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Sample records for multiple motion model

  1. Safe motion planning for mobile agents: A model of reactive planning for multiple mobile agents

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimura, Kikuo.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of motion planning for multiple mobile agents is studied. Each planning agent independently plans its own action based on its map which contains a limited information about the environment. In an environment where more than one mobile agent interacts, the motions of the robots are uncertain and dynamic. A model for reactive agents is described and simulation results are presented to show their behavior patterns. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Conditional spectrum computation incorporating multiple causal earthquakes and ground-motion prediction models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lin, Ting; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Baker, Jack W.; Luco, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The conditional spectrum (CS) is a target spectrum (with conditional mean and conditional standard deviation) that links seismic hazard information with ground-motion selection for nonlinear dynamic analysis. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) estimates the ground-motion hazard by incorporating the aleatory uncertainties in all earthquake scenarios and resulting ground motions, as well as the epistemic uncertainties in ground-motion prediction models (GMPMs) and seismic source models. Typical CS calculations to date are produced for a single earthquake scenario using a single GMPM, but more precise use requires consideration of at least multiple causal earthquakes and multiple GMPMs that are often considered in a PSHA computation. This paper presents the mathematics underlying these more precise CS calculations. Despite requiring more effort to compute than approximate calculations using a single causal earthquake and GMPM, the proposed approach produces an exact output that has a theoretical basis. To demonstrate the results of this approach and compare the exact and approximate calculations, several example calculations are performed for real sites in the western United States. The results also provide some insights regarding the circumstances under which approximate results are likely to closely match more exact results. To facilitate these more precise calculations for real applications, the exact CS calculations can now be performed for real sites in the United States using new deaggregation features in the U.S. Geological Survey hazard mapping tools. Details regarding this implementation are discussed in this paper.

  3. Modeling confidence judgments, response times, and multiple choices in decision making: recognition memory and motion discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, Roger; Starns, Jeffrey J

    2013-07-01

    Confidence in judgments is a fundamental aspect of decision making, and tasks that collect confidence judgments are an instantiation of multiple-choice decision making. We present a model for confidence judgments in recognition memory tasks that uses a multiple-choice diffusion decision process with separate accumulators of evidence for the different confidence choices. The accumulator that first reaches its decision boundary determines which choice is made. Five algorithms for accumulating evidence were compared, and one of them produced proportions of responses for each of the choices and full response time distributions for each choice that closely matched empirical data. With this algorithm, an increase in the evidence in one accumulator is accompanied by a decrease in the others so that the total amount of evidence in the system is constant. Application of the model to the data from an earlier experiment (Ratcliff, McKoon, & Tindall, 1994) uncovered a relationship between the shapes of z-transformed receiver operating characteristics and the behavior of response time distributions. Both are explained in the model by the behavior of the decision boundaries. For generality, we also applied the decision model to a 3-choice motion discrimination task and found it accounted for data better than a competing class of models. The confidence model presents a coherent account of confidence judgments and response time that cannot be explained with currently popular signal detection theory analyses or dual-process models of recognition.

  4. A continuous 4D motion model from multiple respiratory cycles for use in lung radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Jamie R; Blackall, Jane M; Tarte, Ségolène; Chandler, Adam C; Hughes, Simon; Ahmad, Shahreen; Landau, David B; Hawkes, David J

    2006-09-01

    Respiratory motion causes errors when planning and delivering radiotherapy treatment to lung cancer patients. To reduce these errors, methods of acquiring and using four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) datasets have been developed. We have developed a novel method of constructing computational motion models from 4DCT. The motion models attempt to describe an average respiratory cycle, which reduces the effects of variation between different cycles. They require substantially less memory than a 4DCT dataset, are continuous in space and time, and facilitate automatic target propagation and combining of doses over the respiratory cycle. The motion models are constructed from CT data acquired in cine mode while the patient is free breathing (free breathing CT - FBCT). A "slab" of data is acquired at each couch position, with 3-4 contiguous slabs being acquired per patient. For each slab a sequence of 20 or 30 volumes was acquired over 20 seconds. A respiratory signal is simultaneously recorded in order to calculate the position in the respiratory cycle for each FBCT. Additionally, a high quality reference CT volume is acquired at breath hold. The reference volume is nonrigidly registered to each of the FBCT volumes. A motion model is then constructed for each slab by temporally fitting the nonrigid registration results. The value of each of the registration parameters is related to the position in the respiratory cycle by fitting an approximating B spline to the registration results. As an approximating function is used, and the data is acquired over several respiratory cycles, the function should model an average respiratory cycle. This can then be used to calculate the value of each degree of freedom at any desired position in the respiratory cycle. The resulting nonrigid transformation will deform the reference volume to predict the contents of the slab at the desired position in the respiratory cycle. The slab model predictions are then concatenated to

  5. Typical motions in multiple systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anosova, Joanna P.

    1990-01-01

    In very old times, people counted - one, two, many. The author wants to show that they were right. Consider the motions of isolated bodies: (1) N = 1 - simple motion; (2) N = 2 - Keplerian orbits; and (3) N = 3 - this is the difficult problem. In general, this problem can be studied only by computer simulations. The author studied this problem over many years (see, e.g., Agekian and Anosova, 1967; Anosova, 1986, 1989 a,b). The principal result is that two basic types of dynamics take place in triple systems. The first special type is the stable hierarchical systems with two almost Keplerian orbits. The second general type is the unstable triple systems with complicated motions of the bodies. By random choice of the initial conditions, by the Monte-Carlo method, the stable systems comprised about approx. 10% of the examined cases; the unstable systems comprised the other approx. 90% of cases under consideration. In N greater than 3, the studies of dynamics of such systems by computer simulations show that we have in general also the motions roughly as at the cases 1 - 3 with the relative negative or positive energies of the bodies. In the author's picture, the typical trajectories of the bodies in unstable triple systems of the general type of dynamics are seen. Such systems are disrupted always after close triple approaches of the bodies. These approaches play a role like the gravitational slingshot. Often, the velocities of escapers are very large. On the other hand, the movie also shows the dynamical processes of a formation, dynamical evolution and disruption of the temporary wide binaries in triples and a formation of final hard massive binaries in the final evolution of triples.

  6. Motion of multiple helical vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Fuentes, Oscar

    2015-11-01

    In 1912 Joukowsky deduced that in an unbounded ideal fluid a set of helical vortices--when these are equal, coaxial and symmetrically arranged--would translate and rotate steadily while the vortices preserve their form and relative position. Each vortex is an infinite tube whose cross-section is circular (with radius a) and whose centerline is a helix of pitch L and radius R. The motion is thus determined by three non-dimensional parameters only: the number of vortices N, the vortex radius α = a / R and the vortex pitch τ = L / 2 πR . Here, we express the linear and angular velocities of the vortices as the sum of the mutually induced velocities found by Okulov (2004) and the self-induced velocities found by Velasco Fuentes (2015). We verified that our results are accurate over the whole range of values of the vortices' pitch and radius by numerically computing the vortex motion with two smoothed versions of the Biot-Savart law. It was found that the translation velocity U grows with the number of vortices (N) but decreases as the vortices' radius and pitch (a and τ, respectively) increase; in contrast, the rotation velocity Ω grows with N and a but has a local minimum around τ = 1 for fixed values of N and a.

  7. Robot motion tracking system with multiple views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamano, Hiroshi; Saito, Hideo

    2001-10-01

    In such a space where human workers and industrial robots work together, it has become necessary to monitor a robot motion for the safety. For such robot surveillance, we propose a robot tracking system from multiple view images. In this system, we treat tracking robot movement problem as an estimation problem of each pose parameter through all frames. This tracking algorithm consists of four stages, image generating stage, estimation stage, parameter searching stage, and prediction stage. At the first stage, robot area of real image is extracted by background subtraction. Here, Yuv color system is used because of reducing the change of lighting condition. By calibrating extrinsic and intrinsic parameters of all cameras with Tsai's method, we can project 3D model of the robot onto each camera. In the next stage, correlation of the input image and projected model image is calculated, which is defined by the area of robots in real and 3D images. At third stage, the pose parameters of the robot are estimated by maximizing the correlation. For computational efficiency, a high dimensional pose parameter space is divided into many low dimensional sub-spaces in accordance with the predicted pose parameters in the previous flame. We apply the proposed system for pose estimation of 5-axis robot manipulator. The estimated pose parameters are successfully matched with the actual pose of the robots.

  8. Motion planning for multiple moving objects

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.K.

    1995-05-01

    We present a motion planner for multiple moving objects in two dimensions. The search for collision-free paths is performed in the composite configuration space of all the moving objects to guarantee a solution, and the efficiency of our planner is demonstrated with examples. Our motion planner can be characterized with a hierarchical, multi-resolution search of the configuration space along with a generate-and-test paradigm for solution paths. Because of the high dimensionality of the composite configuration space, our planner is most useful for cases with a small number of moving objects. Some of the potential applications are navigation of several mobile robots, and planning part motions for a multi-handed assembly operation.

  9. Motion and force control for multiple cooperative manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, John T.; Kreutz, Kenneth

    1989-01-01

    The motion and force control of multiple robot arms manipulating a commonly held object is addressed. A general control paradigm that decouples the motion and force control problems is introduced. For motion control, there are three natural choices: (1) joint torques, (2) arm-tip force vectors, and (3) the acceleration of a generalized coordinate. Choice (1) allows a class of relatively model-independent control laws by exploiting the Hamiltonian structure of the open-loop system; (2) and (3) require the full model information but produce simpler problems. To resolve the nonuniqueness of the joint torques, two methods are introduced. If the arm and object models are available, the allocation of the desired end-effector control force to the joint actuators can be optimized; otherwise the internal force can be controlled about some set point. It is shown that effective force regulation can be achieved even if little model information is available.

  10. Controlling the motion of multiple objects on a Chladni plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Quan; Sariola, Veikko; Latifi, Kourosh; Liimatainen, Ville

    2016-09-01

    The origin of the idea of moving objects by acoustic vibration can be traced back to 1787, when Ernst Chladni reported the first detailed studies on the aggregation of sand onto nodal lines of a vibrating plate. Since then and to this date, the prevailing view has been that the particle motion out of nodal lines is random, implying uncontrollability. But how random really is the out-of-nodal-lines motion on a Chladni plate? Here we show that the motion is sufficiently regular to be statistically modelled, predicted and controlled. By playing carefully selected musical notes, we can control the position of multiple objects simultaneously and independently using a single acoustic actuator. Our method allows independent trajectory following, pattern transformation and sorting of multiple miniature objects in a wide range of materials, including electronic components, water droplets loaded on solid carriers, plant seeds, candy balls and metal parts.

  11. Controlling the motion of multiple objects on a Chladni plate

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Quan; Sariola, Veikko; Latifi, Kourosh; Liimatainen, Ville

    2016-01-01

    The origin of the idea of moving objects by acoustic vibration can be traced back to 1787, when Ernst Chladni reported the first detailed studies on the aggregation of sand onto nodal lines of a vibrating plate. Since then and to this date, the prevailing view has been that the particle motion out of nodal lines is random, implying uncontrollability. But how random really is the out-of-nodal-lines motion on a Chladni plate? Here we show that the motion is sufficiently regular to be statistically modelled, predicted and controlled. By playing carefully selected musical notes, we can control the position of multiple objects simultaneously and independently using a single acoustic actuator. Our method allows independent trajectory following, pattern transformation and sorting of multiple miniature objects in a wide range of materials, including electronic components, water droplets loaded on solid carriers, plant seeds, candy balls and metal parts. PMID:27611347

  12. Controlling the motion of multiple objects on a Chladni plate.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Quan; Sariola, Veikko; Latifi, Kourosh; Liimatainen, Ville

    2016-01-01

    The origin of the idea of moving objects by acoustic vibration can be traced back to 1787, when Ernst Chladni reported the first detailed studies on the aggregation of sand onto nodal lines of a vibrating plate. Since then and to this date, the prevailing view has been that the particle motion out of nodal lines is random, implying uncontrollability. But how random really is the out-of-nodal-lines motion on a Chladni plate? Here we show that the motion is sufficiently regular to be statistically modelled, predicted and controlled. By playing carefully selected musical notes, we can control the position of multiple objects simultaneously and independently using a single acoustic actuator. Our method allows independent trajectory following, pattern transformation and sorting of multiple miniature objects in a wide range of materials, including electronic components, water droplets loaded on solid carriers, plant seeds, candy balls and metal parts. PMID:27611347

  13. Motion and force control of multiple robotic manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, John T.; Kreutz-Delgado, Kenneth

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses the motion and force control problem of multiple robot arms manipulating a cooperatively held object. A general control paradigm is introduced which decouples the motion and force control problems. For motion control, different control strategies are constructed based on the variables used as the control input in the controller design. There are three natural choices; acceleration of a generalized coordinate, arm tip force vectors, and the joint torques. The first two choices require full model information but produce simple models for the control design problem. The last choice results in a class of relatively model independent control laws by exploiting the Hamiltonian structure of the open loop system. The motion control only determines the joint torque to within a manifold, due to the multiple-arm kinematic constraint. To resolve the nonuniqueness of the joint torques, two methods are introduced. If the arm and object models are available, an optimization can be performed to best allocate the desired and effector control force to the joint actuators. The other possibility is to control the internal force about some set point. It is shown that effective force regulation can be achieved even if little model information is available.

  14. Hybrid Motion Planning with Multiple Destinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clouse, Jeffery

    1998-01-01

    In our initial proposal, we laid plans for developing a hybrid motion planning system that combines the concepts of visibility-based motion planning, artificial potential field based motion planning, evolutionary constrained optimization, and reinforcement learning. Our goal was, and still is, to produce a hybrid motion planning system that outperforms the best traditional motion planning systems on problems with dynamic environments. The proposed hybrid system will be in two parts the first is a global motion planning system and the second is a local motion planning system. The global system will take global information about the environment, such as the placement of the obstacles and goals, and produce feasible paths through those obstacles. We envision a system that combines the evolutionary-based optimization and visibility-based motion planning to achieve this end.

  15. Computational Motion Phantoms and Statistical Models of Respiratory Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, Jan; Klinder, Tobias; Lorenz, Cristian

    Breathing motion is not a robust and 100 % reproducible process, and inter- and intra-fractional motion variations form an important problem in radiotherapy of the thorax and upper abdomen. A widespread consensus nowadays exists that it would be useful to use prior knowledge about respiratory organ motion and its variability to improve radiotherapy planning and treatment delivery. This chapter discusses two different approaches to model the variability of respiratory motion. In the first part, we review computational motion phantoms, i.e. computerized anatomical and physiological models. Computational phantoms are excellent tools to simulate and investigate the effects of organ motion in radiation therapy and to gain insight into methods for motion management. The second part of this chapter discusses statistical modeling techniques to describe the breathing motion and its variability in a population of 4D images. Population-based models can be generated from repeatedly acquired 4D images of the same patient (intra-patient models) and from 4D images of different patients (inter-patient models). The generation of those models is explained and possible applications of those models for motion prediction in radiotherapy are exemplified. Computational models of respiratory motion and motion variability have numerous applications in radiation therapy, e.g. to understand motion effects in simulation studies, to develop and evaluate treatment strategies or to introduce prior knowledge into the patient-specific treatment planning.

  16. Markerless motion capture of multiple characters using multiview image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yebin; Gall, Juergen; Stoll, Carsten; Dai, Qionghai; Seidel, Hans-Peter; Theobalt, Christian

    2013-11-01

    Capturing the skeleton motion and detailed time-varying surface geometry of multiple, closely interacting peoples is a very challenging task, even in a multicamera setup, due to frequent occlusions and ambiguities in feature-to-person assignments. To address this task, we propose a framework that exploits multiview image segmentation. To this end, a probabilistic shape and appearance model is employed to segment the input images and to assign each pixel uniquely to one person. Given the articulated template models of each person and the labeled pixels, a combined optimization scheme, which splits the skeleton pose optimization problem into a local one and a lower dimensional global one, is applied one by one to each individual, followed with surface estimation to capture detailed nonrigid deformations. We show on various sequences that our approach can capture the 3D motion of humans accurately even if they move rapidly, if they wear wide apparel, and if they are engaged in challenging multiperson motions, including dancing, wrestling, and hugging. PMID:24051731

  17. Development of a human body finite element model with multiple muscles and their controller for estimating occupant motions and impact responses in frontal crash situations.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Masami; Nakahira, Yuko; Kimpara, Hideyuki; Sugiyama, Takahiko; Min, Kyuengbo

    2012-10-01

    A few reports suggest differences in injury outcomes between cadaver tests and real-world accidents under almost similar conditions. This study hypothesized that muscle activity could primarily cause the differences, and then developed a human body finite element (FE) model with individual muscles. Each muscle was modeled as a hybrid model of bar elements with active properties and solid elements with passive properties. The model without muscle activation was firstly validated against five series of cadaver test data on impact responses in the anterior-posterior direction. The model with muscle activation levels estimated based on electromyography (EMG) data was secondly validated against four series of volunteer test data on bracing effects for stiffness and thickness of an upper arm muscle, and braced driver's responses under a static environment and a brake deceleration. A muscle controller using reinforcement learning (RL), which is a mathematical model of learning process in the basal ganglia associated with human postural controls, were newly proposed to estimate muscle activity in various occupant conditions including inattentive and attentive conditions. Control of individual muscles predicted by RL reproduced more human like head-neck motions than conventional control of two groups of agonist and antagonist muscles. The model and the controller demonstrated that head-neck motions of an occupant under an impact deceleration of frontal crash were different in between a bracing condition with maximal braking force and an occupant condition predicted by RL. The model and the controller have the potential to investigate muscular effects in various occupant conditions during frontal crashes.

  18. Motion transparency: making models of motion perception transparent.

    PubMed

    Snowden; Verstraten

    1999-10-01

    In daily life our visual system is bombarded with motion information. We see cars driving by, flocks of birds flying in the sky, clouds passing behind trees that are dancing in the wind. Vision science has a good understanding of the first stage of visual motion processing, that is, the mechanism underlying the detection of local motions. Currently, research is focused on the processes that occur beyond the first stage. At this level, local motions have to be integrated to form objects, define the boundaries between them, construct surfaces and so on. An interesting, if complicated case is known as motion transparency: the situation in which two overlapping surfaces move transparently over each other. In that case two motions have to be assigned to the same retinal location. Several researchers have tried to solve this problem from a computational point of view, using physiological and psychophysical results as a guideline. We will discuss two models: one uses the traditional idea known as 'filter selection' and the other a relatively new approach based on Bayesian inference. Predictions from these models are compared with our own visual behaviour and that of the neural substrates that are presumed to underlie these perceptions.

  19. Unsteady aerodynamic simulation of multiple bodies in relative motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meakin, Robert L.; Suhs, Norman E.

    1989-01-01

    A prototype method for time-accurate simulation of multiple aerodynamic bodies in relative motion is presented. The method is general and features unsteady chimera domain decomposition techniques and an implicit approximately factored finite-difference procedure to solve the time-dependent thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. The method is applied to a set of two- and three-dimensional test problems to establish spatial and temporal accuracy, quantify computational efficiency, and begin to test overall code robustness.

  20. Multiple mean motion resonances in the HR 8799 planetary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goździewski, Krzysztof; Migaszewski, Cezary

    2014-06-01

    HR 8799 is a nearby star hosting at least four ˜10 mJup planets in wide orbits up to ˜70 au, detected through the direct, high-contrast infrared imaging. Large companions and debris discs reported interior to ˜10 au, and exterior to ˜100 au indicate massive protoplanetary disc in the past. The dynamical state of the HR 8799 system is not yet fully resolved, due to limited astrometric data covering tiny orbital arcs. We construct a new orbital model of the HR 8799 system, assuming rapid migration of the planets after their formation in wider orbits. We found that the HR 8799 planets are likely involved in double Laplace resonance, 1e:2d:4c:8b MMR. Quasi-circular planetary orbits are coplanar with the stellar equator and inclined by ˜25° to the sky plane. This best-fitting orbital configuration matches astrometry, debris disc models, and mass estimates from cooling models. The multiple mean motion resonance (MMR) is stable for the age of the star ˜160 Myr, for at least 1 Gyr unless significant perturbations to the N-body dynamics are present. We predict four configurations with the fifth hypothetical innermost planet HR 8799f in ˜9.7 au, or ˜7.5 au orbit, extending the MMR chain to triple Laplace resonance 1f:2e:4d:8c:16b MMR or to the 1f:3e:6d:12c:24b MMR, respectively. Our findings may establish strong boundary conditions for the system formation and its early history.

  1. Reliability of psychophysiological responses across multiple motion sickness stimulation tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, C. S.; Toscano, W. B.; Cowings, P. S.

    1995-01-01

    Although there is general agreement that a high degree of variability exists between subjects in their autonomic nervous system responses to motion sickness stimulation, very little evidence exists that examines the reproducibility of autonomic responses within subjects during motion sickness stimulation. Our objectives were to examine the reliability of autonomic responses and symptom levels across five testing occasions using the (1) final minute of testing, (2) change in autonomic response and the change in symptom level, and (3) strength of the relationship between the change in symptom level and the change in autonomic responses across the entire motion sickness test. The results indicate that, based on the final minute of testing, the autonomic responses of heart rate, blood volume pulse, and respiration rate are moderately stable across multiple tests. Changes in heart rate, blood volume pulse, respiration rate, and symptoms throughout the test duration are less stable across the tests. Finally, autonomic responses and symptom levels are significantly related across the entire motion sickness test.

  2. Animal models in motion sickness research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daunton, Nancy G.

    1990-01-01

    Practical information on candidate animal models for motion sickness research and on methods used to elicit and detect motion sickness in these models is provided. Four good potential models for use in motion sickness experiments include the dog, cat, squirrel monkey, and rat. It is concluded that the appropriate use of the animal models, combined with exploitation of state-of-the-art biomedical techniques, should generate a great step forward in the understanding of motion sickness mechanisms and in the development of efficient and effective approaches to its prevention and treatment in humans.

  3. Motion models in attitude estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, D.; Wheeler, Z.; Sedlak, J.

    1994-01-01

    Attitude estimator use observations from different times to reduce the effects of noise. If the vehicle is rotating, the attitude at one time needs to be propagated to that at another time. If the vehicle measures its angular velocity, attitude propagating entails integrating a rotational kinematics equation only. If a measured angular velocity is not available, torques can be computed and an additional rotational dynamics equation integrated to give the angular velocity. Initial conditions for either of these integrations come from the estimation process. Sometimes additional quantities, such as gyro and torque parameters, are also solved for. Although the partial derivatives of attitude with respect to initial attitude and gyro parameters are well known, the corresponding partial derivatives with respect to initial angular velocity and torque parameters are less familiar. They can be derived and computed numerically in a way that is analogous to that used for the initial attitude and gyro parameters. Previous papers have demonstrated the feasibility of using dynamics models for attitude estimation but have not provided details of how each angular velocity and torque parameters can be estimated. This tutorial paper provides some of that detail, notably how to compute the state transition matrix when closed form expressions are not available. It also attempts to put dynamics estimation in perspective by showing the progression from constant to gyro-propagated to dynamics-propagated attitude motion models. Readers not already familiar with attitude estimation will find this paper an introduction to the subject, and attitude specialists may appreciate the collection of heretofore scattered results brought together in a single place.

  4. Modeling repetitive motions using structured light.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Aliaga, Daniel G

    2010-01-01

    Obtaining models of dynamic 3D objects is an important part of content generation for computer graphics. Numerous methods have been extended from static scenarios to model dynamic scenes. If the states or poses of the dynamic object repeat often during a sequence (but not necessarily periodically), we call such a repetitive motion. There are many objects, such as toys, machines, and humans, undergoing repetitive motions. Our key observation is that when a motion-state repeats, we can sample the scene under the same motion state again but using a different set of parameters; thus, providing more information of each motion state. This enables robustly acquiring dense 3D information difficult for objects with repetitive motions using only simple hardware. After the motion sequence, we group temporally disjoint observations of the same motion state together and produce a smooth space-time reconstruction of the scene. Effectively, the dynamic scene modeling problem is converted to a series of static scene reconstructions, which are easier to tackle. The varying sampling parameters can be, for example, structured-light patterns, illumination directions, and viewpoints resulting in different modeling techniques. Based on this observation, we present an image-based motion-state framework and demonstrate our paradigm using either a synchronized or an unsynchronized structured-light acquisition method.

  5. Shape-and-motion-fused multiple flying target recognition and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, Levente; Utasi, Ákos

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents an automatic approach for camera/image based detection, recognition and tracking of flying objects (planes, missiles, etc.). The method detects appearing objects, and recognizes re-appearing targets. It uses a feature-based statistical modeling approach (e.g. HMM) for motion-based recognition, and an image feature (e.g. shape) based indexed database of pre-trained object classes, suitable for recognition on known and alerting on unknown objects. The method can be used for detection of flying objects, recognition of the same object category through multiple views/cameras and signal on unusual motions and shape appearances.

  6. Volumetric display containing multiple two-dimensional color motion pictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, R.; Shiraki, A.; Nakayama, H.; Kakue, T.; Shimobaba, T.; Ito, T.

    2014-06-01

    We have developed an algorithm which can record multiple two-dimensional (2-D) gradated projection patterns in a single three-dimensional (3-D) object. Each recorded pattern has the individual projected direction and can only be seen from the direction. The proposed algorithm has two important features: the number of recorded patterns is theoretically infinite and no meaningful pattern can be seen outside of the projected directions. In this paper, we expanded the algorithm to record multiple 2-D projection patterns in color. There are two popular ways of color mixing: additive one and subtractive one. Additive color mixing used to mix light is based on RGB colors and subtractive color mixing used to mix inks is based on CMY colors. We made two coloring methods based on the additive mixing and subtractive mixing. We performed numerical simulations of the coloring methods, and confirmed their effectiveness. We also fabricated two types of volumetric display and applied the proposed algorithm to them. One is a cubic displays constructed by light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in 8×8×8 array. Lighting patterns of LEDs are controlled by a microcomputer board. The other one is made of 7×7 array of threads. Each thread is illuminated by a projector connected with PC. As a result of the implementation, we succeeded in recording multiple 2-D color motion pictures in the volumetric displays. Our algorithm can be applied to digital signage, media art and so forth.

  7. Ground Motion Modeling in the Eastern Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitarka, Arben; Gok, Rengin; Yetirmishli, Gurban; Ismayilova, Saida; Mellors, Robert

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we analyzed the performance of a preliminary three-dimensional (3D) velocity model of the Eastern Caucasus covering most of the Azerbaijan. The model was developed in support to long-period ground motion simulations and seismic hazard assessment from regional earthquakes in Azerbaijan. The model's performance was investigated by simulating ground motion from the damaging Mw 5.9, 2012 Zaqatala earthquake, which was well recorded throughout the region by broadband seismic instruments. In our simulations, we use a parallelized finite-difference method of fourth-order accuracy. The comparison between the simulated and recorded ground motion velocity in the modeled period range of 3-20 s shows that in general, the 3D velocity model performs well. Areas in which the model needs improvements are located mainly in the central part of the Kura basin and in the Caspian Sea coastal areas. Comparisons of simulated ground motion using our 3D velocity model and corresponding 1D regional velocity model were used to locate areas with strong 3D wave propagation effects. In areas with complex underground structure, the 1D model fails to produce the observed ground motion amplitude and duration, and spatial extend of ground motion amplification caused by wave propagation effects.

  8. LCD motion blur: modeling, analysis, and algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chan, Stanley H; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2011-08-01

    Liquid crystal display (LCD) devices are well known for their slow responses due to the physical limitations of liquid crystals. Therefore, fast moving objects in a scene are often perceived as blurred. This effect is known as the LCD motion blur. In order to reduce LCD motion blur, an accurate LCD model and an efficient deblurring algorithm are needed. However, existing LCD motion blur models are insufficient to reflect the limitation of human-eye-tracking system. Also, the spatiotemporal equivalence in LCD motion blur models has not been proven directly in the discrete 2-D spatial domain, although it is widely used. There are three main contributions of this paper: modeling, analysis, and algorithm. First, a comprehensive LCD motion blur model is presented, in which human-eye-tracking limits are taken into consideration. Second, a complete analysis of spatiotemporal equivalence is provided and verified using real video sequences. Third, an LCD motion blur reduction algorithm is proposed. The proposed algorithm solves an l(1)-norm regularized least-squares minimization problem using a subgradient projection method. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm gives higher peak SNR, lower temporal error, and lower spatial error than motion-compensated inverse filtering and Lucy-Richardson deconvolution algorithm, which are two state-of-the-art LCD deblurring algorithms. PMID:21292596

  9. Neurons compute internal models of the physical laws of motion.

    PubMed

    Angelaki, Dora E; Shaikh, Aasef G; Green, Andrea M; Dickman, J David

    2004-07-29

    A critical step in self-motion perception and spatial awareness is the integration of motion cues from multiple sensory organs that individually do not provide an accurate representation of the physical world. One of the best-studied sensory ambiguities is found in visual processing, and arises because of the inherent uncertainty in detecting the motion direction of an untextured contour moving within a small aperture. A similar sensory ambiguity arises in identifying the actual motion associated with linear accelerations sensed by the otolith organs in the inner ear. These internal linear accelerometers respond identically during translational motion (for example, running forward) and gravitational accelerations experienced as we reorient the head relative to gravity (that is, head tilt). Using new stimulus combinations, we identify here cerebellar and brainstem motion-sensitive neurons that compute a solution to the inertial motion detection problem. We show that the firing rates of these populations of neurons reflect the computations necessary to construct an internal model representation of the physical equations of motion. PMID:15282606

  10. Biophysical Modeling of Respiratory Organ Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, René

    Methods to estimate respiratory organ motion can be divided into two groups: biophysical modeling and image registration. In image registration, motion fields are directly extracted from 4D ({D}+{t}) image sequences, often without concerning knowledge about anatomy and physiology in detail. In contrast, biophysical approaches aim at identification of anatomical and physiological aspects of breathing dynamics that are to be modeled. In the context of radiation therapy, biophysical modeling of respiratory organ motion commonly refers to the framework of continuum mechanics and elasticity theory, respectively. Underlying ideas and corresponding boundary value problems of those approaches are described in this chapter, along with a brief comparison to image registration-based motion field estimation.

  11. Parallel updating and weighting of multiple spatial maps for visual stability during whole body motion.

    PubMed

    Tramper, J J; Medendorp, W P

    2015-12-01

    It is known that the brain uses multiple reference frames to code spatial information, including eye-centered and body-centered frames. When we move our body in space, these internal representations are no longer in register with external space, unless they are actively updated. Whether the brain updates multiple spatial representations in parallel, or whether it restricts its updating mechanisms to a single reference frame from which other representations are constructed, remains an open question. We developed an optimal integration model to simulate the updating of visual space across body motion in multiple or single reference frames. To test this model, we designed an experiment in which participants had to remember the location of a briefly presented target while being translated sideways. The behavioral responses were in agreement with a model that uses a combination of eye- and body-centered representations, weighted according to the reliability in which the target location is stored and updated in each reference frame. Our findings suggest that the brain simultaneously updates multiple spatial representations across body motion. Because both representations are kept in sync, they can be optimally combined to provide a more precise estimate of visual locations in space than based on single-frame updating mechanisms.

  12. Motion coordination of multiple autonomous vehicles in a spatiotemporal flowfield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Cameron Kai

    The long-term goal of this research is to provide theoretically justified control strategies to operate autonomous vehicles in spatiotemporal flowfields. The specific objective of this dissertation is to use estimation and nonlinear control techniques to generate decentralized control algorithms that enable motion coordination for multiple autonomous vehicles while operating in a time-varying flowfield. A cooperating team of vehicles can benefit from sharing data and tasking responsibilities. Many existing control algorithms promote collaboration of autonomous vehicles. However, these algorithms often fail to account for the degradation of control performance caused by flowfields. This dissertation presents decentralized multivehicle coordination algorithms designed for operation in a spatially or temporally varying flowfield. Each vehicle is represented using a Newtonian particle traveling in a plane at constant speed relative to the flow and subject to a steering control. Initially, we assume the flowfield is known and describe algorithms that stabilize a circular formation in a time-varying spatially nonuniform flow of moderate intensity. These algorithms are extended by relaxing the assumption that the flow is known: the vehicles dynamically estimate the flow and use that estimate in the control. We propose a distributed estimation and control algorithm comprising a consensus filter to share information gleaned from noisy position measurements, and an information filter to reconstruct a spatially varying flowfield. The theoretical results are illustrated with numerical simulations of circular formation control and validated in outdoor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flight tests.

  13. Development and Validation of the Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) Version 5 Containing Multiple 1D Muscles for Estimating Occupant Motions with Muscle Activation During Side Impacts.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Masami; Nakahira, Yuko

    2015-11-01

    Accurate prediction of occupant head kinematics is critical for better understanding of head/face injury mechanisms in side impacts, especially far-side occupants. In light of the fact that researchers have demonstrated that muscle activations, especially in neck muscles, can affect occupant head kinematics, a human body finite element (FE) model that considers muscle activation is useful for predicting occupant head kinematics in real-world automotive accidents. In this study, we developed a human body FE model called the THUMS (Total HUman Model for Safety) Version 5 that contains 262 one-dimensional (1D) Hill-type muscle models over the entire body. The THUMS was validated against 36 series of PMHS (Post Mortem Human Surrogate) and volunteer test data in this study, and 16 series of PMHS and volunteer test data on side impacts are presented. Validation results with force-time curves were also evaluated quantitatively using the CORA (CORrelation and Analysis) method. The validation results suggest that the THUMS has good biofidelity in the responses of the regional or full body for side impacts, but relatively poor biofidelity in its local level of responses such as brain displacements. Occupant kinematics predicted by the THUMS with a muscle controller using 22 PID (Proportional-Integral- Derivative) controllers were compared with those of volunteer test data on low-speed lateral impacts. The THUMS with muscle controller reproduced the head kinematics of the volunteer data more accurately than that without muscle activation, although further studies on validation of torso kinematics are needed for more accurate predictions of occupant head kinematics.

  14. Development and Validation of the Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) Version 5 Containing Multiple 1D Muscles for Estimating Occupant Motions with Muscle Activation During Side Impacts.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Masami; Nakahira, Yuko

    2015-11-01

    Accurate prediction of occupant head kinematics is critical for better understanding of head/face injury mechanisms in side impacts, especially far-side occupants. In light of the fact that researchers have demonstrated that muscle activations, especially in neck muscles, can affect occupant head kinematics, a human body finite element (FE) model that considers muscle activation is useful for predicting occupant head kinematics in real-world automotive accidents. In this study, we developed a human body FE model called the THUMS (Total HUman Model for Safety) Version 5 that contains 262 one-dimensional (1D) Hill-type muscle models over the entire body. The THUMS was validated against 36 series of PMHS (Post Mortem Human Surrogate) and volunteer test data in this study, and 16 series of PMHS and volunteer test data on side impacts are presented. Validation results with force-time curves were also evaluated quantitatively using the CORA (CORrelation and Analysis) method. The validation results suggest that the THUMS has good biofidelity in the responses of the regional or full body for side impacts, but relatively poor biofidelity in its local level of responses such as brain displacements. Occupant kinematics predicted by the THUMS with a muscle controller using 22 PID (Proportional-Integral- Derivative) controllers were compared with those of volunteer test data on low-speed lateral impacts. The THUMS with muscle controller reproduced the head kinematics of the volunteer data more accurately than that without muscle activation, although further studies on validation of torso kinematics are needed for more accurate predictions of occupant head kinematics. PMID:26660740

  15. Learning about Locomotion Patterns: Effective Use of Multiple Pictures and Motion-Indicating Arrows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imhof, Birgit; Scheiter, Katharina; Edelmann, Jorg; Gerjets, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how enriching visualizations with arrows indicating the motion of objects may help in conveying dynamic information: Multiple static-simultaneous visualizations with motion-indicating arrows were compared with either multiple visualizations without arrows or a single visualization with arrows. Seventy-one students were…

  16. Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Measurement Error Models

    PubMed Central

    Tekwe, Carmen D.; Carter, Randy L.; Cullings, Harry M.; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Models (MIMIC) are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times however when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model, (2) to develop likelihood based estimation methods for the MIMIC ME model, (3) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. As a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure. PMID:24962535

  17. Multiple indicators, multiple causes measurement error models.

    PubMed

    Tekwe, Carmen D; Carter, Randy L; Cullings, Harry M; Carroll, Raymond J

    2014-11-10

    Multiple indicators, multiple causes (MIMIC) models are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times, however, when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this paper are as follows: (i) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model; (ii) to develop likelihood-based estimation methods for the MIMIC ME model; and (iii) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. As a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure. PMID:24962535

  18. Locust Collective Motion and Its Modeling.

    PubMed

    Ariel, Gil; Ayali, Amir

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, technological advances in experimental and animal tracking techniques have motivated a renewed theoretical interest in animal collective motion and, in particular, locust swarming. This review offers a comprehensive biological background followed by comparative analysis of recent models of locust collective motion, in particular locust marching, their settings, and underlying assumptions. We describe a wide range of recent modeling and simulation approaches, from discrete agent-based models of self-propelled particles to continuous models of integro-differential equations, aimed at describing and analyzing the fascinating phenomenon of locust collective motion. These modeling efforts have a dual role: The first views locusts as a quintessential example of animal collective motion. As such, they aim at abstraction and coarse-graining, often utilizing the tools of statistical physics. The second, which originates from a more biological perspective, views locust swarming as a scientific problem of its own exceptional merit. The main goal should, thus, be the analysis and prediction of natural swarm dynamics. We discuss the properties of swarm dynamics using the tools of statistical physics, as well as the implications for laboratory experiments and natural swarms. Finally, we stress the importance of a combined-interdisciplinary, biological-theoretical effort in successfully confronting the challenges that locusts pose at both the theoretical and practical levels. PMID:26656851

  19. Locust Collective Motion and Its Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Ariel, Gil; Ayali, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, technological advances in experimental and animal tracking techniques have motivated a renewed theoretical interest in animal collective motion and, in particular, locust swarming. This review offers a comprehensive biological background followed by comparative analysis of recent models of locust collective motion, in particular locust marching, their settings, and underlying assumptions. We describe a wide range of recent modeling and simulation approaches, from discrete agent-based models of self-propelled particles to continuous models of integro-differential equations, aimed at describing and analyzing the fascinating phenomenon of locust collective motion. These modeling efforts have a dual role: The first views locusts as a quintessential example of animal collective motion. As such, they aim at abstraction and coarse-graining, often utilizing the tools of statistical physics. The second, which originates from a more biological perspective, views locust swarming as a scientific problem of its own exceptional merit. The main goal should, thus, be the analysis and prediction of natural swarm dynamics. We discuss the properties of swarm dynamics using the tools of statistical physics, as well as the implications for laboratory experiments and natural swarms. Finally, we stress the importance of a combined-interdisciplinary, biological-theoretical effort in successfully confronting the challenges that locusts pose at both the theoretical and practical levels. PMID:26656851

  20. Locust Collective Motion and Its Modeling.

    PubMed

    Ariel, Gil; Ayali, Amir

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, technological advances in experimental and animal tracking techniques have motivated a renewed theoretical interest in animal collective motion and, in particular, locust swarming. This review offers a comprehensive biological background followed by comparative analysis of recent models of locust collective motion, in particular locust marching, their settings, and underlying assumptions. We describe a wide range of recent modeling and simulation approaches, from discrete agent-based models of self-propelled particles to continuous models of integro-differential equations, aimed at describing and analyzing the fascinating phenomenon of locust collective motion. These modeling efforts have a dual role: The first views locusts as a quintessential example of animal collective motion. As such, they aim at abstraction and coarse-graining, often utilizing the tools of statistical physics. The second, which originates from a more biological perspective, views locust swarming as a scientific problem of its own exceptional merit. The main goal should, thus, be the analysis and prediction of natural swarm dynamics. We discuss the properties of swarm dynamics using the tools of statistical physics, as well as the implications for laboratory experiments and natural swarms. Finally, we stress the importance of a combined-interdisciplinary, biological-theoretical effort in successfully confronting the challenges that locusts pose at both the theoretical and practical levels.

  1. Ground Motion Prediction Models for Caucasus Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorjiashvili, Nato; Godoladze, Tea; Tvaradze, Nino; Tumanova, Nino

    2016-04-01

    Ground motion prediction models (GMPMs) relate ground motion intensity measures to variables describing earthquake source, path, and site effects. Estimation of expected ground motion is a fundamental earthquake hazard assessment. The most commonly used parameter for attenuation relation is peak ground acceleration or spectral acceleration because this parameter gives useful information for Seismic Hazard Assessment. Since 2003 development of Georgian Digital Seismic Network has started. In this study new GMP models are obtained based on new data from Georgian seismic network and also from neighboring countries. Estimation of models is obtained by classical, statistical way, regression analysis. In this study site ground conditions are additionally considered because the same earthquake recorded at the same distance may cause different damage according to ground conditions. Empirical ground-motion prediction models (GMPMs) require adjustment to make them appropriate for site-specific scenarios. However, the process of making such adjustments remains a challenge. This work presents a holistic framework for the development of a peak ground acceleration (PGA) or spectral acceleration (SA) GMPE that is easily adjustable to different seismological conditions and does not suffer from the practical problems associated with adjustments in the response spectral domain.

  2. Ciliary motion modeling, and dynamic multicilia interactions

    PubMed Central

    Gueron, Shay; Liron, Nadav

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a rigorous and accurate modeling tool for ciliary motion. The hydrodynamics analysis, originally suggested by Lighthill (1975), has been modified to remove computational problems. This approach is incorporated into a moment-balance model of ciliary motion in place of the previously used hydrodynamic analyses, known as Resistive Force Theory. The method is also developed to include the effect of a plane surface at the base of the cilium, and the effect of the flow fields produced by neighboring cilia. These extensions were not possible with previous work using the Resistive Force Theory hydrodynamics. Performing reliable simulations of a single cilium as well as modeling multicilia interactions is now possible. The result is a general method which could now be used for detailed modeling of the mechanisms for generating ciliary beat patterns and patterns of metachronal interactions in arrays of cilia. A computer animation technique was designed and applied to display the results. PMID:19431847

  3. Generalized cranking model for collective nuclear motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, J.; Nix, J. R.

    1984-09-01

    The Inglis cranking model is generalized to take into account effects of any velocity dependence present in the single-particle potential and the reaction of the pairing field to the collective motion. The generalized model is applied to translations, rotations and some special types of vibrations. Some of our results and our numerical calculations are obtained with a harmonic-oscillator single-particle potential. Unlike the inertia calculated with the Inglis cranking model, the inertia calculated with the generalized cranking model is independent of the effective mass and approaches the irrotational value in the limit of large pairing.

  4. Structured synaptic inhibition has a critical role in multiple-choice motion-discrimination tasks.

    PubMed

    Xue, Cheng; Liu, Feng

    2014-10-01

    Neural network models have been constructed to explore the underlying neural mechanisms for decision-making in multiple-choice motion-discrimination tasks. Despite great progress made, several key experimental observations have not been interpreted. In contrast to homogeneous connectivity between pyramidal cells and interneurons in previous models, here their connectivity is totally structured in a continuous recurrent network model. Specifically, we assume two types of inhibitory connectivity: opposite-feature and similar-feature inhibition, representing that the connectivity strength has a maximum between neural pairs with opposite and identical preferred directions, respectively. With a common parameter set, the model accounted for a wide variety of physiological and behavioral data from monkey experiments, including those that previous models failed to reproduce. We found that the opposite-feature inhibition endows the decision-making circuit with an elimination strategy, which effectively reduces the number of choice alternatives for inspection to speed up the decision process at the cost of decision accuracy. Conversely, the similar-feature inhibition markedly enhances the ability of the network to make a choice among multiple options and improves the accuracy of decisions, while slowing down the decision process. A simplified mean-field model was also presented to analytically characterize the effect of structured inhibition on fine discrimination. We made a testable prediction: only the combination of cross-feature and similar-feature inhibition enables the circuit to make a categorical choice among 12 alternatives. Together, the current work highlights the importance of structured synaptic inhibition in multiple-choice decision-making processes and sheds light on the neural mechanisms for visual motion perception. PMID:25274822

  5. Multiple model cardinalized probability hypothesis density filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, Ramona; Willett, Peter

    2011-09-01

    The Probability Hypothesis Density (PHD) filter propagates the first-moment approximation to the multi-target Bayesian posterior distribution while the Cardinalized PHD (CPHD) filter propagates both the posterior likelihood of (an unlabeled) target state and the posterior probability mass function of the number of targets. Extensions of the PHD filter to the multiple model (MM) framework have been published and were implemented either with a Sequential Monte Carlo or a Gaussian Mixture approach. In this work, we introduce the multiple model version of the more elaborate CPHD filter. We present the derivation of the prediction and update steps of the MMCPHD particularized for the case of two target motion models and proceed to show that in the case of a single model, the new MMCPHD equations reduce to the original CPHD equations.

  6. Mathematical modelling of animate and intentional motion.

    PubMed Central

    Rittscher, Jens; Blake, Andrew; Hoogs, Anthony; Stein, Gees

    2003-01-01

    Our aim is to enable a machine to observe and interpret the behaviour of others. Mathematical models are employed to describe certain biological motions. The main challenge is to design models that are both tractable and meaningful. In the first part we will describe how computer vision techniques, in particular visual tracking, can be applied to recognize a small vocabulary of human actions in a constrained scenario. Mainly the problems of viewpoint and scale invariance need to be overcome to formalize a general framework. Hence the second part of the article is devoted to the question whether a particular human action should be captured in a single complex model or whether it is more promising to make extensive use of semantic knowledge and a collection of low-level models that encode certain motion primitives. Scene context plays a crucial role if we intend to give a higher-level interpretation rather than a low-level physical description of the observed motion. A semantic knowledge base is used to establish the scene context. This approach consists of three main components: visual analysis, the mapping from vision to language and the search of the semantic database. A small number of robust visual detectors is used to generate a higher-level description of the scene. The approach together with a number of results is presented in the third part of this article. PMID:12689374

  7. Multiple ping sonar accuracy improvement using robust motion estimation and ping fusion.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lian; Neretti, Nicola; Intrator, Nathan

    2006-04-01

    Noise degrades the accuracy of sonar systems. We demonstrate a practical method for increasing the effective signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by fusing time delay information from a burst of multiple sonar pings. This approach can be useful when there is no relative motion between the sonar and the target during the burst of sonar pinging. Otherwise, the relative motion degrades the fusion and therefore, has to be addressed before fusion can be used. In this paper, we present a robust motion estimation algorithm which uses information from multiple receivers to estimate the relative motion between pings in the burst. We then compensate for motion, and show that the fusion of information from the burst of motion compensated pings improves both the resilience to noise and sonar accuracy, consequently increasing the operating range of the sonar system.

  8. Multiple model inference.

    SciTech Connect

    Swiler, Laura Painton; Urbina, Angel

    2010-07-01

    This paper compares three approaches for model selection: classical least squares methods, information theoretic criteria, and Bayesian approaches. Least squares methods are not model selection methods although one can select the model that yields the smallest sum-of-squared error function. Information theoretic approaches balance overfitting with model accuracy by incorporating terms that penalize more parameters with a log-likelihood term to reflect goodness of fit. Bayesian model selection involves calculating the posterior probability that each model is correct, given experimental data and prior probabilities that each model is correct. As part of this calculation, one often calibrates the parameters of each model and this is included in the Bayesian calculations. Our approach is demonstrated on a structural dynamics example with models for energy dissipation and peak force across a bolted joint. The three approaches are compared and the influence of the log-likelihood term in all approaches is discussed.

  9. Modelling motions within the organ of Corti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Guangjian; Baumgart, Johannes; Elliott, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    Most cochlear models used to describe the basilar membrane vibration along the cochlea are concerned with macromechanics, and often assume that the organ of Corti moves as a single unit, ignoring the individual motion of different components. New experimental technologies provide the opportunity to measure the dynamic behaviour of different components within the organ of Corti, but only for certain types of excitation. It is thus still difficult to directly measure every aspect of cochlear dynamics, particularly for acoustic excitation of the fully active cochlea. The present work studies the dynamic response of a model of the cross-section of the cochlea, at the microscopic level, using the finite element method. The elastic components are modelled with plate elements and the perilymph and endolymph are modelled with inviscid fluid elements. The individual motion of each component within the organ of Corti is calculated with dynamic pressure loading on the basilar membrane and the motions of the experimentally accessible parts are compared with measurements. The reticular lamina moves as a stiff plate, without much bending, and is pivoting around a point close to the region of the inner hair cells, as observed experimentally. The basilar membrane shows a slightly asymmetric mode shape, with maximum displacement occurring between the second-row and the third-row of the outer hair cells. The dynamics responses is also calculated, and compared with experiments, when driven by the outer hair cells. The receptance of the basilar membrane motion and of the deflection of the hair bundles of the outer hair cells is thus obtained, when driven either acoustically or electrically. In this way, the fully active linear response of the basilar membrane to acoustic excitation can be predicted by using a linear superposition of the calculated receptances and a defined gain function for the outer hair cell feedback.

  10. SU-E-J-186: Using 4DCT-Based Motion Modeling to Predict Motion and Duty Cycle On Successive Days of Gated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Myronakis, M; Cai, W; Dhou, S; Cifter, F; Lewis, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine if 4DCT-based motion modeling and external surrogate motion measured during treatment simulation can enhance prediction of residual tumor motion and duty cycle during treatment delivery. Methods: This experiment was conducted using simultaneously recorded tumor and external surrogate motion acquired over multiple fractions of lung cancer radiotherapy. These breathing traces were combined with the XCAT phantom to simulate CT images. Data from the first day was used to estimate the residual tumor motion and duty cycle both directly from the 4DCT (the current clinical standard), and from external-surrogate based motion modeling. The accuracy of these estimated residual tumor motions and duty cycles are evaluated by comparing to the measured internal/external motions from other treatment days. Results: All calculations were done for 25% and 50% duty cycles. The results indicated that duty cycle derived from 4DCT information alone is not enough to accurately predict duty cycles during treatment. Residual tumor motion was determined from the recorded data and compared with the estimated residual tumor motion from 4DCT. Relative differences in residual tumor motion varied from −30% to 55%, suggesting that more information is required to properly predict residual tumor motion. Compared to estimations made from 4DCT, in three out of four patients examined, the 30 seconds of motion modeling data was able to predict the duty cycle with better accuracy than 4DCT. No improvement was observed in prediction of residual tumor motion for this dataset. Conclusion: Motion modeling during simulation has the potential to enhance 4DCT and provide more information about target motion, duty cycles, and delivered dose. Based on these four patients, 30 seconds of motion modeling data produced improve duty cycle estimations but showed no measurable improvement in residual tumor motion prediction. More patient data is needed to verify this Result. I would like to

  11. Abnormal behaviors detection using particle motion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yutao; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Feiyang; Yuan, Ding; You, Yuhu

    2015-03-01

    Human abnormal behaviors detection is one of the most challenging tasks in the video surveillance for the public security control. Interaction Energy Potential model is an effective and competitive method published recently to detect abnormal behaviors, but their model of abnormal behaviors is not accurate enough, so it has some limitations. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel Particle Motion model. Firstly, we extract the foreground to improve the accuracy of interest points detection since the complex background usually degrade the effectiveness of interest points detection largely. Secondly, we detect the interest points using the graphics features. Here, the movement of each human target can be represented by the movements of detected interest points of the target. Then, we track these interest points in videos to record their positions and velocities. In this way, the velocity angles, position angles and distance between each two points can be calculated. Finally, we proposed a Particle Motion model to calculate the eigenvalue of each frame. An adaptive threshold method is proposed to detect abnormal behaviors. Experimental results on the BEHAVE dataset and online videos show that our method could detect fight and robbery events effectively and has a promising performance.

  12. Modulation of orientation-selective neurons by motion: when additive, when multiplicative?

    PubMed Central

    Lüdge, Torsten; Urbanczik, Robert; Senn, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The recurrent interaction among orientation-selective neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) is suited to enhance contours in a noisy visual scene. Motion is known to have a strong pop-up effect in perceiving contours, but how motion-sensitive neurons in V1 support contour detection remains vastly elusive. Here we suggest how the various types of motion-sensitive neurons observed in V1 should be wired together in a micro-circuitry to optimally extract contours in the visual scene. Motion-sensitive neurons can be selective about the direction of motion occurring at some spot or respond equally to all directions (pandirectional). We show that, in the light of figure-ground segregation, direction-selective motion neurons should additively modulate the corresponding orientation-selective neurons with preferred orientation orthogonal to the motion direction. In turn, to maximally enhance contours, pandirectional motion neurons should multiplicatively modulate all orientation-selective neurons with co-localized receptive fields. This multiplicative modulation amplifies the local V1-circuitry among co-aligned orientation-selective neurons for detecting elongated contours. We suggest that the additive modulation by direction-specific motion neurons is achieved through synaptic projections to the somatic region, and the multiplicative modulation by pandirectional motion neurons through projections to the apical region of orientation-specific pyramidal neurons. For the purpose of contour detection, the V1-intrinsic integration of motion information is advantageous over a downstream integration as it exploits the recurrent V1-circuitry designed for that task. PMID:24999328

  13. Multiple spectral inputs improve motion discrimination in the Drosophila visual system.

    PubMed

    Wardill, Trevor J; List, Olivier; Li, Xiaofeng; Dongre, Sidhartha; McCulloch, Marie; Ting, Chun-Yuan; O'Kane, Cahir J; Tang, Shiming; Lee, Chi-Hon; Hardie, Roger C; Juusola, Mikko

    2012-05-18

    Color and motion information are thought to be channeled through separate neural pathways, but it remains unclear whether and how these pathways interact to improve motion perception. In insects, such as Drosophila, it has long been believed that motion information is fed exclusively by one spectral class of photoreceptor, so-called R1 to R6 cells; whereas R7 and R8 photoreceptors, which exist in multiple spectral classes, subserve color vision. Here, we report that R7 and R8 also contribute to the motion pathway. By using electrophysiological, optical, and behavioral assays, we found that R7/R8 information converge with and shape the motion pathway output, explaining flies' broadly tuned optomotor behavior by its composite responses. Our results demonstrate that inputs from photoreceptors of different spectral sensitivities improve motion discrimination, increasing robustness of perception. PMID:22605779

  14. Multiple LacI-mediated loops revealed by Bayesian statistics and tethered particle motion

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Stephanie; van de Meent, Jan-Willem; Phillips, Rob; Wiggins, Chris H.; Lindén, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial transcription factor LacI loops DNA by binding to two separate locations on the DNA simultaneously. Despite being one of the best-studied model systems for transcriptional regulation, the number and conformations of loop structures accessible to LacI remain unclear, though the importance of multiple coexisting loops has been implicated in interactions between LacI and other cellular regulators of gene expression. To probe this issue, we have developed a new analysis method for tethered particle motion, a versatile and commonly used in vitro single-molecule technique. Our method, vbTPM, performs variational Bayesian inference in hidden Markov models. It learns the number of distinct states (i.e. DNA–protein conformations) directly from tethered particle motion data with better resolution than existing methods, while easily correcting for common experimental artifacts. Studying short (roughly 100 bp) LacI-mediated loops, we provide evidence for three distinct loop structures, more than previously reported in single-molecule studies. Moreover, our results confirm that changes in LacI conformation and DNA-binding topology both contribute to the repertoire of LacI-mediated loops formed in vitro, and provide qualitatively new input for models of looping and transcriptional regulation. We expect vbTPM to be broadly useful for probing complex protein–nucleic acid interactions. PMID:25120267

  15. Joint PET-MR respiratory motion models for clinical PET motion correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manber, Richard; Thielemans, Kris; Hutton, Brian F.; Wan, Simon; McClelland, Jamie; Barnes, Anna; Arridge, Simon; Ourselin, Sébastien; Atkinson, David

    2016-09-01

    Patient motion due to respiration can lead to artefacts and blurring in positron emission tomography (PET) images, in addition to quantification errors. The integration of PET with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in PET-MR scanners provides complementary clinical information, and allows the use of high spatial resolution and high contrast MR images to monitor and correct motion-corrupted PET data. In this paper we build on previous work to form a methodology for respiratory motion correction of PET data, and show it can improve PET image quality whilst having minimal impact on clinical PET-MR protocols. We introduce a joint PET-MR motion model, using only 1 min per PET bed position of simultaneously acquired PET and MR data to provide a respiratory motion correspondence model that captures inter-cycle and intra-cycle breathing variations. In the model setup, 2D multi-slice MR provides the dynamic imaging component, and PET data, via low spatial resolution framing and principal component analysis, provides the model surrogate. We evaluate different motion models (1D and 2D linear, and 1D and 2D polynomial) by computing model-fit and model-prediction errors on dynamic MR images on a data set of 45 patients. Finally we apply the motion model methodology to 5 clinical PET-MR oncology patient datasets. Qualitative PET reconstruction improvements and artefact reduction are assessed with visual analysis, and quantitative improvements are calculated using standardised uptake value (SUVpeak and SUVmax) changes in avid lesions. We demonstrate the capability of a joint PET-MR motion model to predict respiratory motion by showing significantly improved image quality of PET data acquired before the motion model data. The method can be used to incorporate motion into the reconstruction of any length of PET acquisition, with only 1 min of extra scan time, and with no external hardware required.

  16. A mechanical model for guided motion of mammalian cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitter, P.; Beck, K. L.; Lenz, P.

    2015-12-01

    We introduce a generic, purely mechanical model for environment-sensitive motion of mammalian cells that is applicable to chemotaxis, haptotaxis, and durotaxis as modes of motility. It is able to theoretically explain all relevant experimental observations, in particular, the high efficiency of motion, the behavior on inhomogeneous substrates, and the fixation of the lagging pole during motion. Furthermore, our model predicts that efficiency of motion in following a gradient depends on cell geometry (with more elongated cells being more efficient).

  17. An Inexpensive Mechanical Model for Projectile Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, David

    2011-01-01

    As experienced physicists, we see the beauty and simplicity of projectile motion. It is merely the superposition of uniform linear motion along the direction of the initial velocity vector and the downward motion due to the constant acceleration of gravity. We see the kinematic equations as just the mathematical machinery to perform the…

  18. Atomic Models for Motional Stark Effects Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, M F; Holcomb, C; Jayakuma, J; Allen, S; Pablant, N A; Burrell, K

    2007-07-26

    We present detailed atomic physics models for motional Stark effects (MSE) diagnostic on magnetic fusion devices. Excitation and ionization cross sections of the hydrogen or deuterium beam traveling in a magnetic field in collisions with electrons, ions, and neutral gas are calculated in the first Born approximation. The density matrices and polarization states of individual Stark-Zeeman components of the Balmer {alpha} line are obtained for both beam into plasma and beam into gas models. A detailed comparison of the model calculations and the MSE polarimetry and spectral intensity measurements obtained at the DIII-D tokamak is carried out. Although our beam into gas models provide a qualitative explanation for the larger {pi}/{sigma} intensity ratios and represent significant improvements over the statistical population models, empirical adjustment factors ranging from 1.0-2.0 must still be applied to individual line intensities to bring the calculations into full agreement with the observations. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that beam into gas measurements can be used successfully as calibration procedures for measuring the magnetic pitch angle through {pi}/{sigma} intensity ratios. The analyses of the filter-scan polarization spectra from the DIII-D MSE polarimetry system indicate unknown channel and time dependent light contaminations in the beam into gas measurements. Such contaminations may be the main reason for the failure of beam into gas calibration on MSE polarimetry systems.

  19. Modelling the motion of particles around choanoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orme, Belinda; Pettitt, Michala; Otto, Steve; Blake, John

    2001-11-01

    The three-dimensional particle paths due to a helical beat pattern of the flagellum of a sessile choanoflagellate, Salpingoeca Amphoridium (SA), are modelled and compared against experimental observations. The organism's main components are a flagellum and cell body which are situated above a substrate such that the interaction between these entities is crucial in determining the fluid flow around the choanoflagellate. The flow of fluid in the organism's environment can be characterised as Stokes flow and a flow field analogous to one created by the flagellum is generated by a distribution of stokeslets and dipoles along a helical curve. The model describing the flow considers interactions between a slender flagellum, an infinite flat plane (modelling the substrate) and a sphere (modelling the cell body). The use of image systems appropriate to Green's functions for a sphere and plane boundary are described. The computations depict particle paths representing passive tracers from experiments and their motion illustrates overall flow patterns. Figures are presented comparing recorded experimental data with numerically generated results for a number of particle paths. The principal results show good agreement between the experiments and theory.

  20. Head Motion Modeling for Human Behavior Analysis in Dyadic Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Bo; Georgiou, Panayiotis; Baucom, Brian; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a computational study of head motion in human interaction, notably of its role in conveying interlocutors’ behavioral characteristics. Head motion is physically complex and carries rich information; current modeling approaches based on visual signals, however, are still limited in their ability to adequately capture these important properties. Guided by the methodology of kinesics, we propose a data driven approach to identify typical head motion patterns. The approach follows the steps of first segmenting motion events, then parametrically representing the motion by linear predictive features, and finally generalizing the motion types using Gaussian mixture models. The proposed approach is experimentally validated using video recordings of communication sessions from real couples involved in a couples therapy study. In particular we use the head motion model to classify binarized expert judgments of the interactants’ specific behavioral characteristics where entrainment in head motion is hypothesized to play a role: Acceptance, Blame, Positive, and Negative behavior. We achieve accuracies in the range of 60% to 70% for the various experimental settings and conditions. In addition, we describe a measure of motion similarity between the interaction partners based on the proposed model. We show that the relative change of head motion similarity during the interaction significantly correlates with the expert judgments of the interactants’ behavioral characteristics. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed head motion model, and underscore the promise of analyzing human behavioral characteristics through signal processing methods. PMID:26557047

  1. Modeling Student Thinking about Motion in Tutorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Brian W.; Scherr, R. E.

    2006-12-01

    In an ongoing study, we are analyzing students’ conceptual resources for understanding motion. Previous work used results of surveys, written questions, and interviews to infer the nature of students’ ideas. Video of students working together in tutorial groups now allows us to access the details of their reasoning as they express themselves to their peers. We present examples of students in the algebra-based introductory physics course at the University of Maryland analyzing segments of ticker tape to develop an understanding of constant, instantaneous, and average speeds. The most commonly observed resources involve direct and indirect relationships among speed, distance, and time. Various constructions of ideas built from these resources led to both correct and incorrect accounts of the physical phenomena. We characterize the nature of these various constructions based on a model of student thinking as arising from the activation of conceptual resources, analyze shifts in student reasoning, and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the resources model in accounting for student performance.

  2. Coriolis effects and motion sickness modelling.

    PubMed

    Bles, W

    1998-11-15

    Coriolis effects are notorious in relation to disorientation and motion sickness in aircrew. A review is provided of experimental data on these Coriolis effects, including the modulatory effects of adding visual or somatosensory rotatory motion information. A vector analysis of the consequences of head movements during somatosensory, visual and/or vestibular rotatory motion stimulation revealed that the more the sensed angular velocity vector after the head movements is aligned with the gravitoinertial force vector, the less nauseating effects are experienced. It is demonstrated that this is a special case of the subjective vertical conflict theory on motion sickness that assumes that motion sickness may be provoked if a discrepancy is detected between the subjective vertical and the sensed vertical as determined on the basis of incoming sensory information.

  3. Modeling Local Interactions during the Motion of Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Galante, Amanda; Wisen, Susanne; Bhaya, Devaki; Levy, Doron

    2012-01-01

    Synechocystis sp., a common unicellular freshwater cyanobacterium, has been used as a model organism to study phototaxis, an ability to move in the direction of a light source. This microorganism displays a number of additional characteristics such as delayed motion, surface dependence, and a quasi-random motion, where cells move in a seemingly disordered fashion instead of in the direction of the light source, a global force on the system. These unexplained motions are thought to be modulated by local interactions between cells such as intercellular communication. In this paper, we consider only local interactions of these phototactic cells in order to mathematically model this quasi-random motion. We analyze an experimental data set to illustrate the presence of quasi-random motion and then derive a stochastic dynamic particle system modeling interacting phototactic cells. The simulations of our model are consistent with experimentally observed phototactic motion. PMID:22713858

  4. Detecting and Analyzing Multiple Moving Objects in Crowded Environments with Coherent Motion Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriyadat, Anil M.

    2013-01-04

    Understanding the world around us from large-scale video data requires vision systems that can perform automatic interpretation. While human eyes can unconsciously perceive independent objects in crowded scenes and other challenging operating environments, automated systems have difficulty detecting, counting, and understanding their behavior in similar scenes. Computer scientists at ORNL have a developed a technology termed as "Coherent Motion Region Detection" that invloves identifying multiple indepedent moving objects in crowded scenes by aggregating low-level motion cues extracted from moving objects. Humans and other species exploit such low-level motion cues seamlessely to perform perceptual grouping for visual understanding. The algorithm detects and tracks feature points on moving objects resulting in partial trajectories that span coherent 3D region in the space-time volume defined by the video. In the case of multi-object motion, many possible coherent motion regions can be constructed around the set of trajectories. The unique approach in the algorithm is to identify all possible coherent motion regions, then extract a subset of motion regions based on an innovative measure to automatically locate moving objects in crowded environments.The software reports snapshot of the object, count, and derived statistics ( count over time) from input video streams. The software can directly process videos streamed over the internet or directly from a hardware device (camera).

  5. A dynamic styrofoam-ball model for simulating molecular motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mak, Se-yuen; Cheung, Derek

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a simple styrofoam-ball model that can be used for simulating molecular motion in all three states. As the foam balls are driven by a vibrator that is in turn driven by a signal generator, the frequency and the amplitude of vibration can be adjusted independently. Thus, the model is appropriate for simulating molecular motion in the liquid state, which is a combination of vibration and meandering motion.

  6. System matrix modelling of externally tracked motion

    PubMed Central

    Rahmim, Arman; Cheng, Ju-Chieh; Dinelle, Katie; Shilov, Mikhail; Segars, W. Paul; Rousset, Olivier G.; Tsui, Benjamin M.W.; Wong, Dean F.; Sossi, Vesna

    2010-01-01

    Background and aim In high-resolution emission tomography imaging, even small patient movements can considerably degrade image quality. The aim of this work was to develop a general approach to motion-corrected reconstruction of motion-contaminated data in the case of rigid motion (particularly brain imaging) which would be applicable to any PET scanner in the field, without specialized data-acquisition requirements. Methods Assuming the ability to externally track subject motion during scanning (e.g., using the Polaris camera), we proposed to incorporate the measured rigid motion information into the system matrix of the expectation maximization reconstruction algorithm. Furthermore, we noted and developed a framework to incorporate the additional effect of motion on modifying the attenuation factors. A new mathematical brain phantom was developed and used along with elaborate combined Simset/GATE simulations to compare the proposed framework with the cases of no motion correction. Results and conclusion Clear qualitative and quantitative improvements were observed when incorporating the proposed framework. The method is very practical to implement for any scanner in the field, not requiring any hardware modifications or access to the list-mode acquisition capability. PMID:18458606

  7. Modeling Broadband motions from the Tohoku earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.; Chu, R.; Graves, R. W.; Helmberger, D. V.; Clayton, R. W.

    2011-12-01

    The 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake produced an extraordinary dataset of over 2000 broadband regional and teleseismic records. While considerable progress has been made in modeling the longer period (>3 s) waveforms, the shorter periods (1-3 s) prove more difficult. Since modeling high frequency waveforms in 3D is computationally expensive, we follow the approach proposed by Helmberger and Vidale (1988), which interfaces the Cagniard-de Hoop analytical source description with a 2D numerical code to account for earthquake radiation patterns. We extend this method to a staggered grid finite difference code, which is stable in the presence of water. The code adapts the Convolutional PML boundary condition, and uses the "following the wavefront" technique and multiple GPUs, which significantly reduces computing time. We test our method against existing 1D and 3D codes, and examine the effects of slab structure, ocean bathymetry and local basins in an attempt to better explain the observed shorter period response.

  8. Inter-fraction variations in respiratory motion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClelland, J. R.; Hughes, S.; Modat, M.; Qureshi, A.; Ahmad, S.; Landau, D. B.; Ourselin, S.; Hawkes, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory motion can vary dramatically between the planning stage and the different fractions of radiotherapy treatment. Motion predictions used when constructing the radiotherapy plan may be unsuitable for later fractions of treatment. This paper presents a methodology for constructing patient-specific respiratory motion models and uses these models to evaluate and analyse the inter-fraction variations in the respiratory motion. The internal respiratory motion is determined from the deformable registration of Cine CT data and related to a respiratory surrogate signal derived from 3D skin surface data. Three different models for relating the internal motion to the surrogate signal have been investigated in this work. Data were acquired from six lung cancer patients. Two full datasets were acquired for each patient, one before the course of radiotherapy treatment and one at the end (approximately 6 weeks later). Separate models were built for each dataset. All models could accurately predict the respiratory motion in the same dataset, but had large errors when predicting the motion in the other dataset. Analysis of the inter-fraction variations revealed that most variations were spatially varying base-line shifts, but changes to the anatomy and the motion trajectories were also observed.

  9. Study of recognizing human motion observed from an arbitrary viewpoint based on decomposition of a tensor containing multiple view motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Takayuki; Ohya, Jun; Kurumisawa, Jun

    2011-03-01

    We propose a Tensor Decomposition based algorithm that recognizes the observed action performed by an unknown person and unknown viewpoint not included in the database. Our previous research aimed motion recognition from one single viewpoint. In this paper, we extend our approach for human motion recognition from an arbitrary viewpoint. To achieve this issue, we set tensor database which are multi-dimensional vectors with dimensions corresponding to human models, viewpoint angles, and action classes. The value of a tensor for a given combination of human silhouette model, viewpoint angle, and action class is the series of mesh feature vectors calculated each frame sequence. To recognize human motion, the actions of one of the persons in the tensor are replaced by the synthesized actions. Then, the core tensor for the replaced tensor is computed. This process is repeated for each combination of action, person, and viewpoint. For each iteration, the difference between the replaced and original core tensors is computed. The assumption that gives the minimal difference is the action recognition result. The recognition results show the validity of our proposed method, the method is experimentally compared with Nearest Neighbor rule. Our proposed method is very stable as each action was recognized with over 75% accuracy.

  10. Motion estimation for H.264/AVC on multiple GPUs using NVIDIA CUDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, Bart; Hollemeersch, Charles F.; Lambert, Peter; Van de Walle, Rik

    2009-08-01

    To achieve the high coding efficiency the H.264/AVC standard offers, the encoding process quickly becomes computationally demanding. One of the most intensive encoding phases is motion estimation. Even modern CPUs struggle to process high-definition video sequences in real-time. While personal computers are typically equipped with powerful Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) to accelerate graphics operations, these GPUs lie dormant when encoding a video sequence. Furthermore, recent developments show more and more computer configurations come with multiple GPUs. However, no existing GPU-enabled motion estimation architectures target multiple GPUs. In addition, these architectures provide no early-out behavior nor can they enforce a specific processing order. We developed a motion search architecture, capable of executing motion estimation and partitioning for an H.264/AVC sequence entirely on the GPU using the NVIDIA CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) platform. This paper describes our architecture and presents a novel job scheduling system we designed, making it possible to control the GPU in a flexible way. This job scheduling system can enforce real-time demands of the video encoder by prioritizing calculations and providing an early-out mode. Furthermore, the job scheduling system allows the use of multiple GPUs in one computer system and efficient load balancing of the motion search over these GPUs. This paper focuses on the execution speed of the novel job scheduling system on both single and multi-GPU systems. Initial results show that real-time full motion search of 720p high-definition content is possible with a 32 by 32 search window running on a system with four GPUs.

  11. Synchronous precessional motion of multiple domain walls in a ferromagnetic nanowire by perpendicular field pulses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, June-Seo; Mawass, Mohamad-Assaad; Bisig, André; Krüger, Benjamin; Reeve, Robert M.; Schulz, Tomek; Büttner, Felix; Yoon, Jungbum; You, Chun-Yeol; Weigand, Markus; Stoll, Hermann; Schütz, Gisela; Swagten, Henk J. M.; Koopmans, Bert; Eisebitt, Stefan; Kläui, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic storage and logic devices based on magnetic domain wall motion rely on the precise and synchronous displacement of multiple domain walls. The conventional approach using magnetic fields does not allow for the synchronous motion of multiple domains. As an alternative method, synchronous current-induced domain wall motion was studied, but the required high-current densities prevent widespread use in devices. Here we demonstrate a radically different approach: we use out-of-plane magnetic field pulses to move in-plane domains, thus combining field-induced magnetization dynamics with the ability to move neighbouring domain walls in the same direction. Micromagnetic simulations suggest that synchronous permanent displacement of multiple magnetic walls can be achieved by using transverse domain walls with identical chirality combined with regular pinning sites and an asymmetric pulse. By performing scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, we are able to experimentally demonstrate in-plane magnetized domain wall motion due to out-of-plane magnetic field pulses. PMID:24663150

  12. A depictive neural model for the representation of motion verbs.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sunil; Aleksander, Igor

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, we present a depictive neural model for the representation of motion verb semantics in neural models of visual awareness. The problem of modelling motion verb representation is shown to be one of function application, mapping a set of given input variables defining the moving object and the path of motion to a defined output outcome in the motion recognition context. The particular function-applicative implementation and consequent recognition model design presented are seen as arising from a noun-adjective recognition model enabling the recognition of colour adjectives as applied to a set of shapes representing objects to be recognised. The presence of such a function application scheme and a separately implemented position identification and path labelling scheme are accordingly shown to be the primitives required to enable the design and construction of a composite depictive motion verb recognition scheme. Extensions to the presented design to enable the representation of transitive verbs are also discussed.

  13. Reliability of Autonomic Responses and Malaise Across Multiple Motion Sickness Stimulation Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, Cynthia S.; Toscano, William B.; Cowings, Patricia S.

    1993-01-01

    There is general agreement that a high degree of variability exists between subjects in their autonomic nervous system responses to motion sickness stimulation. Additionally, a paucity of data exists that examines the variability within an individual across repeated motion sickness tests. Investigators have also examined the relationship of autonomic responses to motion sickness development. These investigations have used analyses at discrete points in time to describe this relationship. This approach fails to address the time course of autonomic responses and malaise development throughout the motion sickness test. Our objectives were to examine the reliability of autonomic responses and malaise using the final minute of the motion sickness test across five testing occasions, to examine the reliability of the change in autonomic responses and the change in malaise across five testing occasions, and to examine the relationship between changes in autonomic responses and changes in malaise level across the entire motion sickness test. Our results indicate that, based on the final minute of testing, the autonomic responses of heart rate, blood volume pulse, and respiration rate are moderately stable across multiple tests. Changes in heart rate, blood volume pulse, respiration rate, and malaise throughout the test duration were less stable across the tests. We attribute this instability to variations in individual susceptibility and the error associated with estimating a measure of autonomic gain.

  14. Detecting and Analyzing Multiple Moving Objects in Crowded Environments with Coherent Motion Regions

    2013-01-04

    Understanding the world around us from large-scale video data requires vision systems that can perform automatic interpretation. While human eyes can unconsciously perceive independent objects in crowded scenes and other challenging operating environments, automated systems have difficulty detecting, counting, and understanding their behavior in similar scenes. Computer scientists at ORNL have a developed a technology termed as "Coherent Motion Region Detection" that invloves identifying multiple indepedent moving objects in crowded scenes by aggregating low-level motionmore » cues extracted from moving objects. Humans and other species exploit such low-level motion cues seamlessely to perform perceptual grouping for visual understanding. The algorithm detects and tracks feature points on moving objects resulting in partial trajectories that span coherent 3D region in the space-time volume defined by the video. In the case of multi-object motion, many possible coherent motion regions can be constructed around the set of trajectories. The unique approach in the algorithm is to identify all possible coherent motion regions, then extract a subset of motion regions based on an innovative measure to automatically locate moving objects in crowded environments.The software reports snapshot of the object, count, and derived statistics ( count over time) from input video streams. The software can directly process videos streamed over the internet or directly from a hardware device (camera).« less

  15. Biomechanical interpretation of a free-breathing lung motion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tianyu; White, Benjamin; Moore, Kevin L.; Lamb, James; Yang, Deshan; Lu, Wei; Mutic, Sasa; Low, Daniel A.

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a biomechanical model for free-breathing motion and compare it to a published heuristic five-dimensional (5D) free-breathing lung motion model. An ab initio biomechanical model was developed to describe the motion of lung tissue during free breathing by analyzing the stress-strain relationship inside lung tissue. The first-order approximation of the biomechanical model was equivalent to a heuristic 5D free-breathing lung motion model proposed by Low et al in 2005 (Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 63 921-9), in which the motion was broken down to a linear expansion component and a hysteresis component. To test the biomechanical model, parameters that characterize expansion, hysteresis and angles between the two motion components were reported independently and compared between two models. The biomechanical model agreed well with the heuristic model within 5.5% in the left lungs and 1.5% in the right lungs for patients without lung cancer. The biomechanical model predicted that a histogram of angles between the two motion components should have two peaks at 39.8° and 140.2° in the left lungs and 37.1° and 142.9° in the right lungs. The data from the 5D model verified the existence of those peaks at 41.2° and 148.2° in the left lungs and 40.1° and 140° in the right lungs for patients without lung cancer. Similar results were also observed for the patients with lung cancer, but with greater discrepancies. The maximum-likelihood estimation of hysteresis magnitude was reported to be 2.6 mm for the lung cancer patients. The first-order approximation of the biomechanical model fit the heuristic 5D model very well. The biomechanical model provided new insights into breathing motion with specific focus on motion trajectory hysteresis.

  16. Building Mathematical Models of Simple Harmonic and Damped Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    By developing a sequence of mathematical models of harmonic motion, shows that mathematical models are not right or wrong, but instead are better or poorer representations of the problem situation. (MKR)

  17. Models of Multiple System Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Fellner, Lisa; Wenning, Gregor K.; Stefanova, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a predominantly sporadic, adult-onset, fatal neurodegenerative disease of unknown etiology. MSA is characterized by autonomic failure, levodopa-unresponsive parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia and pyramidal signs in any combination. MSA belongs to a group of neurodegenerative disorders termed α-synucleinopathies, which also include Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Their common pathological feature is the occurrence of abnormal α-synuclein positive inclusions in neurons or glial cells. In MSA, the main cell type presenting aggregates composed of α-synuclein are oligodendroglial cells. This pathological hallmark, also called glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs), is associated with progressive and profound neuronal loss in various regions of the brain. The development of animal models of MSA is justified by the limited understanding of the mechanisms of neurodegeneration and GCIs formation, which is paralleled by a lack of therapeutic strategies. Two main types of rodent models have been generated to replicate different features of MSA neuropathology. On one hand, neurotoxin-based models have been produced to reproduce neuronal loss in substantia nigra pars compacta and striatum. On the other hand, transgenic mouse models with overexpression of α-synuclein in oligodendroglia have been used to reproduce GCIs-related pathology. This chapter gives an overview of the atypical Parkinson’s syndrome MSA and summarizes the currently available MSA animal models and their relevance for pre-clinical testing of disease-modifying therapies. PMID:24338664

  18. A simple model for strong ground motions and response spectra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, Erdal; Mueller, Charles; Boatwright, John

    1988-01-01

    A simple model for the description of strong ground motions is introduced. The model shows that response spectra can be estimated by using only four parameters of the ground motion, the RMS acceleration, effective duration and two corner frequencies that characterize the effective frequency band of the motion. The model is windowed band-limited white noise, and is developed by studying the properties of two functions, cumulative squared acceleration in the time domain, and cumulative squared amplitude spectrum in the frequency domain. Applying the methods of random vibration theory, the model leads to a simple analytical expression for the response spectra. The accuracy of the model is checked by using the ground motion recordings from the aftershock sequences of two different earthquakes and simulated accelerograms. The results show that the model gives a satisfactory estimate of the response spectra.

  19. Joint model of motion and anatomy for PET image reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao Feng; Pan Tinsu; Clark, John W. Jr.; Mawlawi, Osama

    2007-12-15

    Anatomy-based positron emission tomography (PET) image enhancement techniques have been shown to have the potential for improving PET image quality. However, these techniques assume an accurate alignment between the anatomical and the functional images, which is not always valid when imaging the chest due to respiratory motion. In this article, we present a joint model of both motion and anatomical information by integrating a motion-incorporated PET imaging system model with an anatomy-based maximum a posteriori image reconstruction algorithm. The mismatched anatomical information due to motion can thus be effectively utilized through this joint model. A computer simulation and a phantom study were conducted to assess the efficacy of the joint model, whereby motion and anatomical information were either modeled separately or combined. The reconstructed images in each case were compared to corresponding reference images obtained using a quadratic image prior based maximum a posteriori reconstruction algorithm for quantitative accuracy. Results of these studies indicated that while modeling anatomical information or motion alone improved the PET image quantitation accuracy, a larger improvement in accuracy was achieved when using the joint model. In the computer simulation study and using similar image noise levels, the improvement in quantitation accuracy compared to the reference images was 5.3% and 19.8% when using anatomical or motion information alone, respectively, and 35.5% when using the joint model. In the phantom study, these results were 5.6%, 5.8%, and 19.8%, respectively. These results suggest that motion compensation is important in order to effectively utilize anatomical information in chest imaging using PET. The joint motion-anatomy model presented in this paper provides a promising solution to this problem.

  20. Multiple-camera/motion stereoscopy for range estimation in helicopter flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Phillip N.; Sridhar, Banavar; Suorsa, Raymond E.

    1993-01-01

    Aiding the pilot to improve safety and reduce pilot workload by detecting obstacles and planning obstacle-free flight paths during low-altitude helicopter flight is desirable. Computer vision techniques provide an attractive method of obstacle detection and range estimation for objects within a large field of view ahead of the helicopter. Previous research has had considerable success by using an image sequence from a single moving camera to solving this problem. The major limitations of single camera approaches are that no range information can be obtained near the instantaneous direction of motion or in the absence of motion. These limitations can be overcome through the use of multiple cameras. This paper presents a hybrid motion/stereo algorithm which allows range refinement through recursive range estimation while avoiding loss of range information in the direction of travel. A feature-based approach is used to track objects between image frames. An extended Kalman filter combines knowledge of the camera motion and measurements of a feature's image location to recursively estimate the feature's range and to predict its location in future images. Performance of the algorithm will be illustrated using an image sequence, motion information, and independent range measurements from a low-altitude helicopter flight experiment.

  1. Unsteady aerodynamic simulation of multiple bodies in relative motion: A prototype method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meakin, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    A prototype method for time-accurate simulation of multiple aerodynamic bodies in relative motion is presented. The method is general and features unsteady chimera domain decomposition techniques and an implicit approximately factored finite-difference procedure to solve the time-dependent thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. The method is applied to a set of two- and three- dimensional test problems to establish spatial and temporal accuracy, quantify computational efficiency, and begin to test overall code robustness.

  2. Ground motion data for International Collider models

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, J.T.; LeBrun, P.; Shiltsev, V.; Singatulin, S.; /Fermilab

    2007-11-01

    The proposed location for the International Linear Collider (ILC) in the Americas region is Fermilab in Batavia Illinois. If built at this location the tunnels would be located in the Galena Platteville shale at a depth of 100 or more meters below the surface. Studies using hydro static water levels and seismometers have been conducted in the MINOS hall and the LaFrange Mine in North Aurora Illinois to determine the level of ground motion. Both these locations are in the Galena Platteville shale and indicate the typical ground motion to be expected for the ILC. The data contains both natural and cultural noise. Coefficients for the ALT law are determined. Seismic measurements at the surface and 100 meters below the surface are presented.

  3. Unsteady aerodynamic modeling for arbitrary motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, J. W.; Ashley, H.; Breakwell, J. V.

    1977-01-01

    A study is presented on the unsteady aerodynamic loads due to arbitrary motions of a thin wing and their adaptation for the calculation of response and true stability of aeroelastic modes. In an Appendix, the use of Laplace transform techniques and the generalized Theodorsen function for two-dimensional incompressible flow is reviewed. New applications of the same approach are shown also to yield airloads valid for quite general small motions. Numerical results are given for the two-dimensional supersonic case. Previously proposed approximate methods, starting from simple harmonic unsteady theory, are evaluated by comparison with exact results obtained by the present approach. The Laplace inversion integral is employed to separate the loads into 'rational' and 'nonrational' parts, of which only the former are involved in aeroelastic stability of the wing. Among other suggestions for further work, it is explained how existing aerodynamic computer programs may be adapted in a fairly straightforward fashion to deal with arbitrary transients.

  4. Detecting abandoned objects using interacting multiple models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Stefan; Münch, David; Kieritz, Hilke; Hübner, Wolfgang; Arens, Michael

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the wide use of video surveillance systems has caused an enormous increase in the amount of data that has to be stored, monitored, and processed. As a consequence, it is crucial to support human operators with automated surveillance applications. Towards this end an intelligent video analysis module for real-time alerting in case of abandoned objects in public spaces is proposed. The overall processing pipeline consists of two major parts. First, person motion is modeled using an Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) filter. The IMM filter estimates the state of a person according to a finite-state, discrete-time Markov chain. Second, the location of persons that stay at a fixed position defines a region of interest, in which a nonparametric background model with dynamic per-pixel state variables identifies abandoned objects. In case of a detected abandoned object, an alarm event is triggered. The effectiveness of the proposed system is evaluated on the PETS 2006 dataset and the i-Lids dataset, both reflecting prototypical surveillance scenarios.

  5. On a PCA-based lung motion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruijiang; Lewis, John H.; Jia, Xun; Zhao, Tianyu; Liu, Weifeng; Wuenschel, Sara; Lamb, James; Yang, Deshan; Low, Daniel A.; Jiang, Steve B.

    2011-09-01

    Respiration-induced organ motion is one of the major uncertainties in lung cancer radiotherapy and is crucial to be able to accurately model the lung motion. Most work so far has focused on the study of the motion of a single point (usually the tumor center of mass), and much less work has been done to model the motion of the entire lung. Inspired by the work of Zhang et al (2007 Med. Phys. 34 4772-81), we believe that the spatiotemporal relationship of the entire lung motion can be accurately modeled based on principle component analysis (PCA) and then a sparse subset of the entire lung, such as an implanted marker, can be used to drive the motion of the entire lung (including the tumor). The goal of this work is twofold. First, we aim to understand the underlying reason why PCA is effective for modeling lung motion and find the optimal number of PCA coefficients for accurate lung motion modeling. We attempt to address the above important problems both in a theoretical framework and in the context of real clinical data. Second, we propose a new method to derive the entire lung motion using a single internal marker based on the PCA model. The main results of this work are as follows. We derived an important property which reveals the implicit regularization imposed by the PCA model. We then studied the model using two mathematical respiratory phantoms and 11 clinical 4DCT scans for eight lung cancer patients. For the mathematical phantoms with cosine and an even power (2n) of cosine motion, we proved that 2 and 2n PCA coefficients and eigenvectors will completely represent the lung motion, respectively. Moreover, for the cosine phantom, we derived the equivalence conditions for the PCA motion model and the physiological 5D lung motion model (Low et al 2005 Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 63 921-9). For the clinical 4DCT data, we demonstrated the modeling power and generalization performance of the PCA model. The average 3D modeling error using PCA was within 1

  6. A true polar wander model for Neoproterozoic plate motions

    SciTech Connect

    Ripperdan, R.L. )

    1992-01-01

    Recent paleogeographic reconstructions for the interval 750--500 Ma (Neoproterozoic to Late Cambrian) require rapid rates of plate motion and/or rotation around an equatorial Euler pole to accommodate reconstructions for the Early Paleozoic. Motions of this magnitude appear to be very uncommon during the Phanerozoic. A model for plate motions based on the hypothesis that discrete intervals of rapid true polar wander (RTPW) occurred during the Neoproterozoic can account for the paleogeographic changes with minimum amounts of plate motion. The model uses the paleogeographic reconstructions of Hoffman (1991). The following constraints were applied during derivation of the model: (1) relative motions between major continental units were restricted to be combinations of great circle or small circle translations with Euler poles of rotation = spin axis; (2) maximum rates of relative translational plate motion were 0.2 m/yr. Based on these constraints, two separate sets of synthetic plate motion trajectories were determined. The sequence of events in both can be summarized as: (1) A rapid true polar wander event of ca 90[degree] rafting a supercontinent to the spin axis; (2) breakup of the polar supercontinent into two fragments, one with the Congo, West Africa, Amazonia, and Baltica cratons, the other with the Laurentia, East Gondwana, and Kalahari cratons; (3) great circle motion of the blocks towards the equator; (4) small circle motion leading to amalgamation of Gondwana and separation of Laurentia and Baltica. In alternative 1, rifting initiates between East Antarctica and Laurentia and one episode of RTPW is required. Alternative 2 requires two episodes of RTPW; and that rifting occurred first along the eastern margin and later along the western margin of Laurentia. Synthetic plate motion trajectories are compared to existing paleomagnetic and geological data, and implications of the model for paleoclimatic changes during the Neoproterozoic are discussed.

  7. Analysis of models for curvature driven motion of interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, Drew E.

    Interfacial energies frequently appear in models arising in materials science and engineering. To dissipate energy in these systems, the interfaces will often move by a curvature dependent velocity. The present work details the mathematical analysis of some models for curvature dependent motion of interfaces. In particular we focus on two types, thresholding schemes and phase field models. With regard to thresholding schemes, we give a new proof of the convergence of the Merriman-Bence-Osher thresholding algorithm to motion by mean curvature. This new proof does not rely on the scheme satisfying a comparison principle. The technique shows promise in proving the convergence of thresholding schemes for more general motions, such as fourth-order motions and motions of higher codimension interfaces. The application of the proof technique to these more general schemes is discussed, along with rigorous consistency estimates. With regard to phase-field models, we examine the L 2-gradient flow of a second order gradient model for phase transitions, introduced by Fonseca and Mantegazza. In the case of radial symmetry we demonstrate that the diffuse interfacial dynamics converge to motion by mean curvature as the width of the interface decreases to zero. This is in accordance with the first-order Allen-Cahn model for phase transitions. But unlike the Allen-Cahn model, the gradient flow for the Fonseca-Mantegazza model is a fourth-order parabolic PDE. This creates new and novel difficulties in its analysis.

  8. A kinematic model for Bayesian tracking of cyclic human motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greif, Thomas; Lienhart, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a two-dimensional kinematic model for cyclic motions of humans, which is suitable for the use as temporal prior in any Bayesian tracking framework. This human motion model is solely based on simple kinematic properties: the joint accelerations. Distributions of joint accelerations subject to the cycle progress are learned from training data. We present results obtained by applying the introduced model to the cyclic motion of backstroke swimming in a Kalman filter framework that represents the posterior distribution by a Gaussian. We experimentally evaluate the sensitivity of the motion model with respect to the frequency and noise level of assumed appearance-based pose measurements by simulating various fidelities of the pose measurements using ground truth data.

  9. Modeling rate sensitivity of exercise transient responses to limb motion.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Stanley M; Kato, Takahide

    2014-10-01

    Transient responses of ventilation (V̇e) to limb motion can exhibit predictive characteristics. In response to a change in limb motion, a rapid change in V̇e is commonly observed with characteristics different than during a change in workload. This rapid change has been attributed to a feed-forward or adaptive response. Rate sensitivity was explored as a specific hypothesis to explain predictive V̇e responses to limb motion. A simple model assuming an additive feed-forward summation of V̇e proportional to the rate of change of limb motion was studied. This model was able to successfully account for the adaptive phase correction observed during human sinusoidal changes in limb motion. Adaptation of rate sensitivity might also explain the reduction of the fast component of V̇e responses previously reported following sudden exercise termination. Adaptation of the fast component of V̇e response could occur by reduction of rate sensitivity. Rate sensitivity of limb motion was predicted by the model to reduce the phase delay between limb motion and V̇e response without changing the steady-state response to exercise load. In this way, V̇e can respond more quickly to an exercise change without interfering with overall feedback control. The asymmetry between responses to an incremental and decremental ramp change in exercise can also be accounted for by the proposed model. Rate sensitivity leads to predicted behavior, which resembles responses observed in exercise tied to expiratory reserve volume.

  10. Effects of yaw and pitch motion on model attitude measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Tripp, John S.; Finley, Tom D.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents a theoretical analysis of the dynamic effects of angular motion in yaw and pitch on model attitude measurements in which inertial sensors were used during wind tunnel tests. A technique is developed to reduce the error caused by these effects. The analysis shows that a 20-to-1 reduction in model attitude measurement error caused by angular motion is possible with this technique.

  11. Constants of motion of the four-particle Calogero model

    SciTech Connect

    Saghatelian, A.

    2012-10-15

    We present the explicit expressions of the complete set of constants of motion of four-particle Calogero model with excluded center of mass, i.e. of the A{sub 3} rational Calogero model. Then we find the constants of motion of its spherical part, defining two-dimensional 12-center spherical oscillator, with the force centers located at the vertexes of cuboctahedron.

  12. An Approach to Automatic Motion Synthesis Harmonized with Music for Multiple Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Nakatani, Mie; Nishida, Shogo

    This paper proposed a research approach to automatic choreography synthesis based on SMF(Standard Midi File) for multiple animated figures. Based on the K.Hevner’s theory, 8 types of emotion in each beat can be extracted from music structure elements, such as tempo, key, rythm, melody, harmony, pitch, which can be computed from SMF. The time of one beat is limited to transmit the emotion to human. By the analysis of emotion, a music can be integrated to several time intervals, every which includes several continuous beats. The top value of synthetic emotion vector represents the emotion type of the interval. Based on the experiment result of C.Matsumoto, 14 motion factors can be mapped from the emotion of interval. According to the 14 motion factors, the macro-motions at the terminals of every interval, and the micromotions between every interval can be generated by mapping rules. We made a prototype system and did a subjective evaluation experiment. The result is fairly good at the congruity between generated motions and given emotion music. A successful research to solve these issues should lead to aid the designation of 3DCG animation.

  13. Manipulating antiferromagnets with magnetic fields: Ratchet motion of multiple domain walls induced by asymmetric field pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomonay, O.; Kläui, M.; Sinova, J.

    2016-10-01

    Future applications of antiferromagnets (AFs) in many spintronics devices rely on the precise manipulation of domain walls. The conventional approach using static magnetic fields is inefficient due to the low susceptibility of AFs. Recently proposed electrical manipulation with spin-orbit torques is restricted to metals with a specific crystal structure. Here, we propose an alternative, broadly applicable approach: using asymmetric magnetic field pulses to induce controlled ratchet motion of AF domain walls. The efficiency of this approach is based on three peculiarities of AF dynamics. First, a time-dependent magnetic field couples with an AF order parameter stronger than a static magnetic field, which leads to higher mobility of the domain walls. Second, the rate of change of the magnetic field couples with the spatial variation of the AF order parameter inside the domain, and this enables a synchronous motion of multiple domain walls with the same structure. Third, tailored asymmetric field pulses in combination with static friction can prevent backward motion of domain walls and thus lead to the desired controlled ratchet effect. The proposed use of an external field, rather than internal spin-orbit torques, avoids any restrictions on size, conductivity, and crystal structure of the AF material. We believe that our approach paves a way for the development of AF-based devices based on the controlled motion of AF domain walls.

  14. Folded Elastic Strip-Based Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Harvesting Human Motion Energy for Multiple Applications.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yue; Wang, Bo; Dai, Shuge; Liu, Guanlin; Pu, Yanping; Hu, Chenguo

    2015-09-16

    A folded elastic strip-based triboelectric nanogenerator (FS-TENG) made from two folded double-layer elastic strips of Al/PET and PTFE/PET can achieve multiple functions by low frequency mechanical motion. A single FS-TENG with strip width of 3 cm and length of 27 cm can generate a maximum output current, open-circuit voltage, and peak power of 55 μA, 840 V, and 7.33 mW at deformation frequency of 4 Hz with amplitude of 2.5 cm, respectively. This FS-TENG can work as a weight sensor due to its good elasticity. An integrated generator assembled by four FS-TENGs (IFS-TENG) can harvest the energy of human motion like flapping hands and walking steps. In addition, the IFS-TENG combined with electromagnetically induced electricity can achieve a completely self-driven doorbell with flashing lights. Moreover, a box-like generator integrated by four IFS-TENGs inside can work in horizontal or random motion modes and can be improved to harvest energy in all directions. This work promotes the research of completely self-driven systems and energy harvesting of human motion for applications in our daily life.

  15. NMDA Receptors Multiplicatively Scale Visual Signals and Enhance Directional Motion Discrimination in Retinal Ganglion Cells.

    PubMed

    Poleg-Polsky, Alon; Diamond, Jeffrey S

    2016-03-16

    Postsynaptic responses in many CNS neurons are typically small and variable, often making it difficult to distinguish physiologically relevant signals from background noise. To extract salient information, neurons are thought to integrate multiple synaptic inputs and/or selectively amplify specific synaptic activation patterns. Here, we present evidence for a third strategy: directionally selective ganglion cells (DSGCs) in the mouse retina multiplicatively scale visual signals via a mechanism that requires both nonlinear NMDA receptor (NMDAR) conductances in DSGC dendrites and directionally tuned inhibition provided by the upstream retinal circuitry. Postsynaptic multiplication enables DSGCs to discriminate visual motion more accurately in noisy visual conditions without compromising directional tuning. These findings demonstrate a novel role for NMDARs in synaptic processing and provide new insights into how synaptic and network features interact to accomplish physiologically relevant neural computations. PMID:26948896

  16. Understanding the detailed motion of a model bacterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thawani, Akanksha; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh

    2014-11-01

    Inspired by the motion of flagellated bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, we have built a macroscopic model bacterium, in order to investigate the intricate aspects of their motion which cannot be visualized under a microscope. The flagellated rod shaped cells were approximated with a spherical head attached to a rigid metal helix, via a plastic hook. The motion of model bacterium was observed in a high viscosity silicone oil to replicate the low Reynolds number flow conditions. A significant wobble was observed even in the absence of an off-axis flagellum. We suspect that the flexibility in the hook connecting the head and flagellum is the cause for wobble, since wobble was observed to increase significantly with hook-flexibility. The motion of the model bacterium was predicted using the Slender Body theory of Lighthill, and was compared with the measured trajectories.

  17. Physiologically corrected coupled motion during gait analysis using a model-based approach.

    PubMed

    Bonnechère, Bruno; Sholukha, Victor; Salvia, Patrick; Rooze, Marcel; Van Sint Jan, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Gait analysis is used in daily clinics for patients' evaluation and follow-up. Stereophotogrammetric devices are the most used tool to perform these analyses. Although these devices are accurate results must be analyzed carefully due to relatively poor reproducibility. One of the major issues is related to skin displacement artifacts. Motion representation is recognized reliable for the main plane of motion displacement, but secondary motions, or combined, are less reliable because of the above artifacts. Model-based approach (MBA) combining accurate joint kinematics and motion data was previously developed based on a double-step registration method. This study presents an extensive validation of this MBA method by comparing results with a conventional motion representation model. Thirty five healthy subjects participated to this study. Gait motion data were obtained from a stereophotogrammetric system. Plug-in Gait model (PiG) and MBA were applied to raw data, results were then compared. Range-of-motion, were computed for pelvis, hip, knee and ankle joints. Differences between PiG and MBA were then computed. Paired-sample t-tests were used to compare both methods. Normalized root-mean square errors were also computed. Shapes of the curves were compared using coefficient of multiple correlations. The MBA and PiG approaches shows similar results for the main plane of motion displacement but statistically significative discrepancies appear for the combined motions. MBA appear to be usable in applications (such as musculoskeletal modeling) requesting better approximations of the joints-of-interest thanks to the integration of validated joint mechanisms.

  18. New Fennoscandian shield empirical ground motion characterization models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuorinen, Tommi; Tiira, Timo; Lund, Björn

    2015-04-01

    The Fennoscandian shield is a seismically quiet area with a scarcity of strong earthquakes and, consequently, an area lacking strong motion data. This lack of empirical strong motion data and the subsequent lack of advanced stochastic and theoretical models of seismic response limit the ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) development for the region. In order to create GMPEs targeted for the Fennoscandian shield, we take advantage of the comparatively large ground motion database and use a more direct empirical approach which does not rely on pre-existing models and simulations of the Fennoscandian seismicity. We present here the resulting two GMPEs, which were created by applying the empirical ground motion data derived from 2239 earthquakes observed at 88 recording stations to an existing attenuation relationship. The first model developed is an empirical model which relies on an existing predetermined GMPE with the constant coefficients of the model fitted to our regional dataset by using a simple unweighted non-linear least-squares regression. The second model is a so-called referenced empirical model which relies on modifying the ground motion prediction produced by an existing GMPE by multiplying it with a function of certain seismological parameters. Within the magnitude-distance range of the dataset, the resulting equations model the peak ground accelerations (PGA) and spectral accelerations (SA) reasonably well. Residuals of the ground-motion prediction display no clear trend with regards to either magnitude or distance. We further assess the limits of usability of the GMPEs by applying them to an independent regional earthquake and to various external events that have occurred in a similar stable continental area. We also discuss the limitations of the empirical methods used in creating the models and the constraints imposed by the available source data.

  19. Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic of motion. Contents include: (1) "First Word" (Zach Tobias); (2) "Cosmic Collisions" (Robert Irion); (3) "The Mobile Cell" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (4) "The Paths of Paths" (Steven Vogel); (5) "Fragments" (Pearl Tesler); (6) "Moving Pictures" (Amy Snyder); (7) "Plants on the Go" (Katharine…

  20. Satellite attitude motion models for capture and retrieval investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, John E., Jr.; Lahr, Brian S.

    1986-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research is to provide mathematical models which may be used in the investigation of various aspects of the remote capture and retrieval of uncontrolled satellites. Emphasis has been placed on analytical models; however, to verify analytical solutions, numerical integration must be used. Also, for satellites of certain types, numerical integration may be the only practical or perhaps the only possible method of solution. First, to provide a basis for analytical and numerical work, uncontrolled satellites were categorized using criteria based on: (1) orbital motions, (2) external angular momenta, (3) internal angular momenta, (4) physical characteristics, and (5) the stability of their equilibrium states. Several analytical solutions for the attitude motions of satellite models were compiled, checked, corrected in some minor respects and their short-term prediction capabilities were investigated. Single-rigid-body, dual-spin and multi-rotor configurations are treated. To verify the analytical models and to see how the true motion of a satellite which is acted upon by environmental torques differs from its corresponding torque-free motion, a numerical simulation code was developed. This code contains a relatively general satellite model and models for gravity-gradient and aerodynamic torques. The spacecraft physical model for the code and the equations of motion are given. The two environmental torque models are described.

  1. New Models of Mechanisms for the Motion Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Tomislav; Ivanov, Ivan

    In this paper two new mechanisms for the motion transformations are presented: screw mechanism for the transformation of one-way circular into two-way linear motion with impulse control and worm-planetary gear train with extremely height gear ratio. Both mechanisms represent new models of construction solutions for which patent protection has been achieved. These mechanisms are based on the application of the differential gearbox with two degrees of freedom. They are characterized by series of kinematic impacts at motion transformation and the possibility of temporary or permanent changes in the structure by subtracting the redundant degree of freedom. Thus the desired characteristic of the motion transformation is achieved. For each mechanism separately the principles of motion and transformation are described and the basic equations that describe the interdependence of geometric and kinematic and kinetic parameters of the system dynamics are given. The basic principles of controlling new mechanisms for motion transformation have been pointed to and the basic constructional performances which may find practical application have been given. The physical models of new systems of motion transformation have been designed and their operation has been presented. Performed experimental researches confirmed the theoretical results and very favorable kinematic characteristics of the mechanisms.

  2. Error Model for Reduction of Cardiac and Respiratory Motion Effects in Quantitative Liver DW-MRI

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Paul; Wolfson, Tanya; Gamst, Anthony; Sirlin, Claude; Bydder, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted images of the liver exhibit signal dropout from cardiac and respiratory motion, particularly in the left lobe. These artifacts cause bias and variance in derived parameters that quantify intra-voxel incoherent motion (IVIM). Many models of diffusion have been proposed, but few separate attenuation from diffusion or perfusion from that of bulk motion. The error model proposed here (Beta*LogNormal) is intended to accomplish that separation by modeling stochastic attenuation from bulk motion as multiplication by a Beta-distributed random variate. Maximum likelihood estimation with this error model can be used to derive IVIM parameters separate from signal dropout, and does not require a priori specification of parameters to do so. Liver IVIM parameters were derived for six healthy subjects under this error model and compared with least-squares estimates. Least-squares estimates exhibited bias due to cardiac and respiratory gating and due to location within the liver. Bias from these factors was significantly reduced under the Beta*LogNormal model, as was within-organ parameter variance. Similar effects were appreciable in diffusivity maps in two patients with focal liver lesions. These results suggest that, relative to least-squares estimation, the Beta*LogNormal model accomplishes the intended reduction of bias and variance from bulk motion in liver diffusion imaging. PMID:23280855

  3. The Long Decay Model of One-Dimensional Projectile Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lattery, Mark Joseph

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces a research study on student model formation and development in introductory mechanics. As a point of entry, I present a detailed analysis of the Long Decay Model of one-dimensional projectile motion. This model has been articulated by Galileo ("in De Motu") and by contemporary students. Implications for instruction are…

  4. Multiple-hypothesis multiple-model line tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, Donald W.; Owen, Mark W.; Cox, Henry

    2000-07-01

    Passive sonar signal processing generally includes tracking of narrowband and/or broadband signature components observed on a Lofargram or on a Bearing-Time-Record (BTR) display. Fielded line tracking approaches to date have been recursive and single-hypthesis-oriented Kalman- or alpha-beta filters, with no mechanism for considering tracking alternatives beyond the most recent scan of measurements. While adaptivity is often built into the filter to handle changing track dynamics, these approaches are still extensions of single target tracking solutions to multiple target tracking environment. This paper describes an application of multiple-hypothesis, multiple target tracking technology to the sonar line tracking problem. A Multiple Hypothesis Line Tracker (MHLT) is developed which retains the recursive minimum-mean-square-error tracking behavior of a Kalman Filter in a maximum-a-posteriori delayed-decision multiple hypothesis context. Multiple line track filter states are developed and maintained using the interacting multiple model (IMM) state representation. Further, the data association and assignment problem is enhanced by considering line attribute information (line bandwidth and SNR) in addition to beam/bearing and frequency fit. MHLT results on real sonar data are presented to demonstrate the benefits of the multiple hypothesis approach. The utility of the system in cluttered environments and particularly in crossing line situations is shown.

  5. Bouncing ball dynamics: Simple model of motion of the table and sinusoidal motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okniński, Andrzej; Radziszewski, Bogusław

    2014-10-01

    Nonlinear dynamics of a bouncing ball moving vertically in a gravitational field and colliding with a moving limiter is considered and the Poincar\\'e map, describing evolution from an impact to the next impact, is described. Displacement of the table is approximated in one period by four cubic polynomials. Results obtained for this model are used to elucidate dynamics of the standard model of bouncing ball with sinusoidal motion of the limiter.

  6. Pendulum models of ponytail motion during walking and running

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaut, Raymond H.; Virgin, Lawrence N.

    2013-08-01

    Steady-state motions of a woman's ponytail during level, straight, walking and running are examined. Based on reported data, formulas have been developed for the relationship of the forward speed to the frequencies of vertical and sideways motion of the head, and of the form of that motion. The ponytail is modeled as a compound pendulum or a multi-bar pendulum with 2, 3, or 5 rigid bars. Motions in the vertical plane perpendicular to the direction of progression are analyzed. Rotational springs and dashpots are placed at the joints, and aerodynamic damping (air drag) is included. Attention is focused on the variation of the amplitudes of the bars as the woman's walking speed and then running speed increase. An example of three-dimensional motions of a spherical-pendulum model also is included. Experiments were conducted on a double pendulum with parabolic applied motion at the top. The damping is modeled by rotational friction (i.e., a constant resisting moment at the top and internal joints), and the numerical results agree well with the test data.

  7. Dynamic modeling of lung tumor motion during respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyriakou, E.; McKenzie, D. R.

    2011-05-01

    A dynamic finite element model of the lung that incorporates a simplified geometry with realistic lung material properties has been developed. Observations of lung motion from respiratory-gated computed tomography were used to provide a database against which the predictions of the model are assessed. Data from six patients presenting with lung tumors were processed to give sagittal sections of the lung containing the tumor as a function of the breathing phase. Statistical shape modeling was used to outline the diaphragm, the tumor volume and the thoracic wall at each breathing phase. The motion of the tumor in the superior-inferior direction was plotted against the diaphragm displacement. The finite element model employed a simplified geometry in which the lung material fills a rectangular volume enabling two-dimensional coordinates to be used. The diaphragm is represented as a piston, driving the motion. Plots of lung displacement against diaphragm displacement form hysteresis loops that are a sensitive indicator of the characteristics of the motion. The key parameters of lung material that determine the motion are the density and elastic properties of lung material and the airway permeability. The model predictions of the hysteresis behavior agreed well with observation only when lung material is modeled as viscoelastic. The key material parameters are suggested for use as prognostic indicators of the progression of disease and of changes arising from the response of the lung to radiation treatment.

  8. Illusory self-motion and motion sickness: a model for brain-gut interactions and nausea.

    PubMed

    Koch, K L

    1999-08-01

    Motion sickness provides a unique setting for the study of nausea. Studies of illusory self-motion have linked nausea and objective measures of gastric dysrhythmias and the stress hormones vasopressin and epinephrine. Electrogastrographic methods utilize Ag-AgCl electrodes placed on the abdominal surface in the epigastric region to record electrogastrograms (EGGs), a noninvasive measure of gastric myoelectrical activity. The EGG frequencies of interest are the normal range (2.4-3.6 cpm), tachygastrias (3.6-9.9 cpm), and bradygastrias (1.0-2.4 cpm), and duodenal respiratory frequencies (10.0-15.0 cpm). Illusory self-motion or vection is produced with a rotating drum. Minutes before vection-induced nausea is reported, the baseline EGG signal shifts into tachygastrias or mixed tachygastrias and bradygastrias. Quantitative analyses show that the percentage of power in the tachygastria range correlates with the intensity of nausea. Plasma vasopressin levels correlate positively with intensity of nausea. Asian subjects have higher intensity nausea and higher vasopressin levels compared with Caucasian subjects, indicating a potential genetic susceptibility to vection-induced motion sickness and nausea. Vection-induced motion sickness represents an experimental model of acute-onset nausea with accompanying symptoms such as headache, drowsiness, cold sweating, and fatigue. Illusory self-motion is a purely central nervous system (visual-vestibular) stimulation that evokes dramatic shifts in gastric electrical activity and significant release of the posterior pituitary hormone vasopressin. Central nervous systems pathways that evoke gastric dysrhythmias and release vasopressin may also have a pathophysiologic role in the cyclic vomiting syndrome.

  9. A model describing vestibular detection of body sway motion.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nashner, L. M.

    1971-01-01

    An experimental technique was developed which facilitated the formulation of a quantitative model describing vestibular detection of body sway motion in a postural response mode. All cues, except vestibular ones, which gave a subject an indication that he was beginning to sway, were eliminated using a specially designed two-degree-of-freedom platform; body sway was then induced and resulting compensatory responses at the ankle joints measured. Hybrid simulation compared the experimental results with models of the semicircular canals and utricular otolith receptors. Dynamic characteristics of the resulting canal model compared closely with characteristics of models which describe eye movement and subjective responses to body rotational motions. The average threshold level, in the postural response mode, however, was considerably lower. Analysis indicated that the otoliths probably play no role in the initial detection of body sway motion.

  10. Local harmonic motion monitoring of focused ultrasound surgery--a simulation model.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Janne; Curiel, Laura; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a computational model for localized harmonic motion (LHM) imaging-based monitoring of high-intensity focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) is presented. The LHM technique is based on a focused, time-varying ultrasound radiation force excitation, which induces local oscillatory motions at the focal region. These vibrations are tracked, using pulse-echo imaging, and then, used to estimate the mechanical properties of the sonication region. LHM is feasible for FUS monitoring because changes in the material properties during the coagulation process affect the measured displacements. The presented model includes separate models to simulate acoustic sonication fields, sonication-induced temperature elevation and mechanical motion, and pulse-echo imaging of the induced motions. These 3-D simulation models are based on Rayleigh-Sommerfield integral, finite element, and spatial impulse response methods. Simulated-tissue temperature elevation and mechanical motion were compared with previously published in vivo measurements. Finally, the simulation model was used to simulate coagulation and LHM monitoring, as would occur with multiple, neighbouring sonication locations covering a large tumor.

  11. Model for the computation of self-motion in biological systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrone, John A.

    1992-01-01

    A technique is presented by which direction- and speed-tuned cells, such as those commonly found in the middle temporal region of the primate brain, can be utilized to analyze the patterns of retinal image motion that are generated during observer movement through the environment. The developed model determines heading by finding the peak response in a population of detectors or neurons each tuned to a particular heading direction. It is suggested that a complex interaction of multiple cell networks is required for the solution of the self-motion problem in the primate brain.

  12. Robust shape tracking with multiple models in ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Jacinto C; Marques, Jorge S

    2008-03-01

    This paper addresses object tracking in ultrasound images using a robust multiple model tracker. The proposed tracker has the following features: 1) it uses multiple dynamic models to track the evolution of the object boundary, and 2) it models invalid observations (outliers), reducing their influence on the shape estimates. The problem considered in this paper is the tracking of the left ventricle which is known to be a challenging problem. The heart motion presents two phases (diastole and systole) with different dynamics, the multiple models used in this tracker try to solve this difficulty. In addition, ultrasound images are corrupted by strong multiplicative noise which prevents the use of standard deformable models. Robust estimation techniques are used to address this difficulty. The multiple model data association (MMDA) tracker proposed in this paper is based on a bank of nonlinear filters, organized in a tree structure. The algorithm determines which model is active at each instant of time and updates its state by propagating the probability distribution, using robust estimation techniques.

  13. The Moon Also Rises: Investigating Celestial Motion Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Andrea M.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a high school science curriculum that embodies inquiry-based genetics, evolution, and astronomy. Presents two astronomy units of scientific modeling. The first activity involves a black box to explain a hidden mechanism's effect on the outflow of water. The second activity involves the development of celestial motion models to explain…

  14. Coupled grain boundary motion in aluminium: the effect of structural multiplicity

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kuiyu; Zhang, Liang; Lu, Cheng; Tieu, Kiet

    2016-01-01

    The shear-induced coupled grain boundary motion plays an important role in the deformation of nanocrystalline (NC) materials. It has been known that the atomic structure of the grain boundary (GB) is not necessarily unique for a given set of misorientation and inclination of the boundary plane. However, the effect of the structural multiplicity of the GB on its coupled motion has not been reported. In the present study we investigated the structural multiplicity of the symmetric tilt Σ5(310) boundary in aluminium and its influence on the GB behaviour at a temperature range of 300 K–600 K using molecular dynamic simulations. Two starting atomic configurations were adopted in the simulations which resulted in three different GB structures at different temperatures. Under the applied shear deformation each GB structure exhibited its unique GB behaviour. A dual GB behaviour, namely the transformation of one GB behaviour to another during deformation, was observed for the second starting configuration at a temperature of 500 K. The atomistic mechanisms responsible for these behaviour were analysed in detail. The result of this study implicates a strong relationship between GB structures and their behaviour, and provides a further information of the grain boundary mediated plasticity in nanocrystalline materials. PMID:27140343

  15. Coupled grain boundary motion in aluminium: the effect of structural multiplicity.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kuiyu; Zhang, Liang; Lu, Cheng; Tieu, Kiet

    2016-01-01

    The shear-induced coupled grain boundary motion plays an important role in the deformation of nanocrystalline (NC) materials. It has been known that the atomic structure of the grain boundary (GB) is not necessarily unique for a given set of misorientation and inclination of the boundary plane. However, the effect of the structural multiplicity of the GB on its coupled motion has not been reported. In the present study we investigated the structural multiplicity of the symmetric tilt Σ5(310) boundary in aluminium and its influence on the GB behaviour at a temperature range of 300 K-600 K using molecular dynamic simulations. Two starting atomic configurations were adopted in the simulations which resulted in three different GB structures at different temperatures. Under the applied shear deformation each GB structure exhibited its unique GB behaviour. A dual GB behaviour, namely the transformation of one GB behaviour to another during deformation, was observed for the second starting configuration at a temperature of 500 K. The atomistic mechanisms responsible for these behaviour were analysed in detail. The result of this study implicates a strong relationship between GB structures and their behaviour, and provides a further information of the grain boundary mediated plasticity in nanocrystalline materials. PMID:27140343

  16. Coupled grain boundary motion in aluminium: the effect of structural multiplicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kuiyu; Zhang, Liang; Lu, Cheng; Tieu, Kiet

    2016-05-01

    The shear-induced coupled grain boundary motion plays an important role in the deformation of nanocrystalline (NC) materials. It has been known that the atomic structure of the grain boundary (GB) is not necessarily unique for a given set of misorientation and inclination of the boundary plane. However, the effect of the structural multiplicity of the GB on its coupled motion has not been reported. In the present study we investigated the structural multiplicity of the symmetric tilt Σ5(310) boundary in aluminium and its influence on the GB behaviour at a temperature range of 300 K–600 K using molecular dynamic simulations. Two starting atomic configurations were adopted in the simulations which resulted in three different GB structures at different temperatures. Under the applied shear deformation each GB structure exhibited its unique GB behaviour. A dual GB behaviour, namely the transformation of one GB behaviour to another during deformation, was observed for the second starting configuration at a temperature of 500 K. The atomistic mechanisms responsible for these behaviour were analysed in detail. The result of this study implicates a strong relationship between GB structures and their behaviour, and provides a further information of the grain boundary mediated plasticity in nanocrystalline materials.

  17. Equations of motion for isotropic porous media with multiple solid constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J.G.; Pride, S.R.

    1996-04-01

    The volume averaging technique for obtaining macroscopic equations of motion for materials that are microscopically inhomogeneous is extended to the situation in which multiple solid constituents form a porous matrix while a uniform fluid fills the pores. Previous volume averaging efforts of Pride et al. (1992) and others have concentrated on single solid constituent porous media. The analysis for multiple solid constituents is complicated by the presence of internal interfaces between the solid constituents within the averaging volume. These interfaces are characterized by constants that measure the fraction of the interface on which solid touches solid, fluid touches one solid, fluid touches the other solid, or fluid lies on both sides of the interface. These fractions are easily computed if the interface fractions are assumed to be uncorrelated, but real materials may be expected to exhibit some correlation. On the other hand, these interface fractions do not appear in the volume average equations at the macroscopic level. To complete the analysis, it is found that the jacketed and unjacketed tests of Biot and Willis (1957) together with the thought experiments of Berryman and Milton (1991) for solid matrix composed of two constituents are required in order to obtain definite results. Results are found to be in complete agreement with earlier work of Brown and Korringa (1975) concerning the most general possible form of the quasistatic equations for volume deformation and therefore of the equations of motion for wave propagation through such media.

  18. Prediction of Plate Motions and Stresses from Global Dynamic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, A.; Holt, W. E.

    2011-12-01

    Predicting plate motions correctly has been a challenge for global dynamic models. In addition to predicting plate motions, a successful model must also explain the following features: plate rigidity, plate boundary zone deformation, as well as intraplate stress patterns and deformation. In this study we show that, given constraints from shallow lithosphere structure, history of subduction, and first order features from whole mantle tomography, it is possible to achieve a high level of accuracy in predicting plate motions and lithosphere deformation within plate boundary zones. Best-fit dynamic models presently provide an RMS velocity misfit of global surface motions (compared at 63,000 spaced points in the GSRM NNR model [Kreemer et al., 2006]) of order 1 cm/yr. We explore the relative contribution of shallow lithosphere structure vs. whole mantle convection in affecting surface deformation as well as plate motions. We show that shallow lithosphere structure that includes topography and lateral density variations in the lithosphere is an integral part of global force balance. Its inclusion in geodynamic models is essential in order to match observations of surface motions and stresses, particularly within continental zones of deformation. We also argue that stiff slabs may not be as important as has been previously claimed in controlling plate motion and lithosphere deformation. An important result of this study is the calibration of absolute stress magnitudes in the lithosphere, verified through benchmarking using whole mantle convection models. Given additional constraints of the matching of surface motions, we also calibrate the absolute effective lithosphere viscosities. Best-fit models require plates with effective viscosities of order 1023 Pa-s, with plate boundary zones possessing effective viscosities 1-3 orders of magnitude weaker. Given deviatoric stress magnitudes within the lithosphere of order 10 - 60 MPa, our global models predict less than 2 mm

  19. Modeling Multiple Causes of Carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T D

    1999-01-24

    An array of epidemiological results and databases on test animal indicate that risk of cancer and atherosclerosis can be up- or down-regulated by diet through a range of 200%. Other factors contribute incrementally and include the natural terrestrial environment and various human activities that jointly produce complex exposures to endotoxin-producing microorganisms, ionizing radiations, and chemicals. Ordinary personal habits and simple physical irritants have been demonstrated to affect the immune response and risk of disease. There tends to be poor statistical correlation of long-term risk with single agent exposures incurred throughout working careers. However, Agency recommendations for control of hazardous exposures to humans has been substance-specific instead of contextually realistic even though there is consistent evidence for common mechanisms of toxicological and carcinogenic action. That behavior seems to be best explained by molecular stresses from cellular oxygen metabolism and phagocytosis of antigenic invasion as well as breakdown of normal metabolic compounds associated with homeostatic- and injury-related renewal of cells. There is continually mounting evidence that marrow stroma, comprised largely of monocyte-macrophages and fibroblasts, is important to phagocytic and cytokinetic response, but the complex action of the immune process is difficult to infer from first-principle logic or biomarkers of toxic injury. The many diverse database studies all seem to implicate two important processes, i.e., the univalent reduction of molecular oxygen and breakdown of aginuine, an amino acid, by hydrolysis or digestion of protein which is attendant to normal antigen-antibody action. This behavior indicates that protection guidelines and risk coefficients should be context dependent to include reference considerations of the composite action of parameters that mediate oxygen metabolism. A logic of this type permits the realistic common-scale modeling of

  20. Elements of an improved model of debris‐flow motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    A new depth‐averaged model of debris‐flow motion describes simultaneous evolution of flow velocity and depth, solid and fluid volume fractions, and pore‐fluid pressure. Non‐hydrostatic pore‐fluid pressure is produced by dilatancy, a state‐dependent property that links the depth‐averaged shear rate and volumetric strain rate of the granular phase. Pore‐pressure changes caused by shearing allow the model to exhibit rate‐dependent flow resistance, despite the fact that the basal shear traction involves only rate‐independent Coulomb friction. An analytical solution of simplified model equations shows that the onset of downslope motion can be accelerated or retarded by pore‐pressure change, contingent on whether dilatancy is positive or negative. A different analytical solution shows that such effects will likely be muted if downslope motion continues long enough, because dilatancy then evolves toward zero, and volume fractions and pore pressure concurrently evolve toward steady states.

  1. Turbulent motion of mass flows. Mathematical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eglit, Margarita; Yakubenko, Alexander; Yakubenko, Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    New mathematical models for unsteady turbulent mass flows, e.g., dense snow avalanches and landslides, are presented. Such models are important since most of large scale flows are turbulent. In addition to turbulence, the two other important points are taken into account: the entrainment of the underlying material by the flow and the nonlinear rheology of moving material. The majority of existing models are based on the depth-averaged equations and the turbulent character of the flow is accounted by inclusion of drag proportional to the velocity squared. In this paper full (not depth-averaged) equations are used. It is assumed that basal entrainment takes place if the bed friction equals the shear strength of the underlying layer (Issler D, M. Pastor Peréz. 2011). The turbulent characteristics of the flow are calculated using a three-parameter differential model (Lushchik et al., 1978). The rheological properties of moving material are modeled by one of the three types of equations: 1) Newtonian fluid with high viscosity, 2) power-law fluid and 3) Bingham fluid. Unsteady turbulent flows down long homogeneous slope are considered. The flow dynamical parameters and entrainment rate behavior in time as well as their dependence on properties of moving and underlying materials are studied numerically. REFERENCES M.E. Eglit and A.E. Yakubenko, 2014. Numerical modeling of slope flows entraining bottom material. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 108, 139-148 Margarita E. Eglit and Alexander E. Yakubenko, 2016. The effect of bed material entrainment and non-Newtonian rheology on dynamics of turbulent slope flows. Fluid Dynamics, 51(3) Issler D, M. Pastor Peréz. 2011. Interplay of entrainment and rheology in snow avalanches; a numerical study. Annals of Glaciology, 52(58), 143-147 Lushchik, V.G., Paveliev, A.A. , and Yakubenko, A.E., 1978. Three-parameter model of shear turbulence. Fluid Dynamics, 13, (3), 350-362

  2. Determining range information from self-motion: the template model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobey, Peter J.

    1991-02-01

    Insects use a relatively simple visual system to navigate and avoid obstacles. In particular they use self motion to determine the range to objects by the angular velocities of the contrasts across the retina array. Adopting principles learnt from studying insect behaviour and neurophysiology we have modelled aspects of the motion detection mechanism of an insect visual system into a means of categorising edges and computing their motion and thus determining range. Copying insect motion perception a camera is scanned across a scene and a temporal sequence of line images captured. The 8-bit grey scale image is immediately reduced to a 1og23 1. 6 bit image by saturating the contrast. Behind each pixel one state is formed by increasing intensity one by decreasing intensity and a third is indeterminate. Pairs of receptors at two consecutive times forming a 2 by 2 template in space-time give a finite number of combinations of which it is found that only a small subset provide useful motion information. Combinations of selected templates results in a distribution of template responses that is amenable to analysis by the Hough transform. Running the model on real scenes reveals the value of lateral inhibition as well as insights into the effect of different edge types and the use of parallax. The model suggests a possible new neurophysiological construction that can be copied in hardware to provide a fast means inferring 3-d structure in a scene where the observer is moving with a known velocity. 1.

  3. Current plate motions. [continental groupings and global modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demets, C.; Gordon, R. G.; Argus, D. F.; Stein, S.

    1990-01-01

    A global plate motion model, named NUVEL-1, which describes current plate motions between 12 rigid plates is described, with special attention given to the method, data, and assumptions used. Tectonic implications of the patterns that emerged from the results are discussed. It is shown that wide plate boundary zones can form not only within the continental lithosphere but also within the oceanic lithosphere; e.g., between the Indian and Australian plates and between the North American and South American plates. Results of the model also suggest small but significant diffuse deformation of the oceanic lithosphere, which may be confined to small awkwardly shaped salients of major plates.

  4. Designing the optimal convolution kernel for modeling the motion blur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinek, Jan

    2011-06-01

    Motion blur acts on an image like a two dimensional low pass filter, whose spatial frequency characteristic depends both on the trajectory of the relative motion between the scene and the camera and on the velocity vector variation along it. When motion during exposure is permitted, the conventional, static notions of both the image exposure and the scene-toimage mapping become unsuitable and must be revised to accommodate the image formation dynamics. This paper develops an exact image formation model for arbitrary object-camera relative motion with arbitrary velocity profiles. Moreover, for any motion the camera may operate in either continuous or flutter shutter exposure mode. Its result is a convolution kernel, which is optimally designed for both the given motion and sensor array geometry, and hence permits the most accurate computational undoing of the blurring effects for the given camera required in forensic and high security applications. The theory has been implemented and a few examples are shown in the paper.

  5. Physiological model of motion analysis for machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Richard A.; Lesperance, Ronald M.

    1993-09-01

    We studied the spatio-temporal shape of `receptive fields' of simple cells in the monkey visual cortex. Receptive fields are maps of the regions in space and time that affect a cell's electrical responses. Fields with no change in shape over time responded to all directions of motion; fields with changing shape over time responded to only some directions of motion. A Gaussian Derivative (GD) model fit these fields well, in a transformed variable space that aligned the centers and principal axes of the field and model in space-time. The model accounts for fields that vary in orientation, location, spatial scale, motion properties, and number of lobes. The model requires only ten parameters (the minimum possible) to describe fields in two dimensions of space and one of time. A difference-of-offset-Gaussians (DOOG) provides a plausible physiological means to form GD model fields. Because of its simplicity, the GD model improves the efficiency of machine vision systems for analyzing motion. An implementation produced robust local estimates of the direction and speed of moving objects in real scenes.

  6. A Bayesian model of stereopsis depth and motion direction discrimination.

    PubMed

    Read, J C A

    2002-02-01

    The extraction of stereoscopic depth from retinal disparity, and motion direction from two-frame kinematograms, requires the solution of a correspondence problem. In previous psychophysical work [Read and Eagle (2000) Vision Res 40: 3345-3358], we compared the performance of the human stereopsis and motion systems with correlated and anti-correlated stimuli. We found that, although the two systems performed similarly for narrow-band stimuli, broadband anti-correlated kinematograms produced a strong perception of reversed motion, whereas the stereograms appeared merely rivalrous. I now model these psychophysical data with a computational model of the correspondence problem based on the known properties of visual cortical cells. Noisy retinal images are filtered through a set of Fourier channels tuned to different spatial frequencies and orientations. Within each channel, a Bayesian analysis incorporating a prior preference for small disparities is used to assess the probability of each possible match. Finally, information from the different channels is combined to arrive at a judgement of stimulus disparity. Each model system--stereopsis and motion--has two free parameters: the amount of noise they are subject to, and the strength of their preference for small disparities. By adjusting these parameters independently for each system, qualitative matches are produced to psychophysical data, for both correlated and anti-correlated stimuli, across a range of spatial frequency and orientation bandwidths. The motion model is found to require much higher noise levels and a weaker preference for small disparities. This makes the motion model more tolerant of poor-quality reverse-direction false matches encountered with anti-correlated stimuli, matching the strong perception of reversed motion that humans experience with these stimuli. In contrast, the lower noise level and tighter prior preference used with the stereopsis model means that it performs close to chance with

  7. Modelling the motion of particles around choanoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orme, B. A. A.; Blake, J. R.; Otto, S. R.

    2003-01-01

    The three-dimensional particle paths due to a helical beat pattern of the flagellum of a sessile choanoflagellate, Salpingoeca Amphoridium (SA), are modelled and compared to the experimental observations of Pettitt (2001). The organism’s main components are a flagellum and a cell body which are situated above a substrate such that the interaction between these entities is crucial in determining the fluid flow around the choanoflagellate. This flow of fluid can be characterized as Stokes flow and a flow field analogous to one created by the flagellum is generated by a distribution of stokeslets and dipoles along a helical curve.

  8. Domain-wall motion in random potential and hysteresis modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquale, M.; Basso, V.; Bertotti, G.; Jiles, D.C.; Bi, Y.

    1998-06-01

    Two different approaches to hysteresis modeling are compared using a common ground based on energy relations, defined in terms of dissipated and stored energy. Using the Preisach model and assuming that magnetization is mainly due to domain-wall motion, one can derive the expression of magnetization along a major loop typical of the Jiles{endash}Atherton model and then extend its validity to cases where mean-field effects and reversible contributions are present. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Multi-modal gesture recognition using integrated model of motion, audio and video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goutsu, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Takaki; Obara, Junya; Kusajima, Ikuo; Takeichi, Kazunari; Takano, Wataru; Nakamura, Yoshihiko

    2015-07-01

    Gesture recognition is used in many practical applications such as human-robot interaction, medical rehabilitation and sign language. With increasing motion sensor development, multiple data sources have become available, which leads to the rise of multi-modal gesture recognition. Since our previous approach to gesture recognition depends on a unimodal system, it is difficult to classify similar motion patterns. In order to solve this problem, a novel approach which integrates motion, audio and video models is proposed by using dataset captured by Kinect. The proposed system can recognize observed gestures by using three models. Recognition results of three models are integrated by using the proposed framework and the output becomes the final result. The motion and audio models are learned by using Hidden Markov Model. Random Forest which is the video classifier is used to learn the video model. In the experiments to test the performances of the proposed system, the motion and audio models most suitable for gesture recognition are chosen by varying feature vectors and learning methods. Additionally, the unimodal and multi-modal models are compared with respect to recognition accuracy. All the experiments are conducted on dataset provided by the competition organizer of MMGRC, which is a workshop for Multi-Modal Gesture Recognition Challenge. The comparison results show that the multi-modal model composed of three models scores the highest recognition rate. This improvement of recognition accuracy means that the complementary relationship among three models improves the accuracy of gesture recognition. The proposed system provides the application technology to understand human actions of daily life more precisely.

  10. A high and low noise model for strong motion accelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, J. F.; Cauzzi, C.; Olivieri, M.

    2010-12-01

    We present reference noise models for high-quality strong motion accelerometer installations. We use continuous accelerometer data acquired by the Swiss Seismological Service (SED) since 2006 and other international high-quality accelerometer network data to derive very broadband (50Hz-100s) high and low noise models. The proposed noise models are compared to the Peterson (1993) low and high noise models designed for broadband seismometers; the datalogger self-noise; background noise levels at existing Swiss strong motion stations; and typical earthquake signals recorded in Switzerland and worldwide. The standard strong motion station operated by the SED consists of a Kinemetrics Episensor (2g clip level; flat acceleration response from 200 Hz to DC; <155dB dynamic range) coupled with a 24-bit Nanometrics Taurus datalogger. The proposed noise models are based on power spectral density (PSD) noise levels for each strong motion station computed via PQLX (McNamara and Buland, 2004) from several years of continuous recording. The 'Accelerometer Low Noise Model', ALNM, is dominated by instrument noise from the sensor and datalogger. The 'Accelerometer High Noise Model', AHNM, reflects 1) at high frequencies the acceptable site noise in urban areas, 2) at mid-periods the peak microseismal energy, as determined by the Peterson High Noise Model and 3) at long periods the maximum noise observed from well insulated sensor / datalogger systems placed in vault quality sites. At all frequencies, there is at least one order of magnitude between the ALNM and the AHNM; at high frequencies (> 1Hz) this extends to 2 orders of magnitude. This study provides remarkable confirmation of the capability of modern strong motion accelerometers to record low-amplitude ground motions with seismic observation quality. In particular, an accelerometric station operating at the ALNM is capable of recording the full spectrum of near source earthquakes, out to 100 km, down to M2. Of particular

  11. Multilevel and motion model-based ultrasonic speckle tracking algorithms.

    PubMed

    Yeung, F; Levinson, S F; Parker, K J

    1998-03-01

    A multilevel motion model-based approach to ultrasonic speckle tracking has been developed that addresses the inherent trade-offs associated with traditional single-level block matching (SLBM) methods. The multilevel block matching (MLBM) algorithm uses variable matching block and search window sizes in a coarse-to-fine scheme, preserving the relative immunity to noise associated with the use of a large matching block while preserving the motion field detail associated with the use of a small matching block. To decrease further the sensitivity of the multilevel approach to noise, speckle decorrelation and false matches, a smooth motion model-based block matching (SMBM) algorithm has been implemented that takes into account the spatial inertia of soft tissue elements. The new algorithms were compared to SLBM through a series of experiments involving manual translation of soft tissue phantoms, motion field computer simulations of rotation, compression and shear deformation, and an experiment involving contraction of human forearm muscles. Measures of tracking accuracy included mean squared tracking error, peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and blinded observations of optical flow. Measures of tracking efficiency included the number of sum squared difference calculations and the computation time. In the phantom translation experiments, the SMBM algorithm successfully matched the accuracy of SLBM using both large and small matching blocks while significantly reducing the number of computations and computation time when a large matching block was used. For the computer simulations, SMBM yielded better tracking accuracies and spatial resolution when compared with SLBM using a large matching block. For the muscle experiment, SMBM outperformed SLBM both in terms of PSNR and observations of optical flow. We believe that the smooth motion model-based MLBM approach represents a meaningful development in ultrasonic soft tissue motion measurement. PMID:9587997

  12. The proton-neutron symplectic model of nuclear collective motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganev, H. G.

    2016-06-01

    The proton-neutron symplectic model of nuclear collective motion is presented. It is shown that it appears as a natural multi-major-shell extension of the generalized proton- neutron SU(3) scheme which includes rotations with intrinsic vortex as well as monopole, quadrupole and dipole giant resonance vibrational degrees of freedom.

  13. Asynchronous partial contact motion due to internal resonance in multiple degree-of-freedom rotordynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, A. D.; Champneys, A. R.; Friswell, M. I.

    2016-08-01

    Sudden onset of violent chattering or whirling rotor-stator contact motion in rotational machines can cause significant damage in many industrial applications. It is shown that internal resonance can lead to the onset of bouncing-type partial contact motion away from primary resonances. These partial contact limit cycles can involve any two modes of an arbitrarily high degree-of-freedom system, and can be seen as an extension of a synchronization condition previously reported for a single disc system. The synchronization formula predicts multiple drivespeeds, corresponding to different forms of mode-locked bouncing orbits. These results are backed up by a brute-force bifurcation analysis which reveals numerical existence of the corresponding family of bouncing orbits at supercritical drivespeeds, provided the damping is sufficiently low. The numerics reveal many overlapping families of solutions, which leads to significant multi-stability of the response at given drive speeds. Further, secondary bifurcations can also occur within each family, altering the nature of the response and ultimately leading to chaos. It is illustrated how stiffness and damping of the stator have a large effect on the number and nature of the partial contact solutions, illustrating the extreme sensitivity that would be observed in practice.

  14. An Evaluation of Motions Found in Multiple Supra-Arcade Plasma Sheets with Local Correlation Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freed, Michael; McKenzie, David Eugene

    2016-05-01

    Plasma sheets can be seen in the corona above arcade loops that form shortly after the eruption phase of a solar flare. These structures are considered to be the location where current sheets can form, which are a key component for magnetic reconnection to take place. The objective of this study is to quantify the motion seen in these plasma sheets and to determine how these characteristics might vary over multiple length scales. We use contrast-enhanced EUV observations of five different plasma sheets to construct velocity maps of plasma motion — in the plane of the sky — via a Fourier local correlation tracking program. These derived velocities were then used to calculate angle-integrated power spectral density of intensity, kinetic energy, and enstrophy to determine if any self-similarity exists. The derived velocity fields also allowed for measurements of the kinetic energy density, enstrophy density, and magnetic diffusivity. We will also present the first reported observational evidence of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities forming at the interface of supra-arcade downflows (SADs) and the surrounding supra-arcade plasma.

  15. Asynchronous partial contact motion due to internal resonance in multiple degree-of-freedom rotordynamics

    PubMed Central

    Champneys, A. R.; Friswell, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    Sudden onset of violent chattering or whirling rotor–stator contact motion in rotational machines can cause significant damage in many industrial applications. It is shown that internal resonance can lead to the onset of bouncing-type partial contact motion away from primary resonances. These partial contact limit cycles can involve any two modes of an arbitrarily high degree-of-freedom system, and can be seen as an extension of a synchronization condition previously reported for a single disc system. The synchronization formula predicts multiple drivespeeds, corresponding to different forms of mode-locked bouncing orbits. These results are backed up by a brute-force bifurcation analysis which reveals numerical existence of the corresponding family of bouncing orbits at supercritical drivespeeds, provided the damping is sufficiently low. The numerics reveal many overlapping families of solutions, which leads to significant multi-stability of the response at given drive speeds. Further, secondary bifurcations can also occur within each family, altering the nature of the response and ultimately leading to chaos. It is illustrated how stiffness and damping of the stator have a large effect on the number and nature of the partial contact solutions, illustrating the extreme sensitivity that would be observed in practice. PMID:27616927

  16. Asynchronous partial contact motion due to internal resonance in multiple degree-of-freedom rotordynamics

    PubMed Central

    Champneys, A. R.; Friswell, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    Sudden onset of violent chattering or whirling rotor–stator contact motion in rotational machines can cause significant damage in many industrial applications. It is shown that internal resonance can lead to the onset of bouncing-type partial contact motion away from primary resonances. These partial contact limit cycles can involve any two modes of an arbitrarily high degree-of-freedom system, and can be seen as an extension of a synchronization condition previously reported for a single disc system. The synchronization formula predicts multiple drivespeeds, corresponding to different forms of mode-locked bouncing orbits. These results are backed up by a brute-force bifurcation analysis which reveals numerical existence of the corresponding family of bouncing orbits at supercritical drivespeeds, provided the damping is sufficiently low. The numerics reveal many overlapping families of solutions, which leads to significant multi-stability of the response at given drive speeds. Further, secondary bifurcations can also occur within each family, altering the nature of the response and ultimately leading to chaos. It is illustrated how stiffness and damping of the stator have a large effect on the number and nature of the partial contact solutions, illustrating the extreme sensitivity that would be observed in practice.

  17. Surrogate-driven deformable motion model for organ motion tracking in particle radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassi, Aurora; Seregni, Matteo; Riboldi, Marco; Cerveri, Pietro; Sarrut, David; Battista Ivaldi, Giovanni; Tabarelli de Fatis, Paola; Liotta, Marco; Baroni, Guido

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is the development and experimental testing of a tumor tracking method for particle radiation therapy, providing the daily respiratory dynamics of the patient’s thoraco-abdominal anatomy as a function of an external surface surrogate combined with an a priori motion model. The proposed tracking approach is based on a patient-specific breathing motion model, estimated from the four-dimensional (4D) planning computed tomography (CT) through deformable image registration. The model is adapted to the interfraction baseline variations in the patient’s anatomical configuration. The driving amplitude and phase parameters are obtained intrafractionally from a respiratory surrogate signal derived from the external surface displacement. The developed technique was assessed on a dataset of seven lung cancer patients, who underwent two repeated 4D CT scans. The first 4D CT was used to build the respiratory motion model, which was tested on the second scan. The geometric accuracy in localizing lung lesions, mediated over all breathing phases, ranged between 0.6 and 1.7 mm across all patients. Errors in tracking the surrounding organs at risk, such as lungs, trachea and esophagus, were lower than 1.3 mm on average. The median absolute variation in water equivalent path length (WEL) within the target volume did not exceed 1.9 mm-WEL for simulated particle beams. A significant improvement was achieved compared with error compensation based on standard rigid alignment. The present work can be regarded as a feasibility study for the potential extension of tumor tracking techniques in particle treatments. Differently from current tracking methods applied in conventional radiotherapy, the proposed approach allows for the dynamic localization of all anatomical structures scanned in the planning CT, thus providing complete information on density and WEL variations required for particle beam range adaptation.

  18. Motion estimation performance models with application to hardware error tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Hye-Yeon; Ortega, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    The progress of VLSI technology towards deep sub-micron feature sizes, e.g., sub-100 nanometer technology, has created a growing impact of hardware defects and fabrication process variability, which lead to reductions in yield rate. To address these problems, a new approach, system-level error tolerance (ET), has been recently introduced. Considering that a significant percentage of the entire chip production is discarded due to minor imperfections, this approach is based on accepting imperfect chips that introduce imperceptible/acceptable system-level degradation; this leads to increases in overall effective yield. In this paper, we investigate the impact of hardware faults on the video compression performance, with a focus on the motion estimation (ME) process. More specifically, we provide an analytical formulation of the impact of single and multiple stuck-at-faults within ME computation. We further present a model for estimating the system-level performance degradation due to such faults, which can be used for the error tolerance based decision strategy of accepting a given faulty chip. We also show how different faults and ME search algorithms compare in terms of error tolerance and define the characteristics of search algorithm that lead to increased error tolerance. Finally, we show that different hardware architectures performing the same metric computation have different error tolerance characteristics and we present the optimal ME hardware architecture in terms of error tolerance. While we focus on ME hardware, our work could also applied to systems (e.g., classifiers, matching pursuits, vector quantization) where a selection is made among several alternatives (e.g., class label, basis function, quantization codeword) based on which choice minimizes an additive metric of interest.

  19. Molecular Diffusive Motion in a Monolayer of a Model Lubricant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diama, A.; Criswell, L.; Mo, H.; Taub, H.; Herwig, K. W.; Hansen, F. Y.; Volkmann, U. G.; Dimeo, R.; Neumann, D.

    2003-03-01

    Squalane (C_30H_62), a branched alkane of intermediate length consisting of a tetracosane backbone (n-C_24H_50 or C24) and six symmetrically placed methyl sidegroups, is frequently taken as a model lubricant. We have conducted quasielastic neutron scattering (QNS) experiments to investigate the diffusive motion on different time scales in a squalane monolayer adsorbed on the (0001) surfaces of an exfoliated graphite substrate. Unlike tetracosane, high-energy resolution spectra (time scale ˜0.1 - 4 ns) at temperatures of 215 K and 230 K show the energy width of the QNS to have a maximum near Q = 1.2 ÅThis nonmonotonic Q dependence suggests a more complicated diffusive motion than the simple rotation about the long molecular axis believed to occur in a C24 monolayer at this temperature. Lower-energy-resolution spectra (time scale ˜4 - 40 ps) show evidence of two types of diffusive motion whose rates have opposite temperature dependences. The rate of the faster motion decreases as the monolayer is heated, and we speculate that it is due to hindered rotation of the methyl groups. The rate of the slower motion increases with temperature and may involve both uniaxial rotation and translational diffusion. Our experimental results will be compared with molecular dynamics simulations.

  20. Machine Visual Motion Detection Modeled On Vertebrate Retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, M. R.; Nguyen, H. G.; Kaomea, P. K.

    1988-12-01

    Real-time motion analysis would be very useful for autonomous undersea vehicle (AUV) navigation, target tracking, homing, and obstacle avoidance. The perception of motion is well developed in animals from insects to man, providing solutions to similar problems. We have therefore applied a model of the motion analysis subnetwork in the vertebrate retina to visual navigation in the AUV. The model is currently implemented in the C programming language as a discrete- time serial approximation of a continuous-time parallel process. Running on an IBM-PC/AT with digitized video camera images, the system can detect and describe motion in a 16 by 16 receptor field at the rate of 4 updates per second. The system responds accurately with direction and speed information to images moving across the visual field at velocities less than 8 degrees of visual angle per second at signal-to-noise ratios greater than 3. The architecture is parallel and its sparse connections do not require long-term modifications. The model is thus appropriate for implementation in VLSI optoelectronics.

  1. A personalized biomechanical model for respiratory motion prediction.

    PubMed

    Fuerst, B; Mansi, T; Zhang, Jianwen; Khurd, P; Declerck, J; Boettger, T; Navab, Nassir; Bayouth, J; Comaniciu, Dorin; Kamen, A

    2012-01-01

    Time-resolved imaging of the thorax or abdominal area is affected by respiratory motion. Nowadays, one-dimensional respiratory surrogates are used to estimate the current state of the lung during its cycle, but with rather poor results. This paper presents a framework to predict the 3D lung motion based on a patient-specific finite element model of respiratory mechanics estimated from two CT images at end of inspiration (EI) and end of expiration (EE). We first segment the lung, thorax and sub-diaphragm organs automatically using a machine-learning algorithm. Then, a biomechanical model of the lung, thorax and sub-diaphragm is employed to compute the 3D respiratory motion. Our model is driven by thoracic pressures, estimated automatically from the EE and EI images using a trust-region approach. Finally, lung motion is predicted by modulating the thoracic pressures. The effectiveness of our approach is evaluated by predicting lung deformation during exhale on five DIR-Lab datasets. Several personalization strategies are tested, showing that an average error of 3.88 +/- 1.54 mm in predicted landmark positions can be achieved. Since our approach is generative, it may constitute a 3D surrogate information for more accurate medical image reconstruction and patient respiratory analysis. PMID:23286176

  2. Multiscale model for photoinduced molecular motion in azo polymers.

    PubMed

    Juan, Mathieu L; Plain, Jérôme; Bachelot, Renaud; Royer, Pascal; Gray, Stephen K; Wiederrecht, Gary P

    2009-06-23

    Light-induced isomerization processes in azobenzene-containing polymers produce mass transport that is of much interest for nanoscale imaging and lithography. Yet, despite the development of numerous models to simulate the mass transport mechanism, no model precisely describes all the experimental observations. We develop a new statistical approach that correctly reproduces light-driven mass motion in azobenzene-containing polymers with a high degree of accuracy. Comparisons with experiments show that our model predicts the nanoscale topographic modifications for many different incident field configurations, including optical near-fields produced by plasmonic structures with complex polarization states. In particular, the model allows the detailed molecular motions that lead to these topographic modifications to be identified.

  3. Multiple lesion track structure model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Shinn, Judy L.

    1992-01-01

    A multilesion cell kinetic model is derived, and radiation kinetic coefficients are related to the Katz track structure model. The repair-related coefficients are determined from the delayed plating experiments of Yang et al. for the C3H10T1/2 cell system. The model agrees well with the x ray and heavy ion experiments of Yang et al. for the immediate plating, delaying plating, and fractionated exposure protocols employed by Yang. A study is made of the effects of target fragments in energetic proton exposures and of the repair-deficient target-fragment-induced lesions.

  4. Recognition of motion-defined shapes in patients with multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis.

    PubMed

    Regan, D; Kothe, A C; Sharpe, J A

    1991-06-01

    We have developed a simple procedure for assessing the ability of the visual pathway to extract a two-dimensional shape from motion. The test requires a patient to read motion-defined (MD) letters. These letters differ physically from the familiar contrast-defined (CD) letters that are dimmer or brighter than their surroundings in that the boundaries of MD letters are rendered visible exclusively by a step in velocity while the boundaries of CD letters are rendered visible by a step in luminance. Subjects viewed a random pattern of bright dots containing a perfectly camouflaged letter. Then the letter was revealed by moving dots within and outside the letter at equal speeds in opposite directions. Letter reading scores for 50 eyes of 25 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) or optic neuritis were compared with norms based on 50 control subjects. When tested with large (50 arc min, i.e., 6/60) MD letters, 34/50 eyes of patients required abnormally high dot speeds to read letters, visual loss being sufficiently selective in 10 eyes that contrast sensitivity, Snellen acuity, 11%-contrast and 4%-contrast acuity were all spared. Four eyes were effectively motion blind in the sense that they could not read large letters even at our highest relative speed of 0.9 deg/s and the failure could not be attributed to reduced Snellen acuity. Our normal limit was 2.5 SD from the control mean and there were 1/50 false positives. Of the 34/50 eyes with elevated speed thresholds, 23 had normal Snellen acuities. The number of eyes abnormal for intermediate (11%) contrast CD letters, was 19/50 of which 8 had normal Snellen acuity, confirming our previous finding that MS can degrade the ability to see low-contrast objects while sparing Snellen acuity. We conclude that MD test letters can detect lesions that are not picked up by testing with CD test letters of high or low contrast. We suggest that the MD letter test can detect dysfunction in the human equivalent of a pathway in monkey

  5. Use of the temporal median and trimmed mean mitigates effects of respiratory motion in multiple-acquisition abdominal diffusion imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerome, N. P.; Orton, M. R.; d'Arcy, J. A.; Feiweier, T.; Tunariu, N.; Koh, D.-M.; Leach, M. O.; Collins, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory motion commonly confounds abdominal diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, where averaging of successive samples at different parts of the respiratory cycle, performed in the scanner, manifests the motion as blurring of tissue boundaries and structural features and can introduce bias into calculated diffusion metrics. Storing multiple averages separately allows processing using metrics other than the mean; in this prospective volunteer study, median and trimmed mean values of signal intensity for each voxel over repeated averages and diffusion-weighting directions are shown to give images with sharper tissue boundaries and structural features for moving tissues, while not compromising non-moving structures. Expert visual scoring of derived diffusion maps is significantly higher for the median than for the mean, with modest improvement from the trimmed mean. Diffusion metrics derived from mono- and bi-exponential diffusion models are comparable for non-moving structures, demonstrating a lack of introduced bias from using the median. The use of the median is a simple and computationally inexpensive alternative to complex and expensive registration algorithms, requiring only additional data storage (and no additional scanning time) while returning visually superior images that will facilitate the appropriate placement of regions-of-interest when analysing abdominal diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images, for assessment of disease characteristics and treatment response.

  6. Analysis of unstable modes distinguishes mathematical models of flagellar motion

    PubMed Central

    Bayly, P. V.; Wilson, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the coordinated beating of cilia and flagella remain incompletely understood despite the fundamental importance of these organelles. The axoneme (the cytoskeletal structure of cilia and flagella) consists of microtubule doublets connected by passive and active elements. The motor protein dynein is known to drive active bending, but dynein activity must be regulated to generate oscillatory, propulsive waveforms. Mathematical models of flagellar motion generate quantitative predictions that can be analysed to test hypotheses concerning dynein regulation. One approach has been to seek periodic solutions to the linearized equations of motion. However, models may simultaneously exhibit both periodic and unstable modes. Here, we investigate the emergence and coexistence of unstable and periodic modes in three mathematical models of flagellar motion, each based on a different dynein regulation hypothesis: (i) sliding control; (ii) curvature control and (iii) control by interdoublet separation (the ‘geometric clutch’ (GC)). The unstable modes predicted by each model are used to critically evaluate the underlying hypothesis. In particular, models of flagella with ‘sliding-controlled’ dynein activity admit unstable modes with non-propulsive, retrograde (tip-to-base) propagation, sometimes at the same parameter values that lead to periodic, propulsive modes. In the presence of these retrograde unstable modes, stable or periodic modes have little influence. In contrast, unstable modes of the GC model exhibit switching at the base and propulsive base-to-tip propagation. PMID:25833248

  7. Developments in Ground-Motion Modeling in Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, G. M.; Boore, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Recent well-recorded earthquakes in Eastern North America (ENA) have led us to re-evaluate concepts that have been "standard fare" in the development of ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for ENA for decades, including all published GMPEs that are used in current practice (e.g. Atkinson and Boore, 2011, 2006, 1995; Pezeshk et al., 2011; Campbell, 2003; Toro et al., 1997, etc.). Assumptions common to all ENA GMPEs that may not be true include the following. (1) Typical ENA stress drops, in the context of a Brune model representation of the source spectrum, are in the range of 150-300 bars, with the exception of occasional high-stress events like the 1988 Saguenay earthquake. (2) Attenuation of ground motions can be modeled with a frequency-independent geometric spreading function, either bilinear or trilinear in shape (e.g. Street and Turcotte, 1975; Herrmann and Kijko, 1983; Atkinson and Mereu, 1992; Atkinson, 2004; Boatwright and Seekins, 2011), and an associated frequency-dependent anelastic attenuation term related to the regional Quality factor. The use of a bilinear or trilinear form models the transition from geometric spreading of body waves at close distances to slower surface-wave-type spreading at regional distances. We use ground-motion recordings from recent ENA events to re-examine these basic tenets of GMPE development, in light of constraints on the problem provided at low frequencies by seismic moment, and at high frequencies by stresses inferred from Empirical Greens Function (EGF) analysis. We find strong evidence, in both ground-motion data and from the constraints, that geometric attenuation may be frequency dependent. Moreover, EGF stress drops may be very high (>500 bars) - but they do not lead to particularly large high-frequency ground motions, at least at distances for which we have observations. More complex models of ENA source and attenuation processes appear to be required in order to reconcile our growing ground-motion database

  8. Modeling sensory conflict and motion sickness in artificial gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Paul Z.; Jarchow, Thomas; Young, Laurence R.

    2008-01-01

    It is necessary to characterize the vestibular response associated with head movements for various centrifuge rotation rates if one is to explore short-radius centrifugation as a viable form of artificial gravity for future spaceflights. An existing motion sickness model was modified to design an adaptation protocol to facilitate head movements at a centrifuge speed of 30 rpm. Modification involved addition of a quantitative sensory conflict model to serve as the input to the motion sickness model. Sensory conflict in this context was based on the dynamics of head movements during centrifugation as well as a previously developed transfer function relating angular accelerations to semicircular canal firing rates. Additionally, an adaptation parameter based on comparison between model predictions and previous experimental results was added. A 3-day incremental adaptation protocol was conducted in which 16 subjects successfully made 30 yaw head movements during rotation at 30 rpm on day 3. Motion sickness results showed good agreement with model predictions and demonstrated the feasibility of adaptation to increasingly high rotation rates.

  9. Multiplicity Control in Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cribbie, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    Researchers conducting structural equation modeling analyses rarely, if ever, control for the inflated probability of Type I errors when evaluating the statistical significance of multiple parameters in a model. In this study, the Type I error control, power and true model rates of famsilywise and false discovery rate controlling procedures were…

  10. Innovative modeling of Tuned Liquid Column Damper motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Matteo, A.; Lo Iacono, F.; Navarra, G.; Pirrotta, A.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper a new model for the liquid motion within a Tuned Liquid Column Damper (TLCD) device is developed, based on the mathematical tool of fractional calculus. Although the increasing use of these devices for structural vibration control, it is shown that existing model does not always lead to accurate prediction of the liquid motion. A better model is then needed for accurate simulation of the behavior of TLCD systems. As regards, it has been demonstrated how correctly including the first linear liquid sloshing mode, through the equivalent mechanical analogy well established in literature, produces numerical results that highly match the corresponding experimental ones. Since the apparent effect of sloshing is the deviation of the natural frequency from the theoretical one, the authors propose a fractional differential equation of motion. The latter choice is supported by the fact that the introduction a fractional derivative of order α alters simultaneously both the resonant frequency and the degree of damping of the system. It will be shown, through an extensive experimental analysis, how the proposed model accurately describes liquid surface displacements.

  11. A discrete impulsive model for random heating and Brownian motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramshaw, John D.

    2010-01-01

    The energy of a mechanical system subjected to a random force with zero mean increases irreversibly and diverges with time in the absence of friction or dissipation. This random heating effect is usually encountered in phenomenological theories formulated in terms of stochastic differential equations, the epitome of which is the Langevin equation of Brownian motion. We discuss a simple discrete impulsive model that captures the essence of random heating and Brownian motion. The model may be regarded as a discrete analog of the Langevin equation, although it is developed ab initio. Its analysis requires only simple algebraic manipulations and elementary averaging concepts, but no stochastic differential equations (or even calculus). The irreversibility in the model is shown to be a consequence of a natural causal stochastic condition that is closely analogous to Boltzmann's molecular chaos hypothesis in the kinetic theory of gases. The model provides a simple introduction to several ostensibly more advanced topics, including random heating, molecular chaos, irreversibility, Brownian motion, the Langevin equation, and fluctuation-dissipation theorems.

  12. On modeling animal movements using Brownian motion with measurement error.

    PubMed

    Pozdnyakov, Vladimir; Meyer, Thomas; Wang, Yu-Bo; Yan, Jun

    2014-02-01

    Modeling animal movements with Brownian motion (or more generally by a Gaussian process) has a long tradition in ecological studies. The recent Brownian bridge movement model (BBMM), which incorporates measurement errors, has been quickly adopted by ecologists because of its simplicity and tractability. We discuss some nontrivial properties of the discrete-time stochastic process that results from observing a Brownian motion with added normal noise at discrete times. In particular, we demonstrate that the observed sequence of random variables is not Markov. Consequently the expected occupation time between two successively observed locations does not depend on just those two observations; the whole path must be taken into account. Nonetheless, the exact likelihood function of the observed time series remains tractable; it requires only sparse matrix computations. The likelihood-based estimation procedure is described in detail and compared to the BBMM estimation.

  13. Quantum Brownian motion model for the stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiangyi; Zhang, Jian-Wei; Guo, Hong

    2016-06-01

    It is believed by the majority today that the efficient market hypothesis is imperfect because of market irrationality. Using the physical concepts and mathematical structures of quantum mechanics, we construct an econophysical framework for the stock market, based on which we analogously map massive numbers of single stocks into a reservoir consisting of many quantum harmonic oscillators and their stock index into a typical quantum open system-a quantum Brownian particle. In particular, the irrationality of stock transactions is quantitatively considered as the Planck constant within Heisenberg's uncertainty relationship of quantum mechanics in an analogous manner. We analyze real stock data of Shanghai Stock Exchange of China and investigate fat-tail phenomena and non-Markovian behaviors of the stock index with the assistance of the quantum Brownian motion model, thereby interpreting and studying the limitations of the classical Brownian motion model for the efficient market hypothesis from a new perspective of quantum open system dynamics.

  14. Lumbar joint torque estimation based on simplified motion measurement using multiple inertial sensors.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Saori; Tanaka, Takayuki; Imamura, Yumeko; Kusaka, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    We estimate lumbar torque based on motion measurement using only three inertial sensors. First, human motion is measured by a 6-axis motion tracking device that combines a 3-axis accelerometer and a 3-axis gyroscope placed on the shank, thigh, and back. Next, the lumbar joint torque during the motion is estimated by kinematic musculoskeletal simulation. The conventional method for estimating joint torque uses full body motion data measured by an optical motion capture system. However, in this research, joint torque is estimated by using only three link angles of the body, thigh, and shank. The utility of our method was verified by experiments. We measured motion of bendung knee and waist simultaneously. As the result, we were able to estimate the lumbar joint torque from measured motion. PMID:26737834

  15. Lumbar joint torque estimation based on simplified motion measurement using multiple inertial sensors.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Saori; Tanaka, Takayuki; Imamura, Yumeko; Kusaka, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    We estimate lumbar torque based on motion measurement using only three inertial sensors. First, human motion is measured by a 6-axis motion tracking device that combines a 3-axis accelerometer and a 3-axis gyroscope placed on the shank, thigh, and back. Next, the lumbar joint torque during the motion is estimated by kinematic musculoskeletal simulation. The conventional method for estimating joint torque uses full body motion data measured by an optical motion capture system. However, in this research, joint torque is estimated by using only three link angles of the body, thigh, and shank. The utility of our method was verified by experiments. We measured motion of bendung knee and waist simultaneously. As the result, we were able to estimate the lumbar joint torque from measured motion.

  16. Elements of an improved model of debris-flow motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    A new depth-averaged model of debris-flow motion describes simultaneous evolution of flow velocity and depth, solid and fluid volume fractions, and pore-fluid pressure. Non-hydrostatic pore-fluid pressure is produced by dilatancy, a state-dependent property that links the depth-averaged shear rate and volumetric strain rate of the granular phase. Pore-pressure changes caused by shearing allow the model to exhibit rate-dependent flow resistance, despite the fact that the basal shear traction involves only rate-independent Coulomb friction. An analytical solution of simplified model equations shows that the onset of downslope motion can be accelerated or retarded by pore-pressure change, contingent on whether dilatancy is positive or negative. A different analytical solution shows that such effects will likely be muted if downslope motion continues long enough, because dilatancy then evolves toward zero, and volume fractions and pore pressure concurrently evolve toward steady states. ?? 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  17. Polar Motion Constraints on Models of the Fortnightly Tide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Egbert, G. D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Estimates of the near-fortnightly Mf ocean tide from Topex/Poseidon satellite altimetry and from numerical solutions to the shallow water equations agree reasonably well, at least in their basin-scale features. For example, both show that the Pacific Ocean tide lags the Atlantic tide by roughly 30 degrees. There are hints of finer scale agreements in the elevation fields, but noise levels are high. In contrast, estimates of Mf currents are only weakly constrained by the TP data, because high-wavenumber Rossby waves (with intense currents) are associated with relatively small perturbations in surface elevation. As a result, a wide range of Mf current fields are consistent with both the TP data and the hydrodynamic equations within a priori plausible misfit bounds. We find that a useful constraint on the Mf currents is provided by independent estimates of the Earth's polar motion. At the Mf period polar motion shows a weak signal (both prograde and retrograde) which must be almost entirely caused by the ocean tide. We have estimated this signal from the SPACE2000 time series, after applying a broad-band correction for atmospheric angular momentum. Although the polar motion estimates have relatively large uncertainties, they are sufficiently precise to fix optimum data weights in a global ocean inverse model of Mf. These weights control the tradeoff between fitting a prior hydrodynamic model of Mf and fitting the relatively noisy T/P measurements of Mf. The predicted polar motion from the final inverse model agrees remarkably well with the Mf polar motion observations. The preferred model is also consistent with noise levels suggested by island gauges, and it is marginally consistent with differences observed by subsetting the altimetry (to the small extent that this is possible). In turn, this new model of the Mf ocean tide allows the ocean component to be removed from Mf estimates of length of day, thus yielding estimates of complex Love numbers less contaminated by

  18. One-degree-of-freedom motion induced by modeled vortex shedding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, L. A.; Unal, A.; Szady, M.; Chapman, G. T.

    1989-01-01

    The motion of an elastically supported cylinder forced by a nonlinear, quasi-static, aerodynamic model with the unusual feature of a motion-dependent forcing frequency was studied. Numerical solutions for the motion and the Lyapunov exponents are presented for three forcing amplitudes and two frequencies (1.0 and 1.1 times the Strouhal frequency). Initially, positive Lyapunov exponents occur and the motion can appear chaotic. After thousands of characteristic times, the motion changes to a motion (verified analytically) that is periodic and damped. This periodic, damped motion was not observed experimentally, thus raising questions concerning the modeling.

  19. Motion correction for q-space imaging by multiple interleaved b0 images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, Miyu; Du, Weiwei; Fukuzawa, Masayuki; Sakai, Koji; Tazoe, Jun; Ikeno, Hiroyasu; Yamada, Kei

    2016-03-01

    Subject motion in a large number of diffusion weighted images (DWIs) for q-space analysis was detected and corrected by using a simple protocol to add multiple interleaved b0 images between each DWI set and at the very end of data acquisition. The realignment matrix was determined from each b0 image with respect to the first b0 image and the matrix was used to realign not only the b0 image itself but also its subsequent DWI set. Degree of improvement in q-space analysis was estimated by calculating total residual sum of squares (RSS) in bi-exponential curve fitting process and also on the fractional anisotropy (FA) of zero displacement (ZDP). The large RSS regions were considerably diminished by realignment at the edges between cerebral gyri and sulci and at the ventricle boundaries in the original images. The large RSS regions around basal ganglia and near the ventricles were kept even by realignment but considerably suppressed with the averaged b0 image for decay-curve estimation. The volume average of RSS was reduced by the maximum of 77% in four volunteers' results with both the realignment and the averaged b0 images. The FA-ZDP images revealed the improvement by realignment such as the contrast of corpus callosum and suppression of abnormal FA at cerebral sulcus. The number of additional b0 images accounted for 3% of the total number of DWIs, which suggests its feasibility for future clinical application.

  20. Mobility and dynamics modeling for unmanned ground vehicle motion planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witus, Gary

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents an approach to modeling unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) mobility performance and vehicle dynamics for evaluating the feasibility and cost of alternative motion plans. Feasibility constraints include power, traction, and roll stability limits. Sensor stabilization performance is considered in a system-level constraint requiring that the obstacle detection distance exceed the stopping distance. Mission time and power requirements are inputs to a multi- attribute cost function for planning under uncertainty. The modeling approach combines a theoretical first-principles mathematical model with an empirical knowledge-based model. The first-principles model predicts performance in an idealized deterministic environment. On-board vehicle dynamics control, for dynamic load balancing and traction management, legitimize some of the simplifying assumptions. The knowledge- based model uses historical relationships to predict the mean and variance of total system performance accounting for the contributions of unplanned reactive behaviors, local terrain variations, and vehicle response transients.

  1. PET Motion Compensation for Radiation Therapy Using a CT-Based Mid-Position Motion Model: Methodology and Clinical Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Kruis, Matthijs F.; Kamer, Jeroen B. van de; Houweling, Antonetta C.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Belderbos, José S.A.; Herk, Marcel van

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: Four-dimensional positron emission tomography (4D PET) imaging of the thorax produces sharper images with reduced motion artifacts. Current radiation therapy planning systems, however, do not facilitate 4D plan optimization. When images are acquired in a 2-minute time slot, the signal-to-noise ratio of each 4D frame is low, compromising image quality. The purpose of this study was to implement and evaluate the construction of mid-position 3D PET scans, with motion compensated using a 4D computed tomography (CT)-derived motion model. Methods and Materials: All voxels of 4D PET were registered to the time-averaged position by using a motion model derived from the 4D CT frames. After the registration the scans were summed, resulting in a motion-compensated 3D mid-position PET scan. The method was tested with a phantom dataset as well as data from 27 lung cancer patients. Results: PET motion compensation using a CT-based motion model improved image quality of both phantoms and patients in terms of increased maximum SUV (SUV{sub max}) values and decreased apparent volumes. In homogenous phantom data, a strong relationship was found between the amplitude-to-diameter ratio and the effects of the method. In heterogeneous patient data, the effect correlated better with the motion amplitude. In case of large amplitudes, motion compensation may increase SUV{sub max} up to 25% and reduce the diameter of the 50% SUV{sub max} volume by 10%. Conclusions: 4D CT-based motion-compensated mid-position PET scans provide improved quantitative data in terms of uptake values and volumes at the time-averaged position, thereby facilitating more accurate radiation therapy treatment planning of pulmonary lesions.

  2. A mathematical model for efficient estimation of aircraft motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bach, R. E., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    In the usual formulation of the aircraft state-estimation problem, motions along a flight trajectory are represented by a plant consisting of nonlinear state and measurement models. Problem solution using this formulation requires that both state- and measurement-dependent Jacobian matrices be evaluated along any trajectory. In this paper it is shown that a set of state variables can be chosen to realize a linear state model of very simple form, such that all nonlinearities appear in the measurement model. The potential advantage of the new formulation is computational: the Jacobian matrix corresponding to a linear state model is constant, a feature that should outweigh the fact that the measurement model is more complicated than in the conventinal formulation. To compare the modeling methods, aircraft motions from typical flight-test and accident data were estimated, using each formulation with the same off-line (smoothing) algorithm. The results of these experiments, reported in the paper, demonstrate clearly the computational superiority of the linear state-variable formulation. The procedure advocated here may be extended to other nonlinear estimation problems, including on-line (filtering) applications.

  3. Langevin model for a Brownian system with directed motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambía, Francisco; Híjar, Humberto

    2016-08-01

    We propose a model for an active Brownian system that exhibits one-dimensional directed motion. This system consists of two Brownian spherical particles that interact through an elastic potential and have time-dependent radii. We suggest an algorithm by which the sizes of the particles can be varied, such that the center of mass of the system is able to move at an average constant speed in one direction. The dynamics of the system is studied theoretically using a Langevin model, as well as from Brownian Dynamics simulations.

  4. Immersed false vertical room. A new motion sickness model.

    PubMed

    Coats, A C; Norfleet, W T

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated a new model of motion sickness--an enclosure decorated with visual cues to upright which was immersed either inverted or "front"-wall down, in Johnson Space Center's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) pool. This "WETF False Vertical Room" (WFVR) was tested with 19 male and 3 female SCUBA diver subjects, aged 23 to 57, who alternately set clocks mounted near the room's 8 corners and made exaggerated pitch head movements. We found that (1) the WFVR test runs produced motion sickness symptoms in 56% and 36% of subjects in the room-inverted and room-front-down positions, respectively. (2) Pitch head movements were the most provocative acts, followed closely by setting the clocks--particularly when a clock face filled the visual field. (3) When measured with a self-ranking questionnaire, terrestrial motion sickness susceptibility correlated strongly (P < 0.005) with WFVR sickness susceptibility. (4) Standing instability, measured with a modified Fregly-Graybiel floor battery, also correlated strongly (P < 0.005) with WFVR sickness susceptibility. This result may reflect a relationship between visual dominance and WFVR sickness. (5) A control study demonstrated that the inverted and front-down positions produced WFVR sickness, but the upright position did not, and that adaptation may have occurred in some subjects with repeated exposure. The WFVR could become a useful terrestrial model of space motion sickness (SMS) because it duplicates the nature of the gravity-dependent sensory conflicts created by microgravity (visual and otolith inputs conflict while somatosensory gravity cues are minimized), and it also duplicates the nature of the provocative stimulus (sensory environment "rule change" versus application of motion to passive subject) more closely than any other proposed terrestrial SMS model. Also, unlike any other proposed terrestrial SMS model, the WFVR incorporates whole-body movement in all three spatial dimensions. However, the WFVR

  5. Salamander locomotion-induced head movement and retinal motion sensitivity in a correlation-based motion detector model.

    PubMed

    Begley, Jeffrey R; Arbib, Michael A

    2007-06-01

    We report on a computational model of retinal motion sensitivity based on correlation-based motion detectors. We simulate object motion detection in the presence of retinal slip caused by the salamander's head movements during locomotion. Our study offers new insights into object motion sensitive ganglion cells in the salamander retina. A sigmoidal transformation of the spatially and temporally filtered retinal image substantially improves the sensitivity of the system in detecting a small target moving in place against a static natural background in the presence of comparatively large, fast simulated eye movements, but is detrimental to the direction-selectivity of the motion detector. The sigmoid has insignificant effects on detector performance in simulations of slow, high contrast laboratory stimuli. These results suggest that the sigmoid reduces the system's noise sensitivity.

  6. Deformable models with sparsity constraints for cardiac motion analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Zhang, Shaoting; Li, Kang; Metaxas, Dimitris; Axel, Leon

    2014-08-01

    Deformable models integrate bottom-up information derived from image appearance cues and top-down priori knowledge of the shape. They have been widely used with success in medical image analysis. One limitation of traditional deformable models is that the information extracted from the image data may contain gross errors, which adversely affect the deformation accuracy. To alleviate this issue, we introduce a new family of deformable models that are inspired from the compressed sensing, a technique for accurate signal reconstruction by harnessing some sparseness priors. In this paper, we employ sparsity constraints to handle the outliers or gross errors, and integrate them seamlessly with deformable models. The proposed new formulation is applied to the analysis of cardiac motion using tagged magnetic resonance imaging (tMRI), where the automated tagging line tracking results are very noisy due to the poor image quality. Our new deformable models track the heart motion robustly, and the resulting strains are consistent with those calculated from manual labels. PMID:24721617

  7. Modeling the Nonlinear Motion of the Rat Central Airways.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, G; Rona, A; Hainsworth, S V

    2016-01-01

    Advances in volumetric medical imaging techniques allowed the subject-specific modeling of the bronchial flow through the first few generations of the central airways using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). However, a reliable CFD prediction of the bronchial flow requires modeling of the inhomogeneous deformation of the central airways during breathing. This paper addresses this issue by introducing two models of the central airways motion. The first model utilizes a node-to-node mapping between the discretized geometries of the central airways generated from a number of successive computed tomography (CT) images acquired dynamically (without breath hold) over the breathing cycle of two Sprague-Dawley rats. The second model uses a node-to-node mapping between only two discretized airway geometries generated from the CT images acquired at end-exhale and at end-inhale along with the ventilator measurement of the lung volume change. The advantage of this second model is that it uses just one pair of CT images, which more readily complies with the radiation dosage restrictions for humans. Three-dimensional computer aided design geometries of the central airways generated from the dynamic-CT images were used as benchmarks to validate the output from the two models at sampled time-points over the breathing cycle. The central airway geometries deformed by the first model showed good agreement to the benchmark geometries within a tolerance of 4%. The central airway geometry deformed by the second model better approximated the benchmark geometries than previous approaches that used a linear or harmonic motion model.

  8. Modeling the Nonlinear Motion of the Rat Central Airways.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, G; Rona, A; Hainsworth, S V

    2016-01-01

    Advances in volumetric medical imaging techniques allowed the subject-specific modeling of the bronchial flow through the first few generations of the central airways using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). However, a reliable CFD prediction of the bronchial flow requires modeling of the inhomogeneous deformation of the central airways during breathing. This paper addresses this issue by introducing two models of the central airways motion. The first model utilizes a node-to-node mapping between the discretized geometries of the central airways generated from a number of successive computed tomography (CT) images acquired dynamically (without breath hold) over the breathing cycle of two Sprague-Dawley rats. The second model uses a node-to-node mapping between only two discretized airway geometries generated from the CT images acquired at end-exhale and at end-inhale along with the ventilator measurement of the lung volume change. The advantage of this second model is that it uses just one pair of CT images, which more readily complies with the radiation dosage restrictions for humans. Three-dimensional computer aided design geometries of the central airways generated from the dynamic-CT images were used as benchmarks to validate the output from the two models at sampled time-points over the breathing cycle. The central airway geometries deformed by the first model showed good agreement to the benchmark geometries within a tolerance of 4%. The central airway geometry deformed by the second model better approximated the benchmark geometries than previous approaches that used a linear or harmonic motion model. PMID:26592166

  9. Detecting Multiple Moving Objects in Crowded Environments with Coherent Motion Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriyadat, Anil M; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2008-01-01

    We propose an object detection system that uses the locations of tracked low-level feature points as input, and produces a set of independent coherent motion regions as output. As an object moves, tracked feature points on it span a coherent 3D region in the space-time volume defined by the video. In the case of multi-object motion, many possible coherent motion regions can be constructed around the set of all feature point tracks. Our approach is to identify all possible coherent motion regions, and extract the subset that maximizes an overall likelihood function while assigning each point track to at most one motion region. We solve the problem of finding the best set of coherent motion regions with a simple greedy algorithm, and show that our approach produces semantically correct detections and counts of similar objects moving through crowded scenes.

  10. Age Dependent Absolute Plate and Plume Motion Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaton, D. E.; Koppers, A. A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Current absolute plate motion (APM) models from 80 - 0 Ma are constrained by the location of mantle plume related hotspot seamounts, in particular those of the Hawaiian-Emperor and Louisville seamount trails. Originally the 'fixed' hotspot hypothesis was developed to explain past plate motion based on linear age progressive intra-plate volcanism. However, now that 'moving' hotspots are accepted, it is becoming clear that APM models need to be corrected for individual plume motion vectors. For older seamount trails that were active between roughly 50 and 80 Ma the APM models that use 'fixed' hotspots overestimate the measured age progression in those trails, while APM models corrected for 'moving' hotspots underestimate those age progressions. These mismatches are due to both a lack of reliable ages in the older portions of both the Hawaii and Louisville seamount trails and insufficient APM modeling constraints from other seamount trails in the Pacific Basin. Seamounts are difficult to sample and analyze because many are hydrothermally altered and have low potassium concentrations. New 40Ar/39Ar Age results from International Ocean Drilling Project (IODP) Expedition 330 Sites U1372 (n=18), U1375 (n=3), U1376 (n=15) and U1377 (n=7) aid in constraining the oldest end of the Louisville Seamount trail. A significant observation in this study is that the age range recovered in the drill cores match the range of ages that were acquired on dredging cruises at the same seamounts (e.g. Koppers et al., 2011). This is important for determining the inception age of a seamount. The sections recovered from IODP EXP 330 are in-situ volcanoclastic breccia and lava flows. Comparing the seismic interpretations of Louisville guyots (Contreras-Reyes et al., 2010), Holes U1372, U1373 and U1374 penetrated the extrusive and volcanoclastic sections of the seamount. The ages obtained are consistent over stratigraphic intervals >100-450 m thick, providing evidence that these seamounts

  11. Modeling the integration of motion signals across space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loffler, Gunter; Orbach, Harry S.

    2003-08-01

    Experiments by Loffler and Orbach on the integration of motion signals across space [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1461 (2003)] revealed that both three-dimensional analysis and object interpretation play a much smaller role than previously assumed. These results motivated the quantitative description of a low-level, bottom-up model presented here. Motion is computed in parallel at different spatial sites, and excitatory interactions operate between sites. The strength of these interactions is determined mainly by distance. Simulations correctly predict behavior for a variety of manipulations on multi-aperture stimuli: aligned and skewed lines, different presentation times, different inter-aperture gaps, and different spatial frequencies. However, strictly distance-dependent mechanisms are too simplistic to account for all experimental data. Mismatches for grossly misoriented lines suggest collinear facilitation as a promising extension. Once incorporated, collinear facilitation not only correctly predicts results for misoriented patterns but also accounts for the lack of motion integration between heterogeneous stimuli such as lines and dots.

  12. A Pelvic Phantom for Modeling Internal Organ Motions

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacs, Peter; Sebestyen, Zsolt; Farkas, Robert; Bellyei, Szabolcs; Szigeti, Andras; Liposits, Gabor; Hideghety, Katalin; Derczy, Katalin; Mangel, Laszlo

    2011-10-01

    A pelvic phantom was developed for use in testing image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) and adaptive applications in radiation therapy (ART) with simulating the anterior-posterior internal organ motions during prostate radiotherapy. Measurements could be done with an ionization chamber (IC) in the simulated prostate. The rectum was simulated by air-equivalent material (AEM). The volume superior to the IC placement was considered as the bladder. The extension of AEM volume could be varied. The vertical position of the IC placement could be shifted by {+-}1 cm to simulate the prostate motion parallel to the changes in bladder volume. The reality of the simulation was inspected. Three-millimeter-slice-increment computed tomography (CT) scans were taken for irradiation planning. The structure set was adapted to the phantom from a treated patient. Planning target volume was delineated according to the RTOG 0126 study. IMRT and 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) plans were made. Prostate motion and rectum volume changes were simulated in the phantom. IC displacement was corrected by phantom shifting. The delivered dose was measured with IC in 7 cases using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and 3D-CRT fractions, and single square-shaped beams: anteroposterior (AP), posteroanterior (PA), and lateral (LAT). Variations from the calculated doses were slightly below 1% at IMRT and around 1% at 3D-CRT; below 4.5% at square AP beam; up to 9% at square PA beam; and around 0.5% at square LAT beam. Other authors have already shown that by using planning systems and ultrasonic and cone beam CT guidance, correction of organ motions in a real patient during prostate cancer IGRT does not have a significant dosimetric effect. The inspection of our phantom-as described here-ended with similar results. Our team suggested that our model is sufficiently realistic and can be used for IGRT and ART testing.

  13. Sparse deformable models with application to cardiac motion analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Zhang, Shaoting; Huang, Junzhou; Metaxas, Dimitris; Axel, Leon

    2013-01-01

    Deformable models have been widely used with success in medical image analysis. They combine bottom-up information derived from image appearance cues, with top-down shape-based constraints within a physics-based formulation. However, in many real world problems the observations extracted from the image data often contain gross errors, which adversely affect the deformation accuracy. To alleviate this issue, we introduce a new family of deformable models that are inspired from compressed sensing, a technique for efficiently reconstructing a signal based on its sparseness in some domain. In this problem, we employ sparsity to represent the outliers or gross errors, and combine it seamlessly with deformable models. The proposed new formulation is applied to the analysis of cardiac motion, using tagged magnetic resonance imaging (tMRI), where the automated tagging line tracking results are very noisy due to the poor image quality. Our new deformable models track the heart motion robustly, and the resulting strains are consistent with those calculated from manual labels. PMID:24683970

  14. Multiple alignment using hidden Markov models

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, S.R.

    1995-12-31

    A simulated annealing method is described for training hidden Markov models and producing multiple sequence alignments from initially unaligned protein or DNA sequences. Simulated annealing in turn uses a dynamic programming algorithm for correctly sampling suboptimal multiple alignments according to their probability and a Boltzmann temperature factor. The quality of simulated annealing alignments is evaluated on structural alignments of ten different protein families, and compared to the performance of other HMM training methods and the ClustalW program. Simulated annealing is better able to find near-global optima in the multiple alignment probability landscape than the other tested HMM training methods. Neither ClustalW nor simulated annealing produce consistently better alignments compared to each other. Examination of the specific cases in which ClustalW outperforms simulated annealing, and vice versa, provides insight into the strengths and weaknesses of current hidden Maxkov model approaches.

  15. Model and parametric uncertainty in source-based kinematic models of earthquake ground motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, Stephen; Frankel, Arthur; Liu, Pengcheng; Zeng, Yuehua; Rahman, Shariftur

    2011-01-01

    Four independent ground-motion simulation codes are used to model the strong ground motion for three earthquakes: 1994 Mw 6.7 Northridge, 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta, and 1999 Mw 7.5 Izmit. These 12 sets of synthetics are used to make estimates of the variability in ground-motion predictions. In addition, ground-motion predictions over a grid of sites are used to estimate parametric uncertainty for changes in rupture velocity. We find that the combined model uncertainty and random variability of the simulations is in the same range as the variability of regional empirical ground-motion data sets. The majority of the standard deviations lie between 0.5 and 0.7 natural-log units for response spectra and 0.5 and 0.8 for Fourier spectra. The estimate of model epistemic uncertainty, based on the different model predictions, lies between 0.2 and 0.4, which is about one-half of the estimates for the standard deviation of the combined model uncertainty and random variability. Parametric uncertainty, based on variation of just the average rupture velocity, is shown to be consistent in amplitude with previous estimates, showing percentage changes in ground motion from 50% to 300% when rupture velocity changes from 2.5 to 2.9 km/s. In addition, there is some evidence that mean biases can be reduced by averaging ground-motion estimates from different methods.

  16. Modelling Documents with Multiple Poisson Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margulis, Eugene L.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on the validity of the Multiple Poisson (nP) model of word distribution in full-text document collections. A practical algorithm for determining whether a certain word is distributed according to an nP distribution and the results of a test of this algorithm in three different document collections are described. (14 references) (KRN)

  17. Rasch's Multiplicative Poisson Model with Covariates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogasawara, Haruhiko

    1996-01-01

    Rasch's multiplicative Poisson model is extended so that parameters for individuals in the prior gamma distribution have continuous covariates. Parameters for individuals are integrated out, and hyperparameters in the prior distribution are estimated by a numerical method separately from difficulty parameters that are treated as fixed parameters…

  18. MICROARRAY DATA ANALYSIS USING MULTIPLE STATISTICAL MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microarray Data Analysis Using Multiple Statistical Models

    Wenjun Bao1, Judith E. Schmid1, Amber K. Goetz1, Ming Ouyang2, William J. Welsh2,Andrew I. Brooks3,4, ChiYi Chu3,Mitsunori Ogihara3,4, Yinhe Cheng5, David J. Dix1. 1National Health and Environmental Effects Researc...

  19. Multiple Test Equating Using the Rasch Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigman, S. Leellen; Bashaw, W. L.

    Procedures are presented for equating simultaneously several tests which have been calibrated by the Rasch Model. Three multiple test equating designs are described. A Full Matrix Design equates each test to all others. A Chain Design links tests sequentially. A Vector Design equates one test to each of the other tests. For each design, the Rasch…

  20. Predictive performance models and multiple task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Larish, Inge; Contorer, Aaron

    1989-01-01

    Five models that predict how performance of multiple tasks will interact in complex task scenarios are discussed. The models are shown in terms of the assumptions they make about human operator divided attention. The different assumptions about attention are then empirically validated in a multitask helicopter flight simulation. It is concluded from this simulation that the most important assumption relates to the coding of demand level of different component tasks.

  1. Computer coordination of limb motion for locomotion of a multiple-armed robot for space assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, C. A.; Patterson, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    Consideration is given to a possible robotic system for the construction of large space structures, which may be described as a multiple general purpose arm manipulator vehicle that can walk over the structure under construction to a given site for further work. A description is presented of the locomotion of such a vehicle, modeling its arms in terms of a currently available industrial manipulator. It is noted that for whatever maximum speed of operation is chosen, rapid changes in robot velocity create situations in which already-selected handholds are no longer practical. A step is added to the 'free gait' walking algorithm in order to solve this problem.

  2. A Fully Nonlinear, Dynamically Consistent Numerical Model for Solid-Body Ship Motion. I. Ship Motion with Fixed Heading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ray-Quing; Kuang, Weijia

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the details of our numerical model for simulating ship solidbody motion in a given environment. In this model, the fully nonlinear dynamical equations governing the time-varying solid-body ship motion under the forces arising from ship wave interactions are solved with given initial conditions. The net force and moment (torque) on the ship body are directly calculated via integration of the hydrodynamic pressure over the wetted surface and the buoyancy effect from the underwater volume of the actual ship hull with a hybrid finite-difference/finite-element method. Neither empirical nor free parametrization is introduced in this model, i.e. no a priori experimental data are needed for modelling. This model is benchmarked with many experiments of various ship hulls for heave, roll and pitch motion. In addition to the benchmark cases, numerical experiments are also carried out for strongly nonlinear ship motion with a fixed heading. These new cases demonstrate clearly the importance of nonlinearities in ship motion modelling.

  3. A GUI for Modeling Multiple Planet Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giguere, Matthew J.; Ader, T.; Barnes, R.; Barranco, J. A.; Fischer, D.

    2009-01-01

    We developed an IDL widget interface (MPF Widget) to model planetary systems using combined astrometric and radial velocity data. MPF Widget drives a Levenberg-Marquardt fitting algorithm to simultaneously fit data for parallax, proper motion and up to seven planets. This visualization tool is helpful for locating good initial guesses that allow the Levenberg-Marquardt fitting algorithm to converge on the global minimum chi squared value. It also includes tools for periodogram analysis and the capability to fit planets sequentially working with the residual data from each preceding model. MPF Widget was developed to test simulated data for the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) and would be a useful tool for teaching the effects of each Keplerian parameter on observational data. We thank NASA and SIM for supporting this project.

  4. New Ground Motion Prediction Models for Caucasus Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorjiashvili, N.

    2012-12-01

    The Caucasus is a region of numerous natural hazards and ensuing disasters. Analysis of the losses due to past disasters indicates the those most catastrophic in the region have historically been due to strong earthquakes. Estimation of expected ground motion is a fundamental earthquake hazard assessment. The most commonly used parameter for attenuation relation is peak ground acceleration because this parameter gives useful information for Seismic Hazard Assessment. Because of this, many peak ground acceleration attenuation relations have been developed by different authors. Besides, a few attenuation relations were developed for Caucasus region: Ambraseys et al. (1996,2005) which were based on entire European region and they were not focused locally on Caucasus Region; Smit et.al. (2000) that was based on a small amount of acceleration data that really is not enough. Since 2003 construction of Georgian Digital Seismic Network has started with the help of number of International organizations, Projects and Private companies. The works conducted involved scientific as well as organizational activities: Resolving technical problems concerning communication and data transmission. Thus, today we have a possibility to get real time data and make scientific research based on digital seismic data. Generally, ground motion and damage are influenced by the magnitude of the earthquake, the distance from the seismic source to site, the local ground conditions and the characteristics of buildings. Estimation of expected ground motion is a fundamental earthquake hazard assessment. This is the reason why this topic is emphasized in this study. In this study new GMP models are obtained based on new data from Georgian seismic network and also from neighboring countries. Estimation of models are obtained by classical, statistical way, regression analysis. Also site ground conditions are considered because the same earthquake recorded at the same distance may cause different damage

  5. Continuous motion decoding from EMG using independent component analysis and adaptive model training.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Xiong, Caihua; Chen, Wenbin

    2014-01-01

    Surface Electromyography (EMG) is popularly used to decode human motion intention for robot movement control. Traditional motion decoding method uses pattern recognition to provide binary control command which can only move the robot as predefined limited patterns. In this work, we proposed a motion decoding method which can accurately estimate 3-dimensional (3-D) continuous upper limb motion only from multi-channel EMG signals. In order to prevent the muscle activities from motion artifacts and muscle crosstalk which especially obviously exist in upper limb motion, the independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to extract the independent source EMG signals. The motion data was also transferred from 4-manifold to 2-manifold by the principle component analysis (PCA). A hidden Markov model (HMM) was proposed to decode the motion from the EMG signals after the model trained by an adaptive model identification process. Experimental data were used to train the decoding model and validate the motion decoding performance. By comparing the decoded motion with the measured motion, it is found that the proposed motion decoding strategy was feasible to decode 3-D continuous motion from EMG signals.

  6. [Bionic model for coordinated head-eye motion control].

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiaobo; Chen, Tiejun

    2011-10-01

    The relationships between eye movements and head movements of the primate during gaze shifts are analyzed in detail in the present paper. Applying the mechanisms of neurophysiology to engineering domain, we have improved the robot eye-head coordination. A bionic control strategy of coordinated head-eye motion was proposed. The processes of gaze shifts are composed of an initial fast phase followed by a slow phase. In the fast phase saccade eye movements and slow head movements were combined, which cooperate to bring gaze from an initial resting position toward the new target rapidly, while in the slow phase the gaze stability and target fixation were ensured by the action of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) where the eyes and head rotate by equal amplitudes in opposite directions. A bionic gaze control model was given. The simulation results confirmed the effectiveness of the model by comparing with the results of neurophysiology experiments.

  7. Visual fatigue modeling for stereoscopic video shot based on camera motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Guozhong; Sang, Xinzhu; Yu, Xunbo; Liu, Yangdong; Liu, Jing

    2014-11-01

    As three-dimensional television (3-DTV) and 3-D movie become popular, the discomfort of visual feeling limits further applications of 3D display technology. The cause of visual discomfort from stereoscopic video conflicts between accommodation and convergence, excessive binocular parallax, fast motion of objects and so on. Here, a novel method for evaluating visual fatigue is demonstrated. Influence factors including spatial structure, motion scale and comfortable zone are analyzed. According to the human visual system (HVS), people only need to converge their eyes to the specific objects for static cameras and background. Relative motion should be considered for different camera conditions determining different factor coefficients and weights. Compared with the traditional visual fatigue prediction model, a novel visual fatigue predicting model is presented. Visual fatigue degree is predicted using multiple linear regression method combining with the subjective evaluation. Consequently, each factor can reflect the characteristics of the scene, and the total visual fatigue score can be indicated according to the proposed algorithm. Compared with conventional algorithms which ignored the status of the camera, our approach exhibits reliable performance in terms of correlation with subjective test results.

  8. U(6)-Phonon model of nuclear collective motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganev, H. G.

    2015-05-01

    The U(6)-phonon model of nuclear collective motion with the semi-direct product structure [HW(21)]U(6) is obtained as a hydrodynamic (macroscopic) limit of the fully microscopic proton-neutron symplectic model (PNSM) with Sp(12, R) dynamical group. The phonon structure of the [HW(21)]U(6) model enables it to simultaneously include the giant monopole and quadrupole, as well as dipole resonances and their coupling to the low-lying collective states. The U(6) intrinsic structure of the [HW(21)]U(6) model, from the other side, gives a framework for the simultaneous shell-model interpretation of the ground state band and the other excited low-lying collective bands. It follows then that the states of the whole nuclear Hilbert space which can be put into one-to-one correspondence with those of a 21-dimensional oscillator with an intrinsic (base) U(6) structure. The latter can be determined in such a way that it is compatible with the proton-neutron structure of the nucleus. The macroscopic limit of the Sp(12, R) algebra, therefore, provides a rigorous mechanism for implementing the unified model ideas of coupling the valence particles to the core collective degrees of freedom within a fully microscopic framework without introducing redundant variables or violating the Pauli principle.

  9. Fast-coding robust motion estimation model in a GPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Carlos; Botella, Guillermo; de Sande, Francisco; Prieto-Matias, Manuel

    2015-02-01

    Nowadays vision systems are used with countless purposes. Moreover, the motion estimation is a discipline that allow to extract relevant information as pattern segmentation, 3D structure or tracking objects. However, the real-time requirements in most applications has limited its consolidation, considering the adoption of high performance systems to meet response times. With the emergence of so-called highly parallel devices known as accelerators this gap has narrowed. Two extreme endpoints in the spectrum of most common accelerators are Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and Graphics Processing Systems (GPU), which usually offer higher performance rates than general propose processors. Moreover, the use of GPUs as accelerators involves the efficient exploitation of any parallelism in the target application. This task is not easy because performance rates are affected by many aspects that programmers should overcome. In this paper, we evaluate OpenACC standard, a programming model with directives which favors porting any code to a GPU in the context of motion estimation application. The results confirm that this programming paradigm is suitable for this image processing applications achieving a very satisfactory acceleration in convolution based problems as in the well-known Lucas & Kanade method.

  10. Double multiple streamtube model with recent improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Paraschivoiu, I.; Delclaux, F.

    1983-05-01

    The objective is to show the new capabilities of the double multiple streamtube (DMS) model for predicting the aerodynamic loads and performance of the Darrieus vertical-axis turbine. The original DMS model has been improved (DMSV model) by considering the variation in the upwind and downwind induced velocities as a function of the azimuthal angle for each streamtube. A comparison is made of the rotor performance for several blade geometries (parabola, catenary, troposkien, and Sandia shape). A new formulation is given for an approximate troposkien shape by considering the effect of the gravitational field. The effects of three NACA symmetrical profiles, 0012, 0015 and 0018, on the aerodynamic performance of the turbine are shown. Finally, a semiempirical dynamic-stall model has been incorporated and a better approximation obtained for modeling the local aerodynamic forces and performance for a Darrieus rotor.

  11. Double multiple streamtube model with recent improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraschivoiu, I.; Delclaux, F.

    1983-06-01

    The objective of the present paper is to show the new capabilities of the double multiple streamtube (DMS) model for predicting the aerodynamic loads and performance of the Darrieus vertical-axis turbine. The original DMS model has been improved (DMSV model) by considering the variation in the upwind and downwind induced velocities as a function of the azimuthal angle for each streamtube. A comparison is made of the rotor performance for several blade geometries (parabola, catenary, troposkien, and Sandia shape). A new formulation is given for an approximate troposkien shape by considering the effect of the gravitational field. The effects of three NACA symmetrical profiles, 0012, 0015 and 0018, on the aerodynamic performance of the turbine are shown. Finally, a semiempirical dynamic-stall model has been incorporated and a better approximation obtained for modeling the local aerodynamic forces and performance for a Darrieus rotor.

  12. Double multiple streamtube model with recent improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Paraschivoiu, I.; Delclaux, F.

    1983-05-01

    The objective of the present paper is to show the new capabilities of the double multiple streamtube (DMS) model for predicting the aerodynamic loads and performance of the Darrieus vertical-axis turbine. The original DMS model has been improved (DMSV model) by considering the variation in the upwind and downwind induced velocities as a function of the azimuthal angle for each streamtube. A comparison is made of the rotor performance for several blade geometries (parabola, catenary, troposkien, and Sandia shape). A new formulation is given for an approximate troposkien shape by considering the effect of the gravitational field. The effects of three NACA symmetrical profiles, 0012, 0015 and 0018, on the aerodynamic performance of the turbine are shown. Finally, a semiempirical dynamic-stall model has been incorporated and a better approximation obtained for modeling the local aerodynamic forces and performance for a Darrieus rotor.

  13. Communication: Effective spectroscopic Hamiltonian for multiple minima with above barrier motion: Isomerization in HO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, George L.; Kellman, Michael E.

    2010-09-01

    We present a two-dimensional potential surface for the isomerization in the hydroperoxyl radical HO2 and calculate the vibrational spectrum. We then show that a simple effective spectroscopic fitting Hamiltonian is capable of reproducing large scale vibrational spectral structure above the isomerization barrier. Polyad breaking with multiple resonances is necessary to adequately describe the spectral features of the system. Insight into the dynamical nature of isomerization related to the effective Hamiltonian is gained through classical trajectories on the model potential. Contrary to physical intuition, the bend mode is not a "reaction mode," but rather isomerization requires excitation in both stretch and bend. The dynamics reveals a Farey tree formed from the 2:1 and 3:1 resonances, corresponding to the resonance coupling terms in the effective Hamiltonian, with the prominent 5:2 (2:1+3:1) feature dividing the tree into parts that we call the 3:1 and 2:1 portions.

  14. Communication: Effective spectroscopic Hamiltonian for multiple minima with above barrier motion: Isomerization in HO(2).

    PubMed

    Barnes, George L; Kellman, Michael E

    2010-09-14

    We present a two-dimensional potential surface for the isomerization in the hydroperoxyl radical HO(2) and calculate the vibrational spectrum. We then show that a simple effective spectroscopic fitting Hamiltonian is capable of reproducing large scale vibrational spectral structure above the isomerization barrier. Polyad breaking with multiple resonances is necessary to adequately describe the spectral features of the system. Insight into the dynamical nature of isomerization related to the effective Hamiltonian is gained through classical trajectories on the model potential. Contrary to physical intuition, the bend mode is not a "reaction mode," but rather isomerization requires excitation in both stretch and bend. The dynamics reveals a Farey tree formed from the 2:1 and 3:1 resonances, corresponding to the resonance coupling terms in the effective Hamiltonian, with the prominent 5:2 (2:1+3:1) feature dividing the tree into parts that we call the 3:1 and 2:1 portions. PMID:20849156

  15. A model for the pilot's use of motion cues in roll-axis tracking tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levison, W. H.; Junker, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Simulated target-following and disturbance-regulation tasks were explored with subjects using visual-only and combined visual and motion cues. The effects of motion cues on task performance and pilot response behavior were appreciably different for the two task configurations and were consistent with data reported in earlier studies for similar task configurations. The optimal-control model for pilot/vehicle systems provided a task-independent framework for accounting for the pilot's use of motion cues. Specifically, the availability of motion cues was modeled by augmenting the set of perceptual variables to include position, rate, acceleration, and accleration-rate of the motion simulator, and results were consistent with the hypothesis of attention-sharing between visual and motion variables. This straightforward informational model allowed accurate model predictions of the effects of motion cues on a variety of response measures for both the target-following and disturbance-regulation tasks.

  16. Models for motion-based video indexing and retrieval.

    PubMed

    Dağtaş, S; Al-Khatib, W; Ghafoor, A; Kashyap, R L

    2000-01-01

    With the rapid proliferation of multimedia applications that require video data management, it is becoming more desirable to provide proper video data indexing techniques capable of representing the rich semantics in video data. In real-time applications, the need for efficient query processing is another reason for the use of such techniques. We present models that use the object motion information in order to characterize the events to allow subsequent retrieval. Algorithms for different spatiotemporal search cases in terms of spatial and temporal translation and scale invariance have been developed using various signal and image processing techniques. We have developed a prototype video search engine, PICTURESQUE (pictorial information and content transformation unified retrieval engine for spatiotemporal queries) to verify the proposed methods. Development of such technology will enable true multimedia search engines that will enable indexing and searching of the digital video data based on its true content. PMID:18255375

  17. Early breakup of Gondwana: constraints from global plate motion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seton, Maria; Zahirovic, Sabin; Williams, Simon; Whittaker, Joanne; Gibbons, Ana; Muller, Dietmar; Brune, Sascha; Heine, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Supercontinent break-up and amalgamation is a fundamental Earth cycle, contributing to long-term sea-level fluctuations, species diversity and extinction events, long-term greenhouse-icehouse cycles and changes in the long-wavelength density structure of the mantle. The most recent and best-constrained example involves the fragmentation of Gondwana, starting with rifting between Africa/Madagascar and Antarctica in the Early Jurassic and ending with the separation of the Lord Howe microcontinental blocks east of Australia in the Late Cretaceous. Although the first order configuration of Gondwana within modern reconstructions appears similar to that first proposed by Wegener a century ago, recent studies utilising a wealth of new geophysical and geological data provide a much more detailed picture of relative plate motions both during rifting and subsequent seafloor spreading. We present our latest global plate motion model that includes extensive, new regional analyses. These include: South Atlantic rifting, which started at 150 Ma and propagated into cratonic Africa by 145 Ma (Heine et al., 2013); rifting and early seafloor spreading between Australia, India and Antarctica, which reconciles the fit between Broken Ridge-Kergulean Plateau and the eastern Tasman region (Whittaker et al., 2013); rifting of continental material from northeastern Gondwana and its accretion onto Eurasia and SE Asia including a new model of microcontinent formation and early seafloor spreading in the eastern Indian Ocean (Gibbons et al., 2012; 2013; in review; Williams et al., 2013; Zahirovic et al., 2014); and a new model for the isolation of Zealandia east of Australia, with rifting initiating at 100 Ma until the start of seafloor spreading in the Tasman Sea at ~85 Ma (Williams et al., in prep). Using these reconstructions within the open-source GPlates software, accompanied by a set of evolving plates and plate boundaries, we can explore the factors that govern the behavior of plate

  18. Digital resolver for helicopter model blade motion analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, T. S.; Berry, J. D.; Park, S.

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports the development and initial testing of a digital resolver to replace existing analog signal processing instrumentation. Radiometers, mounted directly on one of the fully articulated blades, are electrically connected through a slip ring to analog signal processing circuitry. The measured signals are periodic with azimuth angle and are resolved into harmonic components, with 0 deg over the tail. The periodic nature of the helicopter blade motion restricts the frequency content of each flapping and yaw signal to the fundamental and harmonics of the rotor rotational frequency. A minicomputer is employed to collect these data and then plot them graphically in real time. With this and other information generated by the instrumentation, a helicopter test pilot can then adjust the helicopter model's controls to achieve the desired aerodynamic test conditions.

  19. Optimal dividends in the Brownian motion risk model with interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Ying; Wu, Rong

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we consider a Brownian motion risk model, and in addition, the surplus earns investment income at a constant force of interest. The objective is to find a dividend policy so as to maximize the expected discounted value of dividend payments. It is well known that optimality is achieved by using a barrier strategy for unrestricted dividend rate. However, ultimate ruin of the company is certain if a barrier strategy is applied. In many circumstances this is not desirable. This consideration leads us to impose a restriction on the dividend stream. We assume that dividends are paid to the shareholders according to admissible strategies whose dividend rate is bounded by a constant. Under this additional constraint, we show that the optimal dividend strategy is formed by a threshold strategy.

  20. Detecting multiple moving objects in crowded environments with coherent motion regions

    DOEpatents

    Cheriyadat, Anil M.; Radke, Richard J.

    2013-06-11

    Coherent motion regions extend in time as well as space, enforcing consistency in detected objects over long time periods and making the algorithm robust to noisy or short point tracks. As a result of enforcing the constraint that selected coherent motion regions contain disjoint sets of tracks defined in a three-dimensional space including a time dimension. An algorithm operates directly on raw, unconditioned low-level feature point tracks, and minimizes a global measure of the coherent motion regions. At least one discrete moving object is identified in a time series of video images based on the trajectory similarity factors, which is a measure of a maximum distance between a pair of feature point tracks.

  1. Correction to polar motion data due to the model of geocenter motion determined from SLR, GNSS and GRACE observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosek, Wieslaw; Brzezinski, Aleksander; Wnek, Agnieszka; Zbylut-Gorska, Maria; Popinski, Waldemar

    2015-08-01

    The geocenter time series determined from observations of satellite geodetic techniques, e.g. Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Global Navigation Satellite Systems(GNSS) represent the variations of the center of mass of the whole Earth (CM) with respect to the Earth center of figure (CF) considered as the origin of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). The CM variations caused by the mass redistribution in the Earth fluid layers can be also expressed by the first degree gravity variations determined from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) corrected by the ocean and atmospheric models as well as the 2-nd and higher degree coefficients. The wavelet semblance filtering was applied to compute the common geodetic geocenter motion model from the SLR and GNSS geocenter time series which is in a good agreement in the annual frequency band with geophysical one based on the satellite gravimetry data.The theories of Earth rotation assume always that the underlying Earth-fixed reference system is geocentric, that is its origin is at the instantaneous center of mass. Here we address the following problems: 1) if the observed offset between the CM and CF has significant impact on the equations which are used for interpretation of the observed EOP variations; 2) if and how the observed geocenter motion can be used to correct the polar motion data while keeping the equations of polar motion unchanged. Finally we make an analysis of the time series of corrections and discuss their importance for the current polar motion excitation studies.

  2. Deciphering the Crowd: Modeling and Identification of Pedestrian Group Motion

    PubMed Central

    Yücel, Zeynep; Zanlungo, Francesco; Ikeda, Tetsushi; Miyashita, Takahiro; Hagita, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Associating attributes to pedestrians in a crowd is relevant for various areas like surveillance, customer profiling and service providing. The attributes of interest greatly depend on the application domain and might involve such social relations as friends or family as well as the hierarchy of the group including the leader or subordinates. Nevertheless, the complex social setting inherently complicates this task. We attack this problem by exploiting the small group structures in the crowd. The relations among individuals and their peers within a social group are reliable indicators of social attributes. To that end, this paper identifies social groups based on explicit motion models integrated through a hypothesis testing scheme. We develop two models relating positional and directional relations. A pair of pedestrians is identified as belonging to the same group or not by utilizing the two models in parallel, which defines a compound hypothesis testing scheme. By testing the proposed approach on three datasets with different environmental properties and group characteristics, it is demonstrated that we achieve an identification accuracy of 87% to 99%. The contribution of this study lies in its definition of positional and directional relation models, its description of compound evaluations, and the resolution of ambiguities with our proposed uncertainty measure based on the local and global indicators of group relation. PMID:23344382

  3. Mathematical models of polymer solutions motion and their symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhkov, Yu. D.; Pukhnachev, V. V.; Pukhnacheva, T. P.

    2015-10-01

    We consider three mathematical models describing motion of aqueous polymer solutions. All of them are derived from equations of Maxwell type viscoelastic medium at small relaxation time. Distinction consists in the choice of time derivative in the rheological constitutive law. Namely, we can choose (a) connective, (b) partial or (c) objective derivative of the strain tensor in time. We found widest symmetry groups admitted by each of these models. Systems (a) and (c) admit the extended Galilei group containing four arbitrary functions of time while the group admitted by system (b) is rather poor. Wide classes of exact solutions are obtained and their behaviors are analyzed if the relaxation viscosity tends to zero. Asymptotic expansion in this solution's parameter describing the flow near a critical point in planar and axially symmetric cases is derived. Analogs of the classical Hagen-Poiseuille and Nusselt solutions are studied too. We found difference in the pressure distribution between solutions calculated on the base of model (c) and two other models.

  4. Cytoplasm dynamics and cell motion: two-phase flow models.

    PubMed

    Alt, W; Dembo, M

    1999-03-01

    The motion of amoeboid cells is characterized by cytoplasmic streaming and by membrane protrusions and retractions which occur even in the absence of interactions with a substratum. Cell translocation requires, in addition, a transmission mechanism wherein the power produced by the cytoplasmic engine is applied to the substratum in a highly controlled fashion through specific adhesion proteins. Here we present a simple mechano-chemical model that tries to capture the physical essence of these complex biomolecular processes. Our model is based on the continuum equations for a viscous and reactive two-phase fluid model with moving boundaries, and on force balance equations that average the stochastic interactions between actin polymers and membrane proteins. In this paper we present a new derivation and analysis of these equations based on minimization of a power functional. This derivation also leads to a clear formulation and classification of the kinds of boundary conditions that should be specified at free surfaces and at the sites of interaction of the cell and the substratum. Numerical simulations of a one-dimensional lamella reveal that even this extremely simplified model is capable of producing several typical features of cell motility. These include periodic 'ruffle' formation, protrusion-retraction cycles, centripetal flow and cell-substratum traction forces. PMID:10204394

  5. Deciphering the crowd: modeling and identification of pedestrian group motion.

    PubMed

    Yücel, Zeynep; Zanlungo, Francesco; Ikeda, Tetsushi; Miyashita, Takahiro; Hagita, Norihiro

    2013-01-14

    Associating attributes to pedestrians in a crowd is relevant for various areas like surveillance, customer profiling and service providing. The attributes of interest greatly depend on the application domain and might involve such social relations as friends or family as well as the hierarchy of the group including the leader or subordinates. Nevertheless, the complex social setting inherently complicates this task. We attack this problem by exploiting the small group structures in the crowd. The relations among individuals and their peers within a social group are reliable indicators of social attributes. To that end, this paper identifies social groups based on explicit motion models integrated through a hypothesis testing scheme. We develop two models relating positional and directional relations. A pair of pedestrians is identified as belonging to the same group or not by utilizing the two models in parallel, which defines a compound hypothesis testing scheme. By testing the proposed approach on three datasets with different environmental properties and group characteristics, it is demonstrated that we achieve an identification accuracy of 87% to 99%. The contribution of this study lies in its definition of positional and directional relation models, its description of compound evaluations, and the resolution of ambiguities with our proposed uncertainty measure based on the local and global indicators of group relation.

  6. Neural population models for perception of motion in depth.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qiuyan; Shi, Bertram E

    2014-08-01

    Changing disparity (CD) and interocular velocity difference (IOVD) are two possible mechanisms for stereomotion perception. We propose two neurally plausible models for the representation of motion-in-depth (MID) via the CD and IOVD mechanisms. These models create distributed representations of MID velocity as the responses from a population of neurons selective to different MID velocity. Estimates of perceived MID velocity can be computed from the population response. They can be applied directly to binocular image sequences commonly used to characterize MID perception in psychophysical experiments. Contrary to common assumptions, we find that the CD and IOVD mechanisms cannot be distinguished easily by random dot stereograms that disrupt correlations between the two eyes or through time. We also demonstrate that the assumed spatial connectivity between the units in these models can be learned through exposure to natural binocular stimuli. Our experiments with these developmental models of MID selectivity suggest that neurons selective to MID are more likely to develop via the CD mechanism than the IOVD mechanism.

  7. Optimized transformation of the glottal motion into a mechanical model.

    PubMed

    Triep, M; Brücker, C; Stingl, M; Döllinger, M

    2011-03-01

    During phonation the human vocal folds exhibit a complex self-sustained oscillation which is a result of the transglottic pressure difference, of the characteristics of the tissue of the folds and of the flow in the gap between the vocal folds (Van den Berg J. Myoelastic-aerodynamic theory of voice production. J Speech Hearing Res 1958;1:227-44 [1]). Obviously, extensive experiments cannot be performed in vivo. Therefore, in literature a variety of model experiments that try to replicate the vocal folds kinematics for specific studies within the vocal tract can be found. Here, we present an experimental model to visualize the fluid dynamics which result from the complex motions of real human vocal folds. An existing up-scaled glottal cam model with approximate glottal kinematics is extended to replicate more realistically observed glottal closure types. This extension of the model is a further step in understanding the fluid dynamical mechanisms contributing to the quality of human voice during phonation, in particular the cause (changed glottal kinematics) and its effect (changed aero-acoustic field). For four typical glottal closure types cam geometries of varying profile are generated. Two counter rotating cams covered with a silicone membrane reproduce as well as possible the observed glottal movements.

  8. Ridge-spotting: A new test for Pacific absolute plate motion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, Paul; Müller, R. Dietmar

    2016-06-01

    Relative plate motions provide high-resolution descriptions of motions of plates relative to other plates. Yet geodynamically, motions of plates relative to the mantle are required since such motions can be attributed to forces (e.g., slab pull and ridge push) acting upon the plates. Various reference frames have been proposed, such as the hot spot reference frame, to link plate motions to a mantle framework. Unfortunately, both accuracy and precision of absolute plate motion models lag behind those of relative plate motion models. Consequently, it is paramount to use relative plate motions in improving our understanding of absolute plate motions. A new technique called "ridge-spotting" combines absolute and relative plate motions and examines the viability of proposed absolute plate motion models. We test the method on six published Pacific absolute plate motions models, including fixed and moving hot spot models as well as a geodynamically derived model. Ridge-spotting reconstructs the Pacific-Farallon and Pacific-Antarctica ridge systems over the last 80 Myr. All six absolute plate motion models predict large amounts of northward migration and monotonic clockwise rotation for the Pacific-Farallon ridge. A geodynamic implication of our ridge migration predictions is that the suggestion that the Pacific-Farallon ridge may have been pinned by a large mantle upwelling is not supported. Unexpected or erratic ridge behaviors may be tied to limitations in the models themselves or (for Indo-Atlantic models) discrepancies in the plate circuits used to project models into the Pacific realm. Ridge-spotting is promising and will be extended to include more plates and other ocean basins.

  9. Multiple model adaptive control with mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuipers, Matthew

    Despite the remarkable theoretical accomplishments and successful applications of adaptive control, the field is not sufficiently mature to solve challenging control problems requiring strict performance and safety guarantees. Towards addressing these issues, a novel deterministic multiple-model adaptive control approach called adaptive mixing control is proposed. In this approach, adaptation comes from a high-level system called the supervisor that mixes into feedback a number of candidate controllers, each finely-tuned to a subset of the parameter space. The mixing signal, the supervisor's output, is generated by estimating the unknown parameters and, at every instant of time, calculating the contribution level of each candidate controller based on certainty equivalence. The proposed architecture provides two characteristics relevant to solving stringent, performance-driven applications. First, the full-suite of linear time invariant control tools is available. A disadvantage of conventional adaptive control is its restriction to utilizing only those control laws whose solutions can be feasibly computed in real-time, such as model reference and pole-placement type controllers. Because its candidate controllers are computed off line, the proposed approach suffers no such restriction. Second, the supervisor's output is smooth and does not necessarily depend on explicit a priori knowledge of the disturbance model. These characteristics can lead to improved performance by avoiding the unnecessary switching and chattering behaviors associated with some other multiple adaptive control approaches. The stability and robustness properties of the adaptive scheme are analyzed. It is shown that the mean-square regulation error is of the order of the modeling error. And when the parameter estimate converges to its true value, which is guaranteed if a persistence of excitation condition is satisfied, the adaptive closed-loop system converges exponentially fast to a closed

  10. Multiples clinic: a model for antenatal care.

    PubMed

    Knox, Ellen; Martin, William

    2010-12-01

    Antenatal care has become more focused in recent years with an increase in the number of specialist clinics providing care in a multidisciplinary manner. Multiple pregnancies are complex with complications for the mother and babies arising frequently. As a group they lend themselves well to a specialist clinic model where interested doctors and midwives can provide care tailored to the individual. This makes it less likely that complications will be missed and provides a consistent approach to care that patients desire. This article aims to describe models of care that can be given in such a clinic, acknowledging that one model will not fit all. The scant evidence that exists is presented along with selected examples of individual complications.

  11. Micro air vehicle motion tracking and aerodynamic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlig, Daniel V.

    exhibited quasi-steady effects caused by small variations in the angle of attack. The quasi-steady effects, or small unsteady effects, caused variations in the aerodynamic characteristics (particularly incrementing the lift curve), and the magnitude of the influence depended on the angle-of-attack rate. In addition to nominal gliding flight, MAVs in general are capable of flying over a wide flight envelope including agile maneuvers such as perching, hovering, deep stall and maneuvering in confined spaces. From the captured motion trajectories, the aerodynamic characteristics during the numerous unsteady flights were gathered without the complexity required for unsteady wind tunnel tests. Experimental results for the MAVs show large flight envelopes that included high angles of attack (on the order of 90 deg) and high angular rates, and the aerodynamic coefficients had dynamic stall hysteresis loops and large values. From the large number of unsteady high angle-of-attack flights, an aerodynamic modeling method was developed and refined for unsteady MAV flight at high angles of attack. The method was based on a separation parameter that depended on the time history of the angle of attack and angle-of-attack rate. The separation parameter accounted for the time lag inherit in the longitudinal characteristics during dynamic maneuvers. The method was applied to three MAVs and showed general agreement with unsteady experimental results and with nominal gliding flight results. The flight tests with the MAVs indicate that modern motion tracking systems are capable of capturing the flight trajectories, and the captured trajectories can be used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics. From the captured trajectories, low Reynolds number MAV flight is explored in both nominal gliding flight and unsteady high angle-of-attack flight. Building on the experimental results, a modeling method for the longitudinal characteristics is developed that is applicable to the full flight

  12. Modeling closure of circular wounds through coordinated collective motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, David S.; Zimmermann, Juliane; Levine, Herbert

    2016-02-01

    Wound healing enables tissues to restore their original states, and is achieved through collective cell migration into the wound space, contraction of the wound edge via an actomyosin filament ‘purse-string,’ as well as cell division. Recently, experimental techniques have been developed to create wounds with various regular morphologies in epithelial monolayers, and these experiments of circular closed-contour wounds support coordinated lamellipodial cell crawling as the predominant driver of gap closure. Through utilizing a particle-based mechanical tissue simulation, exhibiting long-range coordination of cell motility, we computationally model these closed-contour experiments with a high level of agreement between experimentally observed and simulated wound closure dynamics and tissue velocity profiles. We also determine the sensitivity of wound closure time in the model to changes in cell motility force and division rate. Our simulation results confirm that circular wounds can close due to collective cell migration without the necessity for a purse-string mechanism or for cell division, and show that the alignment mechanism of cellular motility force with velocity, leading to collective motion in the model, may speed up wound closure.

  13. Motion clouds: model-based stimulus synthesis of natural-like random textures for the study of motion perception.

    PubMed

    Leon, Paula Sanz; Vanzetta, Ivo; Masson, Guillaume S; Perrinet, Laurent U

    2012-06-01

    Choosing an appropriate set of stimuli is essential to characterize the response of a sensory system to a particular functional dimension, such as the eye movement following the motion of a visual scene. Here, we describe a framework to generate random texture movies with controlled information content, i.e., Motion Clouds. These stimuli are defined using a generative model that is based on controlled experimental parametrization. We show that Motion Clouds correspond to dense mixing of localized moving gratings with random positions. Their global envelope is similar to natural-like stimulation with an approximate full-field translation corresponding to a retinal slip. We describe the construction of these stimuli mathematically and propose an open-source Python-based implementation. Examples of the use of this framework are shown. We also propose extensions to other modalities such as color vision, touch, and audition.

  14. Synthetic ground-motion simulation using a spatial stochastic model with slip self-similarity: Toward near-source ground-motion validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ya-Ting; Ma, Kuo-Fong; Hsieh, Ming-Che; Yen, Yin-Tung; Sun, Yu-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    Near-fault ground motion is a key to understand the seismic hazard along the fault, and is a challenge by the approach of ground motion prediction equation. This paper presents a developed stochastic-slip-scaling source model, a spatial stochastic model with slip scaling of the slipped area, toward ground motion simulation. We considered the near-fault ground motion of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw 7.7) in Taiwan, which having the most massive near-fault data of a disaster earthquake, as a reference for validation. Including the developed stochastic-slip-scaling source model, two scenario source models, mean-slip model, characteristic-asperity model were also used for the examination on the near-fault ground motion. We simulated synthetic ground motion through 3D waveforms and validated these simulations by using observed data and the ground-motion prediction equation (GMPE) for Taiwan earthquakes. The mean slip and characteristic asperity scenario source models over-predicted the near-fault ground motion. The stochastic-slip-scaling model proposed in this paper is more accurately approximated to the near-fault motion compared with the GMPE and observations. This is the first study to incorporate slipped-area scaling in a stochastic slip model. The proposed model can generate scenario earthquakes for predicting ground motion.

  15. Ground-motion modeling of Hayward fault scenario earthquakes, part II: Simulation of long-period and broadband ground motions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aagaard, Brad T.; Graves, Robert W.; Rodgers, Arthur; Brocher, Thomas M.; Simpson, Robert W.; Dreger, Douglas; Petersson, N. Anders; Larsen, Shawn C.; Ma, Shuo; Jachens, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    We simulate long-period (T>1.0–2.0 s) and broadband (T>0.1 s) ground motions for 39 scenario earthquakes (Mw 6.7–7.2) involving the Hayward, Calaveras, and Rodgers Creek faults. For rupture on the Hayward fault, we consider the effects of creep on coseismic slip using two different approaches, both of which reduce the ground motions, compared with neglecting the influence of creep. Nevertheless, the scenario earthquakes generate strong shaking throughout the San Francisco Bay area, with about 50% of the urban area experiencing modified Mercalli intensity VII or greater for the magnitude 7.0 scenario events. Long-period simulations of the 2007 Mw 4.18 Oakland earthquake and the 2007 Mw 5.45 Alum Rock earthquake show that the U.S. Geological Survey’s Bay Area Velocity Model version 08.3.0 permits simulation of the amplitude and duration of shaking throughout the San Francisco Bay area for Hayward fault earthquakes, with the greatest accuracy in the Santa Clara Valley (San Jose area). The ground motions for the suite of scenarios exhibit a strong sensitivity to the rupture length (or magnitude), hypocenter (or rupture directivity), and slip distribution. The ground motions display a much weaker sensitivity to the rise time and rupture speed. Peak velocities, peak accelerations, and spectral accelerations from the synthetic broadband ground motions are, on average, slightly higher than the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) ground-motion prediction equations. We attribute much of this difference to the seismic velocity structure in the San Francisco Bay area and how the NGA models account for basin amplification; the NGA relations may underpredict amplification in shallow sedimentary basins. The simulations also suggest that the Spudich and Chiou (2008) directivity corrections to the NGA relations could be improved by increasing the areal extent of rupture directivity with period.

  16. A state-based probabilistic model for tumor respiratory motion prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalet, Alan; Sandison, George; Wu, Huanmei; Schmitz, Ruth

    2010-12-01

    This work proposes a new probabilistic mathematical model for predicting tumor motion and position based on a finite state representation using the natural breathing states of exhale, inhale and end of exhale. Tumor motion was broken down into linear breathing states and sequences of states. Breathing state sequences and the observables representing those sequences were analyzed using a hidden Markov model (HMM) to predict the future sequences and new observables. Velocities and other parameters were clustered using a k-means clustering algorithm to associate each state with a set of observables such that a prediction of state also enables a prediction of tumor velocity. A time average model with predictions based on average past state lengths was also computed. State sequences which are known a priori to fit the data were fed into the HMM algorithm to set a theoretical limit of the predictive power of the model. The effectiveness of the presented probabilistic model has been evaluated for gated radiation therapy based on previously tracked tumor motion in four lung cancer patients. Positional prediction accuracy is compared with actual position in terms of the overall RMS errors. Various system delays, ranging from 33 to 1000 ms, were tested. Previous studies have shown duty cycles for latencies of 33 and 200 ms at around 90% and 80%, respectively, for linear, no prediction, Kalman filter and ANN methods as averaged over multiple patients. At 1000 ms, the previously reported duty cycles range from approximately 62% (ANN) down to 34% (no prediction). Average duty cycle for the HMM method was found to be 100% and 91 ± 3% for 33 and 200 ms latency and around 40% for 1000 ms latency in three out of four breathing motion traces. RMS errors were found to be lower than linear and no prediction methods at latencies of 1000 ms. The results show that for system latencies longer than 400 ms, the time average HMM prediction outperforms linear, no prediction, and the more

  17. Testing Neuronal Accounts of Anisotropic Motion Perception with Computational Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Wong, William; Chiang Price, Nicholas Seow

    2014-01-01

    There is an over-representation of neurons in early visual cortical areas that respond most strongly to cardinal (horizontal and vertical) orientations and directions of visual stimuli, and cardinal- and oblique-preferring neurons are reported to have different tuning curves. Collectively, these neuronal anisotropies can explain two commonly-reported phenomena of motion perception – the oblique effect and reference repulsion – but it remains unclear whether neuronal anisotropies can simultaneously account for both perceptual effects. We show in psychophysical experiments that reference repulsion and the oblique effect do not depend on the duration of a moving stimulus, and that brief adaptation to a single direction simultaneously causes a reference repulsion in the orientation domain, and the inverse of the oblique effect in the direction domain. We attempted to link these results to underlying neuronal anisotropies by implementing a large family of neuronal decoding models with parametrically varied levels of anisotropy in neuronal direction-tuning preferences, tuning bandwidths and spiking rates. Surprisingly, no model instantiation was able to satisfactorily explain our perceptual data. We argue that the oblique effect arises from the anisotropic distribution of preferred directions evident in V1 and MT, but that reference repulsion occurs separately, perhaps reflecting a process of categorisation occurring in higher-order cortical areas. PMID:25409518

  18. Demonstrating Circular Motion with a Model Satellite/Earth System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    A number of interesting demonstrations of circular and satellite motion have been described in this journal. This paper presents a variation of a centripetal force apparatus found in G.D. Freier and F.J. Anderson's "A Demonstration Handbook for Physics," which has been modified in order to demonstrate both centripetal force and satellite motion.…

  19. The topographical model of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Karin; De Nino, Scott; Fletcher, Madhuri

    2016-01-01

    Relapses and progression contribute to multiple sclerosis (MS) disease course, but neither the relationship between them nor the spectrum of clinical heterogeneity has been fully characterized. A hypothesis-driven, biologically informed model could build on the clinical phenotypes to encompass the dynamic admixture of factors underlying MS disease course. In this medical hypothesis, we put forth a dynamic model of MS disease course that incorporates localization and other drivers of disability to propose a clinical manifestation framework that visualizes MS in a clinically individualized way. The topographical model encapsulates 5 factors (localization of relapses and causative lesions; relapse frequency, severity, and recovery; and progression rate), visualized utilizing dynamic 3-dimensional renderings. The central hypothesis is that, like symptom recrudescence in Uhthoff phenomenon and pseudoexacerbations, progression clinically recapitulates prior relapse symptoms and unmasks previously silent lesions, incrementally revealing underlying lesion topography. The model uses real-time simulation software to depict disease course archetypes and illuminate several well-described but poorly reconciled phenomena including the clinical/MRI paradox and prognostic significance of lesion location and burden on disease outcomes. Utilization of this model could allow for earlier and more clinically precise identification of progressive MS and predictive implications can be empirically tested.

  20. Asteroid Models from Multiple Data Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durech, J.; Carry, B.; Delbo, M.; Kaasalainen, M.; Viikinkoski, M.

    In the past decade, hundreds of asteroid shape models have been derived using the lightcurve inversion method. At the same time, a new framework of three-dimensional shape modeling based on the combined analysis of widely different data sources -- such as optical lightcurves, disk-resolved images, stellar occultation timings, mid-infrared thermal radiometry, optical interferometry, and radar delay-Doppler data -- has been developed. This multi-data approach allows the determination of most of the physical and surface properties of asteroids in a single, coherent inversion, with spectacular results. We review the main results of asteroid lightcurve inversion and also recent advances in multi-data modeling. We show that models based on remote sensing data were confirmed by spacecraft encounters with asteroids, and we discuss how the multiplication of highly detailed three-dimensional models will help to refine our general knowledge of the asteroid population. The physical and surface properties of asteroids, i.e., their spin, three-dimensional shape, density, thermal inertia, and surface roughness, are among the least known of all asteroid properties. Apart from the albedo and diameter, we have access to the whole picture for only a few hundreds of asteroids. These quantities are nevertheless very important to understand, as they affect the nongravitational Yarkovsky effect responsible for meteorite delivery to Earth, as well as the bulk composition and internal structure of asteroids.

  1. The topographical model of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Karin; De Nino, Scott; Fletcher, Madhuri

    2016-01-01

    Relapses and progression contribute to multiple sclerosis (MS) disease course, but neither the relationship between them nor the spectrum of clinical heterogeneity has been fully characterized. A hypothesis-driven, biologically informed model could build on the clinical phenotypes to encompass the dynamic admixture of factors underlying MS disease course. In this medical hypothesis, we put forth a dynamic model of MS disease course that incorporates localization and other drivers of disability to propose a clinical manifestation framework that visualizes MS in a clinically individualized way. The topographical model encapsulates 5 factors (localization of relapses and causative lesions; relapse frequency, severity, and recovery; and progression rate), visualized utilizing dynamic 3-dimensional renderings. The central hypothesis is that, like symptom recrudescence in Uhthoff phenomenon and pseudoexacerbations, progression clinically recapitulates prior relapse symptoms and unmasks previously silent lesions, incrementally revealing underlying lesion topography. The model uses real-time simulation software to depict disease course archetypes and illuminate several well-described but poorly reconciled phenomena including the clinical/MRI paradox and prognostic significance of lesion location and burden on disease outcomes. Utilization of this model could allow for earlier and more clinically precise identification of progressive MS and predictive implications can be empirically tested. PMID:27648465

  2. Ground motion modeling of Hayward fault scenario earthquakes II:Simulation of long-period and broadband ground motions

    SciTech Connect

    Aagaard, B T; Graves, R W; Rodgers, A; Brocher, T M; Simpson, R W; Dreger, D; Petersson, N A; Larsen, S C; Ma, S; Jachens, R C

    2009-11-04

    We simulate long-period (T > 1.0-2.0 s) and broadband (T > 0.1 s) ground motions for 39 scenarios earthquakes (Mw 6.7-7.2) involving the Hayward, Calaveras, and Rodgers Creek faults. For rupture on the Hayward fault we consider the effects of creep on coseismic slip using two different approaches, both of which reduce the ground motions compared with neglecting the influence of creep. Nevertheless, the scenario earthquakes generate strong shaking throughout the San Francisco Bay area with about 50% of the urban area experiencing MMI VII or greater for the magnitude 7.0 scenario events. Long-period simulations of the 2007 Mw 4.18 Oakland and 2007 Mw 4.5 Alum Rock earthquakes show that the USGS Bay Area Velocity Model version 08.3.0 permits simulation of the amplitude and duration of shaking throughout the San Francisco Bay area, with the greatest accuracy in the Santa Clara Valley (San Jose area). The ground motions exhibit a strong sensitivity to the rupture length (or magnitude), hypocenter (or rupture directivity), and slip distribution. The ground motions display a much weaker sensitivity to the rise time and rupture speed. Peak velocities, peak accelerations, and spectral accelerations from the synthetic broadband ground motions are, on average, slightly higher than the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) ground-motion prediction equations. We attribute at least some of this difference to the relatively narrow width of the Hayward fault ruptures. The simulations suggest that the Spudich and Chiou (2008) directivity corrections to the NGA relations could be improved by including a dependence on the rupture speed and increasing the areal extent of rupture directivity with period. The simulations also indicate that the NGA relations may under-predict amplification in shallow sedimentary basins.

  3. Unified Model of Multiple Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutule, A.; Kochukov, O.

    2014-08-01

    An approach is proposed to the modelling of wind farms in the electric power system long-term planning. It allows a specialist to perform calculations based on scanty information and offers a set of ready-to-use data for easy, fast, and precise modelling. The authors exemplify the calculations of wind speed probability density and power curves and give an idea for relevant corrections. They also show how to pass from a single wind turbine model to the unified model of multiple wind turbines which would meet the requirements of long-term planning tasks. The paper presents the data on wind farms that are operating in UK and Oceania Rakstā ir apskatīta vēja elektrostaciju modelēšana ilgtermiņa attīstības plānošanas uzdevumos. Modelēšana tika veikta, izmantojot ierobežotu datu apjomu, kuri bija piejami lietotājam. Gatavie dati deva iespēju veikt ātru un precīzu modelēšanu. Raksts piedāva metodi kā pāriet no viena vēja ģeneratora modeli uz vēja elektrostaciju (vairāki vēja ģeneratori) modeli, kas atbilst ilgtermiņa attīstības plānošanas prasībām. Rakstā atspoguļoti dati no Okeānijas un Lielbritānijas eksistējošām vēja elektrostacijām

  4. Attitude determination using an adaptive multiple model filtering Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Quang; Ray, Surendra N.

    1995-05-01

    Attitude determination has been considered as a permanent topic of active research and perhaps remaining as a forever-lasting interest for spacecraft system designers. Its role is to provide a reference for controls such as pointing the directional antennas or solar panels, stabilizing the spacecraft or maneuvering the spacecraft to a new orbit. Least Square Estimation (LSE) technique was utilized to provide attitude determination for the Nimbus 6 and G. Despite its poor performance (estimation accuracy consideration), LSE was considered as an effective and practical approach to meet the urgent need and requirement back in the 70's. One reason for this poor performance associated with the LSE scheme is the lack of dynamic filtering or 'compensation'. In other words, the scheme is based totally on the measurements and no attempts were made to model the dynamic equations of motion of the spacecraft. We propose an adaptive filtering approach which employs a bank of Kalman filters to perform robust attitude estimation. The proposed approach, whose architecture is depicted, is essentially based on the latest proof on the interactive multiple model design framework to handle the unknown of the system noise characteristics or statistics. The concept fundamentally employs a bank of Kalman filter or submodel, instead of using fixed values for the system noise statistics for each submodel (per operating condition) as the traditional multiple model approach does, we use an on-line dynamic system noise identifier to 'identify' the system noise level (statistics) and update the filter noise statistics using 'live' information from the sensor model. The advanced noise identifier, whose architecture is also shown, is implemented using an advanced system identifier. To insure the robust performance for the proposed advanced system identifier, it is also further reinforced by a learning system which is implemented (in the outer loop) using neural networks to identify other unknown

  5. Demonstrating Circular Motion with a Model Satellite/Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Jeff

    2008-04-01

    A number of interesting demonstrations of circular and satellite motion have been described in this journal.1-4 This paper presents a variation of a centripetal force apparatus found in G.D. Freier and F.J. Anderson's A Demonstration Handbook for Physics,5 which has been modified in order to demonstrate both centripetal force and satellite motion. Nice discussions of satellite motion may be found in a number of textbooks.6-8 The following is a description of how to construct the apparatus and some suggested experiments.

  6. ANFIS modeling for prediction of particle motions in fluid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safdari, Arman; Kim, Kyung Chun

    2015-11-01

    Accurate dynamic analysis of parcel of solid particles driven in fluid flow system is of interest for many natural and industrial applications such as sedimentation process, study of cloud particles in atmosphere, etc. In this paper, numerical modeling of solid particles in incompressible flow using Eulerian-Lagrangian approach is carried out to investigate the dynamic behavior of particles in different flow conditions; channel and cavity flow. Although modern computers have been well developed, the high computational time and costs for this kind of problems are still demanded. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is used to simulate fluid flows and combined with the Lagrangian approach to predict the motion of particles in the range of masses. Some particles are selected, and subjected to Adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict the trajectory of moving solid particles. Using a hybrid learning procedure from computational particle movement, the ANFIS can construct an input-output mapping based on fuzzy if-then rules and stipulated computational fluid dynamics prediction pairs. The obtained results from ANFIS algorithm is validated and compared with the set of benchmark data provided based on point-like approach coupled with the LBM method.

  7. A soft biomimetic tongue: model reconstruction and motion tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xuanming; Xu, Weiliang; Li, Xiaoning

    2016-04-01

    A bioinspired robotic tongue which is actuated by a network of compressed air is proposed for the purpose of mimicking the movements of human tongue. It can be applied in the fields such as medical science and food engineering. The robotic tongue is made of two kinds of silicone rubber Ecoflex 0030 and PDMS with the shape simplified from real human tongue. In order to characterize the robotic tongue, a series of experiments were carried out. Laser scan was applied to reconstruct the static model of robotic tongue when it was under pressurization. After each scan, the robotic tongue was scattered into dense points in the same 3D coordinate system and the coordinates of each point were recorded. Motion tracking system (OptiTrack) was used to track and record the whole process of deformation dynamically during the loading and unloading phase. In the experiments, five types of deformation were achieved including roll-up, roll-down, elongation, groove and twist. Utilizing the discrete points generated by laser scan, the accurate parameterized outline of robotic tongue under different pressure was obtained, which could help demonstrate the static characteristic of robotic tongue. The precise deformation process under one pressure was acquired through the OptiTrack system which contains a series of digital cameras, markers on the robotic tongue and a set of hardware and software for data processing. By means of tracking and recording different process of deformation under different pressure, the dynamic characteristic of robotic tongue could be achieved.

  8. Multiple Concentric Cylinder Model (MCCM) user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Todd O.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy

    1994-01-01

    A user's guide for the computer program mccm.f is presented. The program is based on a recently developed solution methodology for the inelastic response of an arbitrarily layered, concentric cylinder assemblage under thermomechanical loading which is used to model the axisymmetric behavior of unidirectional metal matrix composites in the presence of various microstructural details. These details include the layered morphology of certain types of ceramic fibers, as well as multiple fiber/matrix interfacial layers recently proposed as a means of reducing fabrication-induced, and in-service, residual stress. The computer code allows efficient characterization and evaluation of new fibers and/or new coating systems on existing fibers with a minimum of effort, taking into account inelastic and temperature-dependent properties and different morphologies of the fiber and the interfacial region. It also facilitates efficient design of engineered interfaces for unidirectional metal matrix composites.

  9. In Vitro Modeling of Repetitive Motion Injury and Myofascial Release

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Kate R.; Cao, Thanh V.; Schad, Joseph F.; King, Hollis; Stoll, Scott T.; Standley, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective In this study we modeled repetitive motion strain (RMS) and myofascial release (MFR) in vitro to investigate possible cellular and molecular mechanisms to potentially explain the immediate clinical outcomes associated with RMS and MFR. Method Cultured human fibroblasts were strained with 8 hours RMS, 60 seconds MFR and combined treatment; RMS+MFR. Fibroblasts were immediately sampled upon cessation of strain and evaluated for cell morphology, cytokine secretions, proliferation, apoptosis, and potential changes to intracellular signaling molecules. Results RMS induced fibroblast elongation of lameopodia, cellular decentralization, reduction of cell to cell contact and significant decreases in cell area to perimeter ratios compared to all other experimental groups (p<0.0001). Cellular proliferation indicated no change among any treatment group; however RMS resulted in a significant increase in apoptosis rate (p<0.05) along with increases in death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation by 74% and 58% respectively, when compared to control. These responses were not observed in the MFR and RMS+MFR group. Of the twenty cytokines measured there was a significant increase in GRO secretion in the RMS+MFR group when compared to control and MFR alone. Conclusion Our modeled injury (RMS) appropriately displayed enhanced apoptosis activity and loss of intercellular integrity that is consistent with pro-apoptotic DAPK2 and FAK signaling. Treatment with MFR following RMS resulted in normalization in apoptotic rate and cell morphology both consistent with changes observed in DAPK2. These in vitro studies build upon the cellular evidence base needed to fully explain clinical efficacy of manual manipulative therapies. PMID:20226363

  10. A generalized Brownian motion model for turbulent relative particle dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivamoggi, B. K.

    2016-08-01

    There is speculation that the difficulty in obtaining an extended range with Richardson-Obukhov scaling in both laboratory experiments and numerical simulations is due to the finiteness of the flow Reynolds number Re in these situations. In this paper, a generalized Brownian motion model has been applied to describe the relative particle dispersion problem in more realistic turbulent flows and to shed some light on this issue. The fluctuating pressure forces acting on a fluid particle are taken to be a colored noise and follow a stationary process and are described by the Uhlenbeck-Ornstein model while it appears plausible to take their correlation time to have a power-law dependence on Re, thus introducing a bridge between the Lagrangian quantities and the Eulerian parameters for this problem. This ansatz is in qualitative agreement with the possibility of a connection speculated earlier by Corrsin [26] between the white-noise representation for the fluctuating pressure forces and the large-Re assumption in the Kolmogorov [4] theory for the 3D fully developed turbulence (FDT) as well as a similar argument of Monin and Yaglom [23] and a similar result of Sawford [13] and Borgas and Sawford [24]. It also provides an insight into the result that the Richardson-Obukhov scaling holds only in the infinite-Re limit and disappears otherwise. This ansatz further provides a determination of the Richardson-Obukhov constant g as a function of Re, with an asymptotic constant value in the infinite-Re limit. It is shown to lead to full agreement, in the small-Re limit as well, with the Batchelor-Townsend [27] scaling for the rate of change of the mean square interparticle separation in 3D FDT, hence validating its soundness further.

  11. Unsteady aerodynamic modeling for arbitrary motions. [for active control techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Results indicating that unsteady aerodynamic loads derived under the assumption of simple harmonic motions executed by airfoil or wing can be extended to arbitrary motions are summarized. The generalized Theodorsen (1953) function referable to loads due to simple harmonic oscillations of a wing section in incompressible flow, the Laplace inversion integral for unsteady aerodynamic loads, calculations of root loci of aeroelastic loads, and analysis of generalized compressible transient airloads are discussed.

  12. Analytic signal phase-based myocardial motion estimation in tagged MRI sequences by a bilinear model and motion compensation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Basarab, Adrian; Girard, Patrick R; Croisille, Pierre; Clarysse, Patrick; Delachartre, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    Different mathematical tools, such as multidimensional analytic signals, allow for the calculation of 2D spatial phases of real-value images. The motion estimation method proposed in this paper is based on two spatial phases of the 2D analytic signal applied to cardiac sequences. By combining the information of these phases issued from analytic signals of two successive frames, we propose an analytical estimator for 2D local displacements. To improve the accuracy of the motion estimation, a local bilinear deformation model is used within an iterative estimation scheme. The main advantages of our method are: (1) The phase-based method allows the displacement to be estimated with subpixel accuracy and is robust to image intensity variation in time; (2) Preliminary filtering is not required due to the bilinear model. The proposed algorithm, integrating phase-based optical flow motion estimation and the combination of global motion compensation with local bilinear transform, allows spatio-temporal cardiac motion analysis, e.g. strain and dense trajectory estimation over the cardiac cycle. Results from 7 realistic simulated tagged magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences show that our method is more accurate compared with state-of-the-art method for cardiac motion analysis and with another differential approach from the literature. The motion estimation errors (end point error) of the proposed method are reduced by about 33% compared with that of the two methods. In our work, the frame-to-frame displacements are further accumulated in time, to allow for the calculation of myocardial Lagrangian cardiac strains and point trajectories. Indeed, from the estimated trajectories in time on 11 in vivo data sets (9 patients and 2 healthy volunteers), the shape of myocardial point trajectories belonging to pathological regions are clearly reduced in magnitude compared with the ones from normal regions. Myocardial point trajectories, estimated from our phase-based analytic

  13. Analytic signal phase-based myocardial motion estimation in tagged MRI sequences by a bilinear model and motion compensation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Basarab, Adrian; Girard, Patrick R; Croisille, Pierre; Clarysse, Patrick; Delachartre, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    Different mathematical tools, such as multidimensional analytic signals, allow for the calculation of 2D spatial phases of real-value images. The motion estimation method proposed in this paper is based on two spatial phases of the 2D analytic signal applied to cardiac sequences. By combining the information of these phases issued from analytic signals of two successive frames, we propose an analytical estimator for 2D local displacements. To improve the accuracy of the motion estimation, a local bilinear deformation model is used within an iterative estimation scheme. The main advantages of our method are: (1) The phase-based method allows the displacement to be estimated with subpixel accuracy and is robust to image intensity variation in time; (2) Preliminary filtering is not required due to the bilinear model. The proposed algorithm, integrating phase-based optical flow motion estimation and the combination of global motion compensation with local bilinear transform, allows spatio-temporal cardiac motion analysis, e.g. strain and dense trajectory estimation over the cardiac cycle. Results from 7 realistic simulated tagged magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences show that our method is more accurate compared with state-of-the-art method for cardiac motion analysis and with another differential approach from the literature. The motion estimation errors (end point error) of the proposed method are reduced by about 33% compared with that of the two methods. In our work, the frame-to-frame displacements are further accumulated in time, to allow for the calculation of myocardial Lagrangian cardiac strains and point trajectories. Indeed, from the estimated trajectories in time on 11 in vivo data sets (9 patients and 2 healthy volunteers), the shape of myocardial point trajectories belonging to pathological regions are clearly reduced in magnitude compared with the ones from normal regions. Myocardial point trajectories, estimated from our phase-based analytic

  14. Multiple-model nonlinear filtering for low-signal ground target applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreucher, Chris M.; Kastella, Keith D.

    2001-08-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of multiple model nonlinear filters (MMNLF) for ground target tracking using Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar measurements. The MMNLF is based on a general theory of hybrid continuous-discrete dynamics. The motion model state is discrete and its stochastic dynamics are a continuous- time Markov chain. For each motion model, the continuum dynamics are a continuous-state Markov process described here by appropriate Fokker-Plank equations. This is illustrated here by a specific two-model MMNLF in which one motion model incorporates terrain, road, and vehicle motion constraints derived from battlefield observations. The second model is slow diffusion in speed and heading. The target state conditional probability density is discretized on a moving grid and recursively updated with sensor measurements via Bayes' formula. The conditional density is time updated between sensor measurements using Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) finite difference methods. In simulation testing against low signal to clutter + noise Ratio (SNCR) targets, the MMNLF is able to maintain track in situations where single model filters based on either of the component models fail. Potential applications of this work include detection and tracking of foliage-obscured moving targets.

  15. Using "Flatland 2: Sphereland" to Help Teach Motion and Multiple Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan, Seth; Johnson, Dano; Vondracek, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The 1884 book Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions,1 written by Edwin Abbott, has captured the interest of numerous generations, and has also been used in schools to help students learn and think about the concept of dimension in a creative, fun way. In 2007, a film was released called "Flatland: The Movie,"2 and over one million students have watched it worldwide, primarily in mathematics classes. Since then, a sequel to the "Flatland" movie was released in 2012, entitled "Flatland 2: Sphereland."3 A primary goal of this sequel is to expand the use of the movie beyond mathematics classes and into physics classes because a central premise to "Sphereland" is the notion of warped space. This latest movie provides an engaging and interesting visual way for students to think about both dimension and motion through warped space. In addition, basic motion concepts such as speed and acceleration can be studied by students in introductory physics classes, for instance, by using frame-by-frame analysis of various scenes in the movie.

  16. Pentagraph image fusion scheme for motion blur prevention using multiple monochromatic images.

    PubMed

    Volfman, Alon A; Mendlovic, David; Raz, Ariel

    2016-04-10

    This paper introduces the pentagraph image fusion (PIF) scheme for motion-related blur prevention in images. The PIF algorithm processes five monochromatic images into a single, low-noise, no-blur color image. The images are acquired using a new photography scheme, sequential filter photography (SFP), where instead of using a stationary Bayer pattern color filter array in front of the image sensor, a tunable color filter array is used. Using this approach, several monochromatic images are captured one by one and later fused into one color image. The SFP introduces various advantages such as higher resolution, better SNR, and the ability to control both exposure time and color filter separately for each image. The PIF algorithm harnesses all the advantages of SFP for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, in the field of blur-free image acquisition. Five images are taken with controllable exposure time and color filter, three images for the color bands, and two high-signal panchromatic images. These images are fused together to be a single, low-noise, no-blur color image. The algorithm presents a generic approach of dealing with both local and global motion blur and does not require any user intervention.

  17. Numerical modeling of on-orbit propellant motion resulting from an impulsive acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aydelott, John C.; Mjolsness, Raymond C.; Torrey, Martin D.; Hochstein, John I.

    1987-01-01

    In-space docking and separation maneuvers of spacecraft that have large fluid mass fractions may cause undesirable spacecraft motion in response to the impulsive-acceleration-induced fluid motion. An example of this potential low gravity fluid management problem arose during the development of the shuttle/Centaur vehicle. Experimentally verified numerical modeling techniques were developed to establish the propellant dynamics, and subsequent vehicle motion, associated with the separation of the Centaur vehicle from the shuttle orbiter cargo bay. Although the shuttle/Centaur development activity was suspended, the numerical modeling techniques are available to predict on-orbit liquid motion resulting from impulsive accelerations for other missions and spacecraft.

  18. Evaluating Effectiveness of Modeling Motion System Feedback in the Enhanced Hess Structural Model of the Human Operator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaychik, Kirill; Cardullo, Frank; George, Gary; Kelly, Lon C.

    2009-01-01

    In order to use the Hess Structural Model to predict the need for certain cueing systems, George and Cardullo significantly expanded it by adding motion feedback to the model and incorporating models of the motion system dynamics, motion cueing algorithm and a vestibular system. This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate effectiveness of these innovations by performing a comparison analysis of the model performance with and without the expanded motion feedback. The proposed methodology is composed of two stages. The first stage involves fine-tuning parameters of the original Hess structural model in order to match the actual control behavior recorded during the experiments at NASA Visual Motion Simulator (VMS) facility. The parameter tuning procedure utilizes a new automated parameter identification technique, which was developed at the Man-Machine Systems Lab at SUNY Binghamton. In the second stage of the proposed methodology, an expanded motion feedback is added to the structural model. The resulting performance of the model is then compared to that of the original one. As proposed by Hess, metrics to evaluate the performance of the models include comparison against the crossover models standards imposed on the crossover frequency and phase margin of the overall man-machine system. Preliminary results indicate the advantage of having the model of the motion system and motion cueing incorporated into the model of the human operator. It is also demonstrated that the crossover frequency and the phase margin of the expanded model are well within the limits imposed by the crossover model.

  19. Hydrological excitation of polar motion by different variables of the GLDAS models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wińska, Małgorzata; Nastula, Jolanta

    Continental hydrological loading, by land water, snow, and ice, is an element that is strongly needed for a full understanding of the excitation of polar motion. In this study we compute different estimations of hydrological excitation functions of polar motion (Hydrological Angular Momentum - HAM) using various variables from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) models of land hydrosphere. The main aim of this study is to show the influence of different variables for example: total evapotranspiration, runoff, snowmelt, soil moisture to polar motion excitations in annual and short term scale. In our consideration we employ several realizations of the GLDAS model as: GLDAS Common Land Model (CLM), GLDAS Mosaic Model, GLDAS National Centers for Environmental Prediction/Oregon State University/Air Force/Hydrologic Research Lab Model (Noah), GLDAS Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) Model. Hydrological excitation functions of polar motion, both global and regional, are determined by using selected variables of these GLDAS realizations. First we compare a timing, spectra and phase diagrams of different regional and global HAMs with each other. Next, we estimate, the hydrological signal in geodetically observed polar motion excitation by subtracting the atmospheric -- AAM (pressure + wind) and oceanic -- OAM (bottom pressure + currents) contributions. Finally, the hydrological excitations are compared to these hydrological signal in observed polar motion excitation series. The results help us understand which variables of considered hydrological models are the most important for the polar motion excitation and how well we can close polar motion excitation budget in the seasonal and inter-annual spectral ranges.

  20. Ground motion modeling of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake II: Ground motion estimates for the 1906 earthquake and scenario events

    SciTech Connect

    Aagaard, B; Brocher, T; Dreger, D; Frankel, A; Graves, R; Harmsen, S; Hartzell, S; Larsen, S; McCandless, K; Nilsson, S; Petersson, N A; Rodgers, A; Sjogreen, B; Tkalcic, H; Zoback, M L

    2007-02-09

    We estimate the ground motions produced by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake making use of the recently developed Song et al. (2008) source model that combines the available geodetic and seismic observations and recently constructed 3D geologic and seismic velocity models. Our estimates of the ground motions for the 1906 earthquake are consistent across five ground-motion modeling groups employing different wave propagation codes and simulation domains. The simulations successfully reproduce the main features of the Boatwright and Bundock (2005) ShakeMap, but tend to over predict the intensity of shaking by 0.1-0.5 modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) units. Velocity waveforms at sites throughout the San Francisco Bay Area exhibit characteristics consistent with rupture directivity, local geologic conditions (e.g., sedimentary basins), and the large size of the event (e.g., durations of strong shaking lasting tens of seconds). We also compute ground motions for seven hypothetical scenarios rupturing the same extent of the northern San Andreas fault, considering three additional hypocenters and an additional, random distribution of slip. Rupture directivity exerts the strongest influence on the variations in shaking, although sedimentary basins do consistently contribute to the response in some locations, such as Santa Rosa, Livermore, and San Jose. These scenarios suggest that future large earthquakes on the northern San Andreas fault may subject the current San Francisco Bay urban area to stronger shaking than a repeat of the 1906 earthquake. Ruptures propagating southward towards San Francisco appear to expose more of the urban area to a given intensity level than do ruptures propagating northward.

  1. Whole-Motion Model of Perception during Forward- and Backward-Facing Centrifuge Runs

    PubMed Central

    Holly, Jan E.; Vrublevskis, Arturs; Carlson, Lindsay E.

    2009-01-01

    Illusory perceptions of motion and orientation arise during human centrifuge runs without vision. Asymmetries have been found between acceleration and deceleration, and between forward-facing and backward-facing runs. Perceived roll tilt has been studied extensively during upright fixed-carriage centrifuge runs, and other components have been studied to a lesser extent. Certain, but not all, perceptual asymmetries in acceleration-vs-deceleration and forward-vs-backward motion can be explained by existing analyses. The immediate acceleration-deceleration roll-tilt asymmetry can be explained by the three-dimensional physics of the external stimulus; in addition, longer-term data has been modeled in a standard way using physiological time constants. However, the standard modeling approach is shown in the present research to predict forward-vs-backward-facing symmetry in perceived roll tilt, contradicting experimental data, and to predict perceived sideways motion, rather than forward or backward motion, around a curve. The present work develops a different whole-motion-based model taking into account the three-dimensional form of perceived motion and orientation. This model predicts perceived forward or backward motion around a curve, and predicts additional asymmetries such as the forward-backward difference in roll tilt. This model is based upon many of the same principles as the standard model, but includes an additional concept of familiarity of motions as a whole. PMID:19208962

  2. Minimal Assumptions Comprehensive Electrostatic Model for Mitotic Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliardi, L. John

    2003-03-01

    Primitive biological cells had to divide using very few biological mechanisms. This work proposes physicochemical mechanisms based on nanoscale electrostatics which explain and unify the basic motions during mitosis: (1) assembly of the asters, (2) motion of asters to poles, (3) chromosome attachment, (4) separation of sister chromatids, (5) prometaphase monovalent attachment motions, (6) chromosome congression to the cell equator, (7) metaphase oscillations, and (8) anaphase A poleward chromosome motion. In the cytosol of cells, electrostatic fields are subject to strong attenuation by ionic screening. However, the presence of microtubules within cells changes the situation completely. Microtubule dimer subunits are electric dipolar structures, and can act as intermediaries which extend the reach of the electrostatic interaction over cellular distances. Experimental studies have shown that intracellular pH rises to a peak at mitosis, and decreases through cytokinesis. This result, in conjunction with the electric dipole nature of microtubule subunits is sufficient to explain the dynamics of the above events and motions, including their timing and sequencing. The physicochemical methods utilized by primitive eukaryotic cells could provide important clues regarding our understanding of cell division in modern eukaryotic cells.

  3. Helping Students Acquainted with Multiplication in Rectangular Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasman, Fridgo; den Hertog, Jaap; Zulkardi; Hartono, Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    Usually, multiplication is introduced to students to represent quantities that come in groups. However there is also rectangular array model which is also related to multiplication. Barmby et al. (2009) has shown that the rectangular model such as array representations encourage students to develop their thinking about multiplication as a binary…

  4. Motion analysis study on sensitivity of finite element model of the cervical spine to geometry.

    PubMed

    Zafarparandeh, Iman; Erbulut, Deniz U; Ozer, Ali F

    2016-07-01

    Numerous finite element models of the cervical spine have been proposed, with exact geometry or with symmetric approximation in the geometry. However, few researches have investigated the sensitivity of predicted motion responses to the geometry of the cervical spine. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of symmetric assumption on the predicted motion by finite element model of the cervical spine. We developed two finite element models of the cervical spine C2-C7. One model was based on the exact geometry of the cervical spine (asymmetric model), whereas the other was symmetric (symmetric model) about the mid-sagittal plane. The predicted range of motion of both models-main and coupled motions-was compared with published experimental data for all motion planes under a full range of loads. The maximum differences between the asymmetric model and symmetric model predictions for the principal motion were 31%, 78%, and 126% for flexion-extension, right-left lateral bending, and right-left axial rotation, respectively. For flexion-extension and lateral bending, the minimum difference was 0%, whereas it was 2% for axial rotation. The maximum coupled motions predicted by the symmetric model were 1.5° axial rotation and 3.6° lateral bending, under applied lateral bending and axial rotation, respectively. Those coupled motions predicted by the asymmetric model were 1.6° axial rotation and 4° lateral bending, under applied lateral bending and axial rotation, respectively. In general, the predicted motion response of the cervical spine by the symmetric model was in the acceptable range and nonlinearity of the moment-rotation curve for the cervical spine was properly predicted.

  5. Scatter to volume registration for model-free respiratory motion estimation from dynamic MRIs.

    PubMed

    Miao, S; Wang, Z J; Pan, L; Butler, J; Moran, G; Liao, R

    2016-09-01

    Respiratory motion is one major complicating factor in many image acquisition applications and image-guided interventions. Existing respiratory motion estimation and compensation methods typically rely on breathing motion models learned from certain training data, and therefore may not be able to effectively handle intra-subject and/or inter-subject variations of respiratory motion. In this paper, we propose a respiratory motion compensation framework that directly recovers motion fields from sparsely spaced and efficiently acquired dynamic 2-D MRIs without using a learned respiratory motion model. We present a scatter-to-volume deformable registration algorithm to register dynamic 2-D MRIs with a static 3-D MRI to recover dense deformation fields. Practical considerations and approximations are provided to solve the scatter-to-volume registration problem efficiently. The performance of the proposed method was investigated on both synthetic and real MRI datasets, and the results showed significant improvements over the state-of-art respiratory motion modeling methods. We also demonstrated a potential application of the proposed method on MRI-based motion corrected PET imaging using hybrid PET/MRI.

  6. Modeling Functional Motions of Biological Systems by Customized Natural Moves.

    PubMed

    Demharter, Samuel; Knapp, Bernhard; Deane, Charlotte M; Minary, Peter

    2016-08-23

    Simulating the functional motions of biomolecular systems requires large computational resources. We introduce a computationally inexpensive protocol for the systematic testing of hypotheses regarding the dynamic behavior of proteins and nucleic acids. The protocol is based on natural move Monte Carlo, a highly efficient conformational sampling method with built-in customization capabilities that allows researchers to design and perform a large number of simulations to investigate functional motions in biological systems. We demonstrate the use of this protocol on both a protein and a DNA case study. Firstly, we investigate the plasticity of a class II major histocompatibility complex in the absence of a bound peptide. Secondly, we study the effects of the epigenetic mark 5-hydroxymethyl on cytosine on the structure of the Dickerson-Drew dodecamer. We show how our customized natural moves protocol can be used to investigate causal relationships of functional motions in biological systems. PMID:27558715

  7. Incorporating dynamic collimator motion in Monte Carlo simulations: an application in modelling a dynamic wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Liu, H. Helen

    2001-02-01

    In radiation therapy, new treatment modalities employing dynamic collimation and intensity modulation increase the complexity of dose calculation because a new dimension, time, has to be incorporated into the traditional three-dimensional problem. In this work, we investigated two classes of sampling technique to incorporate dynamic collimator motion in Monte Carlo simulation. The methods were initially evaluated for modelling enhanced dynamic wedges (EDWs) from Varian accelerators (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, USA). In the position-probability-sampling or PPS method, a cumulative probability distribution function (CPDF) was computed for the collimator position, which could then be sampled during simulations. In the static-component-simulation or SCS method, a dynamic field is approximated by multiple static fields in a step-shoot fashion. The weights of the particles or the number of particles simulated for each component field are computed from the probability distribution function (PDF) of the collimator position. The CPDF and PDF were computed from the segmented treatment tables (STTs) for the EDWs. An output correction factor had to be applied in this calculation to account for the backscattered radiation affecting monitor chamber readings. Comparison of the phase-space data from the PPS method (with the step-shoot motion) with those from the SCS method showed excellent agreement. The accuracy of the PPS method was further verified from the agreement between the measured and calculated dose distributions. Compared to the SCS method, the PPS method is more automated and efficient from an operational point of view. The principle of the PPS method can be extended to simulate other dynamic motions, and in particular, intensity-modulated beams using multileaf collimators.

  8. Center of gravity motions and ankle joint stiffness control in upright undisturbed stance modeled through a fractional Brownian motion framework.

    PubMed

    Rougier, P; Caron, O

    2000-12-01

    The authors modeled the center of gravity vertical projection (CG(v)) and the difference, CP - CG(v), which, combined, constitute the center of pressure (CP) trajectory, as fractional Brownian motion in order to investigate their relative contributions and their spatiotemporal articulation. The results demonstrated that CG(v) and CP - CG(v) motions are both endowed in complementary fashion with strong stochastic and part-deterministic behaviors. In addition, if the temporal coordinates remain similar for all 3 trajectories by definition, the switch between the successive control mechanisms appears for shorter displacements for CP - CG(v) and CG(v) than for CP trajectories. Results deduced from both input (CG(v)) and muscular stiffness (CP - CG(v)) thus provide insight into the way the central nervous system regulates stance control and in particular how CG and CP - CG are controlled. PMID:11114233

  9. Nonlocal contour dynamics model for chemical front motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrich, Dean M.; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    1994-02-01

    Pattern formation exhibited by a two-dimensional reaction-diffusion system in the fast inhibitor limit is considered for the point of view of interface motion. A dissipative nonlocal equation of motion for the boundary between high and low concentrations of the slow species is derived heuristically. Under these dynamics, a compact domain of high concentration may develop into a space-filling labyrinthine structure in which nearby fronts repel. Similar patterns have been observed recently by Lee, McCormick, Ouyang, and Swinney in a reacting chemical system.

  10. TU-F-17A-03: An Analytical Respiratory Perturbation Model for Lung Motion Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Li, G; Yuan, A; Wei, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Breathing irregularity is common, causing unreliable prediction in tumor motion for correlation-based surrogates. Both tidal volume (TV) and breathing pattern (BP=ΔVthorax/TV, where TV=ΔVthorax+ΔVabdomen) affect lung motion in anterior-posterior and superior-inferior directions. We developed a novel respiratory motion perturbation (RMP) model in analytical form to account for changes in TV and BP in motion prediction from simulation to treatment. Methods: The RMP model is an analytical function of patient-specific anatomic and physiologic parameters. It contains a base-motion trajectory d(x,y,z) derived from a 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) at simulation and a perturbation term Δd(ΔTV,ΔBP) accounting for deviation at treatment from simulation. The perturbation is dependent on tumor-specific location and patient-specific anatomy. Eleven patients with simulation and treatment 4DCT images were used to assess the RMP method in motion prediction from 4DCT1 to 4DCT2, and vice versa. For each patient, ten motion trajectories of corresponding points in the lower lobes were measured in both 4DCTs: one served as the base-motion trajectory and the other as the ground truth for comparison. In total, 220 motion trajectory predictions were assessed. The motion discrepancy between two 4DCTs for each patient served as a control. An established 5D motion model was used for comparison. Results: The average absolute error of RMP model prediction in superior-inferior direction is 1.6±1.8 mm, similar to 1.7±1.6 mm from the 5D model (p=0.98). Some uncertainty is associated with limited spatial resolution (2.5mm slice thickness) and temporal resolution (10-phases). Non-corrected motion discrepancy between two 4DCTs is 2.6±2.7mm, with the maximum of ±20mm, and correction is necessary (p=0.01). Conclusion: The analytical motion model predicts lung motion with accuracy similar to the 5D model. The analytical model is based on physical relationships, requires no

  11. Nested Logit Models for Multiple-Choice Item Response Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Youngsuk; Bolt, Daniel M.

    2010-01-01

    Nested logit item response models for multiple-choice data are presented. Relative to previous models, the new models are suggested to provide a better approximation to multiple-choice items where the application of a solution strategy precedes consideration of response options. In practice, the models also accommodate collapsibility across all…

  12. Coexistence of bounded and unbounded motions in a bouncing ball model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marò, Stefano

    2013-05-01

    We consider the model describing the vertical motion of a ball falling with constant acceleration on a wall and elastically reflected. The wall is supposed to move in the vertical direction according to a given periodic function f. We apply the Aubry-Mather theory to the generating function in order to prove the existence of bounded motions with prescribed mean time between the bounces. As the existence of unbounded motions is known, it is possible to find a class of functions f that allow both bounded and unbounded motions.

  13. Multiple routes to mental animation: language and functional relations drive motion processing for static images.

    PubMed

    Coventry, Kenny R; Christophel, Thomas B; Fehr, Thorsten; Valdés-Conroy, Berenice; Herrmann, Manfred

    2013-08-01

    When looking at static visual images, people often exhibit mental animation, anticipating visual events that have not yet happened. But what determines when mental animation occurs? Measuring mental animation using localized brain function (visual motion processing in the middle temporal and middle superior temporal areas, MT+), we demonstrated that animating static pictures of objects is dependent both on the functionally relevant spatial arrangement that objects have with one another (e.g., a bottle above a glass vs. a glass above a bottle) and on the linguistic judgment to be made about those objects (e.g., "Is the bottle above the glass?" vs. "Is the bottle bigger than the glass?"). Furthermore, we showed that mental animation is driven by functional relations and language separately in the right hemisphere of the brain but conjointly in the left hemisphere. Mental animation is not a unitary construct; the predictions humans make about the visual world are driven flexibly, with hemispheric asymmetry in the routes to MT+ activation.

  14. Robust velocity computation from a biologically motivated model of motion perception

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, A.; McOwan, P. W.; Benton, C. P.

    1999-01-01

    Current computational models of motion processing in the primate motion pathway do not cope well with image sequences in which a moving pattern is superimposed upon a static texture. The use of non-linear operations and the need for contrast normalization in motion models mean that the separation of the influences of moving and static patterns on the motion computation is not trivial. Therefore, the response to the superposition of static and moving patterns provides an important means of testing various computational strategies. Here we describe a computational model of motion processing in the visual cortex, one of the advantages of which is that it is highly resistant to interference from static patterns.

  15. Comparison of Nonlinear Model Results Using Modified Recorded and Synthetic Ground Motions

    SciTech Connect

    Robert E. Spears; J. Kevin Wilkins

    2011-11-01

    A study has been performed that compares results of nonlinear model runs using two sets of earthquake ground motion time histories that have been modified to fit the same design response spectra. The time histories include applicable modified recorded earthquake ground motion time histories and synthetic ground motion time histories. The modified recorded earthquake ground motion time histories are modified from time history records that are selected based on consistent magnitude and distance. The synthetic ground motion time histories are generated using appropriate Fourier amplitude spectrums, Arias intensity, and drift correction. All of the time history modification is performed using the same algorithm to fit the design response spectra. The study provides data to demonstrate that properly managed synthetic ground motion time histories are reasonable for use in nonlinear seismic analysis.

  16. Estimating Internal Respiratory Motion from Respiratory Surrogate Signals Using Correspondence Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClelland, Jamie

    It is often difficult or impossible to directly monitor the respiratory motion of the tumour and other internal anatomy during RT treatment. Implanted markers can be used, but this involves an invasive procedure and has a number of other associated risks and problems. An alternative option is to use a correspondence model. This models the relationship between a respiratory surrogate signal(s), such as spirometry or the displacement of the skin surface, and the motion of the internal anatomy. Such a model allows the internal motion to be estimated from the surrogate signal(s), which can be easily monitored during RT treatment. The correspondence model is constructed prior to RT treatment. Imaging data is simultaneously acquired with the surrogate signal(s), and the internal motion is measured from the imaging data, e.g. using deformable image registration. A correspondence model is then fit relating the internal motion to the surrogate signal(s). This can then be used during treatment to estimate the internal motion from the surrogate signal(s). This chapter reviews the most popular correspondence models that have been used in the literature, as well as the different surrogate signals, types of imaging data used to measure the internal motion, and fitting methods used to fit the correspondence model to the data.

  17. Modelling the dynamics of motion integration with a new luminance-gated diffusion mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tlapale, Emilien; Masson, Guillaume S; Kornprobst, Pierre

    2010-08-01

    The dynamics of motion integration show striking similarities when observed at neuronal, psychophysical, and oculomotor levels. Based on the inter-relation and complementary insights given by those dynamics, our goal was to test how basic mechanisms of dynamical cortical processing can be incorporated in a dynamical model to solve several aspects of 2D motion integration and segmentation. Our model is inspired by the hierarchical processing stages of the primate visual cortex: we describe the interactions between several layers processing local motion and form information through feedforward, feedback, and inhibitive lateral connections. Also, following perceptual studies concerning contour integration and physiological studies of receptive fields, we postulate that motion estimation takes advantage of another low-level cue, which is luminance smoothness along edges or surfaces, in order to gate recurrent motion diffusion. With such a model, we successfully reproduced the temporal dynamics of motion integration on a wide range of simple motion stimuli: line segments, rotating ellipses, plaids, and barber poles. Furthermore, we showed that the proposed computational rule of luminance-gated diffusion of motion information is sufficient to explain a large set of contextual modulations of motion integration and segmentation in more elaborated stimuli such as chopstick illusions, simulated aperture problems, or rotating diamonds. As a whole, in this paper we proposed a new basal luminance-driven motion integration mechanism as an alternative to less parsimonious models, we carefully investigated the dynamics of motion integration, and we established a distinction between simple and complex stimuli according to the kind of information required to solve their ambiguities.

  18. SU-E-J-163: A Biomechanical Lung Model for Respiratory Motion Study

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X; Belcher, AH; Grelewicz, Z; Wiersma, RD

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This work presents a biomechanical model to investigate the complex respiratory motion for the lung tumor tracking in radiosurgery by computer simulation. Methods: The models include networked massspring-dampers to describe the tumor motion, different types of surrogate signals, and the force generated by the diaphragm. Each mass-springdamper has the same mechanical structure and each model can have different numbers of mass-spring-dampers. Both linear and nonlinear stiffness parameters were considered, and the damping ratio was tuned in a range so that the tumor motion was over-damped (no natural tumor oscillation occurs without force from the diaphragm). The simulation was run by using ODE45 (ordinary differential equations by Runge-Kutta method) in MATLAB, and all time courses of motions and inputs (force) were generated and compared. Results: The curvature of the motion time courses around their peaks was sensitive to the damping ratio. Therefore, the damping ratio can be determined based on the clinical data of a high sampling rate. The peak values of different signals and the time the peaks occurred were compared, and it was found that the diaphragm force had a time lead over the tumor motion, and the lead time (0.1–0.4 seconds) depended on the distance between the tumor and the diaphragm. Conclusion: We reported a model based analysis approach for the spatial and temporal relation between the motion of the lung tumor and the surrogate signals. Due to the phase lead of the diaphragm in comparing with the lung tumor motion, the measurement of diaphragm motion (or its electromyography signal) can be used as a beam gating signal in radiosurgery, and it can also be an additional surrogate signal for better tumor motion tracking. The research is funded by the American Cancer Society (ACS) grant. The grant name is: Frameless SRS Based on Robotic Head Motion Cancellation. The grant number is: RSG-13-313-01-CCE.

  19. Activity monitoring and motion classification of the lizard Chamaeleo jacksonii using multiple Doppler radars.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aditya; Lee, Scott S K; Butler, Marguerite; Lubecke, Victor

    2012-01-01

    We describe a simple, non-contact and efficient tool for monitoring the natural activity of a small lizard (Chamaeleo jacksonii) to yield valuable information about their metabolic activity and energy expenditure. It allows monitoring in a non-confined laboratory environment and uses multiple Doppler radars operating at 10.525 GHz. We developed a classification algorithm that can differentiate between fidgeting and locomotion by processing the quadrature baseband signals from the radars. The results have been verified by visual inspection and indicate that the tool could also be used for automated monitoring of the activities of reptiles and other small animals. PMID:23366934

  20. Activity monitoring and motion classification of the lizard Chamaeleo jacksonii using multiple Doppler radars.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aditya; Lee, Scott S K; Butler, Marguerite; Lubecke, Victor

    2012-01-01

    We describe a simple, non-contact and efficient tool for monitoring the natural activity of a small lizard (Chamaeleo jacksonii) to yield valuable information about their metabolic activity and energy expenditure. It allows monitoring in a non-confined laboratory environment and uses multiple Doppler radars operating at 10.525 GHz. We developed a classification algorithm that can differentiate between fidgeting and locomotion by processing the quadrature baseband signals from the radars. The results have been verified by visual inspection and indicate that the tool could also be used for automated monitoring of the activities of reptiles and other small animals.

  1. Statistical methods for analysis of coordination of chest wall motion using optical reflectance imaging of multiple markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, C. M.; Ghezzo, R. H.; Cala, S. J.; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Pedotti, Antonio; Macklem, P. T.; Rochester, D. F.

    1994-07-01

    To analyze coordination of chest wall motion we have used principle component analysis (PCA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA) with respect to spirometry on the displacements of 93 optical reflective markers placed upon the chest wall (CW). Each marker is tracked at 10 Hz with an accuracy of 0.2 mm in each spatial dimension using the ELITE system (IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 11:943-949, 1985). PCA enables the degree of linear coordination between all of the markers to be assessed using the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the covariance of the matrix of marker displacements in each dimension against time. Thus the number of linear degrees of freedom (DOF) which contribute more than a particular amount to the total variance can be determined and analyzed. MRA with respect to spirometrically measured lung volume changes enables identification of the CW points whose movement correlates best with lung volume. We have used this analysis to compare a quiet breathing sequence with one where tidal volume was increased fourfold involuntarily and show that the number of DOF with eigenvalues accounting for >5% of the covariance increased from 2 to 3. Also the point whose movement correlated best with lung volume changed from halfway down the lower costal margin to a more lateral point at the level of the bottom of the sternum. This quantification of CW coordination may be useful in analysis and staging of many respiratory disorders and is applicable to any nonrigid body motion where points can be tracked.

  2. Testing for Nonuniform Differential Item Functioning with Multiple Indicator Multiple Cause Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol M.; Grimm, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    In extant literature, multiple indicator multiple cause (MIMIC) models have been presented for identifying items that display uniform differential item functioning (DIF) only, not nonuniform DIF. This article addresses, for apparently the first time, the use of MIMIC models for testing both uniform and nonuniform DIF with categorical indicators. A…

  3. Architecture in motion: A model for music composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Variego, Jorge Elias

    2011-12-01

    Speculations regarding the relationship between music and architecture go back to the very origins of these disciplines. Throughout history, these links have always reaffirmed that music and architecture are analogous art forms that only diverge in their object of study. In the 1 st c. BCE Vitruvius conceived Architecture as "one of the most inclusive and universal human activities" where the architect should be educated in all the arts, having a vast knowledge in history, music and philosophy. In the 18th c., the German thinker Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, described Architecture as "frozen music". More recently, in the 20th c., Iannis Xenakis studied the similar structuring principles between Music and Architecture creating his own "models" of musical composition based on mathematical principles and geometric constructions. The goal of this document is to propose a compositional method that will function as a translator between the acoustical properties of a room and music, to facilitate the creation of musical works that will not only happen within an enclosed space but will also intentionally interact with the space. Acoustical measurements of rooms such as reverberation time, frequency response and volume will be measured and systematically organized in correspondence with orchestrational parameters. The musical compositions created after the proposed model are evocative of the spaces on which they are based. They are meant to be performed in any space, not exclusively in the one where the acoustical measurements were obtained. The visual component of architectural design is disregarded; the room is considered a musical instrument, with its particular sound qualities and resonances. Compositions using the proposed model will not result as sonified shapes, they will be musical works literally "tuned" to a specific space. This Architecture in motion is an attempt to adopt scientific research to the service of a creative activity and to let the aural properties of

  4. A finite state model for respiratory motion analysis in image guided radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huanmei; Sharp, Gregory C.; Salzberg, Betty; Kaeli, David; Shirato, Hiroki; Jiang, Steve B.

    2004-12-01

    Effective image guided radiation treatment of a moving tumour requires adequate information on respiratory motion characteristics. For margin expansion, beam tracking and respiratory gating, the tumour motion must be quantified for pretreatment planning and monitored on-line. We propose a finite state model for respiratory motion analysis that captures our natural understanding of breathing stages. In this model, a regular breathing cycle is represented by three line segments, exhale, end-of-exhale and inhale, while abnormal breathing is represented by an irregular breathing state. In addition, we describe an on-line implementation of this model in one dimension. We found this model can accurately characterize a wide variety of patient breathing patterns. This model was used to describe the respiratory motion for 23 patients with peak-to-peak motion greater than 7 mm. The average root mean square error over all patients was less than 1 mm and no patient has an error worse than 1.5 mm. Our model provides a convenient tool to quantify respiratory motion characteristics, such as patterns of frequency changes and amplitude changes, and can be applied to internal or external motion, including internal tumour position, abdominal surface, diaphragm, spirometry and other surrogates.

  5. A trade-off analysis design tool. Aircraft interior noise-motion/passenger satisfaction model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1977-01-01

    A design tool was developed to enhance aircraft passenger satisfaction. The effect of aircraft interior motion and noise on passenger comfort and satisfaction was modelled. Effects of individual aircraft noise sources were accounted for, and the impact of noise on passenger activities and noise levels to safeguard passenger hearing were investigated. The motion noise effect models provide a means for tradeoff analyses between noise and motion variables, and also provide a framework for optimizing noise reduction among noise sources. Data for the models were collected onboard commercial aircraft flights and specially scheduled tests.

  6. Characterization of free breathing patterns with 5D lung motion model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Tianyu; Lu Wei; Yang Deshan; Mutic, Sasa; Noel, Camille E.; Parikh, Parag J.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Low, Daniel A.

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the quiet respiration breathing motion model parameters for lung cancer and nonlung cancer patients. Methods: 49 free breathing patient 4DCT image datasets (25 scans, cine mode) were collected with simultaneous quantitative spirometry. A cross-correlation registration technique was employed to track the lung tissue motion between scans. The registration results were applied to a lung motion model: X-vector=X-vector{sub 0}+{alpha}-vector{beta}-vector f, where X-vector is the position of a piece of tissue located at reference position X-vector{sub 0} during a reference breathing phase (zero tidal volume v, zero airflow f). {alpha}-vector is a parameter that characterizes the motion due to air filling (motion as a function of tidal volume v) and {beta}-vector is the parameter that accounts for the motion due to the imbalance of dynamical stress distributions during inspiration and exhalation that causes lung motion hysteresis (motion as a function of airflow f). The parameters {alpha}-vector and {beta}-vector together provide a quantitative characterization of breathing motion that inherently includes the complex hysteresis interplay. The {alpha}-vector and {beta}-vector distributions were examined for each patient to determine overall general patterns and interpatient pattern variations. Results: For 44 patients, the greatest values of |{alpha}-vector| were observed in the inferior and posterior lungs. For the rest of the patients, |{alpha}-vector| reached its maximum in the anterior lung in three patients and the lateral lung in two patients. The hysteresis motion {beta}-vector had greater variability, but for the majority of patients, |{beta}-vector| was largest in the lateral lungs. Conclusions: This is the first report of the three-dimensional breathing motion model parameters for a large cohort of patients. The model has the potential for noninvasively predicting lung motion. The majority of patients exhibited similar |{alpha}-vector| maps

  7. Model-based risk assessment for motion effects in 3D radiotherapy of lung tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, René; Ehrhardt, Jan; Schmidt-Richberg, Alexander; Handels, Heinz

    2012-02-01

    Although 4D CT imaging becomes available in an increasing number of radiotherapy facilities, 3D imaging and planning is still standard in current clinical practice. In particular for lung tumors, respiratory motion is a known source of uncertainty and should be accounted for during radiotherapy planning - which is difficult by using only a 3D planning CT. In this contribution, we propose applying a statistical lung motion model to predict patients' motion patterns and to estimate dosimetric motion effects in lung tumor radiotherapy if only 3D images are available. Being generated based on 4D CT images of patients with unimpaired lung motion, the model tends to overestimate lung tumor motion. It therefore promises conservative risk assessment regarding tumor dose coverage. This is exemplarily evaluated using treatment plans of lung tumor patients with different tumor motion patterns and for two treatment modalities (conventional 3D conformal radiotherapy and step-&- shoot intensity modulated radiotherapy). For the test cases, 4D CT images are available. Thus, also a standard registration-based 4D dose calculation is performed, which serves as reference to judge plausibility of the modelbased 4D dose calculation. It will be shown that, if combined with an additional simple patient-specific breathing surrogate measurement (here: spirometry), the model-based dose calculation provides reasonable risk assessment of respiratory motion effects.

  8. Lung Motion Model Validation Experiments, Free-Breathing Tissue Densitometry, and Ventilation Mapping using Fast Helical CT Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Hsiang-Tai

    The uncertainties due to respiratory motion present significant challenges to accurate characterization of cancerous tissues both in terms of imaging and treatment. Currently available clinical lung imaging techniques are subject to inferior image quality and incorrect motion estimation, with consequences that can systematically impact the downstream treatment delivery and outcome. The main objective of this thesis is the development of the techniques of fast helical computed tomography (CT) imaging and deformable image registration for the radiotherapy applications in accurate breathing motion modeling, lung tissue density modeling and ventilation imaging. Fast helical CT scanning was performed on 64-slice CT scanner using the shortest available gantry rotation time and largest pitch value such that scanning of the thorax region amounts to just two seconds, which is less than typical breathing cycle in humans. The scanning was conducted under free breathing condition. Any portion of the lung anatomy undergoing such scanning protocol would be irradiated for only a quarter second, effectively removing any motion induced image artifacts. The resulting CT data were pristine volumetric images that record the lung tissue position and density in a fraction of the breathing cycle. Following our developed protocol, multiple fast helical CT scans were acquired to sample the tissue positions in different breathing states. To measure the tissue displacement, deformable image registration was performed that registers the non-reference images to the reference one. In modeling breathing motion, external breathing surrogate signal was recorded synchronously with the CT image slices. This allowed for the tissue-specific displacement to be modeled as parametrization of the recorded breathing signal using the 5D lung motion model. To assess the accuracy of the motion model in describing tissue position change, the model was used to simulate the original high-pitch helical CT scan

  9. Lung Motion Model Validation Experiments, Free-Breathing Tissue Densitometry, and Ventilation Mapping using Fast Helical CT Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Hsiang-Tai

    The uncertainties due to respiratory motion present significant challenges to accurate characterization of cancerous tissues both in terms of imaging and treatment. Currently available clinical lung imaging techniques are subject to inferior image quality and incorrect motion estimation, with consequences that can systematically impact the downstream treatment delivery and outcome. The main objective of this thesis is the development of the techniques of fast helical computed tomography (CT) imaging and deformable image registration for the radiotherapy applications in accurate breathing motion modeling, lung tissue density modeling and ventilation imaging. Fast helical CT scanning was performed on 64-slice CT scanner using the shortest available gantry rotation time and largest pitch value such that scanning of the thorax region amounts to just two seconds, which is less than typical breathing cycle in humans. The scanning was conducted under free breathing condition. Any portion of the lung anatomy undergoing such scanning protocol would be irradiated for only a quarter second, effectively removing any motion induced image artifacts. The resulting CT data were pristine volumetric images that record the lung tissue position and density in a fraction of the breathing cycle. Following our developed protocol, multiple fast helical CT scans were acquired to sample the tissue positions in different breathing states. To measure the tissue displacement, deformable image registration was performed that registers the non-reference images to the reference one. In modeling breathing motion, external breathing surrogate signal was recorded synchronously with the CT image slices. This allowed for the tissue-specific displacement to be modeled as parametrization of the recorded breathing signal using the 5D lung motion model. To assess the accuracy of the motion model in describing tissue position change, the model was used to simulate the original high-pitch helical CT scan

  10. Primary motor cortex reports efferent control of vibrissa motion on multiple time scales

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Daniel N.; Curtis, John C.; Moore, Jeffrey D.; Kleinfeld, David

    2011-01-01

    Exploratory whisking in rat is an example of self-generated movement on multiple time scales, from slow variations in the envelope of whisking to the rapid sequence of muscle contractions during a single whisk cycle. We find that, as a population, spike trains of single units in primary vibrissa motor cortex report the absolute angle of vibrissa position. This representation persists after sensory nerve transection, indicating an efferent source. About two-thirds of the units are modulated by slow variations in the envelope of whisking while relatively few units report rapid changes in position within the whisk cycle. The combined results from this study and past measurements, which show that primary sensory cortex codes the whisking envelope as a motor copy signal, imply that signals present in both sensory and motor cortices are necessary to compute coordinates based on vibrissa touch. PMID:22017992

  11. Stochastic point-source modeling of ground motions in the Cascadia region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, G.M.; Boore, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    A stochastic model is used to develop preliminary ground motion relations for the Cascadia region for rock sites. The model parameters are derived from empirical analyses of seismographic data from the Cascadia region. The model is based on a Brune point-source characterized by a stress parameter of 50 bars. The model predictions are compared to ground-motion data from the Cascadia region and to data from large earthquakes in other subduction zones. The point-source simulations match the observations from moderate events (M 100 km). The discrepancy at large magnitudes suggests further work on modeling finite-fault effects and regional attenuation is warranted. In the meantime, the preliminary equations are satisfactory for predicting motions from events of M < 7 and provide conservative estimates of motions from larger events at distances less than 100 km.

  12. Alternative Multiple Imputation Inference for Mean and Covariance Structure Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Taehun; Cai, Li

    2012-01-01

    Model-based multiple imputation has become an indispensable method in the educational and behavioral sciences. Mean and covariance structure models are often fitted to multiply imputed data sets. However, the presence of multiple random imputations complicates model fit testing, which is an important aspect of mean and covariance structure…

  13. Motion sickness: an evolutionary and genetic basis for the negative reinforcement model.

    PubMed

    Knox, Glenn W

    2014-01-01

    It has been theorized that motion sickness evolved as a negative reinforcement system which terminates motion involving postural instability and/or sensory conflict. A hypothetical example is provided by a "thought experiment" whereby protohominids are in a tree looking for food. Selection pressure results when the organisms that have an aversion to motion-producing sensory conflict do not venture out too far on the tree limbs and therefore tend to survive. In order to support an evolutionary model for motion sickness there must be evidence for genetic and/or heritable predisposition. The present study involves a retrospective literature review which reveals abundant evidence for genetic/heritable factors in motion sickness. Examples include genetic polymorphism of the alpha-2-adrenergic receptor, which has been shown to increase susceptibility to motion sickness, examination of family trees revealing heritable motion sickness susceptibility, evidence indicating that Asians are hyper-susceptible to motion sickness, and twin studies, just to mention a few. Thus, the theory of heritable negative reinforcement as a basis for motion sickness is supported by extensive evidence in the medical literature. This theory is compared and contrasted with other theories. Further areas for research are suggested.

  14. SU-D-17A-03: 5D Respiratory Motion Model Based Iterative Reconstruction Method for 4D Cone-Beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Y; Thomas, D; Low, D; Gao, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to develop a new iterative reconstruction method for 4D cone-beam CT (CBCT) based on a published time-independent 5D respiratory motion model. The proposed method will offer a single high-resolution image at a user-selected breathing phase and the 5D motion model parameters, which could be used to generate the breathing pattern during the CT acquisition. Methods: 5D respiratory motion model was proposed for accurately modeling the motion of lung and lung tumor tissues. 4D images are then parameterized by a reference image, measured breathing amplitude, breathing rate, two time-independent vector fields that describe the 5D model parameters, and a scalar field that describes the change in HU as a function of breathing amplitude. In contrast with the traditional method of reconstructing multiple temporal image phases to reduce respiratory artifact, 5D model based method simplify the problem into the reconstruction of a single reference image and the 5D motion model parameters. The reconstruction formulation of the reference image and scalar and vector fields is a nonlinear least-square optimization problem that consists of solving the reference image and fields alternately, in which the reference image is regularized with the total variation sparsity transform and the vector fields are solved through linearizations regularized by the H1 norm. 2D lung simulations were performed in this proof-of-concept study. Results: The breathing amplitude, its rate, and the corresponding scalar and vector fields were generated from a patient case. Compared with filtered backprojection method and sparsity regularized iterative method for the phase-by-phase reconstruction, the proposed 5D motion model based method yielded improved image quality. Conclusion: Based on 5D respiratory motion model, we have developed a new iterative reconstruction method for 4D CBCT that has the potential for improving image quality while providing needed on

  15. Multilayer Joint Gait-Pose Manifolds for Human Gait Motion Modeling.

    PubMed

    Ding, Meng; Fan, Guolian

    2015-11-01

    We present new multilayer joint gait-pose manifolds (multilayer JGPMs) for complex human gait motion modeling, where three latent variables are defined jointly in a low-dimensional manifold to represent a variety of body configurations. Specifically, the pose variable (along the pose manifold) denotes a specific stage in a walking cycle; the gait variable (along the gait manifold) represents different walking styles; and the linear scale variable characterizes the maximum stride in a walking cycle. We discuss two kinds of topological priors for coupling the pose and gait manifolds, i.e., cylindrical and toroidal, to examine their effectiveness and suitability for motion modeling. We resort to a topologically-constrained Gaussian process (GP) latent variable model to learn the multilayer JGPMs where two new techniques are introduced to facilitate model learning under limited training data. First is training data diversification that creates a set of simulated motion data with different strides. Second is the topology-aware local learning to speed up model learning by taking advantage of the local topological structure. The experimental results on the Carnegie Mellon University motion capture data demonstrate the advantages of our proposed multilayer models over several existing GP-based motion models in terms of the overall performance of human gait motion modeling.

  16. Development of Response Spectral Ground Motion Prediction Equations from Empirical Models for Fourier Spectra and Duration of Ground Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, S. S.; Scherbaum, F.; Kuehn, N. M.; Stafford, P.; Edwards, B.

    2014-12-01

    In a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) framework, it still remains a challenge to adjust ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for application in different seismological environments. In this context, this study presents a complete framework for the development of a response spectral GMPE easily adjustable to different seismological conditions; and which does not suffer from the technical problems associated with the adjustment in response spectral domain. Essentially, the approach consists of an empirical FAS (Fourier Amplitude Spectrum) model and a duration model for ground motion which are combined within the random vibration theory (RVT) framework to obtain the full response spectral ordinates. Additionally, FAS corresponding to individual acceleration records are extrapolated beyond the frequency range defined by the data using the stochastic FAS model, obtained by inversion as described in Edwards & Faeh, (2013). To that end, an empirical model for a duration, which is tuned to optimize the fit between RVT based and observed response spectral ordinate, at each oscillator frequency is derived. Although, the main motive of the presented approach was to address the adjustability issues of response spectral GMPEs; comparison, of median predicted response spectra with the other regional models indicate that presented approach can also be used as a stand-alone model. Besides that, a significantly lower aleatory variability (σ<0.5 in log units) in comparison to other regional models, at shorter periods brands it to a potentially viable alternative to the classical regression (on response spectral ordinates) based GMPEs for seismic hazard studies in the near future. The dataset used for the presented analysis is a subset of the recently compiled database RESORCE-2012 across Europe, Middle East and the Mediterranean region.

  17. Stochastic Modeling and Simulation of Near-Fault Ground Motions for Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabaghi, Mayssa Nabil

    A comprehensive parameterized stochastic model of near-fault ground motions in two orthogonal horizontal directions is developed. The proposed model uniquely combines several existing and new sub-models to represent major characteristics of recorded near-fault ground motions. These characteristics include near-fault effects of directivity and fling step; temporal and spectral non-stationarity; intensity, duration and frequency content characteristics; directionality of components, as well as the natural variability of motions for a given earthquake and site scenario. By fitting the model to a database of recorded near-fault ground motions with known earthquake source and site characteristics, empirical "observations" of the model parameters are obtained. These observations are used to develop predictive equations for the model parameters in terms of a small number of earthquake source and site characteristics. Functional forms for the predictive equations that are consistent with seismological theory are employed. A site-based simulation procedure that employs the proposed stochastic model and predictive equations is developed to generate synthetic near-fault ground motions at a site. The procedure is formulated in terms of information about the earthquake design scenario that is normally available to a design engineer. Not all near-fault ground motions contain a forward directivity pulse, even when the conditions for such a pulse are favorable. The proposed procedure produces pulselike and non-pulselike motions in the same proportions as they naturally occur among recorded near-fault ground motions for a given design scenario. The proposed models and simulation procedure are validated by several means. Synthetic ground motion time series with fitted parameter values are compared with the corresponding recorded motions. The proposed empirical predictive relations are compared to similar relations available in the literature. The overall simulation procedure is

  18. A heuristic mathematical model for the dynamics of sensory conflict and motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    The etiology of motion sickness is now usually explained in terms of a qualitatively formulated sensory conflict hypothesis. By consideration of the information processing task faced by the central nervous system in estimating body spatial orientation and in controlling active body movement using an internal model referenced control strategy, a mathematical model for sensory conflict generation is developed. The model postulates a major dynamic functional role for sensory conflict signals in movement control, as well as in sensory motor adaptation. It accounts for the role of active movement in creating motion sickness symptoms in some experimental circumstances, and in alleviating them in others. The relationship between motion sickness produced by sensory rearrangement and that resulting from external motion disturbances is explicitly defined. A nonlinear conflict averaging model describes dynamic aspects of experimentally observed subjective discomfort sensation, and suggests resulting behavior.

  19. A heuristic mathematical model for the dynamics of sensory conflict and motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    The etiology of motion sickness is explained in terms of a qualitatively formulated sensory conflict hypothesis. By consideration of the information processing task faced by the central nervous system in estimating body spatial orientation and in controlling active body movement using an internal model referenced control strategy, a mathematical model for sensory conflict generation is developed. The model postulates a major dynamic functional role for sensory conflict signals in movement control, as well as in sensory-motor adaptation. It accounts for the role of active movement in creating motion sickness symptoms in some experimental circumstances, and in alleviating them in others. The relationship between motion sickness produced by sensory rearrangement and that resulting from external motion disturbances is explicitly defined. A nonlinear conflict averaging model is proposed which describes dynamic aspects of experimentally observed subjective discomfort sensation, and suggests resulting behaviors.

  20. Integrating nonlinear site effects in broadband ground motion models: Observations and simulations in the Los Angeles basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assimaki, D.; Steidl, J.; Li, W.

    2006-12-01

    Site-specific ground response analyses to strong seismic motion are currently required for the design of new components of the civil infrastructure on deep and/or soft sedimentary deposits, which prevail in many urban areas of moderate to high seismic risk in the US such as the Los Angeles basin. In these cases, it is necessary to arrive at realistic predictions of the nonlinear soil behavior, which require elaborate analyses to be employed that are associated, however, with considerable cost and effort. Currently, uncertainties exist regarding the methodology to be employed, the level of sophistication required that determines the number of input parameters, and the development of these parameters for implementation. These difficulties, further aggravated by the lack of well-documented validation studies, have thus far prohibited the integration of nonlinear analysis procedures in broadband ground motion simulations. We here present the parametric investigation of recorded and simulated ground motion time-histories for selected sites in the Los Angeles basin, conducted to examine the variability in ground response estimation as a function of the employed nonlinear soil model complexity, and the extent of geotechnical data availability in the near-surface. For this purpose, weak motion waveform inversion is first employed at selected sites in the basin, in absence of the necessary detailed low-strain dynamic soil property distribution in the near surface. Successively, the corresponding one-dimensional (1D) crustal velocity profiles are depicted at these locations based on the SCEC Community Velocity Model, and synthetic ground motion simulations are conducted for the rupture of a wide range of strike-slip fault geometries by means of the hybrid low/high-frequency method with correlated random source parameters. The lack of multiple strong motion seismic data at these sites necessitates the use of simulated ground motion time-histories for the generation of a

  1. Virtual reality pain control during physical therapy range of motion exercises for a patient with multiple blunt force trauma injuries.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Hunter G; Patterson, David R; Soltani, Maryam; Teeley, Aubriana; Miller, William; Sharar, Sam R

    2009-02-01

    Patients with severe blunt force trauma injuries (e.g., multiple fractures and/or internal injuries) often experience severe to excruciating pain during medical procedures. We explored the adjunctive use of immersive virtual reality (VR) to distract a patient with multiple blunt trauma injuries from his procedural pain during physical therapy. The patient was a 32-year-old male hospitalized after suffering upper and lower extremity injuries when he was hit by a semi truck as a pedestrian. While a nurse assisted the patient's passive range of motion (ROM) leg exercises over two days, the patient spent a total of 10 minutes of physical therapy with no distraction and 10 minutes in VR (within-subjects design, order randomized). Three 0 to 10 graphic-rating-scale pain scores for each of the two treatment conditions served as the primary dependent variables. The patient reported a reduction in pain when distracted with VR. "Pain unpleasantness" ratings during physical therapy dropped from "severe" (mean = 8.5) to "mild/moderate" (4.5). The patient's ROM was 1 degree less during VR on day 1, but the patient achieved 15 degrees greater ROM during VR on day 2. The present study provides preliminary evidence that immersive VR can be an effective adjunctive, nonpharmacologic pain-reduction technique for a patient with multiple blunt trauma injuries experiencing severe pain during physical therapy. The potential utility of VR analgesia for movement or exercise therapy for patients with blunt force trauma injuries should be explored in controlled studies.

  2. A motion-energy model predicts the direction discrimination and MAE duration of two-stroke apparent motion at high and low retinal illuminance.

    PubMed

    Challinor, Kirsten L; Mather, George

    2010-06-11

    Two-stroke apparent motion offers a challenge to current theoretical models of motion processing and is thus a useful tool for investigating motion sensor input. The stimulus involves repeated presentation of two pattern frames containing a spatial displacement, with a blank inter-stimulus interval (ISI) at one of the two-frame transitions. The resulting impression of continuous motion was measured here using both direction discrimination and motion after-effect duration in order to assess the extent to which data using the two measures can be explained by a computational model without reference to attentive tracking mechanisms. The motion-energy model was found to offer a very good account of the psychophysical data using similar parameters for both tasks. The experiment was run under both photopic and scotopic retinal illumination. Data revealed that the optimum ISI for perceiving two-stroke apparent motion shifts to longer ISIs under scotopic conditions, providing evidence for a biphasic impulse response at low luminance. Best-fitting model parameters indicate that motion sensors receive inputs from temporal filters whose central temporal frequency shifts from 2.5 to 3.0Hz at high retinal illuminance to 1.0-1.5Hz at low retinal illuminance.

  3. Modelling of Motion of Bodies Near Triangular Lagrangian Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrov, O. A.

    In this paper, we consider a system of three bodies connected by gravity, two of which are of comparable mass (the Sun and Jupiter), and the third is negligible and it is located in one of the triangular Lagrange points (restricted 3 - body problem). We used the equations of motion in a planar coordinate system that rotates together with massive bodies. Several programs have been written in the programming environment Pascal ABC, in order to build the trajectory of a small body, to indicate the osculating orbit around a massive body, to display equipotential surfaces.

  4. Construction and evaluation of an integrated dynamical model of visual motion perception.

    PubMed

    Tlapale, Émilien; Dosher, Barbara Anne; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2015-07-01

    Although numerous models describe the individual neural mechanisms that may be involved in the perception of visual motion, few of them have been constructed to take arbitrary stimuli and map them to a motion percept. Here, we propose an integrated dynamical motion model (IDM), which is sufficiently general to handle diverse moving stimuli, yet sufficiently precise to account for a wide-ranging set of empirical observations made on a family of random dot kinematograms. In particular, we constructed models of the cortical areas involved in motion detection, motion integration and perceptual decision. We analyzed their parameters through dynamical simulations and numerical continuation to constrain their proper ranges. Then, empirical data from a family of random dot kinematograms experiments with systematically varying direction distribution, presentation duration and stimulus size, were used to evaluate our model and estimate corresponding model parameters. The resulting model provides an excellent account of a demanding set of parametrically varied behavioral effects on motion perception, providing both quantitative and qualitative elements of evaluation.

  5. Model-based respiratory motion compensation for emission tomography image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Reyes, M; Malandain, G; Koulibaly, P M; González-Ballester, M A; Darcourt, J

    2007-06-21

    In emission tomography imaging, respiratory motion causes artifacts in lungs and cardiac reconstructed images, which lead to misinterpretations, imprecise diagnosis, impairing of fusion with other modalities, etc. Solutions like respiratory gating, correlated dynamic PET techniques, list-mode data based techniques and others have been tested, which lead to improvements over the spatial activity distribution in lungs lesions, but which have the disadvantages of requiring additional instrumentation or the need of discarding part of the projection data used for reconstruction. The objective of this study is to incorporate respiratory motion compensation directly into the image reconstruction process, without any additional acquisition protocol consideration. To this end, we propose an extension to the maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) algorithm that includes a respiratory motion model, which takes into account the displacements and volume deformations produced by the respiratory motion during the data acquisition process. We present results from synthetic simulations incorporating real respiratory motion as well as from phantom and patient data.

  6. Cardiac Motion Analysis Using High-Speed Video Images in a Rat Model for Myocardial Infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Idaku; Okuda, Toshikazu; Nie, Yuman; Takaki, Takeshi; Orito, Kensuke; Tanaka, Akane; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    In this study, we performed a cardiac motion analysis by using 1000-frames per second (fps) stereo images to capture the three-dimensional motion of small color markers in a rat heart. This method of recording cardiac motion could quantify the rate of change in the myocardial area, which indicated localized myocardial activity of rhythmic expansion and contraction. We analyzed the three-dimensional motion distributions in a rat model for myocardial infarction, in which the heart rate was 4 times/s or more. In the analysis, we spatiotemporally quantified the characteristic cardiac motion in ischemic heart diseases and found that infarction due to ischemia in the rat heart was spread around the left ventricle.

  7. Cardiac motion compensation and resolution modeling in simultaneous PET-MR: a cardiac lesion detection study.

    PubMed

    Petibon, Y; Ouyang, J; Zhu, X; Huang, C; Reese, T G; Chun, S Y; Li, Q; El Fakhri, G

    2013-04-01

    Cardiac motion and partial volume effects (PVE) are two of the main causes of image degradation in cardiac PET. Motion generates artifacts and blurring while PVE lead to erroneous myocardial activity measurements. Newly available simultaneous PET-MR scanners offer new possibilities in cardiac imaging as MRI can assess wall contractility while collecting PET perfusion data. In this perspective, we develop a list-mode iterative reconstruction framework incorporating both tagged-MR derived non-rigid myocardial wall motion and position dependent detector point spread function (PSF) directly into the PET system matrix. In this manner, our algorithm performs both motion 'deblurring' and PSF deconvolution while reconstructing images with all available PET counts. The proposed methods are evaluated in a beating non-rigid cardiac phantom whose hot myocardial compartment contains small transmural and non-transmural cold defects. In order to accelerate imaging time, we investigate collecting full and half k-space tagged MR data to obtain tagged volumes that are registered using non-rigid B-spline registration to yield wall motion information. Our experimental results show that tagged-MR based motion correction yielded an improvement in defect/myocardium contrast recovery of 34-206% as compared to motion uncorrected studies. Likewise, lesion detectability improved by respectively 115-136% and 62-235% with MR-based motion compensation as compared to gating and no motion correction and made it possible to distinguish non-transmural from transmural defects, which has clinical significance given the inherent limitations of current single modality imaging in identifying the amount of residual ischemia. The incorporation of PSF modeling within the framework of MR-based motion compensation significantly improved defect/myocardium contrast recovery (5.1-8.5%, p < 0.01) and defect detectability (39-56%, p < 0.01). No statistical difference was found in PET contrast and lesion

  8. Cardiac motion compensation and resolution modeling in simultaneous PET-MR: a cardiac lesion detection study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petibon, Y.; Ouyang, J.; Zhu, X.; Huang, C.; Reese, T. G.; Chun, S. Y.; Li, Q.; El Fakhri, G.

    2013-04-01

    Cardiac motion and partial volume effects (PVE) are two of the main causes of image degradation in cardiac PET. Motion generates artifacts and blurring while PVE lead to erroneous myocardial activity measurements. Newly available simultaneous PET-MR scanners offer new possibilities in cardiac imaging as MRI can assess wall contractility while collecting PET perfusion data. In this perspective, we develop a list-mode iterative reconstruction framework incorporating both tagged-MR derived non-rigid myocardial wall motion and position dependent detector point spread function (PSF) directly into the PET system matrix. In this manner, our algorithm performs both motion ‘deblurring’ and PSF deconvolution while reconstructing images with all available PET counts. The proposed methods are evaluated in a beating non-rigid cardiac phantom whose hot myocardial compartment contains small transmural and non-transmural cold defects. In order to accelerate imaging time, we investigate collecting full and half k-space tagged MR data to obtain tagged volumes that are registered using non-rigid B-spline registration to yield wall motion information. Our experimental results show that tagged-MR based motion correction yielded an improvement in defect/myocardium contrast recovery of 34-206% as compared to motion uncorrected studies. Likewise, lesion detectability improved by respectively 115-136% and 62-235% with MR-based motion compensation as compared to gating and no motion correction and made it possible to distinguish non-transmural from transmural defects, which has clinical significance given the inherent limitations of current single modality imaging in identifying the amount of residual ischemia. The incorporation of PSF modeling within the framework of MR-based motion compensation significantly improved defect/myocardium contrast recovery (5.1-8.5%, p < 0.01) and defect detectability (39-56%, p < 0.01). No statistical difference was found in PET contrast and lesion

  9. A heuristic mathematical model for the dynamics of sensory conflict and motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    By consideration of the information processing task faced by the central nervous system in estimating body spatial orientation and in controlling active body movement using an internal model referenced control strategy, a mathematical model for sensory conflict generation is developed. The model postulates a major dynamic functional role for sensory conflict signals in movement control, as well as in sensory-motor adaptation. It accounts for the role of active movement in creating motion sickness symptoms in some experimental circumstance, and in alleviating them in others. The relationship between motion sickness produced by sensory rearrangement and that resulting from external motion disturbances is explicitly defined. A nonlinear conflict averaging model is proposed which describes dynamic aspects of experimentally observed subjective discomfort sensation, and suggests resulting behaviours. The model admits several possibilities for adaptive mechanisms which do not involve internal model updating. Further systematic efforts to experimentally refine and validate the model are indicated.

  10. Testing the Multiple in the Multiple Read-Out Model of Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Moor, Wendy; Verguts, Tom; Brysbaert, Marc

    2005-01-01

    This study provided a test of the multiple criteria concept used for lexical decision, as implemented in J. Grainger and A. M. Jacobs's (1996) multiple read-out model. This account predicts more inhibition (or less facilitation) from a masked neighbor when accuracy is stressed more but more facilitation (or less inhibition) when the speed of…

  11. MULTIVARIATE LINEAR MIXED MODELS FOR MULTIPLE OUTCOMES. (R824757)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We propose a multivariate linear mixed (MLMM) for the analysis of multiple outcomes, which generalizes the latent variable model of Sammel and Ryan. The proposed model assumes a flexible correlation structure among the multiple outcomes, and allows a global test of the impact of ...

  12. 16 CFR 1115.28 - Multiple products or models.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SUBSTANTIAL PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS Guidelines and Requirements for Mandatory Recall Notices § 1115.28 Multiple products or models. For each product or model covered by a recall notice, the notice must meet...

  13. 16 CFR 1115.28 - Multiple products or models.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SUBSTANTIAL PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS Guidelines and Requirements for Mandatory Recall Notices § 1115.28 Multiple products or models. For each product or model covered by a recall notice, the notice must meet...

  14. 16 CFR 1115.28 - Multiple products or models.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SUBSTANTIAL PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS Guidelines and Requirements for Mandatory Recall Notices § 1115.28 Multiple products or models. For each product or model covered by a recall notice, the notice must meet...

  15. 16 CFR 1115.28 - Multiple products or models.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SUBSTANTIAL PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS Guidelines and Requirements for Mandatory Recall Notices § 1115.28 Multiple products or models. For each product or model covered by a recall notice, the notice must meet...

  16. Neural network-based motion control of an underactuated wheeled inverted pendulum model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chenguang; Li, Zhijun; Cui, Rongxin; Xu, Bugong

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, automatic motion control is investigated for one of wheeled inverted pendulum (WIP) models, which have been widely applied for modeling of a large range of two wheeled modern vehicles. First, the underactuated WIP model is decomposed into a fully actuated second order subsystem Σa consisting of planar movement of vehicle forward and yaw angular motions, and a nonactuated first order subsystem Σb of pendulum motion. Due to the unknown dynamics of subsystem Σa and the universal approximation ability of neural network (NN), an adaptive NN scheme has been employed for motion control of subsystem Σa . The model reference approach has been used whereas the reference model is optimized by the finite time linear quadratic regulation technique. The pendulum motion in the passive subsystem Σb is indirectly controlled using the dynamic coupling with planar forward motion of subsystem Σa , such that satisfactory tracking of a set pendulum tilt angle can be guaranteed. Rigours theoretic analysis has been established, and simulation studies have been performed to demonstrate the developed method.

  17. A space-variant model for motion interpretation across the visual field.

    PubMed

    Chessa, Manuela; Maiello, Guido; Bex, Peter J; Solari, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    We implement a neural model for the estimation of the focus of radial motion (FRM) at different retinal locations and assess the model by comparing its results with respect to the precision with which human observers can estimate the FRM in naturalistic motion stimuli. The model describes the deep hierarchy of the first stages of the dorsal visual pathway and is space variant, since it takes into account the retino-cortical transformation of the primate visual system through log-polar mapping. The log-polar transform of the retinal image is the input to the cortical motion-estimation stage, where optic flow is computed by a three-layer neural population. The sensitivity to complex motion patterns that has been found in area MST is modeled through a population of adaptive templates. The first-order description of cortical optic flow is derived from the responses of the adaptive templates. Information about self-motion (e.g., direction of heading) is estimated by combining the first-order descriptors computed in the cortical domain. The model's performance at FRM estimation as a function of retinal eccentricity neatly maps onto data from human observers. By employing equivalent-noise analysis we observe that loss in FRM accuracy for both model and human observers is attributable to a decrease in the efficiency with which motion information is pooled with increasing retinal eccentricity in the visual field. The decrease in sampling efficiency is thus attributable to receptive-field size increases with increasing retinal eccentricity, which are in turn driven by the lossy log-polar mapping that projects the retinal image onto primary visual areas. We further show that the model is able to estimate direction of heading in real-world scenes, thus validating the model's potential application to neuromimetic robotic architectures. More broadly, we provide a framework in which to model complex motion integration across the visual field in real-world scenes. PMID:27580091

  18. A saliency based motion detection model of visual system considering visual adaptation properties.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Mitsuhiro; Kohama, Takeshi; Yoshida, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to construct a mathematical model which predicts saliency regions in high-speed egocentric-motion movies, filmed by an embedded camera in a driving vehicle, by reproducing the characteristics of the area MT and MST neurons' receptive fields with consideration of visual adaptation properties. The area MT neurons integrate from the area V1 activation and respond well to regions where higher motion contrasts exist. While the area MST neurons detect global motions such as expansion, contraction, rotation, and so on. We modeled the area MT neurons' receptive fields as a center-surround spatial summation of counter sided motion vectors of visual scenery. The area MST neurons in our model integrate the responses of the MT neurons by convolving with spacial weight functions of which central portions are biased to preferred direction. Visual adaptations were taken as the primary delay filters for each visual feature channel to deplete the saliency of stationary objects and regions during particular frames. The simulation results for the movies which were taken in a running vehicle indicate that the proposed model detects more salient objects around the vanishing point than the conventional saliency based model. To evaluate the performance of proposed model, we defined the moving-NSS (normalized scan-path salience) scores as the averaged NSS scores in each moving time window. The moving-NSS scores for motion images of our model were higher than those of the conventional model. PMID:26737820

  19. Observing and Modeling Long-Period Tidal Variations in Polar Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Richard S.; Dickman, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    By exchanging angular momentum with the solid Earth, ocean tides cause the Earth's rotation to change. While hydrodynamic tide models have been used to study the effect of ocean tides on polar motion, it is shown here that none of the published models can fully account for the observed variations. An empirical ocean tide model is therefore determined by fitting periodic terms at the tidal frequencies to polar motion excitation observations, from which atmospheric and non-tidal oceanic effects were removed. While the empirical ocean tide model does fully account for allof the observed tidal power, tests indicate that the model may not have completely converged. So better models of the effects of ocean tides on polar motion are still needed, both dynamical and empirical.

  20. Analytical approach to calculation of response spectra from seismological models of ground motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, Erdal

    1988-01-01

    An analytical approach to calculate response spectra from seismological models of ground motion is presented. Seismological models have three major advantages over empirical models: (1) they help in an understanding of the physics of earthquake mechanisms, (2) they can be used to predict ground motions for future earthquakes and (3) they can be extrapolated to cases where there are no data available. As shown with this study, these models also present a convenient form for the calculation of response spectra, by using the methods of random vibration theory, for a given magnitude and site conditions. The first part of the paper reviews the past models for ground motion description, and introduces the available seismological models. Then, the random vibration equations for the spectral response are presented. The nonstationarity, spectral bandwidth and the correlation of the peaks are considered in the calculation of the peak response.

  1. Identifying and modeling motion primitives for the hydromedusae Sarsia tubulosa and Aequorea victoria.

    PubMed

    Sledge, Isaac; Krieg, Michael; Lipinski, Doug; Mohseni, Kamran

    2015-12-01

    The movements of organisms can be thought of as aggregations of motion primitives: motion segments containing one or more significant actions. Here, we present a means to identify and characterize motion primitives from recorded movement data. We address these problems by assuming that the motion sequences can be characterized as a series of dynamical-system-based pattern generators. By adopting a nonparametric, Bayesian formalism for learning and simplifying these pattern generators, we arrive at a purely data-driven model to automatically identify breakpoints in the movement sequences. We apply this model to swimming sequences from two hydromedusa. The first hydromedusa is the prolate Sarsia tubulosa, for which we obtain five motion primitives that correspond to bell cavity pressurization, jet formation, jetting, cavity fluid refill, and coasting. The second hydromedusa is the oblate Aequorea victoria, for which we obtain five motion primitives that correspond to bell compression, vortex separation, cavity fluid refill, vortex formation, and coasting. Our experimental results indicate that the breakpoints between primitives are correlated with transitions in the bell geometry, vortex formation and shedding, and changes in derived dynamical quantities. These dynamics quantities include terms like pressure, power, drag, and thrust. Such findings suggest that dynamics information is inherently present in the observed motions. PMID:26495992

  2. 4D cone-beam CT reconstruction using multi-organ meshes for sliding motion modeling.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zichun; Gu, Xuejun; Mao, Weihua; Wang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    A simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR) strategy was proposed for 4D cone-beam CT (4D-CBCT) reconstruction and showed excellent results in both phantom and lung cancer patient studies. In the original SMEIR algorithm, the deformation vector field (DVF) was defined on voxel grid and estimated by enforcing a global smoothness regularization term on the motion fields. The objective of this work is to improve the computation efficiency and motion estimation accuracy of SMEIR for 4D-CBCT through developing a multi-organ meshing model. Feature-based adaptive meshes were generated to reduce the number of unknowns in the DVF estimation and accurately capture the organ shapes and motion. Additionally, the discontinuity in the motion fields between different organs during respiration was explicitly considered in the multi-organ mesh model. This will help with the accurate visualization and motion estimation of the tumor on the organ boundaries in 4D-CBCT. To further improve the computational efficiency, a GPU-based parallel implementation was designed. The performance of the proposed algorithm was evaluated on a synthetic sliding motion phantom, a 4D NCAT phantom, and four lung cancer patients. The proposed multi-organ mesh based strategy outperformed the conventional Feldkamp-Davis-Kress, iterative total variation minimization, original SMEIR and single meshing method based on both qualitative and quantitative evaluations.

  3. Identifying and modeling motion primitives for the hydromedusae Sarsia tubulosa and Aequorea victoria.

    PubMed

    Sledge, Isaac; Krieg, Michael; Lipinski, Doug; Mohseni, Kamran

    2015-10-23

    The movements of organisms can be thought of as aggregations of motion primitives: motion segments containing one or more significant actions. Here, we present a means to identify and characterize motion primitives from recorded movement data. We address these problems by assuming that the motion sequences can be characterized as a series of dynamical-system-based pattern generators. By adopting a nonparametric, Bayesian formalism for learning and simplifying these pattern generators, we arrive at a purely data-driven model to automatically identify breakpoints in the movement sequences. We apply this model to swimming sequences from two hydromedusa. The first hydromedusa is the prolate Sarsia tubulosa, for which we obtain five motion primitives that correspond to bell cavity pressurization, jet formation, jetting, cavity fluid refill, and coasting. The second hydromedusa is the oblate Aequorea victoria, for which we obtain five motion primitives that correspond to bell compression, vortex separation, cavity fluid refill, vortex formation, and coasting. Our experimental results indicate that the breakpoints between primitives are correlated with transitions in the bell geometry, vortex formation and shedding, and changes in derived dynamical quantities. These dynamics quantities include terms like pressure, power, drag, and thrust. Such findings suggest that dynamics information is inherently present in the observed motions.

  4. 4D cone-beam CT reconstruction using multi-organ meshes for sliding motion modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Zichun; Gu, Xuejun; Mao, Weihua; Wang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    A simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR) strategy was proposed for 4D cone-beam CT (4D-CBCT) reconstruction and showed excellent results in both phantom and lung cancer patient studies. In the original SMEIR algorithm, the deformation vector field (DVF) was defined on voxel grid and estimated by enforcing a global smoothness regularization term on the motion fields. The objective of this work is to improve the computation efficiency and motion estimation accuracy of SMEIR for 4D-CBCT through developing a multi-organ meshing model. Feature-based adaptive meshes were generated to reduce the number of unknowns in the DVF estimation and accurately capture the organ shapes and motion. Additionally, the discontinuity in the motion fields between different organs during respiration was explicitly considered in the multi-organ mesh model. This will help with the accurate visualization and motion estimation of the tumor on the organ boundaries in 4D-CBCT. To further improve the computational efficiency, a GPU-based parallel implementation was designed. The performance of the proposed algorithm was evaluated on a synthetic sliding motion phantom, a 4D NCAT phantom, and four lung cancer patients. The proposed multi-organ mesh based strategy outperformed the conventional Feldkamp-Davis-Kress, iterative total variation minimization, original SMEIR and single meshing method based on both qualitative and quantitative evaluations.

  5. Human motion recognition based on features and models selected HMM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haixiang; Zhou, Hongjun

    2015-03-01

    This paper research on the motion recognition based on HMM with Kinect. Kinect provides skeletal data consist of 3D body joints with its lower price and convenience. In this work, several methods are used to determine the optimal subset of features among Cartesian coordinates, distance to hip center, velocity, angle and angular velocity, in order to improve the recognition rate. K-means is used for vector quantization and HMM is used as recognition method. HMM is an effective signal processing method which contains time calibration, provides a learning mechanism and recognition ability. Cluster numbers of K-means, structure and state numbers of HMM are optimized as well. The proposed methods are applied to the MSR Action3D dataset. Results show that the proposed methods obtain better recognition accuracy than the state of the art methods.

  6. 3D fluoroscopic image estimation using patient-specific 4DCBCT-based motion models.

    PubMed

    Dhou, S; Hurwitz, M; Mishra, P; Cai, W; Rottmann, J; Li, R; Williams, C; Wagar, M; Berbeco, R; Ionascu, D; Lewis, J H

    2015-05-01

    3D fluoroscopic images represent volumetric patient anatomy during treatment with high spatial and temporal resolution. 3D fluoroscopic images estimated using motion models built using 4DCT images, taken days or weeks prior to treatment, do not reliably represent patient anatomy during treatment. In this study we developed and performed initial evaluation of techniques to develop patient-specific motion models from 4D cone-beam CT (4DCBCT) images, taken immediately before treatment, and used these models to estimate 3D fluoroscopic images based on 2D kV projections captured during treatment. We evaluate the accuracy of 3D fluoroscopic images by comparison to ground truth digital and physical phantom images. The performance of 4DCBCT-based and 4DCT-based motion models are compared in simulated clinical situations representing tumor baseline shift or initial patient positioning errors. The results of this study demonstrate the ability for 4DCBCT imaging to generate motion models that can account for changes that cannot be accounted for with 4DCT-based motion models. When simulating tumor baseline shift and patient positioning errors of up to 5 mm, the average tumor localization error and the 95th percentile error in six datasets were 1.20 and 2.2 mm, respectively, for 4DCBCT-based motion models. 4DCT-based motion models applied to the same six datasets resulted in average tumor localization error and the 95th percentile error of 4.18 and 5.4 mm, respectively. Analysis of voxel-wise intensity differences was also conducted for all experiments. In summary, this study demonstrates the feasibility of 4DCBCT-based 3D fluoroscopic image generation in digital and physical phantoms and shows the potential advantage of 4DCBCT-based 3D fluoroscopic image estimation when there are changes in anatomy between the time of 4DCT imaging and the time of treatment delivery.

  7. Shear Wave Generation and Modeling Ground Motion From a Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Underground Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitarka, Arben; Mellors, Robert; Rodgers, Arthur; Vorobiev, Oleg; Ezzedine, Souheil; Matzel, Eric; Ford, Sean; Walter, Bill; Antoun, Tarabay; Wagoner, Jeffery; Pasyanos, Mike; Petersson, Anders; Sjogreen, Bjorn

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the excitation and propagation of far-field (epicentral distance larger than 20 m) seismic waves by analyzing and modeling ground motion from an underground chemical explosion recorded during the Source Physics Experiment (SPE), Nevada. The far-field recorded ground motion is characterized by complex features, such as large azimuthal variations in P- and S-wave amplitudes, as well as substantial energy on the tangential component of motion. Shear wave energy is also observed on the tangential component of the near-field motion (epicentral distance smaller than 20 m) suggesting that shear waves were generated at or very near the source. These features become more pronounced as the waves propagate away from the source. We address the shear wave generation during the explosion by modeling ground motion waveforms recorded in the frequency range 0.01-20 Hz, at distances of up to 1 km. We used a physics based approach that combines hydrodynamic modeling of the source with anelastic modeling of wave propagation in order to separate the contributions from the source and near-source wave scattering on shear motion generation. We found that wave propagation scattering caused by the near-source geological environment, including surface topography, contributes to enhancement of shear waves generated from the explosion source. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25946/ NST11-NCNS-TM-EXP-PD15.

  8. Couch-based motion compensation: modelling, simulation and real-time experiments.

    PubMed

    Haas, Olivier C L; Skworcow, Piotr; Paluszczyszyn, Daniel; Sahih, Abdelhamid; Ruta, Mariusz; Mills, John A

    2012-09-21

    The paper presents a couch-based active motion compensation strategy evaluated in simulation and validated experimentally using both a research and a clinical Elekta Precise Table™. The control strategy combines a Kalman filter to predict the surrogate motion used as a reference by a linear model predictive controller with the control action calculation based on estimated position and velocity feedback provided by an observer as well as predicted couch position and velocity using a linearized state space model. An inversion technique is used to compensate for the dead-zone nonlinearity. New generic couch models are presented and applied to model the Elekta Precise Table™ dynamics and nonlinearities including dead zone. Couch deflection was measured for different manufacturers and found to be up to 25 mm. A feed-forward approach is proposed to compensate for such couch deflection. Simultaneous motion compensation for longitudinal, lateral and vertical motions was evaluated using arbitrary trajectories generated from sensors or loaded from files. Tracking errors were between 0.5 and 2 mm RMS. A dosimetric evaluation of the motion compensation was done using a sinusoidal waveform. No notable differences were observed between films obtained for a fixed- or motion-compensated target. Further dosimetric improvement could be made by combining gating, based on tracking error together with beam on/off time, and PSS compensation. PMID:22951301

  9. How Plates Pull Transforms Apart: 3-D Numerical Models of Oceanic Transform Fault Response to Changes in Plate Motion Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, T. A.; Mittelstaedt, E. L.; Olive, J. A. L.

    2015-12-01

    Observations along oceanic fracture zones suggest that some mid-ocean ridge transform faults (TFs) previously split into multiple strike-slip segments separated by short (<~50 km) intra-transform spreading centers and then reunited to a single TF trace. This history of segmentation appears to correspond with changes in plate motion direction. Despite the clear evidence of TF segmentation, the processes governing its development and evolution are not well characterized. Here we use a 3-D, finite-difference / marker-in-cell technique to model the evolution of localized strain at a TF subjected to a sudden change in plate motion direction. We simulate the oceanic lithosphere and underlying asthenosphere at a ridge-transform-ridge setting using a visco-elastic-plastic rheology with a history-dependent plastic weakening law and a temperature- and stress-dependent mantle viscosity. To simulate the development of topography, a low density, low viscosity 'sticky air' layer is present above the oceanic lithosphere. The initial thermal gradient follows a half-space cooling solution with an offset across the TF. We impose an enhanced thermal diffusivity in the uppermost 6 km of lithosphere to simulate the effects of hydrothermal circulation. An initial weak seed in the lithosphere helps localize shear deformation between the two offset ridge axes to form a TF. For each model case, the simulation is run initially with TF-parallel plate motion until the thermal structure reaches a steady state. The direction of plate motion is then rotated either instantaneously or over a specified time period, placing the TF in a state of trans-tension. Model runs continue until the system reaches a new steady state. Parameters varied here include: initial TF length, spreading rate, and the rotation rate and magnitude of spreading obliquity. We compare our model predictions to structural observations at existing TFs and records of TF segmentation preserved in oceanic fracture zones.

  10. Nuclear quadrupole resonance lineshape analysis for different motional models: Stochastic Liouville approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruk, D.; Earle, K. A.; Mielczarek, A.; Kubica, A.; Milewska, A.; Moscicki, J.

    2011-12-01

    A general theory of lineshapes in nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), based on the stochastic Liouville equation, is presented. The description is valid for arbitrary motional conditions (particularly beyond the valid range of perturbation approaches) and interaction strengths. It can be applied to the computation of NQR spectra for any spin quantum number and for any applied magnetic field. The treatment presented here is an adaptation of the "Swedish slow motion theory," [T. Nilsson and J. Kowalewski, J. Magn. Reson. 146, 345 (2000), 10.1006/jmre.2000.2125] originally formulated for paramagnetic systems, to NQR spectral analysis. The description is formulated for simple (Brownian) diffusion, free diffusion, and jump diffusion models. The two latter models account for molecular cooperativity effects in dense systems (such as liquids of high viscosity or molecular glasses). The sensitivity of NQR slow motion spectra to the mechanism of the motional processes modulating the nuclear quadrupole interaction is discussed.

  11. Nuclear quadrupole resonance lineshape analysis for different motional models: stochastic Liouville approach.

    PubMed

    Kruk, D; Earle, K A; Mielczarek, A; Kubica, A; Milewska, A; Moscicki, J

    2011-12-14

    A general theory of lineshapes in nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), based on the stochastic Liouville equation, is presented. The description is valid for arbitrary motional conditions (particularly beyond the valid range of perturbation approaches) and interaction strengths. It can be applied to the computation of NQR spectra for any spin quantum number and for any applied magnetic field. The treatment presented here is an adaptation of the "Swedish slow motion theory," [T. Nilsson and J. Kowalewski, J. Magn. Reson. 146, 345 (2000)] originally formulated for paramagnetic systems, to NQR spectral analysis. The description is formulated for simple (Brownian) diffusion, free diffusion, and jump diffusion models. The two latter models account for molecular cooperativity effects in dense systems (such as liquids of high viscosity or molecular glasses). The sensitivity of NQR slow motion spectra to the mechanism of the motional processes modulating the nuclear quadrupole interaction is discussed. PMID:22168707

  12. Applying Model Analysis to a Resource-Based Analysis of the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Trevor I.; Wittmann, Michael C.; Carter, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we analyzed the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation in terms of a resources-based model that allows for clustering of questions so as to provide useful information on how students correctly or incorrectly reason about physics. In this paper, we apply model analysis to show that the associated model plots provide more information…

  13. Key elements of regional seismic velocity models for long period ground motion simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    Regional 3-D seismic velocity models used for broadband strong motion simulations must include compressional-wave velocity (Vp), shear-wave velocity (Vs), intrinsic attenuation (Qp, Qs), and density. Vs and Qs are the most important of these parameters because the strongest ground motions are generated chiefly by shear- and surface-wave arrivals. Because Vp data are more common than Vs data, many researchers first develop a Vp model and convert it to a Vs model. I describe recent empirical relations between Vs, Vp, Qs, Qp, and density that allow velocity models to be rapidly and accurately calculated. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  14. A mechanistic model linking insect (Hydropsychidae) silk nets to incipient sediment motion in gravel-bedded streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albertson, Lindsey K.; Sklar, Leonard S.; Pontau, Patricia; Dow, Michelle; Cardinale, Bradley J.

    2014-09-01

    Plants and animals affect stream morphodynamics across a range of scales, yet including biological traits of organisms in geomorphic process models remains a fundamental challenge. For example, laboratory experiments have shown that silk nets built by caddisfly larvae (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) can increase the shear stress required to initiate bed motion by more than a factor of 2. The contributions of specific biological traits are not well understood, however. Here we develop a theoretical model for the effects of insect nets on the threshold of sediment motion, τ*crit, that accounts for the mechanical properties, geometry, and vertical distribution of insect silk, as well as interactions between insect species. To parameterize the model, we measure the tensile strength, diameter, and number of silk threads in nets built by two common species of caddisfly, Arctopsyche californica and Ceratopsyche oslari. We compare model predictions with new measurements of τ*crit in experiments where we varied grain size and caddisfly species composition. The model is consistent with experimental results for single species, which show that the increase in τ*crit above the abiotic control peaks at 40-70% for 10-22 mm sediments and declines with increasing grain size. For the polyculture experiments, however, the model underpredicts the measured increase in τ*crit when two caddisfly species are present in sediments of larger grain sizes. Overall, the model helps explain why the presence of caddisfly silk can substantially increase the forces needed to initiate sediment motion in gravel-bedded streams and also illustrates the challenge of parameterizing the behavior of multiple interacting species in a physical model.

  15. Plate motion

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, R.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The motion of tectonic plates on the earth is characterized in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics addressed include the NUVEL-1 global model of current plate motions, diffuse plate boundaries and the oceanic lithosphere, the relation between plate motions and distributed deformations, accelerations and the steadiness of plate motions, the distribution of current Pacific-North America motion across western North America and its margin, plate reconstructions and their uncertainties, hotspots, and plate dynamics. A comprehensive bibliography is provided. 126 refs.

  16. Multiple system modelling of waste management.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Ola; Bisaillon, Mattias

    2011-12-01

    Due to increased environmental awareness, planning and performance of waste management has become more and more complex. Therefore waste management has early been subject to different types of modelling. Another field with long experience of modelling and systems perspective is energy systems. The two modelling traditions have developed side by side, but so far there are very few attempts to combine them. Waste management systems can be linked together with energy systems through incineration plants. The models for waste management can be modelled on a quite detailed level whereas surrounding systems are modelled in a more simplistic way. This is a problem, as previous studies have shown that assumptions on the surrounding system often tend to be important for the conclusions. In this paper it is shown how two models, one for the district heating system (MARTES) and another one for the waste management system (ORWARE), can be linked together. The strengths and weaknesses with model linking are discussed when compared to simplistic assumptions on effects in the energy and waste management systems. It is concluded that the linking of models will provide a more complete, correct and credible picture of the consequences of different simultaneous changes in the systems. The linking procedure is easy to perform and also leads to activation of project partners. However, the simulation procedure is a bit more complicated and calls for the ability to run both models.

  17. Noise cancellation model validation for reduced motion artifact wearable PPG sensors using MEMS accelerometers.

    PubMed

    Wood, Levi B; Asada, H Harry

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the validity of utilizing Widrow's Active Noise Cancellation (ANC) in the context of motion artifact reduction for photoplethysmogram (PPG) sensors. The ANC approach has previously been applied to the PPG problem, but little consideration has been given to the validity of the ANC signal corruption assumptions and in what motion range the algorithm works. The ANC validity testing is done in the form of impact (approximate impulse) testing of the physical PPG system and comparing with the modeled response for a range of motion amplitudes. The testing reveals that the identified corruption model does not generally represent the true physical system, but locally approximates the true system. Testing shows that if a similar motion amplitude is used for model tuning as the impact test, an average peak deviation of 5.2% is obtained, but if motion amplitude that is smaller than the impact amplitude by a factor of 5, the peak deviation is 15%. Finally, after ANC filtering motion corrupted data, heart rate can be estimated with less than 1.6% error.

  18. Coronary arteries motion modeling on 2D x-ray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yang; Sundar, Hari

    2012-02-01

    During interventional procedures, 3D imaging modalities like CT and MRI are not commonly used due to interference with the surgery and radiation exposure concerns. Therefore, real-time information is usually limited and building models of cardiac motion are difficult. In such case, vessel motion modeling based on 2-D angiography images become indispensable. Due to issues with existing vessel segmentation algorithms and the lack of contrast in occluded vessels, manual segmentation of certain branches is usually necessary. In addition, such occluded branches are the most important vessels during coronary interventions and obtaining motion models for these can greatly help in reducing the procedure time and radiation exposure. Segmenting different cardiac phases independently does not guarantee temporal consistency and is not efficient for occluded branches required manual segmentation. In this paper, we propose a coronary motion modeling system which extracts the coronary tree for every cardiac phase, maintaining the segmentation by tracking the coronary tree during the cardiac cycle. It is able to map every frame to the specific cardiac phase, thereby inferring the shape information of the coronary arteries using the model corresponding to its phase. Our experiments show that our motion modeling system can achieve promising results with real-time performance.

  19. Multiple system modelling of waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, Ola; Bisaillon, Mattias

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > Linking of models will provide a more complete, correct and credible picture of the systems. > The linking procedure is easy to perform and also leads to activation of project partners. > The simulation procedure is a bit more complicated and calls for the ability to run both models. - Abstract: Due to increased environmental awareness, planning and performance of waste management has become more and more complex. Therefore waste management has early been subject to different types of modelling. Another field with long experience of modelling and systems perspective is energy systems. The two modelling traditions have developed side by side, but so far there are very few attempts to combine them. Waste management systems can be linked together with energy systems through incineration plants. The models for waste management can be modelled on a quite detailed level whereas surrounding systems are modelled in a more simplistic way. This is a problem, as previous studies have shown that assumptions on the surrounding system often tend to be important for the conclusions. In this paper it is shown how two models, one for the district heating system (MARTES) and another one for the waste management system (ORWARE), can be linked together. The strengths and weaknesses with model linking are discussed when compared to simplistic assumptions on effects in the energy and waste management systems. It is concluded that the linking of models will provide a more complete, correct and credible picture of the consequences of different simultaneous changes in the systems. The linking procedure is easy to perform and also leads to activation of project partners. However, the simulation procedure is a bit more complicated and calls for the ability to run both models.

  20. Model of line preserving field line motions using Euler potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Figura, Przemysław; Macek, Wiesław M.

    2013-06-15

    We consider behavior of finite magnetic field lines during reconnection processes. We portray field line motions using Euler potentials representation. Here, we propose a new insight into plasma flow fields related with magnetic reconnection. In this approach reconnection is treated as a breakage of magnetic topology, which results in deviation from the line preserving flow regime. We derive constraints and the general equations for these flows. In our approach the flux preserving flows are treated as a special case of line preserving regime. We also derive a constraint on a non-ideal term in Ohm’s Law within diffusion regions, which relates plasma flow with resistivity, and which must hold for non-reconnective diffusion. We also propose a new method of detecting magnetic reconnection. -- Highlights: •We formulate a line preserving magnetic field flow equation using Euler potentials. •We find constraints on a non-reconnective general resistivity term in Ohm’s Law. •We propose a new method of detecting magnetic reconnection.

  1. Sensitivity of tumor motion simulation accuracy to lung biomechanical modeling approaches and parameters.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Joubin Nasehi; Yang, Yin; Werner, Rene; Lu, Wei; Low, Daniel; Guo, Xiaohu; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-21

    Finite element analysis (FEA)-based biomechanical modeling can be used to predict lung respiratory motion. In this technique, elastic models and biomechanical parameters are two important factors that determine modeling accuracy. We systematically evaluated the effects of lung and lung tumor biomechanical modeling approaches and related parameters to improve the accuracy of motion simulation of lung tumor center of mass (TCM) displacements. Experiments were conducted with four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT). A Quasi-Newton FEA was performed to simulate lung and related tumor displacements between end-expiration (phase 50%) and other respiration phases (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%). Both linear isotropic and non-linear hyperelastic materials, including the neo-Hookean compressible and uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin models, were used to create a finite element model (FEM) of lung and tumors. Lung surface displacement vector fields (SDVFs) were obtained by registering the 50% phase CT to other respiration phases, using the non-rigid demons registration algorithm. The obtained SDVFs were used as lung surface displacement boundary conditions in FEM. The sensitivity of TCM displacement to lung and tumor biomechanical parameters was assessed in eight patients for all three models. Patient-specific optimal parameters were estimated by minimizing the TCM motion simulation errors between phase 50% and phase 0%. The uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin material model showed the highest TCM motion simulation accuracy. The average TCM motion simulation absolute errors for the Mooney-Rivlin material model along left-right, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions were 0.80 mm, 0.86 mm, and 1.51 mm, respectively. The proposed strategy provides a reliable method to estimate patient-specific biomechanical parameters in FEM for lung tumor motion simulation. PMID:26531324

  2. Sensitivity of tumor motion simulation accuracy to lung biomechanical modeling approaches and parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasehi Tehrani, Joubin; Yang, Yin; Werner, Rene; Lu, Wei; Low, Daniel; Guo, Xiaohu; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA)-based biomechanical modeling can be used to predict lung respiratory motion. In this technique, elastic models and biomechanical parameters are two important factors that determine modeling accuracy. We systematically evaluated the effects of lung and lung tumor biomechanical modeling approaches and related parameters to improve the accuracy of motion simulation of lung tumor center of mass (TCM) displacements. Experiments were conducted with four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT). A Quasi-Newton FEA was performed to simulate lung and related tumor displacements between end-expiration (phase 50%) and other respiration phases (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%). Both linear isotropic and non-linear hyperelastic materials, including the neo-Hookean compressible and uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin models, were used to create a finite element model (FEM) of lung and tumors. Lung surface displacement vector fields (SDVFs) were obtained by registering the 50% phase CT to other respiration phases, using the non-rigid demons registration algorithm. The obtained SDVFs were used as lung surface displacement boundary conditions in FEM. The sensitivity of TCM displacement to lung and tumor biomechanical parameters was assessed in eight patients for all three models. Patient-specific optimal parameters were estimated by minimizing the TCM motion simulation errors between phase 50% and phase 0%. The uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin material model showed the highest TCM motion simulation accuracy. The average TCM motion simulation absolute errors for the Mooney-Rivlin material model along left-right, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions were 0.80 mm, 0.86 mm, and 1.51 mm, respectively. The proposed strategy provides a reliable method to estimate patient-specific biomechanical parameters in FEM for lung tumor motion simulation.

  3. Toward a computational theory for motion understanding: The expert animators model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohamed, Ahmed S.; Armstrong, William W.

    1988-01-01

    Artificial intelligence researchers claim to understand some aspect of human intelligence when their model is able to emulate it. In the context of computer graphics, the ability to go from motion representation to convincing animation should accordingly be treated not simply as a trick for computer graphics programmers but as important epistemological and methodological goal. In this paper we investigate a unifying model for animating a group of articulated bodies such as humans and robots in a three-dimensional environment. The proposed model is considered in the framework of knowledge representation and processing, with special reference to motion knowledge. The model is meant to help setting the basis for a computational theory for motion understanding applied to articulated bodies.

  4. Simulation model for combined motion of myosin cross-bridges agrees with experimental data.

    PubMed

    Marandos, Peter; Midde, Krishna

    2014-06-01

    The motivation for this work was to derive a theoretical model for the combined motion of a sample of muscle tissue with a small number (approximately 12) of myosin molecules. This was then compared to data collected at the University of North Texas Health Science center. A theoretical model of the motion of the myosin cross-bridges has been derived. The solution is a combination of solutions from the classical harmonic oscillator, Brownian motion, and Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics. The model illustrates the myosin behavior as a function of the number of myosin molecules, the temperature of the sample, and the spring constant. The results show that there is good agreement between the theoretical model and experimental data.

  5. Creation of 3D digital anthropomorphic phantoms which model actual patient non-rigid body motion as determined from MRI and position tracking studies of volunteers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, C. M.; Konik, A.; Dasari, P. K. R.; Segars, P.; Zheng, S.; Johnson, K. L.; Dey, J.; King, M. A.

    2011-03-01

    Patient motion can cause artifacts, which can lead to difficulty in interpretation. The purpose of this study is to create 3D digital anthropomorphic phantoms which model the location of the structures of the chest and upper abdomen of human volunteers undergoing a series of clinically relevant motions. The 3D anatomy is modeled using the XCAT phantom and based on MRI studies. The NURBS surfaces of the XCAT are interactively adapted to fit the MRI studies. A detailed XCAT phantom is first developed from an EKG triggered Navigator acquisition composed of sagittal slices with a 3 x 3 x 3 mm voxel dimension. Rigid body motion states are then acquired at breath-hold as sagittal slices partially covering the thorax, centered on the heart, with 9 mm gaps between them. For non-rigid body motion requiring greater sampling, modified Navigator sequences covering the entire thorax with 3 mm gaps between slices are obtained. The structures of the initial XCAT are then adapted to fit these different motion states. Simultaneous to MRI imaging the positions of multiple reflective markers on stretchy bands about the volunteer's chest and abdomen are optically tracked in 3D via stereo imaging. These phantoms with combined position tracking will be used to investigate both imaging-data-driven and motion-tracking strategies to estimate and correct for patient motion. Our initial application will be to cardiacperfusion SPECT imaging where the XCAT phantoms will be used to create patient activity and attenuation distributions for each volunteer with corresponding motion tracking data from the markers on the body-surface. Monte Carlo methods will then be used to simulate SPECT acquisitions, which will be used to evaluate various motion estimation and correction strategies.

  6. Statistical selection of multiple-input multiple-output nonlinear dynamic models of spike train transformation.

    PubMed

    Song, Dong; Chan, Rosa H M; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z; Hampson, Robert E; Deadwyler, Sam A; Berger, Theodore W

    2007-01-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output nonlinear dynamic model of spike train to spike train transformations was previously formulated for hippocampal-cortical prostheses. This paper further described the statistical methods of selecting significant inputs (self-terms) and interactions between inputs (cross-terms) of this Volterra kernel-based model. In our approach, model structure was determined by progressively adding self-terms and cross-terms using a forward stepwise model selection technique. Model coefficients were then pruned based on Wald test. Results showed that the reduced kernel models, which contained much fewer coefficients than the full Volterra kernel model, gave good fits to the novel data. These models could be used to analyze the functional interactions between neurons during behavior.

  7. A single predator multiple prey model with prey mutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullan, Rory; Abernethy, Gavin M.; Glass, David H.; McCartney, Mark

    2016-11-01

    A multiple species predator-prey model is expanded with the introduction of a coupled map lattice for the prey, allowing the prey to mutate discretely into other prey species. The model is examined in its single predator, multiple mutating prey form. Two unimodal maps are used for the underlying dynamics of the prey species, with different predation strategies being used. Conclusions are drawn on how varying the control parameters of the model governs the overall behaviour and survival of the species. It is observed that in such a complex system, with multiple mutating prey, a large range of non-linear dynamics is possible.

  8. Elastic network models capture the motions apparent within ensembles of RNA structures.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael T; Jernigan, Robert L

    2014-06-01

    The role of structure and dynamics in mechanisms for RNA becomes increasingly important. Computational approaches using simple dynamics models have been successful at predicting the motions of proteins and are often applied to ribonucleo-protein complexes but have not been thoroughly tested for well-packed nucleic acid structures. In order to characterize a true set of motions, we investigate the apparent motions from 16 ensembles of experimentally determined RNA structures. These indicate a relatively limited set of motions that are captured by a small set of principal components (PCs). These limited motions closely resemble the motions computed from low frequency normal modes from elastic network models (ENMs), either at atomic or coarse-grained resolution. Various ENM model types, parameters, and structure representations are tested here against the experimental RNA structural ensembles, exposing differences between models for proteins and for folded RNAs. Differences in performance are seen, depending on the structure alignment algorithm used to generate PCs, modulating the apparent utility of ENMs but not significantly impacting their ability to generate functional motions. The loss of dynamical information upon coarse-graining is somewhat larger for RNAs than for globular proteins, indicating, perhaps, the lower cooperativity of the less densely packed RNA. However, the RNA structures show less sensitivity to the elastic network model parameters than do proteins. These findings further demonstrate the utility of ENMs and the appropriateness of their application to well-packed RNA-only structures, justifying their use for studying the dynamics of ribonucleo-proteins, such as the ribosome and regulatory RNAs.

  9. Onset of collective motion in locusts is captured by a minimal model.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Louise; Yates, Christian A; Buhl, Jerome; McKane, Alan J

    2015-01-01

    We present a minimal model to describe the onset of collective motion seen when a population of locusts are placed in an annular arena. At low densities motion is disordered, while at high densities locusts march in a common direction, which may reverse during the experiment. The data are well captured by an individual-based model, in which demographic noise leads to the observed density-dependent effects. By fitting the model parameters to equation-free coefficients, we give a quantitative comparison, showing time series, stationary distributions, and the mean switching times between states. PMID:26651724

  10. Fission-Fragment Charge Yields in a Brownian Shape-Motion Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, P.; Randrup, J.

    2014-09-01

    We use a recent model for fission-fragment yield distributions based on Brownian shape motion on 5D potential-energy surfaces to calculate fission-fragment charge yields for the complete U and Th isotope chains observed in the seminal GSI experiment by K.H. Schmidt et al. Previously it was shown that this model describes the transition between symmetric and asymmetric fission in the light Th region; however in these studies the damping of shell corrections with energy was not taken into account. Here we use a generalized Brownian shape-motion model that includes damping of shell corrections with energy.

  11. Viscoelastic model based force control for soft tissue interaction and its application in physiological motion compensation.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Pedro; Zemiti, Nabil; Liu, Chao; Poignet, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    Controlling the interaction between robots and living soft tissues has become an important issue as the number of robotic systems inside the operating room increases. Many researches have been done on force control to help surgeons during medical procedures, such as physiological motion compensation and tele-operation systems with haptic feedback. In order to increase the performance of such controllers, this work presents a novel force control scheme using Active Observer (AOB) based on a viscoelastic interaction model. The control scheme has shown to be stable through theoretical analysis and its performance was evaluated by in vitro experiments. In order to evaluate how the force control scheme behaves under the presence of physiological motion, experiments considering breathing and beating heart disturbances are presented. The proposed control scheme presented a stable behavior in both static and moving environment. The viscoelastic AOB presented a compensation ratio of 87% for the breathing motion and 79% for the beating heart motion.

  12. Modeling Multiple Response Processes in Judgment and Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockenholt, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I show how item response models can be used to capture multiple response processes in psychological applications. Intuitive and analytical responses, agree-disagree answers, response refusals, socially desirable responding, differential item functioning, and choices among multiple options are considered. In each of these cases, I…

  13. ID Model Construction and Validation: A Multiple Intelligences Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Monica W.; Richey, Rita C.

    2007-01-01

    This is a report of a developmental research study that aimed to construct and validate an instructional design (ID) model that incorporates the theory and practice of multiple intelligences (MI). The study consisted of three phases. In phase one, the theoretical foundations of multiple Intelligences and ID were examined to guide the development…

  14. Visualizing Decimal Multiplication with Area Models: Opportunities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathouz, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a pilot study in which pre-service elementary teachers (PSTs) used rectangular area models on base-10 grid paper to begin making sense of multiplication of decimal fractions. Although connections were made to multi-digit whole number multiplication and to the distributive property, the PSTs were challenged by interpreting…

  15. Joint estimation of multiple graphical models

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jian; Levina, Elizaveta; Michailidis, George; Zhu, Ji

    2011-01-01

    Summary Gaussian graphical models explore dependence relationships between random variables, through the estimation of the corresponding inverse covariance matrices. In this paper we develop an estimator for such models appropriate for data from several graphical models that share the same variables and some of the dependence structure. In this setting, estimating a single graphical model would mask the underlying heterogeneity, while estimating separate models for each category does not take advantage of the common structure. We propose a method that jointly estimates the graphical models corresponding to the different categories present in the data, aiming to preserve the common structure, while allowing for differences between the categories. This is achieved through a hierarchical penalty that targets the removal of common zeros in the inverse covariance matrices across categories. We establish the asymptotic consistency and sparsity of the proposed estimator in the high-dimensional case, and illustrate its performance on a number of simulated networks. An application to learning semantic connections between terms from webpages collected from computer science departments is included. PMID:23049124

  16. Multiple-Indicator Multilevel Growth Model: A Solution to Multiple Methodological Challenges in Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Amery D.; Liu, Yan; Gadermann, Anne M.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper described the versatility of the multiple-indicator multilevel (MIML) model in helping to resolve four common challenges in studying growth using longitudinal data. These challenges are (1) how to deal with changes in measurement over time and investigate temporal measurement invariance, (2) how to model residual dependence due to the…

  17. Flap motion of helicopter rotors with novel, dynamic stall model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei; Liu, Jie; Liu, Chun; Chen, Lei; Su, Xichao; Zhao, Peng

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear flapping equation for large inflow angles and flap angles is established by analyzing the aerodynamics of helicopter blade elements. In order to obtain a generalized flap equation, the Snel stall model was first applied to determine the lift coefficient of the helicopter rotor. A simulation experiment for specific airfoils was then conducted to verify the effectiveness of the Snel stall model as it applies to helicopters. Results show that the model requires no extraneous parameters compared to the traditional stall model and is highly accurate and practically applicable. Based on the model, the relationship between the flapping angle and the angle of attack was analyzed, as well as the advance ratio under the dynamic stall state.

  18. ROTATING MOTIONS AND MODELING OF THE ERUPTING SOLAR POLAR-CROWN PROMINENCE ON 2010 DECEMBER 6

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Yingna; Van Ballegooijen, Adriaan

    2013-02-10

    A large polar-crown prominence composed of different segments spanning nearly the entire solar disk erupted on 2010 December 6. Prior to the eruption, the filament in the active region part split into two layers: a lower layer and an elevated layer. The eruption occurs in several episodes. Around 14:12 UT, the lower layer of the active region filament breaks apart: One part ejects toward the west, while the other part ejects toward the east, which leads to the explosive eruption of the eastern quiescent filament. During the early rise phase, part of the quiescent filament sheet displays strong rolling motion (observed by STEREO-B) in the clockwise direction (viewed from east to west) around the filament axis. This rolling motion appears to start from the border of the active region, then propagates toward the east. The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) observes another type of rotating motion: In some other parts of the erupting quiescent prominence, the vertical threads turn horizontal, then turn upside down. The elevated active region filament does not erupt until 18:00 UT, when the erupting quiescent filament has already reached a very large height. We develop two simplified three-dimensional models that qualitatively reproduce the observed rolling and rotating motions. The prominence in the models is assumed to consist of a collection of discrete blobs that are tied to particular field lines of a helical flux rope. The observed rolling motion is reproduced by continuous twist injection into the flux rope in Model 1 from the active region side. Asymmetric reconnection induced by the asymmetric distribution of the magnetic fields on the two sides of the filament may cause the observed rolling motion. The rotating motion of the prominence threads observed by AIA is consistent with the removal of the field line dips in Model 2 from the top down during the eruption.

  19. Moving object detection using dynamic motion modelling from UAV aerial images.

    PubMed

    Saif, A F M Saifuddin; Prabuwono, Anton Satria; Mahayuddin, Zainal Rasyid

    2014-01-01

    Motion analysis based moving object detection from UAV aerial image is still an unsolved issue due to inconsideration of proper motion estimation. Existing moving object detection approaches from UAV aerial images did not deal with motion based pixel intensity measurement to detect moving object robustly. Besides current research on moving object detection from UAV aerial images mostly depends on either frame difference or segmentation approach separately. There are two main purposes for this research: firstly to develop a new motion model called DMM (dynamic motion model) and secondly to apply the proposed segmentation approach SUED (segmentation using edge based dilation) using frame difference embedded together with DMM model. The proposed DMM model provides effective search windows based on the highest pixel intensity to segment only specific area for moving object rather than searching the whole area of the frame using SUED. At each stage of the proposed scheme, experimental fusion of the DMM and SUED produces extracted moving objects faithfully. Experimental result reveals that the proposed DMM and SUED have successfully demonstrated the validity of the proposed methodology.

  20. Validation of attenuation models for ground motion applications in central and eastern North America

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, Michael E.

    2015-11-01

    Recently developed attenuation models are incorporated into standard one-dimensional (1-D) ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), effectively making them two-dimensional (2-D) and eliminating the need to create different GMPEs for an increasing number of sub-regions. The model is tested against a data set of over 10,000 recordings from 81 earthquakes in North America. The use of attenuation models in GMPEs improves our ability to fit observed ground motions and should be incorporated into future national hazard maps. The improvement is most significant at higher frequencies and longer distances which have a greater number of wave cycles. This has implications for the rare high-magnitude earthquakes, which produce potentially damaging ground motions over wide areas, and drive the seismic hazards. Furthermore, the attenuation models can be created using weak ground motions, they could be developed for regions of low seismicity where empirical recordings of ground motions are uncommon and do not span the full range of magnitudes and distances.

  1. Validation of attenuation models for ground motion applications in central and eastern North America

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pasyanos, Michael E.

    2015-11-01

    Recently developed attenuation models are incorporated into standard one-dimensional (1-D) ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), effectively making them two-dimensional (2-D) and eliminating the need to create different GMPEs for an increasing number of sub-regions. The model is tested against a data set of over 10,000 recordings from 81 earthquakes in North America. The use of attenuation models in GMPEs improves our ability to fit observed ground motions and should be incorporated into future national hazard maps. The improvement is most significant at higher frequencies and longer distances which have a greater number of wave cycles. This has implications for themore » rare high-magnitude earthquakes, which produce potentially damaging ground motions over wide areas, and drive the seismic hazards. Furthermore, the attenuation models can be created using weak ground motions, they could be developed for regions of low seismicity where empirical recordings of ground motions are uncommon and do not span the full range of magnitudes and distances.« less

  2. Moving Object Detection Using Dynamic Motion Modelling from UAV Aerial Images

    PubMed Central

    Saif, A. F. M. Saifuddin; Prabuwono, Anton Satria; Mahayuddin, Zainal Rasyid

    2014-01-01

    Motion analysis based moving object detection from UAV aerial image is still an unsolved issue due to inconsideration of proper motion estimation. Existing moving object detection approaches from UAV aerial images did not deal with motion based pixel intensity measurement to detect moving object robustly. Besides current research on moving object detection from UAV aerial images mostly depends on either frame difference or segmentation approach separately. There are two main purposes for this research: firstly to develop a new motion model called DMM (dynamic motion model) and secondly to apply the proposed segmentation approach SUED (segmentation using edge based dilation) using frame difference embedded together with DMM model. The proposed DMM model provides effective search windows based on the highest pixel intensity to segment only specific area for moving object rather than searching the whole area of the frame using SUED. At each stage of the proposed scheme, experimental fusion of the DMM and SUED produces extracted moving objects faithfully. Experimental result reveals that the proposed DMM and SUED have successfully demonstrated the validity of the proposed methodology. PMID:24892103

  3. Mathematical analysis and modeling of motion direction selectivity in the retina.

    PubMed

    Escobar, María-José; Pezo, Danilo; Orio, Patricio

    2013-11-01

    Motion detection is one of the most important and primitive computations performed by our visual system. Specifically in the retina, ganglion cells producing motion direction-selective responses have been addressed by different disciplines, such as mathematics, neurophysiology and computational modeling, since the beginnings of vision science. Although a number of studies have analyzed theoretical and mathematical considerations for such responses, a clear picture of the underlying cellular mechanisms is only recently emerging. In general, motion direction selectivity is based on a non-linear asymmetric computation inside a receptive field differentiating cell responses between preferred and null direction stimuli. To what extent can biological findings match these considerations? In this review, we outline theoretical and mathematical studies of motion direction selectivity, aiming to map the properties of the models onto the neural circuitry and synaptic connectivity found in the retina. Additionally, we review several compartmental models that have tried to fill this gap. Finally, we discuss the remaining challenges that computational models will have to tackle in order to fully understand the retinal motion direction-selective circuitry.

  4. Moving object detection using dynamic motion modelling from UAV aerial images.

    PubMed

    Saif, A F M Saifuddin; Prabuwono, Anton Satria; Mahayuddin, Zainal Rasyid

    2014-01-01

    Motion analysis based moving object detection from UAV aerial image is still an unsolved issue due to inconsideration of proper motion estimation. Existing moving object detection approaches from UAV aerial images did not deal with motion based pixel intensity measurement to detect moving object robustly. Besides current research on moving object detection from UAV aerial images mostly depends on either frame difference or segmentation approach separately. There are two main purposes for this research: firstly to develop a new motion model called DMM (dynamic motion model) and secondly to apply the proposed segmentation approach SUED (segmentation using edge based dilation) using frame difference embedded together with DMM model. The proposed DMM model provides effective search windows based on the highest pixel intensity to segment only specific area for moving object rather than searching the whole area of the frame using SUED. At each stage of the proposed scheme, experimental fusion of the DMM and SUED produces extracted moving objects faithfully. Experimental result reveals that the proposed DMM and SUED have successfully demonstrated the validity of the proposed methodology. PMID:24892103

  5. A patient-specific respiratory model of anatomical motion for radiation treatment planning

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Qinghui; Pevsner, Alex; Hertanto, Agung; Hu Yuchi; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.; Ling, C. Clifton; Mageras, Gig S

    2007-12-15

    The modeling of respiratory motion is important for a more accurate understanding and accounting of its effect on dose to cancers in the thorax and abdomen by radiotherapy. We have developed a model of respiration-induced organ motion in the thorax without the commonly adopted assumption of repeatable breath cycles. The model describes the motion of a volume of interest within the patient based on a reference three-dimensional (3D) image (at end expiration) and the diaphragm positions at different time points. The input data are respiration-correlated CT (RCCT) images of patients treated for non-small- cell lung cancer, consisting of 3D images, including the diaphragm positions, at ten phases of the respiratory cycle. A deformable image registration algorithm calculates the deformation field that maps each 3D image to the reference 3D image. A principal component analysis is performed to parameterize the 3D deformation field in terms of the diaphragm motion. We show that the first two principal components are adequate to accurately and completely describe the organ motion in the data of four patients. Artifacts in the RCCT images that commonly occur at the mid-respiration states are reduced in the model-generated images. Further validation of the model is demonstrated in the successful application of the parameterized 3D deformation field to RCCT data of the same patient but acquired several days later. We have developed a method for predicting respiration-induced organ motion in patients that has potential for improving the accuracy of dose calculation in radiotherapy. Possible limitations of the model are cases where the correlation between lung tumor and diaphragm position is less reliable such as superiorly situated tumors and interfraction changes in tumor-diaphragm correlation. The limited number of clinical cases examined suggests, but does not confirm, the model's applicability to a wide range of patients.

  6. Photo-consistency registration of a 4D cardiac motion model to endoscopic video for image guidance of robotic coronary artery bypass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figl, Michael; Rueckert, Daniel; Edwards, Eddie

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the work described in this paper is registration of a 4D preoperative motion model of the heart to the video view of the patient through the intraoperative endoscope. The heart motion is cyclical and can be modelled using multiple reconstructions of cardiac gated coronary CT. We propose the use of photoconsistency between the two views through the da Vinci endoscope to align to the preoperative heart surface model from CT. The temporal alignment from the video to the CT model could in principle be obtained from the ECG signal. We propose averaging of the photoconsistency over the cardiac cycle to improve the registration compared to a single view. Though there is considerable motion of the heart, after correct temporal alignment we suggest that the remaining motion should be close to rigid. Results are presented for simulated renderings and for real video of a beating heart phantom. We found much smoother sections at the minimum when using multiple phases for the registration, furthermore convergence was found to be better when more phases are used.

  7. Hidden Markov Modeling for Weigh-In-Motion Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Ferragut, Erik M; Boone, Shane

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a hidden Markov model to assist in the weight measurement error that arises from complex vehicle oscillations of a system of discrete masses. Present reduction of oscillations is by a smooth, flat, level approach and constant, slow speed in a straight line. The model uses this inherent variability to assist in determining the true total weight and individual axle weights of a vehicle. The weight distribution dynamics of a generic moving vehicle were simulated. The model estimation converged to within 1% of the true mass for simulated data. The computational demands of this method, while much greater than simple averages, took only seconds to run on a desktop computer.

  8. Pathological tremor and voluntary motion modeling and online estimation for active compensation.

    PubMed

    Bo, Antônio Padilha Lanari; Poignet, Philippe; Geny, Christian

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents an algorithm to perform online tremor characterization from motion sensors measurements, while filtering the voluntary motion performed by the patient. In order to estimate simultaneously both nonstationary signals in a stochastic filtering framework, pathological tremor was represented by a time-varying harmonic model and voluntary motion was modeled as an auto-regressive moving-average (ARMA) model. Since it is a nonlinear problem, an extended Kalman filter (EKF) was used. The developed solution was evaluated with simulated signals and experimental data from patients with different pathologies. Also, the results were comprehensively compared with alternative techniques proposed in the literature, evidencing the better performance of the proposed method. The algorithm presented in this paper may be an important tool in the design of active tremor compensation systems.

  9. Extensions of Rasch's Multiplicative Poisson Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Margo G. H.; van Duijn, Marijtje A. J.

    1992-01-01

    A model developed by G. Rasch that assumes scores on some attainment tests can be realizations of a Poisson process is explained and expanded by assuming a prior distribution, with fixed but unknown parameters, for the subject parameters. How additional between-subject and within-subject factors can be incorporated is discussed. (SLD)

  10. Statistical mechanics models for motion and force planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    1990-01-01

    The models of statistical mechanics provide an alternative to the methods of classical mechanics more traditionally used in robotics. They have a potential to: improve analysis of object collisions; handle kinematic and dynamic contact interactions within the same frmework; and reduce the need for perfect deterministic world model information. The statistical mechanics models characterize the state of the system as a probability density function (p.d.f.) whose time evolution is governed by a partial differential equation subject to boundary and initial conditions. The boundary conditions when rigid objects collide reflect the conservation of momentum. The models are being developed to embedd in remote semi-autonomous systems with a need to reason and interact with a multiobject environment.

  11. Modeling of stochastic motion of bacteria propelled spherical microbeads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabagi, Veaceslav; Behkam, Bahareh; Cheung, Eugene; Sitti, Metin

    2011-06-01

    This work proposes a stochastic dynamic model of bacteria propelled spherical microbeads as potential swimming microrobotic bodies. Small numbers of S. marcescens bacteria are attached with their bodies to surfaces of spherical microbeads. Average-behavior stochastic models that are normally adopted when studying such biological systems are generally not effective for cases in which a small number of agents are interacting in a complex manner, hence a stochastic model is proposed to simulate the behavior of 8-41 bacteria assembled on a curved surface. Flexibility of the flagellar hook is studied via comparing simulated and experimental results for scenarios of increasing bead size and the number of attached bacteria on a bead. Although requiring more experimental data to yield an exact, certain flagellar hook stiffness value, the examined results favor a stiffer flagella. The stochastic model is intended to be used as a design and simulation tool for future potential targeted drug delivery and disease diagnosis applications of bacteria propelled microrobots.

  12. Contraction Options and Optimal Multiple-Stopping in Spectrally Negative Lévy Models

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, Kazutoshi

    2015-08-15

    This paper studies the optimal multiple-stopping problem arising in the context of the timing option to withdraw from a project in stages. The profits are driven by a general spectrally negative Lévy process. This allows the model to incorporate sudden declines of the project values, generalizing greatly the classical geometric Brownian motion model. We solve the one-stage case as well as the extension to the multiple-stage case. The optimal stopping times are of threshold-type and the value function admits an expression in terms of the scale function. A series of numerical experiments are conducted to verify the optimality and to evaluate the efficiency of the algorithm.

  13. Tensegrity applied to modelling the motion of viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simona-Mariana, Cretu; Gabriela-Catalina, Brinzan

    2011-02-01

    A considerable number of viruses' structures have been discovered and more are expected to be identified. Different viruses' symmetries can be observed at the nanoscale level. The mechanical models of some viruses realised by scientists are described in this paper, none of which has taken into consideration the internal deformation of subsystems. The authors' models for some viruses' elements are introduced, with rigid and flexible links, which reproduce the movements of viruses including internal deformations of the subunits.

  14. Performance comparison of rigid and affine models for motion estimation using ultrasound radio-frequency signals.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaochang; Liu, Ke; Shao, Jinghua; Gao, Jing; Huang, Lingyun; Bai, Jing; Luo, Jianwen

    2015-11-01

    Tissue motion estimation is widely used in many ultrasound techniques. Rigid-model-based and nonrigid-modelbased methods are two main groups of space-domain methods of tissue motion estimation. The affine model is one of the commonly used nonrigid models. The performances of the rigid model and affine model have not been compared on ultrasound RF signals, which have been demonstrated to obtain higher accuracy, precision, and resolution in motion estimation compared with B-mode images. In this study, three methods, i.e., the normalized cross-correlation method with rigid model (NCC), the optical flow method with rigid model (OFRM), and the optical flow method with affine model (OFAM), are compared using ultrasound RF signals, rather than the B-mode images used in previous studies. Simulations, phantom, and in vivo experiments are conducted to make the comparison. In the simulations, the root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) of axial and lateral displacements and strains are used to assess the accuracy of motion estimation, and the elastographic signal-tonoise ratio (SNRe) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNRe) are used to evaluate the quality of axial strain images. In the phantom experiments, the registration error between the pre- and postdeformation RF signals, as well as the SNRe and CNRe of axial strain images, are utilized as the evaluation criteria. In the in vivo experiments, the registration error is used to evaluate the estimation performance. The results show that the affinemodel- based method (i.e., OFAM) obtains the lowest RMSE or registration error and the highest SNRe and CNRe among all the methods. The affine model is demonstrated to be superior to the rigid model in motion estimation based on RF signals.

  15. Mixed Membership Distributions with Applications to Modeling Multiple Strategy Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galyardt, April

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines two related questions. "How do mixed membership models work?" and "Can mixed membership be used to model how students use multiple strategies to solve problems?". Mixed membership models have been used in thousands of applications from text and image processing to genetic microarray analysis. Yet…

  16. A Bayesian approach for the multiplicative binomial regression model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraíba, Carolina C. M.; Diniz, Carlos A. R.; Pires, Rubiane M.

    2012-10-01

    In the present paper, we focus our attention on Altham's multiplicative binomial model under the Bayesian perspective, modeling both the probability of success and the dispersion parameters. We present results based on a simulated data set to access the quality of Bayesian estimates and Bayesian diagnostic for model assessment.

  17. Wind direction modelling using multiple observation points.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Yoshito; Mandic, Danilo P; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2008-02-28

    The prediction of wind direction is a prerequisite for the intelligent and efficient operation of wind turbines. This is a complex task, due to the intermittent behaviour of wind, its non-Gaussian and nonlinear nature, and the coupling between the wind speed and direction. To provide improved wind direction forecasting, we propose a nonlinear model with augmented information from an additional measurement point. This is further enhanced by making use of both the speed and direction components of the wind field vector. The analysis and a comprehensive set of simulations demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves improved prediction performance over the standard and persistent model. The potential of the proposed approach is justified by the fact that even relatively small improvements in the forecasts result in large gains in the produced output power.

  18. A multiple-shape memory polymer-metal composite actuator capable of programmable control, creating complex 3D motion of bending, twisting, and oscillation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qi; Trabia, Sarah; Stalbaum, Tyler; Palmre, Viljar; Kim, Kwang; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Development of biomimetic actuators has been an essential motivation in the study of smart materials. However, few materials are capable of controlling complex twisting and bending deformations simultaneously or separately using a dynamic control system. Here, we report an ionic polymer-metal composite actuator having multiple-shape memory effect, and is able to perform complex motion by two external inputs, electrical and thermal. Prior to the development of this type of actuator, this capability only could be realized with existing actuator technologies by using multiple actuators or another robotic system. This paper introduces a soft multiple-shape-memory polymer-metal composite (MSMPMC) actuator having multiple degrees-of-freedom that demonstrates high maneuverability when controlled by two external inputs, electrical and thermal. These multiple inputs allow for complex motions that are routine in nature, but that would be otherwise difficult to obtain with a single actuator. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this MSMPMC actuator is the first solitary actuator capable of multiple-input control and the resulting deformability and maneuverability. PMID:27080134

  19. A multiple-shape memory polymer-metal composite actuator capable of programmable control, creating complex 3D motion of bending, twisting, and oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Qi; Trabia, Sarah; Stalbaum, Tyler; Palmre, Viljar; Kim, Kwang; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2016-04-01

    Development of biomimetic actuators has been an essential motivation in the study of smart materials. However, few materials are capable of controlling complex twisting and bending deformations simultaneously or separately using a dynamic control system. Here, we report an ionic polymer-metal composite actuator having multiple-shape memory effect, and is able to perform complex motion by two external inputs, electrical and thermal. Prior to the development of this type of actuator, this capability only could be realized with existing actuator technologies by using multiple actuators or another robotic system. This paper introduces a soft multiple-shape-memory polymer-metal composite (MSMPMC) actuator having multiple degrees-of-freedom that demonstrates high maneuverability when controlled by two external inputs, electrical and thermal. These multiple inputs allow for complex motions that are routine in nature, but that would be otherwise difficult to obtain with a single actuator. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this MSMPMC actuator is the first solitary actuator capable of multiple-input control and the resulting deformability and maneuverability.

  20. A multiple-shape memory polymer-metal composite actuator capable of programmable control, creating complex 3D motion of bending, twisting, and oscillation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qi; Trabia, Sarah; Stalbaum, Tyler; Palmre, Viljar; Kim, Kwang; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Development of biomimetic actuators has been an essential motivation in the study of smart materials. However, few materials are capable of controlling complex twisting and bending deformations simultaneously or separately using a dynamic control system. Here, we report an ionic polymer-metal composite actuator having multiple-shape memory effect, and is able to perform complex motion by two external inputs, electrical and thermal. Prior to the development of this type of actuator, this capability only could be realized with existing actuator technologies by using multiple actuators or another robotic system. This paper introduces a soft multiple-shape-memory polymer-metal composite (MSMPMC) actuator having multiple degrees-of-freedom that demonstrates high maneuverability when controlled by two external inputs, electrical and thermal. These multiple inputs allow for complex motions that are routine in nature, but that would be otherwise difficult to obtain with a single actuator. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this MSMPMC actuator is the first solitary actuator capable of multiple-input control and the resulting deformability and maneuverability.

  1. A multiple-shape memory polymer-metal composite actuator capable of programmable control, creating complex 3D motion of bending, twisting, and oscillation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qi; Trabia, Sarah; Stalbaum, Tyler; Palmre, Viljar; Kim, Kwang; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Development of biomimetic actuators has been an essential motivation in the study of smart materials. However, few materials are capable of controlling complex twisting and bending deformations simultaneously or separately using a dynamic control system. Here, we report an ionic polymer-metal composite actuator having multiple-shape memory effect, and is able to perform complex motion by two external inputs, electrical and thermal. Prior to the development of this type of actuator, this capability only could be realized with existing actuator technologies by using multiple actuators or another robotic system. This paper introduces a soft multiple-shape-memory polymer-metal composite (MSMPMC) actuator having multiple degrees-of-freedom that demonstrates high maneuverability when controlled by two external inputs, electrical and thermal. These multiple inputs allow for complex motions that are routine in nature, but that would be otherwise difficult to obtain with a single actuator. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this MSMPMC actuator is the first solitary actuator capable of multiple-input control and the resulting deformability and maneuverability. PMID:27080134

  2. The role of models in the process of epistemic integration: the case of the Reichardt motion detector.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Daniel S

    2014-08-01

    Recent work on epistemic integration in the life sciences has emphasized the importance of integration in thinking about explanatory practice in science, particularly for articulating a robust alternative to reductionism and anti-reductionism. This paper analyzes the role of models in balancing the relative contributions of lower- and higher-level epistemic resources involved in this process. Integration between multiple disciplines proceeds by constructing a problem agenda (Love, Philos Sci 75(5): 874-886, 2008), a set of interrelated problems that structures the problem space of a complex phenomenon that is investigated by many disciplines. The usage of models, it is argued, mark changes in a phenomenon's problem agenda depending on the task that is expected of it. Particularly, it emphasizes the sensitivity of a problem agenda to changing attitudes in the solutions to the conceptual and empirical items constituting that agenda. The analysis will proceed by means of a case study, the Reichardt motion detector, a model that has been vital to the methodological and conceptual development of research on motion detection, especially in invertebrates. As will be seen, the history of the Reichardt model will exemplify the dynamic changes that occur in the interdisciplinary negotiations that comprise the active efforts of various sciences working to integrate their resources. PMID:25515265

  3. Flocking and Turning: a New Model for Self-organized Collective Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagna, Andrea; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Giardina, Irene; Grigera, Tomas; Jelic, Asja; Melillo, Stefania; Mora, Thierry; Parisi, Leonardo; Silvestri, Edmondo; Viale, Massimiliano; Walczak, Aleksandra M.

    2015-02-01

    Birds in a flock move in a correlated way, resulting in large polarization of velocities. A good understanding of this collective behavior exists for linear motion of the flock. Yet observing actual birds, the center of mass of the group often turns giving rise to more complicated dynamics, still keeping strong polarization of the flock. Here we propose novel dynamical equations for the collective motion of polarized animal groups that account for correlated turning including solely social forces. We exploit rotational symmetries and conservation laws of the problem to formulate a theory in terms of generalized coordinates of motion for the velocity directions akin to a Hamiltonian formulation for rotations. We explicitly derive the correspondence between this formulation and the dynamics of the individual velocities, thus obtaining a new model of collective motion. In the appropriate overdamped limit we recover the well-known Vicsek model, which dissipates rotational information and does not allow for polarized turns. Although the new model has its most vivid success in describing turning groups, its dynamics is intrinsically different from previous ones in a wide dynamical regime, while reducing to the hydrodynamic description of Toner and Tu at very large length-scales. The derived framework is therefore general and it may describe the collective motion of any strongly polarized active matter system.

  4. Robot body self-modeling algorithm: a collision-free motion planning approach for humanoids.

    PubMed

    Leylavi Shoushtari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Motion planning for humanoid robots is one of the critical issues due to the high redundancy and theoretical and technical considerations e.g. stability, motion feasibility and collision avoidance. The strategies which central nervous system employs to plan, signal and control the human movements are a source of inspiration to deal with the mentioned problems. Self-modeling is a concept inspired by body self-awareness in human. In this research it is integrated in an optimal motion planning framework in order to detect and avoid collision of the manipulated object with the humanoid body during performing a dynamic task. Twelve parametric functions are designed as self-models to determine the boundary of humanoid's body. Later, the boundaries which mathematically defined by the self-models are employed to calculate the safe region for box to avoid the collision with the robot. Four different objective functions are employed in motion simulation to validate the robustness of algorithm under different dynamics. The results also confirm the collision avoidance, reality and stability of the predicted motion.

  5. ARMA models for earthquake ground motions. Seismic safety margins research program

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, M. K.; Kwiatkowski, J. W.; Nau, R. F.; Oliver, R. M.; Pister, K. S.

    1981-02-01

    Four major California earthquake records were analyzed by use of a class of discrete linear time-domain processes commonly referred to as ARMA (Autoregressive/Moving-Average) models. It was possible to analyze these different earthquakes, identify the order of the appropriate ARMA model(s), estimate parameters, and test the residuals generated by these models. It was also possible to show the connections, similarities, and differences between the traditional continuous models (with parameter estimates based on spectral analyses) and the discrete models with parameters estimated by various maximum-likelihood techniques applied to digitized acceleration data in the time domain. The methodology proposed is suitable for simulating earthquake ground motions in the time domain, and appears to be easily adapted to serve as inputs for nonlinear discrete time models of structural motions. 60 references, 19 figures, 9 tables.

  6. Visuovestibular perception of self-motion modeled as a dynamic optimization process.

    PubMed

    Reymond, Gilles; Droulez, Jacques; Kemeny, Andras

    2002-10-01

    This article describes a computational model for the sensory perception of self-motion, considered as a compromise between sensory information and physical coherence constraints. This compromise is realized by a dynamic optimization process minimizing a set of cost functions. Measure constraints are expressed as quadratic errors between motion estimates and corresponding sensory signals, using internal models of sensor transfer functions. Coherence constraints are expressed as quadratic errors between motion estimates, and their prediction is based on internal models of the physical laws governing the corresponding physical stimuli. This general scheme leads to a straightforward representation of fundamental sensory interactions (fusion of visual and canal rotational inputs, identification of the gravity component from the otolithic input, otolithic contribution to the perception of rotations, and influence of vection on the subjective vertical). The model is tuned and assessed using a range of well-known psychophysical results, including off-vertical axis rotations and centrifuge experiments. The ability of the model to predict and help analyze new situations is illustrated by a study of the vestibular contributions to self-motion perception during automobile driving and during acceleration cueing in driving simulators. The extendable structure of the model allows for further developments and applications, by using other cost functions representing additional sensory interactions. PMID:12386745

  7. Multi-level model for 2D human motion analysis and description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foures, Thomas; Joly, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the proposition of a model for human motion analysis in a video. Its main caracteristic is to adapt itself automatically to the current resolution, the actual quality of the picture, or the level of precision required by a given application, due to its possible decomposition into several hierarchical levels. The model is region-based to address some analysis processing needs. The top level of the model is only defined with 5 ribbons, which can be cut into sub-ribbons regarding to a given (or an expected) level of details. Matching process between model and current picture consists in the comparison of extracted subject shape with a graphical rendering of the model built on the base of some computed parameters. The comparison is processed by using a chamfer matching algorithm. In our developments, we intend to realize a platform of interaction between a dancer and tools synthetizing abstract motion pictures and music in the conditions of a real-time dialogue between a human and a computer. In consequence, we use this model in a perspective of motion description instead of motion recognition: no a priori gestures are supposed to be recognized as far as no a priori application is specially targeted. The resulting description will be made following a Description Scheme compliant with the movement notation called "Labanotation".

  8. Model Experiment of Two-Dimentional Brownian Motion by Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishima, Nobuhiko; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes the use of a microcomputer in studying a model experiment (Brownian particles colliding with thermal particles). A flow chart and program for the experiment are provided. Suggests that this experiment may foster a deepened understanding through mutual dialog between the student and computer. (SK)

  9. Motion Editing for Time-Varying Mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianfeng; Yamasaki, Toshihiko; Aizawa, Kiyoharu

    2008-12-01

    Recently, time-varying mesh (TVM), which is composed of a sequence of mesh models, has received considerable interest due to its new and attractive functions such as free viewpoint and interactivity. TVM captures the dynamic scene of the real world from multiple synchronized cameras. However, it is expensive and time consuming to generate a TVM sequence. In this paper, an editing system is presented to reuse the original data, which reorganizes the motions to obtain a new sequence based on the user requirements. Hierarchical motion structure is observed and parsed in TVM sequences. Then, the representative motions are chosen into a motion database, where a motion graph is constructed to connect those motions with smooth transitions. After the user selects some desired motions from the motion database, the best paths are searched by a modified Dijkstra algorithm to achieve a new sequence. Our experimental results demonstrate that the edited sequences are natural and smooth.

  10. Image-driven, model-based 3D abdominal motion estimation for MR-guided radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemkens, Bjorn; Tijssen, Rob H. N.; de Senneville, Baudouin Denis; Lagendijk, Jan J. W.; van den Berg, Cornelis A. T.

    2016-07-01

    Respiratory motion introduces substantial uncertainties in abdominal radiotherapy for which traditionally large margins are used. The MR-Linac will open up the opportunity to acquire high resolution MR images just prior to radiation and during treatment. However, volumetric MRI time series are not able to characterize 3D tumor and organ-at-risk motion with sufficient temporal resolution. In this study we propose a method to estimate 3D deformation vector fields (DVFs) with high spatial and temporal resolution based on fast 2D imaging and a subject-specific motion model based on respiratory correlated MRI. In a pre-beam phase, a retrospectively sorted 4D-MRI is acquired, from which the motion is parameterized using a principal component analysis. This motion model is used in combination with fast 2D cine-MR images, which are acquired during radiation, to generate full field-of-view 3D DVFs with a temporal resolution of 476 ms. The geometrical accuracies of the input data (4D-MRI and 2D multi-slice acquisitions) and the fitting procedure were determined using an MR-compatible motion phantom and found to be 1.0-1.5 mm on average. The framework was tested on seven healthy volunteers for both the pancreas and the kidney. The calculated motion was independently validated using one of the 2D slices, with an average error of 1.45 mm. The calculated 3D DVFs can be used retrospectively for treatment simulations, plan evaluations, or to determine the accumulated dose for both the tumor and organs-at-risk on a subject-specific basis in MR-guided radiotherapy.

  11. Image-driven, model-based 3D abdominal motion estimation for MR-guided radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemkens, Bjorn; Tijssen, Rob H. N.; de Senneville, Baudouin Denis; Lagendijk, Jan J. W.; van den Berg, Cornelis A. T.

    2016-07-01

    Respiratory motion introduces substantial uncertainties in abdominal radiotherapy for which traditionally large margins are used. The MR-Linac will open up the opportunity to acquire high resolution MR images just prior to radiation and during treatment. However, volumetric MRI time series are not able to characterize 3D tumor and organ-at-risk motion with sufficient temporal resolution. In this study we propose a method to estimate 3D deformation vector fields (DVFs) with high spatial and temporal resolution based on fast 2D imaging and a subject-specific motion model based on respiratory correlated MRI. In a pre-beam phase, a retrospectively sorted 4D-MRI is acquired, from which the motion is parameterized using a principal component analysis. This motion model is used in combination with fast 2D cine-MR images, which are acquired during radiation, to generate full field-of-view 3D DVFs with a temporal resolution of 476 ms. The geometrical accuracies of the input data (4D-MRI and 2D multi-slice acquisitions) and the fitting procedure were determined using an MR-compatible motion phantom and found to be 1.0–1.5 mm on average. The framework was tested on seven healthy volunteers for both the pancreas and the kidney. The calculated motion was independently validated using one of the 2D slices, with an average error of 1.45 mm. The calculated 3D DVFs can be used retrospectively for treatment simulations, plan evaluations, or to determine the accumulated dose for both the tumor and organs-at-risk on a subject-specific basis in MR-guided radiotherapy.

  12. Image-driven, model-based 3D abdominal motion estimation for MR-guided radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Stemkens, Bjorn; Tijssen, Rob H N; de Senneville, Baudouin Denis; Lagendijk, Jan J W; van den Berg, Cornelis A T

    2016-07-21

    Respiratory motion introduces substantial uncertainties in abdominal radiotherapy for which traditionally large margins are used. The MR-Linac will open up the opportunity to acquire high resolution MR images just prior to radiation and during treatment. However, volumetric MRI time series are not able to characterize 3D tumor and organ-at-risk motion with sufficient temporal resolution. In this study we propose a method to estimate 3D deformation vector fields (DVFs) with high spatial and temporal resolution based on fast 2D imaging and a subject-specific motion model based on respiratory correlated MRI. In a pre-beam phase, a retrospectively sorted 4D-MRI is acquired, from which the motion is parameterized using a principal component analysis. This motion model is used in combination with fast 2D cine-MR images, which are acquired during radiation, to generate full field-of-view 3D DVFs with a temporal resolution of 476 ms. The geometrical accuracies of the input data (4D-MRI and 2D multi-slice acquisitions) and the fitting procedure were determined using an MR-compatible motion phantom and found to be 1.0-1.5 mm on average. The framework was tested on seven healthy volunteers for both the pancreas and the kidney. The calculated motion was independently validated using one of the 2D slices, with an average error of 1.45 mm. The calculated 3D DVFs can be used retrospectively for treatment simulations, plan evaluations, or to determine the accumulated dose for both the tumor and organs-at-risk on a subject-specific basis in MR-guided radiotherapy.

  13. Modeling Noncircular Motions in Disk Galaxies: Application to NGC 2976

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spekkens, Kristine; Sellwood, J. A.

    2007-07-01

    We present a new procedure to fit nonaxisymmetric flow patterns to two-dimensional velocity maps of spiral galaxies. We concentrate on flows caused by barlike or oval distortions to the total potential, which may arise either from a non-axially symmetric halo or a bar in the luminous disk. We apply our method to high-quality CO and Hα data for the nearby, low-mass spiral NGC 2976, previously obtained by Simon et al., and find that a barlike model fits the data at least as well as their model with large radial flows. We find supporting evidence for the existence of a bar in the baryonic disk. Our model suggests that the azimuthally averaged central attraction in the inner part of this galaxy is larger than estimated by these authors. It is likely that the disk is also more massive, which will limit the increase to the allowed dark halo density. Allowance for barlike distortions in other galaxies may either increase or decrease the estimated central attraction.

  14. Medical prevention of space motion sickness—animal model of therapeutic effect of a new medicine on motion sickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T. D.; Pei, J. S.; Yang, S. L.; Liu, Z. Q.; Sun, R. L.

    Space motion sickness (MS) is one of the most important problems in the field of space medicine. In order to prevent space MS, a new medicine, PMPA, has been prepared by means of synthesizing in our laboratory. The purposes of this study were to set up animal models of PMPA against MS, and to observe its effects on anti-MS, and to prove its function of antagonism to choline. Eight cats, forty rabbits and two hundred and ten rats were selected as animal subjects. The parallel swing stimulus, a method causing the reversal syndromes and tests of anti-choline function were used in our experiments. The results are as follows: (1) The score of MS symptoms in cats with PMPA or scopolamine (SCOP) is significantly lower than that in cats with placebo (p<0.01), while the incidences of efficiency and prevention of PMPA (87.5%, 75%) are higher than those of SCOP (75.0%, 50%) in cats. (2) PMPA of 1.6 mg/kg or 0.8 mg/kg could antagonize the reversal syndromes and repress reversal rotation significantly in rabbits like SCOP in comparison with placebo (p<0.01). (3) PMPA could inhibit tremor evoked by oxotremorine or by nicotine-procaine in rats like SCOP, and play an important role in the antagonism to central M-choline and N-choline receptors. The animal experiments demonstrate that PMPA is an effective medicine against MS with antagonism function to choline.

  15. Position Estimation of an Epicardial Crawling Robot on the Beating Heart by Modeling of Physiological Motion

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Nathan A.; del Agua, Diego Moral; Zenati, Marco A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2012-01-01

    HeartLander, a small mobile robot designed to provide treatments to the surface of the beating heart, overcomes a major difficulty of minimally invasive cardiac surgery, providing a stable operating platform. This is achieved inherently in the way the robot adheres to and crawls over the surface of the heart. This mode of operation does not require physiological motion compensation to provide this stable environment; however, modeling of physiological motion is advantageous in providing more accurate position estimation as well as synchronization of motion to the physiological cycles. The work presented uses an Extended Kalman Filter framework to estimate parameters of non-stationary Fourier series models of the motion of the heart due to the respiratory and cardiac cycles as well as the position of the robot as it moves over the surface of the heart. The proposed method is demonstrated in the laboratory with HeartLander operating on a physiological motion simulator. Improved performance is demonstrated in comparison to the filtering methods previously used with HeartLander. The use of detected physiological cycle phases to synchronize locomotion of HeartLander is also described. PMID:23066511

  16. Position Estimation of an Epicardial Crawling Robot on the Beating Heart by Modeling of Physiological Motion.

    PubMed

    Wood, Nathan A; Del Agua, Diego Moral; Zenati, Marco A; Riviere, Cameron N

    2011-12-01

    HeartLander, a small mobile robot designed to provide treatments to the surface of the beating heart, overcomes a major difficulty of minimally invasive cardiac surgery, providing a stable operating platform. This is achieved inherently in the way the robot adheres to and crawls over the surface of the heart. This mode of operation does not require physiological motion compensation to provide this stable environment; however, modeling of physiological motion is advantageous in providing more accurate position estimation as well as synchronization of motion to the physiological cycles. The work presented uses an Extended Kalman Filter framework to estimate parameters of non-stationary Fourier series models of the motion of the heart due to the respiratory and cardiac cycles as well as the position of the robot as it moves over the surface of the heart. The proposed method is demonstrated in the laboratory with HeartLander operating on a physiological motion simulator. Improved performance is demonstrated in comparison to the filtering methods previously used with HeartLander. The use of detected physiological cycle phases to synchronize locomotion of HeartLander is also described.

  17. The Study of the Tether Motion with Time-Varying Length Using the Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation with Multiple Nonlinear Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguti, Keisuke; Terumichi, Yoshiaki; Takehara, Shoichiro; Kaczmarczyk, Stefan; Sogabe, Kiyoshi

    In this study, the modeling and formulation for tether motion with time-varying length, large rotation, large displacement and large deformation are proposed. A tether or cable is an important element in lift systems, construction machines for transportation and often is used with a time-varying length. In some cases, these systems are large and the tether has a long length, large deformation and large displacement. The dynamic behavior of a tether in extension and retraction using the proposed method is discussed in this paper. In the passage through resonance, significant tether motions with large rotation and large deformation result. In the analysis of this phenomenon, the transient fluctuations of the motion amplitudes are examined and compared with the corresponding steady state motions. The accuracy and the cost of the calculations are also verified by comparison with the experimental results.

  18. Meeting Review: Diffuse X-Ray Scattering to Model Protein Motions

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Michael E.; Adams, Paul D.; Fraser, James S.; Sautter, Nicholas K.

    2014-01-01

    Problems in biology increasingly need models of protein flexibility to understand and control protein function. At the same time, as they improve, crystallographic methods are marching closer to the limits of what can be learned from Bragg data in isolation. It is thus inevitable that mainstream protein crystallography will turn to diffuse scattering to model protein motions and improve crystallographic models. The time is ripe to make it happen. PMID:24507780

  19. Modeling Visual, Vestibular and Oculomotor Interactions in Self-Motion Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrone, John

    1997-01-01

    A computational model of human self-motion perception has been developed in collaboration with Dr. Leland S. Stone at NASA Ames Research Center. The research included in the grant proposal sought to extend the utility of this model so that it could be used for explaining and predicting human performance in a greater variety of aerospace applications. This extension has been achieved along with physiological validation of the basic operation of the model.

  20. A Generalized Correlation-Based Model for Out-of-Plane Motion Estimation in Freehand Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Afsham, Narges; Najafi, Mohammad; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Rohling, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A big challenge in sensorless image-based ultrasound tracking is in the out-of-plane motion estimation. The correlation value of a specific model of speckle known as fully developed speckle (FDS) can be used to estimate the out-of-plane displacement. In real tissue, this kind of pattern is rare and the deviation of speckle pattern from the ideal FDS model diminishes the accuracy of the out-of-plane motion estimation. In this paper a new method for estimation of the out-of-plane motion is proposed. Firstly a closed-form mathematical derivation is provided for the correlation of two RF echo signal patches at different positions. A linear regression model of the ultrasound beam profile is proposed to account for the spatial variability of the ultrasound beam and enhance the accuracy of out-of-plane motion estimation in real tissue. The statistical model of speckle used here is based on the Rician-Inverse Gaussian (RiIG) stochastic process of the speckle formation, which can be considered as a generalized form of the K-distribution with richer parametrization. In this work, for the first time the second-order statistics of the RIG model is used for speckle tracking. This statistical model allows for derivation of a closed-form formulation for the correlation coefficient based on the statistical parameters of every patch. Since the effect of coherency is considered in the RiIG model, it increases the reliability of the out-of-plane motion estimation. The flexibility of the proposed method enables almost any patch through the whole image to be used for the purpose of displacement estimation. The method has been evaluated both on ex vivo and in vivo tissues in various experiments including out-of-plane rotation (tilt, yaw) and free-hand imaging. The overall outcome demonstrates the potential of the proposed method for in vivo tissues.

  1. Real-time bronchoscope three-dimensional motion estimation using multiple sensor-driven alignment of CT images and electromagnetic measurements.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiongbiao; Mori, Kensaku

    2014-09-01

    Bronchoscope three-dimensional motion estimation plays a key role in developing bronchoscopic navigation systems. Currently external tracking devices, particularly electromagnetic trackers with electromagnetic sensors, are increasingly introduced to navigate surgical tools in pre-clinical images. An unavoidable problem, which is to align the electromagnetic tracker to pre-clinical images, must be solved before navigation. This paper proposes a multiple sensor-driven registration method to establish this alignment without using any anatomical fiducials. Although current fiducially free registration methods work well, they limit to the initialization of optimization and manipulating the bronchoscope along the bronchial centerlines, which could be failed easily during clinical interventions. To address these limitations, we utilize measurements of multiple electromagnetic sensors to calculate bronchoscope geometric center positions that are usually closer to the bronchial centerlines than the sensor itself measured positions. We validated our method on a bronchial phantom. The experimental results demonstrate that our idea of using multiple sensors to determine bronchoscope geometric center positions for fiducial-free registration was very effective. Compared to currently available methods in bronchoscope three-dimensional motion estimation, our method reduced fiducial alignment error from at least 6.79 to 4.68-5.26 mm and significantly improved motion estimation or tracking accuracy from at least 5.42 to 3.78-4.53 mm.

  2. Efficient Bayesian Joint Models for Group Randomized Trials with Multiple Observation Times and Multiple Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xinyi; Pennell, Michael L.; Lu, Bo; Murray, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary In this paper, we propose a Bayesian method for Group Randomized Trials (GRTs) with multiple observation times and multiple outcomes of different types. We jointly model these outcomes using latent multivariate normal linear regression, which allows treatment effects to change with time and accounts for 1.) intra-class correlation (ICC) within groups 2.) the correlation between different outcomes measured on the same subject and 3.) the over-time correlation (OTC) of each outcome. Moreover we develop a set of innovative priors for the variance components which yield direct inference on the correlations, avoid undesirable constraints, and allow utilization of information from previous studies. We illustrate through simulations that our model can improve estimation efficiency (lower posterior standard deviations) of ICCs and treatment effects relative to single outcome models and models with diffuse priors on the variance components. We also demonstrate the methodology using body composition data collected in the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls (TAAG). PMID:22733563

  3. Mathematical model of motion of a mixture of gases and hollow microspheres with selective permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereshchagin, A. S.; Fomin, V. M.

    2015-09-01

    A mathematical model of motion of solid particles with selective permeability and a mixture of moving gases is developed with the use of averaging principles of mechanics of multiphase media. The derived system of quasi-linear partial differential equations is studied for a particular one-dimensional isothermal case.

  4. Self-noise models of five commercial strong-motion accelerometers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringler, Adam; Evans, John R.; Hutt, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    To better characterize the noise of a number of commonly deployed accelerometers in a standardized way, we conducted noise measurements on five different models of strong‐motion accelerometers. Our study was limited to traditional accelerometers (Fig. 1) and is in no way exhaustive.

  5. From deep TLS validation to ensembles of atomic models built from elemental motions

    PubMed Central

    Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V.; Van Benschoten, Andrew H.; Fraser, James S.; Adams, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    The translation–libration–screw model first introduced by Cruickshank, Schomaker and Trueblood describes the concerted motions of atomic groups. Using TLS models can improve the agreement between calculated and experimental diffraction data. Because the T, L and S matrices describe a combination of atomic vibrations and librations, TLS models can also potentially shed light on molecular mechanisms involving correlated motions. However, this use of TLS models in mechanistic studies is hampered by the difficulties in translating the results of refinement into molecular movement or a structural ensemble. To convert the matrices into a constituent molecular movement, the matrix elements must satisfy several conditions. Refining the T, L and S matrix elements as independent parameters without taking these conditions into account may result in matrices that do not represent concerted molecular movements. Here, a mathematical framework and the computational tools to analyze TLS matrices, resulting in either explicit decomposition into descriptions of the underlying motions or a report of broken conditions, are described. The description of valid underlying motions can then be output as a structural ensemble. All methods are implemented as part of the PHENIX project. PMID:26249348

  6. From deep TLS validation to ensembles of atomic models built from elemental motions.

    PubMed

    Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V; Van Benschoten, Andrew H; Fraser, James S; Adams, Paul D

    2015-08-01

    The translation-libration-screw model first introduced by Cruickshank, Schomaker and Trueblood describes the concerted motions of atomic groups. Using TLS models can improve the agreement between calculated and experimental diffraction data. Because the T, L and S matrices describe a combination of atomic vibrations and librations, TLS models can also potentially shed light on molecular mechanisms involving correlated motions. However, this use of TLS models in mechanistic studies is hampered by the difficulties in translating the results of refinement into molecular movement or a structural ensemble. To convert the matrices into a constituent molecular movement, the matrix elements must satisfy several conditions. Refining the T, L and S matrix elements as independent parameters without taking these conditions into account may result in matrices that do not represent concerted molecular movements. Here, a mathematical framework and the computational tools to analyze TLS matrices, resulting in either explicit decomposition into descriptions of the underlying motions or a report of broken conditions, are described. The description of valid underlying motions can then be output as a structural ensemble. All methods are implemented as part of the PHENIX project.

  7. An Interactive Computer Model for Improved Student Understanding of Random Particle Motion and Osmosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kottonau, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Effectively teaching the concepts of osmosis to college-level students is a major obstacle in biological education. Therefore, a novel computer model is presented that allows students to observe the random nature of particle motion simultaneously with the seemingly directed net flow of water across a semipermeable membrane during osmotic…

  8. From deep TLS validation to ensembles of atomic models built from elemental motions

    SciTech Connect

    Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V.; Van Benschoten, Andrew H.; Fraser, James S.; Adams, Paul D.

    2015-07-28

    The translation–libration–screw model first introduced by Cruickshank, Schomaker and Trueblood describes the concerted motions of atomic groups. Using TLS models can improve the agreement between calculated and experimental diffraction data. Because the T, L and S matrices describe a combination of atomic vibrations and librations, TLS models can also potentially shed light on molecular mechanisms involving correlated motions. However, this use of TLS models in mechanistic studies is hampered by the difficulties in translating the results of refinement into molecular movement or a structural ensemble. To convert the matrices into a constituent molecular movement, the matrix elements must satisfy several conditions. Refining the T, L and S matrix elements as independent parameters without taking these conditions into account may result in matrices that do not represent concerted molecular movements. Here, a mathematical framework and the computational tools to analyze TLS matrices, resulting in either explicit decomposition into descriptions of the underlying motions or a report of broken conditions, are described. The description of valid underlying motions can then be output as a structural ensemble. All methods are implemented as part of the PHENIX project.

  9. From deep TLS validation to ensembles of atomic models built from elemental motions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V.; Van Benschoten, Andrew H.; Fraser, James S.; Adams, Paul D.

    2015-07-28

    The translation–libration–screw model first introduced by Cruickshank, Schomaker and Trueblood describes the concerted motions of atomic groups. Using TLS models can improve the agreement between calculated and experimental diffraction data. Because the T, L and S matrices describe a combination of atomic vibrations and librations, TLS models can also potentially shed light on molecular mechanisms involving correlated motions. However, this use of TLS models in mechanistic studies is hampered by the difficulties in translating the results of refinement into molecular movement or a structural ensemble. To convert the matrices into a constituent molecular movement, the matrix elements must satisfy severalmore » conditions. Refining the T, L and S matrix elements as independent parameters without taking these conditions into account may result in matrices that do not represent concerted molecular movements. Here, a mathematical framework and the computational tools to analyze TLS matrices, resulting in either explicit decomposition into descriptions of the underlying motions or a report of broken conditions, are described. The description of valid underlying motions can then be output as a structural ensemble. All methods are implemented as part of the PHENIX project.« less

  10. Modeling, system identification, and control for slosh-free motion of an open container of liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, J.; Baty, R.; Dykhuizen, R.; Dohrmann, C.; Parker, G.; Robinett, R.; Romero, V.; Schmitt, D.

    1996-04-01

    This report discusses work performed under a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) with Corning, Inc., to analyze and test various techniques for controlling the motion of a high speed robotic arm carrying an open container of viscous liquid, in this case, molten glass. A computer model was generated to estimate the modes of oscillation of the liquid based on the shape of the container and the viscosity of the liquid. This fluid model was experimentally verified and tuned based on experimental data from a capacitive sensor on the side of the container. A model of the robot dynamics was also developed and verified through experimental tests on a Fanuc S-800 robot arm. These two models were used to estimate the overall modes of oscillation of an open container of liquid being carried by a robot arm. Using the estimated modes, inverse dynamic control techniques were used to determine a motion profile which would eliminate waves on the liquid`s surface. Experimental tests showed that residual surface waves in an open container of water at the end of motion were reduced by over 95% and that in-motion surface waves were reduced by over 75%.

  11. Student Teachers' Levels of Understanding and Model of Understanding about Newton's Laws of Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saglam-Arslan, Aysegul; Devecioglu, Yasemin

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the level of student teachers' understandings of Newton's laws of motion and relating these levels to identify student teachers' models of understanding. An achievement test composed of two parts comprising 12 open ended questions was constructed and given to 45 pre-service classroom teachers. The first part…

  12. From deep TLS validation to ensembles of atomic models built from elemental motions

    SciTech Connect

    Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V.; Van Benschoten, Andrew H.; Fraser, James S.; Adams, Paul D.

    2015-07-28

    Procedures are described for extracting the vibration and libration parameters corresponding to a given set of TLS matrices and their simultaneous validation. Knowledge of these parameters allows the generation of structural ensembles corresponding to these matrices. The translation–libration–screw model first introduced by Cruickshank, Schomaker and Trueblood describes the concerted motions of atomic groups. Using TLS models can improve the agreement between calculated and experimental diffraction data. Because the T, L and S matrices describe a combination of atomic vibrations and librations, TLS models can also potentially shed light on molecular mechanisms involving correlated motions. However, this use of TLS models in mechanistic studies is hampered by the difficulties in translating the results of refinement into molecular movement or a structural ensemble. To convert the matrices into a constituent molecular movement, the matrix elements must satisfy several conditions. Refining the T, L and S matrix elements as independent parameters without taking these conditions into account may result in matrices that do not represent concerted molecular movements. Here, a mathematical framework and the computational tools to analyze TLS matrices, resulting in either explicit decomposition into descriptions of the underlying motions or a report of broken conditions, are described. The description of valid underlying motions can then be output as a structural ensemble. All methods are implemented as part of the PHENIX project.

  13. Effects of Teaching One and Two Dimensional Motion Units through Mathematical Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskan, Zeynep; Alev, Nedim

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of physics lessons that are taught through mathematical modelling on conceptual understanding and operational achievements of prospective science teachers in one and two dimensional motions. Through a quasi-experimental design "operational achievement test" (OAT) and "conceptual…

  14. Motions on the Millisecond Timescale and Multiple Conformations of HIV-1 Capsid Protein: Implications for Structural Polymorphism of CA Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, In-Ja L.; Hou, Guangjin; Han, Yun; Suiter, Christopher L.; Ahn, Jinwoo; Jung, Jinwon; Byeon, Chang-Hyeock; Gronenborn, Angela M.; Polenova, Tatyana

    2012-01-01

    The capsid protein (CA) of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) assembles into a cone-like structure that encloses the viral RNA genome. Interestingly, significant heterogeneity in shape and organization of capsids can be observed in mature HIV-1 virions. In vitro, CA also exhibits structural polymorphism and can assemble into various morphologies, such as cones, tubes and spheres. Many intermolecular contacts that are critical for CA assembly are formed by its C-terminal domain (CTD), a dimerization domain, which was found to adopt different orientations in several X-ray and NMR structures of the the CTD dimer and full-length CA proteins. Tyr145 (Y145), residue two in our CTD construct used for NMR structure determination, but not present in the crystallographic constructs, was found to be crucial for infectivity and engaged in numerous interactions at the CTD dimer interface. Here we investigate the origin of CA structural plasticity using solid-state and solution NMR spectroscopy. In the solid-state, the hinge region connecting the NTD and CTD is flexible on the millisecond timescale, as evidenced by the backbone motions of Y145 in CA conical assemblies and in two CTD constructs (137–231 and 142–231), allowing the protein to access multiple conformations essential for pleimorphic capsid assemblies. In solution, the CTD dimer exists as two major conformers, whose relative populations differ for the different CTD constructs. In the longer CTD (144–231) construct that contains the hinge region between the NTD and CTD, the populations of the two conformers are likely determined by the protonation state of the E175 side chain that is located at the dimer interface and within hydrogen bonding distance of the W184 side chain on the other monomer. At pH 6.5, the major conformer exhibits the same dimer interface as full-length CA. In the short CTD (150–231) construct, no pH-dependent conformational shift is observed. These findings suggest that the presence of

  15. A Conceptual Model of Multiple Dimensions of Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Susan R.; McEwen, Marylu K.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a conceptual model of multiple dimensions of identity, which depicts a core sense of self or one's personal identity. Intersecting circles surrounding the core identity represent significant identity dimensions and contextual influences. The model evolved from a grounded theory study of a group of 10 women college students ranging in age…

  16. Orbital motions of astronomical bodies and their centre of mass from different reference frames: a conceptual step between the geocentric and heliocentric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, André G. C.; Simeão Carvalho, Paulo

    2016-09-01

    The motion of astronomical bodies and the centre of mass of the system is not always well perceived by students. One of the struggles is the conceptual change of reference frame, which is the same that held back the acceptance of the Heliocentric model over the Geocentric one. To address the question, the notion of centre of mass, motion equations (and their numerical solution for a system of multiple bodies), and change of frame of reference is introduced. The discussion is done based on conceptual and real world examples, using the solar system. Consequently, through the use of simple ‘do it yourself’ methods and basic equations, students can debate complex motions, and have a wider and potentially effective understanding of physics.

  17. Multiple-Relaxation-Time Lattice Boltzmann Models in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    dHumieres, Dominique; Ginzburg, Irina; Krafczyk, Manfred; Lallemand, Pierre; Luo, Li-Shi; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This article provides a concise exposition of the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann equation, with examples of fifteen-velocity and nineteen-velocity models in three dimensions. Simulation of a diagonally lid-driven cavity flow in three dimensions at Re=500 and 2000 is performed. The results clearly demonstrate the superior numerical stability of the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann equation over the popular lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook equation.

  18. Model Study of the Effect of Slag Layer on the Swirl Motion of Molten Steel Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Daisuke; Hiratsuka, Akira; Ohmi, Tatsuya; Tsujino, Ryoji; Sasaki, Yasushi; Iguchi, Manabu

    Efficient agitation of molten steel and slag is requested in the steelmaking industry. The conventional agitation methods are mainly classified into Ar gas injection and electromagnetic stirring. These methods are very expensive and use much energy, and accordingly, we have proposed an alternative, cheap and effective mixing method using a swirl motion. This method does not need any driving devices in the reactor. In this study, low-density liquids and low-density particles are used as models for slag. The effects of the upper slag layer on the occurrence region and the amplitude of a swirl motion of a molten steel jet are investigated.

  19. Comparisons between complete and slice finite element models of a multiple arch and Buttress Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Nuss, L.K.

    1995-12-31

    Multiple arch and buttress dams are very complex structures commonly requiring analysis by finite element methods for seismic structural evaluation. Complete 3-dimensional finite element models are very expensive and time consuming. Therefore, simplified finite element models, which analyze only a portion or {open_quotes}slice{close_quotes} of the dam, are considered as a possible cost- and time-saving tool. A slice model includes only a repeatable and analytical representative section of buttresses and arches. Simplifying the analyses requires assumptions concerning the restraint conditions along the finite element boundaries, the portion of the dam to model, and the expanse of the model. These assumptions are critically important for obtaining reliable results from the analyses since the critical motion during an earthquake is in the cross-canyon direction of a multiple arch and buttress dam. Incorrect modeling of the slice model could induce too much restraint and produce unreliable results. This paper will compare the dynamic frequency, displacement, and stress results obtained from complete and slice finite element models.

  20. A Bio-Inspired, Motion-Based Analysis of Crowd Behavior Attributes Relevance to Motion Transparency, Velocity Gradients, and Motion Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Raudies, Florian; Neumann, Heiko

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of motion crowds is concerned with the detection of potential hazards for individuals of the crowd. Existing methods analyze the statistics of pixel motion to classify non-dangerous or dangerous behavior, to detect outlier motions, or to estimate the mean throughput of people for an image region. We suggest a biologically inspired model for the analysis of motion crowds that extracts motion features indicative for potential dangers in crowd behavior. Our model consists of stages for motion detection, integration, and pattern detection that model functions of the primate primary visual cortex area (V1), the middle temporal area (MT), and the medial superior temporal area (MST), respectively. This model allows for the processing of motion transparency, the appearance of multiple motions in the same visual region, in addition to processing opaque motion. We suggest that motion transparency helps to identify “danger zones” in motion crowds. For instance, motion transparency occurs in small exit passages during evacuation. However, motion transparency occurs also for non-dangerous crowd behavior when people move in opposite directions organized into separate lanes. Our analysis suggests: The combination of motion transparency and a slow motion speed can be used for labeling of candidate regions that contain dangerous behavior. In addition, locally detected decelerations or negative speed gradients of motions are a precursor of danger in crowd behavior as are globally detected motion patterns that show a contraction toward a single point. In sum, motion transparency, image speeds, motion patterns, and speed gradients extracted from visual motion in videos are important features to describe the behavioral state of a motion crowd. PMID:23300930

  1. Software package for modeling spin–orbit motion in storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Zyuzin, D. V.

    2015-12-15

    A software package providing a graphical user interface for computer experiments on the motion of charged particle beams in accelerators, as well as analysis of obtained data, is presented. The software package was tested in the framework of the international project on electric dipole moment measurement JEDI (Jülich Electric Dipole moment Investigations). The specific features of particle spin motion imply the requirement to use a cyclic accelerator (storage ring) consisting of electrostatic elements, which makes it possible to preserve horizontal polarization for a long time. Computer experiments study the dynamics of 10{sup 6}–10{sup 9} particles in a beam during 10{sup 9} turns in an accelerator (about 10{sup 12}–10{sup 15} integration steps for the equations of motion). For designing an optimal accelerator structure, a large number of computer experiments on polarized beam dynamics are required. The numerical core of the package is COSY Infinity, a program for modeling spin–orbit dynamics.

  2. Software package for modeling spin-orbit motion in storage rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyuzin, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    A software package providing a graphical user interface for computer experiments on the motion of charged particle beams in accelerators, as well as analysis of obtained data, is presented. The software package was tested in the framework of the international project on electric dipole moment measurement JEDI (Jülich Electric Dipole moment Investigations). The specific features of particle spin motion imply the requirement to use a cyclic accelerator (storage ring) consisting of electrostatic elements, which makes it possible to preserve horizontal polarization for a long time. Computer experiments study the dynamics of 106-109 particles in a beam during 109 turns in an accelerator (about 1012-1015 integration steps for the equations of motion). For designing an optimal accelerator structure, a large number of computer experiments on polarized beam dynamics are required. The numerical core of the package is COSY Infinity, a program for modeling spin-orbit dynamics.

  3. Learning Activity Models for Multiple Agents in a Smart Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandall, Aaron; Cook, Diane J.

    With the introduction of more complex intelligent environment systems, the possibilities for customizing system behavior have increased dramatically. Significant headway has been made in tracking individuals through spaces using wireless devices [1, 18, 26] and in recognizing activities within the space based on video data (see chapter by Brubaker et al. and [6, 8, 23]), motion sensor data [9, 25], wearable sensors [13] or other sources of information [14, 15, 22]. However, much of the theory and most of the algorithms are designed to handle one individual in the space at a time. Resident tracking, activity recognition, event prediction, and behavior automation becomes significantly more difficult for multi-agent situations, when there are multiple residents in the environment.

  4. Subject-specific four-dimensional liver motion modeling based on registration of dynamic MRI.

    PubMed

    Noorda, Yolanda H; Bartels, Lambertus W; Viergever, Max A; Pluim, Josien P W

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound treatment of the liver is a promising noninvasive technique for ablation of liver lesions. For the technique to be used in clinical practice, however, the issue of liver motion needs to be addressed. A subject-specific four-dimensional liver motion model is presented that is created based on registration of dynamically acquired magnetic resonance data. This model can be used for predicting the tumor motion trajectory for treatment planning and to indicate the tumor position for treatment guidance. The performance of the model was evaluated on a dynamic scan series that was not used to build the model. The method achieved an average Dice coefficient of 0.93 between the predicted and actual liver profiles and an average vessel misalignment of 3.0 mm. The model performed robustly, with a small variation in the results per subject. The results demonstrate the potential of the model to be used for MRI-guided treatment of liver lesions. Furthermore, the model can possibly be applied in other image-guided therapies, for instance radiotherapy of the liver. PMID:27493981

  5. Angular Motion Estimation Using Dynamic Models in a Gyro-Free Inertial Measurement Unit

    PubMed Central

    Edwan, Ezzaldeen; Knedlik, Stefan; Loffeld, Otmar

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize the results of using dynamic models borrowed from tracking theory in describing the time evolution of the state vector to have an estimate of the angular motion in a gyro-free inertial measurement unit (GF-IMU). The GF-IMU is a special type inertial measurement unit (IMU) that uses only a set of accelerometers in inferring the angular motion. Using distributed accelerometers, we get an angular information vector (AIV) composed of angular acceleration and quadratic angular velocity terms. We use a Kalman filter approach to estimate the angular velocity vector since it is not expressed explicitly within the AIV. The bias parameters inherent in the accelerometers measurements' produce a biased AIV and hence the AIV bias parameters are estimated within an augmented state vector. Using dynamic models, the appended bias parameters of the AIV become observable and hence we can have unbiased angular motion estimate. Moreover, a good model is required to extract the maximum amount of information from the observation. Observability analysis is done to determine the conditions for having an observable state space model. For higher grades of accelerometers and under relatively higher sampling frequency, the error of accelerometer measurements is dominated by the noise error. Consequently, simulations are conducted on two models, one has bias parameters appended in the state space model and the other is a reduced model without bias parameters. PMID:22778586

  6. Investigation of a model vertical motion liquid damper: comparing numerical simulation and experimental evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Chris; Tabatabai, Habib; Buechel, Craig

    2005-05-01

    Tuned Liquid Dampers (TLD) are used to limit horizontal vibrations in structures, and offer practical alternatives to Tuned Mass Dampers (TMD). However, to our knowledge, liquid damping systems have not been developed to reduce vertical vibrations. In this work, we develop a model for a Vertical Motion Liquid Damper (VMLD), idealized as a discrete, two degree of freedom system. One degree of freedom represents the 'target' structure that is to be damped, and the other represents the approximate, one-dimensional motion of a liquid in a U-shaped tube. Internal losses due to the fluid oscillation serve to limit and control motions of the target structure. The U-shaped tube has a flexible joint such that one vertical portion and the horizontal portion of the tube remain fixed, and the remaining vertical portion of the tube is affixed to the vibrating structure, allowing the liquid to become excited. The equations of motion are derived using Lagrange's Equations, and are integrated using Runge-Kutta algorithms that are available in Matlab. An experimental model was built in the laboratory, consisting of a mass attached to the end of a cantilevered beam (corresponding to the target structure), and a U-tube made from PVC pipe. The various damping and stiffness parameters of the system were calibrated independently based on experimental data. Measured data from the experimental model show reasonable agreement with numerical simulations.

  7. Motion, flash, and flicker: a unified spatiotemporal model of perceived edge sharpening.

    PubMed

    Hammett, Stephen T; Georgeson, Mark A; Barbieri-Hesse, Gillian S

    2003-01-01

    Blurred edges appear sharper in motion than when they are stationary. We proposed a model of this motion sharpening that invokes a local, nonlinear contrast transducer function (Hammett et al, 1998 Vision Research 38 2099-2108). Response saturation in the transducer compresses or 'clips' the input spatial waveform, rendering the edges as sharper. To explain the increasing distortion of drifting edges at higher speeds, the degree of nonlinearity must increase with speed or temporal frequency. A dynamic contrast gain control before the transducer can account for both the speed dependence and approximate contrast invariance of motion sharpening (Hammett et al, 2003 Vision Research, in press). We show here that this model also predicts perceived sharpening of briefly flashed and flickering edges, and we show that the model can account fairly well for experimental data from all three modes of presentation (motion, flash, and flicker). At moderate durations and lower temporal frequencies the gain control attenuates the input signal, thus protecting it from later compression by the transducer. The gain control is somewhat sluggish, and so it suffers both a slow onset, and loss of power at high temporal frequencies. Consequently, brief presentations and high temporal frequencies of drift and flicker are less protected from distortion, and show greater perceptual sharpening. PMID:14700257

  8. Sensory vestibular contributions to constructing internal models of self-motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Andrea M.; Shaikh, Aasef G.; Angelaki, Dora E.

    2005-09-01

    The ability to navigate in the world and execute appropriate behavioral and motor responses depends critically on our capacity to construct an accurate internal representation of our current motion and orientation in space. Vestibular sensory signals are among those that may make an essential contribution to the construction of such 'internal models'. Movement in a gravitational environment represents a situation where the construction of internal models becomes particularly important because the otolith organs, like any linear accelerometer, sense inertial and gravitational accelerations equivalently. Otolith afferents thus provide inherently ambiguous motion information, as they respond identically to translation and head reorientation relative to gravity. Resolution of this ambiguity requires the nonlinear integration of linear acceleration and angular velocity cues, as predicted by the physical equations of motion. Here, we summarize evidence that during translations and tilts from upright the firing rates of brainstem and cerebellar neurons encode a combination of dynamically processed semicircular canal and otolith signals appropriate to construct an internal model representation of the computations required for inertial motion detection.

  9. A model to simulate the mastication motion at the temporomandibular joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villamil, Marta B.; Nedel, Luciana P.; Freitas, Carla M. D. S.; Maciel, Anderson

    2005-04-01

    The understanding of the mastication system motion is essential to maxillofacial surgeons and dentists in the procedures concerning jaw and teeth corrections. The temporomandibular joint (TMJ), despite its complexity, is one of the most frequently used joints of the human body. The incidence of a great number of injuries in this joint is influenced not only by its regular use during the mastication, but also by the strong forces applied by the muscles and the wide range of movements it is capable to perform. In this work, we propose the development of a jaw simulator capable of reproducing the complete mastication movement. Our jaw simulator is basically composed by three triangle meshes representing the 3D model of the cranium, mandible and teeth; and an anatomically-based joint model conceived to represent the TMJ motion. The polygonal meshes describing the bones and teeth are obtained from CT images and the jaw motion is simulated using the joint model guided by a 3D motion curve obtained from the composition of the standard 2D curves available in the medical literature. The scale, height and width of these original curves are modified to simulate different kind and size of food and to represent the movements" variability depending on patient morphology (teeth, bones, joints and muscles). The evaluation of preliminary results involved the comparison of a dynamic MRI of a healthy person with the respective simulation.

  10. Wave motion on the surface of the human tympanic membrane: Holographic measurement and modeling analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Hamade, Mohamad; Merchant, Saumil N.; Rosowski, John J.; Harrington, Ellery; Furlong, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    Sound-induced motions of the surface of the tympanic membrane (TM) were measured using stroboscopic holography in cadaveric human temporal bones at frequencies between 0.2 and 18 kHz. The results are consistent with the combination of standing-wave-like modal motions and traveling-wave-like motions on the TM surface. The holographic techniques also quantified sound-induced displacements of the umbo of the malleus, as well as volume velocity of the TM. These measurements were combined with sound-pressure measurements near the TM to compute middle-ear input impedance and power reflectance at the TM. The results are generally consistent with other published data. A phenomenological model that behaved qualitatively like the data was used to quantify the relative magnitude and spatial frequencies of the modal and traveling-wave-like displacement components on the TM surface. This model suggests the modal magnitudes are generally larger than those of the putative traveling waves, and the computed wave speeds are much slower than wave speeds predicted by estimates of middle-ear delay. While the data are inconsistent with simple modal displacements of the TM, an alternate model based on the combination of modal motions in a lossy membrane can also explain these measurements without invoking traveling waves. PMID:23363110

  11. AgMIP Training in Multiple Crop Models and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boote, Kenneth J.; Porter, Cheryl H.; Hargreaves, John; Hoogenboom, Gerrit; Thornburn, Peter; Mutter, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) has the goal of using multiple crop models to evaluate climate impacts on agricultural production and food security in developed and developing countries. There are several major limitations that must be overcome to achieve this goal, including the need to train AgMIP regional research team (RRT) crop modelers to use models other than the ones they are currently familiar with, plus the need to harmonize and interconvert the disparate input file formats used for the various models. Two activities were followed to address these shortcomings among AgMIP RRTs to enable them to use multiple models to evaluate climate impacts on crop production and food security. We designed and conducted courses in which participants trained on two different sets of crop models, with emphasis on the model of least experience. In a second activity, the AgMIP IT group created templates for inputting data on soils, management, weather, and crops into AgMIP harmonized databases, and developed translation tools for converting the harmonized data into files that are ready for multiple crop model simulations. The strategies for creating and conducting the multi-model course and developing entry and translation tools are reviewed in this chapter.

  12. A Simulation Model for Local Harmonic Motion Monitoring of Focused Ultrasound Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Heikkilae, Janne; Curiel, Laura; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2009-04-14

    A computational model for local harmonic motion (LHM) imaging-based monitoring of high-intensity focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) is presented. LMH technique is based on a focused ultrasound radiation force excitation, which induces local mechanical vibrations at the focal region. These pulse-echo imaged vibrations are then used to estimate the mechanical properties of the sonication region. LHM has been proven to be feasible for FUS monitoring because changes in the material properties during the coagulation affect the measured displacements. The presented model includes separate models to simulate acoustic fields, sonication induced temperature elevation and mechanical vibrations, and pulse-echo imaging of the induced motions. These simulation models are based on Rayleigh integral, finite element, and spatial impulse response methods. Simulated temperature rise and vibration amplitudes have been compared with in vivo rabbit experiments with noninvasive MRI thermometry.

  13. Amoeba-like motion of an oil droplet. Chemical model of self-motile organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumino, Y.; Yoshikawa, K.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate our recent attempt to construct a chemical model system of amoeboid motion. The system is intended to mimic biological motility based on the generation and collapse of an elastic aggregate; it is composed of oil, water, and surfactants. In this chemical system, the oil-water interface shows extension and retreat of spherical extrusions accompanied by the generation of aggregate on the interface. This instability of the oil-water interface can cause autonomous splitting and motion of a floating oil droplet. The current mathematical model based on the generation of a passive elastic gel is explained, as well as the discrepancy between the model and the experiments. We further describe recently observed microscopic characteristics of the aggregate formation process that might cause the interfacial instability. Finally, we discuss the disadvantage of a chemical model system compared with active colloid and in vitro biological systems, and also mention its potential advantages.

  14. Integration of MATLAB Simulink(Registered Trademark) Models with the Vertical Motion Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Emily K.; Vuong, Nghia D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the integration of MATLAB Simulink(Registered TradeMark) models into the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) at NASA Ames Research Center. The VMS is a high-fidelity, large motion flight simulator that is capable of simulating a variety of aerospace vehicles. Integrating MATLAB Simulink models into the VMS needed to retain the development flexibility of the MATLAB environment and allow rapid deployment of model changes. The process developed at the VMS was used successfully in a number of recent simulation experiments. This accomplishment demonstrated that the model integrity was preserved, while working within the hard real-time run environment of the VMS architecture, and maintaining the unique flexibility of the VMS to meet diverse research requirements.

  15. Calculating the Probability of Strong Ground Motions Using 3D Seismic Waveform Modeling - SCEC CyberShake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, N.; Callaghan, S.; Graves, R.; Mehta, G.; Zhao, L.; Deelman, E.; Jordan, T. H.; Kesselman, C.; Okaya, D.; Cui, Y.; Field, E.; Gupta, V.; Vahi, K.; Maechling, P. J.

    2006-12-01

    Researchers from the SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME) project are utilizing the CyberShake computational platform and a distributed high performance computing environment that includes USC High Performance Computer Center and the NSF TeraGrid facilities to calculate physics-based probabilistic seismic hazard curves for several sites in the Southern California area. Traditionally, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is conducted using intensity measure relationships based on empirical attenuation relationships. However, a more physics-based approach using waveform modeling could lead to significant improvements in seismic hazard analysis. Members of the SCEC/CME Project have integrated leading-edge PSHA software tools, SCEC-developed geophysical models, validated anelastic wave modeling software, and state-of-the-art computational technologies on the TeraGrid to calculate probabilistic seismic hazard curves using 3D waveform-based modeling. The CyberShake calculations for a single probablistic seismic hazard curve require tens of thousands of CPU hours and multiple terabytes of disk storage. The CyberShake workflows are run on high performance computing systems including multiple TeraGrid sites (currently SDSC and NCSA), and the USC Center for High Performance Computing and Communications. To manage the extensive job scheduling and data requirements, CyberShake utilizes a grid-based scientific workflow system based on the Virtual Data System (VDS), the Pegasus meta-scheduler system, and the Globus toolkit. Probabilistic seismic hazard curves for spectral acceleration at 3.0 seconds have been produced for eleven sites in the Southern California region, including rock and basin sites. At low ground motion levels, there is little difference between the CyberShake and attenuation relationship curves. At higher ground motion (lower probability) levels, the curves are similar for some sites (downtown LA, I-5/SR-14 interchange) but different for

  16. Testing the multiple in the multiple read-out model of visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    De Moor, Wendy; Verguts, Tom; Brysbaert, Marc

    2005-11-01

    This study provided a test of the multiple criteria concept used for lexical decision, as implemented in J. Grainger and A. M. Jacobs's (1996) multiple read-out model. This account predicts more inhibition (or less facilitation) from a masked neighbor when accuracy is stressed more but more facilitation (or less inhibition) when the speed of responding is emphasized more. The authors tested these predictions by stressing accuracy (Experiment 1) and response speed (Experiment 2). The results of Experiment 1 showed a stronger neighbor-inhibition effect in the stress-on-accuracy condition than in the control condition. The results of Experiment 2 showed facilitation because of the neighbor prime in the stress-on-speed condition relative to the control condition. These results corroborate the multiple criteria account.

  17. From deep TLS validation to ensembles of atomic models built from elemental motions. Addenda and corrigendum

    PubMed Central

    Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V.; Van Benschoten, Andrew H.; Fraser, James S.; Adams, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Researcher feedback has indicated that in Urzhumtsev et al. [(2015) Acta Cryst. D71, 1668–1683] clarification of key parts of the algorithm for interpretation of TLS matrices in terms of elemental atomic motions and corresponding ensembles of atomic models is required. Also, it has been brought to the attention of the authors that the incorrect PDB code was reported for one of test models. These issues are addressed in this article. PMID:27599739

  18. Modeling Errors in Daily Precipitation Measurements: Additive or Multiplicative?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Yudong; Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Tang, Ling; Sapiano, Matthew; Maggioni, Viviana; Wu, Huan

    2013-01-01

    The definition and quantification of uncertainty depend on the error model used. For uncertainties in precipitation measurements, two types of error models have been widely adopted: the additive error model and the multiplicative error model. This leads to incompatible specifications of uncertainties and impedes intercomparison and application.In this letter, we assess the suitability of both models for satellite-based daily precipitation measurements in an effort to clarify the uncertainty representation. Three criteria were employed to evaluate the applicability of either model: (1) better separation of the systematic and random errors; (2) applicability to the large range of variability in daily precipitation; and (3) better predictive skills. It is found that the multiplicative error model is a much better choice under all three criteria. It extracted the systematic errors more cleanly, was more consistent with the large variability of precipitation measurements, and produced superior predictions of the error characteristics. The additive error model had several weaknesses, such as non constant variance resulting from systematic errors leaking into random errors, and the lack of prediction capability. Therefore, the multiplicative error model is a better choice.

  19. Functional Regression Models for Epistasis Analysis of Multiple Quantitative Traits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Futao; Xie, Dan; Liang, Meimei; Xiong, Momiao

    2016-04-01

    To date, most genetic analyses of phenotypes have focused on analyzing single traits or analyzing each phenotype independently. However, joint epistasis analysis of multiple complementary traits will increase statistical power and improve our understanding of the complicated genetic structure of the complex diseases. Despite their importance in uncovering the genetic structure of complex traits, the statistical methods for identifying epistasis in multiple phenotypes remains fundamentally unexplored. To fill this gap, we formulate a test for interaction between two genes in multiple quantitative trait analysis as a multiple functional regression (MFRG) in which the genotype functions (genetic variant profiles) are defined as a function of the genomic position of the genetic variants. We use large-scale simulations to calculate Type I error rates for testing interaction between two genes with multiple phenotypes and to compare the power with multivariate pairwise interaction analysis and single trait interaction analysis by a single variate functional regression model. To further evaluate performance, the MFRG for epistasis analysis is applied to five phenotypes of exome sequence data from the NHLBI's Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) to detect pleiotropic epistasis. A total of 267 pairs of genes that formed a genetic interaction network showed significant evidence of epistasis influencing five traits. The results demonstrate that the joint interaction analysis of multiple phenotypes has a much higher power to detect interaction than the interaction analysis of a single trait and may open a new direction to fully uncovering the genetic structure of multiple phenotypes.

  20. Functional Regression Models for Epistasis Analysis of Multiple Quantitative Traits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Futao; Xie, Dan; Liang, Meimei; Xiong, Momiao

    2016-04-01

    To date, most genetic analyses of phenotypes have focused on analyzing single traits or analyzing each phenotype independently. However, joint epistasis analysis of multiple complementary traits will increase statistical power and improve our understanding of the complicated genetic structure of the complex diseases. Despite their importance in uncovering the genetic structure of complex traits, the statistical methods for identifying epistasis in multiple phenotypes remains fundamentally unexplored. To fill this gap, we formulate a test for interaction between two genes in multiple quantitative trait analysis as a multiple functional regression (MFRG) in which the genotype functions (genetic variant profiles) are defined as a function of the genomic position of the genetic variants. We use large-scale simulations to calculate Type I error rates for testing interaction between two genes with multiple phenotypes and to compare the power with multivariate pairwise interaction analysis and single trait interaction analysis by a single variate functional regression model. To further evaluate performance, the MFRG for epistasis analysis is applied to five phenotypes of exome sequence data from the NHLBI's Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) to detect pleiotropic epistasis. A total of 267 pairs of genes that formed a genetic interaction network showed significant evidence of epistasis influencing five traits. The results demonstrate that the joint interaction analysis of multiple phenotypes has a much higher power to detect interaction than the interaction analysis of a single trait and may open a new direction to fully uncovering the genetic structure of multiple phenotypes. PMID:27104857

  1. Long-term dynamics beyond Neptune: secular models to study the regular motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saillenfest, Melaine; Fouchard, Marc; Tommei, Giacomo; Valsecchi, Giovanni B.

    2016-06-01

    Two semi-analytical one-degree-of-freedom secular models are presented for the motion of small bodies beyond Neptune. A special attention is given to trajectories entirely exterior to the planetary orbits. The first one is the well-known non-resonant model of Kozai (Astron J 67:591, 1962) adapted to the transneptunian region. Contrary to previous papers, the dynamics is fully characterized with respect to the fixed parameters. A maximum perihelion excursion possible of 16.4 AU is determined. The second model handles the occurrence of a mean-motion resonance with one of the planets. In that case, the one-degree-of-freedom integrable approximation is obtained by postulating the adiabatic invariance, and is much more general and accurate than previous secular models found in the literature. It brings out in a plain way the possibility of perihelion oscillations with a very high amplitude. Such a model could thus be used in future studies to deeper explore that kind of motion. For complex resonant orbits (especially of type 1 : k), a segmented secular description is necessary since the trajectories are only "integrable by parts". The two models are applied to the Solar System but the notations are kept general so that it could be used for any quasi-circular and coplanar planetary system.

  2. The importance of being equivalent: Newton's two models of one-body motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourciau, Bruce

    2004-05-01

    As an undergraduate at Cambridge, Newton entered into his "Waste Book" an assumption that we have named the Equivalence Assumption (The Younger): "If a body move progressively in some crooked line [about a center of motion] ..., [then this] crooked line may bee conceived to consist of an infinite number of streight lines. Or else in any point of the croked line the motion may bee conceived to be on in the tangent". In this assumption, Newton somewhat imprecisely describes two mathematical models, a "polygonal limit model" and a "tangent deflected model", for "one-body motion", that is, for the motion of a "body in orbit about a fixed center", and then claims that these two models are equivalent. In the first part of this paper, we study the Principia to determine how the elder Newton would more carefully describe the polygonal limit and tangent deflected models. From these more careful descriptions, we then create Equivalence Assumption (The Elder), a precise interpretation of Equivalence Assumption (The Younger) as it might have been restated by Newton, after say 1687. We then review certain portions of the Waste Book and the Principia to make the case that, although Newton never restates nor even alludes to the Equivalence Assumption after his youthful Waste Book entry, still the polygonal limit and tangent deflected models, as well as an unspoken belief in their equivalence, infuse Newton's work on orbital motion. In particular, we show that the persuasiveness of the argument for the Area Property in Proposition 1 of the Principia depends crucially on the validity of Equivalence Assumption (The Elder). After this case is made, we present the mathematical analysis required to establish the validity of the Equivalence Assumption (The Elder). Finally, to illustrate the fundamental nature of the resulting theorem, the Equivalence Theorem as we call it, we present three significant applications: we use the Equivalence Theorem first to clarify and resolve questions

  3. Reevaluation of plate motion models based on hotspot tracks in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans

    SciTech Connect

    Baksi, A.K.

    1999-01-01

    Plate motion models based on hotspot tracks in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans predict minimal movement (less than a few millimeters per year) between these hotspots and their counterparts in the Pacific Ocean for the past {approximately}100 m.yr., whereas plate circuit exercises indicate relative motions of {approximately}20 mm/yr. Hotspot-based models also suggest that the Rajmahal Traps, India, were located {approximately}1,000 km away from the Kerguelen hotspot at {approximately}115 Ma, and the Deccan Traps, India, were located a similar distance from the Reunion hotspot at {approximately}65 Ma; this is at odds with conclusions derived from paleomagnetism, plate circuits, and geochemical parameters that suggest a genetic link between flood basalt provinces in India and hotspots in the Indian Ocean. These divergent views may be explained by plume action {approximately}1,000 km from its center or errors in the hotspot motion models. The latter hypothesis is scrutinized in this article by examination of the radiometric ages for hotspot tracks in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The {sup 40}/{sup 39}Ar step-heating data for rocks defining the tracks of the Reunion and Kerguelen hotspots in the Indian Ocean and the Great Metero and Tristan da Cunha hotspots in the Atlantic Ocean are critically reexamined. Of {approximately}35 such ages utilized for deriving plate motion models for the past 130 m.yr., at best, only three ({approximately}32, {approximately}50, and {approximately}52 Ma) in the Indian Ocean and one ({approximately}65 Ma) for the Atlantic Ocean may be treated as crystallization ages. Conclusions based on hotspot track modeling for Late Cretaceous to Eocene time are suspect, and those for the Early to Late Cretaceous period are untenable. In the absence of precise age data for the tracks of hotspots in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, and inconsistent age progressions noted within a single volcanic chain, plate circuit models serve as the superior technique

  4. Transient pressure changes in the vertebral canal during whiplash motion--A hydrodynamic modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hua-Dong; Svensson, Mats Y; Nilsson, Håkan

    2016-02-01

    In vehicle collisions, the occupant's torso is accelerated in a given direction while the unsupported head tends to lag behind. This mechanism results in whiplash motion to the neck. In whiplash experiments conducted for animals, pressure transients have been recorded in the spinal canal. It was hypothesized that the transients caused dorsal root ganglion dysfunction. Neck motion introduces volume changes inside the vertebral canal. The changes require an adaptation which is likely achieved by redistribution of blood volume in the internal vertebral venous plexus (IVVP). Pressure transients then arise from the rapid redistribution. The present study aimed to explore the hypothesis theoretically and analytically. Further, the objectives were to quantify the effect of the neck motion on the pressure generation and to identify the physical factors involved. We developed a hydrodynamic system of tubes that represent the IVVP and its lateral intervertebral vein connections. An analytical model was developed for an anatomical geometrical relation that the venous blood volume changes with respect to the vertebral angular displacement. This model was adopted in the hydrodynamic tube system so that the system can predict the pressure transients on the basis of the neck vertebral motion data from a whiplash experiment. The predicted pressure transients were in good agreement with the earlier experimental data. A parametric study was conducted and showed that the system can be used to assess the influences of anatomical geometrical properties and vehicle collision severity on the pressure generation.

  5. Motion corrected LV quantification based on 3D modelling for improved functional assessment in cardiac MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, Y. M.; McLaughlin, R. A.; Chan, B. T.; Aziz, Y. F. Abdul; Chee, K. H.; Ung, N. M.; Tan, L. K.; Lai, K. W.; Ng, S.; Lim, E.

    2015-04-01

    Cine MRI is a clinical reference standard for the quantitative assessment of cardiac function, but reproducibility is confounded by motion artefacts. We explore the feasibility of a motion corrected 3D left ventricle (LV) quantification method, incorporating multislice image registration into the 3D model reconstruction, to improve reproducibility of 3D LV functional quantification. Multi-breath-hold short-axis and radial long-axis images were acquired from 10 patients and 10 healthy subjects. The proposed framework reduced misalignment between slices to subpixel accuracy (2.88 to 1.21 mm), and improved interstudy reproducibility for 5 important clinical functional measures, i.e. end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, ejection fraction, myocardial mass and 3D-sphericity index, as reflected in a reduction in the sample size required to detect statistically significant cardiac changes: a reduction of 21-66%. Our investigation on the optimum registration parameters, including both cardiac time frames and number of long-axis (LA) slices, suggested that a single time frame is adequate for motion correction whereas integrating more LA slices can improve registration and model reconstruction accuracy for improved functional quantification especially on datasets with severe motion artefacts.

  6. Transient pressure changes in the vertebral canal during whiplash motion--A hydrodynamic modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hua-Dong; Svensson, Mats Y; Nilsson, Håkan

    2016-02-01

    In vehicle collisions, the occupant's torso is accelerated in a given direction while the unsupported head tends to lag behind. This mechanism results in whiplash motion to the neck. In whiplash experiments conducted for animals, pressure transients have been recorded in the spinal canal. It was hypothesized that the transients caused dorsal root ganglion dysfunction. Neck motion introduces volume changes inside the vertebral canal. The changes require an adaptation which is likely achieved by redistribution of blood volume in the internal vertebral venous plexus (IVVP). Pressure transients then arise from the rapid redistribution. The present study aimed to explore the hypothesis theoretically and analytically. Further, the objectives were to quantify the effect of the neck motion on the pressure generation and to identify the physical factors involved. We developed a hydrodynamic system of tubes that represent the IVVP and its lateral intervertebral vein connections. An analytical model was developed for an anatomical geometrical relation that the venous blood volume changes with respect to the vertebral angular displacement. This model was adopted in the hydrodynamic tube system so that the system can predict the pressure transients on the basis of the neck vertebral motion data from a whiplash experiment. The predicted pressure transients were in good agreement with the earlier experimental data. A parametric study was conducted and showed that the system can be used to assess the influences of anatomical geometrical properties and vehicle collision severity on the pressure generation. PMID:26827171

  7. Motion-adaptive model-assisted compatible coding with spatiotemporal scalability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, JaeBeom; Eleftheriadis, Alexandros

    1997-01-01

    We introduce the concept of motion adaptive spatio-temporal model-assisted compatible (MA-STMAC) coding, a technique to selectively encode areas of different importance to the human eye in terms of space and time in moving images with the consideration of object motion. PRevious STMAC was proposed base don the fact that human 'eye contact' and 'lip synchronization' are very important in person-to-person communication. Several areas including the eyes and lips need different types of quality, since different areas have different perceptual significance to human observers. The approach provides a better rate-distortion tradeoff than conventional image coding techniques base don MPEG-1, MPEG- 2, H.261, as well as H.263. STMAC coding is applied on top of an encoder, taking full advantage of its core design. Model motion tracking in our previous STMAC approach was not automatic. The proposed MA-STMAC coding considers the motion of the human face within the STMAC concept using automatic area detection. Experimental results are given using ITU-T H.263, addressing very low bit-rate compression.

  8. Motion of tympanic membrane in guinea pig otitis media model measured by scanning laser Doppler vibrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuelin; Guan, Xiying; Pineda, Mario; Gan, Rong Z

    2016-09-01

    Otitis media (OM) is an inflammatory or infectious disease of the middle ear. Acute otitis media (AOM) and otitis media with effusion (OME) are the two major types of OM. However, the tympanic membrane (TM) motion differences induced by AOM and OME have not been quantified in animal models in the literature. In this study, the guinea pig AOM and OME models were created by transbullar injection of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3 and lipopolysaccharide, respectively. To explore the effects of OM on the entire TM vibration, the measurements of full-field TM motions were performed in the AOM, OME and untreated control ears by using scanning laser Doppler vibrometry (SLDV). The results showed that both AOM and OME generally reduced the displacement peak and produced the traveling-wave-like motions at relatively low frequencies. Compared with the normal ear, OME resulted in a significant change of the TM displacement mainly in the inferior portion of the TM, and AOM significantly affected the surface motion across four quadrants. The SLDV measurements provide more insight into sound-induced TM vibration in diseased ears. PMID:27490002

  9. Spatially-constrained probability distribution model of incoherent motion (SPIM) for abdominal diffusion-weighted MRI.

    PubMed

    Kurugol, Sila; Freiman, Moti; Afacan, Onur; Perez-Rossello, Jeannette M; Callahan, Michael J; Warfield, Simon K

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DW-MRI) of the body enables characterization of the tissue microenvironment by measuring variations in the mobility of water molecules. The diffusion signal decay model parameters are increasingly used to evaluate various diseases of abdominal organs such as the liver and spleen. However, previous signal decay models (i.e., mono-exponential, bi-exponential intra-voxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and stretched exponential models) only provide insight into the average of the distribution of the signal decay rather than explicitly describe the entire range of diffusion scales. In this work, we propose a probability distribution model of incoherent motion that uses a mixture of Gamma distributions to fully characterize the multi-scale nature of diffusion within a voxel. Further, we improve the robustness of the distribution parameter estimates by integrating spatial homogeneity prior into the probability distribution model of incoherent motion (SPIM) and by using the fusion bootstrap solver (FBM) to estimate the model parameters. We evaluated the improvement in quantitative DW-MRI analysis achieved with the SPIM model in terms of accuracy, precision and reproducibility of parameter estimation in both simulated data and in 68 abdominal in-vivo DW-MRIs. Our results show that the SPIM model not only substantially reduced parameter estimation errors by up to 26%; it also significantly improved the robustness of the parameter estimates (paired Student's t-test, p < 0.0001) by reducing the coefficient of variation (CV) of estimated parameters compared to those produced by previous models. In addition, the SPIM model improves the parameter estimates reproducibility for both intra- (up to 47%) and inter-session (up to 30%) estimates compared to those generated by previous models. Thus, the SPIM model has the potential to improve accuracy, precision and robustness of quantitative abdominal DW-MRI analysis for clinical applications. PMID

  10. Blind watermark algorithm on 3D motion model based on wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Hu; Zhai, Lang

    2013-12-01

    With the continuous development of 3D vision technology, digital watermark technology, as the best choice for copyright protection, has fused with it gradually. This paper proposed a blind watermark plan of 3D motion model based on wavelet transform, and made it loaded into the Vega real-time visual simulation system. Firstly, put 3D model into affine transform, and take the distance from the center of gravity to the vertex of 3D object in order to generate a one-dimensional discrete signal; then make this signal into wavelet transform to change its frequency coefficients and embed watermark, finally generate 3D motion model with watermarking. In fixed affine space, achieve the robustness in translation, revolving and proportion transforms. The results show that this approach has better performances not only in robustness, but also in watermark- invisibility.

  11. Simulation of single microorganism motion in fluid based on granular model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viridi, S.; Nuraini, N.

    2016-04-01

    Microorganism model for simulating its motion is proposed in this work. It consists of granular particles which can interact to each other through linear spring mimicking microorganism muscles, which is simpler than other model. As a part of the organism organ is moving, while the other remains at its position, it will push the surrounding fluid through Stoke's force and as reaction the fluid pushes back the microorganism. Contracting force is used to change the distance between two points in the organ. Gravity influence is simply neglected in this work. All the considered forces are used to get motion parameters of organism through molecular dynamics method. It is observed that the use of contracting (push-pull) organ constructs slightly more effective model than shrink- and swell-organs as previously investigated, if weighted effectiveness formula is used as function of number of considered forces and involved particles.

  12. Sensitivity of a mesoscale model to initial specification of relative humidity, liquid water and vertical motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalb, M. W.; Perkey, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of synoptic scale initial conditions on the accuracy of mesoscale precipitation modeling is investigated. Attention is focused on the relative importance of the water vapor, cloud water, rain water, and vertical motion, with the analysis carried out using the Limited Area Mesoscale Prediction System (LAMPS). The fully moist primitive equation model has 15 levels and a terrain-following sigma coordinate system. A K-theory approach was implemented to model the planetary boundary layer. A total of 15 sensitivity simulations were run to investigate the effects of the synoptic initial conditions of the four atmospheric variables. The absence of synoptic cloud and rain water amounts in the initialization caused a 2 hr delay in the onset of precipitation. The delay was increased if synoptic-scale vertical motion was used instead of mesoscale values. Both the delays and a choice of a smoothed moisture field resulted in underestimations of the total rainfall.

  13. Comparison of multiplicative heterogeneous variance adjustment models for genetic evaluations.

    PubMed

    Márkus, Sz; Mäntysaari, E A; Strandén, I; Eriksson, J-Å; Lidauer, M H

    2014-06-01

    Two heterogeneous variance adjustment methods and two variance models were compared in a simulation study. The method used for heterogeneous variance adjustment in the Nordic test-day model, which is a multiplicative method based on Meuwissen (J. Dairy Sci., 79, 1996, 310), was compared with a restricted multiplicative method where the fixed effects were not scaled. Both methods were tested with two different variance models, one with a herd-year and the other with a herd-year-month random effect. The simulation study was built on two field data sets from Swedish Red dairy cattle herds. For both data sets, 200 herds with test-day observations over a 12-year period were sampled. For one data set, herds were sampled randomly, while for the other, each herd was required to have at least 10 first-calving cows per year. The simulations supported the applicability of both methods and models, but the multiplicative mixed model was more sensitive in the case of small strata sizes. Estimation of variance components for the variance models resulted in different parameter estimates, depending on the applied heterogeneous variance adjustment method and variance model combination. Our analyses showed that the assumption of a first-order autoregressive correlation structure between random-effect levels is reasonable when within-herd heterogeneity is modelled by year classes, but less appropriate for within-herd heterogeneity by month classes. Of the studied alternatives, the multiplicative method and a variance model with a random herd-year effect were found most suitable for the Nordic test-day model for dairy cattle evaluation.

  14. In-room breathing motion estimation from limited projection views using a sliding deformation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmon, V.; Vandemeulebroucke, J.; Pinho, R.; Vila Oliva, M.; Sarrut, D.; Rit, S.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To estimate in-room breathing motion from a limited number of 2D cone-beam (CB) projection images by registering them to a phase of the 4D planning CT. Methods: Breathing motion was modelled using a piecewise continuous B-spline representation [1], allowing to preserve the sliding along the thoracic wall while limiting the degrees of freedom. The deformed target 3D image was subsequently used to generate Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs (DRR). The Normalized Correlation Coefficient (NCC) between the measured projection images and the DRR was computed in the 2D projection space. However, the partial derivatives of the NCC relative to the transform parameters were backprojected into the 3D space, avoiding the projection of the transform Jacobian matrix which is computationally intractable [2]. Results: The method was quantitatively evaluated on 16 lung cancer patients. 40 CB projection images were simulated using the end-exhale phase of the 4D planning CT and the geometric parameters of a clinical CB protocol. The end-inhale phase was deformed to match these simulated projections. The Target Registration Error (TRE) decreased from 8.8 mm to 2.0 mm while the TRE obtained from the 3D/3D registration of the reconstructed CBCT was significantly worse (2.6 mm), due to view aliasing artefacts. We also provide the motion compensated image reconstructed from a real CB acquisition showing the quality improvement brought by the in-room deformation model compared to the planning motion model. Conclusions: We have developed a 2D/3D deformable registration algorithm that enables in-room breathing motion estimation from cone-beam projection images.

  15. Experimental and modeling study of human tympanic membrane motion in the presence of middle ear liquid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangming; Guan, Xiying; Nakmali, Don; Palan, Vikrant; Pineda, Mario; Gan, Rong Z

    2014-12-01

    Vibration of the tympanic membrane (TM) has been measured at the umbo using laser Doppler vibrometry and analyzed with finite element (FE) models of the human ear. Recently, full-field TM surface motion has been reported using scanning laser Doppler vibrometry, holographic interferometry, and optical coherence tomography. Technologies for imaging human TM motion have the potential to lead to using a dedicated clinical diagnosis tool for identification of middle ear diseases. However, the effect of middle ear fluid (liquid) on TM surface motion is still not clear. In this study, a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer was used to measure the full-field surface motion of the TM from four human temporal bones. TM displacements were measured under normal and disease-mimicking conditions with different middle ear liquid levels over frequencies ranging from 0.2 to 8 kHz. An FE model of the human ear, including the ear canal, middle ear, and spiral cochlea was used to simulate the motion of the TM in normal and disease-mimicking conditions. The results from both experiments and FE model show that a simple deflection shape with one or two major displacement peak regions of the TM in normal ear was observed at low frequencies (1 kHz and below) while complicated ring-like pattern of the deflection shapes appeared at higher frequencies (4 kHz and above). The liquid in middle ear mainly affected TM deflection shapes at the frequencies higher than 1 kHz.

  16. Toward in vivo lung's tissue incompressibility characterization for tumor motion modeling in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shirzadi, Zahra; Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Samani, Abbas

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: A novel technique is proposed to characterize lung tissue incompressibility variation during respiration. Estimating lung tissue incompressibility parameter variations resulting from air content variation throughout respiration is critical for computer assisted tumor motion tracking. Continuous tumor motion is a major challenge in lung cancer radiotherapy, especially with external beam radiotherapy. If not accounted for, this motion may lead to areas of radiation overdosage for normal tissue. Given the unavailability of imaging modality that can be used effectively for real-time lung tumor tracking, computer assisted approach based on tissue deformation estimation can be a good alternative. This approach involves lung biomechanical model where its fidelity depends on input tissue properties. This investigation shows that considering variable tissue incompressibility parameter is very important for predicting tumor motion accurately, hence improving the lung radiotherapy outcome. Methods: First, an in silico lung phantom study was conducted to demonstrate the importance of employing variable Poisson's ratio for tumor motion predication. After it was established that modeling this variability is critical for accurate tumor motion prediction, an optimization based technique was developed to estimate lung tissue Poisson's ratio as a function of respiration cycle time. In this technique, the Poisson's ratio and lung pressure value were varied systematically until optimal values were obtained, leading to maximum similarity between acquired and simulated 4D CT lung images. This technique was applied in an ex vivo porcine lung study where simulated images were constructed using the end exhale CT image and deformation fields obtained from the lung's FE modeling of each respiration time increment. To model the tissue, linear elastic and Marlow hyperelastic material models in conjunction with variable Poisson's ratio were used. Results: The phantom study showed that

  17. Fractional Brownian Motion with Stochastic Variance:. Modeling Absolute Returns in STOCK Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, H. E.; Porto, M.

    We discuss a model for simulating a long-time memory in time series characterized in addition by a stochastic variance. The model is based on a combination of fractional Brownian motion (FBM) concepts, for dealing with the long-time memory, with an autoregressive scheme with conditional heteroskedasticity (ARCH), responsible for the stochastic variance of the series, and is denoted as FBMARCH. Unlike well-known fractionally integrated autoregressive models, FBMARCH admits finite second moments. The resulting probability distribution functions have power-law tails with exponents similar to ARCH models. This idea is applied to the description of long-time autocorrelations of absolute returns ubiquitously observed in stock markets.

  18. Relation of landslides triggered by the Kiholo Bay earthquake to modeled ground motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harp, Edwin L.; Hartzell, Stephen H.; Jibson, Randall W.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Schmitt, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    The 2006 Kiholo Bay, Hawaii, earthquake triggered high concentrations of rock falls and slides in the steep canyons of the Kohala Mountains along the north coast of Hawaii. Within these mountains and canyons a complex distribution of landslides was triggered by the earthquake shaking. In parts of the area, landslides were preferentially located on east‐facing slopes, whereas in other parts of the canyons no systematic pattern prevailed with respect to slope aspect or vertical position on the slopes. The geology within the canyons is homogeneous, so we hypothesize that the variable landslide distribution is the result of localized variation in ground shaking; therefore, we used a state‐of‐the‐art, high‐resolution ground‐motion simulation model to see if it could reproduce the landslide‐distribution patterns. We used a 3D finite‐element analysis to model earthquake shaking using a 10 m digital elevation model and slip on a finite‐fault model constructed from teleseismic records of the mainshock. Ground velocity time histories were calculated up to a frequency of 5 Hz. Dynamic shear strain also was calculated and compared with the landslide distribution. Results were mixed for the velocity simulations, with some areas showing correlation of landslide locations with peak modeled ground motions but many other areas showing no such correlation. Results were much improved for the comparison with dynamic shear strain. This suggests that (1) rock falls and slides are possibly triggered by higher frequency ground motions (velocities) than those in our simulations, (2) the ground‐motion velocity model needs more refinement, or (3) dynamic shear strain may be a more fundamental measurement of the decoupling process of slope materials during seismic shaking.

  19. A collaborative scheduling model for the supply-hub with multiple suppliers and multiple manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo; Lv, Fei; Guan, Xu

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates a collaborative scheduling model in the assembly system, wherein multiple suppliers have to deliver their components to the multiple manufacturers under the operation of Supply-Hub. We first develop two different scenarios to examine the impact of Supply-Hub. One is that suppliers and manufacturers make their decisions separately, and the other is that the Supply-Hub makes joint decisions with collaborative scheduling. The results show that our scheduling model with the Supply-Hub is a NP-complete problem, therefore, we propose an auto-adapted differential evolution algorithm to solve this problem. Moreover, we illustrate that the performance of collaborative scheduling by the Supply-Hub is superior to separate decision made by each manufacturer and supplier. Furthermore, we also show that the algorithm proposed has good convergence and reliability, which can be applicable to more complicated supply chain environment.

  20. A collaborative scheduling model for the supply-hub with multiple suppliers and multiple manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo; Lv, Fei; Guan, Xu

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates a collaborative scheduling model in the assembly system, wherein multiple suppliers have to deliver their components to the multiple manufacturers under the operation of Supply-Hub. We first develop two different scenarios to examine the impact of Supply-Hub. One is that suppliers and manufacturers make their decisions separately, and the other is that the Supply-Hub makes joint decisions with collaborative scheduling. The results show that our scheduling model with the Supply-Hub is a NP-complete problem, therefore, we propose an auto-adapted differential evolution algorithm to solve this problem. Moreover, we illustrate that the performance of collaborative scheduling by the Supply-Hub is superior to separate decision made by each manufacturer and supplier. Furthermore, we also show that the algorithm proposed has good convergence and reliability, which can be applicable to more complicated supply chain environment. PMID:24892104

  1. Modeling of an Oil-Free Carbon Dioxide Compressor Using Sanderson-Rocker Arm Motion (S-RAM) Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Kurtulus, Orkan; Groll, Eckhard A.

    2015-08-01

    A simulation model to predict the performance of a prototype CO2 compressor is presented. This prototype compressor employs the Sanderson-Rocker Arm Motion (S-RAM) mechanism, which converts the rotary motion of the shaft into a linear reciprocating motion of the cylinders. The piston stroke can be variable by changing the incline angle between the connecting rod and compressor main shaft centerline. The compressor model is mainly composed of two main sub-models simulating the kinematics of the drive mechanism and the compression process. A valve sub-model is included in the compression process model.

  2. Automated 3D Motion Tracking using Gabor Filter Bank, Robust Point Matching, and Deformable Models

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoxu; Chung, Sohae; Metaxas, Dimitris; Axel, Leon

    2013-01-01

    Tagged Magnetic Resonance Imaging (tagged MRI or tMRI) provides a means of directly and noninvasively displaying the internal motion of the myocardium. Reconstruction of the motion field is needed to quantify important clinical information, e.g., the myocardial strain, and detect regional heart functional loss. In this paper, we present a three-step method for this task. First, we use a Gabor filter bank to detect and locate tag intersections in the image frames, based on local phase analysis. Next, we use an improved version of the Robust Point Matching (RPM) method to sparsely track the motion of the myocardium, by establishing a transformation function and a one-to-one correspondence between grid tag intersections in different image frames. In particular, the RPM helps to minimize the impact on the motion tracking result of: 1) through-plane motion, and 2) relatively large deformation and/or relatively small tag spacing. In the final step, a meshless deformable model is initialized using the transformation function computed by RPM. The model refines the motion tracking and generates a dense displacement map, by deforming under the influence of image information, and is constrained by the displacement magnitude to retain its geometric structure. The 2D displacement maps in short and long axis image planes can be combined to drive a 3D deformable model, using the Moving Least Square method, constrained by the minimization of the residual error at tag intersections. The method has been tested on a numerical phantom, as well as on in vivo heart data from normal volunteers and heart disease patients. The experimental results show that the new method has a good performance on both synthetic and real data. Furthermore, the method has been used in an initial clinical study to assess the differences in myocardial strain distributions between heart disease (left ventricular hypertrophy) patients and the normal control group. The final results show that the proposed method

  3. Double-multiple streamtube model for Darrieus in turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paraschivoiu, I.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical model is proposed for calculating the rotor performance and aerodynamic blade forces for Darrieus wind turbines with curved blades. The method of analysis uses a multiple-streamtube model, divided into two parts: one modeling the upstream half-cycle of the rotor and the other, the downstream half-cycle. The upwind and downwind components of the induced velocities at each level of the rotor were obtained using the principle of two actuator disks in tandem. Variation of the induced velocities in the two parts of the rotor produces larger forces in the upstream zone and smaller forces in the downstream zone. Comparisons of the overall rotor performance with previous methods and field test data show the important improvement obtained with the present model. The calculations were made using the computer code CARDAA developed at IREQ. The double-multiple streamtube model presented has two major advantages: it requires a much shorter computer time than the three-dimensional vortex model and is more accurate than multiple-streamtube model in predicting the aerodynamic blade loads.

  4. A Semiparametric Bayesian Model for Detecting Synchrony Among Multiple Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Shahbaba, Babak; Zhou, Bo; Lan, Shiwei; Ombao, Hernando; Moorman, David; Behseta, Sam

    2015-01-01

    We propose a scalable semiparametric Bayesian model to capture dependencies among multiple neurons by detecting their co-firing (possibly with some lag time) patterns over time. After discretizing time so there is at most one spike at each interval, the resulting sequence of 1’s (spike) and 0’s (silence) for each neuron is modeled using the logistic function of a continuous latent variable with a Gaussian process prior. For multiple neurons, the corresponding marginal distributions are coupled to their joint probability distribution using a parametric copula model. The advantages of our approach are as follows: the nonparametric component (i.e., the Gaussian process model) provides a flexible framework for modeling the underlying firing rates; the parametric component (i.e., the copula model) allows us to make inference regarding both contemporaneous and lagged relationships among neurons; using the copula model, we construct multivariate probabilistic models by separating the modeling of univariate marginal distributions from the modeling of dependence structure among variables; our method is easy to implement using a computationally efficient sampling algorithm that can be easily extended to high dimensional problems. Using simulated data, we show that our approach could correctly capture temporal dependencies in firing rates and identify synchronous neurons. We also apply our model to spike train data obtained from prefrontal cortical areas. PMID:24922500

  5. Multiple endemic states in age-structured SIR epidemic models.

    PubMed

    Franceschetti, Andrea; Pugliese, Andrea; Breda, Dmitri

    2012-07-01

    SIR age-structured models are very often used as a basic model of epidemic spread. Yet, their behaviour, under generic assumptions on contact rates between different age classes, is not completely known, and, in the most detailed analysis so far, Inaba (1990) was able to prove uniqueness of the endemic equilibrium only under a rather restrictive condition. Here, we show an example in the form of a 3x3 contact matrix in which multiple non-trivial steady states exist. This instance of non-uniqueness of positive equilibria differs from most existing ones for epidemic models, since it arises not from a backward transcritical bifurcation at the disease free equilibrium, but through two saddle-node bifurcations of the positive equilibrium. The dynamical behaviour of the model is analysed numerically around the range where multiple endemic equilibria exist; many other features are shown to occur, from coexistence of multiple attractive periodic solutions, some with extremely long period, to quasi-periodic and chaotic attractors. It is also shown that, if the contact rates are in the form of a 2x2 WAIFW matrix, uniqueness of non-trivial steady states always holds, so that 3 is the minimum dimension of the contact matrix to allow for multiple endemic equilibria.

  6. Risk Prediction Models for Other Cancers or Multiple Sites

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing other multiple cancers over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  7. Testing Nested Additive, Multiplicative, and General Multitrait-Multimethod Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coenders, Germa; Saris, Willem E.

    2000-01-01

    Provides alternatives to the definitions of additive and multiplicative method effects in multitrait-multimethod data given by D. Campbell and E. O'Connell (1967). The alternative definitions can be formulated by means of constraints in the parameters of the correlated uniqueness model (H. Marsh, 1989). (SLD)

  8. Testing Different Model Building Procedures Using Multiple Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, Jerome D.

    The stepwise regression method of selecting predictors for computer assisted multiple regression analysis was compared with forward, backward, and best subsets regression, using 16 data sets. The results indicated the stepwise method was preferred because of its practical nature, when the models chosen by different selection methods were similar…

  9. Success on Multiple Choice Examinations: A Model and Workshop Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowering, Elizabeth R.; Wetmore, Ann A.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a theoretical model that identifies the context in which students experience difficulties with complex multiple choice exams (MCE). Provides a structured approach that facilitates the development of critical thinking and metacognitive skills. Discusses a workshop in which participants reported increased knowledge concerning the process…

  10. Item Response Models for Local Dependence among Multiple Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Su, Chi-Ming; Qiu, Xue-Lan

    2014-01-01

    Ratings given to the same item response may have a stronger correlation than those given to different item responses, especially when raters interact with one another before giving ratings. The rater bundle model was developed to account for such local dependence by forming multiple ratings given to an item response as a bundle and assigning…

  11. Rectangular Array Model Supporting Students' Spatial Structuring in Learning Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanty, Nenden Octavarulia; Wijaya, Surya

    2012-01-01

    We examine how rectangular array model can support students' spatial structuring in learning multiplication. To begin, we define what we mean by spatial structuring as the mental operation of constructing an organization or form for an object or set of objects. For that reason, the eggs problem was chosen as the starting point in which the…

  12. A multiple-scale turbulence model for incompressible flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, B. S.; Liou, W. W.; Shih, T. H.

    1993-01-01

    A multiple-scale eddy viscosity model is described in this paper. This model splits the energy spectrum into a high wave number regime and a low wave number regime. Dividing the energy spectrum into multiple regimes simplistically emulates the cascade of energy through the turbulence spectrum. The constraints on the model coefficients are determined by examining decaying turbulence and homogeneous turbulence. A direct link between the partitioned energies and the energy transfer process is established through the coefficients. This new model has been calibrated and tested for boundary-free turbulent shear flows. Calculations of mean and turbulent properties show good agreement with experimental data for two mixing layers, a plane jet and a round jet.

  13. Multiple commodities in statistical microeconomics: Model and market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Yu, Miao; Du, Xin

    2016-11-01

    A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013). In Baaquie et al. (2015), the market behavior of single commodities was analyzed and it was shown that market data provides strong support for the statistical microeconomic description of commodity prices. The case of multiple commodities is studied and a parsimonious generalization of the single commodity model is made for the multiple commodities case. Market data shows that the generalization can accurately model the simultaneous correlation functions of up to four commodities. To accurately model five or more commodities, further terms have to be included in the model. This study shows that the statistical microeconomics approach is a comprehensive and complete formulation of microeconomics, and which is independent to the mainstream formulation of microeconomics.

  14. Modeling multiple infection of cells by viruses: challenges and insights

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Dustin; Wodarz, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    The multiple infection of cells with several copies of a given virus has been demonstrated in experimental systems, and has been subject to previous mathematical modeling approaches. Such models, especially those based on ordinary differential equations, can be characterized by difficulties and pitfalls. One such difficulty arises from what we refer to as multiple infection cascades. That is, such models subdivide the infected cell population into sub-populations that are carry i viruses, and each sub-population can in principle always be further infected to contain i+1 viruses. In order to study the model with numerical simulations, the infection cascade needs to be cut artificially, and this can influence the results. This is shown here in the context of the simplest setting that involves a single, homogeneous virus population. If the viral replication rate is sufficiently fast, then most infected cells will accumulate in the last member of the infection cascade, leading to incorrect numerical results. This can be observed even with relatively long infection cascades, and in this case computational costs associated with a sufficiently long infection cascade can render this approach impractical. We subsequently examine a more complex scenario where two virus types / strains with different fitness are allowed to compete. Again, we find that the length of the infection cascade can have a crucial influence on the results. Competitive exclusion can be observed for shorter infection cascades, while coexistence can be observed for longer infection cascades. More subtly, the length of the infection cascade can influence the equilibrium level of the populations in numerical simulations. Studying the model in a parameter regime where an increase in the infection cascade length does not influence the results, we examine the effect of multiple infection on the outcome of competition. We find that multiple infection can promote coexistence of virus types if there is a degree

  15. Impact of solar radiation pressure modeling on GNSS-derived geocenter motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugentobler, U.; Rodriguez-Solano, C.; Steigenberger, P.; Fritsche, M.

    2012-04-01

    The geocenter motion, i.e., the variations of the Earth's center of mass with respect to a crust-based reference frame, derived from GPS measurements shows apparent displacements at orbit related frequencies. In previous studies, harmonics of the GPS draconitic period (the repeat period of the Sun with respect to. the satellite constellation) have been identified in the Z-component of the geocenter. The acceleration and orbit perturbations caused by solar radiation pressure (SRP) have a strong dependency on the relative position of satellite, Earth and Sun, and therefore they exhibit a long-term draconitic periodicity. Mismodeling of this perturbing acceleration is a potential cause for the observed anomalous frequencies in the geocenter motion. In this study, we compute two multi-year GPS/GLONASS solutions. The first one uses an empirical parameterization of the SRP widely used within the IGS (International GNSS Service), namely the CODE (Center for Orbit Determination in Europe) empirical model. The second one uses a recently developed SRP model based on the physical interaction between solar radiation and satellite, capable of fitting the GNSS tracking data, called adjustable box-wing model. These two multi-year solutions allow studying the impact of solar radiation pressure modeling on the GNSS-derived geocenter motion and indicate the potential for reduction of technique-specific artifacts in the geodetic time series.

  16. Two modes of motion of the alligator lizard cochlea: Measurements and model predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranyosi, A. J.; Freeman, Dennis M.

    2005-09-01

    Measurements of motion of an in vitro preparation of the alligator lizard basilar papilla in response to sound demonstrate elliptical trajectories. These trajectories are consistent with the presence of both a translational and rotational mode of motion. The translational mode is independent of frequency, and the rotational mode has a displacement peak near 5 kHz. These measurements can be explained by a simple mechanical system in which the basilar papilla is supported asymmetrically on the basilar membrane. In a quantitative model, the translational admittance is compliant while the rotational admittance is second order. Best-fit model parameters are consistent with estimates based on anatomy and predict that fluid flow across hair bundles is a primary source of viscous damping. The model predicts that the rotational mode contributes to the high-frequency slopes of auditory nerve fiber tuning curves, providing a physical explanation for a low-pass filter required in models of this cochlea. The combination of modes makes the sensitivity of hair bundles more uniform with radial position than that which would result from pure rotation. A mechanical analogy with the organ of Corti suggests that these two modes of motion may also be present in the mammalian cochlea.

  17. Incorporating Student Mobility in Achievement Growth Modeling: A Cross-Classified Multiple Membership Growth Curve Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Matthew W.; Beretvas, S. Natasha

    2010-01-01

    Multiple membership random effects models (MMREMs) have been developed for use in situations where individuals are members of multiple higher level organizational units. Despite their availability and the frequency with which multiple membership structures are encountered, no studies have extended the MMREM approach to hierarchical growth curve…

  18. Modeling of avalanche multiplication and noise in heterojunction avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, C.; David, J. P. R.; Rees, G. J.; Ong, D. S.

    2004-06-01

    A simple Monte Carlo model is used to simulate the avalanche process in a multiplication region which incorporates a heterojunction, intended to introduce localization into the ionization process and reduce excess avalanche noise. The results are compared with those of models where the ionization path length distribution is represented by an exponential decay, displaced from the origin by a ballistic dead space. While the latter results depend sensitively on the arbitrary choice of scheme used to evaluate the model parameters, they agree remarkably well with Monte Carlo, considering the simplicity of the model.

  19. Multiple-relaxation-time model for the correct thermohydrodynamic equations.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lin; Shi, Baochang; Guo, Zhaoli

    2008-08-01

    A coupling lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) model with multiple relaxation times is proposed for thermal flows with viscous heat dissipation and compression work. In this model the fixed Prandtl number and the viscous dissipation problems in the energy equation, which exist in most of the LBE models, are successfully overcome. The model is validated by simulating the two-dimensional Couette flow, thermal Poiseuille flow, and the natural convection flow in a square cavity. It is found that the numerical results agree well with the analytical solutions and/or other numerical results.

  20. Validating Computational Cognitive Process Models across Multiple Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Christopher; Gluck, Kevin; Gunzelmann, Glenn; Krusmark, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Model comparison is vital to evaluating progress in the fields of artificial general intelligence (AGI) and cognitive architecture. As they mature, AGI and cognitive architectures will become increasingly capable of providing a single model that completes a multitude of tasks, some of which the model was not specifically engineered to perform. These models will be expected to operate for extended periods of time and serve functional roles in real-world contexts. Questions arise regarding how to evaluate such models appropriately, including issues pertaining to model comparison and validation. In this paper, we specifically address model validation across multiple levels of abstraction, using an existing computational process model of unmanned aerial vehicle basic maneuvering to illustrate the relationship between validity and timescales of analysis.

  1. Advances and challenges in deformable image registration: From image fusion to complex motion modelling.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, Julia A; Heinrich, Mattias P; Papież, Bartłomiej W; Brady, Sir J Michael

    2016-10-01

    Over the past 20 years, the field of medical image registration has significantly advanced from multi-modal image fusion to highly non-linear, deformable image registration for a wide range of medical applications and imaging modalities, involving the compensation and analysis of physiological organ motion or of tissue changes due to growth or disease patterns. While the original focus of image registration has predominantly been on correcting for rigid-body motion of brain image volumes acquired at different scanning sessions, often with different modalities, the advent of dedicated longitudinal and cross-sectional brain studies soon necessitated the development of more sophisticated methods that are able to detect and measure local structural or functional changes, or group differences. Moving outside of the brain, cine imaging and dynamic imaging required the development of deformable image registration to directly measure or compensate for local tissue motion. Since then, deformable image registration has become a general enabling technology. In this work we will present our own contributions to the state-of-the-art in deformable multi-modal fusion and complex motion modelling, and then discuss remaining challenges and provide future perspectives to the field.

  2. Advances and challenges in deformable image registration: From image fusion to complex motion modelling.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, Julia A; Heinrich, Mattias P; Papież, Bartłomiej W; Brady, Sir J Michael

    2016-10-01

    Over the past 20 years, the field of medical image registration has significantly advanced from multi-modal image fusion to highly non-linear, deformable image registration for a wide range of medical applications and imaging modalities, involving the compensation and analysis of physiological organ motion or of tissue changes due to growth or disease patterns. While the original focus of image registration has predominantly been on correcting for rigid-body motion of brain image volumes acquired at different scanning sessions, often with different modalities, the advent of dedicated longitudinal and cross-sectional brain studies soon necessitated the development of more sophisticated methods that are able to detect and measure local structural or functional changes, or group differences. Moving outside of the brain, cine imaging and dynamic imaging required the development of deformable image registration to directly measure or compensate for local tissue motion. Since then, deformable image registration has become a general enabling technology. In this work we will present our own contributions to the state-of-the-art in deformable multi-modal fusion and complex motion modelling, and then discuss remaining challenges and provide future perspectives to the field. PMID:27364430

  3. An improved Reynolds-equation model for gas damping of microbeam motion.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert

    2003-09-01

    An improved gas-damping model for the out-of-plane motion of a near-substrate microbeam is developed based on the Reynolds equation (RE). A boundary condition for the RE is developed that relates the pressure at the beam edge to the beam motion. The coefficients in this boundary condition are determined from Navier-Stokes slip-jump (NSSJ) simulations for small slip lengths (relative to the gap height) and from direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) molecular gas dynamics simulations for larger slip lengths. This boundary condition significantly improves the accuracy of the RE when the microbeam width is only slightly greater than the gap height between the microbeam and the substrate. The improved RE model is applied to microbeams fabricated using the SUMMiT V process.

  4. Molecular Motion of the Junction Points in Model Networks Prepared by Acyclic Triene Metathesis.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Lucas Caire; Bowers, Clifford R; Graf, Robert; Wagener, Kenneth B

    2016-03-01

    The junction dynamics in a selectively deuterated model polymer network containing junctions on every 21st chain carbon is studied by solid state (2) H echo NMR. Polymer networks are prepared via acyclic triene metathesis of deuteron-labeled symmetric trienes with deuteron probes precisely placed at the alpha carbon relative to the junction point. The effect of decreasing the cross-link density on the junction dynamics is studied by introduction of polybutadiene chains in-between junctions. The networks are characterized by swelling, gel content, and solid state (1) H MAS NMR. Line shape analysis of the (2) H quadrupolar echo spectra reveals that the degree of motion anisotropy and the distribution of motion correlation times depend on the cross-link density and structural heterogeneity of the polymer networks. A detailed model of the junction dynamics at different temperatures is proposed and explained in terms of the intermolecular cooperativity in densely-packed systems. PMID:26787457

  5. Analysis of a system modelling the motion of a piston in a viscous gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Debayan; Takahashi, Takéo; Tucsnak, Marius

    2016-09-01

    We study a free boundary problem modelling the motion of a piston in a viscous gas. The gas-piston system fills a cylinder with fixed extremities, which possibly allow gas from the exterior to penetrate inside the cylinder. The gas is modeled by the 1D compressible Navier-Stokes system and the piston motion is described by the second Newton's law. We prove the existence and uniqueness of global in time strong solutions. The main novelty brought in by our results is that they include the case of nonhomogeneous boundary conditions which, as far as we know, have not been studied in this context. Moreover, even for homogeneous boundary conditions, our results require less regularity of the initial data than those obtained in previous works.

  6. Models of Postural Control: Shared Variance in Joint and COM Motions.

    PubMed

    Kilby, Melissa C; Molenaar, Peter C M; Newell, Karl M

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the organization of the postural control system in human upright stance. To this aim the shared variance between joint and 3D total body center of mass (COM) motions was analyzed using multivariate canonical correlation analysis (CCA). The CCA was performed as a function of established models of postural control that varied in their joint degrees of freedom (DOF), namely, an inverted pendulum ankle model (2DOF), ankle-hip model (4DOF), ankle-knee-hip model (5DOF), and ankle-knee-hip-neck model (7DOF). Healthy young adults performed various postural tasks (two-leg and one-leg quiet stances, voluntary AP and ML sway) on a foam and rigid surface of support. Based on CCA model selection procedures, the amount of shared variance between joint and 3D COM motions and the cross-loading patterns we provide direct evidence of the contribution of multi-DOF postural control mechanisms to human balance. The direct model fitting of CCA showed that incrementing the DOFs in the model through to 7DOF was associated with progressively enhanced shared variance with COM motion. In the 7DOF model, the first canonical function revealed more active involvement of all joints during more challenging one leg stances and dynamic posture tasks. Furthermore, the shared variance was enhanced during the dynamic posture conditions, consistent with a reduction of dimension. This set of outcomes shows directly the degeneracy of multivariate joint regulation in postural control that is influenced by stance and surface of support conditions.

  7. Aerodynamic characteristics of the standard dynamics model in coning motion at Mach 0.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jermey, C.; Schiff, L. B.

    1985-01-01

    A wind tunnel test was conducted on the Standard Dynamics Model (a simplified generic fighter aircraft shape) undergoing coning motion at Mach 0.6. Six component force and moment data are presented for a range of angle of attack, sideslip, and coning rates. At the relatively low non-dimensional coning rate employed (omega b/2V less than or equal to 0.04), the lateral aerodynamic characteristics generally show a linear variation with coning rate.

  8. 3D model-based catheter tracking for motion compensation in EP procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brost, Alexander; Liao, Rui; Hornegger, Joachim; Strobel, Norbert

    2010-02-01

    Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained heart arrhythmia and a leading cause of stroke. Its treatment by radio-frequency catheter ablation, performed using fluoroscopic image guidance, is gaining increasingly more importance. Two-dimensional fluoroscopic navigation can take advantage of overlay images derived from pre-operative 3-D data to add anatomical details otherwise not visible under X-ray. Unfortunately, respiratory motion may impair the utility of these static overlay images for catheter navigation. We developed an approach for image-based 3-D motion compensation as a solution to this problem. A bi-plane C-arm system is used to take X-ray images of a special circumferential mapping catheter from two directions. In the first step of the method, a 3-D model of the device is reconstructed. Three-dimensional respiratory motion at the site of ablation is then estimated by tracking the reconstructed catheter model in 3-D. This step involves bi-plane fluoroscopy and 2-D/3-D registration. Phantom data and clinical data were used to assess our model-based catheter tracking method. Experiments involving a moving heart phantom yielded an average 2-D tracking error of 1.4 mm and an average 3-D tracking error of 1.1 mm. Our evaluation of clinical data sets comprised 469 bi-plane fluoroscopy frames (938 monoplane fluoroscopy frames). We observed an average 2-D tracking error of 1.0 mm +/- 0.4 mm and an average 3-D tracking error of 0.8 mm +/- 0.5 mm. These results demonstrate that model-based motion-compensation based on 2-D/3-D registration is both feasible and accurate.

  9. Motion-compensated coding and frame rate up-conversion: models and analysis.

    PubMed

    Dar, Yehuda; Bruckstein, Alfred M

    2015-07-01

    Block-based motion estimation (ME) and motion compensation (MC) techniques are widely used in modern video processing algorithms and compression systems. The great variety of video applications and devices results in diverse compression specifications, such as frame rates and bit rates. In this paper, we study the effect of frame rate and compression bit rate on block-based ME and MC as commonly utilized in inter-frame coding and frame rate up-conversion (FRUC). This joint examination yields a theoretical foundation for comparing MC procedures in coding and FRUC. First, the video signal is locally modeled as a noisy translational motion of an image. Then, we theoretically model the motion-compensated prediction of available and absent frames as in coding and FRUC applications, respectively. The theoretic MC-prediction error is studied further and its autocorrelation function is calculated, yielding useful separable-simplifications for the coding application. We argue that a linear relation exists between the variance of the MC-prediction error and temporal distance. While the relevant distance in MC coding is between the predicted and reference frames, MC-FRUC is affected by the distance between the frames available for interpolation. We compare our estimates with experimental results and show that the theory explains qualitatively the empirical behavior. Then, we use the models proposed to analyze a system for improving of video coding at low bit rates, using a spatio-temporal scaling. Although this concept is practically employed in various forms, so far it lacked a theoretical justification. We here harness the proposed MC models and present a comprehensive analysis of the system, to qualitatively predict the experimental results.

  10. Motion Compensated Abdominal Diffusion Weighted MRI by Simultaneous Image Registration and Model Estimation (SIR-ME).

    PubMed

    Kurugol, Sila; Freiman, Moti; Afacan, Onur; Domachevsky, Liran; Perez-Rossello, Jeannette M; Callahan, Michael J; Warfield, Simon K

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive characterization of water molecule's mobility variations by quantitative analysis of diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) signal decay in the abdomen has the potential to serve as a biomarker in gastrointestinal and oncological applications. Accurate and reproducible estimation of the signal decay model parameters is challenging due to the presence of respiratory, cardiac, and peristalsis motion. Independent registration of each b-value image to the b-value=0 s/mm(2) image prior to parameter estimation might be sub-optimal because of the low SNR and contrast difference between images of varying b-value. In this work, we introduce a motion-compensated parameter estimation framework that simultaneously solves image registration and model estimation (SIR-ME) problems by utilizing the interdependence of acquired volumes along the diffusion weighting dimension. We evaluated the improvement in model parameters estimation accuracy using 16 in-vivo DW-MRI data sets of Crohn's disease patients by comparing parameter estimates obtained using the SIR-ME model to the parameter estimates obtained by fitting the signal decay model to the acquired DW-MRI images. The proposed SIR-ME model reduced the average root-mean-square error between the observed signal and the fitted model by more than 50%. Moreover, the SIR-ME model estimates discriminate between normal and abnormal bowel loops better than the standard parameter estimates.

  11. Depth information in natural environments derived from optic flow by insect motion detection system: a model analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schwegmann, Alexander; Lindemann, Jens P.; Egelhaaf, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the depth structure of the environment is crucial for moving animals in many behavioral contexts, such as collision avoidance, targeting objects, or spatial navigation. An important source of depth information is motion parallax. This powerful cue is generated on the eyes during translatory self-motion with the retinal images of nearby objects moving faster than those of distant ones. To investigate how the visual motion pathway represents motion-based depth information we analyzed its responses to image sequences recorded in natural cluttered environments with a wide range of depth structures. The analysis was done on the basis of an experimentally validated model of the visual motion pathway of insects, with its core elements being correlation-type elementary motion detectors (EMDs). It is the key result of our analysis that the absolute EMD responses, i.e., the motion energy profile, represent the contrast-weighted nearness of environmental structures during translatory self-motion at a roughly constant velocity. In other words, the output of the EMD array highlights contours of nearby objects. This conclusion is largely independent of the scale over which EMDs are spatially pooled and was corroborated by scrutinizing the motion energy profile after eliminating the depth structure from the natural image sequences. Hence, the well-established dependence of correlation-type EMDs on both velocity and textural properties of motion stimuli appears to be advantageous for representing behaviorally relevant information about the environment in a computationally parsimonious way. PMID:25136314

  12. Depth information in natural environments derived from optic flow by insect motion detection system: a model analysis.

    PubMed

    Schwegmann, Alexander; Lindemann, Jens P; Egelhaaf, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the depth structure of the environment is crucial for moving animals in many behavioral contexts, such as collision avoidance, targeting objects, or spatial navigation. An important source of depth information is motion parallax. This powerful cue is generated on the eyes during translatory self-motion with the retinal images of nearby objects moving faster than those of distant ones. To investigate how the visual motion pathway represents motion-based depth information we analyzed its responses to image sequences recorded in natural cluttered environments with a wide range of depth structures. The analysis was done on the basis of an experimentally validated model of the visual motion pathway of insects, with its core elements being correlation-type elementary motion detectors (EMDs). It is the key result of our analysis that the absolute EMD responses, i.e., the motion energy profile, represent the contrast-weighted nearness of environmental structures during translatory self-motion at a roughly constant velocity. In other words, the output of the EMD array highlights contours of nearby objects. This conclusion is largely independent of the scale over which EMDs are spatially pooled and was corroborated by scrutinizing the motion energy profile after eliminating the depth structure from the natural image sequences. Hence, the well-established dependence of correlation-type EMDs on both velocity and textural properties of motion stimuli appears to be advantageous for representing behaviorally relevant information about the environment in a computationally parsimonious way. PMID:25136314

  13. Dynamic modeling and motion simulation for a winged hybrid-driven underwater glider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shu-Xin; Sun, Xiu-Jun; Wang, Yan-Hui; Wu, Jian-Guo; Wang, Xiao-Ming

    2011-03-01

    PETREL, a winged hybrid-driven underwater glider is a novel and practical marine survey platform which combines the features of legacy underwater glider and conventional AUV (autonomous underwater vehicle). It can be treated as a multi-rigid-body system with a floating base and a particular hydrodynamic profile. In this paper, theorems on linear and angular momentum are used to establish the dynamic equations of motion of each rigid body and the effect of translational and rotational motion of internal masses on the attitude control are taken into consideration. In addition, due to the unique external shape with fixed wings and deflectable rudders and the dual-drive operation in thrust and glide modes, the approaches of building dynamic model of conventional AUV and hydrodynamic model of submarine are introduced, and the tailored dynamic equations of the hybrid glider are formulated. Moreover, the behaviors of motion in glide and thrust operation are analyzed based on the simulation and the feasibility of the dynamic model is validated by data from lake field trials.

  14. Internal models of self-motion: computations that suppress vestibular reafference in early vestibular processing.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Kathleen E; Brooks, Jessica X; Jamali, Mohsen; Carriot, Jerome; Massot, Corentin

    2011-05-01

    In everyday life, vestibular sensors are activated by both self-generated and externally applied head movements. The ability to distinguish inputs that are a consequence of our own actions (i.e., active motion) from those that result from changes in the external world (i.e., passive or unexpected motion) is essential for perceptual stability and accurate motor control. Recent work has made progress toward understanding how the brain distinguishes between these two kinds of sensory inputs. We have performed a series of experiments in which single-unit recordings were made from vestibular afferents and central neurons in alert macaque monkeys during rotation and translation. Vestibular afferents showed no differences in firing variability or sensitivity during active movements when compared to passive movements. In contrast, the analyses of neuronal firing rates revealed that neurons at the first central stage of vestibular processing (i.e., in the vestibular nuclei) were effectively less sensitive to active motion. Notably, however, this ability to distinguish between active and passive motion was not a general feature of early central processing, but rather was a characteristic of a distinct group of neurons known to contribute to postural control and spatial orientation. Our most recent studies have addressed how vestibular and proprioceptive inputs are integrated in the vestibular cerebellum, a region likely to be involved in generating an internal model of self-motion. We propose that this multimodal integration within the vestibular cerebellum is required for eliminating self-generated vestibular information from the subsequent computation of orientation and posture control at the first central stage of processing.

  15. [Model of the perception of perturbed angular motion of the cockpit as part of pilot's information model].

    PubMed

    Azarskov, V N; Blokhin, L N; Burdin, V V; Voronin, L I

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the method, algorithm and results of structural identification as a model of pilot's perception of perturbed angular motion of the cockpit and its transmission to the joystick as well as spectral density of the remnant corresponding to the transmission process. Assessments of scalar quasilinear and (more effective) multichannel models of pilot's functions are given. The assessments have been obtained for a single operator. They illustrate the potentials of this procedure.

  16. Development of ground motion attenuation relationships for southern Italy based on attenuation models and stochastic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Sebastiano

    2011-12-01

    The evaluation of the expected peak ground motion caused by an earthquake is an important problem in earthquake seismology. It is particularly important for regions where strong-motion data are lacking. With the approach presented in this study of using data from small earthquakes, it is possible to extrapolate the peak motion parameters beyond the magnitude range of the weak-motion data set on which they are calculated. To provide a description of the high frequency attenuation and ground motion parameters in southern Italy we used seismic recordings coming from two different projects: the SAPTEX (Southern Apennines Tomography Experiment) and the CAT/SCAN (Calabria Apennine Tyrrhenian - Subduction Collision Accretion Network). We used about 10,000 records with magnitudes between M=2.5 and M=4.7. Using regression model with the large number of weak-motion data, the regional propagation and the absolute source scaling were determined. To properly calibrate the source scaling it was necessary to compute moment magnitudes of several events in the data set. We computed the moment tensor solutions using the "Cut And Paste" and the SLUMT methods. Both methods determine the source depth, moment magnitude and focal mechanisms using a grid search technique. The methods provide quality solutions in the area in a magnitude range (2.5-4.5) that has been too small to be included in the Italian national earthquake catalogues. The derived database of focal mechanisms allowed us to better detail the transitional area in the Messina Strait between the extensional domain related to subduction trench retreat (southern Calabria) and the compressional one associated with continental collision (central-western Sicily). Stochastic simulations are generated for finite-fault ruptures using the derived propagation parameters to predict the absolute peaks of the ground acceleration for several faults, magnitude, and distance range, as well as beyond the magnitude range of the weak-motion

  17. 4D human body posture estimation based on a motion capture system and a multi-rigid link model.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Naoya; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Ozaki, Wataru; Yamamoto, Tomohisa; Nomura, Taishin

    2012-01-01

    Human motion analysis in various fields such as neurophysiology, clinical medicine, and sports sciences utilizes a multi-rigid link model of a human body for considering kinetics by solving inverse dynamics of a motion, in which a motion capture system with reflective markers are often used to measure the motion, and then the obtained motion are mapped onto the multi-rigid link model. However, algorithms for such a mapping from spatio-temporal positions of the markers to the corresponding posture of the model are not always fully disclosed. Moreover, a common difficulty for such algorithms is an error caused by displacements of the markers attached on the body surface, referred to as the skin motion error. In this study, we developed a simple algorithm that maps positions of the markers to the corresponding posture of a rigid link model, and examined accuracy of the algorithm by evaluating quantitatively differences between the measured and the estimated posture. We also analyzed the skin motion error. It is shown that magnitude of the error was determined not only by the amplitude of the skin motion, but also by the direction of the marker displacement relative to the frame of reference attached to each segment of the body.

  18. Incorporating Student Mobility in Achievement Growth Modeling: A Cross-Classified Multiple Membership Growth Curve Model.

    PubMed

    Grady, Matthew W; Beretvas, S Natasha

    2010-05-28

    Multiple membership random effects models (MMREMs) have been developed for use in situations where individuals are members of multiple higher level organizational units. Despite their availability and the frequency with which multiple membership structures are encountered, no studies have extended the MMREM approach to hierarchical growth curve modeling (GCM). This study introduces a cross-classified multiple membership growth curve model (CCMM-GCM) for modeling, for example, academic achievement trajectories in the presence of student mobility. Real data are used to demonstrate and compare growth curve model estimates using the CCMM-GCM and a conventional GCM that ignores student mobility. Results indicate that the CCMM-GCM represents a promising option for modeling growth for multiple membership data structures.

  19. Identification of Motions in Membrane Proteins by Elastic Network Models and Their Experimental Validation

    PubMed Central

    Isin, Basak; Tirupula, Kalyan C.; Oltvai, Zoltán N.; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Bahar, Ivet

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the functional motions of membrane proteins is difficult because they range from large-scale collective dynamics to local small atomic fluctuations at different timescales that are difficult to measure experimentally due to the hydrophobic nature of these proteins. Elastic Network Models, and in particular their most widely used implementation, the Anisotropic Network Model (ANM), have proven to be useful computational methods in many recent applications to predict membrane protein dynamics. These models are based on the premise that biomolecules possess intrinsic mechanical characteristics uniquely defined by their particular architectures. In the ANM, interactions between residues in close proximity are represented by harmonic potentials with a uniform spring constant. The slow mode shapes generated by the ANM provide valuable information on the global dynamics of biomolecules that are relevant to their function. In its recent extension in the form of ANM-guided molecular dynamics (MD), this coarse-grained approach is augmented with atomic detail. The results from ANM and its extensions can be used to guide experiments and thus speedup the process of quantifying motions in membrane proteins. Testing the predictions can be accomplished through (a) direct observation of motions through studies of structure and biophysical probes, (b) perturbation of the motions by, e.g., cross-linking or site-directed mutagenesis, and (c) by studying the effects of such perturbations on protein function, typically through ligand binding and activity assays. To illustrate the applicability of the combined computational ANM—experimental testing framework to membrane proteins, we describe—alongside the general protocols—here the application of ANM to rhodopsin, a prototypical member of the pharmacologically relevant G-protein coupled receptor family. PMID:22976035

  20. Forecasting relativistic electron flux using dynamic multiple regression models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, H.-L.; Billings, S. A.; Surjalal Sharma, A.; Wing, S.; Boynton, R. J.; Walker, S. N.

    2011-02-01

    The forecast of high energy electron fluxes in the radiation belts is important because the exposure of modern spacecraft to high energy particles can result in significant damage to onboard systems. A comprehensive physical model of processes related to electron energisation that can be used for such a forecast has not yet been developed. In the present paper a systems identification approach is exploited to deduce a dynamic multiple regression model that can be used to predict the daily maximum of high energy electron fluxes at geosynchronous orbit from data. It is shown that the model developed provides reliable predictions.

  1. Testing an uncertainty model for women with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Crigger, N J

    1996-03-01

    This study sought to explain adaptation to the uncertainty of multiple sclerosis (MS) in women. A casual model, developed from the literature and from interviews with four women with MS, was tested on a sample of 90 women with MS. Successful adaptation was measured by self-esteem and mastery. The model accounted for 26% of the variance in mastery, with an empirical model accounting for a higher degree of variance (41%). Findings suggest that the negative impact of uncertainty in women with MS is significantly reduced by their spiritual and social relationships.

  2. Modeling financial markets by the multiplicative sequence of trades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontis, V.; Kaulakys, B.

    2004-12-01

    We introduce the stochastic multiplicative point process modeling trading activity of financial markets. Such a model system exhibits power-law spectral density S(f)∝1/fβ, scaled as power of frequency for various values of β between 0.5 and 2. Furthermore, we analyze the relation between the power-law autocorrelations and the origin of the power-law probability distribution of the trading activity. The model reproduces the spectral properties of trading activity and explains the mechanism of power-law distribution in real markets.

  3. Automatic 3D motion estimation of left ventricle from C-arm rotational angiocardiography using a prior motion model and learning based boundary detector.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingqing; Zheng, Yefeng; Wang, Yang; Mueller, Kerstin; Lauritsch, Guenter

    2013-01-01

    Compared to pre-operative imaging modalities, it is more convenient to estimate the current cardiac physiological status from C-arm angiocardiography since C-arm is a widely used intra-operative imaging modality to guide many cardiac interventions. The 3D shape and motion of the left ventricle (LV) estimated from rotational angiocardiography provide important cardiac function measurements, e.g., ejection fraction and myocardium motion dyssynchrony. However, automatic estimation of the 3D LV motion is difficult since all anatomical structures overlap on the 2D X-ray projections and the nearby confounding strong image boundaries (e.g., pericardium) often cause ambiguities to LV endocardium boundary detection. In this paper, a new framework is proposed to overcome the aforementioned difficulties: (1) A new learning-based boundary detector is developed by training a boosting boundary classifier combined with the principal component analysis of a local image patch; (2) The prior LV motion model is learned from a set of dynamic cardiac computed tomography (CT) sequences to provide a good initial estimate of the 3D LV shape of different cardiac phases; (3) The 3D motion trajectory is learned for each mesh point; (4) All these components are integrated into a multi-surface graph optimization method to extract the globally coherent motion. The method is tested on seven patient scans, showing significant improvement on the ambiguous boundary cases with a detection accuracy of 2.87 +/- 1.00 mm on LV endocardium boundary delineation in the 2D projections.

  4. Automatic 3D motion estimation of left ventricle from C-arm rotational angiocardiography using a prior motion model and learning based boundary detector.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingqing; Zheng, Yefeng; Wang, Yang; Mueller, Kerstin; Lauritsch, Guenter

    2013-01-01

    Compared to pre-operative imaging modalities, it is more convenient to estimate the current cardiac physiological status from C-arm angiocardiography since C-arm is a widely used intra-operative imaging modality to guide many cardiac interventions. The 3D shape and motion of the left ventricle (LV) estimated from rotational angiocardiography provide important cardiac function measurements, e.g., ejection fraction and myocardium motion dyssynchrony. However, automatic estimation of the 3D LV motion is difficult since all anatomical structures overlap on the 2D X-ray projections and the nearby confounding strong image boundaries (e.g., pericardium) often cause ambiguities to LV endocardium boundary detection. In this paper, a new framework is proposed to overcome the aforementioned difficulties: (1) A new learning-based boundary detector is developed by training a boosting boundary classifier combined with the principal component analysis of a local image patch; (2) The prior LV motion model is learned from a set of dynamic cardiac computed tomography (CT) sequences to provide a good initial estimate of the 3D LV shape of different cardiac phases; (3) The 3D motion trajectory is learned for each mesh point; (4) All these components are integrated into a multi-surface graph optimization method to extract the globally coherent motion. The method is tested on seven patient scans, showing significant improvement on the ambiguous boundary cases with a detection accuracy of 2.87 +/- 1.00 mm on LV endocardium boundary delineation in the 2D projections. PMID:24505748

  5. Modeling Reaction Time and Accuracy of Multiple-Alternative Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Fábio P.; Ratcliff, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Several sequential sampling models using racing diffusion processes for multiple-alternative decisions were evaluated using data from two perceptual discrimination experiments. The structures of the models differed on a number of dimensions, including whether there was lateral inhibition between accumulators, whether there was decay in evidence, whether evidence could be negative, and whether there was variability in starting points. Data were collected from a letter discrimination task in which stimulus difficulty and probability of the response alternatives were varied along with number of response alternatives. Model fitting results ruled out a large number of model classes in favor of a smaller number of specific models, most of which showed a moderate to high degree of mimicking. The best-fitting models had zero to moderate values of decay, no inhibition, and assumed that the addition of alternatives either affected the subprocesses contributing to the nondecisional time, the degree of caution, or the quality of evidence extracted from stimuli. PMID:20045893

  6. A joint model for boundaries of multiple anatomical parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Grégoire; Kurtek, Sebastian; Srivastava, Anuj

    2011-03-01

    The use of joint shape analysis of multiple anatomical parts is a promising area of research with applications in medical diagnostics, growth evaluations, and disease characterizations. In this paper, we consider several features (shapes, orientations, scales, and locations) associated with anatomical parts and develop probability models that capture interactions between these features and across objects. The shape component is based on elastic shape analysis of continuous boundary curves. The proposed model is a second order model that considers principal coefficients in tangent spaces of joint manifolds as multivariate normal random variables. Additionally, it models interactions across objects using area-interaction processes. Using given observations of four anatomical parts: caudate, hippocampus, putamen and thalamus, on one side of the brain, we first estimate the model parameters and then generate random samples from them using the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. The plausibility of these random samples validates the proposed models.

  7. S-UTD-CH model in multiple diffractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baris Tabakcioglu, Mehmet

    2016-05-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves in empty space is an extremely simplified case. Thus, the significant question is how an electromagnetic wave propagates in an environment with obstacles such as buildings, trees or hills. Electromagnetic waves are partially reflected and partially diffracted from these obstacles. To predict the relative path loss of electromagnetic waves at the receiving position, many electromagnetic-wave propagation models have been proposed. These propagation models can be classified into models based on numerical integration and those based on ray tracing. Uniform theory of diffraction (UTD) and slope-UTD (S-UTD) models are ray-tracing-based propagation models and are briefly explained in this paper. In addition, detailed information is provided about the improved slope UTD model, which is called the S-UTD with Convex Hull (S-UTD-CH) model. The fundamentals of the S-UTD-CH model are the S-UTD, convex hull and Fresnel zone concept. In particular, the S-UTD-CH model can be applied to multiple diffraction scenarios in the transition region. Moreover, the S-UTD-CH model is considered an optimum model in terms of its accuracy and calculation or computation time. Widespread simulation results are provided to compare the models based on theoretical rays in terms of prediction accuracy and computation time. To compare these models, different operation frequencies and transmitting antenna heights are considered by using a high-performance computing technique.

  8. Supersymmetric U(1){sup '} model with multiple dark matters

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, Taeil; Lee, Hye-Sung; Nasri, Salah

    2008-01-01

    We consider a scenario where a supersymmetric model has multiple dark matter particles. Adding a U(1){sup '} gauge symmetry is a well-motivated extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). It can cure the problems of the MSSM such as the {mu} problem or the proton decay problem with high-dimensional lepton number and baryon number violating operators which R parity allows. An extra parity (U parity) may arise as a residual discrete symmetry after U(1){sup '} gauge symmetry is spontaneously broken. The lightest U-parity particle (LUP) is stable under the new parity becoming a new dark matter candidate. Up to three massive particles can be stable in the presence of the R parity and the U parity. We numerically illustrate that multiple stable particles in our model can satisfy both constraints from the relic density and the direct detection, thus providing a specific scenario where a supersymmetric model has well-motivated multiple dark matters consistent with experimental constraints. The scenario provides new possibilities in the present and upcoming dark matter searches in the direct detection and collider experiments.

  9. A PDP model of the simultaneous perception of multiple objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Cynthia M.; McClelland, James L.

    2011-06-01

    Illusory conjunctions in normal and simultanagnosic subjects are two instances where the visual features of multiple objects are incorrectly 'bound' together. A connectionist model explores how multiple objects could be perceived correctly in normal subjects given sufficient time, but could give rise to illusory conjunctions with damage or time pressure. In this model, perception of two objects benefits from lateral connections between hidden layers modelling aspects of the ventral and dorsal visual pathways. As with simultanagnosia, simulations of dorsal lesions impair multi-object recognition. In contrast, a large ventral lesion has minimal effect on dorsal functioning, akin to dissociations between simple object manipulation (retained in visual form agnosia and semantic dementia) and object discrimination (impaired in these disorders) [Hodges, J.R., Bozeat, S., Lambon Ralph, M.A., Patterson, K., and Spatt, J. (2000), 'The Role of Conceptual Knowledge: Evidence from Semantic Dementia', Brain, 123, 1913-1925; Milner, A.D., and Goodale, M.A. (2006), The Visual Brain in Action (2nd ed.), New York: Oxford]. It is hoped that the functioning of this model might suggest potential processes underlying dorsal and ventral contributions to the correct perception of multiple objects.

  10. Vesicle Motion during Sustained Exocytosis in Chromaffin Cells: Numerical Model Based on Amperometric Measurements.

    PubMed

    Jarukanont, Daungruthai; Bonifas Arredondo, Imelda; Femat, Ricardo; Garcia, Martin E

    2015-01-01

    Chromaffin cells release catecholamines by exocytosis, a process that includes vesicle docking, priming and fusion. Although all these steps have been intensively studied, some aspects of their mechanisms, particularly those regarding vesicle transport to the active sites situated at the membrane, are still unclear. In this work, we show that it is possible to extract information on vesicle motion in Chromaffin cells from the combination of Langevin simulations and amperometric measurements. We developed a numerical model based on Langevin simulations of vesicle motion towards the cell membrane and on the statistical analysis of vesicle arrival times. We also performed amperometric experiments in bovine-adrenal Chromaffin cells under Ba2+ stimulation to capture neurotransmitter releases during sustained exocytosis. In the sustained phase, each amperometric peak can be related to a single release from a new vesicle arriving at the active site. The amperometric signal can then be mapped into a spike-series of release events. We normalized the spike-series resulting from the current peaks using a time-rescaling transformation, thus making signals coming from different cells comparable. We discuss why the obtained spike-series may contain information about the motion of all vesicles leading to release of catecholamines. We show that the release statistics in our experiments considerably deviate from Poisson processes. Moreover, the interspike-time probability is reasonably well described by two-parameter gamma distributions. In order to interpret this result we computed the vesicles' arrival statistics from our Langevin simulations. As expected, assuming purely diffusive vesicle motion we obtain Poisson statistics. However, if we assume that all vesicles are guided toward the membrane by an attractive harmonic potential, simulations also lead to gamma distributions of the interspike-time probability, in remarkably good agreement with experiment. We also show that

  11. Vesicle Motion during Sustained Exocytosis in Chromaffin Cells: Numerical Model Based on Amperometric Measurements.

    PubMed

    Jarukanont, Daungruthai; Bonifas Arredondo, Imelda; Femat, Ricardo; Garcia, Martin E

    2015-01-01

    Chromaffin cells release catecholamines by exocytosis, a process that includes vesicle docking, priming and fusion. Although all these steps have been intensively studied, some aspects of their mechanisms, particularly those regarding vesicle transport to the active sites situated at the membrane, are still unclear. In this work, we show that it is possible to extract information on vesicle motion in Chromaffin cells from the combination of Langevin simulations and amperometric measurements. We developed a numerical model based on Langevin simulations of vesicle motion towards the cell membrane and on the statistical analysis of vesicle arrival times. We also performed amperometric experiments in bovine-adrenal Chromaffin cells under Ba2+ stimulation to capture neurotransmitter releases during sustained exocytosis. In the sustained phase, each amperometric peak can be related to a single release from a new vesicle arriving at the active site. The amperometric signal can then be mapped into a spike-series of release events. We normalized the spike-series resulting from the current peaks using a time-rescaling transformation, thus making signals coming from different cells comparable. We discuss why the obtained spike-series may contain information about the motion of all vesicles leading to release of catecholamines. We show that the release statistics in our experiments considerably deviate from Poisson processes. Moreover, the interspike-time probability is reasonably well described by two-parameter gamma distributions. In order to interpret this result we computed the vesicles' arrival statistics from our Langevin simulations. As expected, assuming purely diffusive vesicle motion we obtain Poisson statistics. However, if we assume that all vesicles are guided toward the membrane by an attractive harmonic potential, simulations also lead to gamma distributions of the interspike-time probability, in remarkably good agreement with experiment. We also show that

  12. Vesicle Motion during Sustained Exocytosis in Chromaffin Cells: Numerical Model Based on Amperometric Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Jarukanont, Daungruthai; Bonifas Arredondo, Imelda; Femat, Ricardo; Garcia, Martin E.

    2015-01-01

    Chromaffin cells release catecholamines by exocytosis, a process that includes vesicle docking, priming and fusion. Although all these steps have been intensively studied, some aspects of their mechanisms, particularly those regarding vesicle transport to the active sites situated at the membrane, are still unclear. In this work, we show that it is possible to extract information on vesicle motion in Chromaffin cells from the combination of Langevin simulations and amperometric measurements. We developed a numerical model based on Langevin simulations of vesicle motion towards the cell membrane and on the statistical analysis of vesicle arrival times. We also performed amperometric experiments in bovine-adrenal Chromaffin cells under Ba2+ stimulation to capture neurotransmitter releases during sustained exocytosis. In the sustained phase, each amperometric peak can be related to a single release from a new vesicle arriving at the active site. The amperometric signal can then be mapped into a spike-series of release events. We normalized the spike-series resulting from the current peaks using a time-rescaling transformation, thus making signals coming from different cells comparable. We discuss why the obtained spike-series may contain information about the motion of all vesicles leading to release of catecholamines. We show that the release statistics in our experiments considerably deviate from Poisson processes. Moreover, the interspike-time probability is reasonably well described by two-parameter gamma distributions. In order to interpret this result we computed the vesicles’ arrival statistics from our Langevin simulations. As expected, assuming purely diffusive vesicle motion we obtain Poisson statistics. However, if we assume that all vesicles are guided toward the membrane by an attractive harmonic potential, simulations also lead to gamma distributions of the interspike-time probability, in remarkably good agreement with experiment. We also show that

  13. Notion of Control-Law Module and Modular Framework of Cooperative Transportation Using Multiple Nonholonomic Robotic Agents With Physical Rigid-Formation-Motion Constraints.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Consider cooperative manipulation and transportation of a rigid body by multiple two-wheeled nonholonomic robotic agents that attached to it, the agents are then physically constrained to maintain rigid-formation-motion (RFM); thus the system has two physical motion-constraints at two levels: 1) the nonholonomic constraint at the individual level and 2) the RFM constraint at the system level. First, we provide a novel notion: the encapsulation of a category of control with certain constraints for one motion-mode as a control-law module (CLM), any concrete control law with such constraints is called an instance of the CLM; here two CLMs are provided as the examples. Then we provide an RFM control framework by decomposing a feasible RFM configuration-path as a concatenation of partitions, with one type of CLMs for each partition; thus any instance for each partition can be designed separately and incorporated easily with the interchangeable property, which makes the framework modular, flexible, and adaptive, to satisfy different kinematics requirements. As a result, the transportation is achieved by RFM control of agents. Also, the RFM framework implies a valuable rigid-closure-method for accurate rigid body manipulation even when agents are not attached to the body. PMID:27093718

  14. Modeling of marangoni-induced droplet motion and melt convection during solidification of hypermonotectic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Menghuai; Ludwig, Andreas; Ratke, Lorenz

    2003-12-01

    A two-phase volume averaging approach to model Marangoni-induced droplet motion of the minority liquid phase and the convection in the parent melt during solidification of the hypermonotectic alloys is presented. The minority liquid phase decomposed from the parent melt as droplets in the miscibility gap was treated as the second-phase L 2. The parent melt including the solidified monotectic matrix was treated as the first phase L 1. Both phases were considered as different and spatially interpenetrating continua. The conservation equations of mass, momentum, solute, and enthalpy for both phases, and an additional transport equation for the droplet density, were solved. Nucleation of the L 2 droplets, diffusion-controlled growth, interphase interactions such as Marangoni force at the L 1- L 2 interface, Stokes force, solute partitioning, and heat release of decomposition were taken into account by corresponding source and exchange terms in the conservation equations. The monotectic reaction was modeled by adding the latent heat on the L 1 phase during monotectic reaction, and applying an enlarged viscosity to the solidified monotectic matrix. A two-dimensional (2-D) square casting with hypermonotectic composition (Al-10 wt pct Bi) was simulated. This paper focused on Marangoni motion, hence gravity was not included. Results with nucleation, droplet evolution, Marangoni-induced droplet motion, solute transport, and macrosegregation formation were obtained and discussed.

  15. Uncertainty of earthquake losses due to model uncertainty of input ground motions in the Los Angeles area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cao, T.; Petersen, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    In a recent study we used the Monte Carlo simulation method to evaluate the ground-motion uncertainty of the 2002 update of the California probabilistic seismic hazard model. The resulting ground-motion distribution is used in this article to evaluate the contribution of the hazard model to the uncertainty in earthquake loss ratio, the ratio of the expected loss to the total value of a structure. We use the Hazards U.S. (HAZUS) methodology for loss estimation because it is a widely used and publicly available risk model and intended for regional studies by public agencies and for use by governmental decision makers. We found that the loss ratio uncertainty depends not only on the ground-motion uncertainty but also on the mean ground-motion level. The ground-motion uncertainty, as measured by the coefficient of variation (COV), is amplified when converting to the loss ratio uncertainty because loss increases concavely with ground motion. By comparing the ground-motion uncertainty with the corresponding loss ratio uncertainty for the structural damage of light wood-frame buildings in Los Angeles area, we show that the COV of loss ratio is almost twice the COV of ground motion with a return period of 475 years around the San Andreas fault and other major faults in the area. The loss ratio for the 2475-year ground-motion maps is about a factor of three higher than for the 475-year maps. However, the uncertainties in ground motion and loss ratio for the longer return periods are lower than for the shorter return periods because the uncertainty parameters in the hazard logic tree are independent of the return period, but the mean ground motion increases with return period.

  16. Simplified unified model for estimating the motion of magnetic nanoparticles within electrohydrodynamic field.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyeon-Seok; Lee, Sangyoup; Lee, Jong-Chul

    2014-11-01

    In previous research, we studied the electrical breakdown characteristics of a transformer oil-based magnetic fluid; mailnly, those were carried out by the experimental measurements. The first study was aimed at enhancing the dielectric breakdown voltage of transformer oil by adding magnetic nanoparticles experimentally under the official testing condition of dielectric liquids. The next study was focused on explaining the reason why the dielectric characterisitics of the fluids were changed through optically visualizing the particles motion in a microchannel using an optical microscopic measurement and numerically calculating the dielectrophoretic force induced in the fluids with considering only the properties of magnetic nanoparticles. In this study, we developed a simplified unified model for calculating further the motion of magnetic nanoparticles suspended in the presence of electrohydrodynamic field using the COMSOL multiphysics finite element simulation suite and investigated the effects of magnetic nanoparticle dielectrophoretic activity aimed at enhancing the electrical breakdown characteristics of transformer oil. PMID:25958577

  17. Fluid particle motion and Lagrangian velocities for pulsatile flow through a femoral artery branch model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. I.; Crawford, D. W.; Back, L. H.; Back, M. R.

    1987-01-01

    A flow visualization study using selective dye injection and frame by frame analysis of a movie provided qualitative and quantitative data on the motion of marked fluid particles in a 60 degree artery branch model for simulation of physiological femoral artery flow. Physical flow features observed included jetting of the branch flow into the main lumen during the brief reverse flow period, flow separation along the main lumen wall during the near zero flow phase of diastole when the core flow was in the downstream direction, and inference of flow separation conditions along the wall opposite the branch later in systole at higher branch flow ratios. There were many similarities between dye particle motions in pulsatile flow and the comparative steady flow observations.

  18. Model-Based Reinforcement of Kinect Depth Data for Human Motion Capture Applications

    PubMed Central

    Calderita, Luis Vicente; Bandera, Juan Pedro; Bustos, Pablo; Skiadopoulos, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Motion capture systems have recently experienced a strong evolution. New cheap depth sensors and open source frameworks, such as OpenNI, allow for perceiving human motion on-line without using invasive systems. However, these proposals do not evaluate the validity of the obtained poses. This paper addresses this issue using a model-based pose generator to complement the OpenNI human tracker. The proposed system enforces kinematics constraints, eliminates odd poses and filters sensor noise, while learning the real dimensions of the performer's body. The system is composed by a PrimeSense sensor, an OpenNI tracker and a kinematics-based filter and has been extensively tested. Experiments show that the proposed system improves pure OpenNI results at a very low computational cost. PMID:23845933

  19. Self Motion Perception and Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    The studies conducted in this research project examined several aspects of motion sickness in animal models. A principle objective of these studies was to investigate the neuroanatomy that is important in motion sickness with the objectives of examining both the utility of putative models and defining neural mechanisms that are important in motion sickness.

  20. A hierarchical modeling framework for multiple observer transect surveys.

    PubMed

    Conn, Paul B; Laake, Jeffrey L; Johnson, Devin S

    2012-01-01

    Ecologists often use multiple observer transect surveys to census animal populations. In addition to animal counts, these surveys produce sequences of detections and non-detections for each observer. When combined with additional data (i.e. covariates such as distance from the transect line), these sequences provide the additional information to estimate absolute abundance when detectability on the transect line is less than one. Although existing analysis approaches for such data have proven extremely useful, they have some limitations. For instance, it is difficult to extrapolate from observed areas to unobserved areas unless a rigorous sampling design is adhered to; it is also difficult to share information across spatial and temporal domains or to accommodate habitat-abundance relationships. In this paper, we introduce a hierarchical modeling framework for multiple observer line transects that removes these limitations. In particular, abundance intensities can be modeled as a function of habitat covariates, making it easier to extrapolate to unsampled areas. Our approach relies on a complete data representation of the state space, where unobserved animals and their covariates are modeled using a reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. Observer detections are modeled via a bivariate normal distribution on the probit scale, with dependence induced by a distance-dependent correlation parameter. We illustrate performance of our approach with simulated data and on a known population of golf tees. In both cases, we show that our hierarchical modeling approach yields accurate inference about abundance and related parameters. In addition, we obtain accurate inference about population-level covariates (e.g. group size). We recommend that ecologists consider using hierarchical models when analyzing multiple-observer transect data, especially when it is difficult to rigorously follow pre-specified sampling designs. We provide a new R package, hierarchical