Science.gov

Sample records for multiple scattering

  1. Full potential multiple scattering theory

    SciTech Connect

    MacLaren, J.M.

    1994-10-20

    A practical method for performing self-consistent electronic structure calculations based upon full-potential multiple-scattering theory is presented. Solutions to the single site Schroedinger equation are obtained by solving coupled channel integral equations for a potential which is analytically continued out to the circumscribing sphere. This potential coincides with the full cell potential inside each atomic cell. Scattering matrices and wavefunctions for the full cell potential are obtained from surface Wronskian relations. The charge density is obtained from the single particle Green`s function. This Green`s function is computed using the cell scattering matrices and wavefunctions using the layer multiple scattering theory. Self consistent solutions require a solution at each iteration to the Poisson equation. The Poisson equation is solved using a variational cellular method. In the approach a local solution to each cell is augmented by adding a series of regular harmonics (solutions to Laplace`s equation). Minimizing the coulomb energy, subject to continuity of the potential across all cell boundary provides an expression for the coefficients of the regular harmonics. This method is applied to BCC Nb. Calculated properties converge well in angular momentum and show comparable accuracy to full potential linearized muffin-tin orbital calculations.

  2. Stochastic approximation to multiple scattering in clouds.

    PubMed

    Zahavi, E

    1979-05-15

    The problem of multiple radiation scattering in a 3-D cloud is considered. The radiation is considered as energy bundles that impinge on the cloud's particles and are scattered around. The probabilistic expressions for bundle distribution are developed. An expression for radiation diffusivity for the nonisotropic scatter is presented. Two numerical examples show the application of the present theory.

  3. Multiple scattering in atmospheric clouds: lidar observations.

    PubMed

    Pal, S R; Carswell, A I

    1976-08-01

    The contribution of multiple scattering in lidar backscattering from clouds has been investigated using a ruby laser at 694 nm. The depolarization of an incident linearly polarized signal is measured with a multichannel lidar receiver. An analysis is presented whereby this information can be utilized to measure the multiple scattering in clouds in which single scattering retains the incident linear polarization. Experimental data are presented for cumulus clouds and for ground level fog, and the results are compared with some recent theoretical computations.

  4. Polarimetric scattering from layered media with multiple species of scatterers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Kwok, R.; Yueh, S. H.; Kong, J. A.; Hsu, C. C.; Tassoudji, M. A.; Shin, R. T.

    1995-01-01

    Geophysical media are usually heterogeneous and contain multiple species of scatterers. In this paper a model is presented to calculate effective permittivities and polarimetric backscattering coefficients of multispecies-layered media. The same physical description is consistently used in the derivation of both permittivities and scattering coefficients. The strong permittivity fluctuation theory is extended to account for the multiple species of scatterers with a general ellipsoidal shape whose orientations are randomly distributed. Under the distorted Born approximation, polarimetric scattering coefficients are obtained. These calculations are applicable to the special cases of spheroidal and spherical scatterers. The model is used to study effects of scatterer shapes and multispecies mixtures on polarimetric signatures of heterogeneous media. The multispecies model accounts for moisture content in scattering media such as snowpack in an ice sheet. The results indicate a high sensitivity of backscatter to moisture with a stronger dependence for drier snow and ice grain size is important to the backscatter. For frost-covered saline ice, model results for bare ice are compared with measured data at C band and then the frost flower formation is simulated with a layer of fanlike ice crystals including brine infiltration over a rough interface. The results with the frost cover suggest a significant increase in scattering coefficients and a polarimetric signature closer to isotropic characteristics compared to the thin saline ice case.

  5. Multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves by rain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsolakis, A.; Stutzman, W. L.

    1982-01-01

    As the operating frequencies of communications systems move higher into the millimeter wave region, the effects of multiple scattering in precipitation media become more significant. In this paper, general formulations are presented for single, first-order multiple, and complete multiple scattering. Included specifically are distributions of particle size, shape, and orientation angle, as well as variation in the medium density along the direction of wave propagation. Calculations are performed for rain. It is shown that the effects of higher-order scattering are not noticeable in either attenuation or channel isolation on a dual-polarized system until frequencies of about 30 GHz are reached. The complete multiple-scattering formulation presented gives accurate results at high millimeter wave frequencies as well as including realistic medium parameter distributions. Furthermore, it is numerically efficient.

  6. Energy dependent 4-dimensional multiple scattering distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschalär, C.

    1984-12-01

    A complete analytic solution in Fourier space is presented of the four dimensional small angle, multiple scattering distribution MSD in angle and space, produced by an energy dependent single scattering cross section from an initial pencil beam of heavy particles. Independently, simple integrals are derived for the central moments of the energy dependent MSD in the continuous-slowing-down approximation. The distributions of the projections t and x of the scattering angle and displacement into a plane through the axis of propagation are evaluated numerically for a truncated Rutherford scattering cross section using a fast Fourier transform. The resulting MSDs for a wide range of particles, initial and final momenta, and scattering materials are found to be approximately represented by one-dimensional set of standard distributions symmetrized by a linear transformation in t- x-space.

  7. Multiple Scattering Effects in Ionization Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrachina, R. O.

    2011-10-01

    The momentum distributions of electrons emitted in the ionization of atoms and molecules by the impact of photons or massive particles usually present interference patterns similar to those of the demonstrations with light proposed by Thomas Young more than two centuries ago. Furthermore, these cross sections also display richer structures due to the same multiple-scattering effects that are at the origin of different techniques to probe atomic aggregates and solid samples. In this talk, I will review these effects and discuss some of their most important characteristics, showing that they lead to distortions that are not fully replicated by non-scattering or even single-scattering approximations.

  8. Halo phenomena modified by multiple scattering.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Y.; Kuo-Nan, Liou

    1990-05-01

    Halo phenomena produced by horizontally oriented plate and column ice crystals are computed. Owing to the effect of multiple scattering, a number of optical features, in addition to the well-known halos and arcs caused by single scattering, can be produced in the sky. These include the parhelia, the anthelion, the uniform and white parhelic circle, and the uniform and white circumzenithal circle in the case of horizontally oriented plates. The anthelion is a result of double scattering that involves horizontally oriented columns that produce the Parry arc. The optical phenomena identified in the present study are compared with those of previous research and discussed.

  9. Multiple Light Scattering Probes of Soft Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffold, Frank

    2007-02-01

    I will discuss both static and dynamic properties of diffuse waves. In practical applications the optical properties of colloidal systems play an important role, for example in commercial products such as sunscreen lotions, food (drinks), coatings but also in medicine for example in cataract formation (eye lens turbidity). It is thus of importance to know the key parameters governing optical turbidity from the single to the multiple scattering regime. Temporal fluctuations of multiply scattered light are studied with photon correlation spectroscopy (Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy). This DWS method and its various implementations will be treated.

  10. Electron multiple, plural, and single scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Devaney, J.J.

    1985-03-01

    The angular distribution of a beam of electrons penetrating in infinite slab is studied with a view to providing simple accurate formulae for use in electron transport codes. We report success, but a highly disappointing success, for although the literature is vast, (over 150 papers), the experiments are limited, sparse, and often poorly described. The theory suffers from complexity, from incomplete, erroneous, or even absent comparisons with other theories and with experiment. Consequently, we cannot say with any assurance what the best theory is, nor to any great accuracy, especially in limiting cases, how good the theory we recommend is. We do give comparisons with the experiments known to us. With that caveat, we recommend the theory of Moliere as given by Bethe and by Hanson et al. Formulas are given. We expect accuracies of a few percent for multiple scattering. For the (in the cases studied) less dominant concomitant plural and single scattering the theory cannot do better than 10 to 30%. Because of the complexity of the functions, either series or tables must be employed. A bright spot in this somewhat gloomy state of affairs is the calculation of the 1/e width which can be done accurately (less than or equal to 2%) by a simple approximation due to Hanson et al. Using theories of Hanson et al. and variants thereof, an approximate Gaussian gives a good (7 to 20% error) simple description of the multiple scattering. Approximate single scattering formulas are also offered. 25 references, 6 tables.

  11. Multiple Scattering Measurements in the MICE Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, T.; Cobb, J.; Neuffer, D.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), under construction at RAL, will test a prototype cooling channel for a future Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. The cooling channel aims to achieve, using liquid hydrogen absorbers, a 10% reduction in transverse emittance. The change in 4D emittance will be determined with an accuracy of 1% by measuring muons individually. Step IV of MICE will make the first precise emittance-reduction measurements of the experiment. Simulation studies using G4MICE, based on GEANT4, find a significant difference in multiple scattering in low Z materials, compared with the standard expression quoted by the Particle Data Group. Direct measurement of multiple scattering using the scintillating-fibre trackers is found to be possible, but requires the measurement resolution to be unfolded from the data.

  12. Inhomogeneous atmospheres - On transforming conservative multiple scattering to non-conservative multiple pseudo-scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domke, H.

    2016-11-01

    The F- and K-integrals are used to transform the zeroth azimuthal Fourier component of the radiative transfer equation for conservative multiple scattering of polarized light in vertically inhomogeneous plane atmospheres into an equivalent transfer equation with a modified phase matrix corresponding to non-conservative pseudo-scattering. With symmetry properties of the original phase matrix to be retained, the modification generally includes two arbitrary scalar functions depending on optical depth. It is shown that the surface Green's function matrices for conservative scattering can be expressed in terms of surface Green's function matrices for non-conservative pseudo-scattering. Linear constraints are obtained for surface Green's functions for conservative scattering as well as for particular forms of non-conservative pseudo-scattering. Explicit formulae are derived for retrieving the solutions of standard problems like diffuse reflection and transmission, and also for Milne's problem, for conservative inhomogeneous atmospheres by means of appropriate solutions for non-conservative multiple pseudo-scattering. Numerical experiments performed by solving the nonlinear integral equations for the diffuse reflection functions of homogeneous semi-infinite atmospheres demonstrate that an acceleration of iterations by orders of magnitude can be achieved when the transformation to equivalent multiple pseudo-scattering is applied.

  13. Multiple electron scattering routines for PEREGRINE

    SciTech Connect

    White, J A

    1999-08-23

    The Monte Carlo electron scattering routines solve multiple elastic scatters in a condensed history approach. The Goudsmit-Saunderson scattering model is used and its implementation is taken from Kawrakow and Bielajew[l]. The subroutines produce an exit angle representing a likely scattering angle of a single incident electron after scattering elastically over a given step size. Two input parameters, {lambda} and {eta}, that depend on the atomic species and incident energy must first be specified. The mapping from species and energy to 77 and {lambda} already existed in the PEREGRINE code and was not redone or modified in any way. The software has been validated by comparisons to Moliere and Goudsmit-Saunderson models of D.W.O. Rogers[2]. As required by licensing considerations, no public domain or copyrighted software has been used in any phase of the preparation of any of these sub-routines or data files. Apart from needing to have {eta} and {lambda} specified through PEREGRINE, the code provided is completely self-contained. Everything is written in the FORTRAN 77 language to simplify inclusion in the existing PEREGRINE package.

  14. Theory of Multiple Coulomb Scattering from Extended Nuclei

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Cooper, L. N.; Rainwater, J.

    1954-08-01

    Two independent methods are described for calculating the multiple scattering distribution for projected angle scattering resulting when very high energy charged particles traverse a thick scatterer. The results are compared with the theories of Moliere and Olbert.

  15. Multiple scattering theory for space filling potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, W.H. ); Brown, R.G. . Dept. of Physics); Nesbet, R.K. . Almaden Research Center)

    1990-01-01

    Multiple scattering theory (MST) provides an efficient technique for solving the wave equation for the special case of muffin-tin potentials. Here MST is extended to treat space filling non-muffin tin potentials and its validity, accuracy and efficiency are tested by application of the two dimensional empty lattice test. For this test it is found that the traditional formulation of MST does not coverage as the number of partial waves is increased. A simple modification of MST, however, allows this problem to be solved exactly and efficiently. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. Investigation of multiple scattering effects in aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deepak, A.

    1980-01-01

    The results are presented of investigations on the various aspects of multiple scattering effects on visible and infrared laser beams transversing dense fog oil aerosols contained in a chamber (4' x 4' x 9'). The report briefly describes: (1) the experimental details and measurements; (2) analytical representation of the aerosol size distribution data by two analytical models (the regularized power law distribution and the inverse modified gamma distribution); (3) retrieval of aerosol size distributions from multispectral optical depth measurements by two methods (the two and three parameter fast table search methods and the nonlinear least squares method); (4) modeling of the effects of aerosol microphysical (coagulation and evaporation) and dynamical processes (gravitational settling) on the temporal behavior of aerosol size distribution, and hence on the extinction of four laser beams with wavelengths 0.44, 0.6328, 1.15, and 3.39 micrometers; and (5) the exact and approximate formulations for four methods for computing the effects of multiple scattering on the transmittance of laser beams in dense aerosols, all of which are based on the solution of the radiative transfer equation under the small angle approximation.

  17. Multiple scattering of laser beams in dense hydrosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zardecki, A.; Gerstl, S. A. W.; Unruh, W. P.; Stokes, G. H.; Stupin, D. M.; Elliott, N. E.; Weinman, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    The multiple scattering of laser beams is usually described within the framework of small-angle scattering theory. The validity of this approximation as well as improvements due to the incorporation of diffusion theory in the calculations were studied.

  18. Multiple scattering of laser beams in dense hydrosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zardecki, A.; Gerstl, S. A. W.; Unruh, W. P.; Stokes, G. H.; Stupin, D. M.; Elliott, N. E.; Weinman, J. A.

    1986-08-01

    The multiple scattering of laser beams is usually described within the framework of small-angle scattering theory. The validity of this approximation as well as improvements due to the incorporation of diffusion theory in the calculations were studied.

  19. Multiple magnetic scattering in small-angle neutron scattering of Nd–Fe–B nanocrystalline magnet

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Tetsuro; Saito, Kotaro; Yano, Masao; Ito, Masaaki; Shoji, Tetsuya; Sakuma, Noritsugu; Kato, Akira; Manabe, Akira; Hashimoto, Ai; Gilbert, Elliot P.; Keiderling, Uwe; Ono, Kanta

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the influence of multiple scattering on the magnetic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) from a Nd–Fe–B nanocrystalline magnet. We performed sample-thickness- and neutron-wavelength-dependent SANS measurements, and observed the scattering vector dependence of the multiple magnetic scattering. It is revealed that significant multiple scattering exists in the magnetic scattering rather than the nuclear scattering of Nd–Fe–B nanocrystalline magnet. It is considered that the mean free path of the neutrons for magnetic scattering is rather short in Nd–Fe–B magnets. We analysed the SANS data by the phenomenological magnetic correlation model considering the magnetic microstructures and obtained the microstructural parameters. PMID:27321149

  20. Multiple magnetic scattering in small-angle neutron scattering of Nd-Fe-B nanocrystalline magnet.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Tetsuro; Saito, Kotaro; Yano, Masao; Ito, Masaaki; Shoji, Tetsuya; Sakuma, Noritsugu; Kato, Akira; Manabe, Akira; Hashimoto, Ai; Gilbert, Elliot P; Keiderling, Uwe; Ono, Kanta

    2016-06-20

    We have investigated the influence of multiple scattering on the magnetic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) from a Nd-Fe-B nanocrystalline magnet. We performed sample-thickness- and neutron-wavelength-dependent SANS measurements, and observed the scattering vector dependence of the multiple magnetic scattering. It is revealed that significant multiple scattering exists in the magnetic scattering rather than the nuclear scattering of Nd-Fe-B nanocrystalline magnet. It is considered that the mean free path of the neutrons for magnetic scattering is rather short in Nd-Fe-B magnets. We analysed the SANS data by the phenomenological magnetic correlation model considering the magnetic microstructures and obtained the microstructural parameters.

  1. Multiple magnetic scattering in small-angle neutron scattering of Nd-Fe-B nanocrystalline magnet.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Tetsuro; Saito, Kotaro; Yano, Masao; Ito, Masaaki; Shoji, Tetsuya; Sakuma, Noritsugu; Kato, Akira; Manabe, Akira; Hashimoto, Ai; Gilbert, Elliot P; Keiderling, Uwe; Ono, Kanta

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the influence of multiple scattering on the magnetic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) from a Nd-Fe-B nanocrystalline magnet. We performed sample-thickness- and neutron-wavelength-dependent SANS measurements, and observed the scattering vector dependence of the multiple magnetic scattering. It is revealed that significant multiple scattering exists in the magnetic scattering rather than the nuclear scattering of Nd-Fe-B nanocrystalline magnet. It is considered that the mean free path of the neutrons for magnetic scattering is rather short in Nd-Fe-B magnets. We analysed the SANS data by the phenomenological magnetic correlation model considering the magnetic microstructures and obtained the microstructural parameters. PMID:27321149

  2. Multiple scattering of polarized light: influence of absorption.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, A; Voit, F; Schäfer, J; Kienle, A

    2014-06-01

    This work continues previous research about multiple scattering of polarized light propagation in turbid media, putting emphasis on the imaginary part of the scatterers' complex refractive index. The whole angle-dependent Müller matrix is evaluated by comparing results of a polarization sensitive radiative transfer solution to Maxwell theory. Turbid media of defined scatterer concentrations are modelled in three dimensions by sphere ensembles kept inside a cubic or spherical simulation volume. This study addresses the impact of absorption on polarization characteristics for selected media from low to high absorption. Besides that, effects caused by multiple and dependent scattering are shown for increasing volume concentration. In this context some unique properties associated with multiple scattering and absorption are pointed out. Further, scattering results in two dimensions are compared for examples of infinite parallel cylinders of high absorption and perpendicularly incident plane waves.

  3. Method and apparatus for fiber optic multiple scattering suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerson, Bruce J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The instant invention provides a method and apparatus for use in laser induced dynamic light scattering which attenuates the multiple scattering component in favor of the single scattering component. The preferred apparatus utilizes two light detectors that are spatially and/or angularly separated and which simultaneously record the speckle pattern from a single sample. The recorded patterns from the two detectors are then cross correlated in time to produce one point on a composite single/multiple scattering function curve. By collecting and analyzing cross correlation measurements that have been taken at a plurality of different spatial/angular positions, the signal representative of single scattering may be differentiated from the signal representative of multiple scattering, and a near optimum detector separation angle for use in taking future measurements may be determined.

  4. FEFF5: An ab initio multiple scattering XAFS code

    SciTech Connect

    Rehr, J.J.; Zabinsky, S.I.

    1992-12-31

    FEFF5 is an efficient automated code which calculates multiple scattering (MS) curved wave XAFS spectra for molecules and solids. The theoretical ingredients and approximations contained in the code are revised, with the aim of describing the how XAFS spectra are efficiently simulated. The FEFF5 code consists of 4 independent modules: a scattering potential and phase shift module, a path finder module, a scattering amplitude module and an XAFS module. Multiple scattering Debye-Waller factors are built in using a correlated Debye model.

  5. Lidar effective multiple-scattering coefficients in cirrus clouds.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, F O; Bissonnette, L R; Flamant, P H

    1997-05-20

    We delimit a regime, valid for most ground-based lidar probings of cirrus clouds, in which the field-of-view dependence of multiple scattering reaches a plateau. In this regime and assuming the phase function to be constant around pi, we formally demonstrate Platt's modification of the single-scattering lidar equation, with a parameter eta(P) accounting for the reduction of the effective scattering coefficient defined so that (1 - eta(P)) is the amount of energy scattered in the forward peak. Then, to cope with nonconstant backscattering functions, we discuss the introduction of an effective backscattering coefficient that is an average of the scattering probabilities around pi.

  6. Face recognition using multiple maximum scatter difference discrimination dictionary learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yanyong; Dong, Jiwen; Li, Hengjian

    2015-10-01

    Based on multiple maximum scatter difference discrimination Dictionary learning, a novel face recognition algorithm is proposed. Dictionary used for sparse coding plays a key role in sparse representation classification. In this paper, a multiple maximum scatter difference discriminated criterion is used for dictionary learning. During the process of dictionary learning, the multiple maximum scatter difference computes its discriminated vectors from both the range of the between class scatter matrix and the null space of the within-class scatter matrix. The proposed algorithm is theoretically elegant and easy to calculate. Extensive experimental studies conducted on the AR database and Extended Yale Database B in comparison with existing basic sparse representation and other classification methods, it shows that the performance is a little better than the original sparse representation methods with lower complexity.

  7. Acoustic scattering by multiple elliptical cylinders using collocation multipole method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wei-Ming

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents the collocation multipole method for the acoustic scattering induced by multiple elliptical cylinders subjected to an incident plane sound wave. To satisfy the Helmholtz equation in the elliptical coordinate system, the scattered acoustic field is formulated in terms of angular and radial Mathieu functions which also satisfy the radiation condition at infinity. The sound-soft or sound-hard boundary condition is satisfied by uniformly collocating points on the boundaries. For the sound-hard or Neumann conditions, the normal derivative of the acoustic pressure is determined by using the appropriate directional derivative without requiring the addition theorem of Mathieu functions. By truncating the multipole expansion, a finite linear algebraic system is derived and the scattered field can then be determined according to the given incident acoustic wave. Once the total field is calculated as the sum of the incident field and the scattered field, the near field acoustic pressure along the scatterers and the far field scattering pattern can be determined. For the acoustic scattering of one elliptical cylinder, the proposed results match well with the analytical solutions. The proposed scattered fields induced by two and three elliptical-cylindrical scatterers are critically compared with those provided by the boundary element method to validate the present method. Finally, the effects of the convexity of an elliptical scatterer, the separation between scatterers and the incident wave number and angle on the acoustic scattering are investigated.

  8. Hyperon polarization and multiple quark scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Szwed, J.; Wit, R.

    1988-10-01

    The quark scattering off external gluonic field, calculated to second order, and the quark recombination model are used to describe both the ..lambda.. inclusive production cross-section and the ..lambda.. polarization. The model gives good agreement with experimental data. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Convergence of the nucleus-nucleus Glauber multiple scattering series

    SciTech Connect

    Usmani, A.A.; Ahmad, I. )

    1991-05-01

    The Glauber {ital S}-matrix operator for nucleus-nucleus scattering is expressed as a finite series of matrix elements involving Bell's polynomials. Analyzing {alpha}{sup 4}He elastic-scattering data at the incident momentum of 4.32 GeV/{ital c}, we infer that our expansion is appreciably converging. Further, by applying closure over target and projectile states and neglecting a certain class of terms involving intermediate excitations, we arrive at a recurrence relation for nucleus-nucleus multiple scattering series terms, which invites further study as it seems to provide a simple method for calculating the nucleus-nucleus elastic-scattering cross section.

  10. Method for measuring multiple scattering corrections between liquid scintillators

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Verbeke, J. M.; Glenn, A. M.; Keefer, G. J.; Wurtz, R. E.

    2016-04-11

    In this study, a time-of-flight method is proposed to experimentally quantify the fractions of neutrons scattering between scintillators. An array of scintillators is characterized in terms of crosstalk with this method by measuring a californium source, for different neutron energy thresholds. The spectral information recorded by the scintillators can be used to estimate the fractions of neutrons multiple scattering. With the help of a correction to Feynman's point model theory to account for multiple scattering, these fractions can in turn improve the mass reconstruction of fissile materials under investigation.

  11. Method for measuring multiple scattering corrections between liquid scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbeke, J. M.; Glenn, A. M.; Keefer, G. J.; Wurtz, R. E.

    2016-07-01

    A time-of-flight method is proposed to experimentally quantify the fractions of neutrons scattering between scintillators. An array of scintillators is characterized in terms of crosstalk with this method by measuring a californium source, for different neutron energy thresholds. The spectral information recorded by the scintillators can be used to estimate the fractions of neutrons multiple scattering. With the help of a correction to Feynman's point model theory to account for multiple scattering, these fractions can in turn improve the mass reconstruction of fissile materials under investigation.

  12. Photon bremsstrahlung from quark jet via transverse and longitudinal scattering: Single versus multiple scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Le; Hou, De-Fu; Qin, Guang-You

    2016-08-01

    We study the production of jet-bremsstrahlung photons through scattering with the constituents of dense nuclear matter within the framework of deep-inelastic scattering off a large nucleus. Applying a gradient expansion up to the second order for the exchanged three-dimensional momentum between jet and medium, we derive the single-photon bremsstrahlung spectrum with the inclusion of contributions from the transverse broadening as well as the longitudinal drag and diffusion of the hard parton's momentum. We also compare the medium-induced photon radiation spectra for single scattering and from the resummation of multiple scatterings. It is found that the coupling between different scatterings can give an additional contribution to medium-induced photon radiation, while for small momentum exchange the leading contribution from the drag and diffusions to the photon emission spectra remain the same for single and multiple scatterings.

  13. Effect of multiple scattering on Cerenkov radiation from energetic electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Jian

    2013-01-15

    Cerenkov radiation can be used as a diagnostic tool to study energetic electrons generated in ultra-intense laser matter interactions. However, electrons suffer scattering with nuclei as they move in a medium. In this article, we theoretically study the effect of multiple scattering on Cerenkov radiation, and obtain analytical formulas under some circumstances. The results show that when the speed of an energetic electron is not close to the light speed in the medium, Cerenkov radiation is just slightly decreased due to multiple scattering. In the case that the electron speed is very close to the light speed in the medium, the effect of multiple scattering becomes significant, and the radiation is dominated by bremsstrahlung.

  14. Multiple scattering induced negative refraction of matter waves

    PubMed Central

    Pinsker, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Starting from fundamental multiple scattering theory it is shown that negative refraction indices are feasible for matter waves passing a well-defined ensemble of scatterers. A simple approach to this topic is presented and explicit examples for systems of scatterers in 1D and 3D are stated that imply negative refraction for a generic incoming quantum wave packet. Essential features of the effective scattering field, densities and frequency spectrum of scatterers are considered. Additionally it is shown that negative refraction indices allow perfect transmission of the wave passing the ensemble of scatterers. Finally the concept of the superlens is discussed, since it is based on negative refraction and can be extended to matter waves utilizing the observations presented in this paper which thus paves the way to ‘untouchable’ quantum systems in analogy to cloaking devices for electromagnetic waves. PMID:26857266

  15. Multiple scattering induced negative refraction of matter waves.

    PubMed

    Pinsker, Florian

    2016-02-09

    Starting from fundamental multiple scattering theory it is shown that negative refraction indices are feasible for matter waves passing a well-defined ensemble of scatterers. A simple approach to this topic is presented and explicit examples for systems of scatterers in 1D and 3D are stated that imply negative refraction for a generic incoming quantum wave packet. Essential features of the effective scattering field, densities and frequency spectrum of scatterers are considered. Additionally it is shown that negative refraction indices allow perfect transmission of the wave passing the ensemble of scatterers. Finally the concept of the superlens is discussed, since it is based on negative refraction and can be extended to matter waves utilizing the observations presented in this paper which thus paves the way to 'untouchable' quantum systems in analogy to cloaking devices for electromagnetic waves.

  16. Multiple scattering induced negative refraction of matter waves.

    PubMed

    Pinsker, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Starting from fundamental multiple scattering theory it is shown that negative refraction indices are feasible for matter waves passing a well-defined ensemble of scatterers. A simple approach to this topic is presented and explicit examples for systems of scatterers in 1D and 3D are stated that imply negative refraction for a generic incoming quantum wave packet. Essential features of the effective scattering field, densities and frequency spectrum of scatterers are considered. Additionally it is shown that negative refraction indices allow perfect transmission of the wave passing the ensemble of scatterers. Finally the concept of the superlens is discussed, since it is based on negative refraction and can be extended to matter waves utilizing the observations presented in this paper which thus paves the way to 'untouchable' quantum systems in analogy to cloaking devices for electromagnetic waves. PMID:26857266

  17. Effect of multiple scattering on depolarization measurements with spaceborne lidars.

    PubMed

    Reichardt, Susanne; Reichardt, Jens

    2003-06-20

    An analytical model based on the integration of the scattering-angle and light-path manifold has been developed to quantify the effect of multiple scattering on cirrus measurements obtained with elastic polarization lidars from space. Light scattering by molecules and by a horizontally homogeneous cloud is taken into account. Lidar parameter, including laser beam divergence, can be freely chosen. Up to 3 orders of scattering are calculated. Furthermore, an inversion technique for the retrieval of cloud extinction profiles from measurements with elastic-backscatter lidars is proposed that explicitly takes multiple scattering into account. It is found that for typical lidar system parameters such as those of the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) instrument multiple scattering does not significantly affect depolarization-ratio measurements in cirrus clouds with small to moderate optical depths. For all simulated clouds, the absolute value of the difference between measured and single-scattering volume depolarization ratio is < 0.006. The particle depolarization ratio can be calculated from the measured volume depolarization ratio and the retrieved backscatter ratio without degradation of accuracy; thus characterization of the various cirrus categories in terms of the particle depolarization ratio and retrieval of cloud microphysical properties is feasible from space. The results of this study apply to polar stratospheric clouds as well.

  18. Fingerprints of Multiple Electron Scatterings in Single-Layer Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Minbok; Sohn, So-Dam; Park, Jonghyun; Lee, Keun-U; Shin, Hyung-Joon

    2016-01-01

    The electrons in graphene exhibit unusual behaviours, which can be described by massless Dirac quasiparticles. Understanding electron scattering in graphene has been of significant importance for its future application in electronic devices because electron scattering determines electrical properties such as resistivity and electron transport. There are two types of electron scatterings in graphene: intervalley scattering and intravalley scattering. In single-layer graphene, to date, it has been difficult to observe intravalley scattering because of the suppression of backscattering resulting from the chiral nature of the electrons in graphene. Here, we report the multiple electron scattering behaviours in single-layer graphene on a metallic substrate. By applying one- and two-dimensional Fourier transforms to maps of the local density of states, we can distinguish individual scattering processes from complex interference patterns. These techniques enable us to provide direct evidence of intravalley scattering, revealing a linear dispersion relation with a Fermi velocity of ~7.4 × 105 m/s. PMID:26936521

  19. A covariant multiple scattering series for elastic projectile-target scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Franz; Maung-Maung, Khin

    1989-01-01

    A covariant formulation of the multiple scattering series for the optical potential is presented. The case of a scalar nucleon interacting with a spin zero isospin zero A-body target through meson exchange, is considered. It is shown that a covariant equation for the projectile-target t-matrix can be obtained which sums the ladder and crossed ladder diagrams efficiently. From this equation, a multiple scattering series for the optical potential is derived, and it is shown that in the impulse approximation, the two-body t-matrix associated with the first order optical potential is the one in which one particle is kept on mass-shell. The meaning of various terms in the multiple scattering series is given. The construction of the first-order optical potential for elastic scattering calculations is described.

  20. Bright-White Beetle Scales Optimise Multiple Scattering of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burresi, Matteo; Cortese, Lorenzo; Pattelli, Lorenzo; Kolle, Mathias; Vukusic, Peter; Wiersma, Diederik S.; Steiner, Ullrich; Vignolini, Silvia

    2014-08-01

    Whiteness arises from diffuse and broadband reflection of light typically achieved through optical scattering in randomly structured media. In contrast to structural colour due to coherent scattering, white appearance generally requires a relatively thick system comprising randomly positioned high refractive-index scattering centres. Here, we show that the exceptionally bright white appearance of Cyphochilus and Lepidiota stigma beetles arises from a remarkably optimised anisotropy of intra-scale chitin networks, which act as a dense scattering media. Using time-resolved measurements, we show that light propagating in the scales of the beetles undergoes pronounced multiple scattering that is associated with the lowest transport mean free path reported to date for low-refractive-index systems. Our light transport investigation unveil high level of optimisation that achieves high-brightness white in a thin low-mass-per-unit-area anisotropic disordered nanostructure.

  1. Bright-white beetle scales optimise multiple scattering of light.

    PubMed

    Burresi, Matteo; Cortese, Lorenzo; Pattelli, Lorenzo; Kolle, Mathias; Vukusic, Peter; Wiersma, Diederik S; Steiner, Ullrich; Vignolini, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Whiteness arises from diffuse and broadband reflection of light typically achieved through optical scattering in randomly structured media. In contrast to structural colour due to coherent scattering, white appearance generally requires a relatively thick system comprising randomly positioned high refractive-index scattering centres. Here, we show that the exceptionally bright white appearance of Cyphochilus and Lepidiota stigma beetles arises from a remarkably optimised anisotropy of intra-scale chitin networks, which act as a dense scattering media. Using time-resolved measurements, we show that light propagating in the scales of the beetles undergoes pronounced multiple scattering that is associated with the lowest transport mean free path reported to date for low-refractive-index systems. Our light transport investigation unveil high level of optimisation that achieves high-brightness white in a thin low-mass-per-unit-area anisotropic disordered nanostructure. PMID:25123449

  2. Bright-White Beetle Scales Optimise Multiple Scattering of Light

    PubMed Central

    Burresi, Matteo; Cortese, Lorenzo; Pattelli, Lorenzo; Kolle, Mathias; Vukusic, Peter; Wiersma, Diederik S.; Steiner, Ullrich; Vignolini, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Whiteness arises from diffuse and broadband reflection of light typically achieved through optical scattering in randomly structured media. In contrast to structural colour due to coherent scattering, white appearance generally requires a relatively thick system comprising randomly positioned high refractive-index scattering centres. Here, we show that the exceptionally bright white appearance of Cyphochilus and Lepidiota stigma beetles arises from a remarkably optimised anisotropy of intra-scale chitin networks, which act as a dense scattering media. Using time-resolved measurements, we show that light propagating in the scales of the beetles undergoes pronounced multiple scattering that is associated with the lowest transport mean free path reported to date for low-refractive-index systems. Our light transport investigation unveil high level of optimisation that achieves high-brightness white in a thin low-mass-per-unit-area anisotropic disordered nanostructure. PMID:25123449

  3. Role of multiple scattering in formation of OCT skin images

    SciTech Connect

    Kirillin, M Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Myllylae, R

    2008-06-30

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of model human skin samples are obtained by using Monte Carlo simulations. The contributions of least and multiple scattering, diffusion and nondiffusion components and of separate scattering orders are studied by using a multilayer skin model based on experimental images. The model images are obtained by neglecting speckles or taking them into account. It is shown that least scattering forms the image of the upper skin layers, while the contribution of multiple scattering can be characterised as a blurred full image with a lower contrast. Repeated scattering mainly contributes to the OCT image at depths up to 1 mm. The diffusion component contributes to the image beginning from the epidermal basal layer. The partial image produced by this component is more blurred compared to the partial image produced by to multiple scattering. The nondiffusion component forms the OCT skin image at depths up to {approx}1.3 mm. (special issue devoted to application of laser technologies in biophotonics and biomedical studies)

  4. Effects of multiple scattering on scintillation of transionospheric radio signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. H.; Yeh, K. C.; Youakim, M. Y.; Wernik, A. W.

    1974-01-01

    Recent development in the optical scintillation theory has been adapted to the ionospheric geometry in order to study the ionospheric scintillation phenomenon in the presence of multiple scattering. Under approximations well satisfied in typical ionospheres for a frequency above about 20 MHz, the first through fourth moment equations have been derived and some analytic solutions given. The fourth moment equation has also been solved numerically. The numerical results show clearly the occurrence of focusing and saturation phenomena. The new multiple-scatter effects are emphasized.

  5. Collective hypersonic excitations in strongly multiple scattering colloids.

    PubMed

    Still, T; Gantzounis, G; Kiefer, D; Hellmann, G; Sainidou, R; Fytas, G; Stefanou, N

    2011-04-29

    Unprecedented low-dispersion high-frequency acoustic excitations are observed in dense suspensions of elastically hard colloids. The experimental phononic band structure for SiO(2) particles with different sizes and volume fractions is well represented by rigorous full-elastodynamic multiple-scattering calculations. The slow phonons, which do not relate to particle resonances, are localized in the surrounding liquid medium and stem from coherent multiple scattering that becomes strong in the close-packing regime. Such rich phonon-matter interactions in nanostructures, being still unexplored, can open new opportunities in phononics.

  6. Laser Light Scattering with Multiple Scattering Suppression Used to Measure Particle Sizes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Tin, Padetha; Lock, James A.; Cannell, David S.; Smart, Anthony E.; Taylor, Thomas W.

    1999-01-01

    Laser light scattering is the technique of choice for noninvasively sizing particles in a fluid. The members of the Advanced Technology Development (ATD) project in laser light scattering at the NASA Lewis Research Center have invented, tested, and recently enhanced a simple and elegant way to extend the concentration range of this standard laboratory particle-sizing technique by several orders of magnitude. With this technique, particles from 3 nm to 3 mm can be measured in a solution. Recently, laser light scattering evolved to successfully size particles in both clear solutions and concentrated milky-white solutions. The enhanced technique uses the property of light that causes it to form tall interference patterns at right angles to the scattering plane (perpendicular to the laser beam) when it is scattered from a narrow laser beam. Such multiple-scattered light forms a broad fuzzy halo around the focused beam, which, in turn, forms short interference patterns. By placing two fiber optics on top of each other and perpendicular to the laser beam (see the drawing), and then cross-correlating the signals they produce, only the tall interference patterns formed by singly scattered light are detected. To restate this, unless the two fiber optics see the same interference pattern, the scattered light is not incorporated into the signal. With this technique, only singly scattered light is seen (multiple-scattered light is rejected) because only singly scattered light has an interference pattern tall enough to span both of the fiber-optic pickups. This technique is simple to use, easy to align, and works at any angle. Placing a vertical slit in front of the signal collection fibers enhanced this approach. The slit serves as an optical mask, and it significantly shortens the time needed to collect good data by selectively masking out much of the unwanted light before cross-correlation is applied.

  7. Monte Carlo simulations of multiple scattering effects in laser assisted free-free scattering experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deharak, B. A.; Savich, J. L.; Roberts, H. M.; Brown, E. G.; McGill, M. R.; Kim, B. N.; Weaver, C. M.; Martin, N. L. S.

    2016-05-01

    We have conducted a series of Monte Carlo simulations of laser assisted free-free scattering experiments. The simulations make use of Kroll-Watson approximation to account for the effects of the laser field on the scattering process. The parameters for these simulations are believed to mimic the experimental conditions of the work reported by Wallbank and Holmes, particularly the target number density. The simulations account for the effects multiple scattering (i.e., the scattering of a single incident electron from multiple target atoms). We present a comparison of the results of these simulations to the experimental results of Wallbank and Holmes. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants Nos. PHY-0855040 (NLSM) and PHY-1402899 (BAd).

  8. Multiple Scattering of Dirac Fermions in Two Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmar, Mahmoud M.; Ulloa, Sergio E.

    2014-03-01

    The low energy dispersion of electrons in graphene-as well as surface states of three dimensional topological insulators- are characterized by a linear dispersion, leading to interesting dynamical properties. The presence of potential scattering centers, such as impurities in real samples or artificially created gated regions, also reflect the ``massless'' nature of electrons in these materials. The study of Dirac fermion scattering from single potential obstacles is made possible through partial wave methods. In the case of closely-spaced potential obstacles (high defect concentration), one should consider multiple scattering effects. Using separation of variables, Graf's addition rules, and far field matching, one can generalize the partial wave method to the case of many scatterers, and obtain physical observables for such problem. We present our study of the scattering problem of Dirac fermions from multiple potential obstacles, with focus on the two-center problem. We discuss the dependence of the differential cross section on the separation, and different potential shifts caused by these obstacles, and compare these results with the differential cross section for a single scattering center. We also study the minimal conditions that allow the observation of Klein tunneling. Supported by MWN/CIAM-NSF and AvH.

  9. Multiple-wavelength resonant fluctuation x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurta, R. P.

    2016-08-01

    A multiple-wavelength resonant fluctuation x-ray scattering approach is proposed for element-specific imaging of nanoscale objects in random ensembles with short positional and rotational relaxation times. It is shown, that by applying x-ray cross-correlation analysis in combination with iterative phase retrieval to the scattering data measured at multiple x-ray energies near an absorption edge of a substance, it is possible to image the nanoscale structure of an individual object with chemical sensitivity. The elemental distribution in distinct two-component model nanostructures was reconstructed using the simulated scattering data from two-dimensional random ensembles of particles. The approach might be especially advantageous for structural studies at x-ray free electron lasers.

  10. Multiple light scattering methods for multiphase flow diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estevadeordal, Jordi

    2015-11-01

    Multiphase flows of gases and liquids containing droplets, bubbles, or particulates present light scattering imaging challenges due to the interference from each phase, such as secondary reflections, extinctions, absorptions, and refractions. These factors often prevent the unambiguous detection of each phase and also produce undesired beam steering. The effects can be especially complex in presence of dense phases, multispecies flows, and high pressure environments. This investigation reports new methods for overcoming these effects for quantitative measurements of velocity, density, and temperature fields. The methods are based on light scattering techniques combining Mie and filtered Rayleigh scattering and light extinction analyses and measurements. The optical layout is designed to perform multiple property measurements with improved signal from each phase via laser spectral and polarization characterization, etalon decontamination, and use of multiple wavelengths and imaging detectors.

  11. Fourier domain multispectral multiple scattering low coherence interferometry.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Thomas E; Giacomelli, Michael G; Brown, William J; Wax, Adam

    2013-12-01

    We have implemented multispectral multiple scattering low coherence interferometry (ms2/LCI) with Fourier domain data collection. The ms2/LCI system is designed to localize features with spectroscopic contrast with millimeter resolution up to 1 cm deep in scattering samples by using photons that have undergone multiple low-angle (forward) scattering events. Fourier domain detection both increases the data acquisition speed of the system and gives access to rich spectroscopic information, compared to the previous single channel, time-domain implementation. Separate delivery and detection angular apertures reduce collection of the diffuse background signal in order to isolate localized spectral features from deeper in scattering samples than would be possible with traditional spectroscopic optical coherence tomography. Light from a supercontinuum source is used to acquire absorption spectra of chromophores in the visible range within a tissue-like scattering phantom. An intensity modulation and digital lock-in detection scheme is implemented to mitigate relative intensity and spectral noise inherent in supercontinuum sources. The technical parameters of the system and comparative analysis are presented.

  12. A three parameter analytic phase function for multiple scattering calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kattawar, G. W.

    1974-01-01

    A simple procedure was developed to fit the first three moments of an actual phase function with a three parameter analytic phase function. The exact Legendre Polynomial decomposition of this function is, suitable for multiple scattering calculations. The use of this function is expected to yield excellent flux values at all depths within a medium. Since it is capable of reproducing the glory, it can be used in synthetic spectra computations from planetary atmospheres. Accurate asymptotic radiance values can also be achieved as long as the single scattering albedo omega sub 0 is greater than or equal to 0.9.

  13. Diffusion and multiple anisotropic scattering for global illumination in clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N L; Schussman, G; Miyazaki, R; Iwasaki, K; Nishita, T

    2003-10-14

    The diffusion method is a good approximation inside the dense core of a cloud, but not at the more tenuous boundary regions. Also, it breaks down in regions where the density of scattering droplets is zero. We have enhanced it by using hardware cell projection volume rendering at cloud border voxels to account for the straight line light transport across these empty regions. We have also used this hardware volume rendering at key voxels in the low-density boundary regions to account for the multiple anisotropic scattering of the environment.

  14. Nucleon-nucleon scattering within a multiple subtractive renormalization approach

    SciTech Connect

    Timoteo, V. S.; Frederico, T.; Delfino, A.; Tomio, Lauro

    2011-06-15

    We present a methodology to renormalize the nucleon-nucleon interaction in momentum space, using a recursive multiple subtraction approach that prescinds from a cutoff regularization, to construct the kernel of the scattering equation. The subtracted scattering equation is solved with the next-leading-order and next-to-next-leading-order interactions. The results are presented for all partial waves up to j=2, fitted to low-energy experimental data. In this renormalization group invariant approach, the subtraction energy emerges as a renormalization scale and the momentum associated with it comes to be about the QCD scale ({Lambda}{sub QCD}), irrespectively to the partial wave.

  15. Stimulated Raman scattering of laser dye mixtures dissolved in multiple scattering media

    SciTech Connect

    Yashchuk, V P; Komyshan, A O; Tikhonov, E A; Olkhovyk, L A

    2014-10-31

    Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) of a mixture of rhodamine 6G and pyrromethene 605 laser dyes in vesicular films is studied. It is shown that a peculiar interaction of dyes occurs under conditions of multiple scattering of light from vesicles. This interaction manifests itself as SRS excitation of one of the dyes by random lasing of the other dye, provided that the random lasing spectrum overlaps the Stokes lines of the first dye. In addition, there is energy transfer between molecules of these dyes if their luminescence and absorption spectra overlap. The results obtained confirm that the mechanism of SRS from laser dyes in multiple scattering media is similar to that in coherent-active Raman spectroscopy. These results extend the possibility of determining the vibrational spectrum of dye molecules from their secondary radiation in these media. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  16. Multiple scattering in wind models of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, I. A.; Coppi, P. S.; Lamb, D. Q.

    1992-01-01

    In wind models of gamma-ray bursts, it has been assumed that soft X-ray photons are scattered only once by relativistic electrons moving away from the star; this assumes that the scattering optical depth is small. Using the observational data from the bursts, we consider three methods for estimating this optical depth: (1) the luminosity of the burst, (2) the ratio of the gamma-ray flux (greater than 10 keV) to X-ray flux (less than 10 keV), and (3) the presence or lack of cyclotron lines. Within the context of the wind models, we find that multiple scattering is likely to be important in the formation of the spectrum in gamma-ray bursts.

  17. Multiple-Point Mass Flux Measurement System Using Rayleigh Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielke, Amy F.; Elam, Kristie A.; Clem, Michelle M.

    2009-01-01

    A multiple-point Rayleigh scattering diagnostic is being developed to provide mass flux measurements in gas flows. Spectroscopic Rayleigh scattering is an established flow diagnostic that has the ability to provide simultaneous density, temperature, and velocity measurements. Rayleigh scattered light from a focused 18 Watt continuous-wave laser beam is directly imaged through a solid Fabry-Perot etalon onto a CCD detector which permits spectral analysis of the light. The spatial resolution of the measurements is governed by the locations of interference fringes, which can be changed by altering the etalon characteristics. A prototype system has been used to acquire data in a Mach 0.56 flow to demonstrate feasibility of using this system to provide mass flux measurements. Estimates of measurement uncertainty and recommendations for system improvements are presented

  18. Interstitial integrals in the multiple-scattering model

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, J.R.; Dill, D.

    1982-08-15

    We present an efficient method for the evaluation of integrals involving multiple-scattering wave functions over the interstitial region. Transformation of the multicenter interstitial wave functions to a single center representation followed by a geometric projection reduces the integrals to products of analytic angular integrals and numerical radial integrals. The projection function, which has the value 1 in the interstitial region and 0 elsewhere, has a closed-form partial-wave expansion. The method is tested by comparing its results with exact normalization and dipole integrals; the differences are 2% at worst and typically less than 1%. By providing an efficient means of calculating Coulomb integrals, the method allows treatment of electron correlations using a multiple scattering basis set.

  19. Multiple-scattering corrections to the Beer-Lambert law

    SciTech Connect

    Zardecki, A.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of multiple scattering on the validity of the Beer-Lambert law is discussed for a wide range of particle-size parameters and optical depths. To predict the amount of received radiant power, appropriate correction terms are introduced. For particles larger than or comparable to the wavelength of radiation, the small-angle approximation is adequate; whereas for small densely packed particles, the diffusion theory is advantageously employed. These two approaches are used in the context of the problem of laser-beam propagation in a dense aerosol medium. In addition, preliminary results obtained by using a two-dimensional finite-element discrete-ordinates transport code are described. Multiple-scattering effects for laser propagation in fog, cloud, rain, and aerosol cloud are modeled.

  20. Molière theory of multiple Coulomb scattering with ionization and the transport mechanism of the multiple scattering process.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Takao; Nishimura, Jun

    2008-08-01

    The Molière theory of multiple Coulomb scattering is improved to take account of ionization loss by applying a differential formulation of the theory. Distributions for the deflection angle theta over, as well as for any linear combination between theta over and the lateral displacement r over, under the ionization process are derived by a series expansion with the same universal functions f(n)(theta) of Molière, except that the values for both the expansion parameter B and the scale angle thetaM are corrected from those under the fixed-energy process. We find that Goudsmit-Saunderson angular distribution with ionization is also expressed by the same characteristic parameters B and thetaM derived above by the Molière theory. The transport mechanism of Molière process of multiple Coulomb scattering and the stochastic property of Molière series expansion are also investigated and discussed.

  1. Effects of Multiple Scattering for Millimeter-Wavelength Weather Radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Satoru; Tanelli, Simone; Im, Eastwood

    2004-01-01

    Effects of multiple scattering on the reflectivity measurement for millimeter-wavelength weather radars are studied, in which backscattering enhancement may play an important role. In the previous works, the backscattering enhancement has been studied for plane wave injection, the reflection of which is received at the infinite distance. In this paper, a finite beam width of a Gaussian antenna pattern along with spherical wave is taken into account. A time-independent second order theory is derived for a single layer of clouds of a uniform density. The ordinary second-order scattering (ladder term) and the second-order backscattering enhancement (cross term) are derived for both the copolarized and cross-polarized waves.

  2. Proton radiography, nuclear cross sections and multiple Coulomb scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Sjue, Sky K.

    2015-11-04

    The principles behind proton radiography including multiple Coulomb scattering are discussed for a purely imaginary square well nucleus in the eikonal approximation. It is found that a very crude model can reproduce the angular dependence of the cross sections measured at 24 GeV/c. The largest differences are ~3% for the 4.56 mrad data, and ~4% for the 6.68 mrad data. The prospect of understanding how to model deterministically high-energy proton radiography over a very large range of energies is promising, but it should be tested more thoroughly.

  3. Multiple scattering of light in three-dimensional photonic quasicrystals.

    PubMed

    Ledermann, Alexandra; Wiersma, Diederik S; Wegener, Martin; von Freymann, Georg

    2009-02-01

    Recent experiments on three-dimensional icosahedral dielectric photonic quasicrystals have shown several unexpected features: transmitted femtosecond pulses developed a trailing "diffusive" exponential tail and the sum of (zeroth-order) transmittance and reflectance was well below unity. These experimental findings have previously been ascribed to sample imperfections. Here, we analyze these findings by using 3D periodic approximants of the ideal photonic quasicrystals. We show that the experimental observations can be explained in terms of multiple scattering of light within these structures, i.e., in terms of intrinsic rather than purely extrinsic quasicrystal properties.

  4. Multiple scattering depolarization in marine stratus clouds: Lidar experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassen, K.; Petrilla, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The depolarization of ruby lidar backscattering caused by multiple scattering in marine stratus clouds was examined systematically from a field site on the southern California coast. Investigated were the effects on the linear depolarization (delta) of lidar receiver field of view (FOV), elevation angle and laser beam pointing errors. An approximately linear increase in maximum delta values was observed with increasing receiver FOV, and the importance of accurate transmitter/receiver beam alignment was demonstrated during experiments in which the laser axis was deliberately misaligned. An elevation angle dependence to the delta values was observed as a consequence of the natural vertical inhomogeneity of water cloud content above the cloud base. Time histories of the depolarization characteristics of dissipating stratus clouds revealed significant spatial and temporal variability in delta values attributed to cloud composition variations. Employing a 1 mrad transmitter FOV, maximum delta values of 0.21 nd 0.33 were observed with 1 and 3 mrad receiver FOVs, respectively, from the low stratus clouds. The fundamental causes and effects on the lidar equation of multiple scattering are also discussed.

  5. Scattering Optical Elements: Stand-Alone Optical Elements Exploiting Multiple Light Scattering.

    PubMed

    Park, Jongchan; Cho, Joong-Yeon; Park, Chunghyun; Lee, KyeoReh; Lee, Heon; Cho, Yong-Hoon; Park, YongKeun

    2016-07-26

    Optical design and fabrication techniques are crucial for making optical elements. From conventional lenses to diffractive optical elements and to recent metasurfaces, various types of optical elements have been proposed to manipulate light where optical materials are fabricated into desired structures. Here, we propose a scattering optical element (SOE) that exploits multiple light scattering and wavefront shaping. Instead of fabricating optical materials, the SOE consists of a disordered medium and a photopolymer-based wavefront recorder, with shapes impinging on light on demand. With the proposed stand-alone SOEs, we experimentally demonstrate control of various properties of light, including intensity, polarization, spectral frequency, and near field. Due to the tremendous freedom brought about by disordered media, the proposed approach will provide unexplored routes to manipulate arbitrary optical fields in stand-alone optical elements.

  6. Depolarization Ratio of Clouds Measured by Multiple-Field of view Multiple Scattering Polarization Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Hajime; Sato, Kaori; Makino, Toshiyuki; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Jin, Yoshitaka; Shimizu, Atsushi

    2016-06-01

    We have developed the Multiple Field of view Multiple Scattering Polarization Lidar (MFMSPL) system for the study of optically thick low-level clouds. It has 8 telescopes; 4 telescopes for parallel channels and another 4 for perpendicular channels. The MFMSPL is the first lidar system that can measure depolarization ratio for optically thick clouds where multiple scattering is dominant. Field of view of each channel was 10mrad and was mounted with different angles ranging from 0 mrad (vertical) to 30mrad. And footprint size from the total FOV was achieved to be close to that of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) lidar at the altitude of 1km in order to reproduce similar degree of multiple scattering effects as observed from space. The MFMSPL has started observations since June 2014 and has been continuously operated at National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) in Tsukuba, Japan. Observations proved expected performance such that measured depolarization ratio was comparable to the one observed by CALIPSO lidar.

  7. Inelastic electron scattering in amorphous silicon nitride and aluminum oxide with multiple-scattering corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livins, Peteris; Aton, T.; Schnatterly, S. E.

    1988-09-01

    Electron-energy-loss measurements for an amorphous chemical-vapor-deposited silicon nitride film and evaporated sapphire in the broad energy range 1-200 eV are investigated. A method, not requiring the zero-loss peak, to remove the multiple scattering is discussed, applied, and the optical constants obtained. An Elliot-type model used with aluminum oxide gives a valence-exciton binding energy of 1.36+/-0.2 eV with a band gap of 9.8+/-0.2 eV. The unexpected strength of the nitrogen 2s transition is noted in silicon nitride.

  8. An approximation to multiple scattering in the earth's atmosphere Almucantar radiance formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Box, M. A.; Deepak, A.

    1981-01-01

    An empirical expression is derived to account for the molecular multiple scattering contribution to the almucantar radiance field. Formulas for the correction factors which incorporate the effects of multiple scattering and nonzero ground albedo are also given. The use and accuracy of the multiple-scattering approximation in direct problems of radiative transfer associated with almucantar radiance are discussed and illustrated by examples. It is shown that in almost all instances, inclusion of the molecular multiple-scattering contribution reduces the errors obtained with the single-scattering approximation by a factor of at least 2.

  9. Influence of reabsorption and reemission on stimulated Raman scattering of polymethine dyes in multiple scattering media

    SciTech Connect

    Yashchuk, V P; Komyshan, A O; Smaliuk, A P; Prygodiuk, O A; Ishchenko, A A; Olkhovyk, L A

    2013-12-31

    It is shown that reabsorption of the luminescence radiation in the range of its overlapping with the absorption spectrum and the following reemission to a long-wavelength range may noticeably affect the process of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in polymethine dyes in multiple scattering media (MSM). This is related to the fact that SRS in such media occurs jointly with the random lasing (RL), which favors SRS and makes up with it a united nonlinear process. Reemission into the long-wavelength spectrum range amplified in MSM causes the RL spectrum to shift to longer wavelengths and initiates the long-wavelength band of RL, in which a main part of the lasing energy is concentrated. This weakens or completely stops the SRS if the band is beyond the range of possible spectral localisation of Stokes lines. This process depends on the efficiency of light scattering, dye concentration, temperature and pump intensity; hence, there exist optimal values of these parameters for obtaining SRS in MSM. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  10. Multiple scattering of proton via stochastic differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kia, M. R.; Noshad, Houshyar

    2015-08-01

    Multiple scattering of protons through a target is explained by a set of coupled stochastic differential equations. The motion of protons in matter is calculated by analytical random sampling from Moliere and Landau probability density functions (PDF). To satisfy the Vavilov theory, the moments for energy distribution of a 49.1 MeV proton beam in aluminum target are obtained. The skewness for the PDF of energy demonstrates that the energy distribution of protons in thin thickness becomes a Landau function, whereas, by increasing the thickness of the target it does not follow a Gaussian function completely. Afterwards, the depth-dose distributions are calculated for a 60 MeV proton beam traversing soft tissue and for a 160 MeV proton beam travelling through water. The results prove that when elastic scattering is taken into account, the Bragg-peak position is decreased, while the dose deposited in the Bragg region is increased. The results obtained in this article are benchmarked by comparison of our results with the experimental data reported in the literature.

  11. Multiple scattering calculation of the middle ultraviolet reaching the ground.

    PubMed

    Shettle, E P; Green, A E

    1974-07-01

    We use a multiple channel solution to the radiative transfer equation, a computationally fast method which achieves reasonable accuracy. The method is applied to the problem of light scattering in a turbid atmosphere in the 280-340 nm wavelength region to calculate the direct, downward diffuse and global flux reaching the ground. This spectral region is of particular interest in studies of the biological effects of possible depletion of the ozone layer by a future fleet of supersonic transport planes. We input atmospheric conditions in terms of analytic models chosen to encompass standard ozone and aerosol distributions.We examine the changes in the results with respect to the variations of the solar zenith angle, wavelength ozone thickness, aerosol thickness, ground albedo, and ground height level. The results are fairly well represented by a semiempirical analytic formula which may be used for the purposes of interpolation and communication. PMID:20134511

  12. Multiple scattering calculation of the middle ultraviolet reaching the ground.

    PubMed

    Shettle, E P; Green, A E

    1974-07-01

    We use a multiple channel solution to the radiative transfer equation, a computationally fast method which achieves reasonable accuracy. The method is applied to the problem of light scattering in a turbid atmosphere in the 280-340 nm wavelength region to calculate the direct, downward diffuse and global flux reaching the ground. This spectral region is of particular interest in studies of the biological effects of possible depletion of the ozone layer by a future fleet of supersonic transport planes. We input atmospheric conditions in terms of analytic models chosen to encompass standard ozone and aerosol distributions.We examine the changes in the results with respect to the variations of the solar zenith angle, wavelength ozone thickness, aerosol thickness, ground albedo, and ground height level. The results are fairly well represented by a semiempirical analytic formula which may be used for the purposes of interpolation and communication.

  13. Acoustic and elastic multiple scattering and radiation from cylindrical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirkulova, Feruza Abdukadirovna

    Multiple scattering (MS) and radiation of waves by a system of scatterers is of great theoretical and practical importance and is required in a wide variety of physical contexts such as the implementation of "invisibility" cloaks, the effective parameter characterization, and the fabrication of dynamically tunable structures, etc. The dissertation develops fast, rapidly convergent iterative techniques to expedite the solution of MS problems. The formulation of MS problems reduces to a system of linear algebraic equations using Graf's theorem and separation of variables. The iterative techniques are developed using Neumann expansion and Block Toeplitz structure of the linear system; they are very general, and suitable for parallel computations and a large number of MS problems, i.e. acoustic, elastic, electromagnetic, etc., and used for the first time to solve MS problems. The theory is implemented in Matlab and FORTRAN, and the theoretical predictions are compared to computations obtained by COMSOL. To formulate the MS problem, the transition matrix is obtained by analyzing an acoustic and an elastic single scattering of incident waves by elastic isotropic and anisotropic solids. The mathematical model of wave scattering from multilayered cylindrical and spherical structures is developed by means of an exact solution of dynamic 3D elasticity theory. The recursive impedance matrix algorithm is derived for radially heterogeneous anisotropic solids. An explicit method for finding the impedance in piecewise uniform, transverse-isotropic material is proposed; the solution is compared to elasticity theory solutions involving Buchwald potentials. Furthermore, active exterior cloaking devices are modeled for acoustic and elastic media using multipole sources. A cloaking device can render an object invisible to some incident waves as seen by some external observer. The active cloak is generated by a discrete set of multipole sources that destructively interfere with an

  14. Influence of forward and multiple light scatter on the measurement of beam attenuation in highly scattering marine environments.

    PubMed

    Piskozub, Jacek; Stramski, Dariusz; Terrill, Eric; Melville, W Kendall

    2004-08-20

    Using three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations, we examine the effect of beam transmissometer geometry on the relative error in the measurement of the beam-attenuation coefficient in an aquatic environment characterized by intense light scattering, especially within submerged bubble clouds entrained by surface-wave breaking. We discuss the forward-scattering error associated with the detection of photons scattered at small angles (< 1 degrees) and the multiple-scattering error associated with the detection of photons scattered more than once along the path length of the instrument. Several scattering phase functions describing bubble clouds at different bubble void fractions in the water are considered. Owing to forward-scattering error, a beam-attenuation meter (beam transmissometer) with a half-angle of receiver acceptance of 1.0 degrees and a path length of 0.1 m can underestimate the true beam attenuation within the bubble cloud by more than 50%. For bubble clouds with a beam attenuation of as much as 100 m(-1), the multiple-scattering error is no more than a few percent. These results are compared with simulations for some example phase functions that are representative of other scattering regimes found in natural waters. The forward-scattering error for the Petzold phase function of turbid waters is 16% for a typical instrument geometry, whereas for the Henyey-Greenstein phase function with the asymmetry parameter of 0.7 and 0.9 the error range is 8-28%.

  15. Near-end solution for lidar signals that includes a multiple-scattering component.

    PubMed

    Kovalev, Vladimir A

    2003-12-20

    A variant of the near-end solution is presented that allows one to consider a multiple-scattering component in lidar measurements of distant clouds or dense smoke. It is assumed that the lidar signal, contaminated by multiple scattering, obeys a single-scattering lidar equation in which an additional term, which is related to the range-dependent ratio of a multiple-to-single-scattering component, is included. For the inversion, a brink solution is proposed that does not require an a priori selection of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio in the optically dense aerosol formation under investigation. The solution requires either knowledge of the multiple-to-single-scattering ratio (e.g., determined experimentally with a multiangle lidar) or the use of the analytical dependence of the multiple-to-single-scattering ratio on the aerosol optical depth. In the latter case, an iterative technique is used.

  16. Study the polarization and depolarization properties of atmospheric aerosol multiple scattering based on the successive order of scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Weizhen; Sun, Bin; Li, Zhengqiang; Sun, Xiaobing; Hong, Jin; Qie, Lili; Wang, Han

    2015-10-01

    With the polynomial fitting of source function in each order of scattering calculation and the effective process of aerosol forward scattering peak, a polarized radiative transfer (RT) model based on the improved successive order of scattering (SOS) method has been developed to solve the vector radiative transfer equation. By our RT model, not only the total Stokes parameters [I, Q, U] measured by the satellite (aircraft) and ground-based sensors with linear polarization could be approximately simulated, but also the results of parameters for each scattering order event could conveniently calculated, which are very helpful to study the polarization properties for the atmospheric aerosol multiple scattering. In this study, the synchronous measured aerosol results including aerosol optical depth, complex refractive index and particle size distribution from AERONET under different air conditions, are considered as the input parameters for the successive scattering simulations. With our polarized RT model and the Mie code combined, the Stokes parameters as well as the degree of polarization for each scattering order are simulated and presented; meanwhile, the polarization (depolarization) properties of multiply scattering are preliminary analyzed and compared with different air quality (clear and pollution). Those results could provide a significant support for the further research of polarized aerosol remote sensing and inversion. Polarization properties of aerosol, successive order of scattering, vector radiative transfer equation, polynomial fitting of source function , multiply scattering

  17. Resonant transmission through a multiple periodic scattering system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okita, Taishi; Tanaka, Hiroya

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the propagation and transmission of electromagnetic (EM) waves in the subwavelength regime when a multiple periodic scattering system (MPSS) is illuminated by a monochromatic plane wave. This system has a cascaded structure with square hole arrays periodically perforated on a metal slab with arbitrary slab thickness and arbitrary air-gap. The framework of this paper is based on a modal expansion theory, in which the EM fields in pure vacuum are expanded in terms of plane waves, while those in the holes of the slab are expressed in terms of waveguide modes. The boundary conditions for the EM waves lead to a system of equations whose solution can be obtained quasianalytically in a monomodal approximation method. We study the transmission spectrum and field distribution in the MPSS, varying geometrical parameters such as the air-gap and/or number N of slabs in the context of symmetrical and asymmetrical geometries. We find that an MPSS with N ≥ 2 provides discrete transmission windows whose resonance order linearly increases against N and the associated resonance wavelengths are confined to a specific finite band for large N. The EM fields at the resonance states are quite uniquely distributed in the MPSS, depending not only on the resonance wavelength, but also either on even N or on odd N. We also demonstrate that the transmission of the EM energy is strongly boosted by the evanescent electric fields mirror-symmetrically distributed in the air-gaps of the MPSS.

  18. Air bubbles in water: a strongly multiple scattering medium for acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Kafesaki, M; Penciu, R S; Economou, E N

    2000-06-26

    Using a newly developed multiple scattering scheme, we calculate band structure and transmission properties for acoustic waves propagating in bubbly water. We prove that the multiple scattering effects are responsible for the creation of wide gaps in the transmission even in the presence of strong positional and size disorder.

  19. Average wavefunction method for multiple scattering theory and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, H.

    1985-01-01

    A general approximation scheme, the average wavefunction approximation (AWM), applicable to scattering of atoms and molecules off multi-center targets, is proposed. The total potential is replaced by a sum of nonlocal, separable interactions. Each term in the sum projects the wave function onto a weighted average in the vicinity of a given scattering center. The resultant solution is an infinite order approximation to the true solution, and choosing the weighting function as the zeroth order solution guarantees agreement with the Born approximation to second order. In addition, the approximation also becomes increasingly more accurate in the low energy long wave length limit. A nonlinear, nonperturbative literature scheme for the wave function is proposed. An extension of the scheme to multichannel scattering suitable for treating inelastic scattering is also presented. The method is applied to elastic scattering of a gas off a solid surface. The formalism is developed for both periodic as well as disordered surfaces. Numerical results are presented for atomic clusters on a flat hard wall with a Gaussian like potential at each atomic scattering site. The effect of relative lateral displacement of two clusters upon the scattering pattern is shown. The ability of AWM to accommodate disorder through statistical averaging over cluster configuration is illustrated. Enhanced uniform back scattering is observed with increasing roughness on the surface. Finally, the AWM is applied to atom-molecule scattering.

  20. Ultrasound attenuation in encapsulated microbubble suspensions: The multiple scattering effects.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiusheng; Zhu, Zhemin

    2006-06-01

    The phenomenon of image distortions caused by the multiple scattering (MS) effects of encapsulated microbubbles in ultrasoniqc imaging was experimentally found in previous studies (Soetanto and Chan 2000a), but its mechanism has not been fully understood. To study the MS effects of microbubbles in contrast imaging, two approaches are employed in this article--the effective medium approach initialized by Kargl (2002), which includes all the high-order rescattering of free bubbles, and the classic lowest-order approximation approach of Commander and Prosperetti (1989), which ignores the higher-order rescattering between bubbles. In this work, they are modified to model encapsulated microbubble suspensions, and the discrepancies in attenuation coefficients calculated by these two approaches, i.e., the higher-order rescattering of bubbles are defined as the measure of the MS effects of microbubbles. The intrinsic relations between the MS effects of microbubbles in suspensions and physical properties of the microbubbles, such as the bubble concentrations, sizes, and the shell thicknesses etc., are simulated and discussed. It is found that in suspensions for identical microbubbles >12 microm in size, the MS effects come to be significant when the bubble concentrations exceed 1 x 10(5) bubbles/mL. The MS effects of microbubbles with broad size spectrums are examined by simulating Soetanto and Chan's experiments. Also, the MS effects of UCAs in current ultrasonic imaging practice are discussed. The STARs and extinction cross-sections of different-sized individual encapsulated microbubbles are calculated for further investigations on the mechanism of the MS effects of UCAs.

  1. Influence of Forward and Multiple Light Scatter on the Measurement of Beam Attenuation in Highly Scattering Marine Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskozub, Jacek; Stramski, Dariusz; Terrill, Eric; Melville, W. Kendall

    2004-08-01

    Using three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations, we examine the effect of beam transmissometer geometry on the relative error in the measurement of the beam-attenuation coefficient in an aquatic environment characterized by intense light scattering, especially within submerged bubble clouds entrained by surface-wave breaking. We discuss the forward-scattering error associated with the detection of photons scattered at small angles (< 1°) and the multiple-scattering error associated with the detection of photons scattered more than once along the path length of the instrument. Several scattering phase functions describing bubble clouds at different bubble void fractions in the water are considered. Owing to forward-scattering error, a beam-attenuation meter (beam transmissometer) with a half-angle of receiver acceptance of 1.0° and a path length of 0.1 m can underestimate the true beam attenuation within the bubble cloud by more than 50%. For bubble clouds with a beam attenuation of as much as 100 m^-1, the multiple-scattering error is no more than a few percent. These results are compared with simulations for some example phase functions that are representative of other scattering regimes found in natural waters. The forward-scattering error for the Petzold phase function of turbid waters is 16% for a typical instrument geometry, whereas for the Henyey-Greenstein phase function with the asymmetry parameter of 0.7 and 0.9 the error range is 8-28%.

  2. Influence of multiple scattering and absorption on the full scattering profile and the isobaric point in tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duadi, Hamootal; Fixler, Dror

    2015-05-01

    Light reflectance and transmission from soft tissue has been utilized in noninvasive clinical measurement devices such as the photoplethysmograph (PPG) and reflectance pulse oximeter. Incident light on the skin travels into the underlying layers and is in part reflected back to the surface, in part transferred and in part absorbed. Most methods of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy focus on the volume reflectance from a semi-infinite sample, while very few measure transmission. We have previously shown that examining the full scattering profile (angular distribution of exiting photons) provides more comprehensive information when measuring from a cylindrical tissue. Furthermore, an isobaric point was found which is not dependent on changes in the reduced scattering coefficient. The angle corresponding to this isobaric point depends on the tissue diameter. We investigated the role of multiple scattering and absorption on the full scattering profile of a cylindrical tissue. First, we define the range in which multiple scattering occurs for different tissue diameters. Next, we examine the role of the absorption coefficient in the attenuation of the full scattering profile. We demonstrate that the absorption linearly influences the intensity at each angle of the full scattering profile and, more importantly, the absorption does not change the position of the isobaric point. The findings of this work demonstrate a realistic model for optical tissue measurements such as NIR spectroscopy, PPG, and pulse oximetery.

  3. Influence of multiple scattering and absorption on the full scattering profile and the isobaric point in tissue.

    PubMed

    Duadi, Hamootal; Fixler, Dror

    2015-05-01

    Light reflectance and transmission from soft tissue has been utilized in noninvasive clinical measurement devices such as the photoplethysmograph (PPG) and reflectance pulse oximeter. Incident light on the skin travels into the underlying layers and is in part reflected back to the surface, in part transferred and in part absorbed. Most methods of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy focus on the volume reflectance from a semi-infinite sample, while very few measure transmission. We have previously shown that examining the full scattering profile (angular distribution of exiting photons) provides more comprehensive information when measuring from a cylindrical tissue. Furthermore, an isobaric point was found which is not dependent on changes in the reduced scattering coefficient. The angle corresponding to this isobaric point depends on the tissue diameter. We investigated the role of multiple scattering and absorption on the full scattering profile of a cylindrical tissue. First, we define the range in which multiple scattering occurs for different tissue diameters. Next, we examine the role of the absorption coefficient in the attenuation of the full scattering profile. We demonstrate that the absorption linearly influences the intensity at each angle of the full scattering profile and, more importantly, the absorption does not change the position of the isobaric point. The findings of this work demonstrate a realistic model for optical tissue measurements such as NIR spectroscopy, PPG, and pulse oximetery.

  4. μ-diff: An open-source Matlab toolbox for computing multiple scattering problems by disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thierry, Bertrand; Antoine, Xavier; Chniti, Chokri; Alzubaidi, Hasan

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a Matlab toolbox, called μ-diff, for modeling and numerically solving two-dimensional complex multiple scattering by a large collection of circular cylinders. The approximation methods in μ-diff are based on the Fourier series expansions of the four basic integral operators arising in scattering theory. Based on these expressions, an efficient spectrally accurate finite-dimensional solution of multiple scattering problems can be simply obtained for complex media even when many scatterers are considered as well as large frequencies. The solution of the global linear system to solve can use either direct solvers or preconditioned iterative Krylov subspace solvers for block Toeplitz matrices. Based on this approach, this paper explains how the code is built and organized. Some complete numerical examples of applications (direct and inverse scattering) are provided to show that μ-diff is a flexible, efficient and robust toolbox for solving some complex multiple scattering problems.

  5. Multiple scattering from clear atmosphere obscured by transparent crystal clouds in satellite-borne lidar sensing.

    PubMed

    Flesia, C; Starkov, A V

    1996-05-20

    The contribution of multiple scattering to a spaceborne lidar return from clear molecular atmosphere obscured by transparent upper-level crystal clouds is assessed by the use of the variance-reduction Monte Carlo technique. High anisotropy of scattering in the forward direction by polydispersions of ice crystals is the basis of a significant effect of multiple scattering for small values of the lidar receiver field of view. Because of scattering by large nonspherical crystal particles, the lidar signal backscattered from the molecular atmosphere under the cloud increases significantly compared with the single-scattering return. The ratio of the multiple-to-single-scattering contributions from the clear atmosphere hidden by the clouds is greater than from the crystal clouds themselves, and it is proportional to the values of cloud optical thickness.

  6. Robustness of the fractal regime for the multiple-scattering structure factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katyal, Nisha; Botet, Robert; Puri, Sanjay

    2016-08-01

    In the single-scattering theory of electromagnetic radiation, the fractal regime is a definite range in the photon momentum-transfer q, which is characterized by the scaling-law behavior of the structure factor: S(q) ∝ 1 /q df. This allows a straightforward estimation of the fractal dimension df of aggregates in Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) experiments. However, this behavior is not commonly studied in optical scattering experiments because of the lack of information on its domain of validity. In the present work, we propose a definition of the multiple-scattering structure factor, which naturally generalizes the single-scattering function S(q). We show that the mean-field theory of electromagnetic scattering provides an explicit condition to interpret the significance of multiple scattering. In this paper, we investigate and discuss electromagnetic scattering by three classes of fractal aggregates. The results obtained from the TMatrix method show that the fractal scaling range is divided into two domains: (1) a genuine fractal regime, which is robust; (2) a possible anomalous scaling regime, S(q) ∝ 1 /qδ, with exponent δ independent of df, and related to the way the scattering mechanism uses the local morphology of the scatterer. The recognition, and an analysis, of the latter domain is of importance because it may result in significant reduction of the fractal regime, and brings into question the proper mechanism in the build-up of multiple-scattering.

  7. Multiple scattering of surface waves by cavities in a half-space

    SciTech Connect

    Phan, Haidang; Cho, Younho; Ju, Taeho; Achenbach, Jan D.

    2014-02-18

    Scattering of surface waves from multiple two-dimensional cavities at the surface of a homogenous, isotropic, linearly elastic half-space is analyzed in this work. For the case of multiple cavities, the scattered field is shown to be equivalent to the total radiation from the distributions of tractions, calculated from the incident wave, over the surfaces of the cavities. The multiple-scattering model is obtained from known single-scattering calculation for a cavity by the use of the self-consistent method. The second order approximation to the multiple-scattering problem by a random distribution of cavities is then considered and solved analytically. The vertical displacement at some distance from the cavities is calculated and verified by the solution of the same problem obtained by the boundary element method (BEM). The analytical and BEM results are graphically displayed and show good agreement when the depths of the cavities are small compared to the wavelength.

  8. Multiple-scattering effect on ozone retrieval from space-based differential absorption lidar measurements.

    PubMed

    Pal, S R; Bissonnette, L R

    1998-09-20

    Single-scattering and multiple-scattering lidar signals are calculated for a spaceborne differential absorption lidar system for global ozone measurements at the on and off wavelength pair at 305 and 315 nm. The effect of multiple scattering is found to be negligible on stratospheric and tropospheric ozone retrieval under background stratospheric aerosol. Under low-visibility conditions in the planetary boundary layer the presence of multiple scattering causes an overestimation in maritime aerosol and an underestimation in urban as well as in rural aerosol. This effect is also examined in three cirrus models. The multiple scattering does not permit accurate ozone retrieval within cirrus; however, below it the solution recovers somewhat with generally an underestimation depending on the type and density of cirrus. The effect of aerosol and Rayleigh extinction on the ozone retrieval is also discussed.

  9. FEFF5: An ab initio multiple scattering XAFS code. [In FORTRAN 77

    SciTech Connect

    Rehr, J.J.; Zabinsky, S.I.

    1992-01-01

    FEFF5 is an efficient automated code which calculates multiple scattering (MS) curved wave XAFS spectra for molecules and solids. The theoretical ingredients and approximations contained in the code are revised, with the aim of describing the how XAFS spectra are efficiently simulated. The FEFF5 code consists of 4 independent modules: a scattering potential and phase shift module, a path finder module, a scattering amplitude module and an XAFS module. Multiple scattering Debye-Waller factors are built in using a correlated Debye model.

  10. Multiple scattering of polarized light: comparison of Maxwell theory and radiative transfer theory.

    PubMed

    Voit, Florian; Hohmann, Ansgar; Schäfer, Jan; Kienle, Alwin

    2012-04-01

    For many research areas in biomedical optics, information about scattering of polarized light in turbid media is of increasing importance. Scattering simulations within this field are mainly performed on the basis of radiative transfer theory. In this study a polarization sensitive Monte Carlo solution of radiative transfer theory is compared to exact Maxwell solutions for all elements of the scattering Müller matrix. Different scatterer volume concentrations are modeled as a multitude of monodisperse nonabsorbing spheres randomly positioned in a cubic simulation volume which is irradiated with monochromatic incident light. For all Müller matrix elements effects due to dependent scattering and multiple scattering are analysed. The results are in overall good agreement between the two methods with deviations related to dependent scattering being prominent for high volume concentrations and high scattering angles.

  11. Spatial Stochastic Systems Theory and Multiple Scattering of Waves.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Keh-Chung

    In this thesis, two methods are established for deriving the expressions of the space-time correlation function of the multiply scattered fields caused by discontinuous random media, including randomly distributed discrete scatterers and irregular interfaces. These two methods are: (1) method of spatial stochastic systems, (2) method of discontinuous stochastic field. For the first method, the basic concept and theory about the spatial stochastic system and the generalized convolution estab- lished in the author's earlier papers are developed, and the problem of determining the multiply scattered field in complex media is reduced to a simple algebraic operation of generalized convolutions that is obtained from a system decomposition diagram and the corresponding operator equations (Chapter II). By means of this method, the general formulas for the mean value, mean square value and space correlation function of the multiply scattered field are established. These formulas consist of only a single summation and a single integration, and the integrands can be obtained from a recurrence formula (Chapters III -V). For the second method, a discontinuous stochastic field (beta)((')r,(omega)), which represents the properties of the random medium (randomly distributed discrete scatterers), is defined. Because of the intro- duction of (beta)((')r,(omega)) the whole process of solving the stochastic wave equation by means of the stochastic integral equation and the Neumann series expansion is greatly simplified. The result shows that the space correlation function of the multiply scattered field can be exactly expressed as the form of a series, each term of which is an integral of the statistical moment of (beta)((')r,(omega)) of corresponding order. The convergence speed of this series mainly depends on the contrast in speed between the scatterer material and the surrounding medium, i.e., the fluctuation of the random medium. Thus, the task is reduced to the calculation of

  12. Multiple scattering of electrons in the reflex triode

    SciTech Connect

    Creedon, J.M. )

    1990-12-01

    Analytical theories and Monte Carlo calculations are used to treat the scattering and energy loss of electrons in the anode of a reflex triode. The solution of this scattering problem is combined with the equations for particle flow in vacuum to give a quantitative theory of triode operation. It is now possible to calculate several important properties of this device. These include the operating voltage in the constant voltage mode, the ratio of ion-to-electron current and the ion transit time.

  13. Particle characterization using multiple scattering decorrelation methods: Hard-sphere model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heymann, Andreas; Sinn, Christian; Palberg, Thomas

    2000-07-01

    Applying static light scattering experiments, we characterize colloidal particles that are used as model hard-sphere systems in experiments investigating their crystallization kinetics. The particles comprise of a compact core of poly(methyl methacrylate) and short polymer hairs grafted onto the surface. We use a contrast variation procedure to determine the refractive index variation within the particles and observe that one component of the binary mixture used as a solvent penetrates the particles and masks completely the small polymer hairs. Making use of the determined refractive index variation, we obtain the average particle radius and its polydispersity from measurements of the particle form factor close to its minimae. The scattered intensity has been corrected carefully for multiple scattering contributions applying dynamic light scattering measurements with multiple scattering decorrelation. We obtain a mean particle radius of R¯=435+/-4 nm and a polydispersity of σ=2.5%, a resolution that has not been achieved with light scattering experiments before.

  14. Multiple resonant scattering in the Compton upscatter model of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainerd, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    Resonant Compton scattering, an increasingly popular mechanism for suppressing X-rays and producing gamma rays, must be treated as a multiple-scattering process for conditions thought characteristic of gamma-ray bursts. Photons that multiply scatter with a beamed power-law electron distribution in a uniform magnetic field produce a flat spectrum between the cyclotron frequency and an optical-depth-dependent critical energy; this critical energy ranges between several hundred keV and several MeV. Above this critical energy, the gamma-ray spectrum has a shape determined by the electron distribution and described by a single-scattering model. Only electron distributions that are nearly proportional to the electron momentum are able to simultaneously suppress X-rays and produce a single-scattering spectrum. As the Thomson optical depth approaches unity, photons that experience multiple scatterings often spawn additional photons at a rate that makes the model unphysical.

  15. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF MULTIPLE SCATTERING OF THE f-MODE BY FLUX TUBES

    SciTech Connect

    Felipe, T.; Crouch, A.; Birch, A.

    2013-09-20

    We use numerical simulations to study the absorption and phase shift of surface-gravity waves caused by groups of magnetic flux tubes. The dependence of the scattering coefficients on the distance between the tubes and their positions is analyzed for several cases with two or three flux tubes embedded in a quiet Sun atmosphere. The results are compared with those obtained neglecting completely or partially multiple scattering effects. We show that multiple scattering has a significant impact on the absorption measurements and tends to reduce the phase shift. We also consider more general cases of ensembles of randomly distributed flux tubes, and we have evaluated the effects on the scattering measurements of changing the number of tubes included in the bundle and the average distance between flux tubes. We find that for the longest wavelength incoming waves, multiple scattering enhances the absorption, and its efficiency increases with the number of flux tubes and the reduction of the distance between them.

  16. Reduction of coherent scattering noise with multiple receiver Doppler.

    PubMed

    Jones, Steven A; Krishnamurthy, Kiran

    2002-05-01

    Doppler ultrasound (US) velocity estimates are inherently subject to error as a result of both Doppler ambiguity and coherent scattering. The coherent scattering error is a result of changes in the phase of the returned echo as particles enter and leave the sample volume. This phase depends on the distance from the transmitter to the scatterer and then to the receiver. This distance, in turn, depends on the angle of the receiver. A numerical simulation has been used to determine whether velocity estimates obtained from receiver probes at different angles are independent of one another. If so, then it is possible to obtain an improved velocity estimate from the combination of several receivers at different angles. The simulation results show that the cross-correlation between velocity estimates is reduced to 0.3 when receiver probes are oriented 5 degrees apart. These results suggest a new Doppler method that can significantly reduce velocity estimation error.

  17. Wave multiple scattering by a finite number of unclosed circular cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veliyev, E. I.; Veremey, V. V.

    1984-01-01

    The boundary value problem of plane H-polarized electromagnetic wave multiple scattering by a finite number of unclosed circular cylinders is solved. The solution is obtained by two different methods: the method of successive scattering and the method of partial matrix inversion for simultaneous dual equations. The advantages of the successive scattering method are shown. Computer calculations of the suface currents and the total cross section are presented for the structure of two screens.

  18. Localization of a small change in a multiple scattering environment without modeling of the actual medium.

    PubMed

    Rakotonarivo, S T; Walker, S C; Kuperman, W A; Roux, P

    2011-12-01

    A method to actively localize a small perturbation in a multiple scattering medium using a collection of remote acoustic sensors is presented. The approach requires only minimal modeling and no knowledge of the scatterer distribution and properties of the scattering medium and the perturbation. The medium is ensonified before and after a perturbation is introduced. The coherent difference between the measured signals then reveals all field components that have interacted with the perturbation. A simple single scatter filter (that ignores the presence of the medium scatterers) is matched to the earliest change of the coherent difference to localize the perturbation. Using a multi-source/receiver laboratory setup in air, the technique has been successfully tested with experimental data at frequencies varying from 30 to 60 kHz (wavelength ranging from 0.5 to 1 cm) for cm-scale scatterers in a scattering medium with a size two to five times bigger than its transport mean free path.

  19. A Persistent Feature of Multiple Scattering of Waves in the Time-Domain: A Tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, James A.; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    The equations for frequency-domain multiple scattering are derived for a scalar or electromagnetic plane wave incident on a collection of particles at known positions, and in the time-domain for a plane wave pulse incident on the same collection of particles. The calculation is carried out for five different combinations of wave types and particle types of increasing geometrical complexity. The results are used to illustrate and discuss a number of physical and mathematical characteristics of multiple scattering in the frequency- and time-domains. We argue that frequency-domain multiple scattering is a purely mathematical construct since there is no temporal sequencing information in the frequency-domain equations and since the multi-particle path information can be dispelled by writing the equations in another mathematical form. However, multiple scattering becomes a definite physical phenomenon in the time-domain when the collection of particles is illuminated by an appropriately short localized pulse.

  20. Multiple scattering and intensity fluctuations in optical coherent tomography of randomly inhomogeneous media

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzmin, V. L. Meglinski, I. V.

    2007-08-15

    An expression for signal intensity fluctuations in optical coherent tomography has been obtained for the first time in the framework of the theory of the multiple scattering of low-coherent optical radiation in a random medium. The contribution of the multiple scattering of low-coherent radiation backscattered from a randomly inhomogeneous layer, as well as the speckles of the interference component in optical coherent tomography, has been calculated.

  1. Simplified multiple scattering model for radiative transfer in turbid water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghovanlou, A. H.; Gupta, G. N.

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative analytical procedures for relating selected water quality parameters to the characteristics of the backscattered signals, measured by remote sensors, require the solution of the radiative transport equation in turbid media. Presented is an approximate closed form solution of this equation and based on this solution, the remote sensing of sediments is discussed. The results are compared with other standard closed form solutions such as quasi-single scattering approximations.

  2. Coherent transmission of an ultrasonic shock wave through a multiple scattering medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viard, Nicolas; Giammarinaro, Bruno; Derode, Arnaud; Barrière, Christophe

    2013-08-01

    We report measurements of the transmitted coherent (ensemble-averaged) wave resulting from the interaction of an ultrasonic shock wave with a two-dimensional random medium. Despite multiple scattering, the coherent waveform clearly shows the steepening that is typical of nonlinear harmonic generation. This is taken advantage of to measure the elastic mean free path and group velocity over a broad frequency range (2-15 MHz) in only one experiment. Experimental results are found to be in good agreement with a linear theoretical model taking into account spatial correlations between scatterers. These results show that nonlinearity and multiple scattering are both present, yet uncoupled.

  3. Optimal control of light propagation through multiple-scattering media in the presence of noise

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz, Hasan; Vos, Willem L.; Mosk, Allard P.

    2013-01-01

    We study the control of coherent light propagation through multiple-scattering media in the presence of measurement noise. In our experiments, we use a two-step optimization procedure to find the optimal incident wavefront that generates a bright focal spot behind the medium. We conclude that the control of coherent light propagation through a multiple-scattering medium is only determined by the number of photoelectrons detected per optimized segment. The prediction of our model agrees well with the experimental results. Our results offer opportunities for imaging applications through scattering media such as biological tissue in the shot noise limit. PMID:24049696

  4. [Multiple scattering of visible and infrared light by sea fog over wind driving rough sea surface].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xian-Ming; Wang, Hai-Hua; Lei, Cheng-Xin; Shen, Jin

    2013-08-01

    The present paper is concerned with computing the multiple scattering characteristics of a sea fog-sea surface couple system within this context. The single scattering characteristics of sea fog were studied by Mie theory, and the multiple scattering of sunlight by single sea fog layer was studied by radiative transfer theory. The reflection function of a statistically rough ocean surface was obtained using the standard Kirchhoff formulation, with shadowing effects taken into account. The reflection properties of the combined sea fog and ocean surface were obtained employing the adding method, and the results indicated that the reflected light intensity of sea fog increased with the sea background.

  5. On the theory and simulation of multiple Coulomb scattering of heavy-charged particles.

    PubMed

    Striganov, S I

    2005-01-01

    The Moliere theory of multiple Coulomb scattering is modified to take into account the difference between processes of scattering off atomic nuclei and electrons. A simple analytical expression for angular distribution of charged particles passing through a thick absorber is found. It does not assume any special form for a differential scattering cross section and has a wider range of applicability than a gaussian approximation. A well-known method to simulate multiple Coulomb scatterings is based on treating 'soft' and 'hard' collisions differently. An angular deflection in a large number of 'soft' collisions is sampled using the proposed distribution function, a small number of 'hard' collision are simulated directly. A boundary between 'hard' and 'soft' collisions is defined, providing a precise sampling of a scattering angle (1% level) and a small number of 'hard' collisions. A corresponding simulating module takes into account projectile and nucleus charged distributions and exact kinematics of a projectile-electron interaction.

  6. Influence of multiple scattering on CloudSat measurements in snow: A model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrosov, Sergey Y.; Battaglia, Alessandro

    2009-06-01

    The effects of multiple scattering on larger precipitating hydrometers have an influence on measurements of the spaceborne W-band (94 GHz) CloudSat radar. This study presents initial quantitative estimates of these effects in “dry” snow using radiative transfer calculations for appropriate snowfall models. It is shown that these effects become significant (i.e., greater than approximately 1 dB) when snowfall radar reflectivity factors are greater than about 10-15 dBZ. Reflectivity enhancement due to multiple scattering can reach 4-5 dB in heavier stratiform snowfalls. Multiple scattering effects counteract signal attenuation, so the observed CloudSat reflectivity factors in snowfall could be relatively close to the values that would be observed in the case of single scattering and the absence of attenuation.

  7. Coupling of multiple coulomb scattering and energy loss and straggling in HZETRN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, C. J.; Walker, S. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Singleterry, R. C.; Tweed, J.

    Current developments in HZETRN are focused towards a full three-dimensional and computationally efficient deterministic transport code capable of simulating radiation transport with either space or laboratory boundary conditions One aspect of the new version of HZETRN is the inclusion of small-angle multiple Coulomb scattering of incident ions by target nuclei While the effects of multiple scattering are negligible in the space radiation environment multiple scattering must be included in laboratory transport code simulations to accurately model ion beam experiments to simulate the physical and biological-effective radiation dose and to develop new methods and strategies for light ion radiation therapy In this paper we present the theoretical formalism and computation procedures for incorporating multiple scattering into HZETRN and coupling the ion-nuclear scattering interactions with energy loss and straggling Simulations of the effects of multiple scattering on ion beam characterization will be compared with results from laboratory measurements which include path-length corrections angular and lateral broadening and absorbed dose

  8. Scattering from phase-separated vesicles. I. An analytical form factor for multiple static domains

    SciTech Connect

    Heberle, Frederick A.; Anghel, Vinicius N. P.; Katsaras, John

    2015-08-18

    This is the first in a series of studies considering elastic scattering from laterally heterogeneous lipid vesicles containing multiple domains. Unique among biophysical tools, small-angle neutron scattering can in principle give detailed information about the size, shape and spatial arrangement of domains. A general theory for scattering from laterally heterogeneous vesicles is presented, and the analytical form factor for static domains with arbitrary spatial configuration is derived, including a simplification for uniformly sized round domains. The validity of the model, including series truncation effects, is assessed by comparison with simulated data obtained from a Monte Carlo method. Several aspects of the analytical solution for scattering intensity are discussed in the context of small-angle neutron scattering data, including the effect of varying domain size and number, as well as solvent contrast. Finally, the analysis indicates that effects of domain formation are most pronounced when the vesicle's average scattering length density matches that of the surrounding solvent.

  9. Multiple Point Dynamic Gas Density Measurements Using Molecular Rayleigh Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, Richard; Panda, Jayanta

    1999-01-01

    A nonintrusive technique for measuring dynamic gas density properties is described. Molecular Rayleigh scattering is used to measure the time-history of gas density simultaneously at eight spatial locations at a 50 kHz sampling rate. The data are analyzed using the Welch method of modified periodograms to reduce measurement uncertainty. Cross-correlations, power spectral density functions, cross-spectral density functions, and coherence functions may be obtained from the data. The technique is demonstrated using low speed co-flowing jets with a heated inner jet.

  10. Multiple-collision rotational rainbow effect in molecule-surface scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Elber, R.; Gerber, R.B.

    1983-10-15

    Classical calculations of molecular scattering from smooth surfaces show that multiple rainbow spikes in the rotational intensities may occur where the peaks correspond, respectively, to single, double, etc. collisions of the molecule with the repulsive potential. Unlike single collision rainbows, this effect may cause multiple peaks even for homonuclear diatomics.

  11. A Relativistic Multiple Scattering Theory for Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions with Delta Resonance Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werneth, Charles; Maung Maung, Khin; Norbury, John

    2012-10-01

    Non-relativistic multiple scattering theories (NRMST) are formulated by separating the unperturbed Hamiltonian from the interaction and writing the Lippmann-Schwinger equation as an infinite series in the multiple sums of pseudo two-body operators, known as the Watson tau-operators. The advantage of using the multiple scattering theory (MST) is that the pseudo two-body operators are often well approximated by free two-body nucleon-nucleon operators, which are obtained from parameterizations of experimental data. Relativistic theories are needed to properly describe the production of new particles, such as pions, from nucleus-nucleus collisions. Relativistic multiple scattering theories (RMST) have been developed for nucleon-nucleus scattering; however, no RMST for nucleus-nucleus scattering has yet been derived.footnotetextMaung K M, Norbury J W, and Coleman T 2007 J. Phys. G 34 1861. The purpose of this research is to derive an RMST for nucleus-nucleus scattering and to include delta degrees of freedom in the interaction, the minimum requirement for pion production.

  12. Scattered light corrections to Sun photometry: analytical results for single and multiple scattering regimes.

    PubMed

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander A

    2007-04-01

    Analytical equations for the diffused scattered light correction factor of Sun photometers are derived and analyzed. It is shown that corrections are weakly dependent on the atmospheric optical thickness. They are influenced mostly by the size of aerosol particles encountered by sunlight on its way to a Sun photometer. In addition, the accuracy of the small-angle approximation used in the work is studied with numerical calculations based on the exact radiative transfer equation.

  13. Ultra-fast hybrid CPU-GPU multiple scatter simulation for 3-D PET.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Sang; Son, Young Don; Cho, Zang Hee; Ra, Jong Beom; Ye, Jong Chul

    2014-01-01

    Scatter correction is very important in 3-D PET reconstruction due to a large scatter contribution in measurements. Currently, one of the most popular methods is the so-called single scatter simulation (SSS), which considers single Compton scattering contributions from many randomly distributed scatter points. The SSS enables a fast calculation of scattering with a relatively high accuracy; however, the accuracy of SSS is dependent on the accuracy of tail fitting to find a correct scaling factor, which is often difficult in low photon count measurements. To overcome this drawback as well as to improve accuracy of scatter estimation by incorporating multiple scattering contribution, we propose a multiple scatter simulation (MSS) based on a simplified Monte Carlo (MC) simulation that considers photon migration and interactions due to photoelectric absorption and Compton scattering. Unlike the SSS, the MSS calculates a scaling factor by comparing simulated prompt data with the measured data in the whole volume, which enables a more robust estimation of a scaling factor. Even though the proposed MSS is based on MC, a significant acceleration of the computational time is possible by using a virtual detector array with a larger pitch by exploiting that the scatter distribution varies slowly in spatial domain. Furthermore, our MSS implementation is nicely fit to a parallel implementation using graphic processor unit (GPU). In particular, we exploit a hybrid CPU-GPU technique using the open multiprocessing and the compute unified device architecture, which results in 128.3 times faster than using a single CPU. Overall, the computational time of MSS is 9.4 s for a high-resolution research tomograph (HRRT) system. The performance of the proposed MSS is validated through actual experiments using an HRRT.

  14. Application of the 2-D discrete-ordinates method to multiple scattering of laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zardecki, A.; Gerstl, S.A.W.; Embury, J.F.

    1983-05-01

    The discrete-ordinates finite-element radiation transport code twotran is applied to describe the multiple scattering of a laser beam from a reflecting target. For a model scenario involving a 99% relative humidity rural aerosol we compute the average intensity of the scattered radiation and correction factors to the Beer-Lambert law arising from multiple scattering. As our results indicate, 2-D x-y and r-z geometry modeling can reliably describe a realistic 3-D scenario. Specific results are presented for the two visual ranges of 1.52 and 0.76 km which show that, for sufficiently high aerosol concentrations (e.g., equivalent to V = 0.76 km), the target signature in a distant detector becomes dominated by multiply scattered radiation from interactions of the laser light with the aerosol environment. The merits of the scaling group and the delta-M approximation for the transfer equation are also explored.

  15. Radiance and polarization of multiple scattered light from haze and clouds.

    PubMed

    Kattawar, G W; Plass, G N

    1968-08-01

    The radiance and polarization of multiple scattered light is calculated from the Stokes' vectors by a Monte Carlo method. The exact scattering matrix for a typical haze and for a cloud whose spherical drops have an average radius of 12 mu is calculated from the Mie theory. The Stokes' vector is transformed in a collision by this scattering matrix and the rotation matrix. The two angles that define the photon direction after scattering are chosen by a random process that correctly simulates the actual distribution functions for both angles. The Monte Carlo results for Rayleigh scattering compare favorably with well known tabulated results. Curves are given of the reflected and transmitted radiances and polarizations for both the haze and cloud models and for several solar angles, optical thicknesses, and surface albedos. The dependence on these various parameters is discussed.

  16. Adaptation of the University of Wisconsin High Spectral Resolution Lidar for Polarization and Multiple Scattering Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eloranta, E. W.; Piironen, P. K.

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative lidar measurements of aerosol scattering are hampered by the need for calibrations and the problem of correcting observed backscatter profiles for the effects of attenuation. The University of Wisconsin High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) addresses these problems by separating molecular scattering contributions from the aerosol scattering; the molecular scattering is then used as a calibration target that is available at each point in the observed profiles. While the HSRl approach has intrinsic advantages over competing techniques, realization of these advantages requires implementation of a technically demanding system which is potentially very sensitive to changes in temperature and mechanical alignments. This paper describes a new implementation of the HSRL in an instrumented van which allows measurements during field experiments. The HSRL was modified to measure depolarization. In addition, both the signal amplitude and depolarization variations with receiver field of view are simultaneously measured. This allows for discrimination of ice clouds from water clouds and observation of multiple scattering contributions to the lidar return.

  17. Effect of the concentration of inhomogeneities on the multiple small-angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Abov, Yu. G.; Dzheparov, F. S.; Elyutin, N. O.; Lvov, D. V. Tyulyusov, A. N.

    2013-03-15

    The interference effects manifested during multiple small-angle neutron scattering (MSANS) on a chaotically arranged close-packed ensemble of scatterers have been studied. MSANS measurements have been performed for mixtures of Al and Ti-Zr alloy powders. It is shown that the results can be satisfactorily described based on a theory that takes into account spatial correlations in the arrangement of powder grains.

  18. Effects of multiple scattering, attenuation and dispersion in waveguide sensing of fish.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Mark; Gong, Zheng; Ratilal, Purnima

    2011-09-01

    An ocean acoustic waveguide remote sensing system can instantaneously image and continuously monitor fish populations distributed over continental shelf-scale regions. Here it is shown theoretically that the areal population density of fish groups can be estimated from their incoherently averaged broadband matched filtered scattered intensities measured using a waveguide remote sensing system with less than 10% error. A numerical Monte-Carlo model is developed to determine the statistical moments of the scattered returns from a fish group. It uses the parabolic equation to simulate acoustic field propagation in a random range-dependent ocean waveguide. The effects of (1) multiple scattering, (2) attenuation due to scattering, and (3) modal dispersion on fish population density imaging are examined. The model is applied to investigate population density imaging of shoaling Atlantic herring during the 2006 Gulf of Maine Experiment. Multiple scattering, attenuation and dispersion are found to be negligible at the imaging frequencies employed and for the herring densities observed. Coherent multiple scattering effects, such as resonance shifts, which can be significant for small highly dense fish groups on the order of the acoustic wavelength, are found to be negligible for the much larger groups typically imaged with a waveguide remote sensing system.

  19. Monte Carlo simulations of elastic wave multiple scattering in polycrystalline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoshal, Goutam; Turner, Joseph A.

    2005-09-01

    The scattering of elastic waves in polycrystalline media is primarily due to the orientation distribution of the crystal axes of the grains. This scattering may be used to extract microstructural parameters of the material such as grain size and grain texture. In particular, diffuse ultrasonic backscatter measurements have been especially useful for extracting microstructural information. Diffuse backscatter is often modeled analytically under a single scattering assumption. Beyond single scattering, the elastic radiative transfer equation (RTE) governs the evolution of diffuse energy and includes all multiple scattering effects. In this presentation, a rigorous connection between the RTE theory and the backscatter experiments is discussed. Specific solutions are obtained for a specimen excited by a normally incident longitudinal wave. Results are compared with previous backscatter theories. In addition, numerical results are presented using Monte Carlo simulations including various levels of scattering to observe differences between single and multiple scattering solutions. The Monte Carlo solutions are based on the analogy between the RTE and the Boltzmann theory of gas. Relevant applications for materials of common interest are discussed. These results are anticipated to impact ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of polycrystalline media. [Work supported by U.S. DOE.

  20. Cloud-droplet-size distribution from lidar multiple-scattering measurements.

    PubMed

    Benayahu, Y; Ben-David, A; Fastig, S; Cohen, A

    1995-03-20

    A method for calculating droplet-size distribution in atmospheric clouds is presented, based on measurement of laser backscattering and multiple scattering from water clouds. The lidar uses a Nd:YAG laser that emits short pulses at a moderate repetition rate. The backscattering, which is composed mainly of single scattering, is measured with a detector pointing along the laser beam. The multiple scattering, which is mainly double scattering, is measured with a second detector, pointing at a specified angle to the laser beam. The domain of scattering angles that contribute to the doublescattering signal increases monotonically as the pulse penetrates the cloud. The water droplets within the probed volume are assumed to have a constant size distribution. Hence, from the double-scatteringmeasured signal as a function of penetration depth within the cloud, the double-scattering phase function of the scattering volume is derived. Inverting the phase function results in a cloud-droplet-size distribution in the form of a log-normal function.

  1. Bridging Three Orders of Magnitude: Multiple Scattered Waves Sense Fractal Microscopic Structures via Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Simon A.; Näsholm, Sven Peter; Nordsletten, David; Michler, Christian; Juge, Lauriane; Serfaty, Jean-Michel; Bilston, Lynne; Guzina, Bojan; Holm, Sverre; Sinkus, Ralph

    2015-08-01

    Wave scattering provides profound insight into the structure of matter. Typically, the ability to sense microstructure is determined by the ratio of scatterer size to probing wavelength. Here, we address the question of whether macroscopic waves can report back the presence and distribution of microscopic scatterers despite several orders of magnitude difference in scale between wavelength and scatterer size. In our analysis, monosized hard scatterers 5 μ m in radius are immersed in lossless gelatin phantoms to investigate the effect of multiple reflections on the propagation of shear waves with millimeter wavelength. Steady-state monochromatic waves are imaged in situ via magnetic resonance imaging, enabling quantification of the phase velocity at a voxel size big enough to contain thousands of individual scatterers, but small enough to resolve the wavelength. We show in theory, experiments, and simulations that the resulting coherent superposition of multiple reflections gives rise to power-law dispersion at the macroscopic scale if the scatterer distribution exhibits apparent fractality over an effective length scale that is comparable to the probing wavelength. Since apparent fractality is naturally present in any random medium, microstructure can thereby leave its fingerprint on the macroscopically quantifiable power-law exponent. Our results are generic to wave phenomena and carry great potential for sensing microstructure that exhibits intrinsic fractality, such as, for instance, vasculature.

  2. Bridging Three Orders of Magnitude: Multiple Scattered Waves Sense Fractal Microscopic Structures via Dispersion.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Simon A; Näsholm, Sven Peter; Nordsletten, David; Michler, Christian; Juge, Lauriane; Serfaty, Jean-Michel; Bilston, Lynne; Guzina, Bojan; Holm, Sverre; Sinkus, Ralph

    2015-08-28

    Wave scattering provides profound insight into the structure of matter. Typically, the ability to sense microstructure is determined by the ratio of scatterer size to probing wavelength. Here, we address the question of whether macroscopic waves can report back the presence and distribution of microscopic scatterers despite several orders of magnitude difference in scale between wavelength and scatterer size. In our analysis, monosized hard scatterers 5  μm in radius are immersed in lossless gelatin phantoms to investigate the effect of multiple reflections on the propagation of shear waves with millimeter wavelength. Steady-state monochromatic waves are imaged in situ via magnetic resonance imaging, enabling quantification of the phase velocity at a voxel size big enough to contain thousands of individual scatterers, but small enough to resolve the wavelength. We show in theory, experiments, and simulations that the resulting coherent superposition of multiple reflections gives rise to power-law dispersion at the macroscopic scale if the scatterer distribution exhibits apparent fractality over an effective length scale that is comparable to the probing wavelength. Since apparent fractality is naturally present in any random medium, microstructure can thereby leave its fingerprint on the macroscopically quantifiable power-law exponent. Our results are generic to wave phenomena and carry great potential for sensing microstructure that exhibits intrinsic fractality, such as, for instance, vasculature.

  3. Supersymmetric and Kaluza-Klein Particles Multiple Scattering in the Earth

    SciTech Connect

    Albuquerque, Ivone; Klein, Spencer

    2009-05-19

    Neutrino telescopes with cubic kilometer volume have the potential to discover new particles. Among them are next to lightest supersymmetric (NLSPs) and next to lightest Kaluza-Klein (NLKPs) particles. Two NLSPs or NLKPs will transverse the detector simultaneously producing parallel charged tracks. The track separation inside the detector can be a few hundred meters. As these particles might propagate a few thousand kilometers before reaching the detector, multiple scattering could enhance the pair separation at the detector. We find that the multiple scattering will alter the separation distribution enough to increase the number of NLKP pairs separated by more than 100 meters (a reasonable experimental cut) by up to 46% depending on the NLKP mass. Vertical upcoming NLSPs will have their separation increased by 24% due to multiple scattering.

  4. A fast calculating two-stream-like multiple scattering algorithm that captures azimuthal and elevation variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorino, Steven T.; Elmore, Brannon; Schmidt, Jaclyn; Matchefts, Elizabeth; Burley, Jarred L.

    2016-05-01

    Properly accounting for multiple scattering effects can have important implications for remote sensing and possibly directed energy applications. For example, increasing path radiance can affect signal noise. This study describes the implementation of a fast-calculating two-stream-like multiple scattering algorithm that captures azimuthal and elevation variations into the Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) atmospheric characterization and radiative transfer code. The multiple scattering algorithm fully solves for molecular, aerosol, cloud, and precipitation single-scatter layer effects with a Mie algorithm at every calculation point/layer rather than an interpolated value from a pre-calculated look-up-table. This top-down cumulative diffusivity method first considers the incident solar radiance contribution to a given layer accounting for solid angle and elevation, and it then measures the contribution of diffused energy from previous layers based on the transmission of the current level to produce a cumulative radiance that is reflected from a surface and measured at the aperture at the observer. Then a unique set of asymmetry and backscattering phase function parameter calculations are made which account for the radiance loss due to the molecular and aerosol constituent reflectivity within a level and allows for a more accurate characterization of diffuse layers that contribute to multiple scattered radiances in inhomogeneous atmospheres. The code logic is valid for spectral bands between 200 nm and radio wavelengths, and the accuracy is demonstrated by comparing the results from LEEDR to observed sky radiance data.

  5. Features of polarization decay in the transition between the low-step and multiple scattering of laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimnyakov, D. A.; Yuvchenko, S. A.; Taskina, L. A.; Alonova, M. V.; Isaeva, E. A.; Isaeva, A. A.; Ushakova, O. V.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of increase in the uncertainty of local polarization states of laser light forward scattered by random media was studied in the experiments with phantom scatterers. At macroscopic level this effect is related to decay in the degree of polarization of scattered light in the course of transition from single to multiple scattering. Gelatin layers with embedded titania particles were used as the phantom scatterers. Features of distributions of local polarization states in various polarization coordinates were considered.

  6. Multiple magnetic impurities on surfaces: Scattering and quasiparticle interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Andrew K.; Derry, Philip G.; Logan, David E.

    2015-06-01

    We study systems of multiple interacting quantum impurities deposited on a metallic surface in a three-dimensional host. For the real-space two-impurity problem, using numerical renormalization group calculations, a rich range of behavior is shown to arise due to the interplay between Kondo physics and effective Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interactions—provided the impurity separation is small. Such calculations allow identification of the minimum impurity separation required for a description in terms of independent impurities, and thereby the onset of the "dilute-impurity limit" in many-impurity systems. A "dilute-cluster" limit is also identified in systems with higher impurity density, where interimpurity interactions are important only within independent clusters. We calculate the quasiparticle interference due to two and many impurities, and explore the consequences of the independent impurity and cluster paradigms. Our results provide a framework to investigate the effects of disorder due to interacting impurities at experimentally relevant surface coverages.

  7. MULTIPLE-PLANET SCATTERING AND THE ORIGIN OF HOT JUPITERS

    SciTech Connect

    Beauge, C.; Nesvorny, D.

    2012-06-01

    Doppler and transit observations of exoplanets show a pile-up of Jupiter-size planets in orbits with a 3 day period. A fraction of these hot Jupiters have retrograde orbits with respect to the parent star's rotation, as evidenced by the measurements of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. To explain these observations we performed a series of numerical integrations of planet scattering followed by the tidal circularization and migration of planets that evolved into highly eccentric orbits. We considered planetary systems having three and four planets initially placed in successive mean-motion resonances, although the angles were taken randomly to ensure orbital instability in short timescales. The simulations included the tidal and relativistic effects, and precession due to stellar oblateness. Our results show the formation of two distinct populations of hot Jupiters. The inner population (Population I) is characterized by semimajor axis a < 0.03 AU and mainly formed in the systems where no planetary ejections occurred. Our follow-up integrations showed that this population was transient, with most planets falling inside the Roche radius of the star in <1 Gyr. The outer population of hot Jupiters (Population II) formed in systems where at least one planet was ejected into interstellar space. This population survives the effects of tides over >1 Gyr and fits nicely the observed 3 day pile-up. A comparison between our three-planet and four-planet runs shows that the formation of hot Jupiters is more likely in systems with more initial planets. Due to the large-scale chaoticity that dominates the evolution, high eccentricities and/or high inclinations are generated mainly by close encounters between the planets and not by secular perturbations (Kozai or otherwise). The relative proportion of retrograde planets seems of be dependent on the stellar age. Both the distribution of almost aligned systems and the simulated 3 day pile-up also fit observations better in our four

  8. Multiple-scattering effects on spaceborne lidar dedicated to forests survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Xiaoxia; Chazette, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The role of forests in the climate balance of the Earth system leads us to consider their monitoring on a global scale. This militates towards the establishment of a long-term monitoring of both forest areas and their evolution, in accordance with the climatic scales. Lidar and radar are promising instruments for such observations from spaceborne stations and present strong complementarity via their use in synergy. Here, we will focus on lidar technology where one of the major difficulties is the choice of the emitted wavelength. In fact, for space observations, multiple-scattering may significantly affect the scattering of the propagating laser light through the forest canopy. Indeed, depending on the lidar system parameters (e.g. wavelength, field of view) and on the tree species, spaceborne lidar observations are more or less perturbed by multiple-scattering. To assess the multiple-scattering effects on lidar signal return, a Monte Carlo simulator has been built. The simulator is constraint by actual measurements performed by an airborne lidar using an ultraviolet wavelength (355 nm). The airborne lidar sampled forest types (e.g. oaks, maritime pines, poplars) representative of European mid-latitude forests to constitute a data base of extinction coefficient vertical profiles in the canopy. For the simulations, the leaves have been considered as Lambertian surfaces, but it is not a limitation for the statistic modelling. For example, the multiple-scattering may lead to a significant overestimation of the poplar crown depths, larger than 4 m. The footprint, accounting for the altitude of the satellite orbit, dimensions the amplitude of the multiple-scattering effects. It has to be assessed taking into account the ground slope. Results established using UV airborne lidar coupled with a Monte Carlo approach will be presented and discussed.

  9. Polarization and effective Mueller matrix for multiple scattering of light by nonspherical ice crystals.

    PubMed

    Lawless, Ryan; Xie, Yu; Yang, Ping; Kattawar, George W; Laszlo, Istvan

    2006-07-10

    We investigated the errors associated with the scalar approximation (i.e., an approach that neglects polarization effects) for simulating the intensity of the radiation reflected by an ice cloud. In a case for an optical thickness of tau=1, the relative errors of the scalar approximation are typically between -0.5% and 0.1%. We also investigated the effect of the order of scattering on the degree of linear polarization. It is shown that substantial errors can be introduced by the first-order scattering approximation, and thus, the multiple-scattering effect is essential to an accurate simulation of the polarization configuration of a radiation field. Furthermore, we investigate the effective Mueller matrix pertaining to multiple scattering of light by ice clouds. The effective Mueller matrix is a 4x4 matrix that relates the incident and scattered Stokes parameters. This matrix implicitly contains the effects of all orders of scattering and absorbing events in the entire radiation transfer process. The sensitivity of the (2,1) and (3,1) elements of the effective Mueller matrix to ice crystal shape and size indicates that polarimetric information may be useful for inferring the microphysical properties of ice crystals within ice clouds.

  10. Multiple scattering dynamics of fermions at an isolated p-wave resonance

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, R.; Roberts, K. O.; Tiesinga, E.; Wade, A. C. J.; Blakie, P. B.; Deb, A. B.; Kjærgaard, N.

    2016-01-01

    The wavefunction for indistinguishable fermions is anti-symmetric under particle exchange, which directly leads to the Pauli exclusion principle, and hence underlies the structure of atoms and the properties of almost all materials. In the dynamics of collisions between two indistinguishable fermions, this requirement strictly prohibits scattering into 90° angles. Here we experimentally investigate the collisions of ultracold clouds fermionic 40K atoms by directly measuring scattering distributions. With increasing collision energy we identify the Wigner threshold for p-wave scattering with its tell-tale dumb-bell shape and no 90° yield. Above this threshold, effects of multiple scattering become manifest as deviations from the underlying binary p-wave shape, adding particles either isotropically or axially. A shape resonance for 40K facilitates the separate observation of these two processes. The isotropically enhanced multiple scattering mode is a generic p-wave threshold phenomenon, whereas the axially enhanced mode should occur in any colliding particle system with an elastic scattering resonance. PMID:27396294

  11. Multiple scattering dynamics of fermions at an isolated p-wave resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R.; Roberts, K. O.; Tiesinga, E.; Wade, A. C. J.; Blakie, P. B.; Deb, A. B.; Kjærgaard, N.

    2016-07-01

    The wavefunction for indistinguishable fermions is anti-symmetric under particle exchange, which directly leads to the Pauli exclusion principle, and hence underlies the structure of atoms and the properties of almost all materials. In the dynamics of collisions between two indistinguishable fermions, this requirement strictly prohibits scattering into 90° angles. Here we experimentally investigate the collisions of ultracold clouds fermionic 40K atoms by directly measuring scattering distributions. With increasing collision energy we identify the Wigner threshold for p-wave scattering with its tell-tale dumb-bell shape and no 90° yield. Above this threshold, effects of multiple scattering become manifest as deviations from the underlying binary p-wave shape, adding particles either isotropically or axially. A shape resonance for 40K facilitates the separate observation of these two processes. The isotropically enhanced multiple scattering mode is a generic p-wave threshold phenomenon, whereas the axially enhanced mode should occur in any colliding particle system with an elastic scattering resonance.

  12. Multiple scattering dynamics of fermions at an isolated p-wave resonance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R; Roberts, K O; Tiesinga, E; Wade, A C J; Blakie, P B; Deb, A B; Kjærgaard, N

    2016-01-01

    The wavefunction for indistinguishable fermions is anti-symmetric under particle exchange, which directly leads to the Pauli exclusion principle, and hence underlies the structure of atoms and the properties of almost all materials. In the dynamics of collisions between two indistinguishable fermions, this requirement strictly prohibits scattering into 90° angles. Here we experimentally investigate the collisions of ultracold clouds fermionic (40)K atoms by directly measuring scattering distributions. With increasing collision energy we identify the Wigner threshold for p-wave scattering with its tell-tale dumb-bell shape and no 90° yield. Above this threshold, effects of multiple scattering become manifest as deviations from the underlying binary p-wave shape, adding particles either isotropically or axially. A shape resonance for (40)K facilitates the separate observation of these two processes. The isotropically enhanced multiple scattering mode is a generic p-wave threshold phenomenon, whereas the axially enhanced mode should occur in any colliding particle system with an elastic scattering resonance. PMID:27396294

  13. Multiple scattering dynamics of fermions at an isolated p-wave resonance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R; Roberts, K O; Tiesinga, E; Wade, A C J; Blakie, P B; Deb, A B; Kjærgaard, N

    2016-07-11

    The wavefunction for indistinguishable fermions is anti-symmetric under particle exchange, which directly leads to the Pauli exclusion principle, and hence underlies the structure of atoms and the properties of almost all materials. In the dynamics of collisions between two indistinguishable fermions, this requirement strictly prohibits scattering into 90° angles. Here we experimentally investigate the collisions of ultracold clouds fermionic (40)K atoms by directly measuring scattering distributions. With increasing collision energy we identify the Wigner threshold for p-wave scattering with its tell-tale dumb-bell shape and no 90° yield. Above this threshold, effects of multiple scattering become manifest as deviations from the underlying binary p-wave shape, adding particles either isotropically or axially. A shape resonance for (40)K facilitates the separate observation of these two processes. The isotropically enhanced multiple scattering mode is a generic p-wave threshold phenomenon, whereas the axially enhanced mode should occur in any colliding particle system with an elastic scattering resonance.

  14. Multiple Scattering Correlation Measurements in Fluid/particle Suspensions: Application to Particle Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorri-Nowkoorani, Farhad

    1995-01-01

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to examine different parameters such as transmission, back-scattering, off angle detection, polarization, and different ranges of optical thickness (low to high), in dynamic light scattering measurements from multiple scattering fluid/particle suspensions. In addition, the validity of correlation transfer (CT) theory was investigated and a methodology was provided for finding micron size spherical particle diameter. The experiment has been setup using an Argon-Ion laser, PMT, goiniometer, mirrors, lenses, and beam splitter. Solutions of 0.3 m latex particles mixed with water have been used as the test samples. The measurements have been compared to CT theory using exact and approximate numerical solutions. Findings and conclusions. It was found that the two-dimensional correlation function decays slower as compared to the one-dimensional situation. The correlation function decays faster as effective optical thickness increases. Polarization affects the back-scattering correlation function decay rate for all optical thicknesses, while it may be unimportant for transmission at high optical thicknesses. Transition from single scattering to multiple scattering appears to begin around an optical thickness of 0.05. In addition, the correlation function appears relatively insensitive to off angle detection for effective optical thicknesses of 3 or greater transmission and 1.5 or greater for back -scattering. However, for smaller optical thicknesses, the correlation function appears to be dependent on detection angle. The CT theory has demonstrated promise as a model to bridge the gap from single scattering to multiple scattering correlation. A methodology is proposed herein to allow the determination of particle size using data to match CT predictions, as long as two index of refraction changes at the boundaries and a realistic single scattering phase function are considered in the numerical results. A method of

  15. On the multiple scattering of VHF/UHF waves in the equatorial ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vats, H. O.

    1981-01-01

    Using amplitude data of radio beacons at 40, 140, and 360 MHz from ATS 6 (phase II), an attempt has been made to study scattering of these waves in the equatorial ionosphere. A comparison of observed scintillation index S sub 4 with the theoretical results of the multiple scattering approach and variation of autocorrelation time with frequency indicates that this theory explains the results to a large extent. A comparison of power spectra of amplitude records with the ionograms of a nearby equatorial station has led to the following conclusions: the change from a weak scattering regime to a strong scattering regime is gradual and occurs because of the gradual decrease in the scale size of the irregularities (i.e., broadening of the spectra) and the gradual increase in the thickness of the irregular region.

  16. Scattering at oblique incidence by multiple cylinders in front of a surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Siu-Chun

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a theoretical solution for scattering by multiple parallel infinite cylinders located on top of a dielectric substrate. The incident plane wave is arbitrarily polarized and propagates in a general direction inclined from the axis of the cylinders. The scattered waves become depolarized at oblique incidence, which are reflected from the surface of the substrate to become incident waves at the cylinders. An exact solution of Maxwell's equations is developed that rigorously treats the depolarization of scattered waves and the angular spectrum of reflected and transmitted waves from the surface. Numerical results are presented for different configurations of perfectly conducting and coated cylinders at perpendicular and oblique incidence to illustrate plasmonic resonances in the near-field and scattering characteristics in the far-field.

  17. Group-fitted ab initiosingle- and multiple-scattering EXAFS Debye-Waller factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimakis, Nicholas; Bunker, Grant

    2002-05-01

    X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy is one of the few direct probes of the structure of metalloprotein binding that is equally applicable to proteins in crystals, solutions, and membranes. Despite considerable progress in the calculation of the photoelectron scattering aspects of XAFS, calculation of the vibrational aspects has lagged because of the difficulty of the calculations. We report here initial results that express single- and multiple-scattering Debye-Waller factors as polynomial functions of first shell radial distance for metal-peptide complexes, enabling quantitatively accurate full multiple-scattering XAFS data analysis of active sites of unknown structure at arbitrary temperatures without the use of ad hoc assumptions.

  18. Temporal coherence after multiple forward scattering through random three-dimensional inhomogeneities in an ocean waveguide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianrun; Ratilal, Purnima; Makris, Nicholas C

    2008-11-01

    An analytical expression is derived for the temporal coherence of an acoustic field after multiple forward scattering through random three-dimensional (3D) inhomogeneities in an ocean waveguide. This expression makes it possible to predict the coherence time scale of field fluctuations in ocean-acoustic measurements from knowledge of the oceanography. It is used to explain the time scale of acoustic field fluctuations observed at megameter ranges in various deep ocean-acoustic transmission experiments. It is shown that this time scale is nonlinearly related to the much longer coherence time scale of deep ocean internal waves through a multiple forward scattering process. It is also shown that 3D scattering effects become pronounced when the acoustic Fresnel width exceeds the cross-range coherence length of the deep ocean internal waves, which lead to frequency and range-dependent power losses in the forward field that may help to explain historic long range measurements.

  19. Relation between circular and linear depolarization ratios under multiple-scattering conditions.

    PubMed

    Roy, Gilles; Roy, Nathalie

    2008-12-10

    A simple relationship is established between the linear and the circular depolarization ratios averaged over the azimuth angle of clouds made of spherical particles. The relationship is validated theoretically using double-scattering calculations; in the framework, the measurements are performed with a multiple-field-of-view lidar (MFOV) lidar. The relationship is also validated using data obtained with MFOV lidar equipped with linear and circular polarization measurement capabilities. The experimental data support theoretical results for small optical depths. At higher optical depths and large fields of view, the contribution of multiple scatterings is important; experimental data suggest that the relationship established between the linear and circular depolarization stays valid as long as the main depolarization mechanism comes from one scattering (most likely a backscattering a few degrees away from 180 degrees ).

  20. Multiple Scattering of Laser Pulses in Snow Over Ice: Modeling the Potential Bias in ICESat Altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, A. B.; Varnai, T.; Marshak, A.

    2010-01-01

    The primary goal of NASA's current ICESat and future ICESat2 missions is to map the altitude of the Earth's land ice with high accuracy using laser altimetry technology, and to measure sea ice freeboard. Ice however is a highly transparent optical medium with variable scattering and absorption properties. Moreover, it is often covered by a layer of snow with varying depth and optical properties largely dependent on its age. We describe a modeling framework for estimating the potential altimetry bias caused by multiple scattering in the layered medium. We use both a Monte Carlo technique and an analytical diffusion model valid for optically thick media. Our preliminary numerical results are consistent with estimates of the multiple scattering delay from laboratory measurements using snow harvested in Greenland, namely, a few cm. Planned refinements of the models are described.

  1. Multiple vs single scattering - Assessment of magnitudes. [in remote sensing of two artificial canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, Joseph; Brakke, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    All orders of scattering are analyzed for two artifical canopies. The SHL canopy consists of Small Horizontal Leaves that are much smaller than the leaf-to-leaf spacing. The IHL canopy consists of Infinite Horizontal Layers, where each leaf is of infinite extent (a horizontal plane). Hemispheric leaf reflectances and transmittances independent of the direction of illumination lead to exact solutions for these models. Sunlight that penetrates to a given leaf area index level is much stronger in an SHL canopy than that in IHL; but the difference becomes muted when leaf transmittance is large. Multiple scattering enhances the hemispheric canopy reflectance more strongly in SHL than it does in IHL. The enhancement depends linearly on leaf transmittance in SHL and on the transmittance squared in IHL. Comparison with measured reflectances indicates that IHL model grossly underestimates multiple scattering in soybean canopies.

  2. Multiple-scattering model for inclusive proton production in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1994-01-01

    A formalism is developed for evaluating the momentum distribution for proton production in nuclear abrasion during heavy ion collisions using the Glauber multiple-scattering series. Several models for the one-body density matrix of nuclei are considered for performing numerical calculations. Calculations for the momentum distribution of protons in abrasion are compared with experimental data for inclusive proton production.

  3. Efficient modelling of multiple scattering for minimum ionizing particles in tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regler, M.; Frühwirth, R.

    2000-09-01

    In the reconstruction of particle tracks in high-energy physics experiments multiple scattering has to be taken into account by computing the variance of the deflection and of the lateral displacement of the track both for discrete and for continuous scatterers. We apply this method to modelling the lateral position uncertainty in the target area in the context of ion therapy. The beam monitoring unit is treated as a discrete scatterer, tissue and bones of the patient as a continuous scatterer. By a simple model of the energy dependence of the scattering process the variance of the lateral displacement can be written down in closed form. By using just the variance of the lateral displacement it is not possible to describe the distribution in more detail, in particular the tails. If one wants to go beyond the Gaussian assumption, then it is convenient to model the distribution by a Gaussian mixture, in this case a mixture with only two components. One component describes the core of the distribution, the second one the tails. Starting from a thin scatterer, we compute the cumulants of the distribution in a scatterer of any thickness and show how to approximate it again by a Gaussian mixture with two components. We also show that under suitable assumptions the variance of the core reproduces very nicely the logarithmic correction formula which is usually applied to discard the tails in a Gaussian setting. In contrast, our approach yields a quantitative description of the tails which can then be used in the treatment planning for a fast and precise simulation of the effects of multiple scattering.

  4. Frequency-domain method for measuring spectral properties in multiple-scattering media: methemoglobin absorption spectrum in a tissuelike phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishkin, Joshua B.; So, Peter T. C.; Cerussi, Albert E.; Gratton, Enrico; Fantini, Sergio; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    1995-03-01

    We have measured the optical absorption and scattering coefficient spectra of a multiple-scattering medium (i.e., a biological tissue-simulating phantom comprising a lipid colloid) containing methemoglobin by using frequency-domain techniques. The methemoglobin absorption spectrum determined in the multiple-scattering medium is in excellent agreement with a corrected methemoglobin absorption spectrum obtained from a steady-state spectrophotometer measurement of the optical density of a minimally scattering medium. The determination of the corrected methemoglobin absorption spectrum takes into account the scattering from impurities in the methemoglobin solution containing no lipid colloid. Frequency-domain techniques allow for the separation of the absorbing from the scattering properties of multiple-scattering media, and these techniques thus provide an absolute

  5. Simple relation between lidar multiple scattering and depolarization for water clouds.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yongxiang; Liu, Zhaoyan; Winker, David; Vaughan, Mark; Noel, Vincent; Bissonnette, Luc; Roy, Gilles; McGill, Matthew

    2006-06-15

    An empirical relationship is derived between the multiple-scattering fraction and the linear depolarization ratio by using Monte Carlo simulations of water clouds measured by backscatter lidar. This relationship is shown to hold for clouds having a wide range of extinction coefficients, mean droplet sizes, and droplet size distribution widths. The relationship is also shown to persist for various instrument fields of view and for measurements made within broken cloud fields. The results obtained from the Monte Carlo simulations are verified by using multiple-field-of-view lidar measurements. For space-based lidars equipped to measure linear depolarization ratios, this new relationship can be used to accurately assess signal perturbations due to multiple scattering within nonprecipitating water clouds.

  6. Time-domain numerical simulations of multiple scattering to extract elastic effective wavenumbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekroun, Mathieu; Le Marrec, Loïc; Lombard, Bruno; Piraux, Joël

    2012-08-01

    Elastic wave propagation is studied in a heterogeneous two-dimensional medium consisting of an elastic matrix containing randomly distributed circular elastic inclusions. The aim of this study is to determine the effective wavenumbers when the incident wavelength is similar to the radius of the inclusions. A purely numerical methodology is presented, with which the limitations usually associated with low scatterer concentrations can be avoided. The elastodynamic equations are integrated by a fourth-order time-domain numerical scheme. An immersed interface method is used to accurately discretize the interfaces on a Cartesian grid. The effective field is extracted from the simulated data, and signal-processing tools are used to obtain the complex effective wavenumbers. The numerical reference solution thus obtained can be used to check the validity of multiple scattering analytical models. The method is applied to the case of concrete. A parametric study is performed on longitudinal and transverse incident plane waves at various scatterer concentrations. The phase velocities and attenuations determined numerically are compared with predictions obtained with multiple scattering models, such as the Independent Scattering Approximation model, the Waterman-Truell model, and the more recent Conoir-Norris model.

  7. Multiple scattering effects with cyclical terms in active remote sensing of vegetated surface using vector radiative transfer theory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The energy transport in a vegetated (corn) surface layer is examined by solving the vector radiative transfer equation using a numerical iterative approach. This approach allows a higher order that includes the multiple scattering effects. Multiple scattering effects are important when the optical t...

  8. Scattering from phase-separated vesicles. I. An analytical form factor for multiple static domains

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Heberle, Frederick A.; Anghel, Vinicius N. P.; Katsaras, John

    2015-08-18

    This is the first in a series of studies considering elastic scattering from laterally heterogeneous lipid vesicles containing multiple domains. Unique among biophysical tools, small-angle neutron scattering can in principle give detailed information about the size, shape and spatial arrangement of domains. A general theory for scattering from laterally heterogeneous vesicles is presented, and the analytical form factor for static domains with arbitrary spatial configuration is derived, including a simplification for uniformly sized round domains. The validity of the model, including series truncation effects, is assessed by comparison with simulated data obtained from a Monte Carlo method. Several aspects ofmore » the analytical solution for scattering intensity are discussed in the context of small-angle neutron scattering data, including the effect of varying domain size and number, as well as solvent contrast. Finally, the analysis indicates that effects of domain formation are most pronounced when the vesicle's average scattering length density matches that of the surrounding solvent.« less

  9. Concentration profiles from lidar measurements in the presence of multiple scattering: the two-stream approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Ayoubi, I.S.; Nelson, P. )

    1989-10-01

    We consider the problem of obtaining, from monostatic lidar measurements, the concentration profile for a medium of known scattering properties. Invariant imbedding methods are applied to the two-stream approximation to the radiative transfer equation in one dimension, to obtain a nonlinear integrodifferential equation that takes account of multiple scattering events, and whose solution yields the desired profile. A discretization scheme for this equation is presented, along with results from using it to solve two sample problems. The stability of this inversion scheme in the face of noisy signals is also explored.

  10. A three-parameter analytic phase function for multiple scattering calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kattawar, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    A very simple procedure has been developed to fit the first three moments of an actual phase function with a three-parameter analytic phase function. The exact Legendre polynomial decomposition of this function is known which makes it quite suitable for multiple scattering calculations. The use of this function can be expected to yield excellent flux values at all depths within a medium. Since it is capable of reproducing the glory, it can be used in synthetic spectra computations from planetary atmospheres. Accurate asymptotic radiance values can also be achieved as long as the single scattering albedo is not less than 0.9.

  11. A method based on iterative morphological filtering and multiple scattering for detecting layer boundaries and extinction coefficients with LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Meng; Jiang, Li-Hui; Xiong, Xing-Long; Ma, Yu-Zhao; Liu, Jie-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    Layer boundaries detection with LIDAR is of great significance for the meteorological and environmental research. Apart from the background noise, multiple scattering can also seriously affect the detection results in LIDAR signal processing. To alleviate these issues, a novel approach was proposed based upon morphological filtering and multiple scattering correction with multiple iterations, which essentially acts as a weighted algorithm with multiple scattering factors in different filtering scales, and applies integral extinction coefficients as media to perform correction. Simulations on artificial signals and real LIDAR signals support this approach.

  12. A multiple scattering theory for EM wave propagation in a dense random medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karam, M. A.; Fung, A. K.; Wong, K. W.

    1985-01-01

    For a dense medium of randomly distributed scatterers an integral formulation for the total coherent field has been developed. This formulation accounts for the multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves including both the twoand three-particle terms. It is shown that under the Markovian assumption the total coherent field and the effective field have the same effective wave number. As an illustration of this theory, the effective wave number and the extinction coefficient are derived in terms of the polarizability tensor and the pair distribution function for randomly distributed small spherical scatterers. It is found that the contribution of the three-particle term increases with the particle size, the volume fraction, the frequency and the permittivity of the particle. This increase is more significant with frequency and particle size than with other parameters.

  13. Quantum correlations of magnetic impurities by a multiple electron scattering in carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamboa Angulo, Didier; Cordourier Maruri, Guillermo; de Coss Gómez, Romeo

    In this work we analyze the quantum correlations and polarizations states of magnetic impurities spins, when a multiple electron scattering was taken place. A sequence of non-correlated electrons interacts through scattering producing quantum correlation which will have an impact on the electronic transmission. We consider a short range Heisenberg interaction between ballistic electron and static impurities. We analyze the cases when the electron scattering is produce by one and two impurities, obtaining the electronic transmission rates. Concurrence and fidelity calculations are performed to obtain the level of quantum entanglement and polarization correlations. We also discuss the possible application of this model to metallic and semiconductor carbon nanotubes, which could have important implications on spintronics and quantum information devices.

  14. Transfer matrices combined with Green's functions for the multiple-scattering simulation of electronic projection imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, A.; Vigneron, J.-P.

    1999-07-01

    Electronic projection imaging is described in the framework of a multiple-scattering theory, by using a combination of transfer-matrix and Green's-function formalisms. The transfer-matrix methodology is used to compute the wave propagation within the tip and object scattering region, while the Green's-function formalism is used to describe the electron projection from the scatterers towards a distant imaging screen. This full-order theory is needed to overcome the limits of the first Born approximation and deal with three-dimensional effects. In particular, this approach is able to account for sucking-in and standing-wave effects taking place close to or inside the object. The simulation of the electronic diffraction by a model nanoscopic carbon rod, eventually containing inhomogeneities, is considered in detail.

  15. Research on multiple-scattering channel with Monte Carlo model in UV atmosphere communication.

    PubMed

    Han, Dahai; Fan, Xing; Zhang, Kai; Zhu, Rui

    2013-08-01

    A non-line-of-sight (NLOS) ultraviolet (UV) communication channel model is established by using a Monte Carlo simulation method based on photon tracing. This method considers the multiple-scattering effects of UV signal propagation in the atmosphere, and simulates the condition of dual receivers for diversity reception. The channel characteristics of the UV communication are obtained by simulating the photon arrival probabilities. The model is employed to study the characteristics of NLOS UV scattering channels for a variety of scattering conditions, including the separation distance between transmitter and receiver, transmit/receive elevation angle, beam divergence, and field of view. The model has advantages in reliable prediction of UV communication for the dual-receiver condition, as validated by outdoor experiments at fixed elevation angles.

  16. Filtering random matrices: the effect of incomplete channel control in multiple scattering.

    PubMed

    Goetschy, A; Stone, A D

    2013-08-01

    We present an analytic random matrix theory for the effect of incomplete channel control on the measured statistical properties of the scattering matrix of a disordered multiple-scattering medium. When the fraction of the controlled input channels, m1, and output channels, m2, is decreased from unity, the density of the transmission eigenvalues is shown to evolve from the bimodal distribution describing coherent diffusion, to the distribution characteristic of uncorrelated Gaussian random matrices, with a rapid loss of access to the open eigenchannels. The loss of correlation is also reflected in an increase in the information capacity per channel of the medium. Our results have strong implications for optical and microwave experiments on diffusive scattering media. PMID:23971574

  17. Magnetotransport of multiple-band nearly antiferromagnetic metals due to hot-spot scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshelev, A. E.

    2016-09-01

    Multiple-band electronic structure and proximity to antiferromagnetic (AF) instability are the key properties of iron-based superconductors. We explore the influence of scattering by the AF spin fluctuations on transport of multiple-band metals above the magnetic transition. A salient feature of scattering on the AF fluctuations is that it is strongly enhanced at the Fermi surface locations where the nesting is perfect ("hot spots" or "hot lines"). We review derivation of the collision integral for the Boltzmann equation due to AF-fluctuations scattering. In the paramagnetic state, the enhanced scattering rate near the hot lines leads to anomalous behavior of electronic transport in magnetic field. We explore this behavior by analytically solving the Boltzmann transport equation with approximate transition rates. This approach accounts for return scattering events and is more accurate than the relaxation-time approximation. The magnetic-field dependences are characterized by two very different field scales: the lower scale is set by the hot-spot width and the higher scale is set by the total scattering amplitude. A conventional magnetotransport behavior is limited to magnetic fields below the lower scale. In the wide range in-between these two scales, the longitudinal conductivity has linear dependence on the magnetic field and the Hall conductivity has quadratic dependence. The linear dependence of the diagonal component reflects growth of the Fermi-surface area affected by the hot spots proportional to the magnetic field. We discuss applicability of this theoretical framework for describing of anomalous magnetotransport properties in different iron pnictides and chalcogenides in the paramagnetic state.

  18. Multiple-mode Lamb wave scattering simulations using 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique.

    PubMed

    Leckey, Cara A C; Rogge, Matthew D; Miller, Corey A; Hinders, Mark K

    2012-02-01

    We have implemented three-dimensional (3D) elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) simulations to model Lamb wave scattering for two flaw-types in an aircraft-grade aluminum plate, a rounded rectangle flat-bottom hole and a disbond of the same shape. The plate thickness and flaws explored in this work include frequency-thickness regions where several Lamb wave modes exist and sometimes overlap in phase and/or group velocity. For the case of the flat-bottom hole the depth was incrementally increased to explore progressive changes in multiple-mode Lamb wave scattering due to the damage. The flat-bottom hole simulation results have been compared to experimental data and are shown to provide key insight for this well-defined experimental case by explaining unexpected results in experimental waveforms. For the rounded rectangle disbond flaw, which would be difficult to implement experimentally, we found that Lamb wave behavior differed significantly from the flat-bottom hole flaw. Most of the literature in this field is restricted to low frequency-thickness regions due to difficulties in interpreting data when multiple modes exist. We found that benchmarked 3D EFIT simulations can yield an understanding of scattering behavior for these higher frequency-thickness regions and in cases that would be difficult to set up experimentally. Additionally, our results show that 2D simulations would not have been sufficient for modeling the complicated scattering that occurred. PMID:21908011

  19. Modelling and rapid simulation of multiple red blood cell light scattering.

    PubMed

    Zohdi, T I; Kuypers, F A

    2006-12-22

    The goal of this work is to develop a computational framework to rapidly simulate the light scattering response of multiple red blood cells. Because the wavelength of visible light (3.8 x 10(-7) m < or = lambda < or = 7.2 x 10(-7) m) is approximately an order of magnitude smaller than the diameter of a typical red blood cell scatterer (d approximately 8 x 10(-6) m), geometric ray-tracing theory is applicable, and can be used to quickly ascertain the amount of optical energy, characterized by the Poynting vector, that is reflected and absorbed by multiple red blood cells. The overall objective is to provide a straightforward approach that can be easily implemented by researchers in the field, using standard desktop computers. Three-dimensional examples are given to illustrate the approach and the results compare quite closely to experiments on blood samples conducted at the Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute (CHORI).

  20. Multiple scattering from finite inhomogeneous media. [internal reflection of electromagnetic waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, C. C. H.

    1974-01-01

    Utilizing the characteristic information concerning the apparent phase constant difference between the electric and magnetic fields propagating in an inhomogeneous medium, a theoretical analysis of the multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves in finite inhomogeneous media is presented. The solution is obtained by first approximating the coefficients of a pair of exact coupled first-order differential equations and then solving the equations by first-order iteration. The present first-order approximate solution with multiple scattering considerations is shown to be more accurate than the WKB solution. Methods to improve the accuracy of the first-order solution further are discussed. Application of the solution to slowly varying finite media with periodic properties demonstrates the validity of the solution. The same approach can be extended to frequencies in the optical region by retaining additional terms in the coefficients of the coupled differential equations.

  1. Coupling of Multiple Coulomb Scattering with Energy Loss and Straggling in HZETRN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Wilson, John W.; Walker, Steven A.; Tweed, John

    2007-01-01

    The new version of the HZETRN deterministic transport code based on Green's function methods, and the incorporation of ground-based laboratory boundary conditions, has lead to the development of analytical and numerical procedures to include off-axis dispersion of primary ion beams due to small-angle multiple Coulomb scattering. In this paper we present the theoretical formulation and computational procedures to compute ion beam broadening and a methodology towards achieving a self-consistent approach to coupling multiple scattering interactions with ionization energy loss and straggling. Our initial benchmark case is a 60 MeV proton beam on muscle tissue, for which we can compare various attributes of beam broadening with Monte Carlo simulations reported in the open literature.

  2. Direct Simulation of Multiple Scattering by Discrete Random Media Illuminated by Gaussian Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowski, Daniel W.; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2011-01-01

    The conventional orientation-averaging procedure developed in the framework of the superposition T-matrix approach is generalized to include the case of illumination by a Gaussian beam (GB). The resulting computer code is parallelized and used to perform extensive numerically exact calculations of electromagnetic scattering by volumes of discrete random medium consisting of monodisperse spherical particles. The size parameters of the scattering volumes are 40, 50, and 60, while their packing density is fixed at 5%. We demonstrate that all scattering patterns observed in the far-field zone of a random multisphere target and their evolution with decreasing width of the incident GB can be interpreted in terms of idealized theoretical concepts such as forward-scattering interference, coherent backscattering (CB), and diffuse multiple scattering. It is shown that the increasing violation of electromagnetic reciprocity with decreasing GB width suppresses and eventually eradicates all observable manifestations of CB. This result supplements the previous demonstration of the effects of broken reciprocity in the case of magneto-optically active particles subjected to an external magnetic field.

  3. Multiple scattering calculation of the middle ultraviolet reaching the ground. [SST effects on ozone layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shettle, E. P.; Green, A. E. S.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation is conducted regarding the increase in the UV radiation as a function of wavelength due to changes in the amounts of ozone and various other parameters affecting the radiation in the atmosphere. Attention is given to the methods that can be used to solve the problem of the transfer of radiation through an absorbing and scattering atmosphere which includes aerosols. The multiple channel solution reported by Mudgett and Richards' (1971) is extended to vertically inhomogeneous atmospheres.

  4. Multiple-Scattering Influence on Extinction-and Backscatter-Coefficient Measurements with Raman and High-Spectral-Resolution Lidars.

    PubMed

    Wandinger, U

    1998-01-20

    A formalism describing the influence of multiple scattering on cloud measurements with Raman and high-spectral-resolution lidars is presented. Model calculations including both particulate and molecular scattering processes are performed to describe the general effects of multiple scattering on both particulate and molecular lidar backscatter signals. It is found that, for typical measurement geometries of ground-based lidars, as many as five scattering orders contribute significantly to the backscattered light. The relative intensity of multiple-scattered light is generally larger in signals backscattered from molecules than in signals backscattered from particles. The multiple-scattering formalism is applied to measurements of water and ice clouds taken with a Raman lidar. Multiple-scattering errors of measured extinction coefficients are typically of the order of 50% at the bases of both water and ice clouds and decrease with increasing penetration depth to below 20%. In contrast, the multiple-scattering errors of backscatter coefficients are negligible in ice clouds and below 20% in water clouds.

  5. Spatial effects of HF multiple scattering in the ionosphere: Experimental observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabotin, Nikolay; Bullett, Terence

    2011-08-01

    The theory of multiple scattering of MF/HF radio waves by intermediate-scale (0.1-5 km) ionospheric irregularities predicts a very distinctive distribution of the relative integral intensity of a signal reflected from the ionosphere in the vicinity of a ground-based transmitter. It is significantly reduced within a distance of about several tens of kilometers. A ring of enhancement occurs at a greater distance. At still larger distances from the transmitter, effects of multiple scattering are weakened and the integral intensity returns to its undisturbed value. While there are experimental confirmations of the "anomalous attenuation" effect near the transmitter location, no attempt has yet been made to track the intensity features at the larger distances. This paper presents results of the first experimental campaign of this kind that was conducted in September-November 2009 in and around Boulder, CO. The results obtained confirm that significant deviations from the predictions of geometrical optics occur, and these deviations are in general agreement with the theory of multiple scattering in the ionosphere.

  6. Nonlinear acoustic propagation in bubbly liquids: Multiple scattering, softening and hardening phenomena.

    PubMed

    Doc, Jean-Baptiste; Conoir, Jean-Marc; Marchiano, Régis; Fuster, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The weakly nonlinear propagation of acoustic waves in monodisperse bubbly liquids is investigated numerically. A hydrodynamic model based on the averaged two-phase fluid equations is coupled with the Rayleigh-Plesset equation to model the dynamics of bubbles at the local scale. The present model is validated in the linear regime by comparing with the Foldy approximation. The analysis of the pressure signals in the linear regime highlights two resonance frequencies: the Minnaert frequency and a multiple scattering resonance that strongly depends on the bubble concentration. For weakly nonlinear regimes, the generation of higher harmonics is observed only for the Minnaert frequency. Linear combinations between the Minnaert harmonics and the multiple scattering resonance are also observed. However, the most significant effect observed is the appearance of softening-hardening effects that share some similarities with those observed for sandstones or cracked materials. These effects are related to the multiple scattering resonance. Downward or upward resonance frequency shifts can be observed depending on the characteristic of the incident wave when increasing the excitation amplitude. It is shown that the frequency shift can be explained assuming that the acoustic wave velocity depends on a law different from those usually encountered for sandstones or cracked materials.

  7. Nonlinear acoustic propagation in bubbly liquids: Multiple scattering, softening and hardening phenomena.

    PubMed

    Doc, Jean-Baptiste; Conoir, Jean-Marc; Marchiano, Régis; Fuster, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The weakly nonlinear propagation of acoustic waves in monodisperse bubbly liquids is investigated numerically. A hydrodynamic model based on the averaged two-phase fluid equations is coupled with the Rayleigh-Plesset equation to model the dynamics of bubbles at the local scale. The present model is validated in the linear regime by comparing with the Foldy approximation. The analysis of the pressure signals in the linear regime highlights two resonance frequencies: the Minnaert frequency and a multiple scattering resonance that strongly depends on the bubble concentration. For weakly nonlinear regimes, the generation of higher harmonics is observed only for the Minnaert frequency. Linear combinations between the Minnaert harmonics and the multiple scattering resonance are also observed. However, the most significant effect observed is the appearance of softening-hardening effects that share some similarities with those observed for sandstones or cracked materials. These effects are related to the multiple scattering resonance. Downward or upward resonance frequency shifts can be observed depending on the characteristic of the incident wave when increasing the excitation amplitude. It is shown that the frequency shift can be explained assuming that the acoustic wave velocity depends on a law different from those usually encountered for sandstones or cracked materials. PMID:27106317

  8. Dual wavelength multiple-angle light scattering system for cryptosporidium detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buaprathoom, S.; Pedley, S.; Sweeney, S. J.

    2012-06-01

    A simple, dual wavelength, multiple-angle, light scattering system has been developed for detecting cryptosporidium suspended in water. Cryptosporidium is a coccidial protozoan parasite causing cryptosporidiosis; a diarrheal disease of varying severity. The parasite is transmitted by ingestion of contaminated water, particularly drinking-water, but also accidental ingestion of bathing-water, including swimming pools. It is therefore important to be able to detect these parasites quickly, so that remedial action can be taken to reduce the risk of infection. The proposed system combines multiple-angle scattering detection of a single and two wavelengths, to collect relative wavelength angle-resolved scattering phase functions from tested suspension, and multivariate data analysis techniques to obtain characterizing information of samples under investigation. The system was designed to be simple, portable and inexpensive. It employs two diode lasers (violet InGaN-based and red AlGaInP-based) as light sources and silicon photodiodes as detectors and optical components, all of which are readily available. The measured scattering patterns using the dual wavelength system showed that the relative wavelength angle-resolved scattering pattern of cryptosporidium oocysts was significantly different from other particles (e.g. polystyrene latex sphere, E.coli). The single wavelength set up was applied for cryptosporidium oocysts'size and relative refractive index measurement and differential measurement of the concentration of cryptosporidium oocysts suspended in water and mixed polystyrene latex sphere suspension. The measurement results showed good agreement with the control reference values. These results indicate that the proposed method could potentially be applied to online detection in a water quality control system.

  9. Secondary emission and acoustic-phonon scattering induced by strong magnetic fields in multiple quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapega, V. F.; Belitsky, V. I.; Ruf, T.; Fuchs, H. D.; Cardona, M.; Ploog, K.

    1992-12-01

    A strong increase of low-frequency Raman scattering has been observed in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells in magnetic fields up to 14 T. The spectra, consisting of background scattering, folded acoustic phonons, and additional features, show resonant behavior with respect to the laser frequency and the strength of the magnetic field. The broad background, usually related to geminate recombination, has its origin in a continuum of Raman processes with the emission of longitudinal-acoustic phonons where crystal momentum is not conserved. Such processes can become dominant when interface fluctuations allow for resonant scattering in individual quantum wells only. Thus phonons with all possible energies contribute to the background scattering efficiency. The observed folded longitudinal-acoustic phonons are in good agreement with calculated frequencies. Additional features, detected in all samples measured, are attributed to local vibrational modes tied to the gaps at the folded Brillouin-zone center and edge. Other peculiarities observed correspond to modes localized at crossings of the folded longitudinal- and transverse-acoustic branches inside the Brillouin zone. The appearance of these local modes is attributed to fluctuations in the well and barrier thicknesses of the quantum wells.

  10. A proposed study of multiple scattering through clouds up to 1 THz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerace, G. C.; Smith, E. K.

    1992-01-01

    A rigorous computation of the electromagnetic field scattered from an atmospheric liquid water cloud is proposed. The recent development of a fast recursive algorithm (Chew algorithm) for computing the fields scattered from numerous scatterers now makes a rigorous computation feasible. A method is presented for adapting this algorithm to a general case where there are an extremely large number of scatterers. It is also proposed to extend a new binary PAM channel coding technique (El-Khamy coding) to multiple levels with non-square pulse shapes. The Chew algorithm can be used to compute the transfer function of a cloud channel. Then the transfer function can be used to design an optimum El-Khamy code. In principle, these concepts can be applied directly to the realistic case of a time-varying cloud (adaptive channel coding and adaptive equalization). A brief review is included of some preliminary work on cloud dispersive effects on digital communication signals and on cloud liquid water spectra and correlations.

  11. Multiple scattering, radiative transfer, and weak localization in discrete random media: Unified microphysical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2008-06-01

    The radiative transfer theory has been extensively used in geophysics, remote sensing, and astrophysics for more than a century, but its physical basis had remained uncertain until quite recently. This ambiguous situation has finally changed, and the theory of radiative transfer in random particulate media has become a legitimate branch of Maxwell's electromagnetics. This tutorial review is intended to provide an accessible outline of recent basic developments. It discusses elastic electromagnetic scattering by random many-particle groups and summarizes the unified microphysical approach to radiative transfer and the effect of weak localization of electromagnetic waves (otherwise known as coherent backscattering). It explains the exact meaning of such fundamental concepts as single and multiple scattering, demonstrates how the theories of radiative transfer and weak localization originate in the Maxwell equations, and exposes and corrects certain misconceptions of the traditional phenomenological approach to radiative transfer. It also discusses the challenges facing the theories of multiple scattering, radiative transfer, and weak localization in the context of geophysical applications.

  12. Multiple-scattering analysis of laser-beam propagation in the atmosphere and through obscurants

    SciTech Connect

    Zardecki, A.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1983-01-01

    The general purpose, discrete-ordinates transport code TWOTRAN is applied to describe the propagation and multiple scattering of a laser beam in a nonhomogeneous aerosol medium. For the medium composed of smoke, haze, and a rain cloud, the problem of the target detectability in a realistic atmospheric scenario is addressed and solved. The signals reflected from the target vs the signals scattered from the smoke cloud are analyzed as a function of the smoke concentration. By calculating the average intensity and a correction factor in the x-y and r-z geometries, the consistency of the rectangular and cylindrical geometry models is assessed. Received power for a detector with a small field of view is computed on a sphere of 1-km radius around the laser source for the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory rural aerosol model with extinction coefficients of 4 km/sup -1/ and 10 km/sup -1/. This computation allows us to study the received power as a function of the angle between the detector and source axes. The correction factor describing the multiple-scattering enhancement with respect to the simple Lambert-Beer law is introduced, and its calculation is employed to validate the use of the small-angle approximation for the transmissometer configuration. An outline of the theory for a finite field of view detector is followed by numerical results pertaining to the received power and intensity for various aerosol models. Recommendations regarding future work are also formulated.

  13. Failure of the multiple peaking approximation for fast capture processes at milliradian scattering angles

    SciTech Connect

    Houamer, Salim; Popov, Yuri V.; Dal Cappello, Claude

    2010-03-15

    The first Born approximation is examined for different fast capture processes for the p+He system at incident energies of about 1 MeV. Calculations have been performed for the singly differential cross section (SDCS) for scattering angles 0-0.5 mrad in the laboratory frame. In the case of transfer ionization, we observe that the two-step-2 mechanism has a dominant contribution to the SDCS for the kinematics considered in this work. The present investigation demonstrates that the multiple peaking approximation is a very crude method which fails to describe the SDCS even at scattering angles below 0.5 mrad. We have also presented a doubly differential cross section for the fixed emission energy of 600 eV and compared our results with other theoretical calculations and experiments.

  14. Solar wind latitude variations and multiple scattering from Galileo interplanetary Lyman-alpha observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajello, Joseph M.; Pryor, Wayne R.; Barth, Charles A.; Hord, Charles W.; Simmons, Karen E.

    1993-01-01

    The Galileo Ultraviolet Spectrometer Experiment (UVS) obtained a map of the celestial sphere from interplanetary Lyman-alpha (IPLA) on 13, 14 December 1990 during the Earth1 encounter. The Galileo spacecraft was near the downwind interstellar axis during the encounter and the map view directions filled the downwind hemisphere. The ratio between the observation and a single scattering model is attributed to a direct measurement of the multiple scattering correction required to model IPLA in the inner solar system. Analysis of this data set, referred to as an antisun map, shows that the solar wind charge exchange rate with interplanetary gas is 25 percent less over the solar poles than in the ecliptic at solar maximum. A model of the interstellar wind based on the antisun map observation exhibits a number density of atomic hydrogen far from the solar system, inside the heliosphere, of 0.16 +/- 0.05/cu cm.

  15. Object reconstruction in scattering medium using multiple elliptical polarized speckle contrast projections and optical clearing agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshe, Tomer; Firer, Michael A.; Abookasis, David

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we present a hybrid method for improving the imaging quality of objects obscured within a scattering environment by combining multiple elliptical polarized speckle contrast projections with the use of optical clearing agents (OCAs). Elliptically polarized light enables the probing of subsurface volumes, where OCAs decrease light scattering while increasing photons' penetration depth through the medium. Experiments were conducted on object sample and prostate cancer cells embedded within ex vivo biological samples (chicken breasts) in reflection configuration. After immersion with OCAs, the medium was irradiated with an elliptically polarized laser beam and multiple polarized speckled images obtained from a lens array were first converted to speckled contrast images and then processed using a self-deconvolution shift-and-add algorithm. The conversion to contrast images and multiple perspectives acquisition was found to emphasize contrast. Analysis of image quality indicated improvement in object visualization by the combination of elliptical polarization and OCAs. This enhanced imaging strategy may advance the development of improved methods in biomedicine field, specifically biomedical tomography.

  16. The effect of multiple scattering on radiative transmission measurements in a two-dimensional absorbing-scattering medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, W. W.; Dunaway, W.

    1985-06-01

    A successive approximation procedure is developed to determine the scattering correction to the Beer-Lambert law in the evaluation of geometric mean transmittance in a general multi-dimensional absorbing and scattering medium. At each step of the approximation, the evaluation of an upper and lower bound of the scattering correction requires only a single integral over the volume of the scattering medium. This represents a great reduction in mathematical complexity compared to the direct numerical approach. First-order results for a two-dimensional rectangular absorbing and scattering medium are presented. They are shown to be quite accurate in the optically thin limit and useful for engineering application for media with arbitrary optical thickness. Some interesting conclusions concerning the qualitative physical behavior of the scattering correction are also generated.

  17. Spatiotemporal Coherent Control of Light through a Multiple Scattering Medium with the Multispectral Transmission Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mounaix, Mickael; Andreoli, Daria; Defienne, Hugo; Volpe, Giorgio; Katz, Ori; Grésillon, Samuel; Gigan, Sylvain

    2016-06-01

    We report the broadband characterization of the propagation of light through a multiple scattering medium by means of its multispectral transmission matrix. Using a single spatial light modulator, our approach enables the full control of both the spatial and spectral properties of an ultrashort pulse transmitted through the medium. We demonstrate spatiotemporal focusing of the pulse at any arbitrary position and time with any desired spectral shape. Our approach opens new perspectives for fundamental studies of light-matter interaction in disordered media, and has potential applications in sensing, coherent control, and imaging.

  18. Overcoming the diffraction limit using multiple light scattering in a highly disordered medium.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youngwoon; Yang, Taeseok Daniel; Fang-Yen, Christopher; Kang, Pilsung; Lee, Kyoung Jin; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Feld, Michael S; Choi, Wonshik

    2011-07-01

    We report that disordered media made of randomly distributed nanoparticles can be used to overcome the diffraction limit of a conventional imaging system. By developing a method to extract the original image information from the multiple scattering induced by the turbid media, we dramatically increase a numerical aperture of the imaging system. As a result, the resolution is enhanced by more than 5 times over the diffraction limit, and the field of view is extended over the physical area of the camera. Our technique lays the foundation to use a turbid medium as a far-field superlens.

  19. A High Performance Computing approach to model multiple Rayleigh scattering in the Earth atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franssens, Ghislain; Dekemper, Emmanuel; Mateshivili, Nina; Vanhellemont, filip; fussen, didier; pieroux, didier

    2016-04-01

    The retrieval of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols in the Earth atmosphere from light scattering measurements typically involves an iterative inversion algorithm. A key part of this algorithm is its forward model, which takes care of calculating the amount of light that the remote sensing instrument will see, for any assumed atmosphere composition. The forward model is usually an atmospheric radiative transfer code. It is a serious challenge for a radiative transfer code to be, at the same time, sufficiently accurate and sufficiently fast, so that it can be included in the iterative retrieval loop of an operational service. An accurate code must be able to calculate multiple Rayleigh scattering (important in the UV and/or at lower altitudes) by the air in a spherical atmosphere. This is something that currently only a Monte Carlo algorithm can do. However, any Monte Carlo code is far too slow to be included in the retrieval loop, even if we make use of the currently available HPC power. We report some first results that were obtained by a new solution to this old problem. We first use a HPC cluster to tabulate multiple Rayleigh scattering in a standard Earth atmosphere, using a Monte Carlo code, as function of 6 parameters (albedo, view zenith angle, solar zenith angle, relative azimuth angle, altitude and wavelength). Then, a well chosen empirical function is fitted on the tabulated data. From this function, correction factors are derived and appropriately inserted in a fast single scattering algorithm, which so effectively becomes a multiple scattering algorithm. Since the evaluation of the empirical function is also very fast, we end up with a radiative transfer code that is both accurate and sufficiently fast for operational data production. Our conclusion is that commonly available and affordable HPC systems can still not directly solve the retrieval problem with sufficient accuracy in real time. However, the above described two step approach now becomes

  20. Multiple scattering of light in a spherical cometary atmosphere with an axisymmetric dust jet. II - Image simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chick, Kenneth M.; Gombosi, Tamas I.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical solution for the multiple light scattering in spherical axisymmetric geometry is applied to the simulation of images of a coma as it would appear to a near-flying satellite such as Giotto. The appearance of symmetric comas and dust jets is examined in detail; the nucleus visibility is studied; the effect of forward scattering is considered; and single and multiple scattering effects are quantified. Attention is given to simulated images of a coma with a hollow cone of dust, as predicted by dust-gas hydrodynamic modeling. The cone's appearance is very similar to the northern area of activity on Comet Halley, observed by the Giotto HMC.

  1. Multiple solutions to dense systems in radar scattering using a preconditioned block GMRES solver

    SciTech Connect

    Boyse, W.E.

    1996-12-31

    Multiple right-hand sides occur in radar scattering calculations in the computation of the simulated radar return from a body at a large number of angles. Each desired angle requires a right-hand side vector to be computed and the solution generated. These right-hand sides are naturally smooth functions of the angle parameters and this property is utilized in a novel way to compute solutions an order of magnitude faster than LINPACK The modeling technique addressed is the Method of Moments (MOM), i.e. a boundary element method for time harmonic Maxwell`s equations. Discretization by this method produces general complex dense systems of rank 100`s to 100,000`s. The usual way to produce the required multiple solutions is via LU factorization and solution routines such as found in LINPACK. Our method uses the block GMRES iterative method to directly iterate a subset of the desired solutions to convergence.

  2. Modeling of the Competition of Stimulated Raman and Brillouin Scattering in LULI Multiple Beam Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, B. I.; Baldis, H. A.; Berger, R. L.; Williams, E. A.; Labaune, C.

    1999-11-01

    Multiple laser beam experiments with CH target foils at the LULI facility demonstrate anti-correlation of stimulated Brillouin and Raman backscatter (SBS and SRS).(C. Labaune, et al.), Phys. Plasmas 6, 2048 (1999). Detailed Thomson scattering diagnostics show that SBS precedes SRS, that secondary electron plasma waves can accompany SRS appropriate to the Langmuir Decay Instability (LDI), and that with multiple interaction beams the SBS signal in the primary laser beam is reduced while the SRS signal is enhanced and onsets earlier. Analysis and numerical calculations are presented that evaluate the influence of mode coupling (B. Cohen, et al.), Phys. Plasmas 5, 3402 (1998). of SBS and LDI ion waves and local pump depletion in laser hot spots. The modeling suggests that ponderomotive and thermal self-focusing should modify the probability distribution of intense speckles and enhance the local pump depletion and ion wave mode coupling.

  3. Multiple scattering of polarized light in turbid birefringent media: a Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Soichi

    2016-07-20

    Multiple scattering of polarized light in a birefringent turbid plane medium was studied using a Monte Carlo simulation. The reduced effective scattering Mueller matrix obtained in the simulation was factorized in two dimensions using the Lu-Chipman decomposition, yielding polarization parameters that exhibited dependences on the azimuth and the radial distance around the illumination point. We propose a double-scattering model for the propagation of polarized photons in turbid infinite plane media. When the birefringence slow axis is along the azimuth of 90° on the plane surface, the retardance becomes the largest negative along the azimuth of 0° and the largest positive along the azimuth of 90° and increases with increasing the azimuth from 0° to 90°. This azimuthal dependence may result from the overlap of the contributions from the light propagations vertical to, and lateral along, the plane surface. Thus, the dependences on the azimuth and the radial distance of the polarization parameters, such as the retardance, its orientation, optical rotation, and the depolarization coefficients, are correctly predicted. PMID:27463921

  4. Potential effect of resonant scattering from multiple swimbladders on audition in juvenile fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, Mardi C.

    2003-04-01

    The swimbladder, a gas-filled chamber in the abdominal cavity of most bony fishes, is a hydrostatic organ that enables fish to maintain neutral buoyancy; however, it also responds to acoustic pressure and radiates a secondary acoustic field that enhances detection capability of the inner ear. Recent experiments have indicated that resonant response of the swimbladder may control the auditory bandwidth in at least four species of fish [Hastings et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 2640 (2001)]. The auditory bandwidths of these fishes, however, do not change appreciably while they grow even though the resonance frequency of the swimbladder decreases with increasing body length. Results of an analysis inspired by Feiullade et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2206 (2002)] show that the downward shift and broadening associated with resonance of the aggregate scattered field from multiple fish is perhaps sufficient enough to account for this discrepancy. Effects of resonant characteristics of a single swimbladder, fish length, and number of fish on the changes in the collective scattered field are presented. Thus the resonant scattered field created by relatively large schools of juvenile fish may enhance their auditory capability.

  5. Inverse scattering solutions by a sinc basis, multiple source, moment method--Part I: Theory.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S A; Tracy, M L

    1983-10-01

    A new method for solving the inverse scattering problem for the scalar, inhomogeneous, exact, Helmholtz wave equation is presented. No perturbation approximations are used and the method is applicable even for many cases where weak to moderate attenuation and moderate to strong refraction of incident fields occur. The ill-posed nature of the inverse scattering problem for a single monochromatic source is known. However, the use of multiple sources, the collection of redundant (i.e., overdetermined) data, and the constraining of the fields and complex refractive index to be spatially band limited constitutes a new problem. The cases we have tested by computer simulation indicate that the new problem is well posed, a unique solution, and is stable with noisy data. The method is an application of the well-known method of moments with sinc basis and delta testing functions to discretize the problem. The inverse scattering solution may be obtained by solving the resulting set of simultaneous, quadratic, multivariate equations. Several algorithms for solving these equations are given. PMID:6686901

  6. Multiple scattering in chiral media: border effects, reduced depolarization, and sensitivity limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delplancke, Francoise; Badoz, Jacques P.; Boccara, A. Claude

    1997-10-01

    Suspensions of polystyrene latex beads in chiral solutions were investigated. The rotatory power, induced by solubilized sucrose, in near-forward scattering was measured via a method using polarization modulation by photo-elastic modulator. The sensitivity of the measurement was enhanced and optimized in order to measure sucrose concentrations as low as 5 mg/ml in a cell 5 mm thick only. Different concentrations and diameters of latex particles were used in combination with different sucrose concentrations going from 1 mg/ml up to saturation. The experiments showed that the apparent rotatory power is enhanced by multiple scattering, that depolarization effects are less important with highly concentrated sucrose solutions and that attention has to be paid to cell border effects in order to avoid important artifacts, in case of highly scattering suspensions. Qualitative and theoretical explanations of those observations are presented. One possible application of this method is to measure the sugar content in human blood, in vivo, non-invasively, through the skin. The concentration to be evaluated is at the sensitivity limit. So any artifact has to be removed carefully, e.g. skin cell birefringence or chirality.

  7. A triple axis double crystal multiple reflection camera for ultra small angle X-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambard, Jacques; Lesieur, Pierre; Zemb, Thomas

    1992-06-01

    To extend the domain of small angle X-ray scattering requires multiple reflection crystals to collimate the beam. A double crystal, triple axis X-ray camera using multiple reflection channel cut crystals is described. Procedures for measuring the desmeared scattering cross-section on absolute scale are described as well as the measurement from several typical samples : fibrils of collagen, 0.3 μm diameter silica spheres, 0.16 μm diameter interacting latex spheres, porous lignite coal, liquid crystals in a surfactant-water system, colloidal crystal of 0.32 μm diameter silica spheres. L'extension du domaine de diffusion des rayons-X vers les petits angles demande l'emploi de cristaux à réflexions multiples pour collimater le faisceau. Nous décrivons une caméra à rayons-X à trois axes où les réflexions multiples sont réalisées dans deux cristaux à gorge. Nous donnons ensuite les procédures de déconvolution pour obtenir la section efficace de diffusion en échelle absolue, ainsi que les résultats des mesures effectuées avec plusieurs échantillons typiques : fibres de collagène, sphères de silice de 0,3 μm de diamètre, sphères de latex de 0,16 μm de diamètre en interaction, charbon lignite poreux, cristaux liquides formés dans un système eau-tensioactif, solution colloïdale de sphères de silice de 0,32 μm de diamètre.

  8. Lidar inelastic multiple-scattering parameters of cirrus particle ensembles determined with geometrical-optics crystal phase functions.

    PubMed

    Reichardt, J; Hess, M; Macke, A

    2000-04-20

    Multiple-scattering correction factors for cirrus particle extinction coefficients measured with Raman and high spectral resolution lidars are calculated with a radiative-transfer model. Cirrus particle-ensemble phase functions are computed from single-crystal phase functions derived in a geometrical-optics approximation. Seven crystal types are considered. In cirrus clouds with height-independent particle extinction coefficients the general pattern of the multiple-scattering parameters has a steep onset at cloud base with values of 0.5-0.7 followed by a gradual and monotonic decrease to 0.1-0.2 at cloud top. The larger the scattering particles are, the more gradual is the rate of decrease. Multiple-scattering parameters of complex crystals and of imperfect hexagonal columns and plates can be well approximated by those of projected-area equivalent ice spheres, whereas perfect hexagonal crystals show values as much as 70% higher than those of spheres. The dependencies of the multiple-scattering parameters on cirrus particle spectrum, base height, and geometric depth and on the lidar parameters laser wavelength and receiver field of view, are discussed, and a set of multiple-scattering parameter profiles for the correction of extinction measurements in homogeneous cirrus is provided.

  9. Green's function multiple-scattering theory with a truncated basis set: An augmented-KKR formalism

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Alam, Aftab; Khan, Suffian N.; Smirnov, A. V.; Nicholson, D. M.; Johnson, Duane D.

    2014-11-04

    Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) Green's function, multiple-scattering theory is an ecient sitecentered, electronic-structure technique for addressing an assembly of N scatterers. Wave-functions are expanded in a spherical-wave basis on each scattering center and indexed up to a maximum orbital and azimuthal number Lmax = (l,m)max, while scattering matrices, which determine spectral properties, are truncated at Ltr = (l,m)tr where phase shifts δl>ltr are negligible. Historically, Lmax is set equal to Ltr, which is correct for large enough Lmax but not computationally expedient; a better procedure retains higher-order (free-electron and single-site) contributions for Lmax > Ltr with δl>ltr set to zero [Zhang andmore » Butler, Phys. Rev. B 46, 7433]. We present a numerically ecient and accurate augmented-KKR Green's function formalism that solves the KKR equations by exact matrix inversion [R3 process with rank N(ltr + 1)2] and includes higher-L contributions via linear algebra [R2 process with rank N(lmax +1)2]. Augmented-KKR approach yields properly normalized wave-functions, numerically cheaper basis-set convergence, and a total charge density and electron count that agrees with Lloyd's formula. We apply our formalism to fcc Cu, bcc Fe and L10 CoPt, and present the numerical results for accuracy and for the convergence of the total energies, Fermi energies, and magnetic moments versus Lmax for a given Ltr.« less

  10. Green's function multiple-scattering theory with a truncated basis set: An augmented-KKR formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Aftab; Khan, Suffian N.; Smirnov, A. V.; Nicholson, D. M.; Johnson, Duane D.

    2014-11-04

    Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) Green's function, multiple-scattering theory is an ecient sitecentered, electronic-structure technique for addressing an assembly of N scatterers. Wave-functions are expanded in a spherical-wave basis on each scattering center and indexed up to a maximum orbital and azimuthal number Lmax = (l,m)max, while scattering matrices, which determine spectral properties, are truncated at Ltr = (l,m)tr where phase shifts δl>ltr are negligible. Historically, Lmax is set equal to Ltr, which is correct for large enough Lmax but not computationally expedient; a better procedure retains higher-order (free-electron and single-site) contributions for Lmax > Ltr with δl>ltr set to zero [Zhang and Butler, Phys. Rev. B 46, 7433]. We present a numerically ecient and accurate augmented-KKR Green's function formalism that solves the KKR equations by exact matrix inversion [R3 process with rank N(ltr + 1)2] and includes higher-L contributions via linear algebra [R2 process with rank N(lmax +1)2]. Augmented-KKR approach yields properly normalized wave-functions, numerically cheaper basis-set convergence, and a total charge density and electron count that agrees with Lloyd's formula. We apply our formalism to fcc Cu, bcc Fe and L10 CoPt, and present the numerical results for accuracy and for the convergence of the total energies, Fermi energies, and magnetic moments versus Lmax for a given Ltr.

  11. Multiple-scattering effects in nucleus-nucleus reactions with Glauber theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatakeyama, Shinya; Ebata, Shuichiro; Horiuchi, Wataru; Kimura, Masaaki

    2014-09-01

    A study of new unstable nuclei has become possible in new radioactive beam facilities. In order to understand the relationship between reaction observables and nuclear structure, we need reaction theory which exactly reflects the nuclear structure. The Glauber theory is a powerful tool of analyzing high energy nuclear reactions. The theory describes the multiple scattering processes, whereas the optical limit approximation (OLA), which is widely used, ignores those processes. Those effects are expected to play an important role in the nuclear collision involving unstable nuclei (see for example Phys. Rev. C 54, 1843 (1996)). Here we apply the Glauber theory to nucleus-nucleus reactions. The wave functions are generated by the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock method and are expressed in a Slater determinant that allows us to evaluate the complete Glauber amplitude easily. We calculate total reaction cross sections, elastic cross sections and differential elastic cross sections for 16~24O, 40~70Ca, 56,58Ni, 100~140Sn, 190~214Pb on proton, 4He, 12C targets and compare with experimental data. The Glauber theory gives much better description than the OLA, especially at larger scattering angles.

  12. EIT-like transmission by interaction between multiple Bragg scattering and local plasmonic resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. Z.; Zhang, Q.; Xiao, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    We study the optical properties associated with both the polariton gap and the Bragg gap in periodic resonator-waveguide coupled systems, based on the temporal coupled mode theory and the transfer matrix method. Using the complex band and the transmission spectrum, it is feasible to tune the interaction between multiple Bragg scattering and local resonance, which may give rise to analogous phenomena of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We further design a plasmonic slot waveguide side-coupled with local plasmonic resonators to demonstrate the EIT-like effects in the near-infrared band. Numerical calculations show that realistic amounts of metal Joule loss may destroy the interference and the total absorption is enhanced in the transparency window due to the near zero group velocity of the guiding wave.

  13. Multiple-scattering Corrections to Measurements of the Prompt Fission Neutron Spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Taddeucci, T.N.; Haight, R.C.; Lee, H.Y.; Neudecker, D.; O'Donnell, J.M.; White, M.C.; Perdue, B.A.; Devlin, M.; Fotiadis, N.; Ullmann, J.L.; Nelson, R.O.; Bredeweg, T.A.; Rising, M.E.; Sjue, S.K.; Wender, S.A.; Wu, C.Y.; Henderson, R.

    2015-01-15

    The Chi-Nu project, conducted jointly by LANL and LLNL, aims to measure the shape of the prompt fission neutron spectrum (PFNS) for fission of {sup 239}Pu induced by neutrons from 50 keV to 15 MeV with accuracies of 3–5% in the outgoing energy from 50 keV to 9 MeV and 15% from 9 to 15 MeV. In order to meet this goal, detailed Monte Carlo simulations are being used to assess the importance and effect of every component in the experimental configuration. As part of this effort, we have also simulated some past PFNS measurements to identify possible sources of systematic error. We find that multiple scattering plays an important role in the target geometry, collimators, and detector response and that past experiments probably underestimated the extent of this effect.

  14. Vanadium K-edge XANES in vanadium-bearing model compounds: a full multiple scattering study.

    PubMed

    Benzi, Federico; Giuli, Gabriele; Della Longa, Stefano; Paris, Eleonora

    2016-07-01

    A systematic study is presented on a set of vanadium-bearing model compounds, representative of the most common V coordination geometries and oxidation states, analysed by means of vanadium K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy calculations in the full multiple scattering (FMS) framework. Analysis and calibration of the free parameters of the theory under the muffin-tin approximation (muffin-tin overlap and interstitial potential) have been carried out by fitting the experimental spectra using the MXAN program. The analysis shows a correlation of the fit parameters with the V coordination geometry and oxidation state. By making use of this correlation it is possible to approach the study of unknown V-bearing compounds with useful preliminary information. PMID:27359143

  15. Self-interaction correction in multiple scattering theory: application to transition metal oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Daene, Markus W; Lueders, Martin; Ernst, Arthur; Diemo, Koedderitzsch; Temmerman, Walter M; Szotek, Zdzislawa; Wolfam, Hergert

    2009-01-01

    We apply to transition metal monoxides the self-interaction corrected (SIC) local spin density (LSD) approximation, implemented locally in the multiple scattering theory within the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) band structure method. The calculated electronic structure and in particular magnetic moments and energy gaps are discussed in reference to the earlier SIC results obtained within the LMTO-ASA band structure method, involving transformations between Bloch and Wannier representations to solve the eigenvalue problem and calculate the SIC charge and potential. Since the KKR can be easily extended to treat disordered alloys, by invoking the coherent potential approximation (CPA), in this paper we compare the CPA approach and supercell calculations to study the electronic structure of NiO with cation vacancies.

  16. Multiple Scattering of Seismic Waves from Ensembles of Upwardly Lossy Thin Flux Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Chris S.; Cally, Paul S.

    2015-07-01

    Our previous semi-analytic treatment of - and -mode multiple scattering from ensembles of thin flux tubes (Hanson and Cally, Astrophys. J. 781, 125, 2014a; 791, 129, 2014b) is extended by allowing both sausage and kink waves to freely escape at the top of the model using a radiative boundary condition there. As expected, this additional avenue of escape, supplementing downward loss into the deep solar interior, results in substantially greater absorption of incident - and -modes. However, less intuitively, it also yields mildly to substantially smaller phase shifts in waves emerging from the ensemble. This may have implications for the interpretation of seismic data for solar plage regions, and in particular their small measured phase shifts.

  17. Hydrogen Balmer alpha intensity distributions and line profiles from multiple scattering theory using realistic geocoronal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. E., Jr.; Meier, R. R.; Hodges, R. R., Jr.; Tinsley, B. A.

    1987-01-01

    The H Balmer alpha nightglow is investigated by using Monte Carlo models of asymmetric geocoronal atomic hydrogen distributions as input to a radiative transfer model of solar Lyman-beta radiation in the thermosphere and atmosphere. It is shown that it is essential to include multiple scattering of Lyman-beta radiation in the interpretation of Balmer alpha airglow data. Observations of diurnal variation in the Balmer alpha airglow showing slightly greater intensities in the morning relative to evening are consistent with theory. No evidence is found for anything other than a single sinusoidal diurnal variation of exobase density. Dramatic changes in effective temperature derived from the observed Balmer alpha line profiles are expected on the basis of changing illumination conditions in the thermosphere and exosphere as different regions of the sky are scanned.

  18. Off-axis multiple scattering of a laser beam in turbid media Comparison of theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerstl, Siegfried A. W.; Zardecki, Andrew; Unruh, Wesley P.; Stupin, David M.; Stokes, Grant H.

    1987-03-01

    The off-axis forward-scattered radiation from a low energy He-Ne laser, scattered by high density hydrosols, is studied experimentally and theoretically. The validity range of theoretical calculations is determined using four measurements with two optical depths and two detector fields of view. For narrow field of view detectors, experimental and theoretical agreement is good close to the beam axis and decreases with transverse distance; agreement is good at greater distances from the beam axis using an open detector. The small-angle approximation adequately describes multiple scattering close to the beam; calculations are significantly improved by combining the small-angle approximation with diffusion theory.

  19. Off-axis multiple scattering of a laser beam in turbid media: comparison of theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Gersti, S A; Zardecki, A; Unruh, W P; Stupin, D M; Stokes, G H; Elliott, N E

    1987-03-01

    The off-axis forward-scattered radiation from a low energy He-Ne laser, scattered by high density hydrosols, is studied experimentally and theoretically. The validity range of theoretical calculations is determined using four measurements with two optical depths and two detector fields of view. For narrow field of view detectors, experimental and theoretical agreement is good close to the beam axis and decreases with transverse distance; agreement is good at greater distances from the beam axis using an open detector. The small-angle approximation adequately describes multiple scattering close to the beam; calculations are significantly improved by combining the small-angle approximation with diffusion theory.

  20. Determination of cloud effective particle size from the multiple-scattering effect on lidar integration-method temperature measurements.

    PubMed

    Reichardt, Jens; Reichardt, Susanne

    2006-04-20

    A method is presented that permits the determination of the cloud effective particle size from Raman- or Rayleigh-integration temperature measurements that exploits the dependence of the multiple-scattering contributions to the lidar signals from heights above the cloud on the particle size of the cloud. Independent temperature information is needed for the determination of size. By use of Raman-integration temperatures, the technique is applied to cirrus measurements. The magnitude of the multiple-scattering effect and the above-cloud lidar signal strength limit the method's range of applicability to cirrus optical depths from 0.1 to 0.5. Our work implies that records of stratosphere temperature obtained with lidar may be affected by multiple scattering in clouds up to heights of 30 km and beyond.

  1. Multiple Scattering Approach to Polarization Dependence of F K-Edge XANES Spectra for Highly Oriented Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Thin Film

    SciTech Connect

    Nagamatsu, S.; Ono, M.; Kera, S.; Okudaira, K. K.; Fujikawa, T.; Ueno, N.

    2007-02-02

    The polarization dependence of F K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of highly-oriented thin-film of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) has been analyzed by using multiple scattering theory. The spectra show clear polarization dependence due to the highly-oriented structure. The multiple scattering calculations reflects a local structure around an absorbing atom. The calculated results obtained by considering intermolecular-interactions are in good agreement with the observed polarization-dependence. We have also analyzed structural models of the radiation damaged PTFE films.

  2. The role of multiple scattering in twilight zenith sky observations of atmospheric absorbers: Diurnal photochemistry and airmass factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perliski, Lori Mac

    The ability to properly interpret UV-visible twilight absorption measurements of atmospheric chemical constituents is dependent on how well the optical path, or airmass factor, of light collected by the spectrometer is understood. In the case of direct light measurement, the airmass factor may be calculated from simple geometrical considerations for a spherical atmosphere. In the case of scattered light, a spherical radiative transfer model must be used. A simple single scattering model and a Monte Carlo radiative transfer scheme were developed to study the effects of multiple scattering, aerosol scattering, albedo and refraction on scattered light airmass factors. Stratospheric airmass factors are found to be relatively insensitive to multiple scattering, albedo, refraction and aerosol scattering by background aerosols at fairly short visible wavelengths (about 450 nm). Tropospheric airmass factors, on the other hand, are very sensitive to these processes. Ground albedo, refraction, multiple scattering and aerosol scattering are also important in determining photolysis rates of atmospheric species. It is found that one-dimensional photochemical model calculations of vertical column abundances of several stratospheric chemical constituents are relatively insensitive to changes in photolysis rates due to albedo, refraction and background aerosol scattering, although they are sensitive to multiple scattering. Following the June 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, OClO and BrO were observed at Fritz Peak Observatory for the first time every. The radiative and photochemical effects of the presence of Pinatubo volcanic aerosols are examined using a one-dimensional photochemical model coupled to a spherical matrix inversion radiative transfer model. Although the heterogeneous removal of NO(x) is not explicitly considered in the photochemical model, the photochemical effects of NO(x) removal may be studied by prescribing the amount of NO(x) removed by heterogeneous chemistry

  3. Modeling of the competition of stimulated Raman and Brillouin scatter in multiple beam experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Bruce I.; Baldis, Hector A.; Berger, Richard L.; Estabrook, Kent G.; Williams, Edward A.; Labaune, Christine

    2001-02-01

    Multiple laser beam experiments with plastic target foils at the Laboratoire pour L'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI) facility [Baldis et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2957 (1996)] demonstrated anticorrelation of stimulated Brillouin and Raman backscatter (SBS and SRS). Detailed Thomson scattering diagnostics showed that SBS always precedes SRS, that secondary electron plasma waves sometimes accompanied SRS appropriate to the Langmuir Decay Instability (LDI), and that, with multiple interaction laser beams, the SBS direct backscatter signal in the primary laser beam was reduced while the SRS backscatter signal was enhanced and occurred earlier in time. Analysis and numerical calculations are presented here that evaluate the influences on the competition of SBS and SRS, of local pump depletion in laser hot spots due to SBS, of mode coupling of SBS and LDI ion waves, and of optical mixing of secondary and primary laser beams. These influences can be significant. The calculations take into account simple models of the laser beam hot-spot intensity probability distributions and assess whether ponderomotive and thermal self-focusing are significant. Within the limits of the model, which omits several other potentially important nonlinearities, the calculations suggest the effectiveness of local pump depletion, ion wave mode coupling, and optical mixing in affecting the LULI observations.

  4. Coherent light scattering of heterogeneous randomly rough films and effective medium in the theory of electromagnetic wave multiple scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Berginc, G

    2013-11-30

    We have developed a general formalism based on Green's functions to calculate the coherent electromagnetic field scattered by a random medium with rough boundaries. The approximate expression derived makes it possible to determine the effective permittivity, which is generalised for a layer of an inhomogeneous random medium with different types of particles and bounded with randomly rough interfaces. This effective permittivity describes the coherent propagation of an electromagnetic wave in a random medium with randomly rough boundaries. We have obtained an expression, which contains the Maxwell – Garnett formula at the low-frequency limit, and the Keller formula; the latter has been proved to be in good agreement with experiments for particles whose dimensions are larger than a wavelength. (coherent light scattering)

  5. Experimental characterization of a prototype secondary spectrometer for vertically scattering multiple energy analysis at cold-neutron triple axis spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toft-Petersen, Rasmus; Groitl, Felix; Kure, Mathias; Lim, Joshua; Čermák, Petr; Alimov, Svyatoslav; Wilpert, Thomas; Le, Manh Duc; Quintero-Castro, Diana; Niedermayer, Christof; Schneidewind, Astrid; Habicht, Klaus

    2016-09-01

    A thorough experimental characterization of a multiplexing backend with multiple energy analysis on a cold-neutron triple axis spectrometer (cTAS) is presented. The prototype employs two angular segments (2 θ -segments) each containing five vertically scattering analyzers (energy channels), which simultaneously probe an energy transfer range of 2 meV at the corresponding two scattering angles. The feasibility and strength of such a vertically scattering multiple energy analysis setup is clearly demonstrated. It is shown, that the energy resolution near the elastic line is comparable to the energy resolution of a standard cTAS. The dispersion relation of the antiferromagnetic excitations in MnF2 has been mapped out by performing constant energy transfer maps. These results show that the tested setup is virtually spurion free. In addition, focusing effects due to (mis)matching of the instrumental resolution ellipsoid to the excitation branch are clearly evident.

  6. Nonparametric estimation of the heterogeneity of a random medium using compound Poisson process modeling of wave multiple scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bihan, Nicolas; Margerin, Ludovic

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we present a nonparametric method to estimate the heterogeneity of a random medium from the angular distribution of intensity of waves transmitted through a slab of random material. Our approach is based on the modeling of forward multiple scattering using compound Poisson processes on compact Lie groups. The estimation technique is validated through numerical simulations based on radiative transfer theory.

  7. Nonparametric estimation of the heterogeneity of a random medium using compound Poisson process modeling of wave multiple scattering.

    PubMed

    Le Bihan, Nicolas; Margerin, Ludovic

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we present a nonparametric method to estimate the heterogeneity of a random medium from the angular distribution of intensity of waves transmitted through a slab of random material. Our approach is based on the modeling of forward multiple scattering using compound Poisson processes on compact Lie groups. The estimation technique is validated through numerical simulations based on radiative transfer theory.

  8. Unpolarised TMD Distribution and Fragmentation Functions from recent HERMES and COMPASS Semi-inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering Multiplicities

    SciTech Connect

    Prokudin, Alexey; Anselmino, Mauro; Boglione, Mariaelena; Melis, Stefano; Gonzalez, J. O.

    2014-10-01

    The unpolarised transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions (TMDs) are extracted from HERMES and COMPASS experimental measurements of semi- inclusive deep inelastic scattering multiplicities for charged hadron production. A simple factorised functional form of the TMDs is adopted, with a Gaussian dependence on the intrinsic transverse momentum, which turns out to be quite adequate in shape.

  9. A Case for More Multiple Scattering Lidar from Space: Analysis of Four LITE Pulses Returned from a Marine Stratocumulus Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Anthony B.; Winker, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Outline: (1) Signal Physics for Multiple-Scattering Cloud Lidar, (2) SNR Estimation (3) Cloud Property Retrievals (3a) several techniques (3b) application to Lidar-In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) data (3c) relation to O2 A-band

  10. On the Mathematical Modeling of Single and Multiple Scattering of Ultrasonic Guided Waves by Small Scatterers: A Structural Health Monitoring Measurement Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strom, Brandon William

    In an effort to assist in the paradigm shift from schedule based maintenance to conditioned based maintenance, we derive measurement models to be used within structural health monitoring algorithms. Our models are physics based, and use scattered Lamb waves to detect and quantify pitting corrosion. After covering the basics of Lamb waves and the reciprocity theorem, we develop a technique for the scattered wave solution. The first application is two-dimensional, and is employed in two different ways. The first approach integrates a traction distribution and replaces it by an equivalent force. The second approach is higher order and uses the actual traction distribution. We find that the equivalent force version of the solution technique holds well for small pits at low frequencies. The second application is three-dimensional. The equivalent force caused by the scattered wave of an arbitrary equivalent force is calculated. We obtain functions for the scattered wave displacements as a function of equivalent forces, equivalent forces as a function of incident wave, and scattered wave amplitudes as a function of incident amplitude. The third application uses self-consistency to derive governing equations for the scattered waves due to multiple corrosion pits. We decouple the implicit set of equations and solve explicitly by using a recursive series solution. Alternatively, we solve via an undetermined coefficient method which results in an interaction operator and solution via matrix inversion. The general solution is given for N pits including mode conversion. We show that the two approaches are equivalent, and give a solution for three pits. Various approximations are advanced to simplify the problem while retaining the leading order physics. As a final application, we use the multiple scattering model to investigate resonance of Lamb waves. We begin with a one-dimensional problem and progress to a three-dimensional problem. A directed graph enables interpretation of

  11. Multiple-wavelength spectroscopic quantitation of light-absorbing species in scattering media

    DOEpatents

    Nathel, Howard; Cartland, Harry E.; Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Everett, Matthew J.; Roe, Jeffery N.

    2000-01-01

    An oxygen concentration measurement system for blood hemoglobin comprises a multiple-wavelength low-coherence optical light source that is coupled by single mode fibers through a splitter and combiner and focused on both a target tissue sample and a reference mirror. Reflections from both the reference mirror and from the depths of the target tissue sample are carried back and mixed to produce interference fringes in the splitter and combiner. The reference mirror is set such that the distance traversed in the reference path is the same as the distance traversed into and back from the target tissue sample at some depth in the sample that will provide light attenuation information that is dependent on the oxygen in blood hemoglobin in the target tissue sample. Two wavelengths of light are used to obtain concentrations. The method can be used to measure total hemoglobin concentration [Hb.sub.deoxy +Hb.sub.oxy ] or total blood volume in tissue and in conjunction with oxygen saturation measurements from pulse oximetry can be used to absolutely quantify oxyhemoglobin [HbO.sub.2 ] in tissue. The apparatus and method provide a general means for absolute quantitation of an absorber dispersed in a highly scattering medium.

  12. Surface scattering properties estimated from modeling airborne multiple emission angle reflectance data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinness, Edward A.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Irons, J. R.; Harding, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Here, researchers apply the Hapke function to airborne bidirectional reflectance data collected over three terrestrial surfaces. The objectives of the study were to test the range of natural surfaces that the Hapke model fits and to evaluate model parameters in terms of known surface properties. The data used are multispectral and multiple emission angle data collected during the Geologic Remote Sensing Field Experiment (GRSFE) over a mud-cracked playa, an artificially roughened playa, and a basalt cobble strewn playa at Lunar Lake Playa in Nevada. Airborne remote sensing data and associated field measurements were acquired at the same time. The airborne data were acquired by the Advanced Solid State Array Spectroradiometer (ASAS) instrument, a 29-spectral band imaging system. ASAS reflectance data for a cobble-strewn surface and an artificially rough playa surface on Lunar Lake Playa can be explained with the Hanke model. The cobble and rough playa sites are distinguishable by a single scattering albedo, which is controlled by material composition; by the roughness parameter, which appears to be controlled by the surface texture and particle size; and the symmetry factor of the single particle phase function, which is controlled by particle size and shape. A smooth playa surface consisting of compacted, fine-grained particles has reflectance variations that are also distinct from either the cobble site or rough playa site. The smooth playa appears to behave more like a Lambertian surface that cannot be modeled with the Hapke function.

  13. Effects of multiple scattering and surface albedo on the photochemistry of the troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustsson, T. R.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of treatment of incoming solar radiation on the photochemistry of the troposphere is discussed. A one dimensional photochemical model of the troposphere containing the species of the nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur families was developed. The vertical flux is simulated by use of the parameterized eddy diffusion coefficients. The photochemical model is coupled to a radiative transfer model that calculates the radiation field due to the incoming solar radiation which initiates much of the photochemistry of the troposphere. Vertical profiles of tropospheric species were compared with the Leighton approximation, radiative transfer, matrix inversion model. The radiative transfer code includes the effects of multiple scattering due to molecules and aerosols, pure absorption, and surface albedo on the transfer of incoming solar radiation. It is indicated that significant differences exist for several key photolysis frequencies and species number density profiles between the Leighton approximation and the profiles generated with, radiative transfer, matrix inversion technique. Most species show enhanced vertical profiles when the more realistic treatment of the incoming solar radiation field is included

  14. Statistical multiple diffuse scattering from rough surfaces in RHEED — beyond the distorted-wave Born approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. L.

    1996-10-01

    In reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) of growing surfaces in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), diffuse scattering is generated by atom vibrations, point vacancies and growth islands (or surface roughness). Most of the existing RHEED theories have been developed under the first-order diffuse scattering approximation, and thus they are restricted for surfaces whose roughness is relatively low. In fact, crystal surfaces grown by MBE are usually rough; the change of surface coverage from 0 to 1 monolayer accounts for the observed RHEED oscillation. In this paper, a formal dynamical theory of RHEED has been developed to calculate the diffuse scattering produced by both atom vibrations and point vacancies at surfaces. The theory is aimed at recovering the multiple diffuse scattering that has been dropped by the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA). With the inclusion of a complex potential in the dynamical calculation, a rigorous proof is given to show that the high-order diffuse scattering terms are recovered in the calculation using the equation originally derived under the DWBA. This conclusion establishes the basis for expanding the RHEED theories developed under the first-order diffuse scattering to cases where the degree of surface roughness is high, allowing dynamical calculation of RHEED rocking curves for any growing surface. The statistical time and structure averages over the distorted crystal potential are evaluated analytically before numerical calculation. The dynamic form factor is calculated with consideration of anisotropic surface atom vibration and point vacancies at a growing surface.

  15. Estimation of complex refractive index of polydisperse particulate systems from multiple-scattered ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared measurements.

    PubMed

    Velazco-Roa, M A; Thennadil, S N

    2007-06-20

    A method to extract the complex refractive index of spherical particles from a polydisperse suspension at concentrations where multiple light-scattering effects are significant is presented. The optical constants are estimated from total diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements and inverting the measurements using the radiative transfer equation (RTE) and the Mie theory for scattering by polydisperse spherical particles. The method is tested by applying it to three different polydisperse polystyrene suspensions and extracting the optical constants of polystyrene particles in the wavelength range of 450-1200 nm. The effect of particle size, concentration, and polydispersity on the estimated values of the optical constants is also discussed.

  16. Dipole emission in stratified media with multiple spherical scatterers: Enhanced outcoupling from OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egel, Amos; Lemmer, Uli

    2014-11-01

    Scattering particles find application in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) for an enhanced outcoupling of the generated light. This paper presents a computational scheme to exactly model the electromagnetic fields and the power outcoupling efficiency of a typical OLED geometry, comprising a thin film system with spherical scattering particles inside. The model is based on the expansion of the fields in plane and spherical vector wave functions, as well as the scattering matrix formalism for the layer system reflections. In a numerical application example, the effect of 1000 spherical high index scattering particles on the internal outcoupling from a realistic OLED structure is discussed.

  17. The collapsed cone algorithm for 192Ir dosimetry using phantom-size adaptive multiple-scatter point kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsson Tedgren, Åsa; Plamondon, Mathieu; Beaulieu, Luc

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate how dose distributions calculated with the collapsed cone (CC) algorithm depend on the size of the water phantom used in deriving the point kernel for multiple scatter. A research version of the CC algorithm equipped with a set of selectable point kernels for multiple-scatter dose that had initially been derived in water phantoms of various dimensions was used. The new point kernels were generated using EGSnrc in spherical water phantoms of radii 5 cm, 7.5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm, 20 cm, 30 cm and 50 cm. Dose distributions derived with CC in water phantoms of different dimensions and in a CT-based clinical breast geometry were compared to Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the Geant4-based brachytherapy specific MC code Algebra. Agreement with MC within 1% was obtained when the dimensions of the phantom used to derive the multiple-scatter kernel were similar to those of the calculation phantom. Doses are overestimated at phantom edges when kernels are derived in larger phantoms and underestimated when derived in smaller phantoms (by around 2% to 7% depending on distance from source and phantom dimensions). CC agrees well with MC in the high dose region of a breast implant and is superior to TG43 in determining skin doses for all multiple-scatter point kernel sizes. Increased agreement between CC and MC is achieved when the point kernel is comparable to breast dimensions. The investigated approximation in multiple scatter dose depends on the choice of point kernel in relation to phantom size and yields a significant fraction of the total dose only at distances of several centimeters from a source/implant which correspond to volumes of low doses. The current implementation of the CC algorithm utilizes a point kernel derived in a comparatively large (radius 20 cm) water phantom. A fixed point kernel leads to predictable behaviour of the algorithm with the worst case being a source/implant located well within a patient

  18. Iterative solution of multiple radiation and scattering problems in structural acoustics using the BL-QMR algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, M.

    1996-12-31

    Finite-element discretizations of time-harmonic acoustic wave problems in exterior domains result in large sparse systems of linear equations with complex symmetric coefficient matrices. In many situations, these matrix problems need to be solved repeatedly for different right-hand sides, but with the same coefficient matrix. For instance, multiple right-hand sides arise in radiation problems due to multiple load cases, and also in scattering problems when multiple angles of incidence of an incoming plane wave need to be considered. In this talk, we discuss the iterative solution of multiple linear systems arising in radiation and scattering problems in structural acoustics by means of a complex symmetric variant of the BL-QMR method. First, we summarize the governing partial differential equations for time-harmonic structural acoustics, the finite-element discretization of these equations, and the resulting complex symmetric matrix problem. Next, we sketch the special version of BL-QMR method that exploits complex symmetry, and we describe the preconditioners we have used in conjunction with BL-QMR. Finally, we report some typical results of our extensive numerical tests to illustrate the typical convergence behavior of BL-QMR method for multiple radiation and scattering problems in structural acoustics, to identify appropriate preconditioners for these problems, and to demonstrate the importance of deflation in block Krylov-subspace methods. Our numerical results show that the multiple systems arising in structural acoustics can be solved very efficiently with the preconditioned BL-QMR method. In fact, for multiple systems with up to 40 and more different right-hand sides we get consistent and significant speed-ups over solving the systems individually.

  19. Polymer statistics under confinement and multiple scattering theory for polymer dynamics and elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondescu, Radu Paul

    1999-08-01

    In this dissertation we report new theoretical results-both analytical and numerical-concerning a variety of polymeric systems. Applying path-integral and differentiable manifolds techniques, we have obtained original results concerning the statistics of a Gaussian polymer embedded on a sphere, a cylinder, a cone and a torus. Generally, we found that the curvature of the surfaces induces a geometrical localization area. Next we employ field theoretical (instanton calculus) and differential equations techniques (Darboux method) to obtain approximate and exact new results regarding the average size and the Green function of a Gaussian, one- dimensional polymer chain subjected to a multi-stable potential (the tunnel effect in polymer physics). Extending the multiple scattering formalism, we have investigated the steady-state dynamics of suspensions of spheres and Gaussian polymer chains without excluded volume interactions. We have calculated the self- diffusion and friction coefficients for probe objects (sphere and polymer chain) and the shear viscosity of the suspensions. At certain values of the concentration of the ambient medium, motion of probe objects freezes. Deviation from the Stokes-Einstein behavior is observed and interpreted. Next, we have calculated the diffusion coefficient and the change in the viscosity of a dilute solution of freely translating and rotating diblock, Gaussian copolymers. Regimes that lead to increasing the efficiency of separation processes have been identified. The parallel between Navier-Stokes and Lamé equations was exploited to extend the effective medium formalism to the computation of the effective shear and Young moduli and the Poisson ratio of a composite material containing rigid, monodispersed, penetrable spheres. Our approach deals efficiently with the high concentration regime of inclusions.

  20. Negative refractive index and acoustic superlens from multiple scattering in single negative metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Kaina, Nadège; Lemoult, Fabrice; Fink, Mathias; Lerosey, Geoffroy

    2015-09-01

    Metamaterials, man-made composite media structured on a scale much smaller than a wavelength, offer surprising possibilities for engineering the propagation of waves. One of the most interesting of these is the ability to achieve superlensing--that is, to focus or image beyond the diffraction limit. This originates from the left-handed behavior--the property of refracting waves negatively--that is typical of negative index metamaterials. Yet reaching this goal requires the design of 'double negative' metamaterials, which act simultaneously on the permittivity and permeability in electromagnetics, or on the density and compressibility in acoustics; this generally implies the use of two different kinds of building blocks or specific particles presenting multiple overlapping resonances. Such a requirement limits the applicability of double negative metamaterials, and has, for example, hampered any demonstration of subwavelength focusing using left-handed acoustic metamaterials. Here we show that these strict conditions can be largely relaxed by relying on media that consist of only one type of single resonant unit cell. Specifically, we show with a simple yet general semi-analytical model that judiciously breaking the symmetry of a single negative metamaterial is sufficient to turn it into a double negative one. We then demonstrate that this occurs solely because of multiple scattering of waves off the metamaterial resonant elements, a phenomenon often disregarded in these media owing to their subwavelength patterning. We apply our approach to acoustics and verify through numerical simulations that it allows the realization of negative index acoustic metamaterials based on Helmholtz resonators only. Finally, we demonstrate the operation of a negative index acoustic superlens, achieving subwavelength focusing and imaging with spot width and resolution 7 and 3.5 times better than the diffraction limit, respectively. Our findings have profound implications for the

  1. Accurate and efficient Nyström volume integral equation method for the Maxwell equations for multiple 3-D scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Duan; Cai, Wei; Zinser, Brian; Cho, Min Hyung

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we develop an accurate and efficient Nyström volume integral equation (VIE) method for the Maxwell equations for a large number of 3-D scatterers. The Cauchy Principal Values that arise from the VIE are computed accurately using a finite size exclusion volume together with explicit correction integrals consisting of removable singularities. Also, the hyper-singular integrals are computed using interpolated quadrature formulae with tensor-product quadrature nodes for cubes, spheres and cylinders, that are frequently encountered in the design of meta-materials. The resulting Nyström VIE method is shown to have high accuracy with a small number of collocation points and demonstrates p-convergence for computing the electromagnetic scattering of these objects. Numerical calculations of multiple scatterers of cubic, spherical, and cylindrical shapes validate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.

  2. Monte Carlo Code System for Calculation of Multiple Scattering of Neutrons in the Resonance Region.

    1983-01-25

    Version 00 MCRTOF systematically calculates capture and scattering probabilities for neutrons incident on a material disk, with neutron cross sections calculated from the resonance parameters. Capture, front and rear face scattering, transmission, etc., probabilities are obtained from the average destinations of the incident neutrons.

  3. Multiple scattered radiation emerging from continental haze layers. 1: Radiance, polarization, and neutral points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kattawar, G. W.; Plass, G. N.; Hitzfelder, S. J.

    1975-01-01

    The complete radiation field is calculated for scattering layers of various optical thicknesses. Results obtained for Rayleigh and haze scattering are compared. Calculated radiances show differences as large as 23% compared to the approximate scalar theory of radiative transfer, while the same differences are approximately 0.1% for a continental haze phase function. The polarization of reflected and transmitted radiation is given for various optical thicknesses, solar zenith angles, and surface albedos. Two types of neutral points occur for aerosol phase functions. Rayleigh-like neutral points arise from zero polarization that occurs at scattering angles of 0 deg and 180 deg. For Rayleigh phase functions, the position of these points varies with the optical thickness of the scattering layer. Non-Rayleigh neutral points are associated with the zeros of polarization which occur between the end points of the single scattering curve, and are found over a wide range of azimuthal angles.

  4. Experimental measurements of the coherent field resulting from the interaction of an ultrasonic shock wave with a multiple scattering medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viard, Nicolas; Gianmarinaro, Bruno; Derode, Arnaud; Barrière, Christophe

    2014-04-01

    Whereas multiple scattering and shock wave formation are known to be antagonistic phenomena, this work concentrates on the interaction of an ultrasonic shock wave with a random multiple scattering medium. The shock wave is generated by long distance propagation of a short pulse (4 periods at a 3.5 MHz central frequency) in water before it encounters the scattering medium (a slab-shaped random set of parallel metallic rods). Transmitted waves are recorded over hundreds of positions along the lateral dimension of the slab to estimate the ensemble-averaged transmitted field langlephi(t)rangle, also known as the coherent wave. Experiments are repeated for different thicknesses L of the slab and different emission amplitudes. The elastic mean free path le (i.e the typical distance for the decreasing of the coherent intensity |langlephi(t)rangle|2 due to scattering) is determined as well as the harmonic rate of the averaged transmitted wave. Experimental results are discussed and compared to the linear case.

  5. Extracting chemical information from spectral data with multiplicative light scattering effects by optical path-length estimation and correction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zeng-Ping; Morris, Julian; Martin, Elaine

    2006-11-15

    When analyzing complex mixtures that exhibit sample-to-sample variability using spectroscopic instrumentation, the variation in the optical path length, resulting from the physical variations inherent within the individual samples, will result in significant multiplicative light scattering perturbations. Although a number of algorithms have been proposed to address the effect of multiplicative light scattering, each has associated with it a number of underlying assumptions, which necessitates additional information relating to the spectra being attained. This information is difficult to obtain in practice and frequently is not available. Thus, with a view to removing the need for the attainment of additional information, a new algorithm, optical path-length estimation and correction (OPLEC), is proposed. The methodology is applied to two near-infrared transmittance spectral data sets (powder mixture data and wheat kernel data), and the results are compared with the extended multiplicative signal correction (EMSC) and extended inverted signal correction (EISC) algorithms. Within the study, it is concluded that the EMSC algorithm cannot be applied to the wheat kernel data set due to core information for the implementation of the algorithm not being available, while the analysis of the powder mixture data using EISC resulted in incorrect conclusions being drawn and hence a calibration model whose performance was unacceptable. In contrast, OPLEC was observed to effectively mitigate the detrimental effects of physical light scattering and significantly improve the prediction accuracy of the calibration models for the two spectral data sets investigated without any additional information pertaining to the calibration samples being required.

  6. Generalized shot noise model for time-reversal in multiple-scattering media allowing for arbitrary inputs and windowing

    PubMed Central

    Haworth, Kevin J.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Carson, Paul L.; Kripfgans, Oliver D.

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical shot noise model to describe the output of a time-reversal experiment in a multiple-scattering medium is developed. This (non-wave equation based) model describes the following process. An arbitrary waveform is transmitted through a high-order multiple-scattering environment and recorded. The recorded signal is arbitrarily windowed and then time-reversed. The processed signal is retransmitted into the environment and the resulting signal recorded. The temporal and spatial signal and noise of this process is predicted statistically. It is found that the time when the noise is largest depends on the arbitrary windowing and this noise peak can occur at times outside the main lobe. To determine further trends, a common set of parameters is applied to the general result. It is seen that as the duration of the input function increases, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) decreases (independent of signal bandwidth). It is also seen that longer persisting impulse responses result in increased main lobe amplitudes and SNR. Assumptions underpinning the generalized shot noise model are compared to an experimental realization of a multiple-scattering medium (a time-reversal chaotic cavity). Results from the model are compared to random number numerical simulation. PMID:19425655

  7. A layer-multiple-scattering method for phononic crystals and heterostructures of such

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainidou, R.; Stefanou, N.; Psarobas, I. E.; Modinos, A.

    2005-03-01

    We present a computer program to calculate the frequency band structure of an infinite phononic crystal, and the transmission, reflection and absorption of elastic waves by a slab of this crystal. The crystal consists of a stack of identical slices parallel to a given surface; the slice may consist of multilayers of non-overlapping spheres of given periodicity parallel to the surface and homogeneous plates. The elastic coefficients of the various components of the crystal may be complex functions of the frequency. Program summaryTitle of program: MULTEL Catalogue identifier:ADUT Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADUT Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computers: Pentium 4 PC, HP J-5600 Installation: University of Athens, Section of Solid State Physics Operating systems: MS Windows, LINUX, HP-UX Programming language used: FORTRAN 77 Memory required to execute with typical data: 0.9M words Number of bits in a word: 32 Number of processors used: 1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: No Distribution format:tar.gz. Number of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 8676 Number of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 61 459 Nature of physical problem: Calculation of the complex band structure associated with a given surface of a phononic crystal, and of the transmission, reflection and absorption coefficients of elastic waves by a slab of the crystal parallel to the given surface. We note that the ordinary frequency band structure of the infinite crystal is contained within the complex band structure of any surface of the crystal. Method of solution: Solution of the equations of elasticity using multiple-scattering techniques. Restrictions on the complexity of the program: The structures that can be considered consist of parallel planes of non-overlapping spheres of given two-dimensional periodicity and uniform plates. Typical running time: For the

  8. Convergence and reliability of the Rehr-Albers formalism in multiple-scattering calculations of photoelectron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.; Garcia de Abajo, F.J.; Ynzunza, R.X.; Kaduwela, A.P.; Van Hove, M.A.; Fadley, C.S. |

    1998-11-01

    The Rehr-Albers (RA) separable Green{close_quote}s-function formalism, which is based on an expansion series, has been successful in speeding up multiple-scattering cluster calculations for photoelectron diffraction simulations, particularly in its second-order version. The performance of this formalism is explored here in terms of computational speed, convergence over orders of multiple scattering, over orders of approximation, and over cluster size, by comparison with exact cluster-based formalisms. It is found that the second-order RA approximation [characterized by (6{times}6) scattering matrices] is adequate for many situations, particularly if the initial state from which photoemission occurs is of {ital s} or {ital p} type. For the most general and quantitative applications, higher-order versions of RA may become necessary for {ital d} initial states [third-order, i.e., (10{times}10) matrices] and {ital f} initial states [fourth-order, i.e., (15{times}15) matrices]. However, the required RA order decreases as an electron wave proceeds along a multiple-scattering path, and this can be exploited, together with the selective and automated cutoff of weakly contributing matrix elements and paths, to yield computer time savings of at least an order of magnitude with no significant loss of accuracy. Cluster sizes of up to approximately 100 atoms should be sufficient for most problems that require about 5{percent} accuracy in diffracted intensities. Excellent sensitivity to structure is seen in comparisons of second-order theory with variable geometry to exact theory as a fictitious {open_quotes}experiment.{close_quotes} Our implementation of the Rehr-Albers formalism thus represents a versatile, quantitative, and efficient method for the accurate simulation of photoelectron diffraction. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. Solving protein nanocrystals by cryo-EM diffraction: multiple scattering artifacts.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Ganesh; Basu, Shibom; Liu, Haiguang; Zuo, Jian-Min; Spence, John C H

    2015-01-01

    The maximum thickness permissible within the single-scattering approximation for the determination of the structure of perfectly ordered protein microcrystals by transmission electron diffraction is estimated for tetragonal hen-egg lysozyme protein crystals using several approaches. Multislice simulations are performed for many diffraction conditions and beam energies to determine the validity domain of the required single-scattering approximation and hence the limit on crystal thickness. The effects of erroneous experimental structure factor amplitudes on the charge density map for lysozyme are noted and their threshold limits calculated. The maximum thickness of lysozyme permissible under the single-scattering approximation is also estimated using R-factor analysis. Successful reconstruction of density maps is found to result mainly from the use of the phase information provided by modeling based on the protein data base through molecular replacement (MR), which dominates the effect of poor quality electron diffraction data at thicknesses larger than about 200 Å. For perfectly ordered protein nanocrystals, a maximum thickness of about 1000 Å is predicted at 200 keV if MR can be used, using R-factor analysis performed over a subset of the simulated diffracted beams. The effects of crystal bending, mosaicity (which has recently been directly imaged by cryo-EM) and secondary scattering are discussed. Structure-independent tests for single-scattering and new microfluidic methods for growing and sorting nanocrystals by size are reviewed.

  10. Second-order multiple-scattering theory associated with backscattering enhancement for a millimeter wavelength weather radar with a finite beam width

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Satoru; Tanelli, Simone; Im, Eastwood

    2005-01-01

    Effects of multiple scattering on reflectivity are studied for millimeter wavelength weather radars. A time-independent vector theory, including up to second-order scattering, is derived for a single layer of hydrometeors of a uniform density and a uniform diameter. In this theory, spherical waves with a Gaussian antenna pattern are used to calculate ladder and cross terms in the analytical scattering theory. The former terms represent the conventional multiple scattering, while the latter terms cause backscattering enhancement in both the copolarized and cross-polarized components. As the optical thickness of the hydrometeor layer increases, the differences from the conventional plane wave theory become more significant, and essentially, the reflectivity of multiple scattering depends on the ratio of mean free path to radar footprint radius. These results must be taken into account when analyzing radar reflectivity for use in remote sensing.

  11. Influence of multiple scattering of relativistic electrons on the linewidth of Parametric X-ray Radiation produced in the extremely Bragg geometry in the absence of photoabsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabrizi, Mehdi

    2016-10-01

    The multiple scattering effect on the linewidth of backward Parametric X-ray Radiation (PXR) produced in the extremely Bragg geometry by low energy relativistic electrons traversing a single crystal is discussed. It is shown that there are conditions when the influence of photoabsorption on the linewidth can be neglected, and only the multiple scattering process of relativistic electrons in crystals leads to the PXR lines broadening. Based on obtained theoretical and numerical results for the linewidth broadening caused by multiple scattering of 30 and 50 MeV relativistic electrons in a Si crystal of various thicknesses, an experiment could be performed to help in revealing the scattering effect on the PXR lines in the absence of photoabsorption. This leads to more accurate understanding of the influence of scattering process on the linewidth of backward PXR and helps to better construct a table-top narrow bandwidth X-ray source for both scientific and industrial applications.

  12. An ab initio study of multiple phonon scattering resonances in silicon germanium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Jonathan; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang

    2015-05-01

    We have computed phonon scattering rates and density of states in silicon germanium alloys using Green's function calculations and density functional theory. This method contrasts with the virtual crystal approximation (VCA) used in conjunction with Fermi's golden rule, which cannot capture resonance states occurring through the interaction of substitutional impurities with the host lattice. These resonances are demonstrated by density of states and scattering rate calculations in the dilute limit and show broadening as the concentration increases. Although these deviations become significant from the VCA at high frequencies, the relaxation times obtained for these phonon modes are small in both the full scattering theory and the VCA, resulting in their negligible contribution to thermal transport.

  13. Attenuation and impulse response for multiple scattering of light in atmospheric clouds and aerosols.

    PubMed

    Selden, Adrian C

    2006-05-01

    Model phase functions for atmospheric clouds and aerosols typically comprise a narrow forward lobe (corona), a broad diffuse background, and a narrow backscattering peak (glory), which can reach relatively high values, especially for polyhedral scattering particles, such as hexagonal ice columns and plates. The influence of these three major components on the asymptotic and transient attenuation of the scattered light is compared for several analytic phase functions to assess the dependence of radiative transfer in clouds and aerosols on the choice of phase function. The impulse response (temporal evolution of the angular intensity distribution) is sensitive to the higher moments of the phase function and could prove to be a useful technique for inferring the optical scattering parameters of clouds and aerosols.

  14. A new method for calculating the Glauber multiple scattering amplitude of composite particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-Shun; Hu, Su-Fen; Yang, Chao-Yun; Liu, Ji-Feng

    1997-11-01

    The method for calculating the scattering of composite particles with several kinds of constituent is studied. The formulae are derived and the method for sorting all Glauber expansion terms into several classes is given. The method of the integration is different from that of Lin and co-workers (Lin Z J et al 1991 J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 17 1159) and its analytical expressions are introduced. We calculate the D - D, P - P, P - 0954-3899/23/11/005/img7 and 0954-3899/23/11/005/img8 - P elastic scatterings. These results are compared with the data.

  15. Experimental Evidence of the Collective Brillouin Scattering of Multiple Laser Beams Sharing Acoustic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuville, C.; Tassin, V.; Pesme, D.; Monteil, M.-C.; Masson-Laborde, P.-E.; Baccou, C.; Fremerye, P.; Philippe, F.; Seytor, P.; Teychenné, D.; Seka, W.; Katz, J.; Bahr, R.; Depierreux, S.

    2016-06-01

    The indirect-drive scheme to inertial confinement fusion uses a large number of laser beams arranged in a symmetric angular distribution. Collective laser plasma instabilities can therefore develop that couple all the incident laser waves located in a cone to the daughter wave growing along the cone symmetry axis [D. F. DuBois et al., Phys. Fluids B 4, 241 (1992)]. With complementary diagnostics of Thomson scattering and of the scattered light, we demonstrate the occurrence of collective stimulated Brillouin sidescattering driving collective acoustic waves in indirect-drive experiments.

  16. Experimental Evidence of the Collective Brillouin Scattering of Multiple Laser Beams Sharing Acoustic Waves.

    PubMed

    Neuville, C; Tassin, V; Pesme, D; Monteil, M-C; Masson-Laborde, P-E; Baccou, C; Fremerye, P; Philippe, F; Seytor, P; Teychenné, D; Seka, W; Katz, J; Bahr, R; Depierreux, S

    2016-06-10

    The indirect-drive scheme to inertial confinement fusion uses a large number of laser beams arranged in a symmetric angular distribution. Collective laser plasma instabilities can therefore develop that couple all the incident laser waves located in a cone to the daughter wave growing along the cone symmetry axis [D. F. DuBois et al., Phys. Fluids B 4, 241 (1992)]. With complementary diagnostics of Thomson scattering and of the scattered light, we demonstrate the occurrence of collective stimulated Brillouin sidescattering driving collective acoustic waves in indirect-drive experiments. PMID:27341238

  17. Scattering and anelastic attenuation of seismic energy in Northeast India using the multiple lapse time window analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padhy, S.

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the intrinsic dissipation and scattering properties of the lithosphere beneath the northeast India by using the seismic waves recorded by a network of ten broadband stations in the region with hypocentral distances ranging from 31 to 200 km. First, we determined coda Q from the amplitude decay rate of the S-wave coda envelopes in five frequency bands from 1.5 to 24 Hz based on single scattering theory and QS by means of the coda normalization method. Assuming a frequency dependent power-law of the form , we found a low Q0 (Q0 < 200) and a high frequency dependent parameter n (n ~ 1) for the whole study area, which indicates that the lithosphere beneath NE India is seismically active and heterogeneous. Then we applied the multiple lapse time window (MLTW) analysis in the hypothesis of velocity and scattering coefficients constant with depth. We calculated the variation of integrated spectral energy with hypocentral distance for three consecutive lapse time windows (0-15, 15-30, 30-45 sec), starting from the onset of the S-wave arrival. The spectral energies over an octave bandwidth with central frequencies at 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 24 Hz were calculated to obtain the frequency dependence of attenuation parameters. The results show that intrinsic absorption dominates over scattering in the attenuation process at high frequencies. However, in the hypothesis of uniform medium, the estimates of scattering attenuations obtained by MLTW analysis are overestimated. So the present results are correct to a first order approximation. To obtain more reliable and unbiased estimates of the attenuation parameters and their frequency dependences by considering the probable influence of crustal-mantel heterogeneities, we analyze the events by using the depth dependent MLTW method.

  18. Multiple scattering of polarized light in atmosphere- ocean systems: Application to sensitivity analyses of aerosol polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhary, Jacek

    1999-09-01

    Sunlight scattered by small particles in the atmosphere becomes partially polarized, the degree and state of which are sensitive to the physical and chemical properties of these particles. The high accuracy with which these polarization quantities can be measured causes space-borne polarimetry to be a promising remote sensing tool for retrieving tropospheric aerosols, but it also imposes strong requirements on the accuracy and efficiency of the methods used to numerically study such data. Light reflected by the lower atmospheric boundary may, in addition, become highly polarized, necessitating a careful error analysis of the latter scattering contribution to the remotely sensed signal. Part I of this work focusses, on the former requirements for an atmosphere-ocean system, and discusses an approach for treating scattering of light by water body, ocean surface, and atmosphere together in one method while employing numerically efficient techniques for each of these three components. Benchmark results are provided with an accuracy of 5 decimals for the Stokes vectors of scattering contributions to internal and external fields, and we discuss typical features seen in the bidirectional behaviour of the latter contributions. In Part II, we investigate uncertainties in the reflection properties of the ocean system and the resulting variation in degree of linear polarization observed from space. Three sources of uncertainty are identified: oceanic foam, the ocean surface roughness, and underwater light scattering. The magnitude of the latter two sources are derived from current remote sensing capabilities to retrieve the surface windspeed and oceanic pigment concentration, respectively. Simulations are carried out for the visible and near infrared part of the spectrum and two aerosol models. Our analyses indicate that the use of a priori information on the state of the ocean can provide enough constraints for aerosol polarimetry to be sufficiently accurate for climate

  19. Oxygen on Ni(111): A multiple-scattering analysis of the near-edge x-ray-absorption fine structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedio, M.; Becker, L.; Hillert, B.; D'addato, S.; Haase, J.

    1990-04-01

    Oxygen chemisorption and oxide formation on a Ni(111) surface have been monitored by using the near-edge x-ray-absorption fine-structure technique. The adsorption site of oxygen in the p(2×2) and (√3 × √3 )R30° superstructures has been determined by a multiple-scattering analysis. In both structures the oxygen occupies a threefold-coordinated fcc site with a nearest-neighbor O-Ni bond length of 1.85+/-0.05 Å on a Ni(111) surface relaxed outwards by ~0.15 Å.

  20. Multiple scattering by cylinders immersed in fluid: high order approximations for the effective wavenumbers.

    PubMed

    Norris, Andrew N; Conoir, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic wave propagation in a fluid with a random assortment of identical cylindrical scatterers is considered. While the leading order correction to the effective wavenumber of the coherent wave is well established at dilute areal density (n0) of scatterers, in this paper the higher order dependence of the coherent wavenumber on n0 is developed in several directions. Starting from the quasi-crystalline approximation (QCA) a consistent method is described for continuing the Linton and Martin formula, which is second order in n0, to higher orders. Explicit formulas are provided for corrections to the effective wavenumber up to O (n0(4)). Then, using the QCA theory as a basis, generalized self-consistent schemes are developed and compared with self-consistent schemes using other dynamic effective medium theories. It is shown that the Linton and Martin formula provides a closed self-consistent scheme, unlike other approaches. PMID:21302992

  1. Multiple scattering of polarized light in turbid infinite planes: Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Soichi

    2016-05-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were performed for infinite plane media containing spherical particles of different sizes. Most of the features of the surface plots for the elements of the effective scattering Mueller matrices are explained by the azimuthal dependence of the matrix predicted according to the theory of Raković et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 3399 (1999)10.1364/AO.38.003399APOPAI1559-128X]. The reduced effective scattering Mueller matrices calculated according to the theory have eight nonzero elements, which are only dependent on the distance from the illumination point. The reduced matrices are factorized approximately into products of a depolarizer and retarding diattenuators. The turbid infinite plane media nearly behave as a pure depolarizer at long distances and become more diattenuating and birefringent with decreasing distance.

  2. Fast and scalable algorithm for the simulation of multiple Mie scattering in optical systems.

    PubMed

    Kalthoff, Oliver; Kampmann, Ronald; Streicher, Simon; Sinzinger, Stefan

    2016-05-20

    The Monte Carlo simulation of light propagation in optical systems requires the processing of a large number of photons to achieve a satisfactory statistical accuracy. Based on classical Mie scattering, we experimentally show that the independence of photons propagating through a turbid medium imposes a postulate for a concurrent and scalable programming paradigm of general purpose graphics processing units. This ensures that, without rewriting code, increasingly complex optical systems can be simulated if more processors are available in the future. PMID:27411111

  3. Multiple scattering of a zero-order Bessel beam with arbitrary incidence by an aggregate of uniaxial anisotropic spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. J.; Wu, Z. S.; Qu, T.; Shang, Q. C.; Bai, L.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the generalized multiparticle Mie theory, multiple scattering of an aggregate of uniaxial anisotropic spheres illuminated by a zero-order Bessel beam (ZOBB) with arbitrary propagation direction is investigated. The particle size and configuration are arbitrary. The arbitrary incident Bessel beam is expanded in terms of spherical vector wave functions (SVWFs). Utilizing the vector addition theorem of SVWFs, interactive and total scattering coefficients are derived through the continuous boundary conditions on which the interaction of the particles is considered. The accuracy of the theory and codes are verified by comparing results with those obtained for arbitrary plane wave incidence by CST simulation, and for ZOBB incidence by a numerical method. The effects of angle of incidence, pseudo-polarization angle, half-conical angle, beam center position, and permittivity tensor elements on the radar cross sections (RCSs) of several types of collective uniaxial anisotropic spheres, such as a linear chain, a 4×4×4 cube-shaped array, and other periodical structures consisting of massive spheres, are numerically analyzed. Selected results on the properties of typical particles such as TiO2, SiO2, or other particle lattices are calculated. This investigation could provide an effective test for further research on the scattering characteristics of an aggregate of anisotropic spheres by a high-order Bessel vortex beam. The results have important application in optical tweezers and particle manipulation.

  4. Measurements of ultrasound velocity and attenuation in numerical anisotropic porous media compared to Biot's and multiple scattering models.

    PubMed

    Mézière, Fabien; Muller, Marie; Bossy, Emmanuel; Derode, Arnaud

    2014-07-01

    This article quantitatively investigates ultrasound propagation in numerical anisotropic porous media with finite-difference simulations in 3D. The propagation media consist of clusters of ellipsoidal scatterers randomly distributed in water, mimicking the anisotropic structure of cancellous bone. Velocities and attenuation coefficients of the ensemble-averaged transmitted wave (also known as the coherent wave) are measured in various configurations. As in real cancellous bone, one or two longitudinal modes emerge, depending on the micro-structure. The results are confronted with two standard theoretical approaches: Biot's theory, usually invoked in porous media, and the Independent Scattering Approximation (ISA), a classical first-order approach of multiple scattering theory. On the one hand, when only one longitudinal wave is observed, it is found that at porosities higher than 90% the ISA successfully predicts the attenuation coefficient (unlike Biot's theory), as well as the existence of negative dispersion. On the other hand, the ISA is not well suited to study two-wave propagation, unlike Biot's model, at least as far as wave speeds are concerned. No free fitting parameters were used for the application of Biot's theory. Finally we investigate the phase-shift between waves in the fluid and the solid structure, and compare them to Biot's predictions of in-phase and out-of-phase motions.

  5. Modelling canopy radiation budget through multiple scattering approximation: a case study of coniferous forest in Mexico City Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silván-Cárdenas, Jose L.; Corona-Romero, Nirani

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we describe some results from a study on hyperspectral analysis of coniferous canopy scattering for the purpose of estimating forest biophysical and structural parameters. Georeferenced airborne hyperspectral measurements were taken from a flying helicopter over a coniferous forest dominated by Pinus hartweguii and Abies religiosa within the Federal District Conservation Land in Mexico City. Hyperspectral data was recorded in the optical range from 350 to 2500 nm at 1nm spectral resolution using the FieldSpec 4 (ASD Inc.). Spectral measurements were also carried out in the ground for vegetation and understory components, including leaf, bark, soil and grass. Measurements were then analyzed through a previously developed multiple scattering approximation (MSA) model, which represents above-canopy spectral reflectance through a non-linear combination of pure spectral components (endmembers), as well as through a set of photon recollision probabilities and interceptance fractions. In this paper we provide an expression for the canopy absorptance as the basis for estimating the components of canopy radiation budget using the MSA model. Furthermore, since MSA does not prescribe a priori the endmembers to incorporate in the model, a multiple endmember selection method (MESMSA) was developed and tested. Photon recollision probabilities and interceptance fractions were estimated by fitting the model to airborne spectral reflectance and selected endmembers where then used to estimate the canopy radiation budget at each measured location.

  6. Minimizing systematic errors from atmospheric multiple scattering and satellite viewing geometry in coastal zone color scanner level IIA imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, D. L.; Perry, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    Water-leaving radiances and phytoplankton pigment concentrations are calculated from coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) radiance measurements by removing atmospheric Rayleigh and aerosol radiances from the total radiance signal measured at the satellite. The single greatest source of error in CZCS atmospheric correction algorithms in the assumption that these Rayleigh and aerosol radiances are separable. Multiple-scattering interactions between Rayleigh and aerosol components cause systematic errors in calculated aerosol radiances, and the magnitude of these errors is dependent on aerosol type and optical depth and on satellite viewing geometry. A technique was developed which extends the results of previous radiative transfer modeling by Gordon and Castano to predict the magnitude of these systematic errors for simulated CZCS orbital passes in which the ocean is viewed through a modeled, physically realistic atmosphere. The simulated image mathematically duplicates the exact satellite, Sun, and pixel locations of an actual CZCS image. Errors in the aerosol radiance at 443 nm are calculated for a range of aerosol optical depths. When pixels in the simulated image exceed an error threshhold, the corresponding pixels in the actual CZCS image are flagged and excluded from further analysis or from use in image compositing or compilation of pigment concentration databases. Studies based on time series analyses or compositing of CZCS imagery which do not address Rayleigh-aerosol multiple scattering should be interpreted cautiously, since the fundamental assumption used in their atmospheric correction algorithm is flawed.

  7. Observations of interplanetary Lyman-alpha with the Galileo Ultraviolet Spectrometer: Multiple scattering effects at solar maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajello, J. M.; Pryor, W. R.; Barth, C. A.; Hord, C. W.; Stewart, A. I. F.; Simmons, K. E.; Hall, D. T.

    1994-01-01

    The Galileo Ultravilet Spectrometer Experiment (UVS) obtained a partial celestial sphere map of interplanetary Lyman-alpha (IP L alpha) on 13-14 December 1990 during the first Earth encounter. The Galileo spacecraft was near the downwind axis of the local interstellar medium flow. These UVS measurements sampled the downwind, anti-sunward hemisphere. The data were modeled using a hot model of the interplanetary hydrogen density distribution with the goal of studying multiple scattering effects in the inner solar system. The derived ratio in the downwind direction of the observed brightness and a single scattering model brightness, both normalized to unity in the upwind direction, is 1.82 +/- 0.2. This brightness ratio requires a multiple scattering correction which is 36% larger than can be accounted for by theoretical calculations. The hot model may require: (1) a temperature perturbation of the interstellar wind velocity distribution or (2) an additional downstream source of interplanetary hydrogen. However, a more likely exlanation which affects the hot model is the latitude dependence of the radiation pressure. This dependence, based on the known solar L alpha flux latitude variation at solar maximum, causes a downwind brightness enhancement by preferential focusing of H-atoms with trajectory planes containing the solar poles. This result implies that radiation pressure near the solar poles is nearly independent of solar cycle and is insufficient to lead to a net repulsion of hydrogen atoms by the sun, as can occur near the ecliptic plane during the solar maximum. In addition, the UVS performed 13 observations of IP L alpha while in cruise between Venus and the Earth in 3 directions fixed in ecliptic coordinates.

  8. The origin of teleseismic Pn waves: Multiple crustal scattering of upper mantle whispering gallery phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, L.; Thybo, H.

    2003-10-01

    Teleseismic Pn arrivals with an extensive coda are observed to offsets beyond 3000 km along the peaceful nuclear explosion seismic profiles Quartz and Ruby, which were recorded in the western part of the former Soviet Union. We interpret these arrivals as multiply reflected sub-Moho refractions that travel over large distances due to a positive vertical upper mantle velocity gradient, which is characteristic for the study area. Analysis of the observed data shows that the teleseismic Pn and its coda contain significant amounts of energy at all frequencies between 0 and 10 Hz. Our modeling results show that crustal scattering may fully explain the teleseismic Pn coda contrary to another published model with upper mantle heterogeneity in the ˜35-130 km depth range. These conclusions are based on two-dimensional viscoelastic finite-difference seismic wave field simulations in 2000-km-long and 250-km-deep models of the crust and upper mantle. The computationally demanding calculations are facilitated by the use of supercomputer systems. Our preferred model of crustal scattering is consistent with the results of other high-resolution wide-angle and normal-incidence seismic investigations of the crust and upper mantle. They show pronounced reflectivity of the lower crust above an almost transparent uppermost mantle down to ˜80-100 km depth. Our model includes a high vertical velocity gradient in the upper mantle based on the results from seismic refraction studies. We suggest that the teleseismic Pn wave travels as an upper mantle whispering gallery phase and that the origin of its long coda is crustal scattering.

  9. Significance of higher-order multiple scattering for laser beam propagation through hazes, fogs, and clouds.

    PubMed

    Deepak, A; Farrukh, U O; Zardecki, A

    1982-02-01

    An approach is outlined for computing the different orders of scattering in any medium that possesses a phase function with a strong forward peak. Computations are done for the case of a Gaussian laser beam incident on such a medium. The formulation adopted does reproduce the natural divergence of general Gaussian beams without the need to assume the presence of point sources or the need to assume perfectly collimated beams within the region of interest. Results are discussed for the case of water cloud particles with a strongly forward-peaked phase function for the incident laser radiation.

  10. Fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy in multiple-scattering environments: an application to biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerussi, Albert E.; Gratton, Enrico; Fantini, Sergio

    1999-07-01

    Over the past few years, there has been significant research activity devoted to the application of fluorescence spectroscopy to strongly scattering media, where photons propagate diffusely. Much of this activity focused on fluorescence as a source of contrast enhancement in optical tomography. Our efforts have emphasized the quantitative recovery of fluorescence parameters for spectroscopy. Using a frequency-domain diffusion-based model, we have successfully recovered the lifetime, the absolute quantum yield, the fluorophore concentration, and the emission spectrum of the fluorophore, as well as the absorption and the reduced scattering coefficients at the emission wavelength of the medium in different measurements. In this contribution, we present a sensitive monitor of the binding between ethidium bromide and bovine cells in fresh milk. The spectroscopic contrast was the approximately tenfold increase in the ethidium bromide lifetime upon binding to DNA. The measurement clearly demonstrated that we could quantitatively measure the density of cells in the milk, which is an application vital to the tremendous economic burden of bovine subclinical mastitis detection. Furthermore, we may in principle use the spirit of this technique as a quantitative monitor of the binding of fluorescent drugs inside tissues. This is a first step towards lifetime spectroscopy in tissues.

  11. Tomographic retrieval for scattered light limb measurements: multiple spectral fit windows to improve the spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pukite, Janis; Dörner, Steffen; Wagner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) on the ENVISAT satellite probed the atmosphere at the day side of Earth in alternating sequences of nadir and limb measurements from August 2002 to April 2012. Limb measurements allow the retrieval of stratospheric profiles of various trace gases on a global scale. It has been shown that combining measurements of the same air volume from different viewing positions along the orbit, 2D distribution fields of stratospheric trace gases can be acquired in one inversion step. Since the atmospheric scattering and absorption processes are wavelength dependent, the spatial sensitivity for limb observations also varies with wavelength. In general, for longer wavelengths, photons from more remote areas along the line of sight are contributing stronger to the measurement than for shorter wavelengths because of the lower probability of Rayleigh scattering. In addition, the radiative transfer is modified by the ozone absorption structures making longer light paths less probable within strong ozone absorption bands. In this study, additional information on the spatial distribution of NO2 is investigated by analysing results obtained by Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) in various spectral fit windows. Combing the fit results in one profile retrieval algorithm helps to improve the spatial sensitivity and resolution of the measurements. The largest improvements for the spatial resolution and sensitivity are expected for the upper troposphere/ lower stratosphere (UTLS) region where the variation of the spatial sensitivity with wavelength is strongest.

  12. Impact of Multiple Scattering on Infrared Radiative Transfer involving Ice Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, C. P.; Yang, P.; Huang, X.; Feldman, D.; Flanner, M.

    2015-12-01

    General circulation models (GCMs) facilitate a major tool to investigate climate on global scale. Since solar and terrestrial radiation control energy budget of global climate, developing an accurate yet computationally efficient radiative transfer model in GCMs is important. However, in most of the GCMs, absorption of ice cloud is the only mechanism considered for the longwave radiative transfer process. Implementation of longwave scattering in GCMs requires parameterizations of ice cloud. This study utilizes spectrally consistent ice particle model in MODIS collection 6 and more than 14,000 particle size distributions from aircraft in-situ observations to parameterize ice cloud longwave optical properties. The new parameterizations are compared with Fu-Liou parameterization implemented in the RRTM_LW (Longwave Rapid Radiative Transfer Model). As accurate and computationally efficient radiative transfer model is important in GCMs, comparison of different radiative transfer methods are performed. Specifically, RRTMG_LW (GCM version of RRTM_LW), one of the most widely utilized radiative transfer schemes in the GCMs, will be modified to include different scattering approximation methods. To evaluate the accuracy, DISORT (Discrete Ordinates Radiative Transfer Program for a Multi-Layered Plane-Parallel Medium) is implemented and compared with other methods in terms of cloud radiative effect and heating rate.

  13. Determination of optical constants and morphological parameters of biological particles from multiple light-scattering characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairullina, Alphiya Y.

    1993-07-01

    Unified approach is suggested to determine the real (n) and imaginary (x) parts of refractive index and average size r of biological particle suspensions, biopolymers, and so on for a wide range of sizes (r equals 10-1 - 102 micrometers , n equals 1.02 - 1.15 and x equals 10 -6 - 10-4). The values to be measured are the diffuse reflection and transmission coefficients and the temporal spectra scattering intensity fluctuations of optically thick layers in the case of weak absorption (this condition is determined experimentally). The sensitivity of the proposed approach for the determination of n and x (as well as the average cosine of the phase function of light scattering and radiation pressure cross section (beta) for finding the force acting on the particle) is very high and exceeds the known methods. The methods of determining n, x, r, , (beta) have been evaluated for suspensions of erythrocytes, blood substitute (emulsions of PFC), and latexes.

  14. Projectile and Target Contributions to the Continuous Electron Spectra from 150 keV/u C+ + He, Ne Collisions; Multiple Ionization and Multiple Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulik, B.; Kövér, Á.; Ricz, S.; Koncz, Cs.; Tökesi, K.; Víkor, Gy.; Chesnel, J.-Y.; Stolterfoht, N.; Berényi, D.

    Double differential cross sections in the 20-550 eV energy range and in the full angular range of 0°-180° for electron emission were measured by the impact of 150 keV/u C+ ions on He and Ne atoms. An unexpected, broad structure around 300 eV electron energy has been observed at backward emission angles relative to the beam direction. Our CTMC calculations support the hypothesis that the new structure is due to double scattering of the target electrons on the screened fields of the projectile and the target. According to the present impact-parameter Born calculations, the average degree of ionization is about 50% for C++ Ne collisions, i.e., a multiple ionized system is created in the collision.

  15. Fluctuations of light intensity scattered from multiple glints in atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liguo; Li, Yaqing; Gao, Ming; Lei, Gong

    2016-01-01

    As targets in space are usually very far from the ground, some targets containing smooth reflecting components can be seen to be composed of a single or multiple glints when they are detected by a Lidar (laser radar) system located on the ground. The received intensity of the detector fluctuates, which caused significant noise on the system, for two reasons. One is the randomness of positions of the glints and the other is the perturbations of the atmospheric turbulence. The formulation of the scintillation index of the reflected intensity is derived by using incoherent superposition of the reflected field. The results show that the scintillation index can be divided into two parts, corresponding to the two sources that cause the intensity fluctuations. The results show that the target composed by multiple glints has two different effects on the fluctuation of the reflected intensity, one is the amplification effect of the incoherent superposition, and the other is some similar aperture averaging effect.

  16. Determination of iron-ligand bond lengths in horse heart met- and deoxymyoglobin using multiple-scattering XAFS analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, A.M.; Armstrong, R.S.; Ellis, P.J.; Freeman, H.C.; Lay, P.A.

    1998-11-02

    XAFS data in the range 0 {le} k {le} 14.5 {angstrom}{sup {minus}1} have been obtained from frozen aqueous solutions (10 K) of horse heart myoglobin (Mb) in the Fe(III) (aqua-met) and Fe(II) (deoxy) forms. The structures of the Fe sites have been refined using both single-scattering (SS) and multiple-scattering (MS) analyses. The XAFS MS analyses yield more precise Fe-ligand bond lengths (estimated error 0.02--0.03 {angstrom}) than those determined crystallographically (estimated errors {ge} 0.1 {angstrom}). For met-Mb, the MS analysis results in an average Fe-N(pyrrole) distance of 2.05 {angstrom}, an Fe-N(imidazole) distance of 2.17 {angstrom}, and an Fe-O(aqua) distance of 2.08 {angstrom}. For deoxy-Mb, the MS analysis results in Fe-N(pyrrole) and Fe-N(imidazole) distances of 2.06 and 2.16 {angstrom}, respectively. The final XAFS R values are 18.8% and 17.8% for met- and deoxy-Mb, respectively. The robustness of the refinements was tested by varying the starting models, constraints, restraints, and k ranges.

  17. Nanophotothermolysis of multiple scattered cancer cells with carbon nanotubes guided by time-resolved infrared thermal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biris, Alexandru S.; Boldor, Dorin; Palmer, Jason; Monroe, William T.; Mahmood, Meena; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Xu, Yang; Li, Zhongrui; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2009-03-01

    Nanophotothermolysis with long laser pulses for treatment of scattered cancer cells and their clusters is introduced with the main focus on real-time monitoring of temperature dynamics inside and around individual cancer cells labeled with carbon nanotubes. This technique utilizes advanced time- and spatially-resolved thermal radiometry imaging for the visualization of laser-induced temperature distribution in multiple-point absorbing targets. The capability of this approach was demonstrated for monitoring of thermal effects under long laser exposure (from millisecond to seconds, wavelength 1064 nm, maximum power 1 W) of cervical cancer HeLa cells labeled with carbon nanotubes in vitro. The applications are discussed with a focus on the nanophotothermolysis of small tumors, tumor margins, or micrometastases under the guidance of near-IR and microwave radiometry.

  18. Nanophotothermolysis of multiple scattered cancer cells with carbon nanotubes guided by time-resolved infrared thermal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Biris, Alexandru S.; Boldor, Dorin; Palmer, Jason; Monroe, William T.; Mahmood, Meena; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Xu, Yang; Li, Zhongrui; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2016-01-01

    Nanophotothermolysis with long laser pulses for treatment of scattered cancer cells and their clusters is introduced with the main focus on real-time monitoring of temperature dynamics inside and around individual cancer cells labeled with carbon nanotubes. This technique utilizes advanced time- and spatially-resolved thermal radiometry imaging for the visualization of laser-induced temperature distribution in multiple-point absorbing targets. The capability of this approach was demonstrated for monitoring of thermal effects under long laser exposure (from millisecond to seconds, wavelength 1064 nm, maximum power 1 W) of cervical cancer HeLa cells labeled with carbon nanotubes in vitro. The applications are discussed with a focus on the nanophotothermolysis of small tumors, tumor margins, or micrometastases under the guidance of near-IR and microwave radiometry. PMID:19405720

  19. Multiple scattering of low energy H+ ions in matter: Approximation of mean energy on the Sigmund and Winterbon model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekhtiche, A.; Khalal-Kouache, K.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, angular distributions of slow H+ ions transmitted through different targets (Al, Ag and Au) are calculated using the model of Sigmund and Winterbon (SW) in the multiple scattering theory. Valdés and Arista (VA) developed a method extending the SW model by including the effect of energy loss in the calculation of angular distributions of transmitted ions. Another method has been proposed for such calculations: one can consider the SW model by using an average value for the energy of the ions inside the target. In this contribution, a new expression is proposed for the mean energy which gives a better agreement with the VA model than the precedent one at low energy. Different potentials have been considered to describe the interaction projectile-target atom in this study and the new expression is found to be independent of the interaction potential.

  20. Multiple-scattering distributions and angular dependence of the energy loss of slow protons in copper and silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantero, E. D.; Lantschner, G. H.; Eckardt, J. C.; Lovey, F. C.; Arista, N. R.

    2010-04-01

    Measurements of angular distributions and of the angular dependence of the energy loss of 4-, 6-, and 9-keV protons transmitted through thin Cu and Ag polycrystalline foils are presented. By means of standard multiple-scattering model calculations it is found that a V(r)∝r-2.8 potential leads to significantly better fits of the angular distributions than the standard Thomas Fermi, Lenz-Jensen, or Ziegler-Biersack-Littmark potentials. A theoretical model for the angular dependence of the energy loss based on considering geometric effects on a frictional inelastic energy loss plus an angular-dependent elastic contribution and the effects of foil roughness reproduces the experimental data. This agrees with previous results in Au and Al, therefore extending the applicability of the model to other metallic elements.

  1. Real-space multiple scattering theory calculations of LEED (low-energy electron diffraction) intensities for stepped surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.-G.; Rous, P.J.; Van Hove, M.A. ); MacLaren, J.M. ); Gonis, A. ); Somorjai, G.A. California Univ., Berkeley, CA . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1990-07-25

    We use a newly developed real-space multiple scattering theory (RS-MST) to calculate low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) intensities from stepped surfaces. In this calculation the electron wavefunctions are expanded in terms of an angular momentum basis, utilizing the property of removal invariance of systems with semi-infinite periodicity. This strongly reduces the dependence of the calculation on the interlayer spacing and thus opens up the possibility of treating more open surfaces. This includes in particular stepped surfaces, to which conventional methods cannot be applied. Applications of the formalism to various stepped surfaces are presented. In particular, the results for Cu(311) and (331) surfaces obtained from both the layer doubling and RS-MST methods are compared. In addition, numerical techniques which can improve the convergence as well as the speed of the RS-MST approach are discussed. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves by an aggregate of uniaxial anisotropic spheres.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng-Jun; Wu, Zhen-Sen; Shi, Yan'e; Bai, Lu; Li, Hai-Ying

    2012-01-01

    An exact analytical solution is obtained for the scattering of electromagnetic waves from a plane wave with arbitrary directions of propagation and polarization by an aggregate of interacting homogeneous uniaxial anisotropic spheres with parallel primary optical axes. The expansion coefficients of a plane wave with arbitrary directions of propagation and polarization, for both TM and TE modes, are derived in terms of spherical vector wave functions. The effects of the incident angle α and the polarization angle β on the radar cross sections (RCSs) of several types of collective uniaxial anisotropic spheres are numerically analyzed in detail. The characteristics of the forward and backward RCSs in relation to the incident wavelength are also numerically studied. Selected results on the forward and backward RCSs of several types of square arrays of SiO₂ spheres illuminated by a plane wave with different incident angles are described. The accuracy of the expansion coefficients of the incident fields is verified by comparing them with the results obtained from references when the plane wave is degenerated to a z-propagating and x- or y-polarized plane wave. The validity of the theory is also confirmed by comparing the numerical results with those provided by a CST simulation.

  3. Numerical Simulations of Single and Multiple Scattering by Fractal Ice Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dlugach, Janna M.; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Mackowski, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the scattering model in the form of a vertically and horizontally homogeneous particulate slab of an arbitrary optical thickness composed of widely separated fractal aggregates built of small spherical ice monomers. The aggregates are generated by applying three different approaches, including simulated cluster-cluster aggregation (CCA) and diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) procedures. Having in mind radar remote-sensing applications, we report and analyze the results of computations of the backscattering circular polarization ratio obtained using efficient superposition T-matrix and vector radiative-transfer codes. The computations have been performed at a wavelength of 12.6 cm for fractal aggregates with the following characteristics: monomer refractive index m=1.78+i0.003, monomer radius r=1 cm, monomer packing density p=0.2, overall aggregate radii R in the range 4<=R<=10 cm and fractal dimensions D(sub f) 2.5 and 3. We show that for aggregates generated with simulated CCA and DLA procedures, the respective values of the backscattering circular polarization ratio differ weakly for D(sub f) 2.5, but the differences can increase somewhat for D(sub f)3, especially in case of an optically semi-infinite medium. For aggregates with a spheroidal overall shape, the dependence of the circular polarization ratio on the cluster morphology can be quite significant and increases with increasing the aspect ratio of the circumscribing spheroid.

  4. Scaling of the anomalous Hall effect in epitaxial antiperovskite Mn3.5Dy0.5N involving multiple competing scattering mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, M.; Wu, S. X.; Zhou, W. Q.; Li, S. W.

    2016-08-01

    Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) has been studied for ferrimagnetic antiperovskite Mn3.5Dy0.5N film grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. Reflective high energy electron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy demonstrate the high quality of the film. We have used a scaling involving multiple competing scattering mechanisms to distinguish variations of contributions to the AHE by heavily doped Dy. The scaling analysis revealed that the heavily doped Dy has dramatically modified the skew scattering part of the AHE in Mn4N and Mn3.5Dy0.5N has a totally different scattering mechanism from an undoped film.

  5. ES2MS: An interface package for passing self-consistent charge density and potential from Electronic Structure codes To Multiple Scattering codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junqing; Natoli, Calogero R.; Krüger, Peter; Hayakawa, Kuniko; Sébilleau, Didier; Song, Li; Hatada, Keisuke

    2016-06-01

    We present an interface package, called ES2MS, for passing self-consistent charge density and potential from Electronic Structure (ES) codes To Multiple Scattering (MS) codes. MS theory is based on the partitioning of the space by atomic-size scattering sites, so that the code provides the charge densities and potentials for each scattering site. For pseudo potential codes, the interface solves Poisson equation to construct the all-electron potential on the radial mesh which is used to solve the transition operators (T-matrix) and Green's functions in MS codes. We show the algorithm of the interface and the example for X-ray absorption spectra of graphene.

  6. Optimization of a multiple-scattering Compton camera as a photon-tracking imager for 6-MV photon therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taewoong; Yoon, Changyeon; Lee, Wonho

    2014-06-01

    During radiation therapy, the irradiated position and the energy deposited in a patient must be monitored. In general, calculations before photon exposure or 2D measurements of the transmitted photons have been widely used for making dose estimates. In this paper, we propose a real-time 3D dose measurement using Compton imaging technology. On the basis of the Monte-Carlo method, we designed a multiple-scattering Compton camera system (MSCC) with semiconductor and scintillation detectors. The MSCC was constructed with two semiconductor detectors as scattering detectors and a cadmium-tungstate (CWO) scintillator detector as an absorber detector. The two planar semiconductor arrays, and the CWO array consisted of 40 × 40 pixels, each with a size of 1 × 1 × ɛ mm3, where ɛ is the variable thickness of the detectors. The design parameters, such as the types of semiconductors, detector thicknesses and distances between detectors, were optimized on the basis of the detection efficiency and angular resolution of reconstructed images for a point source. Under the optimized conditions, uncertainty factors in geometry and energy were estimated for various inter-detector distances. We used a source corresponding to photons scattered from a water phantom exposed to 6-MeV peak X-rays. According to our simulation results, the figure of merit, reached its maximum value when the inter-detector distance was 3 cm. In order to achieve a high FOM, we chose 1 cm as the optimum thickness for the scattering and absorbed detectors. A cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) detector showed the best performance among the simulated semiconductors. The position uncertainty caused by the pixelization effect was the major factor in degrading the angular resolution of the reconstructed images, and the degradation caused by energy broadening was less than expected. The angular uncertainties caused by Doppler broadening and incorrect sequencing were minimal compared with that of pixelization. Our

  7. Scattering characteristics of high-resolution meteor head echoes detected at multiple frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, S.; Oppenheim, M.; Hunt, S.; Dyrud, L.

    2002-10-01

    Meteor data collected at the Kwajalein Missile Range (KMR) during the peak of the 1998 Leonid storm comprise the only simultaneous observations of meteor head echoes and trails using seven frequencies (very high frequency (VHF), ultrahigh frequency (UHF), L-, S-, C-, Ka-, and W-band spanning 160 MHz to 95 GHz). The primary sensor was the ARPA Long-Range Tracking and Instrumentation Radar (ALTAIR) radar operating at 160 MHz with 30 m range resolution and 422 MHz with 7.5 m range resolution, including both interferometric and polarization capabilities. This paper presents an analysis of this high-resolution data set with the following results: First, these observations support the theory that head echo scattering arises from an ionized region with a density sufficiently high that its plasma frequency exceeds the radar frequency (overdense reflection). Second, radar cross section (RCS) decreases rapidly with decreasing wavelength because higher frequencies must penetrate further into the increasing density of the plasma surrounding the meteoroid to reach its reflection point. Third, head echo angle measurements indicate that most of the observed meteors are sporadics not originating from the Leonid radiant. Fourth, polarization ratios showed that head echo reflections result from plasmas with a circular cross section. Fifth, the highest RCS values are detected near 105 km altitude, where the meteoroid gives up the most kinetic energy during its decent. This paper presents the first analyses of a three-frequency head echo as well as the polarization ratios and RCS characteristics from numerous two-frequency head echoes, which will allow us to develop a better understanding of meteor physics.

  8. On multiple scattering in acoustic media: a deterministic Ray Tracing method for random structures.

    PubMed

    Brigante, M

    2013-03-01

    The paper is devoted to computer and experimental simulation of US (ultrasonic) signal propagation in acoustic solids with micro-structure. Any change in the percentage of flaws or pores influences considerably the value of the ultrasonic wave speed. The theoretical analysis is based upon the Ray Tracing algorithm. We calculate numerically the full path of each ray from the transmitter to the receiver, in its multiple reflections between the surfaces of the internal obstacles. The natural experiments are performed in a water basin with some arrays of equal metallic round rods. This simulates the US evaluation of the mechanical properties of concrete. The computer modeling allows us to construct the envelope of the US signal registered at the receiving transducer. Then we simulate the dependence of the wave speed versus porosity. There is a sufficiently good accordance between numerical and experimental results.

  9. Light scattering characteristics of various aerosol types derived from multiple wavelength lidar observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasano, Yasuhiro; Browell, Edward V.

    1989-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the potential of a multiple-wavelength lidar for discriminating between several aerosol types on the basis of the wavelength dependence of the aerosol backscatter coefficient. The two-component lidar equation was solved under the assumption of similarity in the derived profiles of backscatter coefficients for each wavelength. It is shown that a three-wavelength lidar system operating at 300, 600, and 1064nm can provide unique information for discriminating between various aerosol types (continental, maritime, Saharan-dust, stratospheric aerosols in a tropopause fold event, and tropical forest aerosols). Mie calculations were made using in situ aerosol data and aerosol models to compare with the lidar results. The disagreement between the theoretical and empirical results in some cases was substantial. These differences may be partly due to uncertainties in the lidar data analysis and aerosol characteristics and also due to the conventional assumption of aerosol sphericity for the aerosol Mie calculations.

  10. Multiple-scattering lidar retrieval method: tests on Monte Carlo simulations and comparisons with in situ measurements.

    PubMed

    Bissonnette, Luc R; Roy, Gilles; Poutier, Laurent; Cober, Stewart G; Isaac, George A

    2002-10-20

    A multiple-field-of-view (MFOV) lidar measurement and solution technique has been developed to exploit the retrievable particle extinction and size information contained in the multiple-scattering contributions to aerosol lidar returns. We describe the proposed solution algorithm. The primary retrieved parameters are the extinction coefficient at the lidar wavelength and the effective particle diameter from which secondary products such as the extinction at other wavelengths and the liquid-water content (LWC) of liquid-phase clouds can be derived. The solutions are compared with true values in a series of Monte Carlo simulations and with in-cloud measurements. Good agreement is obtained for the simulations. For the field experiment, the retrieved effective droplet diameter and LWC for the available seven cases studied are on average 15% and 35% (worst case) smaller than the measured data, respectively. In the latter case, the analysis shows that the differences cannot be attributed solely to lidar inversion errors. Despite the limited penetration depth (150-300 m) of the lidar pulses, the results of the studied cases indicate that the retrieved lidar solutions remain statistically representative of measurements performed over the full cloud extent. Long-term MFOV lidar monitoring could thus become a practical and economical option for cloud statistical studies but more experimentation on more varied cloud conditions, especially for LWC, is still needed.

  11. Light scattering characteristics of various aerosol types derived from multiple wavelength lidar observations.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Y; Browell, E V

    1989-05-01

    The present study demonstrates the potential of a multiple wavelength lidar for discriminating between several aerosol types such as maritime, continental, stratospheric, and desert aerosols on the basis of wavelength dependence of the aerosol backscatter coefficient. In the analysis of lidar signals, the two-component lidar equation was solved under the assumption of similarity in the derived profiles of backscatter coefficients for each wavelength, and this made it possible to reduce the uncertainty in the extinction/backscatter ratio, which is a key parameter in the lidar solution. It is shown that a three-wavelength lidar system operating at 300, 600, and 1064 nm can provide unique information for discriminating between various aerosol types such as continental, maritime, Saharan dust, stratospheric aerosols in a tropopause fold event, and tropical forest aerosols. Measurement error estimation was also made through numerical simulations. Mie calculations were made using in situ aerosol data and aerosol models to compare with the lidar results. There was disagreement between the theoretical and empirical results, which in some cases was substantial. These differences may be partly due to uncertainties in the lidar data analysis and aerosol characteristics and also due to the conventional assumption of aerosol sphericity for the aerosol Mie calculations. PMID:20548724

  12. Impact of multiple frequency scattering on GNSS performance under adverse ionospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Aditi; Paul, Ashik

    and L5 frequencies are closely spaced, their correlation coeffcients show good correspondence. It was observed that the response of L2 and L5 are nearly correlated. But correlation coefficients of L1:L5 and L1:L2 are low during scintillations and shows good correspondence with CNO fades. Similar effects were observed on the SV24 link on April 13, 2013 and on SV1 link on April 16, 2013. During October 2013, scintillations were observed at L1, L2 and L5 on the SV25 and 27 links on October 13, 2013, on the SV25 link on October 18, 2013, SV27 link on October 19, 2013 and SV1 and 27 links on October 21, 2013 respectively. Uncorrelated values of S4 and CNO fluctuations at L1:L2 and L1:L5 indicate different scattering mechanisms even within the same L-band possibly due to dynamic evolving nature of equatorial ionospheric irregularities. This issue is of serious concern in view of application of frequency diversity techniques for scintillation mitigation.

  13. Accuracy of the geometric-mean method for determining spatial resolutions of tracking detectors in the presence of multiple Coulomb scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, A.; Hohlmann, M.

    2016-06-01

    The geometric-mean method is often used to estimate the spatial resolution of a position-sensitive detector probed by tracks. It calculates the resolution solely from measured track data without using a detailed tracking simulation and without considering multiple Coulomb scattering effects. Two separate linear track fits are performed on the same data, one excluding and the other including the hit from the probed detector. The geometric mean of the widths of the corresponding exclusive and inclusive residual distributions for the probed detector is then taken as a measure of the intrinsic spatial resolution of the probed detector: σ=√σex·σin. The validity of this method is examined for a range of resolutions with a stand-alone Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation that specifically takes multiple Coulomb scattering in the tracking detector materials into account. Using simulated as well as actual tracking data from a representative beam test scenario, we find that the geometric-mean method gives systematically inaccurate spatial resolution results. Good resolutions are estimated as poor and vice versa. The more the resolutions of reference detectors and probed detector differ, the larger the systematic bias. An attempt to correct this inaccuracy by statistically subtracting multiple-scattering effects from geometric-mean results leads to resolutions that are typically too optimistic by 10-50%. This supports an earlier critique of this method based on simulation studies that did not take multiple scattering into account.

  14. Electron transport in graphene/graphene side-contact junction by plane-wave multiple-scattering method

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Xiang-Guo; Chu, Iek-Heng; Zhang, X. -G.; Cheng, Hai-Ping

    2015-05-28

    Electron transport in graphene is along the sheet but junction devices are often made by stacking different sheets together in a “side-contact” geometry which causes the current to flow perpendicular to the sheets within the device. Such geometry presents a challenge to first-principles transport methods. We solve this problem by implementing a plane-wave-based multiple-scattering theory for electron transport. In this study, this implementation improves the computational efficiency over the existing plane-wave transport code, scales better for parallelization over large number of nodes, and does not require the current direction to be along a lattice axis. As a first application, wemore » calculate the tunneling current through a side-contact graphene junction formed by two separate graphene sheets with the edges overlapping each other. We find that transport properties of this junction depend strongly on the AA or AB stacking within the overlapping region as well as the vacuum gap between two graphene sheets. Finally, such transport behaviors are explained in terms of carbon orbital orientation, hybridization, and delocalization as the geometry is varied.« less

  15. Sound propagation in dilute suspensions of spheres: Analytical comparison between coupled phase model and multiple scattering theory.

    PubMed

    Valier-Brasier, Tony; Conoir, Jean-Marc; Coulouvrat, François; Thomas, Jean-Louis

    2015-10-01

    Sound propagation in dilute suspensions of small spheres is studied using two models: a hydrodynamic model based on the coupled phase equations and an acoustic model based on the ECAH (ECAH: Epstein-Carhart-Allegra-Hawley) multiple scattering theory. The aim is to compare both models through the study of three fundamental kinds of particles: rigid particles, elastic spheres, and viscous droplets. The hydrodynamic model is based on a Rayleigh-Plesset-like equation generalized to elastic spheres and viscous droplets. The hydrodynamic forces for elastic spheres are introduced by analogy with those of droplets. The ECAH theory is also modified in order to take into account the velocity of rigid particles. Analytical calculations performed for long wavelength, low dilution, and weak absorption in the ambient fluid show that both models are strictly equivalent for the three kinds of particles studied. The analytical calculations show that dilatational and translational mechanisms are modeled in the same way by both models. The effective parameters of dilute suspensions are also calculated. PMID:26520342

  16. Electron transport in graphene/graphene side-contact junction by plane-wave multiple-scattering method

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiang-Guo; Chu, Iek-Heng; Zhang, X. -G.; Cheng, Hai-Ping

    2015-05-28

    Electron transport in graphene is along the sheet but junction devices are often made by stacking different sheets together in a “side-contact” geometry which causes the current to flow perpendicular to the sheets within the device. Such geometry presents a challenge to first-principles transport methods. We solve this problem by implementing a plane-wave-based multiple-scattering theory for electron transport. In this study, this implementation improves the computational efficiency over the existing plane-wave transport code, scales better for parallelization over large number of nodes, and does not require the current direction to be along a lattice axis. As a first application, we calculate the tunneling current through a side-contact graphene junction formed by two separate graphene sheets with the edges overlapping each other. We find that transport properties of this junction depend strongly on the AA or AB stacking within the overlapping region as well as the vacuum gap between two graphene sheets. Finally, such transport behaviors are explained in terms of carbon orbital orientation, hybridization, and delocalization as the geometry is varied.

  17. Nonlinear mixing of ultrasonic coda waves with lower frequency-swept pump waves for a global detection of defects in multiple scattering media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Tournat, V.; Abraham, O.; Durand, O.; Letourneur, S.; Le Duff, A.; Lascoup, B.

    2013-02-01

    An ultrasonic method providing for an efficient global detection of defects in complex media (multiple scattering or reverberating media) is reported herein; this method is based on the nonlinear acoustic mixing of coda waves (stemming from multiple scattering) with lower frequency-swept pump waves. Such a nonlinear mixing step is made possible by the presence of nonlinear scatterers, such as cracks and delamination, yet remains absent when the waves are scattered only by linear scatterers, as is the case in a complex but defect-free medium. A global inspection is achieved thanks to the use of wide-band coda and pump signals, which ensure the excitation of many resonances along with a homogeneous acoustic energy distribution in the medium. We introduce the existing sensitivity tools developed for Coda Wave Interferometry in extracting the pump amplitude-dependent parameters of the coda waves associated with effective nonlinear parameters of the medium. By comparing results at two damage levels, these effective nonlinear parameters are shown to be correlated with crack presence in glass samples. The mechanisms potentially responsible for the observed amplitude dependence on the tested elastic parameters and waveform modification are discussed.

  18. Effects of multiple scattering and Anderson localization of photons in light pulse reflection from a 1D disordered medium with low concentration of impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyak, V. Ya.; Grigorishin, K. I.; Ogievetsky, E. I.; Agranovich, V. M.

    1992-10-01

    The theory of light pulse reflection from a one-dimensional(1D) disordered scattering medium exemplifying application of the supersymmetry to the solid state physics is developed. It is shown that multiple scattering processes and localization effects lead to a peculiar trapping of light in the medium and, as a result, to a peculiar time evolution of the reflected beam intensity. An addition of guest molecules with a narrow absorption line at low concentrations suppresses the contribution of long trajectories of photons resonating with impurities and, consequently, leads to the appearance of a narrow dip in the spectral decomposition of the reflected light in the long-time asymptotic regime.

  19. Diffuse multiple scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Nisbet, A. G. A.; Beutier, G.; Fabrizi, F.; Moser, B.; Collins, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    A new form of diffraction lines similar to Rutherford, Kikuchi and Kossel lines has been identified. They can be used to eliminate the need for sample/source matching in Lonsdale’s triple convergent line method in lattice-parameter determination. A new form of diffraction lines has been identified, similar to Rutherford, Kikuchi and Kossel lines. This paper highlights some of the properties of these lines and shows how they can be used to eliminate the need for sample/source matching in Lonsdale’s triple convergent line method in lattice-parameter determination.

  20. Multiple Scattering X-Ray Absorption Studies of Zn2+ Binding Sites in Bacterial Photosynthetic Reaction Centers

    PubMed Central

    Giachini, Lisa; Francia, Francesco; Mallardi, Antonia; Palazzo, Gerardo; Carpenè, Emilio; Boscherini, Federico; Venturoli, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    Binding of transition metal ions to the reaction center (RC) protein of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides has been previously shown to slow light-induced electron and proton transfer to the secondary quinone acceptor molecule, QB. On the basis of x-ray diffraction at 2.5 Å resolution a site, formed by AspH124, HisH126, and HisH128, has been identified at the protein surface which binds Cd2+ or Zn2+. Using Zn K-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy we report here on the local structure of Zn2+ ions bound to purified RC complexes embedded into polyvinyl alcohol films. X-ray absorption fine structure data were analyzed by combining ab initio simulations and multiparameter fitting; structural contributions up to the fourth coordination shell and multiple scattering paths (involving three atoms) have been included. Results for complexes characterized by a Zn to RC stoichiometry close to one indicate that Zn2+ binds two O and two N atoms in the first coordination shell. Higher shell contributions are consistent with a binding cluster formed by two His, one Asp residue, and a water molecule. Analysis of complexes characterized by ∼2 Zn ions per RC reveals a second structurally distinct binding site, involving one O and three N atoms, not belonging to a His residue. The local structure obtained for the higher affinity site nicely fits the coordination geometry proposed on the basis of x-ray diffraction data, but detects a significant contraction of the first shell. Two possible locations of the second new binding site at the cytoplasmic surface of the RC are proposed. PMID:15613631

  1. Evaluation of EGS4/PRESTA multiple-scattering algorithms for 90Sr/90Y intravascular brachytherapy dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Wang, R; Li, X A; Yu, C X

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the EGS4/PRESTA electron multiple-scattering (MS) algorithms for dose calculation in intravascular brachytherapy (IVBT) using a 90Sr/90Y source. The small source size and the small volume of interest in IVBT require very fine spatial resolution, which may break down the constraints of Molière's MS theory as implemented in EGS4. The theory is accurate only when the electron step sizes are large enough to allow the number of collisions omega0 to be much greater than e = 2.7183. When step sizes are too small to allow at least 2.7183 collisions, as may be necessitated by the fine geometry, the algorithm may switch off MS, producing dosimetric artefacts. This study showed that switching off MS could produce a dose deviation of up to 6% when the half-thickness (d/2) of the dose scoring region is comparable with the Moliere minimum step size (t(min) = 2.7183). The effect of switching off MS is negligible if d/2 > t(min) For the case of omega0 > e, if the electron step sizes are chosen to allow five to 40 collisions, with increasing step size, the doses surrounding the source increase and the error decreases. On the other hand, when larger step sizes are chosen, the dose calculation voxel size must also be increased in order for the calculations to converge. A good compromise between accuracy and applicability for IVBT simulation can be made, if the thickness of the scoring region is 0.1 mm and the electron step sizes are in the range allowing 10 to 30 collisions.

  2. Contribution of higher multiplicity collisions to elastic p{sup 6,8}He and p{sup 8,9}Li scattering within Glauber theory

    SciTech Connect

    Ibraeva, E. T.; Imambekov, O.

    2015-07-15

    Differential cross sections for elastic p{sup 6,8}He and p{sup 8,9}Li scattering at energies between 60 and 70 MeV per nucleon and at the energy of 700 MeV per nucleon were calculated. The calculations in question were performed with the wave functions found on the basis of the α–n–n (for {sup 6}He), α–t–n (for {sup 8}Li), and α–t–2n (for {sup 9}Li) three-body models and with the density from the large-scale shell model for the {sup 8}He nucleus. The respective matrix elements were derived either upon taking fully into account the multiple-scattering operator or in the optical-limit approximation. A comparison of the results of the precise and approximate calculations made it possible to estimate reliably the contribution of higher multiplicity collisions to the differential cross sections.

  3. Lidar returns from multiply scattering media in multiple-field-of-view and CCD lidars with polarization devices: comparison of semi-analytical solution and Monte Carlo data.

    PubMed

    Chaikovskaya, Ludmila I; Zege, Eleonora P; Katsev, Iosif L; Hirschberger, Markus; Oppel, Ulrich G

    2009-01-20

    Quite recently, a semi-analytical approach to the sounding of multiply scattering media (clouds, seawaters) using multiple-field-of-view and CCD lidars with polarization devices was developed. The angular distributions of polarized components of the lidar returns from multiply scattering media computed on the basis of this theory using the small-angle approximation are presented and discussed. The semi-analytical nature of the solution makes the computation procedure faster. The obtained data are compared with results provided by the most advanced Monte Carlo algorithms for simulation of modern lidar performance. The good agreement between data provided by the semi-analytical approach and Monte Carlo computations assures one that these approaches can serve as a reliable theoretical base for interpretation and inversion of cloud lidar sounding data obtained with polarized lidars, including polarized multiple-field-of-view and CCD lidars.

  4. Multiple-scattering calculations of the uranium {ital L}{sub 3}-edge x-ray-absorption near-edge structure

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, E.A.; Rehr, J.J.; Bucher, J.J.

    1995-11-15

    A theoretical study of the uranium {ital L}{sub 3}-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) is presented for several uranium compounds, including oxides, intermetallics, uranyl fluoride, and {alpha}-uranium. Calculations were performed using FEFF6, an {ital ab} {ital initio} multiple-scattering (MS) code that includes the most important features of current theories. The results, which account for both the fine structure {chi} and the atomiclike background {mu}{sub 0} of the absorption coefficient {mu}, are compared to new and previously measured experimental spectra, reavealing very good agreement for most systems. For several compounds, a more detailed theoretical analysis determined the influence of cluster size and scattering order upon the calculated spectra. Results indicate that MS paths and scattering paths that include rather distant atoms make significant contributions for UO{sub 2}, whereas XANES for crystals with lower symmetry and density can be modeled using only shorter single-scattering paths. In most cases, assumption of a screened final state in the calculation gives better agreement with experiment than use of an unscreened final state. The successful modeling of spectra for a variety of different uranium compounds, with differing spectral features, indicates that the semirelativistic treatment of XANES used here is adequate even for heavy elements. The well-known resonance, observed experimentally for uranyl (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) compounds {approx}15 eV above the white line, is successfully modeled here for the first time, using multiple-scattering paths within the O-U-O axial bonds. Overlapping muffin-tin spheres were required in the calculation, probably as a result of the short uranyl axial bonds.

  5. Fast and Broadband Signal Integrity Analysis of Multiple Vias in Heterogeneous 3D IC and Die-Level Packaging by Using Generalized Foldy-Lax Scattering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Xin

    This dissertation proposal is concerned with the use of fast and broadband full-wave electromagnetic methods for modeling high speed interconnects (e.g, vertical vias and horizontal traces) and passive components (e.g, decoupling capacitors) for structures of PCB and packages, in 3D IC, Die-level packaging and SIW based devices, to effectively modeling the designs signal integrity (SI) and power integrity (PI) aspects. The main contributions finished in this thesis is to create a novel methodology, which hybridizes the Foldy-Lax multiple scattering equations based fast full wave method, method of moment (MoM) based 1D technology, modes decoupling based geometry decomposition and cavity modes expansions, to model and simulate the electromagnetic scattering effects for the irregular power/ground planes, multiple vias and traces, for fast and accurate analysis of link level simulation on multilayer electronic structures. For the modeling details, the interior massively-coupled multiple vias problem is modeled most-analytically by using the Foldy-Lax multiple scattering equations. The dyadic Green's functions of the magnetic field are expressed in terms of waveguide modes in the vertical direction and vector cylindrical wave expansions or cavity modes expansions in the horizontal direction, combined with 2D MoM realized by 1D technology. For the incident field of the case of vias in the arbitrarily shaped antipad in finite large cavity/waveguide, the exciting and scattering field coefficients are calculated based on the transformation which converts surface integration of magnetic surface currents in antipad into 1D line integration of surface charges on the vias and on the ground plane. Geometry decomposition method is applied to model and integrate both the vertical and horizontal interconnects/traces in arbitrarily shaped power/ground planes. Moreover, a new form of multiple scattering equations is derived for solving coupling effects among mixed metallic

  6. Stimulated resonance Raman scattering from organic dyes in a multiple-scattering medium as a potential method for determining their vibrational spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Yashchuk, V P; Tikhonov, E A; Bukatar', A O; Prigodiuk, O A; Smalyuk, A P

    2011-10-31

    A method is described for deriving Raman spectra of organic dyes from their random lasing spectra. The method was tested using Rhodamine 6G. The Raman spectrum obtained for this dye agrees well with the spectra measured by standard techniques but is more structured, which allows unresolved features to be detected. The spectrum provides more detailed information owing to the interference between the Raman scattered light and amplified spontaneous emission of the dye molecules within a photon mean free path. One advantage of the method is that the luminescence of the dye helps to observe Raman lines, which allows one to work in the Stokes region and facilitates the measurement procedure. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  7. Near-field-assisted localization: effect of size and filling factor of randomly distributed zinc oxide nanoneedles on multiple scattering and localization of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silies, Martin; Mascheck, Manfred; Leipold, David; Kollmann, Heiko; Schmidt, Slawa; Sartor, Janos; Yatsui, Takashi; Kitamura, Kokoro; Ohtsu, Motoicho; Kalt, Heinz; Runge, Erich; Lienau, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the influence of the diameter and the filling factor of randomly arranged ZnO nanoneedles on the multiple scattering and localization of light in disordered dielectrics. Coherent, ultra-broadband second-harmonic (SH) microscopy is used to probe the spatial localization of light in representative nm-sized ZnO arrays of needles. We observe strong fluctuations of the SH intensity inside different ZnO needle geometries. Comparison of the SH intensity distributions with predictions based on a one-parameter scaling model indicate that SH fluctuations can be taken as a quantitative measure for the degree of localization. Interestingly, the strongest localization signatures are found for densely packed arrays of thin needles with diameters in the range of only 30 nm range, despite the small scattering cross section of these needles. FDTD simulations indicate that in this case coupling of electric near-fields between neighbouring needles governs the localization.

  8. Intermediate-range order in water ices : nonresonant inelastic x-ray scatterig measurements and real-space full multiple scattering calculations.

    SciTech Connect

    Fister, T. T.; Nagel, K. P.; Vila, F. D.; Seidler, G. T.; Hamner, C.; Cross, J. O.; Rehr, J. J.; Univ. Washington; Washington State Univ.

    2009-01-01

    We report measurements of the nonresonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NRIXS) from the O 1s orbitals in ice Ih, and also report calculations of the corresponding spectra for ice Ih and several other phases of water ice. We find that the intermediate-energy fine structure may be calculated well using an ab initio real-space full multiple scattering approach and that it provides a strong fingerprint of the intermediate-range order for some ice phases. Both experiment and theory find that the intermediate-range fine structure, unlike the near-edge structure, is independent of momentum transfer (q) to very high q. These results have important consequences for future NRIXS measurements of high-pressure phases of ice.

  9. Improvement of the chemical content prediction of a model powder system by reducing multiple scattering using polarized light spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bendoula, Ryad; Gobrecht, Alexia; Moulin, Benoit; Roger, Jean-Michel; Bellon-Maurel, Veronique

    2015-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a powerful non-destructive analytical method used to analyze major compounds in bulk materials and products and requiring no sample preparation. It is widely used in routine analysis and also in line in industries, in vivo with biomedical applications, or in field for agricultural and environmental applications. However, highly scattering samples subvert Beer-Lambert law's linear relationship between spectral absorbance and the concentration. Instead of spectral pre-processing, which is commonly used by NIR spectroscopists to mitigate the scattering effect, we put forward an optical method, i.e., coupling polarized light with NIR spectrometry, to free spectra from scattering effect. This should allow us to retrieve linear and steady conditions for spectral analysis. When tested in visible-NIR (Vis-NIR) range (400-800 nm) on model media, mixtures of scattering and absorbing particles, the setup provided significant improvements in absorber concentration estimation precision as well as in the quality and robustness of the calibration model. PMID:25498765

  10. Multiple photon Monte Carlo simulation for polarized Mo/ller scattering with Yennie-Fraustchi-Suura exponentiation at high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadach, S.; Ward, B. F. L.

    1996-07-01

    We present the theoretical basis and sample Monte Carlo data for the YFS exponentiated O(α) calculation of polarized Mo/ller scattering at c.m.s. energies large compared to 2me. Both longitudinal and transverse polarizations are discussed. Possible applications to Mo/ller polarimetry at the SLD are thus illustrated.

  11. Acoustic scattering from an infinitely long cylindrical shell with an internal mass attached by multiple axisymmetrically distributed stiffeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titovich, Alexey S.; Norris, Andrew N.

    2015-03-01

    A thin infinitely long elastic shell is stiffened by J in number identical lengthwise ribs distributed uniformly around the circumference and joined to a rod in the center. The 2D model of the substructure is a rigid central mass supported by J axisymmetrically placed linear springs. The response of the shell-spring-mass system is quite different from a fluid filled shell or that of a solid cylinder due to the discrete number of contact points which couple the displacement of the shell at different locations. Exterior acoustic scattering due to normal plane wave incidence is solved in closed form for arbitrary J. The scattering matrix associated with the normal mode solution displays a simple structure, composed of distinct sub-matrices which decouple the incident and scattered fields into J families. The presence of a spring-mass substructure causes resonances which are shown to be related to the subsonic shell flexural waves, and an approximate analytic expression is derived for the quasi-flexural resonance frequencies. Numerical simulations indicate that the new solution for J ≥ 3 springs results in a complicated scattering response for plane wave incidence. As the number of springs becomes large enough, the total scattering cross-section is asymptotically zero at low frequencies and slightly increased compared to the empty shell at moderate frequencies due to the added stiffness and mass. It is also observed that the sensitivity to the angle of incidence diminishes as the number of springs is increased. This system can be tuned by selecting the shell thickness, spring stiffness and added mass to yield desired quasi-static effective properties making it a candidate element for graded index sonic crystals.

  12. Improved modeling of multiple scattering in hyperspectral BRDF of coastal sediments observed using the Goniometer of the Rochester Institute of Technology (GRIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Charles M.; Peck, Douglas S.; Ambeau, Brittany; Harms, Justin; Schultz, Malachi

    2015-09-01

    Approximate solutions to the Radiative transfer equation for granular media have been previously developed1. To apply these models to coastal sediments, modifications are needed to account for observed phenomenology. This study uses a new hyperspectral goniometer system, the Goniometer of the Rochester Institute of Technology (GRIT), designed for both field and laboratory settings, to compare observed bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurements with outcomes predicted by the approximate radiative transfer solutions. In previous laboratory studies,2 using a more limited hyperspectral goniometer observing in the principle plane, we had seen that the degree of optical contrast between coastal sand constituents was indicative of whether these models accurately predict the observed BRDF dependence on sediment density. Our earlier measurements using another field hyperspectral goniometer also demonstrated results consistent with the laboratory measurements as well as with CASI- 1500 airborne hyperspectral measurements3,4. In our earlier work,2 the presence of highly contrasting constituents (translucent quartz and more opaque fractions composed of minerals such as magnetite) led to greater reflectance as density decreased, exactly the opposite of what was anticipated from radiative transfer models for a more uniform sand. The present study shows that the illumination zenith angle also plays a significant role in whether or not BRDF dependency exhibits behavior predicted by current radiative transfer theory, and this distinction is directly related to the degree of multiple scattering, which depends on the illumination zenith angle. We also investigate a novel sampling paradigm that constrains the measurements to constant phase angle and reveals when the multiple scattering component of models departs from the assumptions of current theory. For the multiple scattering term, we also propose and analyze a simple modification which removes the

  13. Net electron-phonon scattering rates in InN/GaN multiple quantum wells: The effects of an energy dependent acoustic deformation potential

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, H. Patterson, R.; Feng, Y.; Shrestha, S.; Conibeer, G.

    2014-08-11

    The rates of charge carrier relaxation by phonon emission are of substantial importance in the field of hot carrier solar cell, primarily in investigation of mechanisms to slow down hot carrier cooling. In this work, energy and momentum resolved deformation potentials relevant to electron-phonon scattering are computed for wurtzite InN and GaN as well as an InN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) superlattice using ab-initio methods. These deformation potentials reveal important features such as discontinuities across the electronic bandgap of the materials and variations over tens of eV. The energy dependence of the deformation potential is found to be very similar for wurtzite nitrides despite differences between the In and Ga pseudopotentials and their corresponding electronic band structures. Charge carrier relaxation by this mechanism is expected to be minimal for electrons within a few eV of the conduction band edge. However, hole scattering at energies more accessible to excitation by solar radiation is possible between heavy and light hole states. Moderate reductions in overall scattering rates are observed in MQW relative to the bulk nitride materials.

  14. Radiances simulated in the presence of clouds by use of a fast radiative transfer model and a multiple-scattering scheme.

    PubMed

    Amorati, Roberta; Rizzi, Rolando

    2002-03-20

    A fast-forward radiative transfer (RTF) model is presented that includes cloud-radiation interaction for any number of cloud layers. Layer cloud fraction and transmittance are treated separately and combined with that of gaseous transmittances. RTF is tested against a reference procedure that uses line-by-line gaseous transmittances and solves the radiative transfer equation by use of the adding-doubling method to handle multiple-scattering conditions properly. The comparison is carried out for channels 8, 12, and 14 of the High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS/2) and for the geostationary satellite METEOSAT thermal infrared and water vapor channels. Fairly large differences in simulated radiances by the two schemes are found in clear conditions for upper- and mid-tropospheric channels; the cause of the differences is discussed. For cloudy situations an improved layer source function is shown to be required when rapid changes in atmospheric transmission are experienced within the model layers. The roles of scattering processes are discussed; results with and without scattering, both obtained by use of a reference code, are compared. Overall, the presented results show that the fast model is capable of reproducing the cloudy results of the much more complex and time-consuming reference scheme. PMID:11921787

  15. Radiances simulated in the presence of clouds by use of a fast radiative transfer model and a multiple-scattering scheme.

    PubMed

    Amorati, Roberta; Rizzi, Rolando

    2002-03-20

    A fast-forward radiative transfer (RTF) model is presented that includes cloud-radiation interaction for any number of cloud layers. Layer cloud fraction and transmittance are treated separately and combined with that of gaseous transmittances. RTF is tested against a reference procedure that uses line-by-line gaseous transmittances and solves the radiative transfer equation by use of the adding-doubling method to handle multiple-scattering conditions properly. The comparison is carried out for channels 8, 12, and 14 of the High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS/2) and for the geostationary satellite METEOSAT thermal infrared and water vapor channels. Fairly large differences in simulated radiances by the two schemes are found in clear conditions for upper- and mid-tropospheric channels; the cause of the differences is discussed. For cloudy situations an improved layer source function is shown to be required when rapid changes in atmospheric transmission are experienced within the model layers. The roles of scattering processes are discussed; results with and without scattering, both obtained by use of a reference code, are compared. Overall, the presented results show that the fast model is capable of reproducing the cloudy results of the much more complex and time-consuming reference scheme.

  16. Tracing multiple scattering patterns in absolute (e,2e) cross sections for H{sub 2} and He over a 4{pi} solid angle

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, X.; Senftleben, A.; Pflueger, T.; Dorn, A.; Ullrich, J.; Colgan, J.; Pindzola, M. S.; Al-Hagan, O.; Madison, D. H.; Bray, I.; Fursa, D. V.

    2010-09-15

    Absolutely normalized (e,2e) measurements for H{sub 2} and He covering the full solid angle of one ejected electron are presented for 16 eV sum energy of both final state continuum electrons. For both targets rich cross-section structures in addition to the binary and recoil lobes are identified and studied as a function of the fixed electron's emission angle and the energy sharing among both electrons. For H{sub 2} their behavior is consistent with multiple scattering of the projectile as discussed before [Al-Hagan et al., Nature Phys. 5, 59 (2009)]. For He the binary and recoil lobes are significantly larger than for H{sub 2} and partly cover the multiple scattering structures. To highlight these patterns we propose a alternative representation of the triply differential cross section. Nonperturbative calculations are in good agreement with the He results and show discrepancies for H{sub 2} in the recoil peak region. For H{sub 2} a perturbative approach reasonably reproduces the cross-section shape but deviates in absolute magnitude.

  17. Multiple scattering of matter waves: An analytic model of the refractive index for atomic and molecular gases

    SciTech Connect

    Lemeshko, Mikhail; Friedrich, Bretislav

    2010-08-15

    We present an analytic model of the refractive index for matter waves propagating through atomic or molecular gases. The model, which combines the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) treatment of the long-range attraction with the Fraunhofer model treatment of the short-range repulsion, furnishes a refractive index in compelling agreement with recent experiments of Jacquey et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 240405 (2007)] on Li atom matter waves passing through dilute noble gases. We show that the diffractive contribution, which arises from scattering by a two-dimensional 'hard core' of the potential, is essential for obtaining a correct imaginary part of the refractive index.

  18. Retrieval of water vapor mixing ratio from a multiple channel Raman-scatter lidar using an optimal estimation method.

    PubMed

    Sica, R J; Haefele, A

    2016-02-01

    Lidar measurements of the atmospheric water vapor mixing ratio provide an excellent complement to radiosoundings and passive, ground-based remote sensors. Lidars are now routinely used that can make high spatial-temporal resolution measurements of water vapor from the surface to the stratosphere. Many of these systems can operate during the day and night, with operation only limited by clouds thick enough to significantly attenuate the laser beam. To enhance the value of these measurements for weather and climate studies, this paper presents an optimal estimation method (OEM) to retrieve the water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol optical depth profile, Ångstrom exponent, lidar constants, detector dead times, and measurement backgrounds from multichannel vibrational Raman-scatter lidars. The OEM retrieval provides the systematic uncertainties due to the overlap function, calibration factor, air density and Rayleigh-scatter cross sections, in addition to the random uncertainties of the retrieval due to measurement noise. The OEM also gives the vertical resolution of the retrieval as a function of height, as well as the height to which the contribution of the a priori is small. The OEM is applied to measurements made by the Meteoswiss Raman Lidar for Meteorological Observations (RALMO) in the day and night for clear and cloudy conditions. The retrieved water vapor mixing ratio is in excellent agreement with both the traditional lidar retrieval method and coincident radiosoundings. PMID:26836078

  19. Retrieval of water vapor mixing ratio from a multiple channel Raman-scatter lidar using an optimal estimation method.

    PubMed

    Sica, R J; Haefele, A

    2016-02-01

    Lidar measurements of the atmospheric water vapor mixing ratio provide an excellent complement to radiosoundings and passive, ground-based remote sensors. Lidars are now routinely used that can make high spatial-temporal resolution measurements of water vapor from the surface to the stratosphere. Many of these systems can operate during the day and night, with operation only limited by clouds thick enough to significantly attenuate the laser beam. To enhance the value of these measurements for weather and climate studies, this paper presents an optimal estimation method (OEM) to retrieve the water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol optical depth profile, Ångstrom exponent, lidar constants, detector dead times, and measurement backgrounds from multichannel vibrational Raman-scatter lidars. The OEM retrieval provides the systematic uncertainties due to the overlap function, calibration factor, air density and Rayleigh-scatter cross sections, in addition to the random uncertainties of the retrieval due to measurement noise. The OEM also gives the vertical resolution of the retrieval as a function of height, as well as the height to which the contribution of the a priori is small. The OEM is applied to measurements made by the Meteoswiss Raman Lidar for Meteorological Observations (RALMO) in the day and night for clear and cloudy conditions. The retrieved water vapor mixing ratio is in excellent agreement with both the traditional lidar retrieval method and coincident radiosoundings.

  20. Approximations for photoelectron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsche, V.

    1989-04-01

    The errors of several approximations in the theoretical approach of photoelectron scattering are systematically studied, in tungsten, for electron energies ranging from 10 to 1000 eV. The large inaccuracies of the plane-wave approximation (PWA) are substantially reduced by means of effective scattering amplitudes in the modified small-scattering-centre approximation (MSSCA). The reduced angular momentum expansion (RAME) is so accurate that it allows reliable calculations of multiple-scattering contributions for all the energies considered.

  1. Quantum transport through a multilevel magnetic structure with multiple inelastic scattering in a magnetic field taken into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Val'kov, V. V.; Aksenov, S. V.; Ulanov, E. A.

    2015-02-01

    We present a solution for the problem of quantum electron transport through a magnetic atom adsorbed inside a break junction with paramagnetic metal electrodes. In agreement with experimental data, it was assumed that the conduction electrons experience inelastic scattering by the adsorbate due to s-d(f)-exchange interaction. The Keldysh technique was employed to obtain a general expression describing a current through the multilevel structure at finite temperatures in terms of the nonequilibrium Green's function. The use of the atomic representation allowed to exactly account for the non-equidistant structure of the energy spectrum of a magnetic atom and to simplify substantially the application of the Wick theorem for construction of the nonequilibrium diagrammatic technique for the Hubbard operators. The calculation of the current-voltage characteristics of the magnetic adatom in the tunnel regime at low temperatures revealed the presence of regions with a negative differential conductance in a magnetic field.

  2. Label-free whole blood cell differentiation based on multiple frequency AC impedance and light scattering analysis in a micro flow cytometer.

    PubMed

    Simon, Peter; Frankowski, Marcin; Bock, Nicole; Neukammer, Jörg

    2016-06-21

    We developed a microfluidic sensor for label-free flow cytometric cell differentiation by combined multiple AC electrical impedance and light scattering analysis. The measured signals are correlated to cell volume, membrane capacity and optical properties of single cells. For an improved signal to noise ratio, the microfluidic sensor incorporates two electrode pairs for differential impedance detection. One-dimensional sheath flow focusing was implemented, which allows single particle analysis at kHz count rates. Various monodisperse particles and differentiation of leukocytes in haemolysed samples served to benchmark the microdevice applying combined AC impedance and side scatter analyses. In what follows, we demonstrate that AC impedance measurements at selected frequencies allow label-free discrimination of platelets, erythrocytes, monocytes, granulocytes and lymphocytes in whole blood samples involving dilution only. Immunofluorescence staining was applied to validate the results of the label-free cell analysis. Reliable differentiation and enumeration of cells in whole blood by AC impedance detection have the potential to support medical diagnosis for patients with haemolysis resistant erythrocytes or abnormally sensitive leucocytes, i.e. for patients suffering from anaemia or leukaemia.

  3. Determination of iron-ligand bond lengths in ferric and ferrous horse heart cytochrome c using multiple-scattering analyses of XAFS data

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, M.C.; Rich, A.M.; Armstrong, R.S.; Ellis, P.J.; Lay, P.A.

    1999-12-13

    Cytochrome c (cyt c) is a small heme protein (MW 12 384) that functions as a biological electron-transfer agent. It consists of a single polypeptide chain and a prosthetic heme group and provides a pathway for the transfer of electrons from cyt c reductase to cyt c oxidase in the mitochondrial respiratory chain (oxidative phosphorylation). The protein participates in oxidation-reduction reactions with the heme iron alternating between the oxidized (ferric, Fe{sup III}) state and the reduced (ferrous, Fe{sup II}) state. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) data were obtained from frozen aqueous solutions (10 K) of horse heart ferri- and ferrocyt c. Models of the structure about the Fe center were refined to optimize the fit between the observed XAFS in the range 0 {le} k {le} 16.3 {angstrom}{sup {minus}1} and the XAFS calculated using both single-scattering (SS) and multiple-scattering (MS) calculations. The bond lengths obtained are more accurate and precise than those determined previously for cyt c from various species using X-ray crystallography. The Fe-N bond lengths are 1.98--1.99 {angstrom} for both oxidation states of cyt c. The Fe-S bond of derricyt c (2.33 {angstrom}) is significantly longer than that of ferrocyt c (2.29 {angstrom}). The small changes in the bond lengths are consistent with the small reorganizational energy required for the fast electron-transfer reaction of cyt c.

  4. Using GNXAS, a multiple-scattering EXAFS analysis, for determination of the FeNO angle in {FeNO} 7 complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westre, Tami E.; Di Cicco, Andrea; Filipponi, Adriano; Natoli, Calogero R.; Hedman, Britt; Solomon, Edward I.; Hodgson, Keith O.

    1995-02-01

    The FeNO bond angle in a series of {FeNO} 7 complexes has been probed by EXAFS, utilizing a new theoretical data analysis package, GNXAS. This package provides an integrated approach to the analysis of EXAFS data based on a full curved-wave, multiple-scattering theoretical treatment incorporating least squares refinement. EXAFS data were obtained on two crystallographically-characterized {FeNO} 7 inorganic complexes with varying FeNO angles to examine the sensitivity of the GNXAS fit to this angle. Results are presented which indicate that it is possible to determine whether the FeNO unit is bent or linear, with the GNXAS analysis being extremely sensitive when the angle is between 150° and 180°. This study thus provides the basis for the determination of the coordination geometry of molecules like No and O 2 to metalloprotein active sites.

  5. GPU Acceleration of the Locally Selfconsistent Multiple Scattering Code for First Principles Calculation of the Ground State and Statistical Physics of Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenbach, Markus; Larkin, Jeff; Lutjens, Justin; Rennich, Steven; Rogers, James H

    2016-01-01

    The Locally Self-consistent Multiple Scattering (LSMS) code solves the first principles Density Functional theory Kohn-Sham equation for a wide range of materials with a special focus on metals, alloys and metallic nano-structures. It has traditionally exhibited near perfect scalability on massively parallel high performance computer architectures. We present our efforts to exploit GPUs to accelerate the LSMS code to enable first principles calculations of O(100,000) atoms and statistical physics sampling of finite temperature properties. Using the Cray XK7 system Titan at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility we achieve a sustained performance of 14.5PFlop/s and a speedup of 8.6 compared to the CPU only code.

  6. Multiple detection of single nucleotide polymorphism by microarray-based resonance light scattering assay with enlarged gold nanoparticle probes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiaxue; Ma, Lan; Lei, Zhen; Wang, Zhenxin

    2016-03-01

    The mapping of specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in patients' genome is a critical process for the development of personalized therapy. In this work, a DNA microarray-based resonance light scattering (RLS) assay has been developed for multiplexed detection of breast cancer related SNPs with high sensitivity and selectivity. After hybridization of the desired target single-stranded DNAs (ssDNAs) with the ssDNA probes on a microarray, the polyvalent ssDNA modified 13 nm gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are employed to label the hybridization reaction through the formation of a three-stranded DNA system. The H2O2-mediated enlargement of GNPs is then used to enhance the RLS signal. The microarray-based RLS assay provides a detection limit of 10 pM (S/N = 3) for the target ssDNA and determines an allele frequency as low as 1.0% in the target ssDNA cocktail. Combined with an asymmetric PCR technique, the proposed assay shows good accuracy and sensitivity in profiling 4 SNPs related to breast cancer of three selected cell lines.

  7. Multiple detection of single nucleotide polymorphism by microarray-based resonance light scattering assay with enlarged gold nanoparticle probes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiaxue; Ma, Lan; Lei, Zhen; Wang, Zhenxin

    2016-03-01

    The mapping of specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in patients' genome is a critical process for the development of personalized therapy. In this work, a DNA microarray-based resonance light scattering (RLS) assay has been developed for multiplexed detection of breast cancer related SNPs with high sensitivity and selectivity. After hybridization of the desired target single-stranded DNAs (ssDNAs) with the ssDNA probes on a microarray, the polyvalent ssDNA modified 13 nm gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are employed to label the hybridization reaction through the formation of a three-stranded DNA system. The H2O2-mediated enlargement of GNPs is then used to enhance the RLS signal. The microarray-based RLS assay provides a detection limit of 10 pM (S/N = 3) for the target ssDNA and determines an allele frequency as low as 1.0% in the target ssDNA cocktail. Combined with an asymmetric PCR technique, the proposed assay shows good accuracy and sensitivity in profiling 4 SNPs related to breast cancer of three selected cell lines. PMID:26899365

  8. Lidar multiple scattering factors inferred from CALIPSO lidar and IIR retrievals of semi-transparent cirrus cloud optical depths over oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, A.; Pelon, J.; Vaughan, M. A.; Winker, D. M.; Trepte, C. R.; Dubuisson, P.

    2015-07-01

    Cirrus cloud absorption optical depths retrieved at 12.05 μm are compared to extinction optical depths retrieved at 0.532 μm from perfectly co-located observations of single-layered semi-transparent cirrus over ocean made by the Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR) and the Cloud and Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) flying on board the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) satellite. IIR infrared absorption optical depths are compared to CALIOP visible extinction optical depths when the latter can be directly derived from the measured apparent two-way transmittance through the cloud. An evaluation of the CALIOP multiple scattering factor is inferred from these comparisons after assessing and correcting biases in IIR and CALIOP optical depths reported in version 3 data products. In particular, the blackbody radiance taken in the IIR version 3 algorithm is evaluated, and IIR retrievals are corrected accordingly. Numerical simulations and IIR retrievals of ice crystal sizes suggest that the ratios of CALIOP extinction and IIR absorption optical depths should remain roughly constant with respect to temperature. Instead, these ratios are found to increase quasi-linearly by about 40 % as the temperature at the layer centroid altitude decreases from 240 to 200 K. It is discussed that this behavior can be explained by variations of the multiple scattering factor ηT applied to correct the measured apparent two-way transmittance for contribution of forward-scattering. While the CALIOP version 3 retrievals hold ηT fixed at 0.6, this study shows that ηT varies with temperature (and hence cloud particle size) from ηT = 0.8 at 200 K to ηT = 0.5 at 240 K for single-layered semi-transparent cirrus clouds with optical depth larger than 0.3. The revised parameterization of ηT introduces a concomitant temperature dependence in the simultaneously derived CALIOP lidar ratios that is consistent with observed changes in CALIOP

  9. Internal multiple-scattering hole-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: improved backscattering Fourier transform Raman sampling in pharmaceutical tablets utilizing cylindrical-conical holes.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Peter J; Santangelo, Matthew; Šašiċ, Slobodan

    2012-08-01

    The benefits of Raman signal enhancement and improved measurement precision are demonstrated using 180° backscattering Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy from drilled cylindrical-conical holes within pharmaceutical tablet cores. Multiple scattering of the incident laser light within the holes results in an increased Raman signal due to the larger Raman sampling volume. This is important for overcoming typical sub-sampling issues encountered when employing FT-Raman backscattering of heterogeneous pharmaceutical tablets. Hole depth and diameter were found to be important experimental parameters and were optimized to yield the greatest signal enhancement. The FT-Raman spectra collected using backscattering from cylindrical-conical holes is compared to typical 180° backscattering from flat surfaces using tablet cores of Excedrin® and Vivarin®. Raman chemical images are used to establish a representative sampling area. We observe a three- to five-fold increase in the Raman intensity and a two-fold improvement in the measurement precision when sampling from cylindrical-conical holes rather than classic backscattering from flat tablet cores. Self-absorption effects on analyte band ratios are negligible in the fingerprint region but are more significant at the higher near-infrared (NIR) absorbances found in the C-H/O-H/-N-H stretching region. The sampling technique will facilitate developing quantitative FT-Raman methods for application to pharmaceutical tablets using the fingerprint spectral region.

  10. Towards atomic resolution in sodium titanate nanotubes using near-edge X-ray-absorption fine-structure spectromicroscopy combined with multichannel multiple-scattering calculations

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Peter; Lagos, Maureen J; Ke, Xiaoxing; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Ewels, Chris; Umek, Polona; Guttmann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Summary Recent advances in near-edge X-ray-absorption fine-structure spectroscopy coupled with transmission X-ray microscopy (NEXAFS–TXM) allow large-area mapping investigations of individual nano-objects with spectral resolution up to E/ΔE = 104 and spatial resolution approaching 10 nm. While the state-of-the-art spatial resolution of X-ray microscopy is limited by nanostructuring process constrains of the objective zone plate, we show here that it is possible to overcome this through close coupling with high-level theoretical modelling. Taking the example of isolated bundles of hydrothermally prepared sodium titanate nanotubes ((Na,H)TiNTs) we are able to unravel the complex nanoscale structure from the NEXAFS–TXM data using multichannel multiple-scattering calculations, to the extent of being able to associate specific spectral features in the O K-edge and Ti L-edge with oxygen atoms in distinct sites within the lattice. These can even be distinguished from the contribution of different hydroxyl groups to the electronic structure of the (Na,H)TiNTs. PMID:23213642

  11. Towards atomic resolution in sodium titanate nanotubes using near-edge X-ray-absorption fine-structure spectromicroscopy combined with multichannel multiple-scattering calculations.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Carla; Krüger, Peter; Lagos, Maureen J; Ke, Xiaoxing; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Ewels, Chris; Umek, Polona; Guttmann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in near-edge X-ray-absorption fine-structure spectroscopy coupled with transmission X-ray microscopy (NEXAFS-TXM) allow large-area mapping investigations of individual nano-objects with spectral resolution up to E/ΔE = 10(4) and spatial resolution approaching 10 nm. While the state-of-the-art spatial resolution of X-ray microscopy is limited by nanostructuring process constrains of the objective zone plate, we show here that it is possible to overcome this through close coupling with high-level theoretical modelling. Taking the example of isolated bundles of hydrothermally prepared sodium titanate nanotubes ((Na,H)TiNTs) we are able to unravel the complex nanoscale structure from the NEXAFS-TXM data using multichannel multiple-scattering calculations, to the extent of being able to associate specific spectral features in the O K-edge and Ti L-edge with oxygen atoms in distinct sites within the lattice. These can even be distinguished from the contribution of different hydroxyl groups to the electronic structure of the (Na,H)TiNTs. PMID:23213642

  12. Multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy reveals microglia-associated myelin and axonal dysfunction in multiple sclerosis-like lesions in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imitola, Jaime; Côté, Daniel; Rasmussen, Stine; Xie, X. Sunney; Liu, Yingru; Chitnis, Tanuja; Sidman, Richard L.; Lin, Charles. P.; Khoury, Samia J.

    2011-02-01

    Myelin loss and axonal degeneration predominate in many neurological disorders; however, methods to visualize them simultaneously in live tissue are unavailable. We describe a new imaging strategy combining video rate reflectance and fluorescence confocal imaging with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy tuned to CH2 vibration of myelin lipids, applied in live tissue of animals with chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Our method allows monitoring over time of demyelination and neurodegeneration in brain slices with high spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. Local areas of severe loss of lipid signal indicative of demyelination and loss of the reflectance signal from axons were seen in the corpus callosum and spinal cord of EAE animals. Even in myelinated areas of EAE mice, the intensity of myelin lipid signals is significantly reduced. Using heterozygous knock-in mice in which green fluorescent protein replaces the CX3CR1 coding sequence that labels central nervous system microglia, we find areas of activated microglia colocalized with areas of altered reflectance and CARS signals reflecting axonal injury and demyelination. Our data demonstrate the use of multimodal CARS microscopy for characterization of demyelinating and neurodegenerative pathology in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, and further confirm the critical role of microglia in chronic inflammatory neurodegeneration.

  13. A Multiple Scattering Theory Approach to Solving the Time-Dependent Schrödinger Equation with an Asymmetric Rectangular Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Los, Victor F.; Los, Nicholas V.

    2016-04-01

    The exact expressions for an energy-dependent Green function (resolvent), space-time propagator and time-dependent solution for the wave function Ψ(r, t) of a particle moving in the presence of an asymmetric rectangular well/barrier potential are obtained. It is done by applying to this problem the multiple scattering theory (MST), which is different from previous such approaches by using the localized at the potential jumps effective potentials responsible for transmission through and reflection from the considered rectangular potential. This approach (alternative to the path-integral one) enables considering these processes from a particle (rather than a wave) point of view. The solution for the wave function describes these quantum phenomena as a function of time and is related to the fundamental issues (such as measuring time) of quantum mechanics. It is presented in terms of integrals of elementary functions and is a sum of the forward- and backward-moving components of the wave packet. The relative contribution of these components and their interference as well as of the potential asymmetry to the probability density |Ψ(x, t)|2 and particle dwell time is considered and numerically visualized for narrow and broad energy (momentum) distributions of the initial Gaussian wave packet. It is shown that in the case of a broad initial wave packet, the quantum mechanical counterintuitive effect of the influence of the backward-moving components on the considered quantities becomes significant.

  14. 3D local structure around copper site of rabbit prion-related protein: Quantitative determination by XANES spectroscopy combined with multiple-scattering calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, P. X.; Lian, F. L.; Wang, Y.; Wen, Yi; Chu, W. S.; Zhao, H. F.; Zhang, S.; Li, J.; Lin, D. H.; Wu, Z. Y.

    2014-02-01

    Prion-related protein (PrP), a cell-surface copper-binding glycoprotein, is considered to be responsible for a number of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The structural conversion of PrP from the normal cellular isoform (PrPC) to the post-translationally modified form (PrPSc) is thought to be relevant to Cu2+ binding to histidine residues. Rabbits are one of the few mammalian species that appear to be resistant to TSEs, because of the structural characteristics of the rabbit prion protein (RaPrPC) itself. Here we determined the three-dimensional local structure around the C-terminal high-affinity copper-binding sites using X-ray absorption near-edge structure combined with ab initio calculations in the framework of the multiple-scattering (MS) theory. Result shows that two amino acid resides, Gln97 and Met108, and two histidine residues, His95 and His110, are involved in binding this copper(II) ion. It might help us understand the roles of copper in prion conformation conversions, and the molecular mechanisms of prion-involved diseases.

  15. Theoretical studies on the physical properties and bonding of the 5d metal hexafluorides using the multiple scattering X. cap alpha. technique

    SciTech Connect

    Bloor, J.E.; Sherrod, R.E.

    1980-06-18

    Nonrelativistic overlapping spheres X..cap alpha.. multiple scattering OSMSX..cap alpha.. calculations have been performed on the 5d heavy metal hexafluorides MF/sub 6/, where M = W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au, and on MoF/sub 6/ and SF/sub 6/. With the aid of these calculations a consistent interpretation of the ionization potentials (IPs), electron affinities (EAs), and charge transfer (CT) electronic absorption bands for these molecules is obtained. The calculations are also shown to be successful in interpreting molecular properties related to the charge-density distributions. The method is found to be very useful in predicting trends in all the properties across the 5d series. Relativistic effects are discussed, and for the EAs it is found necessary to take into account these effects. After a semiempirical correction factor of approx. 1.0 eV, deduced from the molecular spin-orbit coupling constants is applied, the EAs are found to agree well with the most recent experimental estimates.

  16. Constraints of the multiple-scattering theory of Molière in Monte Carlo simulations of the transport of charged particles.

    PubMed

    Andreo, P; Medin, J; Bielajew, A F

    1993-01-01

    The breakdown of Molière's multiple-scattering theory for short pathlengths occurring during Monte Carlo simulations with charged particles is demonstrated. It has been found that in certain conditions where the theory is assumed to be valid, significant distortions of the angular distribution occur that make the sampling of the polar angle questionable in numerous steps of Monte Carlo simulations. The limits of the theory have been investigated, both using a large number of terms in the Molière's series and using steps of Molière's theory where 1/B expansions are not involved. At B = 4.5 the commonly accepted 3-term series expansion yields differences up to +/- 6% compared with the evaluation of the complete Molière angular distribution, and up to 7 terms in the series are needed in order to achieve agreement within +/- 2%. One percent agreement requires B = 10. Numerical values of the full distribution are given in terms of Molière's parameters B and reduced angle theta. By using the general dependence of the distribution results are valid for both electron and proton Monte Carlo simulations in any material.

  17. Kaon-nucleus scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Byungsik; Maung, Khin Maung; Wilson, John W.; Buck, Warren W.

    1989-01-01

    The derivations of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation and Watson multiple scattering are given. A simple optical potential is found to be the first term of that series. The number density distribution models of the nucleus, harmonic well, and Woods-Saxon are used without t-matrix taken from the scattering experiments. The parameterized two-body inputs, which are kaon-nucleon total cross sections, elastic slope parameters, and the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the forward elastic scattering amplitude, are presented. The eikonal approximation was chosen as our solution method to estimate the total and absorptive cross sections for the kaon-nucleus scattering.

  18. Optical depths of semi-transparent cirrus clouds over oceans from CALIPSO infrared radiometer and lidar measurements, and an evaluation of the lidar multiple scattering factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, A.; Pelon, J.; Vaughan, M. A.; Winker, D. M.; Trepte, C. R.; Dubuisson, P.

    2015-02-01

    This paper provides a detailed evaluation of cloud absorption optical depths retrieved at 12.05 μm and comparisons to extinction optical depths retrieved at 0.532 μm from perfectly co-located observations of single-layered semi-transparent cirrus over ocean made by the Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR) and the Cloud and Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) flying on-board the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) satellite. The blackbody radiance taken in the IIR Version 3 algorithm is evaluated, and IIR retrievals are corrected accordingly. IIR infrared absorption optical depths are then compared to CALIOP visible extinction optical depths when the latter can be directly derived from the measured apparent 2-way transmittance through the cloud. Numerical simulations and IIR retrievals of ice crystal sizes suggest that the ratios of CALIOP extinction and IIR absorption optical depths should remain roughly constant with respect to temperature. Instead, these ratios are found to increase quasi-linearly by about 40% as the temperature at the layer centroid altitude decreases from 240 to 200 K. This behavior is explained by variations of the multiple scattering factor ηT to be applied to correct the measured transmittance, which is taken equal to 0.6 in the CALIOP Version 3 algorithm, and which is found here to vary with temperature (and hence cloud particle size) from ηT = 0.8 at 200 K to ηT = 0.5 at 240 K for clouds with optical depth larger than 0.3. The revised parameterization of ηT introduces a concomitant temperature dependence in the simultaneously derived CALIOP lidar ratios that is consistent with observed changes in CALIOP depolarization ratios and particle habits derived from IIR measurements.

  19. Surface wave dispersion from small vertical scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wijk, K.; Levshin, A. L.

    2004-10-01

    Heterogeneity in the subsurface creates conflicting types of dispersion of seismic waves. A laboratory and numerical experiment show that multiple scattering of elastic waves from isolated heterogeneities near the surface not only attenuates, but also delays coherent events. Because scattering off these impedance contrasts is frequency dependent, multiple scattering is a source of dispersion. If ignored, multiple scattering dispersion could be erroneously attributed to a model with horizontal homogeneous layers of different wave speeds.

  20. Born approximation, scattering, and algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Alex; Hu, Mengqi; Gu, Haicheng; Qiao, Zhijun

    2015-05-01

    In the past few decades, there were many imaging algorithms designed in the case of the absence of multiple scattering. Recently, we discussed an algorithm for removing high order scattering components from collected data. This paper is a continuation of our previous work. First, we investigate the current state of multiple scattering in SAR. Then, we revise our method and test it. Given an estimate of our target reflectivity, we compute the multi scattering effects in the target region for various frequencies. Furthermore, we propagate this energy through free space towards our antenna, and remove it from the collected data.

  1. Incorporation of a rough ocean surface and semi-infinite water body in multiple scattering computations of polarized light in an atmosphere-ocean system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhary, Jacek; Travis, Larry D.; Lacis, Andrew A.

    1995-01-01

    The use of accurate space-born polarimetric measurements to retrieve tropospheric aerosol characteristics is a promising remote sensing tool, but also imposes strong requirements on the atmosphere-ocean model in terms of its adequacy and on computational techniques in terms of their accuracy and efficiency. The present work is concerned with computing the reflection matrix of an atmosphere-ocean system within this context. We use the Ambartsumyan non- linear integral equation to obtain the reflection matrix for a semi-infinite homogeneous ocean body containing hydrosols. The reflection and transmission matrices of a statistically rough ocean surface are obtained using the standard Kirchhoff formulation, with shadowing effects taken into account. The reflection properties of the combined ocean body and ocean surface are obtained employing the adding method. We use the Fourier decomposition of the scattering matrices and separation of the first-order scattering to substantially reduce the computational burden. An atmospheric model containing aerosols and molecules is computed and added on the top of the ocean system using the adding/doubling method. We report preliminary computational data and discuss the variation of the degree of linear polarization of singly and multiply scattered radiation as a function of scattering geometry, surface roughness, and aerosol and molecular optical depth.

  2. Incorporation of a rough ocean surface and semi-infinite water body in multiple scattering computations of polarized light in an atmosphere-ocean system

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhary, J. |; Travis, L.D.; Lacis, A.A.

    1995-12-31

    The use of accurate space-born polarimetric measurements to retrieve tropospheric aerosol characteristics is a promising remote sensing tool, but also imposes strong requirements on the atmosphere-ocean model in terms of its adequacy and on computational techniques in terms of their accuracy and efficiency. The present work is concerned with computing the reflection matrix of an atmosphere-ocean system within this context. The authors use the Ambartsumyan non-linear integral equation to obtain the reflection matrix for a semi-infinite homogeneous ocean body containing hydrosols. The reflection and transmission matrices of a statistically rough ocean surface are obtained using the standard Kirchhoff formulation, with shadowing effects taken into account. The reflection properties of the combined ocean body and ocean surface are obtained employing the adding method. They use the Fourier decomposition of the scattering matrices and separation of the first-order scattering to substantially reduce the computational burden. An atmosphere model containing aerosols and molecules is computed and added on the top of the ocean system using the adding/doubling method. They report preliminary computational data and discuss the variation of the degree of linear polarization of singly and multiply scattered radiation as a function of scattering geometry, surface roughness, and aerosol and molecular optical depth.

  3. Multiple scattering in grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction: impact on lattice-constant determination in thin films.

    PubMed

    Resel, Roland; Bainschab, Markus; Pichler, Alexander; Dingemans, Theo; Simbrunner, Clemens; Stangl, Julian; Salzmann, Ingo

    2016-05-01

    Dynamical scattering effects are observed in grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction experiments using an organic thin film of 2,2':6',2''-ternaphthalene grown on oxidized silicon as substrate. Here, a splitting of all Bragg peaks in the out-of-plane direction (z-direction) has been observed, the magnitude of which depends both on the incidence angle of the primary beam and the out-of-plane angle of the scattered beam. The incident angle was varied between 0.09° and 0.25° for synchrotron radiation of 10.5 keV. This study reveals comparable intensities of the split peaks with a maximum for incidence angles close to the critical angle of total external reflection of the substrate. This observation is rationalized by two different scattering pathways resulting in diffraction peaks at different positions at the detector. In order to minimize the splitting, the data suggest either using incident angles well below the critical angle of total reflection or angles well above, which sufficiently attenuates the contributions from the second scattering path. This study highlights that the refraction of X-rays in (organic) thin films has to be corrected accordingly to allow for the determination of peak positions with sufficient accuracy. Based thereon, a reliable determination of the lattice constants becomes feasible, which is required for crystallographic structure solutions from thin films.

  4. Multiple scattering in grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction: impact on lattice-constant determination in thin films.

    PubMed

    Resel, Roland; Bainschab, Markus; Pichler, Alexander; Dingemans, Theo; Simbrunner, Clemens; Stangl, Julian; Salzmann, Ingo

    2016-05-01

    Dynamical scattering effects are observed in grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction experiments using an organic thin film of 2,2':6',2''-ternaphthalene grown on oxidized silicon as substrate. Here, a splitting of all Bragg peaks in the out-of-plane direction (z-direction) has been observed, the magnitude of which depends both on the incidence angle of the primary beam and the out-of-plane angle of the scattered beam. The incident angle was varied between 0.09° and 0.25° for synchrotron radiation of 10.5 keV. This study reveals comparable intensities of the split peaks with a maximum for incidence angles close to the critical angle of total external reflection of the substrate. This observation is rationalized by two different scattering pathways resulting in diffraction peaks at different positions at the detector. In order to minimize the splitting, the data suggest either using incident angles well below the critical angle of total reflection or angles well above, which sufficiently attenuates the contributions from the second scattering path. This study highlights that the refraction of X-rays in (organic) thin films has to be corrected accordingly to allow for the determination of peak positions with sufficient accuracy. Based thereon, a reliable determination of the lattice constants becomes feasible, which is required for crystallographic structure solutions from thin films. PMID:27140152

  5. Multiple scattering in grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction: impact on lattice-constant determination in thin films

    PubMed Central

    Resel, Roland; Bainschab, Markus; Pichler, Alexander; Dingemans, Theo; Simbrunner, Clemens; Stangl, Julian; Salzmann, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Dynamical scattering effects are observed in grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction experiments using an organic thin film of 2,2′:6′,2′′-ternaphthalene grown on oxidized silicon as substrate. Here, a splitting of all Bragg peaks in the out-of-plane direction (z-direction) has been observed, the magnitude of which depends both on the incidence angle of the primary beam and the out-of-plane angle of the scattered beam. The incident angle was varied between 0.09° and 0.25° for synchrotron radiation of 10.5 keV. This study reveals comparable intensities of the split peaks with a maximum for incidence angles close to the critical angle of total external reflection of the substrate. This observation is rationalized by two different scattering pathways resulting in diffraction peaks at different positions at the detector. In order to minimize the splitting, the data suggest either using incident angles well below the critical angle of total reflection or angles well above, which sufficiently attenuates the contributions from the second scattering path. This study highlights that the refraction of X-rays in (organic) thin films has to be corrected accordingly to allow for the determination of peak positions with sufficient accuracy. Based thereon, a reliable determination of the lattice constants becomes feasible, which is required for crystallographic structure solutions from thin films. PMID:27140152

  6. A study of the efficiency of the parallelization of a high frequency electromagnetic approach for the computation of radiation and scattering considering multiple bounces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Eliseo; Lozano, Lorena; Algar, Maria-Jesús; Cátedra, Felipe

    2013-01-01

    Different schemes for the parallelization of a new algorithm to accelerate the Ray-Tracing for computing the electrical field radiated from or scattered by complex objects using high frequency techniques are presented. This algorithm is based on a combination of the Angular Z-Buffer (AZB), the Space Volumetric Partitioning (SVP) and the A*Heuristic search method. The algorithm is very useful for different applications. Basically, four kinds of analysis can be done with the tool: radiation pattern of antennas, electromagnetic field values in observation points in the near field, mutual coupling between antennas and propagation at indoor/outdoor environments. A computational analysis is shown for the different strategies of parallelization for shared and distributed memory computers.

  7. Multiple scattering in the high-frequency limit with second-order shadowing function from 2D anisotropic rough dielectric surfaces: II. Comparison with numerical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourlier, C.; Berginc, G.

    2004-07-01

    This second part presents illustrative examples of the model developed in the companion paper, which is based on the first- and second-order optics approximation. The surface is assumed to be Gaussian and the correlation height is chosen as anisotropic Gaussian. The incoherent scattering coefficient is computed for a height rms range from 0.5lgr to 1lgr (where lgr is the electromagnetic wavelength), for a slope rms range from 0.5 to 1 and for an incidence angle range from 0 to 70°. In addition, simulations are presented for an anisotropic Gaussian surface and when the receiver is not located in the plane of incidence. For a metallic and dielectric isotropic Gaussian surfaces, the cross- and co-polarizations are also compared with a numerical approach obtained from the forward-backward method with a novel spectral acceleration algorithm developed by Torrungrueng and Johnson (2001, JOSA A 18).

  8. Full multiple scattering analysis of XANES at the Cd L3 and O K edges in CdO films combined with a soft-x-ray emission investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Demchenko, I. N.; Denlinger, J. D.; Chernyshova, M.; Yu, K. M.; Speaks, D. T.; Olalde-Velasco, P.; Hemmers, O.; Walukiewicz, W.; Derkachova, A.; Lawniczak-Jablonska, K.

    2010-07-05

    X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) at the cadmium L3 and oxygen K edges for CdO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition method, is interpreted within the real-space multiple scattering formalism, FEFF code. The features in the experimental spectra are well reproduced by calculations for a cluster of about six and ten coordination shells around the absorber for L3 edge of Cd and K edge of O, respectively. The calculated projected electronic density of states is found to be in good agreement with unoccupied electronic states in experimental data and allows to conclude that the orbital character of the lowest energy of the conductive band is Cd-5s-O-2p. The charge transfer has been quantified and not purely ionic bonding has been found. Combined XANES and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering measurements allow us to determine the direct and indirect band gap of investigated CdO films to be {approx}2.4-eV and {approx}0.9-eV, respectively.

  9. Multiple excitation of Fuchs-Kliewer phonons by Ne⁺ ions back-scattered by the LiF(100) surface at grazing incidence.

    PubMed

    Lucas, A A; Sunjic, M; Benedek, G

    2013-09-01

    An analytic model is developed to describe the inelastic processes occurring when keV Ne(+) ions are scattered at grazing incidence by the (100) surface of LiF. The large energy losses (up to 30 eV) of the reflected Ne(+) particles reported by Borisov et al (1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 5378) are shown to arise specifically from the long-range coupling between the projectiles and the so-called Fuchs-Kliewer (FK) optical phonons of LiF whose fields extend far outside the surface. The strength of the coupling is estimated, allowing one to compute the average number of excited FK phonon quanta (ħωS = 0.071 eV) and hence the mean energy losses. For emerging, neutralized Ne(0), a distinct energy loss mechanism is shown to occur, namely the excitation of FK phonons and other types of surface collective modes associated with the screening of the F(0) 'hole' left behind by the neutralization process. This mechanism contributes a large fraction of the loss, additional to that suffered by the incident Ne(+) ion. The model explains the experimental observations quantitatively (1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 5378). The paper ends with a discussion of the large energy broadening of the observed loss peaks.

  10. Interfacial phases in epitaxial growth of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} on MgO studied via combining electron energy-loss spectroscopy and real-space self-consistent full multiple scattering calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Pailloux, F.; Jublot, M.; Gaboriaud, R.J.; Jaouen, M.; Paumier, F.; Imhoff, D.

    2005-09-15

    Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and electron diffraction were used to investigate Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films epitaxially grown on (001) MgO substrate. In the vicinity of the film/substrate interface, HRTEM experiments evidenced the presence of grains with various crystallographic structures most of them crystallizing in the well-known Ia3 cubic phase. Some other grains, nanometric in size, and only observed in the vicinity of the film/substrate interface, have a different and unknown crystallographic structure. EELS spectra have been acquired close to the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MgO interface, to get a better knowledge of the phases nucleated close to the substrate surface. Spectra exhibiting different fine structures have been recorded and compared to multiple scattering calculations. The Ia3 phase has been detected as constituting the main component of the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film in agreement with previous observations. It is found that calculations performed in a real space self-consistent full multiple scattering scheme (SC-FMS) and experiments are in pretty good agreement even for small cluster sizes. The second family of spectra has also been compared to calculations performed for monoclinic C2/m yttrium oxide, with a little success. Another approach considering a local oxygen neighboring close to a distorted rock-salt-like structure led to a good match between experimental and calculated spectra. Our results emphasize how powerful is the combination of spectroscopic measurements at nanometer scale, as feasible with EELS and modern microscopes, with ab initio calculations for structure determination at such small scale lengths.

  11. Laser light scattering review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaetzel, Klaus

    1989-08-01

    Since the development of laser light sources and fast digital electronics for signal processing, the classical discipline of light scattering on liquid systems experienced a strong revival plus an enormous expansion, mainly due to new dynamic light scattering techniques. While a large number of liquid systems can be investigated, ranging from pure liquids to multicomponent microemulsions, this review is largely restricted to applications on Brownian particles, typically in the submicron range. Static light scattering, the careful recording of the angular dependence of scattered light, is a valuable tool for the analysis of particle size and shape, or of their spatial ordering due to mutual interactions. Dynamic techniques, most notably photon correlation spectroscopy, give direct access to particle motion. This may be Brownian motion, which allows the determination of particle size, or some collective motion, e.g., electrophoresis, which yields particle mobility data. Suitable optical systems as well as the necessary data processing schemes are presented in some detail. Special attention is devoted to topics of current interest, like correlation over very large lag time ranges or multiple scattering.

  12. Laser light scattering review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaetzel, Klaus

    1989-01-01

    Since the development of laser light sources and fast digital electronics for signal processing, the classical discipline of light scattering on liquid systems experienced a strong revival plus an enormous expansion, mainly due to new dynamic light scattering techniques. While a large number of liquid systems can be investigated, ranging from pure liquids to multicomponent microemulsions, this review is largely restricted to applications on Brownian particles, typically in the submicron range. Static light scattering, the careful recording of the angular dependence of scattered light, is a valuable tool for the analysis of particle size and shape, or of their spatial ordering due to mutual interactions. Dynamic techniques, most notably photon correlation spectroscopy, give direct access to particle motion. This may be Brownian motion, which allows the determination of particle size, or some collective motion, e.g., electrophoresis, which yields particle mobility data. Suitable optical systems as well as the necessary data processing schemes are presented in some detail. Special attention is devoted to topics of current interest, like correlation over very large lag time ranges or multiple scattering.

  13. Electromagnetic scattering from turbulent plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Resendes, D.G. Instituto Superior Tecnico, Rua Rovisco Pais, Lisboa )

    1992-11-15

    A self-consistent multiple-scattering theory of vector electromagnetic waves scattered from a turbulent plasma is presented. This approach provides a general and systematic treatment to all orders in turbulence of the scattering of electromagnetic waves in terms of the properties of the turbulent structure of the scattering system and is applicable in the full regime from underdense to overdense plasmas. To illustrate the theory, a plasma consisting of a finite number density of discrete scatterers with a simple geometry and statistical properties is chosen. In this approach the exact solution for a single scatterer is obtained first. From it the configuration-dependent solution for {ital N} scatterers is constructed. Rather than solving explicitly for this solution and then averaging, the averaging operation will be taken first in order to find an approximate equation obeyed by the mean or coherent field. The coherent and incoherent scattering are then determined in terms of the coherent field and the backscatter is evaluated. The coherent and incoherent scattering, our principal results, are expressed in a plane-wave basis in a form suitable for numerical computation. A number of interesting phenomena which may readily be incorporated into the theory are indicated.

  14. Stimulated Raman scattering in micrometer-sized droplets: measurements of angular scattering characteristics.

    PubMed

    Pinnick, R G; Biswas, A; Armstrong, R L; Latifi, H; Creegan, E; Srivastava, V; Fernandez, G

    1988-12-01

    Measurements of the angular scattering characteristics of elastic and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in single (nominal 20-microm-radius) water, ethanol, and CC1(4) droplets irradiated with 0.532-microm-wavelength radiation from a pulsed laser demonstrate that SRS is more isotropic than elastic scattering yet qualitatively mimics angularly smoothed elastic scattering patterns. The angular fine structure characteristic of the coherent elastic scattering process is lacking in SRS, regardless of whether the SRS derives from multiple orders of Stokes shifts, multiple resonances within a single Stokes shift, or single resonances within a single Stokes shift.

  15. Intermediate energy proton-deuteron elastic scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    A fully symmetrized multiple scattering series is considered for the description of proton-deuteron elastic scattering. An off-shell continuation of the experimentally known twobody amplitudes that retains the exchange symmeteries required for the calculation is presented. The one boson exchange terms of the two body amplitudes are evaluated exactly in this off-shell prescription. The first two terms of the multiple scattering series are calculated explicitly whereas multiple scattering effects are obtained as minimum variance estimates from the 146-MeV data of Postma and Wilson. The multiple scattering corrections indeed consist of low order partial waves as suggested by Sloan based on model studies with separable interactions. The Hamada-Johnston wave function is shown consistent with the data for internucleon distances greater than about 0.84 fm.

  16. Critical fluid light scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammon, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    The objective is to measure the decay rates of critical density fluctuations in a simple fluid (xenon) very near its liquid-vapor critical point using laser light scattering and photon correlation spectroscopy. Such experiments were severely limited on Earth by the presence of gravity which causes large density gradients in the sample when the compressibility diverges approaching the critical point. The goal is to measure fluctuation decay rates at least two decades closer to the critical point than is possible on earth, with a resolution of 3 microK. This will require loading the sample to 0.1 percent of the critical density and taking data as close as 100 microK to the critical temperature. The minimum mission time of 100 hours will allow a complete range of temperature points to be covered, limited by the thermal response of the sample. Other technical problems have to be addressed such as multiple scattering and the effect of wetting layers. The experiment entails measurement of the scattering intensity fluctuation decay rate at two angles for each temperature and simultaneously recording the scattering intensities and sample turbidity (from the transmission). The analyzed intensity and turbidity data gives the correlation length at each temperature and locates the critical temperature. The fluctuation decay rate data from these measurements will provide a severe test of the generalized hydrodynamic theories of transport coefficients in the critical regions. When compared to equivalent data from binary liquid critical mixtures they will test the universality of critical dynamics.

  17. Object shape dependent scatter simulations for PET

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, J.S.; Rogers, J.G.; Harrop, R. ); Hoverath, H. )

    1991-04-01

    This paper reports on the increased scatter fraction seen in positron volume imaging when compared with conventional slice positron emission tomography which has created a need for better characterization and correction of scattered gamma rays for positron imaging. An analytical simulation of single scattered gamma rays and an extension to estimate multiple scattered rays were verified using Monte Carlo simulation. The Monte Carlo simulation was itself verified using measured tomography data. The analytical simulation was used to study some cases of interest for scatter correction.

  18. Coherence effects in scattering order expansion of light by atomic clouds.

    PubMed

    Rouabah, Mohamed-Taha; Samoylova, Marina; Bachelard, Romain; Courteille, Philippe W; Kaiser, Robin; Piovella, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    We interpret cooperative scattering by a collection of cold atoms as a multiple-scattering process. Starting from microscopic equations describing the response of N atoms to a probe light beam, we represent the total scattered field as an infinite series of multiple-scattering events. As an application of the method, we obtain analytical expressions of the coherent intensity in the double-scattering approximation for Gaussian density profiles. In particular, we quantify the contributions of coherent backward and forward scattering.

  19. Nanowire Electron Scattering Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Brian; Bronikowsky, Michael; Wong, Eric; VonAllmen, Paul; Oyafuso, Fablano

    2009-01-01

    Nanowire electron scattering spectroscopy (NESS) has been proposed as the basis of a class of ultra-small, ultralow-power sensors that could be used to detect and identify chemical compounds present in extremely small quantities. State-of-the-art nanowire chemical sensors have already been demonstrated to be capable of detecting a variety of compounds in femtomolar quantities. However, to date, chemically specific sensing of molecules using these sensors has required the use of chemically functionalized nanowires with receptors tailored to individual molecules of interest. While potentially effective, this functionalization requires labor-intensive treatment of many nanowires to sense a broad spectrum of molecules. In contrast, NESS would eliminate the need for chemical functionalization of nanowires and would enable the use of the same sensor to detect and identify multiple compounds. NESS is analogous to Raman spectroscopy, the main difference being that in NESS, one would utilize inelastic scattering of electrons instead of photons to determine molecular vibrational energy levels. More specifically, in NESS, one would exploit inelastic scattering of electrons by low-lying vibrational quantum states of molecules attached to a nanowire or nanotube.

  20. Separating Scattering from Intrinsic Attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wijk, K.; Scales, J. A.

    2003-12-01

    The subsurface appears disordered at all length-scales. Therefore, wave propatation at seismic or ultrasonic frequencies is subject to complicated scatterings. A pulse propagating in the subsurface loses energy at each scattering off an impedance contrast, but also decreases in amplitude as the impulse interacts with fluids in the rock. We call the latter non-elastic effect "intrinsic Q", while the former is "scattering Q". It is often the fluids in the rocks that are of interest, but conventional reflection and transmission of the incident pulse only cannot deceipher the individual components of Q due to scattering and fluid movement in the pore-space. We present an approach that can unravel these two mechanisms, allowing a separate estimate of absorption. This method treats the propagation of the average intensity in the framework of radiative transfer (RT); the arrival of (what is left of) the incident pulse is modeled as the coherent energy, whereas the later arriving multiply scattered events form the incoherent intensity. The coherent pulse decays exponentially due to a combination of scattering and absorption, and so does the incoherent intensity. However, multiple scattering can re-direct energy back to the receiver, supplying a gain-term at later times that makes up the incoherent intensity. Strictly speaking, one can invert for scattering and absorption from the intensity at late times only, often modeled with the late-time equivalent of RT, diffusion. However, we will show that fitting both early- and late-time signal with RT constrains absorption and scattering constants more rigorously. These ideas are illustrated by laboratory and sonic-logging measurements.

  1. Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sungsam; Jeong, Seungwon; Choi, Wonjun; Ko, Hakseok; Yang, Taeseok D.; Joo, Jang Ho; Lee, Jae-Seung; Lim, Yong-Sik; Park, Q.-Han; Choi, Wonshik

    2015-04-01

    Optical microscopy suffers from a loss of resolving power when imaging targets are embedded in thick scattering media because of the dominance of strong multiple-scattered waves over waves scattered only a single time by the targets. Here, we present an approach that maintains full optical resolution when imaging deep within scattering media. We use both time-gated detection and spatial input-output correlation to identify those reflected waves that conserve in-plane momentum, which is a property of single-scattered waves. By implementing a superradiance-like collective accumulation of the single-scattered waves, we enhance the ratio of the single scattering signal to the multiple scattering background by more than three orders of magnitude. An imaging depth of 11.5 times the scattering mean free path is achieved with a near-diffraction-limited resolution of 1.5 μm. Our method of distinguishing single- from multiple-scattered waves will open new routes to deep-tissue imaging and studying the physics of the interaction of light with complex media.

  2. Interferometric Rayleigh Scattering Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bivolaru, Daniel (Inventor); Danehy, Paul M. (Inventor); Lee, Joseph W. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method and apparatus for performing simultaneous multi-point measurements of multiple velocity components in a gas flow is described. Pulses of laser light are directed to a measurement region of unseeded gas to produce Rayleigh or Mie scattered light in a plurality of directions. The Rayleigh or Mie scattered light is collected from multiple directions and combined in a single collimated light beam. The Rayleigh or Mie scattered light is then mixed together with a reference laser light before it is passed through a single planar Fabry-Perot interferometer for spectral analysis. At the output of the interferometer, a high-sensitivity CCD camera images the interference fringe pattern. This pattern contains the spectral and spatial information from both the Rayleigh scattered light and the reference laser light. Interferogram processing software extracts and analyzes spectral profiles to determine the velocity components of the gas flow at multiple points in the measurement region. The Rayleigh light rejected by the interferometer is recirculated to increase the accuracy and the applicability of the method for measurements at high temperatures without requiring an increase in the laser energy.

  3. Analytical optical scattering in clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phanord, Dieudonne D.

    1989-01-01

    An analytical optical model for scattering of light due to lightning by clouds of different geometry is being developed. The self-consistent approach and the equivalent medium concept of Twersky was used to treat the case corresponding to outside illumination. Thus, the resulting multiple scattering problem is transformed with the knowledge of the bulk parameters, into scattering by a single obstacle in isolation. Based on the size parameter of a typical water droplet as compared to the incident wave length, the problem for the single scatterer equivalent to the distribution of cloud particles can be solved either by Mie or Rayleigh scattering theory. The super computing code of Wiscombe can be used immediately to produce results that can be compared to the Monte Carlo computer simulation for outside incidence. A fairly reasonable inverse approach using the solution of the outside illumination case was proposed to model analytically the situation for point sources located inside the thick optical cloud. Its mathematical details are still being investigated. When finished, it will provide scientists an enhanced capability to study more realistic clouds. For testing purposes, the direct approach to the inside illumination of clouds by lightning is under consideration. Presently, an analytical solution for the cubic cloud will soon be obtained. For cylindrical or spherical clouds, preliminary results are needed for scattering by bounded obstacles above or below a penetrable surface interface.

  4. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a turbulent plasma slab.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. H.

    1972-01-01

    Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a turbulent plasma slab is studied. Part of the effects of the multiple scattering is taken into account. The reflection coefficient is found to be increased and its variation with respect to the slab thickness is smoothed out by the random scattering.

  5. An optical model for composite nuclear scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.

    1981-01-01

    The optical model of composite particle scattering is considered and compared to the accuracies of other models. A nonrelativistic Schroedinger equation with two-body potentials is used for the scattering of a single particle by an energy-dependent local potential. The potential for the elastic channel is composed of matrix elements of a single scattering operator taken between the ground states of the projectile and the target; the coherent amplitude is considered as dominating the scattering in the forward direction. A multiple scattering series is analytically explored and formally summed by the solution of an equivalent Schroedinger equation. Cross sections of nuclear scattering are then determined for He-4 and C-12 nuclei at 3.6 GeV/nucleus and O-16 projectiles at 2.1 GeV/nucleus, and the optical model approximations are found to be consistently lower and more accurate than approximations made by use of Glauber's theory.

  6. Light Scattering in Exoplanet Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2016-10-01

    Transit spectroscopy is currently the leading technique for studying exoplanet atmospheric composition, and has led to the detection of molecular species, clouds, and/or hazes for numerous worlds outside the Solar System. The field of exoplanet transit spectroscopy will be revolutionized with the anticipated launch of NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in 2018. Over the course of the design five year mission for JWST, the observatory is expected to provide in-depth observations of many tens of transiting exoplanets, including some worlds in the poorly understood 2–4 Earth-mass regime. As the quality of transit spectrum observations continues to improve, so should models of exoplanet transits. Thus, certain processes initially thought to be of second-order importance should be revisited and possibly added to modeling tools. For example, atmospheric refraction, which was commonly omitted from early transit spectrum models, has recently been shown to be of critical importance in some terrestrial exoplanet transits. Beyond refraction, another process that has seen little study with regards to exoplanet transits is light multiple scattering. In most cases, scattering opacity in exoplanet transits has been treated as equivalent to absorption opacity. However, this equivalence cannot always hold, such as in the case of a strongly forward scattering, weakly absorbing aerosol. In this presentation, we outline a theory of exoplanet transit spectroscopy that spans the geometric limit (used in most modern models) to a fully multiple scattering approach. We discuss a new technique for improving model efficiency that effectively separates photon paths, which tend to vary slowly in wavelength, from photon absorption, which can vary rapidly in wavelength. Using this newly developed approach, we explore situations where cloud or haze scattering may be important to JWST observations of gas giants, and comment on the conditions necessary for scattering to become a major

  7. Quasi-elastic nuclear scattering at high energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.

    1992-01-01

    The quasi-elastic scattering of two nuclei is considered in the high-energy optical model. Energy loss and momentum transfer spectra for projectile ions are evaluated in terms of an inelastic multiple-scattering series corresponding to multiple knockout of target nucleons. The leading-order correction to the coherent projectile approximation is evaluated. Calculations are compared with experiments.

  8. Neutron Scattering Stiudies

    SciTech Connect

    Kegel, Gunter H.R.; Egan, James J

    2007-04-18

    This project covers four principal areas of research: Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering studies in odd-A terbium, thulium and other highly deformed nuclei near A=160 with special regard to interband transitions and to the investigation of the direct-interaction versus the compound-nucleus excitation process in these nuclei. Examination of new, fast photomultiplier tubes suitable for use in a miniaturized neutron-time-of-flight spectrometer. Measurement of certain inelastic cross sections of 238U. Determination of the multiplicity of prompt fission gamma rays in even-A fissile actinides. Energies and mean lives of fission isomers produced by fast fission of even-Z, even-A actinides. Study of the mean life of 7Be in different host matrices and its possible astro-physical significance.

  9. Scattering apodizer for laser beams

    DOEpatents

    Summers, M.A.; Hagen, W.F.; Boyd, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    A method is disclosed for apodizing a laser beam to smooth out the production of diffraction peaks due to optical discontinuities in the path of the laser beam, such method comprising introduction of a pattern of scattering elements for reducing the peak intensity in the region of such optical discontinuities, such pattern having smoothly tapering boundaries in which the distribution density of the scattering elements is tapered gradually to produce small gradients in the distribution density, such pattern of scattering elements being effective to reduce and smooth out the diffraction effects which would otherwise be produced. The apodizer pattern may be produced by selectively blasting a surface of a transparent member with fine abrasive particles to produce a multitude of minute pits. In one embodiment, a scattering apodizer pattern is employed to overcome diffraction patterns in a multiple element crystal array for harmonic conversion of a laser beam. The interstices and the supporting grid between the crystal elements are obscured by the gradually tapered apodizer pattern of scattering elements.

  10. Scattering apodizer for laser beams

    DOEpatents

    Summers, Mark A.; Hagen, Wilhelm F.; Boyd, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    A method is disclosed for apodizing a laser beam to smooth out the production of diffraction peaks due to optical discontinuities in the path of the laser beam, such method comprising introduction of a pattern of scattering elements for reducing the peak intensity in the region of such optical discontinuities, such pattern having smoothly tapering boundaries in which the distribution density of the scattering elements is tapered gradually to produce small gradients in the distribution density, such pattern of scattering elements being effective to reduce and smooth out the diffraction effects which would otherwise be produced. The apodizer pattern may be produced by selectively blasting a surface of a transparent member with fine abrasive particles to produce a multitude of minute pits. In one embodiment, a scattering apodizer pattern is employed to overcome diffraction patterns in a multiple element crystal array for harmonic conversion of a laser beam. The interstices and the supporting grid between the crystal elements are obscured by the gradually tapered apodizer pattern of scattering elements.

  11. Reversibility of scattered fields (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Renjie; Kim, Taewoo; Popescu, Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, tremendous efforts have been spent on deep tissue imaging using phase conjugation, a technique used to undo the effects of light scattering in a thick tissue. Despite the early debates between Yariv and Wolf, it is still not well understood physically how deep can a field propagate into biological tissue and still be phase conjugated. In order to answer this question, we developed a light scattering theory to describe the evolution of the phase associated with a field scattered by a thick tissue block. The multiple scattering through the sample is simplified to a series of single scattering through consecutive thin tissue slices. With this theory, we identify the limits of the phase conjugation operation and recover the previous results by Yariv and Wolf, which asserts that phase conjugation is rooted in small angle approximation. Importantly, we discover the fundamental principle that rules phase conjugation: the mean axial wavenumber of a field progressively decreases to zero as it scatters multiple times. At this point, phase becomes a spatially random variable and phase conjugation becomes impossible. This result describes a fundamental phenomenon: the interaction between a deterministic object and a deterministic field can result in a random scattered field. We show that this phenomenon is rooted into Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.

  12. Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Travis, Larry D.; Hovenier, Joop W.

    1998-01-01

    Improved understanding of electromagnetic scattering by nonspherical particles is important to many science and engineering disciplines and was the subject of the Conference on Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Theory, Measurements, and Applications. The conference was held 29 September-1 October 1998 at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies in New York City and brought together 115 participants from 18 countries. The main objective of the conference was to highlight and summarize the rapid advancements in the field, including numerical methods for computing the single and multiple scattering of electromagnetic radiation by nonspherical and heterogeneous particles, measurement approaches, knowledge of characteristic features in scattering patterns, retrieval and remote sensing techniques, nonspherical particle sizing, and various practical applications. The conference consisted of twelve oral and one poster sessions. The presentations were loosely grouped based on broad topical categories. In each of these categories invited review talks highlighted and summarized specific active areas of research. To ensure a high-quality conference, all abstracts submitted had been reviewed by members of the Scientific Organizing Committee for technical merit and content. The conference program was published in the June 1998 issue of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society and is available on the World Wide Web at http://www.giss.nasa.gov/-crmim/conference/program.html. Authors of accepted papers and review presentations contributed to a volume of preprints published by the American Meteorological Society' and distributed to participants at the conference.

  13. Scattering Models and Basic Experiments in the Microwave Regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, A. K.; Blanchard, A. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of research over the next three years are: (1) to develop a randomly rough surface scattering model which is applicable over the entire frequency band; (2) to develop a computer simulation method and algorithm to simulate scattering from known randomly rough surfaces, Z(x,y); (3) to design and perform laboratory experiments to study geometric and physical target parameters of an inhomogeneous layer; (4) to develop scattering models for an inhomogeneous layer which accounts for near field interaction and multiple scattering in both the coherent and the incoherent scattering components; and (5) a comparison between theoretical models and measurements or numerical simulation.

  14. Scattering from binary optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Douglas W.

    1993-01-01

    There are a number of sources of scattering in binary optics: etch depth errors, line edge errors, quantization errors, roughness, and the binary approximation to the ideal surface. These sources of scattering can be systematic (deterministic) or random. In this paper, scattering formulas for both systematic and random errors are derived using Fourier optics. These formulas can be used to explain the results of scattering measurements and computer simulations.

  15. Scattering in optical materials

    SciTech Connect

    Musikant, S.

    1983-01-01

    Topics discussed include internal scattering and surface scattering, environmental effects, and various applications. Papers are presented on scattering in ZnSe laser windows, the far-infrared reflectance spectra of optical black coatings, the effects of standard optical shop practices on scattering, and the damage susceptibility of ring laser gyro class optics. Attention is also given to the infrared laser stimulated desorption of pyridine from silver surfaces, to electrically conductive black optical paint, to light scattering from an interface bubble, and to the role of diagnostic testing in identifying and resolving dimensional stability problems in electroplated laser mirrors.

  16. Analytical scatter kernels for portal imaging at 6 MV.

    PubMed

    Spies, L; Bortfeld, T

    2001-04-01

    X-ray photon scatter kernels for 6 MV electronic portal imaging are investigated using an analytical and a semi-analytical model. The models are tested on homogeneous phantoms for a range of uniform circular fields and scatterer-to-detector air gaps relevant for clinical use. It is found that a fully analytical model based on an exact treatment of photons undergoing a single Compton scatter event and an approximate treatment of second and higher order scatter events, assuming a multiple-scatter source at the center of the scatter volume, is accurate within 1% (i.e., the residual scatter signal is less than 1% of the primary signal) for field sizes up to 100 cm2 and air gaps over 30 cm, but shows significant discrepancies for larger field sizes. Monte Carlo results are presented showing that the effective multiple-scatter source is located toward the exit surface of the scatterer, rather than at its center. A second model is therefore investigated where second and higher-order scattering is instead modeled by fitting an analytical function describing a nonstationary isotropic point-scatter source to Monte Carlo generated data. This second model is shown to be accurate to within 1% for air gaps down to 20 cm, for field sizes up to 900 cm2 and phantom thicknesses up to 50 cm. PMID:11339752

  17. Modelling dust scattering in our Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, Jayant

    2016-06-01

    I have used Monte Carlo models with multiple scattering to predict the dust scattered light from our Galaxy and have compared the predictions with data in two ultraviolet bands from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer spacecraft. I find that 90 per cent of the scattered light arises from less than 1000 stars with 25 per cent from the 10 brightest. About half of the diffuse radiation originates within 200 pc of the Sun with a maximum distance of 600 pc. Multiple scattering is important at any optical depth with 30 per cent of the flux being multiply scattered even at zero reddening. I find that the global distribution of the scattered light is insensitive to the dust distribution with grains of 0.3 < a < 0.5 and g < 0.6. There is an offset between the model and the data of 100 and 200 ph cm-2 s-1 sr-1 Å-1 in the FUV and NUV, respectively, at the poles rising to 200-400 ph cm-2 s-1 sr-1 Å-1 at lower latitudes. The Monte Carlo code and the models of diffuse radiation for different values of the optical constants are available for download.

  18. Survey of background scattering from materials found in small-angle neutron scattering

    PubMed Central

    Barker, J. G.; Mildner, D. F. R.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements and calculations of beam attenuation and background scattering for common materials placed in a neutron beam are presented over the temperature range of 300–700 K. Time-of-flight (TOF) measurements have also been made, to determine the fraction of the background that is either inelastic or quasi-elastic scattering as measured with a 3He detector. Other background sources considered include double Bragg diffraction from windows or samples, scattering from gases, and phonon scattering from solids. Background from the residual air in detector vacuum vessels and scattering from the 3He detector dome are presented. The thickness dependence of the multiple scattering correction for forward scattering from water is calculated. Inelastic phonon background scattering at small angles for crystalline solids is both modeled and compared with measurements. Methods of maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio by material selection, choice of sample thickness and wavelength, removal of inelastic background by TOF or Be filters, and removal of spin-flip scattering with polarized beam analysis are discussed. PMID:26306088

  19. SPECIAL ISSUE DEVOTED TO MULTIPLE RADIATION SCATTERING IN RANDOM MEDIA: Estimate of the melanin content in human hairs by the inverse Monte-Carlo method using a system for digital image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkatov, A. N.; Genina, Elina A.; Kochubei, V. I.; Tuchin, Valerii V.

    2006-12-01

    Based on the digital image analysis and inverse Monte-Carlo method, the proximate analysis method is deve-loped and the optical properties of hairs of different types are estimated in three spectral ranges corresponding to three colour components. The scattering and absorption properties of hairs are separated for the first time by using the inverse Monte-Carlo method. The content of different types of melanin in hairs is estimated from the absorption coefficient. It is shown that the dominating type of melanin in dark hairs is eumelanin, whereas in light hairs pheomelanin dominates.

  20. Characterisation of porous materials by combining mercury porosimetry and scattering techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanopoulos, K. L.; Steriotis, Th. A.; Mitropoulos, A. Ch.; Kanellopoulos, N. K.; Treimer, W.

    2004-07-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), ultra small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) and mercury porosimetry have been used to fully characterise macroporous chalk as well as Si3N4 and BaTiO3 samples. For the scattering techniques, multiple scattering effects have been studied. In addition, the scattering data have been evaluated by using a generalised form of the indirect Fourier transformation technique suitable for concentrated systems. Pore size distributions are calculated and compared to the mercury porosimetry results.

  1. Application of neural networks for determining optical parameters of strongly scattering media from the intensity profile of backscattered radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kotova, S P; Maiorov, I V; Maiorova, A M

    2007-01-31

    We analyse the possibilities of simultaneous measuring three optical parameters of scattering media, namely, the scattering and absorption coefficients and the scattering anisotropy parameter by the intensity profile of backscattered radiation by using the neural network inversion method and the method of adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system. The measurement errors of the absorption and scattering coefficients and the scattering anisotropy parameter are 20%, 5%, and 10%, respectively. (special issue devoted to multiple radiation scattering in random media)

  2. Generalized poisson 3-D scatterer distributions.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Catherine; Clark, James J; Arbel, Tal

    2009-02-01

    This paper describes a simple, yet powerful ultrasound scatterer distribution model. The model extends a 1-D generalized Poisson process to multiple dimensions using a Hilbert curve. The model is intuitively tuned by spatial density and regularity parameters which reliably predict the first and second-order statistics of varied synthetic imagery. PMID:19251530

  3. Limitations in scatter propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampert, E. W.

    1982-04-01

    A short description of the main scatter propagation mechanisms is presented; troposcatter, meteor burst communication and chaff scatter. For these propagation modes, in particular for troposcatter, the important specific limitations discussed are: link budget and resulting hardware consequences, diversity, mobility, information transfer and intermodulation and intersymbol interference, frequency range and future extension in frequency range for troposcatter, and compatibility with other services (EMC).

  4. A Recursive Born Approach to Nonlinear Inverse Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamilov, Ulugbek S.; Liu, Dehong; Mansour, Hassan; Boufounos, Petros T.

    2016-08-01

    The Iterative Born Approximation (IBA) is a well-known method for describing waves scattered by semi-transparent objects. In this paper, we present a novel nonlinear inverse scattering method that combines IBA with an edge-preserving total variation (TV) regularizer. The proposed method is obtained by relating iterations of IBA to layers of a feedforward neural network and developing a corresponding error backpropagation algorithm for efficiently estimating the permittivity of the object. Simulations illustrate that, by accounting for multiple scattering, the method successfully recovers the permittivity distribution where the traditional linear inverse scattering fails.

  5. Recurrence relations of Kummer functions and Regge string scattering amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jen-Chi; Mitsuka, Yoshihiro

    2013-04-01

    We discover an infinite number of recurrence relations among Regge string scattering amplitudes [11, 30] of different string states at arbitrary mass levels in the open bosonic string theory. As a result, all Regge string scattering amplitudes can be algebraically solved up to multiplicative factors. Instead of decoupling zero-norm states in the fixed angle regime, the calculation is based on recurrence relations and addition theorem of Kummer functions of the second kind. These recurrence relations among Regge string scattering amplitudes are dual to linear relations or symmetries among high-energy fixed angle string scattering amplitudes discovered previously.

  6. Aureolegraph internal scattering correction.

    PubMed

    DeVore, John; Villanucci, Dennis; LePage, Andrew

    2012-11-20

    Two methods of determining instrumental scattering for correcting aureolegraph measurements of particulate solar scattering are presented. One involves subtracting measurements made with and without an external occluding ball and the other is a modification of the Langley Plot method and involves extrapolating aureolegraph measurements collected through a large range of solar zenith angles. Examples of internal scattering correction determinations using the latter method show similar power-law dependencies on scattering, but vary by roughly a factor of 8 and suggest that changing aerosol conditions during the determinations render this method problematic. Examples of corrections of scattering profiles using the former method are presented for a range of atmospheric particulate layers from aerosols to cumulus and cirrus clouds.

  7. Aureolegraph internal scattering correction.

    PubMed

    DeVore, John; Villanucci, Dennis; LePage, Andrew

    2012-11-20

    Two methods of determining instrumental scattering for correcting aureolegraph measurements of particulate solar scattering are presented. One involves subtracting measurements made with and without an external occluding ball and the other is a modification of the Langley Plot method and involves extrapolating aureolegraph measurements collected through a large range of solar zenith angles. Examples of internal scattering correction determinations using the latter method show similar power-law dependencies on scattering, but vary by roughly a factor of 8 and suggest that changing aerosol conditions during the determinations render this method problematic. Examples of corrections of scattering profiles using the former method are presented for a range of atmospheric particulate layers from aerosols to cumulus and cirrus clouds. PMID:23207299

  8. Concept of polarization entropy in optical scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloude, Shane R.; Pottier, Eric

    1995-06-01

    We consider the application of the general theory of unitary matrices to problems of wave scattering involving polarized waves. Having outlined useful parameterizations of the low dimensional groups associated with these unitary matrices, we develop a general processing strategy, which we suggest has application in the extraction of physical information from a range of scattering matrices in optics. Examples are presented of applying the unitary matrix structure to problems of single and multiple scattering from a cloud of random particles. The techniques are best suited to characterization of depolarizing systems, where the scattered waves undergo a change of degree as well as polarization state. The degree of disorder of the system is then quantified by a scalar, the polarimetric entropy, defined from the eigenvalues of a scattering matrix that ranges from 0 for systems with zero scattering to 1 for perfect depolarizers. Further, we show that the unitary matrix parameterization can be used to extract important system information from the eigenvectors of this matrix.

  9. Multiple scattering mechanisms causing interference effects in the differential cross sections of H + D2 → HD(v' = 4, j') + D at 3.26 eV collision energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneha, Mahima; Gao, Hong; Zare, Richard N.; Jambrina, P. G.; Menéndez, M.; Aoiz, F. J.

    2016-07-01

    Differential cross sections (DCSs) for the H + D2 → HD(v' = 4, j') + D reaction at 3.26 eV collision energy have been measured using the photoloc technique, and the results have been compared with those from quantum and quasiclassical scattering calculations. The quantum mechanical DCSs are in good overall agreement with the experimental measurements. In common with previous results at 1.97 eV, clear interference patterns which appear as fingerlike structures have been found at 3.26 eV but in this case for vibrational states as high as v' = 4. The oscillatory structure is prominent for low rotational states and progressively disappears as j' increases. A detailed analysis, similar to that carried out at 1.97 eV, shows that the origin of these structures could be traced to interferences between well defined classical mechanisms. In addition, at this energy, we do not observe the anomalous positive j'-θ trend found for the v' = 4 manifold at lower collision energies, thus reinforcing our explanation that the anomalous distribution for HD(v' = 4, j') at 1.97 eV only takes place for those states associated with low product recoil energies.

  10. Computing Scattering Matrices For Circular Waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, Daniel J.

    1990-01-01

    Scattering Matrix Program for Circular Waveguide Junctions computes scattering matrix for series of circular waveguide sections. Sections must have same axis, but radius and length of each section completely arbitrary. Devices analyzed include simple waveguide step discontinuity like that used in a dual-mode horn, stepped matching section, or corrugated waveguide section with constant or varying slot depth. Certain types of corrugated horns also analyzed with program. Mathematical model used in program accurately predicts reflection and transmission characteristics of such devices, taking into account excitation of modes of higher order as well as multiple reflections and energy stored at each discontinuity. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  11. Single-qubit gates by graph scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Michael S.; Blumer, Benjamin A.; Feder, David L.

    2012-02-01

    Continuous-time quantum walkers with tightly peaked momenta can simulate quantum computations by scattering off finite graphs. We enumerate all single-qubit gates that can be enacted by scattering off a single graph on up to n=9 vertices at certain momentum values, and provide numerical evidence that the number of such gates grows exponentially with n. The single-qubit rotations are about axes distributed roughly uniformly on the Bloch sphere, and rotations by both rational and irrational multiples of π are found.

  12. Scattering amplitudes for multi-indexed extensions of solvable potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.-L.; Lee, J.-C.; Sasaki, R.

    2014-04-15

    New solvable one-dimensional quantum mechanical scattering problems are presented. They are obtained from known solvable potentials by multiple Darboux transformations in terms of virtual and pseudo virtual wavefunctions. The same method applied to confining potentials, e.g.  Pöschl–Teller and the radial oscillator potentials, has generated the multi-indexed Jacobi and Laguerre polynomials. Simple multi-indexed formulas are derived for the transmission and reflection amplitudes of several solvable potentials. -- Highlights: •Scattering amplitudes calculated for infinitely many new solvable potentials. •New scattering potentials obtained by deforming six known solvable potentials. •Multiple Darboux transformations in terms of (pseudo) virtual states employed. •Scattering amplitudes checked to obey the shape invariance relation. •Errors in scattering amplitudes of some undeformed potentials in the literature corrected.

  13. Charm production in high multiplicity pp events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, K.; Guiot, B.; Karpenko, Iu.; Pierog, T.; Sophys, G.

    2016-08-01

    Studying proton-proton scattering at 7 TeV, the ALICE collaboration found the unexpected result that the D meson multiplicity increases more than linear as a function of the charged particle multiplicity. We try to understand this behavior using the EPOS3 approach. Two issues play an important role in this context: multiple scattering, in particular its impact on multiplicity fluctuations, and the collective hydrodynamic expansion. These data contain therefore valuable information about very basic features of the reaction mechanism in proton- proton collisions.

  14. Calculates Thermal Neutron Scattering Kernel.

    1989-11-10

    Version 00 THRUSH computes the thermal neutron scattering kernel by the phonon expansion method for both coherent and incoherent scattering processes. The calculation of the coherent part is suitable only for calculating the scattering kernel for heavy water.

  15. Scattering of light by molecules over a rough surface.

    PubMed

    Long, Maureen; Khine, Michelle; Kim, Arnold D

    2010-05-01

    We present a theory for the multiple scattering of light by obstacles situated over a rough surface. This problem is important for applications in biological and chemical sensors. To keep the formulation of this theory simple, we study scalar waves. This theory requires knowledge of the scattering operator (t-matrix) for each of the obstacles as well as the reflection operator for the rough surface. The scattering operator gives the field scattered by the obstacle due to an exciting field incident on the scatterer. The reflection operator gives the field reflected by the rough surface due to an exciting field incident on the rough surface. We apply this general theory for the special case of point scatterers and a slightly rough surface with homogeneous Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. We show examples that demonstrate the utility of this theory. PMID:20448766

  16. Kaon-nucleus scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Byungsik; Buck, Warren W.; Maung, Khin M.

    1989-01-01

    Two kinds of number density distributions of the nucleus, harmonic well and Woods-Saxon models, are used with the t-matrix that is taken from the scattering experiments to find a simple optical potential. The parameterized two body inputs, which are kaon-nucleon total cross sections, elastic slope parameters, and the ratio of the real to imaginary part of the forward elastic scattering amplitude, are shown. The eikonal approximation was chosen as the solution method to estimate the total and absorptive cross sections for the kaon-nucleus scattering.

  17. Coherent effects in the scattering of light from two-dimensional rough metal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Letnes, Paul Anton; Nordam, Tor; Simonsen, Ingve

    2013-06-01

    We investigate numerically multiple light-scattering phenomena for two-dimensional randomly rough metallic surfaces, where surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) mediate several surface scattering effects. The scattering problem is solved by numerical solution of the reduced Rayleigh equation for reflection. The multiple scattering phenomena of enhanced backscattering and enhanced forward scattering are observed in the same system, and their presence is due to the excitation of SPPs. The numerical results discussed are qualitatively different from previous results for one-dimensionally rough surfaces, as one-dimensional surfaces have a limited influence on the polarization of light.

  18. N-SAP and G-SAP neutron and gamma ray albedo model scatter shield analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sapovchak, B. J.; Stephenson, L. D.

    1967-01-01

    Computer program calculates neutron or gamma ray first order scattering from a plane or cylindrical surface to a detector point. The SAP Codes, G-SAP and N-SAP, constitute a multiple scatter albedo model shield analysis.

  19. Simultaneous CARS and Interferometric Rayleigh Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bivolaru, Daniel; Danehy, Paul M.; Grinstead, Keith D., Jr.; Tedder, Sarah; Cutler, Andrew D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports for the first time the combination of a dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering system with an interferometric Rayleigh scattering system (CARS - IRS) to provide time-resolved simultaneous measurement of multiple properties in combustion flows. The system uses spectrally narrow green (seeded Nd:YAG at 532 nm) and yellow (552.9 nm) pump beams and a spectrally-broad red (607 nm) beam as the Stokes beam. A spectrometer and a planar Fabry-Perot interferometer used in the imaging mode are used to record the spectrally broad CARS spectra and the spontaneous Rayleigh scattering spectra, respectively. Time-resolved simultaneous measurement of temperature, absolute mole fractions of N2, O2, and H2, and two components of velocity in a Hencken burner flame were performed to demonstrate the technique.

  20. Scattering theory, multiparticle detection, and time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, John S.; Feagin, James M.

    2014-11-01

    We consider the theory of multiple-particle fragmentation processes in the light of modern multihit position-sensitive detection. First, we give a formulation of time-independent many-body scattering theory as a direct generalization of standard textbook two-body potential scattering but in such a way as to emphasize position rather than momentum detection. Noteworthy is that classical asymptotic motion of fragments is shown to emerge from this quantum-mechanical time-independent theory and enables the definition of a classical time parameter. This in turn allows a transition to be made to a time-dependent scattering theory, even in the case where all Hamiltonians are time independent. Such a time-dependent description is the basis of the imaging theorem, which connects position detection to momentum detection.

  1. Cosmic Ray Scattering Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Cosmic ray muons are ubiquitous, are highly penetrating, and can be used to measure material densities by either measuring the stopping rate or by measuring the scattering of transmitted muons. The Los Alamos team has studied scattering radiography for a number of applications. Some results will be shown of scattering imaging for a range of practical applications, and estimates will be made of the utility of scattering radiography for nondestructive assessments of large structures and for geological surveying. Results of imaging the core of the Toshiba Nuclear Critical Assembly (NCA) Reactor in Kawasaki, Japan and simulations of imaging the damaged cores of the Fukushima nuclear reactors will be presented. Below is an image made using muons of a core configuration for the NCA reactor.

  2. Intra-beam scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piwinski, A.

    Intra-beam scattering is analysed and the rise times or damping times of the beam dimensions are derived. The theoretical results are compared with experimental values obtained on the CERN AA and SPS machines.

  3. Environment scattering in GADRAS.

    SciTech Connect

    Thoreson, Gregory G.; Mitchell, Dean J; Theisen, Lisa Anne; Harding, Lee T.

    2013-09-01

    Radiation transport calculations were performed to compute the angular tallies for scattered gamma-rays as a function of distance, height, and environment. Greens Functions were then used to encapsulate the results a reusable transformation function. The calculations represent the transport of photons throughout scattering surfaces that surround sources and detectors, such as the ground and walls. Utilization of these calculations in GADRAS (Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software) enables accurate computation of environmental scattering for a variety of environments and source configurations. This capability, which agrees well with numerous experimental benchmark measurements, is now deployed with GADRAS Version 18.2 as the basis for the computation of scattered radiation.

  4. Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, Richard (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostics Workshop was held July 25-26, 1995 at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of the workshop was to foster timely exchange of information and expertise acquired by researchers and users of laser based Rayleigh scattering diagnostics for aerospace flow facilities and other applications. This Conference Publication includes the 12 technical presentations and transcriptions of the two panel discussions. The first panel was made up of 'users' of optical diagnostics, mainly in aerospace test facilities, and its purpose was to assess areas of potential applications of Rayleigh scattering diagnostics. The second panel was made up of active researchers in Rayleigh scattering diagnostics, and its purpose was to discuss the direction of future work.

  5. Kernel Integration Code System--Multigroup Gamma-Ray Scattering.

    1988-02-15

    GGG (G3) is the generic designation for a series of computer programs that enable the user to estimate gamma-ray scattering from a point source to a series of point detectors. Program output includes detector response due to each source energy, as well as a grouping by scattered energy in addition to a simple, unscattered beam result. Although G3 is basically a single-scatter program, it also includes a correction for multiple scattering by applying a buildupmore » factor for the path segment between the point of scatter and the detector point. Results are recorded with and without the buildup factor. Surfaces, defined by quadratic equations, are used to provide for a full three-dimensional description of the physical geometry. G3 evaluates scattering effects in those situations where more exact techniques are not economical. G3 was revised by Bettis and the name was changed to indicate that it was no longer identical to the G3 program. The name S3 was chosen since the scattering calculation has three steps: calculation of the flux arriving at the scatterer from the point source, calculation of the differential scattering cross section, and calculation of the scattered flux arriving at the detector.« less

  6. CONTINUOUS ROTATION SCATTERING CHAMBER

    DOEpatents

    Verba, J.W.; Hawrylak, R.A.

    1963-08-01

    An evacuated scattering chamber for use in observing nuclear reaction products produced therein over a wide range of scattering angles from an incoming horizontal beam that bombards a target in the chamber is described. A helically moving member that couples the chamber to a detector permits a rapid and broad change of observation angles without breaching the vacuum in the chamber. Also, small inlet and outlet openings are provided whose size remains substantially constant. (auth)

  7. Positron-rubidium scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceachran, R. P.; Horbatsch, M.; Stauffer, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    A 5-state close-coupling calculation (5s-5p-4d-6s-6p) was carried out for positron-Rb scattering in the energy range 3.7 to 28.0 eV. In contrast to the results of similar close-coupling calculations for positron-Na and positron-K scattering the (effective) total integrated cross section has an energy dependence which is contrary to recent experimental measurements.

  8. Inelastic scattering in planetary atmospheres. I - The Ring effect, without aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kattawar, G. W.; Young, A. T.; Humphreys, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    The contribution of inelastic molecular scattering (Rayleigh-Brillouin and rotational Raman scattering) to the filling-in of Fraunhofer lines in the light of the blue sky is studied. Aerosol fluorescence is shown to be negligible, and aerosol scattering is ignored. The angular and polarization dependences of the filling-in detail for single scattering are discussed. An approximate treatment of multiple scattering, using a backward Monte Carlo technique, makes it possible to investigate the effects of the ground albedo. As the molecular scatterings alone produce more line-filling than is observed, it seems likely that aerosols dilute the effect by contributing unaltered sunlight to the observed spectra.

  9. Elastic scattering of hadrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dremin, I. M.

    2013-01-01

    Colliding high-energy hadrons either produce new particles or scatter elastically with their quantum numbers conserved and no other particles produced. We consider the latter case here. Although inelastic processes dominate at high energies, elastic scattering contributes considerably (18-25%) to the total cross section. Its share first decreases and then increases at higher energies. Small-angle scattering prevails at all energies. Some characteristic features can be seen that provide information on the geometrical structure of the colliding particles and the relevant dynamical mechanisms. The steep Gaussian peak at small angles is followed by the exponential (Orear) regime with some shoulders and dips, and then by a power-law decrease. Results from various theoretical approaches are compared with experimental data. Phenomenological models claiming to describe this process are reviewed. The unitarity condition predicts an exponential fall for the differential cross section with an additional substructure to occur exactly between the low momentum transfer diffraction cone and a power-law, hard parton scattering regime under high momentum transfer. Data on the interference of the Coulomb and nuclear parts of amplitudes at extremely small angles provide the value of the real part of the forward scattering amplitude. The real part of the elastic scattering amplitude and the contribution of inelastic processes to the imaginary part of this amplitude (the so-called overlap function) are also discussed. Problems related to the scaling behavior of the differential cross section are considered. The power-law regime at highest momentum transfer is briefly described.

  10. Scattering from cylinders using the two-dimensional vector plane wave spectrum: addendum.

    PubMed

    Pawliuk, Peter; Yedlin, Matthew

    2012-03-01

    The solution for the vector plane wave spectrum scattering from multiple cylinders by Pawliuk and Yedlin [J. Opt. Soc. A28, 1177 (2011)] only provided the single scattering coefficients for the TM polarization case. The TE solution is similar except for the form of the single scattering coefficients. Here we describe the single scattering coefficients for both polarizations and three types of cylinders: dielectrics, perfect electric conductors, and perfect magnetic conductors.

  11. Short-range order and near-field effects on optical scattering and structural coloration

    SciTech Connect

    Liew, S.F.; Forster, J.; Noh, H.; Schreck, C.F.; Saranathan, V.; Lu, X.; Yang, L.; Prum, Richard O.; O’Hern, C.S.; Dufresne, E.R.; Cao, H.

    2012-03-26

    We have investigated wavelength-dependent light scattering in biomimetic structures with short-range order. Coherent backscattering experiments are performed to measure the transport mean free path over a wide wavelength range. Overall scattering strength is reduced significantly due to short-range order and near-field effects. Our analysis explains why single scattering of light is dominant over multiple scattering in similar biological structures and is responsible for color generation.

  12. Short-range Order and Near-field Effects on Optical Scattering and Structural Coloration

    SciTech Connect

    S Liew; J Forster; H Noh; C Schreck; V Saranathan; X Lu; L Yang; E Dufresne; H Cao; et al.

    2011-12-31

    We have investigated wavelength-dependent light scattering in biomimetic structures with short-range order. Coherent backscattering experiments are performed to measure the transport mean free path over a wide wavelength range. Overall scattering strength is reduced significantly due to short-range order and near-field effects. Our analysis explains why single scattering of light is dominant over multiple scattering in similar biological structures and is responsible for color generation.

  13. Multiple Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... is called multiple pregnancy . If more than one egg is released during the menstrual cycle and each ... fraternal twins (or more). When a single fertilized egg splits, it results in multiple identical embryos. This ...

  14. Multiple myeloma

    MedlinePlus

    Plasma cell dyscrasia; Plasma cell myeloma; Malignant plasmacytoma; Plasmacytoma of bone; Myeloma - multiple ... Multiple myeloma most commonly causes: Low red blood cell count ( anemia ), which can lead to fatigue and ...

  15. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the ... attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Multiple sclerosis affects women more than men. It often begins ...

  16. Neutron spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME)

    SciTech Connect

    Pynn, R.; Fitzsimmons, M.R.; Fritzsche, H.; Gierlings, M.; Major, J.; Jason, A.

    2005-05-15

    We describe experiments in which the neutron spin echo technique is used to measure neutron scattering angles. We have implemented the technique, dubbed spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME), using thin films of Permalloy electrodeposited on silicon wafers as sources of the magnetic fields within which neutron spins precess. With 30-{mu}m-thick films we resolve neutron scattering angles to about 0.02 deg. with neutrons of 4.66 A wavelength. This allows us to probe correlation lengths up to 200 nm in an application to small angle neutron scattering. We also demonstrate that SESAME can be used to separate specular and diffuse neutron reflection from surfaces at grazing incidence. In both of these cases, SESAME can make measurements at higher neutron intensity than is available with conventional methods because the angular resolution achieved is independent of the divergence of the neutron beam. Finally, we discuss the conditions under which SESAME might be used to probe in-plane structure in thin films and show that the method has advantages for incident neutron angles close to the critical angle because multiple scattering is automatically accounted for.

  17. Distorted Coulomb field of the scattered electron

    SciTech Connect

    Thomsen, H. D.; Esberg, J.; Andersen, K. K.; Lund, M. D.; Knudsen, H.; Uggerhoej, U. I.; Sona, P.; Mangiarotti, A.; Ketel, T. J.; Dizdar, A.; Ballestrero, S.; Connell, S. H.

    2010-03-01

    Experimental results for the radiation emission from ultrarelativistic electrons in targets of 0.03%-5% radiation length is presented. For the thinnest targets, the radiation emission is in accordance with the Bethe-Heitler formulation of bremsstrahlung, the target acting as a single scatterer. In this regime, the radiation intensity is proportional to the thickness. As the thickness increases, the distorted Coulomb field of the electron that is the result of the first scattering events, leads to a suppressed radiation emission per interaction, upon subsequent scattering events. In that case, the radiation intensity becomes proportional to a logarithmic function of the thickness, due to the suppression. Eventually, once the target becomes sufficiently thick, the entire radiation process becomes influenced by multiple scattering and the radiation intensity is again proportional to the thickness, but with a different constant of proportionality. The observed logarithmic thickness dependence of radiation intensity at intermediate values of the thickness can be directly interpreted as a manifestation of the distortion of the electron Coulomb field resulting from a scattering event. The Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect is explored with high primary energy using materials with low nuclear charge (Z). Also, targets that should give rise to the claimed interference effect in high-energy radiation emission from a structured target of thin foils are investigated.

  18. Scattered surface wave energy in the seismic coda

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeng, Y.

    2006-01-01

    One of the many important contributions that Aki has made to seismology pertains to the origin of coda waves (Aki, 1969; Aki and Chouet, 1975). In this paper, I revisit Aki's original idea of the role of scattered surface waves in the seismic coda. Based on the radiative transfer theory, I developed a new set of scattered wave energy equations by including scattered surface waves and body wave to surface wave scattering conversions. The work is an extended study of Zeng et al. (1991), Zeng (1993) and Sato (1994a) on multiple isotropic-scattering, and may shed new insight into the seismic coda wave interpretation. The scattering equations are solved numerically by first discretizing the model at regular grids and then solving the linear integral equations iteratively. The results show that scattered wave energy can be well approximated by body-wave to body wave scattering at earlier arrival times and short distances. At long distances from the source, scattered surface waves dominate scattered body waves at surface stations. Since surface waves are 2-D propagating waves, their scattered energies should in theory follow a common decay curve. The observed common decay trends on seismic coda of local earthquake recordings particular at long lapse times suggest that perhaps later seismic codas are dominated by scattered surface waves. When efficient body wave to surface wave conversion mechanisms are present in the shallow crustal layers, such as soft sediment layers, the scattered surface waves dominate the seismic coda at even early arrival times for shallow sources and at later arrival times for deeper events.

  19. Finger Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simanihuruk, Mudin

    2011-01-01

    Multiplication facts are difficult to teach. Therefore many researchers have put a great deal of effort into finding multiplication strategies. Sherin and Fuson (2005) provided a good survey paper on the multiplication strategies research area. Kolpas (2002), Rendtorff (1908), Dabell (2001), Musser (1966) and Markarian (2009) proposed the finger…

  20. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multiple Sclerosis Information Page Condensed from Multiple Sclerosis: Hope Through ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Multiple Sclerosis? An unpredictable disease of the central nervous system, ...

  1. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  2. Light Scattering by Fractal Dust Aggregates. I. Angular Dependence of Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tazaki, Ryo; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Okuzumi, Satoshi; Kataoka, Akimasa; Nomura, Hideko

    2016-06-01

    In protoplanetary disks, micron-sized dust grains coagulate to form highly porous dust aggregates. Because the optical properties of these aggregates are not completely understood, it is important to investigate how porous dust aggregates scatter light. In this study, the light scattering properties of porous dust aggregates were calculated using a rigorous method, the T-matrix method, and the results were then compared with those obtained using the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye (RGD) theory and Mie theory with the effective medium approximation (EMT). The RGD theory is applicable to moderately large aggregates made of nearly transparent monomers. This study considered two types of porous dust aggregates—ballistic cluster-cluster agglomerates (BCCAs) and ballistic particle-cluster agglomerates. First, the angular dependence of the scattered intensity was shown to reflect the hierarchical structure of dust aggregates; the large-scale structure of the aggregates is responsible for the intensity at small scattering angles, and their small-scale structure determines the intensity at large scattering angles. Second, it was determined that the EMT underestimates the backward scattering intensity by multiple orders of magnitude, especially in BCCAs, because the EMT averages the structure within the size of the aggregates. It was concluded that the RGD theory is a very useful method for calculating the optical properties of BCCAs.

  3. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a half space of densely distributed dielectric scatterers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, L.; Kong, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    The scattering of a plane wave obliquely incident on a half space of densely distributed spherical dielectric scatterers is studied. The quasi-crystalline approximation is applied to truncate the hierarchy of multiple scattering equations, and the Percus-Yevick and the Verlet-Weis results are used to represent the pair distribution function. The coherent reflected wave is studied with these approximations. The incoherent scattered wave is calculated with the distorted Born approximation. In the low-frequency limit, closed-form expressions are obtained for the effective propagation constants, the coherent reflected wave, and the bistatic scattering coeficients. Results at higher frequencies are calculated numerically. The advantage of the present approach is that, in the low-frequency limit, it reproduces the effects of specular reflection, Fresnel reflection coefficient, Brewster angle, and Clausius-Mosotti relation. In addition to the classical results, the bistatic scattering coefficients are also calculated. The theory is also applied to match backscattering data from dry snow at microwave frequencies.

  4. Light Scattering by Fractal Dust Aggregates. I. Angular Dependence of Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tazaki, Ryo; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Okuzumi, Satoshi; Kataoka, Akimasa; Nomura, Hideko

    2016-06-01

    In protoplanetary disks, micron-sized dust grains coagulate to form highly porous dust aggregates. Because the optical properties of these aggregates are not completely understood, it is important to investigate how porous dust aggregates scatter light. In this study, the light scattering properties of porous dust aggregates were calculated using a rigorous method, the T-matrix method, and the results were then compared with those obtained using the Rayleigh–Gans–Debye (RGD) theory and Mie theory with the effective medium approximation (EMT). The RGD theory is applicable to moderately large aggregates made of nearly transparent monomers. This study considered two types of porous dust aggregates—ballistic cluster–cluster agglomerates (BCCAs) and ballistic particle–cluster agglomerates. First, the angular dependence of the scattered intensity was shown to reflect the hierarchical structure of dust aggregates; the large-scale structure of the aggregates is responsible for the intensity at small scattering angles, and their small-scale structure determines the intensity at large scattering angles. Second, it was determined that the EMT underestimates the backward scattering intensity by multiple orders of magnitude, especially in BCCAs, because the EMT averages the structure within the size of the aggregates. It was concluded that the RGD theory is a very useful method for calculating the optical properties of BCCAs.

  5. Nondestructive prediction of pork freshness parameters using multispectral scattering images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiuying; Li, Cuiling; Peng, Yankun; Chao, Kuanglin; Wang, Mingwu

    2012-05-01

    Optical technology is an important and immerging technology for non-destructive and rapid detection of pork freshness. This paper studied on the possibility of using multispectral imaging technique and scattering characteristics to predict the freshness parameters of pork meat. The pork freshness parameters selected for prediction included total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), color parameters (L *, a *, b *), and pH value. Multispectral scattering images were obtained from pork sample surface by a multispectral imaging system developed by ourselves; they were acquired at the selected narrow wavebands whose center wavelengths were 517,550, 560, 580, 600, 760, 810 and 910nm. In order to extract scattering characteristics from multispectral images at multiple wavelengths, a Lorentzian distribution (LD) function with four parameters (a: scattering asymptotic value; b: scattering peak; c: scattering width; d: scattering slope) was used to fit the scattering curves at the selected wavelengths. The results show that the multispectral imaging technique combined with scattering characteristics is promising for predicting the freshness parameters of pork meat.

  6. Electromagnetic scattering theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, J. F.; Farrell, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Electromagnetic scattering theory is discussed with emphasis on the general stochastic variational principle (SVP) and its applications. The stochastic version of the Schwinger-type variational principle is presented, and explicit expressions for its integrals are considered. Results are summarized for scalar wave scattering from a classic rough-surface model and for vector wave scattering from a random dielectric-body model. Also considered are the selection of trial functions and the variational improvement of the Kirchhoff short-wave approximation appropriate to large size-parameters. Other applications of vector field theory discussed include a general vision theory and the analysis of hydromagnetism induced by ocean motion across the geomagnetic field. Levitational force-torque in the magnetic suspension of the disturbance compensation system (DISCOS), now deployed in NOVA satellites, is also analyzed using the developed theory.

  7. MAGNETIC NEUTRON SCATTERING

    SciTech Connect

    ZALIZNYAK,I.A.; LEE,S.H.

    2004-07-30

    Much of our understanding of the atomic-scale magnetic structure and the dynamical properties of solids and liquids was gained from neutron-scattering studies. Elastic and inelastic neutron spectroscopy provided physicists with an unprecedented, detailed access to spin structures, magnetic-excitation spectra, soft-modes and critical dynamics at magnetic-phase transitions, which is unrivaled by other experimental techniques. Because the neutron has no electric charge, it is an ideal weakly interacting and highly penetrating probe of matter's inner structure and dynamics. Unlike techniques using photon electric fields or charged particles (e.g., electrons, muons) that significantly modify the local electronic environment, neutron spectroscopy allows determination of a material's intrinsic, unperturbed physical properties. The method is not sensitive to extraneous charges, electric fields, and the imperfection of surface layers. Because the neutron is a highly penetrating and non-destructive probe, neutron spectroscopy can probe the microscopic properties of bulk materials (not just their surface layers) and study samples embedded in complex environments, such as cryostats, magnets, and pressure cells, which are essential for understanding the physical origins of magnetic phenomena. Neutron scattering is arguably the most powerful and versatile experimental tool for studying the microscopic properties of the magnetic materials. The magnitude of the cross-section of the neutron magnetic scattering is similar to the cross-section of nuclear scattering by short-range nuclear forces, and is large enough to provide measurable scattering by the ordered magnetic structures and electron spin fluctuations. In the half-a-century or so that has passed since neutron beams with sufficient intensity for scattering applications became available with the advent of the nuclear reactors, they have became indispensable tools for studying a variety of important areas of modern science

  8. Interstellar Dust Scattering Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, K. D.

    2004-05-01

    Studies of dust scattering properties in astrophysical objects with Milky Way interstellar dust are reviewed. Such objects are reflection nebulae, dark clouds, and the Diffuse Galactic Light (DGL). To ensure their basic quality, studies had to satisfy four basic criteria to be included in this review. These four criteria significantly reduced the scatter in dust properties measurements, especially in the case of the DGL. Determinations of dust scattering properties were found to be internally consistent for each object type as well as consistent between object types. The 2175 Å bump is seen as an absorption feature. Comparisons with dust grain models find general agreement with significant disagreements at particular wavelengths (especially in the far-ultraviolet). Finally, unanswered questions and future directions are enumerated.

  9. Dynamic Scattering Mode LCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadur, Birendra

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * CELL DESIGNING * EXPERIMENTAL OBSERVATIONS IN NEMATICS RELATED WITH DYNAMIC SCATTERING * Experimental Observations at D.C. Field and Electrode Effects * Experimental Observation at Low Frequency A.C. Fields * Homogeneously Aligned Nematic Regime * Williams Domains * Dynamic Scattering * Experimental Observation at High Frequency A.C. Field * Other Experimental Observations * THEORETICAL INTERPRETATIONS * Felici Model * Carr-Helfrich Model * D.C. Excitation * Dubois-Violette, de Gennes and Parodi Model * Low Freqency or Conductive Regime * High Frequency or Dielectric Regime * DYNAMIC SCATTERING IN SMECRIC A PHASE * ELECTRO-OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND LIMITATIONS * Contrast Ratio vs. Voltage, Viewing Angle, Cell Gap, Wavelength and Temperature * Display Current vs. Voltage, Cell Gap and Temperature * Switching Time * Effect of Alignment * Effect of Conductivity, Temperature and Frequency * Addressing of DSM LCDs * Limitations of DSM LCDs * ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS * REFERENCES

  10. Scattering Of Light Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Quaglioni, S; Navratil, P; Roth, R

    2009-12-15

    The exact treatment of nuclei starting from the constituent nucleons and the fundamental interactions among them has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. Above all nuclear scattering and reactions, which require the solution of the many-body quantum-mechanical problem in the continuum, represent an extraordinary theoretical as well as computational challenge for ab initio approaches.We present a new ab initio many-body approach which derives from the combination of the ab initio no-core shell model with the resonating-group method [4]. By complementing a microscopic cluster technique with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters, this approach is capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei. We will discuss applications to neutron and proton scattering on sand light p-shell nuclei using realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials, and outline the progress toward the treatment of more complex reactions.

  11. A Markov Chain-based quantitative study of angular distribution of photons through turbid slabs via isotropic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuesong; Northrop, William F.

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes a quantitative approach to approximate multiple scattering through an isotropic turbid slab based on Markov Chain theorem. There is an increasing need to utilize multiple scattering for optical diagnostic purposes; however, existing methods are either inaccurate or computationally expensive. Here, we develop a novel Markov Chain approximation approach to solve multiple scattering angular distribution (AD) that can accurately calculate AD while significantly reducing computational cost compared to Monte Carlo simulation. We expect this work to stimulate ongoing multiple scattering research and deterministic reconstruction algorithm development with AD measurements.

  12. Spatially resolved scattering polarimeter.

    PubMed

    Kohlgraf-Owens, Thomas; Dogariu, Aristide

    2009-05-01

    We demonstrate a compact, spatially resolved polarimeter based on a coherent optical fiber bundle coupled with a thin layer of scattering centers. The use of scattering for polarization encoding allows the polarimeter to work across broad angular and spectral domains. Optical fiber bundles provide high spatial resolution of the incident field. Because neighboring elements of the bundle interact with the incident field differently, only a single interaction of the fiber bundle with the unknown field is needed to perform the measurement. Experimental results are shown to demonstrate the capability to perform imaging polarimetry. PMID:19412259

  13. Estimation of Anomalous Single Scatter Events in XENON100 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Kyungeun; Xenon100 Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    Anomalous single scatter events in XENON100 are events that have only one scintillation pulse (S1) and one ionization pulse (S2), but are multiple scatters in nature. Only one scatter takes place inside the detector's charge and light sensitive volume, resulting in a S2/S1 ratio that is lower than that of true single scatter events and typical of that expected from a WIMP interaction. The identification and suppression of these anomalous events is therefore essential for a sensitive dark matter search. I present results from a Monte Carlo (MC) study that was carried out to estimate the expected number of anomalous single scatter events in the XENON100 WIMP search data. The MC was validated with a comparison with Co-60 gamma-calibration data. We gratefully acknowledge support from NSF, DOE, SNF, the Volkswagen Foundation, FCT, and STCSM. We are grateful to the LNGS for hosting and supporting the XENON program.

  14. Use of the Wigner representation in scattering problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bemler, E. A.

    1975-01-01

    The basic equations of quantum scattering were translated into the Wigner representation, putting quantum mechanics in the form of a stochastic process in phase space, with real valued probability distributions and source functions. The interpretative picture associated with this representation is developed and stressed and results used in applications published elsewhere are derived. The form of the integral equation for scattering as well as its multiple scattering expansion in this representation are derived. Quantum corrections to classical propagators are briefly discussed. The basic approximation used in the Monte-Carlo method is derived in a fashion which allows for future refinement and which includes bound state production. Finally, as a simple illustration of some of the formalism, scattering is treated by a bound two body problem. Simple expressions for single and double scattering contributions to total and differential cross-sections as well as for all necessary shadow corrections are obtained.

  15. Atom scattering from metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, W. W.

    In the initial portion of this dissertation studies of Ar scattering from Ru(0001) at thermal and hyperthermal energies are compared to calculations with classical scattering theory. These data exhibited a number of characteristics that are unusual in comparison to other systems for which atomic beam experiments have been carried out under similar conditions. The measured energy losses were unusually small. Some of the angular distributions exhibited an anomalous shoulder feature in addition to a broad peak near the specular direction and quantum mechanical diffraction was observed under conditions for which it was not expected. Many of the unusual features observed in the measurements are explained, but only upon using an effective surface mass of 2.3 Ru atomic masses, which implies collective effects in the Ru crystal. The large effective mass, because it leads to substantially larger Debye-Waller factors, explains and confirms the observations of diffraction features. It also leads to the interesting conclusion that Ru is a metal for which atomic beam scattering measurements in the purely quantum mechanical regime, where diffraction and single-phonon creation are dominant, should be possible not only with He atoms, but with many other atomic species with larger masses. A useful theoretical expression for interpreting and analyzing observed scattering intensity spectra for atomic and molecular collisions with surfaces is the differential reflection coefficient for a smooth, vibrating surface. This differential reflection coefficient depends on a parameter, usually expressed in dimensions of velocity, that arises due to correlated motions of neighboring regions of the surface and can be evaluated if the polarization vectors of the phonons near the surface are known. As a part of this dissertation experimental conditions are suggested under which this velocity paramenter may be more precisely measured than it has been in the past. Experimental data for scattering

  16. Lidar measurements of rotational Raman and double scattering.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A; Kleiman, M; Cooney, J

    1978-06-15

    The analysis of unusually strong Raman backscattering signals from clouds shows that such signals cannot be merely related to filter on-line leakage. Theoretical calculations of Raman double scattering in an atmosphere with high optical depth values are presented, and it is shown that the Raman multiple scattering effect is not negligible. The results of the calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  17. Fluorescence and Light Scattering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Ronald J.; Oprysa, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the mentioned experiment is to aid students in developing tactics for distinguishing between signals originating from fluorescence and light scattering. Also, the experiment provides students with a deeper understanding of the physicochemical bases of each phenomenon and shows that the techniques are actually related.

  18. Nanowire electron scattering spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Brian D. (Inventor); Bronikowski, Michael (Inventor); Wong, Eric W. (Inventor); von Allmen, Paul (Inventor); Oyafuso, Fabiano A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and devices for spectroscopic identification of molecules using nanoscale wires are disclosed. According to one of the methods, nanoscale wires are provided, electrons are injected into the nanoscale wire; and inelastic electron scattering is measured via excitation of low-lying vibrational energy levels of molecules bound to the nanoscale wire.

  19. Inelastic Scattering Form Factors

    1992-01-01

    ATHENA-IV computes form factors for inelastic scattering calculations, using single-particle wave functions that are eigenstates of motion in either a Woods-Saxon potential well or a harmonic oscillator well. Two-body forces of Gauss, Coulomb, Yukawa, and a sum of cut-off Yukawa radial dependences are available.

  20. Scattering resonances and bound states for strongly interacting Rydberg polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bienias, P.; Choi, S.; Firstenberg, O.; Maghrebi, M. F.; Gullans, M.; Lukin, M. D.; Gorshkov, A. V.; Büchler, H. P.

    2014-11-01

    We provide a theoretical framework describing slow-light polaritons interacting via atomic Rydberg states. The method allows us to analytically derive the scattering properties of two polaritons. We identify parameter regimes where polariton-polariton interactions are repulsive. Furthermore, in the regime of attractive interactions, we identify multiple two-polariton bound states, calculate their dispersion, and study the resulting scattering resonances. Finally, the two-particle scattering properties allow us to derive the effective low-energy many-body Hamiltonian. This theoretical platform is applicable to ongoing experiments.

  1. Small angle neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousin, Fabrice

    2015-10-01

    Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ˜ 1 nm up to ˜ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ˜ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area…) through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons) make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer), form factor analysis (I(q→0), Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system), structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates), and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast). It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of spectrometer

  2. Rayleigh's Scattering Revised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomiets, Sergey; Gorelik, Andrey

    This report is devoted to a discussion of applicability limits of Rayleigh’s scattering model. Implicitly, Rayleigh’s ideas are being used in a wide range of remote sensing applications. To begin with it must be noted that most techniques which have been developed to date for measurements by means of active instruments for remote sensing in case of the target is a set of distributed moving scatters are only hopes, to say so, on measurements per se. The problem is that almost all of such techniques use a priori information about the microstructure of the object of interest during whole measurement session. As one can find in the literature, this approach may happily be applied to systems with identical particles. However, it is not the case with respect to scattering targets that consist of particles of different kind or having a particle size distribution. It must be especially noted that the microstructure of most of such targets changes significantly with time and/or space. Therefore, the true measurement techniques designed to be applicable in such conditions must be not only adaptable in order to take into account a variety of models of an echo interpretation, but also have a well-developed set of clear-cut criteria of applicability and exact means of accuracy estimation. So such techniques will require much more parameters to be measured. In spite of the fact that there is still room for some improvements within classical models and approaches, it is multiwavelength approach that may be seen as the most promising way of development towards obtaining an adequate set of the measured parameters required for true measurement techniques. At the same time, Rayleigh’s scattering is an invariant in regard to a change of the wavelength as it follows from the point of view dominating nowadays. In the light of such an idea, the synergy between multivawelength measurements may be achieved - to a certain extent - by means of the synchronous usage of Rayleigh’s and

  3. Lidar for multiple backscattering and depolarization observations.

    PubMed

    Allen, R J; Platt, C M

    1977-12-01

    A lidar system that can measure multiple scattering and depolarization in the atmosphere is being used to study the climatic effects of cirrus clouds and to perform other investigations. The lidar system and its novel aspects are described in this paper. The influence of multiple scattering on noise, signal, and SNR is considered. Special receiver field stops incorporated for multiple scattering measurements, use of low voltage to control the photomultiplier tube gain, and a precision power/energy monitor are described. A technique for aligning transmitter and receiver axes and measuring transmitter beamwidth is presented. The multiple-scattered components of backscattered light are determined by inserting a center-blocked field stop to restrict the receiver field of view to the region outside of the diverging transmitted beam. Typical returns with and without the opaque field stop indicate the amplitude of multiple scattering from cirrus clouds and prove the feasibility of this technique. The depolarization ratio delta and backscatter coefficients from an altostratus cloud illustrate the potential of these quantities for the study of cloud structure and phase.

  4. Representing Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harries, Tony; Barmby, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors wish to explore the use of visual representations in facilitating the understanding of multiplication. In doing so, they examine the different aspects of multiplication that they can access through different representations. In addition, they draw on a study that they have been carrying out looking at pupils' actual use…

  5. Controlling single-photon Fock-state propagation through opaque scattering media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huisman, Thomas J.; Huisman, Simon R.; Mosk, Allard P.; Pinkse, Pepijn W. H.

    2014-09-01

    The control of light scattering is essential in many quantum optical experiments. Wavefront shaping is a technique used for ultimate control over wave propagation through multiple-scattering media by adaptive manipulation of incident waves. We control the propagation of single-photon Fock states through opaque scattering media by spatial phase modulation of the incident wavefront. We enhance the probability that a single photon arrives in a target output mode with a factor 30. Our proof-of-principle experiment shows that the propagation of quantum light through multiple-scattering media can be controlled, with prospective applications in quantum communication and quantum cryptography.

  6. Angle resolved scatter measurement of bulk scattering in transparent ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Saurabh; Miller, J. Keith; Shori, Ramesh K.; Goorsky, Mark S.

    2015-02-01

    Bulk scattering in polycrystalline laser materials (PLM), due to non-uniform refractive index across the bulk, is regarded as the primary loss mechanism leading to degradation of laser performance with higher threshold and lower output power. The need for characterization techniques towards identifying bulk scatter and assessing the quality. Assessment of optical quality and the identification of bulk scatter have been by simple visual inspection of thin samples of PLMs, thus making the measurements highly subjective and inaccurate. Angle Resolved Scatter (ARS) measurement allows for the spatial mapping of scattered light at all possible angles about a sample, mapping the intensity for both forward scatter and back-scatter regions. The cumulative scattered light intensity, in the forward scatter direction, away from the specular beam is used for the comparison of bulk scattering between samples. This technique employ the detection of scattered light at all angles away from the specular beam directions and represented as a 2-D polar map. The high sensitivity of the ARS technique allows us to compare bulk scattering in different PLM samples which otherwise had similar transmitted beam wavefront distortions.

  7. Scattering cancellation by metamaterial cylindrical multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricarico, S.; Bilotti, F.; Vegni, L.

    2009-05-01

    In this paper, we present the theoretical analysis and the design of cylindrical multilayered electromagnetic cloaks based on the scattering cancellation technique. We propose at first the analysis and the design of bi-layered cylindrical shells, made of homogenous and isotropic metamaterials, in order to effectively reduce the scattered field from a dielectric cylindrical object. The single shell and the bi-layered shell cases are compared in terms of scattering reduction and loss effects. The comparison shows that the bi-layered configuration exhibits superior performances. The scattering cancellation approach, is, then, extended to the case of generic multilayered cylindrical shells, considering again homogeneous and isotropic metamaterials. The employment of the proposed technique to the case of cloaking devices working at multiple frequencies is also envisaged and discussed. Finally, some practical layouts of cylindrical electromagnetic cloaks working at optical frequencies are also proposed. In these configurations, the homogenous and isotropic metamaterials are replaced by their actual counterparts, obtained using alternating stacked plasmonic and non-plasmonic layers. The theoretical formulation and the design approaches presented throughout the paper are validated through proper full-wave numerical simulations.

  8. Instrumentation on Multi-Scaled Scattering of Bio-Macromolecular Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Benjamin; Fang, Dufei; Mao, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    The design, construction and initial tests on a combined laser light scattering and synchrotron X-ray scattering instrument can cover studies of length scales from atomic sizes in Angstroms to microns and dynamics from microseconds to seconds are presented. In addition to static light scattering (SLS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), the light scattering instrument is being developed to carry out studies in mildly turbid solutions, in the presence of multiple scattering. Three-dimensional photon cross correlation function (3D-PCCF) measurements have been introduced to couple with synchrotron X-ray scattering to study the structure, size and dynamics of macromolecules in solution. PMID:25946340

  9. Proton Nucleus Elastic Scattering Data.

    1993-08-18

    Version 00 The Proton Nucleus Elastic Scattering Data file PNESD contains the numerical data and the related bibliography for the differential elastic cross sections, polarization and integral nonelastic cross sections for elastic proton-nucleus scattering.

  10. Interface scattering in polycrystalline thermoelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, Adrian; Haney, Paul M.

    2014-03-28

    We study the effect of electron and phonon interface scattering on the thermoelectric properties of disordered, polycrystalline materials (with grain sizes larger than electron and phonons' mean free path). Interface scattering of electrons is treated with a Landauer approach, while that of phonons is treated with the diffuse mismatch model. The interface scattering is embedded within a diffusive model of bulk transport, and we show that, for randomly arranged interfaces, the overall system is well described by effective medium theory. Using bulk parameters similar to those of PbTe and a square barrier potential for the interface electron scattering, we identify the interface scattering parameters for which the figure of merit ZT is increased. We find the electronic scattering is generally detrimental due to a reduction in electrical conductivity; however, for sufficiently weak electronic interface scattering, ZT is enhanced due to phonon interface scattering.

  11. CHEMICAL APPLICATIONS OF INELASTIC X-RAY SCATTERING

    SciTech Connect

    HAYASHI,H.; UDAGAWA,Y.; GILLET,J.M.; CALIEBE,W.A.; KAO,C.C.

    2001-08-01

    Inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS), complementary to other more established inelastic scattering probes, such as light scattering, electron scattering, and neutron scattering, is becoming an important experimental technique in the study of elementary excitations in condensed matters. Over the past decade, IXS with total energy resolution of few meV has been achieved, and is being used routinely in the study of phonon dispersions in solids and liquids as well as dynamics in disordered and biological systems. In the study of electronic excitations, IXS with total energy resolution on the order of 100 meV to 1 eV is gaining wider applications also. For example, IXS has been used to study collective excitations of valence electrons, single electron excitations of valence electrons, as well as core electron excitations. In comparison with the alternative scattering techniques mentioned above, IXS has several advantages. First, IXS probes the full momentum transfer range of the dielectric response of the sample, whereas light scattering is limited to very small momentum transfers, and electron scattering suffers the effects of multiple scattering at large momentum transfers. Second, since IXS measures the bulk properties of the sample it is not surface sensitive, therefore it does not require special preparation of the sample. The greater flexibility in sample conditions and environments makes IXS an ideal probe in the study of liquids and samples under extreme temperature, pressure, and magnetic field. Third, the tunability of synchrotron radiation sources enables IXS to exploit element specificity and resonant enhancement of scattering cross sections. Fourth, IXS is unique in the study of dynamics of liquids and amorphous solids because it can probe the particular region of energy-momentum transfer phase space, which is inaccessible to inelastic neutron scattering. On the other hand, the main disadvantages of IXS are the small cross sections and the strong absorption of

  12. Resonance X-ray scattering from Pt(111) surfaces under water

    SciTech Connect

    You, H.; Chu, Y. S.; Lister, T. E.; Nagy, Z.; Ankudiniv, A. L.; Rehr, J. H.

    1999-12-20

    The resonance X-ray scattering from the unmodified, clean Pt(111) surface is compared to theoretically predicted scattering. Self-consistent real-space multiple-scattering approach is used to calculate the real and imaginary parts of the atomic platinum scattering factor. The experimentally observed near-edge fine structures of the surface-scattering and fluorescence intensities are well reproduced by the calculations. In addition, more details are presented on their previous study [Phys.Rev.Lett. 83, 552 (1999)] of electrochemically formed oxide monolayer on the Pt(111) surface.

  13. Scattering fidelity in elastodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorin, T.; Seligman, T. H.; Weaver, R. L.

    2006-01-01

    The recent introduction of the concept of scattering fidelity causes us to revisit the experiment by Lobkis and Weaver [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 254302 (2003)]. There, the “distortion” of the coda of an acoustic signal is measured under temperature changes. This quantity is, in fact, the negative logarithm of scattering fidelity. We reanalyze their experimental data for two samples, and we find good agreement with random matrix predictions for the standard fidelity. Usually, one may expect such an agreement for chaotic systems, only. While the first sample may indeed be assumed chaotic, for the second sample, a perfect cuboid, such an agreement is surprising. For the first sample, the random matrix analysis yields perturbation strengths compatible with semiclassical predictions. For the cuboid, the measured perturbation strengths are by a common factor of (5)/(3) too large. Apart from that, the experimental curves for the distortion are well reproduced.

  14. Coherent Scatter Imaging Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ur Rehman, Mahboob

    In conventional radiography, anatomical information of the patients can be obtained, distinguishing different tissue types, e.g. bone and soft tissue. However, it is difficult to obtain appreciable contrast between two different types of soft tissues. Instead, coherent x-ray scattering can be utilized to obtain images which can differentiate between normal and cancerous cells of breast. An x-ray system using a conventional source and simple slot apertures was tested. Materials with scatter signatures that mimic breast cancer were buried in layers of fat of increasing thickness and imaged. The result showed that the contrast and signal to noise ratio (SNR) remained high even with added fat layers and short scan times.

  15. Scattering problems in elastodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diatta, Andre; Kadic, Muamer; Wegener, Martin; Guenneau, Sebastien

    2016-09-01

    In electromagnetism, acoustics, and quantum mechanics, scattering problems can routinely be solved numerically by virtue of perfectly matched layers (PMLs) at simulation domain boundaries. Unfortunately, the same has not been possible for general elastodynamic wave problems in continuum mechanics. In this Rapid Communication, we introduce a corresponding scattered-field formulation for the Navier equation. We derive PMLs based on complex-valued coordinate transformations leading to Cosserat elasticity-tensor distributions not obeying the minor symmetries. These layers are shown to work in two dimensions, for all polarizations, and all directions. By adaptative choice of the decay length, the deep subwavelength PMLs can be used all the way to the quasistatic regime. As demanding examples, we study the effectiveness of cylindrical elastodynamic cloaks of the Cosserat type and approximations thereof.

  16. Syzygies probing scattering amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Liu, Junyu; Xie, Ruofei; Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Yehao

    2016-09-01

    We propose a new efficient algorithm to obtain the locally minimal generating set of the syzygies for an ideal, i.e. a generating set whose proper subsets cannot be generating sets. Syzygy is a concept widely used in the current study of scattering amplitudes. This new algorithm can deal with more syzygies effectively because a new generation of syzygies is obtained in each step and the irreducibility of this generation is also verified in the process. This efficient algorithm can also be applied in getting the syzygies for the modules. We also show a typical example to illustrate the potential application of this method in scattering amplitudes, especially the Integral-By-Part(IBP) relations of the characteristic two-loop diagrams in the Yang-Mills theory.

  17. Multiple homicides.

    PubMed

    Copeland, A R

    1989-09-01

    A study of multiple homicides or multiple deaths involving a solitary incident of violence by another individual was performed on the case files of the Office of the Medical Examiner of Metropolitan Dade County in Miami, Florida, during 1983-1987. A total of 107 multiple homicides were studied: 88 double, 17 triple, one quadruple, and one quintuple. The 236 victims were analyzed regarding age, race, sex, cause of death, toxicologic data, perpetrator, locale of the incident, and reason for the incident. This article compares this type of slaying with other types of homicide including those perpetrated by serial killers. Suggestions for future research in this field are offered.

  18. Multiple scattering effects on transmission through the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimaru, A.

    1983-03-01

    This annual report gives a summary of the work completed and underway on the contract covering the period form September 1, 1982 to March 31, 1983. The work is directed to the investigation of the transmission characteristics of optical waves with wavelengths in the range of 1-15 micrometers through various atmospheric conditions including clouds, fog, turbulence, rain, hail, snow, and inhomogeneous layers. Progress was made on the thorough understanding of polarized wave transmission characteristics through fog.

  19. Multiple scattering effects on transmission through the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimaru, A.

    1981-05-01

    A summary of the work completed and underway on the contract covering the period from September 1, 1980 to April 15, 1981 is given. The work is directed to the investigation of the transmission characteristics of optical waves with wavelengths in the range of 1-15 micron through various atmospheric conditions including clouds, fog, turbulence, rain, hail, snow, and inhomogeneous layers. Progress was made on the thorough understanding of plane wave transmission characteristics through fog.

  20. Multiple scattering effects on transmission through the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimaru, A.

    1980-04-01

    The work is directed to the investigation of the transmission characteristics of optical waves with wavelengths in the range of 1-15 micrometers through various atmospheric conditions including clouds, fog, turbulence, rain, hail, snow, and inhomogeneous layers. Progress was made in the areas of plane wave solution, beam wave solution, and pulse wave solution of the optical transmission characteristics through fog.

  1. Multiple scattering effects on transmission through the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimaru, A.

    1982-04-01

    The transmission characteristics of optical waves with wavelengths in the range of 1 to 15 micrometers through various atmospheric conditions including clouds, fog, turbulence, rain, hail, snow, and inhomogeneous layers are investigated. Plane wave transmission characteristics through fog are considered.

  2. Multiple scattering effects on transmission through the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimaru, A.

    1984-11-01

    The work is directed to the investigation of the transmission characteristics of optical waves with wavelengths in the range of 1-15 micrometers through various atmospheric conditions including clouds, fog, turbulence, rain, hail, snow, and inhomogeneous layers.

  3. Molecular-beam scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, M.F.

    1983-07-01

    The molecular-beam technique has been used in three different experimental arrangements to study a wide range of inter-atomic and molecular forces. Chapter 1 reports results of a low-energy (0.2 kcal/mole) elastic-scattering study of the He-Ar pair potential. The purpose of the study was to accurately characterize the shape of the potential in the well region, by scattering slow He atoms produced by expanding a mixture of He in N/sub 2/ from a cooled nozzle. Chapter 2 contains measurements of the vibrational predissociation spectra and product translational energy for clusters of water, benzene, and ammonia. The experiments show that most of the product energy remains in the internal molecular motions. Chapter 3 presents measurements of the reaction Na + HCl ..-->.. NaCl + H at collision energies of 5.38 and 19.4 kcal/mole. This is the first study to resolve both scattering angle and velocity for the reaction of a short lived (16 nsec) electronic excited state. Descriptions are given of computer programs written to analyze molecular-beam expansions to extract information characterizing their velocity distributions, and to calculate accurate laboratory elastic-scattering differential cross sections accounting for the finite apparatus resolution. Experimental results which attempted to determine the efficiency of optically pumping the Li(2/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) and Na(3/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) excited states are given. A simple three-level model for predicting the steady-state fraction of atoms in the excited state is included.

  4. Dynamic light scattering microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzakpasu, Rhonda

    An optical microscope technique, dynamic light scattering microscopy (DLSM) that images dynamically scattered light fluctuation decay rates is introduced. Using physical optics we show theoretically that within the optical resolution of the microscope, relative motions between scattering centers are sufficient to produce significant phase variations resulting in interference intensity fluctuations in the image plane. The time scale for these intensity fluctuations is predicted. The spatial coherence distance defining the average distance between constructive and destructive interference in the image plane is calculated and compared with the pixel size. We experimentally tested DLSM on polystyrene latex nanospheres and living macrophage cells. In order to record these rapid fluctuations, on a slow progressive scan CCD camera, we used a thin laser line of illumination on the sample such that only a single column of pixels in the CCD camera is illuminated. This allowed the use of the rate of the column-by-column readout transfer process as the acquisition rate of the camera. This manipulation increased the data acquisition rate by at least an order of magnitude in comparison to conventional CCD cameras rates defined by frames/s. Analysis of the observed fluctuations provides information regarding the rates of motion of the scattering centers. These rates, acquired from each position on the sample are used to create a spatial map of the fluctuation decay rates. Our experiments show that with this technique, we are able to achieve a good signal-to-noise ratio and can monitor fast intensity fluctuations, on the order of milliseconds. DLSM appears to provide dynamic information about fast motions within cells at a sub-optical resolution scale and provides a new kind of spatial contrast.

  5. Calculating scattering amplitudes efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, L.

    1996-01-01

    We review techniques for more efficient computation of perturbative scattering amplitudes in gauge theory, in particular tree and one- loop multi-parton amplitudes in QCD. We emphasize the advantages of (1) using color and helicity information to decompose amplitudes into smaller gauge-invariant pieces, and (2) exploiting the analytic properties of these pieces, namely their cuts and poles. Other useful tools include recursion relations, special gauges and supersymmetric rearrangements. 46 refs., 11 figs.

  6. Molecular-beam scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernon, M. F.

    1983-07-01

    The molecular-beam technique has been used in three different experimental arrangements to study a wide range of inter-atomic and molecular forces. Chapter 1 reports results of a low-energy (0.2 kcal/mole) elastic-scattering study of the He-Ar pair potential. The purpose of the study was to accurately characterize the shape of the potential in the well region, by scattering slow He atoms produced by expanding a mixture of He in N2 from a cooled nozzle. Chapter 2 contains measurements of the vibrational predissociation spectra and product translational energy for clusters of water, benzene, and ammonia. The experiments show that most of the product energy remains in the internal molecular motions. Chapter 3 presents measurements of the reaction Na + HC1 (FEMALE) NAC1 + H at collision energies of 5.38 and 19.4 kcal/mole. This is the first study to resolve both scattering angle and velocity for the reaction of a short lived (16 nsec) electronic excited state. Descriptions are given of computer programs written to analyze molecular-beam expansions to extract information characterizing their velocity distributions, and to calculate accurate laboratory elastic-scattering differential cross sections accounting for the finite apparatus resolution. Experimental results which attempted to determine the efficiency of optically pumping the Li(2(2)P/sub 3/2/) and Na(3(2)P/sub 3/2) excited states are given. A simple three-level model for predicting the steady-state fraction of atoms in the excited state is included.

  7. Concurrent electromagnetic scattering analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Jean E.; Cwik, Tom; Ferraro, Robert D.; Jacobi, Nathan; Liewer, Paulett C.; Lockhart, Thomas G.; Lyzenga, Gregory A.; Parker, Jay

    1989-01-01

    The computational power of the hypercube parallel computing architecture is applied to the solution of large-scale electromagnetic scattering and radiation problems. Three analysis codes have been implemented. A Hypercube Electromagnetic Interactive Analysis Workstation was developed to aid in the design and analysis of metallic structures such as antennas and to facilitate the use of these analysis codes. The workstation provides a general user environment for specification of the structure to be analyzed and graphical representations of the results.

  8. Neutron scattering in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, R.B.

    1994-12-31

    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains.

  9. Timelike Compton Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkrtchyan, Arthur; Albayrak, Ibrahim; Horn, Tanja; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel

    2015-04-01

    Deeply Virtual Comtpon Scattering (DVCS) is deemed the simplest and cleanest way to access the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) of the nucleon. The DVCS process interferes with the Bethe-Heitler process allowing one to access the DVCS amplitudes. The imaginary part of the Compton amplitude is now relatively well understood, primarily through measurements of DVCS. However, much less is known about the real part of the amplitude. Time-like Compton Scattering (TCS) is the inverse process of DVCS and provides a new and promising way for probing the real part of the amplitude, and so constraining GPDs. Comparing data from Time-like Compton Scattering and the space-like DVCS process will also allow for testing the universality of GPDs. First studies of TCS using real tagged and quasi-real untagged photons were carried out at Jefferson Lab 6 GeV. In this talk, preliminary results on asymmetries and extraction of the real part of the CFF using photoproduction data and a comparison to electroproduction data will be presented. We will also discuss future plans for dilepton production at Jefferson Lab 12 GeV. Supported in part by NSF Grant PHY-1306227.

  10. Light Scattering by Spheroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Ya-Ming; Ji, Xia

    Nowadays, with the development of technology, particles with size at nanoscale have been synthesized in experiments. It is noticed that anisotropy is an unavoidable problem in the production of nanospheres. Besides, nonspherical nanoparticles have also been extensively used in experiments. Comparing with spherical model, spheroidal model can give a better description for the characteristics of nonspherical particles. Thus the study of analytical solution for light scattering by spheroidal particles has practical implications. By expanding incident, scattered, and transmitted electromagnetic fields in terms of appropriate vector spheroidal wave functions, an analytic solution is obtained to the problem of light scattering by spheroids. Unknown field expansion coefficients can be determined with the combination of boundary conditions and rotational-translational addition theorems for vector spheroidal wave functions. Based on the theoretical derivation, a Fortran code has been developed to calculate the extinction cross section and field distribution, whose results agree well with those obtain by FDTD simulation. This research is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China No. 91230203.

  11. Rutherford scattering of electron vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Boxem, Ruben; Partoens, Bart; Verbeeck, Johan

    2014-03-01

    By considering a cylindrically symmetric generalization of a plane wave, the first-order Born approximation of screened Coulomb scattering unfolds two new dimensions in the scattering problem: transverse momentum and orbital angular momentum of the incoming beam. In this paper, the elastic Coulomb scattering amplitude is calculated analytically for incoming Bessel beams. This reveals novel features occurring for wide-angle scattering and quantitative insights for small-angle vortex scattering. The result successfully generalizes the well-known Rutherford formula, incorporating transverse and orbital angular momentum into the formalism.

  12. Rainbow scattering in nuclear collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhnoi-breve, Y.A.; Kuznichenko, A.V.; Onishchenko, G.M.; Pilipenko, V.V.

    1987-03-01

    The evolution of ideas about the rainbow phenomenon resulting from the refraction and reflection of light in water drops is briefly reviewed. The rainbow scattering of particles in quantum mechanics is treated on the basis of the semiclassical approximation, and the nuclear and Coulomb ''rainbows'' are discussed. Rainbow scattering of light ions by nuclei at energies Eapprox. >25--30 MeV/nucleon is considered. The results of theoretical analysis of experimental data on rainbow scattering are presented. The behavior of the nuclear part of the scattering phase shift deduced from experiment is discussed. The manifestation of rainbow scattering in quasielastic nuclear processes is considered.

  13. Gravitational scattering of electromagnetic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooker, J. T.; Janis, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic radiation by linearized gravitational fields is studied to second order in a perturbation expansion. The incoming electromagnetic radiation can be of arbitrary multipole structure, and the gravitational fields are also taken to be advanced fields of arbitrary multipole structure. All electromagnetic multipole radiation is found to be scattered by gravitational monopole and time-varying dipole fields. No case has been found, however, in which any electromagnetic multipole radiation is scattered by gravitational fields of quadrupole or higher-order multipole structure. This lack of scattering is established for infinite classes of special cases, and is conjectured to hold in general. The results of the scattering analysis are applied to the case of electromagnetic radiation scattered by a moving mass. It is shown how the mass and velocity may be determined by a knowledge of the incident and scattered radiation.

  14. Improved scatter correction using adaptive scatter kernel superposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, M.; Star-Lack, J. M.

    2010-11-01

    Accurate scatter correction is required to produce high-quality reconstructions of x-ray cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. This paper describes new scatter kernel superposition (SKS) algorithms for deconvolving scatter from projection data. The algorithms are designed to improve upon the conventional approach whose accuracy is limited by the use of symmetric kernels that characterize the scatter properties of uniform slabs. To model scatter transport in more realistic objects, nonstationary kernels, whose shapes adapt to local thickness variations in the projection data, are proposed. Two methods are introduced: (1) adaptive scatter kernel superposition (ASKS) requiring spatial domain convolutions and (2) fast adaptive scatter kernel superposition (fASKS) where, through a linearity approximation, convolution is efficiently performed in Fourier space. The conventional SKS algorithm, ASKS, and fASKS, were tested with Monte Carlo simulations and with phantom data acquired on a table-top CBCT system matching the Varian On-Board Imager (OBI). All three models accounted for scatter point-spread broadening due to object thickening, object edge effects, detector scatter properties and an anti-scatter grid. Hounsfield unit (HU) errors in reconstructions of a large pelvis phantom with a measured maximum scatter-to-primary ratio over 200% were reduced from -90 ± 58 HU (mean ± standard deviation) with no scatter correction to 53 ± 82 HU with SKS, to 19 ± 25 HU with fASKS and to 13 ± 21 HU with ASKS. HU accuracies and measured contrast were similarly improved in reconstructions of a body-sized elliptical Catphan phantom. The results show that the adaptive SKS methods offer significant advantages over the conventional scatter deconvolution technique.

  15. Energy distribution of elastically scattered electrons from double layer samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tőkési, K.; Varga, D.

    2016-02-01

    We present a theoretical description of the spectra of electrons elastically scattered from thin double layered Au-C samples. The analysis is based on the Monte Carlo simulation of the recoil and Doppler effects in reflection and transmission geometries of the scattering at a fixed angle of 44.3 ° and a primary energy of 40 keV. The relativistic correction is taken into account. Besides the experimentally measurable energy distributions the simulations give many partial distributions separately, depending on the number of elastic scatterings (single, and multiple scatterings of different types). Furthermore, we present detailed analytical calculations for the main parameters of the single scattering, taking into account both the ideal scattering geometry, i.e. infinitesimally small angular range, and the effect of the real, finite angular range used in the measurements. We show our results for intensity ratios, peak shifts and broadenings for four cases of measurement geometries and layer thicknesses. While in the peak intensity ratios of gold and carbon for transmission geometries were found to be in good agreement with the results of the single scattering model, especially large deviations were obtained in reflection geometries. The separation of the peaks, depending on the geometry and the thickness, generally smaller, and the peak width generally larger than it can be expected from the nominal values of the primary energy, scattering angle, and mean kinetic energy of the atoms. We also show that the peaks are asymmetric even for the case of the single scattering due to the finite solid angle. Finally, we present a qualitative comparison with the experimental data. We find our resulting energy distribution of elastically scattered electrons to be in good agreement with recent measurements.

  16. Multi-view coded aperture coherent scatter tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmgren, Andrew D.; Odinaka, Ikenna; Greenberg, Joel A.; Brady, David J.

    2016-05-01

    We use coded apertures and multiple views to create a compressive coherent scatter computed tomography (CSCT) system. Compared with other CSCT systems, we reduce object dose and scan time. Previous work on coded aperture tomography resulted in a resolution anisotropy that caused poor or unusable momentum transfer resolution in certain cases. Complimentary and multiple views resolve the resolution issues, while still providing the ability to perform snapshot tomography by adding sources and detectors.

  17. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    SciTech Connect

    Giebink, Noel C.

    2015-01-31

    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the

  18. Experimental phasing using zinc anomalous scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Sun-Shin; An, Young Jun; Jeong, Chang-Sook; Kim, Min-Kyu; Lee, Sung-Gyu; Lee, Kwang-Hoon; Oh, Byung-Ha

    2012-09-01

    The surface of proteins can be charged with zinc ions and the anomalous signals from these zinc ions can be used for structure determination of proteins. Zinc is a suitable metal for anomalous dispersion phasing methods in protein crystallography. Structure determination using zinc anomalous scattering has been almost exclusively limited to proteins with intrinsically bound zinc(s). Here, it is reported that multiple zinc ions can easily be charged onto the surface of proteins with no intrinsic zinc-binding site by using zinc-containing solutions. Zn derivatization of protein surfaces appears to be a largely unnoticed but promising method of protein structure determination.

  19. Thermoresponsive scattering coating for smart white LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelissen, Hugo J.; Yu, Joan; Cennini, Giovanni; Bauer, Jurica; Verbunt, Paul P. C.; Bastiaansen, Cees W. M.; Broer, Dirk J.

    2015-09-01

    A novel responsive lighting system is presented capable of lowering the color temperature of emitted light on dimming. It is based on a single white light emitting LED and a thermo-responsive scattering coating. The coated LED automatically emits light of lower correlated color temperature (CCT) when the power is reduced, while maintaining a chromaticity close to the black body curve. Existing systems all use multiple color LEDs, additional control circuitry and mixing optics. An optical ray tracing model can explain the experimental results.

  20. Raman scattering in crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, D.F.

    1988-09-30

    A tutorial presentation is given of Raman scattering in crystals. The physical concepts are emphasized rather than the detailed mathematical formalism. Starting with an introduction to the concepts of phonons and conservation laws, the effects of photon-phonon interactions are presented. This interaction concept is shown for a simple cubic crystal and is extended to a uniaxial crystal. The correlation table method is used for determining the number and symmetry of the Raman active modes. Finally, examples are given to illustrate the relative ease of using this group theoretical method and the predictions are compared with measured Raman spectra. 37 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Monte carlo calculations of light scattering from clouds.

    PubMed

    Plass, G N; Kattawar, G W

    1968-03-01

    The scattering of visible light by clouds is calculated from an efficient Monte Carlo code which follows the multiple scattered path of the photon. The single scattering function is obtained from the Mie theory by integration over a particle size distribution appropriate for cumulus clouds at 0.7-micro wavelength. The photons are followed through a sufficient number of collisions and reflections from the lower surface (which may have any desired albedo) until they make a negligible contribution to the intensity. Various variance reduction techniques are used to improve the statistics. The cloud albedo and the mean optical path of the transmitted and reflected photons are given as a function of the solar zenith angle, optical thickness, and surface albedo. The numerous small angle scatterings of the photon in the direction of the incident beam are followed accurately and produce a greater penetration into the cloud than is obtained with a more isotropic and less realistic phase function.

  2. Model of Saturn's rings that satisfies the observed phase curve for optical scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, W. M.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of multiple anisotropic scattering were calculated, including the solar penumbra effect for shadowing computations. The classical model was matched to observations, including the wavelength dependence, by varying the particle albedo as a function of wavelength. A scattering diagram is also presented showing the relative amount of primary and higher-order scattering necessary to match the B ring brightness and the shape of the phase curve.

  3. Scattering characteristics in heterogeneously fractured reservoirs from waveform estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Feng; Toksöz, M. Nafi

    2000-02-01

    Offset-dependent characteristics of seismic scattering are useful for characterizing fractured reservoirs. We use two models that have different background medium properties and different azimuthal AVO responses to study elastic wave propagation and scattering in gas-saturated, heterogeneously fractured reservoirs. Heterogeneous fracture density distributions are built through stochastic modelling. Synthetic seismograms are generated by 3-D finite difference modelling, and waveforms along crack-normal and strike directions are considered in this paper. The multiple signal classification (MUSIC) frequency estimator is used in waveform estimation to provide frequency-domain attributes related to seismic wave scattering by fracture heterogeneity. Our results indicate that the strength of the scattering field is a function of the background medium. The strength also increases with increasing fracture scatterer density and with decreasing correlation length of spatial variations of fracture density. The scattering field is weak at the top of the fractured reservoir. The first-order results are dominated by velocity anisotropy of the mean fracture density field. However, the base of the fractured reservoir corresponds to a strong scattering field on which fracture heterogeneity has a larger effect and is characterized by the loss of coherence.

  4. Microemboli Characterization in Whole Blood Medium by Laser Scattering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungkuk

    The current light scattering method to detect the thromboemboli generated inside blood vessels or by direct contact of biomaterials has been a powerful method because of its advantages: continuous real time measurement, non-ionizing radiation, practically unlimited aggregate size distribution, no disturbance of blood flow, and low cost. But this method only detects the number and size of thromboemboli that is assumed to be known. If there are air bubbles or foreign particles, this method can not distinguish them from the thromboemboli. An improved light scattering detection method that can characterize emboli, air bubbles, or any foreign particles, their number and size and also their nature, will be proposed by finding coefficients of a Legendre polynomial expansion of phase functions for a microembolus, air bubble, or a foreign particle. The scattered light distribution in whole blood medium is obtained by deriving and solving a multiple order scattering transport approximation of the radiative transport equation. This approximation will be derived on the basis of the fact that blood cells are highly anisotropic scatterers and applied to detect and characterize the microemboli mentioned above. Also a more practical method is devised. This method uses three different scattering angles that produce maximum differences in scattering phase function of microemboli according to their nature. This method is tested for a cylindrical whole blood medium with several kinds of known inhomogeneous particles: polystyrene spheres, air bubbies, and clots. The results produced an excellent agreement with theoretical calculations.

  5. A New Polyethylene Scattering Law Determined Using Inelastic Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Lavelle, Christopher M; Liu, C; Stone, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    Monte Carlo neutron transport codes such as MCNP rely on accurate data for nuclear physics cross-sections to produce accurate results. At low energy, this takes the form of scattering laws based on the dynamic structure factor, S (Q, E). High density polyethylene (HDPE) is frequently employed as a neutron moderator at both high and low temperatures, however the only cross-sections available are for T =300 K, and the evaluation has not been updated in quite some time. In this paper we describe inelastic neutron scattering measurements on HDPE at 5 and 300 K which are used to improve the scattering law for HDPE. We describe the experimental methods, review some of the past HDPE scattering laws, and compare computations using these models to the measured S (Q, E). The total cross-section is compared to available data, and the treatment of the carbon secondary scatterer as a free gas is assessed. We also discuss the use of the measurement itself as a scattering law via the 1 phonon approximation. We show that a scattering law computed using a more detailed model for the Generalized Density of States (GDOS) compares more favorably to this experiment, suggesting that inelastic neutron scattering can play an important role in both the development and validation of new scattering laws for Monte Carlo work.

  6. Shower approach in the simulation of ion scattering from solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodyrev, V. A.; Andrzejewski, R.; Rivera, A.; Boerma, D. O.; Prieto, J. E.

    2011-05-01

    An efficient approach for the simulation of ion scattering from solids is proposed. For every encountered atom, we take multiple samples of its thermal displacements among those which result in scattering with high probability to finally reach the detector. As a result, the detector is illuminated by intensive “showers,” where each event of detection must be weighted according to the actual probability of the atom displacement. The computational cost of such simulation is orders of magnitude lower than in the direct approach, and a comprehensive analysis of multiple and plural scattering effects becomes possible. We use this method for two purposes. First, the accuracy of the approximate approaches, developed mainly for ion-beam structural analysis, is verified. Second, the possibility to reproduce a wide class of experimental conditions is used to analyze some basic features of ion-solid collisions: the role of double violent collisions in low-energy ion scattering; the origin of the “surface peak” in scattering from amorphous samples; the low-energy tail in the energy spectra of scattered medium-energy ions due to plural scattering; and the degradation of blocking patterns in two-dimensional angular distributions with increasing depth of scattering. As an example of simulation for ions of MeV energies, we verify the time reversibility for channeling and blocking of 1-MeV protons in a W crystal. The possibilities of analysis that our approach offers may be very useful for various applications, in particular, for structural analysis with atomic resolution.

  7. Direct three-dimensional coherently scattered x-ray microtomography

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Congwu; Jorgensen, Steven M.; Eaker, Diane R.; Ritman, Erik L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: It has been shown that coherently scattered x rays can be used to discriminate and identify specific components in a mixture of low atomic weight materials. The authors demonstrated a new method of doing coherently scattered x-ray tomography with a thin sheet of x ray. Methods: A collimated x-ray fan-beam, a parallel polycapillary collimator, and a phantom consisting of several biocompatible materials of low attenuation-based contrast were used to investigate the feasibility of the method. Because of the particular experimental setup, only the phantom translation perpendicular to the x-ray beam is needed and, thus, there is no need of Radon-type tomographic reconstruction, except for the correction of the attenuation to the primary and scattered x rays, which was performed by using a conventional attenuation-based tomographic image data set. The coherent scatter image contrast changes with momentum transfer among component materials in the specimen were investigated with multiple x-ray sources with narrow bandwidth spectra generated with anode and filter combinations of Cu∕Ni (8 keV), Mo∕Zr (18 keV), and Ag∕Pd (22 keV) and at multiple scatter angles by orienting the detector and polycapillary collimator at different angles to the illuminating x ray. Results: The contrast among different materials changes with the x-ray source energy and the angle at which the image was measured. The coherent scatter profiles obtained from the coherent scatter images are consistent with the published results. Conclusions: This method can be used to directly generate the three-dimensional coherent scatter images of small animal, biopsies, or other small objects with low atomic weight biological or similar synthetic materials with low attenuation contrast. With equipment optimized, submillimeter spatial resolution may be achieved. PMID:21302788

  8. Analysis of the scatter effect on detective quantum efficiency of digital mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jiwoong; Yun, Seungman; Kim, Dong Woon; Baek, Cheol-Ha; Youn, Hanbean; Jeon, Hosang; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2016-03-01

    The scatter effect on detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of digital mammography is investigated using the cascaded-systems model. The cascaded-systems model includes a scatter-reduction device as a binomial selection stage. Quantum-noise-limited operation approximates the system DQE into the multiplication form of the scatter-reduction device DQE and the conventional detector DQE. The developed DQE model is validated in comparisons with the measured results using a CMOS flat-panel detector under scatter environments. For various scatter-reduction devices, the slot-scan method shows the best scatter-cleanup performance in terms of DQE, and the scatter-cleanup performance of the conventional one-dimensional grid is rather worse than the air gap. The developed model can also be applied to general radiography and will be very useful for a better design of imaging chain.

  9. Simulations of Kikuchi patterns due to thermal diffuse scattering on MgO crystals.

    PubMed

    Omoto, Kazuya; Tsuda, Kenji; Tanaka, Michiyoshi

    2002-01-01

    Inelastic scattering of fast transmission electrons from a perfect crystal is investigated using the Bloch wave theory. A comprehensive expression for the scattering of electrons is given, which includes both elastic and inelastic multiple scatterings. This expression is an extended form of Fujimoto's expression for elastic scattering (J. Phys. Soc. Japan 14:1558 (1959)). For the approximation of single inelastic scattering, the expression becomes equivalent to the formula of Rez et al. (Phil. Mag. 35: 81 (1977)). When thermal diffuse scattering (TDS) is considered using the Einstein model or the scattering factor for TDS given by Hall and Hirsch (Proc. R. Soc. A 286: 158 (1965)), Rossouw and Bursill's expression (Acta Cryst. A 41: 320 (1985)) is derived. This expression has been used in computer simulations of TDS intensity distribution (Kikuchi pattern). It is shown that the simulations for magnesium oxide (MgO) using 357 beams agree quite well with the experimental ones.

  10. Nuclear and partonic dynamics in high energy elastic nucleus-nucleus scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Małecki, Andrzej

    1991-10-01

    A hybrid description of diffraction which combines a geometrical modeling of multiple scattering with many-channel effects resulting from intrinsic dynamics on the nuclear and subnuclear level is presented. The application to 4-4He elastic scattering is satisfactory. Our analysis suggests that, at large momentum transfers, the parton constituents of nucleons immersed in nuclei are deconfined.

  11. Nuclear and partonic dynamics in high energy elastic nucleus-nucleus scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Malecki, A. )

    1991-10-01

    A hybrid description of diffraction which combines a geometrical modeling of multiple scattering with many-channel effects resulting from intrinsic dynamics on the nuclear and subnuclear level is presented. The application to {sup 4}He-{sup 4}He elastic scattering is satisfactory. Our analysis suggests that, at large momentum transfers, the parton constituents of nucleons immersed in nuclei are deconfined.

  12. Multiple Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  13. Polarization of inverse plasmon scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windsor, R. A.; Kellogg, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    The scattering of electrostatic plasma waves by a flux of ultrarelativistic electrons passing through a plasma gives rise to a radiation spectrum which is similar to a synchrotron radiation spectrum. This mechanism, first considered by Gailitis and Tsytovich, is analagous to inverse Compton scattering, and we have named it inverse plasmon scattering. For a power-law electron flux, both inverse plasmon scattering and synchrotron radiation have the same spectral index. In an attempt to distinguish between these mechanisms, we have calculated the polarization level expected from inverse plasmon scattering. The polarization level found is similar to that obtained from a synchrotron radiation source. This means that the radiation produced by two mechanisms, synchrotron radiation and inverse plasmon scattering, is indistinguishable; and this attempt to differentiate between them by polarization effects has been unsuccessful.

  14. Thermoresponsive scattering coating for smart white LEDs.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Jurica; Verbunt, Paul P C; Lin, Wan-Yu; Han, Yang; Van, My-Phung; Cornelissen, Hugo J; Yu, Joan J H; Bastiaansen, Cees W M; Broer, Dirk J

    2014-12-15

    White light emitting diode (LED) systems, capable of lowering the color temperature of emitted light on dimming, have been reported in the literature. These systems all use multiple color LEDs and complex control circuitry. Here we present a novel responsive lighting system based on a single white light emitting LED and a thermoresponsive scattering coating. The coated LED automatically emits light of lower correlated color temperature (CCT) when the power is reduced. We also present results on the use of multiple phosphors in the white light LED allowing for the emission of warm white light in the range between 2900 K and 4150 K, and with a chromaticity complying with the ANSI standards (C78.377). This responsive warm white light LED-system with close-to-ideal emission characteristics is highly interesting for the lighting industry.

  15. PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING IN PLANETESIMAL DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Sean N.; Armitage, Philip J.; Gorelick, Noel

    2009-07-10

    We study the final architecture of planetary systems that evolve under the combined effects of planet-planet and planetesimal scattering. Using N-body simulations we investigate the dynamics of marginally unstable systems of gas and ice giants both in isolation and when the planets form interior to a planetesimal belt. The unstable isolated systems evolve under planet-planet scattering to yield an eccentricity distribution that matches that observed for extrasolar planets. When planetesimals are included the outcome depends upon the total mass of the planets. For M {sub tot} {approx}> 1 M{sub J} the final eccentricity distribution remains broad, whereas for M {sub tot} {approx}< 1 M{sub J} a combination of divergent orbital evolution and recircularization of scattered planets results in a preponderance of nearly circular final orbits. We also study the fate of marginally stable multiple planet systems in the presence of planetesimal disks, and find that for high planet masses the majority of such systems evolve into resonance. A significant fraction leads to resonant chains that are planetary analogs of Jupiter's Galilean satellites. We predict that a transition from eccentric to near-circular orbits will be observed once extrasolar planet surveys detect sub-Jovian mass planets at orbital radii of a {approx_equal} 5-10 AU.

  16. Sensitivity analysis of volume scattering phase functions.

    PubMed

    Tuchow, Noah; Broughton, Jennifer; Kudela, Raphael

    2016-08-01

    To solve the radiative transfer equation and relate inherent optical properties (IOPs) to apparent optical properties (AOPs), knowledge of the volume scattering phase function is required. Due to the difficulty of measuring the phase function, it is frequently approximated. We explore the sensitivity of derived AOPs to the phase function parameterization, and compare measured and modeled values of both the AOPs and estimated phase functions using data from Monterey Bay, California during an extreme "red tide" bloom event. Using in situ measurements of absorption and attenuation coefficients, as well as two sets of measurements of the volume scattering function (VSF), we compared output from the Hydrolight radiative transfer model to direct measurements. We found that several common assumptions used in parameterizing the radiative transfer model consistently introduced overestimates of modeled versus measured remote-sensing reflectance values. Phase functions from VSF data derived from measurements at multiple wavelengths and a single scattering single angle significantly overestimated reflectances when using the manufacturer-supplied corrections, but were substantially improved using newly published corrections; phase functions calculated from VSF measurements using three angles and three wavelengths and processed using manufacture-supplied corrections were comparable, demonstrating that reasonable predictions can be made using two commercially available instruments. While other studies have reached similar conclusions, our work extends the analysis to coastal waters dominated by an extreme algal bloom with surface chlorophyll concentrations in excess of 100 mg m-3. PMID:27505819

  17. Coherent scattering of cosmic neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opher, R.

    1974-01-01

    It is shown that cosmic neutrino scattering can be non-negligible when coherence effects previously neglected are taken into account. The coherent neutrino scattering cross section is derived and the neutrino index of refraction evaluated. As an example of coherent neutrino scattering, a detector using critical reflection is described which in principle can detect the low energy cosmic neutrino background allowed by the measured cosmological red shift.

  18. Myeloma (multiple)

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Multiple myeloma is the most common primary cancer of the bones in adults, representing about 1% of all cancers diagnosed in the US in 2004, and 14% of all haematological malignancies. In the UK, multiple myeloma accounts for 1% of all new cases of cancer diagnosed each year. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatment in people with asymptomatic early stage multiple myeloma (stage I)? What are the effects of first-line treatments in people with advanced stage multiple myeloma (stages II and III)? What are the effect of salvage treatments, or supportive therapy, in people with advanced stage multiple myeloma (stages II and III)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to November 2004 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 71 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: allogenic transplant (non-myeloablative), autologous stem cell transplant (early or late transplantation, double or single, purging of), bisphosphonates, bone marrow stem cells, bortezomib, chemotherapy (combination, conventional dose, intermediate dose plus stem cell rescue, high-dose plus stem cell rescue), combination chemotherapy plus corticosteroids, deferred treatment (in stage I disease), early chemotherapy plus corticosteroids (in stage I disease), epoetin alpha, first-line treatments, infection prophylaxis, interferon, maintenance therapy (in advanced multiple myeloma), melphalan (normal dose

  19. Effective Tree Scattering at L-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurum, Mehmet; ONeill, Peggy E.; Lang, Roger H.; Joseph, Alicia T.; Cosh, Michael H.; Jackson, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    For routine microwave Soil Moisture (SM) retrieval through vegetation, the tau-omega [1] model [zero-order Radiative Transfer (RT) solution] is attractive due to its simplicity and eases of inversion and implementation. It is the model used in baseline retrieval algorithms for several planned microwave space missions, such as ESA's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission (launched November 2009) and NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission (to be launched 2014/2015) [2 and 3]. These approaches are adapted for vegetated landscapes with effective vegetation parameters tau and omega by fitting experimental data or simulation outputs of a multiple scattering model [4-7]. The model has been validated over grasslands, agricultural crops, and generally light to moderate vegetation. As the density of vegetation increases, sensitivity to the underlying SM begins to degrade significantly and errors in the retrieved SM increase accordingly. The zero-order model also loses its validity when dense vegetation (i.e. forest, mature corn, etc.) includes scatterers, such as branches and trunks (or stalks in the case of corn), which are large with respect to the wavelength. The tau-omega model (when applied over moderately to densely vegetated landscapes) will need modification (in terms of form or effective parameterization) to enable accurate characterization of vegetation parameters with respect to specific tree types, anisotropic canopy structure, presence of leaves and/or understory. More scattering terms (at least up to first-order at L-band) should be included in the RT solutions for forest canopies [8]. Although not really suitable to forests, a zero-order tau-omega model might be applied to such vegetation canopies with large scatterers, but that equivalent or effective parameters would have to be used [4]. This requires that the effective values (vegetation opacity and single scattering albedo) need to be evaluated (compared) with theoretical definitions of

  20. Dust properties from scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefèvre, C.; Pagani, L.; Min, M.; Poteet, C.; Whittet, D.; Cambrésy, L.

    2016-05-01

    Dust grains evolve during the life cycle of the interstellar matter. From their birth places to dense molecular clouds, they grow by coagulation and acquire ice mantles, mainly composed of water. These morphological changes affect their optical properties. However, it remains a highly degenerate issue to determine their composition, size distribution, and shape from observations. In particular, using wavelengths associated to dust emission alone is not sufficient to investigate dense cold cores. Fortunately, scattering has turned out to be a powerful tool to investigate molecular clouds from the outer regions to the core. In particular, it is possible to quantify the amount of dust aggregates needed to reproduce observations from 1.25 to 8 μm.

  1. Elliptic scattering equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Carlos; Gomez, Humberto

    2016-06-01

    Recently the CHY approach has been extended to one loop level using elliptic functions and modular forms over a Jacobian variety. Due to the difficulty in manipulating these kind of functions, we propose an alternative prescription that is totally algebraic. This new proposal is based on an elliptic algebraic curve embedded in a mathbb{C}{P}^2 space. We show that for the simplest integrand, namely the n - gon, our proposal indeed reproduces the expected result. By using the recently formulated Λ-algorithm, we found a novel recurrence relation expansion in terms of tree level off-shell amplitudes. Our results connect nicely with recent results on the one-loop formulation of the scattering equations. In addition, this new proposal can be easily stretched out to hyperelliptic curves in order to compute higher genus.

  2. Stimulated rotational Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parazzoli, C. G.; Rafanelli, G. L.; Capps, D. M.; Drutman, C.

    1989-03-01

    The effect of Stimulated Rotational Raman Scattering (SRRS) processes on high energy laser directed energy weapon systems was studied. The program had 3 main objectives; achieving an accurate description of the physical processes involved in SRRS; developing a numerical algorithm to confidently evaluate SRRS-induced losses in the propagation of high energy laser beams in the uplink and downlink segments of the optical trains of various strategic defense system scenarios; and discovering possible methods to eliminate, or at least reduce, the deleterious effects of SRRS on the energy deposition on target. The following topics are discussed: the motivation for the accomplishments of the DOE program; the Semiclassical Theory of Non-Resonant SRRS for Diatomic Homonuclear Molecules; and then the following appendices; Calculation of the Dipole Transition Reduced Matrix Element, Guided Tour of Hughes SRRS Code, Running the Hughes SRRS Code, and Hughes SRRS Code Listing.

  3. Novel Trapping and Scattering of Light in Resonant Nanophotonic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chia Wei

    Nanophotonic structures provide unique ways to control light and alter its behaviors in ways not possible in macroscopic structures. In this thesis, we explore novel behaviors of light created by nanophotonic structures, with a common theme on resonance effects. The first half of the thesis focuses on a peculiar type of electromagnetic resonance, where the resonance lifetime diverges to infinity. These states, called bound states in the continuum, remain localized in space even though their frequency lie within a continuum of extended modes. We find such states in photonic crystal slabs and the surface of bulk photonic crystals. We show the conditions necessary for them to exist, and provide the first experimental observation of these unusual states. We also show that these states have a topological nature, with conserved and quantized topological charges that govern their generation, evolution, and annihilation. The second half of the thesis concerns light scattering from resonant nanophotonic structures, where resonances can enhance or suppress scattering at particular wavelengths and angles. We show that multiple resonances in one nanostructure and in the same multipole channel generally lead to a scattering dark state where the structure becomes transparent. Based on the coherent interference from multiple scatterers, we show there are geometries that can achieve a sharp structural color where the hue, saturation, and brightness are all viewing-angle independent. We also invent a new type of transparent display based on wavelength-selective light scattering from nanostructures.

  4. Forward-scatter radiant mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, James; Webster, A. R.

    1992-01-01

    Forward-scatter systems have been much neglected for the study of meteors and meteor streams. A great deal of this neglect stems from the complicated geometry which has made the interpretation of results difficult in the past. This no longer presents a problem because of the computer power now available. There are practical advantages in using forward-scatter in that low-power transmitters are much easier to handle than the high-power ones used in pulsed back-scatter radars. The data reduction of the CW signals is also significantly simpler. Because the forward-scatter reflection geometry increases the duration of the echoes relative to the back-scatter case, the problem of the underdense ceiling is partially alleviated. We have built a 'short hop' forward-scatter system between Ottawa and London (Ont) for which the transmitter and receiver are separated by about 500 km. With it, we are able to measure unambiguously the directions of arrival of the echoes using a 5-antenna interferometer. Morton and Jones (1982, MN, 198, 737) have shown how the echo direction distribution can be deconvolved to yield the meteor radiant distribution for back-scatter data. We have extended the technique to the forward-scatter case and present some preliminary meteor radiant distribution maps.

  5. Scattering theory for arbitrary potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Kadyrov, A.S.; Bray, I.; Stelbovics, A.T.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.M.

    2005-09-15

    The fundamental quantities of potential scattering theory are generalized to accommodate long-range interactions. Definitions for the scattering amplitude and wave operators valid for arbitrary interactions including potentials with a Coulomb tail are presented. It is shown that for the Coulomb potential the generalized amplitude gives the physical on-shell amplitude without recourse to a renormalization procedure.

  6. Scattering properties of horizontally oriented ice crystal columns in cirrus clouds. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Rockwitz, K D

    1989-10-01

    A ray tracing technique is presented based on the fundamental laws of ray and wave optics; it has been used to calculate the scattering properties of hexagonal ice crystals. These crystals were assumed to be oriented preferably horizontal, and, therefore, the resulting phase functions have been plotted vs direction in 3-D space contrary to earlier calculations of other authors. The anisotropy of the scattered radiation is clearly shown; on the average the phase function varies over ~2 orders of magnitude. From these single scattering results the multiple scattering between various ice crystals has also been calculated.

  7. Determination of the Mechanism for Resonant Scattering in LaMnO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Q.; Finkelstein, K.; Elfimov, I.S.; Sawatzky, G.A.; Fanwick, P.; Tokura, Y.; Kimura, T.; Colella, R.

    2006-06-23

    The resonant multiple Bragg x-ray diffraction is used to study the forbidden (104) reflection in LaMnO{sub 3}. Using the interference between the three-beam scattering and resonant scattering we can determine the phase of the resonant scattering. This phase is shown to be consistent with a model in which the resonant scattering is caused by the influence of the Mn-O bond length distortion rather than directly by the orbital ordering on the Mn 4p band structure.

  8. eblur/dust: a modular python approach for dust extinction and scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrales, Lia

    2016-03-01

    I will present a library of python codes -- github.com/eblur/dust -- which calculate dust scattering and extinction properties from the IR to the X-ray. The modular interface allows for custom defined dust grain size distributions, optical constants, and scattering physics. These codes are currently undergoing a major overhaul to include multiple scattering effects, parallel processing, parameterized grain size distributions beyond power law, and optical constants for different grain compositions. I use eblur/dust primarily to study dust scattering images in the X-ray, but they may be extended to applications at other wavelengths.

  9. Hydrodynamic outcomes of planet scattering in transitional discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeckel, Nickolas; Armitage, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    A significant fraction of unstable multiple planet systems are likely to scatter during the transitional disc phase as gas damping becomes ineffectual. Using a large ensemble of FARGO hydrodynamic simulations and MERCURY N-body integrations, we directly follow the dynamics of planet-disc and planet-planet interactions through the clearing phase and through 50 Myr of planetary system evolution. Disc clearing is assumed to occur as a result of X-ray-driven photoevaporation. We find that the hydrodynamic evolution of individual scattering systems is complex, and can involve phases in which massive planets orbit within eccentric gaps, or accrete directly from the disc without a gap. Comparing the results to a reference gas-free model, we find that the N-body dynamics and hydrodynamics of scattering into one- and two-planet final states are almost identical. The eccentricity distributions in these channels are almost unaltered by the presence of gas. The hydrodynamic simulations, however, also form a population of low-eccentricity three-planet systems in long-term stable configurations, which are not found in N-body runs. The admixture of these systems results in modestly lower eccentricities in hydrodynamic as opposed to gas-free simulations. The precise incidence of these three-planet systems is likely a function of the initial conditions; different planet set-ups (number or spacing) may change the quantitative character of this result. We analyse the properties of surviving multiple planet systems, and show that only a small fraction (a few per cent) enter mean motion resonances after scattering, while a larger fraction form stable resonant chains and avoid scattering entirely. Our results remain consistent with the hypothesis that exoplanet eccentricity results from scattering, though the detailed agreement between observations and gas-free simulation results is likely coincidental. We discuss the prospects for further tests of scattering models by observing planets

  10. A drift chamber tracking system for muon scattering tomography applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, J.; Quillin, S.; Stapleton, M.; Steer, C.; Snow, S.

    2015-10-01

    Muon scattering tomography (MST) allows the identification of shielded high atomic number (high-Z) materials by measuring the scattering angle of cosmic ray muons passing through an inspection region. Cosmic ray muons scatter to a greater degree due to multiple Coulomb scattering in high-Z materials than low-Z materials, which can be measured as the angular difference between the incoming and outgoing trajectories of each muon. Measurements of trajectory are achieved by placing position sensitive particle tracking detectors above and below the inspection volume. By localising scattering information, the point at which a series of muons scatter can be used to reconstruct an image, differentiating high, medium and low density objects. MST is particularly useful for differentiating between materials of varying density in volumes that are difficult to inspect visually or by other means. This paper will outline the experimental work undertaken to develop a prototype MST system based on drift chamber technology. The planar drift chambers used in this prototype measure the longitudinal interaction position of an ionising particle from the time taken for elections, liberated in the argon (92.5%), carbon dioxide (5%), methane (2.5%) gas mixture, to reach a central anode wire. Such a system could be used to enhance the detection of shielded radiological material hidden within regular shipping cargo.

  11. Acoustic scattering from phononic crystals with complex geometry.

    PubMed

    Kulpe, Jason A; Sabra, Karim G; Leamy, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    This work introduces a formalism for computing external acoustic scattering from phononic crystals (PCs) with arbitrary exterior shape using a Bloch wave expansion technique coupled with the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff integral (HKI). Similar to a Kirchhoff approximation, a geometrically complex PC's surface is broken into a set of facets in which the scattering from each facet is calculated as if it was a semi-infinite plane interface in the short wavelength limit. When excited by incident radiation, these facets introduce wave modes into the interior of the PC. Incorporation of these modes in the HKI, summed over all facets, then determines the externally scattered acoustic field. In particular, for frequencies in a complete bandgap (the usual operating frequency regime of many PC-based devices and the requisite operating regime of the presented theory), no need exists to solve for internal reflections from oppositely facing edges and, thus, the total scattered field can be computed without the need to consider internal multiple scattering. Several numerical examples are provided to verify the presented approach. Both harmonic and transient results are considered for spherical and bean-shaped PCs, each containing over 100 000 inclusions. This facet formalism is validated by comparison to an existing self-consistent scattering technique.

  12. Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Common manifestations include paresthesias, diplopia, loss of vision, numbness or weakness of the limbs, bowel or bladder dysfunction, spasticity, ataxia, fatigue, and mental changes. Four main patterns of MS are recognized: relapsing remitting, primary progressive, secondary progressive, and progressive relapsing. The cause of MS is unknown, although it appears to be an autoimmune disease. Much of what is known about MS has been learned from an animal model of the disease, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. PMID:24381825

  13. Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Schiess, Nicoline; Calabresi, Peter A

    2016-08-01

    It is estimated that there are 300,000 people with multiple sclerosis (MS) in the United States and 2.3 million worldwide. Each MS attack can affect function in cognitive, emotional, motoric, sensory, or visual domains. Patients are often struck in the prime of their lives as they attempt to move forward with career, and family. Since the previous 2010 Seminars in Neurology Pearls and Pitfalls issue, the world of MS has drastically changed and advanced. Here the authors address the ever-changing MS world in both treatment options and diagnostics, covering easily missed differential diagnoses, newly available immunomodulatory therapy, and the challenges of safely treating patients. PMID:27643903

  14. Multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, S. Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a clonal plasma cell malignancy that accounts for slightly more than 10% of all hematologic cancers. In this paper, we present a historically focused review of the disease, from the description of the first case in 1844 to the present. The evolution of drug therapy and stem-cell transplantation for the treatment of myeloma, as well as the development of new agents, is discussed. We also provide an update on current concepts of diagnosis and therapy, with an emphasis on how treatments have emerged from a historical perspective after certain important discoveries and the results of experimental studies. PMID:18332230

  15. Scattering-theory analysis of waveguide-resonator coupling

    PubMed

    Xu; Li; Lee; Yariv

    2000-11-01

    Using a formalism similar to the quantum scattering theory, we analyze the problem of coupling between optical waveguides and high Q resonators. We give the optical transmission and reflection coefficients as functions of the waveguide-resonator coupling, cavity loss (gain), and cavity resonant frequency. Based on these results, the recently proposed concept of "critical coupling" is discussed. Using a matrix formalism based on the scattering analysis, we find the dispersion relation of indirectly coupled resonator optical waveguides. The coupling between waveguides and multiple cavities is investigated and the reflection and transmission coefficients are derived.

  16. Entangled mixed-state generation by twin-photon scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Puentes, G.; Aiello, A.; Woerdman, J. P.; Voigt, D.

    2007-03-15

    We report experimental results on mixed-state generation by multiple scattering of polarization-entangled photon pairs created from parametric down-conversion. By using a large variety of scattering optical systems we have experimentally obtained entangled mixed states that lie upon and below the Werner curve in the linear entropy-tangle plane. We have also introduced a simple phenomenological model built on the analogy between classical polarization optics and quantum maps. Theoretical predictions from such a model are in full agreement with our experimental findings.

  17. Deuteron-proton elastic scattering at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Ladygina, N. B.

    2008-12-15

    The deuteron-proton elastic scattering has been studied in the multiple-scattering expansion formalism. Primary attention has been given to such relativistic problems as a deuteron wave function in a moving frame and transformation of spin states due to Wigner rotation. Parametrization of the nucleon-nucleon t matrix has been used to take the off-energy-shell effects into account. The vector, A{sub y}, and tensor, A{sub yy}, analyzing powers of the deuteron have been calculated at two deuteron kinetic energies: 395 and 1200 MeV. The obtained results are compared with the experimental data.

  18. [Multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Abe, Masahiro; Miki, Hirokazu; Nakamura, Shingen

    2016-03-01

    Owing to the positive clinical benefits obtained with new agents, complete remission (CR) can be used as a surrogate for overall survival, and should be achieved. Although multiple myeloma is a heterogeneous disease in terms of myeloma cell- and patient-related risk factors, patients should receive the most effective combination therapy based on proteasome inhibitors and/or immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) as backbone medication irrespective of the risks encountered in the setting of induction therapy ("one-size-fits-all" therapy), followed by consolidation/maintenance therapy to achieve CR with the ultimate goal of extended survival. Myeloma-defining biomarkers have been established to identify high-risk smoldering myeloma requiring treatment. The development of salvage treatments yielding better outcomes for relapsed/refractory myeloma is urgently needed. Upcoming novel molecular targeting agents with different modes of action and immunotherapeutic agents will be integrated into myeloma treatment regimens with a great therapeutic impact, and further evolution of the treatment paradigm for multiple myeloma is eagerly anticipated. PMID:27076236

  19. Electron Scattering from Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    J. Wallace Van Orden

    2002-08-01

    The description of nuclei at distances on the order of a fermi or less poses a difficult challenge for theoretical physicists. At larger distances the traditional description of the nucleus as a collection of interacting nucleons has been quite successful and substantial progress has been made in recent years in describing few-nucleon systems using this approach. However, it has been known for several decades that the nucleons themselves are composite objects which are believed to be described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). QCD is a complicated nonlinear strongly interacting field theory which can only be used for calculation in special circumstances. Due to the property of asymptotic freedom exhibited by QCD, perturbative calculations of QCD can be made at large momentum transfers and have achieved substantial success for a variety of processes. Understanding the transition from traditional pictures of nuclei to QCD is a substantial challenge. As an example of this problem, this paper describes recent calculations of elastic electron-deuteron scattering based on a relativistic extension of the traditional nuclear physics approach. The results of this work are compared to new data obtained at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory and to the predictions of perturbative QCD.

  20. Temporal Scattering And Response

    1992-12-15

    TSAR2.3 (Temporal Scattering and Response) is a finite-difference time-domain electromagnetics code suite. TSAR2.3 is a software package for simulating the interactions of electromagnetic waves with linear materials through the use of the finite-difference time-domain method. The code suite contains grid generation, grid verification, input-file creation and post-processing utilities. The physics package, written in Fortran 77, can be pre-processed to run on many different architectures including Cray, Vax and many Unix workstations. Tools are provided tomore » easily port the code to new computers. The physics package is an efficient, flexible electromagnetic simulator. A body under study can be represented as a three-dimensional grid of materials with arbitrary linear properties. This grid can be simulated in a number of ways including incident plane waves, dipoles, and arbitrary incident fields. The grid can be terminated with numerous boundary conditions including free-space radiation, electric conductor, or magnetic conductor. Projection to the far-field in both the time and frequency domains is possible. This distribution includes make files for installing and maintaining the entire code suite.« less