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Sample records for multiple sine wave

  1. The sine wave protocol: decrease movement time without increasing errors.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Jason B; Kennedy, Deanna M; Wang, Chaoyi; Shea, Charles H

    2014-01-01

    Practice tracking a sine wave template has been shown (J. B. Boyle, D. Kennedy, & C. H. Shea, 2012) to greatly enhance performance on a difficult Fitts task of the same amplitude. The purpose of the experiment was to replicate this finding and determine whether enhancements related to the sine wave practice are specific to the amplitude experienced during the sine wave practice. Following sine wave or Fitts task practice with amplitudes of 16° or 24°, participants were tested under the conditions they had practiced under (Test 1) and then all groups were tested under Fitts task conditions (Test 2; ID = 6, amplitude = 16°). Participants who practiced with the sine wave templates were able to move faster on Test 2 where a 16° amplitude Fitts task was used than participants that had practiced either the 16° or 24° amplitude Fitts tasks. The movements produced by the sine groups on Test 2 were not only faster than the movements of the Fitts groups on Test 2, but dwell time was lower with percent time to peak velocity and harmonicity higher for the Sine groups than for the Fitts groups. The decreased movement times for the sine groups on Test 2 were accomplished with hits or endpoint variability similar to that of the Fitts group.

  2. The Perception of "Sine-Wave Speech" by Adults with Developmental Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosner, Burton S.; Talcott, Joel B.; Witton, Caroline; Hogg, James D.; Richardson, Alexandra J.; Hansen, Peter C.; Stein, John F.

    2003-01-01

    "Sine-wave speech" sentences contain only four frequency-modulated sine waves, lacking many acoustic cues present in natural speech. Adults with (n=19) and without (n=14) dyslexia were asked to reproduce orally sine-wave utterances in successive trials. Results suggest comprehension of sine-wave sentences is impaired in some adults with…

  3. Linear sine wave profiling to machine instability targets

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Derek William; Martinez, John Israel

    2016-08-01

    Specialized machining processes and programming have been developed to deliver thin tin and copper Richtmyer-Meshkov instability targets that have different amplitude perturbations across the face of one 4-in.-diameter target. Typical targets have anywhere from two to five different regions of sine waves that have different amplitudes varying from 4 to 200 μm across the face of the target. The puck is composed of multiple rings that are zero press fit together and diamond turned to create a flat platform with a tolerance of 2 μm for the shock experiment. A custom software program was written in Labview to write the point-to-point program for the diamond-turning profiler through the X-Y-Z movements to cut the pure planar straight sine wave geometry. As a result, the software is optimized to push the profile of the whole part into the face while eliminating any unneeded passes that do not cut any material.

  4. Linear sine wave profiling to machine instability targets

    DOE PAGES

    Schmidt, Derek William; Martinez, John Israel

    2016-08-01

    Specialized machining processes and programming have been developed to deliver thin tin and copper Richtmyer-Meshkov instability targets that have different amplitude perturbations across the face of one 4-in.-diameter target. Typical targets have anywhere from two to five different regions of sine waves that have different amplitudes varying from 4 to 200 μm across the face of the target. The puck is composed of multiple rings that are zero press fit together and diamond turned to create a flat platform with a tolerance of 2 μm for the shock experiment. A custom software program was written in Labview to write themore » point-to-point program for the diamond-turning profiler through the X-Y-Z movements to cut the pure planar straight sine wave geometry. As a result, the software is optimized to push the profile of the whole part into the face while eliminating any unneeded passes that do not cut any material.« less

  5. Advanced Sine Wave Modulation of Continuous Wave Laser System for Atmospheric CO2 Differential Absorption Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with ITT Exelis have been experimenting with Continuous Wave (CW) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) as a means of performing atmospheric CO2 column measurements from space to support the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission.Because range resolving Intensity Modulated (IM) CW lidar techniques presented here rely on matched filter correlations, autocorrelation properties without side lobes or other artifacts are highly desirable since the autocorrelation function is critical for the measurements of lidar return powers, laser path lengths, and CO2 column amounts. In this paper modulation techniques are investigated that improve autocorrelation properties. The modulation techniques investigated in this paper include sine waves modulated by maximum length (ML) sequences in various hardware configurations. A CW lidar system using sine waves modulated by ML pseudo random noise codes is described, which uses a time shifting approach to separate channels and make multiple, simultaneous online/offline differential absorption measurements. Unlike the pure ML sequence, this technique is useful in hardware that is band pass filtered as the IM sine wave carrier shifts the main power band. Both amplitude and Phase Shift Keying (PSK) modulated IM carriers are investigated that exibit perfect autocorrelation properties down to one cycle per code bit. In addition, a method is presented to bandwidth limit the ML sequence based on a Gaussian filter implemented in terms of Jacobi theta functions that does not seriously degrade the resolution or introduce side lobes as a means of reducing aliasing and IM carrier bandwidth.

  6. Variable phase sine wave generator for active phased arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, W. M.

    1992-09-01

    A waveform generator is provided for generating a high frequency waveform. A pulse generator provides a pulse train at a low frequency. A pulse converter converts the pulse train into an alternatingly positive and negative groups of pulses. A bandpass filter passes the alternatingly positive and negative groups of pulses in a frequency band centered at the high frequency to output the generated waveform at the high frequency. When the groups of pulses are a pair of pulses, a sine wave is output from the bandpass filter. A pulse delay circuit can be used to variably delay the pulse train and thereby cause a phase change in the generated waveform.

  7. Recognition of sine wave modeled consonants by normal hearing and hearing-impaired individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, Rupa

    Sine wave modeling is a parametric tool for representing the speech signal with a limited number of sine waves. It involves replacing the peaks of the speech spectrum with sine waves and discarding the rest of the lower amplitude components during synthesis. It has the potential to be used as a speech enhancement technique for hearing-impaired adults. The present study answers the following basic questions: (1) Are sine wave synthesized speech tokens more intelligible than natural speech tokens? (2) What is the effect of varying the number of sine waves on consonant recognition in quiet? (3) What is the effect of varying the number of sine waves on consonant recognition in noise? (4) How does sine wave modeling affect the transmission of speech feature in quiet and in noise? (5) Are there differences in recognition performance between normal hearing and hearing-impaired listeners? VCV syllables representing 20 consonants (/p/, /t/, /k/, /b/, /d/, /g/, /f/, /theta/, /s/, /∫/, /v/, /z/, /t∫/, /dy/, /j/, /w/, /r/, /l/, /m/, /n/) in three vowel contexts (/a/, /i/, /u/) were modeled with 4, 8, 12, and 16 sine waves. A consonant recognition task was performed in quiet, and in background noise (+10 dB and 0 dB SNR). Twenty hearing-impaired listeners and six normal hearing listeners were tested under headphones at their most comfortable listening level. The main findings were: (1) Recognition of unprocessed speech was better that of sine wave modeled speech. (2) Asymptotic performance was reached with 8 sine waves in quiet for both normal hearing and hearing-impaired listeners. (3) Consonant recognition performance in noise improved with increasing number of sine waves. (4) As the number of sine waves was decreased, place information was lost first, followed by manner, and finally voicing. (5) Hearing-impaired listeners made more errors then normal hearing listeners, but there were no differences in the error patterns made by both groups.

  8. Rapid fabrication and characterization of sine wave targets

    SciTech Connect

    Day, R.D.; Armijo, E.; Gobby, P.; Hatch, D.; Rivera, G.; Salzer, L.; Townsend, J.

    1997-09-01

    The effect of surface perturbations on Inertial Confinement Fusion target performance is currently being researched at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). These perturbations can cause hydrodynamic instabilities which in turn reduce the targets` yield. To systematically measure the growth of these instabilities requires targets to be produced which have perturbations of a known amplitude and spatial frequency. The authors have recently assembled hardware onto one of their diamond turning lathes which enables them to machine and measure these sine waves in about 15 minutes. This is a significant reduction in time from the two and one half hours required by the previous method. This paper discusses the hardware, how it works, and how well the system is working for them to produce these targets.

  9. AUDITORY-PHONETIC PROJECTION AND LEXICAL STRUCTURE IN THE RECOGNITION OF SINE-WAVE WORDS

    PubMed Central

    Remez, Robert E.; Dubowski, Kathryn R.; Broder, Robin S.; Davids, Morgana L.; Grossman, Yael S.; Moskalenko, Marina; Pardo, Jennifer S.; Hasbun, Sara Maria

    2010-01-01

    Speech remains intelligible despite the elimination of canonical acoustic correlates of phonemes from the spectrum. A portion of this perceptual flexibility can be attributed to modulation sensitivity in the auditory-to-phonetic projection, though signal-independent properties of lexical neighborhoods also affect intelligibility in utterances composed of words. Three tests were conducted to estimate the effects of exposure to natural and sine-wave samples of speech in this kind of perceptual versatility. First, sine-wave versions of the easy/hard word sets were created, modeled on the speech samples of a single talker. The performance difference in recognition of easy and hard words was used to index the perceptual reliance on signal-independent properties of lexical contrasts. Second, several kinds of exposure produced familiarity with an aspect of sine-wave speech: 1) sine-wave sentences modeled on the same talker; 2) sine-wave sentences modeled on a different talker, to create familiarity with a sine-wave carrier; and 3) natural sentences spoken by the same talker, to create familiarity with the idiolect expressed in the sine-wave words. Recognition performance with both easy and hard sine-wave words improved after exposure only to sine-wave sentences modeled on the same talker. Third, a control test showed that signal-independent uncertainty is a plausible cause of differences in recognition of easy and hard sine-wave words. The conditions of beneficial exposure reveal the specificity of attention underlying versatility in speech perception. PMID:20865138

  10. Brain-wave representation of words by superposition of a few sine waves

    PubMed Central

    Suppes, Patrick; Han, Bing

    2000-01-01

    Data from three previous experiments were analyzed to test the hypothesis that brain waves of spoken or written words can be represented by the superposition of a few sine waves. First, we averaged the data over trials and a set of subjects, and, in one case, over experimental conditions as well. Next we applied a Fourier transform to the averaged data and selected those frequencies with high energy, in no case more than nine in number. The superpositions of these selected sine waves were taken as prototypes. The averaged unfiltered data were the test samples. The prototypes were used to classify the test samples according to a least-squares criterion of fit. The results were seven of seven correct classifications for the first experiment using only three frequencies, six of eight for the second experiment using nine frequencies, and eight of eight for the third experiment using five frequencies. PMID:10890906

  11. Brain-wave representation of words by superposition of a few sine waves.

    PubMed

    Suppes, P; Han, B

    2000-07-18

    Data from three previous experiments were analyzed to test the hypothesis that brain waves of spoken or written words can be represented by the superposition of a few sine waves. First, we averaged the data over trials and a set of subjects, and, in one case, over experimental conditions as well. Next we applied a Fourier transform to the averaged data and selected those frequencies with high energy, in no case more than nine in number. The superpositions of these selected sine waves were taken as prototypes. The averaged unfiltered data were the test samples. The prototypes were used to classify the test samples according to a least-squares criterion of fit. The results were seven of seven correct classifications for the first experiment using only three frequencies, six of eight for the second experiment using nine frequencies, and eight of eight for the third experiment using five frequencies.

  12. Explicit solutions to the intrinsic generalization for the wave and sine-Gordon equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Chaohao; Hu, Hesheng

    1993-09-01

    The Darboux matrix method is used to study intrinsic generalized wave equation and intrinsic generalized sine-Gordon equation which have been studied by Beals and Tenenblat. Explicit formulas for exact solutions are obtained.

  13. Wide-band doubler and sine wave quadrature generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, R. B.

    1969-01-01

    Phase-locked loop with photoresistive control, which provides both sine and cosine outputs for subcarrier demodulation, serves as a telemetry demodulator signal conditioner with a second harmonic signal for synchronization with the locally generated code.

  14. Spatiotemporal chaos in sine-Gordon systems subjected to wave fields: onset and suppression.

    PubMed

    Chacón, R; Bellorín, A; Guerrero, L E; González, J A

    2008-04-01

    The onset of spatiotemporal chaos in a damped sine-Gordon system subjected to a plane wave field as well as its suppression by an additional small-amplitude plane wave field are proposed theoretically and confirmed numerically. The relevance of these findings in the context of nonlinear magnetization waves is discussed.

  15. Analog circuit for the measurement of phase difference between two noisy sine-wave signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakkottai, P.; Kwack, E. Y.; Back, L. H.

    1989-01-01

    A simple circuit was designed to measure the phase difference between two noisy sine waves. It locks over a wide range of frequencies and produces an output proportional to the phase difference of rapidly varying signals. A square wave locked in frequency and phase to the first signal is produced by a phase-locked loop and is amplified by an operational amplifier.

  16. Sine-wave gating InGaAs/InP single photon detector with ultralow afterpulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, De-Yong; Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Qian, Yong-Jun; Zhou, Zheng; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2017-03-01

    Sine-wave gating method is widely used in high-speed single photon detection (SPD) but shows extra afterpulse probability compared with the self-differencing technique. Here, we demonstrate that most extra afterpulses of the sine-wave gating SPD come from successive avalanche signals and distortion of electrical filters and also propose an effective method by removing the wider filtered avalanche signals to reduce the afterpulse probability. At 1 GHz gating frequency, the ultralow afterpulse probability is characterized as 1.0% and 0.54% for a photon detection efficiency of 20.7% and 10.9%, respectively.

  17. Acute effect of alcohol intake on sine-wave Cartesian and polar contrast sensitivity functions

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti-Galdino, M.K.; da Silva, J.A.; Mendes, L.C.; dos Santos, N.A.; Simas, M.L.B.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess contrast sensitivity for angular frequency stimuli as well as for sine-wave gratings in adults under the effect of acute ingestion of alcohol. We measured the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for gratings of 0.25, 1.25, 2.5, 4, 10, and 20 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd) as well as for angular frequency stimuli of 1, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 cycles/360°. Twenty adults free of ocular diseases, with normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, and no history of alcoholism were enrolled in two experimental groups: 1) no alcohol intake (control group) and 2) alcohol ingestion (experimental group). The average concentration of alcohol in the experimental group was set to about 0.08%. We used a paradigm involving a forced-choice method. Maximum sensitivity to contrast for sine-wave gratings in the two groups occurred at 4 cpd sine-wave gratings and at 24 and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Significant changes in contrast sensitivity were observed after alcohol intake compared with the control condition at spatial frequency of 4 cpd and 1, 24, and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Alcohol intake seems to affect the processing of sine-wave gratings at maximum sensitivity and at the low and high frequency ends for angular frequency stimuli, both under photopic luminance conditions. PMID:24676473

  18. Acute effect of alcohol intake on sine-wave Cartesian and polar contrast sensitivity functions.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti-Galdino, M K; Silva, J A da; Mendes, L C; Santos, N A da; Simas, M L B

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess contrast sensitivity for angular frequency stimuli as well as for sine-wave gratings in adults under the effect of acute ingestion of alcohol. We measured the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for gratings of 0.25, 1.25, 2.5, 4, 10, and 20 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd) as well as for angular frequency stimuli of 1, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 cycles/360°. Twenty adults free of ocular diseases, with normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, and no history of alcoholism were enrolled in two experimental groups: 1) no alcohol intake (control group) and 2) alcohol ingestion (experimental group). The average concentration of alcohol in the experimental group was set to about 0.08%. We used a paradigm involving a forced-choice method. Maximum sensitivity to contrast for sine-wave gratings in the two groups occurred at 4 cpd sine-wave gratings and at 24 and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Significant changes in contrast sensitivity were observed after alcohol intake compared with the control condition at spatial frequency of 4 cpd and 1, 24, and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Alcohol intake seems to affect the processing of sine-wave gratings at maximum sensitivity and at the low and high frequency ends for angular frequency stimuli, both under photopic luminance conditions.

  19. A watt-class 1-THz backward-wave oscillator based on sine waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Xiong; Wei Yanyu; Shen Fei; Yin Hairong; Xu Jin; Gong Yubin; Wang Wenxiang

    2012-01-15

    A novel backward wave oscillator was proposed by utilizing a concise sine waveguide slow-wave structure combined with sheet electron beam to operate at terahertz frequency band. First, the design method was described, and the dispersion curve and interaction impedance of the sine waveguide were calculated, then the device oscillation frequency and operating voltage were determined. Next, the circuit transmission losses were learned over the tunable frequency range. Finally, the particle-in-cell simulation method was applied to predict its signal generation performance. The investigation results show that, the backward wave oscillator can produce over 1.9 -W peak power output at the central operating frequency of 1-THz under 27-kV operating voltage and 5-mA beam current. And the interaction efficiency at 1-THz is more than 1.4% with a circuit length of 7.2-mm. It, therefore, will be considered as a promising watt-class terahertz radiation source.

  20. On the solution of the generalized wave and generalized sine-Gordon equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ablowitz, M. J.; Beals, R.; Tenenblat, K.

    1986-01-01

    The generalized wave equation and generalized sine-Gordon equations are known to be natural multidimensional differential geometric generalizations of the classical two-dimensional versions. In this paper, a system of linear differential equations is associated with these equations, and it is shown how the direct and inverse problems can be solved for appropriately decaying data on suitable lines. An initial-boundary value problem is solved for these equations.

  1. Deterministic approach for multiple-source tsunami hazard assessment for Sines, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wronna, M.; Omira, R.; Baptista, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we present a deterministic approach to tsunami hazard assessment for the city and harbour of Sines, Portugal, one of the test sites of project ASTARTE (Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe). Sines has one of the most important deep-water ports, which has oil-bearing, petrochemical, liquid-bulk, coal, and container terminals. The port and its industrial infrastructures face the ocean southwest towards the main seismogenic sources. This work considers two different seismic zones: the Southwest Iberian Margin and the Gloria Fault. Within these two regions, we selected a total of six scenarios to assess the tsunami impact at the test site. The tsunami simulations are computed using NSWING, a Non-linear Shallow Water model wIth Nested Grids. In this study, the static effect of tides is analysed for three different tidal stages: MLLW (mean lower low water), MSL (mean sea level), and MHHW (mean higher high water). For each scenario, the tsunami hazard is described by maximum values of wave height, flow depth, drawback, maximum inundation area and run-up. Synthetic waveforms are computed at virtual tide gauges at specific locations outside and inside the harbour. The final results describe the impact at the Sines test site considering the single scenarios at mean sea level, the aggregate scenario, and the influence of the tide on the aggregate scenario. The results confirm the composite source of Horseshoe and Marques de Pombal faults as the worst-case scenario, with wave heights of over 10 m, which reach the coast approximately 22 min after the rupture. It dominates the aggregate scenario by about 60 % of the impact area at the test site, considering maximum wave height and maximum flow depth. The HSMPF scenario inundates a total area of 3.5 km2.

  2. Criteria for representing circular arc and sine wave spar webs by non-curved elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    The basic problem of how to simply represent a curved web of a spar in a finite element structural model was addressed. The ratio of flat web to curved web axial deformations and longitudinal rotations were calculated using NASTRAN models. Multiplying factors were developed from these calculations for various web thicknesses. These multiplying factors can be applied directly to the area and moment of inertia inputs of the finite element model. This allows the thermal stress relieving configurations of sine wave and circular arc webs to be simply accounted for in finite element structural models.

  3. A Simple Robust PID Controller Design Method Based on Sine Wave Identification of the Uncertain Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucz, Štefan; Marič, Ladislav; Harsányi, Ladislav; Veselý, Vojtech

    2010-05-01

    The paper deals with the development and application of a new simple empirical approach to the design of robust PID controllers for technological processes in industrial practice. The main advantage of the proposed approach is the possibility to specify the required performance before the design algorithm implementation. Identification of characteristic data of the black-box type plant with varying parameters is carried out using the sine wave excitation signal, thus allowing to design the controller without necessarily knowing the mathematical model of the plant. The proposed approach has been verified on a real-world physical process.

  4. Comparison of IPDA lidar receiver sensitivity for coherent detection and for direct detection using sine-wave and pulsed modulation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoli; Abshire, James B

    2012-09-10

    We use theoretical models to compare the receiver signal to noise ratio (SNR) vs. average rate of detected signal photons for an integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar using coherent detection with continuous wave (CW) lasers and direct detection with sine-wave and pulse modulations. The results show the coherent IPDA lidar has high receiver gain and narrow bandwidth to overcome the effects of detector circuit noise and background light, but the actual receiver performance can be limited by the coherent mixing efficiency, speckle and other factors. For direct detection, using sine-wave modulation allows the use of a low peak power laser transmitter and synchronous detection. The pulse modulation technique requires higher laser peak powers but is more efficient than sine-wave modulation in terms of average detected signal photon rate required to achieve a given receiver SNR. We also conducted experiments for the direct detection cases and the results agreed well with theory.

  5. Speech perception of sine-wave signals by children with cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Nittrouer, Susan; Kuess, Jamie; Lowenstein, Joanna H.

    2015-01-01

    Children need to discover linguistically meaningful structures in the acoustic speech signal. Being attentive to recurring, time-varying formant patterns helps in that process. However, that kind of acoustic structure may not be available to children with cochlear implants (CIs), thus hindering development. The major goal of this study was to examine whether children with CIs are as sensitive to time-varying formant structure as children with normal hearing (NH) by asking them to recognize sine-wave speech. The same materials were presented as speech in noise, as well, to evaluate whether any group differences might simply reflect general perceptual deficits on the part of children with CIs. Vocabulary knowledge, phonemic awareness, and “top-down” language effects were all also assessed. Finally, treatment factors were examined as possible predictors of outcomes. Results showed that children with CIs were as accurate as children with NH at recognizing sine-wave speech, but poorer at recognizing speech in noise. Phonemic awareness was related to that recognition. Top-down effects were similar across groups. Having had a period of bimodal stimulation near the time of receiving a first CI facilitated these effects. Results suggest that children with CIs have access to the important time-varying structure of vocal-tract formants. PMID:25994709

  6. Mapping displacement and deformation of the heart with local sine-wave modeling.

    PubMed

    Arts, T; Prinzen, Frits W; Delhaas, T; Milles, J R; Rossi, Alessandro C; Clarysse, Patrick

    2010-05-01

    The new SinMod method extracts motion from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-tagged (MRIT) image sequences. Image intensity in the environment of each pixel is modeled as a moving sine wavefront. Displacement is estimated at subpixel accuracy. Performance is compared with the harmonic-phase analysis (HARP) method, which is currently the most common method used to detect motion in MRIT images. SinMod can handle line tags, as well as speckle patterns. In artificial images (tag distance six pixels), SinMod detects displacements accurately (error < 0.02 pixels). Effects of noise are suppressed effectively. Sharp transitions in motion at the boundary of an object are smeared out over a width of 0.6 tag distance. For MRIT images of the heart, SinMod appears less sensitive to artifacts, especially later in the cardiac cycle when image quality deteriorates. For each pixel, the quality of the sine-wave model in describing local image intensity is quantified objectively. If local quality is low, artifacts are avoided by averaging motion over a larger environment. Summarizing, SinMod is just as fast as HARP, but it performs better with respect to accuracy of displacement detection, noise reduction, and avoidance of artifacts.

  7. Study of a high power sine waveguide traveling wave tube amplifier centered at 8 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, Brad W.; Simon, David S.; French, David M.; Lau, Y. Y.; Wong, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    Performance of a 20-stage X-band sine waveguide amplifier, driven by a 40 A, 100 kV, cylindrical electron beam, is studied using numerical simulation and interpreted using Pierce's classical traveling wave tube theory. For an input signal power level of 1.8 kW, particle-in-cell simulations predict gain and bandwidth values exceeding 14 dB and 13%, respectively. For an input signal power level of 7.2 kW, particle-in-cell simulations predict gain and bandwidth values exceeding 12 dB and 15%, respectively, with output power levels exceeding 110 kW at peak gain. Also given are: an assessment of the space charge factor (Pierce's QC parameter) for the complex circuit using simulation data, and an evaluation of the harmonic contents in the beam current.

  8. Obtaining changes in calibration-coil to seismometer output constants using sine waves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringler, Adam T.; Hutt, Charles R.; Gee, Lind S.; Sandoval, Leo D.; Wilson, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The midband sensitivity of a broadband seismometer is one of the most commonly used parameters from station metadata. Thus, it is critical for station operators to robustly estimate this quantity with a high degree of accuracy. We develop an in situ method for estimating changes in sensitivity using sine‐wave calibrations, assuming the calibration coil and its drive are stable over time and temperature. This approach has been used in the past for passive instruments (e.g., geophones) but has not been applied, to our knowledge, to derive sensitivities of modern force‐feedback broadband seismometers. We are able to detect changes in sensitivity to well within 1%, and our method is capable of detecting these sensitivity changes using any frequency of sine calibration within the passband of the instrument.

  9. Nonlinear disintegration of sine wave in the framework of the Gardner equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurkin, Andrey; Talipova, Tatiana; Kurkina, Oxana; Rouvinskaya, Ekaterina; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2016-04-01

    Nonlinear disintegration of sine wave is studied in the framework of the Gardner equation (extended version of the Korteweg - de Vries equation with both quadratic and cubic nonlinear terms). Undular bores appear here as an intermediate stage of wave evolution. Our numerical computations demonstrate the features of undular bore developing for different signs of the cubic nonlinear term. If cubic nonlinear term is negative, and initial wave amplitude is large enough, two undular bores are generated from the two breaking points formed on both crest slopes (within dispersionless Gardner equation). Undular bore consists of one table-top soliton and a group of small soliton-like waves passing through the table-top soliton. If the cubic nonlinear term is positive and again the wave amplitude is large enough, the breaking points appear on crest and trough generating groups of positive and negative solitary-like pulses. It is shown that nonlinear interaction of waves happens according to one of scenarios of two-soliton interaction of "exchange" or "overtake" types with a phase shift. If small-amplitude pulses interact with large-amplitude soliton-like pulses, their speed in average is negative in the case when "free" velocity is positive. Nonlinear interaction leads to the generation of higher harmonics and spectrum width increases with amplitude increase independently of the sign of cubic nonlinear term. The breaking asymptotic k4/3 predicted within the dispersionless Gardner equation emerges during the process of undular bore development. The formation of soliton-like perturbations leads to appearance of several spectral peaks which are downshifting with time.

  10. Determination of the number of cells in a stepped sine wave inverter for equal charge transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelbaum, J.; Gabbay, D.

    1985-07-01

    The synthesis of an inverter sine wave output voltage by a staircase wave shape of low level voltage sources (cells) is accomplished by combining the cells in series at specific time intervals. Different cells of the inverter are then connected to the load for different time durations which results in unequal discharging of the cells. In order for the cells to transfer equal charge during the system operation, each voltage step should consist of a different number of cells in a parallel combination (module), the number of which depends on the time along the wave shape. The number of cells in each module is determined from the circuit current analysis and the appropriate switching time intervals, and is performed for a resistive and an inductive load. This number depends on the number of inverter voltage steps, the cell internal resistance, and the type of the load. The proper number of cells in the modules ensures identical state of charge of the cells, and equal cell recharging, and simplifies cell inspection, maintenance, and replacement.

  11. Scenario Based Approach for Multiple Source Tsunami Hazard Assessment for Sines, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wronna, Martin; Omira, Rachid; Baptista, Maria Ana

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we present a scenario-based approach for tsunami hazard assessment for the city and harbour of Sines, Portugal one the test-sites of project ASTARTE. Sines holds one of the most important deep-water ports which contains oil-bearing, petrochemical, liquid bulk, coal and container terminals. The port and its industrial infrastructures are facing the ocean to the southwest facing the main seismogenic sources. This work considers two different seismic zones: the Southwest Iberian Margin and the Gloria Fault. Within these two regions, a total of five scenarios were selected to assess tsunami impact at the test site. These scenarios correspond to the worst-case credible scenario approach based upon the largest events of the historical and paleo tsunami catalogues. The tsunami simulations from the source area towards the coast is carried out using NSWING a Non-linear Shallow Water Model With Nested Grids. The code solves the non-linear shallow water equations using the discretization and explicit leap-frog finite difference scheme, in a Cartesian or Spherical frame. The initial sea surface displacement is assumed to be equal to the sea bottom deformation that is computed by Okada equations. Both uniform and non-uniform slip conditions are used. The presented results correspond to the models using non-uniform slip conditions. In this study, the static effect of tides is analysed for three different tidal stages MLLW (mean lower low water) MSL (mean sea level) and MHHW (mean higher high water). For each scenario, inundation is described by maximum values of wave height, flow depth, drawdown, run-up and inundation distance. Synthetic waveforms are computed at virtual tide gages at specific locations outside and inside the harbour. The final results consist of Aggregate Scenario Maps presented for the different inundation parameters. This work is funded by ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839

  12. Study of flow induced by sine wave and saw tooth plasma actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhifeng; Wang, Lianze; Fu, Song

    2011-11-01

    The effect of plasma actuator that uses saw-tooth or sine-wave shape electrodes on boundary layer flows is experimentally investigated. The measurement results are compared with a corresponding standard configuration (conventional design using two rectangular strip electrodes)—the actuator that produces a nearly two-dimensional horizontal wall jet upon actuation. PIV measurements are used to characterize the actuators in a quiescent chamber. Operating in a steady manner, the new actuators result in the formation of streamwise and spanwise vortices. That is to say, the new actuators render the plasma actuators inducing three-dimensional variations in the shear layer, offering significant flexibility in flow control. The affected flowfield with the new actuators is significantly larger than that with the conventional linear actuators. While the conventional linear actuators affect primarily the boundary layer flow on a scale of about 1 cm above the wall, the new actuators affect the near wall region at a significantly larger scale. This new design broadens the applicability and enhances the flow control effects and it is potentially a more efficient flow control device.

  13. Verification of low frequency ac-dc transfer differences of thermal converters using sampling with sine-wave fit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funck, Torsten; Spiegel, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Thermal converters show significant ac-dc transfer differences at low frequencies due to nonlinearities of the heat transport mechanism and of the thermal-to-electric conversion. It is assumed that the ac-dc transfer differences at low frequencies are proportional to the input power. We have proved this assumption by an independent method with sampling techniques. A novel approach based on sine-wave fitting is used to calculate the RMS value of the sampled signal from the samples. It makes use of the low noise in a metrological environment. Expanded uncertainties in the order of 1.2 μV/V have been achieved.

  14. Towards mitigating the effect of sine-Gaussian noise transients on searches for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Sukanta; Dhurandhar, Sanjeev; Gupta, Anuradha; Lundgren, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    Gravitational wave signals were recently detected directly by LIGO from the coalescences of two stellar mass black hole pairs. These detections have strengthened our long held belief that compact binary coalescences (CBCs) are the most promising gravitational wave detection prospects accessible to ground-based interferometric detectors. For detecting CBC signals, it is of vital importance to characterize and identify non-Gaussian and nonstationary noise in these detectors. In this work, we model two important classes of transient artifacts that contribute to this noise and adversely affect the detector sensitivity to CBC signals. One of them is the sine-Gaussian "glitch," characterized by a central frequency f0 and a quality factor Q and the other is the chirping sine-Gaussian glitch, which is characterized by f0, Q as well as a chirp parameter. We study the response that a bank of compact binary inspiral templates has to these two families of glitches when they are used to match filter data containing any of these glitches. Two important characteristics of this response are the distributions of the signal-to-noise ratio and the time lag (i.e., how long after the occurrence of a glitch the signal-to-noise ratio of a trigger arises from its matched filtering by a template peaks) of individual templates. We show how these distributions differ from those when the detector data has a real CBC signal instead of a glitch. We argue that these distinctions can be utilized to develop useful signal-artifact discriminators that add negligibly to the computational cost of a CBC search. Specifically, we show how the central frequency of a glitch can be used to set adaptive time windows around it so that any template trigger occurring in that window can be quarantined for further vetting of its supposed astrophysical nature. Second, we recommend focusing efforts on reducing the incidence of glitches with low central-frequency values because they create CBC triggers with the

  15. Nonlinear disintegration of sine wave in the framework of the Gardner equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurkina, Oxana; Rouvinskaya, Ekaterina; Talipova, Tatiana; Kurkin, Andrey; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2016-10-01

    Internal tidal wave entering shallow waters transforms into an undular bore and this process can be described in the framework of the Gardner equation (extended version of the Korteweg-de Vries equation with both quadratic and cubic nonlinear terms). Our numerical computations demonstrate the features of undular bore developing for different signs of the cubic nonlinear term. If cubic nonlinear term is negative, and initial wave amplitude is large enough, two undular bores are generated from the two breaking points formed on both crest slopes (within dispersionless Gardner equation). Undular bore consists of one table-top soliton and a group of small soliton-like waves passing through the table-top soliton. If the cubic nonlinear term is positive and again the wave amplitude is large enough, the breaking points appear on crest and trough generating groups of positive and negative soliton-like pulses. This is the main difference with respect to the classic Korteweg-de Vries equation, where the breaking point is single. It is shown also that nonlinear interaction of waves happens similarly to one of scenarios of two-soliton interaction of "exchange" or "overtake" types with a phase shift. If small-amplitude pulses interact with large-amplitude soliton-like pulses, their speed in average is negative in the case when "free" velocity is positive. Nonlinear interaction leads to the generation of higher harmonics and spectrum width increases with amplitude increase independently of the sign of cubic nonlinear term. The breaking asymptotic k 4 / 3 predicted within the dispersionless Gardner equation emerges during the process of undular bore development. The formation of soliton-like perturbations leads to appearance of several spectral peaks which are downshifting with time.

  16. New Algorithms for the Detection and Elimination of Sine Waves and Other Narrow-Band Signals in the Presence of Broadband Signals and Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    SUBJECT TERMS (ConinL’e on revE’Se if necessary and tdcntit) b) block number) FIE.D GROI P SuB-GIOut, narrow-band interference removal adaptive...notches, the notches will jump at random between sine waves. This pattern is indicated in the table by the word "Jump". 4. Values of pain and pa., in the

  17. Modulated Sine Waves for Differential Absorption Measurements Using a CW Laser System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F. (Inventor); Lin, Bing (Inventor); Nehrir, Amin R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A continuous wave Light Detection and Ranging (CW LiDAR) system utilizes two or more laser frequencies and time or range shifted pseudorandom noise (PN) codes to discriminate between the laser frequencies. The performance of these codes can be improved by subtracting out the bias before processing. The CW LiDAR system may be mounted to an artificial satellite orbiting the earth, and the relative strength of the return signal for each frequency can be utilized to determine the concentration of selected gases or other substances in the atmosphere.

  18. Recirculation in multiple wave conversions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, A. N.; Brizard, A.J.; Kaufman, A.N.; Tracy, E.R.

    2008-07-30

    A one-dimensional multiple wave-conversion model is constructed that allows energy recirculation in ray phase space. Using a modular eikonal approach, the connection coefficients for this model are calculated by ray phase-space methods. Analytical results (confirmed numerically) show that all connection coefficients exhibit interference effects that depend on an interference phase, calculated from the coupling constants and the area enclosed by the intersecting rays. This conceptual model, which focuses on the topology of intersecting rays in phase space, is used to investigate how mode conversion between primary and secondary waves is modified by the presence of a tertiary wave.

  19. Receiver Signal to Noise Ratios for IPDA Lidars Using Sine-wave and Pulsed Laser Modulation and Direct Detections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Abshire, James B.

    2011-01-01

    seeder lasers, one on-line and one offline that are intensity modulated by two different frequency sine-waves signals before being amplified by a common laser amplifier. The receiver uses narrowband amplitude demodulation, or lock-in, Signal processing at the given laser modulation frequencies [3,4]. The laser transmitter operates in a quasi CW mode with the peak power equal to twice the average power. The on-line and off-line lasers can be transmitted at the same time without interference. Another direct detection technique uses a low duty cycle pulsed laser modulation [5,6] with the laser wavelengths alternating between on-line and off-line on successive pulses. The receiver uses time resolved detection and can also provide simultaneous target range measurement. With a lower laser duty cycle it requires a much higher peak laser power for the same average power.

  20. Sine-Gordon Equation in (1+2) and (1+3) dimensions: Existence and Classification of Traveling-Wave Solutions.

    PubMed

    Zarmi, Yair

    2015-01-01

    The (1+1)-dimensional Sine-Gordon equation passes integrability tests commonly applied to nonlinear evolution equations. Its kink solutions (one-dimensional fronts) are obtained by a Hirota algorithm. In higher space-dimensions, the equation does not pass these tests. Although it has been derived over the years for quite a few physical systems that have nothing to do with Special Relativity, the Sine-Gordon equation emerges as a non-linear relativistic wave equation. This opens the way for exploiting the tools of the Theory of Special Relativity. Using no more than the relativistic kinematics of tachyonic momentum vectors, from which the solutions are constructed through the Hirota algorithm, the existence and classification of N-moving-front solutions of the (1+2)- and (1+3)-dimensional equations for all N ≥ 1 are presented. In (1+2) dimensions, each multi-front solution propagates rigidly at one velocity. The solutions are divided into two subsets: Solutions whose velocities are lower than a limiting speed, c = 1, or are greater than or equal to c. To connect with concepts of the Theory of Special Relativity, c will be called "the speed of light." In (1+3)-dimensions, multi-front solutions are characterized by spatial structure and by velocity composition. The spatial structure is either planar (rotated (1+2)-dimensional solutions), or genuinely three-dimensional--branes. Planar solutions, propagate rigidly at one velocity, which is lower than, equal to, or higher than c. Branes must contain clusters of fronts whose speed exceeds c = 1. Some branes are "hybrids": different clusters of fronts propagate at different velocities. Some velocities may be lower than c but some must be equal to, or exceed, c. Finally, the speed of light cannot be approached from within the subset of slower-than-light solutions in both (1+2) and (1+3) dimensions.

  1. Pain relief by transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation with bidirectional modulated sine waves in patients with chronic back pain: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Shimoji, Koki; Takahashi, Norio; Nishio, Yasuyuki; Koyanagi, Mika; Aida, Sumihisa

    2007-01-01

    Objectives.  Newly developed bidirectional modulated sine waves (BMW) might provide some derived benefit to patients with low back pain. Pain relief by transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) with BMWs was tested. Materials and Methods.  Analgesic effects of BMWs and conventional bidirectional pulsed waves on chronic back pain in 28 patients were compared, and effects of repeated TENS using BMWs on chronic back pain were investigated in 21 patients by means of a randomized double-blind, sham-controlled, parallel-group method. Pain intensity was assessed using numerical rating scale (NRS). Results.  There was significant immediate reduction in NRS in patients receiving BMWs, and 60 min after treatment compared to sham TENS. Weekly repeated treatments using massage and TENS with BMWs for 5 weeks resulted in a decrease of NRS, but there were no significant differences between the TENS plus massage and sham TENS plus massage groups. Conclusions.  This study shows that TENS with BMWs significantly inhibits chronic back pain, and treatment effects are attained within a day. The results also suggest that there were no statistically significant long-term effects of TENS with BMW in the repeated treatment.

  2. Propagation and excitation of multiple surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faryad, Muhammad

    Surface waves are the solutions of the frequency-domain Maxwell equations at the planar interface of two dissimilar materials. The time-averaged Poynting vector of a surface wave (i) has a significant component parallel to the interface and (ii) decays at sufficiently large distances normal to the interface. If one of the partnering materials is a metal and the other a dielectric, the surface waves are called surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) waves. If both partnering materials are dielectric, with at least one being periodically nonhomogeneous normal to the interface, the surface waves are called Tamm waves; and if that dielectric material is also anisotropic, the surface waves are called Dyakonov--Tamm waves. SPP waves also decays along the direction of propagation, whereas Tamm and Dyakonov--Tamm waves propagate with negligible losses. The propagation and excitation of multiple SPP waves guided by the interface of a metal with a periodically nonhomogeneous sculptured nematic thin film (SNTF), and the interface of a metal with a rugate filter were theoretically investigated. The SNTF is an anisotropic material with a permittivity dyadic that is periodically nonhomogeneous in the thickness direction. A rugate filter is also a periodically nonhomogeneous dielectric material; however, it is an isotropic material. Multiple SPP waves of the same frequency but with different polarization states, phase speeds, attenuation rates, and spatial field profiles were found to be guided by a metal/SNTF interface, a metal/rugate-filter interface, and a metal slab in the SNTF. Multiple Dyakonov--Tamm waves of the same frequency but different polarization states, phase speeds, and spatial field profiles were found to be guided by a structural defect in an SNTF, and by a dielectric slab in an SNTF. The characteristics of multiple SPP and Dyakonov--Tamm waves were established by the investigations on canonical boundary-value problems. The Turbadar-Kretschmann-Raether (TKR) and the

  3. Shape and wobbling wave excitations in Josephson junctions: Exact solutions of the (2+1) -dimensional sine-Gordon model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulevich, D. R.; Kusmartsev, F. V.; Savel'Ev, Sergey; Yampol'Skii, V. A.; Nori, Franco

    2009-09-01

    We predict a class of excitations propagating along a Josephson vortex in two-dimensional Josephson junctions. These excitations are associated with the distortion of a Josephson vortex line of an arbitrary profile. We derive a universal analytical expression for the energy of arbitrary-shape excitations, investigate their influence on the dynamics of a vortex line, and discuss conditions where such excitations can be created. Finally, we show that such excitations play the role of a clock for a relativistically-moving Josephson vortex and suggest an experiment to measure a time-dilation effect analogous to that in special relativity. The position of the shape excitation on a Josephson vortex acts like a “minute hand” showing the time in the rest frame associated with the vortex. Remarkably, at some conditions, the shape wave can carry negative energy: a vortex with the shape excitation can have less energy than the same vortex without it.

  4. Genetic code for sine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Alyasa Gan; Wah, Yap Bee

    2015-02-01

    The computation of the approximate values of the trigonometric sines was discovered by Bhaskara I (c. 600-c.680), a seventh century Indian mathematician and is known as the Bjaskara's I's sine approximation formula. The formula is given in his treatise titled Mahabhaskariya. In the 14th century, Madhava of Sangamagrama, a Kerala mathematician astronomer constructed the table of trigonometric sines of various angles. Madhava's table gives the measure of angles in arcminutes, arcseconds and sixtieths of an arcsecond. The search for more accurate formulas led to the discovery of the power series expansion by Madhava of Sangamagrama (c.1350-c. 1425), the founder of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics. In 1715, the Taylor series was introduced by Brook Taylor an English mathematician. If the Taylor series is centered at zero, it is called a Maclaurin series, named after the Scottish mathematician Colin Maclaurin. Some of the important Maclaurin series expansions include trigonometric functions. This paper introduces the genetic code of the sine of an angle without using power series expansion. The genetic code using square root approach reveals the pattern in the signs (plus, minus) and sequence of numbers in the sine of an angle. The square root approach complements the Pythagoras method, provides a better understanding of calculating an angle and will be useful for teaching the concepts of angles in trigonometry.

  5. Multiple-frequency tomography with shear waves and Love waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yue

    In this thesis I study the velocity and attenuation structure of the North American mantle using multiple-frequency shear-wave and Love-wave measurements, together with finite-frequency sensitivity kernels. The software for dynamic ray tracing and fast computation of body-wave finite-frequency sensitivity kernels is described and extensively validated and tested for accuracy. The program works for arbitrarily defined phases and one-dimensional background models. In kinematic and dynamic ray tracing, an integration step size of about 20 km is needed to produce travel-time errors under 0.1 s for the most common seismic phases. In kernel computation, a minimum integration step size of 10--30 km is sufficient to obtain numerical errors of the kernel's spatial quadrature below observational uncertainties. Larger errors may occur for long-period minimax phases such as SS . The paraxial approximation fails and errors become intolerable at epicentral distances larger than 140°. A global data set is built to contain multiple-frequency SH-wave travel-time and amplitude anomalies and SS-wave differential delays, estimated by band-pass filtering and cross-correlation. Most of the data are recorded at USArray stations. Frequency dependence is observed for all three types of data, and is strongest for amplitudes. The shallow structure is constrained by the addition of Love-wave phase delays. Velocity and attenuation heterogeneities are simultaneously estimated by allowing for focusing. The velocity model shows evidence of heavy fragmentation of the Farallon slab, including two separate subduction systems under western and eastern North America respectively, trench-perpendicular slab tears, and blob-like slab fragments in the lower mantle. The velocity model reveals a lower-mantle plume originating at about 1500 km depth beneath the Yellowstone area and tilting about 40° from vertical. Complex interaction between the plume and slab fragments is observed. High correlation

  6. Squared sine logistic map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Carvalho, R. Egydio; Leonel, Edson D.

    2016-12-01

    A periodic time perturbation is introduced in the logistic map as an attempt to investigate new scenarios of bifurcations and new mechanisms toward the chaos. With a squared sine perturbation we observe that a point attractor reaches the chaotic attractor without following a cascade of bifurcations. One fixed point of the system presents a new scenario of bifurcations through an infinite sequence of alternating changes of stability. At the bifurcations, the perturbation does not modify the scaling features observed in the convergence toward the stationary state.

  7. Identification of a family of SINEs and LINEs in the Pipistrellus kuhli genome: a new structural and functional symbiotic relationship.

    PubMed

    Fantaccione, Stefania; Woodrow, Pasqualina; Pontecorvo, Giovanni

    2008-02-01

    We initially describe a novel tRNA-derived SINE family, abundantly and randomly distributed in the genome of the bat Pipistrellus kuhli. We present evidence that the LINE retrotransposition machinery is recruited for the creation of a new chimerical retrotranscript constituted by the partial LINE reverse transcriptase ORF2, which is interrupted by the SINE15 retrotransposon. Structural homology between SINE15 and Homo sapiens helix 6 7SL RNA allows us to propose multiple genome partners for SINE retrotransposition, such as SRP proteins and LINE enzymatic machinery. Moreover, on the basis of the LINE and SINE/LINE chimerical transcripts, we propose a mutual relationship between SINE and LINE retrotransposons.

  8. Genomic gems: SINE RNAs regulate mRNA production.

    PubMed

    Ponicsan, Steven L; Kugel, Jennifer F; Goodrich, James A

    2010-04-01

    Mammalian short interspersed elements (SINEs) are abundant retrotransposons that have long been considered junk DNA; however, RNAs transcribed from mouse B2 and human Alu SINEs have recently been found to control mRNA production at multiple levels. Upon cell stress B2 and Alu RNAs bind RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and repress transcription of some protein-encoding genes. Bi-directional transcription of a B2 SINE establishes a boundary that places the growth hormone locus in a permissive chromatin state during mouse development. Alu RNAs embedded in Pol II transcripts can promote evolution and proteome diversity through exonization via alternative splicing. Given the diverse means by which SINE encoded RNAs impact production of mRNAs, this genomic junk is proving to contain hidden gems.

  9. MetaSINEs: Broad Distribution of a Novel SINE Superfamily in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Nishihara, Hidenori; Plazzi, Federico; Passamonti, Marco; Okada, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    SINEs (short interspersed elements) are transposable elements that typically originate independently in each taxonomic clade (order/family). However, some SINE families share a highly similar central sequence and are thus categorized as a SINE superfamily. Although only four SINE superfamilies (CORE-SINEs, V-SINEs, DeuSINEs, and Ceph-SINEs) have been reported so far, it is expected that new SINE superfamilies would be discovered by deep exploration of new SINEs in metazoan genomes. Here we describe 15 SINEs, among which 13 are novel, that have a similar 66-bp central region and therefore constitute a new SINE superfamily, MetaSINEs. MetaSINEs are distributed from fish to cnidarians, suggesting their common evolutionary origin at least 640 Ma. Because the 3′ tails of MetaSINEs are variable, these SINEs most likely survived by changing their partner long interspersed elements for retrotransposition during evolution. Furthermore, we examined the presence of members of other SINE superfamilies in bivalve genomes and characterized eight new SINEs belonging to the CORE-SINEs, V-SINEs, and DeuSINEs, in addition to the MetaSINEs. The broad distribution of bivalve SINEs suggests that at least three SINEs originated in the common ancestor of Bivalvia. Our comparative analysis of the central domains of the SINEs revealed that, in each superfamily, only a restricted region is shared among all of its members. Because the functions of the central domains of the SINE superfamilies remain unknown, such structural information of SINE superfamilies will be useful for future experimental and comparative analyses to reveal why they have been retained in metazoan genomes during evolution. PMID:26872770

  10. A secure double-image sharing scheme based on Shamir's three-pass protocol and 2D Sine Logistic modulation map in discrete multiple-parameter fractional angular transform domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Liansheng; Duan, Kuaikuai; Liang, Junli

    2016-05-01

    A secure double-image sharing scheme is proposed by using the Shamir's three-pass protocol in the discrete multiple-parameter fractional angular transform domain. First, an enlarged image is formed by assembling two plain images successively in the horizontal direction and scrambled in the chaotic permutation process, in which the sequences of chaotic pairs are generated by the two-dimensional Sine Logistic modulation map. Second, the scrambled image is divided into two components which are used to constitute a complex image. One component is normalized and regarded as the phase part of the complex image as well as other is considered as the amplitude part. Finally, the complex image is shared between the sender and the receiver by using the Shamir's three-pass protocol, in which the discrete multiple-parameter fractional angular transform is used as the encryption function due to its commutative property. The proposed double-image sharing scheme has an obvious advantage that the key management is convenient without distributing the random phase mask keys in advance. Moreover, the security of the image sharing scheme is enhanced with the help of extra parameters of the discrete multiple-parameter fractional angular transform. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on integrating the Shamir's three-pass protocol with double-image sharing scheme in the information security field. Simulation results and security analysis verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  11. Leaky-wave multiple dichroic beamformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, J. R.; Kinany, S. J. A.; Peel, P. D.; Andrasic, G.

    1989-08-01

    It is demonstrated that multiple frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) placed parallel to a low-directivity aperture exhibit useful beamforming properties at the expense of a narrowing of the radiation pattern bandwidth and a thicker structure. The beam-forming techniques are very compatible with printed technology employing layers of metal foil and low-permittivity dielectric materials. The application of the technique to a microstrip patch antenna is used as an example.

  12. Multiple scattering induced negative refraction of matter waves

    PubMed Central

    Pinsker, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Starting from fundamental multiple scattering theory it is shown that negative refraction indices are feasible for matter waves passing a well-defined ensemble of scatterers. A simple approach to this topic is presented and explicit examples for systems of scatterers in 1D and 3D are stated that imply negative refraction for a generic incoming quantum wave packet. Essential features of the effective scattering field, densities and frequency spectrum of scatterers are considered. Additionally it is shown that negative refraction indices allow perfect transmission of the wave passing the ensemble of scatterers. Finally the concept of the superlens is discussed, since it is based on negative refraction and can be extended to matter waves utilizing the observations presented in this paper which thus paves the way to ‘untouchable’ quantum systems in analogy to cloaking devices for electromagnetic waves. PMID:26857266

  13. Multiple scattering induced negative refraction of matter waves.

    PubMed

    Pinsker, Florian

    2016-02-09

    Starting from fundamental multiple scattering theory it is shown that negative refraction indices are feasible for matter waves passing a well-defined ensemble of scatterers. A simple approach to this topic is presented and explicit examples for systems of scatterers in 1D and 3D are stated that imply negative refraction for a generic incoming quantum wave packet. Essential features of the effective scattering field, densities and frequency spectrum of scatterers are considered. Additionally it is shown that negative refraction indices allow perfect transmission of the wave passing the ensemble of scatterers. Finally the concept of the superlens is discussed, since it is based on negative refraction and can be extended to matter waves utilizing the observations presented in this paper which thus paves the way to 'untouchable' quantum systems in analogy to cloaking devices for electromagnetic waves.

  14. Application of the sine-Poisson equation in solar magnetostatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, G. M.; Zank, G. P.

    1990-01-01

    Solutions of the sine-Poisson equations are used to construct a class of isothermal magnetostatic atmospheres, with one ignorable coordinate corresponding to a uniform gravitational field in a plane geometry. The distributed current in the model (j) is directed along the x-axis, where x is the horizontal ignorable coordinate; (j) varies as the sine of the magnetostatic potential and falls off exponentially with distance vertical to the base with an e-folding distance equal to the gravitational scale height. Solutions for the magnetostatic potential A corresponding to the one-soliton, two-soliton, and breather solutions of the sine-Gordon equation are studied. Depending on the values of the free parameters in the soliton solutions, horizontally periodic magnetostatic structures are obtained possessing either a single X-type neutral point, multiple neural X-points, or solutions without X-points.

  15. Multiple attenuation to reflection seismic data using Radon filter and Wave Equation Multiple Rejection (WEMR) method

    SciTech Connect

    Erlangga, Mokhammad Puput

    2015-04-16

    Separation between signal and noise, incoherent or coherent, is important in seismic data processing. Although we have processed the seismic data, the coherent noise is still mixing with the primary signal. Multiple reflections are a kind of coherent noise. In this research, we processed seismic data to attenuate multiple reflections in the both synthetic and real seismic data of Mentawai. There are several methods to attenuate multiple reflection, one of them is Radon filter method that discriminates between primary reflection and multiple reflection in the τ-p domain based on move out difference between primary reflection and multiple reflection. However, in case where the move out difference is too small, the Radon filter method is not enough to attenuate the multiple reflections. The Radon filter also produces the artifacts on the gathers data. Except the Radon filter method, we also use the Wave Equation Multiple Elimination (WEMR) method to attenuate the long period multiple reflection. The WEMR method can attenuate the long period multiple reflection based on wave equation inversion. Refer to the inversion of wave equation and the magnitude of the seismic wave amplitude that observed on the free surface, we get the water bottom reflectivity which is used to eliminate the multiple reflections. The WEMR method does not depend on the move out difference to attenuate the long period multiple reflection. Therefore, the WEMR method can be applied to the seismic data which has small move out difference as the Mentawai seismic data. The small move out difference on the Mentawai seismic data is caused by the restrictiveness of far offset, which is only 705 meter. We compared the real free multiple stacking data after processing with Radon filter and WEMR process. The conclusion is the WEMR method can more attenuate the long period multiple reflection than the Radon filter method on the real (Mentawai) seismic data.

  16. Multiple-frequency surface acoustic wave devices as sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricco, Antonio J.; Martin, Stephen J.

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested a multiple-frequency acoustic wave (MUFAW) device on ST-cut quartz with nominal surface acoustic wave (SAW) center frequencies of 16, 40, 100, and 250 MHz. The four frequencies are obtained by patterning four sets of input and output interdigital transducers of differing periodicities on a single substrate. Such a device allows the frequency dependence of AW sensor perturbations to be examined, aiding in the elucidation of the operative interaction mechanism(s). Initial measurements of the SAW response to the vacuum deposition of a thin nickel film show the expected frequency dependence of mass sensitivity in addition to the expected frequency independence of the magnitude of the acoustoelectric effect. By measuring changes in both wave velocity and attenuation at multiple frequencies, extrinsic perturbations such as temperature and pressure changes are readily differentiated from one another and from changes in surface mass.

  17. Multiple Signal Classification for Gravitational Wave Burst Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Junwei; He, Zhengqi

    2013-01-01

    This work is mainly focused on the application of the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm for gravitational wave burst search. This algorithm extracts important gravitational wave characteristics from signals coming from detectors with arbitrary position, orientation and noise covariance. In this paper, the MUSIC algorithm is described in detail along with the necessary adjustments required for gravitational wave burst search. The algorithm's performance is measured using simulated signals and noise. MUSIC is compared with the Q-transform for signal triggering and with Bayesian analysis for direction of arrival (DOA) estimation, using the Ω-pipeline. Experimental results show that MUSIC has a lower resolution but is faster. MUSIC is a promising tool for real-time gravitational wave search for multi-messenger astronomy.

  18. MyrSINEs: a novel SINE family in the anteater genomes.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Hidenori; Kuno, Shuichi; Nikaido, Masato; Okada, Norihiro

    2007-10-01

    Recent rapid generation of genomic sequence data has allowed many researchers to perform comparative analyses in various mammalian species. However, characterization of transposable elements, such as short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs), has not been reported for several mammalian groups. Because SINEs occupy a large portion of the mammalian genome, they are believed to have contributed to the constitution and diversification of the host genomes during evolution. In the present study, we characterized a novel SINE family in the anteater genomes and designated it the MyrSINE family. Typical SINEs consist of a tRNA-related, a tRNA-unrelated and an AT-rich (or poly-A) region. MyrSINEs have only tRNA-related and poly-A regions; they are included in a group called t-SINE. The tRNA-related regions of the MyrSINEs were found to be derived from tRNA(Gly). We demonstrate that the MyrSINE family can be classified into three subfamilies. Two of the MyrSINE subfamilies are distributed in the genomes of both giant anteater and tamandua, while the other is present only in the giant anteater. We discuss the evolutionary history of MyrSINEs and their relationship to the evolution of anteaters. We also speculate that the simple structure of t-SINEs may be a potential evolutionary source for the generation of the typical SINE structure.

  19. Polymorphic light eruption sine eruption.

    PubMed

    Dover, J S; Hawk, J L

    1988-01-01

    We describe seven patients, four female and three male, who developed intense pruritus on sun-exposed skin without visible change. The clinical features resembled those of polymorphic light eruption (PLE) without rash. Four patients also occasionally developed typical PLE upon sun exposure, but sun-induced pruritus alone occurred most frequently. No patient was taking any drug therapy. One patient developed similar pruritus following solar simulated irradiation, and one following PUVA therapy. All other laboratory investigations were negative. Treatment with low dose UVB phototherapy or PUVA therapy was effective. The condition, which we have called polymorphic light eruption sine eruptione (PLESE), appears to be a variant of PLE not previously reported.

  20. Optimization on the focusing of multiple shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Shi; Eliasson, Veronica

    2016-11-01

    Focusing of multiple shock waves can lead to extreme thermodynamic conditions, which are desired for applications like shock wave lithotripsy and inertial confinement fusion. To study shock focusing effects, multiple energy sources have been placed in a circular pattern around an intended target, while the distance between each source and the target is fixed. All the sources are set to release the same amount of energy at the same time in order to create multiple identical shock waves. The object is to optimize the thermodynamic conditions at the target by rearranging the initial placement of each source. However, dealing with this optimization problem can be challenging due to the high computational cost introduced by solving the Euler equations. To avoid this issue, both numerical and analytical methods have been applied to handle shock focusing more efficiently. A numerical method, an approximate theory named Geometrical Shock Dynamics (GSD), has been utilized to describe the motion of shock. Using an analytical method, a transition curve between regular and irregular reflection has been employed to predict shock interactions. Results show that computational cost can be reduced dramatically by combining GSD and a transition curve. In addition, optimization results based on varying initial setups is discussed.

  1. A Generalized Multiple Discrete Interaction Approximation for resonant four-wave interactions in wind wave models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolman, Hendrik L.

    2013-10-01

    For several decades, the Discrete Interaction Approximation (DIA) for nonlinear resonant four-wave interactions has been the engine of third-generation wind-wave models. The present study presents a Generalized Multiple DIA (GMD) which expands upon the DIA by (i) expanding the definition of the representative quadruplet, (ii) formulating the DIA for arbitrary water depths, (iii) providing complimentary deep and shallow water scaling terms and (iv) allowing for multiple representative quadruplets. The GMD is rigorously derived to be an extension of the DIA, and is backward compatible with it. The free parameters of the GMD are optimized holistically, by optimizing full model behavior in the WAVEWATCH III® wave model as reported in a companion paper. Here, a cascade of GMD configurations with increasing complexity, accuracy and cost is presented. First, the performance of these configurations is discussed using idealized test cases used to optimize the GMD. It is shown that in deep water, GMD configurations can be found which remove most of the errors of the DIA. The GMD is also capable of representing four-wave interactions in extremely shallow water, although some remaining spurious behavior makes applications of this part of the GMD less suitable for operational wave models. Finally, several GMD configurations are applied to an idealized hurricane case, showing that results from idealized test cases indeed are representative for real-world applications, and confirming that such GMD configurations are economically feasible in operational wind wave models. Finally, the DIA results in surprisingly large model errors in hurricane conditions.

  2. Multiresonance modes in sine-Gordon brane models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, W. T.; Maluf, R. V.; Dantas, D. M.; Almeida, C. A. S.

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we study the localization of the vector gauge field in two five-dimensional braneworlds generated by scalar fields coupled to gravity. The sine-Gordon like potentials are employed to produce different thick brane setups. A zero mode localized is obtained, and we show the existence of reverberations with the wave solutions indicating a quasi-localized massive mode. More interesting results are achieved when we propose a double sine-Gordon potential to the scalar field. The resulting thick brane shows a more detailed topology with the presence of an internal structure composed by two kinks. The massive spectrum of the gauge field is revalued on this scenario revealing the existence of various resonant modes. Furthermore, we compute the corrections to Coulomb law coming from these massive KK vector modes in these thick scenarios, which is concluded that the dilaton parameter regulates these corrections.

  3. Inertial solitary waves with multiple eddy bifurcations in stratified flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miroshnikov, Victor A.

    2000-11-01

    It has been long recognized that internal nonlinear waves are important dynamical feature in both the oceans and the lower atmosphere. The theoretical work reported herein studies fully nonlinear internal solitary waves with vortical cores formed by the flow separation that is effected by uniform or exponential stratification, uniform rotation, inertia, constant shear, and asymmetry of the upstream flow. The kinematic problem is formulated by the Long's equation for high Froude numbers when gravity is negligible compared with inertia. The exact nonlinear solution is derived in the form of the infinite series in modified spherical Bessel functions complemented by the recurrence relation. The dynamic problem is solved by the Bernoulli integral generalized for stratified rotating fluid. Necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for the formation of one-, two-, and three-eddy bifurcations of open-ended wavy streamlines resulting in wave-vortex structures with multiple eddies and vortex shells. Complete set of one-, two-, and three-eddy bifurcations is considered that includes embedded, expanded, degenerated, and combined bifurcations. Symbolic calculations of the series solution up to 150,000 terms are implemented by the code for symbolic programming. Properties and nonlinear stability of the wave-eddy structures are studied. The results are compared with the field observations with reasonable agreement.

  4. Basis properties of the p, q-sine functions.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Lyonell; Lord, Gabriel J

    2015-02-08

    We improve the currently known thresholds for basisness of the family of periodically dilated p,q-sine functions. Our findings rely on a Beurling decomposition of the corresponding change of coordinates in terms of shift operators of infinite multiplicity. We also determine refined bounds on the Riesz constant associated with this family. These results seal mathematical gaps in the existing literature on the subject.

  5. Multiple Scattering of Waves in Discrete Random Media.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-31

    AST’RACT ( Czt &ww s reversm aid t r. eay a ndeml"fI by block number) -Multiple scattering of waves in discrete random media was investigated parti...of these parameters is an economical discussed. A short summary and conclusions end the paper. way to arrive at the optium configuration. Such a model...delta, and k It remains now to perform an average over all possible is the wavenumber in the host medium. B,"’ and C:’ are positions. To this end , one

  6. An ancient retrovirus-like element contains hot spots for SINE insertion.

    PubMed Central

    Cantrell, M A; Filanoski, B J; Ingermann, A R; Olsson, K; DiLuglio, N; Lister, Z; Wichman, H A

    2001-01-01

    Vertebrate retrotransposons have been used extensively for phylogenetic analyses and studies of molecular evolution. Information can be obtained from specific inserts either by comparing sequence differences that have accumulated over time in orthologous copies of that insert or by determining the presence or absence of that specific element at a particular site. The presence of specific copies has been deemed to be an essentially homoplasy-free phylogenetic character because the probability of multiple independent insertions into any one site has been believed to be nil. Mys elements are a type of LTR-containing retrotransposon present in Sigmodontine rodents. In this study we have shown that one particular insert, mys-9, is an extremely old insert present in multiple species of the genus Peromyscus. We have found that different copies of this insert show a surprising range of sizes, due primarily to a continuing series of SINE (short interspersed element) insertions into this locus. We have identified two hot spots for SINE insertion within mys-9 and at each hot spot have found that two independent SINE insertions have occurred at identical sites. These results have major repercussions for phylogenetic analyses based on SINE insertions, indicating the need for caution when one concludes that the existence of a SINE at a specific locus in multiple individuals is indicative of common ancestry. Although independent insertions at the same locus may be rare, SINE insertions are not homoplasy-free phylogenetic markers. PMID:11404340

  7. Analysis of millimetre-wave polarization diverse multiple-input multiple-output capacity

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Nicholas P.; Ng, Brian W.-H.; Hansen, Hedley J.

    2015-01-01

    Millimetre-waves offer the possibility of wide bandwidth and consequently high data rate for wireless communications. For both uni- and dual-polarized systems, signals sent over a link may suffer severe degradation due to antenna misalignment. Orientation robustness may be enhanced by the use of mutual orthogonality in three dimensions. Multiple-input multiple-output polarization diversity offers a way of improving signal reception without the limitations associated with spatial diversity. Scattering effects often assist propagation through multipath. However, high path loss at millimetre-wave frequencies may limit any reception enhancement through scattering. We show that the inclusion of a third orthogonal dipole provides orientation robustness in this setting, as well as in a rich scattering environment, by means of a Rician fading channel model covering all orientations for a millimetre-wave, tri-orthogonal, half-wave dipole transmitter and receiver employing polarization diversity. Our simulation extends the analysis into three dimensions, fully exploiting individual sub-channel paths. In both the presence and absence of multipath effects, capacity is observed to be higher than that of a dual-polarized system over the majority of a field of view. PMID:27019723

  8. Multiple slow waves in metaporous layers for broadband sound absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jieun; Lee, Joong Seok; Kim, Yoon Young

    2017-01-01

    Sound absorption for a broad frequency range requires sound dissipation. The mechanics of acoustic metamaterials for non-dissipative applications has been extensively studied, but sound absorption using dissipative porous metamaterials has been less explored because of the complexity resulting from the coupling of its dissipative mechanism and metamaterial behavior. We investigated broadband sound absorption by engineering dissipative metaporous layers, which absorb sound by the mechanism of multiple slow waves, and combined local and global resonance phenomena. A set of rigid partitions of varying lengths was elaborately inserted in a hard-backed porous layer of a finite thickness. An effective medium theory was used to explain the physics involved; high performance at a low-frequency range was found to be mainly due to the formation of global resonances caused by multiple slow waves over the thickness of the metaporous layer, while enhancement at a high-frequency range was attributed to the combined effects of the global resonances and the local resonances directly related to the sizes of the inserted partitions.

  9. SINEs as driving forces in genome evolution.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, J

    2012-01-01

    SINEs are short interspersed elements derived from cellular RNAs that repetitively retropose via RNA intermediates and integrate more or less randomly back into the genome. SINEs propagate almost entirely vertically within their host cells and, once established in the germline, are passed on from generation to generation. As non-autonomous elements, their reverse transcription (from RNA to cDNA) and genomic integration depends on the activity of the enzymatic machinery of autonomous retrotransposons, such as long interspersed elements (LINEs). SINEs are widely distributed in eukaryotes, but are especially effectively propagated in mammalian species. For example, more than a million Alu-SINE copies populate the human genome (approximately 13% of genomic space), and few master copies of them are still active. In the organisms where they occur, SINEs are a challenge to genomic integrity, but in the long term also can serve as beneficial building blocks for evolution, contributing to phenotypic heterogeneity and modifying gene regulatory networks. They substantially expand the genomic space and introduce structural variation to the genome. SINEs have the potential to mutate genes, to alter gene expression, and to generate new parts of genes. A balanced distribution and controlled activity of such properties is crucial to maintaining the organism's dynamic and thriving evolution.

  10. On the Generation of Multiple Atmospheric Pressure Waves Observed During Violent Volcanic Eruptions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medici, E. F.; Waite, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    One or more atmospheric pressure waves followed by a supersonic jet may be generated during the over pressurized vapor-solid-liquid mixture ejection of a violent volcanic eruption. The source of these multiple atmospheric pressure waves could have different origins. Among the physical mechanisms that could explain these behaviors are pulsating eruptions, the dynamics of shock waves, coupled pressure wave-supersonic jet interaction, or a combination of all these factors. In order to elucidate the causes of these complex fluid flow dynamics, a series of analog volcanic eruption experiments using an atmospheric shock tube were performed. During the testing, single and multiple pressure waves and the subsequent supersonic jet were generated. The controlled laboratory conditions enable studies of the most relevant variables potentially responsible for the formation of the multiple pressure waves. The tests were performed using dry, compressed nitrogen at standard room temperature that was free of particles. Yet, under this idealization of a real volcanic eruption, multiple pressure waves were observed on the high-speed video imaging and recorded on the pressure transducer. The amount of energy being released on each test was varied to achieve different discharge dynamics and the formation of single and multiple pressure waves. The preliminary experimental observations indicate a coupled pressure wave-jet interaction as source of multiple pressure waves.

  11. Channel and collateral effect of millimeter-wave multiplicate spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shuyi; Tang, Li; Di, Wenyuan; Zhang, Dongguo; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yongjiu

    1998-11-01

    Combining with acupuncture and moxibustion theory of China, this paper discussed acupuncture and moxibustion effect of millimeter wave multiplied with infrared ray and bass spectrum, and provided a feasible path for applications of millimeter wave in biomedical engineering.

  12. Gravity localization in sine-Gordon braneworlds

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, W.T.; Maluf, R.V.; Sousa, L.J.S.; Almeida, C.A.S.

    2016-01-15

    In this work we study two types of five-dimensional braneworld models given by sine-Gordon potentials. In both scenarios, the thick brane is generated by a real scalar field coupled to gravity. We focus our investigation on the localization of graviton field and the behaviour of the massive spectrum. In particular, we analyse the localization of massive modes by means of a relative probability method in a Quantum Mechanics context. Initially, considering a scalar field sine-Gordon potential, we find a localized state to the graviton at zero mode. However, when we consider a double sine-Gordon potential, the brane structure is changed allowing the existence of massive resonant states. The new results show how the existence of an internal structure can aid in the emergence of massive resonant modes on the brane.

  13. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  14. Electro-mechanical sine/cosine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flagge, B. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    An electromechanical device for generating both sine and cosine functions is described. A motor rotates a cylinder about an axis parallel to and a slight distance from the central axis of the cylinder. Two noncontacting displacement sensing devices are placed ninety degrees apart, equal distances from the axis of rotation of the cylinder and short distances above the surface of cylinder. Each of these sensing devices produces an electrical signal proportional to the distance that it is away from the cylinder. Consequently, as the cylinder is rotated the outputs from the two sensing devices are the sine and cosine functions.

  15. Carnivore-Specific SINEs (Can-SINEs): Distribution, Evolution, and Genomic Impact

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Diana L.E.; Allard, Marc W.; Pecon-Slattery, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are a type of class 1 transposable element (retrotransposon) with features that allow investigators to resolve evolutionary relationships between populations and species while providing insight into genome composition and function. Characterization of a Carnivora-specific SINE family, Can-SINEs, has, has aided comparative genomic studies by providing rare genomic changes, and neutral sequence variants often needed to resolve difficult evolutionary questions. In addition, Can-SINEs constitute a significant source of functional diversity with Carnivora. Publication of the whole-genome sequence of domestic dog, domestic cat, and giant panda serves as a valuable resource in comparative genomic inferences gleaned from Can-SINEs. In anticipation of forthcoming studies bolstered by new genomic data, this review describes the discovery and characterization of Can-SINE motifs as well as describes composition, distribution, and effect on genome function. As the contribution of noncoding sequences to genomic diversity becomes more apparent, SINEs and other transposable elements will play an increasingly large role in mammalian comparative genomics. PMID:21846743

  16. Newly discovered young CORE-SINEs in marsupial genomes.

    PubMed

    Munemasa, Maruo; Nikaido, Masato; Nishihara, Hidenori; Donnellan, Stephen; Austin, Christopher C; Okada, Norihiro

    2008-01-15

    Although recent mammalian genome projects have uncovered a large part of genomic component of various groups, several repetitive sequences still remain to be characterized and classified for particular groups. The short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs) distributed among marsupial genomes are one example. We have identified and characterized two new SINEs from marsupial genomes that belong to the CORE-SINE family, characterized by a highly conserved "CORE" domain. PCR and genomic dot blot analyses revealed that the distribution of each SINE shows distinct patterns among the marsupial genomes, implying different timing of their retroposition during the evolution of marsupials. The members of Mar3 (Marsupialia 3) SINE are distributed throughout the genomes of all marsupials, whereas the Mac1 (Macropodoidea 1) SINE is distributed specifically in the genomes of kangaroos. Sequence alignment of the Mar3 SINEs revealed that they can be further divided into four subgroups, each of which has diagnostic nucleotides. The insertion patterns of each SINE at particular genomic loci, together with the distribution patterns of each SINE, suggest that the Mar3 SINEs have intensively amplified after the radiation of diprotodontians, whereas the Mac1 SINE has amplified only slightly after the divergence of hypsiprimnodons from other macropods. By compiling the information of CORE-SINEs characterized to date, we propose a comprehensive picture of how SINE evolution occurred in the genomes of marsupials.

  17. Benjamin Banneker and the Law of Sines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, John F.

    2005-01-01

    Benjamin Banneker, a self-taught mathematician, surveyor and astronomer published annual almanacs containing his astronomical observations and predictions. Banneker who also used logarithms to apply the Law of Sines believed that the method used to solve a mathematical problem depends on the tools available.

  18. Sine-Fitting Software for IEEE Standard 1057

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, Jerome

    1999-05-01

    Software application that performs the calculations related to the sine-fit tests of IEEE Standard 1057/94. Example outputs and explainations of these outputs to determine the important characteristics of the device under test. This application performs the calculations related to sine-fit tests and uses 4-parameter sine fit from IEEE Standard 1057-1994.

  19. Commuting Flows and Infinite-Dimensional Tori: Sine-Gordon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Martin

    2017-02-01

    The present work concerns the periodic sine-Gordon equation. We explain why the complete set of conserved functionals for sine-Gordon is an infinite-dimensional torus; the periodic sine-Gordon solution is almost periodic in time on an infinite-dimensional torus.

  20. Ground vibration test results of a JetStar airplane using impulsive sine excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kehoe, Michael W.; Voracek, David F.

    1989-01-01

    Structural excitation is important for both ground vibration and flight flutter testing. The structural responses caused by this excitation are analyzed to determine frequency, damping, and mode shape information. Many excitation waveforms have been used throughout the years. The use of impulsive sine (sin omega t)/omega t as an excitation waveform for ground vibration testing and the advantages of using this waveform for flight flutter testing are discussed. The ground vibration test results of a modified JetStar airplane using impulsive sine as an excitation waveform are compared with the test results of the same airplane using multiple-input random excitation. The results indicated that the structure was sufficiently excited using the impulsive sine waveform. Comparisons of input force spectrums, mode shape plots, and frequency and damping values for the two methods of excitation are presented.

  1. Multiple Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves in Discrete Random Media.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-31

    purposes, we have also investigated the electromagnetic wave propagation through randomly distributed and oriented scatterers by introducing the concept...computer to determine whether or not particle overlap has occurred. The implementation of the "physics" of the system and orientations of non-spherical...34Coherent electromagnetic wave propagation through randomly distributed and oriented pair-correlated dielectric scatterers," Radio Sci., 19, 1445-1449

  2. Optical sensing of analytes in aqueous solutions with a multiple surface-plasmon-polariton-wave platform

    PubMed Central

    Swiontek, Stephen E.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2013-01-01

    The commonly used optical sensor based on surface plasmon-polariton wave phenomenon can sense just one chemical, because only one SPP wave can be guided by the interface of a metal and a dielectric material contained in the sensor. Multiple analytes could be detected and/or the sensing reliability for a single analyte could be enhanced, if multiple SPP-wave modes could be excited on a single metal/dielectric interface. For that to happen, the partnering dielectric material must be periodically non-homogeneous. Using a chiral sculptured thin film (CSTF) as that material in a SPP-wave platform, we show that the angular locations of multiple SPP-wave modes shift when the void regions of the CSTF are infiltrated with a fluid. The sensitivities realized in the proof-of-concept experiments are comparable to state-of-research values. PMID:23474988

  3. Tailored complex 3D vortex lattice structures by perturbed multiples of three-plane waves.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Jolly; Vyas, Sunil; Senthilkumaran, Paramasivam; Joseph, Joby

    2012-04-20

    As three-plane waves are the minimum number required for the formation of vortex-embedded lattice structures by plane wave interference, we present our experimental investigation on the formation of complex 3D photonic vortex lattice structures by a designed superposition of multiples of phase-engineered three-plane waves. The unfolding of the generated complex photonic lattice structures with higher order helical phase is realized by perturbing the superposition of a relatively phase-encoded, axially equidistant multiple of three noncoplanar plane waves. Through a programmable spatial light modulator assisted single step fabrication approach, the unfolded 3D vortex lattice structures are experimentally realized, well matched to our computer simulations. The formation of higher order intertwined helices embedded in these 3D spiraling vortex lattice structures by the superposition of the multiples of phase-engineered three-plane waves interference is also studied.

  4. Multiple Re-Reflections and Focusing of Waves by a Metamaterial Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miron'chev, A. S.; Yakubov, V. P.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of electromagnetic wave focusing by a plane metamaterial layer with arbitrary parameters is theoretically simulated. Results of focusing of radiation of two point-sized radiation sources obtained without and with taking into account multiple re-reflections of waves are presented.

  5. Linking multiple relaxation, power-law attenuation, and fractional wave equations.

    PubMed

    Näsholm, Sven Peter; Holm, Sverre

    2011-11-01

    The acoustic wave attenuation is described by an experimentally established frequency power law in a variety of complex media, e.g., biological tissue, polymers, rocks, and rubber. Recent papers present a variety of acoustical fractional derivative wave equations that have the ability to model power-law attenuation. On the other hand, a multiple relaxation model is widely recognized as a physically based description of the acoustic loss mechanisms as developed by Nachman et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 1584-1595 (1990)]. Through assumption of a continuum of relaxation mechanisms, each with an effective compressibility described by a distribution related to the Mittag-Leffler function, this paper shows that the wave equation corresponding to the multiple relaxation approach is identical to a given fractional derivative wave equation. This work therefore provides a physically based motivation for use of fractional wave equations in acoustic modeling.

  6. Large-amplitude nonlinear normal modes of the discrete sine lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Valeri V.; Manevitch, Leonid I.

    2017-02-01

    We present an analytical description of the large-amplitude stationary oscillations of the finite discrete system of harmonically coupled pendulums without any restrictions on their amplitudes (excluding a vicinity of π ). Although this model has numerous applications in different fields of physics, it was studied earlier in the infinite limit only. The discrete chain with a finite length can be considered as a well analytical analog of the coarse-grain models of flexible polymers in the molecular dynamics simulations. The developed approach allows to find the dispersion relations for arbitrary amplitudes of the nonlinear normal modes. We emphasize that the long-wavelength approximation, which is described by well-known sine-Gordon equation, leads to an inadequate zone structure for the amplitudes of about π /2 even if the chain is long enough. An extremely complex zone structure at the large amplitudes corresponds to multiple resonances between nonlinear normal modes even with strongly different wave numbers. Due to the complexity of the dispersion relations the modes with shorter wavelengths may have smaller frequencies. The stability of the nonlinear normal modes under condition of the resonant interaction are discussed. It is shown that this interaction of the modes in the vicinity of the long wavelength edge of the spectrum leads to the localization of the oscillations. The thresholds of instability and localization are determined explicitly. The numerical simulation of the dynamics of a finite-length chain is in a good agreement with obtained analytical predictions.

  7. A Persistent Feature of Multiple Scattering of Waves in the Time-Domain: A Tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, James A.; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    The equations for frequency-domain multiple scattering are derived for a scalar or electromagnetic plane wave incident on a collection of particles at known positions, and in the time-domain for a plane wave pulse incident on the same collection of particles. The calculation is carried out for five different combinations of wave types and particle types of increasing geometrical complexity. The results are used to illustrate and discuss a number of physical and mathematical characteristics of multiple scattering in the frequency- and time-domains. We argue that frequency-domain multiple scattering is a purely mathematical construct since there is no temporal sequencing information in the frequency-domain equations and since the multi-particle path information can be dispelled by writing the equations in another mathematical form. However, multiple scattering becomes a definite physical phenomenon in the time-domain when the collection of particles is illuminated by an appropriately short localized pulse.

  8. Conserved domains and SINE diversity during animal evolution.

    PubMed

    Luchetti, Andrea; Mantovani, Barbara

    2013-10-01

    Eukaryotic genomes harbour a number of mobile genetic elements (MGEs); moving from one genomic location to another, they are known to impact on the host genome. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are well-represented, non-autonomous retroelements and they are likely the most diversified MGEs. In some instances, sequence domains conserved across unrelated SINEs have been identified; remarkably, one of these, called Nin, has been conserved since the Radiata-Bilateria splitting. Here we report on two new domains: Inv, derived from Nin, identified in insects and in deuterostomes, and Pln, restricted to polyneopteran insects. The identification of Inv and Pln sequences allowed us to retrieve new SINEs, two in insects and one in a hemichordate. The diverse structural combination of the different domains in different SINE families, during metazoan evolution, offers a clearer view of SINE diversity and their frequent de novo emergence through module exchange, possibly underlying the high evolutionary success of SINEs.

  9. Multiple charge density wave transitions in Gd2Te5

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, K.Y.; Ru, N.; Condron, C.L.; Wu, Y.Q.; Kramer, M.J.; Toney, M.F.; Fisher, I.R.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2010-02-15

    Diffraction measurements performed via transmission electron microscopy and high resolution X-ray scattering reveal two distinct charge density wave transitions in Gd{sub 2}Te{sub 5} at T{sub c1} = 410(3) and T{sub c2} = 532(3) K, associated with the on-axis incommensurate lattice modulation and off-axis commensurate lattice modulation respectively. Analysis of the temperature dependence of the order parameters indicates a non-vanishing coupling between these two distinct CDW states.

  10. Multiple and spin off initiation of atmospheric convectively coupled Kelvin waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranowski, Dariusz B.; Flatau, Maria K.; Flatau, Piotr J.; Schmidt, Jerome M.

    2017-02-01

    A novel atmospheric convectively coupled Kelvin wave trajectories database, derived from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission precipitation data, is used to investigate initiation of sequential Kelvin wave events. Based on the analysis of beginnings of trajectories from years 1998-2012 it is shown that sequential event initiations can be divided into two distinct categories: multiple initiations and spin off initiations, both of which involve interactions with ocean surface and upper ocean temperature variability. The results of composite analysis of the 83 multiple Kelvin wave initiations show that the local thermodynamic forcing related to the diurnal sea surface temperature variability is responsible for sequential Kelvin wave development. The composite analysis of 91 spin off Kelvin wave initiations shows that the dynamic forcing is a dominant effect and the local thermodynamic forcing is secondary. Detail case studies of both multiple and spin off initiations confirm statistical analysis. A multiple initiation occurs in the presence of the high upper ocean diurnal cycle and a spin off initiation results from both dynamic and local thermodynamic processes. The dynamic forcing is related to increased wind speed and latent heat flux likely associated with an off equatorial circulation. In addition a theoretical study of the sequential Kelvin waves is performed using a shallow water model. Finally, conceptual models of these two types of initiations are proposed.

  11. Four-wave mixing in Bose-Einstein condensate systems with multiple spin states

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J.P. Jr.; Julienne, P. S.; Williams, C.J.; Band, Y.B.; Trippenbach, M.

    2004-09-01

    We calculate the four-wave mixing (FWM) in a Bose-Einstein condensate system having multiple spin wave packets that are initially overlapping in physical space, but have nonvanishing relative momentum that causes them to recede from one another. Three receding condensate atom wave packets can result in production of a fourth wave packet by the process of FWM due to atom-atom interactions. We consider cases where the four final wave packets are composed of one, two, three, and four different internal spin components. FWM with one or two-spin state wave packets is much stronger than three- or four-spin state FWM, wherein two of the coherent moving Bose-Einstein condensate wave packets form a spin-polarization grating that rotates the spin projection of the third wave into that of the fourth diffracted wave (as opposed to the one- or two-spin state case where a regular density grating is responsible for the diffraction). Calculations of FWM for {sup 87}Rb and {sup 23}Na condensate systems are presented.

  12. Basilar-membrane interference patterns from multiple internal reflection of cochlear traveling waves.

    PubMed

    Shera, Christopher A; Cooper, Nigel P

    2013-04-01

    At low stimulus levels, basilar-membrane (BM) mechanical transfer functions in sensitive cochleae manifest a quasiperiodic rippling pattern in both amplitude and phase. Analysis of the responses of active cochlear models suggests that the rippling is a mechanical interference pattern created by multiple internal reflection within the cochlea. In models, the interference arises when reverse-traveling waves responsible for stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) reflect off the stapes on their way to the ear canal, launching a secondary forward-traveling wave that combines with the primary wave produced by the stimulus. Frequency-dependent phase differences between the two waves then create the rippling pattern measurable on the BM. Measurements of BM ripples and SFOAEs in individual chinchilla ears demonstrate that the ripples are strongly correlated with the acoustic interference pattern measured in ear-canal pressure, consistent with a common origin involving the generation of SFOAEs. In BM responses to clicks, the ripples appear as temporal fine structure in the response envelope (multiple lobes, waxing and waning). Analysis of the ripple spacing and response phase gradients provides a test for the role of fast- and slow-wave modes of reverse energy propagation within the cochlea. The data indicate that SFOAE delays are consistent with reverse slow-wave propagation but much too long to be explained by fast waves.

  13. Multiple scattering of surface waves by cavities in a half-space

    SciTech Connect

    Phan, Haidang; Cho, Younho; Ju, Taeho; Achenbach, Jan D.

    2014-02-18

    Scattering of surface waves from multiple two-dimensional cavities at the surface of a homogenous, isotropic, linearly elastic half-space is analyzed in this work. For the case of multiple cavities, the scattered field is shown to be equivalent to the total radiation from the distributions of tractions, calculated from the incident wave, over the surfaces of the cavities. The multiple-scattering model is obtained from known single-scattering calculation for a cavity by the use of the self-consistent method. The second order approximation to the multiple-scattering problem by a random distribution of cavities is then considered and solved analytically. The vertical displacement at some distance from the cavities is calculated and verified by the solution of the same problem obtained by the boundary element method (BEM). The analytical and BEM results are graphically displayed and show good agreement when the depths of the cavities are small compared to the wavelength.

  14. Proposal for all-optical generation of multiple-frequency millimeter-wave signals for RoF system with multiple base stations using FWM in SOA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongfu; Wang, Leyang; Qiu, Kun

    2011-07-18

    An approach for the multiple-frequency millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signals generation is proposed and demonstrated, specifically, which can be applied to a radio-over-fiber (RoF) system with multiple base stations (BSs). In this scheme, optical double sideband (ODSB) modulation is achieved using a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) to generate the two-sideband signals. New frequencies of the optical signals are obtained by using four-wave mixing (FWM) in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). At the BSs, two different frequencies are achieved using a comb optical filter (COF), and which then input a photodiode (PD) to generate the mm-wave signals with the frequencies of 20, 40 or 60 GHz for different BSs, by mixing of these frequencies components. Experimental results verify that the proposed multiple-frequency mm-wave signals generation scheme for a RoF system with multiple base stations can work properly.

  15. Damage Evaluation Based on a Wave Energy Flow Map Using Multiple PZT Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yaolu; Hu, Ning; Xu, Hong; Yuan, Weifeng; Yan, Cheng; Li, Yuan; Goda, Riu; Alamusi; Qiu, Jinhao; Ning, Huiming; Wu, Liangke

    2014-01-01

    A new wave energy flow (WEF) map concept was proposed in this work. Based on it, an improved technique incorporating the laser scanning method and Betti's reciprocal theorem was developed to evaluate the shape and size of damage as well as to realize visualization of wave propagation. In this technique, a simple signal processing algorithm was proposed to construct the WEF map when waves propagate through an inspection region, and multiple lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sensors were employed to improve inspection reliability. Various damages in aluminum and carbon fiber reinforced plastic laminated plates were experimentally and numerically evaluated to validate this technique. The results show that it can effectively evaluate the shape and size of damage from wave field variations around the damage in the WEF map. PMID:24463430

  16. An experimental investigation of multiple shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions in a circular duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Om, D.; Childs, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed pitot, static and wall pressure measurements have been obtained for multiple shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions in a circular duct at a free-stream Mach number of 1.49 and at a unit Reynolds number of 4.90 x 10 to the 6th per meter. The details of the flow field show the formation of a series of normal shock waves with successively decreasing strength and with decreasing distance between the successive shock waves. The overall pressure recovery is much lower than the single normal shock pressure recovery at the same free-stream Mach number. A one-dimensional flow model based on the boundary layer displacement buildup is postulated to explain the formation of a series of normal shock waves.

  17. Shear wavelength estimation based on inverse filtering and multiple-point shear wave generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazaki, Tomoaki; Kondo, Kengo; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shiina, Tsuyoshi

    2016-07-01

    Elastography provides important diagnostic information because tissue elasticity is related to pathological conditions. For example, in a mammary gland, higher grade malignancies yield harder tumors. Estimating shear wave speed enables the quantification of tissue elasticity imaging using time-of-flight. However, time-of-flight measurement is based on an assumption about the propagation direction of a shear wave which is highly affected by reflection and refraction, and thus might cause an artifact. An alternative elasticity estimation approach based on shear wavelength was proposed and applied to passive configurations. To determine the elasticity of tissue more quickly and more accurately, we proposed a new method for shear wave elasticity imaging that combines the shear wavelength approach and inverse filtering with multiple shear wave sources induced by acoustic radiation force (ARF). The feasibility of the proposed method was verified using an elasticity phantom with a hard inclusion.

  18. Analysis of multiple wavelengths of Lamb waves generated by meander-line coil EMATs.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Guofu; Jiang, Tao; Kang, Lei

    2014-02-01

    The electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) with a meander-line coil possess the capability of generating Lamb waves carrying multiple wavelengths, and the characteristics of multiple wavelengths is analyzed by developing a spatial transversal filter model for the EMAT. It is shown that the characteristics is due to the wavelength spectrum of the EMATs, which is a wavelength-domain representation of information about the wavelength components, and the magnitude of each components is modulated by an envelope which depends on the geometric pattern of the meander-line coil. The characteristics of multiple wavelengths might cause the multi-modes phenomenon, therefore a method for removing the effect of multiple wavelengths is proposed. It is shown that the effect can be removed by designing an EMAT which can produce a special envelop to suppress the harmonic wavelengths. Experiments are set up to study the characteristics of multiple wavelengths and verify the validity of the proposed method.

  19. Bridging Three Orders of Magnitude: Multiple Scattered Waves Sense Fractal Microscopic Structures via Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Simon A.; Näsholm, Sven Peter; Nordsletten, David; Michler, Christian; Juge, Lauriane; Serfaty, Jean-Michel; Bilston, Lynne; Guzina, Bojan; Holm, Sverre; Sinkus, Ralph

    2015-08-01

    Wave scattering provides profound insight into the structure of matter. Typically, the ability to sense microstructure is determined by the ratio of scatterer size to probing wavelength. Here, we address the question of whether macroscopic waves can report back the presence and distribution of microscopic scatterers despite several orders of magnitude difference in scale between wavelength and scatterer size. In our analysis, monosized hard scatterers 5 μ m in radius are immersed in lossless gelatin phantoms to investigate the effect of multiple reflections on the propagation of shear waves with millimeter wavelength. Steady-state monochromatic waves are imaged in situ via magnetic resonance imaging, enabling quantification of the phase velocity at a voxel size big enough to contain thousands of individual scatterers, but small enough to resolve the wavelength. We show in theory, experiments, and simulations that the resulting coherent superposition of multiple reflections gives rise to power-law dispersion at the macroscopic scale if the scatterer distribution exhibits apparent fractality over an effective length scale that is comparable to the probing wavelength. Since apparent fractality is naturally present in any random medium, microstructure can thereby leave its fingerprint on the macroscopically quantifiable power-law exponent. Our results are generic to wave phenomena and carry great potential for sensing microstructure that exhibits intrinsic fractality, such as, for instance, vasculature.

  20. Bridging Three Orders of Magnitude: Multiple Scattered Waves Sense Fractal Microscopic Structures via Dispersion.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Simon A; Näsholm, Sven Peter; Nordsletten, David; Michler, Christian; Juge, Lauriane; Serfaty, Jean-Michel; Bilston, Lynne; Guzina, Bojan; Holm, Sverre; Sinkus, Ralph

    2015-08-28

    Wave scattering provides profound insight into the structure of matter. Typically, the ability to sense microstructure is determined by the ratio of scatterer size to probing wavelength. Here, we address the question of whether macroscopic waves can report back the presence and distribution of microscopic scatterers despite several orders of magnitude difference in scale between wavelength and scatterer size. In our analysis, monosized hard scatterers 5  μm in radius are immersed in lossless gelatin phantoms to investigate the effect of multiple reflections on the propagation of shear waves with millimeter wavelength. Steady-state monochromatic waves are imaged in situ via magnetic resonance imaging, enabling quantification of the phase velocity at a voxel size big enough to contain thousands of individual scatterers, but small enough to resolve the wavelength. We show in theory, experiments, and simulations that the resulting coherent superposition of multiple reflections gives rise to power-law dispersion at the macroscopic scale if the scatterer distribution exhibits apparent fractality over an effective length scale that is comparable to the probing wavelength. Since apparent fractality is naturally present in any random medium, microstructure can thereby leave its fingerprint on the macroscopically quantifiable power-law exponent. Our results are generic to wave phenomena and carry great potential for sensing microstructure that exhibits intrinsic fractality, such as, for instance, vasculature.

  1. FIRST SDO AIA OBSERVATIONS OF A GLOBAL CORONAL EUV 'WAVE': MULTIPLE COMPONENTS AND 'RIPPLES'

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Wei; Nitta, Nariaki V.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Title, Alan M.; Tarbell, Theodore D.

    2010-11-01

    We present the first Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) observations of a global coronal EUV disturbance (so-called 'EIT wave') revealed in unprecedented detail. The disturbance observed on 2010 April 8 exhibits two components: one diffuse pulse superimposed, on which are multiple sharp fronts that have slow and fast components. The disturbance originates in front of erupting coronal loops and some sharp fronts undergo accelerations, both effects implying that the disturbance is driven by a coronal mass ejection. The diffuse pulse, propagating at a uniform velocity of 204-238 km s{sup -1} with very little angular dependence within its extent in the south, maintains its coherence and stable profile for {approx}30 minutes. Its arrival at increasing distances coincides with the onsets of loop expansions and the slow sharp front. The fast sharp front overtakes the slow front, producing multiple 'ripples' and steepening the local pulse, and both fronts propagate independently afterward. This behavior resembles the nature of real waves. Unexpectedly, the amplitude and FWHM of the diffuse pulse decrease linearly with distance. A hybrid model, combining both wave and non-wave components, can explain many, but not all, of the observations. Discoveries of the two-component fronts and multiple ripples were made possible for the first time thanks to AIA's high cadences ({<=}20 s) and high signal-to-noise ratio.

  2. Delayed Triggering of Early Aftershocks by Multiple Waves Circling the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, B.; Peng, Z.

    2011-12-01

    It is well known that direct surface waves of large earthquakes are capable of triggering shallow earthquakes and deep tremor at long-range distances. Recent studies have shown that multiple surface waves circling the earth could also remotely trigger microearthquakes [Peng et al., 2011]. However, it is still not clear whether multiple surface waves returning back to the mainshock epicenters could also trigger/modulate aftershock activities. Here we conduct a study to search for evidence of such triggering by systematically examining aftershock activities of 20 magnitude-8-or-higher earthquakes since 1990 that are capable of producing surface waves circling the globe repeatedly. We compute the magnitude of completeness for each sequence, and stack all the sequences together to compute the seismicity and moment rates by sliding data windows. The sequences are also shuffled randomly and these rates are compared to the actual data as well as synthetic aftershock sequences to estimate the statistical significance of the results. We also compare them with varying stacks of magnitude 7-8 earthquakes to better understand the possible biases that could be introduced by our rate calculation method. Our preliminary results suggest that there is some moderate increase of early aftershock activity after a few hours when the surface waves return to the epicentral region. However, we could not completely rule out the possibility that such an increase is purely due to random fluctuations of aftershocks or caused by missing aftershocks in the first few hours after the mainshock. We plan to examine continuous waveform data of selected sequences to obtain a better understanding of the multiple surface waves and aftershock activity.

  3. Spatially Extended Relativistic Particles Out of Traveling Front Solutions of Sine-Gordon Equation in (1+2) Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Zarmi, Yair

    2016-01-01

    Slower-than-light multi-front solutions of the Sine-Gordon in (1+2) dimensions, constructed through the Hirota algorithm, are mapped onto spatially localized structures, which emulate free, spatially extended, massive relativistic particles. A localized structure is an image of the junctions at which the fronts intersect. It propagates together with the multi-front solution at the velocity of the latter. The profile of the localized structure obeys the linear wave equation in (1+2) dimensions, to which a term that represents interaction with a slower-than-light, Sine-Gordon-multi-front solution has been added. This result can be also formulated in terms of a (1+2)-dimensional Lagrangian system, in which the Sine-Gordon and wave equations are coupled. Expanding the Euler-Lagrange equations in powers of the coupling constant, the zero-order part of the solution reproduces the (1+2)-dimensional Sine-Gordon fronts. The first-order part is the spatially localized structure. PACS: 02.30.Ik, 03.65.Pm, 05.45.Yv, 02.30.Ik. PMID:26930077

  4. Numerical simulation of seismic wave field in graded geological media containing multiple cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontara, Ioanna-Kleoniki; Dineva, Petia S.; Manolis, George D.; Wuttke, Frank

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we develop an efficient boundary integral equation method for estimation of seismic motion in a graded medium with multiple cavities under antiplane strain conditions. This inhomogeneous and heterogeneous medium is subjected to either time-harmonic incident shear seismic waves or to body waves radiating from a point seismic source. Three different types of soil material gradient are considered: (i) density and shear modulus vary proportionally as quadratic functions of depth, but the wave velocity remains constant; (ii) the soil material is viscoelastic, with a shear modulus and density that vary with respect to the spatial coordinates in an arbitrary fashion, so that the wave velocity is both frequency and position-dependent and (iii) the soil material has position-dependent shear modulus and constant density, yielding a linear profile for the wave velocity. Three different, frequency-dependent boundary integral equation schemes are respectively developed for the aforementioned three types of graded soil materials based on: (i) Green's function for the quadratically graded elastic half-plane; (ii) a fundamental solution for the viscoelastic full-plane with position-dependent wave speed profiles and (iii) a fundamental solution for an elastic full-plane with a linearly varying wave speed profile. Next, a number of cases involving geological media with position-dependent material properties and any number of cavities of various shapes and geometry are solved in the frequency domain. The numerical results reveal the dependency of the wave fields and zones of stress concentration on the following key factors: (i) type and properties of the soil material gradient; (ii) type and characteristics of the applied seismic load; (iii) shape, position and number of cavities and (iv) interaction phenomena between the cavities and the free surface.

  5. Broadband Lamb wave trapping in cellular metamaterial plates with multiple local resonances.

    PubMed

    Zhao, De-Gang; Li, Yong; Zhu, Xue-Feng

    2015-03-20

    We have investigated the Lamb wave propagation in cellular metamaterial plates constructed by bending-dominated and stretch-dominated unit-cells with the stiffness differed by orders of magnitude at an ultralow density. The simulation results show that ultralight metamaterial plates with textured stubs deposited on the surface can support strong local resonances for both symmetric and anti-symmetric modes at low frequencies, where Lamb waves at the resonance frequencies are highly localized in the vibrating stubs. The resonance frequency is very sensitive to the geometry of textured stubs. By reasonable design of the geometry of resonant elements, we establish a simple loaded-bar model with the array of oscillators having a gradient relative density (or weight) that can support multiple local resonances, which permits the feasibility of a broadband Lamb wave trapping. Our study could be potentially significant in designing ingenious weight-efficient acoustic devices for practical applications, such as shock absorption, cushioning, and vibrations traffic, etc.

  6. Extension of the double-wave-vector diffusion-weighting experiment to multiple concatenations.

    PubMed

    Finsterbusch, Jürgen

    2009-06-01

    Experiments involving two diffusion-weightings in a single acquisition, so-called double- or two-wave-vector experiments, have recently been applied to measure the microscopic anisotropy in macroscopically isotropic samples or to estimate pore or compartment sizes. These informations are derived from the signal modulation observed when varying the wave vectors' orientations. However, the modulation amplitude can be small and, for short mixing times between the two diffusion-weightings, decays with increased gradient pulse lengths which hampers its detectability on whole-body MR systems. Here, an approach is investigated that involves multiple concatenations of the two diffusion-weightings in a single experiment. The theoretical framework for double-wave-vector experiments of fully restricted diffusion is adapted and the corresponding tensor approach recently presented for short mixing times extended and compared to numerical simulations. It is shown that for short mixing times (i) the extended tensor approach well describes the signal behavior observed for multiple concatenations and (ii) the relative amplitude of the signal modulation increases with the number of concatenations. Thus, the presented extension of the double-wave-vector experiment may help to improve the detectability of the signal modulations observed for short mixing times, in particular on whole-body MR systems with their limited gradient amplitudes.

  7. Wave multiple scattering by a finite number of unclosed circular cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veliyev, E. I.; Veremey, V. V.

    1984-01-01

    The boundary value problem of plane H-polarized electromagnetic wave multiple scattering by a finite number of unclosed circular cylinders is solved. The solution is obtained by two different methods: the method of successive scattering and the method of partial matrix inversion for simultaneous dual equations. The advantages of the successive scattering method are shown. Computer calculations of the suface currents and the total cross section are presented for the structure of two screens.

  8. Multiple extracorporeal shock wave therapy degrades capsular fibrosis after insertion of silicone implants.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sebastian; Mueller, Wolf; Schulte, Matthias; Kiefer, Jurij; Hirche, Christoph; Heimer, Sina; Köllensperger, Eva; Germann, Günter; Reichenberger, Matthias A

    2015-03-01

    Capsular fibrosis is the most frequent long-term complication after insertion of silicone devices. Today, mainly direct immunostimulation and subclinical infection are held responsible for inducing and maintaining inflammatory reactions, which lead to overwhelming extracellular matrix formation. Extracorporeal shock waves (ESWs) are capable of inhibiting inflammatory processes and revealing antibacterial capacity. In our previous study, we observed decelerated capsule development after application of a single shock wave immediately after surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of multiple ESWT after insertion of silicone implants in the same rodent model. Therefore, silicone prostheses were inserted into a submuscular pocket in 12 additional male Lewis rats, and shock waves were administered over a 14-d interval. At 35 d (n = 6) and 100 d (n = 6) after insertion, silicone implants and surrounding capsule tissue were removed and prepared for histologic and immunohistochemical analysis, as well as polymerase chain reaction (Ccl2, CD68, transforming growth factor β1, matrix metalloproteinase 2). Compared with the control group, multiple ESWT had no effect on day 35, but resulted in a significantly thinner capsule on day 100 (825.8 ± 313.2 vs. 813.3 ± 47.9, p = 0.759, and 1062.3 ± 151.9 vs. 495.4 ± 220.4, p < 0.001, respectively). The capsule was even thinner than after a single shock wave application, which had been found to result in thinner capsules at every time point in our previous study. This active degradation of the fibrous envelope caused by multiple ESWs was accompanied by synergistic alterations in pro- and anti-fibrotic proteins (transforming growth factor β1 and matrix metalloproteinase 2, respectively). In conclusion, after insertion of silicone devices, single ESWT is capable of decelerating capsule formation in contrast to multiple ESWT, which degrades fibrotic tissue. These findings seem to be associated with inhibition of

  9. Atomic multiple-wave interferometer phase-shifted by the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Takatoshi; Yasuhara, Makoto; Morinaga, Atsuo

    2003-05-01

    A time-domain atomic multiple-wave interferometer using laser-cooled and trapped sodium atoms has been developed under pulsed magnetic fields. Each atomic phase was shifted due to the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect by applying spatially homogeneous pulsed magnetic fields between numerous Raman excitation laser pulses. Interference fringes with a finesse of 11 were demonstrated for 11 successive Raman pulses and ten magnetic-field pulses.

  10. Chaos Suppression in a Sine Square Map through Nonlinear Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eduardo, L. Brugnago; Paulo, C. Rech

    2011-11-01

    We study a pair of nonlinearly coupled identical chaotic sine square maps. More specifically, we investigate the chaos suppression associated with the variation of two parameters. Two-dimensional parameter-space regions where the chaotic dynamics of the individual chaotic sine square map is driven towards regular dynamics are delimited. Additionally, the dynamics of the coupled system is numerically characterized as the parameters are changed.

  11. A three-dimensional numerical study on instability of sinusoidal flame induced by multiple shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao; Dong, Gang; Jiang, Hua

    2017-03-01

    The instabilities of a three-dimensional sinusoidally premixed flame induced by an incident shock wave with Mach = 1.7 and its reshock waves were studied by using the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations with a single-step chemical reaction and a high resolution, 9th-order weighted essentially non-oscillatory scheme. The computational results were validated by the grid independence test and the experimental results in the literature. The computational results show that after the passage of incident shock wave the flame interface develops in symmetric structure accompanied by large-scale transverse vortex structures. After the interactions by successive reshock waves, the flame interface is gradually destabilized and broken up, and the large-scale vortex structures are gradually transformed into small-scale vortex structures. The small-scale vortices tend to be isotropic later. The results also reveal that the evolution of the flame interface is affected by both mixing process and chemical reaction. In order to identify the relationship between the mixing and the chemical reaction, a dimensionless parameter, η , that is defined as the ratio of mixing time scale to chemical reaction time scale, is introduced. It is found that at each interaction stage the effect of chemical reaction is enhanced with time. The enhanced effect of chemical reaction at the interaction stage by incident shock wave is greater than that at the interaction stages by reshock waves. The result suggests that the parameter η can reasonably character the features of flame interface development induced by the multiple shock waves.

  12. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) from insectivores. Two classes of mammalian SINEs distinguished by A-rich tail structure.

    PubMed

    Borodulina, O R; Kramerov, D A

    2001-10-01

    Four tRNA-related SINE families were isolated from the genome of the shrew Sorex araneus (SOR element), mole Mogera robusta (TAL element), and hedgehog Mesechinus dauuricus (ERI-1 and ERI-2 elements). Each of these SINEs families is specific for a single Insectivora family: SOR, for Soricidae (shrews); TAL, for Talpidae (moles and desmans); ERI-1 and ERI-2, for Erinaceidae (hedgehogs). There is a long polypyrimidine region (TC-motif) in TAL, ERI-1, and ERI-2 elements located immediately upstream of an A-rich tail with polyadenylation signals (AATAAA) and an RNA polymerase III terminator (T(4-6)) or TCT(3-4)). Ten out of 14 analyzed mammalian tRNA-related SINE families have an A-rich tail similar to that of TAL, ERI-1, and ERI-2 elements. These elements were assigned to class T+. The other four SINEs including SOR element have no polyadenylation signal and transcription terminator in their A-rich tail and were assigned to class T-. Class T+ SINEs occur only in mammals, and most of them have a long polypyrimidine region. Possible models of retroposition of class T+ and T- SINEs are discussed.

  13. Does homologous reinfection drive multiple-wave influenza outbreaks? Accounting for immunodynamics in epidemiological models☆

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, A.; Cazelles, B.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological models of influenza transmission usually assume that recovered individuals instantly develop a fully protective immunity against the infecting strain. However, recent studies have highlighted host heterogeneity in the development of this immune response, characterized by delay and even absence of protection, that could lead to homologous reinfection (HR). Here, we investigate how these immunological mechanisms at the individual level shape the epidemiological dynamics at the population level. In particular, because HR was observed during the successive waves of past pandemics, we assess its role in driving multiple-wave influenza outbreaks. We develop a novel mechanistic model accounting for host heterogeneity in the immune response. Immunological parameters are inferred by fitting our dynamical model to a two-wave influenza epidemic that occurred on the remote island of Tristan da Cunha (TdC) in 1971, and during which HR occurred in 92 of 284 islanders. We then explore the dynamics predicted by our model for various population settings. We find that our model can explain HR over both short (e.g. week) and long (e.g. month) time-scales, as reported during past pandemics. In particular, our results reveal that the HR wave on TdC was a natural consequence of the exceptional contact configuration and high susceptibility of this small and isolated community. By contrast, in larger, less mixed and partially protected populations, HR alone cannot generate multiple-wave outbreaks. However, in the latter case, we find that a significant proportion of infected hosts would remain unprotected at the end of the pandemic season and should therefore benefit from vaccination. Crucially, we show that failing to account for these unprotected individuals can lead to large underestimation of the magnitude of the first post-pandemic season. These results are relevant in the context of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza post-pandemic era. PMID:24267875

  14. Does homologous reinfection drive multiple-wave influenza outbreaks? Accounting for immunodynamics in epidemiological models.

    PubMed

    Camacho, A; Cazelles, B

    2013-12-01

    Epidemiological models of influenza transmission usually assume that recovered individuals instantly develop a fully protective immunity against the infecting strain. However, recent studies have highlighted host heterogeneity in the development of this immune response, characterized by delay and even absence of protection, that could lead to homologous reinfection (HR). Here, we investigate how these immunological mechanisms at the individual level shape the epidemiological dynamics at the population level. In particular, because HR was observed during the successive waves of past pandemics, we assess its role in driving multiple-wave influenza outbreaks. We develop a novel mechanistic model accounting for host heterogeneity in the immune response. Immunological parameters are inferred by fitting our dynamical model to a two-wave influenza epidemic that occurred on the remote island of Tristan da Cunha (TdC) in 1971, and during which HR occurred in 92 of 284 islanders. We then explore the dynamics predicted by our model for various population settings. We find that our model can explain HR over both short (e.g. week) and long (e.g. month) time-scales, as reported during past pandemics. In particular, our results reveal that the HR wave on TdC was a natural consequence of the exceptional contact configuration and high susceptibility of this small and isolated community. By contrast, in larger, less mixed and partially protected populations, HR alone cannot generate multiple-wave outbreaks. However, in the latter case, we find that a significant proportion of infected hosts would remain unprotected at the end of the pandemic season and should therefore benefit from vaccination. Crucially, we show that failing to account for these unprotected individuals can lead to large underestimation of the magnitude of the first post-pandemic season. These results are relevant in the context of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza post-pandemic era.

  15. Optimized {gamma}-Multiplicity Based Spin Assignments of s-Wave Neutron Resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Becvar, F.; Koehler, Paul Edward; Krticka, Milan; Mitchell, G. E.; Ullmann, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    The multiplicity of -ray emission following neutron capture at isolated resonances carries valuable information on the resonance spin. Several methods utilizing this information have been developed. The latest method was recently introduced for analyzing the data from time-of-flight measurements with 4 -calorimetric detection systems. The present paper describes a generalization of this method. The goal is the separation of the -emission yields belonging to the two neutron capturing state spins of isolated (or even unresolved) s-wave neutron resonances on targets with non-zero spin. The formalism for performing this separation is described and then tested on artificially generated data. This new method was applied to the -multiplicity data obtained for the 147Sm(n, )148Sm reaction using the DANCE detector system at the LANSCE facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The analyzing power of the upgraded method is supported by combined dicebox and geant4 simulations of the fluctuation properties of the multiplicity distributions.

  16. Statistical Analysis of EMIC Waves in Multiple Component Plasma Including Heavy Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, S.; Kasahara, Y.; Goto, Y.

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that Earth's radiation belts are located around geomagnetic equator, where wide ranges of energetic particles from several hundred keV to several tens MeV are contained. According to the recent study, it is suggested that ELF/VLF waves such as EMIC waves and chorus emissions deeply contribute to the generation and loss mechanism of relativistic electrons in the radiation belt. The ERG mission[1] is expected to provide important clues for solving plasma dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts by means of integrated observation of wide energy range of plasma particles and high resolution plasma waves. On the other hand, long-term observation data which covers over 2 cycles of solar activity obtained by the Akebono satellite is very valuable to work out the strategy of the ERG mission. The ELF receiver, which is a sub-system of the VLF instruments onboard Akebono, measures waveforms below 50 Hz for one component of electric field and three components of magnetic field, or waveforms below 100 Hz for one component of electric and magnetic field, respectively. It was reported that ion cyclotron waves were observed near magnetic equator by the receiver[2]. In our previous study[3], we introduced four events of characteristic EMIC waves observed by Akebono in April, 1989. These waves have sudden decrease of intensity just above half of proton cyclotron frequency changing along the trajectories of Akebono. Comparing the observed data with the dispersion relation in multiple species of ions under cold plasma approximation, we demonstrate that a few percent of 'M / Z = 2 ions (M = mass of ions, Z = charge of ions)' such as alpha particles (He++) or deuterons (D+) cause such characteristic attenuation of EMIC at lower hybrid frequency. In the present study, we performed polarization analysis and direction finding of the waves. It was found that these EMIC waves were left-handed polarized in the higher frequency part, while the polarization gradually changes to

  17. Multiple-frequency continuous wave ultrasonic system for accurate distance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C. F.; Young, M. S.; Li, Y. C.

    1999-02-01

    A highly accurate multiple-frequency continuous wave ultrasonic range-measuring system for use in air is described. The proposed system uses a method heretofore applied to radio frequency distance measurement but not to air-based ultrasonic systems. The method presented here is based upon the comparative phase shifts generated by three continuous ultrasonic waves of different but closely spaced frequencies. In the test embodiment to confirm concept feasibility, two low cost 40 kHz ultrasonic transducers are set face to face and used to transmit and receive ultrasound. Individual frequencies are transmitted serially, each generating its own phase shift. For any given frequency, the transmitter/receiver distance modulates the phase shift between the transmitted and received signals. Comparison of the phase shifts allows a highly accurate evaluation of target distance. A single-chip microcomputer-based multiple-frequency continuous wave generator and phase detector was designed to record and compute the phase shift information and the resulting distance, which is then sent to either a LCD or a PC. The PC is necessary only for calibration of the system, which can be run independently after calibration. Experiments were conducted to test the performance of the whole system. Experimentally, ranging accuracy was found to be within ±0.05 mm, with a range of over 1.5 m. The main advantages of this ultrasonic range measurement system are high resolution, low cost, narrow bandwidth requirements, and ease of implementation.

  18. Multiple scattering dynamics of fermions at an isolated p-wave resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R.; Roberts, K. O.; Tiesinga, E.; Wade, A. C. J.; Blakie, P. B.; Deb, A. B.; Kjærgaard, N.

    2016-07-01

    The wavefunction for indistinguishable fermions is anti-symmetric under particle exchange, which directly leads to the Pauli exclusion principle, and hence underlies the structure of atoms and the properties of almost all materials. In the dynamics of collisions between two indistinguishable fermions, this requirement strictly prohibits scattering into 90° angles. Here we experimentally investigate the collisions of ultracold clouds fermionic 40K atoms by directly measuring scattering distributions. With increasing collision energy we identify the Wigner threshold for p-wave scattering with its tell-tale dumb-bell shape and no 90° yield. Above this threshold, effects of multiple scattering become manifest as deviations from the underlying binary p-wave shape, adding particles either isotropically or axially. A shape resonance for 40K facilitates the separate observation of these two processes. The isotropically enhanced multiple scattering mode is a generic p-wave threshold phenomenon, whereas the axially enhanced mode should occur in any colliding particle system with an elastic scattering resonance.

  19. Multiple scattering dynamics of fermions at an isolated p-wave resonance

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, R.; Roberts, K. O.; Tiesinga, E.; Wade, A. C. J.; Blakie, P. B.; Deb, A. B.; Kjærgaard, N.

    2016-01-01

    The wavefunction for indistinguishable fermions is anti-symmetric under particle exchange, which directly leads to the Pauli exclusion principle, and hence underlies the structure of atoms and the properties of almost all materials. In the dynamics of collisions between two indistinguishable fermions, this requirement strictly prohibits scattering into 90° angles. Here we experimentally investigate the collisions of ultracold clouds fermionic 40K atoms by directly measuring scattering distributions. With increasing collision energy we identify the Wigner threshold for p-wave scattering with its tell-tale dumb-bell shape and no 90° yield. Above this threshold, effects of multiple scattering become manifest as deviations from the underlying binary p-wave shape, adding particles either isotropically or axially. A shape resonance for 40K facilitates the separate observation of these two processes. The isotropically enhanced multiple scattering mode is a generic p-wave threshold phenomenon, whereas the axially enhanced mode should occur in any colliding particle system with an elastic scattering resonance. PMID:27396294

  20. Formation of multiple shocklets in a transonic diffuser flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, T.; Miyazato, Y.; Masuda, M.; Matsuo, K.

    Multiple shocklets are frequently generated in transonic diffuser flows. The present paper investigates the formation of these shocklets with a high-speed CCD camera combined with the schlieren method. It is observed that compression waves steepen while propagating upstream, and eventually become new shock waves. The ordinary shock wave is found to move upstream beyond the nozzle throat or to disappear while moving downstream depending on the pressure ratio across the nozzle. This phenomenon is also analyzed with the one-dimensional Euler equations by assuming a pressure disturbance given by the sine function at the channel exit. The calculated results are found to reproduce quite well the experimental behavior of the shocklets. The effect of the frequency of disturbance is also studied numerically, and it is shown that the multiple shocklet pattern appears when the amplitude of disturbance is not large and the diverging part of the channel downstream of the ordinary shock wave is long.

  1. Numerical investigation of interactions of multiple spherical shock waves between themselves and with the underlying surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrushchenko, V. A.; Murashkin, I. V.; Shevelev, Yu. D.

    2016-06-01

    Within the investigation of various aspects of asteroid and comet danger and, in particular, the explosion of several fragments of meteoroids in the atmosphere above the Earth surface, the toy problem about four point explosions in the case of their special arrangement above the underlying surface is numerically solved. Complex interactions of primary and secondary shock waves between themselves, with the hard surface, and with tangential discontinuities are examined. The structure of flow inside gas regions disturbed by the explosions—the occurrence of eddy structures in them and the influence of reflected shocks waves on them—are investigated. The tendency of the external wave fronts of each explosion to form a unified front and the tendency of their internal hot domains to merge into a joined configuration (where the second process proceeds a little later than the first one) is revealed. This unified front and joined configuration are qualitatively identical to the external internal structure for the solitary explosion. The specially arranged explosions are chosen because the effects of multiple diffraction, interference, and, the main thing, cumulation of spherical waves are manifested more clearly in this caseTwo variants with different altitude of the explosions above the surface are calculated.

  2. Guided wave-based identification of multiple cracks in beams using a Bayesian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shuai; Ng, Ching-Tai

    2017-02-01

    A guided wave damage identification method using a model-based approach is proposed to identify multiple cracks in beam-like structures. The guided wave propagation is simulated using spectral finite element method and a crack element is proposed to take into account the mode conversion effect. The Bayesian model class selection algorithm is employed to determine the crack number and then the Bayesian statistical framework is used to identify the crack parameters and the associated uncertainties. In order to improve the efficiency and ensure the reliability of identification, the Transitional Markov Chain Monte Carlo (TMCMC) method is implemented in the Bayesian approach. A series of numerical case studies are carried out to assess the performance of the proposed method, in which the sensitivity of different guided wave modes and effect of different levels of measurement noise in identifying different numbers of cracks is studied in detail. The proposed method is also experimentally verified using guided wave data obtained from laser vibrometer. The results show that the proposed method is able to accurately identify the number, locations and sizes of the cracks, and also quantify the associated uncertainties. In addition the proposed method is robust under measurement noise and different situations of the cracks.

  3. Mechanical waves conceptual survey: Its modification and conversion to a standard multiple-choice test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2016-06-01

    In this article we present several modifications of the mechanical waves conceptual survey, the most important test to date that has been designed to evaluate university students' understanding of four main topics in mechanical waves: propagation, superposition, reflection, and standing waves. The most significant changes are (i) modification of several test questions that had some problems in their original design, (ii) standardization of the number of options for each question to five, (iii) conversion of the two-tier questions to multiple-choice questions, and (iv) modification of some questions to make them independent of others. To obtain a final version of the test, we administered both the original and modified versions several times to students at a large private university in Mexico. These students were completing a course that covers the topics tested by the survey. The final modified version of the test was administered to 234 students. In this study we present the modifications for each question, and discuss the reasons behind them. We also analyze the results obtained by the final modified version and offer a comparison between the original and modified versions. In the Supplemental Material we present the final modified version of the test. It can be used by teachers and researchers to assess students' understanding of, and learning about, mechanical waves.

  4. A multiple flux boundary element method applied to the description of surface water waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hague, C. H.; Swan, C.

    2009-08-01

    This paper concerns a two dimensional numerical model based on a high-order boundary element method with fully nonlinear free surface boundary conditions. Multiple fluxes are applied as a method of removing the so-called “corner problem”, whereby the direction of the outward normal at geometric discontinuities is ill-defined. In the present method, both fluxes associated with differing directions of the outward normal at a corner are considered, allowing a single node to be placed at that position. This prevents any loss of information at what can be an important part of the boundary, especially if considering simulations of wave reflection and wave run-up. The method is compared to both the double node approach and the use of discontinuous elements and is shown to be a more accurate technique. The success of the method is further demonstrated by its ability to accurately simulate various problems involving wave transmission and wave-structure interactions at domain corners; the results being achieved without the need for filtering, smoothing or re-gridding of any kind.

  5. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Multiple Shock Wave/Turbulent Boundary Layer Interactions in a Rectangular Duct

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-06

    variety of devices including scramjet inlets, gas ejector and supersonic wind tunnels. For sufficiently high duct exit pressures, a multiple shock wave...devices including scramijet inlets, gas ejectors , and supersonic wind tunnels. For sufficiently high duct exit pressures, a * multiple shock wave...gas ejectors , supersonic wind tunnel diffusers, and scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet) inlets. Ejectors are used to both -- pump and mix fluids and

  6. Can we explain the Jovian decametric arc pattern with the multiple reflection Alfven wave model?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, Y.; Bagenal, F.

    The pattern of arcs made by bursts of Io-modulated dkm-band emission in frequency time spectrograms has been examined for the A and B sources and compared with predictions of the Alfven-wave model. Planetary Radio Astronomy data from the Voyager 1 and 2 Jupiter encounters are employed, and the observations of the A and B sources are organized with respect to the Io phase for fixed 30-deg longitude intervals. A clear pattern of regions of strong emission separated by holes (regions with weak or no emission) is found. This preliminary study suggests the bunching of dkm arcs matches the Alfven wave pattern generated by Io. This implies that each Alfven current generates multiple beams of dkm emission.

  7. Multiple Scattering of Seismic Waves from Ensembles of Upwardly Lossy Thin Flux Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Chris S.; Cally, Paul S.

    2015-07-01

    Our previous semi-analytic treatment of - and -mode multiple scattering from ensembles of thin flux tubes (Hanson and Cally, Astrophys. J. 781, 125, 2014a; 791, 129, 2014b) is extended by allowing both sausage and kink waves to freely escape at the top of the model using a radiative boundary condition there. As expected, this additional avenue of escape, supplementing downward loss into the deep solar interior, results in substantially greater absorption of incident - and -modes. However, less intuitively, it also yields mildly to substantially smaller phase shifts in waves emerging from the ensemble. This may have implications for the interpretation of seismic data for solar plage regions, and in particular their small measured phase shifts.

  8. Critical immune and vaccination thresholds for determining multiple influenza epidemic waves.

    PubMed

    Matrajt, Laura; Longini, Ira M

    2012-03-01

    Previous influenza pandemics (1918, 1957, and 1968) have all had multiple waves. The 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) (pandemic H1N1) started in April 2009 and was followed, in the United States (US) and temperate Northern Hemisphere, by a second wave during the fall of 2009. The ratio of susceptible and immune individuals in a population at the end of a wave determines the potential and magnitude of a subsequent wave. As influenza vaccines are not completely protective, there was a combined immunity in the population at the beginning of 2010 (due to vaccination and due to previous natural infection), and it was uncertain if this mixture of herd immunity was enough to prevent a third wave of pandemic influenza during the winter of 2010. Motivated by this problem, we developed a mathematical deterministic two-group epidemic model with vaccination and calibrated it for the 2009 pandemic H1N1. Then, applying methods from mathematical epidemiology we developed a scheme that allowed us to determine critical thresholds for vaccine-induced and natural immunity that would prevent the spread of influenza. Finally, we estimated the level of combined immunity in the US during winter 2010. Our results suggest that a third wave was unlikely if the basic reproduction number R(0) were below 1.6, plausible if the original R(0) was 1.6, and likely if the original R(0) was 1.8 or higher. Given that the estimates for the basic reproduction number for pandemic influenza place it in the range between 1.4 and 1.6 (Bacaer and Ait Dads, 2011; Fraser et al., 2009; Munayco et al., 2009; Pourbohloul et al., 2009; Tuite et al., 2010; White et al., 2009; Yang et al., 2009), our approach accurately predicted the absence of a third wave of influenza in the US during the winter of 2010. We also used this scheme to accurately predict the second wave of pandemic influenza in London and the West Midlands, UK during the fall of 2009.

  9. Bayesian reconstruction of gravitational wave bursts using chirplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millhouse, Margaret; Cornish, Neil; Littenberg, Tyson

    2017-01-01

    The BayesWave algorithm has been shown to accurately reconstruct unmodeled short duration gravitational wave bursts and to distinguish between astrophysical signals and transient noise events. BayesWave does this by using a variable number of sine-Gaussian (Morlet) wavelets to reconstruct data in multiple interferometers. While the Morlet wavelets can be summed together to produce any possible waveform, there could be other wavelet functions that improve the performance. Because we expect most astrophysical gravitational wave signals to evolve in frequency, modified Morlet wavelets with linear frequency evolution - called chirplets - may better reconstruct signals with fewer wavelets. We compare the performance of BayesWave using Morlet wavelets and chirplets on a variety of simulated signals.

  10. Quantification of Multiple Cracks Using MM-wave Antenna Sensor Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-12

    Figure 5: passive antenna sensor with a light-activated RF switch. pHEMT Resistor Photocell DielectricPatch Figure 6: Wireless interrogation of...the gain of a patch antenna can be enhanced if it is surrounded by a metallic strip . For our sensor arrangement, the antenna sensor array that is not...Multiple Cracks Using MM-wave Antenna Sensor Network FA9550-08-l-0317 Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER

  11. Stochastic D-bifurcation for a damped sine-Gordon equation with noise

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Qiongwei; Xue, Changfeng; Tang, Jiashi

    2015-04-15

    We investigate the stochastic bifurcation of a damped sine-Gordon equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions under the influence of multiplicative Gaussian white noise. Introducing a slow time scale, we derive the amplitude equations near the trivial solution by multiscale analysis. And the stationary probability density functions are formulated analytically using the stochastic averaging of energy envelope. The numerical calculations show that the system undergoes a stochastic D-bifurcation of energy envelope from a delta measure to new stationary measures when the control parameter crosses a critical point.

  12. On integrability aspects of the supersymmetric sine-Gordon equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, S.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we study certain integrability properties of the supersymmetric sine-Gordon equation. We construct Lax pairs with their zero-curvature representations which are equivalent to the supersymmetric sine-Gordon equation. From the fermionic linear spectral problem, we derive coupled sets of super Riccati equations and the auto-Bäcklund transformation of the supersymmetric sine-Gordon equation. In addition, a detailed description of the associated Darboux transformation is presented and non-trivial super multisoliton solutions are constructed. These integrability properties allow us to provide new explicit geometric characterizations of the bosonic supersymmetric version of the Sym–Tafel formula for the immersion of surfaces in a Lie superalgebra. These characterizations are expressed only in terms of the independent bosonic and fermionic variables.

  13. Multiple scales analysis and travelling wave solutions for KdV type nonlinear evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayhan, Burcu; Ozer, M. Naci; Bekir, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Nonlinear evolution equations are the mathematical models of problems that arise in many field of science. These equations has become an important field of study in applied mathematics in recent years. We apply exact solution methods and multiple scale method which is known as a perturbation method to nonlinear evolution equations. Using exact solution methods we get travelling wave solutions expressed by hyperbolic functions, trigonometric functions and rational functions. Also we derive Nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) type equations from Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) type nonlinear evolution equations and we get approximate solutions for KdV type equations using multiple scale method. The proposed methods are direct and effective and can be used for many nonlinear evolution equations. It is shown that these methods provide a powerful mathematical tool to solve nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.

  14. Energy in a String Wave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Chiu-king

    2010-01-01

    When one end of a taut horizontal elastic string is shaken repeatedly up and down, a transverse wave (assume sine waveform) will be produced and travel along it. College students know this type of wave motion well. They know when the wave passes by, each element of the string will perform an oscillating up-down motion, which in mechanics is termed…

  15. Multiple scattering effects in quasifree scattering from halo nuclei: A test of the distorted-wave impulse approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Crespo, R.; Deltuva, A.; Cravo, E.; Rodriguez-Gallardo, M.; Fonseca, A. C.

    2008-02-15

    Full Faddeev-type calculations are performed for {sup 11}Be breakup on a proton target at 38.4, 100, and 200 MeV/u incident energies. The convergence of the multiple scattering expansion is investigated. The results are compared with those of other frameworks like distorted-wave impulse approximation that are based on an incomplete and truncated multiple scattering expansion.

  16. CAN--a pan-carnivore SINE family.

    PubMed

    Vassetzky, Nikita S; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2002-01-01

    Short retroposons or short interspersed elements (SINEs) constituting 5-10% genome have been isolated from various organisms. CAN SINEs initially found in American mink were named after dogs (Canis), and the range of their distribution in the genomes of carnivores and mammals in general remained topical. Here we demonstrate CAN sequences in representatives of all carnivore families, but not beyond carnivores, on the basis of sequence bank search and genomic PCR. Analysis of their distribution supports division of carnivores into caniform (dogs, mustelids, raccoons, bears, and pinnipeds) and feliform (cats, civets, and hyenas) lineages. CAN structure is considered in the context of their function and evolution.

  17. Use of multiple acoustic wave modes for assessment of long bones: Model study

    PubMed Central

    Tatarinov, Alexey; Sarvazyan, Noune; Sarvazyan, Armen

    2010-01-01

    Multiple acoustic wave mode method has been proposed as a new modality in axial bone QUS. The new method is based on measurement of ultrasound velocity at different ratio of wavelength to the bone thickness, and taking into account both bulk and guided waves. It allows assessment of changes in both the material properties related to porosity and mineralization as well as the cortical thickness influenced by resorption from inner layers, which are equally important in diagnostics of osteoporosis and other bone osteopenia. Developed method was validated in model studies using a dual-frequency (100 and 500 kHz) ultrasound device. Three types of bone phantoms for long bones were developed and tested: (1) tubular specimens from polymer materials to model combined changes of material stiffness and cortical wall thickness; (2) layered specimens to model porosity in compact bone progressing from endosteum towards periosteum; (3) animal bone specimens with both cortical and trabecular components. Observed changes of the ultrasound velocity of guided waves at 100 kHz followed gradual changes in the thickness of the intact cortical layer. On the other hand, the bulk velocity at 500 kHz remained nearly constant at the different cortical layer thickness but was affected by the material stiffness. Similar trends were observed in phantoms and in fragments of animal bones. PMID:15982472

  18. Stopping rules for surveys with multiple waves of nonrespondent follow-up.

    PubMed

    Rao, R Sowmya; Glickman, Mark E; Glynn, Robert J

    2008-05-30

    In surveys with multiple waves of follow-up, nonrespondents to the first wave are sometimes followed intensively but this does not guarantee an increase in the response rate or an appreciable change in the estimate of interest. Most prior research has focused on stopping rules for Phase I clinical trials. To our knowledge there are no standard methods to stop follow-up in observational studies. Previous research suggests optimal stopping strategies where decisions are based on achieving a given precision for minimum cost or reducing cost for a given precision. In this paper, we propose three stopping rules that are based on assessing whether successive waves of sampling provide evidence that the parameter of interest is changing. Two of the rules rely on examining patterns of observed responses while the third rule uses missing data methods to multiply impute missing responses. We also present results from a simulation study to evaluate our proposed methods. Our simulations suggest that rules that adjust for nonresponse are preferred for decisions to discontinue follow-up since they reduce bias in the estimate of interest. The rules are not complicated and may be applied in a straightforward manner. Discontinuing follow-up would save time and possibly resources, and adjusting for the nonresponse in the analysis would reduce the impact of nonresponse bias.

  19. Optical interference-based multiple-image encryption using spherical wave illumination and gyrator transform.

    PubMed

    Abuturab, Muhammad Rafiq

    2014-10-10

    A new optical interference-based multiple-image encryption using spherical wave illumination and gyrator transform is proposed. In this proposal, each secret color image is divided into normalized red, green, and blue component images and independently encoded into corresponding phase-only component images. Then each phase-only component image of all the images are combined together to produce a single-phase-only component image as an input component image, which is bounded with a random phase mask to form a complex image. The two phase-only masks are analytically obtained from the inverse Fourier transformation of the complex image. The host image is chosen as the first phase-only mask, and the complex image hidden in the host image is regarded as the second phase-only mask. The spherical wave is generated to simultaneously illuminate phase-only masks. Then two modulated masks are gyrator transformed. The corresponding transformed images are phase truncated to obtain encrypted images and amplitude truncated to construct decryption keys. The decryption keys, angles of gyrator transform, wavelength and radius of the spherical wave, and individual decryption keys for authorized users are sensitive keys, which enhance the security layers of the system. The proposed system can be implemented by using optoelectronic architecture. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the flexibility of the system.

  20. Microgenetic patterns of children's multiplication learning: confirming the overlapping waves model by latent growth modeling.

    PubMed

    van der Ven, Sanne H G; Boom, Jan; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Leseman, Paul P M

    2012-09-01

    Variability in strategy selection is an important characteristic of learning new skills such as mathematical skills. Strategies gradually come and go during this development. In 1996, Siegler described this phenomenon as "overlapping waves." In the current microgenetic study, we attempted to model these overlapping waves statistically. In addition, we investigated whether development in strategy selection is related to development in accuracy and to what degree working memory is related to both. We expected that children with poor working memory are limited in their possibilities to make the associations that are necessary to progress to more mature strategies. This limitation would explain the often-found relationship between working memory and mathematical abilities. To this aim, the strategy selection and accuracy of 98 children who were learning single-digit multiplication was assessed eight times on a weekly basis. Using latent growth modeling for categorical data, we confirmed Siegler's hypothesis of overlapping waves. Moreover, both the intercepts and the slopes of strategy selection and accuracy were strongly interrelated. Finally, working memory predicted both strategy selection and accuracy, confirming that working memory is related to mathematical problem solving in two ways because it influences both the maturity of strategy choice and the probability of making procedural mistakes.

  1. Broadband Lamb Wave Trapping in Cellular Metamaterial Plates with Multiple Local Resonances

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, De-Gang; Li, Yong; Zhu, Xue-Feng

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the Lamb wave propagation in cellular metamaterial plates constructed by bending-dominated and stretch-dominated unit-cells with the stiffness differed by orders of magnitude at an ultralow density. The simulation results show that ultralight metamaterial plates with textured stubs deposited on the surface can support strong local resonances for both symmetric and anti-symmetric modes at low frequencies, where Lamb waves at the resonance frequencies are highly localized in the vibrating stubs. The resonance frequency is very sensitive to the geometry of textured stubs. By reasonable design of the geometry of resonant elements, we establish a simple loaded-bar model with the array of oscillators having a gradient relative density (or weight) that can support multiple local resonances, which permits the feasibility of a broadband Lamb wave trapping. Our study could be potentially significant in designing ingenious weight-efficient acoustic devices for practical applications, such as shock absorption, cushioning, and vibrations traffic, etc. PMID:25790858

  2. Measurement of the viscosity-density product using multiple reflections of ultrasonic shear horizontal waves.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Margaret S; Adamson, Justus D; Bond, Leonard J

    2006-12-22

    We have developed an on-line computer-controlled sensor, based on ultrasound reflection measurements, to determine the product of the viscosity and density of a liquid or slurry for Newtonian fluids and the shear impedance of the liquid for non-Newtonian fluids. A 14 MHz shear wave transducer is bonded to one side of a 45-90 degrees fused silica wedge and the base is in contract with the liquid. Twenty-eight echoes were observed due to the multiple reflections of an ultrasonic shear horizontal (SH) wave within the wedge. The fast Fourier transform of each echo was obtained for a liquid and for water, which serves as the calibration fluid, and the reflection coefficient at the solid-liquid interface was obtained. Data were obtained for 11 sugar water solutions ranging in concentration from 10% to 66% by weight. The viscosity values are shown to be in good agreement with those obtained independently using a laboratory viscometer. The data acquisition time is 14s and this can be reduced by judicious selection of the echoes for determining the reflection coefficient. The measurement of the density results in a determination of the viscosity for Newtonian fluids or the shear wave velocity for non-Newtonian fluids. The sensor can be deployed for process control in a pipeline, with the base of the wedge as part of the pipeline wall, or immersed in a tank.

  3. Genealogy of families of SINEs in cetaceans and artiodactyls: the presence of a huge superfamily of tRNA(Glu)-derived families of SINEs.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, M; Abe, H; Nikaido, M; Ohshima, K; Okada, N

    1999-08-01

    Several novel (sub)families of SINEs were isolated from the genomes of cetaceans and artiodactyls, and their sequences were determined. From comparisons of diagnostic nucleotides among the short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs) in these (sub)families, we were able to draw the following conclusions. (1) After the divergence of the suborder Tylopoda (camels), the CHRS family of SINEs was newly created from tRNA(Glu) in a common ancestor of the lineages of the Suina (pigs and peccaries), Ruminantia (cows and deer), and Cetacea (whales and dolphins). (2) After divergence of the Suina lineage, the CHR-1 SINE and the CHR-2 SINE were generated successively in a common ancestor of ruminants, hippopotamuses, and cetaceans. (3) In the Ruminantia lineage, the Bov-tA SINE was generated by recombination between the CHR-2 SINE and Bov-A. (4) In the Suina lineage, the CHRS-S SINE was generated from the CHRS SINE. (5) In this latter lineage, the PRE-1 family of SINEs was created by insertion of part of the gene for tRNA(Arg) into the 5' region of the CHRS-S family. The distribution of a particular family of SINEs among species of artiodactyls and cetaceans confirmed the most recent conclusion for paraphyly of the order Artiodactyla. The present study also revealed that a newly created tRNA(Glu)-derived family of SINEs was subjected both to recombination with different units and to duplication of an internal sequence within a SINE unit to generate, during evolution, a huge superfamily of tRNA(Glu)-related families of SINEs that are now found in the genomes of artiodactyls and cetaceans.

  4. Multiple phase screen calculation of two-way spherical wave propagation in the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knepp, Dennis L.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a numerical solution to the parabolic wave equation for spherical wave propagation in a disturbed ionosphere. The solution uses the Fourier/split step approach where the propagation medium is modeled using multiple phase-changing screens separated by free space. The phase screens can consist of deterministic or random components describing spatial scales of any size. This solution consists of realizations of the signal (i.e., the ionospheric transfer function) after two-way propagation from a transmitter, through the medium to a target, and back. The transmitter and target can be comprised of multiple, independent point scatterers. The solution is applicable to many propagation problems including synthetic aperture radar and is not subject to the small-scene limitation, where all scatterers in the scene experience identical propagation conditions. Several examples are given illustrating some features of the solution including reciprocity, relationship between one- and two-way (monostatic and bistatic) scintillation index, and reflection from a large target.

  5. Silk worm Bm1 SINE RNA increases following cellular insults.

    PubMed

    Kimura, R H; Choudary, P V; Schmid, C W

    1999-08-15

    The effect of cell stresses upon the expression of the Bm1 short interspersed element (SINE) family in cultured silk worm cells is examined. Primer extension analysis shows that Bm1 repeats are transcribed by RNA polymerase III (Pol III) into cytoplasmic RNAs. Five consecutive T residues, which would normally terminate Pol III transcription, occur within the Bm1 consensus and are included within cDNA sequences representing these transcripts. In analogy to mammalian SINEs, the level of the Bm1 transcripts increases in response to either heat shock, inhibiting protein synthesis by cycloheximide or viral infection. The lifetime of Bm1 RNA increases following cell insults so that post-transcriptional events partially account for stress induced increases in its abundance. In the case of heat shock, the increase in Bm1 RNA follows the transient increase in hsp70 mRNA indicating that this response is temporally regulated to occur later in heat shock recovery. These results support the proposal that SINE RNAs serve a role in the cell stress response that predates the divergence of insects and mammals implying that SINEs are essentially a class of cell stress genes.

  6. A SINE-based dichotomous key for primate identification.

    PubMed

    Herke, Scott W; Xing, Jinchuan; Ray, David A; Zimmerman, Jacquelyn W; Cordaux, Richard; Batzer, Mark A

    2007-04-01

    For DNA samples or 'divorced' tissues, identifying the organism from which they were taken generally requires some type of analytical method. The ideal approach would be robust even in the hands of a novice, requiring minimal equipment, time, and effort. Genotyping SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements) is such an approach as it requires only PCR-related equipment, and the analysis consists solely of interpreting fragment sizes in agarose gels. Modern primate genomes are known to contain lineage-specific insertions of Alu elements (a primate-specific SINE); thus, to demonstrate the utility of this approach, we used members of the Alu family to identify DNA samples from evolutionarily divergent primate species. For each node of a combined phylogenetic tree (56 species; n=8 [Hominids]; 11 [New World monkeys]; 21 [Old World monkeys]; 2 [Tarsiformes]; and, 14 [Strepsirrhines]), we tested loci (>400 in total) from prior phylogenetic studies as well as newly identified elements for their ability to amplify in all 56 species. Ultimately, 195 loci were selected for inclusion in this Alu-based key for primate identification. This dichotomous SINE-based key is best used through hierarchical amplification, with the starting point determined by the level of initial uncertainty regarding sample origin. With newly emerging genome databases, finding informative retrotransposon insertions is becoming much more rapid; thus, the general principle of using SINEs to identify organisms is broadly applicable.

  7. Generalized universality in the massive sine-Gordon model

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, S.; Sailer, K.; Nandori, I.; Polonyi, J.

    2008-01-15

    A nontrivial interplay of the UV and IR scaling laws, a generalization of the universality is demonstrated in the framework of the massive sine-Gordon model, as a result of a detailed study of the global behavior of the renormalization group flow and the phase structure.

  8. In vitro ultrasound experiments: Standing wave and multiple reflections influence on the outcome.

    PubMed

    Secomski, Wojciech; Bilmin, Krzysztof; Kujawska, Tamara; Nowicki, Andrzej; Grieb, Paweł; Lewin, Peter A

    2017-02-20

    The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of standing waves and possible multiple reflections under the conditions often encountered in examining the effects of ultrasound exposure on the cell cultures in vitro. More specifically, the goal was to quantitatively ascertain the influence of ultrasound exposure under free field (FF) and standing waves (SW) and multiple reflections (MR) conditions (SWMR) on the biological endpoint (50% cell necrosis). Such information would help in designing the experiments, in which the geometry of the container with biological tissue may prevent FF conditions to be established and in which the ultrasound generated temperature elevation is undesirable. This goal was accomplished by performing systematic, side-by-side experiments in vitro with C6 rat glioma cancer cells using 12 well and 96 well plates. It was determined that to obtain 50% of cell viability using the 12 well plates, the spatial average, temporal average (ISATA) intensities of 0.32W/cm(2) and 5.89W/cm(2) were needed under SWMR and FF conditions, respectively. For 96 well plates the results were 0.80W/cm(2) and 2.86W/cm(2) respectively. The corresponding, hydrophone measured pRMS maximum pressure amplitude values, were 0.71MPa, 0.75MPa, 0.75MPa and 0.73MPa, respectively. These results suggest that pRMS pressure amplitude was independent of the measurement set-up geometry and hence could be used to predict the cells' mortality threshold under any in vitro experimental conditions or even as a starting point for (pre-clinical) in vivo tests. The described procedure of the hydrophone measurements of the pRMS maximum pressure amplitude at the λ/2 distance (here 0.75mm) from the cell's level at the bottom of the dish or plate provides the guideline allowing the difference between the FF and SWMR conditions to be determined in any experimental setup. The outcome of the measurements also indicates that SWMR exposure might be useful at any ultrasound assisted

  9. Multiple Scattering of Sound by Internal Waves and Acoustic Characterization of Internal Wave Fields in Deep and Shallow Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-30

    approximation in many practical situations. The equation for the average acoustic field in the statistically homogeneous in horizontal plane stratified...using diagrammatic technique similar to the one used in the theory of wave propagation in the homogeneous medium. The mass operator was calculated...perturbations on various eigenrays due to the horizontal refraction induced by internal waves with the Garrett-Munk spectrum: rigorous internal wave model

  10. Quantum sine-Gordon dynamics on analogue curved spacetime in a weakly imperfect scalar Bose gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkoff, T. J.; Fischer, Uwe R.

    2016-07-01

    Using the coherent state functional integral expression of the partition function, we show that the sine-Gordon model on an analogue curved spacetime arises as the effective quantum field theory for phase fluctuations of a weakly imperfect Bose gas on an incompressible background superfluid flow when these fluctuations are restricted to a subspace of the single-particle Hilbert space. We consider bipartitions of the single-particle Hilbert space relevant to experiments on ultracold bosonic atomic or molecular gases, including, e.g., restriction to high- or low-energy sectors of the dynamics and spatial bipartition corresponding to tunnel-coupled planar Bose gases. By assuming full unitary quantum control in the low-energy subspace of a trapped gas, we show that (1) appropriately tuning the particle number statistics of the lowest-energy mode partially decouples the low- and high-energy sectors, allowing any low-energy single-particle wave function to define a background for sine-Gordon dynamics on curved spacetime and (2) macroscopic occupation of a quantum superposition of two states of the lowest two modes produces an analogue curved spacetime depending on two background flows, with respective weights continuously dependent on the corresponding weights of the superposed quantum states.

  11. Acoustically mediated long-range interaction among multiple spherical particles exposed to a plane standing wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shenwei; Qiu, Chunyin; Wang, Mudi; Ke, Manzhu; Liu, Zhengyou

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we study the acoustically mediated interaction forces among multiple well-separated spherical particles trapped in the same node or antinode plane of a standing wave. An analytical expression of the acoustic interaction force is derived, which is accurate even for the particles beyond the Rayleigh limit. Interestingly, the multi-particle system can be decomposed into a series of independent two-particle systems described by pairwise interactions. Each pairwise interaction is a long-range interaction, as characterized by a soft oscillatory attenuation (at the power exponent of n = -1 or -2). The vector additivity of the acoustic interaction force, which is not well expected considering the nonlinear nature of the acoustic radiation force, is greatly useful for exploring a system consisting of a large number of particles. The capability of self-organizing a big particle cluster can be anticipated through such acoustically controllable long-range interaction.

  12. On the multiple scattering of VHF/UHF waves in the equatorial ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vats, H. O.

    1981-01-01

    Using amplitude data of radio beacons at 40, 140, and 360 MHz from ATS 6 (phase II), an attempt has been made to study scattering of these waves in the equatorial ionosphere. A comparison of observed scintillation index S sub 4 with the theoretical results of the multiple scattering approach and variation of autocorrelation time with frequency indicates that this theory explains the results to a large extent. A comparison of power spectra of amplitude records with the ionograms of a nearby equatorial station has led to the following conclusions: the change from a weak scattering regime to a strong scattering regime is gradual and occurs because of the gradual decrease in the scale size of the irregularities (i.e., broadening of the spectra) and the gradual increase in the thickness of the irregular region.

  13. Monte Carlo wave packet approach to dissociative multiple ionization in diatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leth, Henriette Astrup; Madsen, Lars Bojer; Mølmer, Klaus

    2010-05-01

    A detailed description of the Monte Carlo wave packet technique applied to dissociative multiple ionization of diatomic molecules in short intense laser pulses is presented. The Monte Carlo wave packet technique relies on the Born-Oppenheimer separation of electronic and nuclear dynamics and provides a consistent theoretical framework for treating simultaneously both ionization and dissociation. By simulating the detection of continuum electrons and collapsing the system onto either the neutral, singly ionized or doubly ionized states in every time step the nuclear dynamics can be solved separately for each molecular charge state. Our model circumvents the solution of a multiparticle Schrödinger equation and makes it possible to extract the kinetic energy release spectrum via the Coulomb explosion channel as well as the physical origin of the different structures in the spectrum. The computational effort is restricted and the model is applicable to any molecular system where electronic Born-Oppenheimer curves, dipole moment functions, and ionization rates as a function of nuclear coordinates can be determined.

  14. Continuous and multiple waves of emotional responses: Mother's experience with a premature infant

    PubMed Central

    Valizadeh, Laila; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Mohammadi, Easa; Arzani, Afsaneh

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent years, there has been a rise in the number of premature births. Mothers of these newborns experience a high degree of stress over time. Since a more comprehensive understanding of this phenomenon can help the healthcare teams in detecting the deficiencies and needs of such newborns’ mothers for a better and more effective intervention, the present study was carried out to describe the mothers’ experiences in the area of premature birth. Materials and Methods: The present study is a qualitative study with a content analysis approach. The data collection process included 15 semi-structured and in-depth interviews with the mothers delivering premature babies during 2012-2013 in the medical educational centers of north and northwest of Iran. A purposive sampling method was used. All the interviews were recorded, typed, and finally analyzed using a qualitative content analysis with a conventional method. Results: Data analysis led to the extraction of continuous and multiple waves of emotional responses in mothers with premature birth. This has been revealed in mothers by the different categories of affective reactions, symptoms of anxiety, and mood disturbances including decline in performance, individual shortcomings, and mental irritation. Conclusions: Mothers’ unpreparedness and unexpected childbirth make them encounter the multiple and continuous waves of emotional responses, which will consequently lead to decline in performance, individual shortcomings, and mental irritation among them. Therefore, in order to prevent the negative and long-term consequences of such reactions, it is recommended that more attention should be given to support these mothers as the main caregivers of such infants. PMID:25183972

  15. Suppression of stimulated Brillouin instability of a beat-wave of two lasers in multiple-ion-species plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Pinki; Gupta, D. N. Avinash, K.

    2016-01-15

    Stimulated Brillouin instability of a beat-wave of two lasers in plasmas with multiple-ion-species (negative-ions) was studied. The inclusion of negative-ions affects the growth of ion-acoustic wave in Brillouin scattering. Thus, the growth rate of instability is suppressed significantly by the density of negative-ions. To obey the phase-matching condition, the growth rate of the instability attains a maxima for an appropriate scattering angle (angle between the pump and scattered sideband waves). This study would be technologically important to have diagnostics in low-temperature plasmas.

  16. 2D numerical modeling of ultrasonic wave propagation in concrete: A parameterization study in a multiple-scattering medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ting; Chaix, Jean-François; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Garnier, Vincent; Audibert, Lorenzo; Henault, Jean-Marie

    2017-02-01

    Multiple scattering is important when ultrasounds propagate in a heterogeneous medium such as concrete, the scatterer size of which is in the order of the wavelength. The aim of this work is to build a 2D numerical model of ultrasonic wave propagation integrating the multiple scattering phenomena in SPECFEM software. The coherent field of multiple scattering could be obtained by averaging numerical wave fields, and it is used to determine the effective phase velocity and attenuation corresponding to an equivalent homogeneous medium. After the creation of numerical model under several assumptions, its validation is completed in a case of scattering by one cylinder through the comparison with analytical solution. Two cases of multiple scattering by a set of cylinders at different concentrations are simulated to perform a parametric study (of frequency, scatterer concentration, scatterer size). The effective properties are compared with the predictions of Waterman-Truell model as well, to verify its validity.

  17. Role of Multiple Soliton Interactions in the Generation of Rogue Waves: The Modified Korteweg-de Vries Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slunyaev, A. V.; Pelinovsky, E. N.

    2016-11-01

    The role of multiple soliton and breather interactions in the formation of very high waves is disclosed within the framework of the integrable modified Korteweg-de Vries (MKdV) equation. Optimal conditions for the focusing of many solitons are formulated explicitly. Namely, trains of ordered solitons with alternate polarities evolve to huge strongly localized transient waves. The focused wave amplitude is exactly the sum of the focusing soliton heights; the maximum wave inherits the polarity of the fastest soliton in the train. The focusing of several solitary waves or/and breathers may naturally occur in a soliton gas and will lead to rogue-wave-type dynamics; hence, it represents a new nonlinear mechanism of rogue wave generation. The discovered scenario depends crucially on the soliton polarities (phases), and is not taken into account by existing kinetic theories. The performance of the soliton mechanism of rogue wave generation is shown for the example of the focusing MKdV equation, when solitons possess "frozen" phases (certain polarities), though the approach is efficient in some other integrable systems which admit soliton and breather solutions.

  18. Role of Multiple Soliton Interactions in the Generation of Rogue Waves: The Modified Korteweg-de Vries Framework.

    PubMed

    Slunyaev, A V; Pelinovsky, E N

    2016-11-18

    The role of multiple soliton and breather interactions in the formation of very high waves is disclosed within the framework of the integrable modified Korteweg-de Vries (MKdV) equation. Optimal conditions for the focusing of many solitons are formulated explicitly. Namely, trains of ordered solitons with alternate polarities evolve to huge strongly localized transient waves. The focused wave amplitude is exactly the sum of the focusing soliton heights; the maximum wave inherits the polarity of the fastest soliton in the train. The focusing of several solitary waves or/and breathers may naturally occur in a soliton gas and will lead to rogue-wave-type dynamics; hence, it represents a new nonlinear mechanism of rogue wave generation. The discovered scenario depends crucially on the soliton polarities (phases), and is not taken into account by existing kinetic theories. The performance of the soliton mechanism of rogue wave generation is shown for the example of the focusing MKdV equation, when solitons possess "frozen" phases (certain polarities), though the approach is efficient in some other integrable systems which admit soliton and breather solutions.

  19. Invariant solutions of the supersymmetric sine-Gordon equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundland, A. M.; Hariton, A. J.; Šnobl, L.

    2009-08-01

    A comprehensive symmetry analysis of the {\\cal N}=1 supersymmetric sine-Gordon equation is performed. Two different forms of the supersymmetric system are considered. We begin by studying a system of partial differential equations corresponding to the coefficients of the various powers of the anticommuting independent variables. Next, we consider the super-sine-Gordon equation expressed in terms of a bosonic superfield involving anticommuting independent variables. In each case, a Lie (super)algebra of symmetries is determined and a classification of all subgroups having generic orbits of codimension 1 in the space of independent variables is performed. The method of symmetry reduction is systematically applied in order to derive invariant solutions of the supersymmetric model. Several types of algebraic, hyperbolic and doubly periodic solutions are obtained in explicit form.

  20. SINE transcription by RNA polymerase III is suppressed by histone methylation but not by DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Varshney, Dhaval; Vavrova-Anderson, Jana; Oler, Andrew J.; Cowling, Victoria H.; Cairns, Bradley R.; White, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs), such as Alu, spread by retrotransposition, which requires their transcripts to be copied into DNA and then inserted into new chromosomal sites. This can lead to genetic damage through insertional mutagenesis and chromosomal rearrangements between non-allelic SINEs at distinct loci. SINE DNA is heavily methylated and this was thought to suppress its accessibility and transcription, thereby protecting against retrotransposition. Here we provide several lines of evidence that methylated SINE DNA is occupied by RNA polymerase III, including the use of high-throughput bisulphite sequencing of ChIP DNA. We find that loss of DNA methylation has little effect on accessibility of SINEs to transcription machinery or their expression in vivo. In contrast, a histone methyltransferase inhibitor selectively promotes SINE expression and occupancy by RNA polymerase III. The data suggest that methylation of histones rather than DNA plays a dominant role in suppressing SINE transcription. PMID:25798578

  1. The Construction of a 'Relativistic' Wave-Particle: The Soliton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenberg, Cyril

    1982-01-01

    Although most waves studied by students satisfy the linear equation, particle physicists have become interested in nonlinear waves--those not satisfying the superposition principle. A mechanical wave system, satisfying the sine-Gordon equation, can be constructed using a modified transverse wave system to demonstrate nonlinear wave-particle…

  2. Systemic Sclerosis Sine Scleroderma in Mexican Patients. Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Vera-Lastra, Olga; Sauceda-Casas, Christian Alexis; Domínguez, María Del Pilar Cruz; Alvarez, Sergio Alberto Mendoza; Sepulceda-Delgado, Jesús

    2017-01-03

    Systemic sclerosis sine scleroderma (ssSSc) is a form of systemic sclerosis that is characterized by Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), visceral involvement without thickening of skin and anticentromere antibodies (ACA). We studied 10 ssSsc patients with a prevalence of 2%. The clinical signs were: RP 9/10, esophageal manifestations 8/10, pulmonary arterial hypertension 4/10, interstitial lung disease 4/10, cardiac signs 3/10 and ACA 8/10.

  3. Experimental measurements of the coherent field resulting from the interaction of an ultrasonic shock wave with a multiple scattering medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viard, Nicolas; Gianmarinaro, Bruno; Derode, Arnaud; Barrière, Christophe

    2014-04-01

    Whereas multiple scattering and shock wave formation are known to be antagonistic phenomena, this work concentrates on the interaction of an ultrasonic shock wave with a random multiple scattering medium. The shock wave is generated by long distance propagation of a short pulse (4 periods at a 3.5 MHz central frequency) in water before it encounters the scattering medium (a slab-shaped random set of parallel metallic rods). Transmitted waves are recorded over hundreds of positions along the lateral dimension of the slab to estimate the ensemble-averaged transmitted field langlephi(t)rangle, also known as the coherent wave. Experiments are repeated for different thicknesses L of the slab and different emission amplitudes. The elastic mean free path le (i.e the typical distance for the decreasing of the coherent intensity |langlephi(t)rangle|2 due to scattering) is determined as well as the harmonic rate of the averaged transmitted wave. Experimental results are discussed and compared to the linear case.

  4. A Journey Through the Mantle Transition Zone Under Western US From Single and Multiple Scattered Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauzin, B.; Trampert, J.; van der Hilst, R.; Wittlinger, G.; Vergne, J.

    2011-12-01

    Using data from the US Transportable Array, we combine observations of P-to-S single and multiple scattered waves to constrain the transition zone (TZ) structure beneath the Western US. From stacking the data by common conversion points along profiles, we produce depth images of seismic discontinuities. Systematic depth and amplitude measurements are performed for the '410', the '660', and some other minor seismic discontinuities identified as sharp reductions of wave velocities at ˜350 km depth (the '350') and ˜590 km depth (the '590'). The Gorda plate, subducted under Northern California, is traced back to the TZ where it seems to flatten and induces, due to cold temperatures or a high water content, a significant uplift of the '410' under Northern Nevada. The geographical maps of the '410'/'660' amplitude/topography reveal an anomalous TZ at the borders between Washington, Oregon and Idaho with: (i) a thickened TZ, (ii) a sharp jump in the topography of the '660' both in a South-North and West-East direction, and (iii) reduced '410' amplitudes at the North. Such anomalous structure might be inherited from the past history of plate subduction/accretion. A thinned TZ under the Yellowstone is likely the result of a deep hot thermal plume. Both the '350' and the '590' negative discontinuities extend over very large areas. They might be related either to an increased water content in the TZ and/or significant amount of oceanic material accumulated through the past 100 My. An estimation of the TZ water content is now possible based on observation of PPS reverberated phases on the '410' and '660' interfaces.

  5. Nonlinear Fourier analysis with cnoidal waves

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, A.R.

    1996-12-31

    Fourier analysis is one of the most useful tools to the ocean engineer. The approach allows one to analyze wave data and thereby to describe a dynamical motion in terms of a linear superposition of ordinary sine waves. Furthermore, the Fourier technique allows one to compute the response function of a fixed or floating structure: each sine wave in the wave or force spectrum yields a sine wave in the response spectrum. The counting of fatigue cycles is another area where the predictable oscillations of sine waves yield procedures for the estimation of the fatigue life of structures. The ocean environment, however, is a source of a number of nonlinear effects which must also be included in structure design. Nonlinearities in ocean waves deform the sinusoidal shapes into other kinds of waves such as the Stokes wave, cnoidal wave or solitary wave. A key question is: Does there exist a generalization of linear Fourier analysis which uses nonlinear basis functions rather than the familiar sine waves? Herein addresses the dynamics of nonlinear wave motion in shallow water where the basis functions are cnoidal waves and discuss nonlinear Fourier analysis in terms of a linear superposition of cnoidal waves plus their mutual nonlinear interactions. He gives a number of simple examples of nonlinear Fourier wave motion and then analyzes an actual surface-wave time series obtained on an offshore platform in the Adriatic Sea. Finally, he briefly discusses application of the cnoidal wave spectral approach to the computation of the frequency response function of a floating vessel. The results given herein will prove useful in future engineering studies for the design of fixed, floating and complaint offshore structures.

  6. Inference of magnetic field in the coronal streamer invoking kink wave motions generated by multiple EUV waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, A. K.; Singh, Talwinder; Ofman, Leon; Dwivedi, Bhola N.

    2016-12-01

    We analyse the observations from Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) of an oscillating coronal streamer. STEREO-B Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging (EUVI) temporal data on 2012 March 7 show an evolution of two consecutive EUV waves that interact with footpoint of a coronal streamer clearly evident in the co-spatial and co-temporal STEREO-B/COR-1 observations. The waves are observed in the STEREO-B/EUVI too, and its apparent energy exchange with coronal streamer generates kink oscillations. We apply the methodology of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) seismology of the observed waves and determine the magnetic field profile of the coronal streamer. In particular, we estimate the phase velocities of the kink wave perturbations by tracking them at different heights. We also estimate electron densities inside and outside the streamer using spherically symmetric inversion of polarized brightness images in STEREO-B/COR-1. We detect two large-scale kink wave oscillations that diagnose exponentially decaying radial profiles of magnetic field in streamer up to 3 solar radii. Within the limit of observational and systematic uncertainties, we find that magnetic field of streamer varies slowly at various heights, although its nature always remains exponentially decaying with height. It is seen that during evolution of second kink motion in streamer, it increases in brightness (thus mass density), and also in areal extent slightly, which may be associated with decreased photospheric magnetic flux at footpoint of streamer. As a result, magnetic field profile produced by second kink wave is reduced within streamer compared to the one diagnosed by the first one.

  7. Dispersion-Tolerant Multiple WDM Channel Millimeter-Wave Signal Generation Using a Single Monolithic Mode-Locked Semiconductor Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attygalle, M.; Lim, C.; Nirmalathas, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a scheme by which multiple wavelength-division-multiplexed millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signals in the range of 30 GHz can be generated from a single monolithic semiconductor laser for applications in optically fed mm-wave networks or fiber radio networks. The mm-wave signals are generated using dual optical modes separated by a mm-wave frequency, obtained from spectrum slicing the output from a stable multimode hybrid mode-locked semiconductor laser. In this scheme, self-heterodyne detection at a high-speed photodetector achieves the photonic upconversion of low-data-rate signals to mm-wave frequencies without the need for electronic mixing. Experimental results show the generation of up to 14 WDM channels using a single laser. The phase noise of electrical signals generated by photonic upconversion of these signals is less than -94 dBc/Hz at 100-kHz offset frequency across the wavelengths. Also presented is the transmission of 155-Mb/s binary-phase-shift-keyed data signals at 30-GHz frequency over 10 km of single-mode fiber at different wavelengths using dual-mode signals. The results confirm that a bit-error rate of 10-^9 can be easily achieved. The dispersion tolerance of the dual-mode signals is evaluated using simulation and an analytical model and compared with other mm-wave signal generation techniques.

  8. Multiple damage identification and imaging in an aluminum plate using effective Lamb wave response automatic extraction technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Qinghua; Zhou, Li; Liu, Xiaotong

    2016-04-01

    In order to identify multiple damage in the structure, a method of multiple damage identification and imaging based on the effective Lamb wave response automatic extraction algorithm is proposed. In this method, the detected key area in the structure is divided into a number of subregions, and then, the effective response signals including the structural damage information are automatically extracted from the entire Lamb wave responses which are received by the piezoelectric sensors. Further, the damage index values of every subregion based on the correlation coefficient are calculated using the effective response signals. Finally, the damage identification and imaging are performed using the reconstruction algorithm for probabilistic inspection of damage (RAPID) technique. The experimental research was conducted using an aluminum plate. The experimental results show that the method proposed in this research can quickly and effectively identify the single damage or multiple damage and image the damages clearly in detected area.

  9. Reconstruction of multiple gastric electrical wave fronts using potential-based inverse methods.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H K; Pullan, A J; Cheng, L K

    2012-08-21

    One approach for non-invasively characterizing gastric electrical activity, commonly used in the field of electrocardiography, involves solving an inverse problem whereby electrical potentials on the stomach surface are directly reconstructed from dense potential measurements on the skin surface. To investigate this problem, an anatomically realistic torso model and an electrical stomach model were used to simulate potentials on stomach and skin surfaces arising from normal gastric electrical activity. The effectiveness of the Greensite-Tikhonov or the Tikhonov inverse methods were compared under the presence of 10% Gaussian noise with either 84 or 204 body surface electrodes. The stability and accuracy of the Greensite-Tikhonov method were further investigated by introducing varying levels of Gaussian signal noise or by increasing or decreasing the size of the stomach by 10%. Results showed that the reconstructed solutions were able to represent the presence of propagating multiple wave fronts and the Greensite-Tikhonov method with 204 electrodes performed best (correlation coefficients of activation time: 90%; pacemaker localization error: 3 cm). The Greensite-Tikhonov method was stable with Gaussian noise levels up to 20% and 10% change in stomach size. The use of 204 rather than 84 body surface electrodes improved the performance; however, for all investigated cases, the Greensite-Tikhonov method outperformed the Tikhonov method.

  10. Reconstruction of multiple gastric electrical wave fronts using potential-based inverse methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H. K.; Pullan, A. J.; Cheng, L. K.

    2012-08-01

    One approach for non-invasively characterizing gastric electrical activity, commonly used in the field of electrocardiography, involves solving an inverse problem whereby electrical potentials on the stomach surface are directly reconstructed from dense potential measurements on the skin surface. To investigate this problem, an anatomically realistic torso model and an electrical stomach model were used to simulate potentials on stomach and skin surfaces arising from normal gastric electrical activity. The effectiveness of the Greensite-Tikhonov or the Tikhonov inverse methods were compared under the presence of 10% Gaussian noise with either 84 or 204 body surface electrodes. The stability and accuracy of the Greensite-Tikhonov method were further investigated by introducing varying levels of Gaussian signal noise or by increasing or decreasing the size of the stomach by 10%. Results showed that the reconstructed solutions were able to represent the presence of propagating multiple wave fronts and the Greensite-Tikhonov method with 204 electrodes performed best (correlation coefficients of activation time: 90%; pacemaker localization error: 3 cm). The Greensite-Tikhonov method was stable with Gaussian noise levels up to 20% and 10% change in stomach size. The use of 204 rather than 84 body surface electrodes improved the performance; however, for all investigated cases, the Greensite-Tikhonov method outperformed the Tikhonov method.

  11. Micro-Doppler analysis of multiple frequency continuous wave radar signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Michael G.; Rogers, Robert L.

    2007-04-01

    Micro-Doppler refers to Doppler scattering returns produced by non rigid-body motion. Micro-Doppler gives rise to many detailed radar image features in addition to those associated with bulk target motion. Targets of different classes (for example, humans, animals, and vehicles) produce micro-Doppler images that are often distinguishable even by nonexpert observers. Micro-Doppler features have great potential for use in automatic target classification algorithms. Although the potential benefit of using micro-Doppler in classification algorithms is high, relatively little experimental (non-synthetic) micro-Doppler data exists. Much of the existing experimental data comes from highly cooperative targets (human or vehicle targets directly approaching the radar). This research involved field data collection and analysis of micro-Doppler radar signatures from non-cooperative targets. The data was collected using a low cost Xband multiple frequency continuous wave (MFCW) radar with three transmit frequencies. The collected MFCW radar signatures contain data from humans, vehicles, and animals. The presented data includes micro-Doppler signatures previously unavailable in the literature such as crawling humans and various animal species. The animal micro-Doppler signatures include deer, dog, and goat datasets. This research focuses on the analysis of micro-Doppler from noncooperative targets approaching the radar at various angles, maneuvers, and postures.

  12. Mechanical Waves Conceptual Survey: Its Modification and Conversion to a Standard Multiple-Choice Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present several modifications of the mechanical waves conceptual survey, the most important test to date that has been designed to evaluate university students' understanding of four main topics in mechanical waves: propagation, superposition, reflection, and standing waves. The most significant changes are (i) modification of…

  13. Generation of multiple stress waves in silica glass in high fluence femtosecond laser ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Haofeng; Wang Xiaolei; Zhai Hongchen; Zhang Nan; Wang Pan

    2010-08-09

    Shadowgraphs of dynamic processes outside and inside transparent target during the intense femtosecond laser ablation of silica glass are recorded. Two material ejections outside the target and two corresponding stress waves inside the target are observed at different energy fluences. In particular, a third stress wave can be observed at energy fluence as high as 40 J/cm{sup 2}. The first wave is a thermoelastic wave, while the second and the third may be generated subsequently by the mechanical expansions. In addition, the magnitudes of the three stress waves decrease sequentially based on our analysis.

  14. The mean drift forces and yaw moment on multiple-cylinders in waves and current

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, Takeshi; Bao, Weiguang; Sunahara, Shunji

    1996-12-31

    In the present work, the interaction of an assembly of circular cylinders with regular waves and slow current is considered. The interaction among cylinders is represented by additional waves emitting from adjacent cylinders towards the cylinders under consideration. By means of eigenfunction expansion, drift forces, as well as yaw moment, are evaluated by the far field method and the wave drift damping is deduced from these results semi-analytically. The contribution from the second order steady potential which is quadratic in wave amplitude is also considered. Calculated examples are presented in various wave direction. Those results are also compared with experimental measurements to verify the present theory.

  15. Evaluation of quasi-square wave inverter as a power source for induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynes, B. V.; Haggard, R. L.; Lanier, J. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The relative merits of quasi-square wave inverter-motor technology versus a sine wave inverter-motor system were investigated. The empirical results of several tests on various sizes of wye-wound induction motors are presented with mathematical analysis to support the conclusions of the study. It was concluded that, within the limitations presented, the quasi-square wave inverter-motor system is superior to the more complex sine wave system for most induction motor applications in space.

  16. The dynamic proliferation of CanSINEs mirrors the complex evolution of Feliforms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Repetitive short interspersed elements (SINEs) are retrotransposons ubiquitous in mammalian genomes and are highly informative markers to identify species and phylogenetic associations. Of these, SINEs unique to the order Carnivora (CanSINEs) yield novel insights on genome evolution in domestic dogs and cats, but less is known about their role in related carnivores. In particular, genome-wide assessment of CanSINE evolution has yet to be completed across the Feliformia (cat-like) suborder of Carnivora. Within Feliformia, the cat family Felidae is composed of 37 species and numerous subspecies organized into eight monophyletic lineages that likely arose 10 million years ago. Using the Felidae family as a reference phylogeny, along with representative taxa from other families of Feliformia, the origin, proliferation and evolution of CanSINEs within the suborder were assessed. Results We identified 93 novel intergenic CanSINE loci in Feliformia. Sequence analyses separated Feliform CanSINEs into two subfamilies, each characterized by distinct RNA polymerase binding motifs and phylogenetic associations. Subfamily I CanSINEs arose early within Feliformia but are no longer under active proliferation. Subfamily II loci are more recent, exclusive to Felidae and show evidence for adaptation to extant RNA polymerase activity. Further, presence/absence distributions of CanSINE loci are largely congruent with taxonomic expectations within Feliformia and the less resolved nodes in the Felidae reference phylogeny present equally ambiguous CanSINE data. SINEs are thought to be nearly impervious to excision from the genome. However, we observed a nearly complete excision of a CanSINEs locus in puma (Puma concolor). In addition, we found that CanSINE proliferation in Felidae frequently targeted existing CanSINE loci for insertion sites, resulting in tandem arrays. Conclusions We demonstrate the existence of at least two SINE families within the Feliformia suborder, one

  17. Multiple Scattering of Sound by Internal Waves and Acoustic Characterization of Internal Wave Fields in Deep and Shallow Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-30

    less pronounced for steeper and shallower rays (Figs. 2 - 4). Results obtained with eigenrays and unconstrained rays are similar as long as the...intervals of the launch angle (yellow), and averages over the internal wave field realizations for eigenrays with additional averaging over 0.5º...realizations for eigenrays with additional averaging over 0.5º (magenta dots) and 2º (magenta line) intervals of the launch angle. Propagation range r

  18. Hierarchical Search Strategy for Detecting Gravitational waves from Inspiraling Compact Binaries with Multiple Interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seader, Shawn; Bose, Sukanta

    2004-05-01

    Perhaps the most promising gravitational-wave source for detection with Earth-based interferometers is the compact binary system, such as a binary neutron star. For these sources, the inspiral waveform is well-known in the sensitive frequency band of the interferometers. This allows one to match-filter the output of the interferometer with many different templates of the pre-calculated waveforms. While operating, each interferometer takes strain data at a rate of several gigabytes per day. Matched filtering the outputs from multiple detectors, such as in a multi-detector coherent search, becomes very demanding computationally not only due to the enormous amount of data, but also due to the size of the parameter space that is accessible to a network of detectors. Indeed, the non-spinning binary waveform depends on a total of nine parameters, namely, the luminosity distance to the source, the time of arrival, the initial phase, the orbital inclination, the polarization angle, the two sky-position angles, and the two binary masses. Fortunately, it is possible to maximize a network's matched-filter output analytically over the first five parameters. Thus, a GW astronomer need search numerically only over a four-dimensional parameter space for a signal in the data. A "brute force" implementation of such a search is still not practicable. A promising strategy to make the search computationally viable is to perform it in multiple relatively inexpensive steps, i.e., implement it hierarchically. In a two-step hierarchical search, the data is filtered first with a bank of templates that are spaced coarsely on the parameter space. If any of these templates find a signal at or above a pre-set threshold on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), then that part of the data is filtered a second time with a more finely spaced bank of templates, centered around the filter that recorded the high SNR in the first, coarse bank. In this work we show how by setting the detection thresholds and

  19. Experimental Analysis of a Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting System for Harmonic, Random, and Sine on Random Vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Cryns, Jackson W.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Silvers, Kurt L.

    2013-07-01

    Formal journal article Experimental analysis of a piezoelectric energy harvesting system for harmonic, random, and sine on random vibration Abstract: Harvesting power with a piezoelectric vibration powered generator using a full-wave rectifier conditioning circuit is experimentally compared for varying sinusoidal, random and sine on random (SOR) input vibration scenarios. Additionally, the implications of source vibration characteristics on harvester design are discussed. Studies in vibration harvesting have yielded numerous alternatives for harvesting electrical energy from vibrations but piezoceramics arose as the most compact, energy dense means of energy transduction. The rise in popularity of harvesting energy from ambient vibrations has made piezoelectric generators commercially available. Much of the available literature focuses on maximizing harvested power through nonlinear processing circuits that require accurate knowledge of generator internal mechanical and electrical characteristics and idealization of the input vibration source, which cannot be assumed in general application. In this manuscript, variations in source vibration and load resistance are explored for a commercially available piezoelectric generator. We characterize the source vibration by its acceleration response for repeatability and transcription to general application. The results agree with numerical and theoretical predictions for in previous literature that load optimal resistance varies with transducer natural frequency and source type, and the findings demonstrate that significant gains are seen with lower tuned transducer natural frequencies for similar source amplitudes. Going beyond idealized steady state sinusoidal and simplified random vibration input, SOR testing allows for more accurate representation of real world ambient vibration. It is shown that characteristic interactions from more complex vibrational sources significantly alter power generation and power processing

  20. Liouville Correspondence Between the Short-Pulse Hierarchy and the Sine-Gordon Hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jing; Liu, Xiaochuan; Qu, Changzheng

    2016-12-01

    The Liouville correspondence between the short-pulse integrable hierarchy and the sine-Gordon integrable hierarchy is studied. It is shown that the transformation relating the short-pulse equation with the sine-Gordon equation also establishes the correspondence between their flows and Hamiltonian conservation laws in respective hierarchy. This proposes an alternative approach to derive the Hamiltonian conservation laws of the short-pulse equation from the known ones of the classical sine-Gordon equation.

  1. High-power free-electron maser with frequency multiplication operating in a shortwave part of the millimeter wave range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandurkin, I. V.; Kaminsky, A. K.; Perelstein, E. A.; Peskov, N. Yu.; Savilov, A. V.; Sedykh, S. N.

    2012-08-01

    The possibility of using frequency multiplication in order to obtain high-power short-wavelength radiation from a free-electron maser (FEM) with a Bragg resonator has been studied. Preliminary experiments with an LIU-3000 (JINR) linear induction accelerator demonstrate the operation of a frequency-multiplying FEM at megawatt power in the 6- and 4-mm wave bands on the second and third harmonic, respectively.

  2. Microgenetic Patterns of Children's Multiplication Learning: Confirming the Overlapping Waves Model by Latent Growth Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ven, Sanne H. G.; Boom, Jan; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2012-01-01

    Variability in strategy selection is an important characteristic of learning new skills such as mathematical skills. Strategies gradually come and go during this development. In 1996, Siegler described this phenomenon as ''overlapping waves.'' In the current microgenetic study, we attempted to model these overlapping waves statistically. In…

  3. Breather-like structures in modified sine-Gordon models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, L. A.; Zakrzewski, Wojtek J.

    2016-05-01

    We report analytical and numerical results on breather-like field configurations in a theory which is a deformation of the integrable sine-Gordon model in (1  +  1) dimensions. The main motivation of our study is to test the ideas behind the recently proposed concept of quasi-integrability, which emerged from the observation that some field theories possess an infinite number of quantities which are asymptotically conserved in the scattering of solitons, and periodic in time in the case of breather-like configurations. Even though the mechanism responsible for such phenomena is not well understood yet, it is clear that special properties of the solutions under a space-time parity transformation play a crucial role. The numerical results of the present paper give support for the ideas on quasi-integrability, as it is found that extremely long-lived breather configurations satisfy these parity properties. We also report on a mechanism, particular to the theory studied here, that favours the existence of long lived breathers even in cases of significant deformations of the sine-Gordon potential. We also find numerically that our breather-like configurations decay through the gradual increase of their frequency of oscillations.

  4. The effect of sine-Wiener noises on transition in a genotype selection model with time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan Ning, Li; Liu, Pei

    2016-09-01

    A genotype selection system interplay with sine-Wiener noises and time delays is investigated. Stationary probability distribution function is obtained by numerical simulations. Results show that the multiplicative bounded noise can facilitate the gene separation, while the additive bounded noise suppresses the gene separation. Besides, local time delays α and β, being in gene transformation and gene heredity progress respectively, play opposite roles in the gene selection process. What is more interesting is that there is no transition during the process of gene select when time delays α = β (i.e., the system is subjected to global time delay).

  5. Observation of multiple mechanisms for stimulating ion waves in ignition scale plasmas. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkwood, R.K.; MacGowan, B.J.; Montgomery, D.S.

    1997-03-03

    The laser and plasma conditions expected in ignition experiments using indirect drive inertial confinement have been studied experimentally. It has been shown that there are at least three ways in which ion waves can be stimulated in these plasmas and have significant effect on the energy balance and distribution in the target. First ion waves can be stimulated by a single laser beam by the process of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) in which an ion acoustic and a scattered electromagnetic wave grow from noise. Second, in a plasma where more than one beam intersect, ion waves can Lie excited at the `beat` frequency and wave number of the intersecting beams,, causing the side scatter instability to be seeded, and substantial energy to be transferred between the beams [R. K. Kirkwood et. al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2065 (1996)]. And third, ion waves may be stimulated by the decay of electron plasma waves produced by Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS), thereby inhibiting the SRS process [R. K. Kirkwood et. al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2706 (1996)].

  6. Variations in mesospheric gravity waves observed in multiple airglow layers, and filtered temporal spectra studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangognia, T.; Swenson, G. R.; Vargas, F.

    2013-12-01

    The Andes Lidar Observatory (ALO) at Cerro Pachon, Chile (Lat= 30.25 S, Long = 70.74 W) is equipped with an all-sky OH and O(1S) airglow imager, OH temperature mapper, OH IR imager, multichannel photometer, meteor radar, and a Na wind/temperature lidar. Spectral analysis of airglow photometry data of OH Meinel (5-1),(6-2); O2 (b) (0,1); and O(1S) emissions reveals varying gravity wave periods over time. Variations in period of high frequency waves are often observed. Studies of frequency variability with the background atmospheric temperature and the effect on the Brunt-Vaisala frequency will be described. Additionally, the vertical separation of the respective layers of a few km offers information regarding wave damping and reflection as the amplitude often changes with altitude. The nature of wave damping is primarily noted to be constant with altitude as a saturated wave spectrum indicates. The correlative nature of the data provides verification of optical methods in characterizing wave attributes. These studies will be described in this presentation.

  7. Direction dependent Love and Rayleigh wave noise characteristics using multiple arrays across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juretzek, Carina; Perleth, Magdalena; Hadziioannou, Celine

    2016-04-01

    Seismic noise has become an important signal source for tomography and monitoring purposes. Better understanding of the noise field characteristics is crucial to further improve noise applications. Our knowledge about common and different origins of Love and Rayleigh waves in the microseism band is still limited. This applies in particular for constraints on source locations and source mechanisms of Love waves. Here, 3-component beamforming is used to distinguish between the different polarized wave types in the primary and secondary microseism noise field recorded at several arrays across Europe. We compare characteristics of Love and Rayleigh wave noise, such as source directions and frequency content. Further, Love to Rayleigh wave ratios are measured and a dependence on direction is found, especially in the primary microseism band. Estimates of the kinetic energy density ratios propose a dominance of coherent Love waves in the primary, but not in the secondary microseism band. The seasonality of the noise field characteristics is examined by using a full year of data in 2013 and is found to be stable.

  8. Frequency-controlable sine signal based on PWM and its implementation on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lianzhen; Li, Jiangang; Zhang, Dongjun

    2012-09-01

    A sine generation method that the different frequent sine signals can be generated by the different Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) signals generated by Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) through low-pass filter of fixed parameters was proposed. The method just takes a few FPGA resources and was proved feasible by the theory. The experiment results and theory analysis tally.

  9. Mobile Element Evolution Playing Jigsaw—SINEs in Gastropod and Bivalve Mollusks

    PubMed Central

    Matetovici, Irina; Sajgo, Szilard; Ianc, Bianca; Ochis, Cornelia; Bulzu, Paul; Popescu, Octavian; Damert, Annette

    2016-01-01

    SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements) are widely distributed among eukaryotes. Some SINE families are organized in superfamilies characterized by a shared central domain. These central domains are conserved across species, classes, and even phyla. Here we report the identification of two novel such superfamilies in the genomes of gastropod and bivalve mollusks. The central conserved domain of the first superfamily is present in SINEs in Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda as well as in all four subclasses of Bivalvia. We designated the domain MESC (Romanian for MElc—snail and SCoica—mussel) because it appears to be restricted to snails and mussels. The second superfamily is restricted to Caenogastropoda. Its central conserved domain—Snail—is related to the Nin-DC domain. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a 40-bp subdomain of the SINE V-domain is conserved in SINEs in mollusks and arthropods. It is predicted to form a stable stem-loop structure that is preserved in the context of the overall SINE RNA secondary structure in invertebrates. Our analysis also recovered short retrotransposons with a Long INterspersed Element (LINE)-derived 5′ end. These share the body and/or the tail with transfer RNA (tRNA)-derived SINEs within and across species. Finally, we identified CORE SINEs in gastropods and bivalves—extending the distribution range of this superfamily. PMID:26739168

  10. Magnetic and charge structures in itinerant-electron magnets: Coexistence of multiple spin-density and charge-density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkawa, Fusayoshi J.

    2002-06-01

    A theory of Kondo lattices is applied to studying possible magnetic and charge structures of itinerant-electron antiferromagnets. Even helical spin structures can be stabilized when the nesting of the Fermi surface is not sharp and the superexchange interaction, which arises from the virtual exchange of pair excitations across the Mott-Hubbard gap, is mainly responsible for magnetic instability. Sinusoidal spin structures or spin-density waves (SDW's) are only stabilized when the nesting of the Fermi surface is sharp enough or when an exchange interaction arising from that of pair excitations of quasiparticles is mainly responsible for magnetic instability. In particular, multiple SDW's are stabilized when their incommensurate ordering wave numbers +/-Q are multiple; magnetizations of different +/-Q components are orthogonal to each other in double and triple SDW's when magnetic anisotropy is weak enough. Unless +/-2Q are commensurate, charge-density waves (CDW's) with +/-2Q coexist with SDW's with +/-Q. Because the quenching of magnetic moments by the Kondo effect or local quantum spin fluctuations depends on local numbers of electrons, the phase of CDW's or electron densities is such that magnetic moments are large where the quenching is weak. It is proposed that the so-called stripe order must be the coexisting state of double incommensurate SDW's and CDW's in tetragonal cuprate-oxide high temperature superconductors, in particular, those with the square CuO2 lattices.

  11. Location of high-frequency P wave microseismic noise in the Pacific Ocean using multiple small aperture arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Pyle, Moira L.; Koper, Keith D.; Euler, Garrett G.; ...

    2015-04-20

    We investigate source locations of P-wave microseisms within a narrow frequency band (0.67–1.33 Hz) that is significantly higher than the classic microseism band (~0.05–0.3 Hz). Employing a backprojection method, we analyze data recorded during January 2010 from five International Monitoring System arrays that border the Pacific Ocean. We develop a ranking scheme that allows us to combine beam power from multiple arrays to obtain robust locations of the microseisms. Some individual arrays exhibit a strong regional component, but results from the combination of all arrays show high-frequency P wave energy emanating from the North Pacific basin, in general agreement withmore » previous observations in the double-frequency (DF) microseism band (~0.1–0.3 Hz). This suggests that the North Pacific source of ambient P noise covers a broad range of frequencies and that the wave-wave interaction model is likely valid at shorter periods.« less

  12. A real-time plane-wave decomposition algorithm for characterizing perforated liners damping at multiple mode frequencies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dan

    2011-03-01

    Perforated liners with a narrow frequency range are widely used as acoustic dampers to stabilize combustion systems. When the frequency of unstable modes present in the combustion system is within the effective frequency range, the liners can efficiently dissipate acoustic waves. The fraction of the incident waves being absorbed (known as power absorption coefficient) is generally used to characterize the liners damping. To estimate it, plane waves either side of the liners need to be decomposed and characterized. For this, a real-time algorithm is developed. Emphasis is being placed on its ability to online decompose plane waves at multiple mode frequencies. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated first in a numerical model with two unstable modes. It is then experimentally implemented in an acoustically driven pipe system with a lined section attached. The acoustic damping of perforated liners is continuously characterized in real-time. Comparison is then made between the results from the algorithm and those from the short-time fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based techniques, which are typically used in industry. It was found that the real-time algorithm allows faster tracking of the liners damping, even when the forcing frequency was suddenly changed.

  13. Structure of North American mantle constrained by simultaneous inversion of multiple-frequency SH, SS, and Love waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yue; Zhou, Ying; Sigloch, Karin; Nolet, Guust; Laske, Gabi

    2011-02-01

    We simultaneously invert for the velocity and attenuation structure of the North American mantle from a mixed data set: SH wave traveltime and amplitude anomalies, SS wave differential traveltime anomalies, and Love wave fundamental mode phase delays. All data are measured for multiple frequency bands, and finite frequency sensitivity kernels are used to explain the observations. In the resulting SH velocity model, a lower mantle plume is observed to originate at about 1500 km depth beneath the Yellowstone area, tilting about 40° from vertical. The plume rises up through a gap in the subducting Farallon slab. The SH velocity model confirms high-level segmentation of the Farallon slab, which was observed in the recent P velocity model. Attenuation structure is resolvable in the upper mantle and transition zone; in estimating it, we correct for focusing. High-correlation coefficients between δlnVS and δlnQS under the central and eastern United States suggest one main physical source, most likely temperature. The smaller correlation coefficients and larger slopes of the δlnQS - δlnVS relationship under the western United States suggest an influence of nonthermal factors such as the existence of water and partial melt. Finally, we analyze the influence of the different components of our data set. The addition of Love wave phase delays helps to improve the resolution of both velocity and attenuation, and the effect is noticeable even in the lower mantle.

  14. Comparison of renormalization group schemes for sine-Gordon-type models

    SciTech Connect

    Nandori, I.; Nagy, S.; Sailer, K.; Trombettoni, A.

    2009-07-15

    The scheme dependence of the renormalization group (RG) flow has been investigated in the local potential approximation for two-dimensional periodic, sine-Gordon type field-theoretic models discussing the applicability of various functional RG methods in detail. It was shown that scheme-independent determination of such physical parameters is possible as the critical frequency (temperature) at which Kosterlitz-Thouless-Berezinskii type phase transition takes place in the sine-Gordon and the layered sine-Gordon models, and the critical ratio characterizing the Ising-type phase transition of the massive sine-Gordon model. For the latter case, the Maxwell construction represents a strong constraint on the RG flow, which results in a scheme-independent infrared value for the critical ratio. For the massive sine-Gordon model also the shrinking of the domain of the phase with spontaneously broken periodicity is shown to take place due to the quantum fluctuations.

  15. Zero temperature landscape of the random sine-Gordon model

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, A.; Bishop, A.R.; Cai, D.

    1997-04-01

    We present a preliminary summary of the zero temperature properties of the two-dimensional random sine-Gordon model of surface growth on disordered substrates. We found that the properties of this model can be accurately computed by using lattices of moderate size as the behavior of the model turns out to be independent of the size above certain length ({approx} 128 x 128 lattices). Subsequently, we show that the behavior of the height difference correlation function is of (log r){sup 2} type up to a certain correlation length ({xi} {approx} 20), which rules out predictions of log r behavior for all temperatures obtained by replica-variational techniques. Our results open the way to a better understanding of the complex landscape presented by this system, which has been the subject of very many (contradictory) analysis.

  16. New infinite-dimensional algebras, sine brackets, and SU (infinity)

    SciTech Connect

    Zachos, C.K.; Fairlie, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate the infinite dimensional algebras we have previously introduced, which involve trigonometric functions in their structure constants. We find a realization for them which provides a basis-independent formulation, identified with the algebra of sine brackets. A special family of them, the cyclotomic ones, contain SU(N) as invariant subalgebras. In this basis, it is evident by inspection that the algebra of SU(infinity) is equivalent to the centerless algebra of SDiff/sub 0/ on two-dimensional manifolds. Gauge theories of SU(infinity) are thus simply reformulated in terms of surface (sheet) coordinates. Spacetime-independent configurations of their gauge fields describe strings through the quadratic Schild action. 11 refs.

  17. Revisiting The Effect Of Sine Sweep Rate On Modal Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Nicolas; Girard, Alain

    2012-07-01

    Sine-sweep base excitation vibration tests are performed to qualify spacecraft structures in the low-frequency environment where the dynamic behavior can be characterized by a small number of modes. These modes can be extracted from the measured frequency response functions (FRF) by various modal identification methods, and then used for model validation purposes. If the sweep rate is too high, the steady-state response is not reached and the resulting FRF profile will be modified by the presence of transients. This has a direct effect on the modal parameters extracted from the FRF.Several authors have examined the effect of the sweep rate based on the response of a one-degree-of-freedom system. The goal of this paper is to adapt the approach to base-excitation vibration tests. Both increasing and decreasing exponential sweep rates are considered. The effect on the three principal modal parameters (natural frequency, damping and modal effective parameters) is examined.

  18. Interplanetary shock wave extent in the inner heliosphere as observed by multiple spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lucas, A.; Schwenn, R.; dal Lago, A.; Marsch, E.; Clúa de Gonzalez, A. L.

    2011-06-01

    For over an entire solar cycle, from the end of 1974 until the beginning of 1986, the twin Helios spacecraft explored the inner heliosphere. These in situ, high-resolution plasma and magnetic field measurements covered heliocentric distances between 0.3 and 1 AU from the Sun and are of particular interest to studies of space weather phenomena. During this period the two spacecraft detected 395 ICME-driven shocks and these waves were found to be driven by interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). Based on these multi-spacecraft measurements, which include a third vantage point with the observations from ISEE-3/IMP-8, the longitudinal extent of the shock waves were measured in the inner heliosphere. It was found that shock waves have about a 50% chance to be observed by two different locations separated by 90°. In practice, one can expect with about a 50% chance that the shock driven by a limb coronal mass ejections (CMEs) will hit the Earth, considering the expansion in longitude of shock waves driven by their associated ICMEs. For a larger separation the uncertainty increases, as only a few cases could be observed. With the absence of simultaneous solar disk observations one can then no longer unequivocally identify the shock waves observed at each spacecraft.

  19. Ultraviolet Thomson Scattering from Two-Plasmon-Decay Electron Plasma Waves Driven by Multiple Laser Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Follett, R. K.; Henchen, R. J.; Hu, S. X.; Katz, J.; Michel, D. T.; Myatt, J. F.; Wen, H.; Froula, D. H.

    2014-10-01

    Thomson scattering is used to probe electron plasma waves (EPW's) driven by the common-wave two-plasmon-decay (TPD) instability near the quarter-critical density. Between two and five laser beams (λ3 ω = 351 nm) illuminated planar CH targets with 300- μm-diam (FWHM) laser spots with overlapped intensities ~1015 W/cm2. A 263-nm Thomson-scattering beam was used to probe densities ranging from 0.2 to 0.25 nc while k matching the TPD common wave. The Thomson-scattering spectra show two spectral peaks consistent with scattering from forward-scattered TPD common-wave EPW's and Langmuir decay of backscattered TPD waves. Broad TPD driven spectral features were observed in an alternate scattering configuration probing EPW k vectors that do not lie along a TPD maximum-growth hyperbola, consistent with TPD k-space saturation. Experimental results are compared to ZAK3D simulations. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  20. Comparative analysis of fourth-harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling-wave amplifiers operating at different frequency multiplications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Y. S.; Kao, W. J.; Li, L. J.; Guo, Y. W.

    2017-01-01

    The harmonic multiplying operation in a gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier (gyro-TWA) permits magnetic field reduction and frequency multiplication. This study presents a comparative analysis of fourth-harmonic multiplying gyro-TWAs with three schemes of operation. An improved mode-selective circuit using circular waveguides with various radii provides the rejection points within the range of operating frequencies to suppress the competing modes of gyro-TWAs. The simulated results reveal that gyro-TWAs are the most susceptible to the fundamental-harmonic TE11 competing mode, regardless of the operating scheme, and that the mode-selective circuit can provide an attenuation of more than 20 dB to suppress the competing modes. The amplification of the waves in a gyro-TWA depends on the lengths of the sections, and the simulated results show that the gain increases for all schemes, as the length of the lossy section or the length of the copper section increases. All schemes exhibit nearly the same saturated output powers and bandwidths; however, the saturated gain of the scheme at a high frequency multiplication ratio is less than that of the scheme at a low frequency multiplication ratio. Extensive numerical calculations of power and gain scaling are conducted for all schemes.

  1. Single- and Multiple- Track Location Shear Wave and Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging: Matched Comparison of Contrast, CNR, and Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Hollender, Peter J.; Rosenzweig, Stephen J.; Nightingale, Kathryn R.; Trahey, Gregg E.

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging and shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) use the dynamic response of tissue to impulsive mechanical stimulus to characterize local elasticity. A variant of conventional, multiple track location SWEI (MTL-SWEI), denoted single track location SWEI (STL-SWEI) offers the promise of creating speckle-free shear wave images. This work compares the three imaging modalities using a high push and track beam density combined acquisition sequence to image inclusions of different sizes and contrasts. STL-SWEI is shown to have significantly higher CNR than MTL-SWEI, allowing for operation at higher resolution. ARFI and STL-SWEI perform similarly in the larger inclusions, with STL-SWEI providing better visualization of small targets ≤2.5 mm in diameter. The processing of each modality introduces different trade-offs between smoothness and resolution of edges and structures; these are discussed in detail. PMID:25701531

  2. Spatial gravity wave characteristics obtained from multiple OH(3-1) airglow temperature time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachter, Paul; Schmidt, Carsten; Wüst, Sabine; Bittner, Michael

    2015-12-01

    We present a new approach for the detection of gravity waves in OH-airglow observations at the measurement site Oberpfaffenhofen (11.27°E, 48.08°N), Germany. The measurements were performed at the German Remote Sensing Data Center (DFD) of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) during the period from February 4th, 2011 to July 6th, 2011. In this case study the observations were carried out by three identical Ground-based Infrared P-branch Spectrometers (GRIPS). These instruments provide OH(3-1) rotational temperature time series, which enable spatio-temporal investigations of gravity wave characteristics in the mesopause region. The instruments were aligned in such a way that their fields of view (FOV) formed an equilateral triangle in the OH-emission layer at a height of 87 km. The Harmonic Analysis is applied in order to identify joint temperature oscillations in the three individual datasets. Dependent on the specific gravity wave activity in a single night, it is possible to detect up to four different wave patterns with this method. The values obtained for the waves' periods and phases are then used to derive further parameters, such as horizontal wavelength, phase velocity and the direction of propagation. We identify systematic relationships between periods and amplitudes as well as between periods and horizontal wavelengths. A predominant propagation direction towards the East and North-North-East characterizes the waves during the observation period. There are also indications of seasonal effects in the temporal development of the horizontal wavelength and the phase velocity. During late winter and early spring the derived horizontal wavelengths and the phase velocities are smaller than in the subsequent period from early April to July 2011.

  3. Tidal waves in 102Pd: a rotating condensate of multiple d bosons.

    PubMed

    Ayangeakaa, A D; Garg, U; Caprio, M A; Carpenter, M P; Ghugre, S S; Janssens, R V F; Kondev, F G; Matta, J T; Mukhopadhyay, S; Patel, D; Seweryniak, D; Sun, J; Zhu, S; Frauendorf, S

    2013-03-08

    Low-lying collective excitations in even-even vibrational and transitional nuclei may be described semiclassically as quadrupole running waves on the surface of the nucleus ("tidal waves"), and the observed vibrational-rotational behavior can be thought of as resulting from a rotating condensate of interacting d bosons. These concepts have been investigated by measuring lifetimes of the levels in the yrast band of the (102)Pd nucleus with the Doppler shift attenuation method. The extracted B(E2) reduced transition probabilities for the yrast band display a monotonic increase with spin, in agreement with the interpretation based on rotation-induced condensation of aligned d bosons.

  4. Analytical investigation of the Brillouin interaction between multiple pulsed pump tones and probe waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voskoboinik, Asher; Willner, Alan E.; Tur, Moshe

    2013-05-01

    We analytically investigate the case of the Brillouin interaction between probe waves propagating against two modulated pump waves. This investigation is motivated by the sweep-free BOTDA technique, where, to increase the BOTDR sensing speed, the Brillouin gain spectrum is simultaneously interrogated by many probe-pump pairs. It is shown both analytically and experimentally that the Brillouin interaction between a probe and its corresponding pump is negligibly affected by a neighboring pump only when the pump tones separation is much larger than the width of the Brillouin gain spectrum.

  5. Characterization of Pairwise Correlations from Multiple Quantum Correlated Beams Generated from Cascaded Four-Wave Mixing Processes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hailong; Cao, Leiming; Jing, Jietai

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically characterize the performance of the pairwise correlations (PCs) from multiple quantum correlated beams based on the cascaded four-wave mixing (FWM) processes. The presence of the PCs with quantum corre- lation in these systems can be verified by calculating the degree of intensity difference squeezing for any pair of all the output fields. The quantum correlation characteristics of all the PCs under different cascaded schemes are also discussed in detail and the repulsion effect between PCs in these cascaded FWM processes is theoretically predicted. Our results open the way for the classification and application of quantum states generated from the cascaded FWM processes. PMID:28071759

  6. New acoustic wave therapy improves quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis and chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    d'Alessandro, Aldo; Niglio, Tarcisio; Desogus, Antonello; d'Alessandro, Alessandro; Mandolesi, Dimitri

    2015-01-01

    A Multiple Sclerosis patient with chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) treated by acoustic waves, modulated in frequency and power of the Dreno-MAM® device, showed a progressive improvement in motor coordination, resistance to work, muscular power and rigidity, and distal microcirculation. Life quality, chronic fatigue, and clinical severity questionnaires EDSS show marked improvements with a follow-up of two years. We suggest that the method could be also used in the chronic fatigue syndrome and other neurological diseases such as Parkinson or Meniere syndrome. Analyses on statistically robust samples are in progress to validate such impressive result obtained by this nonpharmacological and non-invasive treatment.

  7. When Measures Change over Time: A Workable Solution for Analysing Change and Growth across Multiple Waves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Jennifer E. V.; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Siegel, Linda S.

    2009-01-01

    In the past 20 years, the analysis of individual change has become a key focus in educational research. There are several parametric analyses that centre upon quantifying change. Some researchers state that such analyses should only occur if the measure itself remains completely unchanged across waves, arguing that it is not possible to link or…

  8. Mode structure in the far field radiation of a leaky-wave multiple quantum well laser

    SciTech Connect

    Nekorkin, S M; Zvonkov, B N; Karzanova, Maria V; Dikareva, Natalia V; Aleshkin, V Ya; Dubinov, A A

    2012-10-31

    The radiation patterns of a leaky-wave InGaAs/GaAs/InGaP laser are studied. In the subthreshold regime, several peaks are found, corresponding to the emission of fundamental and excited modes. The dependences of the amplitude, position and width of the peaks on the pump current are investigated and explained. (measurement of laser radiation parameters)

  9. Multiple charge density wave states at the surface of TbT e3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Ling; Kraft, Aaron M.; Sharma, Bishnu; Singh, Manoj; Walmsley, Philip; Fisher, Ian R.; Boyer, Michael C.

    2016-11-01

    We studied TbT e3 using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) in the temperature range of 298-355 K. Our measurements detect a unidirectional charge density wave (CDW) state in the surface Te layer with a wave vector consistent with that of the bulk qCDW=0.30 ±0.01 c* . However, unlike previous STM measurements, and differing from measurements probing the bulk, we detect two perpendicular orientations for the unidirectional CDW with no directional preference for the in-plane crystal axes (a or c axis) and no noticeable difference in wave vector magnitude. In addition, we find regions in which the bidirectional CDW states coexist. We propose that observation of two unidirectional CDW states indicates a decoupling of the surface Te layer from the rare-earth block layer below, and that strain variations in the Te surface layer drive the local CDW direction to the specific unidirectional or, in rare occurrences, bidirectional CDW orders observed. This indicates that similar driving mechanisms for CDW formation in the bulk, where anisotropic lattice strain energy is important, are at play at the surface. Furthermore, the wave vectors for the bidirectional order we observe differ from those theoretically predicted for checkerboard order competing with stripe order in a Fermi-surface nesting scenario, suggesting that factors beyond Fermi-surface nesting drive CDW order in TbT e3 . Finally, our temperature-dependent measurements provide evidence for localized CDW formation above the bulk transition temperature TCDW.

  10. Multiple mechanisms of spiral wave breakup in a model of cardiac electrical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenton, Flavio H.; Cherry, Elizabeth M.; Hastings, Harold M.; Evans, Steven J.

    2002-09-01

    It has become widely accepted that the most dangerous cardiac arrhythmias are due to reentrant waves, i.e., electrical wave(s) that recirculate repeatedly throughout the tissue at a higher frequency than the waves produced by the heart's natural pacemaker (sinoatrial node). However, the complicated structure of cardiac tissue, as well as the complex ionic currents in the cell, have made it extremely difficult to pinpoint the detailed dynamics of these life-threatening reentrant arrhythmias. A simplified ionic model of the cardiac action potential (AP), which can be fitted to a wide variety of experimentally and numerically obtained mesoscopic characteristics of cardiac tissue such as AP shape and restitution of AP duration and conduction velocity, is used to explain many different mechanisms of spiral wave breakup which in principle can occur in cardiac tissue. Some, but not all, of these mechanisms have been observed before using other models; therefore, the purpose of this paper is to demonstrate them using just one framework model and to explain the different parameter regimes or physiological properties necessary for each mechanism (such as high or low excitability, corresponding to normal or ischemic tissue, spiral tip trajectory types, and tissue structures such as rotational anisotropy and periodic boundary conditions). Each mechanism is compared with data from other ionic models or experiments to illustrate that they are not model-specific phenomena. Movies showing all the breakup mechanisms are available at http://arrhythmia.hofstra.edu/breakup and at ftp://ftp.aip.org/epaps/chaos/E-CHAOEH-12-039203/ INDEX.html. The fact that many different breakup mechanisms exist has important implications for antiarrhythmic drug design and for comparisons of fibrillation experiments using different species, electromechanical uncoupling drugs, and initiation protocols.

  11. Separable-spherical-wave approximation: Application to x-ray-absorption fine-structure multiple scattering in ReO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, B.; Ingalls, R.; Rehr, J. J.

    1992-04-01

    Rehr and Albers have shown that the exact x-ray-absorption fine-structure (XAFS) propagator may be expanded in a separable matrix form, and that the lowest-order term in the expansion yields XAFS formulas that contain spherical-wave corrections, yet retain the simplicity of the plane-wave approximation. This separable-spherical-wave approximation was used to model the multiple-scattering contributions to the XAFS spectrum of rhenium trioxide. We report a modest improvement over the plane-wave approximation.

  12. Can SINEs: a family of tRNA-derived retroposons specific to the superfamily Canoidea.

    PubMed Central

    Coltman, D W; Wright, J M

    1994-01-01

    A repetitive element of approximately 200 bp was cloned from harbour seal (Phoca vitulina concolour) genomic DNA. The sequence of the element revealed putative RNA polymerase III control boxes, a poly A tail and direct terminal repeats characteristic of SINEs. Sequence and secondary structural similarities suggest that the SINE is derived from a tRNA, possibly tRNA-alanine. Southern blot analysis indicated that the element is predominately dispersed in unique regions of the seal genome, but may also be present in other repetitive sequences, such as tandemly arrayed satellite DNA. Based on slot-blot hybridization analysis, we estimate that 1.3 x 10(6) copies of the SINE are present in the harbour seal genome; SINE copy number based on the number of clones isolated from a size-selected library, however, is an order of magnitude lower (1-3 x 10(5) copies), an estimate consistent with the abundance of SINEs in other mammalian genomes. Database searches found similar sequences have been isolated from dog (Canis familiaris) and mink (Mustela vison). These, and the seal SINE sequences are characterized by an internal CT dinucleotide microsatellite in the tRNA-unrelated region. Hybridization of genomic DNA from representative species of a wide range of mammalian orders to an oligonucleotide (30mer) probe complementary to a conserved region of the SINE confirmed that the element is unique to carnivores of the superfamily Canoidea. Images PMID:8052527

  13. Characterization of Three Novel SINE Families with Unusual Features in Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Aina; Han, Zhaojun; Zhang, Zan; Li, Fei; Li, Xianchun

    2012-01-01

    Although more than 120 families of short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) have been isolated from the eukaryotic genomes, little is known about SINEs in insects. Here, we characterize three novel SINEs from the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Two of them, HaSE1 and HaSE2, share similar 5′ -structure including a tRNA-related region immediately followed by conserved central domain. The 3′ -tail of HaSE1 is significantly similar to that of one LINE retrotransposon element, HaRTE1.1, in H. armigera genome. The 3′ -region of HaSE2 showed high identity with one mariner-like element in H. armigera. The third family, termed HaSE3, is a 5S rRNA-derived SINE and shares both body part and 3′-tail with HaSE1, thus may represent the first example of a chimera generated by recombination between 5S rRNA and tRNA-derived SINE in insect species. Further database searches revealed the presence of these SINEs in several other related insect species, but not in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, indicating a relatively narrow distribution of these SINEs in Lepidopterans. Apart from above, we found a copy of HaSE2 in the GenBank EST entry for the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, suggesting the occurrence of horizontal transfer. PMID:22319625

  14. Sine-Gordon modulation solutions: Application to macroscopic non-lubricant friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershenzon, Naum I.; Bambakidis, Gust; Skinner, Thomas E.

    2016-10-01

    The Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model and its continuum approximation, the sine-Gordon (SG) equation, are widely used to model a variety of important nonlinear physical systems. Many practical applications require the wave-train solution, which includes many solitons. In such cases, an important and relevant extension of these models applies Whitham's averaging procedure to the SG equation. The resulting SG modulation equations describe the behavior of important measurable system parameters that are the average of the small-scale solutions given by the SG equation. A fundamental problem of modern physics that is the topic of this paper is the description of the transitional process from a static to a dynamic frictional regime. We have shown that the SG modulation equations are a suitable apparatus for describing this transition. The model provides relations between kinematic (rupture and slip velocities) and dynamic (shear and normal stresses) parameters of the transition process. A particular advantage of the model is its ability to describe frictional processes over a wide range of rupture and slip velocities covering seismic events ranging from regular earthquakes, with rupture velocities on the order of a few km/s, to slow slip events, with rupture velocities on the order of a few km/day.

  15. Wave of a Planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This plot tells astronomers that a fifth planet is in orbit around the star 55 Cancri, making the star the record-holder for hosting the most known exoplanets.

    As planets circle around their stars, they cause the stars to wobble back and forth in a regular pattern. By looking for this motion in a star, scientists can find planets that can't be seen with telescopes.

    The wobble caused by the fifth planet discovered around 55 Cancri is represented here by the sinuous line in blue. The actual data points are yellow and error bars are the lines above and below the yellow dots. The cycle of the wobble indicates that the planet circles around its star about every 260 days. The amplitude of the wobble indicates that the planet is a giant at least 45 times the mass of Earth.

    The wobbles caused by the other four planets has been removed from this plot, to reveal that caused by the fifth. The departure from a perfect sine wave suggests the planet's orbit is not perfectly circular.

    Because 55 Cancri has multiple planets, the star had to be observed for a long time before astronomers could find and confirm its fifth planet. These data were collected over a period of 18 years using both the Lick Observatory near San Jose, Calif., and the W.M. Keck Observatory in Hawaii.

  16. Core-SINE blocks comprise a large fraction of monotreme genomes; implications for vertebrate chromosome evolution.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Patrick J; Greaves, Ian K; Koina, Edda; Waters, Paul D; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A

    2007-01-01

    The genomes of the egg-laying platypus and echidna are of particular interest because monotremes are the most basal mammal group. The chromosomal distribution of an ancient family of short interspersed repeats (SINEs), the core-SINEs, was investigated to better understand monotreme genome organization and evolution. Previous studies have identified the core-SINE as the predominant SINE in the platypus genome, and in this study we quantified, characterized and localized subfamilies. Dot blot analysis suggested that a very large fraction (32% of the platypus and 16% of the echidna genome) is composed of Mon core-SINEs. Core-SINE-specific primers were used to amplify PCR products from platypus and echidna genomic DNA. Sequence analysis suggests a common consensus sequence Mon 1-B, shared by platypus and echidna, as well as platypus-specific Mon 1-C and echidna specific Mon 1-D consensus sequences. FISH mapping of the Mon core-SINE products to platypus metaphase spreads demonstrates that the Mon-1C subfamily is responsible for the striking Mon core-SINE accumulation in the distal regions of the six large autosomal pairs and the largest X chromosome. This unusual distribution highlights the dichotomy between the seven large chromosome pairs and the 19 smaller pairs in the monotreme karyotype, which has some similarity to the macro- and micro-chromosomes of birds and reptiles, and suggests that accumulation of repetitive sequences may have enlarged small chromosomes in an ancestral vertebrate. In the forthcoming sequence of the platypus genome there are still large gaps, and the extensive Mon core-SINE accumulation on the distal regions of the six large autosomal pairs may provide one explanation for this missing sequence.

  17. A coupled wave-3-D hydrodynamics model of the Taranto Sea (Italy): a multiple-nesting approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaeta, Maria Gabriella; Samaras, Achilleas G.; Federico, Ivan; Archetti, Renata; Maicu, Francesco; Lorenzetti, Giuliano

    2016-09-01

    The present work describes an operational strategy for the development of a multiscale modeling system, based on a multiple-nesting approach and open-source numerical models. The strategy was applied and validated for the Gulf of Taranto in southern Italy, scaling large-scale oceanographic model results to high-resolution coupled wave-3-D hydrodynamics simulations for the area of Mar Grande in the Taranto Sea. The spatial and temporal high-resolution simulations were performed using the open-source TELEMAC suite, forced by wind data from the COSMO-ME database, boundary wave spectra from the RON buoy at Crotone and results from the Southern Adriatic Northern Ionian coastal Forecasting System (SANIFS) regarding sea levels and current fields. Model validation was carried out using data collected in the Mar Grande basin from a fixed monitoring station and during an oceanographic campaign in October 2014. The overall agreement between measurements and model results in terms of waves, sea levels, surface currents, circulation patterns and vertical velocity profiles is deemed to be satisfactory, and the methodology followed in the process can constitute a useful tool for both research and operational applications in the same field and as support of decisions for management and design of infrastructures.

  18. Multiple charge density wave states at the surface of TbTe3

    DOE PAGES

    Fu, Ling; Kraft, Aaron M.; Sharma, Bishnu; ...

    2016-11-01

    We studied TbTe3 using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) in the temperature range of 298–355 K. Our measurements detect a unidirectional charge density wave (CDW) state in the surface Te layer with a wave vector consistent with that of the bulk qCDW = 0.30 ± 0.01c*. However, unlike previous STM measurements, and differing from measurements probing the bulk, we detect two perpendicular orientations for the unidirectional CDW with no directional preference for the in-plane crystal axes (a or c axis) and no noticeable difference in wave vector magnitude. In addition, we find regions in which the bidirectional CDW states coexist. Wemore » propose that observation of two unidirectional CDW states indicates a decoupling of the surface Te layer from the rare-earth block layer below, and that strain variations in the Te surface layer drive the local CDW direction to the specific unidirectional or, in rare occurrences, bidirectional CDW orders observed. This indicates that similar driving mechanisms for CDW formation in the bulk, where anisotropic lattice strain energy is important, are at play at the surface. Furthermore, the wave vectors for the bidirectional order we observe differ from those theoretically predicted for checkerboard order competing with stripe order in a Fermi-surface nesting scenario, suggesting that factors beyond Fermi-surface nesting drive CDW order in TbTe3. As a result, our temperature-dependent measurements provide evidence for localized CDW formation above the bulk transition temperature TCDW.« less

  19. Computational modelling of the interaction of shock waves with multiple gas-filled bubbles in a liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betney, M. R.; Tully, B.; Hawker, N. A.; Ventikos, Y.

    2015-03-01

    This study presents a computational investigation of the interactions of a single shock wave with multiple gas-filled bubbles in a liquid medium. This work illustrates how multiple bubbles may be used in shock-bubble interactions to intensify the process on a local level. A high resolution front-tracking approach is used, which enables explicit tracking of the gas-liquid interface. The collapse of two identical bubbles, one placed behind the other is investigated in detail, demonstrating that peak pressures in a two bubble arrangement can exceed those seen in single bubble collapse. Additionally, a parametric investigation into the effect of bubble separation is presented. It is found that the separation distance has a significant effect on both the shape and velocity of the main transverse jet of the second bubble. Extending this analysis to effects of relative bubble size, we show that if the first bubble is sufficiently small relative to the second, it may become entirely entrained in the second bubble main transverse jet. In contrast, if the first bubble is substantially larger than the second, it may offer it significant protection from the incident shock. This protection is utilised in the study of a triangular array of three bubbles, with the central bubble being significantly smaller than the outer bubbles. It is demonstrated that, through shielding of bubbles until later in the collapse process, pressures over five times higher than the maximum pressure observed in the single bubble case may be achieved. This corresponds to a peak pressure that is approximately 40 times more intense than the incident shock wave. This work has applications in a number of different fields, including cavitation erosion, explosives, targeted drug delivery/intensification, and shock wave lithotripsy.

  20. Occurrence of Can-SINEs and intron sequence evolution supports robust phylogeny of pinniped carnivores and their terrestrial relatives.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Christiane; Bleidorn, Christoph; Hartmann, Stefanie; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2009-12-15

    Investigating the dog genome we found 178965 introns with a moderate length of 200-1000 bp. A screening of these sequences against 23 different repeat libraries to find insertions of short interspersed elements (SINEs) detected 45276 SINEs. Virtually all of these SINEs (98%) belong to the tRNA-derived Can-SINE family. Can-SINEs arose about 55 million years ago before Carnivora split into two basal groups, the Caniformia (dog-like carnivores) and the Feliformia (cat-like carnivores). Genome comparisons of dog and cat recovered 506 putatively informative SINE loci for caniformian phylogeny. In this study we show how to use such genome information of model organisms to research the phylogeny of related non-model species of interest. Investigating a dataset including representatives of all major caniformian lineages, we analysed 24 randomly chosen loci for 22 taxa. All loci were amplifiable and revealed 17 parsimony-informative SINE insertions. The screening for informative SINE insertions yields a large amount of sequence information, in particular of introns, which contain reliable phylogenetic information as well. A phylogenetic analysis of intron- and SINE sequence data provided a statistically robust phylogeny which is congruent with the absence/presence pattern of our SINE markers. This phylogeny strongly supports a sistergroup relationship of Musteloidea and Pinnipedia. Within Pinnipedia, we see strong support from bootstrapping and the presence of a SINE insertion for a sistergroup relationship of the walrus with the Otariidae.

  1. Twisted hierarchies associated with the generalized sine-Gordon equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hui; Wu, Derchyi

    2011-09-01

    Twisted U- and twisted U/K-hierarchies are soliton hierarchies introduced by Terng to find higher flows of the generalized sine-Gordon equation. Twisted O(J,J)/O(J)× O(J)-hierarchies are among the most important classes of twisted hierarchies. In this paper, we derive explicit interesting first and higher flows of twisted O(J,J)/O(J)× O(J)-hierarchies, justify that the one-dimensional systems of twisted O(J,J)/O(J)× O(J)-hierarchies for J = Iq, n - q(1 ⩽ q ⩽ n - 1), called the generalized sinh-Gordon equations, are the Gauss-Codazzi equations for n-dimensional timelike submanifolds with constant sectional curvature 1 and index q in pseudo-Euclidean (2n - 1)-dimensional space {R}^{2n-1}_{2q-1} with index 2q - 1. Furthermore, a unified treatment of the inverse scattering theory for twisted O(J,J)/O(J)× O(J)-hierarchies is provided.

  2. Lateral sinus thrombosis associated with zoster sine herpete.

    PubMed

    Chan, James; Bergstrom, Richard T; Lanza, Donald C; Oas, John G

    2004-01-01

    Herpes zoster results from reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (VZV). Zoster sine herpete (ZSH) is an uncommon manifestation of VZV infection and presents with similar symptoms but without the vesicular rash. We describe an unusual case of lateral sinus thrombosis (LST) that developed during the clinical course of ZSH in the C2 distribution. A 55-year-old woman presented with a 3-day history of left temporal and postauricular pain, nausea, vomiting, and mild photophobia. She denied otalgia, otorrhea, and hearing loss. Examination revealed hyperesthesia in the left C2 nerve root distribution without evidence of herpetic rash. A computed tomography scan showed minimal fluid in the left mastoid cavity (not mastoiditis) and thrombus within the left lateral and sigmoid dural sinus. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiogram confirmed these findings. Laboratory studies revealed elevated neurotrophic immunoglobulin G levels to VZV. Hypercoagulable studies were normal. She was subsequently treated with Neurontin, acyclovir, and anticoagulation. Her symptoms improved, and she was discharged 3 days later. LST is generally a complication of middle ear infection. Nonseptic LST, however, may result from dehydration, oral contraceptive use, coagulopathy, or thyroid disease. This unusual case raises the suspicion that thrombosis resulted from VZV associated thrombophlebitis in the ipsilateral cerebral venous sinuses along the second cervical nerve root distribution. A high index of suspicion is necessary in such cases so that a different treatment course can be identified and antiviral medication initiated promptly.

  3. Systemic sclerosis sine scleroderma: a case report of anterior uveitis.

    PubMed

    Borges, T; Vilaça, J; Ferreira, S; Chora, I; Silva, S; Dias, C

    2015-06-30

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) sine scleroderma (ssSSc) is characterized by the absence of skin involvement, despite other manifestations of systemic sclerosis are present. It is not known whether sSSc represents a forme fruste of limited cutaneous SSc or a distinct entity, but the 2013 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism criteria for the classification of SSc have considered SSc without skin involvement to be a distinct subset. The authors present the case of a 70-year old female that was referred for a consultation for Raynaud's phenomenon and a chronic anterior uveitis (CAU). She had a history of dysphagia, diffuse pulmonary emphysema and a biopsy-documented fibrosis of the upper lobes, and an idiopathic non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy with severe left ventricle systolic dysfunction and left bundle branch block. Anti-nuclear and anti-centromere antibodies were positive, while manometry revealed distal esophageal hypomotility. After establishing the diagnosis of ssSSc and starting immunosuppression, the ocular disease improved, while the lung and heart diseases remained stable. This case underlines that it is very important to suspect SSc when CAU is present and/or skin thickening is absent. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CAU in a patient with ssSSc.

  4. Bilayer honeycomb lattice with ultracold atoms: Multiple Fermi surfaces and incommensurate spin density wave instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Santanu; Sensarma, Rajdeep

    2016-12-01

    We propose an experimental setup using ultracold atoms to implement a bilayer honeycomb lattice with Bernal stacking. In the presence of a potential bias between the layers and at low densities, fermions placed in this lattice form an annular Fermi sea. The presence of two Fermi surfaces leads to interesting patterns in Friedel oscillations and RKKY interactions in the presence of impurities. Furthermore, a repulsive fermion-fermion interaction leads to a Stoner instability towards an incommensurate spin density wave order with a wave vector equal to the thickness of the Fermi sea. The instability occurs at a critical interaction strength which goes down with the density of the fermions. We find that the instability survives interaction renormalization due to vertex corrections and discuss how this can be seen in experiments. We also track the renormalization group flows of the different couplings between the fermionic degrees of freedom, and find that there are no perturbative instabilities, and that Stoner instability is the strongest instability which occurs at a critical threshold value of the interaction. The critical interaction goes to zero as the chemical potential is tuned towards the band bottom.

  5. Perish, then publish: Thomas Harriot and the sine law of refraction.

    PubMed

    Fishman, R S

    2000-03-01

    A talented young scientist, Thomas Harriot, wrote the first English account of the New World, "A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia," distinguished by its serious effort to describe and understand the American Indian. Harriot went on to make innovations in mathematics and was one of the first astronomers to use the telescope. His largely unappreciated contribution to the history of ophthalmology was the first formulation of the sine law of refraction of light, found in his unpublished papers long after his death in 1621. Willebrord Snell discovered the sine law in Holland in 1621 but also died without formally publishing it. Rene Descartes first published the sine law in 1637. The sine law of refraction became not only the prime law of all lens systems but ushered in a new world of physical laws.

  6. Sine Rotation Vector Method for Attitude Estimation of an Underwater Robot

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Nak Yong; Jeong, Seokki; Bae, Youngchul

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a method for estimating the attitude of an underwater robot. The method employs a new concept of sine rotation vector and uses both an attitude heading and reference system (AHRS) and a Doppler velocity log (DVL) for the purpose of measurement. First, the acceleration and magnetic-field measurements are transformed into sine rotation vectors and combined. The combined sine rotation vector is then transformed into the differences between the Euler angles of the measured attitude and the predicted attitude; the differences are used to correct the predicted attitude. The method was evaluated according to field-test data and simulation data and compared to existing methods that calculate angular differences directly without a preceding sine rotation vector transformation. The comparison verifies that the proposed method improves the attitude estimation performance. PMID:27490549

  7. Optical study of the multiple charge-density-wave transitions in ErTe3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, B. F.; Cheng, B.; Yuan, R. H.; Dong, T.; Fang, A. F.; Guo, W. T.; Chen, Z. G.; Zheng, P.; Shi, Y. G.; Wang, N. L.

    2011-10-01

    We present an optical spectroscopy study on singe crystalline ErTe3, a rare-earth-element tritelluride, which experiences two successive charge-density wave (CDW) transitions at Tc1=267 K and Tc2=150 K. Two corresponding gap features, centered at 2770 cm-1 (˜343 meV) and 890 cm-1 (˜110 meV), respectively, are clearly seen in ordered state. A pronounced Drude component, which exists at all measurement temperatures, demonstrates the partial gap character of both CDW orders. About half of the unmodulated Fermi surface (FS) remains in the CDW state at the lowest measurement temperature. The study also indicates that fluctuation effect may be still prominent in this two-dimensional material.

  8. Seismic‐wave attenuation determined from tectonic tremor in multiple subduction zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yabe, Suguru; Baltay, Annemarie S.; Ide, Satoshi; Beroza, Gregory C.

    2014-01-01

    Tectonic tremor provides a new source of observations that can be used to constrain the seismic attenuation parameter for ground‐motion prediction and hazard mapping. Traditionally, recorded earthquakes of magnitude ∼3–8 are used to develop ground‐motion prediction equations; however, typical earthquake records may be sparse in areas of high hazard. In this study, we constrain the distance decay of seismic waves using measurements of the amplitude decay of tectonic tremor, which is plentiful in some regions. Tectonic tremor occurs in the frequency band of interest for ground‐motion prediction (i.e., ∼2–8  Hz) and is located on the subducting plate interface, at the lower boundary of where future large earthquakes are expected. We empirically fit the distance decay of peak ground velocity from tremor to determine the attenuation parameter in four subduction zones: Nankai, Japan; Cascadia, United States–Canada; Jalisco, Mexico; and southern Chile. With the large amount of data available from tremor, we show that in the upper plate, the lower crust is less attenuating than the upper crust. We apply the same analysis to intraslab events in Nankai and show the possibility that waves traveling from deeper intraslab events experience more attenuation than those from the shallower tremor due to ray paths that pass through the subducting and highly attenuating oceanic crust. This suggests that high pore‐fluid pressure is present in the tremor source region. These differences imply that the attenuation parameter determined from intraslab earthquakes may underestimate ground motion for future large earthquakes on the plate interface.

  9. A New Class of SINEs with snRNA Gene-Derived Heads.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Kenji K

    2015-05-27

    Eukaryotic genomes are colonized by various transposons including short interspersed elements (SINEs). The 5' region (head) of the majority of SINEs is derived from one of the three types of RNA genes--7SL RNA, transfer RNA (tRNA), or 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)--and the internal promoter inside the head promotes the transcription of the entire SINEs. Here I report a new group of SINEs whose heads originate from either the U1 or U2 small nuclear RNA gene. These SINEs, named SINEU, are distributed among crocodilians and classified into three families. The structures of the SINEU-1 subfamilies indicate the recurrent addition of a U1- or U2-derived sequence onto the 5' end of SINEU-1 elements. SINEU-1 and SINEU-3 are ancient and shared among alligators, crocodiles, and gharials, while SINEU-2 is absent in the alligator genome. SINEU-2 is the only SINE family that was active after the split of crocodiles and gharials. All SINEU families, especially SINEU-3, are preferentially inserted into a family of Mariner DNA transposon, Mariner-N4_AMi. A group of Tx1 non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons designated Tx1-Mar also show target preference for Mariner-N4_AMi, indicating that SINEU was mobilized by Tx1-Mar.

  10. A New Class of SINEs with snRNA Gene-Derived Heads

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Kenji K.

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are colonized by various transposons including short interspersed elements (SINEs). The 5′ region (head) of the majority of SINEs is derived from one of the three types of RNA genes—7SL RNA, transfer RNA (tRNA), or 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)—and the internal promoter inside the head promotes the transcription of the entire SINEs. Here I report a new group of SINEs whose heads originate from either the U1 or U2 small nuclear RNA gene. These SINEs, named SINEU, are distributed among crocodilians and classified into three families. The structures of the SINEU-1 subfamilies indicate the recurrent addition of a U1- or U2-derived sequence onto the 5′ end of SINEU-1 elements. SINEU-1 and SINEU-3 are ancient and shared among alligators, crocodiles, and gharials, while SINEU-2 is absent in the alligator genome. SINEU-2 is the only SINE family that was active after the split of crocodiles and gharials. All SINEU families, especially SINEU-3, are preferentially inserted into a family of Mariner DNA transposon, Mariner-N4_AMi. A group of Tx1 non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons designated Tx1-Mar also show target preference for Mariner-N4_AMi, indicating that SINEU was mobilized by Tx1-Mar. PMID:26019167

  11. Degenerate four-wave mixing in room-temperature GaAs/GaAlAs multiple quantum well structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, D. A. B.; Chemla, D. S.; Eilenberger, D. J.; Smith, P. W.; Gossard, A. C.; Wiegman, W.

    1983-06-01

    Degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) is of current interest both for practical applications (e.g., phase conjugation) and as a physical probe. DFWM makes it possible to detect very small nonlinear changes in refraction. In connection with the present investigation, the first observations of DFWM in GaAs/GaAlAs multiple quantum well structures (MQW's) at room temperature are reported. By combining DFWM and nonlinear absorption results, a direct measurement of the nonlinear refraction near the band gap of the MQW is conducted. The obtained value is compared with previous estimates. The measurements are of practical importance for possible low-power optical devices compatible with laser diodes based either on DFWM, nonlinear refraction (such as optical bistability) of nonlinear absorption. The MQW samples were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on GaAs substrates, with the MQW layers sandwiched between GaAlAs cap layers which are transparent at the considered wavelengths.

  12. Electron transport in graphene/graphene side-contact junction by plane-wave multiple-scattering method

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Xiang-Guo; Chu, Iek-Heng; Zhang, X. -G.; ...

    2015-05-28

    Electron transport in graphene is along the sheet but junction devices are often made by stacking different sheets together in a “side-contact” geometry which causes the current to flow perpendicular to the sheets within the device. Such geometry presents a challenge to first-principles transport methods. We solve this problem by implementing a plane-wave-based multiple-scattering theory for electron transport. In this study, this implementation improves the computational efficiency over the existing plane-wave transport code, scales better for parallelization over large number of nodes, and does not require the current direction to be along a lattice axis. As a first application, wemore » calculate the tunneling current through a side-contact graphene junction formed by two separate graphene sheets with the edges overlapping each other. We find that transport properties of this junction depend strongly on the AA or AB stacking within the overlapping region as well as the vacuum gap between two graphene sheets. Finally, such transport behaviors are explained in terms of carbon orbital orientation, hybridization, and delocalization as the geometry is varied.« less

  13. Multiple Andreev reflections in s -wave superconductor-quantum dot-topological superconductor tunnel junctions and Majorana bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golub, Anatoly

    2015-05-01

    We calculate the current as a function of applied voltage in a nontopological s -wave superconductor-quantum dot-topological superconductor (TS) tunnel junction. We consider the type of TS which hosts two Majorana bound states (MBSs) at the ends of a semiconductor quantum wire or of a chain of magnetic atoms in the proximity with an s -wave superconductor. We find that the I -V characteristic of such a system in the regime of big voltages has a typical two-dot shape and is ornamented by peaks of multiple Andreev reflections. We also consider the other options when the zero-energy states are created by disorder (hereby Shiba states) or by Andreev zero-energy bound states at the surface of a quantum dot and a superconductor. The later are obtained by tuning the magnetic field to a specific value. Unlike the last two cases the MBS I -V curves are robust to change the magnetic field. Therefore, the magnetic-field dependence of the tunneling current can serve as a unique signature for the presence of a MBS.

  14. Three-dimensional, prestack, plane wave migration of teleseismic P-to-S converted phases: 2. Stacking multiple events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppeliers, Christian; Pavlis, Gary L.

    2003-05-01

    In part 1 we developed the theoretical foundations of a prestack migration procedure to image forward scattered P to S (PdS) converted waves in the coda of teleseismic P waves. This paper addresses the issue of how to optimally stack data from multiple events migrated by this procedure. We apply matrix perturbation theory to develop an objective way to quantify noise in deconvolved PdS data. Application of the theory demonstrates that an optimal stack requires weighting the migrated data from each event by a signal-to-noise ratio criterion. We also find that the migrated PdS images have to be binned by back azimuth and balanced prior to the final stack. This is necessary to mitigate coherent noise that results from aliased microseism noise that is enhanced by our processing method. We processed 23 events recorded by the Lodore array in northwestern Colorado with our procedure. The results indicate the presence of a major, lithospheric scale discontinuity defined by a south dipping boundary within the crust that we interpret as the subsurface expression of the Cheyenne Belt. The suture is also marked by a transition in crustal thickness from 35 km on the Archean side to over 40 km on the Colorado Plateau side. We also observe a strong difference in the lithospheric mantle PdS conversion signature on opposite sides of the suture that suggests delamination and northward convergence of the Colorado lithosphere beneath the Wyoming province.

  15. Electron transport in graphene/graphene side-contact junction by plane-wave multiple-scattering method

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiang-Guo; Chu, Iek-Heng; Zhang, X. -G.; Cheng, Hai-Ping

    2015-05-28

    Electron transport in graphene is along the sheet but junction devices are often made by stacking different sheets together in a “side-contact” geometry which causes the current to flow perpendicular to the sheets within the device. Such geometry presents a challenge to first-principles transport methods. We solve this problem by implementing a plane-wave-based multiple-scattering theory for electron transport. In this study, this implementation improves the computational efficiency over the existing plane-wave transport code, scales better for parallelization over large number of nodes, and does not require the current direction to be along a lattice axis. As a first application, we calculate the tunneling current through a side-contact graphene junction formed by two separate graphene sheets with the edges overlapping each other. We find that transport properties of this junction depend strongly on the AA or AB stacking within the overlapping region as well as the vacuum gap between two graphene sheets. Finally, such transport behaviors are explained in terms of carbon orbital orientation, hybridization, and delocalization as the geometry is varied.

  16. Low-frequency guided waves in a fluid-filled borehole: Simultaneous effects of generation and scattering due to multiple fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minato, Shohei; Ghose, Ranajit

    2017-03-01

    Low-frequency, axially-symmetric guided waves which propagate along a fluid-filled borehole (tube waves) are studied in order to characterize the hydraulic fractures intersecting the borehole. We formulate a new equation for the total tube wavefield, which includes simultaneous effects of (1) tube-wave scattering (reflection and transmission) due to wave propagation across hydraulic fractures, and (2) tube-wave generation due to incident plane P waves. The fracture is represented by the nonwelded interface boundary conditions. We use an appropriate form of the representation theorem in order to correctly handle the multiple scattering due to nonwelded interfaces. Our approach can implement any model that has so far been developed. We consider a recent model which includes simultaneous effects of fluid viscosity, dynamic fluid flow, and fracture compliance. The derived equation offers a number of important insights. We recognize that the effective generation amplitude contains the simultaneous effect of both tube-wave generation and scattering. This leads to a new physical understanding indicating that the tube waves are scattered immediately after generation. We show that this scattering is nonlinear with respect to interface compliance. This physical mechanism can be implicitly accounted for by considering more realistic boundary conditions. We also illustrate the application of the new equation in order to predict the complex signature of the total tube wavefield, including generation and scattering at multiple hydraulic fractures. A new formulation for focusing analyses is also derived in order to image and characterize the hydraulic fractures. The obtained results and discussions are important for interpretation, modeling, and imaging using low-frequency guided waves, in the presence of multiple fractures along a cylindrical inclusion.

  17. Neocortical dynamics at multiple scales: EEG standing waves, statistical mechanics, and physical analogs.

    PubMed

    Ingber, Lester; Nunez, Paul L

    2011-02-01

    The dynamic behavior of scalp potentials (EEG) is apparently due to some combination of global and local processes with important top-down and bottom-up interactions across spatial scales. In treating global mechanisms, we stress the importance of myelinated axon propagation delays and periodic boundary conditions in the cortical-white matter system, which is topologically close to a spherical shell. By contrast, the proposed local mechanisms are multiscale interactions between cortical columns via short-ranged non-myelinated fibers. A mechanical model consisting of a stretched string with attached nonlinear springs demonstrates the general idea. The string produces standing waves analogous to large-scale coherent EEG observed in some brain states. The attached springs are analogous to the smaller (mesoscopic) scale columnar dynamics. Generally, we expect string displacement and EEG at all scales to result from both global and local phenomena. A statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions (SMNI) calculates oscillatory behavior consistent with typical EEG, within columns, between neighboring columns via short-ranged non-myelinated fibers, across cortical regions via myelinated fibers, and also derives a string equation consistent with the global EEG model.

  18. Design and Synthesis of Antiblinking and Antibleaching Quantum Dots in Multiple Colors via Wave Function Confinement.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hujia; Ma, Junliang; Huang, Lin; Qin, Haiyan; Meng, Renyang; Li, Yang; Peng, Xiaogang

    2016-12-07

    Single-molecular spectroscopy reveals that photoluminescence (PL) of a single quantum dot blinks, randomly switching between bright and dim/dark states under constant photoexcitation, and quantum dots photobleach readily. These facts cast great doubts on potential applications of these promising emitters. After ∼20 years of efforts, synthesis of nonblinking quantum dots is still challenging, with nonblinking quantum dots only available in red-emitting window. Here we report synthesis of nonblinking quantum dots covering most part of the visible window using a new synthetic strategy, i.e., confining the excited-state wave functions of the core/shell quantum dots within the core quantum dot and its inner shells (≤ ∼5 monolayers). For the red-emitting ones, the new synthetic strategy yields nonblinking quantum dots with small sizes (∼8 nm in diameter) and improved nonblinking properties. These new nonblinking quantum dots are found to be antibleaching. Results further imply that the PL blinking and photobleaching of quantum dots are likely related to each other.

  19. A comparison of heat wave climatologies and trends in China based on multiple definitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Qinglong; Jiang, Zhihong; Kong, Lei; Wu, Zhiwei; Bao, Yutao; Kang, Shichang; Pepin, Nick

    2016-08-01

    Heat waves (HWs) can have disastrous impacts on human activities and natural systems, and are one of the current foci of scientific research, particularly in the context of global warming. However, there is no standard definition of a HW, which makes assessment of temporal trends a challenge. In this study, based on daily mean, maximum and minimum temperature, and relative humidity datasets from China Meteorological Administration, the patterns, trends and variations of HW in China during 1961-2014 are investigated. Sixteen previously published HW indices (HIs) are calculated, which are divided into two types using relative and absolute threshold temperatures, respectively. During 1961-2014, both relative and absolute threshold HIs show the highest number of HW in Jianghua and South China, geographically consistent with the climate characteristics of China. The majority of HIs shows negative/positive trends of HW days before/after 1990 over the whole of China, but especially in Jianghua and South China, which reflects rapid warming since 1990. There are significant correlations among different HIs in the same type (both absolute and relative), but correlations are weak between relative and absolute threshold HIs. Because relative and absolute HIs show contrasting trends, the choice of HI is therefore critical for future analysis

  20. Reconstruction of the first derivative EPR spectrum from multiple harmonics of the field-modulated continuous wave signal

    PubMed Central

    Tseitlin, Mark; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2011-01-01

    Selection of the amplitude of magnetic field modulation for continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) often is a trade-off between sensitivity and resolution. Increasing the modulation amplitude improves the signal-to-noise ratio, S/N, at the expense of broadening the signal. Combining information from multiple harmonics of the field-modulated signal is proposed as a method to obtain the first derivative spectrum with minimal broadening and improved signal-to-noise. The harmonics are obtained by digital phase-sensitive detection of the signal at the modulation frequency and its integer multiples. Reconstruction of the first derivative EPR line is done in the Fourier conjugate domain where each harmonic can be represented as the product of the Fourier transform of the 1st derivative signal with an analytical function. The analytical function for each harmonic can be viewed as a filter. The Fourier transform of the 1st derivative spectrum can be calculated from all available harmonics by solving an optimization problem with the goal of maximizing the S/N. Inverse Fourier transformation of the result produces the 1st derivative EPR line in the magnetic field domain. The use of modulation amplitude greater than linewidth improves the S/N, but does not broaden the reconstructed spectrum. The method works for an arbitrary EPR line shape, but is limited to the case when magnetization instantaneously follows the modulation field, which is known as the adiabatic approximation. PMID:21349750

  1. Accelerating the discontinuous Galerkin method for seismic wave propagation simulations using multiple GPUs with CUDA and MPI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Dawei; Chen, Po; Wang, Liqiang

    2013-12-01

    We have successfully ported an arbitrary high-order discontinuous Galerkin method for solving the three-dimensional isotropic elastic wave equation on unstructured tetrahedral meshes to multiple Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) using the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) of NVIDIA and Message Passing Interface (MPI) and obtained a speedup factor of about 28.3 for the single-precision version of our codes and a speedup factor of about 14.9 for the double-precision version. The GPU used in the comparisons is NVIDIA Tesla C2070 Fermi, and the CPU used is Intel Xeon W5660. To effectively overlap inter-process communication with computation, we separate the elements on each subdomain into inner and outer elements and complete the computation on outer elements and fill the MPI buffer first. While the MPI messages travel across the network, the GPU performs computation on inner elements, and all other calculations that do not use information of outer elements from neighboring subdomains. A significant portion of the speedup also comes from a customized matrix-matrix multiplication kernel, which is used extensively throughout our program. Preliminary performance analysis on our parallel GPU codes shows favorable strong and weak scalabilities.

  2. Multiple charge density wave transitions in the antiferromagnets R NiC2 (R =Gd ,Tb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura, S.; Hayashi, C.; Hanasaki, N.; Ohnuma, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Nakao, H.; Mizumaki, M.; Onodera, H.

    2016-04-01

    X-ray scattering and electrical resistivity measurements were performed on GdNiC2 and TbNiC2. We found a set of satellite peaks characterized by q1=(0.5 ,η ,0 ) below T1, at which the resistivity shows a sharp inflection, suggesting the charge density wave (CDW) formation. The value of η decreases with decreasing temperature below T1, and then a transition to a commensurate phase with q1 C=(0.5 ,0.5 ,0 ) takes place. The diffuse scattering observed above T1 indicates the presence of soft phonon modes associated with CDW instabilities at q1 and q2=(0.5 ,0.5 ,0.5 ) . The long-range order given by q2 is developed in addition to that given by q1 C in TbNiC2, while the short-range correlation with q2 persists even at 6 K in GdNiC2. The amplitude of the q1 C lattice modulation is anomalously reduced below an antiferromagnetic transition temperature TN in GdNiC2. In contrast, the q2 order vanishes below TN in TbNiC2. We demonstrate that R NiC2 (R = rare earth) compounds exhibit similarities with respect to their CDW phenomena, and discuss the effects of magnetic transitions on CDWs. We offer a possible displacement pattern of the modulated structure characterized by q1 C and q2 in terms of frustration.

  3. P-wave travel-time tomography reveals multiple mantle upwellings beneath the northern East-Africa Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, J. O. S.; Civiero, C.; Goes, S. D. B.; Ahmed, A.; Ayele, A.; Doubre, C.; Goitom, B.; Keir, D.; Kendall, M.; Leroy, S. D.; Ogubazghi, G.; Rumpker, G.; Stuart, G. W.

    2014-12-01

    The East African Rift (EAR) shows evidence for active magmatism from the eruption of flood basalts 30 Ma to active volcanism associated with rifting today. Mantle plumes have been invoked as the likely cause. However, the nature of mantle upwelling is debated, with proposed models ranging from a single broad plume, the African Superplume, connected to the LLSVP beneath Southern Africa, to multiple distinct sources of upwelling along the East-Africa Rift. We present a new relative travel-time tomography model that images detailed P-wave velocities below the northern East-African rift from the surface to lower mantle depths. Data comes from 439 stations that cover the area from Tanzania to Saudi Arabia. The aperture of the integrated dataset allows us to image for the first time low-velocity structures of ~ 100-km length scales down to depths of 900 km beneath this region. Our images provide evidence of at least two separate low-velocity structures with a diameter of ~200 km that continue through the transition zone and into the lower mantle: the first, and most pronounced, is beneath the Afar Depression, which extends to at least 900 km depth and a second is located beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift that extends to at least 750 km. Taking into account seismic sensitivity to temperature and thermally controlled phase boundary topography, we interpret these features as multiple focused upwellings from below the transition zone with excess temperatures of ~ 100-150 K. Such temperatures are also fully consistent with previous petrological and other geophysical estimates. Furthermore, the separate structures could explain differences in geochemistry of erupted magmas along the rift zone, as well as the dynamic topography seen at the surface. Our findings thus support the involvement of multiple plumes in the evolution of the EAR and a direct connection between lower mantle features and the volcanism at the surface.

  4. Specific sine-Gordon soliton dynamics in the presence of external driving forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinisch, Gilbert; Fernandez, Jean Claude

    1981-07-01

    We consider the acceleration of a single sine-Gordon (SG) soliton kink wave by an external time-dependent force χ(t), first without any dissipation, and then in the presence of a weak damping effect. We use the method of Fogel, Trullinger, Bishop, and Krumhansl [FTBK,

    Phys. Rev. B 45, 1578 (1977)]
    which consists in perturbing the SG equation about its kink solution and solving the resulting linear inhomogeneous equation for the perturbation function by expanding it in the complete set of eigenfunctions of the Schrödinger operator with potential 1-2 2x. Our results concerning the accelerated soliton dynamics strongly disagree with the FTBK conclusion that the soliton should undergo an acceleration proportional to χ (this is the so-called Newtonian dynamical behavior of SG soliton, which is also predicted by all existing perturbation theories dealing with the perturbed SG equation). On the contrary, we find that this Newtonian acceleration is exactly balanced by a reaction effect of the continuous phonon spectrum excited by the external force χ, upon the moving kink, so that there is no soliton acceleration at all within the frame of this linear perturbation theory, i.e., for small time values. Actually, we show by the simple example of a static external force that the acceleration of an initially static kink is a higher-order effect (proportional to χt2, where t is the time, instead of being constant and proportional to χ). We emphasize that this last result has already been checked by numerical experiments and show, both by theory and by numerical simulations, that it does not qualitatively change when a small damping effect is taken into account.

  5. Interaction of sine-Gordon kinks and breathers with a parity-time-symmetric defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadatmand, Danial; Dmitriev, Sergey V.; Borisov, Denis I.; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.

    2014-11-01

    The scattering of kinks and low-frequency breathers of the nonlinear sine-Gordon (SG) equation on a spatially localized parity-time-symmetric perturbation (defect) with a balanced gain and loss is investigated numerically. It is demonstrated that if a kink passes the defect, it always restores its initial momentum and energy, and the only effect of the interaction with the defect is a phase shift of the kink. A kink approaching the defect from the gain side always passes, while in the opposite case it must have sufficiently large initial momentum to pass through the defect instead of being trapped in the loss region. The kink phase shift and critical velocity are calculated by means of the collective variable method. Kink-kink (kink-antikink) collisions at the defect are also briefly considered, showing how their pairwise repulsive (respectively, attractive) interaction can modify the collisional outcome of a single kink within the pair with the defect. For the breather, the result of its interaction with the defect depends strongly on the breather parameters (velocity, frequency, and initial phase) and on the defect parameters. The breather can gain some energy from the defect and as a result potentially even split into a kink-antikink pair, or it can lose a part of its energy. Interestingly, the breather translational mode is very weakly affected by the dissipative perturbation, so that a breather penetrates more easily through the defect when it comes from the lossy side, than a kink. In all studied soliton-defect interactions, the energy loss to radiation of small-amplitude extended waves is negligible.

  6. What happens to linear properties as we move from the Klein-Gordon equation to the sine-Gordon equation

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalyov, Mikhail

    2010-06-15

    In this article the sets of solutions of the sine-Gordon equation and its linearization the Klein-Gordon equation are discussed and compared. It is shown that the set of solutions of the sine-Gordon equation possesses a richer structure which partly disappears during linearization. Just like the solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation satisfy the linear superposition principle, the solutions of the sine-Gordon equation satisfy a nonlinear superposition principle.

  7. Eyeless initiates the expression of both sine oculis and eyes absent during Drosophila compound eye development.

    PubMed

    Halder, G; Callaerts, P; Flister, S; Walldorf, U; Kloter, U; Gehring, W J

    1998-06-01

    The Drosophila Pax-6 gene eyeless acts high up in the genetic hierarchy involved in compound eye development and can direct the formation of extra eyes in ectopic locations. Here we identify sine oculis and eyes absent as two mediators of the eye-inducing activity of eyeless. We show that eyeless induces and requires the expression of both genes independently during extra eye development. During normal eye development, eyeless is expressed earlier than and is required for the expression of sine oculis and eyes absent, but not vice versa. Based on the results presented here and those of others, we propose a model in which eyeless induces the initial expression of both sine oculis and eyes absent in the eye disc. sine oculis and eyes absent then appear to participate in a positive feedback loop that regulates the expression of all three genes. In contrast to the regulatory interactions that occur in the developing eye disc, we also show that in the embryonic head, sine oculis acts in parallel to eyeless and twin of eyeless, a second Pax-6 gene from Drosophila. Recent studies in vertebrate systems indicate that the epistatic relationships among the corresponding vertebrate homologs are very similar to those observed in Drosophila.

  8. Talua SINE biology in the genome of the Reticulitermes subterranean termites (Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Luchetti, Andrea; Mantovani, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    Studies on transposable elements in termites are of interest because their genome is in a permanent condition of inbreeding. In this situation, an increase in transposon copy number should be mainly due to a Muller's ratchet effect, with selection against deleterious insertions playing a major role. Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous retrotransposons, known to be stable components of eukaryotic genomes. The SINE Talua, first isolated from Reticulitermes lucifugus (Rhinotermitidae), is the only mobile element described so far in termites. In the present survey, Talua has been found widespread in the Isoptera order. In comparison with other non-termite SINEs, Talua diversity and distribution in the Reticulitermes genome demonstrate that Talua is an ancient component of termite genome and that it is significantly associated with other repeats. In particular, the element is found to be involved with microsatellite motifs either as their generator or because inserted in their nearby. Further, two new SINEs and a putative retrotranscriptase-like sequence were found linked to Talua. Talua's genomic distribution is discussed in the light of the available models on transposable element dynamics within inbred genomes, also taking into account SINE role as drivers of genetic diversity in counteracting inbreeding depression.

  9. A generalized sine condition and performance comparison of Wolter type II and Wolter-Schwarzschild extreme ultraviolet telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, T. T.

    1984-01-01

    An equation similar to the Abbe sine condition is derived for a Wolter type II telescope. This equation and the sine condition are then combined to produce a so called generalized sine condition. Using the law of reflection, Fermat's principle, the generalized sine condition, and simple geometry the surface equations for a Wolter type II telescope and an equivalent Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope are calculated. The performances of the telescopes are compared in terms of rms blur circle radius at the Gaussian focal plane and at best focus.

  10. Development of a multi-frequency diffuse photon density wave device for the characterization of tissue damage at multiple depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, David; Weingarten, Michael S.; Neidrauer, Michael T.; Samuels, Joshua A.; Huneke, Richard B.; Kuzmin, Vladimir L.; Lewin, Peter A.; Zubkov, Leonid A.

    2014-02-01

    The ability to determine the depth and degree of cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue damage is critical for medical applications such as burns and pressure ulcers. The Diffuse Photon Density Wave (DPDW) methodology at near infrared wavelengths can be used to non-invasively measure the optical absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of tissue at depths of several millimeters. A multi-frequency DPDW system with one light source and one detector was constructed so that light is focused onto the tissue surface using an optical fiber and lens mounted to a digitally-controlled actuator which changes the distance between light source and detector. A variable RF generator enables the modulation frequency to be selected between 50 to 400MHz. The ability to digitally control both source-detector separation distance and modulation frequency allows for virtually unlimited number of data points, enabling precise selection of the volume and depth of tissue that will be characterized. Suspensions of Intralipid and india ink with known absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were used as optical phantoms to assess device accuracy. Solid silicon phantoms were formulated for stability testing. Standard deviations for amplitude and phase shift readings were found to be 0.9% and 0.2 degrees respectively, over a one hour period. The ability of the system to quantify tissue damage in vivo at multiple depths was tested in a porcine burn model.

  11. Engineering chiral density waves and topological band structures by multiple-Q superpositions of collinear up-up-down-down orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayami, Satoru; Ozawa, Ryo; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic orders characterized by multiple ordering vectors harbor noncollinear and noncoplanar spin textures and can be a source of unusual electronic properties through the spin Berry phase mechanism. We theoretically show that such multiple-Q states are stabilized in itinerant magnets in the form of superpositions of collinear up-up-down-down (UUDD) spin states, which accompany the density waves of vector and scalar chirality. The result is drawn by examining the ground state of the Kondo lattice model with classical localized moments, especially when the Fermi surface is tuned to be partially nested by the symmetry-related commensurate vectors. We unveil the instability toward a double-Q UUDD state with vector chirality density waves on the square lattice and a triple-Q UUDD state with scalar chirality density waves on the triangular lattice, using the perturbative theory and variational calculations. The former double-Q state is also confirmed by large-scale Langevin dynamics simulations. We also show that, for a sufficiently large exchange coupling, the chirality density waves can induce rich nontrivial topology of electronic structures, such as the massless Dirac semimetal, Chern insulator with quantized topological Hall response, and peculiar edge states which depend on the phase of chirality density waves at the edges.

  12. Effect of body temperature on visual evoked potential delay and visual perception in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Regan, D; Murray, T J; Silver, R

    1977-01-01

    Seven multiple sclerosis patients were cooled and four heated, but evoked potential delay changed in only five out 11 experiments. Control limits were set by cooling eight and heating four control subjects. One patient gave anomalous results in that although heating degraded perceptual delay and visual acuity, and depressed the sine wave grating MTF, double-flash resolution was improved. An explanation is proposed in terms of the pattern of axonal demyelination. The medium frequency flicker evoked potential test seems to be a less reliable means of monitoring the progress of demyelination in multiple sclerosis patients than is double-flash campimetry or perceptual delay campimetry, although in some situations the objectivity of the evoked potential test would be advantageous. PMID:599356

  13. Mapping the sources of the seismic wave field at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, using data recorded on multiple seismic Antennas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almendros, J.; Chouet, B.; Dawson, P.; Huber, Caleb G.

    2002-01-01

    Seismic antennas constitute a powerful tool for the analysis of complex wave fields. Well-designed antennas can identify and separate components of a complex wave field based on their distinct propagation properties. The combination of several antennas provides the basis for a more complete understanding of volcanic wave fields, including an estimate of the location of each individual wave-field component identified simultaneously by at least two antennas. We used frequency-slowness analyses of data from three antennas to identify and locate the different components contributing to the wave fields recorded at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, in February 1997. The wave-field components identified are (1) a sustained background volcanic tremor in the form of body waves generated in a shallow hydrothermal system located below the northeastern edge of the Halemaumau pit crater; (2) surface waves generated along the path between this hydrothermal source and the antennas; (3) back-scattered surface wave energy from a shallow reflector located near the southeastern rim of Kilauea caldera; (4) evidence for diffracted wave components originating at the southeastern edge of Halemaumau; and (5) body waves reflecting the activation of a deeper tremor source between 02 hr 00 min and 16 hr 00 min Hawaii Standard Time on 11 February.

  14. Theoretical analysis of interferometer wave front tilt and fringe radiant flux on a rectangular photodetector.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert; Fuss, Franz Konstantin

    2013-09-06

    This paper is a theoretical analysis of mirror tilt in a Michelson interferometer and its effect on the radiant flux over the active area of a rectangular photodetector or image sensor pixel. It is relevant to sensor applications using homodyne interferometry where these opto-electronic devices are employed for partial fringe counting. Formulas are derived for radiant flux across the detector for variable location within the fringe pattern and with varying wave front angle. The results indicate that the flux is a damped sine function of the wave front angle, with a decay constant of the ratio of wavelength to detector width. The modulation amplitude of the dynamic fringe pattern reduces to zero at wave front angles that are an integer multiple of this ratio and the results show that the polarity of the radiant flux changes exclusively at these multiples. Varying tilt angle causes radiant flux oscillations under an envelope curve, the frequency of which is dependent on the location of the detector with the fringe pattern. It is also shown that a fringe count of zero can be obtained for specific photodetector locations and wave front angles where the combined effect of fringe contraction and fringe tilt can have equal and opposite effects. Fringe tilt as a result of a wave front angle of 0.05° can introduce a phase measurement difference of 16° between a photodetector/pixel located 20 mm and one located 100 mm from the optical origin.

  15. Auditory-Phonetic Projection and Lexical Structure in the Recognition of Sine-Wave Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remez, Robert E.; Dubowski, Kathryn R.; Broder, Robin S.; Davids, Morgana L.; Grossman, Yael S.; Moskalenko, Marina; Pardo, Jennifer S.; Hasbun, Sara Maria

    2011-01-01

    Speech remains intelligible despite the elimination of canonical acoustic correlates of phonemes from the spectrum. A portion of this perceptual flexibility can be attributed to modulation sensitivity in the auditory-to-phonetic projection, although signal-independent properties of lexical neighborhoods also affect intelligibility in utterances…

  16. Dynamic Sine Wave Response Measurements of CRT Displays Using Sinusoidal Counterphase Modulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    Rucker, Fort Rucker, AL. USAARL Report No. 83-5, 1982. 6. F.E. Terman , Electronic and rad-o engineering, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1955...Building 5 Laboratories (AVSCOM) Alexandra, VA 22304-6145 Propulsion Laboratory MS 302-2 NASA Lewis Research Center Commander, U.S. Army Foreign Science

  17. Evolution of CHR-2 SINEs in cetartiodactyl genomes: possible evidence for the monophyletic origin of toothed whales.

    PubMed

    Nikaido, M; Matsuno, F; Abe, H; Shimamura, M; Hamilton, H; Matsubayashi, H; Okada, N

    2001-12-01

    Short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs) are a kind of retroposons dispersed among the eukaryotic genomes. Previously, we isolated and characterized a new SINE family, named CHR-2, members of which are distributed in the genomes of cetaceans, hippopotamuses, and ruminants. We analyzed systematically more than a hundred members of the CHR-2 SINEs, which were isolated from the genomes of cetaceans and cow, together with the additional data available in the DNA databases, and showed that these SINEs are divided into at least five distinct subfamilies that share diagnostic nucleotides and/or deletions. A hybridization analysis clearly demonstrated that, among these five subfamilies, two subfamilies, named CD and CDO, are specific to cetaceans and toothed whales, respectively. We reconstruct the evolutionary history of the CHR-2 SINEs during evolution of cetartiodactyl genomes.

  18. Multiple-Station Observation of Frequency Dependence and Polarization Characteristics of ELF/VLF waves generated via Ionospheric Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxworth, A. S.; Golkowski, M.; Cohen, M.; Moore, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Generation of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and Very Low Frequency (VLF) signals through ionospheric modification has been practiced for many years. Heating the lower ionosphere with high power HF waves allows for modulation of natural current systems. Our experiments were carried out at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska, USA. In this experiment, the ionosphere was heated with a vertical amplitude modulating signal and the modulation frequency was changed sequentially within an array of 40 frequencies followed by a frequency ramp. The observed magnetic field amplitude and polarization of the generated ELF/VLF signals were analyzed for multiple sites and as a function of modulation frequency. Our three observation sites: Chistochina, Paxson and Paradise are located within 36km (azimuth 47.7°), 50.2km (azimuth -20°) and 99km (azimuth 80.3°) respectively. We show that the peak amplitudes observed as a function of frequency result from vertical resonance in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide and can be used to diagnose the D-region profile. Polarization analysis showed that out of the three sites Paxson shows the highest circularity in the magnetic field polarization, compared to Chistochina and Paradise which show highly linear polarizations. The experimental results were compared with a theoretical simulation model results and it was clear that in both cases, the modulated Hall current dominates the observed signals at Chistochina and Paradise sites and at Paxson there is an equal contribution from Hall and Pedersen currents. The Chistochina site shows the highest magnetic field amplitudes in both experimental and simulation environments. Depending upon the experimental and simulation observations at the three sites, a radiation pattern for the HAARP ionospheric heater can be mapped

  19. Effect of extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy on gallbladder emptying in patients with solitary and multiple gallbladder stones.

    PubMed

    Kratzer, W; Mason, R A; Haag, U; Maier, C; Janowitz, P; Beckh, K; Adler, G

    1995-06-01

    In a prospective study, we investigated the effect of extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) on gallbladder contractility and on fasting and residual gallbladder volume in patients with solitary and multiple gallbladder stones with stone densities < 100 Hounsfield units (HU) and adequate gallbladder function. Twenty-five patients (seven males and 18 females, mean age 48.5 +/- 11.7 years) treated with ESWL were assigned to either group I, consisting of 13 patients with solitary stones < 20 mm diameter, or group II, including patients with two to three stones and maximum stone diameter of 30 mm. ESWL was performed with the MPL 9000 lithotripter. Gallbladder ejection fraction was determined using the method of Dodds after a 12-hr fast and following application of a standard stimulative meal. Gallbladder volume was measured by ultrasound over 90 min at 10-min intervals before ESWL, then at 1, 30, 120, and 210 days after ESWL. At 24 hr after ESWL, residual gallbladder volume increased in group I from 7.4 ml to 13.9 ml (P = 0.0567) and in group II from 6.5 ml to 20.2 ml (P = 0.0076). Thereafter, residual volumes returned to pre-ESWL levels. In group II, post-ESWL fasting volumes were significantly increased over initial values at all time intervals. Correspondingly, only at 24 hr after ESWL, ejection fractions decreased from 73.1% to 64.9% in group I and from 76.5% to 62.7% in group II. No statistically significant differences in gallbladder contractility between the two groups were observed at any point of the follow-up period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Nonautonomous soliton solutions of the modified Korteweg-de Vries-sine-Gordon equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, S. P.

    2016-11-01

    Multisoliton solutions of the modified Korteweg-de Vries-sine-Gordon (mKdV-SG) equation with time-dependent coefficients are considered. Cases describing changes in the shape of soliton solutions (kinks and breathers) observed in gradual transitions between the mKdV, SG, and mKdV-SG equations are numerically studied.

  1. SunSine300 AC module. Annual report, July 25, 1995--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M.C.; Handleman, C.K.P.

    1997-08-01

    Under Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) 4A1, Ascension Technology (AT) is developing the SunSine300 AC PV module. AT`s goals in this project are to meet Underwriters Laboratory (UL) 1741 requirements, obtain Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Class B verification, complete the AC module system design and development, advance the inverter design, design for manufacture, design for reliability, design for serviceability, and demonstrate commercialization through production and sale of about 100 units. To meet these goals, AT corrected a number of deficiencies identified by UL`s preliminary investigation before proceeding to the full UL investigation; a SunSine300 prototype was tested and found to comply with FCC Class B requirements; AT designed a complete line of balance-of-systems hardware for the SunSine 300; AT`s design and performance advancements include accomplishing a total harmonic distortion drop from 5% to 2%, devising a method to eliminate false detection of zero crossings that could damage the inverter, improving the anti-islanding with the addition of AT`s proprietary ZEBRA technique, and redesigning the enclosure for thermal performance, manufacturability, and UL and FCC approval; performing extensive testing in Phase 2 to discover failure modes and susceptibility to aging; and designing the SunSine300 to be easily and safely serviced. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Discovering Trigonometric Relationships Implied by the Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skurnick, Ronald; Javadi, Mohammad

    2006-01-01

    The Law of Sines and The Law of Cosines are of paramount importance in the field of trigonometry because these two theorems establish relationships satisfied by the three sides and the three angles of any triangle. In this article, the authors use these two laws to discover a host of other trigonometric relationships that exist within any…

  3. Fatigue Damage Spectrum calculation in a Mission Synthesis procedure for Sine-on-Random excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeli, Andrea; Cornelis, Bram; Troncossi, Marco

    2016-09-01

    In many real-life environments, certain mechanical and electronic components may be subjected to Sine-on-Random vibrations, i.e. excitations composed of random vibrations superimposed on deterministic (sinusoidal) contributions, in particular sine tones due to some rotating parts of the system (e.g. helicopters, engine-mounted components,...). These components must be designed to withstand the fatigue damage induced by the “composed” vibration environment, and qualification tests are advisable for the most critical ones. In the case of an accelerated qualification test, a proper test tailoring which starts from the real environment (measured vibration signals) and which preserves not only the accumulated fatigue damage but also the “nature” of the excitation (i.e. sinusoidal components plus random process) is important to obtain reliable results. In this paper, the classic time domain approach is taken as a reference for the comparison of different methods for the Fatigue Damage Spectrum (FDS) calculation in case of Sine-on-Random vibration environments. Then, a methodology to compute a Sine-on-Random specification based on a mission FDS is proposed.

  4. Emotional Intelligence: The Sine Qua Non for a Clinical Leadership Toolbox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Paul R.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past decade, it has become increasingly clear that although IQ and technical skills are important, emotional intelligence is the Sine Qua Non of leadership. According to Goleman [Goleman, D. (1998). What makes a leader? "Harvard Business Review," 93-102] "effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of…

  5. Structural Qualification Testing of the WindSat Payload Using Sine Bursts Near Structural Resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pontius, Jim; Barnes, Donald; Broduer, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Sine burst tests are often used for structural qualification of space flight hardware. In most instances, the driving frequency of the shaker is specified far below the structure's first resonant mode, such that the entire test article sees uniform acceleration. For large structures, this limits qualification testing to lower parts of the structure, or else it over-tests the lower structure to achieve qualification of the upper structure. The WindSat payload, a 10.5 foot tall graphite/epoxy, titanium, and aluminum radiometer, experiences accelerations at the six foot diameter reflector nearly four times that at the spacecraft interface. Due to size of the payload, the number of bonded joints, and the lightweight reflector support structure design and construction, using static pull testing to qualify all of the bonded joints in the upper structure would result in large, expensive, and extensive test fixturing. Sine burst testing near the first two structural resonant modes was performed on the WindSat payload to achieve the correct load factor distribution up the stack for structural qualification. In this presentation, how finite element method (FEM) sine burst predictions were used in conjunction with low level random and sine burst tests to achieve correct qualification test load factor distribution on the WindSat payload is discussed. Also presented is the risk mitigation approach for using the uncorrelated FEM in this procedure.

  6. Automated identification of discrete, lightning-generated, multiple-dispersed whistler waves in C/NOFS-VEFI very low frequency observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Abram R.; Holzworth, Robert H.; Pfaff, Robert; Heelis, Roderick

    2016-09-01

    Automated wave feature detection is required to efficiently analyze large archives of very low frequency broadband recordings for discrete whistler identification and feature extraction. We describe a new method to do this, even in the presence of simultaneous, multiple whistler phase dispersions. Previous techniques of whistler identification were unable to deal with simultaneous, multiple phase dispersions. We demonstrate the new method with data from the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) payload on the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite, from the mission years 2008-2014.

  7. Expansion of CORE-SINEs in the genome of the Tasmanian devil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The genome of the carnivorous marsupial, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii, Order: Dasyuromorphia), was sequenced in the hopes of finding a cure for or gaining a better understanding of the contagious devil facial tumor disease that is threatening the species’ survival. To better understand the Tasmanian devil genome, we screened it for transposable elements and investigated the dynamics of short interspersed element (SINE) retroposons. Results The temporal history of Tasmanian devil SINEs, elucidated using a transposition in transposition analysis, indicates that WSINE1, a CORE-SINE present in around 200,000 copies, is the most recently active element. Moreover, we discovered a new subtype of WSINE1 (WSINE1b) that comprises at least 90% of all Tasmanian devil WSINE1s. The frequencies of WSINE1 subtypes differ in the genomes of two of the other Australian marsupial orders. A co-segregation analysis indicated that at least 66 subfamilies of WSINE1 evolved during the evolution of Dasyuromorphia. Using a substitution rate derived from WSINE1 insertions, the ages of the subfamilies were estimated and correlated with a newly established phylogeny of Dasyuromorphia. Phylogenetic analyses and divergence time estimates of mitochondrial genome data indicate a rapid radiation of the Tasmanian devil and the closest relative the quolls (Dasyurus) around 14 million years ago. Conclusions The radiation and abundance of CORE-SINEs in marsupial genomes indicates that they may be a major player in the evolution of marsupials. It is evident that the early phases of evolution of the carnivorous marsupial order Dasyuromorphia was characterized by a burst of SINE activity. A correlation between a speciation event and a major burst of retroposon activity is for the first time shown in a marsupial genome. PMID:22559330

  8. Short Interspersed Nuclear Element (SINE) Sequences in the Genome of the Human Pathogenic Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus Af293

    PubMed Central

    Kanhayuwa, Lakkhana; Coutts, Robert H. A.

    2016-01-01

    Novel families of short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) sequences in the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, clinical isolate Af293, were identified and categorised into tRNA-related and 5S rRNA-related SINEs. Eight predicted tRNA-related SINE families originating from different tRNAs, and nominated as AfuSINE2 sequences, contained target site duplications of short direct repeat sequences (4–14 bp) flanking the elements, an extended tRNA-unrelated region and typical features of RNA polymerase III promoter sequences. The elements ranged in size from 140–493 bp and were present in low copy number in the genome and five out of eight were actively transcribed. One putative tRNAArg-derived sequence, AfuSINE2-1a possessed a unique feature of repeated trinucleotide ACT residues at its 3’-terminus. This element was similar in sequence to the I-4_AO element found in A. oryzae and an I-1_AF long nuclear interspersed element-like sequence identified in A. fumigatus Af293. Families of 5S rRNA-related SINE sequences, nominated as AfuSINE3, were also identified and their 5'-5S rRNA-related regions show 50–65% and 60–75% similarity to respectively A. fumigatus 5S rRNAs and SINE3-1_AO found in A. oryzae. A. fumigatus Af293 contains five copies of AfuSINE3 sequences ranging in size from 259–343 bp and two out of five AfuSINE3 sequences were actively transcribed. Investigations on AfuSINE distribution in the fungal genome revealed that the elements are enriched in pericentromeric and subtelomeric regions and inserted within gene-rich regions. We also demonstrated that some, but not all, AfuSINE sequences are targeted by host RNA silencing mechanisms. Finally, we demonstrated that infection of the fungus with mycoviruses had no apparent effects on SINE activity. PMID:27736869

  9. Multiple-frequency acoustic wave devices for chemical sensing and materials characterization in both gas and liquid phase

    DOEpatents

    Martin, S.J.; Ricco, A.J.

    1993-08-10

    A chemical or intrinsic physical property sensor is described comprising: (a) a substrate; (b) an interaction region of said substrate where the presence of a chemical or physical stimulus causes a detectable change in the velocity and/or an attenuation of an acoustic wave traversing said region; and (c) a plurality of paired input and output interdigitated electrodes patterned on the surface of said substrate where each of said paired electrodes has a distinct periodicity, where each of said paired electrodes is comprised of an input and an output electrode; (d) an input signal generation means for transmitting an input signal having a distinct frequency to a specified input interdigitated electrode of said plurality so that each input electrode receives a unique input signal, whereby said electrode responds to said input signal by generating an acoustic wave of a specified frequency, thus, said plurality responds by generating a plurality of acoustic waves of different frequencies; (e) an output signal receiving means for determining an acoustic wave velocity and an amplitude of said acoustic waves at several frequencies after said waves transverses said interaction region and comparing these values to an input acoustic wave velocity and an input acoustic wave amplitude to produce values for perturbations in acoustic wave velocities and for acoustic wave attenuation as a function of frequency, where said output receiving means is individually coupled to each of said output interdigitated electrode; (f) a computer means for analyzing a data stream comprising information from said output receiving means and from said input signal generation means to differentiate a specified response due to a perturbation from a subsequent specified response due to a subsequent perturbation to determine the chemical or intrinsic physical properties desired.

  10. Optical model and optimal output coupler for a continuous wave Yb:YAG thin-disk laser with multiple-disk configuration.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guangzhi; Zhu, Xiao; Zhu, Changhong; Shang, Jianli

    2012-09-10

    This article presents the fundamental principles of operational performance of a continuous wave (cw) thin-disk laser with multiple disks in one resonator. Based on the model of an end-pumped Yb:YAG thin-disk laser with nonuniform temperature distribution, the effect of the multiple disks in one resonator is considered. The analytic expressions are derived to analyze the laser output intensity, laser intensity in the resonator, threshold intensity, and the optical efficiency of a thin-disk laser with multiple disks arranged in series. The dependence of output coupler reflectivity and the number of thin disks on various parameters are investigated, which are useful to determine the optimal output coupler reflectivity of the thin-disk lasers and control the laser intensity in the resonator.

  11. Insertion polymorphisms of SINE200 retrotransposons within speciation islands of Anopheles gambiae molecular forms

    PubMed Central

    Santolamazza, Federica; Mancini, Emiliano; Simard, Frédéric; Qi, Yumin; Tu, Zhijian; della Torre, Alessandra

    2008-01-01

    Background SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements) are homoplasy-free and co-dominant genetic markers which are considered to represent useful tools for population genetic studies, and could help clarifying the speciation processes ongoing within the major malaria vector in Africa, Anopheles gambiae s.s. Here, we report the results of the analysis of the insertion polymorphism of a nearly 200 bp-long SINE (SINE200) within genome areas of high differentiation (i.e. "speciation islands") of M and S A. gambiae molecular forms. Methods A SINE-PCR approach was carried out on thirteen SINE200 insertions in M and S females collected along the whole range of distribution of A. gambiae s.s. in sub-Saharan Africa. Ten specimens each for Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles melas, Anopheles quadriannulatus A and 15 M/S hybrids from laboratory crosses were also analysed. Results Eight loci were successfully amplified and were found to be specific for A. gambiae s.s.: 5 on 2L chromosome and one on X chromosome resulted monomorphic, while two loci positioned respectively on 2R (i.e. S200 2R12D) and X (i.e. S200 X6.1) chromosomes were found to be polymorphic. S200 2R12D was homozygote for the insertion in most S-form samples, while intermediate levels of polymorphism were shown in M-form, resulting in an overall high degree of genetic differentiation between molecular forms (Fst = 0.46 p < 0.001) and within M-form (Fst = 0.46 p < 0.001). The insertion of S200 X6.1 was found to be fixed in all M- and absent in all S-specimens. This led to develop a novel easy-to-use PCR approach to straightforwardly identify A. gambiae molecular forms. This novel approach allows to overcome the constraints associated with markers on the rDNA region commonly used for M and S identification. In fact, it is based on a single copy and irreversible SINE200 insertion and, thus, is not subjected to peculiar evolutionary patterns affecting rDNA markers, e.g. incomplete homogenization of the arrays through

  12. A SINE species from hippopotamus and its distribution among animal species.

    PubMed

    Nomura, O; Lin, Z H; Muladno; Wada, Y; Yasue, H

    1998-07-01

    Thirty sequences of a short interspersed repetitive element (SINE) were isolated from genomic DNA of Hippopotamus amphibius (hippopotamus). RNA polymerase III split promoter sequence was observed in all of the 30 sequences; and poly(A)-like structure at 3'-end, as well as direct repeat flanking to the repetitive sequence in many of the 30 sequences. A comparison of the consensus sequence of the 30 sequences with sequences in a DNA database (DDBJ/GENBANK/EMBL) revealed 93% homology to the consensus sequence of a whale SINE, CHR-2, and 73% homology to mouse glutamic acid tRNA. Phylogenetic analysis of tRNA-related regions of the sequences with all of the mouse tRNAs revealed that glutamic acid tRNA was genetically closest to the hippopotamus SINE. In addition, the tRNA-related region of the consensus sequence was folded into a cloverleaf structure as with mouse glutamic acid tRNA. These findings led us to conclude that the SINE of hippopotamus was genetically related to a whale SINE, CHR-2 [the hippopotamus SINE was named CHR-2(hippo)] and was a retroposon derived from glutamic acid tRNA. Hipo53 and hipo95, which were the genetically most separated CHR-2(hippo) sequences in the present study, were used as a probe for dot-blot hybridization to examine the distribution of their homologous sequences among animal species. Although the distribution spectra of hipo53 and hipo95 homologous sequences in animal species differed to some extent, large amounts of both sequences were found in Hippopotamus amphibius and Globicephala macrorhynchus (whale); and small amounts in most of the animal species in Artiodactyla examined. These findings indicated that the hippopotamus and whale had more recently branched off from the clade that includes chevrotain and pecorans than the other animal species in the clade. The 30 CHR-2(hippo) sequences were aligned, and the substitution rates among the sequences were calculated with a different substitution rate model for transition and for

  13. Location of high-frequency P wave microseismic noise in the Pacific Ocean using multiple small aperture arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Pyle, Moira L.; Koper, Keith D.; Euler, Garrett G.; Burlacu, Relu

    2015-04-20

    We investigate source locations of P-wave microseisms within a narrow frequency band (0.67–1.33 Hz) that is significantly higher than the classic microseism band (~0.05–0.3 Hz). Employing a backprojection method, we analyze data recorded during January 2010 from five International Monitoring System arrays that border the Pacific Ocean. We develop a ranking scheme that allows us to combine beam power from multiple arrays to obtain robust locations of the microseisms. Some individual arrays exhibit a strong regional component, but results from the combination of all arrays show high-frequency P wave energy emanating from the North Pacific basin, in general agreement with previous observations in the double-frequency (DF) microseism band (~0.1–0.3 Hz). This suggests that the North Pacific source of ambient P noise covers a broad range of frequencies and that the wave-wave interaction model is likely valid at shorter periods.

  14. Generation and propagation of a sine-azimuthal wavefront modulated Gaussian beam

    PubMed Central

    Lao, Guanming; Zhang, Zhaohui; Luo, Meilan; Zhao, Daomu

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a method for modulating the Gaussian beam by means of sine-azimuthal wavefront and carry out the experimental generation. The analytical propagation formula of such a beam passing through a paraxial ABCD optical system is derived, by which the intensity properties of the sine-azimuthal wavefront modulated Gaussian (SWMG) beam are examined both theoretically and experimentally. Both of the experimental and theoretical results show that the SWMG beam goes through the process from beam splitting to a Gaussian-like profile, which is closely determined by the phase factor and the propagation distance. Appropriate phase factor and short distance are helpful for the splitting of beam. However, in the cases of large phase factor and focal plane, the intensity distributions tend to take a Gaussian form. Such unique features may be of importance in particle trapping and medical applications. PMID:27443798

  15. A framework for backbone experimental tracking : Piezoelectric actuators, stop-sine signal and Kalman filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyret, Nicolas; Dion, Jean-Luc; Chevallier, Gael

    2016-10-01

    This paper deals with the use of piezoelectric patches for nonlinear dynamic identification. The patches are glued on the structure to identify amplitude-dependent damping and natural frequency; their positions are defined in order to perform the excitation concentrated on the first bending mode. Their locations on the structure allow to perform "stop sines" tests, as, unlike electrodynamic shakers, piezos are embedded on structures and do not modify the studied structure after the excitation signal is switched off. Although, despite the piezo and the stop-sine, the signal is still modulated by other frequency components or polluted by random signals, a post processing with the extended Kalman Filter allows a very good determination of the modal damping and the natural frequency, especially when they depends on the free vibration amplitude.

  16. Dysgnathia complex sine holoprosencephaly nor synotia: a case report and discussion of its nosology.

    PubMed

    Corona-Rivera, J R; Trujillo-Ponce, S A; Barrios-Prieto, E; Quiles-Corona, M; Miguel-Jimenez, K; Aguirre-Guillen, R L; Bobadilla-Morales, L; Corona-Rivera, A

    2013-01-01

    A severe mandibular hypoplasia and microstomy with intraoral anomalies including hypoglossia, fused gums, persistence of buccopharyngeal membrane, and laryngeal hypoplasia were noted in a female newborn with the dysgnathia complex (DC). Additionally, our proposita also presented natal teeth as a probably new finding. These clinical manifestations overlapped with those of the fourth report of hypomandibular faciocranial syndrome (HFS) (31), and given that both lack for craniosynostosis (pathognomonic of HFS), we considered that both represent a subtype of DC proposed as DC sine holoprosencephaly nor synotia (DCSHS). Differential characteristics between the DCSHS, the HFS, and the DC with holoprosencephaly sine synotia are reviewed and additionally, we discussed some aspects about the nosology of the DC.

  17. Analysis, Synthesis, and Classification of Nonlinear Systems Using Synchronized Swept-Sine Method for Audio Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Antonin; Simon, Laurent; Lotton, Pierrick

    2010-12-01

    A new method of identification, based on an input synchronized exponential swept-sine signal, is used to analyze and synthesize nonlinear audio systems like overdrive pedals for guitar. Two different pedals are studied; the first one exhibiting a strong influence of the input signal level on its input/output law and the second one exhibiting a weak influence of this input signal level. The Synchronized Swept Sine method leads to a Generalized Polynomial Hammerstein model equivalent to the pedals under test. The behaviors of both pedals are illustrated through model-based resynthesized signals. Moreover, it is also shown that this method leads to a criterion allowing the classification of the nonlinear systems under test, according to the influence of the input signal levels on their input/output law.

  18. Hilbertian sine as an absolute measure of Bayesian inference in ISR, homeland security, medicine, and defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Wang, Wenjian; Hodelin, Juan; Forrester, Thomas; Romanov, Volodymyr; Kostrzewski, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, Bayesian Binary Sensing (BBS) is discussed as an effective tool for Bayesian Inference (BI) evaluation in interdisciplinary areas such as ISR (and, C3I), Homeland Security, QC, medicine, defense, and many others. In particular, Hilbertian Sine (HS) as an absolute measure of BI, is introduced, while avoiding relativity of decision threshold identification, as in the case of traditional measures of BI, related to false positives and false negatives.

  19. The RNA polymerase dictates ORF1 requirement and timing of LINE and SINE retrotransposition.

    PubMed

    Kroutter, Emily N; Belancio, Victoria P; Wagstaff, Bradley J; Roy-Engel, Astrid M

    2009-04-01

    Mobile elements comprise close to one half of the mass of the human genome. Only LINE-1 (L1), an autonomous non-Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) retrotransposon, and its non-autonomous partners-such as the retropseudogenes, SVA, and the SINE, Alu-are currently active human retroelements. Experimental evidence shows that Alu retrotransposition depends on L1 ORF2 protein, which has led to the presumption that LINEs and SINEs share the same basic insertional mechanism. Our data demonstrate clear differences in the time required to generate insertions between marked Alu and L1 elements. In our tissue culture system, the process of L1 insertion requires close to 48 hours. In contrast to the RNA pol II-driven L1, we find that pol III transcribed elements (Alu, the rodent SINE B2, and the 7SL, U6 and hY sequences) can generate inserts within 24 hours or less. Our analyses demonstrate that the observed retrotransposition timing does not dictate insertion rate and is independent of the type of reporter cassette utilized. The additional time requirement by L1 cannot be directly attributed to differences in transcription, transcript length, splicing processes, ORF2 protein production, or the ability of functional ORF2p to reach the nucleus. However, the insertion rate of a marked Alu transcript drastically drops when driven by an RNA pol II promoter (CMV) and the retrotransposition timing parallels that of L1. Furthermore, the "pol II Alu transcript" behaves like the processed pseudogenes in our retrotransposition assay, requiring supplementation with L1 ORF1p in addition to ORF2p. We postulate that the observed differences in retrotransposition kinetics of these elements are dictated by the type of RNA polymerase generating the transcript. We present a model that highlights the critical differences of LINE and SINE transcripts that likely define their retrotransposition timing.

  20. Tracking control of two-wheel driven mobile robot using compound sine function neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jun

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a compound sine function neural network (NN) with continuous learning algorithm for the velocity and orientation angle tracking control of a mobile robot. Herein, two NN controllers embedded in the closed-loop control system are capable of on-line continuous learning and do not require any knowledge of the dynamics model. The neuron function of the hidden layer in the three-layer feed-forward network structure is on the basis of combining a sine function with a unipolar sigmoid function. In the NN algorithm, the weight values are only adjusted between the nodes in hidden layer and the output nodes, while the weight values between the input layer and the hidden layer are one, that is, constant, without the weight adjustment. The developed NN controllers have simple algorithm and fast learning convergence. Therefore, the proposed NN controllers can be suitable for the real-time tracking control of the mobile robots. The simulation results show that the proposed NN controller has better control performance in the tracking control of the mobile robot. The compound sine function NN provides a new way to solve tracking control problems for a mobile robot.

  1. Spacecraft base-sine vibration test data uncertainties investigation based on stochastic scatter approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laborde, S.; Calvi, A.

    2012-10-01

    This article describes some results of the study "DYNAMITED". The study is funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) and performed by a consortium of European industries and university, led by EADS Astrium Satellites. One of the main objectives of the study is to assess and quantify the uncertainty in the spacecraft sine vibration test data. For a number of reasons as for example robustness and confidence in the notching of the input spectra and validation of the finite element model, it is important to study the effect of the sources of uncertainty on the test data including the frequency response functions and the modal parameters. In particular the paper provides an overview on the estimation of the scatter on the spacecraft dynamic response due to identified sources of test uncertainties and the calculation of a "notched" sine test input spectrum based on a stochastic methodology. By means of Monte Carlo simulation, a stochastic cloud of the output of interest can be generated and this provides an estimate of the global error on the test results. The cloud is generated by characterizing the assumed sources of test uncertainties by parameters of the structure finite element model and by quantifying the scatter of the parameters. The uncertain parameters are the input random variables of the Monte Carlo simulation. Some results on the application of the methods to telecom spacecraft sine vibration tests are illustrated.

  2. SINE insertions in cladistic analyses and the phylogenetic affiliations of Tarsius bancanus to other primates.

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, J; Ohme, M; Zischler, H

    2001-01-01

    Transpositions of Alu sequences, representing the most abundant primate short interspersed elements (SINE), were evaluated as molecular cladistic markers to analyze the phylogenetic affiliations among the primate infraorders. Altogether 118 human loci, containing intronic Alu elements, were PCR analyzed for the presence of Alu sequences at orthologous sites in each of two strepsirhine, New World and Old World monkey species, Tarsius bancanus, and a nonprimate outgroup. Fourteen size-polymorphic amplification patterns exhibited longer fragments for the anthropoids (New World and Old World monkeys) and T. bancanus whereas shorter fragments were detected for the strepsirhines and the outgroup. From these, subsequent sequence analyses revealed three Alu transpositions, which can be regarded as shared derived molecular characters linking tarsiers and anthropoid primates. Concerning the other loci, scenarios are represented in which different SINE transpositions occurred independently in the same intron on the lineages leading both to the common ancestor of anthropoids and to T. bancanus, albeit at different nucleotide positions. Our results demonstrate the efficiency and possible pitfalls of SINE transpositions used as molecular cladistic markers in tracing back a divergence point in primate evolution over 40 million years old. The three Alu insertions characterized underpin the monophyly of haplorhine primates (Anthropoidea and Tarsioidea) from a novel perspective. PMID:11156996

  3. Gene conversion as a secondary mechanism of short interspersed element (SINE) evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, D.H.; Batzer, M.A.; Deininger, P.L. |

    1995-01-01

    The Alu repetitive family of short interspersed elements (SINEs) in primates can be subdivided into distinct subfamilies by specific diagnostic nucleotide changes. The older subfamilies are generally very abundant, while the younger subfamilies have fewer copies. Some of the youngest Alu elements are absent in the orthologous loci of nonhuman primates, indicative of recent retroposition events, the primary mode of SINE evolutions. PCR analysis of one young Alu subfamily (Sb2) member found in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene apparently revealed the presence of this element in the green monkey, orangutan, gorilla, and chimpanzee genomes, as well as the human genome. However, sequence analysis of these genomes revealed a highly mutated, older, primate-specific Alu element was present at this position in the nonhuman primates. Comparison of the flanking DNA sequences upstream of this Alu insertion corresponded to evolution expected for standard primate phylogeny, but comparison of the Alu repeat sequences revealed that the human element departed from this phylogeny. The change in the human sequence apparently occurred by a gene conversion event only within the Alu element itself, converting it from one of the oldest to one of the youngest Alu subfamilies. Although gene conversions of Alu elements are clearly very rare, this finding shows that such events can occur and contribute to specific cases of SINE subfamily evolution.

  4. [Hypochondria sine materia as a psychosomatic problem: a model of hypochondriac disorders realized in the cutaneous sphere].

    PubMed

    Smulevich, A B; Dorozhenok, I Iu; Romanov, D V; L'vov, A N

    2012-01-01

    Hypochondria sine materia is a disorder with physical complains corresponding to no any somatic diagnosis. Hypochondria sine materia is a more complicated psychopathological condition compared to hypochondria cum materia. Hypochondria sine materia could be diagnosed not only in psychiatry, but mainly in general medicine. It is especially prevalent in dermatology. As a result of analysis of hypochondriac disorders involving cutaneous sphere in patients without dermatological diseases, a binary model of psychodermatological syndromes presenting with hypochondria sine materia in dermatology was developed. The binary structure of the psychodermatological syndromes includes secondary psychiatric symptoms based on primary coenesthesiopathic phenomena. The heterogeneous psychodermatological syndromes (cutaneous organ neurosis, impulsive excoriations syndrome, circumscripta hypochondria, coenesthesiopathic paranoia) could be arranged in a continuum of consecutively worsening conditions from neurotic to psychotic severity register. The syndromes differ in clinical and social prognosis requiring different approach to diagnosis and treatment.

  5. Multiple scattering of matter waves: An analytic model of the refractive index for atomic and molecular gases

    SciTech Connect

    Lemeshko, Mikhail; Friedrich, Bretislav

    2010-08-15

    We present an analytic model of the refractive index for matter waves propagating through atomic or molecular gases. The model, which combines the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) treatment of the long-range attraction with the Fraunhofer model treatment of the short-range repulsion, furnishes a refractive index in compelling agreement with recent experiments of Jacquey et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 240405 (2007)] on Li atom matter waves passing through dilute noble gases. We show that the diffractive contribution, which arises from scattering by a two-dimensional 'hard core' of the potential, is essential for obtaining a correct imaginary part of the refractive index.

  6. A population genetic study of the evolution of SINEs. II. Sequence evolution under the master copy model

    SciTech Connect

    Tachida, Hidenori

    1996-06-01

    A transient population genetic model of SINE (short interspersed repetitive element) evolution is presented, assuming the master copy model is theoretically investigated. Means and variances of consensus frequency of nucleotides, nucleotide homozygosity, and the number of shared differences that are considered to have been caused by mutations occurring in the master copy lineages are computed. All quantities investigated are shown to be monotone functions of the duration of the expansion period. Thus, they can be used to estimate the expansion period although their sampling variances are generally large. Using the theoretical results, the Sb subfamily of human Alu sequences is analyzed. First, the expansion period is estimated from the observed mean and variance of homozygosity. The expansion period is shown to be short compared to the time since the end of the expansion of the subfamily. However, the observed number of the shared differences is more than twice that expected under the master copy model with the estimated expansion period. Alternative models to explain this observation are discussed, including one with multiple master copy loci. 38 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Coupled wave-packets for non-adiabatic molecular dynamics: a generalization of Gaussian wave-packet dynamics to multiple potential energy surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    White, Alexander James; Tretiak, Sergei; Mozyrsky, Dima V.

    2016-04-25

    Accurate simulation of the non-adiabatic dynamics of molecules in excited electronic states is key to understanding molecular photo-physical processes. Here we present a novel method, based on a semiclassical approximation, that is as efficient as the commonly used mean field Ehrenfest or ad hoc surface hopping methods and properly accounts for interference and decoherence effects. This novel method is an extension of Heller's thawed Gaussian wave-packet dynamics that includes coupling between potential energy surfaces. By studying several standard test problems we demonstrate that the accuracy of the method can be systematically improved while maintaining high efficiency. The method is suitable for investigating the role of quantum coherence in the non-adiabatic dynamics of many-atom molecules.

  8. Coupled wave-packets for non-adiabatic molecular dynamics: a generalization of Gaussian wave-packet dynamics to multiple potential energy surfaces

    DOE PAGES

    White, Alexander James; Tretiak, Sergei; Mozyrsky, Dima V.

    2016-04-25

    Accurate simulation of the non-adiabatic dynamics of molecules in excited electronic states is key to understanding molecular photo-physical processes. Here we present a novel method, based on a semiclassical approximation, that is as efficient as the commonly used mean field Ehrenfest or ad hoc surface hopping methods and properly accounts for interference and decoherence effects. This novel method is an extension of Heller's thawed Gaussian wave-packet dynamics that includes coupling between potential energy surfaces. By studying several standard test problems we demonstrate that the accuracy of the method can be systematically improved while maintaining high efficiency. The method is suitablemore » for investigating the role of quantum coherence in the non-adiabatic dynamics of many-atom molecules.« less

  9. Research of the Additional Losses Occurring in Optical Fiber at its Multiple Bends in the Range Waves 1310nm, 1550nm and 1625nm Long

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchenko, A. V.; Gorlov, N. I.; Alkina, A. D.; Mekhtiev, A. D.; Kovtun, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Article is devoted to research of the additional losses occurring in the optical fiber at its multiple bends in the range waves of 1310 nanometers, 1550 nanometers and 1625 nanometers long. Article is directed on creation of the external factors methods which allow to estimate and eliminate negative influence. The automated way of calculation of losses at a bend is developed. Results of scientific researches are used by engineers of “Kazaktelekom” AS for practical definition of losses service conditions. For modeling the Wolfram|Alpha environment — the knowledge base and a set of computing algorithms was chosen. The greatest losses are noted on wavelength 1310nm and 1625nm. All dependences are nonlinear. Losses with each following excess are multiplicative.

  10. Continuously phase-modulated standing surface acoustic waves for separation of particles and cells in microfluidic channels containing multiple pressure nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Junseok; Rhyou, Chanryeol; Kang, Byungjun; Lee, Hyungsuk

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes continuously phase-modulated standing surface acoustic waves (CPM-SSAW) and its application for particle separation in multiple pressure nodes. A linear change of phase in CPM-SSAW applies a force to particles whose magnitude depends on their size and contrast factors. During continuous phase modulation, we demonstrate that particles with a target dimension are translated in the direction of moving pressure nodes, whereas smaller particles show oscillatory movements. The rate of phase modulation is optimized for separation of target particles from the relationship between mean particle velocity and period of oscillation. The developed technique is applied to separate particles of a target dimension from the particle mixture. Furthermore, we also demonstrate human keratinocyte cells can be separated in the cell and bead mixture. The separation technique is incorporated with a microfluidic channel spanning multiple pressure nodes, which is advantageous over separation in a single pressure node in terms of throughput.

  11. Multiple scattering of waves in random media: Application to the study of the city-site effect in Mexico City area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizawa, O. A.; Clouteau, D.

    2007-12-01

    Long-duration, amplifications and spatial response's variability of the seismic records registered in Mexico City during the September 1985 earthquake cannot only be explained by the soil velocity model. We will try to explain these phenomena by studying the extent of the effect of buildings' diffracted wave fields during an earthquake. The main question is whether the presence of a large number of buildings can significantly modify the seismic wave field. We are interested in the interaction between the incident wave field propagating in a stratified half- space and a large number of structures at the free surface, i.e., the coupled city-site effect. We study and characterize the seismic wave propagation regimes in a city using the theory of wave propagation in random media. In the coupled city-site system, the buildings are modeled as resonant scatterers uniformly distributed at the surface of a deterministic, horizontally layered elastic half-space representing the soil. Based on the mean-field and the field correlation equations, we build a theoretical model which takes into account the multiple scattering of seismic waves and allows us to describe the coupled city-site system behavior in a simple and rapid way. The results obtained for the configurationally averaged field quantities are validated by means of 3D results for the seismic response of a deterministic model. The numerical simulations of this model are computed with MISS3D code based on classical Soil-Structure Interaction techniques and on a variational coupling between Boundary Integral Equations for a layered soil and a modal Finite Element approach for the buildings. This work proposes a detailed numerical and a theoretical analysis of the city-site interaction (CSI) in Mexico City area. The principal parameters in the study of the CSI are the buildings resonant frequency distribution, the soil characteristics of the site, the urban density and position of the buildings in the city, as well as

  12. Control methods for localization of nonlinear waves.

    PubMed

    Porubov, Alexey; Andrievsky, Boris

    2017-03-06

    A general form of a distributed feedback control algorithm based on the speed-gradient method is developed. The goal of the control is to achieve nonlinear wave localization. It is shown by example of the sine-Gordon equation that the generation and further stable propagation of a localized wave solution of a single nonlinear partial differential equation may be obtained independently of the initial conditions. The developed algorithm is extended to coupled nonlinear partial differential equations to obtain consistent localized wave solutions at rather arbitrary initial conditions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Horizons of cybernetical physics'.

  13. Control methods for localization of nonlinear waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porubov, Alexey; Andrievsky, Boris

    2017-03-01

    A general form of a distributed feedback control algorithm based on the speed-gradient method is developed. The goal of the control is to achieve nonlinear wave localization. It is shown by example of the sine-Gordon equation that the generation and further stable propagation of a localized wave solution of a single nonlinear partial differential equation may be obtained independently of the initial conditions. The developed algorithm is extended to coupled nonlinear partial differential equations to obtain consistent localized wave solutions at rather arbitrary initial conditions. This article is part of the themed issue 'Horizons of cybernetical physics'.

  14. Multiple-frequency acoustic wave devices for chemical sensing and materials characterization in both gas and liquid phase

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Stephen J.; Ricco, Antonio J.

    1993-01-01

    A chemical sensor (1) includes two or more pairs of interdigital electrodes (10) having different periodicities. Each pair is comprised of a first electrode (10a) and a second electrode (10b). The electrodes are patterned on a surface of a piezoelectric substrate (12). Each pair of electrodes may launch and receive various acoustic waves (AW), including a surface acoustic wave (SAW), and may also launch and receive several acoustic plate modes (APMs). The frequencies associated with each are functions of the transducer periodicity as well as the velocity of the particular AW in the chosen substrate material. An AW interaction region (13) exists between each pair of electrodes. Circuitry (20, 40) is used to launch, receive, and monitor the propagation characteristics of the AWs and may be configured in an intermittent measurement fashion or in a continuous measurement fashion. Perturbations to the AW velocity and attenuation are recorded at several frequencies and provide the sensor response.

  15. Wireless and simultaneous detections of multiple bio-molecules in a single sensor using Love wave biosensor.

    PubMed

    Oh, Haekwan; Fu, Chen; Kim, Kunnyun; Lee, Keekeun

    2014-11-17

    A Love wave-based biosensor with a 440 MHz center frequency was developed for the simultaneous detection of two different analytes of Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein (COMP) and rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) in a single sensor. The developed biosensor consists of one-port surface acoustic wave (SAW) reflective delay lines on a 41° YX LiNbO3 piezoelectric substrate, a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) waveguide layer, and two different sensitive films. The Love wave biosensor was wirelessly characterized using two antennas and a network analyzer. The binding of the analytes to the sensitive layers induced a large change in the time positions of the original reflection peaks mainly due to the mass loading effect. The assessed time shifts in the reflection peaks were matched well with the predicted values from coupling of mode (COM) modeling. The sensitivities evaluated from the sensitive films were ~15 deg/µg/mL for the rabbit IgG and ~1.8 deg/ng/mL for COMP.

  16. The Influence of Multiple Nested Layer Waviness on the Compression Strength of Double Nested Wave Formations in a Carbon Fiber Composite Laminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Z. M.; Adams, D. O.; Anas, S.

    2016-01-01

    As advanced composite materials having superior physical and mechanical properties are being developed, the optimization of their processing techniques is eagerly sought. One of the most common defects arising during processing of structural composites is layer waviness. The layer waviness is more pronounced in thick-section flat and cylindrical laminates, which are extensively used in large wind turbine blades, submersibles, and space platforms. The layer waviness undulates the entire layer of a multidirectional laminate in the throughthe-thickness direction, leading to a gross deterioration of its compressive strength. This research investigates the influence of multiple layer waviness in a double nest formation on the compression strength of a composite laminate. Different wave fractions of wavy 0° layers were fabricated in an IM/8551-7 carbon-epoxy composite laminate on a steel mold by using a single-step fabrication procedure. The test laminates were cured on a heated press according to the specific curing cycle of epoxy. Their static compression testing was performed using a NASA short block compression fixture on an MTS servohydraulic machine. The purpose of these tests was to determine the effects of multiple layer wave regions on the compression strength of the composite laminate. The experimental and analytical results obtained revealed that the reduction in the compression strength of composite laminate was constant after the fraction of the wavy 0° layers exceeded 35%. This analysis indicated that the percentage of the 0° wavy layer may be used to estimate the reduction in the compression strength of a double nested wave formation in a composite laminate.

  17. Single actuator wave-like robot (SAW): design, modeling, and experiments.

    PubMed

    Zarrouk, David; Mann, Moshe; Degani, Nir; Yehuda, Tal; Jarbi, Nissan; Hess, Amotz

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present a single actuator wave-like robot, a novel bioinspired robot which can move forward or backward by producing a continuously advancing wave. The robot has a unique minimalistic mechanical design and produces an advancing sine wave, with a large amplitude, using only a single motor but with no internal straight spine. Over horizontal surfaces, the robot does not slide relative to the surface and its direction of locomotion is determined by the direction of rotation of the motor. We developed a kinematic model of the robot that accounts for the two-dimensional mechanics of motion and yields the speed of the links relative to the motor. Based on the optimization of the kinematic model, and accounting for the mechanical constraints, we have designed and built multiple versions of the robot with different sizes and experimentally tested them (see movie). The experimental results were within a few percentages of the expectations. The larger version attained a top speed of 57 cm s(-1) over a horizontal surface and is capable of climbing vertically when placed between two walls. By optimizing the parameters, we succeeded in making the robot travel by 13% faster than its own wave speed.

  18. Design and Implementation of an Electronic Front-End Based on Square Wave Excitation for Ultrasonic Torsional Guided Wave Viscosity Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Rabani, Amir

    2016-01-01

    The market for process instruments generally requires low cost devices that are robust, small in size, portable, and usable in-plant. Ultrasonic torsional guided wave sensors have received much attention by researchers for measurement of viscosity and/or density of fluids in recent years. The supporting electronic systems for these sensors providing many different settings of sine-wave signals are bulky and expensive. In contrast, a system based on bursts of square waves instead of sine waves would have a considerable advantage in that respect and could be built using simple integrated circuits at a cost that is orders of magnitude lower than for a windowed sine wave device. This paper explores the possibility of using square wave bursts as the driving signal source for the ultrasonic torsional guided wave viscosity sensor. A simple design of a compact and fully automatic analogue square wave front-end for the sensor is also proposed. The successful operation of the system is demonstrated by using the sensor for measuring the viscosity in a representative fluid. This work provides the basis for design and manufacture of low cost compact standalone ultrasonic guided wave sensors and enlightens the possibility of using coded excitation techniques utilising square wave sequences in such applications. PMID:27754324

  19. Detection and quantification of multiple molecular species in mainstream cigarette smoke by continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigourd, Damien; Cuisset, Arnaud; Hindle, Francis; Matton, Sophie; Fertein, Eric; Bocquet, Robin; Mouret, Gaël

    2006-08-01

    Continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy by photomixing is applied to the analysis of mainstream cigarette smoke. Using the wide tunability of the source, spectral signatures of hydrogen cyanide (HCN), carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde (H2CO), and water (H2O) have been observed from 500 to 2400GHz. The fine spectral purity allows direct concentration measurement from the pure rotational transitions of HCN and CO. The quantification of the measurement was validated by the means of a calibration gas containing CO. The potential of this technique for trace gas detection is demonstrated with an estimated detection limit of HCN equal to 9 parts in 106.

  20. Detection and quantification of multiple molecular species in mainstream cigarette smoke by continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bigourd, Damien; Cuisset, Arnaud; Hindle, Francis; Matton, Sophie; Fertein, Eric; Bocquet, Robin; Mouret, Gaël

    2006-08-01

    Continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy by photomixing is applied to the analysis of mainstream cigarette smoke. Using the wide tunability of the source, spectral signatures of hydrogen cyanide (HCN), carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde (H2CO), and water (H2O) have been observed from 500 to 2400 GHz. The fine spectral purity allows direct concentration measurement from the pure rotational transitions of HCN and CO. The quantification of the measurement was validated by the means of a calibration gas containing CO. The potential of this technique for trace gas detection is demonstrated with an estimated detection limit of HCN equal to 9 parts in 10(6).

  1. Regularization of multi-soliton form factors in sine-Gordon model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pálmai, T.

    2012-08-01

    A general and systematic regularization is developed for the exact solitonic form factors of exponential operators in the (1+1)-dimensional sine-Gordon model by analytical continuation of their integral representations. The procedure is implemented in Mathematica. Test results are shown for four- and six-soliton form factors. Catalogue identifier: AEMG_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMG_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1462 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 15 488 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica [1] Computer: PC Operating system: Cross-platform Classification: 7.7, 11.1, 23 Nature of problem: The multi-soliton form factors of the sine-Gordon model (relevant in two-dimensional physics) were given only by highly non-trivial integral representation with a limited domain of convergence. Practical applications of the form factors, e.g. calculation of correlation functions in two-dimensional condensed matter systems, were not possible in general. Solution method: Using analytic continuation techniques an efficient algorithm is found and implemented in Mathematica, which provides a general and systematic way to calculate multi-soliton form factors in the sine-Gordon model. The package contains routines to compute the two-, four- and six-soliton form factors. Running time: Strongly dependent on the desired accuracy and the number of solitons. For physical rapidities after an initialization of about 30 s, the calculation of the two-, four- and six-soliton form factors at a single point takes approximately 0.5 s, 2.5 s and 8 s, respectively. Wolfram Research, Inc., Mathematica Edition: Version 7.0, Wolfram Research, Inc., Champaign, Illinois, 2008.

  2. Integrated photonic threshold comparator based on square-wave synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ehrlichman, Yossef; Amrani, Ofer; Ruschin, Shlomo

    2013-06-17

    A photonic threshold comparator is presented. A step-like electrical-to-optical (E/O) response is obtained by employing Fourier series synthesis in which a set of sine-wave responses of different amplitudes and phases are superimposed according to the Fourier series representation of a square-wave. The proposed comparator does not rely on optical material non-linearity; rather it consists of multimode interference (MMI) couplers and phase shifters.

  3. The Construction of Implicit and Explicit Solitary Wave Solutions of Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    solution of the Korteweg-de Vries equation ( KdV ), working our way up to the derivation of the multi-soliton solution of the sine-Gordon equation (sG...SOLITARY WAVE SOLUTIONS OF NONLINEAR PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS j DiS~~Uj~l. _’UDistribution/Willy Hereman AvaiiLi -itY Codes Technical Summary Report...Key Words: soliton theory, solitary waves, coupled KdV , evolution equations , direct methods, Harry Dym, sine-Gordon Mathematics Department, University

  4. Amplitude estimation of a sine function based on confidence intervals and Bayes' theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eversmann, D.; Pretz, J.; Rosenthal, M.

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses the amplitude estimation using data originating from a sine-like function as probability density function. If a simple least squares fit is used, a significant bias is observed if the amplitude is small compared to its error. It is shown that a proper treatment using the Feldman-Cousins algorithm of likelihood ratios allows one to construct improved confidence intervals. Using Bayes' theorem a probability density function is derived for the amplitude. It is used in an application to show that it leads to better estimates compared to a simple least squares fit.

  5. Dynamics of kink-kink collisions in the double-sine-Gordon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravelo, R.; El-Batanouny, M.; Willis, C. R.; Sodano, P.

    1988-09-01

    We study the double-sine-Gordon kink-kink collisions in a formalism which employs collective variables to describe the internal oscillations of the kinks and their translational motion in their center-of-mass frame. The equations of motion are solved in the absence of the radiation field and dynamical dressing and the results are compared with numerical molecular-dynamics simulations. We investigate the energy exchange between the translational and internal modes, and a mechanism is proposed to explain the values of the translational velocity at which maximum energy is exchanged between the two modes.

  6. Differential quadrature solution of nonlinear Klein-Gordon and sine-Gordon equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekmen, B.; Tezer-Sezgin, M.

    2012-08-01

    Differential quadrature method (DQM) is proposed to solve the one-dimensional quadratic and cubic Klein-Gordon equations, and two-dimensional sine-Gordon equation. We apply DQM in space direction and also blockwise in time direction. Initial and derivative boundary conditions are also approximated by DQM. DQM provides one to obtain numerical results with very good accuracy using considerably small number of grid points. Numerical solutions are obtained by using Gauss-Chebyshev-Lobatto (GCL) grid points in space intervals, and GCL grid points in each equally divided time blocks.

  7. Exact Mass-Coupling Relation for the Homogeneous Sine-Gordon Model.

    PubMed

    Bajnok, Zoltán; Balog, János; Ito, Katsushi; Satoh, Yuji; Tóth, Gábor Zsolt

    2016-05-06

    We derive the exact mass-coupling relation of the simplest multiscale quantum integrable model, i.e., the homogeneous sine-Gordon model with two mass scales. The relation is obtained by comparing the perturbed conformal field theory description of the model valid at short distances to the large distance bootstrap description based on the model's integrability. In particular, we find a differential equation for the relation by constructing conserved tensor currents, which satisfy a generalization of the Θ sum rule Ward identity. The mass-coupling relation is written in terms of hypergeometric functions.

  8. Sine-squared potential of planar channeled particles and Kumakhov radiation of charged particles

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Shiyu; Shao Mingzhu

    1984-07-01

    A new planar-continuum potential, the sine-squared potential, is introduced to analyze the behavior of particle motion in a planar channel, and the equation of particle motion is reduced to the well-known pendulum equation. Particle motion equation and oscillation period are solved exactly by Jacobi elliptic functions and the first kind of complete elliptic integral. Radiation intensity and spectral characteristics of Kumakhov radiation are analyzed. The results show that Kumakhov radiation is a promising new source for the ..gamma..-ray laser.

  9. The Uniqueness of Single Data Function, Multiple Model Functions, Inverse Problems Including the Rayleigh Wave Dispersion Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menke, William

    2017-02-01

    We prove that the problem of inverting Rayleigh wave phase velocity functions c( k ) , where k is wavenumber, for density ρ ( z ) , rigidity μ ( z ) and Lamé parameter λ ( z ) , where z is depth, is fully non-unique, at least in the highly-idealized case where the base Earth model is an isotropic half space. The model functions completely trade off. This is one special case of a common inversion scenario in which one seeks to determine several model functions from a single data function. We explore the circumstances under which this broad class of problems is unique, starting with very simple scenarios, building up to the somewhat more complicated (and common) case where data and model functions are related by convolutions, and then finally, to scale-independent problems (which include the Rayleigh wave problem). The idealized cases that we examine analytically provide insight into the kinds of nonuniqueness that are inherent in the much more complicated problems encountered in modern geophysical imaging (though they do not necessarily provide methods for solving those problems). We also define what is meant by a Backus and Gilbert resolution kernel in this kind of inversion and show under what circumstances a unique localized average of a single model function can be constructed.

  10. Gravitational waves and red shifts - A space experiment for testing relativistic gravity using multiple time-correlated radio signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smarr, L. L.; Vessot, R. F. C.; Lundquist, C. A.; Decher, R.; Piran, T.

    1983-01-01

    A two-step satellite mission for improving the accuracy of gravitational wave detection and for observing actual gravity waveforms is proposed. The spacecraft would carry both a highly stable hydrogen maser, which would control a transmitter sending signals to earth, and a Doppler transponder operating in the two-way mode. The use of simultaneous one- and two-way Doppler transmissions offers four time records of frequency pulsations, which can reveal gravitational radiation at 1-10 MHz with an amplitude accuracy of a factor of six. The first mission phase would consist of a Shuttle launch into a highly eccentric orbit to obtain measurements of the gravitational redshift using gravitational potentials of different earth regions to establish that gravity is describable by a metric theory. Then, after a boost into a heliocentric orbit at 6 AU, the earth-satellite system could detect gravitational waves in the solar system, as well as bursts emitted by the collisions of supermassive black holes.

  11. Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are abundant in Solanaceae and have a family-specific impact on gene structure and genome organization.

    PubMed

    Seibt, Kathrin M; Wenke, Torsten; Muders, Katja; Truberg, Bernd; Schmidt, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are highly abundant non-autonomous retrotransposons that are widespread in plants. They are short in size, non-coding, show high sequence diversity, and are therefore mostly not or not correctly annotated in plant genome sequences. Hence, comparative studies on genomic SINE populations are rare. To explore the structural organization and impact of SINEs, we comparatively investigated the genome sequences of the Solanaceae species potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), wild tomato (Solanum pennellii), and two pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum). Based on 8.5 Gbp sequence data, we annotated 82 983 SINE copies belonging to 10 families and subfamilies on a base pair level. Solanaceae SINEs are dispersed over all chromosomes with enrichments in distal regions. Depending on the genome assemblies and gene predictions, 30% of all SINE copies are associated with genes, particularly frequent in introns and untranslated regions (UTRs). The close association with genes is family specific. More than 10% of all genes annotated in the Solanaceae species investigated contain at least one SINE insertion, and we found genes harbouring up to 16 SINE copies. We demonstrate the involvement of SINEs in gene and genome evolution including the donation of splice sites, start and stop codons and exons to genes, enlargement of introns and UTRs, generation of tandem-like duplications and transduction of adjacent sequence regions.

  12. Coherent light scattering of heterogeneous randomly rough films and effective medium in the theory of electromagnetic wave multiple scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Berginc, G

    2013-11-30

    We have developed a general formalism based on Green's functions to calculate the coherent electromagnetic field scattered by a random medium with rough boundaries. The approximate expression derived makes it possible to determine the effective permittivity, which is generalised for a layer of an inhomogeneous random medium with different types of particles and bounded with randomly rough interfaces. This effective permittivity describes the coherent propagation of an electromagnetic wave in a random medium with randomly rough boundaries. We have obtained an expression, which contains the Maxwell – Garnett formula at the low-frequency limit, and the Keller formula; the latter has been proved to be in good agreement with experiments for particles whose dimensions are larger than a wavelength. (coherent light scattering)

  13. Coherent light scattering of heterogeneous randomly rough films and effective medium in the theory of electromagnetic wave multiple scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berginc, G.

    2013-11-01

    We have developed a general formalism based on Green's functions to calculate the coherent electromagnetic field scattered by a random medium with rough boundaries. The approximate expression derived makes it possible to determine the effective permittivity, which is generalised for a layer of an inhomogeneous random medium with different types of particles and bounded with randomly rough interfaces. This effective permittivity describes the coherent propagation of an electromagnetic wave in a random medium with randomly rough boundaries. We have obtained an expression, which contains the Maxwell - Garnett formula at the low-frequency limit, and the Keller formula; the latter has been proved to be in good agreement with experiments for particles whose dimensions are larger than a wavelength.

  14. A SINE insertion causes the black-and-tan and saddle tan phenotypes in domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Dreger, Dayna L; Schmutz, Sheila M

    2011-01-01

    Agouti Signaling Protein (ASIP) controls the localized expression of red and black pigment in the domestic dog through interaction with other genes, such as Melanocortin 1 Receptor and Beta-Defensin 103. Specific ASIP alleles are necessary for many of the coat color patterns, such as black-and-tan and saddle tan. Mutations in 2 ASIP alleles, a(y) and a, have previously been identified. Here, we characterize a mutation consisting of a short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) insertion in intron 1 of ASIP that allows for the differentiation of the a(w) wolf sable and a(t) black-and-tan alleles. The SINE insertion is present in dogs with the a(t) and a alleles but absent from dogs with the a(w) and a(y) alleles. Dogs with the saddle tan phenotype were all a(t)/a(t). Schnauzers were all a(w)/a(w). Genotypes of 201 dogs of 35 breeds suggest that there are only 4 ASIP alleles, as opposed to the 5 or 6 predicted in previous literature. These data demonstrate that the dominance hierarchy of ASIP is a(y) > a(w) > a(t) > a.

  15. Nonlinear quantum-mechanical system associated with Sine-Gordon equation in (1 + 2) dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Zarmi, Yair

    2014-10-15

    Despite the fact that it is not integrable, the (1 + 2)-dimensional Sine-Gordon equation has N-soliton solutions, whose velocities are lower than the speed of light (c = 1), for all N ≥ 1. Based on these solutions, a quantum-mechanical system is constructed over a Fock space of particles. The coordinate of each particle is an angle around the unit circle. U, a nonlinear functional of the particle number-operators, which obeys the Sine-Gordon equation in (1 + 2) dimensions, is constructed. Its eigenvalues on N-particle states in the Fock space are the slower-than-light, N-soliton solutions of the equation. A projection operator (a nonlinear functional of U), which vanishes on the single-particle subspace, is a mass-density generator. Its eigenvalues on multi-particle states play the role of the mass density of structures that emulate free, spatially extended, relativistic particles. The simplicity of the quantum-mechanical system allows for the incorporation of perturbations with particle interactions, which have the capacity to “annihilate” and “create” solitons – an effect that does not have an analog in perturbed classical nonlinear evolution equations.

  16. MIEN1 is tightly regulated by SINE Alu methylation in its promoter

    PubMed Central

    Van Treuren, Timothy; Klinkebiel, David L.; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K.

    2016-01-01

    Migration and invasion enhancer 1 (MIEN1) is a novel gene involved in prostate cancer progression by enhancing prostate cancer cell migration and invasion. DNA methylation, an important epigenetic regulation, is one of the most widely altered mechanisms in prostate cancer. This phenomenon frames the basis to study the DNA methylation patterns in the promoter region of MIEN1. Bisulfite pyrosequencing demonstrates the MIEN1 promoter contains a short interspersed nuclear Alu element (SINE Alu) repeat sequence. Validation of methylation inhibition on MIEN1 was performed using nucleoside analogs and non-nucleoside inhibitors and resulted in an increase in both MIEN1 RNA and protein in normal cells. MIEN1 mRNA and protein increases upon inhibition of individual DNA methyltransferases using RNA interference technologies. Furthermore, dual luciferase reporter assays, in silico analysis, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays identified a sequence upstream of the transcription start site that has a site for binding of the USF transcription factors. These results suggest the MIEN1 promoter has a SINE Alu region that is hypermethylated in normal cells leading to repression of the gene. In cancer, the hypomethylation of a part of this repeat, in addition to the binding of USF, results in MIEN1 expression. PMID:27589566

  17. Development of crop-specific transposable element (SINE) markers for studying gene flow from oilseed rape to wild radish.

    PubMed

    Prieto, J L; Pouilly, N; Jenczewski, E; Deragon, J M; Chèvre, A M

    2005-08-01

    The screening of wild populations for evidence of gene flow from a crop to a wild related species requires the unambiguous detection of crop genes within the genome of the wild species, taking into account the intraspecific variability of each species. If the crop and wild relatives share a common ancestor, as is the case for the Brassica crops and their wild relatives (subtribe Brassiceae), the species-specific markers needed to make this unambiguous detection are difficult to identify. In the model oilseed rape (Brassica napus, AACC, 2n = 38)-wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum, RrRr, 2n = 18) system, we utilized the presence or absence of a short-interspersed element (SINE) at a given locus to develop oilseed rape-specific markers, as SINE insertions are irreversible. By means of sequence-specific amplified polymorphism (SINE-SSAP) reactions, we identified and cloned 67 bands specific to the oilseed rape genome and absent from that of wild radish. Forty-seven PCR-specific markers were developed from three combinations of primers anchored either in (1) the 5'- and 3'-genomic sequences flanking the SINE, (2) the 5'-flanking and SINE internal sequences or (3) the SINE internal and flanking 3'-sequences. Seventeen markers were monomorphic whatever the oilseed rape varieties tested, whereas 30 revealed polymorphism and behaved either as dominant (17) or co-dominant (13) markers. Polymorphic markers were mapped on 19 genomic regions assigned to ten linkage groups. The markers developed will be efficient tools to trace the occurrence and frequency of introgressions of oilseed rape genomic region within wild radish populations.

  18. Genome-wide analysis of short interspersed nuclear elements SINES revealed high sequence conservation, gene association and retrotranspositional activity in wheat

    PubMed Central

    Ben-David, Smadar; Yaakov, Beery; Kashkush, Khalil

    2013-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous non-LTR retroelements that are present in most eukaryotic species. While SINEs have been intensively investigated in humans and other animal systems, they are poorly studied in plants, especially in wheat (Triticum aestivum). We used quantitative PCR of various wheat species to determine the copy number of a wheat SINE family, termed Au SINE, combined with computer-assisted analyses of the publicly available 454 pyrosequencing database of T. aestivum. In addition, we utilized site-specific PCR on 57 Au SINE insertions, transposon methylation display and transposon display on newly formed wheat polyploids to assess retrotranspositional activity, epigenetic status and genetic rearrangements in Au SINE, respectively. We retrieved 3706 different insertions of Au SINE from the 454 pyrosequencing database of T. aestivum, and found that most of the elements are inserted in A/T-rich regions, while approximately 38% of the insertions are associated with transcribed regions, including known wheat genes. We observed typical retrotransposition of Au SINE in the second generation of a newly formed wheat allohexaploid, and massive hypermethylation in CCGG sites surrounding Au SINE in the third generation. Finally, we observed huge differences in the copy numbers in diploid Triticum and Aegilops species, and a significant increase in the copy numbers in natural wheat polyploids, but no significant increase in the copy number of Au SINE in the first four generations for two of three newly formed allopolyploid species used in this study. Our data indicate that SINEs may play a prominent role in the genomic evolution of wheat through stress-induced activation. PMID:23855320

  19. Wave overwash impact on small islands: Generalised observations of freshwater lens response and recovery for multiple hydrogeological settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holding, Shannon; Allen, Diana M.

    2015-10-01

    Wave overwash events have the potential to result in severe consequences to the freshwater resources of small islands as a result of salt contamination of the aquifer. Due to the significant impact of overwash, it is important to characterise the susceptibility of small islands to these events. This study uses numerical modelling to evaluate the freshwater lens response and recovery to overwash events for various island hydrogeological settings (island types) observed worldwide. Models were developed for an example of each island type using a fully coupled surface-subsurface, density-dependent flow and solute transport modelling code. A theoretical overwash event was simulated, and the response and recovery of the freshwater lens were observed for 20 years. The freshwater lens response (degree of aquifer contamination) was largely determined by the vadose zone thickness. Lens recovery ranged from 1 to 19 years for the different island types, and was strongly affected by recharge rate. However, the recovery of potable water in the lens (and restoration of a water supply) was dominantly influenced by geological heterogeneities. The model results demonstrate the cumulative impact of the different factors affecting the freshwater lens response and recovery to the overwash event for each island type, and provide a generalised assessment of island susceptibility to overwash on a global scale, despite limited data availability for many small islands.

  20. Analysis of the 227 bp short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) insertion of the promoter of the myostatin (MSTN) gene in different horse breeds.

    PubMed

    Dall'Olio, Stefania; Scotti, Emilio; Fontanesi, Luca; Tassinari, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The myostatin (MSTN) gene encodes a protein known to be a negative regulator of muscle mass in mammalian species. Different polymorphisms of the horse (Equus caballus) MSTN gene have been identified, including single nucleotide polymorphisms and a short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) insertion of 227 bp within the promoter of the gene. The SINE insertion has been associated with performance traits in Thoroughbred racehorses and it was proposed as a predictor of optimum racing distance. The aims of this study were to perform in silico analysis to identify putative gains or abrogation of transcription-factor binding sites (TFBSs) generated by the SINE allele of the promoter and to analyse the frequency of the SINE insertion in horses used for racing (gallop and trot) and other purposes. The SINE insertion was genotyped in 227 horses from 10 breeds belonging to different morphological types (brachimorphic, mesomorphic, meso-dolichomorphic and dolichomorphic). The presence of the insertion was confirmed in the Quarter Horse (SINE allele frequency of 0.81) and in the Thoroughbred (0.51), whereas the SINE allele did not segregate in any of the other analysed breeds. As the SINE MSTN gene polymorphism may be population or breed specific, it is not a useful marker for association studies in all breeds.

  1. Mathematical modelling of tsunami impacts on critical infrastructures: exposure and severity associated with debris transport at Sines port, Portugal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, Daniel; Baptista, Maria Ana; Sousa Oliveira, Carlos; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2015-04-01

    Global energy production is still significantly dependant on the coal supply chain, justifying huge investments on building infrastructures, capable of stocking very large quantities of this natural resource. Most of these infrastructures are located at deep-sea ports and are therefore exposed to extreme coastal hazards, such as tsunami impacts. The 2011 Tohoku tsunami is reported to have inflicted severe damage to Japan's coal-fired power stations and related infrastructure. Sines, located in the Portuguese coast, hosts a major commercial port featuring an exposed coal stockpile area extending over more than 24 ha and a container terminal currently under expansion up to 100ha. It is protected against storm surges but tsunamis have not been considered in the design criteria. The dominant wind-generated wave direction is N to NW, while the main tsunamigenic faults are located S to SW of the port. This configuration potentially exposes sensitive facilities, such as the new terminal container and the coal stockpile area. According to a recent revision of the national tsunami catalogue (Baptista, 2009), Portugal has been affected by numerous major tsunamis over the last two millennia, with the most notorious event being the Great Lisbon Earthquake and Tsunami occurred on the 1st November 1755. The aim of this work is to simulate the open ocean propagation and overland impact of a tsunami on the Sines port, similar to the historical event of 1755, based on the different tsunamigenic faults and magnitudes proposed in the current literature. Open ocean propagation was modelled with standard simulation tools like TUNAMI and GeoClaw. Near-shore and overland propagation was carried out using a recent 2DH mathematical model for solid-fluid flows, STAV-2D from CERIS-IST (Ferreira et al., 2009; Canelas, 2013). STAV-2D is particularly suited for tsunami propagation over complex and morphodynamic geometries, featuring a discretization scheme based on a finite-volume method using

  2. Dynamical evolution of the surface microrelief under multiple-pulse-laser irradiation: An analysis based on surface-scattered waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barborica, A.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Teodorescu, V. S.

    1994-03-01

    We introduce a theoretical analysis of the temporal and spatial evolution of the surface topography of solids following interference between incident and scattered pulsed laser beams. The essential role played by the nonlinear delayed feedback in the laser-radiation-surface system is considered. We show that it finally determines the surface topography evolution from pulse to pulse. In order to complete the analysis, numerical calculations have been conducted under the hypothesis of strong attenuation of laser radiation into the sample and of a limited heat diffusion during the action of a laser pulse. We predict an evolution from very simple to complex (chaotic) structures under multiple-pulse-laser irradiation of solid surfaces. This evolution is determined by some key irradiation parameters; initial surface microrelief, incident laser intensity, and the number of applied laser pulses. Experiments were performed in order to check the main predictions of the theoretical analysis. The system of transversal excited atmospheric pressure-CO2 laser radiation (λ=10.6 μm)-interacting with fused silica was chosen as appropriate for performing test experiments. Optical microscopy studies of laser-treated zones evidenced special modifications of the surface topography in good accordance with the conclusions following from the theoretical analysis. The theoretical analysis is also in good agreement with some available data from the literature, at the same time providing a coherent interpretation of previously unexplained behaviors.

  3. Making Waves: Seismic Waves Activities and Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braile, S. J.; Braile, L. W.

    2011-12-01

    The nature and propagation of seismic waves are fundamental concepts necessary for understanding the exploration of Earth's interior structure and properties, plate tectonics, earthquakes, and seismic hazards. Investigating seismic waves is also an engaging approach to learning basic principles of the physics of waves and wave propagation. Several effective educational activities and demonstrations are available for teaching about seismic waves, including the stretching of a spring to demonstrate elasticity; slinky wave propagation activities for compressional, shear, Rayleigh and Love waves; the human wave activity to demonstrate P- and S- waves in solids and liquids; waves in water in a simple wave tank; seismic wave computer animations; simple shake table demonstrations of model building responses to seismic waves to illustrate earthquake damage to structures; processing and analysis of seismograms using free and easy to use software; and seismic wave simulation software for viewing wave propagation in a spherical Earth. The use of multiple methods for teaching about seismic waves is useful because it provides reinforcement of the fundamental concepts, is adaptable to variable classroom situations and diverse learning styles, and allows one or more methods to be used for authentic assessment. The methods described here have been used effectively with a broad range of audiences, including K-12 students and teachers, undergraduate students in introductory geosciences courses, and geosciences majors.

  4. Sine-Gordon Theory in the Repulsive Regime, Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz and Minimal Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoyama, H.

    2013-06-01

    Neutral excitations present in the repulsive regime (1/2 < β2/8π < 1) of the sine- Gordon/massive-Thirring model and its study of the massless limit by the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz is revisited. At β2/8π = 1 - 1/(p + 1) the solitons become infinitely heavy, forcing truncation to the neutral excitations alone. The central charge in this limit is calculated to be c = 1 - 6/p(p + 1); the mass and S-matrices of the truncated theories are identified as those of the minimal conformal theory Mp perturbed by the ϕ(1,3) operator.

  5. The sine oculis homeobox (SIX) family of transcription factors as regulators of development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    The sine oculis homeobox (SIX) protein family is a group of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors that are found in diverse organisms that range from flatworms to humans. These factors are expressed within, and play pivotal developmental roles in, cell populations that give rise to the head, retina, ear, nose, brain, kidney, muscle and gonads. Mutations within the fly and mammalian versions of these genes have adverse consequences on the development of these organs/tissues. Several SIX proteins have been shown to directly influence the cell cycle and are present at elevated levels during tumorigenesis and within several cancers. This review aims to highlight aspects of (1) the evolutionary history of the SIX family; (2) the structural differences and similarities amongst the different SIX proteins; (3) the role that these genes play in retinal development; and (4) the influence that these proteins have on cell proliferation and growth. PMID:18989625

  6. Middle Atmosphere Cooperation/Summer in Northern Europe (MAC/SINE) and MAC/Epsilon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrane, E. V.

    1989-01-01

    Two major international campaigns dedicated to the study of middle atmosphere dynamics in high latitudes were successfully completed in 1987. MAC/SINE (Middle Atmosphere Cooperation/Summer in Northern Europe) was carried out during the period 7 June to 19 July, whereas MAC/Epsilon took place in the period 12 October to 15 November. In both campaigns a large number of ground based and rocket techniques were used in a concerted effort to map the dynamical structure of the middle atmosphere over Northern Europe. Although the analysis of the observations has only just started, it is clear that a large and unique data set was obtained, which is believed will provide new insight into the dynamical processes in this interesting region of the atmosphere. A brief overview of the campaigns, their scientific aims, organization and structure is presented.

  7. EXONIC SINE INSERTION IN STK38L CAUSES CANINE EARLY RETINAL DEGENERATION (erd)

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Orly; Kukekova, Anna V.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Acland, Gregory M.

    2010-01-01

    Fine mapping followed by candidate gene analysis of erd - a canine hereditary retinal degeneration characterized by aberrant photoreceptor development - established that the disease cosegregates with a SINE insertion in exon 4 of the canine STK38L/NDR2 gene. The mutation removes exon 4 from STK38L transcripts and is predicted to remove much of the N-terminus from the translated protein, including binding sites for S100B and Mob Proteins, part of the protein kinase domain, and a Thr-75 residue critical for autophosphorylation. Although known to have roles in neuronal cell function, the STK38L pathway has not previously been implicated in normal or abnormal photoreceptor development. Loss of STK38L function in erd provides novel potential insights into the role of the STK38L pathway in neuronal and photoreceptor cell function, and suggests that genes in this pathway need to be considered as candidate genes for hereditary retinal degenerations. PMID:20887780

  8. Exonic SINE insertion in STK38L causes canine early retinal degeneration (erd).

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Orly; Kukekova, Anna V; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Acland, Gregory M

    2010-12-01

    Fine mapping followed by candidate gene analysis of erd - a canine hereditary retinal degeneration characterized by aberrant photoreceptor development - established that the disease cosegregates with a SINE insertion in exon 4 of the canine STK38L/NDR2 gene. The mutation removes exon 4 from STK38L transcripts and is predicted to remove much of the N terminus from the translated protein, including binding sites for S100B and Mob proteins, part of the protein kinase domain, and a Thr-75 residue critical for autophosphorylation. Although known to have roles in neuronal cell function, the STK38L pathway has not previously been implicated in normal or abnormal photoreceptor development. Loss of STK38L function in erd provides novel potential insights into the role of the STK38L pathway in neuronal and photoreceptor cell function, and suggests that genes in this pathway need to be considered as candidate genes for hereditary retinal degenerations.

  9. Quantum quench dynamics of the sine-Gordon model in some solvable limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iucci, A.; Cazalilla, M. A.

    2010-05-01

    With regard to the thermalization problem in isolated quantum systems, we investigate the dynamics following a quantum quench of the sine-Gordon model (sGM) in the Luther-Emery and the semiclassical limits. We consider the quench from the gapped to the gapless phase, as well as the reverse one. By obtaining analytic expressions for the one- and two-point correlation functions of the order parameter operator at zero-temperature, the manifestations of integrability in the absence of thermalization in the sGM are studied. It is shown that correlations in the long-time regime after the quench are well described by a generalized Gibbs ensemble. We also consider the case where the system is initially in contact with a reservoir at finite temperature. The possible relevance of our results to current and future experiments with ultracold atomic systems is also considered.

  10. A parameter estimation algorithm for spatial sine testing - Theory and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rost, R. W.; Deblauwe, F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the theory and an evaluation of a spatial sine testing parameter estimation algorithm that uses directly the measured forced mode of vibration and the measured force vector. The parameter estimation algorithm uses an ARMA model and a recursive QR algorithm is applied for data reduction. In this first evaluation, the algorithm has been applied to a frequency response matrix (which is a particular set of forced mode of vibration) using a sliding frequency window. The objective of the sliding frequency window is to execute the analysis simultaneously with the data acquisition. Since the pole values and the modal density are obtained from this analysis during the acquisition, the analysis information can be used to help determine the forcing vectors during the experimental data acquisition.

  11. Resurgence in sine-Gordon quantum mechanics: exact agreement between multi-instantons and uniform WKB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misumi, Tatsuhiro; Nitta, Muneto; Sakai, Norisuke

    2015-09-01

    We compute multi-instanton amplitudes in the sine-Gordon quantum mechanics (periodic cosine potential) by integrating out quasi-moduli parameters corresponding to separations of instantons and anti-instantons. We propose an extension of Bogomolnyi-Zinn-Justin prescription for multi-instanton configurations and an appropriate subtraction scheme. We obtain the multi-instanton contributions to the energy eigenvalue of the lowest band at the zeroth order of the coupling constant. For the configurations with only instantons (anti-instantons), we obtain unambiguous results. For those with both instantons and anti-instantons, we obtain results with imaginary parts, which depend on the path of analytic continuation. We show that the imaginary parts of the multi-instanton amplitudes precisely cancel the imaginary parts of the Borel resummation of the perturbation series, and verify that our results completely agree with those based on the uniform-WKB calculations, thus confirming the resurgence structure: divergent perturbation series combined with the nonperturbative multi-instanton contributions conspire to give unambiguous results. We also study the neutral bion contributions in the {C}{P}^{N-1} model on {{R}}^1× {S}^1 with a small circumference, taking account of the relative phase moduli between the fractional instanton and anti-instanton. We find that the sign of the interaction potential depends on the relative phase moduli, and that both the real and imaginary parts resulting from quasi-moduli integral of the neutral bion get quantitative corrections compared to the sine-Gordon quantum mechanics.

  12. Gravitropism in Arabidopsis thaliana: violation of the sine- and resultant-law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galland, Paul

    We investigated the gravitropic bending of hypocotyls and roots of seedlings of Arabidopsis tha-liana in response to long-term centrifugal accelerations in a range of 5 x 10-3 to 4 x g. The so-cal-led resultant law of gravitropism, a corollary of the so called sine law, claims that during centri-fugation a gravitropic organ aligns itself parallel to the resultant stimulus vector. We show here that neither of the two empirical “laws” is apt to describe the complex gravitropic behaviour of seedlings of Arabidopsis. Hypocotyls obey reasonably well the resultant law while roots display a complex behaviour that is clearly at variance with it. Horizontally centrifuged seedlings sense minute accelerations acting parallel to the longitudinal axis. If the centrifugal vector points to-ward the cotyledons, then the bending of hypocotyls and roots is greatly enhanced. If the centri-fugal vector points, however, toward the root tip, then only the bending of roots is enhanced by accelerations as low as 5 x 10-3 x g (positive tonic effect). The absolute gravitropic thresholds were determined for hypocotyls and roots in a clinostat-centrifuge and found to be near 1.5 x 10-2 x g. A behavioural mutant, ehb1-2 (Knauer et al. 2011), displays a lower gravitropic threshold for roots, not however, for hypocotyls. The complex gravitropic behaviour of seedlings of Arabi-dopsis is at odds with the classical sine- as well as the resultant law and can indicates the eminent role that is played by the acceleration vector operating longitudinally to the seedling axis.

  13. Remarks on the Non-Linear Differential Equation the Second Derivative of Theta Plus A Sine Theta Equals 0.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.; O'Neal, Elizabeth A.

    1985-01-01

    The authors draw together a variety of facts concerning a nonlinear differential equation and compare the exact solution with approximate solutions. Then they provide an expository introduction to the elliptic sine function suitable for presentation in undergraduate courses on differential equations. (MNS)

  14. The skeletal muscle alpha-actin gene of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and its association with piscine specific SINE elements.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Karsi, A; Dunham, R A; Liu, Z

    2000-07-11

    The alpha-actin gene of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) was cloned and sequenced. The gene has a similar organization and exhibited a high level of sequence similarity to those from other vertebrate animals. The upstream region of the alpha-actin gene included a TATA box, a CAAT box, three E-boxes, and a CArG box. Nested deletion segments containing these transcriptional motifs were fused to the reporter gene chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT). Transfection of the clones into C2C12 cells indicated that all these motifs are required for transcriptional activities. The channel catfish alpha-actin gene is associated with two distinct short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs). The first SINE element showed high levels of sequence similarity to the zebrafish Mermaid element, while the second SINE element is not similar to the Mermaid element except for an 8bp sequence CCCCGTGC suggesting their evolutionary linkage. However, the second SINE element appeared to co-exist with the Mermaid element in most cases and therefore was designated as the Merman element. Approximately 9000 copies and 1200 copies of the Mermaid and Merman elements exist per haploid channel catfish genome, respectively. BLAST searches indicated that both the Mermaid and the Merman elements were frequently associated with gene sequences, mostly those of aquatic animals, suggesting their evolutionary origin in association with aquatic organisms and their function in shaping the evolution of genomes in aquatic animals.

  15. A method for quantification of exportin-1 (XPO1) occupancy by Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compounds.

    PubMed

    Crochiere, Marsha L; Baloglu, Erkan; Klebanov, Boris; Donovan, Scott; Del Alamo, Diego; Lee, Margaret; Kauffman, Michael; Shacham, Sharon; Landesman, Yosef

    2016-01-12

    Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compounds are a family of small-molecules that inhibit nuclear export through covalent binding to cysteine 528 (Cys528) in the cargo-binding pocket of Exportin 1 (XPO1/CRM1) and promote cancer cell death. Selinexor is the lead SINE compound currently in phase I and II clinical trials for advanced solid and hematological malignancies. In an effort to understand selinexor-XPO1 interaction and to establish whether cancer cell response is a function of drug-target engagement, we developed a quantitative XPO1 occupancy assay. Biotinylated leptomycin B (b-LMB) was utilized as a tool compound to measure SINE-free XPO1. Binding to XPO1 was quantitated from SINE compound treated adherent and suspension cells in vitro, dosed ex vivo human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and PBMCs from mice dosed orally with drug in vivo. Evaluation of a panel of selinexor sensitive and resistant cell lines revealed that resistance was not attributed to XPO1 occupancy by selinexor. Administration of a single dose of selinexor bound XPO1 for minimally 72 hours both in vitro and in vivo. While XPO1 inhibition directly correlates with selinexor pharmacokinetics, the biological outcome of this inhibition depends on modulation of pathways downstream of XPO1, which ultimately determines cancer cell responsiveness.

  16. Increased expression and copy number amplification of LINE-1 and SINE B1 retrotransposable elements in murine mammary carcinoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Gualtieri, Alberto; Andreola, Federica; Sciamanna, Ilaria; Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Paola; Serafino, Annalucia; Spadafora, Corrado

    2013-01-01

    In higher eukaryotic genomes, Long Interspersed Nuclear Element 1 (LINE-1) retrotransposons and endogenous retroviruses represent large families of repeated elements encoding reverse transcriptase (RT) proteins. Short Interspersed Nuclear Element B1 (SINE B1) retrotrasposons do not encode RT, but use LINE-1-derived RT for their retrotransposition. We previously showed that many cancer types have an abundant endogenous RT activity. Inhibition of that activity, by either RNA interference-dependent silencing of active LINE-1 elements or by RT inhibitory drugs, reduced proliferation and promoted differentiation in cancer cells, indicating that LINE-1-encoded RT is required for tumor progression. Using MMTV-PyVT transgenic mice as a well-defined model of breast cancer progression, we now report that both LINE-1 and SINE B1 retrotransposons are up-regulated at a very early stage of tumorigenesis; LINE-1-encoded RT product and enzymatic activity were detected in tumor tissues as early as stage 1, preceding the widespread appearance of histological alterations and specific cancer markers, and further increased in later progression stages, while neither was present in non-pathological breast tissues. Importantly, both LINE-1 and SINE B1 retrotransposon families undergo copy number amplification during tumor progression. These findings therefore indicate that RT activity is distinctive of breast cancer cells and that, furthermore, LINE-1 and SINE B1 undergo copy number amplification during cancer progression. PMID:24231191

  17. Increased expression and copy number amplification of LINE-1 and SINE B1 retrotransposable elements in murine mammary carcinoma progression.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, Alberto; Andreola, Federica; Sciamanna, Ilaria; Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Paola; Serafino, Annalucia; Spadafora, Corrado

    2013-11-01

    In higher eukaryotic genomes, Long Interspersed Nuclear Element 1 (LINE-1) retrotransposons and endogenous retroviruses represent large families of repeated elements encoding reverse transcriptase (RT) proteins. Short Interspersed Nuclear Element B1 (SINE B1) retrotrasposons do not encode RT, but use LINE-1-derived RT for their retrotransposition. We previously showed that many cancer types have an abundant endogenous RT activity. Inhibition of that activity, by either RNA interference-dependent silencing of active LINE-1 elements or by RT inhibitory drugs, reduced proliferation and promoted differentiation in cancer cells, indicating that LINE-1-encoded RT is required for tumor progression. Using MMTV-PyVT transgenic mice as a well-defined model of breast cancer progression, we now report that both LINE-1 and SINE B1 retrotransposons are up-regulated at a very early stage of tumorigenesis; LINE-1-encoded RT product and enzymatic activity were detected in tumor tissues as early as stage 1, preceding the widespread appearance of histological alterations and specific cancer markers, and further increased in later progression stages, while neither was present in non-pathological breast tissues. Importantly, both LINE-1 and SINE B1 retrotransposon families undergo copy number amplification during tumor progression. These findings therefore indicate that RT activity is distinctive of breast cancer cells and that, furthermore, LINE-1 and SINE B1 undergo copy number amplification during cancer progression.

  18. Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) Compounds Alter New World Alphavirus Capsid Localization and Reduce Viral Replication in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, Lindsay; Pinkham, Chelsea; de la Fuente, Cynthia; Brahms, Ashwini; Shafagati, Nazly; Wagstaff, Kylie M.; Jans, David A.; Tamir, Sharon; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2016-01-01

    The capsid structural protein of the New World alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), interacts with the host nuclear transport proteins importin α/β1 and CRM1. Novel selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) compounds, KPT-185, KPT-335 (verdinexor), and KPT-350, target the host’s primary nuclear export protein, CRM1, in a manner similar to the archetypical inhibitor Leptomycin B. One major limitation of Leptomycin B is its irreversible binding to CRM1; which SINE compounds alleviate because they are slowly reversible. Chemically inhibiting CRM1 with these compounds enhanced capsid localization to the nucleus compared to the inactive compound KPT-301, as indicated by immunofluorescent confocal microscopy. Differences in extracellular versus intracellular viral RNA, as well as decreased capsid in cell free supernatants, indicated the inhibitors affected viral assembly, which led to a decrease in viral titers. The decrease in viral replication was confirmed using a luciferase-tagged virus and through plaque assays. SINE compounds had no effect on VEEV TC83_Cm, which encodes a mutated form of capsid that is unable to enter the nucleus. Serially passaging VEEV in the presence of KPT-185 resulted in mutations within the nuclear localization and nuclear export signals of capsid. Finally, SINE compound treatment also reduced the viral titers of the related eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses, suggesting that CRM1 maintains a common interaction with capsid proteins across the New World alphavirus genus. PMID:27902702

  19. Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) Compounds Alter New World Alphavirus Capsid Localization and Reduce Viral Replication in Mammalian Cells.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Lindsay; Pinkham, Chelsea; de la Fuente, Cynthia; Brahms, Ashwini; Shafagati, Nazly; Wagstaff, Kylie M; Jans, David A; Tamir, Sharon; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2016-11-01

    The capsid structural protein of the New World alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), interacts with the host nuclear transport proteins importin α/β1 and CRM1. Novel selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) compounds, KPT-185, KPT-335 (verdinexor), and KPT-350, target the host's primary nuclear export protein, CRM1, in a manner similar to the archetypical inhibitor Leptomycin B. One major limitation of Leptomycin B is its irreversible binding to CRM1; which SINE compounds alleviate because they are slowly reversible. Chemically inhibiting CRM1 with these compounds enhanced capsid localization to the nucleus compared to the inactive compound KPT-301, as indicated by immunofluorescent confocal microscopy. Differences in extracellular versus intracellular viral RNA, as well as decreased capsid in cell free supernatants, indicated the inhibitors affected viral assembly, which led to a decrease in viral titers. The decrease in viral replication was confirmed using a luciferase-tagged virus and through plaque assays. SINE compounds had no effect on VEEV TC83_Cm, which encodes a mutated form of capsid that is unable to enter the nucleus. Serially passaging VEEV in the presence of KPT-185 resulted in mutations within the nuclear localization and nuclear export signals of capsid. Finally, SINE compound treatment also reduced the viral titers of the related eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses, suggesting that CRM1 maintains a common interaction with capsid proteins across the New World alphavirus genus.

  20. Origin, structure and exposure history of a wave-cut platform more than 1 Ma in age at the coast of northern Spain: A multiple cosmogenic nuclide approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Marrón, J.; Hetzel, R.; Niedermann, S.; Menéndez, R.; Marquínez, J.

    2008-01-01

    Along the Asturian coast of northern Spain an uplifted wave-cut platform extends for ˜ 100 km east-west. The steep cliff which bounds the gently seaward-dipping platform to the north increases in height from 30 m in the west to 100 m in the east and reflects the overall eastward increase in platform elevation. The southern edge of the 2-4 km-wide platform runs along the foothills of the Cantabrian Mountains, as constrained by a high-resolution digital elevation model. The marine platform, which was carved into deformed Paleozoic bedrock with abundant quartzite beds, is largely covered by weathered marine and continental sediments. Quartzite samples from flat bedrock outcrops which are currently not covered by sediment or soil yield cosmogenic nuclide concentrations ( 21Ne, 10Be and 26Al) that demonstrate a long and complex exposure history, including periods of burial with partial or complete shielding from cosmic rays. The combination of multiple cosmogenic nuclides yields a minimum age of 1-2 Ma for the platform. Taking into account (i) the horizontal and vertical extent of the platform, (ii) the high resistance to erosion of the quartzitic bedrock, and (iii) published data on the magnitude of past sea level fluctuations, we suggest that the wave-cut platform formed in the Pliocene. Subvertical faults cutting the platform at high angles to the coastline offset the southern edge of the platform by 20 to 40 m and reactivate the pre-existing anisotropy in the Paleozoic bedrock. Uplift and crustal deformation of the coastal region have occurred after platform formation in the Pliocene and may still be active. The slow deformation of the northern edge of the Iberian plate including the Cantabrian Mountains may result from the ongoing slow convergence at an incipient subduction zone extending along the coast of northern Spain.

  1. CRM1 inhibition induces tumor cell cytotoxicity and impairs osteoclastogenesis in multiple myeloma: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Y-T; Landesman, Y; Acharya, C; Calle, Y; Zhong, MY; Cea, M; Tannenbaum, D; Cagnetta, A; Reagan, M; Munshi, AA; Senapedis, W; Saint-Martin, J-R; Kashyap, T; Shacham, S; Kauffman, M; Gu, Y; Wu, L; Ghobrial, I; Zhan, F; Kung, AL; Schey, SA; Richardson, P; Munshi, NC; Anderson, KC

    2013-01-01

    The key nuclear export protein CRM1/XPO1 may represent a promising novel therapeutic target in human multiple myeloma (MM). Here we showed that chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) is highly expressed in patients with MM, plasma cell leukemia cells and increased in patient cells resistant to bortezomib treatment. CRM1 expression also correlates with increased lytic bone and shorter survival. Importantly, CRM1 knockdown inhibits MM cell viability. Novel, oral, irreversible selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINEs) targeting CRM1 (KPT-185, KPT-330) induce cytotoxicity against MM cells (ED50<200 nM), alone and cocultured with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) or osteoclasts (OC). SINEs trigger nuclear accumulation of multiple CRM1 cargo tumor suppressor proteins followed by growth arrest and apoptosis in MM cells. They further block c-myc, Mcl-1, and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity. SINEs induce proteasome-dependent CRM1 protein degradation; concurrently, they upregulate CRM1, p53-targeted, apoptosis-related, anti-inflammatory and stress-related gene transcripts in MM cells. In SCID mice with diffuse human MM bone lesions, SINEs show strong anti-MM activity, inhibit MM-induced bone lysis and prolong survival. Moreover, SINEs directly impair osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption via blockade of RANKL-induced NF-κB and NFATc1, with minimal impact on osteoblasts and BMSCs. These results support clinical development of SINE CRM1 antagonists to improve patient outcome in MM. PMID:23588715

  2. Smart structures for shock wave attenuation using ER inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Jung-Yup; Choi, Seung-Bok; Kim, Kyung-Su

    2001-08-01

    This Paper demonstrates the possibility of shock wave attenuation propagating through a smart structure that incorporates ER insert. The wave transmission of ER inserted beam is theoretically derived using Mead & Markus model and the theoretical results are compared with the finite element analysis results. To experimentally verify the shock wave attenuation, ER insert in an aluminum plate is made and two piezoceramic disks are used as transmitter and receiver of the wave. The transmitter sends a sine pulse signal such that a component of shock wave travels through the plate structure and the receiver gets the transmitted wave signal. Wave propagation of the ER insert can be adjusted by changing the applied electric field on the ER insert. Details of the experiment are addressed and the possibility of shock wave attenuation is experimentally verified. This kind of smart structure can be used for warship and submarine hull structures to protect fragile and important equipment.

  3. Comments on 'Square-wave correlation phase detector with VLF atmospheric noise'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroenert, J. T.

    1980-11-01

    Calculated sine wave response data from Raab's paper (1979) are used to develop an algorithm for converting the outputs of a squarewave correlator into estimates of signal phase that is valid for all signal-to-noise ratios. The proposed algorithm is considerably simpler than three separate schemes suggested for low, intermediate, and high signal-to-noise ratio regions.

  4. Holographic s-wave and p-wave Josephson junction with backreaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong-Qiang; Liu, Shuai

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we study the holographic models of s-wave and p-wave Josephoson junction away from probe limit in (3+1)-dimensional spacetime, respectively. With the backreaction of the matter, we obtained the anisotropic black hole solution with the condensation of matter fields. We observe that the critical temperature of Josephoson junction decreases with increasing backreaction. In addition to this, the tunneling current and condenstion of Josephoson junction become smaller as backreaction grows larger, but the relationship between current and phase difference still holds for sine function. Moreover, condenstion of Josephoson junction deceases with increasing width of junction exponentially.

  5. Proceedings of the SMBE Tri-National Young Investigators' Workshop 2005. Baleen whale phylogeny and a past extensive radiation event revealed by SINE insertion analysis.

    PubMed

    Nikaido, Masato; Hamilton, Healy; Makino, Hitomi; Sasaki, Takeshi; Takahashi, Kazuhiko; Goto, Mutsuo; Kanda, Naohisa; Pastene, Luis A; Okada, Norihiro

    2006-05-01

    Baleen whales (suborder Mysticeti) comprise 11 extant species that are classified into four families. Although several phylogenetic hypotheses about these taxa have been proposed, their phylogenetic relationships remain confused. We addressed this problem using short interspersed repetitive element (SINE) insertion data, which now are regarded as almost ideal shared, derived characters at the molecular level. We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships of baleen whales by characterizing 36 informative SINE loci. One of the intriguing conclusions is that balaenopterids and eschrichtiids radiated very rapidly during a very short evolutionary period. During this period, speciation occurred in balaenopterids and eschrichtiids while newly inserted SINE loci remains polymorphic. Later on, these SINEs were sorted incompletely into each lineage. Thus, there are now inconsistencies among species regarding the presence or absence of a given SINE. This is in sharp contrast to the phylogeny of toothed whales, for which no SINE inconsistencies have been found. Furthermore, we found monophyletic groupings between humpback and fin whales as well as between (sei+Bryde's) whales and blue whales, both of which have not previously been recognized. The comprehensive SINE insertion data, together with the mitochondrial DNA phylogeny that was recently completed (Sasaki, T., M. Nikaido, H. Healy et al. 2005. Mitochondrial phylogenetics and evolution of mysticete whales. Syst. Biol. 56:77-90; Rychel, A. L., T. W. Reeder, and A. Berta. 2004. Phylogeny of mysticete whales based on mitochondrial and nuclear data. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 32:892-901), provide a nearly complete picture of the evolutionary history of baleen whales.

  6. Drag reduction characteristics of small amplitude rigid surface waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cary, A. M., Jr.; Weinstein, L. M.; Bushnell, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of reducing drag by using rigid, wavy surfaces is investigated both analytically and experimentally. Although pressure drag for rigid sine-wave surfaces can be predicted empirically, viscous drag for even shallow waves was poorly predicted by state-of-the-art turbulent boundary layer calculation procedures. Calculations for the effects of geometric and fluid variables on total wave drag are presented under the philosophy that trends will be nearly correct even though levels are probably incorrect. Experiments by the present authors indicate that a total drag reduction with wavy walls is possible.

  7. Human Sensitivity to High Frequency Sine Wave and Pulsed Light Stimulation as Measured by the Steady State Cortical Evoked Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    depth ( Tweel and Lunel, 1965; Spekreijse, 1966) and color (Regan, 1970 and Regan, 1973). It has been suggested (O’Donnell, 1979) that the demonstrated...Publishers, 1966. Van der Tweel , L.H., and Verduyn Lunel, H.F.E. Human visual responses to sinusoidally modulated light. Electroencephalography and Clinical

  8. Fully integrated InGaAs/InP single-photon detector module with gigahertz sine wave gating

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Xiaolei; Ma Jian; Jin Ge; Chen Zengbing; Zhang Jun; Pan Jianwei; Liu Jianhong; Wang Quan; Du Debing

    2012-08-15

    InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) working in the regime of GHz clock rates are crucial components for the high-speed quantum key distribution (QKD). We have developed for the first time a compact, stable, and user-friendly tabletop InGaAs/InP single-photon detector system operating at a 1.25 GHz gate rate that fully integrates functions for controlling and optimizing SPAD performance. We characterize the key parameters of the detector system and test the long-term stability of the system for continuous operation of 75 h. The detector system can substantially enhance QKD performance and our present work paves the way for practical high-speed QKD applications.

  9. Binocular contrast discrimination needs monocular multiplicative noise

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jian; Levi, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of signal and noise on contrast discrimination are difficult to separate because of a singularity in the signal-detection-theory model of two-alternative forced-choice contrast discrimination (Katkov, Tsodyks, & Sagi, 2006). In this article, we show that it is possible to eliminate the singularity by combining that model with a binocular combination model to fit monocular, dichoptic, and binocular contrast discrimination. We performed three experiments using identical stimuli to measure the perceived phase, perceived contrast, and contrast discrimination of a cyclopean sine wave. In the absence of a fixation point, we found a binocular advantage in contrast discrimination both at low contrasts (<4%), consistent with previous studies, and at high contrasts (≥34%), which has not been previously reported. However, control experiments showed no binocular advantage at high contrasts in the presence of a fixation point or for observers without accommodation. We evaluated two putative contrast-discrimination mechanisms: a nonlinear contrast transducer and multiplicative noise (MN). A binocular combination model (the DSKL model; Ding, Klein, & Levi, 2013b) was first fitted to both the perceived-phase and the perceived-contrast data sets, then combined with either the nonlinear contrast transducer or the MN mechanism to fit the contrast-discrimination data. We found that the best model combined the DSKL model with early MN. Model simulations showed that, after going through interocular suppression, the uncorrelated noise in the two eyes became anticorrelated, resulting in less binocular noise and therefore a binocular advantage in the discrimination task. Combining a nonlinear contrast transducer or MN with a binocular combination model (DSKL) provides a powerful method for evaluating the two putative contrast-discrimination mechanisms. PMID:26982370

  10. Binocular contrast discrimination needs monocular multiplicative noise.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jian; Levi, Dennis M

    2016-01-01

    The effects of signal and noise on contrast discrimination are difficult to separate because of a singularity in the signal-detection-theory model of two-alternative forced-choice contrast discrimination (Katkov, Tsodyks, & Sagi, 2006). In this article, we show that it is possible to eliminate the singularity by combining that model with a binocular combination model to fit monocular, dichoptic, and binocular contrast discrimination. We performed three experiments using identical stimuli to measure the perceived phase, perceived contrast, and contrast discrimination of a cyclopean sine wave. In the absence of a fixation point, we found a binocular advantage in contrast discrimination both at low contrasts (<4%), consistent with previous studies, and at high contrasts (≥34%), which has not been previously reported. However, control experiments showed no binocular advantage at high contrasts in the presence of a fixation point or for observers without accommodation. We evaluated two putative contrast-discrimination mechanisms: a nonlinear contrast transducer and multiplicative noise (MN). A binocular combination model (the DSKL model; Ding, Klein, & Levi, 2013b) was first fitted to both the perceived-phase and the perceived-contrast data sets, then combined with either the nonlinear contrast transducer or the MN mechanism to fit the contrast-discrimination data. We found that the best model combined the DSKL model with early MN. Model simulations showed that, after going through interocular suppression, the uncorrelated noise in the two eyes became anticorrelated, resulting in less binocular noise and therefore a binocular advantage in the discrimination task. Combining a nonlinear contrast transducer or MN with a binocular combination model (DSKL) provides a powerful method for evaluating the two putative contrast-discrimination mechanisms.

  11. The sine-Gordon model and the small. kappa. sup + region of light- cone perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    The non-perturbative ultraviolet divergence of the sine-Gordon model is used to study the k{sup +} = 0 region of light-cone perturbation theory. The light-cone vacuum is shown to be unstable at the non- perturbative {beta}{sup 2} = 8{pi} critical point by a light-cone version of Coleman's variational method. Vacuum bubbles, which are k{sup +} = 0 diagram in light-cone field theory and are individually finite and non-vanishing for all {beta}, conspire to generate ultraviolet divergences of the light-cone energy density. The k{sup +} = 0 region of momentum also contributed to connected Green's functions: the connected two point function will not diverge, as it should, at the critical point unless diagrams which contribute only at k {sup +} = 0 are properly included. This analysis shows in a simple way how the k {sup +} = 0 region cannot be ignored even for connected diagrams. This phenomenon is expected to occur in higher dimensional gauge theories starting at two loop order in light-cone perturbation theory.

  12. Breather dynamics in the nonlinear Schrödinger regime of perturbed sine-gordon systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taki, M.; Spatschek, K. H.; Fernandez, J. C.; Grauer, R.; Reinisch, G.

    1989-11-01

    A possible route to temporal chaos with coherent stable spatial structures is proposed for the driven damped sine-Gordon equation. For near-conservative perturbations, the dynamics of a breather is investigated numerically and semi-analytically in the presence of an ac driver and a simple damping term. For moderate driver strengths, a flat (space-independent) attractor exists whereas above a threshold a phase-locked breather co-exists. The latter can undergo a period-doubling route to temporal chaos as is shown here for a certain parameter regime. Relations to other works which operate in a different parameter regime are discussed. The near-conservative perturbations and the low driver strengths allow to interpret the results within a simple model originating from the so-called nonlinear Schrödinger limit. In fact, within this limit (small amplitude breather), the chaotic (or not) transitions are dominated by interactions between breather-like solutions and radiation (mostly k=0 mode). Therefore, three collective coordinates, i.e. the amplitude of the phase-locked breather, its phase, as well as the complex amplitude of the linear k=0 mode, are sufficient to construct a system of four ordinary differential equations of first order which reveal the basic features of the partial differential equations in a satisfactory manner.

  13. Transforming wealth: using the inverse hyperbolic sine (IHS) and splines to predict youth's math achievement.

    PubMed

    Friedline, Terri; Masa, Rainier D; Chowa, Gina A N

    2015-01-01

    The natural log and categorical transformations commonly applied to wealth for meeting the statistical assumptions of research may not always be appropriate for adjusting for skewness given wealth's unique properties. Finding and applying appropriate transformations is becoming increasingly important as researchers consider wealth as a predictor of well-being. We present an alternative transformation-the inverse hyperbolic sine (IHS)-for simultaneously dealing with skewness and accounting for wealth's unique properties. Using the relationship between household wealth and youth's math achievement as an example, we apply the IHS transformation to wealth data from US and Ghanaian households. We also explore non-linearity and accumulation thresholds by combining IHS transformed wealth with splines. IHS transformed wealth relates to youth's math achievement similarly when compared to categorical and natural log transformations, indicating that it is a viable alternative to other transformations commonly used in research. Non-linear relationships and accumulation thresholds emerge that predict youth's math achievement when splines are incorporated. In US households, accumulating debt relates to decreases in math achievement whereas accumulating assets relates to increases in math achievement. In Ghanaian households, accumulating assets between the 25th and 50th percentiles relates to increases in youth's math achievement.

  14. Swept sine testing of rotor-bearing system for damping estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, N. Harish; Sekhar, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Many types of rotating components commonly operate above the first or second critical speed and they are subjected to run-ups and shutdowns frequently. The present study focuses on developing FRF of rotor bearing systems for damping estimation from swept-sine excitation. The principle of active vibration control states that with increase in angular acceleration, the amplitude of vibration due to unbalance will reduce and the FRF envelope will shift towards the right (or higher frequency). The frequency response function (FRF) estimated by tracking filters or Co-Quad analyzers was proved to induce an error into the FRF estimate. Using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm and stationary wavelet transform (SWT) decomposition FRF distortion can be reduced. To obtain a theoretical clarity, the shifting of FRF envelope phenomenon is incorporated into conventional FRF expressions and validation is performed with the FRF estimated using the Fourier Transform approach. The half-power bandwidth method is employed to extract damping ratios from the FRF estimates. While deriving half-power points for both types of responses (acceleration and displacement), damping ratio (ζ) is estimated with different approximations like classical definition (neglecting damping ratio of order higher than 2), third order (neglecting damping ratios with order higher than 4) and exact (no assumptions on damping ratio). The use of stationary wavelet transform to denoise the noise corrupted FRF data is explained. Finally, experiments are performed on a test rotor excited with different sweep rates to estimate the damping ratio.

  15. Strong and uniform mean stability of cosine and sine operator functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Ryotaro; Shaw, Sen-Yen

    2007-06-01

    It is first observed that a uniformly bounded cosine operator function C([dot operator]) and the associated sine function S([dot operator]) are totally non-stable. Then, using a zero-one law for the Abel limit of a closed linear operator, we prove some results concerning strong mean stability and uniform mean stability of C([dot operator]). Among them are: (1) C([dot operator]) is strongly (C,1)-mean stable (or (C,2)-mean stable, or Abel-mean stable) if and only if 0[set membership, variant][rho](A)[union or logical sum][sigma]c(A); (2) C([dot operator]) is uniformly (C,2)-mean stable if and only if S([dot operator]) is uniformly (C,1)-mean stable, if and only if , if and only if , if and only if C([dot operator]) is uniformly Abel-mean stable, if and only if S([dot operator]) is uniformly Abel-mean stable, if and only if 0[set membership, variant][rho](A).

  16. A new perspective on remote Saddle Sine and Cosine coils technique for determination of tokamak plasma equilibrium status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salar Elahi, A.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    In this contribution we have presented a new perspective for determination of tokamak plasma column shift based on remote multipole moments technique. First, we presented analytical details for using this technique. Then principle of different models based on this technique for design and fabrication of a six coils will be presented: four modified Rogowski coil (two Cosine coils and two Sine coils) and two Saddle coils (Saddle Sine coil (SSC) and Saddle Cosine coil (SCC)). Also, in order to comparison of results the flux loops technique is used. Because of continuous measurements of magnetic field distribution around the tokamak plasma using multipole coils, this technique give us more reliable information about the plasma current displacement.

  17. Multiple mantle upwellings in the transition zone beneath the northern East-African Rift system from relative P-wave travel-time tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civiero, Chiara; Hammond, James O. S.; Goes, Saskia; Fishwick, Stewart; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Ayele, Atalay; Doubre, Cecile; Goitom, Berhe; Keir, Derek; Kendall, J.-Michael; Leroy, Sylvie; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Rümpker, Georg; Stuart, Graham W.

    2015-09-01

    Mantle plumes and consequent plate extension have been invoked as the likely cause of East African Rift volcanism. However, the nature of mantle upwelling is debated, with proposed configurations ranging from a single broad plume connected to the large low-shear-velocity province beneath Southern Africa, the so-called African Superplume, to multiple lower-mantle sources along the rift. We present a new P-wave travel-time tomography model below the northern East-African, Red Sea, and Gulf of Aden rifts and surrounding areas. Data are from stations that span an area from Madagascar to Saudi Arabia. The aperture of the integrated data set allows us to image structures of ˜100 km length-scale down to depths of 700-800 km beneath the study region. Our images provide evidence of two clusters of low-velocity structures consisting of features with diameter of 100-200 km that extend through the transition zone, the first beneath Afar and a second just west of the Main Ethiopian Rift, a region with off-rift volcanism. Considering seismic sensitivity to temperature, we interpret these features as upwellings with excess temperatures of 100 ± 50 K. The scale of the upwellings is smaller than expected for lower mantle plume sources. This, together with the change in pattern of the low-velocity anomalies across the base of the transition zone, suggests that ponding or flow of deep-plume material below the transition zone may be spawning these upper mantle upwellings. This article was corrected on 28 SEP 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  18. Sine Oculis Homeobox Homolog 1 Regulates Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway Via Caspase-7 In Gastric Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Du, Peizhun; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Jing; Liu, Yongchao; Ren, Hong; Patel, Rajan; Hu, Cheng'en; Zhang, Wenhong; Huang, Guangjian

    2017-01-01

    Sine oculis homeobox homolog 1 (Six1) is crucial in normal organ development. Recently, Six1 is reported to display aberrant expression in various cancers and plays important roles in cancer development. However, the regulatory mechanism of Six1 in gastric cancer is largely unknown. In the current study, we found that Six1 was increased in gastric cancer tissues, and its upregulation significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (p=0.042) and poor differentiation (p=0.039). Next, we took advantage of public available microarray data to assess Six1 prognostic value with online K-M Plotter software in gastric cancer, which demonstrated that patients with higher Six1 expression had shorter survival time (p=0.02). To explore the underlying mechanism of Six1, we silenced its upregulation in gastric cells to detect cellular functions. Our results indicated that knock-down Six1 could decrease colony formation number and rendered cells sensitive to 5- Fluorouracil drug treatment. The flow cytometry analyses showed that Six1 silence could promote apoptosis but had little effect on cell cycle transition. Along this clue, we tested mitochondrial membrane potential with JC-1 assay, which suggested that Six1 inhibition could trigger mitochondrial apoptosis. Our subsequent results revealed that Six1 knock-down could reduce the level of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and caspase-7 but not caspase-3 was involved to execute the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Taken together, we find Six1 has oncogenic role in gastric cancer development, and silenced Six1 expression can promote mitochondrial apoptosis by repressing Bcl-2 and activating executor caspase-7. These findings suggest that Six1 may become a valuable prognostic and therapeutic target in gastric cancer. PMID:28367243

  19. Toothed whale monophyly reassessed by SINE insertion analysis: the absence of lineage sorting effects suggests a small population of a common ancestral species.

    PubMed

    Nikaido, Masato; Piskurek, Oliver; Okada, Norihiro

    2007-04-01

    Morphological data have indicated that toothed whales form a monophyletic group. However, research published in the last several years has made the issue of the monophyly or paraphyly of toothed whales a subject of debate. Our group previously characterized three independent loci in which SINE insertions were shared among dolphins and sperm whales, thus supporting the traditional, morphologically based hypothesis of toothed whale monophyly. Although in recent years a few additional molecular works proposed this topology, there is still skepticism over this monophyly from the view point of molecular systematics. When the phylogeny of rapidly radiated taxa is examined using the SINE method, it is important to consider the ascertainment bias that arises when choosing a particular taxon for SINE loci screening. To overcome this methodological problem specific to the SINE method, we examined all possible topologies among sperm whales, dolphins and baleen whales by extensively screening SINE loci from species of all three lineages. We characterized nine independent SINE loci from the genomes of sperm whales and dolphins, all of which cluster sperm whales and dolphins but exclude baleen whales. Furthermore, we characterized ten independent loci from baleen whales, all of which were amplified in a common ancestor of these whales. From these observations, we conclude that toothed whales form a monophyletic group and that no ancestral SINE polymorphisms hinder their phylogenetic assignment despite the short divergence times of the major lineages of extant whales during evolution. These results suggest that a small population of common ancestors of all toothed whales ultimately diverged into the lineages of sperm whales and dolphins.

  20. Neural field theory of nonlinear wave-wave and wave-neuron processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P. A.; Roy, N.

    2015-06-01

    Systematic expansion of neural field theory equations in terms of nonlinear response functions is carried out to enable a wide variety of nonlinear wave-wave and wave-neuron processes to be treated systematically in systems involving multiple neural populations. The results are illustrated by analyzing second-harmonic generation, and they can also be applied to wave-wave coalescence, multiharmonic generation, facilitation, depression, refractoriness, and other nonlinear processes.

  1. MLP based models to predict PM10, O3 concentrations, in Sines industrial area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durao, R.; Pereira, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    Sines is an important Portuguese industrial area located southwest cost of Portugal with important nearby protected natural areas. The main economical activities are related with this industrial area, the deep-water port, petrochemical and thermo-electric industry. Nevertheless, tourism is also an important economic activity especially in summer time with potential to grow. The aim of this study is to develop prediction models of pollutant concentration categories (e.g. low concentration and high concentration) in order to provide early warnings to the competent authorities who are responsible for the air quality management. The knowledge in advanced of pollutant high concentrations occurrence will allow the implementation of mitigation actions and the release of precautionary alerts to population. The regional air quality monitoring network consists in three monitoring stations where a set of pollutants' concentrations are registered on a continuous basis. From this set stands out the tropospheric ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) due to the high concentrations occurring in the region and their adverse effects on human health. Moreover, the major industrial plants of the region monitor SO2, NO2 and particles emitted flows at the principal chimneys (point sources), also on a continuous basis,. Therefore Artificial neuronal networks (ANN) were the applied methodology to predict next day pollutant concentrations; due to the ANNs structure they have the ability to capture the non-linear relationships between predictor variables. Hence the first step of this study was to apply multivariate exploratory techniques to select the best predictor variables. The classification trees methodology (CART) was revealed to be the most appropriate in this case.. Results shown that pollutants atmospheric concentrations are mainly dependent on industrial emissions and a complex combination of meteorological factors and the time of the year. In the second step, the Multi

  2. Femtosecond laser excitation of multiple spin waves and composition dependence of Gilbert damping in full-Heusler Co2Fe1-xMnxAl films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chuyuan; Meng, Kangkang; Li, Shufa; Zhao, Jianhua; Lai, Tianshu

    2013-12-01

    Spin-wave dynamics in 30 nm thick Co2Fe1-xMnxAl full-Heusler films is investigated using time-resolved magneto-optical polar Kerr spectroscopy under an external field perpendicular to films. Damon-Eshbach (DE) and the first-order perpendicular standing spin-wave (PSSW) modes are observed simultaneously in four samples with x = 0, 0.3, 0.7, and 1. The frequency of DE and PSSW modes does not apparently depend on composition x, but damping of DE mode significantly on x and reaches the minimum as x = 0.7. The efficient coherent excitation of DE spin wave exhibits the promising application of Co2Fe0.3Mn0.7Al films in magnonic devices.

  3. Selinexor, a Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compound, acts through NF-κB deactivation and combines with proteasome inhibitors to synergistically induce tumor cell death

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Trinayan; Argueta, Christian; Aboukameel, Amro; Unger, Thaddeus John; Klebanov, Boris; Mohammad, Ramzi M.; Muqbil, Irfana; Azmi, Asfar S.; Drolen, Claire; Senapedis, William; Lee, Margaret; Kauffman, Michael; Shacham, Sharon; Landesman, Yosef

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear export protein, exportin-1 (XPO1/CRM1), is overexpressed in many cancers and correlates with poor prognosis. Selinexor, a first-in-class Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compound, binds covalently to XPO1 and blocks its function. Treatment of cancer cells with selinexor results in nuclear retention of major tumor suppressor proteins and cell cycle regulators, leading to growth arrest and apoptosis. Recently, we described the selection of SINE compound resistant cells and reported elevated expression of inflammation-related genes in these cells. Here, we demonstrated that NF-κB transcriptional activity is up-regulated in cells that are naturally resistant or have acquired resistance to SINE compounds. Resistance to SINE compounds was created by knockdown of the cellular NF-κB inhibitor, IκB-α. Combination treatment of selinexor with proteasome inhibitors decreased NF-κB activity, sensitized SINE compound resistant cells and showed synergistic cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we showed that selinexor inhibited NF-κB activity by blocking phosphorylation of the IκB-α and the NF-κB p65 subunits, protecting IκB-α from proteasome degradation and trapping IκB-α in the nucleus to suppress NF-κB activity. Therefore, combination treatment of selinexor with a proteasome inhibitor may be beneficial to patients with resistance to either single-agent. PMID:27713151

  4. Phylogenetic relationships among Nearctic shrews of the genus Sorex (Insectivora, Soricidae) inferred from combined cytochrome b and inter-SINE fingerprint data using Bayesian analysis.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Aaron B A; Stewart, Donald T

    2007-07-01

    The field of molecular systematics has relied heavily on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis since its inception. Despite the obvious utility of mtDNA, such data inevitably only presents a limited (i.e., single genome) perspective on species evolution. A combination of mitochondrial and nuclear markers is essential for reconstructing more robust phylogenetic trees. To evaluate the utility of one category of nuclear marker (short interspersed elements or SINEs) for resolving phylogenetic relationships, we constructed an inter-SINE fingerprint for nine putative species of the genus Sorex. In addition, we analyzed 1011 nucleotides of the cytochrome b gene. Traditional neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony analyses were applied to the individual cytochrome b and inter-SINE fingerprint data sets, along with Bayesian analysis to the combined data sets. We found inter-SINE fingerprinting to be an effective species level marker; however, we were unable to reconstruct deeper branching patterns within the Sorex genus using these data. The combined data analyzed under a Bayesian analysis showed higher levels of structuring within the Otisorex subgenus, most notably recognizing a monophyletic group consisting of sister-taxa S. palustris and S. monticolus, S. cinereus and S. haydeni, and S. hoyi. An additional noteworthy result was the detection of an historic mitochondrial introgression event between S. monticolus and S. palustris. When combining disparate data sets, we emphasize researcher diligence as certain types of data and processes may overly influence the analysis. However, there is considerable phylogenetic potential stemming from inter-SINE fingerprinting.

  5. Sinusoidal Wave Estimation Using Photogrammetry and Short Video Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Rupnik, Ewelina; Jansa, Josef; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the work is to model the shape of the sinusoidal shape of regular water waves generated in a laboratory flume. The waves are traveling in time and render a smooth surface, with no white caps or foam. Two methods are proposed, treating the water as a diffuse and specular surface, respectively. In either case, the water is presumed to take the shape of a traveling sine wave, reducing the task of the 3D reconstruction to resolve the wave parameters. The first conceived method performs the modeling part purely in 3D space. Having triangulated the points in a separate phase via bundle adjustment, a sine wave is fitted into the data in a least squares manner. The second method presents a more complete approach for the entire calculation workflow beginning in the image space. The water is perceived as a specular surface, and the traveling specularities are the only observations visible to the cameras, observations that are notably single image. The depth ambiguity is removed given additional constraints encoded within the law of reflection and the modeled parametric surface. The observation and constraint equations compose a single system of equations that is solved with the method of least squares adjustment. The devised approaches are validated against the data coming from a capacitive level sensor and on physical targets floating on the surface. The outcomes agree to a high degree. PMID:26690171

  6. The Caenorhabditis elegans Six/sine oculis class homeobox gene ceh-32 is required for head morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dozier, C; Kagoshima, H; Niklaus, G; Cassata, G; Bürglin, T R

    2001-08-15

    Caenorhabditis elegans has four members of the Six/sine oculis class of homeobox genes, ceh-32, ceh-33, ceh-34, and ceh-35. Proteins encoded by this gene family are transcription factors sharing two conserved domains, the homeodomain and the Six/sine oculis domain, both involved in DNA binding. ceh-32 expression was detected during embryogenesis in hypodermal and neuronal precursor cells and later in descendants of these cells as well as in gonadal sheath cells. RNAi inactivation studies suggest that ceh-32 plays a role in head morphogenesis, like vab-3, the C. elegans Pax-6 orthologue. ceh-32 and vab-3 are coexpressed in head hypodermal cells and ceh-32 mRNA levels are reduced in vab-3 mutants. Moreover, ectopic expression of VAB-3 in transgenic worms is able to induce ceh-32 ectopically. In addition, we demonstrate that VAB-3 is able to bind directly to the ceh-32 upstream regulatory region in vitro and to activate reporter gene transcription in a yeast one-hybrid system. Our results suggest that VAB-3 acts upstream of ceh-32 during head morphogenesis and directly induces ceh-32. Thus, ceh-32 appears to be the first target gene of VAB-3 identified so far.

  7. Binding of TFIIIC to SINE Elements Controls the Relocation of Activity-Dependent Neuronal Genes to Transcription Factories

    PubMed Central

    Crepaldi, Luca; Policarpi, Cristina; Coatti, Alessandro; Sherlock, William T.; Jongbloets, Bart C.; Down, Thomas A.; Riccio, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    In neurons, the timely and accurate expression of genes in response to synaptic activity relies on the interplay between epigenetic modifications of histones, recruitment of regulatory proteins to chromatin and changes to nuclear structure. To identify genes and regulatory elements responsive to synaptic activation in vivo, we performed a genome-wide ChIPseq analysis of acetylated histone H3 using somatosensory cortex of mice exposed to novel enriched environmental (NEE) conditions. We discovered that Short Interspersed Elements (SINEs) located distal to promoters of activity-dependent genes became acetylated following exposure to NEE and were bound by the general transcription factor TFIIIC. Importantly, under depolarizing conditions, inducible genes relocated to transcription factories (TFs), and this event was controlled by TFIIIC. Silencing of the TFIIIC subunit Gtf3c5 in non-stimulated neurons induced uncontrolled relocation to TFs and transcription of activity-dependent genes. Remarkably, in cortical neurons, silencing of Gtf3c5 mimicked the effects of chronic depolarization, inducing a dramatic increase of both dendritic length and branching. These findings reveal a novel and essential regulatory function of both SINEs and TFIIIC in mediating gene relocation and transcription. They also suggest that TFIIIC may regulate the rearrangement of nuclear architecture, allowing the coordinated expression of activity-dependent neuronal genes. PMID:23966877

  8. Dynamical properties of the sine-Gordon quantum spin magnet Cu-PM at zero and finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiegel, Alexander C.; Honecker, Andreas; Pruschke, Thomas; Ponomaryov, Alexey; Zvyagin, Sergei A.; Feyerherm, Ralf; Manmana, Salvatore R.

    2016-03-01

    The material copper pyrimidine dinitrate (Cu-PM) is a quasi-one-dimensional spin system described by the spin-1/2 X X Z Heisenberg antiferromagnet with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions. Based on numerical results obtained by the density-matrix renormalization group, exact diagonalization, and accompanying electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments we revisit the spin dynamics of this compound in an applied magnetic field. Our calculations for momentum and frequency-resolved dynamical quantities give direct access to the intensity of the elementary excitations at both zero and finite temperature. This allows us to study the system beyond the low-energy description by the quantum sine-Gordon model. We find a deviation from the Lorentz invariant dispersion for the single-soliton resonance. Furthermore, our calculations only confirm the presence of the strongest boundary bound state previously derived from a boundary sine-Gordon field theory, while composite boundary-bulk excitations have too low intensities to be observable. Upon increasing the temperature, we find a temperature-induced crossover of the soliton and the emergence of new features, such as interbreather transitions. The latter observation is confirmed by our ESR experiments on Cu-PM over a wide range of the applied field.

  9. Estimation of channel mismatches in time-interleaved analog-to-digital converters based on fractional delay and sine curve fitting.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lianping; Tian, Shulin; Jiang, Jun

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes an algorithm to estimate the channel mismatches in time-interleaved analog-to-digital converter (TIADC) based on fractional delay (FD) and sine curve fitting. Choose one channel as the reference channel and apply FD to the output samples of reference channel to obtain the ideal samples of non-reference channels with no mismatches. Based on least square method, the sine curves are adopted to fit the ideal and the actual samples of non-reference channels, and then the mismatch parameters can be estimated by comparing the ideal sine curves and the actual ones. The principle of this algorithm is simple and easily understood. Moreover, its implementation needs no extra circuits, lowering the hardware cost. Simulation results show that the estimation accuracy of this algorithm can be controlled within 2%. Finally, the practicability of this algorithm is verified by the measurement results of channel mismatch errors of a two-channel TIADC prototype.

  10. Comment on: "Traveling wave solutions for fifth-order KdV type equations with time-dependent coefficients" [Commun Nonlinear Sci Numer Simulat 19 (2014) 404-408

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Tanmay

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that previously reported traveling wave solutions for the fifth order KdV type equations with time dependent coefficients (Triki and Wazwaz, 2014) are incorrect. We present the corrected traveling wave solutions for fifth order KdV type equations using sine-cosine method. In addition, we provide traveling wave solutions for the Kawahara equation and Kaup-Kupershmidt equation as an application.

  11. Slow and fast ultrasonic wave detection improvement in human trabecular bones using Golay code modulation.

    PubMed

    Lashkari, Bahman; Manbachi, Amir; Mandelis, Andreas; Cobbold, Richard S C

    2012-09-01

    The identification of fast and slow waves propagating through trabecular bone is a challenging task due to temporal wave overlap combined with the high attenuation of the fast wave in the presence of noise. However, it can provide valuable information about bone integrity and become a means for monitoring osteoporosis. The objective of this work is to apply different coded excitation methods for this purpose. The results for single-sine cycle pulse, Golay code, and chirp excitations are compared. It is shown that Golay code is superior to the other techniques due to its signal enhancement while exhibiting excellent resolution without the ambiguity of sidelobes.

  12. Slow strain waves in the Earth: observational evidence and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, Victor

    2014-05-01

    Recent remarkable progress in theoretical studies of the solitary strain waves, that have contributed greatly to the solution of the fundamental problem of strain waves in the Earth, is overviewed. The concept of strain waves generated in the Earth is based on the results of the study of earthquake distribution and slow tectonic deformation processes and the transfer of geophysical field anomalies. Propagation of strain waves is represented quantitatively by the rates of earthquake migration and geophysical responses to active faulting. These processes, and possibly the related strain waves, are either of global (global tectonic waves) or local (strain waves in faults) scales (Bykov, 2005). Global tectonic waves propagating at velocities from 10 to 100 km/yr are detected from migration of large earthquakes (Stein et al., 1997), seismic velocity anomalies (Nevsky et al., 1987), offsets of water level in wells along faults (Barabanov et al. 1988), or from transient displacement of seismic reflectors (Bazavluk and Yudakhin, 1993). Strain waves along crustal faults at velocities of 1-10 km/day are inferred from radon, electrokinetic and hydrogeodynamic signals, such as solitary waves (Nikolaevskiy, 1998). Migration of episodic tremor and slow slip events along plate boundaries in subduction zones and transform fault zones at a rate of 10 km/day, on an average (Schwartz and Rokosky, 2007), may be new evidence and indication of strain waves in the Earth. The detected mechanisms of strain wave exciting are caused by the block and microplate rotation, relative block displacement in crustal fault zones, transform faults, zones of the lithospheric plate collision and subduction and irregularity of the Earth's rotation (Bykov, 2005). These waves in the shape of kinks or solitons moving at velocities a great number of orders less than those of the ordinary seismic waves provide the possibility to explain slow stress redistribution in the crust. During a recent decade the sine

  13. Reproducing an Early-20th-Century Wave Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daffron, John A.; Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2016-09-01

    Physics students often have problems understanding waves. Over the years numerous mechanical devices have been devised to show the propagation of both transverse and longitudinal waves (Ref. 1). In this article an updated version of an early-20th-century transverse wave machine is discussed. The original, Fig. 1, is at Creighton University in Omaha, NE. The new version, by the authors, is shown in Fig. 2. It was designed in such a way that it can be built relatively easily. Sliders that rest on a rotating helical rail move up and down in approximate simple harmonic motion. When the helix is at rest, the tops of the sliders form a good approximation to a sine wave. In the original, the sliders are double-ended knitting needles, and the handle was taken from an earlier piece of apparatus.

  14. Propagation properties of partially coherent electromagnetic hyperbolic-sine-Gaussian vortex beams through non-Kolmogorov turbulence.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongping; Wang, Fanhou; Gao, Zenghui; Zhang, Bin

    2015-01-26

    Propagation properties of partially coherent electromagnetic hyperbolic-sine-Gaussian (PCESHG) vortex beams through non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence, including the spectral degree of polarization and evolution behavior of coherent vortices and average intensity are investigated in detail by using the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the spatial power spectrum of the refractive index of non-Kolmogorov turbulence. It is shown that the motion, creation and annihilation of the coherent vortices of PCESHG vortex beams in non-Kolmogorov turbulence may appear with the increasing propagation distance, and the distance for the conservation of the topological charge depends on the turbulence parameters and beam parameters. In additions, the evolution behavior of coherent vortices, average intensity and spectral degree of polarization vary significantly for different values of the generalized exponent parameter and the generalized refractive-index structure parameter of non-Kolmogorov turbulence, and the beam parameters as well as the propagation distance.

  15. A control performance analysis for MacPherson active suspension system under bounce sine sweep road profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, M. Fahezal; Sam, Yahaya Md.; Sudin, Shahdan; Aripin, M. Khairi

    2016-10-01

    This paper studies a control performance analysis for MacPherson active suspension system. The ride comfort quality is a very important specification for modern automotive suspension system. The Proportional Integral Sliding Mode Control-Evolutionary Strategy-Composite Nonlinear Feedback (PISMC-ES-CNF) controller is designed to solve the transient problem occurred in vertical acceleration of sprung mass. The control performance is tested by using PISMC-ES-CNF and compared with Sliding Mode Controller (SMC) and Composite Nonlinear Feedback (CNF) under Bounce Sine Sweep road profile. The ISO 2631-1, 1997 is a standard for vertical acceleration of sprung mass level and degree of comfort. The one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and standard deviation have showed that the PISMC- ES-CNF controller compared with others controllers achieved the best control performance.

  16. Aerodynamic study of a blade with sine variation of chord length along the height for Darrieus wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crunteanu, D. E.; Constantinescu, S. G.; Niculescu, M. L.

    2013-10-01

    The wind energy is deemed as one of the most durable energetic variants of the future because the wind resources are immense. Furthermore, one predicts that the small wind turbines will play a vital role in the urban environment. Unfortunately, the complexity and the price of pitch regulated small horizontal-axis wind turbines represent ones of the main obstacles to widespread the use in populated zones. In contrast to these wind turbines, the Darrieus wind turbines are simpler and their price is lower. Unfortunately, their blades run at high variations of angles of attack, in stall and post-stall regimes, which can induce significant vibrations, fatigue and even the wind turbine failure. For this reason, the present paper deals with a blade with sine variation of chord length along the height because it has better behavior in stall and post-stall regimes than the classic blade with constant chord length.

  17. Electrical stimulation using sine waveform prevents unloading-induced muscle atrophy in the deep calf muscles of rat.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Minoru; Hirayama, Yusuke; Fujita, Naoto; Fujino, Hidemi

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of electrical stimulation by using rectangular and sine waveforms in the prevention of deep muscle atrophy in rat calf muscles. Rats were randomly divided into the following groups: control, hindlimb unloading (HU), and HU plus electrical stimulation (ES). The animals in the ES group were electrically stimulated using rectangular waveform (RS) on the left calves and sine waveform (SS) on the right calves, twice a day, for 2 weeks during unloading. HU for 2 weeks resulted in a loss of the muscle mass, a decrease in the cross-sectional area of the muscle fibers, and overexpression of ubiquitinated proteins in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. In contrast, electrical stimulation with RS attenuated the HU-induced reduction in the cross-sectional area of muscle fibers and the increase of ubiquitinated proteins in the gastrocnemius muscle. However, electrical stimulation with RS failed to prevent muscle atrophy in the deep portion of the gastrocnemius and the soleus muscles. Nevertheless, electrical stimulation with SS attenuated the HU-induced muscle atrophy and the up-regulation of ubiquitinated proteins in both gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. This indicates that SS was more effective in the prevention of deep muscle atrophy than RS. Since the skin muscle layers act like the plates of a capacitor, separated by the subcutaneous adipose layer, the SS can pass through this capacitor more easily than the RS. Hence, SS can prevent the progressive loss of muscle fibers in the deep portion of the calf muscles.

  18. Changes over a decade in fish assemblages exposed to both environmental and fishing constraints in the Sine Saloum estuary (Senegal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecoutin, J. M.; Simier, M.; Albaret, J. J.; Laë, R.; Tito de Morais, L.

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the changes in the fish assemblage of the Sine Saloum estuary (Senegal) over a 10-year period, it was surveyed during a complete hydrological cycle (three principal hydro-climatic seasons) first in 1992 and then in 2002-2003. The sampling protocol for the two surveys was identical, using the same sampling technique, the same collection periods, and the same sampling stations. The Sine Saloum is an inverse estuary in terms of its salinity gradient. It is affected by the intense drought that has occurred in this biogeographic region for more than 50 years. The estuary is also subjected to high fishing pressure. The second data-collection period followed a few years of higher recorded rainfall (approximately 35% higher than in 1992) and was characterized by increased fishing pressure (over 50% higher than in 1992). For the two study periods, the same set of indicators were calculated, including fishing indicators (catches, density, yields), size-based indicators (size structures, mean length, maximum observed length, size spectra), ecological indicators (richness, species diversity, K-dominance models, ABC curves, ecological categories) and trophic indicators (mean trophic level, trophic composition of catches). Overall, the main changes in the estuary's fish assemblage between 1992 and 2002 were (1) a loss in total biomass (40% less) for an equivalent species richness (approximately 55 species); (2) a decrease in the maximum observed lengths for many species (mean decrease of 17%); and (3) a decrease in the mean trophic level (more than 0.11 units). Analysis by bio-ecological and trophic category showed that the main species concerned were benthophagous species and, to a lesser degree, generalist predator species from marine origin that inhabit the estuary more or less permanently.

  19. Needle-array to Plate DBD Plasma Using Sine AC and Nanosecond Pulse Excitations for Purpose of Improving Indoor Air Quality

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Yang, Dezheng; Wang, Wenchun; Wang, Sen; Yuan, Hao; Zhao, Zilu; Sang, Chaofeng; Jia, Li

    2016-01-01

    In this study, needle-array to plate electrode configuration was employed to generate an atmospheric air diffuse discharge using both nanosecond pulse and sine AC voltage as excitation voltage for the purpose of improving indoor air quality. Different types of voltage sources and electrode configurations are employed to optimize electrical field distribution and improve discharge stability. Discharge images, electrical characteristics, optical emission spectra, and plasma gas temperatures in both sine AC discharge and nanosecond pulse discharge were compared and the discharge stability during long operating time were discussed. Compared with the discharge excited by sine AC voltage, the nanosecond pulsed discharge is more homogenous and stable, besides, the plasma gas temperature of nanosecond pulse discharge is much lower. Using packed-bed structure, where γ- Al2O3 pellets are filled in the electrode gap, has obvious efficacy in the production of homogenous discharge. Furthermore, both sine AC discharge and nanosecond pulse discharge were used for removing formaldehyde from flowing air. It shows that nanosecond pulse discharge has a significant advantage in energy cost. And the main physiochemical processes for the generation of active species and the degradation of formaldehyde were discussed. PMID:27125663

  20. Needle-array to Plate DBD Plasma Using Sine AC and Nanosecond Pulse Excitations for Purpose of Improving Indoor Air Quality.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Yang, Dezheng; Wang, Wenchun; Wang, Sen; Yuan, Hao; Zhao, Zilu; Sang, Chaofeng; Jia, Li

    2016-04-29

    In this study, needle-array to plate electrode configuration was employed to generate an atmospheric air diffuse discharge using both nanosecond pulse and sine AC voltage as excitation voltage for the purpose of improving indoor air quality. Different types of voltage sources and electrode configurations are employed to optimize electrical field distribution and improve discharge stability. Discharge images, electrical characteristics, optical emission spectra, and plasma gas temperatures in both sine AC discharge and nanosecond pulse discharge were compared and the discharge stability during long operating time were discussed. Compared with the discharge excited by sine AC voltage, the nanosecond pulsed discharge is more homogenous and stable, besides, the plasma gas temperature of nanosecond pulse discharge is much lower. Using packed-bed structure, where γ- Al2O3 pellets are filled in the electrode gap, has obvious efficacy in the production of homogenous discharge. Furthermore, both sine AC discharge and nanosecond pulse discharge were used for removing formaldehyde from flowing air. It shows that nanosecond pulse discharge has a significant advantage in energy cost. And the main physiochemical processes for the generation of active species and the degradation of formaldehyde were discussed.

  1. The Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, Shing F.

    2008-01-01

    Heliophysics wave data are currently not easily searchable by computers, making identifying pertinent wave data features for analyses and cross comparisons difficult and laborious. Since wave data analysis requires specialized knowledge about waves, which spans the spectrum of microphysics to macrophysics, researchers having varied expertise cannot easily use wave data. To resolve these difficulties and to allow wave data to contribute more fully to Heliophysics research, we are developing a Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO) whose goal is to enable all Heliophysics wave data to become searchable, understandable and usable by the Heliophysics community. The VWO objective is to enable search of multiple and distributed wave data (from both active and passive measurements). This presentation provides and overview of the VWO, a new VxO component within the emerging distributed Heliophysics data and model environment.

  2. Continuous-wave operation up to 20 °C of deep-ridge npn-InGaAsP/InP multiple quantum well transistor laser emitting at 1.5-μm wavelength.

    PubMed

    Qiao, L J; Liang, S; Han, L S; Xu, J J; Zhu, H L; Wang, W

    2015-05-04

    We report continuous-wave (CW) operation up to 20 °C of 1.5-μm wavelength npn-InGaAsP/InP multiple quantum well (MQW) transistor laser (TL) with a deep-ridge structure. With CW laser emission, the common emitter current gain of the device can be over 3.5, which is significantly larger than those of the previously reported long wavelength TLs. It is found that at low base current, the laser operation occurs on the first excited state of the MQWs. At high base current, however, the device shows stimulated emissions on the ground state transition. The trend is contrary to what has been observed in the GaAs based TLs and is explained by the change of carrier flow at different base currents.

  3. Feasibility of optical coherence elastography measurements of shear wave propagation in homogeneous tissue equivalent phantoms.

    PubMed

    Razani, Marjan; Mariampillai, Adrian; Sun, Cuiru; Luk, Timothy W H; Yang, Victor X D; Kolios, Michael C

    2012-05-01

    In this work, we explored the potential of measuring shear wave propagation using optical coherence elastography (OCE) based on a swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. Shear waves were generated using a 20 MHz piezoelectric transducer (circular element 8.5 mm diameter) transmitting sine-wave bursts of 400 μs, synchronized with the OCT swept source wavelength sweep. The acoustic radiation force (ARF) was applied to two gelatin phantoms (differing in gelatin concentration by weight, 8% vs. 14%). Differential OCT phase maps, measured with and without the ARF, demonstrate microscopic displacement generated by shear wave propagation in these phantoms of different stiffness. We present preliminary results of OCT derived shear wave propagation velocity and modulus, and compare these results to rheometer measurements. The results demonstrate the feasibility of shear wave OCE (SW-OCE) for high-resolution microscopic homogeneous tissue mechanical property characterization.

  4. Wurtzite to rocksalt phase transformation of cadmium selenide nanocrystals via laser-induced shock waves: transition from single to multiple nucleation.

    PubMed

    Wittenberg, Joshua S; Merkle, Maxwell G; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2009-09-18

    The behavior of CdSe nanocrystals shocked to stresses of 2-3.75 GPa has been studied. Above 3 GPa a near-complete disappearance of the first excitonic feature and broadening of the low-energy absorption edge were observed, consistent with a wurtzite to rocksalt structural transformation. The transformation pressure is reduced relative to hydrostatic compression in a diamond anvil cell, and the rate increases, attributed to shock induced shear stress along the reaction coordinate. The especially rapid rate observed for a 3.75 GPa shock suggests multiple nucleation events per particle.

  5. Dynamic characteristics of a multi-wavelength Brillouin-Raman fiber laser assisted by multiple four-wave mixing processes in a ring cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirazi, M. R.; Mohamed Taib, J.; De La Rue, R. M.; Harun, S. W.; Ahmad, H.

    2015-03-01

    Dynamic characteristics of a multi-wavelength Brillouin-Raman fiber laser (MBRFL) assisted by four-wave mixing have been investigated through the development of Stokes and anti-Stokes lines under different combinations of Brillouin and Raman pump power levels and different Raman pumping schemes in a ring cavity. For a Stokes line of order higher than three, the threshold power was less than the saturation power of its last-order Stokes line. By increasing the Brillouin pump power, the nth order anti-Stokes and the (n+4)th order Stokes power levels were unexpectedly increased almost the same before the Stokes line threshold power. It was also found out that the SBS threshold reduction (SBSTR) depended linearly on the gain factor for the 1st and 2nd Stokes lines, as the first set. This relation for the 3rd and 4th Stokes lines as the second set, however, was almost linear with the same slope before SBSTR -6 dB, then, it approached to the linear relation in the first set when the gain factor was increased to 50 dB. Therefore, the threshold power levels of Stokes lines for a given Raman gain can be readily estimated only by knowing the threshold power levels in which there is no Raman amplification.

  6. The multiple young stellar objects of HBC 515: An X-ray and millimeter-wave imaging study in (pre-main sequence) diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Principe, D. A.; Sacco, G. G.; Kastner, J. H.; Wilner, D.; Stelzer, B.; Micela, G.

    2017-01-01

    We present Chandra X-ray Observatory and Submillimeter Array (SMA) imaging of HBC 515, a system consisting of multiple young stellar objects (YSOs). The five members of HBC 515 represent a remarkably diverse array of YSOs, ranging from the low-mass Class I/II protostar HBC 515B, through Class II and transition disk objects (HBC 515D and C, respectively), to the "diskless", intermediate-mass, pre-main sequence (pre-MS) binary HBC 515A. Our Chandra/ACIS imaging establishes that all five components are X-ray sources, with HBC 515A - a subarcsecond-separation binary that is partially resolved by Chandra - being the dominant X-ray source. We detect an X-ray flare associated with HBC 515B. In the SMA imaging, HBC 515B is detected as a strong 1.3 mm continuum emission source; a second, weaker mm continuum source is coincident with the position of the transition disk object HBC 515C. These results strongly support the protostellar nature of HBC 515B, and firmly establish HBC 515A as a member of the rare class of relatively massive, X-ray luminous weak-lined T Tauri stars that are binaries and have shed their disks at very early stages of pre-MS evolution. The coexistence of two such disparate objects within a single, presumably coeval multiple YSO system highlights the influence of pre-MS star mass, binarity, and X-ray luminosity in regulating the lifetimes of circumstellar, planet-forming disks, and the timescales of star-disk interactions.

  7. [Fuchs uveitis syndrome--heterochromia is no "conditio sine qua non"].

    PubMed

    Becker, M D; Zierhut, M

    2005-07-01

    Fuchs uveitis syndrome (FUS) is typically a unilateral, chronic, low-grade inflammation of the anterior segment which manifests in young adulthood. It is underdiagnosed because of its variable clinical spectrum. Although it can mimic various forms of anterior uveitis, it is important to make the correct diagnosis, based on clinical grounds, because both the management and prognosis differ from those of other uveitides. While its etiology remains unknown, it is possible that the disease has multiple causes that lead through different pathogenic mechanisms to the same clinical entity. Although many patients do not require treatment, it is not a benign condition, as often perceived. The high incidence of glaucoma makes it mandatory that all patients with FUS should be screened at regular intervals, even if they are not being actively treated and are relatively asymptomatic.

  8. Time-frequency characterization of lamb waves for material evaluation and damage inspection of plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank Pai, P.; Deng, Haoguang; Sundaresan, Mannur J.

    2015-10-01

    Guided wave-based technique is one major approach for damage inspection of structures. To detect a small damage, an elastic wave's wavelength needs to be in the order of the damage size and hence the frequency needs to be high. Unfortunately, high-frequency wave dynamics always involves complicated wave reflection, refraction and diffraction, and it is difficult to separate them in order to perform detailed examination and system identification. This paper investigates dynamic characteristics of Lamb waves in plates in order to be used for material evaluation and damage inspection of thin-walled structures. A one-dimensional finite-element modeling and analysis technique is developed for computing dispersion curves and all symmetric and antisymmetric modes of Lamb waves in isotropic and multi-layer plates. Moreover, the conjugate-pair decomposition (CPD) method is introduced for time-frequency analysis of propagating Lamb waves. Results show that, under a k-cycle sine-burst excitation at a plate's edge, the time-varying frequency of a surface point's response can reveal the Lamb wave propagating inside the plate being a symmetric or an antisymmetric mode. The frequency of the measured wave packet increases from the wave front to the trailing edge if it is a symmetric mode, and the frequency decreases from the wave front to the trailing edge if it is an antisymmetric mode. Moreover, interaction of two different wave packets results in a peak in the time-frequency curve. These characteristics can be used for accurate separation of wave packets and identification of different wave speeds to enable fast and accurate material evaluation and damage inspection. Transient finite-element analysis of Lamb waves in finite plates with crack/delamination show that k-cycle sine-burst probing waves are good agents for guided wave-based damage inspection of structures. Although crack and delamination introduce different waves into and complicate the probing wave packet, time

  9. The sine-Gordon model and the small {kappa}{sup +} region of light- cone perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.A.

    1992-09-01

    The non-perturbative ultraviolet divergence of the sine-Gordon model is used to study the k{sup +} = 0 region of light-cone perturbation theory. The light-cone vacuum is shown to be unstable at the non- perturbative {beta}{sup 2} = 8{pi} critical point by a light-cone version of Coleman`s variational method. Vacuum bubbles, which are k{sup +} = 0 diagram in light-cone field theory and are individually finite and non-vanishing for all {beta}, conspire to generate ultraviolet divergences of the light-cone energy density. The k{sup +} = 0 region of momentum also contributed to connected Green`s functions: the connected two point function will not diverge, as it should, at the critical point unless diagrams which contribute only at k {sup +} = 0 are properly included. This analysis shows in a simple way how the k {sup +} = 0 region cannot be ignored even for connected diagrams. This phenomenon is expected to occur in higher dimensional gauge theories starting at two loop order in light-cone perturbation theory.

  10. Feeding ecology and ontogenic diet shifts of juvenile fish species in an inverse estuary: The Sine-Saloum, Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gning, Ndombour; Vidy, Guy; Thiaw, Omar Thiom

    2008-01-01

    We examined the diet of juvenile fish of four species - Eucinostomus melanopterus (Gerreidae), Ethmalosa fimbriata (Clupeidae), Monodactylus sebae (Monodactylidae), and Sarotherodon melanotheron (Cichlidae) - between their appearance on the nursery ground and the end of the recruitment season, when they began to shift to deeper parts of the estuary. Fish were collected from the Sine-Saloum, an inverse estuary in Senegal, West Africa. Sampling was conducted at six sites located along the salinity gradient. The study was conducted in the context of an inverse estuary where increasing salinity leads to the disappearance of mangroves. Stomach contents were sorted and the preferred prey determined to the lowest possible taxonomic level. Ontogenic changes in diet were characterized and results expressed as the frequency of occurrence of the prey. The results showed that almost all juveniles began with a "classical" zooplanktonic diet. Following that first stage, they then preyed on items belonging to the periphytic community in the vicinity of mangroves (when present). Juvenile Ethmalosa fimbriata, a phytoplankton feeder as an adult, displayed that kind of transitory diet, a finding not previously recorded. Plant material (algae and leaves) occurred frequently in the stomach contents. All four species began the ontogenic shift toward their adult diet at a length of 50 mm. The periphytic community supported on mangrove prop roots contributes to the diet of juvenile fish living in proximity to mangroves; this may not be verified for those fish living in open waters.

  11. A mapping method for distributive mixing with diffusion: Interplay between chaos and diffusion in time-periodic sine flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlick, Conor P.; Christov, Ivan C.; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Ottino, Julio M.; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2013-05-01

    We present an accurate and efficient computational method for solving the advection-diffusion equation in time-periodic chaotic flows. The method uses operator splitting, which allows the advection and diffusion steps to be treated independently. Taking advantage of flow periodicity, the advection step is solved using a mapping method, and diffusion is "added" discretely after each iteration of the advection map. This approach results in the construction of a composite mapping matrix over an entire period of the chaotic advection-diffusion process and provides a natural framework for the analysis of mixing. To test the approach, we consider two-dimensional time-periodic sine flow. By comparing the numerical solutions obtained by our method to reference solutions, we find qualitative agreement for large time steps (structure of concentration profile) and quantitative agreement for small time steps (low error). Further, we study the interplay between mixing through chaotic advection and mixing through diffusion leading to an analytical model for the evolution of the intensity of segregation with time. Additionally, we demonstrate that our operator splitting mapping approach can be readily extended to three dimensions.

  12. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics and solitons of the sine-Gordon and nonlinear Schrödinger equations.

    PubMed

    Koller, Andrew; Olshanii, Maxim

    2011-12-01

    We present a case demonstrating the connection between supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSYQM), reflectionless scattering, and soliton solutions of integrable partial differential equations. We show that the members of a class of reflectionless Hamiltonians, namely, Akulin's Hamiltonians, are connected via supersymmetric chains to a potential-free Hamiltonian, explaining their reflectionless nature. While the reflectionless property in question has been mentioned in the literature for over two decades, the enabling algebraic mechanism was previously unknown. Our results indicate that the multisoliton solutions of the sine-Gordon and nonlinear Schrödinger equations can be systematically generated via the supersymmetric chains connecting Akulin's Hamiltonians. Our findings also explain a well-known but little-understood effect in laser physics: when a two-level atom, initially in the ground state, is subjected to a laser pulse of the form V(t) = (nh/τ)/cosh(t/τ), with n being an integer and τ being the pulse duration, it remains in the ground state after the pulse has been applied, for any choice of the laser detuning.

  13. Functional analysis of the role of eyes absent and sine oculis in the developing eye of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Akira; Kurita, Kazuki; Terasawa, Taiki; Nakamura, Taro; Bando, Tetsuya; Moriyama, Yoshiyuki; Mito, Taro; Noji, Sumihare; Ohuchi, Hideyo

    2012-02-01

    In the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, a hemimetabolous insect, the compound eyes begin to form in the embryo and increase 5-6 fold in size during the postembryonic development of the nymphal stage. Retinal stem cells in the anteroventral proliferation zone (AVPZ) of the nymphal eye proliferate to increase retinal progenitors, which then differentiate to form new ommatidia in the anterior region of the eye. However, mechanisms underlying this type of eye formation have not been well elucidated yet. Here, we found that the homologues of the retinal determination transcription factor genes of eyes absent (eya) and sine oculis (so) are expressed during the cricket embryonic eye formation. eya is also expressed intensely in the AVPZ of the nymphal eye. To explore their functions, we performed knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi). Knockdown of Gb'eya resulted in loss of the embryonic eye. In the nymphal eye, RNAi against Gb'eya or Gb'so impaired retinal morphology by apparently transforming cornea structures into head cuticle. These results imply that Gb'eya and Gb'so are essential for the differentiation of the retinal progenitor cells and maintaining retinal structures during eye development.

  14. Gravitational lensing of gravitational wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kei Wong, Wang; Ng, Kwan Yeung

    2017-01-01

    Gravitational lensing phenomena are widespread in electromagnetic astrophysics, and in principle may also be uncovered with gravitational waves. We examine gravitational wave events lensed by elliptical galaxies in the limit of geometric optics, where we expect to see multiple signals from the same event with different arrival times and amplitudes. By using mass functions for compact binaries from population-synthesis simulations and a lensing probability calculated from Planck data, we estimate the rate of lensed signals for future gravitational wave missions.

  15. Late Quaternary climate change in the Awatere Valley, South Island, New Zealand using a sine model with a maximum likelihood envelope on fossil beetle data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, M. J.; Smith, E. G. C.; Shulmeister, J.; Leschen, R.

    2004-07-01

    We present a new climatic reconstruction method appropriate for biological proxies where modern distributions are poorly defined and data sets are small. The technique uses a sine function in conjunction with maximum likelihood estimates of best high and best low values for the distribution of each species. To demonstrate the model we present temperature reconstructions for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and Holocene from beetle fossil assemblages from the Awatere Valley, New Zealand. The temperature estimates are determined by the mutual overlap of the climate range for all the species in the assemblage. The overlap is then compared with modern physio-chemical conditions. For our example, we estimate the LGM summer (February) mean temperature was about 3.5-4°C cooler, and July (winter) mean daily minimum temperature was about 4-5°C cooler than present day temperatures. The maximum likelihood estimates broaden the reconstructed temperature ranges to 2.5-5°C cooler for February temperatures and 3.5-6.0°C cooler for mean minimum daily temperature of the coldest month (July). These estimates are consistent with LGM temperature estimates of 4-7°C from other climate proxy indicators. Estimates of Holocene temperatures are very similar to modern. Estimates are compared with results from the established mutual climatic range (MCR) technique and the results are compatible. MCR is less robust than the sine model approach for these data because it requires the pre-determination of the critical physio-chemical controls and assumes Gaussian distributions in climate space. The sine model is conceptually superior to traditional BIOCLIM modelling, with which it shares many features, because BIOCLIM also assumes Gaussian distributions and the sine model allows attribute testing of the data sets which are not possible with BIOCLIM.

  16. Anti-tumor activity of selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) compounds, is enhanced in non-Hodgkin lymphoma through combination with mTOR inhibitor and dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Muqbil, Irfana; Aboukameel, Amro; Elloul, Sivan; Carlson, Robert; Senapedis, William; Baloglu, Erkan; Kauffman, Michael; Shacham, Sharon; Bhutani, Divaya; Zonder, Jeffrey; Azmi, Asfar S; Mohammad, Ramzi M

    2016-12-28

    In previous studies we demonstrated that targeting the nuclear exporter protein exportin-1 (CRM1/XPO1) by a selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) compound is a viable therapeutic strategy against Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL). Our studies along with pre-clinical work from others led to the evaluation of the lead SINE compound, selinexor, in a phase 1 trial in patients with CLL or NHL (NCT02303392). Continuing our previous work, we studied combinations of selinexor-dexamethasone (DEX) and selinexor-everolimus (EVER) in NHL. Combination of selinexor with DEX or EVER resulted in enhanced cytotoxicity in WSU-DLCL2 and WSU-FSCCL cells which was consistent with enhanced apoptosis. Molecular analysis showed enhancement in the activation of apoptotic signaling and down-regulation of XPO1. This enhancement is consistent with the mechanism of action of these drugs in that both selinexor and DEX antagonize NF-κB (p65) and mTOR (EVER target) is an XPO1 cargo protein. SINE compounds, KPT-251 and KPT-276, showed activities similar to CHOP (cyclophosphamide-hydroxydaunorubicin-oncovin-prednisone) regimen in subcutaneous and disseminated NHL xenograft models in vivo. In both animal models the anti-lymphoma activity of selinexor is enhanced through combination with DEX or EVER. The in vivo activity of selinexor and related SINE compounds relative to 'standard of care' treatment is consistent with the objective responses observed in Phase I NHL patients treated with selinexor. Our pre-clinical data provide a rational basis for testing these combinations in Phase II NHL trials.

  17. A novel composite retrotransposon derived from or generated independently of the SVA (SINE/VNTR/Alu) transposon has undergone proliferation in gibbon genomes.

    PubMed

    Hara, Toru; Hirai, Yuriko; Baicharoen, Sudarath; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hirai, Hirohisa; Koga, Akihiko

    2012-01-01

    The superfamily Hominoidea (hominoids) comprises two families: Hominidae (hominids) and Hylobatidae (gibbons, also called small apes). The SVA transposon is a composite retrotransposon that occurs widely in hominoids and is considered to have been generated by stepwise fusions of three genetic elements: SINE-R, a variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) sequence, and Alu. We identified a novel transposon whose basic structure is the same as that of SVA, with one prominent difference being the presence of part of prostaglandin reductase 2 (PTGR2) in place of SINE-R. We designate this composite transposon as PVA and propose two possible mechanisms regarding its generation. One is the derivation of PVA from SVA: the SINE-R region of SVA was replaced with a PTGR2 fragment by template switching. The other is the formation of PVA independently of SVA: a PTGR2 fragment was fused to an evolutionary intermediate comprising the VNTR and Alu regions. The nucleotide sequence of the junction between the VNTR and PTGR2 regions supports the second hypothesis. We identified PVA in the white-cheeked gibbon Nomascus leucogenys by analysis of genome sequence databases, and subsequent experimental analysis revealed its presence in all four gibbon genera. The white-cheeked gibbon harbors at least 93 PVA copies in its haploid genome. Another SVA-like composite transposon carrying parts of the LINE1 and Alu transposons in place of SINE-R, designated as LAVA, has recently been reported. The significance of the discovery of PVA is that its substituted fragment originates not from a transposon but from a single-copy gene. PVA should provide additional insights into the transposition mechanism of this type of composite transposon; the transposition activity is conferred even if the substituted fragment is not related to a transposon.

  18. Gravitational waves from technicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Jaervinen, Matti; Sannino, Francesco; Kouvaris, Chris

    2010-03-15

    We investigate the production and possible detection of gravitational waves stemming from the electroweak phase transition in the early universe in models of minimal walking technicolor. In particular we discuss the two possible scenarios in which one has only one electroweak phase transition and the case in which the technicolor dynamics allows for multiple phase transitions.

  19. Wave turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarenko, Sergey

    2015-07-01

    Wave turbulence is the statistical mechanics of random waves with a broadband spectrum interacting via non-linearity. To understand its difference from non-random well-tuned coherent waves, one could compare the sound of thunder to a piece of classical music. Wave turbulence is surprisingly common and important in a great variety of physical settings, starting with the most familiar ocean waves to waves at quantum scales or to much longer waves in astrophysics. We will provide a basic overview of the wave turbulence ideas, approaches and main results emphasising the physics of the phenomena and using qualitative descriptions avoiding, whenever possible, involved mathematical derivations. In particular, dimensional analysis will be used for obtaining the key scaling solutions in wave turbulence - Kolmogorov-Zakharov (KZ) spectra.

  20. Strength Analysis of Sandwitch Panels with CFRP Quasi Isotropic Layup or Isotropic Material Facesheets in Dynamic Environment Using MSC Nastran and SineMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Carlo, A.; Carbonell Garcia, A.

    2012-07-01

    The frequency response solution (SOL 111) of MSC Nastran versions prior to 2012 only allows the output of element stress components and element forces and does not allow the calculation of composite failure indices or Von-Mises stress for metallic parts. The analysis of a sandwich panel comprises several strength verifications, such as the check of facesheet and core failure as well as the check of facesheet and core local stability (shear crimping, wrinkling). In static analysis (SOL 101), MSC Nastran provides failure index output which can be used to generate fringe plots of Margins of Safety (MoS) in any post- processing tool. The other verifications (core strength and local stability) must be performed using different tools. For the dynamic analysis of sandwich panels, an analysis technique based on element forces and on failure envelope at laminate level has been developed and implemented in a Fortran program (SineMOS) which allows evaluating facesheet and core failure as well as local stability, taking into account modulus and phase information of the element forces. SineMOS is able to produce files containing information used to generate plots of minimum Margin of Safety in Patran for each failure mode. This paper shows the various steps of the analysis process, starting from the building of the failure envelope for the CFRP facesheet laminate. Finally some validation example is shown, comparing SineMOS results with results based on the application of static displacements to the nodes of the model.

  1. Asymptotic Representation of the Filtration-Wave Field in the Layer of an Inhomogeneous Medium in the Form of a Plane Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, A. I.; Akhmetova, O. V.; Koval‧skii, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    The filtration-wave process in the central layer of a three-layer anisotropic medium is described as an equivalent plane wave with a modified asymptotic method accurate in the mean. The initial problem is parametrized and broken down into simpler problems for the coefficients of expansion in an asymptotic parameter. The zero expansion coefficient describes the sought plane wave, whereas the first coefficient ensures refinement of the wave-front geometry. The exact solution of the parametrized problem is obtained on the basis of the Fourier sine transformation. The correctness of the developed method is confirmed by comparing the obtained asymptotic solutions and the coefficients of Maclaurin-series expansion of the exact solution of the parametrized problem in a formal parameter.

  2. Multiple Shaker Random Vibration Control--An Update

    SciTech Connect

    Smallwood, D.O.

    1999-02-18

    The theory of the control of multiple shakers driving a single test item is reviewed. Several improvements that have been introduced since the original papers on the subject will be discussed. The improvements include: (1) specification of the control spectra; (2) the control of non-square systems (the number of shakers does not have to be equal to the number of control points); (3) the connection between sine testing, waveform control, and random control; (4) improvements in feedback control; (5) overlap-add versus time domain randomization; and (6) reproduction of non-Gaussian waveforms.

  3. Multi-reflective acoustic wave device

    DOEpatents

    Andle, Jeffrey C.

    2006-02-21

    An acoustic wave device, which utilizes multiple localized reflections of acoustic wave for achieving an infinite impulse response while maintaining high tolerance for dampening effects, is disclosed. The device utilized a plurality of electromechanically significant electrodes disposed on most of the active surface. A plurality of sensors utilizing the disclosed acoustic wave mode device are also described.

  4. Gravity Waves

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Gravity Waves Ripple over Marine Stratocumulus Clouds ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), a fingerprint-like gravity wave feature occurs over a deck of marine stratocumulus clouds. Similar ... that occur when a pebble is thrown into a still pond, such "gravity waves" sometimes appear when the relatively stable and stratified air ...

  5. Estuarine resources use by juvenile Flagfin mojarra ( Eucinostomus melanopterus) in an inverse tropical estuary (Sine Saloum, Senegal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gning, Ndombour; Le Loc'h, François; Thiaw, Omar T.; Aliaume, Catherine; Vidy, Guy

    2010-03-01

    The Flagfin mojarra, Eucinostomus melanopterus, is a marine spawner whose young individuals are common in the Sine Saloum inverse estuary (Senegal). The species offers the opportunity to study both the use of the estuarine nursery resources and the impact of the particular environment of the inverse estuary on these resources. This will lead to a better understanding of the functioning of the nursery. We investigated the resources used by juvenile Flagfin mojarra by coupling stomach contents and stable isotopes methods. Young Flagfin mojarra feed on a wide range of invertebrates. Diet changed from copepods in the smallest size class (10-40 mm), to a range of invertebrates including amphipods, insect larvae, polychaetes and mollusc in the medium size class (up to 60 mm) and mainly polychaetes for individuals >60 mm in size. In mangrove habitats with moderate salinity, the diet was dominated by polychaetes and decapod larvae (crabs) whereas in habitats with higher salinity, diet was dominated by amphipods. In very hypersaline areas with scarce mangroves, diet comprised benthic copepods, chironomid larvae and ostracods. This agreed with a clear change in δ13C measured in fish sampled at downstream or upstream sites. Comparison with signatures of primary producers suggested that the local food web exploited by young Flagfin mojarra is mainly based on phytoplankton in the downstream mangrove area, and mainly on benthic microalgae in the upstream hypersaline area. As in many studies considering the food webs in mangrove, mangrove was not identified as a major contributor to the food web exploited by E. melanopterus. This needs further investigation particularly because the exportation of estuarine materials to the sea is limited in an inverse estuary.

  6. First upper limits from LIGO on gravitational wave bursts

    SciTech Connect

    B. Abbott et al.

    2004-03-09

    We report on a search for gravitational wave bursts using data from the first science run of the LIGO detectors. Our search focuses on bursts with durations ranging from 4 ms to 100 ms, and with significant power in the LIGO sensitivity band of 150 to 3000 Hz. We bound the rate for such detected bursts at less than 1.6 events per day at 90% confidence level. This result is interpreted in terms of the detection efficiency for ad hoc waveforms (Gaussians and sine-Gaussians) as a function of their root-sum-square strain h{sub rss}; typical sensitivities lie in the range h{sub rss} {approx} 10{sup -19} - 10{sup -17} strain/{radical}Hz, depending on waveform. We discuss improvements in the search method that will be applied to future science data from LIGO and other gravitational wave detectors.

  7. Surface Acoustic Wave Vibration Sensors for Measuring Aircraft Flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Moore, Jason P.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Under NASA's Advanced Air Vehicles Program the Advanced Air Transport Technology (AATT) Project is investigating flutter effects on aeroelastic wings. To support that work a new method for measuring vibrations due to flutter has been developed. The method employs low power Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors. To demonstrate the ability of the SAW sensor to detect flutter vibrations the sensors were attached to a Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite panel which was vibrated at six frequencies from 1Hz to 50Hz. The SAW data was compared to accelerometer data and was found to resemble sine waves and match each other closely. The SAW module design and results from the tests are presented here.

  8. GENERAL: Periodic folded waves for a (2+1)-dimensional modified dispersive water wave equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Hua

    2009-08-01

    A general solution, including three arbitrary functions, is obtained for a (2+1)-dimensional modified dispersive water-wave (MDWW) equation by means of the WTC truncation method. Introducing proper multiple valued functions and Jacobi elliptic functions in the seed solution, special types of periodic folded waves are derived. In the long wave limit these periodic folded wave patterns may degenerate into single localized folded solitary wave excitations. The interactions of the periodic folded waves and the degenerated single folded solitary waves are investigated graphically and found to be completely elastic.

  9. Analysis of porous media heterogeneities using the diffusion of pressure waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigord, P.; Caristan, Y.; Hulin, J. P.

    1993-06-01

    We present an experimental study and a model of the diffusion of sinusoidal pressure waves through porous media. We show that measurements of the hydraulic admittance A(omega) in the sine wave mode allow us to probe the structure of porous samples with an adjustable investigation depth depending on the frequency omega. The variations of A(omega) in heterogeneous media with a percolationlike geometry are modeled numerically on 2D percolation networks. One obtains a transition from normal diffusion at low frequencies to anomalous diffusion at higher frequencies. At the transition, the penetration depth of the wave is of the order of the percolation correlation length. The hydraulic admittance and transmittance of 20 percent porosity pressed calcite have been investigated experimentally with sine wave excitations at pulsations omega between 2 x 10 exp -4 and 0.42 rad/s. Both the modulus and the phase of the complex admittance A(omega) display normal diffusive variations as omega increases. Increasing the viscosity reduces the frequency above which the diffusive behavior is observed. The measured diffusion coefficient is 25 percent higher than that computed from permeability and compressibility values measured independently; this difference may be associated with nonconnected porosity.

  10. Calcification of thyroid nodules increases shear-wave speed (SWS) measurement: using multiple calcification-specific SWS cutoff values outperforms a single uniform cutoff value in diagnosing malignant thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bao-Ding; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Zhang, Yi-Feng; Liu, Bo-Ji; Guo, Le-Hang; Li, Dan-Dan; Zhao, Chong-Ke; Li, Xiao-Long; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Shuang-Shuang

    2016-01-01

    Conventional ultrasound cannot satisfactorily distinguish malignant and benign thyroid nodules. Shear-wave elastography (SWE) can evaluate tissue stiffness and complement conventional ultrasound in diagnosing malignant nodules. However, calcification of nodules may affect the results of SWE. The purposes of this study are to compare the differences of shear-wave speed (SWS) measurement among different calcification groups and compare the diagnostic performance between using a single uniform SWS cutoff value and multiple individual calcification-specific cutoff values using technique of point SWS measurement. We retrospectively identified 517 thyroid nodules (346 benign and 171 malignant nodules) examined by conventional ultrasound and point SWS measurement. There were 177 non-calcified, 159 micro-calcified and 181 macro-calcified nodules. The diagnostic performance was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and area under the curve (AUC) was computed. The mean SWS in malignant nodules more than doubled that of benign nodules (4.81±2.03 m/s vs. 2.29±0.99 m/s, p<0.001). The mean SWS of nodules progressively increased from the non-calcification (2.60±1.49 m/s), to micro-calcification (3.27±1.85 m/s) and to macro-calcification (3.68±2.26 m/s) groups (p<0.001), which was true in both the benign and malignant nodules. If we used individual SWS cutoff values for non- (SWS >2.42 m/s), micro- (SWS >2.88 m/s) and macro-calcification (SWS >3.59 m/s) nodules in the whole group, the AUC was 0.859 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.826-0.888), which was significantly better than the AUC of 0.816 (95% CI, 0.780-0.848) if a single uniform cutoff value (SWS >2.72 m/s) was applied to all the nodules regardless of calcification status (p=0.011). The cutoff values of SWS for different calcified nodules warrant future prospective validation. PMID:27588492

  11. Integrability: mathematical methods for studying solitary waves theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wazwaz, Abdul-Majid

    2014-03-01

    real features in a variety of vital areas in science, technology and engineering. In recognition of the importance of solitary waves theory and the underlying concept of integrable equations, a variety of powerful methods have been developed to carry out the required analysis. Examples of such methods which have been advanced are the inverse scattering method, the Hirota bilinear method, the simplified Hirota method, the Bäcklund transformation method, the Darboux transformation, the Pfaffian technique, the Painlevé analysis, the generalized symmetry method, the subsidiary ordinary differential equation method, the coupled amplitude-phase formulation, the sine-cosine method, the sech-tanh method, the mapping and deformation approach and many new other methods. The inverse scattering method, viewed as a nonlinear analogue of the Fourier transform method, is a powerful approach that demonstrates the existence of soliton solutions through intensive computations. At the center of the theory of integrable equations lies the bilinear forms and Hirota's direct method, which can be used to obtain soliton solutions by using exponentials. The Bäcklund transformation method is a useful invariant transformation that transforms one solution into another of a differential equation. The Darboux transformation method is a well known tool in the theory of integrable systems. It is believed that there is a connection between the Bäcklund transformation and the Darboux transformation, but it is as yet not known. Archetypes of integrable equations are the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, the modified KdV equation, the sine-Gordon equation, the Schrödinger equation, the Vakhnenko equation, the KdV6 equation, the Burgers equation, the fifth-order Lax equation and many others. These equations yield soliton solutions, multiple soliton solutions, breather solutions, quasi-periodic solutions, kink solutions, homo-clinic solutions and other solutions as well. The couplings of linear and

  12. Six3, a medaka homologue of the Drosophila homeobox gene sine oculis is expressed in the anterior embryonic shield and the developing eye.

    PubMed

    Loosli, F; Köster, R W; Carl, M; Krone, A; Wittbrodt, J

    1998-06-01

    The conserved transcription factor Pax6 is essential for eye development in Drosophila and mammals (Hill, R.E., Favor, J., Hogan, B.L.M., Ton, C.C.T., Saunders, G.F., Hanson, I.M., Prosser, J., Jordan, T., Hastie, N.D., van Heyningen, V., 1991. Mouse small eye results from mutations in a paired-like homeobox containing gene. Nature 354, 522-525; Ton, C., Hirvonen, H., Miwa, H., Weil, M., Monaghan, P., Jordan, T., van Heyningen, V., Hastie, N., Meijers-Heijboer, H., Drechsler, M., Royer-Pokora, B., Collins, F., Swaroop, A., Strong, L.C., Saunders, G.F., 1991. Positional cloning and characterization of a paired box- and homeobox-containing gene from the aniridia region. Cell 6, 1059-1074; Matsuo, T., Osumi-Yamashita, N., Noji, S., Ohuchi, H., Koyama, E., Myokai, F., Matsuo, N., Toniguchi, S., Dari, H., Jseki, S., Ninomiya, Y., Fujiwara, M., Watanabe, T., Eto, K., 1993. A mutation at the Pax-6 gene in rat small eye is associated with impaired migration of midbrain crest cells. Nature genet. 3, 299-304; Quiring, R., Walldorf, U., Kloter, U., Gehring, W.J., 1994. Homology of the eyeless gene of Drosophila to the small eye gene in mice and aniridia in humans. Science 265, 785-789). These findings led to the hypothesis that additional genes involved in invertebrate and vertebrate eye development are structurally and functionally conserved (Halder, G., Callaerts, P., Gehring, W.J., 1995. New perspectives on eye evolution. Curr. Opin. Gen. Dev. 5, 602-609; Quiring, R., Walldorf, U., Kloter, U., Gehring, W.J., 1994. Homology of the eyeless gene of Drosophila to the small eye gene in mice and aniridia in humans. Science 265, 785-789). Candidates for such conserved genes are the Drosophila homeobox gene sine oculis (Cheyette, B.N.R., Green, P.J., Martin, K., Garren, H., Hartenstein, V., Zipursky, S.L., 1994. The Drosophila sine oculis locus encodes a homeodomain-containing protein required for the development of the entire visual system. Neuron l2, 977-996) and its murine

  13. Spike-like solitary waves in incompressible boundary layers driven by a travelling wave.

    PubMed

    Feng, Peihua; Zhang, Jiazhong; Wang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Nonlinear waves produced in an incompressible boundary layer driven by a travelling wave are investigated, with damping considered as well. As one of the typical nonlinear waves, the spike-like wave is governed by the driven-damped Benjamin-Ono equation. The wave field enters a completely irregular state beyond a critical time, increasing the amplitude of the driving wave continuously. On the other hand, the number of spikes of solitary waves increases through multiplication of the wave pattern. The wave energy grows in a sequence of sharp steps, and hysteresis loops are found in the system. The wave energy jumps to different levels with multiplication of the wave, which is described by winding number bifurcation of phase trajectories. Also, the phenomenon of multiplication and hysteresis steps is found when varying the speed of driving wave as well. Moreover, the nature of the change of wave pattern and its energy is the stability loss of the wave caused by saddle-node bifurcation.

  14. Spike-like solitary waves in incompressible boundary layers driven by a travelling wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Peihua; Zhang, Jiazhong; Wang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Nonlinear waves produced in an incompressible boundary layer driven by a travelling wave are investigated, with damping considered as well. As one of the typical nonlinear waves, the spike-like wave is governed by the driven-damped Benjamin-Ono equation. The wave field enters a completely irregular state beyond a critical time, increasing the amplitude of the driving wave continuously. On the other hand, the number of spikes of solitary waves increases through multiplication of the wave pattern. The wave energy grows in a sequence of sharp steps, and hysteresis loops are found in the system. The wave energy jumps to different levels with multiplication of the wave, which is described by winding number bifurcation of phase trajectories. Also, the phenomenon of multiplication and hysteresis steps is found when varying the speed of driving wave as well. Moreover, the nature of the change of wave pattern and its energy is the stability loss of the wave caused by saddle-node bifurcation.

  15. Wave phenomena in sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhner-Böttcher, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Context: The dynamic atmosphere of the Sun exhibits a wealth of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. In the presence of strong magnetic fields, most spectacular and powerful waves evolve in the sunspot atmosphere. Allover the sunspot area, continuously propagating waves generate strong oscillations in spectral intensity and velocity. The most prominent and fascinating phenomena are the 'umbral flashes' and 'running penumbral waves' as seen in the sunspot chromosphere. Their nature and relation have been under intense discussion in the last decades. Aims: Waves are suggested to propagate upward along the magnetic field lines of sunspots. An observational study is performed to prove or disprove the field-guided nature and coupling of the prevalent umbral and penumbral waves. Comprehensive spectroscopic observations at high resolution shall provide new insights into the wave characteristics and distribution across the sunspot atmosphere. Methods: Two prime sunspot observations were carried out with the Dunn Solar Telescope at the National Solar Observatory in New Mexico and with the Vacuum Tower Telescope at the Teide Observatory on Tenerife. The two-dimensional spectroscopic observations were performed with the interferometric spectrometers IBIS and TESOS. Multiple spectral lines are scanned co-temporally to sample the dynamics at the photospheric and chromospheric layers. The time series (1 - 2.5 h) taken at high spatial and temporal resolution are analyzed according to their evolution in spectral intensities and Doppler velocities. A wavelet analysis was used to obtain the wave power and dominating wave periods. A reconstruction of the magnetic field inclination based on sunspot oscillations was developed. Results and conclusions: Sunspot oscillations occur continuously in spectral intensity and velocity. The obtained wave characteristics of umbral flashes and running penumbral waves strongly support the scenario of slow-mode magnetoacoustic wave propagation along the

  16. Making waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Traveling waves propagating along surfaces play an important role for intracellular organization. Such waves can appear spontaneously in reaction-diffusion systems, but only few general criteria for their existence are known. Analyzing the dynamics of the Min proteins in Escherichia coli, Levine and Kessler (2016 New J. Phys. 18 122001) now identified a new mechanism for the emergence of traveling waves that relies on conservation laws. From their analysis one can expect traveling waves to be a generic feature of systems made of proteins that have a cytoplasmic and a membrane-bound state.

  17. Millimeter Wave Antenna Technology,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-30

    development work will be required. Milli- meter wave antennas play a key role in the rationale for millimeter system designs beas ihspatial resolution...results in their popularity for multiple bea applications. In their design, care ust be exercised to minimize reflection losses at the lens surfaces...Alternatively, the radome surface may be treated to repel the water, and rivulet flow results. Since the water is more randomly distribu- ted, the gain loss is

  18. Nonlinear Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-15

    following surprising situation. Namely associated with the integrable nonlinear Schrodinger equations are standard numerical schemes which exhibit at...36. An Initial Boundary Value Problem for the Nonlinear Schrodinger Equations , A.S. Fokas, Physica D March 1989. 37. Evolution Theory, Periodic... gravity waves and wave excitation phenomena related to moving pressure distributions; numerical approximation and computation; nonlinear optics; and

  19. Microfluidic waves

    PubMed Central

    Utz, Marcel; Begley, Matthew R.; Haj-Hariri, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    The propagation of pressure waves in fluidic channels with elastic covers is discussed in view of applications to flow control in microfluidic devices. A theory is presented which describes pressure waves in the fluid that are coupled to bending waves in the elastic cover. At low frequencies, the lateral bending of the cover dominates over longitudinal bending, leading to propagating, non-dispersive longitudinal pressure waves in the channel. The theory addresses effects due to both the finite viscosity and compressibility of the fluid. The coupled waves propagate without dispersion, as long as the wave length is larger than the channel width. It is shown that in channels of typical microfluidic dimensions, wave velocities in the range of a few 10 m s−1 result if the channels are covered by films of a compliant material such as PDMS. The application of this principle to design microfluidic band pass filters based on standing waves is discussed. Characteristic frequencies in the range of a few kHz are readily achieved with quality factors above 30. PMID:21966667

  20. Conversion of borehole Stoneley waves to channel waves in coal

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.A.; Albright, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    Evidence for the mode conversion of borehole Stoneley waves to stratigraphically guided channel waves was discovered in data from a crosswell acoustic experiment conducted between wells penetrating thin coal strata located near Rifle, Colorado. Traveltime moveout observations show that borehole Stoneley waves, excited by a transmitter positioned at substantial distances in one well above and below a coal stratum at 2025 m depth, underwent partial conversion to a channel wave propagating away from the well through the coal. In an adjacent well the channel wave was detected at receiver locations within the coal, and borehole Stoneley waves, arising from a second partial conversion of channel waves, were detected at locations above and below the coal. The observed channel wave is inferred to be the third-higher Rayleigh mode based on comparison of the measured group velocity with theoretically derived dispersion curves. The identification of the mode conversion between borehole and stratigraphically guided waves is significant because coal penetrated by multiple wells may be detected without placing an acoustic transmitter or receiver within the waveguide. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Direct regulatory interaction of the eyeless protein with an eye-specific enhancer in the sine oculis gene during eye induction in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Niimi, T; Seimiya, M; Kloter, U; Flister, S; Gehring, W J

    1999-05-01

    The Pax-6 gene encodes a transcription factor with two DNA-binding domains, a paired and a homeodomain, and is expressed during eye morphogenesis and development of the nervous system. Pax-6 homologs have been isolated from a wide variety of organisms ranging from flatworms to humans. Since loss-of-function mutants in insects and mammals lead to an eyeless phenotype and Pax-6 orthologs from distantly related species are capable of inducing ectopic eyes in Drosophila, we have proposed that Pax-6 is a universal master control gene for eye morphogenesis. To determine the extent of evolutionary conservation of the eye morphogenetic pathway, we have begun to identify subordinate target genes of Pax-6. Previously we have shown that expression of two genes, sine oculis (so) and eyes absent (eya), is induced by eyeless (ey), the Pax-6 homolog of Drosophila. Here we present evidence from ectopic expression studies in transgenic flies, from transcription activation studies in yeast, and from gel shift assays in vitro that the EY protein activates transcription of sine oculis by direct interaction with an eye-specific enhancer in the long intron of the so gene.

  2. Nonexistence of small, odd breathers for a class of nonlinear wave equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalczyk, Michał; Martel, Yvan; Muñoz, Claudio

    2016-11-01

    In this note, we show that for a large class of nonlinear wave equations with odd nonlinearities, any globally defined odd solution which is small in the energy space decays to 0 in the local energy norm. In particular, this result shows nonexistence of small, odd breathers for some classical nonlinear Klein Gordon equations, such as the sine-Gordon equation and φ ^4 and φ ^6 models. It also partially answers a question of Soffer and Weinstein (Invent Math 136(1): 9-74, p 19 1999) about nonexistence of breathers for the cubic NLKG in dimension one.

  3. Mean Trajectory Gaussian Wave Packet Approach to Rotationally Inelastic Molecule-Surface Diffraction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    the wave function (11.3) in the time dependent Schrodinger equation and operate from the left with 8 2Tr IT Jd6b ! de sine Y(,o.This leads to 0 0 c...8217 orientation, and agress well with recent close coupling calculations. A connection is also made with the recent semiclassical trajectory work of DD I FORMN...orientation, and agress well with recent close coupling calculations. A connection is also made with the recent semiclassical trajectory work of DePristo. The

  4. Experimental observation of solitary waves in a new designed pendulum chain system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Changqing; Lei, Juanmian; Wu, Yecun; Li, Nan; Chen, Da; Shi, Qingfan

    2015-07-01

    A new coupled pendulum chain system is developed to vividly simulate the solitary solutions of the sine-Gordon (SG) equation. Transmission processes of three kinds of solitons (kink, anti-kink and breather) are systematically observed by using a high speed camera system. The solutions of the SG equation are derived through deducing the net external torque of the pendulums. The experimental data obtained are consistent with the theoretical calculation, which verifies that the system designed is an effective device to demonstrate the nonlinear behaviour of solitary waves in teaching and learning.

  5. Gravity Forcing Of Surface Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, K. E.

    2005-12-01

    Surface waves in deep water are forced entirely by gravity at the air-sea interface when no other forces act tangent to the surface. Then according to Newton's second law, the fluid acceleration parallel to the surface must equal the component of gravity parallel to the surface. Between crest and trough the fluid accelerates; between trough and crest the fluid decelerates. By replacing Bernoulli's law, gravity forcing becomes the dynamic boundary condition needed to solve the mathematical problem of these waves. Irrotational waves with a sinusoidal profile satisfy the gravity forcing condition, with the usual dispersion relation, provided the slope is small compared to one, as is true also of the Stokes development. However, the exact wave shape can be calculated using the gravity forcing method in a way that is less complex and less time consuming than that of the Stokes perturbation expansion. To the second order the surface elevation is the same as the Stokes result; the third order calculation has not been made yet. Extensions of the gravity forcing method can easily be carried out for multiple wave trains, solitary waves and bores, waves in finite constant mean depths, and internal waves in a two-layer system. For shoaling surface waves gravity forcing provides a physical understanding of the progressive steepening often observed near shore.

  6. Nonlinear theory of waves in solid state with cardinally changing crystalline structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aero, E. L.; Bulygin, A. N.

    2010-11-01

    A nonlinear theory of propagating periodic and nonlinear solitary waves (like kinks and solitons) related to the motion of defects in crystals and of specific periodic waves into which the former ones transform in the field of the compression stress was developed. The role of intense tension stress leading to the heavy structural rearrangement of the crystal as a result of the effect of the external stress on the interatomic potential barriers was taken into account as well. Crystals with a complex lattice consisting of two sublattices were considered. Arbitrarily large displacements of sublattices were analyzed. The nonlinear theory is based on an additional element of the translational symmetry typical for complex lattices but not introduced earlier in solid-state physics. The variational equations of macroscopic and microscopic displacements turn out to be a nonlinear generalization of the linear equations of acoustic and optical modes obtained by Carman, Born, and Huang Kun. The microscopic displacement fields are described by the nonlinear sine-Gordon equation. In the one-dimensional case, exact solutions of the nonlinear equations were found and their features were revealed. In the case of two-dimensional (2+1) fields, new methods of the exact solutions of the sine-Gordon equation were developed. They describe the interaction of the nonlinear waves with the structural inhomogeneities of solid state due to the external fields of stress and deformations.

  7. Gravity waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritts, David

    1987-01-01

    Gravity waves contributed to the establishment of the thermal structure, small scale (80 to 100 km) fluctuations in velocity (50 to 80 m/sec) and density (20 to 30%, 0 to peak). Dominant gravity wave spectrum in the middle atmosphere: x-scale, less than 100 km; z-scale, greater than 10 km; t-scale, less than 2 hr. Theorists are beginning to understand middle atmosphere motions. There are two classes: Planetary waves and equatorial motions, gravity waves and tidal motions. The former give rise to variability at large scales, which may alter apparent mean structure. Effects include density and velocity fluctuations, induced mean motions, and stratospheric warmings which lead to the breakup of the polar vortex and cooling of the mesosphere. On this scale are also equatorial quasi-biennial and semi-annual oscillations. Gravity wave and tidal motions produce large rms fluctuations in density and velocity. The magnitude of the density fluctuations compared to the mean density is of the order of the vertical wavelength, which grows with height. Relative density fluctuations are less than, or of the order of 30% below the mesopause. Such motions may cause significant and variable convection, and wind shear. There is a strong seasonal variation in gravity wave amplitude. Additional observations are needed to address and quantify mean and fluctuation statistics of both density and mean velocity, variability of the mean and fluctuations, and to identify dominant gravity wave scales and sources as well as causes of variability, both temporal and geographic.

  8. Moreton Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, B. J.

    1999-01-01

    "Moreton waves," named for the observer who popularized them, are a solar phenomenon also known in scientific literature as "Moreton-Ramsey wave," "flare waves," "flare-associated waves," "MHD blast waves," "chromospheric shock fronts" and various other combinations of terms which connote violently propagating impulsive disturbances. It is unclear whether all of the observations to which these terms have been applied pertain to a single physical phenomenon: there has perhaps been some overlap between the observations and the assumed physical properties of the observed occurrence. Moreton waves are ideally observed in the wings of H alpha, and appear as semi-circular fronts propagating at speeds ranging from several hundred to over a thousand km/sec. They form an arc, or "brow shape" which can span up to 180 degrees. Extrapolating the speed and locations of the arc indicates that the phenomenon's origin intersects well with the impulsive phase of the associated H alpha flare (if the flare exhibits an impulsive phase). However, the arc may not form or may not be observable until it is tens of megameters from the flaring region, and subsequently can propagate to distances exceeding 100 megameters. The high speeds and distances of propagation, plus the associated radio and energetic particle observations, provided strong evidence of a coronal, rather than a chromospheric origin. The H alpha manifestation of the wave is assumed to be the "ground track" or "skirt" of a three-dimensional disturbance.

  9. Atmospheric Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    With its Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), half of the Ralph instrument, New Horizons captured several pictures of mesoscale gravity waves in Jupiter's equatorial atmosphere. Buoyancy waves of this type are seen frequently on Earth - for example, they can be caused when air flows over a mountain and a regular cloud pattern forms downstream. In Jupiter's case there are no mountains, but if conditions in the atmosphere are just right, it is possible to form long trains of these small waves. The source of the wave excitation seems to lie deep in Jupiter's atmosphere, below the visible cloud layers at depths corresponding to pressures 10 times that at Earth's surface. The New Horizons measurements showed that the waves move about 100 meters per second faster than surrounding clouds; this is about 25% of the speed of sound on Earth and is much greater than current models of these waves predict. Scientists can 'read' the speed and patterns these waves to learn more about activity and stability in the atmospheric layers below.

  10. Analytic wave model of Stark deceleration dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Gubbels, Koos; Meijer, Gerard; Friedrich, Bretislav

    2006-06-15

    Stark deceleration relies on time-dependent inhomogeneous electric fields which repetitively exert a decelerating force on polar molecules. Fourier analysis reveals that such fields, generated by an array of field stages, consist of a superposition of partial waves with well-defined phase velocities. Molecules whose velocities come close to the phase velocity of a given wave get a ride from that wave. For a square-wave temporal dependence of the Stark field, the phase velocities of the waves are found to be odd-fraction multiples of a fundamental phase velocity {lambda}/{tau}, with {lambda} and {tau} the spatial and temporal periods of the field. Here we study explicitly the dynamics due to any of the waves as well as due to their mutual perturbations. We first solve the equations of motion for the case of single-wave interactions and exploit their isomorphism with those for the biased pendulum. Next we analyze the perturbations of the single-wave dynamics by other waves and find that these have no net effect on the phase stability of the acceleration or deceleration process. Finally, we find that a packet of molecules can also ride a wave which results from an interference of adjacent waves. In this case, small phase stability areas form around phase velocities that are even-fraction multiples of the fundamental velocity. A detailed comparison with classical trajectory simulations and with experiment demonstrates that the analytic 'wave model' encompasses all the longitudinal physics encountered in a Stark decelerator.

  11. Calcium wave of Brain Astrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornell Bell, A. H.

    1997-03-01

    Time lapse confocal scanning laser microscopy was used to study hippocampal astrocyte cultures loaded with a calcium indicator, Fluo3-AM (4 uM). kThe neurotransmitter kainate (100uM) overwhelms the Na+-buffering capacity of astrocytes within 100 sec resulting in reversal of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. This results in a subcellular site where Ca2+ entering the cytoplasm contributes to a long-distance Ca2+ wave which travels at 20 um/sec without decrement. Image analysis has shown calcium waves not only at a high Kainate dose, but also at a low Kainate dose, e.g. 10uM. These are, however, shortlived and burried in an extremely noisy background and only detectable by analyzing the calcium waves images for spatio-temporal coherence. As the kainate dose increases, more large scale coherent structures with visible geometric features (spiral waves and target waves) can be observed. Multiple spiral waves are produced when the Kainate dose increases to 100 uM. These waves travel at a constant velocity across entire microscope fields for long time periods (>30 mins). Na+ channels have no effect on the Kainate wave. Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels are not involved and Ca2+ enters through reversal of the exchanger. Ca2+ release from stores does not contribute to the kainate wave. Removal of Na+ or Ca2+ from outside and the specific Na+/Ca2+ exchange inhibitor benzamil (10 uM) inhibit the kainate wave. A functional antibody to alpha6-Integrin which is localized to membrane regions between cells inhibits the spread of the kainate wave in a dose and time-dependent manner. Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleach (FRAP) techniques indicate that gap junctions remain open between cells. This would imply that Ca2+ or IP3 need not pass through the gap junction, but reversal of the exchanger would propel the Ca2+ wave at the cell surface.

  12. Wave Propagation in the Vicinities of Rock Fractures Under Obliquely Incident Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yang; Li, Jianchun; He, Lei; laloui, Lyesse; Zhao, Jian

    2016-05-01

    Though obliquely incident plane wave across rock fractures has been extensively investigated by theoretical analysis, the quantitative identification of each wave emerged from fractures has not been achieved either in numerical simulation or laboratory experiment. On the other hand, there are no theoretical results describing the stress/velocity state of the rocks beside a fracture. The superposition of the multiple waves propagating in the media results in the variation of the stress/velocity state. To understand the superposition of the wave components in the adjacent rocks of a facture, based on the geometrical analysis of the wave paths, the lag times among passing waves at an arbitrary point are determined. The normalised critical distances from the fracture to the measuring locations where the corresponding harmonic waves depart from other waves for a certain duration are then derived. Discussion on the correction for an arbitrary incident wave is then carried out considering the changes of the duration of the reflected and transmitted waves. Under the guidance of the analysis, wave superposition is performed for theoretical results and separated waves are obtained from numerical model. They are demonstrated to be consistent with each other. The measurement and the data processing provide an approach for wave separation in a relatively unbounded media. In addition, based on the mechanical analysis on the wave front, an indirect wave separation method is proposed which provides a possibility for laboratory experiments of wave propagation with an arbitrary incident angle.

  13. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple sclerosis Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially disabling disease of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). In MS, the immune system attacks the protective ...

  14. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the ... attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Multiple sclerosis affects women more than men. It often begins ...

  15. Multiple myeloma

    MedlinePlus

    Plasma cell dyscrasia; Plasma cell myeloma; Malignant plasmacytoma; Plasmacytoma of bone; Myeloma - multiple ... Multiple myeloma most commonly causes: Low red blood cell count ( anemia ), which can lead to fatigue and ...

  16. Gravitational wave-Gauge field oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, R. R.; Devulder, C.; Maksimova, N. A.

    2016-09-01

    Gravitational waves propagating through a stationary gauge field transform into gauge field waves and back again. When multiple families of flavor-space locked gauge fields are present, the gravitational and gauge field waves exhibit novel dynamics. At high frequencies, the system behaves like coupled oscillators in which the gravitational wave is the central pacemaker. Due to energy conservation and exchange among the oscillators, the wave amplitudes lie on a multidimensional sphere, reminiscent of neutrino flavor oscillations. This phenomenon has implications for cosmological scenarios based on flavor-space locked gauge fields.

  17. Normal compression wave scattering by a permeable crack in a fluid-saturated poroelastic solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yongjia; Hu, Hengshan; Rudnicki, John W.

    2017-03-01

    A mathematical formulation is presented for the dynamic stress intensity factor (mode I) of a finite permeable crack subjected to a time-harmonic propagating longitudinal wave in an infinite poroelastic solid. In particular, the effect of the wave-induced fluid flow due to the presence of a liquid-saturated crack on the dynamic stress intensity factor is analyzed. Fourier sine and cosine integral transforms in conjunction with Helmholtz potential theory are used to formulate the mixed boundary-value problem as dual integral equations in the frequency domain. The dual integral equations are reduced to a Fredholm integral equation of the second kind. It is found that the stress intensity factor monotonically decreases with increasing frequency, decreasing the fastest when the crack width and the slow wave wavelength are of the same order. The characteristic frequency at which the stress intensity factor decays the fastest shifts to higher frequency values when the crack width decreases.

  18. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  19. Modulation of short waves by long waves. [ocean wave interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reece, A. M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Wave-tank experiments were performed to investigate the cyclic short-wave energy changes, related in phase to an underlying long wave, which occur during active generation of the short-wave field by wind. Measurements of time series of the short-wave slope were made by a laser-optical system, where the basic long-wave parameters were controlled and wind speeds were accurately reproducible. The short-wave slope variances were found to exhibit cyclic variations that are related to the phase of the long wave. The variations result from two combined effects: (1) the short wave frequency is varied by the long-wave orbital velocity; (2) the energy of the short waves is modulated by the actions of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic couplings that operate on the short waves in a manner related to the long-wave phase.

  20. Observation of equipartition of seismic waves.

    PubMed

    Hennino, R; Trégourès, N; Shapiro, N M; Margerin, L; Campillo, M; van Tiggelen, B A; Weaver, R L

    2001-04-09

    Equipartition is a first principle in wave transport, based on the tendency of multiple scattering to homogenize phase space. We report observations of this principle for seismic waves created by earthquakes in Mexico. We find qualitative agreement with an equipartition model that accounts for mode conversions at the Earth's surface.

  1. Gravitational wave astronomy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, L. S.

    Astronomers rely on a multiplicity of observational perspectives in order to infer the nature of the Universe. Progress in astronomy has historically been associated with new or improved observational perspectives. Gravitational wave detectors now under construction will provide us with a perspective on the Universe fundamentally different from any we have come to know. With this new perspective comes the hope of new insights and understanding, not just of exotic astrophysical processes, but of "bread-and-butter" astrophysics: e.g., stars and stellar evolution, galaxy formation and evolution, neutron star structure, and cosmology. In this report the author discusses briefly a small subset of the areas of conventional, "bread-and-butter" astrophysics where we can reasonably hope that gravitational wave observations will provide us with valuable new insights and understandings.

  2. Dynamics of Rocky Mountain Lee Waves Observed During Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean-Day, J.; Chan, K. R.; Bowen, S. W.; Bui, T. P.; Gary, B. L.; Chan, K. Roland (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    On two days during SUCCESS, the DC-8 sampled wave clouds which formed downstream of the ridges east of the Rocky Mountains. Wave morphology for both flights is deduced from temperature and 3-dimensional wind measurements from the MMS, isentrope profiles from the MTP, and linear perturbation theory. The waves observed on 960430 are smaller and found to be decaying with altitude, while the waves sampled on 960502 are vertically propagating and consist of larger, multiple wave scales. Wave orientations are consistent with the underlying topography and regions of high ice crystal concentration. Updraft velocities were estimated from the derived wave properties and are consistent with MMS vertical winds.

  3. Multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Peller, Patrick J

    2015-04-01

    This article presents a review of multiple myeloma, precursor states, and related plasma cell disorders. The clinical roles of fluorodeoxyglucose PET/computed tomography (CT) and the potential to improve the management of patients with multiple myeloma are discussed. The clinical and research data supporting the utility of PET/CT use in evaluating myeloma and other plasma cell dyscrasias continues to grow.

  4. Making WAVES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindes, Victoria A.; Hom, Keri; Brookshaw, Keith

    About 46% of high school graduates enrolled in California State Universities need remedial courses in both math and English to prepare them for college level. These students typically earned B averages in their high school math and English classes. In order to address this issue, Shasta College launched Operation WAVES (Win by Achieving Valuable…

  5. New Hybridized Surface Wave Approach for Geotechnical Modeling of Shear Wave Velocity at Strong Motion Recording Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayen, R.; Carkin, B.; Minasian, D.

    2006-12-01

    Strong motion recording (SMR) networks often have little or no shear wave velocity measurements at stations where characterization of site amplification and site period effects is needed. Using the active Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW) method, and passive H/V microtremor method we have investigated nearly two hundred SMR sites in California, Alaska, Japan, Australia, China and Taiwan. We are conducting these studies, in part, to develop a new hybridized method of site characterization that utilizes a parallel array of harmonic-wave sources for active-source SASW, and a single long period seismometer for passive-source microtremor measurement. Surface wave methods excel in their ability to non-invasively and rapidly characterize the variation of ground stiffness properties with depth below the surface. These methods are lightweight, inexpensive to deploy, and time-efficient. They have been shown to produce accurate and deep soil stiffness profiles. By placing and wiring shakers in a large parallel circuit, either side-by-side on the ground or in a trailer-mounted array, a strong in-phase harmonic wave can be produced. The effect of arraying many sources in parallel is to increase the amplitude of waves received at far-away spaced seismometers at low frequencies so as to extend the longest wavelengths of the captured dispersion curve. The USGS system for profiling uses this concept by arraying between two and eight electro-mechanical harmonic-wave shakers. With large parallel arrays of vibrators, a dynamic force in excess of 1000 lb can be produced to vibrate the ground and produce surface waves. We adjust the harmonic wave through a swept-sine procedure to profile surface wave dispersion down to a frequency of 1 Hz and out to surface wave-wavelengths of 200-1000 meters, depending on the site stiffness. The parallel-array SASW procedure is augmented using H/V microtremor data collected with the active source turned off. Passive array microtremor data

  6. Mode-Division-Multiplexing of Multiple Bessel-Gaussian Beams Carrying Orbital-Angular-Momentum for Obstruction-Tolerant Free-Space Optical and Millimetre-Wave Communication Links

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Nisar; Zhao, Zhe; Li, Long; Huang, Hao; Lavery, Martin P. J.; Liao, Peicheng; Yan, Yan; Wang, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Ren, Yongxiong; Almaiman, Ahmed; Willner, Asher J.; Ashrafi, Solyman; Molisch, Andreas F.; Tur, Moshe; Willner, Alan E.

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the potential of using ‘self-healing’ Bessel-Gaussian beams carrying orbital-angular-momentum to overcome limitations in obstructed free-space optical and 28-GHz millimetre-wave communication links. We multiplex and transmit two beams (l = +1 and +3) over 1.4 metres in both the optical and millimetre-wave domains. Each optical beam carried 50-Gbaud quadrature-phase-shift-keyed data, and each millimetre-wave beam carried 1-Gbaud 16-quadrature-amplitude-modulated data. In both types of links, opaque disks of different sizes are used to obstruct the beams at different transverse positions. We observe self-healing after the obstructions, and assess crosstalk and power penalty when data is transmitted. Moreover, we show that Bessel-Gaussian orbital-angular-momentum beams are more tolerant to obstructions than non-Bessel orbital-angular-momentum beams. For example, when obstructions that are 1 and 0.44 the size of the l = +1 beam, are placed at beam centre, optical and millimetre-wave Bessel-Gaussian beams show ~6 dB and ~8 dB reduction in crosstalk, respectively. PMID:26926068

  7. Comparison of modeling methods to determine liver-to-blood inocula and parasite multiplication rates during controlled human malaria infection.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Alexander D; Edwards, Nick J; Duncan, Christopher J A; Thompson, Fiona M; Sheehy, Susanne H; O'Hara, Geraldine A; Anagnostou, Nicholas; Walther, Michael; Webster, Daniel P; Dunachie, Susanna J; Porter, David W; Andrews, Laura; Gilbert, Sarah C; Draper, Simon J; Hill, Adrian V S; Bejon, Philip

    2013-07-15

    Controlled human malaria infection is used to measure efficacy of candidate malaria vaccines before field studies are undertaken. Mathematical modeling using data from quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) parasitemia monitoring can discriminate between vaccine effects on the parasite's liver and blood stages. Uncertainty regarding the most appropriate modeling method hinders interpretation of such trials. We used qPCR data from 267 Plasmodium falciparum infections to compare linear, sine-wave, and normal-cumulative-density-function models. We find that the parameters estimated by these models are closely correlated, and their predictive accuracy for omitted data points was similar. We propose that future studies include the linear model.

  8. Shift happens: optical sensing with Dyakonov-Tamm waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Faryad, Muhammad

    2014-08-01

    An optical modality to sense a fluid by exploiting Dyakonov-Tamm (DT) waves was devised. In the modality, the fluid is present on both sides of the guiding interface. Theory showed that the angular location of reflectance dip in a practically implementable configuration will shift if the refractive index of the fluid changes. Furthermore, the detection sensitivity will decrease as the refractive index of the fluid increases over a wide range, and should be comparable to that for sensing modalities that exploit surface-plasmon-polariton (SPP) waves. Higher sensitivities are available with DT waves than with SPP waves, and the DT-wave-based sensor should be simpler to fabricate than the SPP-wave-based sensor. Multiple DT waves are excitable at the same frequency, leading to multiple channels for more reliable sensing as well as for sensing multiple analytes simultaneously.

  9. Theory of optical sensing with Dyakonov-Tamm waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Faryad, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    An optical modality to sense a fluid by exploiting Dyakonov-Tamm (DT) waves was devised. In the modality, the fluid is present on both sides of the guiding interface. Theoretical analysis indicated that the angular location of the reflectance dip in a practically implementable configuration will shift if the refractive index of the fluid changes. Furthermore, the detection sensitivity will decrease as the refractive index of the fluid increases over a wide range, and should be comparable to that for sensing modalities that exploit surface-plasmon-polariton (SPP) waves. Higher sensitivities are available with DT waves than with SPP waves, and the DT-wave-based sensor should be simpler to fabricate than the SPP-wave-based sensor. Multiple DT waves are excitable at the same frequency, leading to multiple channels for more reliable sensing as well as for sensing multiple analytes simultaneously.

  10. Numerical solutions of nonlinear wave equations

    SciTech Connect

    Kouri, D.J.; Zhang, D.S.; Wei, G.W.; Konshak, T.; Hoffman, D.K.

    1999-01-01

    Accurate, stable numerical solutions of the (nonlinear) sine-Gordon equation are obtained with particular consideration of initial conditions that are exponentially close to the phase space homoclinic manifolds. Earlier local, grid-based numerical studies have encountered difficulties, including numerically induced chaos for such initial conditions. The present results are obtained using the recently reported distributed approximating functional method for calculating spatial derivatives to high accuracy and a simple, explicit method for the time evolution. The numerical solutions are chaos-free for the same conditions employed in previous work that encountered chaos. Moreover, stable results that are free of homoclinic-orbit crossing are obtained even when initial conditions are within 10{sup {minus}7} of the phase space separatrix value {pi}. It also is found that the present approach yields extremely accurate solutions for the Korteweg{endash}de Vries and nonlinear Schr{umlt o}dinger equations. Our results support Ablowitz and co-workers{close_quote} conjecture that ensuring high accuracy of spatial derivatives is more important than the use of symplectic time integration schemes for solving solitary wave equations. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. On neutron surface waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ignatovich, V. K.

    2009-01-15

    It is shown that neutron surface waves do not exist. The difference between the neutron wave mechanics and the wave physics of electromagnetic and acoustic processes, which allows the existence of surface waves, is analyzed.

  12. Parenting Multiples

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents. It's important for caretakers to spend time speaking directly to each child, as well as reading to them and encouraging language. Social skills can come earlier for multiples, simply because they' ...

  13. Simulation of the nonlinear evolution of electron plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Cairns, I. H.

    1991-01-01

    Electrostatic waves driven by an electron beam in an ambient magnetized plasma were studied using a quasi-1D PIC simulation of electron plasma waves (i.e., Langmuir waves). The results disclose the presence of a process for moving wave energy from frequencies and wavenumbers predicted by linear theory to the Langmuir-like frequencies during saturation of the instability. A decay process for producing backward propagating Langmuir-like waves, along with low-frequency waves, is observed. The simulation results, however, indicate that the backscattering process is not the conventional Langmuir wave decay. Electrostatic waves near multiples of the electron plasma frequency are generated by wave-wave coupling during the nonlinear stage of the simulations, confirming the suggestion of Klimas (1983).

  14. The effect of intermediate-scale motions on line formation. [sawtooth and sine motions in solar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shine, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    The problem of LTE and non-LTE line formation in the presence of nonthermal velocity fields with geometric scales between the microscopic and macroscopic limits is investigated in the cases of periodic sinusoidal and sawtooth waves. For a fixed source function (the LTE case), it is shown that time-averaged line profiles progress smoothly from the microscopic to the macroscopic limits as the geometric scale of the motions increases, that the sinusoidal motions produce symmetric time-averaged profiles, and that the sawtooth motions cause a redshift. In several idealized non-LTE cases, it is found that intermediate-scale velocity fields can significantly increase the surface source functions and line-core intensities. Calculations are made for a two-level atom in an isothermal atmosphere for a range of velocity scales and non-LTE coupling parameters and also for a two-level atom and a four-level representation of Na I line formation in the Harvard-Smithsonian Reference Atmosphere (1971) solar model. It is found that intermediate-scale velocity fields in the solar atmosphere could explain the central intensities of the Na I D lines and other strong absorption lines without invoking previously suggested high electron densities.

  15. Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzandt, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    Atmospheric parameters fluctuate on all scales. In the mesoscale these fluctuations are occasionally sinusoidal so that they can be interpreted as gravity waves. Usually, however, the fluctuations are noise like, so that their cause is not immediately evident. Results of mesoscale observations in the 20 to 120 m altitude range that are suitable for incorporation into a model atmosphere are very limited. In the stratosphere and lower mesosphere observations are sparse and very little data has been summarized into appropriate form. There is much more data in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere, but again very little of it has been summarized. The available mesoscale spectra of horizontal wind u versus vertical wave number m in the 20 to 120 km altitude range are shown together with a spectrum from the lower atmosphere for comparison. Further information about these spectra is given. In spite of the large range of altitudes and latitudes, the spectra from the lower atmosphere (NASA, 1971 and DEWAN, 1984) are remarkably similar in both shape and amplitude. The mean slopes of -2.38 for the NASA spectrum and -2.7 for the Dewan spectra are supported by the mean slope of -2.75 found by ROSENBERG et al. (1974). The mesospheric spectrum is too short to establish a shape. Its amplitude is about an order of magnitude larger than the NASA spectrum in the same wave number range. The NASA and Dewan spectra suggest that the mesoscale spectra in the lower atmosphere are insensitive to meteorological conditions.

  16. Multiple charge density wave states at the surface of TbTe3

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Ling; Kraft, Aaron M.; Sharma, Bishnu; Singh, Manoj; Walmsley, Philip; Fisher, Ian R.; Boyer, Michael C.

    2016-11-01

    We studied TbTe3 using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) in the temperature range of 298–355 K. Our measurements detect a unidirectional charge density wave (CDW) state in the surface Te layer with a wave vector consistent with that of the bulk qCDW = 0.30 ± 0.01c*. However, unlike previous STM measurements, and differing from measurements probing the bulk, we detect two perpendicular orientations for the unidirectional CDW with no directional preference for the in-plane crystal axes (a or c axis) and no noticeable difference in wave vector magnitude. In addition, we find regions in which the bidirectional CDW states coexist. We propose that observation of two unidirectional CDW states indicates a decoupling of the surface Te layer from the rare-earth block layer below, and that strain variations in the Te surface layer drive the local CDW direction to the specific unidirectional or, in rare occurrences, bidirectional CDW orders observed. This indicates that similar driving mechanisms for CDW formation in the bulk, where anisotropic lattice strain energy is important, are at play at the surface. Furthermore, the wave vectors for the bidirectional order we observe differ from those theoretically predicted for checkerboard order competing with stripe order in a Fermi-surface nesting scenario, suggesting that factors beyond Fermi-surface nesting drive CDW order in TbTe3. As a result, our temperature-dependent measurements provide evidence for localized CDW formation above the bulk transition temperature TCDW.

  17. Wide-Range Filter-Based Sinusoidal Wave Synthesizer for Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Measurements.

    PubMed

    Chia-Ling Wei; Yi-Wen Wang; Bin-Da Liu

    2014-06-01

    A filter-based wide-range programmable sinusoidal wave synthesizer for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement is proposed. The adopted filter is implemented with switched-capacitor circuits, so its corner frequency is accurate and adjustable by changing its switching frequency. The proposed sine wave synthesizer is implemented by using a 0.35 μm 2P4M 3.3 V mixed-signal polycide process. According to the measured results, the output frequency of the proposed synthesizer is 40 mHz-40 kHz . The measured total harmonic distortion is 0.073% at 10 Hz and 0.075% at 10 kHz, both of which are better than that of a typical function generator.

  18. Application of RMS for damage detection by guided elastic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzieński, M.; Doliński, Ł.; Krawczuk, M.; dot Zak, A.; Ostachowicz, W.

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents certain results of an experimental study related with a damage detection in structural elements based on deviations in guided elastic wave propagation patterns. In order to excite guided elastic waves within specimens tested piezoelectric transducers have been applied. As excitation signals 5 sine cycles modulated by Hanning window have been used. Propagation of guided elastic waves has been monitored by a scanning Doppler laser vibrometer. The time signals recorded during measurement have been utilised to calculate the values of RMS. It has turned out that the values of RMS differed significantly in damaged areas from the values calculated for the healthy ones. In this way it has become possible to pinpoint precisely the locations of damage over the entire measured surface. All experimental investigations have been carried out for thin aluminium or composite plates. Damage has been simulated by a small additional mass attached on the plate surface or by a narrow notch cut. It has been shown that proposed method allows one to localise damage of various shapes and sizes within structural elements over the whole area under investigation.

  19. [Multiple meningiomas].

    PubMed

    Terrier, L-M; François, P

    2016-06-01

    Multiple meningiomas (MMs) or meningiomatosis are defined by the presence of at least 2 lesions that appear simultaneously or not, at different intracranial locations, without the association of neurofibromatosis. They present 1-9 % of meningiomas with a female predominance. The occurrence of multiple meningiomas is not clear. There are 2 main hypotheses for their development, one that supports the independent evolution of these tumors and the other, completely opposite, that suggests the propagation of tumor cells of a unique clone transformation, through cerebrospinal fluid. NF2 gene mutation is an important intrinsic risk factor in the etiology of multiple meningiomas and some exogenous risk factors have been suspected but only ionizing radiation exposure has been proven. These tumors can grow anywhere in the skull but they are more frequently observed in supratentorial locations. Their histologic types are similar to unique meningiomas of psammomatous, fibroblastic, meningothelial or transitional type and in most cases are benign tumors. The prognosis of these tumors is eventually good and does not differ from the unique tumors except for the cases of radiation-induced multiple meningiomas, in the context of NF2 or when diagnosed in children where the outcome is less favorable. Each meningioma lesion should be dealt with individually and their multiple character should not justify their resection at all costs.

  20. Capillary rogue waves.

    PubMed

    Shats, M; Punzmann, H; Xia, H

    2010-03-12

    We report the first observation of extreme wave events (rogue waves) in parametrically driven capillary waves. Rogue waves are observed above a certain threshold in forcing. Above this threshold, frequency spectra broaden and develop exponential tails. For the first time we present evidence of strong four-wave coupling in nonlinear waves (high tricoherence), which points to modulation instability as the main mechanism in rogue waves. The generation of rogue waves is identified as the onset of a distinct tail in the probability density function of the wave heights. Their probability is higher than expected from the measured wave background.

  1. Nonlinear Waves.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-27

    con- €"" straints:’. *’Permanent address: Dipartimento di Fisica . Universita di Roma 1. 00185 u 11lia. tr(a U(x)) = 0. (7a. 2469 1. Math,. PyS. 26 (10...Tenenblat Universidade de Brasilia Departamento de Matematica Brasilia, Brasil September 1985 , - . Abstract The generalized wave equation and generalized...Permanent addrems: Dipartimento di Fisica . Universita di Roma t3 U, 0. Roma. Italy The linear limit of i3) provides the most general solution ot 2614 J. MatM

  2. Wave Dissipation and Balance - NOPP Wave Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    processes that affect wind-generated ocean gravity waves. The various dissipative processes that contribute to the spectral wave evolution are isolated...over mature ocean surface wave spectra. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34:3345–2358, 2004. K. Hasselmann. On the non-linear energy transfer in a gravity wave...P. Giovanangeli. Air flow structure over short- gravity breaking water waves. Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 126:477–705, 2008. doi: 10.1007/s10546-007

  3. Color image encryption by using Yang-Gu mixture amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm in gyrator transform domain and two-dimensional Sine logistic modulation map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Liansheng; Liu, Benqing; Wang, Qiang; Li, Ye; Liang, Junli

    2015-12-01

    A color image encryption scheme is proposed based on Yang-Gu mixture amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm and two-coupled logistic map in gyrator transform domain. First, the color plaintext image is decomposed into red, green and blue components, which are scrambled individually by three random sequences generated by using the two-dimensional Sine logistic modulation map. Second, each scrambled component is encrypted into a real-valued function with stationary white noise distribution in the iterative amplitude-phase retrieval process in the gyrator transform domain, and then three obtained functions are considered as red, green and blue channels to form the color ciphertext image. Obviously, the ciphertext image is real-valued function and more convenient for storing and transmitting. In the encryption and decryption processes, the chaotic random phase mask generated based on logistic map is employed as the phase key, which means that only the initial values are used as private key and the cryptosystem has high convenience on key management. Meanwhile, the security of the cryptosystem is enhanced greatly because of high sensitivity of the private keys. Simulation results are presented to prove the security and robustness of the proposed scheme.

  4. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: from the sine qua non condition of bone exposure to a non-exposed BRONJ entity.

    PubMed

    Koth, Valesca Sander; Figueiredo, Maria Antonia; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves; Cherubini, Karen

    The present work aimed to review the literature focusing on the diagnostic criteria for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) and its implications regarding the management of the disease. Since the report of the first cases, BRONJ concepts, diagnostic criteria and guidelines have been changed. The presence of bone exposure in the oral cavity was at first a sine qua non condition for diagnosis. However, it seems that the great concern now is the possibility of occurrence of BRONJ without this feature. Some authors warn that the bone exposure criterion leads to late diagnosis and poor response to treatment. Meanwhile, some radiographic features, such as bone sclerosis, have been postulated as early signs of the disease. Criticisms have also been raised about the clinical staging system of BRONJ. While there is no consensus on the subject, common sense recommends treating symptomatic patients taking bisphosphonate as having BRONJ despite the absence of bone exposure; and asymptomatic patients must be kept under dental follow-up, since all of them are at risk for BRONJ.

  5. Nonlinear Wave Propagation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-08

    equation may be thought of as the singular integral form of the Korteweg - deVries equation ut + 2uu +u =0. (4) A preprint is almost ready on this work...singular integral equation since the well known Benjamin-Ono equation ( solved by us in 1983): ut + 2uu + Hu 0. (3) It should be noted that the Benjamin-Ono...Secondly, we have recently solved an n-dimensional generalization of the sine-Gordon equation which had been studied earlier and derived by a group of

  6. CMS-Wave

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-27

    2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CMS -Wave 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Program CMS -Wave CMS -Wave is a two-dimensional spectral wind-wave generation and transformation model that employs a forward-marching, finite...difference method to solve the wave action conservation equation. Capabilities of CMS -Wave include wave shoaling, refraction, diffraction, reflection

  7. Multiple shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenker, Stephen H.; Stanford, Douglas

    2014-12-01

    Using gauge/gravity duality, we explore a class of states of two CFTs with a large degree of entanglement, but with very weak local two-sided correlation. These states are constructed by perturbing the thermofield double state with thermal-scale operators that are local at different times. Acting on the dual black hole geometry, these perturbations create an intersecting network of shock waves, supporting a very long wormhole. Chaotic CFT dynamics and the associated fast scrambling time play an essential role in determining the qualitative features of the resulting geometries.

  8. Nonlinear Waves: Coherence, Chaos, Pattern Formation, and Geometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    analytical identificaticn .f all homoclinic structures for the integrable sine-Gordon equation : J ° direct numerical ietection of homoclinic crossings...driven sine-Gordon equation include (1) a numerical study of low dimensional chaotic attractors with coherent spatial structures, including dynamical...normal modes; (2) complete analytical identification of all homoclinic structures for the integrable sine-Gordon equation ; (3) direct numerical detection

  9. Finger Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Bill

    2010-01-01

    The author has been prompted to write this article about finger multiplication for a number of reasons. Firstly there are a number of related articles in past issues of "Mathematics Teaching" ("MT") which have connections to this algorithm. Secondly, very few of his primary teaching students and professional colleagues appear to be aware of the…

  10. Multiple Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  11. Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Details the characteristics of Howard Gardner's seven multiple intelligences (MI): linguistic, logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, spatial, musical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. Discusses the implications of MI for instruction. Explores how students can study using their preferred learning style - visual, auditory, and physical study…

  12. Waves at Navigation Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-27

    upgrades the Coastal Modeling System’s ( CMS ) wave model CMS -Wave, a phase-averaged spectral wave model, and BOUSS-2D, a Boussinesq-type nonlinear wave...provided by this work unit address these critical needs of the Corps’ navigation mission. Description Issue Addressed CMS -Wave application at Braddock...Bay, NY WaveNet application in Gulf of Mexico CMS -Wave and BOUSS-2D are two numerical wave models, and WaveNet and TideNet are two web-based

  13. ASTER Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The pattern on the right half of this image of the Bay of Bengal is the result of two opposing wave trains colliding. This ASTER sub-scene, acquired on March 29, 2000, covers an area 18 kilometers (13 miles) wide and 15 kilometers (9 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The visible and near-infrared bands highlight surface waves due to specular reflection of sunlight off of the wave faces.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels

  14. Waves and Tsunami Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frashure, K. M.; Chen, R. F.; Stephen, R. A.; Bolmer, T.; Lavin, M.; Strohschneider, D.; Maichle, R.; Micozzi, N.; Cramer, C.

    2007-01-01

    Demonstrating wave processes quantitatively in the classroom using standard classroom tools (such as Slinkys and wave tanks) can be difficult. For example, waves often travel too fast for students to actually measure amplitude or wavelength. Also, when teaching propagating waves, reflections from the ends set up standing waves, which can confuse…

  15. Propagation of gravity waves across the tropopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bense, Vera; Spichtinger, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The tropopause region is characterised by strong gradients in various atmospheric quantities that exhibit different properties in the troposphere compared to the stratosphere. The temperature lapse rate typically changes from negative to near-zero values resulting in a strong increase in stability. Accordingly, the buoyancy frequency often undergoes a jump at the tropopause. Analysis of radiosounding data also shows the existence of a strong inversion layer (tropopause inversion layer, TIL) characterised by a strong maximum in buoyancy frequency just above the tropopause, see e.g. Birner et al. (2002). Additionally, the magnitude of the vertical wind shear of the horizontal wind maximizes at the tropopause and the region also exhibits characteristical gradients of trace gases. Vertically propagating gravity waves can be excited in the troposphere by several mechanisms, e.g. by flow over topography (e.g. Durran, 1990), by jets and fronts (for a recent review: Plougonven and Zhang, 1990) or by convection (e.g. Clark et al., 1986). When these waves enter the tropopause region, their properties can be changed drastically by the changing stratification and strong wind shear. Within this work, the EULAG (Eulerian/semi-Lagrangian fluid solver, see e.g. Smolarkiewicz and Margolin, 1997) model is used to investigate the impact of the tropopause on vertically propagating gravity waves excited by flows over topography. The choice of topography (sine-shaped mountains, bell-shaped mountain) along with horizontal wind speed and tropospheric value of buoyancy frequency determine the spectrum of waves (horizontal and vertical wavelengths) that is excited in the tropsphere. In order to analyse how these spectra change for several topographies when a tropopause is present, we investigate different idealized cases in a two-dimensional domain. By varying the vertical profiles of buoyancy frequency (step-wise vs. continuos change, including TIL) and wind shear, the tropopause

  16. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR WAVES IN PLANETS WITH ATMOSPHERIC SUPERROTATION. II. LAMB, SURFACE, AND CENTRIFUGAL WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A.; Imamura, T.; Read, P. L.; Luz, D.; Piccialli, A.

    2014-07-01

    This paper is the second in a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases where the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this second part, we study the waves' solutions when several atmospheric approximations are applied: Lamb, surface, and centrifugal waves. Lamb and surface waves are found to be quite similar to those in a geostrophic regime. By contrast, centrifugal waves turn out to be a special case of Rossby waves that arise in atmospheres in cyclostrophic balance. Finally, we use our results to identify the nature of the waves behind atmospheric periodicities found in polar and lower latitudes of Venus's atmosphere.

  17. Surface wave tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    Vertically polarized shear wave velocity (VSV), determined primarily from fundamental mode Rayleigh waves, and the difference between the velocity of horizontally polarized shear waves (VSH) and VSV, therefore a measure of anisotropy, are shown.

  18. When shock waves collide

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, D.; Hartigan, P.; Frank, A.; Hansen, E.; Yirak, K.; Liao, A. S.; Graham, P.; Foster, J.; Wilde, B.; Blue, B.; Rosen, P.; Farley, D.; Paguio, R.

    2016-06-01

    Supersonic outflows from objects as varied as stellar jets, massive stars, and novae often exhibit multiple shock waves that overlap one another. When the intersection angle between two shock waves exceeds a critical value, the system reconfigures its geometry to create a normal shock known as a Mach stem where the shocks meet. Mach stems are important for interpreting emission-line images of shocked gas because a normal shock produces higher postshock temperatures, and therefore a higher-excitation spectrum than does an oblique shock. In this paper, we summarize the results of a series of numerical simulations and laboratory experiments designed to quantify how Mach stems behave in supersonic plasmas that are the norm in astrophysical flows. The experiments test analytical predictions for critical angles where Mach stems should form, and quantify how Mach stems grow and decay as intersection angles between the incident shock and a surface change. While small Mach stems are destroyed by surface irregularities and subcritical angles, larger ones persist in these situations and can regrow if the intersection angle changes to become more favorable. Furthermore, the experimental and numerical results show that although Mach stems occur only over a limited range of intersection angles and size scales, within these ranges they are relatively robust, and hence are a viable explanation for variable bright knots observed in Hubble Space Telescope images at the intersections of some bow shocks in stellar jets.

  19. When shock waves collide

    DOE PAGES

    Martinez, D.; Hartigan, P.; Frank, A.; ...

    2016-06-01

    Supersonic outflows from objects as varied as stellar jets, massive stars, and novae often exhibit multiple shock waves that overlap one another. When the intersection angle between two shock waves exceeds a critical value, the system reconfigures its geometry to create a normal shock known as a Mach stem where the shocks meet. Mach stems are important for interpreting emission-line images of shocked gas because a normal shock produces higher postshock temperatures, and therefore a higher-excitation spectrum than does an oblique shock. In this paper, we summarize the results of a series of numerical simulations and laboratory experiments designed tomore » quantify how Mach stems behave in supersonic plasmas that are the norm in astrophysical flows. The experiments test analytical predictions for critical angles where Mach stems should form, and quantify how Mach stems grow and decay as intersection angles between the incident shock and a surface change. While small Mach stems are destroyed by surface irregularities and subcritical angles, larger ones persist in these situations and can regrow if the intersection angle changes to become more favorable. Furthermore, the experimental and numerical results show that although Mach stems occur only over a limited range of intersection angles and size scales, within these ranges they are relatively robust, and hence are a viable explanation for variable bright knots observed in Hubble Space Telescope images at the intersections of some bow shocks in stellar jets.« less

  20. Wave mixing spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.W.

    1980-08-01

    Several new aspects of nonlinear or wave mixing spectroscopy were investigated utilizing the polarization properties of the nonlinear output field and the dependence of this field upon the occurrence of multiple resonances in the nonlinear susceptibility. First, it is shown theoretically that polarization-sensitive detection may be used to either eliminate or controllably reduce the nonresonant background in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, allowing weaker Raman resonances to be studied. The features of multi-resonant four-wave mixing are examined in the case of an inhomogeneously broadened medium. It is found that the linewidth of the nonlinear output narrows considerably (approaching the homogeneous width) when the quantum mechanical expressions for the doubly- and triply-resonant susceptibilities are averaged over a Doppler or strain broadened profile. Experimental studies of nonlinear processes in Pr/sup +3/:LaF/sub 3/ verify this linewidth narrowing, but indicate that this strain broadened system cannot be treated with a single broadening parameter as in the case of Doppler broadening in a gas. Several susceptibilities are measured from which are deduced dipole matrix elements and Raman polarizabilities related to the /sup 3/H/sub 4/, /sup 3/H/sub 6/, and /sup 3/P/sub 0/ levels of the praseodymium ions.

  1. Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation with Sawtooth Waves: Simultaneous Stimulation and EEG Recording.

    PubMed

    Dowsett, James; Herrmann, Christoph S

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has until now mostly been administered as an alternating sinusoidal wave. Despite modern tACS stimulators being able to deliver alternating current with any arbitrary shape there has been no systematic exploration into the relative benefits of different waveforms. As tACS is a relatively new technique there is a huge parameter space of unexplored possibilities which may prove superior or complimentary to the traditional sinusoidal waveform. Here, we begin to address this with an investigation into the effects of sawtooth wave tACS on individual alpha power. Evidence from animal models suggests that the gradient and direction of an electric current should be important factors for the subsequent neural firing rate; we compared positive and negative ramp sawtooth waves to test this. An additional advantage of sawtooth waves is that the resulting artifact in the electroencephalogram (EEG) recording is significantly simpler to remove than a sine wave; accordingly we were able to observe alpha oscillations both during and after stimulation. We found that positive ramp sawtooth, but not negative ramp sawtooth, significantly enhanced alpha power during stimulation relative to sham (p < 0.01). In addition we tested for an after-effect of both sawtooth and sinusoidal stimulation on alpha power but in this case did not find any significant effect. This preliminary study paves the way for further investigations into the effect of the gradient and direction of the current in tACS which could significantly improve the usefulness of this technique.

  2. An information-theoretic approach to the gravitational-wave burst detection problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsavounidis, E.; Lynch, R.; Vitale, S.; Essick, R.; Robinet, F.

    2016-03-01

    The advanced era of gravitational-wave astronomy, with data collected in part by the LIGO gravitational-wave interferometers, has begun as of fall 2015. One potential type of detectable gravitational waves is short-duration gravitational-wave bursts, whose waveforms can be difficult to predict. We present the framework for a new detection algorithm - called oLIB - that can be used in relatively low-latency to turn calibrated strain data into a detection significance statement. This pipeline consists of 1) a sine-Gaussian matched-filter trigger generator based on the Q-transform - known as Omicron -, 2) incoherent down-selection of these triggers to the most signal-like set, and 3) a fully coherent analysis of this signal-like set using the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Bayesian evidence calculator LALInferenceBurst (LIB). We optimally extract this information by using a likelihood-ratio test (LRT) to map these search statistics into a significance statement. Using representative archival LIGO data, we show that the algorithm can detect gravitational-wave burst events of realistic strength in realistic instrumental noise with good detection efficiencies across different burst waveform morphologies. With support from the National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-0757058.

  3. Geostatistical uncertainty of assessing air quality using high-spatial-resolution lichen data: A health study in the urban area of Sines, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Manuel C; Pinho, P; Branquinho, C; Llop, Esteve; Pereira, Maria J

    2016-08-15

    In most studies correlating health outcomes with air pollution, personal exposure assignments are based on measurements collected at air-quality monitoring stations not coinciding with health data locations. In such cases, interpolators are needed to predict air quality in unsampled locations and to assign personal exposures. Moreover, a measure of the spatial uncertainty of exposures should be incorporated, especially in urban areas where concentrations vary at short distances due to changes in land use and pollution intensity. These studies are limited by the lack of literature comparing exposure uncertainty derived from distinct spatial interpolators. Here, we addressed these issues with two interpolation methods: regression Kriging (RK) and ordinary Kriging (OK). These methods were used to generate air-quality simulations with a geostatistical algorithm. For each method, the geostatistical uncertainty was drawn from generalized linear model (GLM) analysis. We analyzed the association between air quality and birth weight. Personal health data (n=227) and exposure data were collected in Sines (Portugal) during 2007-2010. Because air-quality monitoring stations in the city do not offer high-spatial-resolution measurements (n=1), we used lichen data as an ecological indicator of air quality (n=83). We found no significant difference in the fit of GLMs with any of the geostatistical methods. With RK, however, the models tended to fit better more often and worse less often. Moreover, the geostatistical uncertainty results showed a marginally higher mean and precision with RK. Combined with lichen data and land-use data of high spatial resolution, RK is a more effective geostatistical method for relating health outcomes with air quality in urban areas. This is particularly important in small cities, which generally do not have expensive air-quality monitoring stations with high spatial resolution. Further, alternative ways of linking human activities with their

  4. A comparison of 15 Hz sine on-line and off-line magnetic stimulation affecting the voltage-gated sodium channel currents of prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yu; Dong, Lei; Gao, Yang; Dou, Jun-Rong; Li, Ze-yan

    2016-10-01

    Combined with the use of patch-clamp techniques, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has proven to be a noninvasive neuromodulation tool that can inhibit or facilitate excitability of neurons after extensive research. The studies generally focused on the method: the neurons are first stimulated in an external standard magnetic exposure device, and then moved to the patch-clamp to record electrophysiological characteristics (off-line magnetic exposure). Despite its universality, real-time observation of the effects of magnetic stimulation on the neurons is more effective (on-line magnetic stimulation). In this study, we selected a standard exposure device for magnetic fields acting on mouse prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons, and described a new method that a patch-clamp setup was modified to allow on-line magnetic stimulation. By comparing the off-line exposure and on-line stimulation of the same magnetic field intensity and frequency affecting the voltage-gated sodium channel currents, we succeeded in proving the feasibility of the new on-line stimulation device. We also demonstrated that the sodium channel currents of prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons increased significantly under the 15 Hz sine 1 mT, and 2 mT off-line magnetic field exposure and under the 1 mT and 2 mT on-line magnetic stimulation, and the rate of acceleration was most significant on 2 mT on-line magnetic stimulation. This study described the development of a new on-line magnetic stimulator and successfully demonstrated its practicability for scientific stimulation of neurons.

  5. Assessment of oral ivermectin versus shampoo in the treatment of pediculosis (head lice infestation) in rural areas of Sine-Saloum, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Leulmi, Hamza; Diatta, Georges; Sokhna, Cheikh; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier

    2016-12-01

    Reports of treatment failure and the emergence of resistance to topical head lice treatments have become increasingly common, driving the need for continued development of new therapeutic options for pediculosis. Ivermectin has been proposed as a potential alternative for the treatment of pediculosis but has not been sufficiently evaluated. In this study, the effectiveness of oral ivermectin versus shampoo in the treatment of pediculosis in Senegal was compared. The study was conducted in two neighbouring villages of Sine-Saloum, Senegal: Dielmo (ivermectin trial group; 201 female participants) and Ndiop (shampoo trial group; 239 female participants). In the ivermectin group, patients received two doses of oral ivermectin (400 µg/kg body weight; Mectizan(®)) 7 days apart. In contrast, the shampoo group received a shampoo treatment based on d-phenothrin (0.23%; Hégor(®)). At the beginning of the study, 70 (34.8%) of 201 participants in the ivermectin group were infested by head lice versus 145 (60.7%) of 239 participants in the shampoo group. At Day 15 post-treatment, the efficacy of the treatment against head lice reached 41/53 (77.4%) in the ivermectin group (53 patients were tested in this group) versus 42/130 (32.3%) in the shampoo group (130 patients were tested in this group) (P <10(-7)). However, 4 (7.5%) of the 53 females in the ivermectin group exhibited probable ivermectin treatment failure, suggesting the emergence of ivermectin-resistant lice. This study demonstrates that oral ivermectin is highly effective for the treatment of pediculosis compared with shampoo, but also suggests that ivermectin resistance may emerge during treatment.

  6. Auroral plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    1989-01-01

    A review is given of auroral plasma wave phenomena, starting with the earliest ground-based observations and ending with the most recent satellite observations. Two types of waves are considered, electromagnetic and electrostatic. Electromagnetic waves include auroral kilometric radiation, auroral hiss, ELF noise bands, and low-frequency electric and magnetic noise. Electrostatic waves include upper hybrid resonance emissions, electron cyclotron waves, lower hybrid waves, ion cyclotron waves and broadband electrostatic noise. In each case, a brief overview is given describing the observations, the origin of the instability, and the role of the waves in the physics of the auroral acceleration region.

  7. Dispersive wave emission from wave breaking.

    PubMed

    Conforti, Matteo; Trillo, Stefano

    2013-10-01

    We show that pulses undergoing wave breaking in nonlinear weakly dispersive fibers radiate, owing to phase-matching (assisted by higher-order dispersion) of linear dispersive waves with the shock-wave front. Our theoretical results perfectly explain the radiation observed recently from pulses propagating in the normal dispersion (i.e., nonsolitonic) regime.

  8. Upstream Waves and Particles at the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Y.; Halekas, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    This chapter presents an up-to-date catalog of Moon-related particle populations and lunar upstream waves obtained from in situ measurements at low (<˜100 km) and high altitudes, aimed at organizing and clarifying the currently available information on this complex region, where multiple categories of waves and particles coexist. It then briefly outlines the observed properties of a variety of classes of lunar upstream waves, as well as their generation mechanisms currently proposed, in association with the lunar upstream particle distributions. The lunar upstream region magnetically connected to the Moon and its wake, the fore-moon, represents a remarkably rich zoo of different classes of waves and different types of particles. Although recent observations have substantially enhanced our knowledge by revealing a number of new categories of upstream particles and waves at the Moon, many fundamental questions remain unanswered, and these are outlined in the chapter.

  9. Lamb Wave Tomography for Corrosion Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinders, Mark K.; McKeon, James C. P.

    1999-01-01

    As the world-wide civil aviation fleet continues to age, methods for accurately predicting the presence of structural flaws-such as hidden corrosion-that compromise airworthiness become increasingly necessary. Ultrasonic guided waves, Lamb waves, allow large sections of aircraft structures to be rapidly inspected. However, extracting quantitative information from Lamb wave data has always involved highly trained personnel with a detailed knowledge of mechanical-waveguide physics. Our work focuses on using a variety of different tomographic reconstruction techniques to graphically represent the Lamb wave data in images that can be easily interpreted by technicians. Because the velocity of Lamb waves depends on thickness, we can convert the travel times of the fundamental Lamb modes into a thickness map of the inspection region. In this paper we show results for the identification of single or multiple back-surface corrosion areas in typical aluminum aircraft skin structures.

  10. Multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Files, Daniel Kane; Jausurawong, Tani; Katrajian, Ruba; Danoff, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, debilitating disease that can have devastating effects. Presentation varies widely in symptoms, pace, and progression. In addition to a thorough history and physical examination, diagnostic tools required to diagnose MS and exclude other diagnoses include MRI, evoked potential testing, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Although the disease is not curable presently, quality of life can be improved by minimizing the frequency and severity of disease burden. Disease modification, symptom management, preservation of function, and treatment of psychosocial issues are paramount to enhance the quality of life for the patient affected with MS.

  11. Multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, S. Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a clonal plasma cell malignancy that accounts for slightly more than 10% of all hematologic cancers. In this paper, we present a historically focused review of the disease, from the description of the first case in 1844 to the present. The evolution of drug therapy and stem-cell transplantation for the treatment of myeloma, as well as the development of new agents, is discussed. We also provide an update on current concepts of diagnosis and therapy, with an emphasis on how treatments have emerged from a historical perspective after certain important discoveries and the results of experimental studies. PMID:18332230

  12. Shallow water sound propagation with surface waves.

    PubMed

    Tindle, Chris T; Deane, Grant B

    2005-05-01

    The theory of wavefront modeling in underwater acoustics is extended to allow rapid range dependence of the boundaries such as occurs in shallow water with surface waves. The theory allows for multiple reflections at surface and bottom as well as focusing and defocusing due to reflection from surface waves. The phase and amplitude of the field are calculated directly and used to model pulse propagation in the time domain. Pulse waveforms are obtained directly for all wavefront arrivals including both insonified and shadow regions near caustics. Calculated waveforms agree well with a reference solution and data obtained in a near-shore shallow water experiment with surface waves over a sloping bottom.

  13. Periodicity effects on compound guided waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiadini, Francesco; Fiumara, Vincenzo; Scaglione, Antonio; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2016-09-01

    Surface waves of different types can be compounded when a homogeneous layer is sandwiched between two half spaces filled with dissimilar periodically non-homogeneous dielectric materials and the intermediate layer is sufficiently thin. We solved the boundary-value problem for compound waves guided by a layer of a homogeneous and isotropic (metal or dielectric) material sandwiched between a structurally chiral material (SCM) and a periodically multi-layered isotropic dielectric material. We found that the periodicity of the SCM is crucial to excite a multiplicity of compound guided waves with strong coupling between the two interfaces.

  14. Multiple Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Philip Joseph

    1987-09-01

    The Theory of Inflation, namely, that at some point the entropy content of the universe was greatly increased, has much promise. It may solve the puzzles of homogeneity and the creation of structure. However, no particle physics model has yet been found that can successfully drive inflation. The difficulty in satisfying the constraint that the isotropy of the microwave background places on the effective potential of prospective models is immense. In this work we have codified the requirements of such models in a most general form. We have carefully calculated the amounts of inflation the various problems of the Standard Model need for their solution. We have derived a completely model independent upper bound on the inflationary Hubble parameter. We have developed a general notation with which to probe the possibilities of Multiple Inflation. We have shown that only in very unlikely circumstances will any evidence of an earlier inflation, survive the de Sitter period of its successor. In particular, it is demonstrated that it is most unlikely that two bouts of inflation will yield high amplitudes of density perturbations on small scales and low amplitudes on large. We conclude that, while multiple inflation will be of great theoretical interest, it is unlikely to have any observational impact.

  15. A Report on the use of Weak-Shock Wave Profiles and 3-D Dislocation Dynamics Simulations for Validation of Dislocation Multiplication and Mobility in the Phonon Drag Regime

    SciTech Connect

    Cazamias, J; Lassila, D; Shehadeh, M; Zbib, H

    2004-02-19

    Dynamically loaded gas gun experiments were performed to validate the predictive capabilities of 3-D dislocation dynamics (DD) code simulations at very high strain rates and dislocation velocities where the phonon drag mechanism will be dominant. Experiments were performed in the weak-shock regime on high-purity Mo single crystals with [001] compression axes. We have also performed shock-recovery experiments and are in the process of analyzing the dislocation structure generated by the weak-shock using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which will also be used to validate the dislocation structure predicted by the DD simulations. The DD simulations being performed at Washington State University by Prof. H. Zbib and co-workers will be compared to the experimentally measured wave profiles, thereby validating mechanisms of dislocation generation and motion. Some DD simulation results are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of using a combined experimental/simulation effort for the validation of dislocation generation and mobility physics issues in the phonon drag regime.

  16. Propagation of nonlinearly generated harmonic spin waves in microscopic stripes

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, O.; Yamada, M.; Miura, K.; Ogawa, S.; Otani, Y.

    2014-02-07

    We report on the experimental study of the propagation of nonlinearly generated harmonic spin waves in microscopic CoFeB stripes. Using an all electrical technique with coplanar waveguides, we find that two kinds of spin waves can be generated by nonlinear frequency multiplication. One has a non-uniform spatial geometry and thus requires appropriate detector geometry to be identified. The other corresponds to the resonant fundamental propagative spin waves and can be efficiently excited by double- or triple-frequency harmonics with any geometry. Nonlinear excited spin waves are particularly efficient in providing an electrical signal arising from spin wave propagation.

  17. Waves in complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hang

    inhomogeneities. By varying such geometric patterns, we attempt to optimize the ratio of the Hall voltage to the longitudinal voltage at the limit of small applied magnetic field. Several optimal nano-pattern designs have been found through the use of genetic algorithm, with enhancement of the Hall effect up to 500%. The third topic involves the interaction of electromagnetic waves with crystals composed of fractal units. Here the fractal unit can possess multiple electromagnetic resonances, in exact analogy to atoms in a solid crystal. In particular, these resonances can be very subwavelength in character, and when the fractal units are periodically arranged, there can be coupling between the fractal local resonances and Bragg scattering, leading to hybrid modes with a rich array of interesting characteristics. The study of the above wave phenomena requires a diverse assortment of numerical techniques. A section of the thesis is devoted to their exposition.

  18. [Multiple apheresis].

    PubMed

    Coffe, C

    2007-05-01

    Multiple apheresis makes it possible to obtain at least two labile blood components from a single donor using a cell separator. It can be either multicomponent apheresis leading to the preparation of at least two different blood component types or red blood cell apheresis providing two identical red blood cell concentrates. These techniques available in addition to whole blood donation, are modifying collection strategies in many Etablissements Français du Sang and will contribute to improve stock logistics in the future. In areas with insufficient stock, these procedures will help achieve blood component self-sufficiency. The author first describes the principle underlying different--current or future--techniques as well as their advantages and drawbacks. He finally addresses the potential impact of these processes on the evolution of blood collection and the advantages to be gained.

  19. A Simple Wave Driver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the…

  20. Finsler p p -waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuster, Andrea; Pabst, Cornelia

    2016-11-01

    In this work we present Finsler gravitational waves. These are a Finslerian version of the well-known p p -waves, generalizing the very special relativity line element. Our Finsler p p -waves are an exact solution of Finslerian Einstein's equations in vacuum and describe gravitational waves propagating in an anisotropic background.