic lymphoid tissue (tertiary lymphoid organ) supporting the local synthesis of alloantibody. Thus, during chronic rejection the graft is at the same time the target and the site of elaboration of the humoral allo-immune response. This hypothesis has been confirmed in the clinical setting by the analysis of human grafts (kidneys, hearts and lungs) removed for terminal failure due to chronic rejection. This lymphoid neogenesis process, previously identified in other chronic inflammatory diseases, occurs with a strikingly high frequency in chronically rejected grafts, suggesting that an additional mechanism synergizes to initiate the development of tertiary lymphoid organs during chronic rejection. We propose that the defective lymphatic drainage of chronically rejected organs triggers lymphoid neogenesis and we discuss the complex crosstalk between lymphoid neogenesis and lymphangiogenesis that takes place during chronic rejection.

  20. Multiple familial trichoepithelioma: confirmation via dermoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Navarrete-Dechent, Cristián; Bajaj, Shirin; Marghoob, Ashfaq A.; González, Sergio; Muñoz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Trichoepitheliomas are uncommon benign adnexal neoplasms that originate from the hair follicles. Multiple familial trichoepithelioma constitute an autosomal dominant disease characterized by the appearance of multiple flesh-colored, symmetrical papules, tumors and/or nodules in the central face and occasionally on the scalp. Although clinical diagnosis is usually straightforward in light of the family history and naked-eye examination, dermoscopy may aid in its confirmation. Dermoscopy of each papule revealed in-focus arborizing vessels, multiple milia-like cysts and rosettes amidst a whitish background. In a patient with multiple facial papules revealing a dermoscopic appearance described above, the diagnosis of sporadic or familial multiple trichoepithelioma should be considered.

  1. Root and nodule respiration in relation to acetylene reduction in intact nodulated peas.

    PubMed

    Mahon, J D

    1977-12-01

    Inoculated pea plants (Pisum sativum L.) were grown with N-free nutrients in a controlled environment room and rates of respiratory CO(2) evolution and C(2)H(2) reduction by the intact nodulated roots were determined. Experiments followed changes related to diurnal cycles, light and dark treatments, partial defoliation, aging of plants and NH(4)NO(3) addition. In all experiments, changes in C(2)H(2) reduction were associated with parallel changes in the respiration rate, although in all but the defoliation experiment there was a basal level of respiration which was independent of the rate of C(2)H(2) reduction. In conditions which affected growth or plant size as well as C(2)H(2) reduction, respiration changed by an average of 0.42 mg CO(2) (mumol C(2)H(2) reduced)(-1). However, some treatments decreased C(2)H(2) reduction without greatly changing the growth and in these conditions respiration was decreased by an average of 0.27 mg CO(2) (mumol C(2)H(2) reduced)(-1). While this value may also include some respiration associated with other processes, it is proposed that it more closely estimates respiration directly associated with energy utilization for acetylene reduction; whereas the higher value includes respiration related to maintenance and growth processes as well.

  2. Rhizobial Nodulation Factors Stimulate Mycorrhizal Colonization of Nodulating and Nonnodulating Soybeans.

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Z. P.; Staehelin, C.; Vierheilig, H.; Wiemken, A.; Jabbouri, S.; Broughton, W. J.; Vogeli-Lange, R.; Boller, T.

    1995-01-01

    Legumes form tripartite symbiotic associations with noduleinducing rhizobia and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Co-inoculation of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) roots with Bradyrhizobium japonicum 61-A-101 considerably enhanced colonization by the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae. A similar stimulatory effect on mycorrhizal colonization was also observed in nonnodulating soybean mutants when inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and in wild-type soybean plants when inoculated with ineffective rhizobial strains, indicating that a functional rhizobial symbiosis is not necessary for enhanced mycorrhiza formation. Inoculation with the mutant Rhizobium sp. NGR[delta]nodABC, unable to produce nodulation (Nod) factors, did not show any effect on mycorrhiza. Highly purified Nod factors also increased the degree of mycorrhizal colonization. Nod factors from Rhizobium sp. NGR234 differed in their potential to promote fungal colonization. The acetylated factor NodNGR-V (MeFuc, Ac), added at concentrations as low as 10-9 M, was active, whereas the sulfated factor, NodNGR-V (MeFuc, S), was inactive. Several soybean flavonoids known to accumulate in response to the acetylated Nod factor showed a similar promoting effect on mycorrhiza. These results suggest that plant flavonoids mediate the Nod factor-induced stimulation of mycorrhizal colonization in soybean roots. PMID:12228558

  3. The Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) fredii HH103 Type 3 Secretion System Suppresses Early Defense Responses to Effectively Nodulate Soybean.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Guerrero, Irene; Pérez-Montaño, Francisco; Monreal, José Antonio; Preston, Gail M; Fones, Helen; Vioque, Blanca; Ollero, Francisco Javier; López-Baena, Francisco Javier

    2015-07-01

    Plants that interact with pathogenic bacteria in their natural environments have developed barriers to block or contain the infection. Phytopathogenic bacteria have evolved mechanisms to subvert these defenses and promote infection. Thus, the type 3 secretion system (T3SS) delivers bacterial effectors directly into the plant cells to alter host signaling and suppress defenses, providing an appropriate environment for bacterial multiplication. Some rhizobial strains possess a symbiotic T3SS that seems to be involved in the suppression of host defenses to promote nodulation and determine the host range. In this work, we show that the inactivation of the Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) fredii HH103 T3SS negatively affects soybean nodulation in the early stages of the symbiotic process, which is associated with a reduction of the expression of early nodulation genes. This symbiotic phenotype could be the consequence of the bacterial triggering of soybean defense responses associated with the production of salicylic acid (SA) and the impairment of the T3SS mutant to suppress these responses. Interestingly, the early induction of the transcription of GmMPK4, which negatively regulates SA accumulation and defense responses in soybean via WRKY33, could be associated with the differential defense responses induced by the parental and the T3SS mutant strain.

  4. Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Roots and Nodules of Alnus glutinosa: I. Role of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase and Carbamyl Phosphate Synthetase in Dark CO(2) Fixation, Citrulline Synthesis, and N(2) Fixation.

    PubMed

    McClure, P R; Coker, G T; Schubert, K R

    1983-03-01

    Detached roots and nodules of the N(2)-fixing species, Albus glutinosa (European black alder), actively assimilate CO(2). The maximum rates of dark CO(2) fixation observed for detached nodules and roots were 15 and 3 micromoles CO(2) fixed per gram dry weight per hour, respectively. The net incorporation of CO(2) in these tissues was catalyzed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase which produces organic acids, some of which are used in the synthesis of the amino acids, aspartate, glutamate, and citrulline and by carbamyl phosphate synthetase. The latter accounts for approximately 30 to 40% of the CO(2) fixed and provides carbamyl phosphate for the synthesis of citrulline. Results of labeling studies suggest that there are multiple pools of malate present in nodules. The major pool is apparently metabolically inactive and of unknown function while the smaller pool is rapidly utilized in the synthesis of amino acids. Dark CO(2) fixation and N(2) fixation in nodules decreased after treatment of nodulated plants with nitrate while the percentage of the total (14)C incorporated into organic acids increased. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and carbamyl phosphate synthetase play key roles in the synthesis of amino acids including citrulline and in the metabolism of N(2)-fixing nodules and roots of alder. PMID:16662882

  5. Morphology of root nodules and nodule-like structures formed by Rhizobium and Agrobacterium strains containing a Rhizobium meliloti megaplasmid

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    We examined expression of the megaplasmid pRme41b of Rhizobium meliloti in two different Rhizobium sp. Strains and in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Transfer of pRme41b into these bacteria was facilitated by insertion of a recombinant plasmid coding for mobilization functions of RP4 into the nif region (Kondorosi, A., E. Kondorosi, C.E. Pankhurst, W. J. Broughton, and Z. Banfalvi, 1982, Mol. Gen. Genet., 188:433-439). In all cases, transconjugants formed nodule-like structures on the roots of Medicago sativa. These structures were largely composed of meristematic cells but they were not invaded by bacteria. Bacteria were found only within infection threads in root hairs, and within intercellular spaces of the outermost cells of the structures. The donor strain of R. meliloti containing pAK11 or pAK12 in pRme41b initially produced nodules on M. sativa that did not fix nitrogen (Fix- ). In these nodules, bacteria were released from infection threads into the host cells but they did not multiply appreciably. Any bacteroids formed degenerated prematurely. In some cases, however, reversion to a Fix+ phenotype occurred after 4 to 6 wk. Bacteria released into newly infected cells in these nodules showed normal development into bacteriods. PMID:6885919

  6. Calpain secreted by activated human lymphoid cells degrades myelin.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, R V; Goust, J M; Hogan, E L; Banik, N L

    1995-10-01

    Calpain secreted by lymphoid (MOLT-3, M.R.) or monocytic (U-937, THP-1) cell lines activated with PMA and A23187 degraded myelin antigens. The degradative effect of enzymes released in the extracellular medium was tested on purified myelin basic protein and rat central nervous system myelin in vitro. The extent of protein degradation was determined by SDS-PAGE and densitometric analysis. Various proteinase inhibitors were used to determine to what extent protein degradation was mediated by calpain and/or other enzymes. Lysosomal and serine proteinase inhibitors inhibited 20-40% of the myelin-degradative activity found in the incubation media of cell lines, whereas the calcium chelator (EGTA), the calpain-specific inhibitor (calpastatin), and a monoclonal antibody to m calpain blocked myelin degradation by 60-80%. Since breakdown products of MBP generated by calpain may include fragments with antigenic epitopes, this enzyme may play an important role in the initiation of immune-mediated demyelination. PMID:8568927

  7. Recognition Strategies of Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Killig, Monica; Glatzer, Timor; Romagnani, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    During the early phase of an inflammatory response, innate cells can use different strategies to sense environmental danger. These include the direct interaction of specific activating receptors with pathogen-encoded/danger molecules or the engagement of cytokine receptors by pro-inflammatory mediators produced by antigen presenting cells in the course of the infection. These general recognition strategies, which have been extensively described for innate myeloid cells, are shared by innate lymphoid cells (ILC), such as Natural Killer (NK) cells. The family of ILC has recently expanded with the discovery of group 2 (ILC2) and group 3 ILC (ILC3), which play an important role in the defense against extracellular pathogens. Although ILC3 and NK cells share some phenotypic characteristics, the recognition strategies employed by the various ILC3 subsets have been only partially characterized. In this review, we will describe and comparatively discuss how ILC3 sense environmental cues and how the triggering of different receptors may regulate their functional behavior during an immune response. PMID:24744763

  8. Recognition strategies of group 3 innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Killig, Monica; Glatzer, Timor; Romagnani, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    During the early phase of an inflammatory response, innate cells can use different strategies to sense environmental danger. These include the direct interaction of specific activating receptors with pathogen-encoded/danger molecules or the engagement of cytokine receptors by pro-inflammatory mediators produced by antigen presenting cells in the course of the infection. These general recognition strategies, which have been extensively described for innate myeloid cells, are shared by innate lymphoid cells (ILC), such as Natural Killer (NK) cells. The family of ILC has recently expanded with the discovery of group 2 (ILC2) and group 3 ILC (ILC3), which play an important role in the defense against extracellular pathogens. Although ILC3 and NK cells share some phenotypic characteristics, the recognition strategies employed by the various ILC3 subsets have been only partially characterized. In this review, we will describe and comparatively discuss how ILC3 sense environmental cues and how the triggering of different receptors may regulate their functional behavior during an immune response.

  9. Selective lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporin A in rat heart allografts

    SciTech Connect

    Kuromoto, N.; Hardy, M.A.; Fawwaz, R.; Reemtsma, K.; Nowygrod, R.

    1984-05-01

    Short-term peritransplant treatment utilizing 2-dose ALG and 1-dose Palladium-109-hematoporphyrin (PD-H) for selective lymphoid irradiation (SLI) leads to donor-specific permanent acceptance of heart allografts in the Fisher to Lewis rat model. The same treatment significantly prolongs survival of hearts transplanted to strongly histoincompatable , presensitized, and xenogeneic recipients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate synergistic effects of short-term, low-dose cyclosporin treatment and SLI in an attempt to develop a nontoxic protocol utilizing peritransplant treatment for immune preconditioning with minimal subsequent immunosuppression. Single-agent treatment alone with cyclosporin, ALG, or Pd-H resulted in a maximal mean graft survival time (MST) of 33 days. Immunosuppression with 1-dose Pd-H, 2-dose ALG, and low-dose cyclosporin (5 mg/kg) for 14 days doubled the MST to 78 days. Use of therapeutic-dose cyclosporin (20 mg/kg), given for just 3 days, was also quite effective, MST of 57 days with SLI and 43 days with ALG, but toxic; 3 of 12 recipients died of infection with functioning grafts. These results demonstrate that the use of low-dose cyclosporin over a short interval, when combined with peritransplant SLI, is a highly effective and safe method for prolonging heart allograft survival.

  10. Post-conversion sialylation of prions in lymphoid tissues

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Saurabh; Makarava, Natallia; Katorcha, Elizaveta; Savtchenko, Regina; Brossmer, Reinhard; Baskakov, Ilia V.

    2015-01-01

    Sialylated glycans on the surface of mammalian cells act as part of a “self-associated molecular pattern,” helping the immune system to recognize “self” from “altered self” or “nonself.” To escape the host immune system, some bacterial pathogens have evolved biosynthetic pathways for host-like sialic acids, whereas others recruited host sialic acids for decorating their surfaces. Prions lack nucleic acids and are not conventional pathogens. Nevertheless, prions might use a similar strategy for invading and colonizing the lymphoreticular system. Here we show that the sialylation status of the infectious, disease-associated state of the prion protein (PrPSc) changes with colonization of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). As a result, spleen-derived PrPSc is more sialylated than brain-derived PrPSc. Enhanced sialylation of PrPSc is recapitulated in vitro by incubating brain-derived PrPSc with primary splenocytes or cultured macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. General inhibitors of sialyltranserases (STs), the enzymes that transfer sialic acid residues onto terminal positions of glycans, suppressed extrasialylation of PrPSc. A fluorescently labeled precursor of sialic acid revealed ST activity associated with RAW macrophages. This study illustrates that, upon colonization of SLOs, the sialylation status of prions changes by host STs. We propose that this mechanism is responsible for camouflaging prions in SLOs and has broad implications. PMID:26627256

  11. Multispectral imaging fluorescence microscopy for lymphoid tissue analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monici, Monica; Agati, Giovanni; Fusi, Franco; Mazzinghi, Piero; Romano, Salvatore; Pratesi, Riccardo; Alterini, Renato; Bernabei, Pietro A.; Rigacci, Luigi

    1999-01-01

    Multispectral imaging autofluorescence microscopy (MIAM) is used here for the analysis of lymphatic tissues. Lymph node biopsies, from patients with lympthoadenopathy of different origin have been examined. Natural fluorescence (NF) images of 3 micrometers sections were obtained using three filters peaked at 450, 550 and 680 nm with 50 nm bandpass. Monochrome images were combined together in a single RGB image. NF images of lymph node tissue sections show intense blue-green fluorescence of the connective stroma. Normal tissue shows follicles with faintly fluorescent lymphocytes, as expected fro the morphologic and functional characteristics of these cells. Other more fluorescent cells (e.g., plasma cells and macrophages) are evidenced. Intense green fluorescence if localized in the inner wall of the vessels. Tissues coming from patients affected by Hodgkin's lymphoma show spread fluorescence due to connective infiltration and no evidence of follicle organization. Brightly fluorescent large cells, presumably Hodgkin cells, are also observed. These results indicate that MIAM can discriminate between normal and pathological tissues on the basis of their natural fluorescence pattern, and, therefore, represent a potentially useful technique for diagnostic applications. Analysis of the fluorescence spectra of both normal and malignant lymphoid tissues resulted much less discriminatory than MIAM.

  12. Kidney allograft survival in dogs treated with total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, R.J.; Sutherland, D.E.R.; Lum, C.T.; Lewis, W.I.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1981-02-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is immunosuppressive and, in rodents, can induce a state where transplantation of allogenic bone marrow results in chimerism and permanent acceptance of organ allografts from the donor strain. Twelve splenectomized dogs were treated with TLI (150 rads per fraction, total dose 1950 to 3000 rads) before bilateral nephrectomy and renal allotransplantation. Eight dogs received bone marrow from the kidney donor. In 13 untreated control dogs renal allografts functioned for a mean +- (SE) of 4.7 +- 0.3 days. In the four TLI treated dogs who did not receive bone marrow the renal allografts functioned for 15 to 76 days (two dogs died with functioning grafts). In the eight TLI treated dogs who received donor bone marrow, two died immediately after transplantation, two rejected at 3 and 13 days, one died at 13 days with a functioning graft, and two have had the grafts function for longer than 500 days. Chimerism was not detected in the one dog tested. The response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to stimulation with phytohemaglutinin and in mixed lymphocyte culture was suppressed for at least one month after TLI. The results confirm the immunosuppressive effect of TLI. The absence of kidney rejection in two recipients of donor bone marrow show the potential of this approach to induce long-term immunologic unresponsiveness as to an organ allograft, but the outcome is unpredictable and further experiments are needed to define the optimal conditions for administration of TLI and bone marrow to the recipients.

  13. The detection of glycosaminoglycans in pancreatic islets and lymphoid tissues.

    PubMed

    Bogdani, Marika; Simeonovic, Charmaine; Nagy, Nadine; Johnson, Pamela Y; Chan, Christina K; Wight, Thomas N

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe the detection of the glycosaminoglycans hyaluronan and heparan sulfate in pancreatic islets and lymphoid tissues. The identification of hyaluronan in tissues is achieved by utilizing a highly specific hyaluronan binding protein (HABP) probe that interacts with hyaluronan in tissue sections. The HABP probe is prepared by enzymatic digestion of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan aggrecan which is present in bovine nasal cartilage, and is then biotinylated in the presence of bound hyaluronan and the link protein. Hyaluronan is then removed by gel filtration chromatography. The biotinylated HABP-link protein complex is applied to tissue sections and binding of the complex to tissue hyaluronan is visualized by enzymatic precipitation of chromogenic substrates. To determine hyaluronan content in tissues, tissues are first proteolytically digested to release hyaluronan from the macromolecular complexes that this molecule forms with other extracellular matrix constituents. Digested tissue is then incubated with HABP. The hyaluronan-HABP complexes are extracted and the hyaluronan concentration in the tissue is determined using an ELISA-like assay. Heparan sulfate is identified in mouse tissues by Alcian blue histochemistry and indirect immunohistochemistry. In human tissues, heparan sulfate is best detected by indirect immunohistochemistry using a specific anti-heparan sulfate monoclonal antibody. A biotinylated secondary antibody is then applied in conjunction with streptavidin-peroxidase and its binding to the anti-heparan sulfate antibody is visualized by enzymatic precipitation of chromogenic substrates.

  14. Inhibition of lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase by benzofuran salicylic acids.

    PubMed

    Vang, Torkel; Xie, Yuli; Liu, Wallace H; Vidović, Dusica; Liu, Yidong; Wu, Shuangding; Smith, Deborah H; Rinderspacher, Alison; Chung, Caty; Gong, Gangli; Mustelin, Tomas; Landry, Donald W; Rickert, Robert C; Schürer, Stephan C; Deng, Shi-Xian; Tautz, Lutz

    2011-01-27

    The lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase (Lyp, PTPN22) is a critical negative regulator of T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the ptpn22 gene correlates with the incidence of various autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Since the disease-associated allele is a more potent inhibitor of TCR signaling, specific Lyp inhibitors may become valuable in treating autoimmunity. Using a structure-based approach, we synthesized a library of 34 compounds that inhibited Lyp with IC(50) values between 0.27 and 6.2 μM. A reporter assay was employed to screen for compounds that enhanced TCR signaling in cells, and several inhibitors displayed a dose-dependent, activating effect. Subsequent probing for Lyp's direct physiological targets by immunoblot analysis confirmed the ability of the compounds to inhibit Lyp in T cells. Selectivity profiling against closely related tyrosine phosphatases and in silico docking studies with the crystal structure of Lyp yielded valuable information for the design of Lyp-specific compounds. PMID:21190368

  15. Effects of aflatoxin on lymphoid cells of weanling rat.

    PubMed

    Raisuddin; Singh, K P; Zaidi, S I; Saxena, A K; Ray, P K

    1990-08-01

    Aflatoxin (AF), the hepatocarcinogenic food contaminant produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi, is known to interact with various vital processes, including the immune function. Effects of long-term treatment of three dose levels of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on lymphoid cells of weanling rats were studied. AFB1 treatment caused a reduction in body weight gain, significantly (P less than 0.01) at the 700 microgram level. There was also a significant decrease in the weight of spleen and thymus in AFB1-treated animals in comparison to control. Similarly, AFB1 depleted cell populations of thymus and bone marrow and WBC and RBC counts. There was a marked reduction in the population and phagocytic capacity of macrophages due to AFB1 administration at dose levels of 350 and 700 micrograms kg-1 body weight. Macromolecular synthesis of DNA, RNA and protein in macrophages was affected, as there was significant inhibition in the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine, [3H]-uridine and [3H]-leucine. The hampered functioning of macrophages may be due to the cytotoxic action of AFB1.

  16. Treatment of experimental myasthenia gravis with total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    de Silva, S.; Blum, J.E.; McIntosh, K.R.; Order, S.; Drachman, D.B.

    1988-07-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) has been reported to be effective in the immunosuppressive treatment of certain human and experimental autoimmune disorders. We have investigated the effects of TLI in Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) produced by immunization with purified torpedo acetylcholine receptor (AChR). The radiation is given in 17 divided fractions of 200 rad each, and nonlymphoid tissues are protected by lead shielding. This technique suppresses the immune system, while minimizing side effects, and permits the repopulation of the immune system by the patient's own bone marrow cells. Our results show that TLI treatment completely prevented the primary antibody response to immunization with torpedo AChR, it rapidly abolished the ongoing antibody response in established EAMG, and it suppressed the secondary (anamnestic) response to a boost of AChR. No EAMG animals died during TLI treatment, compared with six control animals that died of EAMG. TLI produces powerful and prompt immunosuppression and may eventually prove useful in the treatment of refractory human myasthenia gravis.

  17. Post-conversion sialylation of prions in lymphoid tissues.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Saurabh; Makarava, Natallia; Katorcha, Elizaveta; Savtchenko, Regina; Brossmer, Reinhard; Baskakov, Ilia V

    2015-12-01

    Sialylated glycans on the surface of mammalian cells act as part of a "self-associated molecular pattern," helping the immune system to recognize "self" from "altered self" or "nonself." To escape the host immune system, some bacterial pathogens have evolved biosynthetic pathways for host-like sialic acids, whereas others recruited host sialic acids for decorating their surfaces. Prions lack nucleic acids and are not conventional pathogens. Nevertheless, prions might use a similar strategy for invading and colonizing the lymphoreticular system. Here we show that the sialylation status of the infectious, disease-associated state of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)) changes with colonization of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). As a result, spleen-derived PrP(Sc) is more sialylated than brain-derived PrP(Sc). Enhanced sialylation of PrP(Sc) is recapitulated in vitro by incubating brain-derived PrP(Sc) with primary splenocytes or cultured macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. General inhibitors of sialyltranserases (STs), the enzymes that transfer sialic acid residues onto terminal positions of glycans, suppressed extrasialylation of PrP(Sc). A fluorescently labeled precursor of sialic acid revealed ST activity associated with RAW macrophages. This study illustrates that, upon colonization of SLOs, the sialylation status of prions changes by host STs. We propose that this mechanism is responsible for camouflaging prions in SLOs and has broad implications. PMID:26627256

  18. Prions and lymphoid organs: solved and remaining mysteries.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Tracy; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    Prion colonization of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) is a critical step preceding neuroinvasion in prion pathogenesis. Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), which depend on both tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) signaling for maintenance, are thought to be the primary sites of prion accumulation in SLOs. However, prion titers in RML-infected TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes and rates of neuroinvasion in TNFR1 (-/-) mice remain high despite the absence of mature FDCs. Recently, we discovered that TNFR1-independent prion accumulation in lymph nodes relies on LTβR signaling. Loss of LTβR signaling in TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes coincided with the de-differentiation of high endothelial venules (HEVs)-the primary sites of lymphocyte entry into lymph nodes. These findings suggest that HEVs are the sites through which prions initially invade lymph nodes from the bloodstream. Identification of HEVs as entry portals for prions clarifies a number of previous observations concerning peripheral prion pathogenesis. However, a number of questions still remain: What is the mechanism by which prions are taken up by HEVs? Which cells are responsible for delivering prions to lymph nodes? Are HEVs the main entry site for prions into lymph nodes or do alternative routes also exist? These questions and others are considered in this article.

  19. Defining HIV and SIV Reservoirs in Lymphoid Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Deleage, Claire; Wietgrefe, Stephen W.; Del Prete, Gregory; Morcock, David R.; Hao, Xing Pei; Piatak, Michael; Bess, Julian; Anderson, Jodi L.; Perkey, Katherine E.; Reilly, Cavan; McCune, Joseph M.; Haase, Ashley T.; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Schacker, Timothy W.; Estes, Jacob D.

    2016-01-01

    A primary obstacle to an HIV-1 cure is long-lived viral reservoirs, which must be eliminated or greatly reduced. Cure strategies have largely focused on monitoring changes in T cell reservoirs in peripheral blood (PB), even though the lymphoid tissues (LT) are primary sites for viral persistence. To track and discriminate viral reservoirs within tissue compartments we developed a specific and sensitive next-generation in situ hybridization approach to detect vRNA, including vRNA+ cells and viral particles (“RNAscope”), vDNA+ cells (“DNAscope”) and combined vRNA and vDNA with immunohistochemistry to detect and phenotype active and latently infected cells in the same tissue section. RNAscope is highly sensitive with greater speed of analysis compared to traditional in situ hybridization. The highly sensitive and specific DNAscope detected SIV/HIV vDNA+ cells, including duplexed detection of vDNA and vRNA or immunophenotypic markers in the same section. Analysis of LT samples from macaques prior to and during combination antiretroviral therapy demonstrated that B cell follicles are an important anatomical compartment for both latent and active viral persistence during treatment. These new tools should allow new insights into viral reservoir biology and evaluation of cure strategies. PMID:27430032

  20. Coexistence of a nonfunctioning thyroid nodule in Plummer's disease demonstrated by thallium-201 imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ichiya, Y.; Nakashima, T.; Gunasekera, R.; Kuwabara, Y.; Ayabe, Z.; Sakurai, T.; Masuda, K.

    1988-02-01

    A patient with Plummer's disease in whom a coexisting nonfunctioning thyroid nodule was detected by TI-201 imaging is presented. I-123 imaging revealed a hot nodule corresponding to the functioning nodule and little uptake in the rest of the thyroid. In contrast, two areas of abnormalities were noted on a TI-201 image: one corresponded to the hot nodule in I-123 imaging and the other was visualized in the suppressed part of the thyroid in the same lobe. This case revealed that TI-201 imaging is clinically useful in detecting coexisting nodules in the suppressed part of the thyroid.

  1. Five Nodulation Mutants of White Sweetclover (Melilotus alba Desr.) Exhibit Distinct Phenotypes Blocked at Root Hair Curling, Infection Thread Development, and Nodule Organogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Utrup, L. J.; Cary, A. J.; Norris, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    In an effort to obtain a developmental sequence of mutations in the Rhizobium-legume interaction within a single legume species, we have characterized the early events of nodule development in 10 nodulation mutants of sweetclover, Melilotus alba Desr. cv U389, representing five genetic loci. Both seed and root exudates from all of the sweetclover mutants induced expression of the nod genes of Rhizobium meliloti. Mutants in three loci were blocked in the early stages of root hair curling. Of these, a mutant in the sym-3 locus exhibited root hair deformations in response to inoculation with R. meliloti but produced no nodules or emerging nodule primordia, suggesting a blockage in the signal transduction events leading to nodule organogenesis. In contrast, mutants in both the sym-1 and sym-5 loci formed ineffective nodules in response to inoculation but differed slightly in the type of root hair response observed. None of these three early mutants formed infection threads. Infection threads were observed in mutant sym-2 as well as in ineffective nodules. Mutant sym-4 also formed infection threads but lacked nodules. The phenotypes observed for mutants from these five loci suggest that a secondary receptor or signal produced by the plant is required for nodule development. PMID:12231990

  2. Multiple atypical bone involvement in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Mañá, J; Segarra, M I; Casas, R; Mairal, L; Fernández-Nogués, F

    1993-02-01

    We describe a patient with right paratracheal and left hilar lymph nodes detected by chance on chest radiography that followed a spontaneous remission. However, a few months later she complained of multiple scalp nodules. Skull roentgenogram and computerized tomogram scan showed multiple osteolytic lesions with increased uptake in bone and gallium scans. Lytic lesions were also detected in her right mandibular bone and right clavicle. Noncaseating granulomas were demonstrated in skull and cervical lymph node biopsies. PMID:8474084

  3. Multiple Adult Xanthogranulomas Associated With Cutaneous Lymphoid Hyperplasia and Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Hibler, Brian P; Eastman, Kristin L; Bennett, Daniel D; Swanson, Andrew M; Longley, B Jack; Wood, Gary S

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old woman presented to our clinic for evaluation of numerous recurrent, pruritic papules on her upper extremities. She reported a 2- to 3-year history of up to eight unique lesions on the bilateral upper arms that would initially appear as firm papules before gradually softening and flattening out, leaving residual pink macules (Figure 1A). Her medical history was notable for mild hyperlipidemia. On presentation, she had several erythematous papules with overlying telangiectasias scattered throughout her bilateral upper arms. One lesion of concern over the left deltoid had been present for 5 months without signs of regression (Figure 1B). Pathology of this and a similar lesion showed histiocytes forming Touton giant cells with foamy cytoplasm consistent with a xanthogranuloma (AXG). Results from immunoperoxidase stains were negative for factor XIIIa and CD1a, diffusely positive for CD68, and focally positive for S100 (Figure 2). PMID:27319967

  4. Effects of Second-line Drugs on the Progression or Regression of Rheumatoid Nodules.

    PubMed

    Bautista, B B; Boyce, E G; Schumacher, H R

    1995-08-01

    Second-line drugs may have different effects on nodules than on synovitis. In this study, we have begun to evaluate the effects of these agents on rheumatoid nodules. The appearance, progression, or regression of rheumatoid nodules were studied in an open series of 119 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) seen at an academic center over the last 20 years. Fifty-six of these patients had nodules during a mean period of observation of 5.4 years. During this time, 1-5 second-line drugs were taken. Our population had a higher prevalence of nodules (47%) than did patients in most previously reported series. New nodule formation and nodule progression were most often associated with methotrexate (n = 21, 68%) but were also noted during use of gold salts (n = 6, 18%) and hydroxychloroquine (n = 3, 8%). Nodule regression and even complete resolution of nodules was most often observed with hydroxycholoroquine (n = 14, 36%) and with sulfasazine (n = 6, 32%) and injectable gold (n = 5, 14%). Changes in nodules occurred without consistent relation to synovitis. Second-line drugs that may modify the articular aspects of RA may exert varying effects on nodules. These very different effects, if confirmed, suggest important differences in drug mechanisms of action on this basic manifestation of RA. PMID:19077981

  5. Diagenetic origin of nodules in the Sheepbed member, Yellowknife Bay formation, Gale crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stack, K. M.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Kah, L. C.; Schmidt, M. E.; Mangold, N.; Edgett, K. S.; Sumner, D. Y.; Siebach, K. L.; Nachon, M.; Lee, R.; Blaney, D. L.; Deflores, L. P.; Edgar, L. A.; Fairén, A. G.; Leshin, L. A.; Maurice, S.; Oehler, D. Z.; Rice, M. S.; Wiens, R. C.

    2014-07-01

    The Sheepbed member of the Yellowknife Bay formation in Gale crater contains millimeter-scale nodules that represent an array of morphologies unlike those previously observed in sedimentary deposits on Mars. Three types of nodules have been identified in the Sheepbed member in order of decreasing abundance: solid nodules, hollow nodules, and filled nodules, a variant of hollow nodules whose voids have been filled with sulfate minerals. This study uses Mast Camera (Mastcam) and Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) images from the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover to determine the size, shape, and spatial distribution of the Sheepbed nodules. The Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) and ChemCam instruments provide geochemical data to help interpret nodule origins. Based on their physical characteristics, spatial distribution, and composition, the nodules are interpreted as concretions formed during early diagenesis. Several hypotheses are considered for hollow nodule formation including origins as primary or secondary voids. The occurrence of concretions interpreted in the Sheepbed mudstone and in several other sedimentary sequences on Mars suggests that active groundwater systems play an important role in the diagenesis of Martian sedimentary rocks. When concretions are formed during early diagenetic cementation, as interpreted for the Sheepbed nodules, they have the potential to create a taphonomic window favorable for the preservation of Martian organics.

  6. Lung nodule segmentation and recognition using SVM classifier and active contour modeling: a complete intelligent system.

    PubMed

    Keshani, Mohsen; Azimifar, Zohreh; Tajeripour, Farshad; Boostani, Reza

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, a novel method for lung nodule detection, segmentation and recognition using computed tomography (CT) images is presented. Our contribution consists of several steps. First, the lung area is segmented by active contour modeling followed by some masking techniques to transfer non-isolated nodules into isolated ones. Then, nodules are detected by the support vector machine (SVM) classifier using efficient 2D stochastic and 3D anatomical features. Contours of detected nodules are then extracted by active contour modeling. In this step all solid and cavitary nodules are accurately segmented. Finally, lung tissues are classified into four classes: namely lung wall, parenchyma, bronchioles and nodules. This classification helps us to distinguish a nodule connected to the lung wall and/or bronchioles (attached nodule) from the one covered by parenchyma (solitary nodule). At the end, performance of our proposed method is examined and compared with other efficient methods through experiments using clinical CT images and two groups of public datasets from Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) and ANODE09. Solid, non-solid and cavitary nodules are detected with an overall detection rate of 89%; the number of false positive is 7.3/scan and the location of all detected nodules are recognized correctly. PMID:23369568

  7. Morphological and functional stasis in mycorrhizal root nodules as exhibited by a Triassic conifer.

    PubMed

    Schwendemann, Andrew B; Decombeix, Anne-Laure; Taylor, Thomas N; Taylor, Edith L; Krings, Michael

    2011-08-16

    Mycorrhizal root nodules occur in the conifer families Araucariaceae, Podocarpaceae, and Sciadopityaceae. Although the fossil record of these families can be traced back into the early Mesozoic, the oldest fossil evidence of root nodules previously came from the Cretaceous. Here we report on cellularly preserved root nodules of the early conifer Notophytum from Middle Triassic permineralized peat of Antarctica. These fossil root nodules contain fungal arbuscules, hyphal coils, and vesicles in their cortex. Numerous glomoid-type spores are found in the peat matrix surrounding the nodules. This discovery indicates that mutualistic associations between conifer root nodules and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi date back to at least the early Mesozoic, the period during which most of the modern conifer families first appeared. Notophytum root nodules predate the next known appearance of this association by 100 million years, indicating that this specialized form of mycorrhizal symbiosis has ancient origins.

  8. Morphological and functional stasis in mycorrhizal root nodules as exhibited by a Triassic conifer

    PubMed Central

    Schwendemann, Andrew B.; Decombeix, Anne-Laure; Taylor, Thomas N.; Krings, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Mycorrhizal root nodules occur in the conifer families Araucariaceae, Podocarpaceae, and Sciadopityaceae. Although the fossil record of these families can be traced back into the early Mesozoic, the oldest fossil evidence of root nodules previously came from the Cretaceous. Here we report on cellularly preserved root nodules of the early conifer Notophytum from Middle Triassic permineralized peat of Antarctica. These fossil root nodules contain fungal arbuscules, hyphal coils, and vesicles in their cortex. Numerous glomoid-type spores are found in the peat matrix surrounding the nodules. This discovery indicates that mutualistic associations between conifer root nodules and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi date back to at least the early Mesozoic, the period during which most of the modern conifer families first appeared. Notophytum root nodules predate the next known appearance of this association by 100 million years, indicating that this specialized form of mycorrhizal symbiosis has ancient origins. PMID:21808011

  9. Classification of pulmonary nodules in lung CT images using shape and texture features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhara, Ashis Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Dutta, Anirvan; Garg, Mandeep; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Kumar, Prafulla

    2016-03-01

    Differentiation of malignant and benign pulmonary nodules is important for prognosis of lung cancer. In this paper, benign and malignant nodules are classified using support vector machine. Several shape-based and texture-based features are used to represent the pulmonary nodules in the feature space. A semi-automated technique is used for nodule segmentation. Relevant features are selected for efficient representation of nodules in the feature space. The proposed scheme and the competing technique are evaluated on a data set of 542 nodules of Lung Image Database Consortium and Image Database Resource Initiative. The nodules with composite rank of malignancy "1","2" are considered as benign and "4","5" are considered as malignant. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve is 0:9465 for the proposed method. The proposed method outperforms the competing technique.

  10. Morphological and functional stasis in mycorrhizal root nodules as exhibited by a Triassic conifer.

    PubMed

    Schwendemann, Andrew B; Decombeix, Anne-Laure; Taylor, Thomas N; Taylor, Edith L; Krings, Michael

    2011-08-16

    Mycorrhizal root nodules occur in the conifer families Araucariaceae, Podocarpaceae, and Sciadopityaceae. Although the fossil record of these families can be traced back into the early Mesozoic, the oldest fossil evidence of root nodules previously came from the Cretaceous. Here we report on cellularly preserved root nodules of the early conifer Notophytum from Middle Triassic permineralized peat of Antarctica. These fossil root nodules contain fungal arbuscules, hyphal coils, and vesicles in their cortex. Numerous glomoid-type spores are found in the peat matrix surrounding the nodules. This discovery indicates that mutualistic associations between conifer root nodules and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi date back to at least the early Mesozoic, the period during which most of the modern conifer families first appeared. Notophytum root nodules predate the next known appearance of this association by 100 million years, indicating that this specialized form of mycorrhizal symbiosis has ancient origins. PMID:21808011

  11. Nodule Activity and Allocation of Photosynthate of Soybean during Recovery from Water Stress 1

    PubMed Central

    Fellows, Robert J.; Patterson, Robert P.; Raper, C. David; Harris, Dorothy

    1987-01-01

    Nodulated soybean plants (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Ransom) in a growth-chamber study were subjected to a leaf water potential (Ψw) of −2.0 megapascal during vegetative growth. Changes in nonstructural carbohydrate contents of leaves, stems, roots, and nodules, allocation of dry matter among plant parts, in situ specific nodule activity, and in situ canopy apparent photosynthetic rate were measured in stressed and nonstressed plants during a 7-day period following rewatering. Leaf and nodule Ψw also were determined. At the time of maximum stress, concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates had declined in leaves of stressed, relative to nonstressed, plants, and the concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates had increased in stems, roots, and nodules. Sucrose concentrations in roots and nodules of stressed plants were 1.5 and 3 times greater, respectively, than those of nonstressed plants. Within 12 hours after rewatering, leaf and nodule Ψw of stressed plants had returned to values of nonstressed plants. Canopy apparent photosynthesis and specific nodule activity of stressed plants recovered to levels for nonstressed plants within 2 days after rewatering. The elevated sucrose concentrations in roots and nodules of stressed plants also declined rapidly upon rehydration. The increase in sucrose concentration in nodules, as well as the increase of carbohydrates in roots and stems, during water stress and the rapid disappearance upon rewatering indicates that inhibition of carbohydrate utilization within the nodule may be associated with loss of nodule activity. Availability of carbohydrates within the nodules and from photosynthetic activity following rehydration of nodules may mediate the rate of recovery of N2-fixation activity. PMID:11539766

  12. Nodule activity and allocation of photosynthate of soybean during recovery from water stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fellows, R. J.; Patterson, R. P.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Harris, D.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    Nodulated soybean plants (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Ransom) in a growth-chamber study were subjected to a leaf water potential (psi w) of -2.0 megapascal during vegetative growth. Changes in nonstructural carbohydrate contents of leaves, stems, roots, and nodules, allocation of dry matter among plant parts, in situ specific nodule activity, and in situ canopy apparent photosynthetic rate were measured in stressed and nonstressed plants during a 7-day period following rewatering. Leaf and nodule psi w also were determined. At the time of maximum stress, concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates had declined in leaves of stressed, relative to nonstressed, plants, and the concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates had increased in stems, roots, and nodules. Sucrose concentrations in roots and nodules of stressed plants were 1.5 and 3 times greater, respectively, than those of nonstressed plants. Within 12 hours after rewatering, leaf and nodule psi w of stressed plants had returned to values of nonstressed plants. Canopy apparent photosynthesis and specific nodule activity of stressed plants recovered to levels for nonstressed plants within 2 days after rewatering. The elevated sucrose concentrations in roots and nodules of stressed plants also declined rapidly upon rehydration. The increase in sucrose concentration in nodules, as well as the increase of carbohydrates in roots and stems, during water stress and the rapid disappearance upon rewatering indicates that inhibition of carbohydrate utilization within the nodule may be associated with loss of nodule activity. Availability of carbohydrates within the nodules and from photosynthetic activity following rehydration of nodules may mediate the rate of recovery of N2-fixation activity.

  13. Nodule activity and allocation of photosynthate of soybean during recovery from water stress.

    PubMed

    Fellows, R J; Patterson, R P; Raper, C D; Harris, D

    1987-05-01

    Nodulated soybean plants (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Ransom) in a growth-chamber study were subjected to a leaf water potential (psi w) of -2.0 megapascal during vegetative growth. Changes in nonstructural carbohydrate contents of leaves, stems, roots, and nodules, allocation of dry matter among plant parts, in situ specific nodule activity, and in situ canopy apparent photosynthetic rate were measured in stressed and nonstressed plants during a 7-day period following rewatering. Leaf and nodule psi w also were determined. At the time of maximum stress, concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates had declined in leaves of stressed, relative to nonstressed, plants, and the concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates had increased in stems, roots, and nodules. Sucrose concentrations in roots and nodules of stressed plants were 1.5 and 3 times greater, respectively, than those of nonstressed plants. Within 12 hours after rewatering, leaf and nodule psi w of stressed plants had returned to values of nonstressed plants. Canopy apparent photosynthesis and specific nodule activity of stressed plants recovered to levels for nonstressed plants within 2 days after rewatering. The elevated sucrose concentrations in roots and nodules of stressed plants also declined rapidly upon rehydration. The increase in sucrose concentration in nodules, as well as the increase of carbohydrates in roots and stems, during water stress and the rapid disappearance upon rewatering indicates that inhibition of carbohydrate utilization within the nodule may be associated with loss of nodule activity. Availability of carbohydrates within the nodules and from photosynthetic activity following rehydration of nodules may mediate the rate of recovery of N2-fixation activity.

  14. Lymphocyte trafficking and HIV infection of human lymphoid tissue in a rotating wall vessel bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolis, L. B.; Fitzgerald, W.; Glushakova, S.; Hatfill, S.; Amichay, N.; Baibakov, B.; Zimmerberg, J.

    1997-01-01

    The pathogenesis of HIV infection involves a complex interplay between both the infected and noninfected cells of human lymphoid tissue, the release of free viral particles, the de novo infection of cells, and the recirculatory trafficking of peripheral blood lymphocytes. To develop an in vitro model for studying these various aspects of HIV pathogenesis we have utilized blocks of surgically excised human tonsils and a rotating wall vessel (RWV) cell culture system. Here we show that (1) fragments of the surgically excised human lymphoid tissue remain viable and retain their gross cytoarchitecture for at least 3 weeks when cultured in the RWV system; (2) such lymphoid tissue gradually shows a loss of both T and B cells to the surrounding growth medium; however, this cellular migration is reversible as demonstrated by repopulation of the tissue by labeled cells from the growth medium; (3) this cellular migration may be partially or completely inhibited by embedding the blocks of lymphoid tissue in either a collagen or agarose gel matrix; these embedded tissue blocks retain most of the basic elements of a normal lymphoid cytoarchitecture; and (4) both embedded and nonembedded RWV-cultured blocks of human lymphoid tissue are capable of productive infection by HIV-1 of at least three various strains of different tropism and phenotype, as shown by an increase in both p24 antigen levels and free virus in the culture medium, and by the demonstration of HIV-1 RNA-positive cells inside the tissue identified by in situ hybridization. It is therefore reasonable to suggest that gel-embedded and nonembedded blocks of human lymphoid tissue, cocultured with a suspension of tonsillar lymphocytes in an RWV culture system, constitute a useful model for simulating normal lymphocyte recirculatory traffic and provide a new tool for testing the various aspects of HIV pathogenesis.

  15. A Violaceous Nodule in a Lung-transplant Patient.

    PubMed

    Milford, Emily; Winslow, Caroline; Danhof, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a rare complication of solid organ or allogenic bone marrow transplantation. Cases localized to the skin are even rarer, with only around 100 cases recorded in the literature [2]. We present a case of 60 year-old-woman, a lung transplant recipient, who presented with an asymptomatic violaceous nodule on her left medial calf. Histopathology was consistent with PTLD of the B-cell subtype, EBV negative. This case is unique in that it was of the B cell subtype of cutaneous PTLD, which has been less commonly observed than the T cell subtype. In addition, the case was EBV negative, which is rare in B cell cutaneous PTLD. The patient was treated with rituximab 600 mg IV weekly for four weeks and cytomegalovirus immune globulin (Cytogam) 100 mg/kg once, with resolution of the nodule. PMID:27617611

  16. Pulmonary nodules and CT screening: the past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Ruparel, M; Quaife, S L; Navani, N; Wardle, J; Janes, S M; Baldwin, D R

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer screening has come a long way since the early studies with chest X-ray. Advancing technology and progress in the processing of images have enabled low dose CT to be tried and tested, and evidence suggests its use can result in a significant mortality benefit. There are several issues that need refining in order to successfully implement screening in the UK and elsewhere. Some countries have started patchy implementation of screening and there is increased recognition that the appropriate management of pulmonary nodules is crucial to optimise benefits of early detection, while reducing harm caused by inappropriate medical intervention. This review summarises and differentiates the many recent guidelines on pulmonary nodule management, discusses screening activity in other countries and exposes the present barriers to implementation in the UK. PMID:26921304

  17. Genetic diversity of rhizobia nodulating native Vicia spp. in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ampomah, Osei Yaw; Huss-Danell, Kerstin

    2016-05-01

    Despite the recognition that Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. viciae is the most common symbiont of Vicia species worldwide, there is no available information on rhizobia nodulating native Vicia species in Sweden. We have therefore studied the genetic diversity and phylogeny of root nodule bacteria isolated from V. cracca, V. hirsuta, V. sepium, V. tetrasperma and V. sylvatica growing in different locations in Sweden as well as an isolate each from V. cracca in Tromsø, Norway, and V. multicaulis in Siberia, Russia. Out of 25 isolates sampled from the six Vicia species in 12 different locations, there were 14 different genotypes based on the atpD, recA and nodA gene phylogenies. All isolates were classified into Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. viciae group based on the concatenated atpD and recA phylogeny and the nodA phylogeny.

  18. Early Autoregulation of Symbiotic Root Nodulation in Soybeans

    PubMed Central

    Takats, Stephen T.

    1990-01-01

    Autoregulation of symbiotic root nodulation in soybean seedlings (Glycine max L. Merrill cv Pride 216) was studied following double inoculation of primary roots with Bradyrhizobium japonicum 110. When the second inoculation was given 10 or 17 hours after the first, the nodulation in the first-inoculated region of the root was suppressed. The effect was eliminated if B. japonicum 110 containing Tn5 insertions in the `common' nod ABC genes was used for the second inoculation, indicating the requirement for changes in the root mediated by these bacterial genes. When the root cortex in the suppressed basal region was examined 3 days after inoculation, cell division centers were present in numbers not significantly different from the numbers in control roots given a sham second inoculation; their size distribution, however, showed a failure of enlargement compared with controls. PMID:16667864

  19. Reduction Processes for Manganese Nodules Using Fuel Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder, Thomas C.; Andreola, John J.; Galin, Walter E.

    1981-03-01

    Small-scale laboratory experiments were performed on the roasting and the smelting of manganese nodules at various temperatures using either coal or No. 6 fuel oil as the reductant. Using oil as the reductant yielded significantly higher extractions of copper, nickel, and cobalt in subsequent leaching of the roasted calcines or the metallic alloy produced by smelting. Better overall extractions of the above metals and better selectivity of reduction are obtained with oil because of the improved contact with the finely disseminated metal values of the porous nodules. Such improved contact assures a closer approach to thermodynamic equilibrium. The by-product residues from leaching the roasted calcines, or slags from smelting, are excellent materials for ferromanganese production since they are substantially free from all heavy metal contaminants.

  20. Genetic diversity of rhizobia nodulating native Vicia spp. in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ampomah, Osei Yaw; Huss-Danell, Kerstin

    2016-05-01

    Despite the recognition that Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. viciae is the most common symbiont of Vicia species worldwide, there is no available information on rhizobia nodulating native Vicia species in Sweden. We have therefore studied the genetic diversity and phylogeny of root nodule bacteria isolated from V. cracca, V. hirsuta, V. sepium, V. tetrasperma and V. sylvatica growing in different locations in Sweden as well as an isolate each from V. cracca in Tromsø, Norway, and V. multicaulis in Siberia, Russia. Out of 25 isolates sampled from the six Vicia species in 12 different locations, there were 14 different genotypes based on the atpD, recA and nodA gene phylogenies. All isolates were classified into Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. viciae group based on the concatenated atpD and recA phylogeny and the nodA phylogeny. PMID:26924220

  1. Subacute thyroiditis (de Quervain) presenting as a painless cold nodule

    SciTech Connect

    Bartels, P.C.; Boer, R.O.

    1987-09-01

    A 49-yr-old woman presented with a solid, painless, nontender nodule in the left thyroid lobe. Thyroid scintigraphy revealed a solitary cold area in the left lobe and a slightly decreased 24-hr radioactive iodine thyroid uptake (9%). Although there were no specific clinical or biochemical signs suggesting thyroiditis needle aspiration cytology showed the presence of a subacute thyroiditis. Approximately 1 mo later the entire thyroid gland was affected leading to a completely suppressed thyroid radioiodine uptake and elevated serum thyroid hormone concentrations. This case illustrates that in the early phase of the disease, subacute thyroiditis may present as a solitary, painless, cold nodule and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of such lesions.

  2. System and method for producing metallic iron nodules

    DOEpatents

    Bleifuss, Rodney L.; Englund, David J.; Iwasaki, Iwao; Lindgren, Andrew J.; Kiesel, Richard F.

    2011-09-20

    A method for producing metallic iron nodules by assembling a shielding entry system to introduce coarse carbonaceous material greater than 6 mesh in to the furnace atmosphere at location(s) where the temperature of the furnace atmosphere adjacent at least partially reduced reducible iron bearing material is between about 2200 and 2650.degree. F. (1200 and 1450.degree. C.), the shielding entry system adapted to inhibit emission of infrared radiation from the furnace atmosphere and seal the furnace atmosphere from exterior atmosphere while introducing coarse carbonaceous material greater than 6 mesh into the furnace to be distributed over the at least partially reduced reducible iron bearing material, and heating the covered at least partially reduced reducible iron bearing material in a fusion atmosphere to assist in fusion and inhibit reoxidation of the reduced material during fusion to assist in fusion and inhibit reoxidation of the reduced material in forming metallic iron nodules.

  3. Multiple Eruptive Dermatofibromas Masquerading as Cutaneous Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Rowan; Aithal, Vijay; Tirumalae, Rajalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    A 34-year-old male came with complaints of multiple firms to hard nontender, nonitchy nodules, measuring 2 cm × 2 cm to 1 cm × 1.5 cm, present predominantly over the lower limbs. This condition started 5 years back as a single nodule over the thigh but gradually increased in number and size with time to involve both lower limbs. A differential diagnosis of cutaneous lymphoma and dermatofibroma was considered. He underwent a biopsy and immunohistochemistry for the same which were consistent with hemosiderotic histiocytoma and positive for vimentin. The patient was advised surgical excision for the same. The occurrence of multiple dermatofibromas although rare has been reported in a few case reports; however, the occurrence of multiple dermatofibromas of the hemosiderotic variant has not been documented yet. PMID:27688463

  4. Multiple Eruptive Dermatofibromas Masquerading as Cutaneous Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Rowan; Aithal, Vijay; Tirumalae, Rajalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    A 34-year-old male came with complaints of multiple firms to hard nontender, nonitchy nodules, measuring 2 cm × 2 cm to 1 cm × 1.5 cm, present predominantly over the lower limbs. This condition started 5 years back as a single nodule over the thigh but gradually increased in number and size with time to involve both lower limbs. A differential diagnosis of cutaneous lymphoma and dermatofibroma was considered. He underwent a biopsy and immunohistochemistry for the same which were consistent with hemosiderotic histiocytoma and positive for vimentin. The patient was advised surgical excision for the same. The occurrence of multiple dermatofibromas although rare has been reported in a few case reports; however, the occurrence of multiple dermatofibromas of the hemosiderotic variant has not been documented yet. PMID:27688463

  5. Multiple Eruptive Dermatofibromas Masquerading as Cutaneous Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Rowan; Aithal, Vijay; Tirumalae, Rajalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    A 34-year-old male came with complaints of multiple firms to hard nontender, nonitchy nodules, measuring 2 cm × 2 cm to 1 cm × 1.5 cm, present predominantly over the lower limbs. This condition started 5 years back as a single nodule over the thigh but gradually increased in number and size with time to involve both lower limbs. A differential diagnosis of cutaneous lymphoma and dermatofibroma was considered. He underwent a biopsy and immunohistochemistry for the same which were consistent with hemosiderotic histiocytoma and positive for vimentin. The patient was advised surgical excision for the same. The occurrence of multiple dermatofibromas although rare has been reported in a few case reports; however, the occurrence of multiple dermatofibromas of the hemosiderotic variant has not been documented yet.

  6. Nitrate Induced Regulation of Nodule Formation in Soybean 1

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Nasir S. A.; Calvert, Harry E.; Bauer, Wolfgang D.

    1987-01-01

    Nodule formation was inhibited by exposing soybean plants to nitrate in plastic growth pouches. Exposure to 15 millimolar nitrate resulted in a 2.5-fold decrease in the number of nodules formed in the region of the primary root above the mark made at the time of inoculation to indicate the position of the root tip. Serial section analysis of Bradyrhizobium infections in this region revealed that infection initiation was inhibited approximately 3-fold by exposure to nitrate. Both initial cortical cell divisions and infection thread formation were inhibited. If exposure to nitrate was delayed for 18 hours after the time of inoculation, inhibition was much reduced. This indicates that most of the nitrate-sensitive events of infection were functionally complete within less than 18 hours. Exposure to nitrate for periods of 4 to 24 hours after inoculation, followed by transfer to no-nitrate conditions for the remainder of the time, did not result in substantial inhibition of nodule number. This indicates that the effects of nitrate on infection initiation can be almost entirely reversible. Split towel pouches were used to physically separate portions of the primary root exposed to nitrate and portions of the root exposed to rhizobia. In experiments where nitrate was applied either below or above the inoculated region of the primary root, the degree of inhibition of nodulation was not correlated with either the external concentration of nitrate in contact with root cells undergoing infection or with the internal concentration of nitrate in the infectible region of the root. These results indicate that nitrate itself may not directly inhibit infection initiation or induce host regulatory responses. PMID:16665428

  7. Function of glutathione peroxidases in legume root nodules

    PubMed Central

    Matamoros, Manuel A.; Saiz, Ana; Peñuelas, Maria; Bustos-Sanmamed, Pilar; Mulet, Jose M.; Barja, Maria V.; Rouhier, Nicolas; Moore, Marten; James, Euan K.; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Becana, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione peroxidases (Gpxs) are antioxidant enzymes not studied so far in legume nodules, despite the fact that reactive oxygen species are produced at different steps of the symbiosis. The function of two Gpxs that are highly expressed in nodules of the model legume Lotus japonicus was examined. Gene expression analysis, enzymatic and nitrosylation assays, yeast cell complementation, in situ mRNA hybridization, immunoelectron microscopy, and LjGpx-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions were used to characterize the enzymes and to localize each transcript and isoform in nodules. The LjGpx1 and LjGpx3 genes encode thioredoxin-dependent phospholipid hydroperoxidases and are differentially regulated in response to nitric oxide (NO) and hormones. LjGpx1 and LjGpx3 are nitrosylated in vitro or in plants treated with S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). Consistent with the modification of the peroxidatic cysteine of LjGpx3, in vitro assays demonstrated that this modification results in enzyme inhibition. The enzymes are highly expressed in the infected zone, but the LjGpx3 mRNA is also detected in the cortex and vascular bundles. LjGpx1 is localized to the plastids and nuclei, and LjGpx3 to the cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum. Based on yeast complementation experiments, both enzymes protect against oxidative stress, salt stress, and membrane damage. It is concluded that both LjGpxs perform major antioxidative functions in nodules, preventing lipid peroxidation and other oxidative processes at different subcellular sites of vascular and infected cells. The enzymes are probably involved in hormone and NO signalling, and may be regulated through nitrosylation of the peroxidatic cysteine essential for catalytic function. PMID:25740929

  8. Oxygen isotope thermometry of basic lavas and mantle nodules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kyser, T.K.; O'Neil, J.R.; Carmichael, I.S.E.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the oxygen isotope and chemical composition of glass and phenocrysts in lavas and coexisting minerals in mantle nodules. Temperatures of formation of these assemblages have been estimated from various chemical thermometers and range from 855?? to 1,300?? C. The permil fractionations between coexisting orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene in the lavas and nodules are all near zero. The fractionations between pyroxene and olivine vary from +1.2 to -1.4 and are a smooth function of temperature over the entire range. This function is given by T(?? C)=1151-173?? (px-d)-68??2(px-d) and has an uncertainty of ??60?? (2??). At temperatures above 1,150?? C, olivine in the nodules becomes more18O-rich than coexisting clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and plagioclase. In combination with the experimental work of Muehlenbachs and Kushiro (1974), the olivine-pyroxene fractionations indicate that olivine also becomes substantially more18O-rich than basaltic liquids above 1,200?? C. Geothermometers based on the oxygen isotope equilibration of basaltic liquid with olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase are presented. ?? 1981 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Conserved nodulation genes in Rhizobium meliloti and Rhizobium trifolii

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.F.; Tu, J.K.; Long, S.R.

    1985-06-01

    Plasmids which contained wild-type or mutated Rhizobium meliloti nodulation (Nod) genes were introduced into Nod/sup -/ R. trifolii mutants ANU453 and ANU851 and tested for their ability to nodulate clover. Cloned wild-type and mutated R. meliloti Nod gene segments restored ANU851 to Nod/sup +/, with the exception of nodD mutants. Similarly, wild-type and mutant R. meliloti nod genes complemented ANU453 to Nod/sup +/, except for nod CII mutants. Thus, ANU851 identifies the equivalent of the R. meliloti nodD genes, and ANU453 specifies the equivalent of the R. meliloti nodCII genes. In addition, cloned wild-type R. trifolii nod genes were introduced into seven R. meliloti Nod/sup -/ mutants. All seven mutants were restored to Nod/sup +/ on alfalfa. Our results indicate that these genes represent common nodulation functions and argue for an allelic relationship between nod genes in R. meliloti and R. trifolii.

  10. Micromonospora is a normal occupant of actinorhizal nodules.

    PubMed

    Carro, Lorena; Pujic, Petar; Trujillo, Martha E; Normand, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    Actinorhizal plants have been found in eight genera belonging to three orders (Fagales, Rosales and Cucurbitales). These all bear root nodules inhabited by bacteria identified as the nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium Frankia. These nodules all have a peripheral cortex with enlarged cells filled with Frankia hyphae and vesicles. Isolation in pure culture has been notoriously difficult, due in a large part to the growth of fast-growing contaminants where, it was later found, Frankia was slow-growing. Many of these contaminants, which were later found to be Micromonospora, were obtained from Casuarina and Coriaria. Our study was aimed at determining if Micromonospora were also present in other actinorhizal plants. Nodules from Alnus glutinosa, Alnus viridis, Coriaria myrtifolia, Elaeagnus x ebbingei, Hippophae rhamnoides, Myrica gale and Morella pensylvanica were tested and were all found to contain Micromonospora isolates. These were found to belong to mainly three species: Micromonospora lupini, Micromonospora coriariae and Micromonospora saelicesensis. Micromonospora isolates were found to inhibit some Frankia strains and to be innocuous to other strains. PMID:24287646

  11. Drought Stress Responses in Soybean Roots and Nodules.

    PubMed

    Kunert, Karl J; Vorster, Barend J; Fenta, Berhanu A; Kibido, Tsholofelo; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Foyer, Christine H

    2016-01-01

    Drought is considered to be a major threat to soybean production worldwide and yet our current understanding of the effects of drought on soybean productively is largely based on studies on above-ground traits. Although the roots and root nodules are important sensors of drought, the responses of these crucial organs and their drought tolerance features remain poorly characterized. The symbiotic interaction between soybean and rhizobia facilitates atmospheric nitrogen fixation, a process that provides essential nitrogen to support plant growth and development. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is important for sustainable agriculture, as it sustains plant growth on nitrogen-poor soils and limits fertilizer use for crop nitrogen nutrition. Recent developments have been made in our understanding of the drought impact on soybean root architecture and nodule traits, as well as underpinning transcriptome, proteome and also emerging metabolome information, with a view to improve the selection of more drought-tolerant soybean cultivars and rhizobia in the future. We conclude that the direct screening of root and nodule traits in the field as well as identification of genes, proteins and also metabolites involved in such traits will be essential in order to gain a better understanding of the regulation of root architecture, bacteroid development and lifespan in relation to drought tolerance in soybean.

  12. Drought Stress Responses in Soybean Roots and Nodules.

    PubMed

    Kunert, Karl J; Vorster, Barend J; Fenta, Berhanu A; Kibido, Tsholofelo; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Foyer, Christine H

    2016-01-01

    Drought is considered to be a major threat to soybean production worldwide and yet our current understanding of the effects of drought on soybean productively is largely based on studies on above-ground traits. Although the roots and root nodules are important sensors of drought, the responses of these crucial organs and their drought tolerance features remain poorly characterized. The symbiotic interaction between soybean and rhizobia facilitates atmospheric nitrogen fixation, a process that provides essential nitrogen to support plant growth and development. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is important for sustainable agriculture, as it sustains plant growth on nitrogen-poor soils and limits fertilizer use for crop nitrogen nutrition. Recent developments have been made in our understanding of the drought impact on soybean root architecture and nodule traits, as well as underpinning transcriptome, proteome and also emerging metabolome information, with a view to improve the selection of more drought-tolerant soybean cultivars and rhizobia in the future. We conclude that the direct screening of root and nodule traits in the field as well as identification of genes, proteins and also metabolites involved in such traits will be essential in order to gain a better understanding of the regulation of root architecture, bacteroid development and lifespan in relation to drought tolerance in soybean. PMID:27462339

  13. Drought Stress Responses in Soybean Roots and Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Kunert, Karl J.; Vorster, Barend J.; Fenta, Berhanu A.; Kibido, Tsholofelo; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Foyer, Christine H.

    2016-01-01

    Drought is considered to be a major threat to soybean production worldwide and yet our current understanding of the effects of drought on soybean productively is largely based on studies on above-ground traits. Although the roots and root nodules are important sensors of drought, the responses of these crucial organs and their drought tolerance features remain poorly characterized. The symbiotic interaction between soybean and rhizobia facilitates atmospheric nitrogen fixation, a process that provides essential nitrogen to support plant growth and development. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is important for sustainable agriculture, as it sustains plant growth on nitrogen-poor soils and limits fertilizer use for crop nitrogen nutrition. Recent developments have been made in our understanding of the drought impact on soybean root architecture and nodule traits, as well as underpinning transcriptome, proteome and also emerging metabolome information, with a view to improve the selection of more drought-tolerant soybean cultivars and rhizobia in the future. We conclude that the direct screening of root and nodule traits in the field as well as identification of genes, proteins and also metabolites involved in such traits will be essential in order to gain a better understanding of the regulation of root architecture, bacteroid development and lifespan in relation to drought tolerance in soybean. PMID:27462339

  14. Quantitative imaging features to predict cancer status in lung nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Atwater, Thomas; Antic, Sanja; Li, Qian; Walker, Ronald; Smith, Gary T.; Massion, Pierre P.; Schabath, Matthew B.; Gillies, Robert J.

    2016-03-01

    Background: We propose a systematic methodology to quantify incidentally identified lung nodules based on observed radiological traits on a point scale. These quantitative traits classification model was used to predict cancer status. Materials and Methods: We used 102 patients' low dose computed tomography (LDCT) images for this study, 24 semantic traits were systematically scored from each image. We built a machine learning classifier in cross validation setting to find best predictive imaging features to differentiate malignant from benign lung nodules. Results: The best feature triplet to discriminate malignancy was based on long axis, concavity and lymphadenopathy with average AUC of 0.897 (Accuracy of 76.8%, Sensitivity of 64.3%, Specificity of 90%). A similar semantic triplet optimized on Sensitivity/Specificity (Youden's J index) included long axis, vascular convergence and lymphadenopathy which had an average AUC of 0.875 (Accuracy of 81.7%, Sensitivity of 76.2%, Specificity of 95%). Conclusions: Quantitative radiological image traits can differentiate malignant from benign lung nodules. These semantic features along with size measurement enhance the prediction accuracy.

  15. Characterization of rhizobial isolates nodulating Millettia pinnata in India.

    PubMed

    Rasul, Abdul; Amalraj, E Leo Daniel; Praveen Kumar, G; Grover, Minakshi; Venkateswarlu, B

    2012-11-01

    Millettia pinnata (Synonym Pongamia pinnata) is a viable source of oil for the mushrooming biofuel industry, source for agroforestry, urban landscaping, and the bio-amelioration of degraded lands. It also helps in maintaining soil fertility through symbiotic nitrogen fixation. However, not much work is reported on classification and characterization of the rhizobia associated with this plant. In the present study, an attempt was made to isolate rhizobial strains nodulating Millettia from soils collected from southern regions of India. The isolates were characterized using numerical taxonomy, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and cross nodulation ability. The results showed high phenotypic and genetic diversity among the rhizobia symbiotic with Millattia pinnata. The isolates formed five clusters at similarity level of 0.82 based on the results of numerical taxonomy. Results on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that most microsymbionts of M. pinnata belonged to Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium, which are closely related to Rhizobium sp., B. elkanii and B. yuanmingense. Among these isolates, some isolates could grow in a pH range of 4.0-10.0, some could tolerate a high salt concentration (3% NaCl) and could grow at a maximum temperature between 35 and 45 °C. M. pinnata formed nodules with diverse rhizobia in Indian soils. These results offered the first systematic information about the microsymbionts of M. pinnata grown in the soils from southern part of India. PMID:22943063

  16. The psychosomatic aspects of children with vocal nodules.

    PubMed

    Toohill, R J

    1975-10-01

    Psychological and emotional aspects of voice disorders have long received attention from otolaryngologits and speech clinicians. The literature contains frequent reports of such problems, but there are few studies on the full importance of these aspects. The cause of vocal nodules in children has been attributed to vocal abuse, and therapy has consisted of the elimination of this abuse. Reports of long-term follow-up are few, lending suspicion to both the proposed causes and the therapeutic approaches. Seventy-seven prepuberal children with vocal nodules are studies from the social, medical, and physical aspects. The incidence of vocal nodules approaches 1% of all children. Boys predominate this amount by ratios greater than 3:1, with incidence peaks between ages 5 and 10. Conventional modes of therapy have been unsuccessful because of the lack of recognition of psychosomatic factors. New approaches for therapy are suggested including parental involvement, counseling, group therapy, and drug therapy. Though emotional problems may persist, the somatic aspect of this disease disappears at puberty.

  17. Cooperating mechanisms of CXCR5 and CCR7 in development and organization of secondary lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Ohl, Lars; Henning, Golo; Krautwald, Stefan; Lipp, Martin; Hardtke, Svenja; Bernhardt, Gunter; Pabst, Oliver; Förster, Reinhold

    2003-05-01

    Homeostatic chemokines participate in the development of secondary lymphoid organs and later on in the functional organization of these tissues. The development of lymph nodes (LNs) and Peyer's patches depends on the recruitment of CD3- CD4+ interleukin (IL)-7R alpha hi cells to sites of future organ development. CD3- CD4+ IL-7R alpha hi cells express the chemokine receptor CXCR5 and might be attracted by its ligand CXCL13, which is secreted by mesenchymal cells. Mesenchymal cells also secrete CCL19, a ligand for CCR7, yet it is not clear whether CCR7 and CCL19 are important for secondary lymphoid organ development. Analyzing CXCR5-/- CCR7-/- double deficient mice we now show that these mice lack all examined peripheral LNs suggesting a profound role for both receptors in secondary lymphoid organ development. We demonstrate that CD3- CD4+ IL-7R alpha hi cells express CXCR5 as well as CCR7 indicating that both receptors cooperate during an early step of secondary lymphoid organ development. Furthermore, CXCR5-/- CCR7-/- mice display a severely disturbed architecture of mesenteric LN and spleen. Due to an impaired migration of B cells into the white pulp, CXCR5-/- CCR7-/- mice fail to develop B cell follicles but show small clusters of unorganized lymphocytes in the spleen. These data demonstrate a cooperative function of CXCR5 and CCR7 in lymphoid organ organogenesis and organization. PMID:12732661

  18. Ras complements the carboxyl terminus of v-Abl protein in lymphoid transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, K; Rosenberg, N

    1996-01-01

    Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MLV) mutants expressing v-Abl proteins lacking the carboxyl terminus are compromised in the ability to transform lymphoid but not NIH 3T3 cells. This feature correlates with the presence of low levels of phosphotyrosine in lymphoid cells infected with carboxyl-terminal truncation mutants. In contrast, high levels of phosphotyrosine are observed in NIH 3T3 cells infected with wild-type and mutant Ab-MLV. Two downstream targets affected in lymphoid transformants are the GTPase-activating protein and GTPase-activating protein-associated protein p62, molecules which are heavily tyrosine phosphorylated in lymphoid cells transformed by wild-type Ab-MLV but not carboxyl-terminal truncation mutants of Ab-MLV. This difference suggested that signaling mediated via the Ras pathway may be compromised in lymphoid cells expressing the carboxyl-terminal truncation mutants. Consistent with this idea, expression of v-Ha-ras complemented these mutants in primary bone marrow transformation assays and increased transformation frequencies obtained with the Ab-MLV mutants 8- to 20-fold. These data suggest that a biologically important link exists between the carboxyl terminus of v-Abl protein and the Ras pathway. Signals transmitted via this connection may enhance those mediated via other regions of the v-Abl protein and facilitate transformation of primary, nonimmortalized cells such as pre-B lymphocytes. PMID:8551558

  19. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s): Origin, differentiation, and plasticity in humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Montaldo, Elisa; Juelke, Kerstin; Romagnani, Chiara

    2015-08-01

    Since their discovery, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have been the subject of intense research. As their name implies, ILCs are innate cells of lymphoid origin, and can be grouped into subsets based on their cytotoxic activity, cytokine profile, and the transcriptional requirements during ILC differentiation. The main ILC groups are "killer" ILCs, comprising NK cells, and "helper-like" ILCs (including ILC1s, ILC2s, and ILC3s). This review examines the origin, differentiation stages, and plasticity of murine and human ILC3s. ILC3s express the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) related orphan receptor RORγt and the signature cytokines IL-22 and IL-17. Fetal ILC3s or lymphoid tissue inducer cells are required for lymphoid organogenesis, while postnatally developing ILC3s are important for the generation of intestinal cryptopatches and isolated lymphoid follicles as well as for the defence against pathogens and epithelial homeostasis. Here, we discuss the transcription factors and exogenous signals (including cytokines, nutrients and cell-to-cell interaction) that drive ILC3 lineage commitment and acquisition of their distinctive effector program.

  20. Human Lymphoid Tissues Harbor a Distinct CD69+CXCR6+ NK Cell Population.

    PubMed

    Lugthart, Gertjan; Melsen, Janine E; Vervat, Carly; van Ostaijen-Ten Dam, Monique M; Corver, Willem E; Roelen, Dave L; van Bergen, Jeroen; van Tol, Maarten J D; Lankester, Arjan C; Schilham, Marco W

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of human NK cells is based primarily on conventional CD56(bright) and CD56(dim) NK cells from blood. However, most cellular immune interactions occur in lymphoid organs. Based on the coexpression of CD69 and CXCR6, we identified a third major NK cell subset in lymphoid tissues. This population represents 30-60% of NK cells in marrow, spleen, and lymph node but is absent from blood. CD69(+)CXCR6(+) lymphoid tissue NK cells have an intermediate expression of CD56 and high expression of NKp46 and ICAM-1. In contrast to circulating NK cells, they have a bimodal expression of the activating receptor DNAX accessory molecule 1. CD69(+)CXCR6(+) NK cells do not express the early markers c-kit and IL-7Rα, nor killer cell Ig-like receptors or other late-differentiation markers. After cytokine stimulation, CD69(+)CXCR6(+) NK cells produce IFN-γ at levels comparable to CD56(dim) NK cells. They constitutively express perforin but require preactivation to express granzyme B and exert cytotoxicity. After hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, CD69(+)CXCR6(+) lymphoid tissue NK cells do not exhibit the hyperexpansion observed for both conventional NK cell populations. CD69(+)CXCR6(+) NK cells constitute a separate NK cell population with a distinct phenotype and function. The identification of this NK cell population in lymphoid tissues provides tools to further evaluate the cellular interactions and role of NK cells in human immunity.