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Sample records for multiple vascular anomalies

  1. Medical management of vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Trenor, Cameron C

    2016-03-01

    We have entered an exciting era in the care of patients with vascular anomalies. These disorders require multidisciplinary care and coordination and dedicated centers have emerged to address this need. Vascular tumors have been treated with medical therapies for many years, while malformations have been historically treated with endovascular and operative procedures. The recent serendipitous discoveries of propranolol and sirolimus for vascular anomalies have revolutionized this field. In particular, sirolimus responses are challenging the dogma that vascular malformations are not biologically active. While initially explored for lymphatic anomalies, sirolimus is now being used broadly throughout the spectrum of vascular anomalies. Whether medical therapies are reserved for refractory patients or used first line is currently dependent on the experience and availability of alternative therapies at each institution. On the horizon, we anticipate new drugs targeting genes and pathways involved in vascular anomalies to be developed. Also, combinations of medications and protocols combining medical and procedural approaches are in development for refractory patients. PMID:27607327

  2. Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Blei, Francine

    2015-04-01

    Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies encompass entities with a vascular anomaly as the predominant feature vs those syndromes with predominant somatic overgrowth and a vascular anomaly as a more minor component. The focus of this article is to categorize these syndromes phenotypically, including updated clinical criteria, radiologic features, evaluation, management issues, pathophysiology, and genetic information. A literature review was conducted in PubMed using key words "overgrowth syndromes and vascular anomalies" as well as specific literature reviews for each entity and supportive genetic information (e.g., somatic mosaicism). Additional searches in OMIM and Gene Reviews were conducted for each syndrome. Disease entities were categorized by predominant clinical features, known genetic information, and putative affected signaling pathway. Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies are a heterogeneous group of disorders, often with variable clinical expression, due to germline or somatic mutations. Overgrowth can be focal (e.g., macrocephaly) or generalized, often asymmetrically (and/or mosaically) distributed. All germ layers may be affected, and the abnormalities may be progressive. Patients with overgrowth syndromes may be at an increased risk for malignancies. Practitioners should be attentive to patients having syndromes with overgrowth and vascular defects. These patients require proactive evaluation, referral to appropriate specialists, and in some cases, early monitoring for potential malignancies. Progress in identifying vascular anomaly-related overgrowth syndromes and their genetic etiology has been robust in the past decade and is contributing to genetically based prenatal diagnosis and new therapies targeting the putative causative genetic mutations. PMID:25937473

  3. Genetic basis for vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Kirkorian, A Yasmine; Grossberg, Anna L; Püttgen, Katherine B

    2016-03-01

    The fundamental genetics of many isolated vascular anomalies and syndromes associated with vascular anomalies have been elucidated. The rate of discovery continues to increase, expanding our understanding of the underlying interconnected molecular pathways. This review summarizes genetic and clinical information on the following diagnoses: capillary malformation, venous malformation, lymphatic malformation, arteriovenous malformation, PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS), Proteus syndrome, SOLAMEN syndrome, Sturge-Weber syndrome, phakomatosis pigmentovascularis, congenital hemangioma, verrucous venous malformation, cutaneomucosal venous malformation, blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome, Parkes-Weber syndrome, and Maffucci syndrome. PMID:27607321

  4. Vascular anomalies: classification, diagnosis, and natural history.

    PubMed

    Marler, J J; Mulliken, J B

    2001-11-01

    In the past, patients with vascular anomalies went from one physician to another. No one seemed to understand the condition, and sometimes the child was harmed by the wrong treatment. Now interdisciplinary vascular anomalies centers are organizing. The disciplines may differ, depending on local interest and capabilities. Such teams form a critical mass for proper diagnosis, therapy, and clinical/basic research. The advances in genetics are leading the way to a molecular understanding of vascular anomalies, and someday, molecular-based, novel therapy. The Internet also has had a major impact on this field. Because of continued confusion about diagnosis and therapy, cyber-savvy parents will self-refer to specialists. Family support groups have arisen and provide commendable service to these patients. PMID:17590938

  5. Orthopedic issues in vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Samantha A; Sorger, Joel

    2014-08-01

    Vascular malformations impact the musculoskeletal system depending on the tissue involved (skin, subcutis, muscle, cartilage, or bone), the extent of involvement, and the type of anomalous vessels (arteries, capillaries, veins, or lymphatics). These malformations can cause a multitude of musculoskeletal problems for the patient and their Orthopedic Surgeon to manage. Leg-length discrepancy, intra-articular involvement, muscular lesions, and primary or secondary scoliosis are just to name a few. All of these problems can cause pain, deformity, and a range of functional limitations. Surgical and nonsurgical treatment plans both have a role in the care of these patients. Patients with vascular malformations may also suffer from life-threatening cardiovascular and hematologic abnormalities. For those patients who undergo surgery, thromboembolic risk is elevated, wound breakdown and infection are much more common, and bleeding risk continues well into the postoperative course. Because of the complex nature of these disorders, the clinician must have a full understanding of the types of lesions, their natural history, appropriate diagnostic studies, associated medical problems, indications for treatment, and all the treatment options. For severe malformations, especially syndromes such as CLOVES and Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, interdisciplinary team management is essential for the best outcomes. PMID:25241103

  6. Radiographic Findings Associated with Vascular Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Masand, Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Imaging of patients with vascular tumors and malformations has been sufficiently refined to answer pertinent questions when making treatment decisions in this challenging subgroup of pediatric patients. The imaging modalities at hand include conventional radiography, Doppler ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging with time-resolved, contrast-material enhanced magnetic resonance angiography. This review article will focus on the characteristic imaging features of some focal and diffuse vascular lesions, which have been classified by their clinical history and physical exam, and further labeled as a vascular tumor or slow-flow versus high-flow vascular malformation based on the updated classification system proposed by the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies. The recent advances in knowledge regarding the biology of these vascular anomalies have led to increased awareness of the current nomenclature. Moreover, with better understanding of the imaging features, the radiologist has become a key player in the multidisciplinary approach offered at various institutions where appropriate treatment algorithms and interventional strategies are put together. This is crucial in avoiding misdiagnosis and improper management. PMID:25045332

  7. Medical Therapy for Pediatric Vascular Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Margolin, Judith F.; Soni, Heather Mills; Pimpalwar, Sheena

    2014-01-01

    Vascular anomalies (VAs) comprise a large variety of individual diagnoses that in different phases of treatment require a diverse number of medical specialists to provide optimal care. Medical therapies include agents usually associated with cancer chemotherapy, such as vincristine, as well more immunomodulatory types of drugs, such as glucocorticoids and sirolimus. These immunomodulating drugs are being successfully applied in cases that are typically categorized as vascular tumors, including kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) and tufted angioma (TA), as well as some of the more invasive types of vascular malformations (i.e., microcystic lymphatic malformations and blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS). These therapies need to be combined with good supportive care, which often involves anticoagulation, antimicrobial prophylaxis, and comprehensive pain and symptom-relief strategies, as well as appropriate drug monitoring and management of side effects of medical treatment. The optimal care of these patients frequently involves close collaboration between surgeons, interventional and conventional radiologists, medical subspecialists, and nurses. PMID:25045333

  8. A Review of Vascular Anomalies: Genetics and Common Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Killion, Elizabeth; Mohan, Kriti; Lee, Edward I.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular tumors and malformations are unique in that affected cells exhibit disrupted angiogenesis. The current treatment options often yield suboptimal results. New insight into the genetics and molecular basis of vascular anomalies may pave the way for potential development of targeted therapy. The authors review the genetic and molecular basis of vascular anomalies and common associated syndromes. PMID:25045331

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of pediatric soft-tissue vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Oscar M

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can be used in the management of pediatric soft-tissue vascular anomalies for diagnosing and assessing extent of lesions and for evaluating response to therapy. MR imaging studies often involve a combination of T1- and T2-weighted images in addition to MR angiography and fat-suppressed post-contrast sequences. The MR imaging features of these vascular anomalies when combined with clinical findings can aid in diagnosis. In cases of complex vascular malformations and syndromes associated with vascular anomalies, MR imaging can be used to evaluate accompanying soft-tissue and bone anomalies. This article reviews the MR imaging protocols and appearances of the most common pediatric soft-tissue vascular anomalies. PMID:27229506

  10. Safety and Efficacy Study of Sirolimus in Complicated Vascular Anomalies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-03

    Kaposiform Hemangioendotheliomas; Tufted Angioma; Capillary Venous Lymphatic Malformation; Venous Lymphatic Malformation; Microcystic Lymphatic Malformation; Mucocutaneous Lymphangiomatosis and Thrombocytopenia; Capillary Lymphatic Arterial Venous Malformations; PTEN Overgrowth Syndrome With Vascular Anomaly; Lymphangiectasia Syndromes

  11. Vascular Anomalies in Pancreaticoduodenectomy: A Lesson Learned

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa, Joana E.; Pointer, David T.; Hamner, John B.

    2016-01-01

    It is essential to identify any variant anatomy prior to surgery as this could have a drastic effect on surgical planning. We describe a case in which two vascular irregularities, an Arc of Buhler and celiac stenosis, were identified on angiogram after completion of a pancreaticoduodenectomy. While there could have been catastrophic results from his surgery in the setting of celiac stenosis, the presence of the aberrant Arc of Buhler allowed this patient to emerge without any permanent morbidity. PMID:27200204

  12. Vascular anomalies of the head and neck in children

    PubMed Central

    Mahady, Kate; Thust, Stefanie; Berkeley, Rupert; Stuart, Sam; Barnacle, Alex; Robertson, Fergus

    2015-01-01

    Sixty percent of vascular anomalies in children are found in the head and neck. These lesions can present throughout antenatal, perinatal and childhood development. They broadly fall into two categories: vascular tumours and vascular malformations. Their clinical and, often, psychological impact is determined by both pathological type and location: many lesions follow an uncomplicated natural course and other more complex, extensive or progressive lesions can present a threat to life from mass effect, haemorrhage or large volume arteriovenous shunting. Vascular tumours include infantile haemangioma (IH), congenital haemangioma (CH) and kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KH); of which IH is the most common. Management options for vascular tumours include conservative approaches, oral medications and surgical intervention as determined by tumour type, location and associated complications. Vascular malformations can be categorised into low flow and high flow lesions. Low flow lesions include capillary, venous and lymphatic malformations (LMs). High flow lesions describe the arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), a highly heterogeneous group of lesions which can present in a variety of ways—the mainstay of treatment for these dynamic lesions is endovascular or surgical obliteration. We provide a practical framework for clinical classification of vascular anomalies of the head and neck in children. We also explore principles of their clinical and radiological assessment along with management, highlighting the importance of a multi-disciplinary approach. PMID:26807370

  13. Vascular anomalies of the head and neck in children.

    PubMed

    Mahady, Kate; Thust, Stefanie; Berkeley, Rupert; Stuart, Sam; Barnacle, Alex; Robertson, Fergus; Mankad, Kshitij

    2015-12-01

    Sixty percent of vascular anomalies in children are found in the head and neck. These lesions can present throughout antenatal, perinatal and childhood development. They broadly fall into two categories: vascular tumours and vascular malformations. Their clinical and, often, psychological impact is determined by both pathological type and location: many lesions follow an uncomplicated natural course and other more complex, extensive or progressive lesions can present a threat to life from mass effect, haemorrhage or large volume arteriovenous shunting. Vascular tumours include infantile haemangioma (IH), congenital haemangioma (CH) and kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KH); of which IH is the most common. Management options for vascular tumours include conservative approaches, oral medications and surgical intervention as determined by tumour type, location and associated complications. Vascular malformations can be categorised into low flow and high flow lesions. Low flow lesions include capillary, venous and lymphatic malformations (LMs). High flow lesions describe the arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), a highly heterogeneous group of lesions which can present in a variety of ways-the mainstay of treatment for these dynamic lesions is endovascular or surgical obliteration. We provide a practical framework for clinical classification of vascular anomalies of the head and neck in children. We also explore principles of their clinical and radiological assessment along with management, highlighting the importance of a multi-disciplinary approach. PMID:26807370

  14. Outcomes of Surgical Treatment of Vascular Anomalies on the Vermilion

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Min; Lee, Jae Woo; Kim, Hoon Soo; Lee, In Sook

    2016-01-01

    Background The vermilion plays an important role in both the aesthetic and functional aspects of facial anatomy. Due to its structural features, the complete excision of vascular anomalies on the vermilion is challenging, making it difficult to determine the appropriate treatment strategy. Thus, the authors analyzed the results of surgical treatment of vascular anomalies on the vermilion. Methods The medical records of 38 patients with vascular anomalies on the vermilion who underwent surgery from 1995 to 2013 were analyzed. Nine of the cases had an involuted hemangioma, and 29 cases had a vascular malformation; of the vascular malformations, 13, 11, one, and four cases involved were capillary malformations (CMs), venous malformations (VMs), lymphatic malformations (LMs), and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), respectively. We investigated the surgical methods used to treat these patients, the quantity of surgical procedures, complications and instances of recurrence, and self-assessed satisfaction scores. Results A total of 50 operations were carried out: 28 horizontal partial excisions, eight vertical partial excisions, and 14 operations using other surgical methods. All cases of AVM underwent complete excision. Six cases experienced minor complications and one case of recurrence was observed. The overall average satisfaction score was 4.1 out of 5, while the satisfaction scores associated with each lesion type were 4.2 for hemangiomas, 3.9 for CMs, 4.2 for VMs, 5.0 for LMs, and 4.0 for AVMs. Conclusions It is difficult to completely excise vascular anomalies that involve the vermilion. This study suggests that partial excision focused on correcting the overall contour of the lips is effective and leads to satisfactory results. PMID:26848441

  15. Vascular anomalies: A pictorial review of nomenclature, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nosher, John L; Murillo, Philip G; Liszewski, Mark; Gendel, Vyacheslav; Gribbin, Christopher E

    2014-01-01

    Vascular anomalies, including vascular malformations and tumors, are frequently straightforward to detect; however, accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment are often challenging. Misdiagnosis of these lesions can lead clinicians in the wrong direction when treating these patients, which can have unfavorable results. This review presents an overview of the classification systems that have been developed for the diagnosis of vascular lesions with a focus on the imaging characteristics. Pictorial examples of each lesion on physical examination, as well as non-invasive and minimally invasive imaging are presented. An overview of the endovascular treatment of these lesions is also given. In some cases, vascular anomalies may be associated with an underlying syndrome and several of the most commonly encountered syndromes are discussed. Understanding of the classification systems, familiarity with the treatment options and knowledge of the associated syndromes are essential for all physicians working with this patient population. The approach to the described entities necessitates an organized multi-disciplinary team effort, with diagnostic imaging playing an increasingly important role in the proper diagnosis and a combined interventional radiologic and surgical treatment method showing promising results. PMID:25276311

  16. Clinical Characteristics and Treatment Options of Infantile Vascular Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bin; Li, Li; Zhang, Li-xin; Sun, Yu-juan; Ma, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To analyze the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of vascular anomalies, and determine which therapy is safe and effective. The data of vascular anomalies pediatric patients who arrived at Beijing children's Hospital from January 2001 to December 2014 were analyzed retrospectively, including the influence of gender, age, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, treatment options, and outcomes. As to infantile hemangiomas, the outcomes of different treatments and their adverse reactions were compared. As to spider angioma and cutaneous capillary malformation, the treatment effect of 595 nm pulsed dye laser (PDL) is analyzed. A total number of 6459 cases of vascular anomalies were reclassified according to the 2014 ISSVA classification system. Among them, the gender ratio is 1:1.69, head-and-neck involved is 53.3%, the onset age within the first month is 72.4%, the age of initial encounter that younger than 6 months is 60.1%. The most common anomalies were infantile hemangiomas (42.6%), congenital hemangiomas (14.1%), and capillary malformations (29.9%). In treating infantile hemangiomas, laser shows the lowest adverse reactions rate significantly. Propranolol shows a higher improvement rate than laser, glucocorticoids, glucocorticoids plus laser, and shows no significant difference with propranolol plus laser both in improvement rate and adverse reactions rate. The total improvement rate of 595 nm PDL is 89.8% in treating spider angioma and 46.7% in treating cutaneous capillary malformation. The improvement rate and excellent rate of laser in treating cutaneous capillary malformation are growing synchronously by increasing the treatment times, and shows no significant difference among different parts of lesion that located in a body. Vascular anomalies possess a female predominance, and are mostly occurred in faces. Definite diagnosis is very important before treatment. In treating infantile hemangioma, propranolol is recommended as the first

  17. Multiple ophthalmic anomalies and digital hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Chemke, J; Oliver, M; Mallek, D; Kaveh, Z

    1978-03-01

    Multiple congenital eye and hand anomalies occurred in a young female born to normal but consanguineous parents. Both eyes were microphthalmic with severe corneal, iris lens pathology. Ultrasonography revealed multiple echos from the vitreous. The ocular findings are suggestive of retinal dysplasia. A skeletal dysplasia, presenting as distal phalangeal hypoplasia, was found in both hands. There was no history of intrauterine exposure to drugs. This appears to be a unique association of congenital malformations, without other systemic involvement. Diagnostic and genetic implications are discussed. PMID:97363

  18. Heterotaxy Polysplenia Syndrome In An Adult With Unique Vascular Anomalies: Case Report With Review Of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Rameshbabu, Chittapuram Srinivasan; Gupta, Kanchan Kumar; Qasim, Muhammad; Gupta, Om Prakash

    2015-01-01

    The pattern of anatomical organization of the thoraco-abdominal visceral and vascular structures which is not the expected normal arrangement, is called as situs ambiguous or heterotaxy syndrome. Patients with heterotaxy syndrome exhibit a wide spectrum of anatomical variations involving thoraco-abdominal structures. We present here an incidental finding of heterotaxy syndrome associated with unique vascular anomalies in a 35 year old male patient evaluated initially for nephrolithiasis by ultrasonography, and intravenous pyelography. Further evaluation by multidetector row computed tomography showed bilateral bilobed lungs with hyparterial bronchi, cardiac apex to the left, five branches from left-sided aortic arch with retroesophageal right subclavian artery, interrupted inferior vena cava with azygos continuation, left renal vein continuing as hemiazygos vein and replaced common hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery. Other vascular anomalies include right internal iliac vein joining the left common iliac vein and precaval course of the single main right renal artery. Anomalies involving abdominal organs include right-sided stomach, midline liver, multiple splenules (polysplenia) in right upper quadrant of abdomen, short truncated pancreas, intestinal malrotation, inversion of superior mesenteric vessels and a preduodenal portal vein. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of association of left renal vein continuing as hemiazygos vein, precaval right renal artery and anomalous branching pattern of aortic arch with heterotaxy syndrome. PMID:26629295

  19. Heterotaxy Polysplenia Syndrome In An Adult With Unique Vascular Anomalies: Case Report With Review Of Literature.

    PubMed

    Rameshbabu, Chittapuram Srinivasan; Gupta, Kanchan Kumar; Qasim, Muhammad; Gupta, Om Prakash

    2015-07-01

    The pattern of anatomical organization of the thoraco-abdominal visceral and vascular structures which is not the expected normal arrangement, is called as situs ambiguous or heterotaxy syndrome. Patients with heterotaxy syndrome exhibit a wide spectrum of anatomical variations involving thoraco-abdominal structures. We present here an incidental finding of heterotaxy syndrome associated with unique vascular anomalies in a 35 year old male patient evaluated initially for nephrolithiasis by ultrasonography, and intravenous pyelography. Further evaluation by multidetector row computed tomography showed bilateral bilobed lungs with hyparterial bronchi, cardiac apex to the left, five branches from left-sided aortic arch with retroesophageal right subclavian artery, interrupted inferior vena cava with azygos continuation, left renal vein continuing as hemiazygos vein and replaced common hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery. Other vascular anomalies include right internal iliac vein joining the left common iliac vein and precaval course of the single main right renal artery. Anomalies involving abdominal organs include right-sided stomach, midline liver, multiple splenules (polysplenia) in right upper quadrant of abdomen, short truncated pancreas, intestinal malrotation, inversion of superior mesenteric vessels and a preduodenal portal vein. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of association of left renal vein continuing as hemiazygos vein, precaval right renal artery and anomalous branching pattern of aortic arch with heterotaxy syndrome. PMID:26629295

  20. Caliber-persistent labial artery. A common vascular anomaly.

    PubMed

    Lovas, J G; Rodu, B; Hammond, H L; Allen, C M; Wysocki, G P

    1998-09-01

    Sixteen cases of caliber-persistent labial artery of the lips have been reported to date in the English literature. Six of these were clinically misdiagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma and treated with wedge resection. To date, we have seen 187 cases clinically and an additional 23 cases through our surgical oral pathology services. Careful clinical observation usually reveals a soft linear or papular bluish elevation above the labial mucosal surface. The unique feature is pulsation--not simply pulsation toward and away from the observer, which can be caused by an underlying artery, but lateral pulsation, which only an artery can exhibit. All but 2 of our 187 clinical cases were asymptomatic. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of caliber-persistent labial artery of the upper lip. The upper:lower lip ratio for the clinical cases was almost 2:1. Three times as many lower lip as upper lip lesions were biopsied. Males and females were almost equally affected (clinical cases, 76:86; histopathologic cases, 9:13). Although a vascular term (artery, hemangioma, phlebolith, varix, vascular malformation) was used on the biopsy form in one half of the clinical differential diagnoses, none of the clinical histories mentioned pulsation. In contrast to the cases of Miko et al. in 1980 and 1983, none of our cases manifested itself as an ulcer, nor was carcinoma ever mentioned in the clinical differential diagnosis. The purpose of this article is to familiarize clinicians and pathologists with the clinical and histopathologic features of this seldom reported but common vascular anomaly. Clinicians should carefully look for lateral pulsation in lip mucosal papules so as to avoid unnecessary surgery and intraoperative arterial bleeding. Pathologists should recognize that a relatively large-caliber superficial artery in a lip biopsy may not be an incidental finding but rather the clinical lesion that was biopsied. PMID:9768420

  1. Multiple congenital ocular anomalies in Icelandic horses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Multiple congenital ocular anomalies (MCOA) syndrome is a hereditary congenital eye defect that was first described in Silver colored Rocky Mountain horses. The mutation causing this disease is located within a defined chromosomal interval, which also contains the gene and mutation that is associated with the Silver coat color (PMEL17, exon 11). Horses that are homozygous for the disease-causing allele have multiple defects (MCOA-phenotype), whilst the heterozygous horses predominantly have cysts of the iris, ciliary body or retina (Cyst-phenotype). It has been argued that these ocular defects are caused by a recent mutation that is restricted to horses that are related to the Rocky Mountain Horse breed. For that reason we have examined another horse breed, the Icelandic horse, which is historically quite divergent from Rocky Mountain horses. Results We examined 24 Icelandic horses and established that the MCOA syndrome is present in this breed. Four of these horses were categorised as having the MCOA-phenotype and were genotyped as being homozygous for the PMEL17 mutation. The most common clinical signs included megaloglobus, iris stromal hypoplasia, abnormal pectinate ligaments, iridociliary cysts occasionally extending into the peripheral retina and cataracts. The cysts and pectinate ligament abnormalities were observed in the temporal quadrant of the eyes. Fourteen horses were heterozygous for the PMEL17 mutation and were characterized as having the Cyst-phenotype with cysts and occasionally curvilinear streaks in the peripheral retina. Three additional horses were genotyped as PMEL17 heterozygotes, but in these horses we were unable to detect cysts or other forms of anomalies. One eye of a severely vision-impaired 18 month-old stallion, homozygous for the PMEL17 mutation was examined by light microscopy. Redundant duplication of non-pigmented ciliary body epithelium, sometimes forming cysts bulging into the posterior chamber and localized areas of

  2. Histopathology of vascular anomalies: update based on the revised 2014 ISSVA classification.

    PubMed

    Miller, Daniel D; Gupta, Anita

    2016-03-01

    Precise diagnosis of childhood vascular anomalies is challenging, and requires careful correlation of clinical findings, diagnostic imaging, histopathology and genetic analysis. Skin and soft tissue biopsies remain an important element in the complete evaluation of many vascular anomalies included in the revised 2014 International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) classification. Here we present an overview of the light microscopic and immunohistochemical features of the entities in this updated classification scheme, with emphasis on newly-included diagnoses such as PTEN hamartoma of soft tissue. PMID:27607322

  3. Diagnosing vascular variability anomalies, not only MESOR-hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Halberg, Franz; Powell, Deborah; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Beaty, Larry A.; Rosch, Paul; Czaplicki, Jerzy; Hillman, Dewayne; Schwartzkopff, Othild

    2013-01-01

    Chronobiology is the study of biological rhythms. Chronomics investigates interactions with environmental cycles in a genetically coded autoresonance of the biosphere with wrangling space and terrestrial weather. Analytical global and local methods applied to human blood pressure records of around-the-clock measurements covering decades detect physiological-physical interactions, a small yet measurable response to solar and terrestrial magnetism. The chronobiological and chronomic interpretation of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (C-ABPM) records in the light of time-specified reference values derived from healthy peers matched by sex and age identify vascular variability anomalies (VVAs) for an assessment of cardio-, cerebro-, and renovascular disease risk. Even within the conventionally accepted normal range, VVAs have been associated with a statistically significant increase in risk. Long-term C-ABPM records help to “know ourselves,” serving for relief of psychological and other strain once transient VVAs are linked to the source of a load, prompting adjustment of one's lifestyle for strain reduction. Persistent circadian VVAs can be treated, sometimes by no more than a change in timing of the daily administration of antihypertensive medication. Circadian VVA assessment is an emergency worldwide, prompted in the United States by 1,000 deaths per day every day from problems related to blood pressure. While some heads of state met under United Nation and World Health Organization sponsorship to declare that noncommunicable diseases are a slow-motion disaster, a resolution has been drafted to propose C-ABPM as an added tool complementing purely physical environmental monitoring to contribute also to the understanding of social and natural as well as personal cataclysms. PMID:23709604

  4. Flyby Anomaly Test Integrating Multiple Approaches (FATIMA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levit, Creon; Jaroux, Belgacem Amar

    2014-01-01

    FATIMA is a mission concept for a small satellite to investigate the flyby anomaly - a possible velocity increase that has been observed in some earlier satellites when they have performed gravitational swingy maneuvers of the earth.

  5. Surgical management of complete penile duplication accompanied by multiple anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Karaca, Irfan; Turk, Erdal; Ucan, A. Basak; Yayla, Derya; Itirli, Gulcin; Ercal, Derya

    2014-01-01

    Diphallus (penile duplication) is very rare and seen once every 5.5 million births. It can be isolated, but is usually accompanied by other congenital anomalies. Previous studies have reported many concurrent anomalies, such as bladder extrophy, cloacal extrophy, duplicated bladder, scrotal abnormalities, hypospadias, separated symphysis pubis, intestinal anomalies and imperforate anus; no penile duplication case accompanied by omphalocele has been reported. We present the surgical management of a patient with multiple anomalies, including complete penile duplication, hypo-gastric omphalocele and extrophic rectal duplication. PMID:25408817

  6. [Vascular anomaly in the midcheek region of an infant--review of the diagnostic procedure].

    PubMed

    Rossler, L; Sander, V; Teuber, I; Stücker, M; Kreuter, A; Stricker, I; Hamelmann, E

    2015-05-01

    Clinical history, physical examination, evolution and imaging findings (Colour Doppler sonography, MRI if available) are of pivotal importance in the diagnostic pathway of an infantile vascular anomaly. Histopathology with specific stains and markers is contributive in difficult cases. Differentiation between vascular tumors (hemangioma) and vascular malformations is now well known and integrated into the ISSVA classification. We report here a 6-months-old boy, who presented with a localized cutaneous and expansive vascular birthmark in the left cheek and developed bleedings at the age of 18 months. Diagnostic features of a hemangioma were not evident, and the final diagnosis of a venous malformation was confirmed by histopathology. PMID:25985453

  7. Congenital anomalies and vascular birthmarks of the lower extremities.

    PubMed

    Laor, T; Burrows, P E

    1998-08-01

    MR imaging is an invaluable tool for the evaluation of congenital abnormalities and vascular birthmarks of the extremities in children. These abnormalities of the immature musculoskeletal system are often underestimated by radiography. MR imaging is useful for diagnosis, assisting in therapy, showing response to treatment, and determining prognosis. Localized and generalized abnormalities of the lower extremities and issues pertinent to their MR imaging are illustrated in this article. PMID:9654582

  8. Multiple-Instance Learning for Anomaly Detection in Digital Mammography.

    PubMed

    Quellec, Gwenole; Lamard, Mathieu; Cozic, Michel; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Cazuguel, Guy

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes a computer-aided detection and diagnosis system for breast cancer, the most common form of cancer among women, using mammography. The system relies on the Multiple-Instance Learning (MIL) paradigm, which has proven useful for medical decision support in previous works from our team. In the proposed framework, breasts are first partitioned adaptively into regions. Then, features derived from the detection of lesions (masses and microcalcifications) as well as textural features, are extracted from each region and combined in order to classify mammography examinations as "normal" or "abnormal". Whenever an abnormal examination record is detected, the regions that induced that automated diagnosis can be highlighted. Two strategies are evaluated to define this anomaly detector. In a first scenario, manual segmentations of lesions are used to train an SVM that assigns an anomaly index to each region; local anomaly indices are then combined into a global anomaly index. In a second scenario, the local and global anomaly detectors are trained simultaneously, without manual segmentations, using various MIL algorithms (DD, APR, mi-SVM, MI-SVM and MILBoost). Experiments on the DDSM dataset show that the second approach, which is only weakly-supervised, surprisingly outperforms the first approach, even though it is strongly-supervised. This suggests that anomaly detectors can be advantageously trained on large medical image archives, without the need for manual segmentation. PMID:26829783

  9. Infrahepatic caudal/inferior vena cava interruption with azygos/hemiazygos continuation. Vascular anomaly in swine

    PubMed Central

    Jeromel, Miran; Pavcnik, Dusan

    2010-01-01

    Background Swine are commonly used as a model to study congenital cardiovascular defects that occur in humans and these models have been both spontaneous and experimentally induced. Ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, and atrial septal defect (ASD) are examples of experimentally induced models. Absence of caudal/inferior vena cava (CVC/IVC) with azygos/hemiazygos continuation is an uncommon vascular anomaly. Case report The vascular anomaly presented in this case report was an incidental finding on a pig that was evaluated for experimental percutaneous atrial septal defect creation and its closure using a percutaneous femoral vein approach. Absence of CVC/IVC was confirmed by venography and necropsy. Conclusions To the best of the investigators knowledge, this is the first report of absence of CVC/IVC with azygos/hemiazygos continuation in the swine. PMID:22933907

  10. Microfabrication of polydimethylsiloxane phantoms to simulate tumor hypoxia and vascular anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiang; Ren, Wenqi; Yu, Zelin; Dong, Erbao; Zhang, Shiwu; Xu, Ronald X.

    2015-12-01

    We introduce a microfluidic approach to simulate tumor hypoxia and vascular anomaly. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) phantoms with embedded microchannel networks were fabricated by a soft lithography process. A dialysis membrane was sandwiched between two PDMS slabs to simulate the controlled mass transport and oxygen metabolism. A tortuous microchannel network was fabricated to simulate tumor microvasculature. A dual-modal multispectral and laser speckle imaging system was used for oxygen and blood flow imaging in the tumor-simulating phantom. The imaging results were compared with those of the normal vasculature. Our experiments demonstrated the technical feasibility of simulating tumor hypoxia and vascular anomalies using the proposed PDMS phantom. Such a phantom fabrication technique may be potentially used to calibrate optical imaging devices, to study the mechanisms for tumor hypoxia and angiogenesis, and to optimize the drug delivery strategies.

  11. [Summary of 2004 Chinese National Conference on oral and maxillofacial vascular anomalies].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Zhi-Yuan; Zheng, Cang-Shang; Zhou, Qi

    2004-08-01

    Congenital vascular anomalies have been the subject of much controversy and confusion over the years, many remain to be investigated and resolved. Authorized by the Managing Director Board of Chinese Stomatological Association (CSA), 2004 Chinese National Conference on Oral and Maxillofacial Vascular Anomalies was successfully held on July 15 to 18, 2004 in Shenzhen Grand Hotel. The conference was sponsored by Chinese Society of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (CSOMS), and undertaken by the Second People's Hospital of Shenzhen city. Professor ZHANG Zhen-kang, president of CSA, Professor QIU Wei-liu, president of CSOMS and academician of Chinese Academy of Engineers, and Professor LIU Bao-lin, vice president of CSOMS were present and made important speech at the meeting. More than 120 delegates nationwide attended this conference. Through a 3-day of oral presentation and discussion, the terminology, classification, treatment selection and outcome measurement of oral and maxillofacial hemangioma and vascular malformations were concerted among the delegates. Hemangiomas and vascular malformations have been recognized as distinct diseases that exhibit unique properties and behavior that demand an appropriately tailored treatment plan. The classification of Waner and Suen was adopted and different treatment modalities were reviewed and advocated for different lesions. Delegates were most interested in intralesional injection of Pingyangmycin for venous malformations, Krypton laser photodynamic therapy of venular malformations, Nd:YAG laser therapy for deep head and neck venous malformations after surgical exposure of the lesions, as well as "double" embolization of large venous malformations reported by Professor QIN Zhong-ping. The conference witnessed the foundation of the Division of Vascular Anomalies, Chinese Society of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. PMID:15349690

  12. Efficacy and Safety of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Inhibitors in Vascular Anomalies: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Marion; Giraudeau, Bruno; Tavernier, Elsa; Jonville-Bera, Annie-Pierre; Lorette, Gerárd; Maruani, Annabel

    2016-05-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are a promising new treatment in vascular anomalies, but no published randomized controlled trials are available. The aim of this systematic review of all reported cases was to assess the efficacy and safety of mTOR inhibitors in all vascular anomalies, except cancers, in children and adults. In November 2014 MEDLINE, CENTRAL, LILACS and EMBASE were searched for studies of mTOR inhibitors in any vascular condition, except for malignant lesions, in humans. Fourteen publications and 9 posters, with data on 25 and 59 patients, respectively, all < 18 years old were included. Of these patients, 35.7% (n = 30) had vascular tumours, and 64.3% (n = 54) had malformations. Sirolimus was the most frequent mTOR inhibitor used (98.8%, n = 83). It was efficient in all cases, at a median time of 2 weeks (95% confidence interval 1-10 weeks). Sirolimus was well tolerated, the main side-effect being mouth sores, which led to treatment withdrawal in one case. The dosage of sirolimus was heterogeneous, the most common being 1.6 mg/m2/day. PMID:26607948

  13. The current approach to the diagnosis of vascular anomalies of the head and neck: A pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Swati; Singh, Aarti; Prakash, Anjali; Ghosh, Sujoy; Narang, Poonam; Gupta, Sunita

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the years, various classifications have evolved for the diagnosis of vascular anomalies. However, it remains difficult to classify a number of such lesions. Because all hemangiomas were previously considered to involute, if a lesion with imaging and clinical characteristics of hemangioma does not involute, then there is no subclass in which to classify such a lesion, as reported in one of our cases. The recent classification proposed by the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA, 2014) has solved this problem by including non-involuting and partially involuting hemangioma in the classification. We present here five cases of vascular anomalies and discuss their diagnosis in accordance with the ISSVA (2014) classification. A non-involuting lesion should not always be diagnosed as a vascular malformation. A non-involuting lesion can be either a hemangioma or a vascular malformation depending upon its clinicopathologic and imaging characteristics. PMID:26125008

  14. Systemic Multiple Aneurysms Caused by Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gui, Xinyu; Li, Fangda; Wu, Lingeer; Zheng, Yuehong

    2016-07-01

    Systemic multiple aneurysms are rare and usually associated with collagen tissue disease, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) or Marfan syndrome. In the present case, we describe a 39-year-old male patient with systemic multiple aneurysms and acute intraperitoneal hemorrhage who was clinically diagnosed with vascular EDS. Coil embolization of the distal segment of the common hepatic artery was performed, which resolved the patient's symptoms. With this case presentation, we aim to increase the awareness of vascular EDS among clinicians and emphasize the extreme fragility of the arteries in patients with vascular EDS. PMID:27206743

  15. Anomaly Detection in Multiple Scale for Insider Threat Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoohwan; Sheldon, Frederick T; Hively, Lee M

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method to quantify malicious insider activity with statistical and graph-based analysis aided with semantic scoring rules. Different types of personal activities or interactions are monitored to form a set of directed weighted graphs. The semantic scoring rules assign higher scores for the events more significant and suspicious. Then we build personal activity profiles in the form of score tables. Profiles are created in multiple scales where the low level profiles are aggregated toward more stable higherlevel profiles within the subject or object hierarchy. Further, the profiles are created in different time scales such as day, week, or month. During operation, the insider s current activity profile is compared to the historical profiles to produce an anomaly score. For each subject with a high anomaly score, a subgraph of connected subjects is extracted to look for any related score movement. Finally the subjects are ranked by their anomaly scores to help the analysts focus on high-scored subjects. The threat-ranking component supports the interaction between the User Dashboard and the Insider Threat Knowledge Base portal. The portal includes a repository for historical results, i.e., adjudicated cases containing all of the information first presented to the user and including any additional insights to help the analysts. In this paper we show the framework of the proposed system and the operational algorithms.

  16. Anomaly-free multiple singularity enhancement in F-theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizoguchi, Shun'ya; Tani, Taro

    2016-07-01

    We study global Calabi-Yau realizations of multiple singularity enhancement relevant to family-unification model building in F-theory. We examine the conditions under which the generation of extra chiral matter at multiple singularities on 7-branes in 6D F-theory can be consistent with anomaly cancellation. It is shown that the generation of extra matter is consistent only if it is accompanied by simultaneous degenerations of loci of the leading polynomial of the discriminant so that the total amount of chiral matter does not change. We also show that the number of singlets expected to arise matches the decrease of the complex structure moduli for the restricted geometry.

  17. Suspected cervical spinal cord vascular anomaly in an African warthog (Phacochoerus africanus).

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Douglas P; Shury, Todd K; Black, Sandra R; Raverty, Stephen

    2006-09-01

    Vascular myelopathies of the spinal cord have not been described in Suidae, and are a rare finding in companion animals. An 8.5-yr female African warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) presented with an acute onset of tetraparesis. Based on neurologic findings, a cervical spinal cord lesion between C7-T2 was suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed severe intramedullary hemorrhage with suspected abnormal vessels in the spinal cord at the level of the seventh cervical vertebrae. The acute onset of clinical signs and rapid deterioration of neurological status precluded surgical managements. A vascular anomaly was suspected on gross pathology and histology. Immunohistochemistry identified the lesion as a spontaneous intramedullary hematoma. Spontaneous intramedullary hematomyelia should be considered as a differential for acute onset of paresis in suid species. PMID:17319141

  18. Anomalies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on anomalies includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources for elementary and junior high school students. Pertinent activities are suggested, and sidebars discuss UFOs, animal anomalies, and anomalies from nature; and resources covering unexplained phenonmenas like crop circles, Easter Island,…

  19. [Inventive Approach during Laparoscopic Distal Gastrectomy for Treatment of Gastric Cancer in Patients with Adachi Type Ⅵ Vascular Anomaly].

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Toru; Komatsu, Shuhei; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Miyamae, Mahito; Hirajima, Shoji; Kawaguchi, Tsutomu; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Kuriu, Yoshiaki; Ikoma, Hisashi; Nakanishi, Masayoshi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Otsuji, Eigo

    2015-11-01

    Vascular anomalies, as described by the Adachi classification, are an inevitable issue for gastric cancer surgery. Here, we report a safe technique for laparoscopic lymph node dissection in a patient with Adachi typeⅥ vascular anomaly. The patient is a 72-year-old woman, who presented with a submucosal gastric cancer located on the lesser curvature of the stomach. Preoperative MDCT revealed Adachi type Ⅵ vascular anomaly. At laparoscopic surgery, we first identified the portal vein. Then, dissection of the hepatoduodenal and No. 8a lymph nodes was performed from the location near the portal vein at the superior portion of the hepatoduodenal ligament to that near the splenic vein superior to the pancreas. This avoids the disorientation that may result from anomalous vessels and prevents error that can lead to vascular complications. Subsequently, she underwent D1 plus gastrectomy. Her postoperative course was uneventful. Our surgical technique offers a safe approach for laparoscopic gastrectomy in the patient with Adachi type Ⅵ vascular anomaly. PMID:26805248

  20. Vascular pathology in multiple sclerosis: mind boosting or myth busting?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The investigation of central nervous system vascular changes in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is a time-honored concept. Yet, recent reports on changes in venous cerebrospinal outflow, the advent of new magnetic resonance imaging techniques and the investigation of immunomodulatory properties of several vascular mediators on the molecular level have added new excitement to hypotheses centering around vascular pathology as determining factor in the pathophysiology of MS. Here we critically review the concept of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in MS patients and describe new imaging techniques including perfusion weighted imaging, susceptibility weighted imaging and diffusion weighted imaging which reveal central nervous system hypoperfusion, perivascular iron deposition and diffuse structural changes in the MS brain. On a molecular basis, vascular mediators represent interesting targets connecting vascular pathology with immunomodulation. In summary, the relation of venous changes to the pathophysiology of MS may not be as simple as initially described and it certainly seems awkward to think of the complex disease MS solely as result of a simple venous outflow obstruction. Yet, the investigation of new vascular concepts as one variable in the pathophysiology of the autoimmune attack seems very worthwhile and may add to a better understanding of this devastating disorder. PMID:21756314

  1. Fluctuating nature of an orbital venous-lymphatic anomaly in association with intracranial vascular malformations: a classical presentation.

    PubMed

    Kanagalingam, Sivashakthi; Wyse, Emily; Merbs, Shannath L; Pearl, Monica Smith

    2015-01-01

    Venous-lymphatic anomalies (VLA) are rare and benign congenital lesions of the lymphatic system, composed of endothelial-lined lymphatic cysts. They are most frequently located in the region of the head and neck, and represent 4% of all orbital masses. In those patients with extensive orbital VLAs, a strong association with intracranial vascular anomalies has been reported. Factors known to suddenly increase the size of these lesions include upper respiratory tract infections or intralesional haemorrhage; however, complete spontaneous regression is rare. We report on the classic presentation of a patient with a fluctuating right orbital VLA in association with an intracranial cavernous malformation and intracranial developmental venous anomaly. PMID:26438679

  2. Goiter with Vascular Anomalies in a Litter of Polish Lowland Sheepdogs

    PubMed Central

    Kuczynski, Leslie Anne; Schwartz, Paul; Peddle, Gordon; Huang, Steven; Mai, Wilfried; Giger, Urs

    2012-01-01

    At approximately 4–5 mo of age, three Polish Lowland sheepdog puppies from a single litter of eight puppies presented to their respective primary veterinarians with bilateral subcutaneous masses in their ventral cervical regions. Evaluation, including thyroid function testing, surgical exploration with resection, computed tomography, and angiography, identified the masses as enlarged thyroid glands with severely dilated and abnormal vasculature in the regions of the glands. The dogs were also found to have serum concentrations of thyroid hormones that were below the reference ranges. None of the three dogs showed clinical signs of hypothyroidism, except for the presence of goiter. One dog also had a patent ductus arteriosus that was surgically repaired. All dogs were clinically normal at 2 yr of age. This is the first report of major vascular anomalies associated with goiter in any species. The mechanism is unknown. PMID:22611215

  3. Vascular and connective tissue anomalies associated with X-linked periventricular heterotopia due to mutations in Filamin A.

    PubMed

    Reinstein, Eyal; Frentz, Sophia; Morgan, Tim; García-Miñaúr, Sixto; Leventer, Richard J; McGillivray, George; Pariani, Mitchel; van der Steen, Anthony; Pope, Michael; Holder-Espinasse, Muriel; Scott, Richard; Thompson, Elizabeth M; Robertson, Terry; Coppin, Brian; Siegel, Robert; Bret Zurita, Montserrat; Rodríguez, Jose I; Morales, Carmen; Rodrigues, Yuri; Arcas, Joaquín; Saggar, Anand; Horton, Margaret; Zackai, Elaine; Graham, John M; Rimoin, David L; Robertson, Stephen P

    2013-05-01

    Mutations conferring loss of function at the FLNA (encoding filamin A) locus lead to X-linked periventricular nodular heterotopia (XL-PH), with seizures constituting the most common clinical manifestation of this disorder in female heterozygotes. Vascular dilatation (mainly the aorta), joint hypermobility and variable skin findings are also associated anomalies, with some reports suggesting that this might represents a separate syndrome allelic to XL-PH, termed as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome-periventricular heterotopia variant (EDS-PH). Here, we report a cohort of 11 males and females with both hypomorphic and null mutations in FLNA that manifest a wide spectrum of connective tissue and vascular anomalies. The spectrum of cutaneous defects was broader than previously described and is inconsistent with a specific type of EDS. We also extend the range of vascular anomalies associated with XL-PH to included peripheral arterial dilatation and atresia. Based on these observations, we suggest that there is little molecular or clinical justification for considering EDS-PH as a separate entity from XL-PH, but instead propose that there is a spectrum of vascular and connective tissues anomalies associated with this condition for which all individuals with loss-of-function mutations in FLNA should be evaluated. In addition, since some patients with XL-PH can present primarily with a joint hypermobility syndrome, we propose that screening for cardiovascular manifestations should be offered to those patients when there are associated seizures or an X-linked pattern of inheritance. PMID:23032111

  4. Genotype–Phenotype Correlation of Congenital Anomalies in Multiple Congenital Anomalies Hypotonia Seizures Syndrome (MCAHS1)/ PIGN-Related Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Leah; Lemmon, Monica; Beck, Natalie; Johnson, Maria; Mu, Weiyi; Murdock, David; Bodurtha, Joann; Hoover-Fong, Julie; Cohn, Ronald; Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Barañano, Kristin; Hamosh, Ada

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in PIGN, resulting in multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor deficiency, have been published in four families to date. We report four patients from three unrelated families with epilepsy and hypotonia in whom whole exome sequencing yielded compound heterozygous variants in PIGN. As with previous reports Patients 1 and 2 (full siblings) have severe global developmental delay, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and minor dysmorphic features, including high palate, bitemporal narrowing, depressed nasal bridge, and micrognathia; Patient 3 had early global developmental delay with later progressive spastic quadriparesis, intellectual disability, and intractable generalized epilepsy; Patient 4 had bilateral narrowing as well but differed by the presence of hypertelorism, markedly narrow palpebral fissures, and long philtrum, had small distal phalanges of fingers 2, 3, and 4, absent distal phalanx of finger 5 and similar toe anomalies, underdeveloped nails, unusual brain anomalies, and a more severe early clinical course. These patients expand the known clinical spectrum of the disease. The severity of the presentations in conjunction with the patients’ mutations suggest a genotype–phenotype correlation in which congenital anomalies are only seen in patients with biallelic loss-of-function. In addition, PIGN mutations appear to be panethnic and may be an underappreciated cause of epilepsy. PMID:26394714

  5. Parietal bone agenesis and associated multiple congenital anomalies.

    PubMed

    de Heer, Inge M; van Nesselrooij, Bernadette P M; Spliet, Willem; Vermeij-Keers, Christl

    2003-03-01

    Congenital defects of the calvaria in general and the parietal bones in particular are rare diseases. The latter are of three kinds: 1) cranioschisis, 2) craniodysostosis, and 3) foramina parietalia permagna (FPP). Here, we describe an exceptional anomaly, namely, complete absence of one parietal bone and dysplasia of the other. Agenesis has been reported twice before in the literature. In these cases, the calvarial defect was the only congenital anomaly. In contrast, the patient described in this article exhibited many other congenital deformities, namely, iris coloboma, facial dysmorphism, a large ventricular septal defect of the heart, and a horseshoe kidney. Some of these deformities are associated with neural crest development. Chromosomal analysis was normal in both blood and fibroblasts, and fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis failed to demonstrate a 22q11 deletion as seen in DiGeorge syndrome, a neural crest-related disease complex. Since 2000, the third group of congenital defects of the parietal bones, FPP, has been associated with mutations of the MSX-2 gene. In our case, a genetic analysis of this gene was performed, but no mutations or deletions of MSX-2 were detected. PMID:12621289

  6. US and MRI features in venous vascular malformation of the abdominal wall. A case report

    PubMed Central

    Alessandrino, F.; Maira, A.; Tarantino, C.C.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are classified as vascular tumors and vascular malformations. Venous vascular malformations are the most common type of vascular malformation. They may be isolated or multiple and they rarely affect the trunk. The authors report a rare case of isolated venous vascular malformation of the abdominal wall with an emphasis on the related MRI and ultrasound (US) features. PMID:23450707

  7. MULTIPLE ORIGINS OF NITROGEN ISOTOPIC ANOMALIES IN METEORITES AND COMETS

    SciTech Connect

    Aleon, Jerome

    2010-10-20

    Isotopic fractionation and mixing calculations compared with coupled hydrogen and nitrogen isotopic composition of organic molecules from primitive chondrites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), and comets C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and 81P/Wild2 reveal that meteoritic and cometary organic matter contains three different isotopic components of different origins. (1) A major component of carbonaceous chondrites, IDPs, and comets Hale-Bopp and Wild2 shows correlated H and N isotopic compositions attributable to isotope exchange between an organic matter of solar composition and a reservoir formed by ion-molecule reactions at T < 25 K under conditions where competing reactions are strongly inhibited, possibly in the final evolutionary stages of the presolar cloud core, or more likely in the coldest outer regions of the solar protoplanetary disk. (2) In carbonaceous chondrites, IDPs, and comet Wild2, this component is mixed with a {sup 15}N-rich component having identical {sup 15}N and D enrichments relative to the protosolar gas. Temperatures > 100 K deduced from the low D/H ratio and an anti-correlation between the abundance of this component and meteoritic age indicate a late origin in the solar protoplanetary disk. N{sub 2} self-shielding and the non-thermal nucleosynthesis of {sup 15}N upon irradiation are possible but unlikely sources of this component, and a chemical origin is preferred. (3) An interstellar component with highly fractionated hydrogen isotopes and unfractionated nitrogen isotopes is present in ordinary chondrites. A dominantly solar origin of D and {sup 15}N excesses in primitive solar system bodies shows that isotopic anomalies do not necessarily fingerprint an interstellar origin and implies that only a very small fraction of volatile interstellar matter survived the events of solar system formation.

  8. Multiple developmental dental anomalies and hypermobility type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Othman M; Rihani, Farouk B

    2006-01-01

    Concurrent existence of multiple developmental dental anomalies: hypodontia of permanent mandibular incisors, dentin dysplasia, transmigration, root dilaceration, ectopic eruption and delayed eruption combined with systemic abnormalities including joint hyperlaxity and skin hyperextensibility aided in diagnosis of a sporadic case of hypermobility type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome in a Jordanian Arab male. In dental practice the presence of multiple developmental dental anomalies expressing simultaneous defects in different stages of tooth development should raise suspicion of possible of manifestation of an underlying systemic abnormality. PMID:16937863

  9. Application of Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization in Newborns with Multiple Congenital Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Szczałuba, Krzysztof; Nowakowska, Beata; Sobecka, Katarzyna; Smyk, Marta; Castaneda, Jennifer; Klapecki, Jakub; Kutkowska-Kaźmierczak, Anna; Śmigiel, Robert; Bocian, Ewa; Radkowski, Marek; Demkow, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Major congenital anomalies are detectable in 2-3 % of the newborn population. Some of their genetic causes are attributable to copy number variations identified by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). The value of aCGH screening as a first-tier test in children with multiple congenital anomalies has been studied and consensus adopted. However, array resolution has not been agreed upon, specifically in the newborn or infant population. Moreover, most array studies have been focused on mixed populations of intellectual disability/developmental delay with or without multiple congenital anomalies, making it difficult to assess the value of microarrays in newborns. The aim of the study was to determine the optimal quality and clinical sensitivity of high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization in neonates with multiple congenital anomalies. We investigated a group of 54 newborns with multiple congenital anomalies defined as two or more birth defects from more than one organ system. Cytogenetic studies were performed using OGT CytoSure 8 × 60 K microarray. We found ten rearrangements in ten newborns. Of these, one recurrent syndromic microduplication was observed, whereas all other changes were unique. Six rearrangements were definitely pathogenic, including one submicroscopic and five that could be seen on routine karyotype analysis. Four other copy number variants were likely pathogenic. The candidate genes that may explain the phenotype were discussed. In conclusion, high-resolution array comparative hybridization can be applied successfully in newborns with multiple congenital anomalies as the method detects a significant number of pathogenic changes, resulting in early diagnoses. We hypothesize that small changes previously considered benign or even inherited rearrangements should be classified as potentially pathogenic at least until a subsequent clinical assessment would exclude a developmental delay or dysmorphism. PMID:26987320

  10. Holoprosencephaly with Multiple Anomalies of the Craniofacial Bones-An Autopsy Report

    PubMed Central

    Aruna, E.; Chakravarthy, V. Kalyan; Rao, D. Naveen Chandar; Rao, D. Ranga

    2013-01-01

    Holoprosencephaly (HPE), a disorder which results from a failure of cleavage or the incomplete differentiation of the forebrain structures at various levels or to various degrees, is related to hereditary factors, chromosomal anomalies, cytogenetic abnormalities, and environmental teratogenic factors. We are reporting a case of a multiparous woman who was G3,P3,L2, who delivered a full term foetus with holoprosencephaly and multiple craniofacial anomalies. An autopsy was conducted. Multiple anomalies of the craniofacial bones, which include hypoplasia and synostosis of the frontal bone, anophthalmia, absence of the anterior cranial fossa, hypoplasia of the maxillae, an absent antrum, cleft palate, a central hare lip and arrhinia which includes absence of the nostrils and hypotelorism of the eye placodes, were noted. This case is being reported for its rarity and the available literature was reviewed in this respect. PMID:24086891

  11. Identification of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections at 1 AU Using Multiple Solar Wind Plasma Composition Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, I. G.; Cane, H. V.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the use of multiple simultaneous solar wind plasma compositional anomalies, relative to the composition of the ambient solar wind, for identifying interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) plasma. We first summarize the characteristics of several solar wind plasma composition signatures (O(+7)/O(+6), Mg/O, Ne/O, Fe charge states, He/p) observed by the ACE and WIND spacecraft within the ICMEs during 1996 - 2002 identsed by Cane and Richardson. We then develop a set of simple criteria that may be used to identify such compositional anomalies, and hence potential ICMEs. To distinguish these anomalies from the normal variations seen in ambient solar wind composition, which depend on the wind speed, we compare observed compositional signatures with those 'expected' in ambient solar wind with the same solar wind speed. This method identifies anomalies more effectively than the use of fixed thresholds. The occurrence rates of individual composition anomalies within ICMEs range from approx. 70% for enhanced iron and oxygen charge states to approx. 30% for enhanced He/p (> 0.06) and Ne/O, and are generally higher in magnetic clouds than other ICMEs. Intervals of multiple anomalies are usually associated with ICMEs, and provide a basis for the identification of the majority of ICMEs. We estimate that Cane and Richardson, who did not refer to composition data, probably identitied approx. 90% of the ICMEs present. However, around 10% of their ICMEs have weak compositional anomalies, suggesting that the presence of such signatures does not provide a necessary requirement for an ICME. We note a remarkably similar correlation between the Mg/O and O(7)/O(6) ratios in hourly-averaged data both within ICMEs and the ambient solar wind. This 'universal' relationship suggests that a similar process (such as minor ion heating by waves inside coronal magnetic field loops) produces the first-ionization potential bias and ion freezing-in temperatures in the source regions

  12. Vascular Multiplicity Should Not Be a Contra-Indication for Live Kidney Donation and Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    van Bruggen, Mark; Kimenai, Hendrikus J. A. N.; Tran, Thi C. K.; Terkivatan, Türkan; Betjes, Michiel G. H.; IJzermans, Jan N. M.; Dor, Frank J. M. F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether vascular multiplicity should be considered as contraindication and therefore ‘extended donor criterion’ is still under debate. Methods Data from all live kidney donors from 2006–2013 (n = 951) was retrospectively reviewed. Vascular anatomy as imaged by MRA, CTA or other modalities was compared with intraoperative findings. Furthermore, the influence of vascular multiplicity on outcome of donors and recipients was studied. Results In 237 out of 951 donors (25%), vascular multiplicity was present. CTA had the highest accuracy levels regarding vascular anatomy assessment. Regarding outcome of donors with vascular multiplicity, warm ischemia time (WIT) and skin-to-skin time were significantly longer if arterial multiplicity (AM) was present (5.1 vs. 4.0 mins and 202 vs. 178 mins). Skin-to-skin time was significantly longer, and complication rates were higher in donors with venous multiplicity (203 vs. 180 mins and 17.2% vs. 8.4%). Outcome of renal transplant recipients showed a significantly increased WIT (30 vs. 26.7 minutes), higher rate of DGF (13.9% vs. 6.9%) and lower rate of BPAR (6.9% vs. 13.9%) in patients receiving a kidney with AM compared to kidneys with singular anatomy. Conclusions We conclude that vascular multiplicity should not be a contra-indication, since it has little impact on clinical outcome in the donor as well as in renal transplant recipients. PMID:27077904

  13. Vascular comorbidity is associated with more rapid disability progression in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Marrie, R.A.; Rudick, R.; Horwitz, R.; Cutter, G.; Tyry, T.; Campagnolo, D.; Vollmer, T.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Vascular comorbidity adversely influences health outcomes in several chronic conditions. Vascular comorbidities are common in multiple sclerosis (MS), but their impact on disease severity is unknown. Vascular comorbidities may contribute to the poorly understood heterogeneity in MS disease severity. Treatment of vascular comorbidities may represent an avenue for treating MS. Methods: A total of 8,983 patients with MS enrolled in the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis Registry participated in this cohort study. Time from symptom onset or diagnosis until ambulatory disability was compared for patients with or without vascular comorbidities to determine their impact on MS severity. Multivariable proportional hazards models were adjusted for sex, race, age at symptom onset, year of symptom onset, socioeconomic status, and region of residence. Results: Participants reporting one or more vascular comorbidities at diagnosis had an increased risk of ambulatory disability, and risk increased with the number of vascular conditions reported (hazard ratio [HR]/condition for early gait disability 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41–1.61). Vascular comorbidity at any time during the disease course also increased the risk of ambulatory disability (adjusted HR for unilateral walking assistance 1.54; 95% CI 1.44–1.65). The median time between diagnosis and need for ambulatory assistance was 18.8 years in patients without and 12.8 years in patients with vascular comorbidities. Conclusions: Vascular comorbidity, whether present at symptom onset, diagnosis, or later in the disease course, is associated with a substantially increased risk of disability progression in multiple sclerosis. The impact of treating vascular comorbidities on disease progression deserves investigation. GLOSSARY EDSS = Expanded Disability Status Scale; HR = hazard ratio; MS = multiple sclerosis; NARCOMS = North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis; PDDS

  14. Novel interstitial 2.6 Mb deletion on 9q21 associated with multiple congenital anomalies.

    PubMed

    Pua, Heather H; Krishnamurthi, Swetha; Farrell, Jessica; Margeta, Marta; Ursell, Philip C; Powers, Martin; Slavotinek, Anne M; Jeng, Linda J B

    2014-01-01

    Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is now commonly used to identify copy number changes in individuals with developmental delay, intellectual disabilities, autism spectrum disorders, and/or multiple congenital anomalies. We report on an infant with multiple congenital anomalies and a novel 2.6 Mb interstitial deletion within 9q21.32q21.33 detected by aCGH. Her clinical presentation included dysmorphic craniofacial features, cleft palate, atrial septal defect, bicornuate uterus, bilateral hip dislocation, hypotonia, and recurrent pneumonia. Parental aCGH studies were negative for copy loss in this region. To our knowledge, no similar deletions have been reported in available databases or published literature. This deletion encompasses 12 genes, and prediction algorithms as well as experimental data suggest that a subset is likely to be haploinsufficient. Included are a neurotrophin receptor (NKG2D), a gene implicated in cilia function (KIF27), an adaptor protein important for ubiquitin-dependent protein quality control (UBQLN1), a gene important for transcription and signaling (HNRNPK), and a gene involved in maintaining genomic stability (RMI1). Identifying additional patients with similar copy losses and further study of these genes will contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of multiple congenital anomalies. PMID:24501764

  15. Multiple urethral anomalies: Parameatal urethral cyst, penile curvature, incomplete hypospadiac anterior duplication of the urethra and distal hipospadias

    PubMed Central

    Tuglu, Devrim; Yuvanç, Ercan; Yılmaz, Erdal; Gur, Serhan; Batislam, Ertan

    2015-01-01

    The male genitourinary system is quite complex. There are numerous known anomalies of the male urethra either as isolated cases or in combination with other disorders. An improved understanding of the embryology and anatomy of the normal male urethral development might help explain the causes of the various urethral abnormalities. We contribute to the etiology of congenital anomalies with this multiple urethral anomalies case. PMID:26029298

  16. Unilateral Absence of the Left Pulmonary Artery With an Associated Vascular Anomaly in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Letter, Haley; Derrick, Edward; Koury, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Left-sided pulmonary artery agenesis is a rare malformation that commonly requires childhood intervention secondary to associated congenital cardiovascular anomalies. We present an uncommon case of left-sided agenesis with an associated right-sided aortic arch and significant hypoplasia of the ipsilateral lung. Additionally, there is radiographic evidence of emphysema and pulmonary artery hypertension. Pulmonary artery agenesis is not a common entity, but should be considered in adult patients presenting with recurrent pneumonias and radiographic evidence suggestive of pulmonary hypoplasia. A prompt diagnosis is beneficial for affected individuals who may be candidates for a revascularization procedure or embolization of collaterals. Earlier diagnosis also allows for proper management and follow-up care, considering pulmonary artery hypertension is a severe complication of pulmonary artery agenesis. PMID:27081588

  17. Evidence for the "midline" hypothesis in associated defects of laterality formation and multiple midline anomalies.

    PubMed

    Gilbert-Barness, E; Debich-Spicer, D; Cohen, M M; Opitz, J M

    2001-07-15

    A male infant was liveborn at 38 weeks of gestation to a G4P1AB2, 22-year-old, mother. Polyhydramnios and multiple congenital anomalies were noted by ultrasonography; the infant died 5 min after birth. At autopsy, the infant had multiple defects of blastogenesis including midline anomalies with asplenia and abnormalities of laterality formation. The laterality defects were unusual in that they combined asplenia with hypoplastic, symmetrically unilobate lungs and bilateral hyparterial bronchi more consistent with polysplenia, abdominal situs inversus with midline stomach, symmetric liver, and left gallbladder. No intracardiac abnormalities were present, but there was azygous continuation of the inferior vena cava. Additional multiple midline defects included bronchoesophageal fistula, duodenal atresia, absence of posterior leaf of diaphragm; horseshoe adrenal gland; microcephaly; Dandy-Walker anomaly with agenesis of cerebellar vermis and occipital encephalocele; holoprosencephaly with orbital encephalocele, midline defect of the orbital plate of the skull, bilateral anophthalmia, double proboscis with bilateral choanal atresia, midline upper lip and palatal cleft; single-lobed thyroid; hypoplastic external genitalia with midline cleft of scrotum, long tapering fingers, and defects of the cranium at the sites of orbital and occipital encephaloceles. Defects of laterality frequently are associated with other complex midline anomalies, which both result from a disturbance of pattern formation during blastogenesis, i.e., the induction of the progenitor fields. The latter are the result of the establishment of upstream expression domains of growth and transcription factors and other morphogens. Many of these and other genetic systems, expressed asymmetrically around the midline, are responsible for laterality formation and are the result of upstream and subsequent downstream gene expression cascades through the expression of genes such as HOX genes; bFGF; transforming

  18. Heterotopic nephrogenic rests in the colon and multiple congenital anomalies: possibly related association.

    PubMed

    Jain, Dhanpat; Martel, Maritza; Reyes-Múgica, Miguel; Parkash, Vinita

    2002-01-01

    Heterotopic renal tissue (HRT) in the wall of the colon is a very rare occurrence, with only five cases published. Our patient is only the second patient reported to have this abnormality in the absence of sirenomelia. We describe colonic HRT in a child, associated with multiple congenital anomalies. The congenital abnormalities were of the VACTERL type, accompanied by valvular cardiac anomalies that were clinically diagnosed as Shone syndrome. The HRT was not apparent clinically or grossly. Microscopically, multifocal islands of renal tissue consisting of glomeruli, cystically dilated tubules, and blastema were seen in all layers of the bowel, and simulated "cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma." Our case provides further support to the belief that VACTERL association and sirenomelia represent related entities. PMID:12375130

  19. An uncommon disorder with multiple skeletal anomalies: Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Keçeli, Onur; Coskun-Benlidayı, İlke; Benlidayı, M Emre; Erdoğan, Özgür

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is an uncommon disorder transmitted through autosomal dominant inheritance. This syndrome is characterized by multiple odontogenic keratocysts, along with congenital skeletal anomalies and basal cell carcinomas. A 16-year-old girl was admitted with a complaint of swelling on the lower jaw. She had multiple basal cell nevi on both hands. Multiple lytic bone lesions on radiographs were defined as odontogenic keratocysts following the biopsy. The patient was referred to the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation for detailed musculoskeletal evaluation. Adam's forward bend test revealed a hump on the right side representing right thoracic scoliosis. Cervical kyphosis, thoracic lordosis and scoliosis, bifid rib and sacral and lumbar spina bifida on plain radiographs led to the diagnosis of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome. Since early diagnosis may provide optimum surveillance for related neoplasms, it is of paramount importance for pediatricians as well as physicians dealing with the musculoskeletal system to be aware of this rare condition. PMID:25818966

  20. Postnatal Diagnosis of a Baby With Multiple Rare Congenital Anomalies Including Syngnathia, Brain Dysmorphism, and Skin Pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Mahgoub, Linda; Joynt, Chloe; Bhargava, Ravi; Davies, Dawn; El-Hakim, Hamdy; Dobrovolsky, Walter

    2015-11-01

    Syngnathia is a rare congenital disorder of jaw fusion with a paucity of literature from developed countries. We present a case of an infant noted to have multiple anomalies at birth including syngnathia, microcephaly with a variant of brain abnormality between holoprosencephaly and syntelencephaly, optic nerve hypoplasia, ear canal anomalies, hemi-vertebrae, and suspected hypomelanosis of Ito. To our knowledge, this patient with syngnathia and multiple anomalies is the first to be reported, but whether they are a coincidence, a pathogenetic association, or a new syndrome remains unknown. This case is discussed with a brief review of the literature. PMID:25325328

  1. Application of Prospective ECG-Gated High-Pitch 128-Slice Dual-Source CT Angiography in the Diagnosis of Congenital Extracardiac Vascular Anomalies in Infants and Children

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ximing; Duan, Yanhua; Xu, Wenjian; Li, Haiou; Cao, Ting; Liu, Xuejun; Ji, Xiaopeng; Cheng, Zhaoping; Wang, Anbiao

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the value of prospective ECG-gated high-pitch 128-slice dual-source CT (DSCT) angiography in the diagnosis of congenital extracardiac vascular anomalies in infants and children in comparison with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Methods Eighty consecutive infants or children clinically diagnosed of congenital heart disease and suspected with extracardiac vascular anomaly were enrolled, and 75 patients were finally included in this prospective study. All patients underwent prospective ECG-gated high-pitch DSCT angiography after TTE with an interval of 1–7 days. The diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity of high-pitch DSCT angiography and TTE were compared according to the surgical/CCA findings. The image quality of DSCT was assessed using a five-point scale. The effective radiation dose (ED) was calculated. Results A total of 17 congenital heart diseases and 162 separate extracardiac vascular anomalies were confirmed by surgical/CCA findings in 75 patients. The diagnostic accuracy of high-pitch DSCT angiography and TTE was 99.67% and 97.89%, respectively. The sensitivity of high-pitch DSCT angiography and TTE was 97.53% and 79.62%, respectively. There was significant difference regarding to the diagnostic accuracy and the sensitivity between high-pitch DSCT angiography and TTE (χ2 = 23.561 and 28.013, P<0.05). The agreement on the image quality scoring of DSCT between the two observers was excellent (κ = 0.81), and the mean score of image quality was 4.1±0.7. The mean ED of DSCT was 0.29±0.08 mSv. Conclusions Prospective ECG-gated high-pitch 128-slice DSCT angiography with low radiation dose and high diagnostic accuracy has higher sensitivity compared to TTE in the detection of congenital extracardiac vascular anomalies in infants and children. PMID:25546178

  2. Reconstruction of the lids of a child with microblepharon and multiple congenital anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Merriam, J C; Stalnecker, M C; Merriam, G R

    1988-01-01

    The initial stages in the rehabilitation of a male child with severe microblepharon, corneal opacities, bilateral facial clefts, bilateral complete cleft lip and palate, and unilateral syndactyly are described. Review of the literature suggests that severe microblepharon is associated with other craniofacial anomalies, and often the child is stillborn or retarded. Surviving children have been abandoned because of their appearance. The child described in this case appears to be unique because his intelligence is normal, and, to our knowledge, this is the first reported case of penetrating keratoplasty after reconstruction of functional eyelids. The principal problems after corneal grafting appear to have been chronic partial exposure due to inadequate lid length and a poor Bell's reflex and the persistence of a rim of vascularized fibrous tissue around the corneal graft. Future reconstructive surgery is outlined. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 PMID:2979029

  3. Multiple Kernel Learning for Heterogeneous Anomaly Detection: Algorithm and Aviation Safety Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Santanu; Srivastava, Ashok N.; Matthews, Bryan L.; Oza, Nikunj C.

    2010-01-01

    The world-wide aviation system is one of the most complex dynamical systems ever developed and is generating data at an extremely rapid rate. Most modern commercial aircraft record several hundred flight parameters including information from the guidance, navigation, and control systems, the avionics and propulsion systems, and the pilot inputs into the aircraft. These parameters may be continuous measurements or binary or categorical measurements recorded in one second intervals for the duration of the flight. Currently, most approaches to aviation safety are reactive, meaning that they are designed to react to an aviation safety incident or accident. In this paper, we discuss a novel approach based on the theory of multiple kernel learning to detect potential safety anomalies in very large data bases of discrete and continuous data from world-wide operations of commercial fleets. We pose a general anomaly detection problem which includes both discrete and continuous data streams, where we assume that the discrete streams have a causal influence on the continuous streams. We also assume that atypical sequence of events in the discrete streams can lead to off-nominal system performance. We discuss the application domain, novel algorithms, and also discuss results on real-world data sets. Our algorithm uncovers operationally significant events in high dimensional data streams in the aviation industry which are not detectable using state of the art methods

  4. Unsupervised Anomaly Detection Based on Clustering and Multiple One-Class SVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jungsuk; Takakura, Hiroki; Okabe, Yasuo; Kwon, Yongjin

    Intrusion detection system (IDS) has played an important role as a device to defend our networks from cyber attacks. However, since it is unable to detect unknown attacks, i.e., 0-day attacks, the ultimate challenge in intrusion detection field is how we can exactly identify such an attack by an automated manner. Over the past few years, several studies on solving these problems have been made on anomaly detection using unsupervised learning techniques such as clustering, one-class support vector machine (SVM), etc. Although they enable one to construct intrusion detection models at low cost and effort, and have capability to detect unforeseen attacks, they still have mainly two problems in intrusion detection: a low detection rate and a high false positive rate. In this paper, we propose a new anomaly detection method based on clustering and multiple one-class SVM in order to improve the detection rate while maintaining a low false positive rate. We evaluated our method using KDD Cup 1999 data set. Evaluation results show that our approach outperforms the existing algorithms reported in the literature; especially in detection of unknown attacks.

  5. The phenotype of multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 1: report and review.

    PubMed

    Couser, Natario L; Masood, Maheer M; Strande, Natasha T; Foreman, Ann Katherine M; Crooks, Kristy; Weck, Karen E; Lu, Mei; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C; Roche, Myra; Evans, James P; Berg, Jonathan S; Powell, Cynthia M

    2015-09-01

    The Multiple Congenital Anomalies-Hypotonia-Seizures Syndrome 1 (MCAHS1) has been described in two families to date. We describe a 2-year-old Mexican American boy with the syndrome and additional manifestations not yet reported as part of the phenotype. The patient presented with severe hypotonia, microphallus and left cryptorchidism, and was later diagnosed with epilepsy and severe cortical visual impairment. He also had supernumerary nipples, pectus excavatum, a short upturned nose, fleshy ear lobes, and a right auricular pit. Massively parallel exome sequencing and analysis revealed two novel compound heterozygous missense (Trp136Gly and Ser859Thr) variants in the PIGN gene. This report extends and further defines the phenotype of this syndrome. PMID:25920937

  6. Multiple congenital anomalies in two boys with mutation in HCFC1 and cobalamin disorder.

    PubMed

    Gérard, M; Morin, G; Bourillon, A; Colson, C; Mathieu, S; Rabier, D; Billette de Villemeur, T; Ogier de Baulny, H; Benoist, J F

    2015-03-01

    The cobalamin type C deficiency is a rare condition that results from impaired biosynthesis of both methylcobalamin (MeCbl) and adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl). Hemizygous mutations of the HCFC1 gene explain the majority of clinically and biologically compatible cblC patients without MMACHC mutations (OMIM 309541). We report a family with two maternal half-brothers with multiple congenital anomalies and HCFC1 gene mutation in the second Kelch domain. Both presented with dysmorphic features (flat profile, cleft lip for one), increased nuchal translucency, prenatal onset microcephaly and hypospadias. Additionally to early onset intractable epilepsy and profound neurocognitive impairment, this familial observation suggests that HCFC1 gene should be considered in boys with midline malformations, even without proven cobalamin C deficiency. PMID:25595573

  7. Female pseudohermaphroditism with multiple caudal anomalies: Absence of Y-specific DNA sequences as pathogenetic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Seaver, L.H.; Grimes, J.; Erickson, R.P.

    1994-05-15

    46,XX female pseudohermaphrodites have been previously described with nearly complete masculinization of the external genitalia and no apparent source of testosterone. Multiple malformations of internal genital, urinary, and gastrointestinal tracts are associated. We have evaluated four such infants with female pseudohermaphroditism and multiple caudal anomalies. Three cases had apparently normal chromosome (46,XX); one had a 46,XX,del(10)(q25.3{yields}qter) chromosome constitution. The chromosome breakpoint is in the region of PAX2, a developmentally important paired box gene which is expressed in urogenital tissue. Using the polymerase chain reaction, we screened for the presence of multiple Y specific sequences, including SRY (sex determining region, Y chromosome), that could explain masculinization of the external genitalia. All were negative for Y centromeric sequences, ZFY (Zinc finger Y), and SRY. Furthermore, there was no evidence for adrenal or other sources of testosterone. We suggest that the masculinization in these cases is the result of abnormal expression of genes which would normally be regulated by testosterone. 32 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. Diagnostic Importance of 3D CT Images in Klippel-Feil Syndrome with Multiple Skeletal Anomalies: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Karabiber, Hamza; Yuksel, K. Zafer; Parmaksiz, Gonul

    2005-01-01

    We present here the case of a 12-year-old boy who had Klippel-Feil syndrome with renal, cardiac and multiple skeletal anomalies, and we show the relevent three-dimensional computed tomography images. Our patient had a triple renal pelvis, mitral valve prolapsus, multiple cervical vertebrae fusions, cervical ribs, hypoplasia of the right thumb, spina bifida of L5, lumbalization at the right side of S1 and a sacral curved defect. In this study, we discuss the atypical clinical features and the diagnostic value of three-dimensional CT for evaluating the skeletal anomalies of the Klippel-Feil syndrome cases. PMID:16374086

  9. Multiple seismo-anomalies associated with the M6.1 Ludian earthquake on August 3, 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiaoping; Lin, Yunfang; Chen, Weisheng; Bai, Zhiqiang; Liu, Jann-Yenq; Chen, Chieh-Hung

    2015-12-01

    Multiple geophysical parameters including groundwater level, water temperature, water radon, crustal deformation, electromagnetic waves and total electron contents (TEC) in the ionosphere, are examined together to investigate pre-earthquake anomalous phenomena associated with the Mw6.1 Ludian earthquake on August 3, 2014. Cross-parameter comparison eliminates anomalies that are detected in one parameter only and examine earthquake-related phenomena in various fields, simultaneously. Retrieved anomalies show that abnormal decreases of water temperature and radon concentration related to anomalous uplift of groundwater levels appeared about 1-8 days before the earthquake even without contributions from rain. Significant step-like changes are observed from data recorded by strainmeters on July 31 and are consistent with water-related anomalies in timing. No significant anomalies can be found from electromagnetic data through the preliminary observation. In contrast, TEC appeared positive anomalies 1-3 days before the Ludian earthquake. Although causal mechanisms of the TEC anomalies from stressed rocks are not fully understood, multiple-parameter examination can increase credibility of determination regarding pre-earthquake phenomena.

  10. Initial Results of Image-Guided Percutaneous Ablation as Second-Line Treatment for Symptomatic Vascular Anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Scott M.; Callstrom, Matthew R. McKusick, Michael A. Woodrum, David A.

    2015-10-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility, safety, and early effectiveness of percutaneous image-guided ablation as second-line treatment for symptomatic soft-tissue vascular anomalies (VA).Materials and MethodsAn IRB-approved retrospective review was undertaken of all patients who underwent percutaneous image-guided ablation as second-line therapy for treatment of symptomatic soft-tissue VA during the period from 1/1/2008 to 5/20/2014. US/CT- or MRI-guided and monitored cryoablation or MRI-guided and monitored laser ablation was performed. Clinical follow-up began at one-month post-ablation.ResultsEight patients with nine torso or lower extremity VA were treated with US/CT (N = 4) or MRI-guided (N = 2) cryoablation or MRI-guided laser ablation (N = 5) for moderate to severe pain (N = 7) or diffuse bleeding secondary to hemangioma–thrombocytopenia syndrome (N = 1). The median maximal diameter was 9.0 cm (6.5–11.1 cm) and 2.5 cm (2.3–5.3 cm) for VA undergoing cryoablation and laser ablation, respectively. Seven VA were ablated in one session, one VA initially treated with MRI-guided cryoablation for severe pain was re-treated with MRI-guided laser ablation due to persistent moderate pain, and one VA was treated in a planned two-stage session due to large VA size. At an average follow-up of 19.8 months (range 2–62 months), 7 of 7 patients with painful VA reported symptomatic pain relief. There was no recurrence of bleeding at five-year post-ablation in the patient with hemangioma–thrombocytopenia syndrome. There were two minor complications and no major complications.ConclusionImage-guided percutaneous ablation is a feasible, safe, and effective second-line treatment option for symptomatic VA.

  11. Developmental venous anomalies and cavernous angiomas: a review of the concurrence, imaging, and treatment of these vascular malformations.

    PubMed

    Beall, Douglas P; Bell, Jayson P; Webb, James R; Fish, Jon R

    2005-11-01

    Deep venous anomalies and cavernous angiomas are two distinct intracranial lesions. Although these lesions can be found in association with each other, they have different pathologic characteristics and developmental mechanisms. These lesions can produce a variety of clinical symptoms or in some cases can be asymptomatic. The management of these anomalies can include conservative measures in some cases and aggressive intervention in others. Several imaging modalities can be used to evaluate these distinct lesions and often more than one are needed for a prompt and reliable diagnosis. Because of the tendency of these lesions to occur simultaneously, thorough evaluation of these anomalies and their surrounding tissues is critical in their clinical management. In this review, the characteristics and radiographic evaluation of these lesions will be presented and the therapeutic options for these anomalies will be discussed. PMID:16379482

  12. Congenital keratoglobus with multiple cardiac anomalies: a case presentation and literature review.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Pinar A; Yalniz-Akkaya, Zuleyha

    2015-07-01

    Keratoglobus is a rare condition of bilateral corneal ectasia, which results in high myopia, irregular astigmatism, scarring, and rarely spontaneous globe rupture. Globoid protrusion of a clear, diffusely thin cornea is the pathology. The congenital form has been associated with blue sclera in which there is a systemic connective tissue disorder with abnormal collagen synthesis like Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome, and osteogenesis imperfecta. Some concomitant abnormalities reported with kertoglobus include joint hypermobility, dental and skeletal abnormalities, osteal fragility, and deafness. Acquired forms have been reported to be associated with vernal keratoconjunctivitis and thyroid ophthalmopathy. We report the case of a 16-year-old boy with keratoglobus who presented with a history of photophobia and a low vision in both eyes since birth. He has been followed up by our pediatric cardiology department due to multiple cardiac anomalies. He had hypermobility of large joints, easy bruising, thin and hyperextensible skin with visible veins, which were also described in his elder brother. We aimed to discuss the etiology and the association of keratoglobus with some systemic abnormalities caused by collogen tissue disturbance, and make a brief review about the recent literature concerning the management of keratoglobus patients. PMID:24409942

  13. Decreased Endothelin-1 Plasma Levels in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Possible Factor of Vascular Dysregulation?

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska-Lech, Irmina; Terelak-Borys, Barbara; Grabska-Liberek, Iwona; Palasik, Witold; Bik, Wojciech; Wolińska-Witort, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system with possible involvement of vascular dysregulation secondary to endothelial dysfunction caused by destruction of the vessel wall. Vascular dysregulation leads to excessive vasoconstriction or insufficient vasodilatation, resulting in vasospasm mediated by endothelin-1 (ET-1), the most potent and long-lasting mediator. Vascular dysregulation can play an important role in the pathogenesis of some eye disorders and it has been hypothesized that it is a vascular risk factor for glaucomatous optic neuropathy. The aim of this study was to estimate endothelin-1 (ET-1) plasma levels in patients with MS. Material/Methods The MS group consisted of 39 patients (9 males, 30 females), mean age: 38.8±10.02 years, range: 22–62. The control group consisted of 27 healthy volunteers (3 males and 24 females), mean age: 37.4±10.88 years, range: 20–62; clinically, in a non-active stage of the disease. ET-1 plasma levels were measured using the Endothelin-1 ELISA Kit (Immuno-Biological Laboratories Co., Japan). Statistical analysis was performed with the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test for independent groups. Results Endothelin-1 (ET-1) plasma levels were significantly lower in MS patients compared to healthy controls: mean value 0.55±0.44 pg/ml (146.05±118.27 fmol/ml) vs. 0.95±0.48 pg/ml (252.83±127.16 fmol/ml); P=0.012. Conclusions Significantly decreased ET-1 plasma levels in the MS patients could reflect the non-active disease at the time of ET-1 measurements or the effects of immunomodulatory treatment, but it cannot be excluded that decreased ET-1 plasma levels in these patients might result from vascular dysregulation. PMID:25864450

  14. A new lethal chondrodysplasia with spondylocostal dysostosis, multiple internal anomalies and Dandy-Walker cyst.

    PubMed

    Moerman, P; Vandenberghe, K; Fryns, J P; Haspeslagh, M; Lauweryns, J M

    1985-02-01

    We describe here a female infant, exhibiting lethal short-limbed dwarfism. The condition superficially resembled achondrogenesis. However, unlike achondrogenesis there was an associated severe spondylocostal dysostosis and major non-skeletal anomalies, particularly a cerebellar Dandy-Walker cyst, cardiovascular and urogenital malformations. The chondroosseous morphology was nonspecific. The case is believed to be unique. It is therefore suggested that this constellation of anomalies constitutes a "new" lethal syndrome, different from the delineated chondrodysplasias. PMID:3884191

  15. FG syndrome, an X-linked multiple congenital anomaly syndrome: The clinical phenotype and an algorithm for diagnostic testing

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Robin Dawn; Graham, John M.; Friez, Michael J.; Hoo, Joe J.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; McKeown, Carole; Moeschler, John B.; Raymond, F. Lucy; Rogers, R. Curtis; Schwartz, Charles E.; Battaglia, Agatino; Lyons, Michael J.; Stevenson, Roger E.

    2014-01-01

    FG syndrome is a rare X-linked multiple congenital anomaly-cognitive impairment disorder caused by the p.R961W mutation in the MED12 gene. We identified all known patients with this mutation to delineate their clinical phenotype and devise a clinical algorithm to facilitate molecular diagnosis. We ascertained 23 males with the p.R961W mutation in MED12 from 9 previously reported FG syndrome families and 1 new family. Six patients are reviewed in detail. These 23 patients were compared with 48 MED12 mutation-negative patients, who had the clinical diagnosis of FG syndrome. Traits that best discriminated between these two groups were chosen to develop an algorithm with high sensitivity and specificity for the p.R961W MED12 mutation. FG syndrome has a recognizable dysmorphic phenotype with a high incidence of congenital anomalies. A family history of X-linked mental retardation, deceased male infants, and/or multiple fetal losses was documented in all families. The algorithm identifies the p.R961W MED12 mutation-positive group with 100% sensitivity and 90% spec-ificity. The clinical phenotype of FG syndrome defines a recognizable pattern of X-linked multiple congenital anomalies and cognitive impairment. This algorithm can assist the clinician in selecting the patients for testing who are most likely to have the recurrent p.R961W MED12 mutation. PMID:19938245

  16. Neuropilin-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 are up-regulated in human vascular malformations.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Taina A; Vuola, Pia; Jauhiainen, Suvi; Lohi, Jouko; Salminen, Päivi; Pitkäranta, Anne; Häkkinen, Sanna-Kaisa; Honkonen, Krista; Alitalo, Kari; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2013-01-01

    Despite multiple previous studies in the field of vascular anomalies, the mechanism(s) leading to their development, progression and maintenance has remained unclear. In this study, we have characterized the expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factors and their receptors in 33 human vascular anomalies. Analysis with quantitative real-time PCR and gene-specific assays showed higher expression of neuropilin-2 (NRP2) and VEGF-receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) mRNAs in vascular malformations (VascM) as compared to infantile hemangiomas (Hem). In addition, the expression levels of PlGF and VEGF-C mRNA were significantly higher in venous VascM when compared to the other VascM and Hem. Higher expression of NRP2 and VEGFR-3 were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. To further study the importance of NRP2 and VEGFR-3, endothelial cell (EC) cultures were established from vascular anomalies. It was found that NRP2 and VEGFR-3 mRNA levels were significantly higher in some of the VascM ECs as compared to human umbilical vein ECs which were used as control cells in the study. Furthermore, adenoviral delivery of soluble decoy NRP2 prevented the proliferation of ECs isolated from most of the vascular anomalies. Our findings suggest that NRP2 functions as a factor maintaining the pathological vascular network in these anomalies. Thus, NRP2 could become a potential therapeutic target for the diagnosis and treatment of vascular anomalies. PMID:22961441

  17. Rehabilitation of a child with partial unilateral cryptophthalmos and multiple congenital anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Konrad, H; Merriam, J C; Jones, I S

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: This paper describes the surgical rehabilitation of a child with craniofacial anomalies, unilateral syndactyly, and partial unilateral cryptophthalmos associated with inferior colobomata of the iris and optic nerve and agenesis of the inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscles. The clinical presentation of cryptophthalmos is described. METHODS: The medical literature since the original description of cryptophthalmos in 1872 was reviewed to define patterns of inheritance and the incidence of associated anomalies. RESULTS: Including this patient, 149 case reports of cryptophthalmos were identified. In two families transmission from parent to child suggests dominant inheritance. None of the five dominant cases had any other anomalies, and all had bilateral complete cryptophthalmos. The incidence of cryptophthalmos in the remaining families is consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. This group includes patients with bilateral, unilateral, and partial cryptophthalmos. Other anomalies are common, including those of the ear and nose, limbs, genitourinary system, and mouth and palate. Mortality in the perinatal period is associated with renal agenesis, laryngeal atresia, and pulmonary hypoplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Cryptophthalmos is a rare congenital anomaly with two patterns of inheritance. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 PMID:8719680

  18. AB016. Developing diagnostic strategy of multiple congenital anomalies in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Sjarif, Damayanti Rusli; Aswin, Yulia Ariani

    2015-01-01

    Background Pediatricians quite often must deal with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). Without a correct diagnosis, many available forms of therapy will be under-or-overused and counseling about prognosis and recurrence risk maybe unrealistic. The basis for diagnosis of MCA involves a combination of defining the physical manifestations and diagnostic genetic testing. Chromosome analysis is a standard practice to unravel the etiology of MCA. Conventional cytogenetic method has limitation in detecting abe1rrations less than 5 Mb in size. Microarray technology could overcome this obstacle. The aim of this study is to develop diagnosis strategy of MCA cases. Methods Seventy two MCA cases were recruited from July 2013 until June 2014. Fifty one subjects were diagnosed phenotypically using OMIM and POSSUM databases. Subsequently, chromosome analysis were performed as a first step of diagnosis strategy. Nine cases among those subjects found to have chromosome aberrations, whereas twelve cases showed normal karyotypes. Eight subjects from the normal karyotype group have a good quality of DNA and proceed to microarray examination. Microarray examination were done at Department of Medical Genetics, UMC Utrecht, Netherlands, using Infinium CytoSNP-850K DNA analysis bead chip kit from Illumina. Chips were scanned using Hi-scan scanner from Illumina. Data were extracted using genome studio software. Data were analyzed using Nexus software. Results Nine out of twenty cases were found to have chromosome aberrations. Those aberrations are:46,XY,add(13)(q34); 46,XY,6 Mar, 17 dmin; 46,XX,r(4)(p16q35); 46,XY,22ps+; 46,XY,add(5)(p15); 47,XX+G; 46,XX/45XX Rob (13,15/q10.2,q10), 45XX Rob (13,14)(q10,q10); 46,XX, ring 13; 45,XY,der(2)del(2)(q37.3)t(2;15)(q37.2;q11.2). Five out of eight subjects which tested by microarray showed normal array. Two subjects showed well known deletion syndrome, which are Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome and Williams-Beuren syndrome. One case has normal array with

  19. Skeletal dysplasia syndrome with progeroid appearance, characteristic facial and limb anomalies, multiple synostoses, and distinct skeletal changes: a variant example of the Lenz-Majewski syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chrzanowska, K H; Fryns, J P; Krajewska-Walasek, M; Van den Berghe, H; Wisniewski, L

    1989-04-01

    Here we report a 10 year-old mentally retarded, deaf boy with a unique pattern of anomalies: progeroid appearance, characteristic facial and limb anomalies, multiple synostoses, and distinct skeletal changes. He represents a variant example of "hyperostotic dwarfism" as delineated by Lenz and Majewski. PMID:2773987

  20. Isolated Vaginal Agenesis Associated with Multiple Gastrointestinal Anomalies: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Angotti, R; Molinaro, F; Bulotta, AL; Ferrara, F; Sica, M; Bindi, E; Messina, M

    2016-01-01

    More than 50% of infants with esophageal atresia have associated anomalies. We present a case report of a 46XX neonate with long-gap esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF), anorectal malformation, bowel duplication and vaginal agenesis. This is an unusual association of abnormalities which had not yet described in literature. PMID:27433450

  1. Lymphatics in Neurological Disorders: A Neuro-Lympho-Vascular Component of Multiple Sclerosis and Alzheimer's Disease?

    PubMed

    Louveau, Antoine; Da Mesquita, Sandro; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Lymphatic vasculature drains interstitial fluids, which contain the tissue's waste products, and ensures immune surveillance of the tissues, allowing immune cell recirculation. Until recently, the CNS was considered to be devoid of a conventional lymphatic vasculature. The recent discovery in the meninges of a lymphatic network that drains the CNS calls into question classic models for the drainage of macromolecules and immune cells from the CNS. In the context of neurological disorders, the presence of a lymphatic system draining the CNS potentially offers a new player and a new avenue for therapy. In this review, we will attempt to integrate the known primary functions of the tissue lymphatic vasculature that exists in peripheral organs with the proposed function of meningeal lymphatic vessels in neurological disorders, specifically multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. We propose that these (and potentially other) neurological afflictions can be viewed as diseases with a neuro-lympho-vascular component and should be therapeutically targeted as such. PMID:27608759

  2. Non-expanded adipose stromal vascular fraction cell therapy for multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Riordan, Neil H; Ichim, Thomas E; Min, Wei-Ping; Wang, Hao; Solano, Fabio; Lara, Fabian; Alfaro, Miguel; Rodriguez, Jorge Paz; Harman, Robert J; Patel, Amit N; Murphy, Michael P; Lee, Roland R; Minev, Boris

    2009-01-01

    The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue is known to contain mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), T regulatory cells, endothelial precursor cells, preadipocytes, as well as anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Safety of autologous adipose tissue implantation is supported by extensive use of this procedure in cosmetic surgery, as well as by ongoing studies using in vitro expanded adipose derived MSC. Equine and canine studies demonstrating anti-inflammatory and regenerative effects of non-expanded SVF cells have yielded promising results. Although non-expanded SVF cells have been used successfully in accelerating healing of Crohn's fistulas, to our knowledge clinical use of these cells for systemic immune modulation has not been reported. In this communication we discuss the rationale for use of autologous SVF in treatment of multiple sclerosis and describe our experiences with three patients. Based on this rationale and initial experiences, we propose controlled trials of autologous SVF in various inflammatory conditions. PMID:19393041

  3. Mosaic tetrasomy 15q25{yields}qter in a newborn infant with multiple anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Enden, A.; Roy, N.V.; Speleman, F.

    1996-06-14

    We describe a premature boy with metopic craniosynostosis, facial anomalies, atrial-septal defect, hydronephrosis and flexion contractures of lower limbs, and mosaic tetrasomy 15q25{r_arrow}qter. The extra chromosome material was present in the form of an acentric marker. A number of clinical manifestations observed in this child were also found in 3 previously reported patients who were trisomic for the same part of chromosome 15 and in 2 patients who were tetrasomic for a larger segment of 15q. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Successful laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection preserving the common hepatic artery branched from the left gastric artery for advanced gastric cancer with an Adachi type VI (group 26) vascular anomaly.

    PubMed

    Goto, Hironobu; Yasuda, Takashi; Oshikiri, Taro; Imanishi, Tatsuya; Yamashita, Hironori; Oyama, Masato; Kakinoki, Keitaro; Ohara, Tadayuki; Sendo, Hiroyoshi; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Tominaga, Masahiro; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-01

    We report a case of successful laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection preserving the common hepatic artery branched from the left gastric artery for advanced gastric cancer with an Adachi type VI (group 26) vascular anomaly. A 76-year-old female patient was admitted with a diagnosis of advanced gastric cancer at the anterior wall to the lesser curvature of the antrum (cT3N0M0 cStage IIA). Dynamic computed tomography showed the ectopia of the common hepatic artery branched from the left gastric artery. We made a diagnosis of an Adachi type VI (group 26) vascular anomaly and performed the abovementioned operation. In this anomaly pattern, scrupulous attention is required to remove the suprapancreatic lymph nodes because the portal vein is located immediately dorsal to those lymph nodes and is at increased risk for the injury in this situation. The common hepatic artery is branched from the left gastric artery, and the hepatic perfusion from the superior mesenteric artery is not present in group 26. Planning to preserve the artery will improve safety when it is possible oncologically. There were no postoperative complications, and the patient was discharged 9 days after the operation. To our knowledge, the present case is the first reported case of a laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection with an Adachi type VI (group 26) vascular anomaly. Preoperative diagnostic imaging is very important to prevent surgical complications because the reliable identification of vascular anomaly during an operation is very difficult. PMID:27259578

  5. [Kimmerle's anomaly and stroke].

    PubMed

    Barsukov, S F; Antonov, G I

    1992-10-01

    The anomaly of cranio-vertebral area can frequently be the reason of acute cerebrovascular disorders in vertebro-basilar field. The frequent C1 pathology in the Kimmerle's anomaly. The anatomic studies has shown that 30% of people had this type of anomaly. This pathology can lead to severe vascular diseases of cerebrum because of the squeezing effect upon vertebral arteries in the zone of osteal ponticulus of the rear arch of atlas. PMID:1481402

  6. Robust diagnosis of nuclear plant anomalies through multiple neuro-agent cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Kitamura, M.; Furukawa, H.; Sakuma, M.; Kozma, R.; Washio, T.

    1994-12-31

    The advantages of implementing diversity in the form of multiple neuro-agents has been demonstrated through numerical experiments. As expected, diagnostic performance was robust despite noise distortion and sensor faults. The results validate our claim that combining multiple and diverse perspectives is indeed beneficial for dependable diagnoses under complicated abnormal conditions with possible sensor faults.

  7. A novel X-linked multiple congenital anomaly syndrome associated with an EBP mutation.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Larissa V; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar; Hulinsky, Becki; Damjanovich, Kristy; Carey, John C; Rope, Alan F

    2010-11-01

    Mutations of the gene coding for emopamil binding protein (EBP) can lead to deficient activity of 3-β-hydroxysteroid Δ(8), Δ(7) isomerase and are most commonly identified in. association with the X-linked dominant (male lethal) chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX2), also known as Conradi-Hunermann syndrome. Our group has identified a hemizygous EBP mutation in males with a phenotype remarkable for Dandy-Walker malformation, cataracts, collodion skin and cryptorchidism. Additional findings of hydrocephalus, dysplasia of the corpus callosum, cardiovascular, craniofacial and skeletal anomalies were regularly seen in affected males and the family histories were supportive of an X-linked -recessive condition. The regularly reproducible constellation of cardinal features aligns very nicely with other disorders of sterol biosynthesis and is further distinguished by an absence of arty clinical manifestations in obligate carrier females. Biochemical analysis of blood from cases demonstrated markedly increased levels of 8(9)-cholestenol, and 8-dehydroeholesterol and a mildly increased level of 7-dehydrocholesterol; a similar pattern to what is seen in CDPX2. Sequence analysis of EJJP revealed a novel hemizygous missense mutation at position 141, predictive of a tryptophan to cysteine substitution (c.141G>T, p.W47C). The unaffected mothers were heterozygous for the c.141G>T mutation arid showed random X-inactivation pattern upon. PMID:20949533

  8. Mirror image duplication of the hands and feet: report of a sporadic case with multiple congenital anomalies.

    PubMed

    Hersh, J H; Dela Cruz, T V; Pietrantoni, M; von Drasek-Ascher, G; Turnquest, M A; Yacoub, O A; Joyce, M R

    1995-11-20

    Mirror image duplication of the hands and feet is a rare entity. Based on 3 previous reports, findings include nasal abnormalities, dimelia of ulna and fibula, tibial hypoplasia and mirror image duplication of hands and feet. We report on a sporadic case in which mirror image duplication was associated with multiple congenital anomalies. Although these cases may represent variable expression of the same dominantly transmitted complex polysyndactyly syndrome, it is possible that mirror image duplication of the hands and feet is a manifestation common to a number of distinct clinical entities. During limb bud development, duplication and aberrant positioning of the zone of polarizing activity in relation to the apical ectodermal ridge may account for the anatomic abnormalities of the hands and feet in these patients. PMID:8599358

  9. Multiple Signaling Pathways Contribute to the Thrombin-induced Secretory Phenotype in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ji Young; Son, Younghae; Kim, Bo-Young; Eo, Seong-Kug; Rhim, Byung-Yong

    2015-01-01

    We attempted to investigate molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic change of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) by determining signaling molecules involved in chemokine production. Treatment of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs) with thrombin resulted not only in elevated transcription of the (C-C motif) ligand 11 (CCL11) gene but also in enhanced secretion of CCL11 protein. Co-treatment of HAoSMCs with GF109230X, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, or GW5074, an inhibitor of Raf-1 kinase, caused inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and significantly attenuated expression of CCL11 at transcriptional and protein levels induced by thrombin. Both Akt phosphorylation and CCL11 expression induced by thrombin were attenuated in the presence of pertussis toxin (PTX), an inhibitor of Gi protein-coupled receptor, or LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor. In addition, thrombin-induced production of CCL11 was significantly attenuated by pharmacological inhibition of Akt or MEK which phosphorylates ERK1/2. These results indicate that thrombin is likely to promote expression of CCL11 via PKC/Raf-1/ERK1/2 and PTX-sensitive protease-activated receptors/PI3K/Akt pathways in HAoSMCs. We propose that multiple signaling pathways are involved in change of VSMCs to a secretory phenotype. PMID:26557022

  10. Multiple Signaling Pathways Contribute to the Thrombin-induced Secretory Phenotype in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ji Young; Son, Younghae; Kim, Bo-Young; Eo, Seong-Kug; Rhim, Byung-Yong; Kim, Koanhoi

    2015-11-01

    We attempted to investigate molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic change of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) by determining signaling molecules involved in chemokine production. Treatment of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs) with thrombin resulted not only in elevated transcription of the (C-C motif) ligand 11 (CCL11) gene but also in enhanced secretion of CCL11 protein. Co-treatment of HAoSMCs with GF109230X, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, or GW5074, an inhibitor of Raf-1 kinase, caused inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and significantly attenuated expression of CCL11 at transcriptional and protein levels induced by thrombin. Both Akt phosphorylation and CCL11 expression induced by thrombin were attenuated in the presence of pertussis toxin (PTX), an inhibitor of Gi protein-coupled receptor, or LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor. In addition, thrombin-induced production of CCL11 was significantly attenuated by pharmacological inhibition of Akt or MEK which phosphorylates ERK1/2. These results indicate that thrombin is likely to promote expression of CCL11 via PKC/Raf-1/ERK1/2 and PTX-sensitive protease-activated receptors/PI3K/Akt pathways in HAoSMCs. We propose that multiple signaling pathways are involved in change of VSMCs to a secretory phenotype. PMID:26557022

  11. Vascular Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sepulveda, Abel; Buchanan, Edward P.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are divided into two main groups: tumors and malformations. Vascular tumors are a large and complex group of lesions, especially for clinicians with none or little experience in this field. In the past, these lesions caused a great deal of confusion because many appear analogous to the naked eye. Thankfully, recent advances in diagnostic techniques have helped the medical community to enhance our comprehension, accurately label, diagnose, and treat these lesions. In this article, we will review the most frequent vascular tumors and provide the reader with the tools to properly label, diagnose, and manage these complex lesions. PMID:25045329

  12. Direct Carotid Cavernous Fistula of an Adult-Type Persistent Primitive Trigeminal Artery with Multiple Vascular Variations

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sung-Chul; Park, Hyun; Choi, Choong-Gon

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of spontaneous right carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) in a proximal segment of persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PPTA) and combined vascular anomalies such as left duplicated hypoplastic proximal posterior cerebral arteries and a variation of anterior choroidal artery supplying temporal and occipital lobe. A 45-year-old male presented with progressive right exophthalmos, diplopia, and ocular pain. With manual compression of the internal carotid artery, a cerebral angiography revealed a right CCF from a PPTA. Treatment involved the placement of detachable non-fibered and fibered coils, and use of a hyperglide balloon to protect against coil herniation into the internal carotid artery. A final angiograph revealed complete occlusion of PPTA resulted in no contrast filling of CCF. PMID:21607181

  13. Direct carotid cavernous fistula of an adult-type persistent primitive trigeminal artery with multiple vascular variations.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sung-Chul; Park, Hyun; Kwon, Do Hoon; Choi, Choong-Gon

    2011-04-01

    We report a case of spontaneous right carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) in a proximal segment of persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PPTA) and combined vascular anomalies such as left duplicated hypoplastic proximal posterior cerebral arteries and a variation of anterior choroidal artery supplying temporal and occipital lobe. A 45-year-old male presented with progressive right exophthalmos, diplopia, and ocular pain. With manual compression of the internal carotid artery, a cerebral angiography revealed a right CCF from a PPTA. Treatment involved the placement of detachable non-fibered and fibered coils, and use of a hyperglide balloon to protect against coil herniation into the internal carotid artery. A final angiograph revealed complete occlusion of PPTA resulted in no contrast filling of CCF. PMID:21607181

  14. Non-mosaic tetrasomy 9p in a liveborn infant with multiple congenital anomalies: Case report and comparison with trisomy 9p

    SciTech Connect

    Leichtman, L.G.; Zackowski, J.L.; Storto, P.D.; Newlin, A.

    1996-06-14

    Tetrasomy of the short(p) arm of chromosome 9 has been reported in few cases. Most of these children present with microbrachycephaly, wide forehead, hypertelorism, lowset, malformed ears, beaked noses, and micrognathia. Additional anomalies include short neck, congenital heart disease, genital abnormalities, multiple limb defects, hypotonia, and early death.

  15. Could multiple voids explain the cosmic microwave background Cold Spot anomaly?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidoo, Krishna; Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Lahav, Ofer

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the observed Cold Spot (CS, temperature of ˜ - 150 μK at its centre) on the cosmic microwave background is an outstanding problem. Explanations vary from assuming it is just a ≳3σ primordial Gaussian fluctuation to the imprint of a supervoid via the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe and Rees-Sciama (ISW+RS) effects. Since single spherical supervoids cannot account for the full profile, the ISW+RS of multiple line-of-sight voids is studied here to mimic the structure of the cosmic web. Two structure configurations are considered. The first, through simulations of 20 voids, produces a central mean temperature of ˜ - 50 μK. In this model the central CS temperature lies at ˜2σ but fails to explain the CS hot ring. An alternative multivoid model (using more pronounced compensated voids) produces much smaller temperature profiles, but contains a prominent hot ring. Arrangements containing closely placed voids at low redshift are found to be particularly well suited to produce CS-like profiles. We then measure the significance of the CS if CS-like profiles (which are fitted to the ISW+RS of multivoid scenarios) are removed. The CS tension with the Λ cold dark matter model can be reduced dramatically for an array of temperature profiles smaller than the CS itself.

  16. Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome presenting as rapidly progressive multiple arterial aneurysms and dissections.

    PubMed

    Mortani Barbosa, Eduardo J; Pyeritz, Reed E; Litt, Harold; Desjardins, Benoit

    2011-12-01

    Life expectancy in vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is shortened due to spontaneous rupture of arteries, the colon and the gravid uterus. Two adolescent males with vascular EDS illustrate rapid progression of arterial aneurysms, dissections, and rupture. Radiologic imaging played an important role in initially diagnosing and monitoring the evolution of arterial involvement. Both prophylactic and emergency management remain largely ineffective in this connective tissue disorder; however, noninvasive imaging may provide important prognostic information. PMID:22065459

  17. A novel vascular disrupting agent plinabulin triggers JNK-mediated apoptosis and inhibits angiogenesis in multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajita V; Bandi, Madhavi; Raje, Noopur; Richardson, Paul; Palladino, Michael A; Chauhan, Dharminder; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2011-05-26

    Previous studies have established a role of vascular-disrupting agents as anti- cancer agents. Plinabulin is a novel vascular-disrupting agent that exhibits potent interruption of tumor blood flow because of the disruption of tumor vascular endothelial cells, resulting in tumor necrosis. In addition, plinabulin exerts a direct action on tumor cells, resulting in apoptosis. In the present study, we examined the anti-multiple myeloma (MM) activity of plinabulin. We show that low concentrations of plinabulin exhibit a potent antiangiogenic action on vascular endothelial cells. Importantly, plinabulin also induces apoptotic cell death in MM cell lines and tumor cells from patients with MM, associated with mitotic growth arrest. Plinabulin-induced apoptosis is mediated through activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Moreover, plinabulin triggered phosphorylation of stress response protein JNK, as a primary target, whereas blockade of JNK with a biochemical inhibitor or small interfering RNA strategy abrogated plinabulin-induced mitotic block or MM cell death. Finally, in vivo studies show that plinabulin was well tolerated and significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival in a human MM.1S plasmacytoma murine xenograft model. Our study therefore provides the rationale for clinical evaluation of plinabulin to improve patient outcome in MM. PMID:21454451

  18. Unique de novo interstitial deletion of chromosome 17, del(17) (q23.2q24.3) in a female newborn with multiple congenital anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, M.L.; Shaffer, L.G.; Lewis, R.L.

    1995-01-02

    We describe a newborn with a novel interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 17 (del(17) (q23.2q24.3)) who died on day of life 17 during a recurrent apneic episode. Her phenotype included severe growth retardation, multiple facial anomalies, maldeveloped oralpharyngeal structures, and digital and widespread skeletal anomalies. This patient`s phenotype was compared to two other reported patients with deletion 17q with minor clinical overlap consistent with a unique deletion. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuyet A; Krakowski, Andrew C; Naheedy, John H; Kruk, Peter G; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon

    2015-12-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  20. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tuyet A.; Krakowski, Andrew C.; Naheedy, John H.; Kruk, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  1. Multiple biomarkers and risk of clinical and subclinical vascular brain injury: the framingham offspring study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several biomarkers have been individually associated with vascular brain injury, but no prior study has explored the simultaneous association of a biologically plausible panel of biomarkers with the incidence of stroke/transient ischemic attack and the prevalence of subclinical brain injury. In 3127...

  2. Vascular rings.

    PubMed

    Backer, Carl L; Mongé, Michael C; Popescu, Andrada R; Eltayeb, Osama M; Rastatter, Jeffrey C; Rigsby, Cynthia K

    2016-06-01

    The term vascular ring refers to congenital vascular anomalies of the aortic arch system that compress the esophagus and trachea, causing symptoms related to those two structures. The most common vascular rings are double aortic arch and right aortic arch with left ligamentum. Pulmonary artery sling is rare and these patients need to be carefully evaluated for frequently associated tracheal stenosis. Another cause of tracheal compression occurring only in infants is the innominate artery compression syndrome. In the current era, the diagnosis of a vascular ring is best established by CT imaging that can accurately delineate the anatomy of the vascular ring and associated tracheal pathology. For patients with a right aortic arch there recently has been an increased recognition of a structure called a Kommerell diverticulum which may require resection and transfer of the left subclavian artery to the left carotid artery. A very rare vascular ring is the circumflex aorta that is now treated with the aortic uncrossing operation. Patients with vascular rings should all have an echocardiogram because of the incidence of associated congenital heart disease. We also recommend bronchoscopy to assess for additional tracheal pathology and provide an assessment of the degree of tracheomalacia and bronchomalacia. The outcomes of surgical intervention are excellent and most patients have complete resolution of symptoms over a period of time. PMID:27301603

  3. Simultaneous observation of VHF radio wave transmission anomaly propagated beyond line of site prior to earthquakes in multiple sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, H.; Mogi, T.; Moriya, T.; Takada, M.; Morisada, M.

    2010-12-01

    The VHF radio wave transmission anomalies propagated beyond line of site prior to earthquakes (M>4), (hereafter termed EQ-echo) have been observed more than 20 times from 2004 at the Erimo observatory (ERM) in Hokkaido, Northern Japan. A statistical relationship between magnitude of preceding earthquake and total duration time of the EQ-echo has been proposed (Moriya et al.2009). To confirm a region where the EQ-echo simultaneously observed for each earthquake, we installed another 3 observatory with approximately 5 km spacing in the surroundings of ERM. The EQ-echoes have been observed simultaneously at two observatories prior to four earthquakes since 2008. The initial time and duration of each EQ echo were same time in several cases but different at some minutes each other in other cases. The wave forms of the EQ-echoes were similar in both records. In the Fuyushima observatory (FYS, 10km away from ERM) , three-way antennas were installed at every 120 degree to detect an arrival direction of EQ-echoes. Simultaneous observations of EQ-echoes at ERM and FYS for the preceding EQ (M=4.7) that occurred in the Hidaka mountains revealed that this EQ-echo came from direction of the epicenter based on the FYS observation and this direction was consistent with that of EQ-echo observed simultaneously in ERM. Although some of simultaneous observed EQ-echoes were observed in same time completely at both observatories, but some of them were with time rag of duration of each EQ-echo between multiple observed sites. We discussed what these time rags mean by considering possibilities of moving of scattering objects, generation of a radio duct, and so on, as in response to this fact.

  4. RNAi targeting multiple cell adhesion molecules reduces immune cell recruitment and vascular inflammation after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Sager, Hendrik B; Dutta, Partha; Dahlman, James E; Hulsmans, Maarten; Courties, Gabriel; Sun, Yuan; Heidt, Timo; Vinegoni, Claudio; Borodovsky, Anna; Fitzgerald, Kevin; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Tricot, Benoit; Khan, Omar F; Kauffman, Kevin J; Xing, Yiping; Shaw, Taylor E; Libby, Peter; Langer, Robert; Weissleder, Ralph; Swirski, Filip K; Anderson, Daniel G; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) leads to a systemic surge of vascular inflammation in mice and humans, resulting in secondary ischemic complications and high mortality. We show that, in ApoE(-/-) mice with coronary ligation, increased sympathetic tone up-regulates not only hematopoietic leukocyte production but also plaque endothelial expression of adhesion molecules. To counteract the resulting arterial leukocyte recruitment, we developed nanoparticle-based RNA interference (RNAi) that effectively silences five key adhesion molecules. Simultaneously encapsulating small interfering RNA (siRNA)-targeting intercellular cell adhesion molecules 1 and 2 (Icam1 and Icam2), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (Vcam1), and E- and P-selectins (Sele and Selp) into polymeric endothelial-avid nanoparticles reduced post-MI neutrophil and monocyte recruitment into atherosclerotic lesions and decreased matrix-degrading plaque protease activity. Five-gene combination RNAi also curtailed leukocyte recruitment to ischemic myocardium. Therefore, targeted multigene silencing may prevent complications after acute MI. PMID:27280687

  5. Embolization of a giant arterioportal fistula requiring multiple Amplatzer vascular plugs.

    PubMed

    Ward, Thomas J; Marin, Michael L; Lookstein, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    Arterioportal fistulas (APFs) are rare vascular communications between the mesenteric arterial tree and the portal vein. The causes and presentations of this entity are varied. APFs related to tumor, infection, and trauma have been described. Patients may be asymptomatic or present with hemobilia, portal hypertension, or mesenteric steal syndrome. Small APFs require no intervention, with treatment indicated for large or symptomatic APFs. The treatment has shifted from surgical ligation or hepatic resection to an endovascular-first approach. We describe an endovascular treatment option for the management of an acquired extrahepatic (type 2) APF and present a review of the literature. PMID:24840744

  6. Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase is Involved in Vascular Hyporeactivity and Multiple Organ Dysfunction Associated with Hemorrhagic Shock.

    PubMed

    Sordi, Regina; Chiazza, Fausto; Collino, Massimo; Assreuy, Jamil; Thiemermann, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Severe hemorrhage can lead to global ischemia and hemorrhagic shock (HS), resulting in multiple organ failure (MOF) and death. Restoration of blood flow and re-oxygenation is associated with an exacerbation of tissue injury and inflammatory response. The neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) has been implicated in vascular collapse and systemic inflammation of septic shock; however, the role of nNOS in HS is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of nNOS in the MOF associated with HS.Rats were subjected to HS under anesthesia. Mean arterial pressure was reduced to 30 mmHg for 90 min, followed by resuscitation with shed blood. Rats were randomly treated with two chemically distinct nNOS inhibitors [ARL 17477 (1 mg/kg) and 7-nitroindazol (5 mg/kg)] or vehicle upon resuscitation. Four hours later, parameters of organ injury and dysfunction were assessed.HS was associated with MOF development. Inhibition of nNOS activity at resuscitation protected rats against the MOF and vascular dysfunction. In addition, treatment of HS rats with nNOS inhibitors attenuated neutrophil infiltration into target organs and decreased the activation of NF-κB, iNOS expression, NO production, and nitrosylation of proteins. Furthermore, nNOS inhibition also reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in HS rats.In conclusion, two distinct inhibitors of nNOS activity reduced the MOF, vascular dysfunction, and the systemic inflammation associated with HS. Thus, nNOS inhibitors may be useful as an adjunct therapy before fluids and blood administration in HS patients to avoid the MOF associated with reperfusion injury during resuscitation. PMID:26863124

  7. The Notch Ligand Delta-Like 4 Regulates Multiple Stages of Early Hemato-Vascular Development

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Hélia; Gomes, Andreia C.; Saavedra, Pedro; Carvalho, Catarina C.; Duarte, António; Cidadão, António; Parreira, Leonor

    2012-01-01

    Background In mouse embryos, homozygous or heterozygous deletions of the gene encoding the Notch ligand Dll4 result in early embryonic death due to major defects in endothelial remodeling in the yolk sac and embryo. Considering the close developmental relationship between endothelial and hematopoietic cell lineages, which share a common mesoderm-derived precursor, the hemangioblast, and many key regulatory molecules, we investigated whether Dll4 is also involved in the regulation of early embryonic hematopoiesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Using Embryoid Bodies (EBs) derived from embryonic stem cells harboring hetero- or homozygous Dll4 deletions, we observed that EBs from both genotypes exhibit an abnormal endothelial remodeling in the vascular sprouts that arise late during EB differentiation, indicating that this in vitro system recapitulates the angiogenic phenotype of Dll4 mutant embryos. However, analysis of EB development at early time points revealed that the absence of Dll4 delays the emergence of mesoderm and severely reduces the number of blast-colony forming cells (BL-CFCs), the in vitro counterpart of the hemangioblast, and of endothelial cells. Analysis of colony forming units (CFU) in EBs and yolk sacs from Dll4+/− and Dll4−/− embryos, showed that primitive erythropoiesis is specifically affected by Dll4 insufficiency. In Dll4 mutant EBs, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were seemingly unaffected and cardiomyocyte differentiation was increased, indicating that SMC specification is Dll4-independent while a normal dose of this Notch ligand is essential for the quantitative regulation of cardiomyogenesis. Conclusions/Significance This study highlights a previously unnoticed role for Dll4 in the quantitative regulation of early hemato-vascular precursors, further indicating that it is also involved on the timely emergence of mesoderm in early embryogenesis. PMID:22514637

  8. Mental retardation/shortness of stature/multiple minor anomalies syndrome associated with insertion of 3q material into 18p

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Attia, H.M.; Sedaghatian, M.R.

    1995-03-13

    This is a case report of a 16-year-old Arab girl with mental subnormality, shortness of stature and multiple minor phenotypic anomalies. She is obese with normal secondary sexual characteristics, and has a speech deficit. Cytogenetic studies showed a 46,XX,dir ins (18;3)(p11.1;q13.2{yields}q25). The chromosome arrangement appeared balanced. Her condition is not a recognizable specific syndrome; thus, it remained unclear as to whether her condition is attributable to disruption of 3q or 18p or both. Further cytogenetic analysis by molecular biologists is required to solve this problem. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Interstitial deletions of the short arm of chromosome 4 in patients with a similar combination of multiple minor anomalies and mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.M.; Pillers, D.A.M.; Magenis, R.E.

    1995-07-17

    Interstitial deletions of chromosome 4 have been described rarely and have had variable presentations. We describe the phenotypic characteristics associated with interstitial deletion of the p14-16 region of chromosome 4 in 7 patients with multiple minor anomalies in common, and with mental retardation. A review of published cases of interstitial deletions of the short arm of chromosome 4 is provided. These deletions present a distinct phenotype which is different from that of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. 52 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Diagnostic imaging in the evaluation of vascular birthmarks.

    PubMed

    Burrows, P E; Laor, T; Paltiel, H; Robertson, R L

    1998-07-01

    This article reviews the role of modern diagnostic imaging in the evaluation of patients with vascular birthmarks. There are two main categories of vascular anomalies: hemangiomas and vascular malformations. The findings on plain radiography, sonography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography, and the appropriate sequence of investigation for the different vascular anomalies are discussed. PMID:9704205

  11. Trisomy 3 mosaicism in a 5-year-old boy with multiple anomalies: A very rare case.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-Jia; Yao, Xu; Guo, Jihong; Zhao, Liu; Tu, Ming; Qiou, Jun; Zhao, Rui; Luo, Yongqi; Zhu, Yi-Min

    2016-06-01

    Trisomy 3 mosaicism in live birth is exceedingly rare. In this study, we report a 5-year-old boy with trisomy 3 mosaicism who exhibits skeletal anomalies, atypical form of ectodermal dysplasias, refractory diarrhea, and normal intelligence. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and microsatellite marker analyses confirmed the existence of trisomy 3 mosaicism and suggested that the parental origin of the additional chromosome 3 in the trisomic cells was maternal. This report further delineated the trisomy 3 mosaicism in live births. The authors propose that both common phenotypes and phenotypic diversity exist on cases with trisomy 3 mosaicism. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27004455

  12. Dual diaphragmatic anomalies.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Arjun; Thomas, Abin Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Although diaphragmatic anomalies such as an eventration and hiatus hernia are commonly encountered in incidental chest X-ray imaging, the presence of concomitant multiple anomalies is extremely rare. This is all the more true in adults. Herein, we present the case of a 75-year-old female, while undergoing a routine chest X-ray imaging, was found to have eventration of right hemidiaphragm along with a hiatus hernia as well. PMID:27625457

  13. Dual diaphragmatic anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Arjun; Thomas, Abin Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Although diaphragmatic anomalies such as an eventration and hiatus hernia are commonly encountered in incidental chest X-ray imaging, the presence of concomitant multiple anomalies is extremely rare. This is all the more true in adults. Herein, we present the case of a 75-year-old female, while undergoing a routine chest X-ray imaging, was found to have eventration of right hemidiaphragm along with a hiatus hernia as well.

  14. Biological impact of vascular endothelial growth factor on vessel density and survival in multiple myeloma and plasmacytoma.

    PubMed

    Swelam, Wael M; Al Tamimi, Dalal M

    2010-11-15

    We compared the differences in a number of angiogenesis-related immunohistochemical parameters, including microvascular density (MVD) and tumor cell activity, between multiple myeloma (MM) and solitary plasmacytoma (SP). Tissue sections from tumors of MM and SP were immunohistochemically stained and analyzed using ImageJ image analysis software for the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptors (Flt-1 and Flk-1), inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) protein. Tumor tissues were cytologically graded as high-, intermediate-, or low-grade. Two pathologists determined the MVD of each section independently by recording the average number of CD34+ blood vessels in 500 unit fields. The arithmetic means for MVD were statistically analyzed using the Student's t-test and the significance level was calculated at P-value <0.001. The results indicate a direct correlation between upregulation of iNOS/VEGF in high-grade tumors. For MM, an increase in MVD is also correlated with a high-grade. Tumor survival signaling by Bcl-2 in both SP and MM emphasizes the fact that VEGF has a bimodal role that is mainly angiogenic in MM and tumorigenic, promoting tumor cell survival in SP. PMID:20709463

  15. Holonomy anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Bagger, J.; Nemeschansky, D.; Yankielowicz, S.

    1985-05-01

    A new type of anomaly is discussed that afflicts certain non-linear sigma models with fermions. This anomaly is similar to the ordinary gauge and gravitational anomalies since it reflects a topological obstruction to the reparametrization invariance of the quantum effective action. Nonlinear sigma models are constructed based on homogeneous spaces G/H. Anomalies arising when the fermions are chiral are shown to be cancelled sometimes by Chern-Simons terms. Nonlinear sigma models are considered based on general Riemannian manifolds. 9 refs. (LEW)

  16. An analytical method about anomalies on the synthetical variables of the multiple seismic activity parameters-taking 2 M =7 earthquakes occurring in Qinghai as examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Heqing; Yang, Mingzhi

    2014-05-01

    Based on the random field theory, a new method of the synthetical variables of the multiple seismic activity parameters has been proposed. This method is that the natural perpendicular function development has been used on the random field function of seismic activity first. And then the synthetical variables constituted of the linear combination of four seismic activity parameters, i.e. the seismic strain release E-, the average distance between each two earthquakes D, the average time interval between each two earthquakes T , and the earthquake occurrence rate N have been studied. Though the analysis on the synthetical variables about the field, the seismic activity anomalies before large earthquakes have been drew. As the examples, the Gonghe M=7.0 earthquake occurred in Qinghai, 1990 and the Yushu M=7.1 earthquake occurred in Qinghai, 2010 have been discussed. The results have showed that before the two M=7 earthquakes, the main synthetical variables have all showed obvious abnormal variations, displaying better corresponding relationship with these two earthquakes. The synthetical variables of seismic activity field can focus on the slight differences which are included in each original variable. And the abnormal variations showed from the synthetical variables are as obvious as possible. The authors think that the synthetical variable method is possibly an effective analytic technique. Key words: seismic activity field; natural perpendicular function development; synthetical variables; anomaly; Earthquake example

  17. Mutations in SMG9, Encoding an Essential Component of Nonsense-Mediated Decay Machinery, Cause a Multiple Congenital Anomaly Syndrome in Humans and Mice.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Ranad; Anazi, Shams; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Seidahmed, Mohammed Zain; Caddle, L Brianna; Palmer, Kristina; Ali, Rehab; Alshidi, Tarfa; Hagos, Samya; Goodwin, Leslie; Hashem, Mais; Wakil, Salma M; Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Colak, Dilek; Murray, Stephen A; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2016-04-01

    Nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) is an important process that is best known for degrading transcripts that contain premature stop codons (PTCs) to mitigate their potentially harmful consequences, although its regulatory role encompasses other classes of transcripts as well. Despite the critical role of NMD at the cellular level, our knowledge about the consequences of deficiency of its components at the organismal level is largely limited to model organisms. In this study, we report two consanguineous families in which a similar pattern of congenital anomalies was found to be most likely caused by homozygous loss-of-function mutations in SMG9, encoding an essential component of the SURF complex that generates phospho-UPF1, the single most important step in NMD. By knocking out Smg9 in mice via CRISPR/Cas9, we were able to recapitulate the major features of the SMG9-related multiple congenital anomaly syndrome we observed in humans. Surprisingly, human cells devoid of SMG9 do not appear to have reduction of PTC-containing transcripts but do display global transcriptional dysregulation. We conclude that SMG9 is required for normal human and murine development, most likely through a transcriptional regulatory role, the precise nature of which remains to be determined. PMID:27018474

  18. Bangui Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Patrick T.

    2004-01-01

    Bangui anomaly is the name given to one of the Earth s largest crustal magnetic anomalies and the largest over the African continent. It covers two-thirds of the Central African Republic and therefore the name derives from the capitol city-Bangui that is also near the center of this feature. From surface magnetic survey data Godivier and Le Donche (1962) were the first to describe this anomaly. Subsequently high-altitude world magnetic surveying by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (Project Magnet) recorded a greater than 1000 nT dipolar, peak-to-trough anomaly with the major portion being negative (figure 1). Satellite observations (Cosmos 49) were first reported in 1964, these revealed a 40nT anomaly at 350 km altitude. Subsequently the higher altitude (417-499km) POGO (Polar Orbiting Geomagnetic Observatory) satellite data recorded peak-to-trough anomalies of 20 nT these data were added to Cosmos 49 measurements by Regan et al. (1975) for a regional satellite altitude map. In October 1979, with the launch of Magsat, a satellite designed to measure crustal magnetic anomalies, a more uniform satellite altitude magnetic map was obtained. These data, computed at 375 km altitude recorded a -22 nT anomaly (figure 2). This elliptically shaped anomaly is approximately 760 by 1000 km and is centered at 6%, 18%. The Bangui anomaly is composed of three segments; there are two positive anomalies lobes north and south of a large central negative field. This displays the classic pattern of a magnetic anomalous body being magnetized by induction in a zero inclination field. This is not surprising since the magnetic equator passes near the center of this body.

  19. Toxicity of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery in the Treatment of Intracranial Tumors in Patients With Collagen Vascular Diseases or Multiple Sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lowell, Dot; Tatter, Stephen B.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Guzman, Allan F. de; Ekstrand, Kenneth E.; Ellis, Thomas L.; Lovato, James F.; McMullen, Kevin P.; Munley, Michael T.; Shaw, Edward G.; Urbanic, James J.; Chan, Michael D.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To assess toxicity in patients with either a collagen vascular disease (CVD) or multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with intracranial radiosurgery. Methods and Materials: Between January 2004 and April 2009, 6 patients with MS and 14 patients with a CVD were treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for intracranial tumors. Treated lesions included 15 total brain metastases in 7 patients, 11 benign brain tumors, 1 low grade glioma, and 1 cavernous malformation. Toxicities were graded by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Acute/Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Criteria. 'Rare toxicities' were characterized as those reported in the scientific literature at an incidence of <5%. Results: Median follow-up time was 16 months. Median dose to the tumor margin was 13.0 Gy (range, 12-21 Gy). Median size of tumor was 5.0 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.14-7.8 cm{sup 3}). Of the 14 patients with CVD, none experienced a Grade 3 or 4 toxicity or a toxicity characterized as rare. Of the 6 patients with MS, 3 experienced rare toxicities, and two of these were Grade 3 toxicities. Rare complications included a patient experiencing both communicating hydrocephalus and facial nerve palsy, as well as 2 additional patients with motor cranial nerve palsy. High-grade toxicities included the patient with an acoustic neuroma requiring ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement for obstructive hydrocephalus, and 1 patient with a facial nerve schwannoma who experienced permanent facial nerve palsy. Interval between radiosurgery and high-grade toxicities ranged from 1 week to 4 months. Conclusions: Our series suggests that patients with MS who receive GKRS may be at increased risk of rare and high-grade treatment-related toxicity. Given the time course of toxicity, treatment-related edema or demyelination represent potential mechanisms.

  20. Vascular tumors and malformations in children, Introduction.

    PubMed

    Maguiness, Sheilagh M

    2016-03-01

    Over the past decade, I have been amazed at the growth in the field of vascular anomalies. The recognition of vascular birthmarks as a defined area of medicine is a relatively recent event. The International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) was founded by Drs John Mulliken and Anthony Young in the late 1970s. Mulliken and Glowacki's sentinel 1982 paper on the biologic classification of vascular anomalies further established the field, by providing clarity of nomenclature and unifying concepts that had previously been lacking. PMID:27607317

  1. Gene of a new X-linked syndrome with multiple congenital anomalies and severe mental retardation maps in Xp22-pter

    SciTech Connect

    Wittwer, B.; Kircheisen, R.; Leutelt, J.

    1994-09-01

    We report on a family with 3 males presenting with a not yet described new X-chromosomal syndrome of multiple congenital anomalies and severe mental retardation. Two sisters have (with 3 different partners) 3 severely handicapped sons. In each case, oligohydramnios and intrauterine growth retardation were observed. Delivery was in the 34th, 31st, and 38th gestational week, respectively. Two of the patients had microcephaly (head circumference of the third case at birth is unknown). On physical examination, high and broad forehead, frontal bossing, downslanting palpebral fissures, long philtrum, thin upper lip, high arched palate, and deeply set anteverted ears were seen. One of the boys has microphthalmos and sclerocornea, while his cousin shows atrophy of the optic nerve. All three patients show a severe statomotor and mental retardation, they are most likely deaf and blind, have pathologic EEG, and seizures. Important additional findings are hydronephrosis, renal duplication, vesicorenal reflux, and agenesis of corpus callosum. The karyotype is normal (46,XY). We performed a segregation analysis in the family using more than 20 DNA polymorphisms distributed over the X chromosome. Linkage without recombination was found to KAL, DXS278, and DXS16 in Xp22. Analysis of multiple informative meioses suggested a location of the disease locus distal to DXS207. Recombinants were identified with all other marker loci from Xp22-Xpter.

  2. Using a combination of MLPA kits to detect chromosomal imbalances in patients with multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation is a valuable choice for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Jehee, Fernanda Sarquis; Takamori, Jean Tetsuo; Medeiros, Paula F Vasconcelos; Pordeus, Ana Carolina B; Latini, Flavia Roche M; Bertola, Débora Romeo; Kim, Chong Ae; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita

    2011-01-01

    Conventional karyotyping detects anomalies in 3-15% of patients with multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation (MCA/MR). Whole-genome array screening (WGAS) has been consistently suggested as the first choice diagnostic test for this group of patients, but it is very costly for large-scale use in developing countries. We evaluated the use of a combination of Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) kits to increase the detection rate of chromosomal abnormalities in MCA/MR patients. We screened 261 MCA/MR patients with two subtelomeric and one microdeletion kits. This would theoretically detect up to 70% of all submicroscopic abnormalities. Additionally we scored the de Vries score for 209 patients in an effort to find a suitable cut-off for MLPA screening. Our results reveal that chromosomal abnormalities were present in 87 (33.3%) patients, but only 57 (21.8%) were considered causative. Karyotyping detected 15 abnormalities (6.9%), while MLPA identified 54 (20.7%). Our combined MLPA screening raised the total detection number of pathogenic imbalances more than three times when compared to conventional karyotyping. We also show that using the de Vries score as a cut-off for this screening would only be suitable under financial restrictions. A decision analytic model was constructed with three possible strategies: karyotype, karyotype + MLPA and karyotype + WGAS. Karyotype + MLPA strategy detected anomalies in 19.8% of cases which account for 76.45% of the expected yield for karyotype + WGAS. Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) of MLPA is three times lower than that of WGAS, which means that, for the same costs, we have three additional diagnoses with MLPA but only one with WGAS. We list all causative alterations found, including rare findings, such as reciprocal duplications of regions deleted in Sotos and Williams-Beuren syndromes. We also describe imbalances that were considered polymorphisms or rare variants, such as the new SNP

  3. Cytogenetic Studies of Rwandan Pediatric Patients Presenting with Global Developmental Delay, Intellectual Disability and/or Multiple Congenital Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Uwineza, Annette; Hitayezu, Janvier; Jamar, Mauricette; Caberg, Jean-Hubert; Murorunkwere, Seraphine; Janvier, Ndinkabandi; Bours, Vincent; Mutesa, Leon

    2016-02-01

    Global developmental delay (GDD) is defined as a significant delay in two or more developmental domains: gross or fine motor, speech/language, cognitive, social/personal and activities of daily living. Many of these children will go on to be diagnosed with intellectual disability (ID), which is most commonly defined as having an IQ <75 in addition to impairment in adaptive functioning. Cytogenetic studies have been performed in 664 Rwandan pediatric patients presenting GDD/ID and/or multiple congenital abnormalities (MCA). Karyotype analysis was performed in all patients and revealed 260 chromosomal abnormalities. The most frequent chromosomal abnormality was Down syndrome and then Edward syndrome and Patau syndrome. Other identified chromosomal abnormalities included 47,XX,+del(9)(q11), 46,XY,del(13)(q34) and 46,XX,der(22)t(10;22)(p10;p10)mat. In conclusion, our results highlight the high frequency of cytogenetically detectable abnormalities in this series, with implications for the burden on the healthcare. This study demonstrates the importance of cytogenetic analysis in patients with GDD/ID and MCA. PMID:26507407

  4. High-pitch spiral CT with 3D reformation: an alternative choice for imaging vascular anomalies with affluent blood flow in the head and neck of infants and children

    PubMed Central

    Li, H-O; Huo, R; Xu, G-Q; Duan, Y-H; Nie, P; Ji, X-P; Cheng, Z-P; Xu, Z-D

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of high-pitch spiral CT in imaging vascular anomalies (VAs) with affluent blood flow in the head and neck of infants and children. Methods: For patients with suspected VAs and affluent blood flow pre-detected by ultrasound, CT was performed with high-pitch mode, individualized low-dose scan protocol and three-dimensional (3D) reformation. A five-point scale was used for image quality evaluation. Diagnostic accuracy was calculated with clinical diagnosis with/without pathological results as the reference standard. Radiation exposure and single-phase scan time were recorded. Treatment strategies were formulated based on CT images and results and were monitored through follow-up results. Results: 20 lesions were identified in 15 patients (median age of 11 months). The mean score of image quality was 4.13 ± 0.74. 7 patients (7/15, 46.67%) were diagnosed with haemangiomas, 6 patients (6/15, 40%) were diagnosed with venous malformations and 2 patients (2/15, 13.33%) were diagnosed with arteriovenous malformations. The average effective radiation doses of a single phase and of the total procedure were 0.27 ± 0.08 and 0.86 ± 0.21 mSv. The average scanning time of a single phase was 0.46 ± 0.09 s. After treatment, 13 patients (13/15, 86.67%) achieved excellent results, and 2 patients (2/15, 13.33%) showed good results in follow-up visits. Conclusion: High-pitch spiral CT with an individualized low-dose scan protocol and 3D reformation is an effective modality for imaging VAs with affluent blood flow in the head and neck of infants and children when vascular details are needed and ultrasound and MRI could not provide the complete information. Advances in knowledge: This study proposes an alternative modality for imaging VAs with affluent blood flow. PMID:26055504

  5. SNP array screening of cryptic genomic imbalances in 450 Japanese subjects with intellectual disability and multiple congenital anomalies previously negative for large rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Daniela Tiaki; Hayashi, Shin; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Mizuno, Seiji; Chinen, Yasutsugu; Kosaki, Rika; Kosho, Tomoki; Kurosawa, Kenji; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Numabe, Hironao; Saitoh, Shinji; Makita, Yoshio; Hata, Akira; Imoto, Issei; Inazawa, Johji

    2016-04-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a heterogeneous condition affecting 2-3% of the population, often associated with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). The genetic cause remains largely unexplained for most cases. To investigate the causes of ID/MCA of unknown etiology in the Japanese population, 645 subjects have been recruited for the screening of pathogenic copy-number variants (CNVs). Two screenings using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) arrays were previously performed, which identified pathogenic CNVs in 133 cases (20.6%; Hayashi et al., J. Hum. Genet., 2011). Here, we present the findings of the third screening using a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, performed in 450 negative cases from our previous report. Pathogenic CNVs were found in 22 subjects (4.9%), in which 19 CNVs were located in regions where clinical significance had been previously established. Among the 22 cases, we identified PPFIA2 as a novel candidate gene for ID. Analysis of copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (CNLOH) detected one case in which the CNLOH regions seem to be significant. The SNP array detected a modest fraction of small causative CNVs, which is explained by the fact that the majority of causative CNVs have larger sizes, and those had been mostly identified in the two previous screenings. PMID:26740234

  6. [Vascular parkinsonism].

    PubMed

    Yamanouchi, H

    1997-01-01

    Critchley speculated that multiple vascular lesions of the basal ganglia must have an etiological connection to the symptoms of so-called vascular parkinsonism (VP), but without neuropathological confirmation. Some had doubts about its existence because of the lack of the pathologically confirmed case with adequate clinical correlation. At present, VP is characterized clinically by the short-stepped or frozen gait, lead-pipe rigidity, the symmetry of findings, absence of resting tremor, and negative response to levodopa in elderly patients with cerebrovascular lesions on CT/MRI. Pseudobulbar palsies, pyramidal tract findings, and/or multi-infarct dementia coexist in some of the cases. Most of clinically suspected VP patients have cerebral white matter lesions as well as basal ganglia lesions. PMID:9014431

  7. Congenital vascular malformations in scintigraphic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Pilecki, Stanisław; Gierach, Marcin; Gierach, Joanna; Świętaszczyk, Cyprian; Junik, Roman; Lasek, Władysław

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Congenital vascular malformations are tumour-like, non-neoplastic lesions caused by disorders of vascular tissue morphogenesis. They are characterised by a normal cell replacement cycle throughout all growth phases and do not undergo spontaneous involution. Here we present a scintigraphic image of familial congenital vascular malformations in two sisters. Material/Methods A 17-years-old young woman with a history of multiple hospitalisations for foci of vascular anomalies appearing progressively in the upper and lower right limbs, chest wall and spleen. A Parkes Weber syndrome was diagnosed based on the clinical picture. Due to the occurrence of new foci of malformations, a whole-body scintigraphic examination was performed. A 12-years-old girl reported a lump in the right lower limb present for approximately 2 years, which was clinically identified as a vascular lesion in the area of calcaneus and talus. Phleboscintigraphy visualized normal radiomarker outflow from the feet via the deep venous system, also observed in the superficial venous system once the tourniquets were released. In static and whole-body examinations vascular malformations were visualised in the area of the medial cuneiform, navicular and talus bones of the left foot, as well as in the projection of right calcaneus and above the right talocrural joint. Conclusions People with undiagnosed disorders related to the presence of vascular malformations should undergo periodic follow-up to identify lesions that may be the cause of potentially serious complications and to assess the results of treatment. Presented scintigraphic methods may be used for both diagnosing and monitoring of disease progression. PMID:24567769

  8. DOWN'S ANOMALY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PENROSE, L.S.; SMITH, G.F.

    BOTH CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND MATHEMATICAL ELABORATIONS OF DOWN'S ANOMALY, KNOWN ALSO AS MONGOLISM, ARE PRESENTED IN THIS REFERENCE MANUAL FOR PROFESSIONAL PERSONNEL. INFORMATION PROVIDED CONCERNS (1) HISTORICAL STUDIES, (2) PHYSICAL SIGNS, (3) BONES AND MUSCLES, (4) MENTAL DEVELOPMENT, (5) DERMATOGLYPHS, (6) HEMATOLOGY, (7)…

  9. Homocysteinemia control by cysteine in cerebral vascular patients after methionine loading test: evidences in physiological and pathological conditions in cerebro-vascular and multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Ulivelli, Monica; Priora, Raffaella; Di Giuseppe, Danila; Coppo, Lucia; Summa, Domenico; Margaritis, Antonios; Frosali, Simona; Bartalini, Sabina; Martini, Giuseppe; Cerase, Alfonso; Di Simplicio, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    The toxicity risk of hyperhomocysteinemia is prevented through thiol drug administration which reduces plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations by activating thiol exchange reactions. Assuming that cysteine (Cys) is a homocysteinemia regulator, the hypothesis was verified in healthy and pathological individuals after the methionine loading test (MLT). The plasma variations of redox species of Cys, Hcy, cysteinylglycine, glutathione and albumin (reduced, HS-ALB, and at mixed disulfide, XSS-ALB) were compared in patients with cerebral small vessels disease (CSVD) (n = 11), multiple sclerosis (MS) (n = 12) and healthy controls (n = 11) at 2-4-6 h after MLT. In MLT-treated subjects, the activation of thiol exchange reactions provoked significant changes over time in redox species concentrations of Cys, Hcy, and albumin. Significant differences between controls and pathological groups were also observed. In non-methionine-treated subjects, total Cys concentrations, tHcy and thiol-protein mixed disulfides (CSS-ALB, HSS-ALB) of CSVD patients were higher than controls. After MLT, all groups displayed significant cystine (CSSC) increases and CSS-ALB decreases, that in pathological groups were significantly higher than controls. These data would confirm the Cys regulatory role on the homocysteinemia; they also explain that the Cys-Hcy mixed disulfide excretion is an important point of hyperhomocysteinemia control. Moreover, in all groups after MLT, significant increases in albumin concentrations, named total albumin (tALB) and measured as sum of HS-ALB (spectrophometric), and XSS-ALB (assayed at HPLC) were observed. tALB increases, more pronounced in healthy than in the pathological subjects, could indicate alterations of albumin equilibria between plasma and other extracellular spaces, whose toxicological consequences deserve further studies. PMID:26969256

  10. Vascular Lesions.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Marla N

    2016-08-01

    Vascular lesions in childhood are comprised of vascular tumors and vascular malformations. Vascular tumors encompass neoplasms of the vascular system, of which infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common. Vascular malformations, on the other hand, consist of lesions due to anomalous development of the vascular system, including the capillary, venous, arterial, and lymphatic systems. Capillary malformations represent the most frequent type of vascular malformation. IHs and vascular malformations tend to follow relatively predictable growth patterns in that IHs grow then involute during early childhood, whereas vascular malformations tend to exhibit little change. Both vascular tumors and vascular malformations can demonstrate a wide range of severity and potential associated complications necessitating specialist intervention when appropriate. Evaluation and treatment of the most common types of vascular lesions are discussed in this article. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e299-e305.]. PMID:27517358

  11. Breed relationships facilitate fine-mapping studies: A 7.8-kb deletion cosegregates with Collie eye anomaly across multiple dog breeds

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Heidi G.; Kukekova, Anna V.; Akey, Dayna T.; Goldstein, Orly; Kirkness, Ewen F.; Baysac, Kathleen C.; Mosher, Dana S.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Acland, Gregory M.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2007-01-01

    The features of modern dog breeds that increase the ease of mapping common diseases, such as reduced heterogeneity and extensive linkage disequilibrium, may also increase the difficulty associated with fine mapping and identifying causative mutations. One way to address this problem is by combining data from multiple breeds segregating the same trait after initial linkage has been determined. The multibreed approach increases the number of potentially informative recombination events and reduces the size of the critical haplotype by taking advantage of shortened linkage disequilibrium distances found across breeds. In order to identify breeds that likely share a trait inherited from the same ancestral source, we have used cluster analysis to divide 132 breeds of dog into five primary breed groups. We then use the multibreed approach to fine-map Collie eye anomaly (cea), a complex disorder of ocular development that was initially mapped to a 3.9-cM region on canine chromosome 37. Combined genotypes from affected individuals from four breeds of a single breed group significantly narrowed the candidate gene region to a 103-kb interval spanning only four genes. Sequence analysis revealed that all affected dogs share a homozygous deletion of 7.8 kb in the NHEJ1 gene. This intronic deletion spans a highly conserved binding domain to which several developmentally important proteins bind. This work both establishes that the primary cea mutation arose as a single disease allele in a common ancestor of herding breeds as well as highlights the value of comparative population analysis for refining regions of linkage. PMID:17916641

  12. Congenital Anomalies of the Nose.

    PubMed

    Funamura, Jamie L; Tollefson, Travis T

    2016-04-01

    Congenital anomalies of the nose range from complete aplasia of the nose to duplications and nasal masses. Nasal development is the result of a complex embryologic patterning and fusion of multiple primordial structures. Loss of signaling proteins or failure of migration or proliferation can result in structural anomalies with significant cosmetic and functional consequences. Congenital anomalies of the nose can be categorized into four broad categories: (1) aplastic or hypoplastic, (2) hyperplastic or duplications, (3) clefts, and (4) nasal masses. Our knowledge of the embryologic origin of these anomalies helps dictate subsequent work-up for associated conditions, and the appropriate treatment or surgical approach to manage newborns and children with these anomalies. PMID:27097134

  13. Seismic data fusion anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrity, Kyle; Blasch, Erik; Alford, Mark; Ezekiel, Soundararajan; Ferris, David

    2014-06-01

    Detecting anomalies in non-stationary signals has valuable applications in many fields including medicine and meteorology. These include uses such as identifying possible heart conditions from an Electrocardiography (ECG) signals or predicting earthquakes via seismographic data. Over the many choices of anomaly detection algorithms, it is important to compare possible methods. In this paper, we examine and compare two approaches to anomaly detection and see how data fusion methods may improve performance. The first approach involves using an artificial neural network (ANN) to detect anomalies in a wavelet de-noised signal. The other method uses a perspective neural network (PNN) to analyze an arbitrary number of "perspectives" or transformations of the observed signal for anomalies. Possible perspectives may include wavelet de-noising, Fourier transform, peak-filtering, etc.. In order to evaluate these techniques via signal fusion metrics, we must apply signal preprocessing techniques such as de-noising methods to the original signal and then use a neural network to find anomalies in the generated signal. From this secondary result it is possible to use data fusion techniques that can be evaluated via existing data fusion metrics for single and multiple perspectives. The result will show which anomaly detection method, according to the metrics, is better suited overall for anomaly detection applications. The method used in this study could be applied to compare other signal processing algorithms.

  14. Long-lasting intestinal bleeding in an old patient with multiple mucosal vascular abnormalities and Glanzmann's thrombasthenia: 3-year pharmacological management.

    PubMed

    Coppola, A; De Stefano, V; Tufano, A; Nardone, G; Amoriello, A; Cerbone, A M; Di Minno, G

    2002-09-01

    A 75-year-old woman with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia was admitted because of persistent melaena. Endoscopic examination showed multiple angiodysplastic lesions, with active bleeding in small and large bowel. Electro-coagulation of some lesions, octreotide, conjugated oestrogens and selective embolization of jejunal vessels did not change transfusion requirements. After 8 month-transfusions, ethinylestradiol + norethisterone in association with octreotide was started, leading to no transfusion over the following 9 months. Bleeding recurred after withdrawing octreotide and substituting ethinylestradiol + norgestrel for the ethinylestradiol + norethisterone combination. Re-introduction of octreotide did not improve bleeding; however, a reduction of transfusion requirement was observed when the ethinylestradiol + norethisterone pill was re-administered. The association of octreotide and of an oestrogen-progesterone combination was helpful in the difficult management of recurrent bleeding in this patient with diffuse gastrointestinal vascular abnormalities and a severe condition predisposing to bleeding. PMID:12270009

  15. Mental retardation, congenital heart defect, cleft palate, short stature, and facial anomalies: A new X-linked multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation syndrome: Clinical description and molecular studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, B.C.J.; Mariman, E.C.M.; Beersum, S.E.C. van; Ropers, H.H.; Schoonbrood-Lenssen, A.M.J.

    1994-07-15

    We report on two brothers and their two maternal uncles with severe mental retardation, congenital heart defect, cleft or highly arched palate, short stature and craniofacial anomalies consisting of microcephaly, abnormal ears, bulbous nose, broad nasal bridge, malar hypoplasia, and micro-gnathia. Three of the four patients died at an early age. The mother of the two brothers had an atrial septal defect. She is assumed to be manifesting carrier of a mutant gene, which is expressed in her two sons and two brothers. By multipoint linkage analysis it is found that the most likely location of the responsible gene is the pericentromeric region Xp21.3-q21.3 with DMD and DXS3 as flanking markers. Maximum information is obtained with marker DXS453 (Z = 1.20 at {theta} = 0.0). 24 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Fluctuating micro-heterogeneity in water–tert-butyl alcohol mixtures and lambda-type divergence of the mean cluster size with phase transition-like multiple anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Saikat; Furtado, Jonathan; Bagchi, Biman

    2014-05-21

    Water–tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) binary mixture exhibits a large number of thermodynamic and dynamic anomalies. These anomalies are observed at surprisingly low TBA mole fraction, with x{sub TBA} ≈ 0.03–0.07. We demonstrate here that the origin of the anomalies lies in the local structural changes that occur due to self-aggregation of TBA molecules. We observe a percolation transition of the TBA molecules at x{sub TBA} ≈ 0.05. We note that “islands” of TBA clusters form even below this mole fraction, while a large spanning cluster emerges above that mole fraction. At this percolation threshold, we observe a lambda-type divergence in the fluctuation of the size of the largest TBA cluster, reminiscent of a critical point. Alongside, the structure of water is also perturbed, albeit weakly, by the aggregation of TBA molecules. There is a monotonic decrease in the tetrahedral order parameter of water, while the dipole moment correlation shows a weak nonlinearity. Interestingly, water molecules themselves exhibit a reverse percolation transition at higher TBA concentration, x{sub TBA} ≈ 0.45, where large spanning water clusters now break-up into small clusters. This is accompanied by significant divergence of the fluctuations in the size of largest water cluster. This second transition gives rise to another set of anomalies around. Both the percolation transitions can be regarded as manifestations of Janus effect at small molecular level.

  17. Fluctuating micro-heterogeneity in water-tert-butyl alcohol mixtures and lambda-type divergence of the mean cluster size with phase transition-like multiple anomalies.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Saikat; Furtado, Jonathan; Bagchi, Biman

    2014-05-21

    Water-tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) binary mixture exhibits a large number of thermodynamic and dynamic anomalies. These anomalies are observed at surprisingly low TBA mole fraction, with x(TBA) ≈ 0.03-0.07. We demonstrate here that the origin of the anomalies lies in the local structural changes that occur due to self-aggregation of TBA molecules. We observe a percolation transition of the TBA molecules at x(TBA) ≈ 0.05. We note that "islands" of TBA clusters form even below this mole fraction, while a large spanning cluster emerges above that mole fraction. At this percolation threshold, we observe a lambda-type divergence in the fluctuation of the size of the largest TBA cluster, reminiscent of a critical point. Alongside, the structure of water is also perturbed, albeit weakly, by the aggregation of TBA molecules. There is a monotonic decrease in the tetrahedral order parameter of water, while the dipole moment correlation shows a weak nonlinearity. Interestingly, water molecules themselves exhibit a reverse percolation transition at higher TBA concentration, x(TBA) ≈ 0.45, where large spanning water clusters now break-up into small clusters. This is accompanied by significant divergence of the fluctuations in the size of largest water cluster. This second transition gives rise to another set of anomalies around. Both the percolation transitions can be regarded as manifestations of Janus effect at small molecular level. PMID:24852545

  18. Classifying sex biased congenital anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Lubinsky, M.S.

    1997-03-31

    The reasons for sex biases in congenital anomalies that arise before structural or hormonal dimorphisms are established has long been unclear. A review of such disorders shows that patterning and tissue anomalies are female biased, and structural findings are more common in males. This suggests different gender dependent susceptibilities to developmental disturbances, with female vulnerabilities focused on early blastogenesis/determination, while males are more likely to involve later organogenesis/morphogenesis. A dual origin for some anomalies explains paradoxical reductions of sex biases with greater severity (i.e., multiple rather than single malformations), presumably as more severe events increase the involvement of an otherwise minor process with opposite biases to those of the primary mechanism. The cause for these sex differences is unknown, but early dimorphisms, such as differences in growth or presence of H-Y antigen, may be responsible. This model provides a useful rationale for understanding and classifying sex-biased congenital anomalies. 42 refs., 7 tabs.

  19. VEGF-A, cytoskeletal dynamics, and the pathological vascular phenotype

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Janice A. . E-mail: jnagy@bidmc.harvard.edu; Senger, Donald R. . E-mail: dsenger@bidmc.harvard.edu

    2006-03-10

    Normal angiogenesis is a complex process involving the organization of proliferating and migrating endothelial cells (ECs) into a well-ordered and highly functional vascular network. In contrast, pathological angiogenesis, which is a conspicuous feature of tumor growth, ischemic diseases, and chronic inflammation, is characterized by vessels with aberrant angioarchitecture and compromised barrier function. Herein we review the subject of pathological angiogenesis, particularly that driven by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A), from a new perspective. We propose that the serious structural and functional anomalies associated with VEGF-A-elicited neovessels, reflect, at least in part, imbalances in the internal molecular cues that govern the ordered assembly of ECs into three dimensional vascular networks and preserve vessel barrier function. Adopting such a viewpoint widens the focus from solely on specific pro-angiogenic stimuli such as VEGF-A to include a key set of cytoskeletal regulatory molecules, the Rho GTPases, which are known to direct multiple aspects of vascular morphogenesis including EC motility, alignment, multi-cellular organization, as well as intercellular junction integrity. We offer this perspective to draw attention to the importance of endothelial cytoskeletal dynamics for proper neovascularization and to suggest new therapeutic strategies with the potential to improve the pathological vascular phenotype.

  20. Gauge anomalies, gravitational anomalies, and superstrings

    SciTech Connect

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1985-08-01

    The structure of gauge and gravitational anomalies will be reviewed. The impact of these anomalies on the construction, consistency, and application of the new superstring theories will be discussed. 25 refs.

  1. Solvation dynamics of tryptophan in water-dimethyl sulfoxide binary mixture: In search of molecular origin of composition dependent multiple anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Susmita; Bagchi, Biman

    2013-07-01

    Experimental and simulation studies have uncovered at least two anomalous concentration regimes in water-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) binary mixture whose precise origin has remained a subject of debate. In order to facilitate time domain experimental investigation of the dynamics of such binary mixtures, we explore strength or extent of influence of these anomalies in dipolar solvation dynamics by carrying out long molecular dynamics simulations over a wide range of DMSO concentration. The solvation time correlation function so calculated indeed displays strong composition dependent anomalies, reflected in pronounced non-exponential kinetics and non-monotonous composition dependence of the average solvation time constant. In particular, we find remarkable slow-down in the solvation dynamics around 10%-20% and 35%-50% mole percentage. We investigate microscopic origin of these two anomalies. The population distribution analyses of different structural morphology elucidate that these two slowing down are reflections of intriguing structural transformations in water-DMSO mixture. The structural transformations themselves can be explained in terms of a change in the relative coordination number of DMSO and water molecules, from 1DMSO:2H2O to 1H2O:1DMSO and 1H2O:2DMSO complex formation. Thus, while the emergence of first slow down (at 15% DMSO mole percentage) is due to the percolation among DMSO molecules supported by the water molecules (whose percolating network remains largely unaffected), the 2nd anomaly (centered on 40%-50%) is due to the formation of the network structure where the unit of 1DMSO:1H2O and 2DMSO:1H2O dominates to give rise to rich dynamical features. Through an analysis of partial solvation dynamics an interesting negative cross-correlation between water and DMSO is observed that makes an important contribution to relaxation at intermediate to longer times.

  2. Vascular ring

    MedlinePlus

    ... with aberrant subclavian and left ligamentum ateriosus; Congenital heart defect - vascular ring; Birth defect heart - vascular ring ... accounts for less than 1% of all congenital heart problems. The condition occurs as often in males ...

  3. ANOMALY STRUCTURE OF SUPERGRAVITY AND ANOMALY CANCELLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Butter, Daniel; Gaillard, Mary K.

    2009-06-10

    We display the full anomaly structure of supergravity, including new D-term contributions to the conformal anomaly. This expression has the super-Weyl and chiral U(1){sub K} transformation properties that are required for implementation of the Green-Schwarz mechanism for anomaly cancellation. We outline the procedure for full anomaly cancellation. Our results have implications for effective supergravity theories from the weakly coupled heterotic string theory.

  4. The elliptic anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janin, G.; Bond, V. R.

    1980-01-01

    An independent variable different from the time for elliptic orbit integration is used. Such a time transformation provides an analytical step-size regulation along the orbit. An intermediate anomaly (an anomaly intermediate between the eccentric and the true anomaly) is suggested for optimum performances. A particular case of an intermediate anomaly (the elliptic anomaly) is defined, and its relation with the other anomalies is developed.

  5. Identification of a ring chromosome as a ring 8 using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) in a child with multiple congenital anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, M.G.; Roback, E.W.; Allen, G.A.

    1995-07-03

    We read with interest the report by Melnyk and Dewald of a small supernumerary ring chromosome 8 identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in a child with developmental delay and minor anomalies. Although ring chromosomes resulting in loss of parts of chromosome 8 have been reported, Melnyk and Dewald reported the first small ring chromosome 8 diagnosed by FISH. Previously nonsatellited markers derived from chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 9, 11, 13-16, 18, 20, 21, and X have been identified using FISH. Their study illustrated the value of FISH techniques in identifying the chromosomal source of markers or rings.

  6. Stilbene 5c, A Microtubule Poison with Vascular Disrupting Properties That Induces Multiple Modes of Growth Arrest and Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Alotaibi, M.R.; Asnake, B.; Xu, Di; Beckman, M.J.; Durrant, D; Simoni, D; Baruchello, R; Lee, R. M.; Schwartz, E.L.; Gewirtz, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    The stilbene derivative, cis-3, 4’, 5-trimethoxy-3’-aminostilbene (stilbene 5c), is a potentially potent antitumor agent that acts via binding to the colchicine-binding site in tubulin. The current studies were designed to investigate the effectiveness of stilbene 5c against the HCT-116 human colon cancer cell line and B16/F10 melanoma cells as well as human endothelial cell formation and tumor perfusion. Stilbene 5c produced a time-dependent decrease in cell viability in both cell lines and the capacity of the cells to proliferate was not restored upon removal of the drug. Treatment with stilbene 5c also promoted both senescence and autophagy in both cell lines. TUNEL and annexin 5 staining indicated that apoptosis also occurs in stilbene 5c-treated HCT-116 cells, but not in B16/F10 melanoma cells. DAPI staining revealed morphological changes in the cell nuclei (binucleated and micronucleated cells) indicative of mitotic catastrophe in HCT-116 cells but not in the B16/F10 melanoma cells. p53-null HCT-116 cells demonstrated a similar growth arrest/cell death response to stilbene as p53-wild type HCT-116 cells. Stilbene 5c also completely inhibited human endothelial cell tube formation on Matrigel, consistent with potential anti-angiogenic actions. Using a new method developed for monitoring the pharmacodynamic effects of stilbene 5c in vivo, we found that a single injection of stilbene 5c reduced tumor perfusion by 65% at 4 hours, returning to baseline by 24 hours, while subsequent daily injections of stilbene 5c produced progressively larger reductions and smaller rebounds. This work indicates that stilbene 5c could potentially be effective against melanoma and colon cancer through the promotion of multiple modes of growth arrest and cell death coupled with anti-angiogenic and antivascular actions. PMID:24144631

  7. Stilbene 5c, a microtubule poison with vascular disrupting properties that induces multiple modes of growth arrest and cell death.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, M R; Asnake, B; Di, Xu; Beckman, M J; Durrant, D; Simoni, D; Baruchello, R; Lee, R M; Schwartz, E L; Gewirtz, D A

    2013-12-15

    The stilbene derivative, cis-3,4',5-trimethoxy-3'-aminostilbene (stilbene 5c), is a potentially potent antitumor agent that acts via binding to the colchicine-binding site in tubulin. The current studies were designed to investigate the effectiveness of stilbene 5c against the HCT-116 human colon cancer cell line and B16/F10 melanoma cells as well as human endothelial cell tube formation and tumor perfusion. Stilbene 5c produced a time-dependent decrease in cell viability in both cell lines and the capacity of the cells to proliferate was not restored upon removal of the drug. Treatment with stilbene 5c also promoted both senescence and autophagy in both cell lines. TUNEL and annexin 5 staining indicated that apoptosis also occurs in stilbene 5c-treated HCT-116 cells, but not in B16/F10 melanoma cells. DAPI staining revealed morphological changes in the cell nuclei (binucleated and micronucleated cells) indicative of mitotic catastrophe in HCT-116 cells but not in the B16/F10 melanoma cells. p53-null HCT-116 cells demonstrated a similar growth arrest/cell death response to stilbene as p53-wild type HCT-116 cells. Stilbene 5c also completely inhibited human endothelial cell tube formation on Matrigel, consistent with potential anti-angiogenic actions. Using a new method developed for monitoring the pharmacodynamic effects of stilbene 5c in vivo, we found that a single injection of stilbene 5c reduced tumor perfusion by 65% at 4h, returning to baseline by 24h, while subsequent daily injections of stilbene 5c produced progressively larger reductions and smaller rebounds. This work indicates that stilbene 5c could potentially be effective against melanoma and colon cancer through the promotion of multiple modes of growth arrest and cell death coupled with anti-angiogenic and antivascular actions. PMID:24144631

  8. Plasma Levels of Osteopontin and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Association with Clinical Features and Parameters of Tumor Burden in Patients with Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Valković, Toni; Babarović, Emina; Lučin, Ksenija; Štifter, Sanja; Aralica, Merica; Pećanić, Sanja; Seili-Bekafigo, Irena; Duletić-Načinović, Antica; Nemet, Damir; Jonjić, Nives

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to determine the plasma levels of osteopontin (OPN) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and find possible association between them and main clinical features and parameters of tumor burden in patient with multiple myeloma (MM). Plasma levels of OPN and VEGF were determined in 44 newly diagnosed MM patients and 24 healthy persons by ELISA method. These values were compared with the presence of anemia, renal dysfunction, and bone lesions as myeloma related clinical manifestations and with serum beta-2 microglobulin and Durie-Salmon clinical stage as prognosticators related to tumor mass. The value of OPN was significantly higher in MM patients with evident bone lesions (P = 0.03) and there was also a positive correlation with serum beta-2 microglobulin (r = 0.366; P = 0.04). Furthermore, patients with lower Durie-Salmon stage had significantly lower OPN and VEGF levels (P = 0.05; P = 0.04, resp.). Our preliminary results found positive association between plasma level of OPN, tumor burden, and bone destruction. Further analysis should provide information about the possible use of OPN as useful clinical biomarker for monitoring bone disease and tumor mass, as well as a prognostic factor, or a possible target for pharmacological intervention. PMID:24995304

  9. Targeting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 and Protein Kinase D1 Related Pathways by a Multiple Kinase Inhibitor in Angiogenesis and Inflammation Related Processes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Attila; Gyulavári, Pál; Greff, Zoltán; Futosi, Krisztina; Németh, Tamás; Simon-Szabó, Laura; Kerekes, Krisztina; Szántai-Kis, Csaba; Brauswetter, Diána; Kokas, Márton; Borbély, Gábor; Erdei, Anna; Mócsai, Attila; Kéri, György; Vántus, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and protein kinase D1 (PKD1) signaling axis plays a critical role in normal and pathological angiogenesis and inflammation related processes. Despite all efforts, the currently available therapeutic interventions are limited. Prior studies have also proved that a multiple target inhibitor can be more efficient compared to a single target one. Therefore, development of novel inflammatory pathway-specific inhibitors would be of great value. To test this possibility, we screened our molecular library using recombinant kinase assays and identified the previously described compound VCC251801 with strong inhibitory effect on both VEGFR2 and PKD1. We further analyzed the effect of VCC251801 in the endothelium-derived EA.hy926 cell line and in different inflammatory cell types. In EA.hy926 cells, VCC251801 potently inhibited the intracellular activation and signaling of VEGFR2 and PKD1 which inhibition eventually resulted in diminished cell proliferation. In this model, our compound was also an efficient inhibitor of in vitro angiogenesis by interfering with endothelial cell migration and tube formation processes. Our results from functional assays in inflammatory cellular models such as neutrophils and mast cells suggested an anti-inflammatory effect of VCC251801. The neutrophil study showed that VCC251801 specifically blocked the immobilized immune-complex and the adhesion dependent TNF-α -fibrinogen stimulated neutrophil activation. Furthermore, similar results were found in mast cell degranulation assay where VCC251801 caused significant reduction of mast cell response. In summary, we described a novel function of a multiple kinase inhibitor which strongly inhibits the VEGFR2-PKD1 signaling and might be a novel inhibitor of pathological inflammatory pathways. PMID:25874616

  10. Implications of Vascular Aging

    PubMed Central

    Barodka, Viachaslau M.; Joshi, Brijen L.; Berkowitz, Dan E.; Hogue, Charles W.; Nyhan, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Chronological age is a well established risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. The changes that accumulate in the vasculature with age, though, are highly variable. It is now increasingly recognized that indices of vascular health are more reliable than age per se in predicting adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The variation in the accrual of these age-related vascular changes is a function of multiple genetic and environmental factors. In this review, we highlight some of the pathophysiological mechanisms that characterize the vascular aging phenotype. Furthermore, we provide an overview of the key outcome studies that address the value of these vascular health indices in general and discuss potential effects on perioperative cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:21474663

  11. Graph anomalies in cyber communications

    SciTech Connect

    Vander Wiel, Scott A; Storlie, Curtis B; Sandine, Gary; Hagberg, Aric A; Fisk, Michael

    2011-01-11

    Enterprises monitor cyber traffic for viruses, intruders and stolen information. Detection methods look for known signatures of malicious traffic or search for anomalies with respect to a nominal reference model. Traditional anomaly detection focuses on aggregate traffic at central nodes or on user-level monitoring. More recently, however, traffic is being viewed more holistically as a dynamic communication graph. Attention to the graph nature of the traffic has expanded the types of anomalies that are being sought. We give an overview of several cyber data streams collected at Los Alamos National Laboratory and discuss current work in modeling the graph dynamics of traffic over the network. We consider global properties and local properties within the communication graph. A method for monitoring relative entropy on multiple correlated properties is discussed in detail.

  12. Congenital Agenesis of the Internal Jugular Vein: An Extremely Rare Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Kayiran, Oguz; Calli, Caglar; Emre, Abdulkadir; Soy, Fatih Kemal

    2015-01-01

    Vascular anomalies of major venous vessels are rarely seen. Moreover, congenital absence of internal jugular vein is extremely uncommon. In our case, a female patient presented with primary unknown left cervical mass. Cervical ultrasonography demonstrated absence of right internal jugular vein. In addition, computed tomography and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging scans confirmed this diagnosis. Compensatory left internal jugular vein enlargement mimicked sort of cervical mass. Venous magnetic resonance imaging images revealed the absence of right internal jugular vein with compensatory left internal jugular vein dominance. In the literature, the agenesis of IJV was mentioned in a case with concomitant multiple problems. Here, an asymptomatic case is reported with an incident diagnosis. No interventions were planned upon the patient's request. It should be kept in mind that any kind of anomalies can be seen during venous access and neck surgery. PMID:25821625

  13. Rare Upper Airway Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Windsor, Alanna; Clemmens, Clarice; Jacobs, Ian N

    2016-01-01

    A broad spectrum of congenital upper airway anomalies can occur as a result of errors during embryologic development. In this review, we will describe the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management strategies for a few select, rare congenital malformations of this system. The diagnostic tools used in workup of these disorders range from prenatal tests to radiological imaging, swallowing evaluations, indirect or direct laryngoscopy, and rigid bronchoscopy. While these congenital defects can occur in isolation, they are often associated with disorders of other organ systems or may present as part of a syndrome. Therefore workup and treatment planning for patients with these disorders often involves a team of multiple specialists, including paediatricians, otolaryngologists, pulmonologists, speech pathologists, gastroenterologists, and geneticists. PMID:26277452

  14. The expression of osteopontin and vascular endothelial growth factor in correlation with angiogenesis in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Babarović, Emina; Valković, Toni; Budisavljević, Ivana; Balen, Ivan; Štifter, Sanja; Duletić-Načinović, Antica; Lučin, Ksenija; Jonjić, Nives

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have shown a gradual increase in the extent of bone marrow angiogenesis in various stages of proliferative plasma cell disorders, from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) to active multiple myeloma (MM). The main aim of this study was to evaluate tumor angiogenesis parameters in detail and to correlate them with the expression of osteopontin (OPN) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the bone marrow of patients with MGUS and MM. In addition, we wanted to determine their prognostic significance in active MM. Ninety-five patients were enrolled in the study: 14 diagnosed with MGUS, 13 with asymptomatic myeloma (AMM) and 68 with active MM. Computer assisted image analysis was used to determine the angiogenesis parameters, the quantity of microvessels per 1mm(2) (MVD), the area occupied by microvessels per 1mm(2) and the percentage of microvessel area in total section area (TVA). Double immunohistochemical methods CD138+VEGF and CD138+OPN were used to evaluate expression of these proteins in plasma cells, and OPN was also analyzed for its interstitial expression (iOPN). A significant positive correlation was determined between VEGF and iOPN with angiogenic parameters in the MGUS stage of the disease. In advanced stages of the disease, a significant negative correlation was recorded between OPN and iOPN with parameters of angiogenesis. Overall survival was significantly shorter for patients with negative iOPN (p=0.002) and higher angiogenic parameters, MVD (p=0.009), TVA (p=0.008) and area of microvessels per 1mm(2) (p=0.02). Positive VEGF expression in our model predicted a better three-year survival of patients with active MM (OR: 5.25, p=0.03; HR: 0.44, p=0.04). The results of our study suggested a possible key role of VEGF and OPN in the induction of angiogenesis in early-stage disease. PMID:26997492

  15. Effects of aliskiren, a renin inhibitor, on biomarkers of platelet activity, coagulation and fibrinolysis in subjects with multiple risk factors for vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Serebruany, V L; Malinin, A; Barsness, G; Vahabi, J; Atar, D

    2008-05-01

    Aliskiren, an octanamide, is nonpeptide, low molecular weight, orally active renin inhibitor effectively preventing angiotensin and aldosterone release. This drug has been recently approved for the treatment of hypertension. Considering potential links between hypertension, platelets, the coagulation cascade and fibrinolysis we sought to evaluate the effect of aliskiren on human biomarkers of hemostasis. In vitro effects of whole blood preincubation with escalating concentrations of aliskiren (500, 1,000 and 2,000 ng ml(-1)) were assessed in 20 aspirin-naive volunteers with multiple risk factors for vascular disease. A total of 33 biomarkers were measured, of which 18 are related to platelet function, 12 to coagulation and 3 to fibrinolysis. Pretreatment of blood samples with aliskiren 500 ng ml(-1) resulted in a significant increase of antithrombin-III (AT-III) activity (P=0.003). All other tested biomarkers were not significantly affected. Spiking whole blood with the higher aliskiren doses was associated with various trends in biomarker activity, where 1000 ng ml(-1) concentration mostly decreased (7/33), and 2,000 ng ml(-1) mostly increased (6/33) some biomarkers. In the therapeutic concentration of 500 ng ml(-1) aliskiren does not affect hemostatic biomarkers, except for a moderate but highly significant (P=0.003) increase of AT-III activity. Higher aliskiren doses were associated with more profound biomarker changes, but they are likely not to be clinically relevant since they show diverging (that is, both mild antiplatelet and platelet-activating) trends, and considering the 2- to 4-fold safety margin. It is suggested that antithrombotic properties of aliskiren be explored further in an ex vivo clinical setting. PMID:18273042

  16. A unique de novo interstitial deletion of chromosome 17, del(17)(q23.2q24.3) in a female newborn with multiple congenital anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, M.L.; Shaffer, L.G.; Lewis, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    Contiguous gene or microdeletion syndromes occurring on chromosome 17p include the Smith-Magenis and Miller-Dieker syndromes associated with interstitial deletions of 17p11.2 and 17p13.3, respectively. Other cytogenetically visible interstitial deletions on chromosome 17 are quite rare or unique. We describe a newborn with a novel interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 17 [del(17)(q23.2q24.3)] who died on day of life 17 during a recurrent apneic episode. We have compared our patient`s phenotype and karyotype to two reported patients with deletion 17q with minor clinical overlap. The most striking clinical features of this patient were severe intrauterine growth retardation, widespread skeletal malformations (split sutures, hypoplastic acetabulae and scapulae, vertebral anomalies, and digital hypoplasia), cutis verticis gyrata, dysmorphic facial features, and oropharyngeal malformations (absent uvula and submucous cleft palate). Mild congenital heart disease and anomalous optic nerves were also present. Parental karyotyps were normal. DNA from parents and patient has been collected and cell lines established on both parents. Genes which have been previously mapped to the region that is apparently deleted in this patient include: chorionic somatomammotropin A, growth hormone (normal), acid alpha-glucosidase, apolipoprotein H, and the alpha peptide of type 4 voltage gated sodium channel. As in other clinical cytogenetic syndromes, further descriptions of patients with similar or overlapping rearrangements in this region will be necessary to delineate genotype/phenotype correlations for chromosome 17.

  17. Pictorial review of coronary anomalies in Tetralogy of Fallot.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Sangita; Aeron, Gunjan; Vojta, Christopher N

    2015-01-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) classically consists of four characteristic features-right ventricular outflow obstruction, right ventricular hypertrophy, ventricular septal defect and an overriding aorta. In addition there are multiple other associated cardiac anomalies, including coronary artery anomalies. In this review, the role of CT angiography and the spectrum of coronary anomalies will be discussed along with importance of such anomalies in the context of surgery. PMID:26283594

  18. Lymphatic Anomalies Registry

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-26

    Lymphatic Malformation; Generalized Lymphatic Anomaly (GLA); Central Conducting Lymphatic Anomaly; CLOVES Syndrome; Gorham-Stout Disease ("Disappearing Bone Disease"); Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome; Kaposiform Lymphangiomatosis; Kaposiform Hemangioendothelioma/Tufted Angioma; Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome; Lymphangiomatosis

  19. Vascular Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart and blood vessels, such as diabetes or high cholesterol Smoking Obesity Losing weight, eating healthy foods, being active and not smoking can help vascular disease. Other treatments include medicines and surgery.

  20. Pulmonary vascular malformations.

    PubMed

    Liechty, Kenneth W; Flake, Alan W

    2008-02-01

    Pulmonary vascular malformations have historically been diagnosed in a wide range of age groups, but the extensive use of prenatal imaging studies has resulted in the majority of lesions being diagnosed in utero. Among this group of lesions, bronchopulmonary sequestrations (BPS), hybrid lesions with both congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) and BPS, aberrant systemic vascular anastomoses, and pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM), are the most common. The biologic behavior of these lesions and the subsequent therapy is, in large part, determined by the age of the patient at diagnosis. In the fetus, large BPS or hybrid lesions can result in fetal hydrops and in utero fetal demise. In the perinatal period, pulmonary hypoplasia from the mass effect or air trapping within the cystic component of hybrid lesions can result in life-threatening respiratory distress. In the postnatal period, communication of the lesion with the aero-digestive system can result in recurrent pneumonia. Alternatively, increased pulmonary blood flow from the systemic arterial supply can result in hemorrhage, hemoptysis, or high output cardiac failure. In addition, there have been several reports of malignant degeneration. Finally, the broad spectrum encompassed by these lesions makes classification and subsequent communication of the lesions confusing and difficult. This paper will review the components of these lesions, their associated anomalies, the diagnosis and natural history, and finally, current concepts in the management of pulmonary vascular malformations. PMID:18158137

  1. Analysis of spacecraft anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomquist, C. E.; Graham, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    The anomalies from 316 spacecraft covering the entire U.S. space program were analyzed to determine if there were any experimental or technological programs which could be implemented to remove the anomalies from future space activity. Thirty specific categories of anomalies were found to cover nearly 85 percent of all observed anomalies. Thirteen experiments were defined to deal with 17 of these categories; nine additional experiments were identified to deal with other classes of observed and anticipated anomalies. Preliminary analyses indicate that all 22 experimental programs are both technically feasible and economically viable.

  2. Vascular trauma in civilian practice.

    PubMed Central

    Golledge, J.; Scriven, M. W.; Fligelstone, L. J.; Lane, I. F.

    1995-01-01

    Vascular trauma is associated with major morbidity and mortality, but little is known about its incidence or nature in Britain. A retrospective study of 36 patients requiring operative intervention for vascular trauma under one vascular surgeon over a 6-year period was undertaken. Twenty-four patients suffered iatrogenic trauma (median age 61 years); including cardiological intervention (19), radiological intervention (2), varicose vein surgery (1), umbilical vein catherisation (1) and isolated hyperthermic limb perfusion (1). There were 23 arterial and three venous injuries. Twelve patients had accidental trauma (median age 23 years). Three of the ten patients with blunt trauma were referred for vascular assessment before orthopaedic intervention, two after an on-table angiogram and five only after an initial orthopaedic procedure (range of delay 6 h to 10 days). Injuries were arterial in nine, venous in two and combined in one. Angiography was obtained in six patients, and in two patients with multiple upper limb fractures identified the site of injury when clinical localisation was difficult. A variety of vascular techniques were used to treat the injuries. Two patients died postoperatively and one underwent major limb amputation. Thirty-two (89%) remain free of vascular sequelae after a median follow-up of 48 months (range 3-72 months). Vascular trauma is uncommon in the United Kingdom. To repair the injuries a limited repertoire of vascular surgery techniques is needed. Therefore, vascular surgical assessment should be sought at an early stage to prevent major limb loss. PMID:8540659

  3. Diphallia with Associated Anomalies: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Prasetyo, Robertus Bebet; Rodjani, Arry

    2013-01-01

    Diphallia or penile duplication is an extremely rare congenital anomaly. It occurs once in every 5.5 million live births. The extent of penile duplication and the number of associated anomalies vary greatly, ranging from a double glans from a penis with no associated anomaly up to complete penile duplication associated with multiple anomalies. Here, we report a 12-year-old boy with complete bifid diphallia associated with bifid scrotum, epispadia, and pubic symphysis diastasis along with a review of the articles pertaining to this anomaly. PMID:24383036

  4. Taussig-Bing Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinov, Igor E.

    2009-01-01

    Taussig-Bing anomaly is a rare congenital heart malformation that was first described in 1949 by Helen B. Taussig (1898–1986) and Richard J. Bing (1909–). Although substantial improvement has since been achieved in surgical results of the repair of the anomaly, management of the Taussig-Bing anomaly remains challenging. A history of the original description of the anomaly, the life stories of the individuals who first described it, and the current outcomes of its surgical management are reviewed herein. PMID:20069085

  5. Evaluation of vascular rings with digital subtraction angiography.

    PubMed

    Tonkin, I L; Gold, R E; Moser, D; Laster, R E

    1984-06-01

    Seven patients with vascular rings were evaluated over a 2-year period with intravenous digital subtraction angiography (DSA), which was compared with screen-film aortography or cineangiography. The seven patients were also evaluated with barium esophagography. Six of the seven DSA images were totally diagnostic and one study was only partly diagnostic. Six of the seven vascular anomalies were confirmed surgically. DSA is suggested as an alternative to arteriography in evaluating patients with suspected vascular rings. PMID:6372419

  6. The de novo formation of a vascular network, in warm-blooded embryos, occurs via a self-assembly process that spans multiple length and time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles D.

    2007-03-01

    Taking advantage of wide-field, time-lapse microscopy we examined the assembly of vascular polygonal networks in whole bird embryos and in explanted embryonic mouse tissue (allantois). Primary vasculogenesis assembly steps range from cellular (1-10 μm) to tissue (100μm-1mm) level events: Individual vascular endothelial cells extend protrusions and move with respect to the extracellular matrix/surrounding tissue. Consequently, long-range, tissue-level, deformations directly influence the vascular pattern. Experimental perturbation of endothelial-specific cell-cell adhesions (VE-cadherin), during mouse vasculogenesis, permitted dissection of the cellular motion required for sprout formation. In particular, cells are shown to move actively onto vascular cords that are subject to strain via tissue deformations. Based on the empirical data we propose a simple model of preferential migration along stretched cells. Numerical simulations reveal that the model evolves into a quasi-stationary pattern containing linear segments, which interconnect above a critical volume fraction. In the quasi-stationary state the generation of new branches offsets the coarsening driven by surface tension. In agreement with empirical data, the characteristic size of the resulting polygonal pattern is density-independent within a wide range of volume fractions. These data underscore the potential of combining physical studies with experimental embryology as a means of studying complex morphogenetic systems. In collaboration with Brenda J. Rongish^1, Andr'as Czir'ok^1,2, Erica D. Perryn^1, Cheng Cui^1, and Evan A. Zamir^1 ^1Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, the University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS ^2Department of Biological Physics, E"otv"os Lor'and University, Budapest, Hungary.

  7. Competing Orders and Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-01-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation "laws" could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the 't Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed. PMID:27499184

  8. Competing Orders and Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-08-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation “laws” could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the ’t Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed.

  9. Competing Orders and Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-01-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation “laws” could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the ’t Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed. PMID:27499184

  10. Advanced noninvasive imaging of spinal vascular malformations

    PubMed Central

    Eddleman, Christopher S.; Jeong, Hyun; Cashen, Ty A.; Walker, Matthew; Bendok, Bernard R.; Batjer, H. Hunt; Carroll, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Spinal vascular malformations (SVMs) are an uncommon, heterogeneous group of vascular anomalies that can render devastating neurological consequences if they are not diagnosed and treated in a timely fashion. Imaging SVMs has always presented a formidable challenge because their clinical and imaging presentations resemble those of neoplasms, demyelination diseases, and infection. Advancements in noninvasive imaging modalities (MR and CT angiography) have increased during the last decade and have improved the ability to accurately diagnose spinal vascular anomalies. In addition, intraoperative imaging techniques have been developed that aid in the intraoperative assessment before, during, and after resection of these lesions with minimal and/or optimal use of spinal digital subtraction angiography. In this report, the authors review recent advancements in the imaging of SVMs that will likely lead to more timely diagnoses and treatment while reducing procedural risk exposure to the patients who harbor these uncommon spinal lesions. PMID:19119895

  11. Müllerian anomalies.

    PubMed

    Gell, Jennifer S

    2003-11-01

    The reproductive organs in both males and females consist of gonads, internal ductal structures, and external genitalia. Normal sexual differentiation is dependent on the genetic sex determined by the presence or absence of the Y chromosome at fertilization. Testes develop under the influence of the Y chromosome and ovaries develop when no Y chromosome is present. In the absence of testes and their normal hormonal products, sexual differentiation proceeds along the female pathway, resulting in a normal female phenotype. Anatomic gynecologic anomalies occur when there is failure of normal embryologic ductal development. These anomalies include congenital absence of the vagina as well as defects in lateral and vertical fusion of the Müllerian ducts. Treatment of müllerian anomalies begins with the correct identification of the anomaly and an understanding of the embryologic origin. This includes evaluation for other associated anomalies such as renal or skeletal abnormalities. After correct identification, treatment options include nonsurgical as well as surgical intervention. This chapter serves to review the embryology and development of the reproductive system and to describe common genital tract anomalies. Details of surgical or nonsurgical correction of these anomalies are presented. PMID:14724770

  12. Behavioral economics without anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Rachlin, H

    1995-01-01

    Behavioral economics is often conceived as the study of anomalies superimposed on a rational system. As research has progressed, anomalies have multiplied until little is left of rationality. Another conception of behavioral economics is based on the axiom that value is always maximized. It incorporates so-called anomalies either as conflicts between temporal patterns of behavior and the individual acts comprising those patterns or as outcomes of nonexponential time discounting. This second conception of behavioral economics is both empirically based and internally consistent. PMID:8551195

  13. Spiral CT: vascular applications.

    PubMed

    Rankin, S C

    1998-08-01

    Recent technical advances in CT have renewed interest in the development of CT angiography (CTA). CT angiography is a minimally invasive method of visualising the vascular system and is becoming an alternative to conventional arteriography in some situations. Spiral technology allows a volume of data to be obtained on a single breath-hold with no respiratory misregistration. Fast machines with second or subsecond acquisition times mean the images are obtained while there are high circulating levels of contrast medium giving peak vascular opacification from a peripheral intravenous injection. Accurate timing will ensure either the arterial or venous phase is imaged. Multiple overlapping axial images can be obtained from the data set with no increase in radiation dose to the patient and from these scans computer generated multiplanar and 3D images are obtained which can be viewed from numerous angles. CT angiography can be performed more quickly, less invasively and at reduced cost compared to conventional angiography. PMID:9717621

  14. Minor anomalies in stillborn and second trimester miscarried fetuses.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Elizabeth; Cold, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In 1964, the landmark paper of Marden, Smith, and McDonald established that multiple minor anomalies in newborn infants are associated with an increased risk for major malformations. There were until now no comparable studies in stillbirths. The Wisconsin Stillbirth Service Program (WiSSP) has data regarding nearly 3,000 stillbirths and second trimester losses that have been analyzed for major anomalies and cause of death. One dysmorphologist retrospectively reviewed all 2,397 with usable photographs. Minor anomalies were identified in 1,413 (59%) with 575 of these (41%) having at least one major anomaly. Probability of a major anomaly increased from 7% with no minor anomalies to 15%, 36%, 67%, and 89% with 1, 2, 3, and >33 minor anomalies, respectively. Frequency of minor anomalies was less with lower resolution photographs, but did not show significant differences with maceration or gestational age. The most frequent minor anomalies were infraorbital creases/folds, lowset/posteriorly angulated ears, nuchal edema, flat face, equinovarus foot, camptodactyly, upslanted palpebral fissures, ear antihelix abnormalities (combined), micrognathia/retrognathia, and single transverse palmar crease. Except for infraorbital creases/folds each of these minor anomalies was strongly correlated with major anomalies (P < 0.0001). Infraorbital folds were the only anomaly which increased with placental cause of death, and reanalysis with placental causes excluded showed the expected relationship to major anomalies, suggesting that infraorbital folds may be markers for oligohydramnios due to various causes including placental hypoperfusion. Minor anomalies correlate with presence of major anomalies in stillborn fetuses, regardless of gestational age and maceration, and can provide information to guide decisions regarding laboratory testing and other evaluations. PMID:26373818

  15. Congenital cardiac anomalies in an English bulldog.

    PubMed

    McConkey, Marina J

    2011-11-01

    A 4-year-old male castrated English bulldog was referred to the Atlantic Veterinary College for evaluation of exercise intolerance, multiple syncopal episodes, and a grade IV/VI heart murmur. The dog was shown to have 3 congenital cardiac anomalies: atrial septal defect, mitral valve dysplasia, and subaortic stenosis. Medical management consisted of exercise restriction, atenolol, pimobendan, and taurine. PMID:22547849

  16. Cryptic vascular malformations involving the brainstem

    SciTech Connect

    Yeates, A.; Enzmann, D.

    1983-01-01

    Six patients with angiographically cryptic vascular malformations involving the brainstem were examined with computed tomography (CT). The clinical and CT findings of cryptic vascular malformations of the brainstem are described and distinguished from those of brainstem glioma and multiple sclerosis. Calcification within a brainstem lesion that displays relatively little mass effect and shows little contrast enhancement, particularly when associated with a long history of waxing and waning brainstem symptoms, should suggest a vascular malformation.

  17. Anomalies and entanglement entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, Tatsuma; Yarom, Amos

    2016-03-01

    We initiate a systematic study of entanglement and Rényi entropies in the presence of gauge and gravitational anomalies in even-dimensional quantum field theories. We argue that the mixed and gravitational anomalies are sensitive to boosts and obtain a closed form expression for their behavior under such transformations. Explicit constructions exhibiting the dependence of entanglement entropy on boosts is provided for theories on spacetimes with non-trivial magnetic fluxes and (or) non-vanishing Pontryagin classes.

  18. Multicriteria Similarity-Based Anomaly Detection Using Pareto Depth Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Ko-Jen; Xu, Kevin S; Calder, Jeff; Hero, Alfred O

    2016-06-01

    We consider the problem of identifying patterns in a data set that exhibits anomalous behavior, often referred to as anomaly detection. Similarity-based anomaly detection algorithms detect abnormally large amounts of similarity or dissimilarity, e.g., as measured by the nearest neighbor Euclidean distances between a test sample and the training samples. In many application domains, there may not exist a single dissimilarity measure that captures all possible anomalous patterns. In such cases, multiple dissimilarity measures can be defined, including nonmetric measures, and one can test for anomalies by scalarizing using a nonnegative linear combination of them. If the relative importance of the different dissimilarity measures are not known in advance, as in many anomaly detection applications, the anomaly detection algorithm may need to be executed multiple times with different choices of weights in the linear combination. In this paper, we propose a method for similarity-based anomaly detection using a novel multicriteria dissimilarity measure, the Pareto depth. The proposed Pareto depth analysis (PDA) anomaly detection algorithm uses the concept of Pareto optimality to detect anomalies under multiple criteria without having to run an algorithm multiple times with different choices of weights. The proposed PDA approach is provably better than using linear combinations of the criteria, and shows superior performance on experiments with synthetic and real data sets. PMID:26336154

  19. On isostatic geoid anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haxby, W. F.; Turcotte, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    In regions of slowly varying lateral density changes, the gravity and geoid anomalies may be expressed as power series expansions in topography. Geoid anomalies in isostatically compensated regions can be directly related to the local dipole moment of the density-depth distribution. This relationship is used to obtain theoretical geoid anomalies for different models of isostatic compensation. The classical Pratt and Airy models give geoid height-elevation relationships differing in functional form but predicting geoid anomalies of comparable magnitude. The thermal cooling model explaining ocean floor subsidence away from mid-ocean ridges predicts a linear age-geoid height relationship of 0.16 m/m.y. Geos 3 altimetry profiles were examined to test these theoretical relationships. A profile over the mid-Atlantic ridge is closely matched by the geoid curve derived from the thermal cooling model. The observed geoid anomaly over the Atlantic margin of North America can be explained by Airy compensation. The relation between geoid anomaly and bathymetry across the Bermuda Swell is consistent with Pratt compensation with a 100-km depth of compensation.

  20. Congenital coronary artery anomalies: a bridge from embryology to anatomy and pathophysiology--a position statement of the development, anatomy, and pathology ESC Working Group.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pomares, José María; de la Pompa, José Luis; Franco, Diego; Henderson, Deborah; Ho, Siew Yen; Houyel, Lucile; Kelly, Robert G; Sedmera, David; Sheppard, Mary; Sperling, Silke; Thiene, Gaetano; van den Hoff, Maurice; Basso, Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Congenital coronary artery anomalies are of major significance in clinical cardiology and cardiac surgery due to their association with myocardial ischaemia and sudden death. Such anomalies are detectable by imaging modalities and, according to various definitions, their prevalence ranges from 0.21 to 5.79%. This consensus document from the Development, Anatomy and Pathology Working Group of the European Society of Cardiology aims to provide: (i) a definition of normality that refers to essential anatomical and embryological features of coronary vessels, based on the integrated analysis of studies of normal and abnormal coronary embryogenesis and pathophysiology; (ii) an animal model-based systematic survey of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate coronary blood vessel development; (iii) an organization of the wide spectrum of coronary artery anomalies, according to a comprehensive anatomical and embryological classification scheme; (iv) current knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying symptoms and signs of coronary artery anomalies, with diagnostic and therapeutic implications. This document identifies the mosaic-like embryonic development of the coronary vascular system, as coronary cell types differentiate from multiple cell sources through an intricate network of molecular signals and haemodynamic cues, as the necessary framework for understanding the complex spectrum of coronary artery anomalies observed in human patients. PMID:26811390

  1. Tbx1 regulates brain vascularization.

    PubMed

    Cioffi, Sara; Martucciello, Stefania; Fulcoli, Filomena Gabriella; Bilio, Marchesa; Ferrentino, Rosa; Nusco, Edoardo; Illingworth, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor TBX1 is the major gene involved in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). Using mouse models of these diseases, we have previously shown that TBX1 activates VEGFR3 in endothelial cells (EC), and that this interaction is critical for the development of the lymphatic vasculature. In this study, we show that TBX1 regulates brain angiogenesis. Using loss-of-function genetics and molecular approaches, we show that TBX1 regulates the VEGFR3 and DLL4 genes in brain ECs. In mice, loss of TBX1 causes global brain vascular defects, comprising brain vessel hyperplasia, enhanced angiogenic sprouting and vessel network disorganization. This phenotype is recapitulated in EC-specific Tbx1 conditional mutants and in an EC-only 3-dimensional cell culture system (matrigel), indicating that the brain vascular phenotype is cell autonomous. Furthermore, EC-specific conditional Tbx1 mutants have poorly perfused brain vessels and brain hypoxia, indicating that the expanded vascular network is functionally impaired. In EC-matrigel cultures, a Notch1 agonist is able to partially rescue microtubule hyperbranching induced by TBX1 knockdown. Thus, we have identified a novel transcriptional regulator of angiogenesis that exerts its effect in brain by negatively regulating angiogenesis through the DLL4/Notch1-VEGFR3 regulatory axis. Given the similarity of the phenotypic consequences of TBX1 mutation in humans and mice, this unexpected role of TBX1 in murine brain vascularization should stimulate clinicians to search for brain microvascular anomalies in 22q11.2DS patients and to evaluate whether some of the anatomical and functional brain anomalies in patients may have a microvascular origin. PMID:23945394

  2. [Retinal vascular diseases reflecting generalized vascular alterations. What can be mutually learnt?].

    PubMed

    Feltgen, N; Franko Zeitz, P

    2014-01-01

    Retinal vascular diseases are mostly caused by systemic vascular diseases. In some cases the systemic disease is already known but in other patients ocular anomalies often provide the first indications of a systemic disease. Treating patients with vascular fundus diseases requires close cooperation between ophthalmologists and specialists in other fields and deciding which routine and specialized diagnostic examinations are necessary in light of the potential risk factors involved requires interdisciplinary communication. This article aims to provide an overview of the most important vascular retinal diseases and which examinations are required to ensure an accurate diagnosis. The retinal vascular diseases with the highest frequency or clinical relevance are hypertensive retinopathy, diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion and retinal artery occlusion. PMID:24448809

  3. Vascular dementia

    PubMed Central

    Korczyn, Amos D; Vakhapova, Veronika; Grinberg, Lea T

    2012-01-01

    The epidemic grow of dementia causes great concern for the society. It is customary to consider Alzheimer’s disease (AD) as the most common cause of dementia, followed by vascular dementia (VaD). This dichotomous view of a neurodegenerative disease as opposed to brain damage caused by extrinsic factors led to separate lines of research in these two entities. Indeed, accumulated data suggest that the two disorders have additive effects and probably interact; however it is still unknown to what degree. Furthermore, epidemiological studies have shown “vascular” risk factors to be associated with AD. Therefore, a clear distinction between AD and VaD cannot be made in most cases, and is furthermore unhelpful. In the absence of efficacious treatment for the neurodegenerative process, special attention must be given to vascular component, even in patients with presumed mixed pathology. Symptomatic treatment of VaD and AD are similar, although the former is less effective. For prevention of dementia it is important to treat aggressively all factors, even in stroke survivors who do not show evidence of cognitive decline,. In this review, we will give a clinical and pathological picture of the processes leading to VaD and discuss it interaction with AD. PMID:22575403

  4. 18F-DOPA Uptake of Developmental Venous Anomalies in Children With Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Morana, Giovanni; Piccardo, Arnoldo; Garrè, Maria Luisa; Cabria, Manlio; Rossi, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    We report the finding of increased F-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine uptake of the brain parenchyma adjacent to developmental venous anomalies, incidentally discovered in 3 pediatric patients with diffusely infiltrating gliomas. One patient presented 3 developmental venous anomalies located distant from the tumor, whereas in the remaining 2 patients, the vascular anomalies were inside the tumoral area mimicking a focal area of increased tumor metabolism. In the setting of brain tumor imaging, focal increased F-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine uptake should be carefully interpreted in light of MRI findings, and nuclear medicine physicians should be aware of any incidental minor vascular abnormality for proper interpretation of PET data. PMID:26909711

  5. Sclerotherapy using 1% sodium tetradecyl sulfate to treat a vascular malformation: a report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Vascular malformations are the most common congenital and neonatal vascular anomalies in the head and neck region. The demand for simple and esthetic vascular malformation treatments have increased more recently. In this study, two patients that were diagnosed with venous malformations were treated with sodium tetradecyl sulfate as a sclerosing agent. Recurrence was not found one year after the surgery. This article gives a brief case report of sclerotherapy as an effective approach to treat vascular malformations in the oral cavity. PMID:26734559

  6. Astrometric solar system anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, Michael Martin; Anderson, John D

    2009-01-01

    There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr{sup -1}. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is produent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

  7. [Clinical symptoms and signs in Kimmerle anomaly].

    PubMed

    Split, Wojciech; Sawrasewicz-Rybak, Małgorzata

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to consider Kimmerle anomaly (ponticulus posterior of the atlas) as an anatomic variant, which can cause a set of clinical symptoms and signs. A hundred and eight patients, 58 females and 50 males at the age of 18-59 years (M. 36.9 years, SD = 9.6) with radiologically verified Kimmerle anomaly were examined. A control group comprised 40 healthy subjects at the similar age range. The diagnosis of headaches was based on the criteria proposed by the IHS. A character of headaches, their localization, frequency, duration, number of days with headaches per year, circumstances associated with their onset and concomitant symptoms were evaluated. All the patients were subjected to electrophysiological studies (ENG, EEG and VEP). The results were statistically analyzed using a SPSS/PC+ computer system. It was revealed that clinical symptoms and signs in Kimmerle anomaly occurred most frequently in the third and fourth decade of life (65% of cases). These were most often tension-type headaches (50% of cases with headaches), vascular headaches (26% of cases) and neuralgia (24% of cases). Intensity of headaches was high. Headaches were accompanied by other complaints like vertigo (59% of cases) and in one third of cases--nausea. About 10% of patients also suffered from vomiting, paresthesia, dizziness, short periods of loss of consciousness. Sporadically--tinitus, drop attack, and vegetative symptoms. In cases without pain the most frequent signs were short periods of loss of consciousness, dizziness, and also nausea and dizziness. The EEG examination revealed pathology in 40% of patients with Kimmerle anomaly. The ENG examination in more than 33% of anomaly cases showed injury in the central part of vestibular system. Improper answers were reported in about 75% of the patients during the VEP examination. PMID:12428570

  8. DNA Damage and Repair in Vascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Uryga, Anna; Gray, Kelly; Bennett, Martin

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage affecting both genomic and mitochondrial DNA is present in a variety of both inherited and acquired vascular diseases. Multiple cell types show persistent DNA damage and a range of lesions. In turn, DNA damage activates a variety of DNA repair mechanisms, many of which are activated in vascular disease. Such DNA repair mechanisms either stall the cell cycle to allow repair to occur or trigger apoptosis or cell senescence to prevent propagation of damaged DNA. Recent evidence has indicated that DNA damage occurs early, is progressive, and is sufficient to impair function of cells composing the vascular wall. The consequences of persistent genomic and mitochondrial DNA damage, including inflammation, cell senescence, and apoptosis, are present in vascular disease. DNA damage can thus directly cause vascular disease, opening up new possibilities for both prevention and treatment. We review the evidence for and the causes, types, and consequences of DNA damage in vascular disease. PMID:26442438

  9. ASSOCIATED NON DIAPHRAGMATIC ANOMALIES AMONG CASES WITH CONGENITAL DIAPHRAGMATIC HERNIA.

    PubMed

    Stoll, C; Alembik, Y; Dott, B; Roth, M P

    2015-01-01

    Cases with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) often have other associated anomalies. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the prevalence and the types of associated anomalies in CDH in a defined population. The anomalies associated with CDH were collected in all live births, stillbirths and terminations of pregnancy during 29 years in 386,088 consecutive pregnancies of known outcome in the area covered by our population based registry of congenital anomalies. Of the 139 cases with CDH born during this period (total prevalence of 3.60 per 10,000), 85 (61.2%) had associated major anomalies. There were 25 (18.0%) cases with chromosomal abnormalities including 12 trisomies 18, and 24 (17.3%) nonchromosomal recognized dysmorphic conditions. There were no predominant recognized dysmorphic conditions, but Fryns syndrome. However, other recognized dysmorphic conditions were registered including fetal alcohol syndrome, de Lange syndrome, sequences (laterality sequence and ectopia cordis), and complexes (limb body wall complex). Thirty six (25.9%) of the cases had non syndromic multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). Anomalies of the cardiovascular system (n = 53, 27.5%), the urogenital system (n = 34, 17.6%), the musculoskeletal system (n = 29, 15.0%), and the central nervous system (n = 19, 9.8%) were the most common other congenital anomalies. We observed specific patterns of anomalies associated with CDH which emphasizes the need to evaluate all patients with CDH for possible associated malformations. In conclusion the overall prevalence of associated anomalies, which was close to two in three infants, emphasizes the need for a thorough investigation of cases with CDH. A routine screening for other anomalies may be considered in infants and in fetuses with CDH. One should be aware that the anomalies associated with CDH can be classified into a recognizable anomaly, syndrome or pattern in more than one out of two cases with CDH. PMID:26625659

  10. Vascular permeability, vascular hyperpermeability and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Janice A.; Benjamin, Laura; Zeng, Huiyan; Dvorak, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    The vascular system has the critical function of supplying tissues with nutrients and clearing waste products. To accomplish these goals, the vasculature must be sufficiently permeable to allow the free, bidirectional passage of small molecules and gases and, to a lesser extent, of plasma proteins. Physiologists and many vascular biologists differ as to the definition of vascular permeability and the proper methodology for its measurement. We review these conflicting views, finding that both provide useful but complementary information. Vascular permeability by any measure is dramatically increased in acute and chronic inflammation, cancer, and wound healing. This hyperpermeability is mediated by acute or chronic exposure to vascular permeabilizing agents, particularly vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (VPF/VEGF, VEGF-A). We demonstrate that three distinctly different types of vascular permeability can be distinguished, based on the different types of microvessels involved, the composition of the extravasate, and the anatomic pathways by which molecules of different size cross-vascular endothelium. These are the basal vascular permeability (BVP) of normal tissues, the acute vascular hyperpermeability (AVH) that occurs in response to a single, brief exposure to VEGF-A or other vascular permeabilizing agents, and the chronic vascular hyperpermeability (CVH) that characterizes pathological angiogenesis. Finally, we list the numerous (at least 25) gene products that different authors have found to affect vascular permeability in variously engineered mice and classify them with respect to their participation, as far as possible, in BVP, AVH and CVH. Further work will be required to elucidate the signaling pathways by which each of these molecules, and others likely to be discovered, mediate the different types of vascular permeability. PMID:18293091

  11. QCD trace anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Jens O.; Leganger, Lars E.; Strickland, Michael; Su, Nan

    2011-10-15

    In this brief report we compare the predictions of a recent next-to-next-to-leading order hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory (HTLpt) calculation of the QCD trace anomaly to available lattice data. We focus on the trace anomaly scaled by T{sup 2} in two cases: N{sub f}=0 and N{sub f}=3. When using the canonical value of {mu}=2{pi}T for the renormalization scale, we find that for Yang-Mills theory (N{sub f}=0) agreement between HTLpt and lattice data for the T{sup 2}-scaled trace anomaly begins at temperatures on the order of 8T{sub c}, while treating the subtracted piece as an interaction term when including quarks (N{sub f}=3) agreement begins already at temperatures above 2T{sub c}. In both cases we find that at very high temperatures the T{sup 2}-scaled trace anomaly increases with temperature in accordance with the predictions of HTLpt.

  12. Modeling the Pioneer anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibovitz, Jacques

    2007-04-01

    Scientists continue their attempts to model the observed Pioneer anomaly (PA) as an artifact of measurement or of equipment operation. Scientists also explore ``new physics'' as a possible explanation, but they have eliminated dark matter (DM). Here, the main arguments used to eliminate DM are refuted and then the anomaly is modeled by application of Newton laws to the observed macroscopic properties of DM. Around a central mass M, the modeling predicts a DM distribution that produces the PA at short distances (R smaller than 188 AU) from a star like the Sun, and a flat rotation curve at sufficiently large distances from the center of a galaxy. Below about 188 AU from the Sun, the modeling predicts that the anomaly may be expressed as PA = 8.3E-8 [R̂(-2)] -- 1 cm (s)̂(-2). It shows that the anomaly remains fairly constant down to 5 AU, decreases significantly from 5 AU to 1 AU where it becomes zero and changes sign below a distance of 1 AU, then increases rapidly in magnitude as R decreases in that range. Verifiable tests are proposed. Some related topics for future research are proposed.

  13. [Congenital vascular malformations: epidemiology, classification and therapeutic basis].

    PubMed

    Pereira Albino, J

    2010-01-01

    Congenital vascular malformations are part of the rare diseases of angiology and vascular surgery and can present in a variety of forms. They rise a lot of doubts and many diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Treatment options are widely variable and often debated; surgeons usually have doubts about the best procedure to adopt. It is also an area of great anatomic and functional variability where the confusion regarding the nomenclature and classifications has been frequent, rendering difficult to adopt standardized measures. There have been significant advances in the recent years towards reaching a consensus. Based on his practical clinical experience and past work on these issues, the author reviews the epidemiology, the classifications and the therapeutic basis of this pathology. The author emphasizes the fact that the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) classification provides a useful framework for classifying vascular anomalies, as well as the therapeutic percutaneous embolization using polidocanol foam to control venous malformations. PMID:20972487

  14. The in vitro effects of Xancor, a synthetic astaxanthine derivative, on hemostatic biomarkers in aspirin-naïve and aspirin-treated subjects with multiple risk factors for vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Serebruany, Victor; Malinin, Alex; Goodin, Thomas; Pashkow, Fredric

    2010-01-01

    Astaxanthine is a polar carotenoid metabolite derived from a proprietary prodrug, Xancor, which aligns parallel with the membrane phospholipids exhibiting potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cell protective properties, although the precise mechanism of action is unknown. This prodrug is currently under development for hepatic, neurologic, and vascular disease indications. Considering established links between heart disease and stroke with platelets, coagulation cascade, and fibrinolysis, the aim of the study was to assess the effect of asthaxantine on human biomarkers of hemostasis. The rationale was to test a hypothesis that the drug may diminish activation of hemostasis, making it a potentially attractive addition to treat patients with vascular disease. In vitro effects of whole blood preincubation with escalating concentrations of asthaxantine (0.3 microM, 1 microM, 3 microM, 10 microM, 30 microM, and 100 microM) were assessed from 12 aspirin-naïve and eight aspirin-treated volunteers with multiple risk factors for vascular disease. A total of 25 biomarkers were measured, of which 12 were related to platelet function, 10 to coagulation, and three to fibrinolysis. Platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen, and arachidonic acid and expression of CD31, CD41, GP IIb/IIIa, CD51/61, P-selectin, CD63, CD107a, CD151+CD14, and CD154 were not affected. Coagulation indices such as aPTT, prothrombin time, thrombin time, fibrinogen, antithrombin III (antigen and activity), Protein C, Protein S (free and activity), and von Willebrand factor remained unchanged after incubation with astaxanthine. Fibrinolytic activity biomarkers such as plasminogen, D-dimer, and FDP were also not affected after in vitro pretreatment of blood samples with astaxanthine. In the projected subclinical (less than 1 microM), therapeutic (3 microM to 30 microM), and supratherapeutic concentration (100 microM), astaxanthine in vitro does not affect platelet, coagulation, or fibrinolytic

  15. Anomaly discrimination in hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shih-Yu; Paylor, Drew; Chang, Chein-I.

    2014-05-01

    Anomaly detection finds data samples whose signatures are spectrally distinct from their surrounding data samples. Unfortunately, it cannot discriminate the anomalies it detected one from another. In order to accomplish this task it requires a way of measuring spectral similarity such as spectral angle mapper (SAM) or spectral information divergence (SID) to determine if a detected anomaly is different from another. However, this arises in a challenging issue of how to find an appropriate thresholding value for this purpose. Interestingly, this issue has not received much attention in the past. This paper investigates the issue of anomaly discrimination which can differentiate detected anomalies without using any spectral measure. The ideas are to makes use unsupervised target detection algorithms, Automatic Target Generation Process (ATGP) coupled with an anomaly detector to distinguish detected anomalies. Experimental results show that the proposed methods are indeed very effective in anomaly discrimination.

  16. Associated noncardiac congenital anomalies among cases with congenital heart defects.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Claude; Dott, Beatrice; Alembik, Yves; Roth, Marie-Paule

    2015-02-01

    Cases with congenital heart defects (CHD) often have other associated anomalies. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the prevalence and the types of associated anomalies in CHD in a defined population. The anomalies associated with CHD were collected in all live births, stillbirths and terminations of pregnancy during 26 years in 346,831 consecutive pregnancies of known outcome in the area covered by our population based registry of congenital anomalies. Of the 4005 cases with CHD born during this period (total prevalence of 115.5 per 10,000), 1055 (26.3%) had associated major anomalies. There were 354 (8.8%) cases with chromosomal abnormalities including 218 trisomies 21, and 99 (2.5%) nonchromosomal recognized dysmorphic conditions. There were no predominant recognized dysmorphic conditions, but VACTERL association. However, other recognized dysmorphic conditions were registered including Noonan syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, and skeletal dysplasias. Six hundred and two (15.0%) of the cases had non syndromic, non chromosomal multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). Anomalies in the urinary tract, the musculoskeletal, the digestive, and the central nervous systems were the most common other anomalies. Prenatal diagnosis was obtained in 18.7% of the pregnancies. In conclusion the overall prevalence of associated anomalies, which was one in four infants, emphasizes the need for a thorough investigation of cases with CHD. A routine screening for other anomalies may be considered in infants and in fetuses with CHD. One should be aware that the anomalies associated with CHD can be classified into a recognizable anomaly, syndrome or pattern in one out of nine cases with CHD. PMID:25497206

  17. Antler anomalies in tule elk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gogan, Peter J.P.; Jessup, David A.; Barrett, Reginald H.

    1988-01-01

    Antler anomalies were evident in tule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes) within 1 yr of reintroduction to Point Reyes, California (USA). These anomalies are consistent with previously described mineral deficiency-induced anomalies in cervids. The elk were judged deficient in copper. Low levels of copper in soils and vegetation at the release site, exacerbated by possible protein deficiency due to poor range conditions, are postulated as likely causes of the antler anomalies.

  18. Inflammation and Vascular Injury

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Daniel I.

    2014-01-01

    The invited special lecture at the 76th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Japanese Circulation Society focused on the central role of inflammation in vascular injury and repair. Early studies pioneered the concept that mechanical injury, such as balloon angioplasty and endovascular stent deployment, elicits an inflammatory response from the vessel wall. This hypothesis was developed and substantiated at a time when the prevailing dogma viewed restenosis following angioplasty as a primarily proliferative smooth muscle cell disease. Antibody targeting of Mac-1 reduced leukocyte accumulation and limited neointimal formation following balloon injury or stent implantation. Genetic absence of Mac-1 resulted in diminished leukocyte accumulation and neointimal thickening after carotid artery injury in mice. In the course of those studies, our laboratory made fundamental discoveries regarding the mechanism of leukocyte recruitment at sites of vascular injury and identified platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ibα, a component of the GPIb-IX-V complex, as the previously unknown platelet counter-receptor for Mac-1. Follow-on studies have focused extensively on the structure, function, and signaling of the leukocyte integrin Mac-1. The binding site for GPIbα in Mac-1 has been mapped and subsequently showed that leukocyte engagement of platelet GPIbα via Mac-1 is critical not only for the biological response to vascular injury, but also for thrombosis, vasculitis, glomerulonephritis, and multiple sclerosis, thereby advancing the hypothesis that virtually all inflammation is platelet-dependent. Furthermore, ligand engagement of Mac-1 initiates a novel gene program that promotes inflammation by activating NFκB and downregulating the expression of the forkhead transcription factor Foxp1 that controls monocyte differentiation. Small molecule inhibitors of Mac-1 function have been pursued, including targeting of Mac-1-GPIbα binding or the downstream tyrosine kinase spleen tyrosine kinase

  19. Mass Anomalies on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.; Anderson, J. D.; Jacobson, R. A.; Lau, E. L.; Moore, W. B.; Palguta, J.

    2004-01-01

    Radio Doppler data from two Ganymede encounters (G1 and G2) on the first two orbits in the Galileo mission have been analyzed previously for gravity information . For a satellite in hydrostatic equilibrium, its gravitational field can be modeled adequately by a truncated spherical harmonic series of degree two. However, a fourth degree field is required in order to fit the second Galileo flyby (G2). This need for a higher degree field strongly suggests that Ganymede s gravitational field is perturbed by a gravity anomaly near the G2 closest approach point (79.29 latitude, 123.68 west longitude). In fact, a plot of the Doppler residuals , after removal of the best-fit model for the zero degree term (GM) and the second degree moments (J2 and C22), suggests that if an anomaly exists, it is located downtrack of the closest approach point, closer to the equator.

  20. Uncommon Complex Anomaly of Inferior Vena Cava and Left Iliac Vein Demonstrated by Multidetector-Row CT Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Ogul, Hayri; Yuce, Ihsan; Yalcin, Ahmet; Karaca, Leyla; Okur, Aylin; Kantarci, Mecit

    2014-01-01

    Retroperitoneal venous anomalies have clinical importance in retroperitoneal and pelvic surgery. Multidetector-row computed tomography (CT) angiography is an important imaging method to be preferred in evaluating vascular structures in this locality. We describe a complex retroperitoneal venous anomaly with a multidetector-row CT angiography. PMID:25437601

  1. Vascular ring diagnosis following respiratory arrest

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Evie Alexandra; Scott, Alison; Chetcuti, Philip; Crabbe, David

    2014-01-01

    Vascular rings can present with non-specific respiratory and/or oesophageal symptoms. Early diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. This case report describes an uncommon acute presentation of a vascular ring. We report a thriving 14-month-old child with a long history of recurrent wheeze and ‘noisy breathing’. He presented acutely with food bolus impaction in the oesophagus which led to a respiratory arrest. Oesophagoscopy and bronchoscopy suggested vascular ring anomaly. A contrast-enhanced CT scan demonstrated a right-sided aortic arch with left ligamentum arteriosum encircling the oesophagus and airway. The ligament was ligated and divided. At follow-up 6 months later, the infant had mild persistent stridor but was otherwise well. PMID:24895385

  2. The role of noninvasive and invasive diagnostic imaging techniques for detection of extra-cranial venous system anomalies and developmental variants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The extra-cranial venous system is complex and not well studied in comparison to the peripheral venous system. A newly proposed vascular condition, named chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI), described initially in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has triggered intense interest in better understanding of the role of extra-cranial venous anomalies and developmental variants. So far, there is no established diagnostic imaging modality, non-invasive or invasive, that can serve as the “gold standard” for detection of these venous anomalies. However, consensus guidelines and standardized imaging protocols are emerging. Most likely, a multimodal imaging approach will ultimately be the most comprehensive means for screening, diagnostic and monitoring purposes. Further research is needed to determine the spectrum of extra-cranial venous pathology and to compare the imaging findings with pathological examinations. The ability to define and reliably detect noninvasively these anomalies is an essential step toward establishing their incidence and prevalence. The role for these anomalies in causing significant hemodynamic consequences for the intra-cranial venous drainage in MS patients and other neurologic disorders, and in aging, remains unproven. PMID:23806142

  3. [Vascular vertigo syndromes].

    PubMed

    Dieterich, M

    2002-12-01

    Ischemia,hemorrhages, and other vascular disorders can result in various central or peripheral vestibular syndromes with vertigo, oculomotor/balance disturbances, and nausea. The vascular vertigo syndromes listed in Table 1 can however be brought about by other causes such as demyelitizing focuses in multiple sclerosis or space-occupying lesions, so that not only localization of the damaged structure but also the various etiologies are decisive for the choice of therapy. Occasionally, combined functional disturbances of the peripheral and central vestibular system appear, such as an infarction of the inferior anterior cerebellar artery, which supplies the labyrinth and parts of the brainstem and cerebellum. In rare cases, a central lesion can have the same signs as a peripheral-vertibular disturbance: a lacunar infarct at the root entry zone of the eighth nerve can mimic a unilateral partial loss of labyrinth function as it occurs in vestibular neuritis, thus named "pseudoneuritis". Differential diagnosis between vestibular migraine, vestibular paroxysmia, transient ischemic brainstem attacks, and Meniere's disease is sometimes so difficult that only trial therapies such as prophylaxis with beta blockers, carbamazepine, thrombocyte aggregation inhibitors, antiplatelet drugs, or betahistin can clarify the issue. PMID:12486562

  4. Frequency of Foetal Anomalies in a Tertiary Care Centre

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Rameswarapu Suman; Pasula, Sujatha

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to explore the incidence of congenital foetal anomalies and the advantages of ultrasonography in detecting the foetal anomalies during the antenatal period. Method: We focused our study on 1000 consecutive pregnancies that came for check up in the second and third trimesters, with major or minor clinically relevant malformations which were detectable by ultrasonography. Results: The analysis revealed that they were 38 foetal anomalies in 37 foetuses. One had multiple anomalies, with the highest incidence of neural tube defects. There was also significant correlation with consanguinity. Conclusion: The overall incidence of congenital foetal anomalies in the present study was 3.8%.This might be probably due to environmental pollution, radiation, exposure to different chemicals and teratogenic drugs. PMID:23998044

  5. Spectral Methods for Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R. L.; Gee, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Spectral methods, that is, those based in the Fourier transform, have long been employed in the analysis of magnetic anomalies. For example, Schouten and MaCamy's Earth filter is used extensively to map patterns to the pole, and Parker's Fourier transform series facilitates forward modeling and provides an efficient algorithm for inversion of profiles and surveys. From a different, and perhaps less familiar perspective, magnetic anomalies can be represented as the realization of a stationary stochastic process and then statistical theory can be brought to bear. It is vital to incorporate the full 2-D power spectrum, even when discussing profile data. For example, early analysis of long profiles failed to discover the small-wavenumber peak in the power spectrum predicted by one-dimensional theory. The long-wavelength excess is the result of spatial aliasing, when energy leaks into the along-track spectrum from the cross-track components of the 2-D spectrum. Spectral techniques may be used to improve interpolation and downward continuation of survey data. They can also evaluate the reliability of sub-track magnetization models both across and and along strike. Along-strike profiles turn out to be surprisingly good indicators of the magnetization directly under them; there is high coherence between the magnetic anomaly and the magnetization over a wide band. In contrast, coherence is weak at long wavelengths on across-strike lines, which is naturally the favored orientation for most studies. When vector (or multiple level) measurements are available, cross-spectral analysis can reveal the wavenumber interval where the geophysical signal resides, and where noise dominates. One powerful diagnostic is that the phase spectrum between the vertical and along-path components of the field must be constant 90 degrees. To illustrate, it was found that on some very long Project Magnetic lines, only the lowest 10% of the wavenumber band contain useful geophysical signal. In this

  6. Inhibition of multiple vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) blocks lymph node metastases but inhibition of VEGFR-2 is sufficient to sensitize tumor cells to platinum-based chemotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Sini, Patrizia; Samarzija, Ivana; Baffert, Fabienne; Littlewood-Evans, Amanda; Schnell, Christian; Theuer, Andreas; Christian, Sven; Boos, Anja; Hess-Stumpp, Holger; Foekens, John A; Setyono-Han, Buddy; Wood, Jeanette; Hynes, Nancy E

    2008-03-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) have important roles in cancer, affecting blood and lymphatic vessel functionality as well as tumor cells themselves. We compared the efficacy of a VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, PTK787/ZK222584 (PTK/ZK), which targets the three VEGFRs, with blocking antibodies directed against VEGFR-2 (DC101) or VEGF-A (Pab85618) in a metastatic melanoma model. Although all inhibitors exerted comparable effects on primary tumor growth, only PTK/ZK significantly reduced lymph node metastasis formation. A comparable decrease in lymphatic vessel density following blockade of VEGFR-2 (DC101) or the three VEGFRs (PTK/ZK) was observed in the metastases. However, the functionality of lymphatics surrounding the primary tumor was more significantly disrupted by PTK/ZK, indicating the importance of multiple VEGFRs in the metastatic process. The antimetastatic properties of PTK/ZK were confirmed in a breast carcinoma model. B16/BL6 tumor cells express VEGF ligands and their receptors. Blockade of a VEGFR-1 autocrine loop with PTK/ZK inhibited tumor cell migration. Furthermore, the tumor cells also showed enhanced sensitivity to platinum-based chemotherapy in combination with PTK/ZK, indicating that autocrine VEGFRs are promoting tumor cell migration and survival. In summary, our results suggest that, in addition to blocking angiogenesis, combined inhibition of the three VEGFRs may more efficiently target other aspects of tumor pathophysiology, including lymphatic vessel functionality, tumor cell dissemination, survival pathways, and response to chemotherapeutic compounds. PMID:18316624

  7. Adapting ODC for Empirical Evaluation of Pre-Launch Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn; Mikulski, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concept of using Orthogonal Defect Classification (ODC) to identify pre-launch anomalies in software. The goals of this work are: (1) To characterize pre-launch software anomalies, using data from multiple spacecraft projects, by means of a defect-analysis technology, Orthogonal Defect Classification (ODC). (2) To support transfer of ODC to NASA projects through applications and demonstrations. Approach: Analyzed anomaly data using adaptation of Orthogonal Defect Classification (ODC) method. This project has adapted ODC for NASA use and applied to NASA projects.

  8. Turtle Carapace Anomalies: The Roles of Genetic Diversity and Environment

    PubMed Central

    Velo-Antón, Guillermo; Becker, C. Guilherme; Cordero-Rivera, Adolfo

    2011-01-01

    Background Phenotypic anomalies are common in wild populations and multiple genetic, biotic and abiotic factors might contribute to their formation. Turtles are excellent models for the study of developmental instability because anomalies are easily detected in the form of malformations, additions, or reductions in the number of scutes or scales. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we integrated field observations, manipulative experiments, and climatic and genetic approaches to investigate the origin of carapace scute anomalies across Iberian populations of the European pond turtle, Emys orbicularis. The proportion of anomalous individuals varied from 3% to 69% in local populations, with increasing frequency of anomalies in northern regions. We found no significant effect of climatic and soil moisture, or climatic temperature on the occurrence of anomalies. However, lower genetic diversity and inbreeding were good predictors of the prevalence of scute anomalies among populations. Both decreasing genetic diversity and increasing proportion of anomalous individuals in northern parts of the Iberian distribution may be linked to recolonization events from the Southern Pleistocene refugium. Conclusions/Significance Overall, our results suggest that developmental instability in turtle carapace formation might be caused, at least in part, by genetic factors, although the influence of environmental factors affecting the developmental stability of turtle carapace cannot be ruled out. Further studies of the effects of environmental factors, pollutants and heritability of anomalies would be useful to better understand the complex origin of anomalies in natural populations. PMID:21533278

  9. Physicochemical isotope anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Esat, T.M.

    1988-06-01

    Isotopic composition of refractory elements can be modified, by physical processes such as distillation and sputtering, in unexpected patterns. Distillation enriches the heavy isotopes in the residue and the light isotopes in the vapor. However, current models appear to be inadequate to describe the detailed mass dependence, in particular for large fractionations. Coarse- and fine-grained inclusions from the Allende meteorite exhibit correlated isotope effects in Mg both as mass-dependent fractionation and residual anomalies. This isotope pattern can be duplicated by high temperature distillation in the laboratory. A ubiquitous property of meteoritic inclusions for Mg as well as for most of the other elements, where measurements exist, is mass-dependent fractionation. In contrast, terrestrial materials such as microtektites, tektite buttons as well as lunar orange and green glass spheres have normal Mg isotopic composition. A subset of interplanetary dust particles labelled as chondritic aggregates exhibit excesses in {sup 26}Mg and deuterium anomalies. Sputtering is expected to be a dominant mechanism in the destruction of grains within interstellar dust clouds. An active proto-sun as well as the present solar-wind and solar-flare flux are of sufficient intensity to sputter significant amounts of material. Laboratory experiments in Mg show widespread isotope effects including residual {sup 26}Mg excesses and mass dependent fractionation. It is possible that the {sup 26}Mg excesses in interplanetary dust is related to sputtering by energetic solar-wind particles. The implication if the laboratory distillation and sputtering effects are discussed and contrasted with the anomalies in meteoritic inclusions the other extraterrestrial materials the authors have access to.

  10. Hypercharged anomaly mediation.

    PubMed

    Dermísek, Radovan; Verlinde, Herman; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2008-04-01

    We show that, in string models with the minimal supersymmetric standard model residing on D-branes, the bino mass can be generated in a geometrically separated hidden sector. Hypercharge mediation thus naturally teams up with anomaly mediation. The mixed scenario predicts a distinctive yet viable superpartner spectrum, provided that the ratio alpha between the bino and gravitino mass lies in the range 0.05 < or = |alpha| < or = 0.25 and m(3/2) > or = 35 TeV. We summarize some of the experimental signatures of this scenario. PMID:18517937

  11. Satellite magnetic anomalies over subduction zones - The Aleutian Arc anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. C.; Frey, H.; Thomas, H. H.

    1985-01-01

    Positive magnetic anomalies seen in MAGSAT average scalar anomaly data overlying some subduction zones can be explained in terms of the magnetization contrast between the cold subducted oceanic slab and the surrounding hotter, nonmagnetic mantle. Three-dimensional modeling studies show that peak anomaly amplitude and location depend on slab length and dip. A model for the Aleutian Arc anomaly matches the general trend of the observed MAGSAT anomaly if a slab thickness of 7 km and a relatively high (induced plus viscous) magnetization contrast of 4 A/m are used. A second source body along the present day continental margin is required to match the observed anomaly in detail, and may be modeled as a relic slab from subduction prior to 60 m.y. ago.

  12. Prevalence of Associated Anomalies in Cleft Lip and/or Palate Patients

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi Fakhim, Shahin; Shahidi, Nikzad; Lotfi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Orofacial clefts are among the most common congenital anomalies. Patients presenting with orofacial clefts often require surgery or other complex procedures. A cleft lip or palate can be a single anomaly or a part of multiple congenital anomalies. The reported prevalence of cleft disease and associated anomalies varies widely across the literature, and is dependent on the diagnostic procedure used. In this study we determined the prevalence of associated anomalies in patients with a cleft lip and/or palate, with a specific focus on cardiac anomalies. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 526 patients with a cleft lip and /or palate admitted to the children’s referral hospital between 2006 and 2011 were evaluated. All associated anomalies were detected and recorded. Patient information collected included age, gender, type and side of cleft, craniofacial anomalies and presence of other anomalies, including cardiac anomalies. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: Of the 526 patients enrolled in the study, 58% (305) were male and 42% (221) were female. In total, 75% of patients (396) were aged between 4 and 8 years and 25% (130) were aged less than 4 years. The most common cleft type in our study was bilateral cleft palate. The most commonly associated anomaly among cleft patients, in 12% of cleft patients, was a cardiac anomaly. The most common cardiac anomaly was atrial septal defect (ASD). Conclusion: The prevalence of associated anomalies among orofacial cleft patients is high. The most common associated anomaly is cardiac anomaly, with ASD being the most common cardiac anomaly. There are no significant relationships between type of cleft and associated cardiac anomalies. PMID:27280100

  13. Oral vascular malformations: laser treatment and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, U.; Rocchetti, F.; Gaimari, G.; Tenore, G.; Palaia, G.; Lo Giudice, G.

    2016-03-01

    Vascular malformations are a very heterogeneous group of circulatory system's diseases that can involve different kind of vessels: arterial, venous or lymphatic ones. Many treatments, such as conventional surgery, embolization, steroid therapy and laser therapy, are available for vascular lesions. The laser approach relies more therapeutic techniques: the transmucosal thermophotocoagulation, intralesional photocoagulation, the excisional biopsy. Today laser is demonstrated to be the gold standard technique to treat vascular lesions that allows a safe and efficient treatment and a lower post-operative healing time. The only disadvantage is the risk of carbonization that could be avoided by using the multiple-spot single pulsed wave technique.

  14. Vascular Function in Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Hisatsugu; Washida, Kazuo; Kowa, Hisatomo; Kanda, Fumio; Toda, Tatsushi

    2016-08-01

    We investigated vascular functioning in patients with a clinical and radiological diagnosis of either Alzheimer's disease (AD) or vascular dementia (VaD) and examined a possible relationship between vascular function and cognitive status. Twenty-seven patients with AD, 23 patients with VaD, and 26 healthy control patients underwent measurements of flow-mediated dilation (FMD), ankle-brachial index (ABI), cardioankle vascular index (CAVI), and intima-media thickness (IMT). The FMD was significantly lower in patients with AD or VaD compared to controls. There were no significant differences in ABI, CAVI, or IMT among the 3 groups. A significant correlation was found between Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and FMD. Furthermore, a multiple regression analysis revealed that FMD was significantly predicted by MMSE scores. These results suggest that endothelial involvement plays a role in AD pathogenesis, and FMD may be more sensitive than other surrogate methods (ABI, CAVI, and IMT) for detecting early-stage atherosclerosis and/or cognitive decline. PMID:27284205

  15. Collagen vascular disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001223.htm Collagen vascular disease To use the sharing features on ... were previously said to have "connective tissue" or "collagen vascular" disease. We now have names for many ...

  16. Heart and vascular services

    MedlinePlus

    ... branch of medicine that focuses on the cardiovascular system. ... Circulatory system; Vascular system; Cardiovascular system ... to diagnose, monitor or treat diseases of the circulatory and vascular system include: Cardiac CT for calcium scoring Cardiac MRI ...

  17. Society for Vascular Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Annual Meeting Events Calendar Vascular Medicine Events Job Bank Professional Practice Position Statements PAD Awareness Vascular Related ... for a new job? Try the SVM Job Bank . Browse the jobs or sign up for job ...

  18. Heart and vascular services

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/007459.htm Heart and vascular services To use the sharing features on this page, ... blood vessels (arteries and veins). Heart and vascular services refers to the branch of medicine that focuses ...

  19. The XXXXY Chromosome Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Zaleski, Witold A.; Houston, C. Stuart; Pozsonyi, J.; Ying, K. L.

    1966-01-01

    The majority of abnormal sex chromosome complexes in the male have been considered to be variants of Klinefelter's syndrome but an exception should probably be made in the case of the XXXXY individual who has distinctive phenotypic features. Clinical, radiological and cytological data on three new cases of XXXXY syndrome are presented and 30 cases from the literature are reviewed. In many cases the published clinical and radiological data were supplemented and re-evaluated. Mental retardation, usually severe, was present in all cases. Typical facies was observed in many; clinodactyly of the fifth finger was seen in nearly all. Radiological examination revealed abnormalities in the elbows and wrists in all the 19 personally evaluated cases, and other skeletal anomalies were very frequent. Cryptorchism is very common and absence of Leydig's cells may differentiate the XXXXY chromosome anomaly from polysomic variants of Klinefelter's syndrome. The relationship of this syndrome to Klinefelter's syndrome and to Down's syndrome is discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15 PMID:4222822

  20. Trace anomaly driven inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.; Hertog, T.; Reall, H. S.

    2001-04-01

    This paper investigates Starobinsky's model of inflation driven by the trace anomaly of conformally coupled matter fields. This model does not suffer from the problem of contrived initial conditions that occurs in most models of inflation driven by a scalar field. The universe can be nucleated semiclassically by a cosmological instanton that is much larger than the Planck scale provided there are sufficiently many matter fields. There are two cosmological instantons: the four sphere and a new ``double bubble'' solution. This paper considers a universe nucleated by the four sphere. The AdS/CFT correspondence is used to calculate the correlation function for scalar and tensor metric perturbations during the ensuing de Sitter phase. The analytic structure of the scalar and tensor propagators is discussed in detail. Observational constraints on the model are discussed. Quantum loops of matter fields are shown to strongly suppress short scale metric perturbations, which implies that short distance modifications of gravity would probably not be observable in the cosmic microwave background. This is probably true for any model of inflation provided there are sufficiently many matter fields. This point is illustrated by a comparison of anomaly driven inflation in four dimensions and in a Randall-Sundrum brane-world model.

  1. Automated anomaly detection processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraiman, James B.; Arouh, Scott L.; Webb, Michael L.

    2002-07-01

    Robust exploitation of tracking and surveillance data will provide an early warning and cueing capability for military and civilian Law Enforcement Agency operations. This will improve dynamic tasking of limited resources and hence operational efficiency. The challenge is to rapidly identify threat activity within a huge background of noncombatant traffic. We discuss development of an Automated Anomaly Detection Processor (AADP) that exploits multi-INT, multi-sensor tracking and surveillance data to rapidly identify and characterize events and/or objects of military interest, without requiring operators to specify threat behaviors or templates. The AADP has successfully detected an anomaly in traffic patterns in Los Angeles, analyzed ship track data collected during a Fleet Battle Experiment to detect simulated mine laying behavior amongst maritime noncombatants, and is currently under development for surface vessel tracking within the Coast Guard's Vessel Traffic Service to support port security, ship inspection, and harbor traffic control missions, and to monitor medical surveillance databases for early alert of a bioterrorist attack. The AADP can also be integrated into combat simulations to enhance model fidelity of multi-sensor fusion effects in military operations.

  2. Lymphangiosarcoma complicating extensive congenital mixed vascular malformations.

    PubMed

    Al Dhaybi, Rola; Agoumi, Mehdi; Powell, Julie; Dubois, Josée; Kokta, Victor

    2010-09-01

    Pediatric hepatic angiosarcoma is a very rare malignant vascular tumor. A few cases have shown pediatric hepatic angiosarcoma occurring on a background of preexisting vascular lesions. We report the case of a newborn girl who presented extensive limbs and upper trunk cutaneous mixed vascular malformations at birth. These malformations were associated with thrombocytopenia. Cutaneous biopsies revealed complex vascular malformations with a significant lymphatic component. Compressive body suit therapy led to regression of the limbs' cutaneous vascular malformations. At the age of 9 months, the patient presented multiple heterogeneous hepatosplenic nodules. Aggressive treatment with prednisone, vincristine, and hepatosplenic embolizations resulted in initial improvement of the hepatosplenic lesions for few months, followed by an increase of the lesions with failure of response to treatment despite adding alpha-interferon-2b to treatment. The patient died at the age of 19 months. The autopsy's pathological examination revealed a hepatic-based angiosarcoma with plurimetastatic dissemination to the spleen, lungs, peritoneum, pleura, mesenteric linings as well as the serosa of the stomach and small intestine. Multiple cutaneous and visceral complex capillaro-lymphatico-venous malformations were also identified. We hypothesize that these multiple extensive mixed vascular malformations were associated with chronic lymphedema which probably predisposed to the development of the angiosarcoma in our patient. PMID:20863270

  3. Quantum anomalies in dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Son, D.T.; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.

    2004-10-01

    We consider the effects of quantum anomalies involving the baryon current for high-density matter. In the effective Lagrangian, the anomaly terms describe the interaction of three light fields: the electromagnetic photons A{sub {mu}}, neutral light Nambu-Goldstone bosons ({pi}, {eta}, {eta}{sup '}), and the superfluid phonon. The anomaly induced interactions lead to a number of interesting phenomena which may have phenomenological consequences observable in neutron stars.

  4. Spectral anomaly detection in deep shadows.

    PubMed

    Kanaev, Andrey V; Murray-Krezan, Jeremy

    2010-03-20

    Although several hyperspectral anomaly detection algorithms have proven useful when illumination conditions provide for enough light, many of these same detection algorithms fail to perform well when shadows are also present. To date, no general approach to the problem has been demonstrated. In this paper, a novel hyperspectral anomaly detection algorithm that adapts the dimensionality of the spectral detection subspace to multiple illumination levels is described. The novel detection algorithm is applied to reflectance domain hyperspectral data that represents a variety of illumination conditions: well illuminated and poorly illuminated (i.e., shadowed). Detection results obtained for objects located in deep shadows and light-shadow transition areas suggest superiority of the novel algorithm over standard subspace RX detection. PMID:20300158

  5. Vascular restoration therapy and bioresorbable vascular scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunbing; Zhang, Xingdong

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of minimally invasive intervention technologies for vascular restoration therapy from early-stage balloon angioplasty in 1970s, metallic bare metal stent and metallic drug-eluting stent technologies in 1990s and 2000s, to bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) technology in large-scale development in recent years. The history, the current stage, the challenges and the future of BVS development are discussed in detail as the best available approach for vascular restoration therapy. The criteria of materials selection, design and processing principles of BVS, and the corresponding clinical trial results are also summarized in this article. PMID:26816624

  6. Vascular Precursor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhury, Hera; Goldie, Lauren C.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that regulate the proliferation and differentiation of human stem and progenitor cells is critically important for the development and optimization of regenerative medicine strategies. For vascular regeneration studies, specifically, a true “vascular stem cell” population has not yet been identified. However, a number of cell types that exist endogenously, or can be generated or propagated ex vivo, function as vascular precursor cells and can participate in and/or promote vascular regeneration. Herein, we provide an overview of what is known about the regulation of their differentiation specifically toward a vascular endothelial cell phenotype. PMID:22866199

  7. Genetics of lymphatic anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Brouillard, Pascal; Boon, Laurence; Vikkula, Miikka

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic anomalies include a variety of developmental and/or functional defects affecting the lymphatic vessels: sporadic and familial forms of primary lymphedema, secondary lymphedema, chylothorax and chylous ascites, lymphatic malformations, and overgrowth syndromes with a lymphatic component. Germline mutations have been identified in at least 20 genes that encode proteins acting around VEGFR-3 signaling but also downstream of other tyrosine kinase receptors. These mutations exert their effects via the RAS/MAPK and the PI3K/AKT pathways and explain more than a quarter of the incidence of primary lymphedema, mostly of inherited forms. More common forms may also result from multigenic effects or post-zygotic mutations. Most of the corresponding murine knockouts are homozygous lethal, while heterozygotes are healthy, which suggests differences in human and murine physiology and the influence of other factors. PMID:24590274

  8. Nolen-Schiffer anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, S.C.; Wiringa, R.B.

    1995-08-01

    The Argonne v{sub 18} potential contains a detailed treatment of the pp, pn and nn electromagnetic potential, including Coulomb, vacuum polarization, Darwin Foldy and magnetic moment terms, all with suitable form factors and was fit to pp and pn data using the appropriate nuclear masses. In addition, it contains a nuclear charge-symmetry breaking (CSB) term adjusted to reproduce the difference in the experimental pp and nn scattering lengths. We have used these potential terms to compute differences in the binding energies of mirror isospin-1/2 nuclei (Nolen-Schiffer [NS] anomaly). Variational Monte Carlo calculations for the {sup 3}He-{sup 3}H system and cluster variational Monte Carlo for the {sup 15}O-{sup 15}N and {sup 17}F-{sup 17}O systems were made. In the first case, the best variational wave function for the A = 3 nuclei was used. However, because our {sup 16}O wave function does not reproduce accurately the {sup 16}O rms radius, to which the NS anomaly is very sensitive, we adjusted the A = 15 and A = 17 wave functions to reproduce the experimental density profiles. Our computed energy differences for these three systems are 0.757 {plus_minus} .001, 3.544 {plus_minus} .018 and 3.458 {plus_minus} .040 MeV respectively, which are to be compared with the experimental differences of 0.764, 3.537, and 3.544 MeV. Most of the theoretical uncertainties are due to uncertainties in the experimental rms radii. The nuclear CSB potential contributes 0.066, 0.188, and 0.090 MeV to these totals. We also attempted calculations for A = 39 and A = 41. However, in these cases, the experimental uncertainties in the rms radius make it impossible to extract useful information about the contribution of the nuclear CSB potential.

  9. Vascular Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Somali) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Problemas circulatorios Ukrainian (Українська) Angiogram Ангіограма - Українська (Ukrainian) Bilingual ...

  10. Vascular Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... 繁體中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ... 血管疾患 - 日本語 (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Korean (한국어) Angiogram 혈관 조영 검사 - 한국어 (Korean) Bilingual ...

  11. Brain anomalies in velo-cardio-facial syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Mitnick, R.J.; Bello, J.A.; Shprintzen, R.J.

    1994-06-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in 11 consecutively referred patients with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCF) showed anomalies in nine cases including small vermis, cysts adjacent to the frontal horns, and small posterior fossa. Focal signal hyperintensities in the white matter on long TR images were also noted. The nine patients showed a variety of behavioral abnormalities including mild development delay, learning disabilities, and characteristic personality traits typical of this common multiple anomaly syndrome which has been related to a microdeletion at 22q11. Analysis of the behavorial findings showed no specific pattern related to the brain anomalies, and the patients with VCF who did not have detectable brain lesions also had behavioral abnormalities consistent with VCF. The significance of the lesions is not yet known, but the high prevalence of anomalies in this sample suggests that structural brain abnormalities are probably common in VCF. 25 refs.

  12. System for closure of a physical anomaly

    DOEpatents

    Bearinger, Jane P; Maitland, Duncan J; Schumann, Daniel L; Wilson, Thomas S

    2014-11-11

    Systems for closure of a physical anomaly. Closure is accomplished by a closure body with an exterior surface. The exterior surface contacts the opening of the anomaly and closes the anomaly. The closure body has a primary shape for closing the anomaly and a secondary shape for being positioned in the physical anomaly. The closure body preferably comprises a shape memory polymer.

  13. Vascularization in bone tissue engineering constructs.

    PubMed

    Mercado-Pagán, Ángel E; Stahl, Alexander M; Shanjani, Yaser; Yang, Yunzhi

    2015-03-01

    Vascularization of large bone grafts is one of the main challenges of bone tissue engineering (BTE), and has held back the clinical translation of engineered bone constructs for two decades so far. The ultimate goal of vascularized BTE constructs is to provide a bone environment rich in functional vascular networks to achieve efficient osseointegration and accelerate restoration of function after implantation. To attain both structural and vascular integration of the grafts, a large number of biomaterials, cells, and biological cues have been evaluated. This review will present biological considerations for bone function restoration, contemporary approaches for clinical salvage of large bone defects and their limitations, state-of-the-art research on the development of vascularized bone constructs, and perspectives on evaluating and implementing novel BTE grafts in clinical practice. Success will depend on achieving full graft integration at multiple hierarchical levels, both between the individual graft components as well as between the implanted constructs and their surrounding host tissues. The paradigm of vascularized tissue constructs could not only revolutionize the progress of BTE, but could also be readily applied to other fields in regenerative medicine for the development of new innovative vascularized tissue designs. PMID:25616591

  14. Vascularization in bone tissue engineering constructs

    PubMed Central

    Mercado-Pagán, Ángel E.; Stahl, Alexander M.; Shanjani, Yaser; Yang, Yunzhi

    2016-01-01

    Vascularization of large bone grafts is one of the main challenges of bone tissue engineering (BTE), and has held back the clinical translation of engineered bone constructs for two decades so far. The ultimate goal of vascularized BTE constructs is to provide a bone environment rich in functional vascular networks to achieve efficient osseointegration and accelerate restoration of function after implantation. To attain both structural and vascular integration of the grafts, a large number of biomaterials, cells, and biological cues have been evaluated. This review will present biological considerations for bone function restoration, contemporary approaches for clinical salvage of large bone defects and their limitations, state-of-the-art research on the development of vascularized bone constructs, and perspectives on evaluating and implementing novel BTE grafts in clinical practice. Success will depend on achieving full graft integration at multiple hierarchical levels, both between the individual graft components as well as between the implanted constructs and their surrounding host tissues. The paradigm of vascularized tissue constructs could not only revolutionize the progress of bone tissue engineering, but could also be readily applied to other fields in regenerative medicine for the development of new innovative vascularized tissue designs. PMID:25616591

  15. Walter E. Dandy's contributions to vascular neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Kretzer, Ryan M; Coon, Alexander L; Tamargo, Rafael J

    2010-06-01

    Although Walter E. Dandy (1886-1946) is appropriately credited with the first surgical clipping of an intracranial aneurysm in 1937--a procedure that established the modern field of vascular neurosurgery--his numerous other contributions to this specialty are not as well known. Dandy can be credited with the first detailed description of the vein of Galen malformation, the first description of x-ray visualization of an intracranial aneurysm, the first characterization of basilar artery dolichoectasia, and the publication of the first comprehensive operative case series of arteriovenous malformations, cavernous malformations, and developmental venous anomalies. In addition, Dandy performed the first surgical trapping of a cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm by clipping the supraclinoid ICA and ligating the cervical ICA, and he also executed the first intracranial surgical clipping of the ICA to treat a carotid-cavernous fistula. In this article the authors describe Dandy's contributions to the field of vascular neurosurgery. PMID:20515365

  16. Binning of satellite magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyal, H. K.; Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    Crustal magnetic anomaly signals over satellite orbits were simulated to investigate numerical averaging as an anomaly estimator. Averaging as an anomaly estimator involves significant problems concerning spatial and amplitude smoothing of the satellite magnetic observations. The results of simulations suggest that the error of numerical averaging constitutes a small and relatively minor component of the total error-budget of higher orbital anomaly estimates, whereas for lower orbital estimates numerical averaging error increases substantially. As an alternative to numerical averaging, least-squares collocation was investigated and observed to produce substantially more accurate anomaly estimates, particularly as the orbital elevation of prediction was decreased towards the crustal sources. In contrast to averaging, collocation is a significantly more resource-intensive procedure to apply because of the practical, but surmountable problems related to establishing and inverting the covariance matrix for accurate anomaly prediction. However, collocation may be much more effectively used to exploit the anomaly details contained in the lower orbital satellite magnetic data for geologic analysis.

  17. Reliability of CHAMP Anomaly Continuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Kim, Hyung Rae; Taylor, Patrick T.; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad F.

    2003-01-01

    CHAMP is recording state-of-the-art magnetic and gravity field observations at altitudes ranging over roughly 300 - 550 km. However, anomaly continuation is severely limited by the non-uniqueness of the process and satellite anomaly errors. Indeed, our numerical anomaly simulations from satellite to airborne altitudes show that effective downward continuations of the CHAMP data are restricted to within approximately 50 km of the observation altitudes while upward continuations can be effective over a somewhat larger altitude range. The great unreliability of downward continuation requires that the satellite geopotential observations must be analyzed at satellite altitudes if the anomaly details are to be exploited most fully. Given current anomaly error levels, joint inversion of satellite and near- surface anomalies is the best approach for implementing satellite geopotential observations for subsurface studies. We demonstrate the power of this approach using a crustal model constrained by joint inversions of near-surface and satellite magnetic and gravity observations for Maude Rise, Antarctica, in the southwestern Indian Ocean. Our modeling suggests that the dominant satellite altitude magnetic anomalies are produced by crustal thickness variations and remanent magnetization of the normal polarity Cretaceous Quiet Zone.

  18. Estimation of localized current anomalies in polymer electrolyte fuel cells from magnetic flux density measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nara, Takaaki; Koike, Masanori; Ando, Shigeru; Gotoh, Yuji; Izumi, Masaaki

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose novel inversion methods to estimate defects or localized current anomalies in membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). One method is an imaging approach with L1-norm regularization that is suitable for estimation of focal anomalies compared to Tikhonov regularization. The second is a complex analysis based method in which multiple pointwise current anomalies can be identified directly and algebraically from the measured magnetic flux density.

  19. Torticollis manifest after a minor fall with underlying bony anomalies and a hypoplastic vertebral artery.

    PubMed

    Samdani, Amer F; Williams, Reed Conly; Danish, Shabbar; Betz, Randal

    2009-09-01

    The etiologies of torticollis are numerous. We describe a unique patient who presented with torticollis with head tilting to the right after sustaining a minor fall. Computed tomography scan with two and three-dimensional reconstructions revealed an underlying hypoplasia of the right lateral mass of C1 and occipital condyle. Further study with MRI/magnetic resonance angiography showed hypoplasia of the right vertebral artery with compensatory dilatation of the left vertebral artery. We postulate these underlying anomalies predisposed the patient to torticollis, which became apparent after his fall. We discuss the surgical options available, and the rationale for a single C1-C2 transarticular screw with iliac crest bone graft and cable. In the literature, there are four reported cases of vascular anomalies resulting in torticollis. Our patient is the first, to our knowledge, who harbored both bony and vascular anomalies. PMID:19550358

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Peters anomaly

    MedlinePlus

    ... the anterior segment is abnormal, leading to incomplete separation of the cornea from the iris or the ... anomaly type I is characterized by an incomplete separation of the cornea and iris and mild to ...

  1. Satellite elevation magnetic anomaly maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braile, L. W.; Hinze, W. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The problem of inverting 2 deg average MAGSAT scalar anomalies for the region 80 W, 60 E longitude and 40 S, 70 N latitude was attempted on the LARS computer; however, the effort was aborted due to insufficient allocation of CPU-time. This problem is currently being resubmitted and should be implemented shortly for quantitative comparison with free-air gravity anomaly, geothermal, and tectonic data.

  2. Ant colony optimization-based firewall anomaly mitigation engine.

    PubMed

    Penmatsa, Ravi Kiran Varma; Vatsavayi, Valli Kumari; Samayamantula, Srinivas Kumar

    2016-01-01

    A firewall is the most essential component of network perimeter security. Due to human error and the involvement of multiple administrators in configuring firewall rules, there exist common anomalies in firewall rulesets such as Shadowing, Generalization, Correlation, and Redundancy. There is a need for research on efficient ways of resolving such anomalies. The challenge is also to see that the reordered or resolved ruleset conforms to the organization's framed security policy. This study proposes an ant colony optimization (ACO)-based anomaly resolution and reordering of firewall rules called ACO-based firewall anomaly mitigation engine. Modified strategies are also introduced to automatically detect these anomalies and to minimize manual intervention of the administrator. Furthermore, an adaptive reordering strategy is proposed to aid faster reordering when a new rule is appended. The proposed approach was tested with different firewall policy sets. The results were found to be promising in terms of the number of conflicts resolved, with minimal availability loss and marginal security risk. This work demonstrated the application of a metaheuristic search technique, ACO, in improving the performance of a packet-filter firewall with respect to mitigating anomalies in the rules, and at the same time demonstrated conformance to the security policy. PMID:27441151

  3. Conformal anomaly c-coefficients of superconformal 6d theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beccaria, Matteo; Tseytlin, Arkady A.

    2016-01-01

    We propose general relations between the conformal anomaly and the chiral (R-symmetry and gravitational) anomaly coefficients in 6d (1, 0) superconformal theories. The suggested expressions for the three type B conformal anomaly c i -coefficients complement the expression for the type A anomaly a-coefficient found in arXiv:1506.03807. We check them on several examples — the standard (1, 0) hyper and tensor multiplets as well as some higher derivative short multiplets containing vector fields that generalize the super-conformal 6d vector multiplet discussed in arXiv:1506.08727. We also consider a family of higher derivative superconformal (2, 0) 6d multiplets associated to 7d multiplets in the KK spectrum of 11d supergravity compactified on S 4. In particular, we prove that (2,0) 6d conformal supergravity coupled to 26 tensor multiplets is free of all chiral and conformal anomalies. We discuss some interacting (1, 0) superconformal theories, predicting the c i -coefficients for the "E-string" theory on multiple M5-branes at E 8 9-brane and for the theory describing M5-branes at an orbifold singularity {C}^2/Γ . Finally, we elaborate on holographic computation of subleading corrections to conformal anomaly coefficients coming from R 2 + R 3 terms in 7d effective action, revisiting, in particular, the (2,0) theory case.

  4. Aeromagnetic anomalies over faulted strata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Hudson, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution aeromagnetic surveys are now an industry standard and they commonly detect anomalies that are attributed to faults within sedimentary basins. However, detailed studies identifying geologic sources of magnetic anomalies in sedimentary environments are rare in the literature. Opportunities to study these sources have come from well-exposed sedimentary basins of the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico and Colorado. High-resolution aeromagnetic data from these areas reveal numerous, curvilinear, low-amplitude (2–15 nT at 100-m terrain clearance) anomalies that consistently correspond to intrasedimentary normal faults (Figure 1). Detailed geophysical and rock-property studies provide evidence for the magnetic sources at several exposures of these faults in the central Rio Grande rift (summarized in Grauch and Hudson, 2007, and Hudson et al., 2008). A key result is that the aeromagnetic anomalies arise from the juxtaposition of magnetically differing strata at the faults as opposed to chemical processes acting at the fault zone. The studies also provide (1) guidelines for understanding and estimating the geophysical parameters controlling aeromagnetic anomalies at faulted strata (Grauch and Hudson), and (2) observations on key geologic factors that are favorable for developing similar sedimentary sources of aeromagnetic anomalies elsewhere (Hudson et al.).

  5. The dual targeting of EGFR and ErbB2 with the inhibitor Lapatinib corrects high glucose-induced apoptosis and vascular dysfunction by opposing multiple diabetes-induced signaling changes.

    PubMed

    Benter, Ibrahim F; Sarkhou, Fatima; Al-Khaldi, Abeer T; Chandrasekhar, Bindu; Attur, Sreeja; Dhaunsi, Gursev S; Yousif, Mariam H M; Akhtar, Saghir

    2015-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptors, EGFR and EGFR2 (ErbB2), appear important mediators of diabetes-induced vascular dysfunction. We investigated whether targeted dual inhibition of EGFR and ErbB2 with Lapatinib would be effective in treating diabetes-induced vascular dysfunction in a rat model of type 1 diabetes. In streptozotocin-induced diabetes, chronic 4-week oral or acute, ex vivo, administration of Lapatinib prevented the development of vascular dysfunction as indicated by the attenuation of the hyper-reactivity of the diabetic mesenteric vascular bed (MVB) to norephinephrine without correcting hyperglycemia. Chronic in vivo or acute ex vivo Lapatinib treatment also significantly attenuated diabetes-induced increases in phosphorylation of EGFR, ErbB2, ERK1/2, AKT, ROCK2 and IkB-alpha as well as normalized the reduced levels of phosphorylated FOXO3A, and eNOS (Ser1177) in the diabetic MVB. Similar results were observed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) cultured in high glucose (25 mM) treated with Lapatinib or small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the ErbB2 receptor. Lapatinib also prevented high glucose-induced apoptosis in VSMC. Thus, Lapatinib corrects hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis and vascular dysfunction with concomitant reversal of diabetes or high glucose-induced signaling changes in EGFR/ErbB2 and downstream signaling pathways implying that targeted dual inhibition of EGFR/ErbB2 might be an effective vasculoprotective treatment strategy in diabetic patients. PMID:26114862

  6. [Vascular factors in glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Mottet, B; Aptel, F; Geiser, M; Romanet, J P; Chiquet, C

    2015-12-01

    The exact pathophysiology of glaucoma is not fully understood. Understanding of the vascular pathophysiology of glaucoma requires: knowing the techniques for measuring ocular blood flow and characterizing the topography of vascular disease and the mechanisms involved in this neuropathy. A decreased mean ocular perfusion pressure and a loss of vascular autoregulation are implicated in glaucomatous disease. Early decrease in ocular blood flow has been identified in primary open-angle glaucoma and normal pressure glaucoma, contributing to the progression of optic neuropathy. The vascular damage associated with glaucoma is present in various vascular territories within the eye (from the ophthalmic artery to the retina) and is characterized by a decrease in basal blood flow associated with a dysfunction of vasoregulation. PMID:26597554

  7. An adult with central cyanosis and differential pulmonary vascularity.

    PubMed

    Ananthakrishna, Rajiv; Moorthy, Nagaraja; Rao, Dattatreya Pv; Nanjappa, Manjunath C

    2015-01-01

    A 22-year-old male patient presented with progressive effort intolerance of 2-years duration. Clinical findings and investigations were suggestive of Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). In addition, there was a conspicuous difference in the pulmonary vascularity with oligemia on the left side and relative hypervascularity on the right side. The right pulmonary artery was arising from the proximal ascending aorta and the main pulmonary artery was continuing as the left pulmonary artery. The anomalous origin of a branch pulmonary artery from the aorta (AOPA) is a rare cardiac anomaly. We report this condition in association with TOF, highlighting the differential pulmonary vascularity. PMID:26556978

  8. An adult with central cyanosis and differential pulmonary vascularity

    PubMed Central

    Ananthakrishna, Rajiv; Moorthy, Nagaraja; Rao, Dattatreya PV; Nanjappa, Manjunath C

    2015-01-01

    A 22-year-old male patient presented with progressive effort intolerance of 2-years duration. Clinical findings and investigations were suggestive of Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). In addition, there was a conspicuous difference in the pulmonary vascularity with oligemia on the left side and relative hypervascularity on the right side. The right pulmonary artery was arising from the proximal ascending aorta and the main pulmonary artery was continuing as the left pulmonary artery. The anomalous origin of a branch pulmonary artery from the aorta (AOPA) is a rare cardiac anomaly. We report this condition in association with TOF, highlighting the differential pulmonary vascularity. PMID:26556978

  9. Airway vascular damage in elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Moreira, André; Palmares, Carmo; Lopes, Cristina; Delgado, Luís

    2011-11-01

    We postulated that high level swimming can promote airway inflammation and thus asthma by enhancing local vascular permeability. We aimed to test this hypothesis by a cross-sectional study comparing swimmers (n = 13, 17 ± 3 years, competing 7 ± 4 years, training 18 ± 3 h per week), asthmatic-swimmers (n = 6, 17 ± 2 years, competing 8 ± 3 years, training 16 ± 4 h per week), and asthmatics (n = 19, 14 ± 3 years). Subjects performed induced sputum and had exhaled nitric oxide, lung volumes, and airway responsiveness determined. Airway vascular permeability index was defined as the ratio of albumin in sputum and serum. Results from the multiple linear regression showed each unit change in airway vascular permeability index was associated with an increase of 0.97% (95%CI: 0.02 to 1.92; p = 0.047) in sputum eosinophilis, and of 2.64% (95%CI:0.96 to 4.31; p = 0.006) in sputum neutrophils after adjustment for confounders. In a general linear model no significant differences between airway vascular permeability between index study groups existed, after controlling for sputum eosinophilis and neutrophils. In conclusion, competitive swimmers training in chlorine-rich pools have similar levels of airway vascular permeability than asthmatics. Although competitive swimming has been associated with asthma, airway inflammation and airway hyperesponsiveness do not seem to be dependent on increased airway vascular permeability. PMID:21669516

  10. Stroke injury, cognitive impairment and vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Kalaria, Raj N; Akinyemi, Rufus; Ihara, Masafumi

    2016-05-01

    The global burden of ischaemic strokes is almost 4-fold greater than haemorrhagic strokes. Current evidence suggests that 25-30% of ischaemic stroke survivors develop immediate or delayed vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) or vascular dementia (VaD). Dementia after stroke injury may encompass all types of cognitive disorders. States of cognitive dysfunction before the index stroke are described under the umbrella of pre-stroke dementia, which may entail vascular changes as well as insidious neurodegenerative processes. Risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia after stroke are multifactorial including older age, family history, genetic variants, low educational status, vascular comorbidities, prior transient ischaemic attack or recurrent stroke and depressive illness. Neuroimaging determinants of dementia after stroke comprise silent brain infarcts, white matter changes, lacunar infarcts and medial temporal lobe atrophy. Until recently, the neuropathology of dementia after stroke was poorly defined. Most of post-stroke dementia is consistent with VaD involving multiple substrates. Microinfarction, microvascular changes related to blood-brain barrier damage, focal neuronal atrophy and low burden of co-existing neurodegenerative pathology appear key substrates of dementia after stroke injury. The elucidation of mechanisms of dementia after stroke injury will enable establishment of effective strategy for symptomatic relief and prevention. Controlling vascular disease risk factors is essential to reduce the burden of cognitive dysfunction after stroke. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26806700

  11. Stroke injury, cognitive impairment and vascular dementia☆

    PubMed Central

    Kalaria, Raj N.; Akinyemi, Rufus; Ihara, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of ischaemic strokes is almost 4-fold greater than haemorrhagic strokes. Current evidence suggests that 25–30% of ischaemic stroke survivors develop immediate or delayed vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) or vascular dementia (VaD). Dementia after stroke injury may encompass all types of cognitive disorders. States of cognitive dysfunction before the index stroke are described under the umbrella of pre-stroke dementia, which may entail vascular changes as well as insidious neurodegenerative processes. Risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia after stroke are multifactorial including older age, family history, genetic variants, low educational status, vascular comorbidities, prior transient ischaemic attack or recurrent stroke and depressive illness. Neuroimaging determinants of dementia after stroke comprise silent brain infarcts, white matter changes, lacunar infarcts and medial temporal lobe atrophy. Until recently, the neuropathology of dementia after stroke was poorly defined. Most of post-stroke dementia is consistent with VaD involving multiple substrates. Microinfarction, microvascular changes related to blood–brain barrier damage, focal neuronal atrophy and low burden of co-existing neurodegenerative pathology appear key substrates of dementia after stroke injury. The elucidation of mechanisms of dementia after stroke injury will enable establishment of effective strategy for symptomatic relief and prevention. Controlling vascular disease risk factors is essential to reduce the burden of cognitive dysfunction after stroke. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26806700

  12. Amaurosis fugax associated with congenital vascular defect

    PubMed Central

    Giltner, John W; Thomas, Edward R; Rundell, William K

    2016-01-01

    A 68-year-old female with no significant past medical history presented with loss of vision in the lower half of her left eye that lasted <5 minutes. No abnormalities were found on ocular or physical exam. Computed tomography angiography and carotid ultrasound were performed, which confirmed the diagnosis as amaurosis fugax with two abnormalities leading to the transient retinal vessel occlusion. First, it was found that the patient has a congenital vascular anomaly, which consisted most notably of a right-sided aortic arch. This vascular anomaly also consisted of abnormal branching of the left subclavian and common carotid arteries, predisposing the patient to turbulent blood flow and increased risk of the formation of an atherosclerotic plaque at the origin of the common carotid artery. This is an abnormal location for a plaque leading to amaurosis fugax compared to the most common location at the carotid bifurcation. Endarterectomy was not performed because of the difficult location of the plaque and tortuosity of the vessel. Rather, medical intervention with antiplatelet and lipid-lowering therapy was initiated to lower the risk of future retinal or cerebral thromboembolic events. PMID:27445507

  13. A high-order statistical tensor based algorithm for anomaly detection in hyperspectral imagery.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xiurui; Sun, Kang; Ji, Luyan; Zhao, Yongchao

    2014-01-01

    Recently, high-order statistics have received more and more interest in the field of hyperspectral anomaly detection. However, most of the existing high-order statistics based anomaly detection methods require stepwise iterations since they are the direct applications of blind source separation. Moreover, these methods usually produce multiple detection maps rather than a single anomaly distribution image. In this study, we exploit the concept of coskewness tensor and propose a new anomaly detection method, which is called COSD (coskewness detector). COSD does not need iteration and can produce single detection map. The experiments based on both simulated and real hyperspectral data sets verify the effectiveness of our algorithm. PMID:25366706

  14. Diagnosis and management of congenital vascular rings: a 22-year experience.

    PubMed

    Chun, K; Colombani, P M; Dudgeon, D L; Haller, J A

    1992-04-01

    Between 1968 and 1990, we operatively treated 39 patients (19 boys, 20 girls) with congenital aortic arch anomalies. Median age was 7 months (range, 1.5 months to 23 years). Thirty-seven patients (95%) had respiratory symptoms. Barium swallow was diagnostic in 95%. Right arch with aberrant left subclavian artery and double aortic arch were the most common types (11 each). Treatment of an aortic diverticulum was documented in 19 patients; the aortic diverticulum was excised (9), managed by aortopexy (7), or left in situ (3). Postoperative recovery was rapid, with a median intensive care unit stay of 2 days, time to oral feeding of 1 day, and postoperative time to discharge of 7 days. Two deaths occurred: 1 infant had undergone emergent operation for control of hemorrhage from an aortotracheal fistula due to tracheostomy tube erosion, and the other had multiple associated congenital heart defects. Postoperative complications included bleeding (1), pneumonia (5), and chylothorax (4). One boy had persistent severe symptoms due to an untreated aortic diverticulum and underwent subsequent excision of the aortic diverticulum with complete relief of symptoms. Median length of follow-up was 12.5 months, with at least 97% of survivors completely or nearly completely free of symptoms from the vascular ring. These results suggest that early repair of congenital aortic vascular rings, including fixating or excising an associated serious aortic diverticulum, is safe and effective and allows for normal tracheal growth. PMID:1554267

  15. Toward Baseline Software Anomalies in NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layman, Lucas; Zelkowitz, Marvin; Basili, Victor; Nikora, Allen P.

    2012-01-01

    In this fast abstract, we provide preliminary findings an analysis of 14,500 spacecraft anomalies from unmanned NASA missions. We provide some baselines for the distributions of software vs. non-software anomalies in spaceflight systems, the risk ratings of software anomalies, and the corrective actions associated with software anomalies.

  16. Vascular Access in Children

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurthy, Ganesh Keller, Marc S.

    2011-02-15

    Establishment of stable vascular access is one of the essential and most challenging procedures in a pediatric hospital. Many clinical specialties provide vascular service in a pediatric hospital. At the top of the 'expert procedural pyramid' is the pediatric interventional radiologist, who is best suited and trained to deliver this service. Growing awareness regarding the safety and high success rate of vascular access using image guidance has led to increased demand from clinicians to provide around-the-clock vascular access service by pediatric interventional radiologists. Hence, the success of a vascular access program, with the pediatric interventional radiologist as the key provider, is challenging, and a coordinated multidisciplinary team effort is essential for success. However, there are few dedicated pediatric interventional radiologists across the globe, and also only a couple of training programs exist for pediatric interventions. This article gives an overview of the technical aspects of pediatric vascular access and provides useful tips for obtaining vascular access in children safely and successfully using image guidance.

  17. Arginase and vascular aging

    PubMed Central

    Santhanam, Lakshmi; Christianson, David W.; Nyhan, Daniel; Berkowitz, Dan E.

    2008-01-01

    Vascular and associated ventricular stiffness is one of the hallmarks of the aging cardiovascular system. Both an increase in reactive oxygen species production and a decrease in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability contribute to the endothelial dysfunction that underlies this vascular stiffness, independent of other age-related vascular pathologies such as atherosclerosis. The activation/upregulation of arginase appears to be an important contributor to age-related endothelial dysfunction by a mechanism that involves substrate (l-arginine) limitation for NO synthase (NOS) 3 and therefore NO synthesis. Not only does this lead to impaired NO production but also it contributes to the enhanced production of reactive oxygen species by NOS. Although arginase abundance is increased in vascular aging models, it appears that posttranslational modification by S-nitrosylation of the enzyme enhances its activity as well. The S-nitrosylation is mediated by the induction of NOS2 in the endothelium. Furthermore, arginase activation contributes to aging-related vascular changes by mechanisms that are not directly related to changes in NO signaling, including polyamine-dependent vascular smooth muscle proliferation and collagen synthesis. Taken together, arginase may represent an as yet elusive target for the modification of age-related vascular and ventricular stiffness contributing to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:18719233

  18. MAGSAT anomaly map and continental drift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemouel, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Galdeano, A.; Ducruix, J.

    1981-01-01

    Anomaly maps of high quality are needed to display unambiguously the so called long wave length anomalies. The anomalies were analyzed in terms of continental drift and the nature of their sources is discussed. The map presented confirms the thinness of the oceanic magnetized layer. Continental magnetic anomalies are characterized by elongated structures generally of east-west trend. Paleomagnetic reconstruction shows that the anomalies found in India, Australia, and Antarctic exhibit a fair consistency with the African anomalies. It is also shown that anomalies are locked under the continents and have a fixed geometry.

  19. Non-relativistic scale anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arav, Igal; Chapman, Shira; Oz, Yaron

    2016-06-01

    We extend the cohomological analysis in arXiv:1410.5831 of anisotropic Lifshitz scale anomalies. We consider non-relativistic theories with a dynamical critical exponent z = 2 with or without non-relativistic boosts and a particle number symmetry. We distinguish between cases depending on whether the time direction does or does not induce a foliation structure. We analyse both 1 + 1 and 2 + 1 spacetime dimensions. In 1 + 1 dimensions we find no scale anomalies with Galilean boost symmetries. The anomalies in 2 + 1 dimensions with Galilean boosts and a foliation structure are all B-type and are identical to the Lifshitz case in the purely spatial sector. With Galilean boosts and without a foliation structure we find also an A-type scale anomaly. There is an infinite ladder of B-type anomalies in the absence of a foliation structure with or without Galilean boosts. We discuss the relation between the existence of a foliation structure and the causality of the field theory.

  20. Experimental Anomalies in Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palamara, Ornella

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, experimental anomalies ranging in significance (2.8-3.8 σ) have been reported from a variety of experiments studying neutrinos over baselines less than 1 km. Results from the LSND and MiniBooNE short-baseline νe /νe appearance experiments show anomalies which cannot be described by oscillations between the three standard model neutrinos (the ``LSND anomaly''). In addition, a re-analysis of the anti-neutrino flux produced by nuclear power reactors has led to an apparent deficit in νe event rates in a number of reactor experiments (the ``reactor anomaly''). Similarly, calibration runs using 51Cr and 37Ar radioactive sources in the Gallium solar neutrino experiments GALLEX and SAGE have shown an unexplained deficit in the electron neutrino event rate over very short distances (the ``Gallium anomaly''). The puzzling results from these experiments, which together may suggest the existence of physics beyond the Standard Model and hint at exciting new physics, including the possibility of additional low-mass sterile neutrino states, have raised the interest in the community for new experimental efforts that could eventually solve this puzzle. Definitive evidence for sterile neutrinos would be a revolutionary discovery, with implications for particle physics as well as cosmology. Proposals to address these signals by employing accelerator, reactor and radioactive source experiments are in the planning stages or underway worldwide. In this talk some of these will be reviewed, with emphasis on the accelerator programs.

  1. Measuring anomaly with algorithmic entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, Wanda M.

    Anomaly detection refers to the identification of observations that are considered outside of normal. Since they are unknown to the system prior to training and rare, the anomaly detection problem is particularly challenging. Model based techniques require large quantities of existing data are to build the model. Statistically based techniques result in the use of statistical metrics or thresholds for determining whether a particular observation is anomalous. I propose a novel approach to anomaly detection using wavelet based algorithmic entropy that does not require modeling or large amounts of data. My method embodies the concept of information distance that rests on the fact that data encodes information. This distance is large when little information is shared, and small when there is greater information sharing. I compare my approach with several techniques in the literature using data obtained from testing of NASA's Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME)

  2. Spacecraft environmental anomalies expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koons, H. C.; Gorney, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    A microcomputer-based expert system is being developed at the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory to assist in the diagnosis of satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to address anomalies caused by surface charging, bulk charging, single event effects and total radiation dose. These effects depend on the orbit of the satellite, the local environment (which is highly variable), the satellite exposure time and the hardness of the circuits and components of the satellite. The expert system is a rule-based system that uses the Texas Instruments Personal Consultant Plus expert system shell. The completed expert system knowledge base will include 150 to 200 rules, as well as a spacecraft attributes database, an historical spacecraft anomalies database, and a space environment database which is updated in near real-time. Currently, the expert system is undergoing development and testing within the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory.

  3. Boundary terms of conformal anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodukhin, Sergey N.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the structure of the boundary terms in the conformal anomaly integrated over a manifold with boundaries. We suggest that the anomalies of type B, polynomial in the Weyl tensor, are accompanied with the respective boundary terms of the Gibbons-Hawking type. Their form is dictated by the requirement that they produce a variation which compensates the normal derivatives of the metric variation on the boundary in order to have a well-defined variational procedure. This suggestion agrees with recent findings in four dimensions for free fields of various spins. We generalize this consideration to six dimensions and derive explicitly the respective boundary terms. We point out that the integrated conformal anomaly in odd dimensions is non-vanishing due to the boundary terms. These terms are specified in three and five dimensions.

  4. What Is Vascular Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... or 911 immediately. @ 2016 Vascular Cures is a tax-exempt, nonprofit organization tax ID#: 94-2825216 as described in the Section ... 3) of the Internal Revenue Code. Donations are tax deductible. 555 Price Ave., Suite 180, Redwood City, ...

  5. Vascular Access for Hemodialysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... short-term use. [ Top ] What is an arteriovenous fistula? An AV fistula is a connection, made by a vascular surgeon, ... vessel surgery. The surgeon usually places an AV fistula in the forearm or upper arm. An AV ...

  6. Women and Vascular Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Patient information Membership Directory (SIR login) Interventional Radiology Women and Vascular Disease Early Warning Symptom for ... major public health issue, the Society of Interventional Radiology recommends greater screening efforts by the medical community ...

  7. Diversity in vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Woo, Karen; Kalata, Emily A; Hingorani, Anil P

    2012-12-01

    A growing body of literature in vascular surgery demonstrates disparities in the type of health care that racial/ethnic minorities receive in the United States. Numerous recommendations, including those of the Institute of Medicine, have been set forth, which identify increasing the number of minority health professionals as a key strategy to eliminating health disparities. The purpose of this study is to compare the racial/ethnic distribution of the Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) membership, the SVS leadership, vascular surgery trainees, and medical students. The results demonstrate that the racial/ethnic distribution of the SVS membership reflects a considerable lack of diversity with a paucity of diversity among the SVS leadership. An increasing rate of racial/ethnic diversity among vascular surgery trainees may indicate that the SVS will see an improvement in diversity in the future. PMID:23182481

  8. Uterine Vascular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

  9. Intracerebral hemorrhage due to developmental venous anomalies.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaodi; Wang, Yuzhou; Chen, Wenming; Wang, Wensheng; Chen, Kaizhe; Liao, Huayin; Lu, Jianjun; Li, Zhigang

    2016-04-01

    Developmental venous anomalies (DVA) and cavernous malformations (CM) are a common form of mixed vascular malformation. The relationship between DVA, CM and hemorrhage is complicated. It is important to differentiate hemorrhagic CM and hemorrhagic DVA. A retrospective review of all patients with acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) between 1 May 2008 and 1 May 2013 was performed. ICH due to DVA or CM were identified and compared for demographic features, clinical symptoms, neurological deficits, and radiological findings. A total of 1706 patients with acute spontaneous ICH were admitted to our hospital during the study period. Among these, 10 (0.59%) were caused by DVA and 42 (2.47%) were caused by CM. No significant differences were found in age (p=0.252) or sex ratio (p=1.000) between the two groups. Compared with CM-induced ICH, DVA-induced ICH were characterized by cerebellar predominance (p=0.000) and less severe neurological deficits (p=0.008). Infratentorial hemorrhagic DVA are characterized by cerebellar predominance and benign clinical course. Infratentorial hemorrhagic CM are mainly located in the brainstem. DVA should be given suspected rather than CM when considering the etiology of a cerebellar hemorrhage, especially in young adults. PMID:26803466

  10. Branchial Anomalies: Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Azeez, Arun; Thada, Nikhil Dinaker; Rao, Pallavi; Prasad, Kishore Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To find out the incidence of involvement of individual arches, anatomical types of lesions, the age and sex incidence, the site and side of predilection, the common clinical features, the common investigations, treatment, and complications of the different anomalies. Setting. Academic Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. Design. A 10 year retrospective study. Participants. 30 patients with clinically proven branchial anomalies including patients with bilateral disease totaling 34 lesions. Main Outcome Measures. The demographical data, clinical features, type of branchial anomalies, and the management details were recorded and analyzed. Results and Observations. The mean age of presentation was 18.67 years. Male to female sex ratio was 1.27 : 1 with a male preponderance. Of the 34 lesions, maximum incidence was of second arch anomalies (50%) followed by first arch. We had two cases each of third and fourth arch anomalies. Only 1 (3.3%) patients of the 30 presented with lesion at birth. The most common pathological type of lesions was fistula (58.82%) followed by cyst. 41.18% of the lesions occurred on the right side. All the patients underwent surgical excision. None of our patients had involvement of facial nerve in first branchial anomaly. All patients had tracts going superficial to the facial nerve. Conclusion. Confirming the extent of the tract is mandatory before any surgery as these lesions pass in relation to some of the most vital structures of the neck. Surgery should always be the treatment option. injection of dye, microscopic removal and inclusion of surrounding tissue while excising the tract leads to a decreased incidence of recurrence. PMID:24772172

  11. Vascular structures in dermoscopy*

    PubMed Central

    Ayhan, Erhan; Ucmak, Derya; Akkurt, ZeynepMeltem

    2015-01-01

    Dermoscopy is an aiding method in the visualization of the epidermis and dermis. It is usually used to diagnose melanocytic lesions. In recent years, dermoscopy has increasingly been used to diagnose non-melanocytic lesions. Certain vascular structures, their patterns of arrangement and additional criteria may demonstrate lesion-specific characteristics. In this review, vascular structures and their arrangements are discussed separately in the light of conflicting views and an overview of recent literature. PMID:26375224

  12. Vascular Effects of Histamine.

    PubMed

    Ebeigbe, Anthony B; Talabi, Olufunke O

    2014-01-01

    Four subtypes of receptors (H1, H2, H3 and H4) mediate the actions of histamine. In the vascular wall, the effects of histamine are mediated via H1 and H2 receptors and the actions are modulated by H3 receptor subtype located on presynaptic neurones. Alterations in vascular responses to histamine are associated with experimental as well as a human form of hypertension, suggesting a role for histanine in cardiovascular regulation. PMID:26196559

  13. Boundary anomalies and correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2016-08-01

    It was shown recently that boundary terms of conformal anomalies recover the universal contribution to the entanglement entropy and also play an important role in the boundary monotonicity theorem of odd-dimensional quantum field theories. Motivated by these results, we investigate relationships between boundary anomalies and the stress tensor correlation functions in conformal field theories. In particular, we focus on how the conformal Ward identity and the renormalization group equation are modified by boundary central charges. Renormalized stress tensors induced by boundary Weyl invariants are also discussed, with examples in spherical and cylindrical geometries.

  14. [Zaidemberg's vascularized radial graft].

    PubMed

    Saint-Cast, Y

    2010-12-01

    In 1991, Carlos Zaidemberg described a new technique to repair scaphoid non-unions with a vascularized bone graft harvested from the radial styloid process. An anatomic study based on 30 dissections after colorized latex injection established the constancy of the radial styloid process's artery, while showing that its origin, course and length were subject to variations. In a retrospective series of 38 cases over a period of 10 years, the vascularized bone graft was indicated for: (1) scaphoid non-union with the presence of avascular changes of the proximal fragment (23 cases); (2) failed prior reconstruction with bone graft and internal fixation (nine cases); (3) degenerative styloid-scaphoid arthritis (three cases); (4) fracture on Preiser dystrophy (three cases). The five steps of the simplified operative technique without dissection of the vascular pedicle include: (1) longitudinal dorso-radial approach, identification of the periosteal portion of the radial styloid process artery; (2) incision of the first and second compartments, longitudinal arthrotomy under the second compartment; (3) styloidectomy and transversal resection of the scaphoid non-union and sclerotic bone; (4) elevation of the vascularized bone graft; (5) transversal and radial insertion of the vascularized bone graft, osteosynthesis by two or three K-wire touching the scaphoid's radial edge. Scaphoid union was obtained in 33 cases out of 38. The only postoperative complications were two transient radial paresthesia. The standardized surgical procedure using vascularized bone graft harvested from the radial styloid process provides an efficient scaphoid reconstruction. PMID:21087882

  15. Preliminary Analyses of Beidou Signal-In Anomaly Since 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Ren, J.; Liu, W.

    2016-06-01

    As BeiDou navigation system has been operational since December 2012. There is an increasing desire to use multiple constellation to improve positioning performance. The signal-in-space (SIS) anomaly caused by the ground control and the space vehicle is one of the major threats to affect the integrity. For a young Global Navigation Satellite System, knowledge about SIS anomalies in history is very important for not only assessing the SIS integrity performance of a constellation but also providing the assumption for ARAIM (Advanced Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring). In this paper, the broadcast ephemerides and the precise ones are pre-processed for avoiding the false anomaly identification. The SIS errors over the period of Mar. 2013-Feb. 2016 are computed by comparing the broadcast ephemerides with the precise ones. The time offsets between GPST (GPS time) and BDT (BeiDou time) are estimated and removed by an improved estimation algorithm. SIS worst-UREs are computed and a RMS criteria are investigated to identify the SIS anomalies. The results show that the probability of BeiDou SIS anomalies is in 10-3 level in last three years. Even though BeiDou SIS integrity performance currently cannot match the GPS integrity performances, the result indicates that BeiDou has a tendency to improve its integrity performance.

  16. Observational manifestations of anomaly inflow

    SciTech Connect

    Boyarsky, Alexey; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

    2005-10-15

    In theories with chiral couplings, one of the important consistency requirements is that of the cancellation of a gauge anomaly. In particular, this is one of the conditions imposed on the hypercharges in the standard model. However, anomaly cancellation condition of the standard model looks unnatural from the perspective of a theory with extra dimensions. Indeed, if our world were embedded into an odd-dimensional space, then the full theory would be automatically anomaly-free. In this paper we discuss the physical consequences of anomaly noncancellation for effective 4-dimensional field theory. We demonstrate that in such a theory parallel electric and magnetic fields get modified. In particular, this happens for any particle possessing both electric charge and magnetic moment. This effect, if observed, can serve as a low energy signature of extra dimensions. On the other hand, if such an effect is absent or is very small, then from the point of view of any theory with extra dimensions it is just another fine-tuning and should acquire theoretical explanation.

  17. Thermal anomalies in stressed Teflon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. H.; Wulff, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    In the course of testing polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) as a calorimetric gasketing material, serendipity revealed a thermal anomaly in stressed film that occurs concomitantly with the well-documented 25 C transition. The magnitude of the excess energy absorption - about 35 cal/g - is suggested to be related to the restricted thermal expansion of the film.

  18. Coral can have growth anomalies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coral growth anomalies (GAs) are changes in the coral cells that deposit the calcium carbonate skeleton. They usually appear as raised areas of the skeleton and tissue that are different from the surrounding normal areas on the same colony. The features include abnormal shape a...

  19. Numerical anomalies mimicking physical effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menikoff, R.

    Numerical simulations of flows with shock waves typically use finite-difference shock-capturing algorithms. These algorithms give a shock a numerical width in order to generate the entropy increase that must occur across a shock wave. For algorithms in conservation form, steady-state shock waves are insensitive to the numerical dissipation because of the Hugoniot jump conditions. However, localized numerical errors occur when shock waves interact. Examples are the 'excess wall heating' in the Noh problem (shock reflected from rigid wall), errors when a shock impacts a material interface or an abrupt change in mesh spacing, and the start-up error from initializing a shock as a discontinuity. This class of anomalies can be explained by the entropy generation that occurs in the transient flow when a shock profile is formed or changed. The entropy error is localized spatially but under mesh refinement does not decrease in magnitude. Similar effects have been observed in shock tube experiments with partly dispersed shock waves. In this case, the shock has a physical width due to a relaxation process. An entropy anomaly from a transient shock interaction is inherent in the structure of the conservation equations for fluid flow. The anomaly can be expected to occur whenever heat conduction can be neglected and a shock wave has a non-zero width, whether the width is physical or numerical. Thus, the numerical anomaly from an artificial shock width mimics a real physical effect.

  20. Antioxidants and vascular health.

    PubMed

    Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Mazzaglia, Donatella; Doldo, Elena; Orlandi, Augusto

    2015-12-15

    Oxygen free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common products of normal aerobic cellular metabolism, but high levels of ROS lead to oxidative stress and cellular damage. Increased production of ROS favors vascular dysfunction, inducing altered vascular permeability and inflammation, accompanied by the loss of vascular modulatory function, the imbalance between vasorelaxation and vasoconstriction, and the aberrant expression of inflammatory adhesion molecules. Inflammatory stimuli promote oxidative stress generated from the increased activity of mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, particularly of the Nox4 isoform, with the consequent impairment of mitochondrial β-oxidation. Vascular dysfunction due to the increase in Nox4 activity and ROS overproduction leads to the progression of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and neurological disorders. Considerable research into the development of effective antioxidant therapies using natural derivatives or new synthetic molecules has been conducted. Antioxidants may prevent cellular damage by reducing ROS overproduction or interfering in reactions that involve ROS. Vitamin E and ascorbic acid are well known as natural antioxidants that counteract lipid peroxidative damage by scavenging oxygen-derived free radicals, thus restoring vascular function. Recently, preliminary studies on natural antioxidants such as goji berries, thymus, rosemary, green tea ginseng, and garlic have been conducted for their efficacy in preventing vascular damage. N-acetyl-cysteine and propionyl-L-carnitine are synthetic compounds that regulate ROS production by replacing endogenous antioxidants in both endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In this review, we consider the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of oxidative stress-induced vascular dysfunction as well as the beneficial effects of antioxidant therapies. PMID:26585821

  1. Diagnostic criteria for vascular cognitive disorders: a VASCOG statement

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Perminder; Kalaria, Raj; O’Brien, John; Skoog, Ingmar; Alladi, Suvarna; Black, Sandra E; Blacker, Deborah; Blazer, Dan; Chen, Christopher; Chui, Helena; Ganguli, Mary; Jellinger, Kurt; Jeste, Dilip V.; Pasquier, Florence; Paulsen, Jane; Prins, Niels; Rockwood, Kenneth; Roman, Gustavo; Scheltens, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Background Several sets of diagnostic criteria have been published for vascular dementia (VaD) since the 1960s. The continuing ambiguity in VaD definition warrants a critical re-examination. Methods Participants at a special symposium of the International Society for Vascular Behavioral and Cognitive Disorders (VASCOG) in 2009 critiqued the current criteria. They drafted a proposal for a new set of criteria, later reviewed through multiple drafts by the group, including additional experts and the members of the Neurocognitive Disorders Work Group of the DSM-5 Task Force. Results Cognitive disorders of vascular etiology are a heterogeneous group of disorders with diverse pathologies and clinical manifestations, discussed broadly under the rubric of vascular cognitive disorders (VCD). The continuum of vascular cognitive impairment is recognized by the categories of Mild Vascular Cognitive Disorder, and Vascular Dementia or Major Vascular Cognitive Disorder. Diagnostic thresholds are defined. Clinical and neuroimaging criteria are proposed for establishing vascular etiology. Subtypes of VCD are described, and the frequent co-occurrence of Alzheimer’s disease pathology emphasized. Conclusions The proposed criteria for VCD provide a coherent approach to the diagnosis of this diverse group of disorders, with a view to stimulating clinical and pathological validation studies. These criteria can be harmonized with the DSM-5 criteria such that an international consensus on the criteria for VCD may be achieved. PMID:24632990

  2. Geopotential Field Anomaly Continuation with Multi-Altitude Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jeong Woo; Kim, Hyung Rae; von Frese, Ralph; Taylor, Patrick; Rangelova, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Conventional gravity and magnetic anomaly continuation invokes the standard Poisson boundary condition of a zero anomaly at an infinite vertical distance from the observation surface. This simple continuation is limited, however, where multiple altitude slices of the anomaly field have been observed. Increasingly, areas are becoming available constrained by multiple boundary conditions from surface, airborne, and satellite surveys. This paper describes the implementation of continuation with multi-altitude boundary conditions in Cartesian and spherical coordinates and investigates the advantages and limitations of these applications. Continuations by EPS (Equivalent Point Source) inversion and the FT (Fourier Transform), as well as by SCHA (Spherical Cap Harmonic Analysis) are considered. These methods were selected because they are especially well suited for analyzing multi-altitude data over finite patches of the earth such as covered by the ADMAP database. In general, continuations constrained by multi-altitude data surfaces are invariably superior to those constrained by a single altitude data surface due to anomaly measurement errors and the non-uniqueness of continuation.

  3. Geopotential Field Anomaly Continuation with Multi-Altitude Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jeong Woo; Kim, Hyung Rae; vonFrese, Ralph; Taylor, Patrick; Rangelova, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Conventional gravity and magnetic anomaly continuation invokes the standard Poisson boundary condition of a zero anomaly at an infinite vertical distance from the observation surface. This simple continuation is limited, however, where multiple altitude slices of the anomaly field have been observed. Increasingly, areas are becoming available constrained by multiple boundary conditions from surface, airborne, and satellite surveys. This paper describes the implementation of continuation with multi-altitude boundary conditions in Cartesian and spherical coordinates and investigates the advantages and limitations of these applications. Continuations by EPS (Equivalent Point Source) inversion and the FT (Fourier Transform), as well as by SCHA (Spherical Cap Harmonic Analysis) are considered. These methods were selected because they are especially well suited for analyzing multi-altitude data over finite patches of the earth such as covered by the ADMAP database. In general, continuations constrained by multi-altitude data surfaces are invariably superior to those constrained by a single altitude data surface due to anomaly measurement errors and the non-uniqueness of continuation.

  4. Local gravity anomalies produced by dislocation sources.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Dilatancy, in general, does not correspond to the absence of a free air anomaly, as might be suggested by the special case of a spherical source of dilatation. For two-dimensional models a cylindrical source of dilatation produces no free air gravity anomaly, dip-slip faulting produces no Bouguer anomaly, and open cracks produce a Bouguer anomaly equal to that which would be produced had the material within the crack been mined out without deforming the solid. -from Author

  5. Anomaly constraints on monopoles and dyons

    SciTech Connect

    Csaki, Csaba; Shirman, Yuri; Terning, John

    2010-06-15

    Fermions with magnetic charges can contribute to anomalies. We derive the axial anomaly and gauge anomalies for monopoles and dyons, and find eight new gauge anomaly cancellation conditions in a general theory with both electric and magnetic charges. As a by-product, we also extend the Zwanziger two-potential formalism to include the {theta} parameter, and elaborate on the condition for CP invariance in theories with fermionic dyons.

  6. Loop anomalies in the causal approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigore, Dan-Radu

    2015-01-01

    We consider gauge models in the causal approach and study one-loop contributions to the chronological products and the anomalies they produce. We prove that in order greater than 4 there are no one-loop anomalies. Next we analyze one-loop anomalies in the second- and third-order of the perturbation theory. We prove that the even parity contributions (with respect to parity) do not produce anomalies; for the odd parity contributions we reobtain the well-known result.

  7. Warfarin and Vascular Calcification.

    PubMed

    Poterucha, Timothy J; Goldhaber, Samuel Z

    2016-06-01

    The vitamin K antagonist, warfarin, is the most commonly prescribed oral anticoagulant. Use of warfarin is associated with an increase in systemic calcification, including in the coronary and peripheral vasculature. This increase in vascular calcification is due to inhibition of the enzyme matrix gamma-carboxyglutamate Gla protein (MGP). MGP is a vitamin K-dependent protein that ordinarily prevents systemic calcification by scavenging calcium phosphate in the tissues. Warfarin-induced systemic calcification can result in adverse clinical effects. In this review article, we highlight some of the key translational and clinical studies that associate warfarin with vascular calcification. PMID:26714212

  8. Building Vascular Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Hojae; Puranik, Amey S.; Gauvin, Robert; Edalat, Faramarz; Carrillo-Conde, Brenda; Peppas, Nicholas A.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Only a few engineered tissues—skin, cartilage, bladder—have achieved clinical success, and biomaterials designed to replace more complex organs are still far from commercial availability. This gap exists in part because biomaterials lack a vascular network to transfer the oxygen and nutrients necessary for survival and integration after transplantation. Thus, generation of a functional vasculature is essential to the clinical success of engineered tissue constructs and remains a key challenge for regenerative medicine. In this Perspective, we discuss recent advances in vascularization of biomaterials through the use of biochemical modification, exogenous cells, or microengineering technology. PMID:23152325

  9. Titanium isotopic anomalies in meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neimeyer, S.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1984-07-01

    Studies of Ti isotopic compositions have shown that virtually every Ca-Al-rich Allende inclusion contains anomalous Ti. The present investigation is concerned with the results of a study of Ti isotopic compositions in meteorites. One objective of the study is to evaluate the possibility of a relation between oxygen and Ti anomalies, while another objective is to explore questions regarding the origin of the Ti anomalies. A summary of the major experimental findings of the study of Ti isotopic compositions is also presented. It is noted that an assessment of the implications of the Ti results favors a chemical memory type of model in which products from various nucleosynthetic sources survive in mineral grains. Isotopic heterogeneities are then preserved due to incomplete mixing and/or equilibriation with the bulk of solar system matter. Strong arguments are found to exist against a pure late supernova injection model.

  10. Survey of Anomaly Detection Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, B

    2006-10-12

    This survey defines the problem of anomaly detection and provides an overview of existing methods. The methods are categorized into two general classes: generative and discriminative. A generative approach involves building a model that represents the joint distribution of the input features and the output labels of system behavior (e.g., normal or anomalous) then applies the model to formulate a decision rule for detecting anomalies. On the other hand, a discriminative approach aims directly to find the decision rule, with the smallest error rate, that distinguishes between normal and anomalous behavior. For each approach, we will give an overview of popular techniques and provide references to state-of-the-art applications.

  11. Titanium isotopic anomalies in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemeyer, S.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of Ti isotopic compositions have shown that virtually every Ca-Al-rich Allende inclusion contains anomalous Ti. The present investigation is concerned with the results of a study of Ti isotopic compositions in meteorites. One objective of the study is to evaluate the possibility of a relation between oxygen and Ti anomalies, while another objective is to explore questions regarding the origin of the Ti anomalies. A summary of the major experimental findings of the study of Ti isotopic compositions is also presented. It is noted that an assessment of the implications of the Ti results favors a chemical memory type of model in which products from various nucleosynthetic sources survive in mineral grains. Isotopic heterogeneities are then preserved due to incomplete mixing and/or equilibriation with the bulk of solar system matter. Strong arguments are found to exist against a pure late supernova injection model.

  12. Model selection for anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnaev, E.; Erofeev, P.; Smolyakov, D.

    2015-12-01

    Anomaly detection based on one-class classification algorithms is broadly used in many applied domains like image processing (e.g. detection of whether a patient is "cancerous" or "healthy" from mammography image), network intrusion detection, etc. Performance of an anomaly detection algorithm crucially depends on a kernel, used to measure similarity in a feature space. The standard approaches (e.g. cross-validation) for kernel selection, used in two-class classification problems, can not be used directly due to the specific nature of a data (absence of a second, abnormal, class data). In this paper we generalize several kernel selection methods from binary-class case to the case of one-class classification and perform extensive comparison of these approaches using both synthetic and real-world data.

  13. Isotopic anomalies in extraterrestrial grains.

    PubMed

    Ireland, T R

    1996-03-01

    Isotopic compositions are referred to as anomalous if the isotopic ratios measured cannot be related to the terrestrial (solar) composition of a given element. While small effects close to the resolution of mass spectrometric techniques can have ambiguous origins, the discovery of large isotopic anomalies in inclusions and grains from primitive meteorites suggests that material from distinct sites of stellar nucleosynthesis has been preserved. Refractory inclusions, which are predominantly composed of the refractory oxides of Al, Ca, Ti, and Mg, in chondritic meteorites commonly have excesses in the heaviest isotopes of Ca, Ti, and Cr which are inferred to have been produced in a supernova. Refractory inclusions also contain excess 26Mg from short lived 26Al decay. However, despite the isotopic anomalies indicating the preservation of distinct nucleosynthetic sites, refractory inclusions have been processed in the solar system and are not interstellar grains. Carbon (graphite and diamond) and silicon carbide grains from the same meteorites also have large isotopic anomalies but these phases are not stable in the oxidized solar nebula which suggests that they are presolar and formed in the circumstellar atmospheres of carbon-rich stars. Diamond has a characteristic signature enriched in the lightest and heaviest isotopes of Xe, and graphite shows a wide range in C isotopic compositions. SiC commonly has C and N isotopic signatures which are characteristic of H-burning in the C-N-O cycle in low-mass stars. Heavier elements such as Si, Ti, Xe, Ba, and Nd, carry an isotopic signature of the s-process. A minor population of SiC (known as Grains X, ca. 1%) are distinct in having decay products of short lived isotopes 26Al (now 26Mg), 44Ti (now 44Ca), and 49V (now 49Ti), as well as 28Si excesses which are characteristic of supernova nucleosynthesis. The preservation of these isotopic anomalies allows the examination of detailed nucleosynthetic pathways in stars. PMID

  14. Pigmentary anomalies and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Toriello, Helga V

    2011-01-01

    A number of syndromes that include hearing loss in the phenotype also have pigmentary anomalies as a component manifestation. One of the most common of these is Waardenburg syndrome, which includes hypopigmentation and sensorineural hearing loss in the phenotype. There are four types of Waardenburg syndrome, distinguishable from each other by clinical findings. However, there are several other syndromes which include not only hypopigmentation, but also hyperpigmentation in the phenotype. This paper serves as a review of many of these syndromes. PMID:21358185

  15. Cloacal anomaly with bladder tumor

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Amlesh; Ram, Ishwar

    2013-01-01

    A rare case of squamous cell carcinoma of bladder occurring in a 36-year-old female with persistent cloacal anomaly who presented with frequency, urgency, dysuria, and recurrent urinary tract infection is reported. Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography with three dimensional reconstruction showed presence of bladder tumor and persistent cloaca. She underwent pelvic exenteration and wet colostomy. Histopathologic findings revealed locally advanced moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:23956519

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of cloacal anomaly.

    PubMed

    Cacciaguerra, S; Lo Presti, L; Di Leo, L; Grasso, S; Gangarossa, S; Di Benedetto, V; Di Benedetto, A

    1998-02-01

    The authors present a case of prenatal diagnosis of cloacal anomaly, characterized by the presence of oligohydramnios and cystic pelvic mass with changing features during observation. Postnatal study confirmed the presence of a recto-cloacal fistula, with a high confluence of the urinary, genital and intestinal systems. Both parents had a chromosome 9 inversion (p11q13), but the child was chromosomally normal. PMID:9561584

  17. Anomalies and Discrete Chiral Symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, M.

    2009-09-07

    The quantum anomaly that breaks the U(1) axial symmetry of massless multi-flavored QCD leaves behind a discrete flavor-singlet chiral invariance. With massive quarks, this residual symmetry has a close connection with the strong CP-violating parameter theta. One result is that if the lightest quarks are degenerate, then a first order transition will occur when theta passes through pi. The resulting framework helps clarify when the rooting prescription for extrapolating in the number of flavors is valid.

  18. Columbus Payloads Flow Rate Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quaranta, Albino; Bufano, Gaetana; DePalo, Savino; Holt, James M.; Szigetvari, Zoltan; Palumberi, Sergio; Hinderer, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) is the main thermal bus for the pressurized racks working inside the European laboratory. One of the ATCS goals is to provide proper water flow rate to each payload (P/L) by controlling actively the pressure drop across the common plenum distribution piping. Overall flow measurement performed by the Water Pump Assembly (WPA) is the only flow rate monitor available at system level and is not part of the feedback control system. At rack activation the flow rate provided by the system is derived on ground by computing the WPA flow increase. With this approach, several anomalies were raised during these 3 years on-orbit, with the indication of low flow rate conditions on the European racks FSL, BioLab, EDR and EPM. This paper reviews the system and P/Ls calibration approach, the anomalies occurred, the engineering evaluation on the measurement approach and the accuracy improvements proposed, the on-orbit test under evaluation with NASA and finally discusses possible short and long term solutions in case of anomaly confirmation.

  19. Extending TOPS: Ontology-driven Anomaly Detection and Analysis System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votava, P.; Nemani, R. R.; Michaelis, A.

    2010-12-01

    Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) is a flexible modeling software system that integrates ecosystem models with frequent satellite and surface weather observations to produce ecosystem nowcasts (assessments of current conditions) and forecasts useful in natural resources management, public health and disaster management. We have been extending the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) to include a capability for automated anomaly detection and analysis of both on-line (streaming) and off-line data. In order to best capture the knowledge about data hierarchies, Earth science models and implied dependencies between anomalies and occurrences of observable events such as urbanization, deforestation, or fires, we have developed an ontology to serve as a knowledge base. We can query the knowledge base and answer questions about dataset compatibilities, similarities and dependencies so that we can, for example, automatically analyze similar datasets in order to verify a given anomaly occurrence in multiple data sources. We are further extending the system to go beyond anomaly detection towards reasoning about possible causes of anomalies that are also encoded in the knowledge base as either learned or implied knowledge. This enables us to scale up the analysis by eliminating a large number of anomalies early on during the processing by either failure to verify them from other sources, or matching them directly with other observable events without having to perform an extensive and time-consuming exploration and analysis. The knowledge is captured using OWL ontology language, where connections are defined in a schema that is later extended by including specific instances of datasets and models. The information is stored using Sesame server and is accessible through both Java API and web services using SeRQL and SPARQL query languages. Inference is provided using OWLIM component integrated with Sesame.

  20. Pain management in patients with vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Seretny, M; Colvin, L A

    2016-09-01

    Vascular disease covers a wide range of conditions, including arterial, venous, and lymphatic disorders, with many of these being more common in the elderly. As the population ages, the incidence of vascular disease will increase, with a consequent increase in the requirement to manage both acute and chronic pain in this patient population. Pain management can be complex, as there are often multiple co-morbidities to be considered. An understanding of the underlying pain mechanisms is helpful in the logical direction of treatment, particularly in chronic pain states, such as phantom limb pain or complex regional pain syndrome. Acute pain management for vascular surgery presents a number of challenges, including coexisting anticoagulant medication, that may preclude the use of regional techniques. Within the limited evidence base, there is a suggestion that epidural analgesia provides better pain relief and reduced respiratory complications after major vascular surgery. For carotid endarterectomy, there is again some evidence supporting the use of local anaesthetic analgesia, either by infiltration or by superficial cervical plexus block. Chronic pain in vascular disease includes post-amputation pain, for which well-known risk factors include high pain levels before amputation and in the immediate postoperative period, emphasizing the importance of good pain control in the perioperative period. Complex regional pain syndrome is another challenging chronic pain syndrome with a wide variety of treatment options available, with the strongest evidence being for physical therapies. Further research is required to gain a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in pain associated with vascular disease and the best analgesic approaches to manage it. PMID:27566812

  1. The genetic basis of inherited anomalies of the teeth. Part 2: syndromes with significant dental involvement.

    PubMed

    Bailleul-Forestier, Isabelle; Berdal, Ariane; Vinckier, Frans; de Ravel, Thomy; Fryns, Jean Pierre; Verloes, Alain

    2008-01-01

    Teeth are specialized structural components of the craniofacial skeleton. Developmental defects occur either alone or in combination with other birth defects. In this paper, we review the dental anomalies in several multiple congenital anomaly (MCA) syndromes, in which the dental component is pivotal in the recognition of the phenotype and/or the molecular basis of the disorder is known. We will consider successively syndromic forms of amelogenesis imperfecta or enamel defects, dentinogenesis imperfecta (i.e. osteogenesis imperfecta) and other dentine anomalies. Focusing on dental aspects, we will review a selection of MCA syndromes associated with teeth number and/or shape anomalies. A better knowledge of the dental phenotype may contribute to an earlier diagnosis of some MCA syndromes involving teeth anomalies. They may serve as a diagnostic indicator or help confirm a syndrome diagnosis. PMID:18599376

  2. Vascular wall extracellular matrix proteins and vascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junyan; Shi, Guo-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix proteins form the basic structure of blood vessels. Along with providing basic structural support to blood vessels, matrix proteins interact with different sets of vascular cells via cell surface integrin or non-integrin receptors. Such interactions induce vascular cell de novo synthesis of new matrix proteins during blood vessel development or remodeling. Under pathological conditions, vascular matrix proteins undergo proteolytic processing, yielding bioactive fragments to influence vascular wall matrix remodeling. Vascular cells also produce alternatively spliced variants that induce vascular cell production of different matrix proteins to interrupt matrix homeostasis, leading to increased blood vessel stiffness; vascular cell migration, proliferation, or death; or vascular wall leakage and rupture. Destruction of vascular matrix proteins leads to vascular cell or blood-borne leukocyte accumulation, proliferation, and neointima formation within the vascular wall; blood vessels prone to uncontrolled enlargement during blood flow diastole; tortuous vein development; and neovascularization from existing pathological tissue microvessels. Here we summarize discoveries related to blood vessel matrix proteins within the past decade from basic and clinical studies in humans and animals — from expression to cross-linking, assembly, and degradation under physiological and vascular pathological conditions, including atherosclerosis, aortic aneurysms, varicose veins, and hypertension. PMID:25045854

  3. Three Rare Anomalies of the Large Vessels in an Infant with Tetralogy of Fallot.

    PubMed

    Şuteu, Carmen C; Togănel, Rodica; Benedek, Theodora

    2016-07-01

    Isolated left subclavian artery (LSA) from the pulmonary artery (PA) is a very rare vascular anomaly. We report a case of abnormal origin of the LSA from the PA via a very large ductus arteriosus (DA) in association with a rare communication between the left common carotid artery (LCCA) and the LSA in a patient with tetralogy of Fallot. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12770 (J Card Surg 2016;31:461-463). PMID:27246554

  4. Global anomalies and effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golkar, Siavash; Sethi, Savdeep

    2016-05-01

    We show that matching anomalies under large gauge transformations and large diffeomorphisms can explain the appearance and non-renormalization of couplings in effective field theory. We focus on thermal effective field theory, where we argue that the appearance of certain unusual Chern-Simons couplings is a consequence of global anomalies. As an example, we show that a mixed global anomaly in four dimensions fixes the chiral vortical effect coefficient (up to an overall additive factor). This is an experimentally measurable prediction from a global anomaly. For certain situations, we propose a simpler method for calculating global anomalies which uses correlation functions rather than eta invariants.

  5. American board of vascular surgery: the first 7 years.

    PubMed

    Stanley, James C; Veith, Frank J

    2004-01-01

    The American Board of Vascular Surgery (ABVS) was incorporated in 1996 with a vision of improved training standards and certification of vascular surgeons. At that time, 91% of those holding American Board of Surgery Certificates of Added Qualifications in Vascular Surgery supported the formation of the ABVS. Subsequent events have led to a clear definition of specific educational issues important to the vascular surgery community. Unresolved issues relate to the need to complete a general surgery residency before beginning a vascular surgery fellowship, the continued inclusion of vascular surgery as a primary component of general surgery training, and the absence of a designated Residency Review Committee for Vascular Surgery. These issues have persisted since the inception of the ABVS. An application for the ABVS to become an American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) primary board was submitted in 2002 with a preliminary hearing before a liaison committee composed of American Medical Association and ABMS members. The American Board of Surgery (ABS) and a minority of the vascular surgery community vigorously opposed the application. The perceived divisiveness created by their actions contributed to the application's initial rejection and the necessity for an appeal. Certain ABS directors have recently stated that they would consider approving multiple track-type training that could allow single certification in vascular surgery, following 5 to 6 years of postgraduate training after medical school. The ABVS cautiously supports this action, recognizing that this radical change for the ABS may not be feasible given the broad-ranging interests of general surgery and restrictive ABMS guidelines for certifying medical specialists. The impact of not resolving the critical issues facing vascular surgery in a timely manner is that there will be inadequate numbers of competent vascular surgeons to provide for society's needs. An independent ABMS-approved ABVS provides a

  6. Spacecraft Orbit Anomaly Representation Using Thrust-Fourier-Coefficients with Orbit Determination Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, H.; Scheeres, D.

    2014-09-01

    ) is modified to adapt this technique in order to verify the performance of this interpolation approach. Spacecraft anomaly cases are based on either single or multiple low or high thrust maneuvers and the unknown thrust accelerations are recovered and compared with the true thrust acceleration. The advantage of this approach is to easily append TFCs and its dynamics to the pre-built ODTBX, which enables us to blend post-anomaly tracking data to improve the performance of the interpolation representation in the absence of detailed information about a maneuver. It allows us to improve space situational awareness in the areas of uncertainty propagation, anomaly characterization and track correlation.

  7. Satellite GN and C Anomaly Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Brent; Stoneking, Eric

    2003-01-01

    On-orbit anomaly records for satellites launched from 1990 through 2001 are reviewed to determine recent trends of un-manned space mission critical failures. Anomalies categorized by subsystems show that Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) subsystems have a high number of anomalies that result in a mission critical failure when compared to other subsystems. A mission critical failure is defined as a premature loss of a satellite or loss of its ability to perform its primary mission during its design life. The majority of anomalies are shown to occur early in the mission, usually within one year from launch. GN&C anomalies are categorized by cause and equipment type involved. A statistical analysis of the data is presented for all anomalies compared with the GN&C anomalies for various mission types, orbits and time periods. Conclusions and recommendations are presented for improving mission success and reliability.

  8. Trends in environmentally induced spacecraft anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, Daniel C.

    1989-01-01

    The Spacecraft Anomaly Data Base was useful in identifying trends in anomaly occurrence. Trends alone do not provide quantitative testimony to a spacecraft's reliability, but they do indicate areas that command closer study. An in-depth analysis of a specific anomaly can be expensive and difficult without access to the spacecraft. Statistically verified anomaly trends can provide a good reference point to begin anomaly analysis. Many spacecraft experience an increase in anomalies during the period of several days centered on the solar equinox, a period that is also correlated with sun eclipse at geostationary altitude and an increase in major geomagnetic storms. Increase anomaly occurrence can also be seen during the local time interval between midnight and dawn. This local time interval represents a region in Earth's near space that experiences an enhancement in electron plasma density due to a migration from the magnetotail during or following a geomagnetic substorm.

  9. Effects of Korean White Ginseng (Panax Ginseng C.A. Meyer) on Vascular and Glycemic Health in Type 2 Diabetes: Results of a Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-controlled, Multiple-crossover, Acute Dose Escalation Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shishtar, Esra'; Jovanovski, Elena; Jenkins, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Korean red ginseng (steam treated Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer), among most prized traditional herbal remedies, has been clinically shown to improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Whether this holds true for the dried non-steamed variety, known as Korean white ginseng (KWG) is unclear. This study therefore, investigated the efficacy and safety of escalating doses of KWG on vascular and glycemic parameters in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Using an acute, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover design, 25 participants with well-controlled T2DM (12-males: 13-females, age: 63 ± 9 years, A1c: 6.9 ± 0.7%, BMI: 29.3 ± 4.3 kg/m2) underwent five visits during which they received 1 g, 3 g, or 6 g KWG or 3 g wheat-bran control (twice) together with 50 g-glucose load. For the duration of 240 minutes, augmentation index (AI), and central blood pressure were measured at baseline and at 60 min-intervals, and ambulatory blood pressure was assessed at baseline and at 10 min-intervals. Additionally, capillary blood was collected at time zero and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 180 minutes post-treatment. A symptoms questionnaire was used to assess safety and adverse events. Two-way ANOVA demonstrated a significant time-treatment interaction effect on AI (p = 0.01) with one-way ANOVA showing significant reductions in AI with 3 g KWG relative to control (p = 0.04). Compared to control, acute administration of KWG appeared to be safe, but did not affect any other postprandial, vascular or glycemic parameters. KWG might have a beneficial effect on AI, a cumulative indicator of arterial health. However, these results are preliminary and highlight the need for long-term investigation with a focus on its accountable components. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT01699074 PMID:25136536

  10. miRNA and Vascular Cell Movement

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Junming

    2011-01-01

    miRNAs are a new class of endogenous small RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Accumulating experimental evidence shows that miRNAs regulate cellular apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Dysregulation of miRNA expression leads to various human diseases including cancer and cardiovascular disease. miRNA maturation is regulated at multiple steps by different mechanisms, including miRNA editing, hairpin loop binding, self-regulation, and cross-talk with other signaling pathways. Vascular cell movement plays a pivotal role in the development of various cancers and cardiovascular diseases. miRNAs have been found to regulate vascular cell movement. Presently the chemically synthesized antagomir, miRNA mimics have been widely used in investigating the biological functions of miRNA genes. The viral vectors, including adenoviral, lentiviral, and adeno-associated viral vectors, have been used to efficiently overexpress or knockdown miRNAs in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, targeting vascular cell movement using miRNA-based drug or gene therapy would provide a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of cancers and vascular diseases. PMID:21241758

  11. The Vascular Depression Hypothesis: Mechanisms Linking Vascular Disease with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Warren D.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Alexopoulos, George S.

    2013-01-01

    The ‘Vascular Depression’ hypothesis posits that cerebrovascular disease may predispose, precipitate, or perpetuate some geriatric depressive syndromes. This hypothesis stimulated much research that has improved our understanding of the complex relationships between late-life depression (LLD), vascular risk factors, and cognition. Succinctly, there are well-established relationships between late-life depression, vascular risk factors, and cerebral hyperintensities, the radiological hallmark of vascular depression. Cognitive dysfunction is common in late-life depression, particularly executive dysfunction, a finding predictive of poor antidepressant response. Over time, progression of hyperintensities and cognitive deficits predicts a poor course of depression and may reflect underlying worsening of vascular disease. This work laid the foundation for examining the mechanisms by which vascular disease influences brain circuits and influences the development and course of depression. We review data testing the vascular depression hypothesis with a focus on identifying potential underlying vascular mechanisms. We propose a disconnection hypothesis, wherein focal vascular damage and white matter lesion location is a crucial factor influencing neural connectivity that contributes to clinical symptomatology. We also propose inflammatory and hypoperfusion hypotheses, concepts that link underlying vascular processes with adverse effects on brain function that influence the development of depression. Testing such hypotheses will not only inform the relationship between vascular disease and depression but also provide guidance on the potential repurposing of pharmacological agents that may improve late-life depression outcomes. PMID:23439482

  12. Using scan statistics for congenital anomalies surveillance: the EUROCAT methodology.

    PubMed

    Teljeur, Conor; Kelly, Alan; Loane, Maria; Densem, James; Dolk, Helen

    2015-11-01

    Scan statistics have been used extensively to identify temporal clusters of health events. We describe the temporal cluster detection methodology adopted by the EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) monitoring system. Since 2001, EUROCAT has implemented variable window width scan statistic for detecting unusual temporal aggregations of congenital anomaly cases. The scan windows are based on numbers of cases rather than being defined by time. The methodology is imbedded in the EUROCAT Central Database for annual application to centrally held registry data. The methodology was incrementally adapted to improve the utility and to address statistical issues. Simulation exercises were used to determine the power of the methodology to identify periods of raised risk (of 1-18 months). In order to operationalize the scan methodology, a number of adaptations were needed, including: estimating date of conception as unit of time; deciding the maximum length (in time) and recency of clusters of interest; reporting of multiple and overlapping significant clusters; replacing the Monte Carlo simulation with a lookup table to reduce computation time; and placing a threshold on underlying population change and estimating the false positive rate by simulation. Exploration of power found that raised risk periods lasting 1 month are unlikely to be detected except when the relative risk and case counts are high. The variable window width scan statistic is a useful tool for the surveillance of congenital anomalies. Numerous adaptations have improved the utility of the original methodology in the context of temporal cluster detection in congenital anomalies. PMID:26026722

  13. Upward Continuation Apply Newly to Process Gravity Anomaly Data in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bo; Zhang, Xunhua; Jiang, Jinyu

    2014-05-01

    The research area lies in the East China Sea and its adjacent area and the concrete is between 120-130 degree of east longitude and 20-30 degree of north latitude and it also lies between Eurasian Plate and Pacific Plate. The structures of the area transform differently and they are namely Uplifted Zone of Zhejiang-Fujian, East China Sea Shelf Basin, Okinawa Trough Back-arc Basin, Ryukyu Arc, Ryukyu trench and Philippine Sea from west to east. Bouguer gravity anomaly can reflect deep structure characters and it is help to judge deep structures. The bouguer gravity anomalies of the area change differently from west to east. The anomalies increase gradually from land to the middle of Okinawa trough and near land anomaly contour strike accords with coastline and the middle of Okinawa trough reflect the highest anomalies in this area. Gravity anomalies re-increase from Ryukyu fore-arc basin to trench and Ryukyu island arc appears the low anomalies. Philippine Sea appears high gravity anomalies background. Upward continuation method has been used to process original gravity anomaly as a common method and its destination is to weaken local anomaly and at last strengthen deep anomaly and it's important to deep structure study. Upward 5 km, 10 km and 20 km have been used to process data and the results been compared. However, the research area is very large and the deep structure is complex, it isn't suitable to use single height to upward continuation processing bouguer gravity anomaly. Then we propose multiple upward heights continuation to process gravity data respectively in different area. We use upward 20km to process data in the area from land to the slope and upward 10km from Okinawa trough to Ryukyu island arc and upward 5km from Ryukyu trench to Philippine Sea. At last we obtain multiple upward height result and the calculated result confirms that it is fit to use this method. Gravity anomalies contours become smoother than before and the deep structures become

  14. Clinical findings in children with congenital anomalies and misoprostol intrauterine exposure: a study of 38 cases

    PubMed Central

    Vendramini-Pittoli, Siulan; Guion-Almeida, Maria L.; Richieri-Costa, Antonio; Santos, Juliana M.; Kokitsu-Nakata, Nancy M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe the clinical findings of 38 children with congenital anomalies and misoprostol intrauterine exposure. This study included 38 cases, ascertained from case series of the Hospital of Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies from University of São Paulo, with evidence of intrauterine exposure to misoprostol in the first trimester of the pregnancy. Information about misoprostol intake and drug administration route was obtained through interviews with mothers. Clinical evaluation showed 18 individuals with facial phenotype compatible with Moebius syndrome; 11 individuals with multiple congenital anomalies; and nine individuals with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or cleft palate. This study showed a widening of the phenotypic spectrum associated with misoprostol embryotoxicity.

  15. Gaussian Process Regression-Based Video Anomaly Detection and Localization With Hierarchical Feature Representation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kai-Wen; Chen, Yie-Tarng; Fang, Wen-Hsien

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical framework for detecting local and global anomalies via hierarchical feature representation and Gaussian process regression (GPR) which is fully non-parametric and robust to the noisy training data, and supports sparse features. While most research on anomaly detection has focused more on detecting local anomalies, we are more interested in global anomalies that involve multiple normal events interacting in an unusual manner, such as car accidents. To simultaneously detect local and global anomalies, we cast the extraction of normal interactions from the training videos as a problem of finding the frequent geometric relations of the nearby sparse spatio-temporal interest points (STIPs). A codebook of interaction templates is then constructed and modeled using the GPR, based on which a novel inference method for computing the likelihood of an observed interaction is also developed. Thereafter, these local likelihood scores are integrated into globally consistent anomaly masks, from which anomalies can be succinctly identified. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time GPR is employed to model the relationship of the nearby STIPs for anomaly detection. Simulations based on four widespread datasets show that the new method outperforms the main state-of-the-art methods with lower computational burden. PMID:26394423

  16. Hot Flow Anomalies at Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collinson, G. A.; Sibeck, David Gary; Boardsen, Scott A.; Moore, Tom; Barabash, S.; Masters, A.; Shane, N.; Slavin, J.A.; Coates, A.J.; Zhang, T. L.; Sarantos, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a multi-instrument study of a hot flow anomaly (HFA) observed by the Venus Express spacecraft in the Venusian foreshock, on 22 March 2008, incorporating both Venus Express Magnetometer and Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA) plasma observations. Centered on an interplanetary magnetic field discontinuity with inward convective motional electric fields on both sides, with a decreased core field strength, ion observations consistent with a flow deflection, and bounded by compressive heated edges, the properties of this event are consistent with those of HFAs observed at other planets within the solar system.

  17. Anomaly detection for internet surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Henri; Raaijmakers, Stephan; Halma, Arvid; Wedemeijer, Harry

    2012-06-01

    Many threats in the real world can be related to activity of persons on the internet. Internet surveillance aims to predict and prevent attacks and to assist in finding suspects based on information from the web. However, the amount of data on the internet rapidly increases and it is time consuming to monitor many websites. In this paper, we present a novel method to automatically monitor trends and find anomalies on the internet. The system was tested on Twitter data. The results showed that it can successfully recognize abnormal changes in activity or emotion.

  18. Hot flow anomalies at Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collinson, G. A.; Sibeck, D. G.; Masters, A.; Shane, N.; Slavin, J. A.; Coates, A. J.; Zhang, T. L.; Sarantos, M.; Boardsen, S.; Moore, T. E.; Barabash, S.

    2012-04-01

    We present a multi-instrument study of a hot flow anomaly (HFA) observed by the Venus Express spacecraft in the Venusian foreshock, on 22 March 2008, incorporating both Venus Express Magnetometer and Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA) plasma observations. Centered on an interplanetary magnetic field discontinuity with inward convective motional electric fields on both sides, with a decreased core field strength, ion observations consistent with a flow deflection, and bounded by compressive heated edges, the properties of this event are consistent with those of HFAs observed at other planets within the solar system.

  19. Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, Philip B; Counts, Scott E; Nyenhuis, David

    2016-05-01

    Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment are receiving heightened attention as potentially modifiable factors for dementias of later life. These factors have now been linked not only to vascular cognitive disorders but also Alzheimer's disease. In this chapter we review 3 related topics that address vascular contributions to cognitive impairment: 1. vascular pathogenesis and mechanisms; 2. neuropsychological and neuroimaging phenotypic manifestations of cerebrovascular disease; and 3. prospects for prevention of cognitive impairment of later life based on cardiovascular and stroke risk modification. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26704177

  20. Vascular trauma historical notes.

    PubMed

    Rich, Norman M

    2011-03-01

    This article provides a brief historical review of treatment of vascular trauma. Although methods for ligation came into use in the second century, this knowledge was lost during the Dark Ages and did not come back until the Renaissance. Many advances in vascular surgery occurred during the Balkan Wars, World War I, and World War II, although without antibiotics and blood banking, the philosophy of life over limb still ruled. Documenting and repairing both arteries and veins became more common during the Korean and Vietnam conflicts. Increased documentation has revealed that the current conflicts have resulted in more arterial injuries than in previous wars, likely because of improved body armor, improvised explosive device attacks, tourniquet use, and improved medical evacuation time. This brief review emphasizes the great value of mentorship and the legacy of the management of arterial and venous injuries to be passed on. PMID:21502112

  1. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  2. Vascular Thoracic Outlet Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Mohamad Anas; Aljabri, Badr; Al-Omran, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Two distinct terms are used to describe vascular thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) depending on which structure is predominantly affected: venous TOS (due to subclavian vein compression) and arterial TOS (due to subclavian artery compression). Although the venous and arterial subtypes of TOS affect only 3% and <1% of all TOS patients respectively, the diagnostic and management approaches to venous and arterial TOS have undergone considerable evolution due to the recent emergence of minimally invasive endovascular techniques such as catheter-directed arterial and venous thrombolysis, and balloon angioplasty. In this review, we discuss the anatomical factors, etiology, pathogenesis and clinical presentation of vascular TOS patients. In addition, we use the most up to date observational evidence available to provide a contemporary approach to the diagnosis and management of venous TOS and arterial TOS patients. PMID:27568153

  3. The multifactorial nature of microRNAs in vascular remodelling.

    PubMed

    Welten, S M J; Goossens, E A C; Quax, P H A; Nossent, A Y

    2016-05-01

    Vascular remodelling is a multifactorial process that involves both adaptive and maladaptive changes of the vessel wall through, among others, cell proliferation and migration, but also apoptosis and necrosis of the various cell types in the vessel wall. Vascular remodelling can be beneficial, e.g. during neovascularization after ischaemia, as well as pathological, e.g. during atherosclerosis and aneurysm formation. In recent years, it has become clear that microRNAs are able to target many genes that are involved in vascular remodelling processes and either can promote or inhibit structural changes of the vessel wall. Since many different processes of vascular remodelling are regulated by similar mechanisms and factors, both positive and negative vascular remodelling can be affected by the same microRNAs. A large number of microRNAs has been linked to various aspects of vascular remodelling and indeed, several of these microRNAs regulate multiple vascular remodelling processes, including both the adaptive processes angiogenesis and arteriogenesis as well as maladaptive processes of atherosclerosis, restenosis and aneurysm formation. Here, we discuss the multifactorial role of microRNAs and microRNA clusters that were reported to play a role in multiple forms of vascular remodelling and are clearly linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD). The microRNAs reviewed are miR-126, miR-155 and the microRNA gene clusters 17-92, 23/24/27, 143/145 and 14q32. Understanding the contribution of these microRNAs to the entire spectrum of vascular remodelling processes is important, especially as these microRNAs may have great potential as therapeutic targets for treatment of various CVDs. PMID:26912672

  4. Space Weather, Cosmic Rays, and Satellite Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lev, Dorman

    Results are presented of the Satellite Anomaly Project, which aims to improve the methods of safeguarding satellites in the Earth’s magnetosphere from the negative effects of the space environment. Anomaly data from the USSR and Russian “Kosmos” series satellites in the period 1971-1999 are combined into one database, together with similar information on other spacecraft. This database contains, beyond the anomaly information, various characteristics of space weather: geomagnetic activity indices (Ap, AE and Dst), fluxes and fluencies of electrons and protons at different energies, high energy cosmic ray variations and other solar, interplanetary and solar wind data. A comparative analysis of the distribution of each of these parameters relative to satellite anomalies was carried out for the total number of anomalies (about 6000 events), and separately for high altitude orbit satellites ( 5000 events) and low altitude (about 800 events). No relation was found between low and high altitude satellite anomalies. Daily numbers of satellite anomalies, averaged by a superposed epoch method around sudden storm commencements and proton event onsets for high (>1500 km) and low (<1500 km) altitude orbits revealed a big difference in behavior. Satellites were divided into several groups according to their orbital characteristics (altitude and inclination). The relation of satellite anomalies to the environmental parameters was found to be different for various orbits, and this should be taken into account when developing anomaly frequency models. The preliminary anomaly frequency models are presented.

  5. Fingolimod-Associated Peripheral Vascular Adverse Effects.

    PubMed

    Russo, Margherita; Guarneri, Claudio; Mazzon, Emanuela; Sessa, Edoardo; Bramanti, Placido; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore

    2015-10-01

    Fingolimod is the first oral disease-modifying drug approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. The drug is usually well tolerated, and common adverse effects include bradycardia, headache, influenza, diarrhea, back pain, increased liver enzyme levels, and cough. Fingolimod is thought to provide therapeutic benefit by preventing normal lymphocyte egress from lymphoid tissues, thus reducing the infiltration of autoaggressive lymphocytes into the central nervous system. However, because the drug acts on different sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors, it may induce several biological effects by influencing endothelial cell-cell adhesion, angiogenesis, vascular development, and cardiovascular function. We describe a patient with multiple sclerosis who, after 3 weeks of fingolimod administration, developed purplish blotches over the dorsal surface of the distal phalanges of the second and fifth digits and the middle phalanx of the fourth ray, itching, and edema on his left hand, without other evident clinical manifestations. When fingolimod therapy was discontinued, the clinical picture regressed within a few days but reappeared after a rechallenge test. Physicians should be aware of unexpected peripheral vascular adverse effects due to fingolimod use, and patients with vascular-based acropathies should be carefully screened and monitored when taking this drug. PMID:26349949

  6. Update on Vascular Dementia.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ayesha; Kalaria, Raj N; Corbett, Anne; Ballard, Clive

    2016-09-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is a major contributor to the dementia syndrome and is described as having problems with reasoning, planning, judgment, and memory caused by impaired blood flow to the brain and damage to the blood vessels resulting from events such as stroke. There are a variety of etiologies that contribute to the development of vascular cognitive impairment and VaD, and these are often associated with other dementia-related pathologies such as Alzheimer disease. The diagnosis of VaD is difficult due to the number and types of lesions and their locations in the brain. Factors that increase the risk of vascular diseases such as stroke, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking also raise the risk of VaD. Therefore, controlling these risk factors can help lower the chances of developing VaD. This update describes the subtypes of VaD, with details of their complex presentation, associated pathological lesions, and issues with diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. PMID:27502303

  7. Vascular Cambium Development

    PubMed Central

    Nieminen, Kaisa; Blomster, Tiina; Helariutta, Ykä; Mähönen, Ari Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Secondary phloem and xylem tissues are produced through the activity of vascular cambium, the cylindrical secondary meristem which arises among the primary plant tissues. Most dicotyledonous species undergo secondary development, among them Arabidopsis. Despite its small size and herbaceous nature, Arabidopsis displays prominent secondary growth in several organs, including the root, hypocotyl and shoot. Together with the vast genetic resources and molecular research methods available for it, this has made Arabidopsis a versatile and accessible model organism for studying cambial development and wood formation. In this review, we discuss and compare the development and function of the vascular cambium in the Arabidopsis root, hypocotyl, and shoot. We describe the current understanding of the molecular regulation of vascular cambium and compare it to the function of primary meristems. We conclude with a look at the future prospects of cambium research, including opportunities provided by phenotyping and modelling approaches, complemented by studies of natural variation and comparative genetic studies in perennial and woody plant species. PMID:26078728

  8. Cranio-vertebral junction anomaly: atlanto-occipital assimilation.

    PubMed

    Pooja Jain, -; Khursheed Raza, -; Chiman Kumari, -; Manisha Hansda, -; Sb Ray, -

    2016-01-01

    Cranio-vertebral junction is a pivot which holds the globe of the head. Bony anomalies at this point are particularly significant because they lodge the spinal cord and lower part of the brain stem. Clinically fusion of the atlas with the lower part of the occiput is known as Atlanto-occipital assimilation or atlas occipitalization, which can be either partial or complete depending upon the extent of fusion. It can present as totally asymptomatic accidental finding or can be a cause behind major neuro-vascular compression. The present case study is an endeavor to explain occipitalization of atlas bone on the basis of embryology and explain its clinical relevance. PMID:27424507

  9. Conductivity Anomalies in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neska, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a review of studies which, by applying the magnetotelluric, geomagnetic deep sounding, and magnetovariational sounding methods (the latter refers to usage of the horizontal magnetic tensor), investigate Central Europe for zones of enhanced electrical conductivity. The study areas comprise the region of the Trans-European Suture Zone (i.e. the south Baltic region and Poland), the North German Basin, the German and Czech Variscides, the Pannonian Basin (Hungary), and the Polish, Slovakian, Ukrainian, and Romanian Carpathians. This part of the world is well investigated in terms of data coverage and of the density of published studies, whereas the certainty that the results lead to comprehensive interpretations varies within the reviewed literature. A comparison of spatially coincident or adjacent studies reveals the important role that the data coverage of a distinct conductivity anomaly plays for the consistency of results. The encountered conductivity anomalies are understood as linked to basin sediments, asthenospheric upwelling, large differences in lithospheric age, and—this concerns most of them, which all concentrate in the middle crust—tectonic boundaries that developed during all mountain building phases that have taken place on the continent.

  10. Usefulness of intraoperative bronchoscopy during surgical repair of a congenital cardiac anomaly with possible airway obstruction: three cases report

    PubMed Central

    Oh, JongEun; Kim, Jung-won; Shin, Won-Jung; Park, Pyung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Compression of the airway is relatively common in pediatric patients, although it is often an unrecognized complication of congenital cardiac and aortic arch anomalies. Aortopexy has been established as a surgical treatment for tracheobronchial obstruction associated with vascular anomaly, aortic arch anomaly, esophageal atresia, and tracheoesophageal fistula. The tissue-to-tissue arch repair technique could result in severe airway complication such as compression of the left main bronchus which was not a problem before the correction. We report three cases of corrective open heart surgery monitored by intraoperative bronchoscopy performed during prebypass, and performed immediately before weaning from bypass, to evaluate tracheobronchial obstruction caused by congenital, complex cardiac anomalies in the operating room. PMID:26885306

  11. Chromium isotopic anomalies in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esat, T. M.; Ireland, T. R.

    1989-02-01

    The abundances of chromium isotopes, in refractory inclusions from the Allende meteorite, show wide-spread anomalies. The chromium isotope anomalies are similar in pattern to the anomalies discovered in Ca and Ti. The largest effects occur at the neutron-rich isotopes Ca-48, Ti-50 and Cr-54. Individual Cr-rich pink spinels, from the Murchison meteorite, exhibit large and variable excesses in Cr-53 and Cr-54 including the largest Cr-53 anomaly so far reported. Magnesium isotopes, in Murchison Cr-poor blue spinels, also show variable anomalies in Mg-26 including mass-dependent fractionation favoring the lighter isotopes. The Cr-53, Cr-54 and Mg-26 anomalies in Murchison spinels are indicative of a heterogeneous distribution of magnesium and chromium isotopes in the early solar nebula and require a contribution from several nucleosynthetic components in addition to physicochemical processing.

  12. Minor congenital anomalies and ataxic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, G

    1989-01-01

    The incidence of minor congenital anomalies was examined in 36 patients with ataxic cerebral palsy, in unaffected family members, and in 100 unrelated control subjects. None of the control subjects or family members had more than four anomalies, and 25 of 36 (69%) of the patients had more than four. The distribution of anomalies differed considerably, with 60% of the index cases having seven or more, and 94% of the controls having three or less. The number occurring in the patients was significantly more than in their relatives. Of the 25 patients with more than four anomalies, 16 (64%) had undergone potentially adverse perinatal or early postnatal events. Thus minor congenital anomalies were considerably more frequent in those with ataxic cerebral palsy than in related or unrelated control subjects. These anomalies may be markers of early prenatal factors that contributed to the adverse outcome either directly or by predisposing to perinatal difficulties. PMID:2751330

  13. Sea level anomalies exacerbate beach erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuerkauf, Ethan J.; Rodriguez, Antonio B.; Fegley, Stephen R.; Luettich, Richard A.

    2014-07-01

    Sea level anomalies are intra-seasonal increases in water level forced by meteorological and oceanographic processes unrelated to storms. The effects of sea level anomalies on beach morphology are unknown but important to constrain because these events have been recognized over large stretches of continental margins. Here, we present beach erosion measurements along Onslow Beach, a barrier island on the U.S. East Coast, in response to a year with frequent sea level anomalies and no major storms. The anomalies enabled extensive erosion, which was similar and in most places greater than the erosion that occurred during a year with a hurricane. These results highlight the importance of sea level anomalies in facilitating coastal erosion and advocate for their inclusion in beach-erosion models and management plans. Sea level anomalies amplify the erosive effects of accelerated sea level rise and changes in storminess associated with global climate change.

  14. Control of vascular permeability by adhesion molecules.

    PubMed

    Sarelius, Ingrid H; Glading, Angela J

    2015-01-01

    Vascular permeability is a vital function of the circulatory system that is regulated in large part by the limited flux of solutes, water, and cells through the endothelial cell layer. One major pathway through this barrier is via the inter-endothelial junction, which is driven by the regulation of cadherin-based adhesions. The endothelium also forms attachments with surrounding proteins and cells via 2 classes of adhesion molecules, the integrins and IgCAMs. Integrins and IgCAMs propagate activation of multiple downstream signals that potentially impact cadherin adhesion. Here we discuss the known contributions of integrin and IgCAM signaling to the regulation of cadherin adhesion stability, endothelial barrier function, and vascular permeability. Emphasis is placed on known and prospective crosstalk signaling mechanisms between integrins, the IgCAMs- ICAM-1 and PECAM-1, and inter-endothelial cadherin adhesions, as potential strategic signaling nodes for multipartite regulation of cadherin adhesion. PMID:25838987

  15. Acardiac anceps: a rare congenital anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Nigam, Aruna; Agarwal, Rohini; Saxena, Pikee; Barla, Jaya

    2014-01-01

    Acardiac twin is a rare congenital anomaly and is exclusively associated with monochorionic twin pregnancies. The abnormalities occur due to abnormal communication between the two fetuses in the form of arterioarterial and venovenous communications, resulting in a grossly abnormal acardiac twin with reduction anomalies mainly of the upper body and gross oedema. Since no two acardiac twins are alike, this case report will add to the acardiac twin anomaly spectrum. PMID:24717594

  16. The Mars Rover Spirit FLASH anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, Glenn E.; Neilson, Tracy C.

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover 'Spirit' suffered a debilitating anomaly that prevented communication with Earth for several anxious days. With the eyes of the world upon us, the anomaly team used each scrap of information, our knowledge of the system, and sheer determination to analyze and fix the problem, then return the vehicle to normal operation. This paper will discuss the Spirit FLASH anomaly, including the drama of the investigation, the root cause and the lessons learned from the experience.

  17. Thymus Transplantation in Complete DiGeorge Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Markert, M. Louise; Devlin, Blythe H.; Chinn, Ivan; McCarthy, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Complete DiGeorge anomaly is characterized by athymia, congenital heart disease and hypoparathyroidism. This congenital disease is fatal by age 2 years unless immune reconstitution is successful. There are multiple underlying syndromes associated with complete DiGeorge anomaly including 22q11 hemizygosity in approximately 50%, CHARGE association in approximately 25%, and diabetic embryopathy in approximately 15%. Approximately one third of patients present with rash and lymphadenopathy associated with oligoclonal “host” T cells. This condition resembles Omenn syndrome. Immunosuppression is necessary to control the oligoclonal T cells. The results of thymus transplantation are reported for a series of 50 patients, 36 of whom survive. The survivors develop naïve T cells and a diverse T cell repertoire. PMID:19066739

  18. A Constellation of Cardiac Anomalies: Beyond Shone's Complex.

    PubMed

    Ganju, Neeraj K; Kandoria, Arvind; Thakur, Suresh; Ganju, Sunite A

    2016-01-01

    Shone's anomaly is a very rare congenital cardiac malformation characterized by four serial obstructive lesions of the left side of the heart (i) Supravalvular mitral membrane (ii) parachute mitral valve (iii) muscular or membranous subaortic stenosis and (iv) coarctation of aorta. We report a unique presentation of Shone's complex in a 14-year-old adolescent male. In addition to the four characteristic lesions the patient had bicuspid aortic valve, aneurysm of sinus of valsalva, patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect, persistent left superior vena cava opening into coronary sinus and severe pulmonary artery hypertension. This case report highlights the importance of a strong clinical suspicion of the coexistence of multiple congenital cardiac anomalies in Shone's complex and the significance of a careful comprehensive echocardiography. PMID:27293526

  19. A Constellation of Cardiac Anomalies: Beyond Shone's Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ganju, Neeraj K.; Kandoria, Arvind; Thakur, Suresh; Ganju, Sunite A.

    2016-01-01

    Shone's anomaly is a very rare congenital cardiac malformation characterized by four serial obstructive lesions of the left side of the heart (i) Supravalvular mitral membrane (ii) parachute mitral valve (iii) muscular or membranous subaortic stenosis and (iv) coarctation of aorta. We report a unique presentation of Shone's complex in a 14-year-old adolescent male. In addition to the four characteristic lesions the patient had bicuspid aortic valve, aneurysm of sinus of valsalva, patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect, persistent left superior vena cava opening into coronary sinus and severe pulmonary artery hypertension. This case report highlights the importance of a strong clinical suspicion of the coexistence of multiple congenital cardiac anomalies in Shone's complex and the significance of a careful comprehensive echocardiography. PMID:27293526

  20. Retinal vascular changes are a marker for cerebral vascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Heather E.

    2016-01-01

    The retinal circulation is a potential marker of cerebral vascular disease because it shares origin and drainage with the intracranial circulation and because it can be directly visualized using ophthalmoscopy. Cross sectional and cohort studies have demonstrated associations between chronic retinal and cerebral vascular disease, acute retinal and cerebral vascular disease and chronic retinal vascular disease and acute cerebral vascular disease. In particular, certain qualitative features of retinopathy, retinal artery occlusion and increased retinal vein caliber are associated with concurrent and future cerebrovascular events. These associations persist after accounting for confounding variables known to be disease-causing in both circulations, which supports the potential use of retinal vasculature findings to stratify individuals with regards to cerebral vascular disease risk. PMID:26008809

  1. Genetic Pathways of Vascular Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Marion A. Hofmann; McNally, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular calcification is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Arterial calcification of the aorta, coronary, carotid and peripheral arteries becomes more prevalent with age. Genomewide association studies have identified regions of the genome linked to vascular calcification, and these same regions are linked to myocardial infarction risk. The 9p21 region linked to vascular disease and inflammation also associates with vascular calcification. In addition to these common variants, rare genetic defects can serve as primary triggers of accelerated and premature calcification. Infancy-associated calcific disorders are caused by loss of function mutations in ENPP1 an enzyme that produces extracellular pyrophosphate. Adult onset vascular calcification is linked to mutations NTE5, another enzyme that regulates extracellular phosphate metabolism. Common conditions that secondarily enhance vascular calcification include atherosclerosis, metabolic dysfunction, diabetes, and impaired renal clearance. Oxidative stress and vascular inflammation, along with biophysical properties, converge with these predisposing factors to promote soft tissue mineralization. Vascular calcification is accompanied by an osteogenic profile, and this osteogenic conversion is seen within the vascular smooth muscle itself as well as the matrix. Herein we will review the genetic causes of medial calcification in the smooth muscle layer, focusing on recent discoveries of gene mutations that regulate extracellular matrix phosphate production and the role of S100 proteins as promoters of vascular calcification. PMID:23040839

  2. [How Treatable is Vascular Dementia?].

    PubMed

    Mori, Etsuro

    2016-04-01

    Vascular dementia is an umbrella term, encompassing the pathological changes in the brain due to cerebrovascular disease that result in dementia. Vascular dementia is the second most common form of dementia, after Alzheimer's disease. In this paper, I outline the concept of vascular dementia, the key aspects of the disease that are yet to be clarified, and the current status of clinical trials. Assessing these factors, I discuss how treatable vascular dementia presently is. Use of the term'vascular dementia'is riddled with uncertainties regarding disease classification, and non-standardized diagnostic criteria. There are difficulties in determining the exact relationship between cerebrovascular pathology and cognitive impairment. The comorbid effects of Alzheimer's pathology in some individuals also present an obstacle to reliable clinical diagnosis, and hinder research into effective management approaches. Vascular dementia is preventable and treatable, as there are established primary and secondary prevention measures for the causative cerebrovascular diseases, such as vascular risk factor intervention, antiplatelet therapy, and anticoagulation, amongst others. However, unlike Alzheimer's disease, there are no established symptomatic treatments for vascular dementia. Clinical trials of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine indicate that they produce small cognitive benefits in patients with vascular dementia, though the exact clinical significance of these is uncertain. Data are insufficient to support the widespread use of these drugs in vascular dementia. Rehabilitation and physical and cognitive exercise may be beneficial, but evidence of cognitive benefit and relief of neuropsychiatric symptoms due to exercise is lacking. PMID:27056862

  3. Galilean anomalies and their effect on hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Akash

    2016-03-01

    We study flavor and gravitational anomalies in Galilean theories coupled to torsional Newton-Cartan backgrounds. We establish that the relativistic anomaly inflow mechanism with an appropriately modified anomaly polynomial can be used to generate these anomalies. Similar to the relativistic case, we find that Galilean anomalies also survive only in even dimensions. Further, these anomalies only effect the flavor and rotational symmetries of a Galilean theory; in particular, the Milne boost symmetry remains nonanomalous. We also extend the transgression machinery used in relativistic fluids to Galilean fluids, and use it to determine how these anomalies affect the constitutive relations of a Galilean fluid. Unrelated to the Galilean fluids, we propose an analogue of the off-shell second law of thermodynamics for relativistic fluids, to include torsion and a conserved spin current in the vielbein formalism. Interestingly, we find that even in the absence of spin current and torsion the entropy currents in the two formalisms are different: while the usual entropy current gets a contribution from the gravitational anomaly, the entropy current in the vielbein formalism does not have any anomaly-induced part.

  4. The magnetic anomaly of the Ivreazone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albert, G.

    1979-01-01

    A magnetic field survey was made in the Ivreazone in 1969/70. The results were: significant anomaly of the vertical intensity is found. It follows the basic main part of the Ivrea-Verbano zone and continues to the south. The width of the anomaly is about 10 km, the maximum measures about +800 gamma. The model interpretation shows that possibly the anomaly belongs to an amphibolitic body, which in connection with the Ivrea-body was found by deep seismic sounding. Therefore, the magnetic anomaly provides further evidence for the conception that the Ivrea-body has to be regarded as a chip of earthmantle material pushed upward by tectonic processes.

  5. Initial scalar magnetic anomaly map from Magsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langel, R. A.; Phillips, J. D.; Horner, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Magsat data acquired during the November 1979-June 1980 mission was used to derive a scalar magnetic anomaly map covering +50 to -50 deg geographic latitude, and the separation of anomaly fields from core and external fields was accomplished by techniques developed for POGO satellite data. Except in the Atlantic and Pacific at latitudes south of -15 deg, comparison of the Magsat map with its POGO data-derived counterpart shows basic anomaly patterns to be reproducible, and higher resolution due to Magsat's lower measurement altitude. Color-coded scalar anomaly maps are presented for both satellites.

  6. Conscious and unconscious detection of semantic anomalies.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    When asked What superhero is associated with bats, Robin, the Penguin, Metropolis, Catwoman, the Riddler, the Joker, and Mr. Freeze? people frequently fail to notice the anomalous word Metropolis. The goals of this study were to determine whether detection of semantic anomalies, like Metropolis, is conscious or unconscious and whether this detection is immediate or delayed. To achieve these goals, participants answered anomalous and nonanomalous questions as their reading times for words were recorded. Comparisons between detected versus undetected anomalies revealed slower reading times for detected anomalies-a finding that suggests that people immediately and consciously detected anomalies. Further, comparisons between first and second words following undetected anomalies versus nonanomalous controls revealed some slower reading times for first and second words-a finding that suggests that people may have unconsciously detected anomalies but this detection was delayed. Taken together, these findings support the idea that when we are immediately aware of a semantic anomaly (i.e., immediate conscious detection) our language processes make immediate adjustments in order to reconcile contradictory information of anomalies with surrounding text; however, even when we are not consciously aware of semantic anomalies, our language processes still make these adjustments, although these adjustments are delayed (i.e., delayed unconscious detection). PMID:25624136

  7. Satellite Magnetic Anomalies of Africa and Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinze, W. J.; Vonfrese, R. R. B. (Principal Investigator); Olivier, R.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary MAGSAT scalar magnetic anomaly data of Africa, Europe, and adjacent marine areas were reduced to the pole assuming a constant inducing Earth's magnetic field of 60,000 nT. This process leads to a consistent anomaly data set free from marked variations in directional and intensity effects of the Earth's magnetic field over this extensive region. The resulting data are correlated with long wave length-pass filtered free-air gravity anomalies; regional heat flow, and tectonic data to investigate magatectonic elements and the region's geologic history. Magnetic anomalies are related to both ancient as well as more recent Cenozoic structural features.

  8. Consistent anomalies of the induced W gravities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abud, Mario; Ader, Jean-Pierre; Cappiello, Luigi

    1996-02-01

    The BRST anomaly which may be present in the induced Wn gravity quantized on the light-cone is evaluated in the geometrical framework of Zucchini. The cocycles linked by the cohomology of the BRST operator to the anomaly are straightforwardly calculated thanks to the analogy between this formulation and the Yang-Mills theory. We give also a conformally covariant formulation of these quantities including the anomaly, which is valid on arbitrary Riemann surfaces. The example of the W3 theory is discussed and a comparison with other candidates for the anomaly available in the literature is presented.

  9. Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum and cerebral anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Schrander-Stumpel, C T; de Die-Smulders, C E; Hennekam, R C; Fryns, J P; Bouckaert, P X; Brouwer, O F; da Costa, J J; Lommen, E J; Maaswinkel-Mooy, P D

    1992-01-01

    We report on three Dutch children with a clinical diagnosis of oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS) and hydrocephalus. The clinical features are compared to 15 published cases of OAVS and hydrocephalus. Several other cerebral abnormalities were present in the whole group. About half of the cases had cleft lip/palate, anophthalmia/microphthalmia, or a cardiac defect. Mental retardation was found in five of the surviving 11 patients and early death occurred in one-third. We compared the cases with OAVS and hydrocephalus with published reports of OAVS and other cerebral anomalies and found no significant clinical differences. However, the clinical characteristics were clearly more severely expressed than generally found in patients with OAVS. Children with OAVS and more severe clinical features, especially anophthalmia/microphthalmia and cleft lip/palate, seem to be at an increased risk for cerebral malformations and for mental retardation. Images PMID:1583660

  10. Abdominal Vascular Catastrophes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manpreet; Koyfman, Alex; Martinez, Joseph P

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal vascular catastrophes are among the most challenging and time sensitive for emergency practitioners to recognize. Mesenteric ischemia remains a highly lethal entity for which the history and physical examination can be misleading. Laboratory tests are often unhelpful, and appropriate imaging must be quickly obtained. A multidisciplinary approach is required to have a positive impact on mortality rates. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm likewise may present in a cryptic fashion. A specific type of ruptured aneurysm, the aortoenteric fistula, often masquerades as the more common routine gastrointestinal bleed. The astute clinician recognizes that this is a more lethal variant of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. PMID:27133247

  11. The pathobiology of vascular dementia

    PubMed Central

    Iadecola, Costantino

    2013-01-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment defines alterations in cognition, ranging from subtle deficits to full-blown dementia, attributable to cerebrovascular causes. Often coexisting with Alzheimer’s disease, mixed vascular and neurodegenerative dementia has emerged as the leading cause of age-related cognitive impairment. Central to the disease mechanism is the crucial role that cerebral blood vessels play in brain health, not only for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients, but also for the trophic signaling that links inextricably the well being of neurons and glia to that of cerebrovascular cells. This review will examine how vascular damage disrupts these vital homeostatic interactions, focusing on the hemispheric white matter, a region at heightened risk for vascular damage, and on the interplay between vascular factors and Alzheimer’s disease. Finally, preventative and therapeutic prospects will be examined, highlighting the importance of midlife vascular risk factor control in the prevention of late-life dementia. PMID:24267647

  12. Angiopoietin 2 Alters Pancreatic Vascularization in Diabetic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Calderari, Sophie; Chougnet, Cécile; Clemessy, Maud; Kempf, Hervé; Corvol, Pierre; Larger, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Islet vascularization, by controlling beta-cell mass expansion in response to increased insulin demand, is implicated in the progression to glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes. We investigated how hyperglycaemia impairs expansion and differentiation of the growing pancreas. We have grafted xenogenic (avian) embryonic pancreas in severe combined immuno-deficient (SCID) mouse and analyzed endocrine and endothelial development in hyperglycaemic compared to normoglycaemic conditions. Methods 14 dpi chicken pancreases were grafted under the kidney capsule of normoglycaemic or hyperglycaemic, streptozotocin-induced, SCID mice and analyzed two weeks later. Vascularization was analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively using either in situ hybridization with both mouse- and chick-specific RNA probes for VEGFR2 or immunohistochemistry with an antibody to nestin, a marker of endothelial cells that is specific for murine cells. To inhibit angiopoietin 2 (Ang2), SCID mice were treated with 4 mg/kg IP L1–10 twice/week. Results In normoglycaemic condition, chicken-derived endocrine and exocrine cells developed well and intragraft vessels were lined with mouse endothelial cells. When pancreases were grafted in hyperglycaemic mice, growth and differentiation of the graft were altered and we observed endothelial discontinuities, large blood-filled spaces. Vessel density was decreased. These major vascular anomalies were associated with strong over-expression of chick-Ang2. To explore the possibility that Ang2 over-expression could be a key step in vascular disorganization induced by hyperglycaemia, we treated mice with L1–10, an Ang-2 specific inhibitor. Inhibition of Ang2 improved vascularization and beta-cell density. Conclusions This work highlighted an important role of Ang2 in pancreatic vascular defects induced by hyperglycaemia. PMID:22272235

  13. A Comparative Evaluation of Unsupervised Anomaly Detection Algorithms for Multivariate Data.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Markus; Uchida, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    Anomaly detection is the process of identifying unexpected items or events in datasets, which differ from the norm. In contrast to standard classification tasks, anomaly detection is often applied on unlabeled data, taking only the internal structure of the dataset into account. This challenge is known as unsupervised anomaly detection and is addressed in many practical applications, for example in network intrusion detection, fraud detection as well as in the life science and medical domain. Dozens of algorithms have been proposed in this area, but unfortunately the research community still lacks a comparative universal evaluation as well as common publicly available datasets. These shortcomings are addressed in this study, where 19 different unsupervised anomaly detection algorithms are evaluated on 10 different datasets from multiple application domains. By publishing the source code and the datasets, this paper aims to be a new well-funded basis for unsupervised anomaly detection research. Additionally, this evaluation reveals the strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches for the first time. Besides the anomaly detection performance, computational effort, the impact of parameter settings as well as the global/local anomaly detection behavior is outlined. As a conclusion, we give an advise on algorithm selection for typical real-world tasks. PMID:27093601

  14. A Comparative Evaluation of Unsupervised Anomaly Detection Algorithms for Multivariate Data

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Markus; Uchida, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    Anomaly detection is the process of identifying unexpected items or events in datasets, which differ from the norm. In contrast to standard classification tasks, anomaly detection is often applied on unlabeled data, taking only the internal structure of the dataset into account. This challenge is known as unsupervised anomaly detection and is addressed in many practical applications, for example in network intrusion detection, fraud detection as well as in the life science and medical domain. Dozens of algorithms have been proposed in this area, but unfortunately the research community still lacks a comparative universal evaluation as well as common publicly available datasets. These shortcomings are addressed in this study, where 19 different unsupervised anomaly detection algorithms are evaluated on 10 different datasets from multiple application domains. By publishing the source code and the datasets, this paper aims to be a new well-funded basis for unsupervised anomaly detection research. Additionally, this evaluation reveals the strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches for the first time. Besides the anomaly detection performance, computational effort, the impact of parameter settings as well as the global/local anomaly detection behavior is outlined. As a conclusion, we give an advise on algorithm selection for typical real-world tasks. PMID:27093601

  15. Vascular Distribution of Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Phoebe A.; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    Once considered primarily occupational, novel nanotechnology innovation and application has led to widespread domestic use and intentional biomedical exposures. With these exciting advances, the breadth and depth of toxicological considerations must also be expanded. The vascular system interacts with every tissue in the body, striving to homeostasis. Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) have been reported to distribute in many different organs and tissues. However, these observations have tended to use approaches requiring tissue homogenization and/or gross organ analyses. These techniques, while effective in establishing presence, preclude an exact determination of where ENM are deposited within a tissue. It is necessary to identify this exact distribution and deposition of ENM throughout the cardiovascular system, with respect to vascular hemodynamics and in vivo/ in vitro ENM modifications taken into account if nanotechnology is to achieve its full potential. Distinct levels of the vasculature will first be described as individual compartments. Then the vasculature will be considered as a whole. These unique compartments and biophysical conditions will be discussed in terms of their propensity to favor ENM deposition. Understanding levels of the vasculature will also be discussed. Ultimately, future studies must verify the mechanisms speculated on and presented herein. PMID:24777845

  16. Pulmonary vascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Mélot, C; Naeije, R

    2011-04-01

    Diseases of the pulmonary vasculature are a cause of increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in pulmonary embolism, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), and pulmonary arterial hypertension or decreased PVR in pulmonary arteriovenous malformations on hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, portal hypertension, or cavopulmonary anastomosis. All these conditions are associated with a decrease in both arterial PO2 and PCO2. Gas exchange in pulmonary vascular diseases with increased PVR is characterized by a shift of ventilation and perfusion to high ventilation-perfusion ratios, a mild to moderate increase in perfusion to low ventilation-perfusion ratios, and an increased physiologic dead space. Hypoxemia in these patients is essentially explained by altered ventilation-perfusion matching amplified by a decreased mixed venous PO2 caused by a low cardiac output. Hypocapnia is accounted for by hyperventilation, which is essentially related to an increased chemosensitivity. A cardiac shunt on a patent foramen ovale may be a cause of severe hypoxemia in a proportion of patients with pulmonary hypertension and an increase in right atrial pressure. Gas exchange in pulmonary arteriovenous malformations is characterized by variable degree of pulmonary shunting and/or diffusion-perfusion imbalance. Hypocapnia is caused by an increased ventilation in relation to an increased pulmonary blood flow with direct peripheral chemoreceptor stimulation by shunted mixed venous blood flow. PMID:23737196

  17. Are MPNs vascular diseases?

    PubMed

    Finazzi, Guido; De Stefano, Valerio; Barbui, Tiziano

    2013-12-01

    A high risk of arterial and venous thrombosis is the hallmark of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), particularly polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET). Clinical aspects, pathogenesis and management of thrombosis in MPN resemble those of other paradigmatic vascular diseases. The occurrence of venous thrombosis in atypical sites, such as the splanchnic district, and the involvement of plasmatic prothrombotic factors, including an acquired resistance to activated protein C, both link MPN to inherited thrombophilia. Anticoagulants are the drugs of choice for these complications. The pathogenic role of leukocytes and inflammation, and the high mortality rate from arterial occlusions are common features of MPN and atherosclerosis. The efficacy and safety of aspirin in reducing deaths and major thrombosis in PV have been demonstrated in a randomized clinical trial. Finally, the Virchow's triad of impaired blood cells, endothelium and blood flow is shared both by MPN and thrombosis in solid cancer. Phlebotomy and myelosuppressive agents are the current therapeutic options for correcting these abnormalities and reducing thrombosis in this special vascular disease represented by MPN. PMID:24037420

  18. Addressing the Challenges of Anomaly Detection for Cyber Physical Energy Grid Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ferragut, Erik M; Laska, Jason A; Melin, Alexander M; Czejdo, Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    The consolidation of cyber communications networks and physical control systems within the energy smart grid introduces a number of new risks. Unfortunately, these risks are largely unknown and poorly understood, yet include very high impact losses from attack and component failures. One important aspect of risk management is the detection of anomalies and changes. However, anomaly detection within cyber security remains a difficult, open problem, with special challenges in dealing with false alert rates and heterogeneous data. Furthermore, the integration of cyber and physical dynamics is often intractable. And, because of their broad scope, energy grid cyber-physical systems must be analyzed at multiple scales, from individual components, up to network level dynamics. We describe an improved approach to anomaly detection that combines three important aspects. First, system dynamics are modeled using a reduced order model for greater computational tractability. Second, a probabilistic and principled approach to anomaly detection is adopted that allows for regulation of false alerts and comparison of anomalies across heterogeneous data sources. Third, a hierarchy of aggregations are constructed to support interactive and automated analyses of anomalies at multiple scales.

  19. Multiple pterygium syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Chang, C H; Misra, R P; Peters, H A; Grijalva, N S; Opitz, J M

    1980-01-01

    We describe a sporadic case and four sibs from a consanguineous Nicaraguan family affected with the multiple pterygium syndrome. Clinical manifestations included normal intelligence; short stature; pterygia of neck, axillary, antecubital, popliteal, digital, and intercrural areas; multiple joint contractures with a crouched stance; a flat, sad, motionless facial appearance; and cleft palate. Males had small penis and scrotum and cryptorchidism; females had apparent aplasia of labia majora and small clitoris. Skeletal anomalies included fusion of cervical vertebrae, scoliosis, flexion contractures of fingers and "rocker-bottom" feet with vertical talus. This review documents genetic heterogeneity: Autosomal recessive inheritance in many cases, autosomal dominant determination in others, and sporadic occurrence. PMID:7468651

  20. Indicated preterm birth for fetal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Craigo, Sabrina D

    2011-10-01

    Between 2% and 3% of pregnancies are complicated by fetal anomalies. For most anomalies, there is no advantage to late preterm or early-term delivery. The risks of maternal or fetal complication are specific for each anomaly. Very few anomalies pose potential maternal risk. Some anomalies carry ongoing risks to the fetus, such as an increased risk of fetal death, hemorrhage, or organ damage. In a limited number of select cases, the advantages of late preterm or early-term birth may include avoiding an ongoing risk of fetal death related to the anomaly, allowing delivery in a controlled setting with availability of subspecialists and allowing direct care for the neonate with organ injury. The optimal gestational age for delivery cannot be determined for all pregnancies complicated by fetal anomalies. For most pregnancies complicated by anomalies, there is no change to obstetrical management regarding timing of delivery. For those that may benefit from late preterm or early-term delivery, variability exists such that each management plan should be individualized. PMID:21962626

  1. Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality, Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E. D.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Durst, Bonita E.; Erickson, David; Puigh, Raymond J.

    2010-02-19

    This report is revision 6 of the Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality. This report is required reading for the training of criticality professionals in many organizations both nationally and internationally. This report describes many different classes of nuclear criticality anomalies that are different than expected.

  2. Nd:YAG laser photocoagulation of benign oral vascular lesions: a case series.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Rui; Silva, Igor Henrique; Carvalho, Alessandra Tavares; Leão, Jair Carneiro; Gueiros, Luiz Alcino

    2015-11-01

    Vascular anomalies of the head and neck are common lesions usually associated with functional and/or aesthetic limitations. The aim of the present paper was to report a case series of oral vascular malformations treated with Nd:YAG laser photocoagulation, highlighting the clinical evolution and post-surgical complications. Fifteen patients diagnosed with oral vascular malformations were treated with Nd:YAG laser followed by three sessions of biostimulation. None of the patients presented post-surgical pain, but 6 of 15 patients (40%) experienced minimal post-surgical complications. All cases presented complete resolution of the lesions after laser treatment. More importantly, 12 out of 15 (80%) resolved after a single session. Low morbidity, minimal patient discomfort, and satisfactory aesthetic results point Nd:YAG laser photocoagulation as a promising option for the management of benign oral vascular lesions. PMID:25962368

  3. MTHFR and ACE Gene Polymorphisms and Risk of Vascular and Degenerative Dementias in the Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Pratima; Pradhan, Sunil; Modi, Dinesh Raj; Mittal, Balraj

    2009-01-01

    Focal lacunar infarctions due to cerebral small vessel atherosclerosis or single/multiple large cortical infarcts lead to vascular dementia, and different genes and environmental factors have been implicated in causation or aggravation of the disease. Previous reports suggest that some of the risk factors may be common to both vascular as well as…

  4. Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental rifting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Radially polarized MAGSAT anomalies of North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic lithospheric sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. These major magnetic features apparently preserve their integrity until a superimposed metamorphoric event alters the magnitude and pattern of the anomalies. The longevity of continental scale magnetic anomalies contrasts markedly with that of regional gravity anomalies which tend to reflect predominantly isostatic adjustments associated with neo-tectonism. First observed as a result of NASA's magnetic satellite programs, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans. Accordingly, satellite magnetic observations provide a further tool for investigating continental drift to compliment other lines of evidence in paleoclimatology, paleontology, paleomagnetism, and studies of the radiometric ages and geometric fit of the continents.

  5. Global magnetic anomaly and aurora of Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Andrew F.

    1990-01-01

    The large offset and tilt of Neptune's dipole magnetic field combine to create a global magnetic anomaly, analogous to but much more important than earth's South Atlantic Anomaly. Energetic particle precipitation loss within the Neptune anomaly creates 'atmospheric drift shadows' within which particle fluxes are greatly reduced. The energetic particle dropout observed by Voyager near closest approach occurred near the predicted times when Voyager passed within the atmospheric drift shadow. Extremely soft, structured bursts of ions and electrons within the drift shadow may result from plasma wave-induced pitch angle scattering of trapped particles confined near the magnetic equator. The dropout does not necessarily imply that Voyager passed through an earth-like discrete auroral zone, as earlier reported. The ion and electron fluxes observed within the dropout period correspond to particles that must precipitate to Neptune's atmosphere within the anomaly region. This anomaly precipitation can account for a major portion of the ultraviolet emissions previously identified as Neptune aurora.

  6. A New, Principled Approach to Anomaly Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Ferragut, Erik M; Laska, Jason A; Bridges, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    Intrusion detection is often described as having two main approaches: signature-based and anomaly-based. We argue that only unsupervised methods are suitable for detecting anomalies. However, there has been a tendency in the literature to conflate the notion of an anomaly with the notion of a malicious event. As a result, the methods used to discover anomalies have typically been ad hoc, making it nearly impossible to systematically compare between models or regulate the number of alerts. We propose a new, principled approach to anomaly detection that addresses the main shortcomings of ad hoc approaches. We provide both theoretical and cyber-specific examples to demonstrate the benefits of our more principled approach.

  7. 219 vascular fellows' perception of the future of vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Hingorani, Anil P; Ascher, Enrico; Marks, Natalie; Shiferson, Alexander; Puggioni, Alessandra; Tran, Victor; Patel, Nirav; Jacob, Theresa

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to identify the fellows' concerns about the future of the field of vascular surgery, we conducted a survey consisting of 22 questions at an annual national meeting in March from 2004 to 2007. In order to obtain accurate data, all surveys were kept anonymous. The fellows were asked (1) what type of practice they anticipated they would be in, (2) what the new training paradigm for fellows should be, (3) to assess their expectation of the needed manpower with respect to the demand for vascular surgeons, (4) what were major threats to the future of vascular surgery, (5) whether they had heard of and were in favor of the American Board of Vascular Surgery (ABVS), (6) who should be able to obtain vascular privileges, and (7) about their interest in an association for vascular surgical trainees. Of 273 attendees, 219 (80%) completed the survey. Males made up 87% of those surveyed, and 60% were between the ages of 31 and 35 years. Second-year fellows made up 82% of those surveyed. Those expecting to join a private, academic, or mixed practice made up 35%, 28%, and 20% of the respondents, respectively, with 71% anticipating entering a 100% vascular practice. Forty percent felt that 5 years of general surgery with 2 years of vascular surgery should be the training paradigm, while 45% suggested 3 and 3 years, respectively. A majority, 79%, felt that future demand would exceed the available manpower, while 17% suggested that manpower would meet demand. The major challenges to the future of vascular surgery were felt to be competition from cardiology (82%) or radiology (30%) and lack of an independent board (29%). Seventeen percent were not aware of the ABVS, and only 2% were against it; 71% suggested that vascular privileges be restricted to board-certified vascular surgeons. Seventy-six percent were interested in forming an association for vascular trainees to address the issues of the future job market (67%), endovascular training during fellowship (56

  8. Structure of Hot Flow Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestakov, A.; Vaisberg, O. L.

    2012-12-01

    Hot Flow Anomalies (HFAs) were first discovered in 1980s. These are active processes of hot plasma bulks formation that usually occur at planetary bow shocks. Though HFA were studied for long time it is still not clear if they are reforming structures and what defines particular internal structure of HFA. Our study is based on the Interball Tail Probe data. We used 10-sec measurements of complex plasma analyzer SCA-1 and 1-second magnetic field measurements, and ELECTRON spectrometer 2-dimensional measurements with 3,75-sec temporal resolution. Five anomalies that were observed on the basis of well resolved structure for which we obtained displacement velocity along bow shock, flow velocities within HFA, and estimated the size. We checked if main criteria of HFA formation were fulfilled for each case. The following criteria were satisfied: motional electric field direction was directed toward current sheet at least at one side of it, bow shock was quasi-perpendicular at least at one side of HFA, and angle between current sheet normal and solar wind velocity was large. Convection velocities of plasma within HFA were calculated by subtracting average velocity from measured ion convection velocities along spacecraft trajectory through anomaly. These convection velocities viewed in coordinate system of shock normal and calculated IMF current sheet normal clearly show separation of HFA region in 3 parts: leading part, narrow central part, and trailing part. Ion velocity distributions confirm this triple structure of HFA. Thomsen et al. [1986] identified the region within HFA that they called "internal recovery". It looks like central region that we call narrow central part. Vaisberg et al. [1999] discussed separation of HFA into 2 distinct parts that correspond to leading and trailing parts. Judging from plasma convection pattern within HFAs we assumed that "internal recovery" region is the source of energy and momentum around interplanetary current sheet crossing. HFA

  9. Interactive effects of vascular risk burden and advanced age on cerebral blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Bangen, Katherine J.; Nation, Daniel A.; Clark, Lindsay R.; Harmell, Alexandrea L.; Wierenga, Christina E.; Dev, Sheena I.; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Zlatar, Zvinka Z.; Salmon, David P.; Liu, Thomas T.; Bondi, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular risk factors and cerebral blood flow (CBF) reduction have been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD); however the possible moderating effects of age and vascular risk burden on CBF in late life remain understudied. We examined the relationships among elevated vascular risk burden, age, CBF, and cognition. Seventy-one non-demented older adults completed an arterial spin labeling MR scan, neuropsychological assessment, and medical history interview. Relationships among vascular risk burden, age, and CBF were examined in a priori regions of interest (ROIs) previously implicated in aging and AD. Interaction effects indicated that, among older adults with elevated vascular risk burden (i.e., multiple vascular risk factors), advancing age was significantly associated with reduced cortical CBF whereas there was no such relationship for those with low vascular risk burden (i.e., no or one vascular risk factor). This pattern was observed in cortical ROIs including medial temporal (hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, uncus), inferior parietal (supramarginal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, angular gyrus), and frontal (anterior cingulate, middle frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus) cortices. Furthermore, among those with elevated vascular risk, reduced CBF was associated with poorer cognitive performance. Such findings suggest that older adults with elevated vascular risk burden may be particularly vulnerable to cognitive change as a function of CBF reductions. Findings support the use of CBF as a potential biomarker in preclinical AD and suggest that vascular risk burden and regionally-specific CBF changes may contribute to differential age-related cognitive declines. PMID:25071567

  10. Impact of prenatal diagnosis by ultrasound on the prevalence of congenital anomalies at birth in southern France.

    PubMed Central

    Julian-Reynier, C; Philip, N; Scheiner, C; Aurran, Y; Chabal, F; Maron, A; Gombert, A; Aymé, S

    1994-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aims were (1) to assess whether termination of pregnancy after prenatal screening by ultrasound affected the prevalence of congenital anomalies at birth, and (2) to examine the trend of this pattern over time. DESIGN--This study deals with congenital anomalies, possibly detectable prenatally or at birth, which were classified as isolated and multiple anomalies; chromosomal anomalies were not included. The prevalence rates of congenital anomalies at birth were determined from case registration data in the Marseille district, France, from the registry of congenital malformations (Eurocat no 22), which covers 23,500 births a year. The chi 2 test for homogeneity in proportions was used to test whether the differences in the total prevalence rates were significant over time. SETTING--The population was defined as all children born to parents living in the Marseille district between January 1 1984 and December 31 1990. PATIENTS--Among the 164,509 pregnancy outcomes monitored during the study, 1795 children with a single congenital anomaly and 288 with multiple congenital anomalies detectable at birth were assessed. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--The percentage of pregnancy terminations was higher in the case of multiple anomalies (16%) than with single ones (7.5%). Leaving aside the lethal birth defects, this percentage became 7.9% in the case of multiple anomalies and 4.3% with isolated ones. A significant increase (p < 0.001) occurred over the seven year study period in the total percentage of terminations because of isolated anomalies but not in that involving multiple ones. The increase observed in the former case was found to be mainly attributable to an increase in the number of terminations of pregnancy undertaken because of anomalies which were either lethal or associated with very low survival rates (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS--Termination of pregnancy after prenatal ultrasound examination was found to have a definite impact on the prevalence

  11. Interactions of hormones with the vascular endothelium. Effects on the control of vascular tone.

    PubMed

    Pohl, U; Kaas, J

    1994-03-01

    Due to their anatomical location vascular endothelial cells are an obvious target for hormones which are transported by the bloodstream. Studies on cultured endothelial cells, isolated vessels and the intact organism revealed the existence of multiple interactions between endothelial cells and circulating hormones. Not only are endothelial cells involved in the clearance of some specific circulating hormones, but they also form a tight barrier for other hormones thus preventing or attenuating their direct effects on vascular smooth muscle. Endothelial cells are also involved in the production of circulating angiotensin II by the angiotensin converting enzyme. Probably the most significant effect of hormones in vascular control is the ability of many of them to modulate the release of vasoactive autacoids such as nitric oxide, prostaglandins and endothelin-1. Aside from acute stimulating effects on autacoid production, some hormones, particularly steroids, exert chronic effects on vasoactive-factor gene expression. Apparently, in the control of vascular tone, interactions between circulating hormones and the endothelium play a major role. However, the functional significance of these interactions, especially in pathophysiologic conditions remains to be determined. PMID:8185724

  12. Weather anomalies affect Climate Change microblogging intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molodtsova, T.; Kirilenko, A.

    2012-12-01

    There is a huge gap between the scientific consensus and public understanding of climate change. Climate change has become a political issue and a "hot" topic in mass media that only adds the complexity to forming the public opinion. Scientists operate in scientific terms, not necessarily understandable by general public, while it is common for people to perceive the latest weather anomaly as an evidence of climate change. In 1998 Hansen et al. introduced a concept of an objectively measured subjective climate change indicator, which can relate public feeling that the climate is changing to the observed meteorological parameters. We tested this concept in a simple example of a temperature-based index, which we related to microblogging activity. Microblogging is a new form of communication in which the users describe their current status in short Internet messages. Twitter (http://twitter.com), is currently the most popular microblogging platform. There are multiple reasons, why this data is particularly valuable to the researches interested in social dynamics: microblogging is widely used to publicize one's opinion with the public; has broad, diverse audience, represented by users from many countries speaking different languages; finally, Twitter contains an enormous number of data, e.g., there were 1,284,579 messages related to climate change from 585,168 users in the January-May data collection. We collected the textual data entries, containing words "climate change" or "global warming" from the 1st of January, 2012. The data was retrieved from the Internet every 20 minutes using a specially developed Python code. Using geolocational information, blog entries originating from the New York urbanized area were selected. These entries, used as a source of public opinion on climate change, were related to the surface temperature, obtained from La Guardia airport meteorological station. We defined the "significant change" in the temperature index as deviation of the

  13. Anomaly Detection in Dynamic Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Turcotte, Melissa

    2014-10-14

    Anomaly detection in dynamic communication networks has many important security applications. These networks can be extremely large and so detecting any changes in their structure can be computationally challenging; hence, computationally fast, parallelisable methods for monitoring the network are paramount. For this reason the methods presented here use independent node and edge based models to detect locally anomalous substructures within communication networks. As a first stage, the aim is to detect changes in the data streams arising from node or edge communications. Throughout the thesis simple, conjugate Bayesian models for counting processes are used to model these data streams. A second stage of analysis can then be performed on a much reduced subset of the network comprising nodes and edges which have been identified as potentially anomalous in the first stage. The first method assumes communications in a network arise from an inhomogeneous Poisson process with piecewise constant intensity. Anomaly detection is then treated as a changepoint problem on the intensities. The changepoint model is extended to incorporate seasonal behavior inherent in communication networks. This seasonal behavior is also viewed as a changepoint problem acting on a piecewise constant Poisson process. In a static time frame, inference is made on this extended model via a Gibbs sampling strategy. In a sequential time frame, where the data arrive as a stream, a novel, fast Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) algorithm is introduced to sample from the sequence of posterior distributions of the change points over time. A second method is considered for monitoring communications in a large scale computer network. The usage patterns in these types of networks are very bursty in nature and don’t fit a Poisson process model. For tractable inference, discrete time models are considered, where the data are aggregated into discrete time periods and probability models are fitted to the

  14. The 2006 William Feinberg lecture: shifting the paradigm from stroke to global vascular risk estimation.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Ralph L

    2007-06-01

    By the year 2010, it is estimated that 18.1 million people worldwide will die annually because of cardiovascular diseases and stroke. "Global vascular risk" more broadly includes the multiple overlapping disease silos of stroke, myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, and vascular death. Estimation of global vascular risk requires consideration of a variety of variables including demographics, environmental behaviors, and risk factors. Data from multiple studies suggest continuous linear relationships between the physiological vascular risk modulators of blood pressure, lipids, and blood glucose rather than treating these conditions as categorical risk factors. Constellations of risk factors may be more relevant than individual categorical components. Exciting work with novel risk factors may also have predictive value in estimates of global vascular risk. Advances in imaging have led to the measurement of subclinical conditions such as carotid intima-media thickness and subclinical brain conditions such as white matter hyperintensities and silent infarcts. These subclinical measurements may be intermediate stages in the transition from asymptomatic to symptomatic vascular events, appear to be associated with the fundamental vascular risk factors, and represent opportunities to more precisely quantitate disease progression. The expansion of studies in molecular epidemiology and detection of genetic markers underlying vascular risks also promises to extend our precision of global vascular risk estimation. Global vascular risk estimation will require quantitative methods that bundle these multi-dimensional data into more precise estimates of future risk. The power of genetic information coupled with data on demographics, risk-inducing behaviors, vascular risk modulators, biomarkers, and measures of subclinical conditions should provide the most realistic approximation of an individual's future global vascular risk. The ultimate public health benefit

  15. Collie Eye Anomaly in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Walser-Reinhardt, L; Hässig, M; Spiess, B

    2009-12-01

    In this retrospective study, the results of 3'527 eye examinations in 6 different breeds affected with Collie Eye Anomaly (CEA) over a period of 8 years (1999 - 2007) are described. CEA was divided into three main ophthalmoscopic features, a) choroidal hypoplasia (CRH), b) CRH and coloboma and c) coloboma alone. Of the 101 Smooth Collies 8.9 % showed signs of CRH, whereas 36.9 % of Rough Collies were affected with CRH, 2.8 % with CRH and coloboma and 0.38 % with coloboma alone. Choroidal hypoplasia was present in 13.1 %, CRH and coloboma in 1.8 % and coloboma alone in 0.2 % of the Shetland Sheepdogs. Only one Australian Shepherd dog had CRH, while 0.7 % of the Border Collies were affected with CRH. None of the Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retrievers were affected with CEA. There were no statistically significant differences in the occurrence of CEA between males and females, nor was there any relation between coat colors. Significant differences could be shown between dogs younger or older than 8 weeks at first examination. CEA was more often diagnosed in dogs younger than 8 weeks within the Rough Collie and Shetland Sheepdog. PMID:19946851

  16. Data Mining for Anomaly Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Gautam; Mack, Daniel; Mylaraswamy, Dinkar; Bharadwaj, Raj

    2013-01-01

    The Vehicle Integrated Prognostics Reasoner (VIPR) program describes methods for enhanced diagnostics as well as a prognostic extension to current state of art Aircraft Diagnostic and Maintenance System (ADMS). VIPR introduced a new anomaly detection function for discovering previously undetected and undocumented situations, where there are clear deviations from nominal behavior. Once a baseline (nominal model of operations) is established, the detection and analysis is split between on-aircraft outlier generation and off-aircraft expert analysis to characterize and classify events that may not have been anticipated by individual system providers. Offline expert analysis is supported by data curation and data mining algorithms that can be applied in the contexts of supervised learning methods and unsupervised learning. In this report, we discuss efficient methods to implement the Kolmogorov complexity measure using compression algorithms, and run a systematic empirical analysis to determine the best compression measure. Our experiments established that the combination of the DZIP compression algorithm and CiDM distance measure provides the best results for capturing relevant properties of time series data encountered in aircraft operations. This combination was used as the basis for developing an unsupervised learning algorithm to define "nominal" flight segments using historical flight segments.

  17. Vitellointestinal Duct Anomalies in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Kadian, Yogender Singh; Verma, Anjali; Rattan, Kamal Nain; Kajal, Pardeep

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitellointestinal duct (VID) or omphalomesenteric duct anomalies are secondary to the persistence of the embryonic vitelline duct, which normally obliterates by weeks 5–9 of intrauterine life. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of a total of 16 patients of symptomatic remnants of vitellointestinal duct from period of Jan 2009 to May 2013. Results: Male to female ratio (M:F) was 4.3:1 and mean age of presentation was 2 months and their mode of presentation was: patent VID in 9 (56.25%) patients, umbilical cyst in 2(12.25%), umbilical granuloma in 2 (12.25%), and Meckel diverticulum as content of hernia sac in obstructed umbilical hernia in 1 (6.25%) patient. Two patients with umbilical fistula had severe electrolyte disturbance and died without surgical intervention. Conclusion: Persistent VID may have varied presentations in infancy. High output umbilical fistula and excessive bowel prolapse demand urgent surgical intervention to avoid morbidity and mortality. PMID:27433448

  18. Hot Flow Anomaly Structure Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestakov, A.; Vaisberg, O. L.

    2010-12-01

    Hot Flow Anomaly observed on Interball-Tail on 03.14.1996 is investigated. The normal to the interplanetary current sheet interacting with bow shock was determined in assumption of tangential discontinuity. Calculated motional electric field was directed towards current sheet. The bow shock before HFA arrival to the spacecraft was quasi-perpendicular, and was quasi-parallel after HFA passage. Respectively, of the shocks, bracketing HFA, were quasi-perpendicular before HFA passage and quasi-parallel after it. With averaged velocity of plasma within the body of HFA and duration of HFA observation we determined its size in normal to the current sheet direction as ~ 2.5 RE. HFA consists of two regions separated by thin layer with different plasma characteristics. Convection of plasma within HFA, as observed along spacecraft trajectory by subtracting averaged velocity from observed velocities, show that plasma in each of two regions is moving from separating layer. It indicates that separating layer is the site of energy deposition from interaction of the solar wind with ions reflected from the shock. This is confirmed by analysis of ion velocity distributions in this layer.

  19. [Banks of vascular homografts].

    PubMed

    Polvani, G L; Guarino, A; Pompilio, G; Parolari, A; Piccolo, G; Sala, A; Biglioli, P

    2001-01-01

    We define as Banking of the tissues all the procedures that include the finding, preparation, conservation and distribution of the homograft. The vascular homografts are taken and put into a solution of transportation at +4 degrees C and kept at this temperature till their arrival at the Bank. The following step is the dissection of the homograft which will have to be performed as quickly as possible at most 24 hours after the taking in conditions of maximum sterility. At the Italian Homograft Bank at Centro Cardiologico, the vascular homografts are kept at +4 degrees C for 96 hours on average with antibiotics. After a phase of sterilization at +4 degrees C the tissue is frozen according to a homogeneous and controlled thermic decrease and stored at -150 degrees C/-180 degrees C in fumes of liquid nitrogen till the moment of their employment allowing a long term conservation. The aim of all these procedures of cryopreservation is to keep the structural and functional integrity of cells and tissues. The thermic decrease of the tissues must occur so that to avoid all the damages of the cellular vitality and functionality and especially of the tissue structure in toto. In order to limitate these events some cryoprotector agents are employed because they reduce the concentration of the solutes, the cellular dehydration, the formation of micro-macro crystals. Another step to establish if the homograft is proper is the study of bacteriological and viral aspects. The viral screenings are performed on the donor's blood and the bacteriological tests are performed on the tissue and on the liquids. For each phase of the banking a series of information about the donor and about the tissues are recorded and filed both on paper and database so that to grant always a right conduct of the material. PMID:11552466

  20. Caffeine's Vascular Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Echeverri, Darío; Montes, Félix R.; Cabrera, Mariana; Galán, Angélica; Prieto, Angélica

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed stimulating substance in the world. It is found in coffee, tea, soft drinks, chocolate, and many medications. Caffeine is a xanthine with various effects and mechanisms of action in vascular tissue. In endothelial cells, it increases intracellular calcium stimulating the production of nitric oxide through the expression of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase enzyme. Nitric oxide is diffused to the vascular smooth muscle cell to produce vasodilation. In vascular smooth muscle cells its effect is predominantly a competitive inhibition of phosphodiesterase, producing an accumulation of cAMP and vasodilation. In addition, it blocks the adenosine receptors present in the vascular tissue to produce vasoconstriction. In this paper the main mechanisms of action of caffeine on the vascular tissue are described, in which it is shown that caffeine has some cardiovascular properties and effects which could be considered beneficial. PMID:21188209

  1. Response of local vascular volumes to lower body negative pressure stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolthuis, R. A.; Leblanc, A.; Carpentier, W. A.; Bergman, S. A., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The present study involved an intravenous injection of radioactive iodinated serum albumin, equilibration of this isotope within the vascular space, and the continuous measurement of isotope activity over selected anatomical areas before, during and following multiple human LBNP tests. Both rate and magnitude of vascular pooling were distinctly different within each of five selected lower body anatomical areas. In the upper body, all areas except the abdomen showed depletions from their resting vascular volumes during LBNP. The presence of uniquely different pooling patterns in the lower body, the apparent stability of abdominal vascular volumes, and a possible decrease in cerebral blood volume during LBNP represent the major findings of this study.

  2. Thermal Infrared Anomalies of Several Strong Earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Congxin; Guo, Xiao; Qin, Manzhong

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of “time-frequency relative power spectrum.” (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting. PMID:24222728

  3. Congenital basis of posterior fossa anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Cotes, Claudia; Bonfante, Eliana; Lazor, Jillian; Jadhav, Siddharth; Caldas, Maria; Swischuk, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    The classification of posterior fossa congenital anomalies has been a controversial topic. Advances in genetics and imaging have allowed a better understanding of the embryologic development of these abnormalities. A new classification schema correlates the embryologic, morphologic, and genetic bases of these anomalies in order to better distinguish and describe them. Although they provide a better understanding of the clinical aspects and genetics of these disorders, it is crucial for the radiologist to be able to diagnose the congenital posterior fossa anomalies based on their morphology, since neuroimaging is usually the initial step when these disorders are suspected. We divide the most common posterior fossa congenital anomalies into two groups: 1) hindbrain malformations, including diseases with cerebellar or vermian agenesis, aplasia or hypoplasia and cystic posterior fossa anomalies; and 2) cranial vault malformations. In addition, we will review the embryologic development of the posterior fossa and, from the perspective of embryonic development, will describe the imaging appearance of congenital posterior fossa anomalies. Knowledge of the developmental bases of these malformations facilitates detection of the morphological changes identified on imaging, allowing accurate differentiation and diagnosis of congenital posterior fossa anomalies. PMID:26246090

  4. Thermal infrared anomalies of several strong earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Congxin; Zhang, Yuansheng; Guo, Xiao; Hui, Shaoxing; Qin, Manzhong; Zhang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of "time-frequency relative power spectrum." (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting. PMID:24222728

  5. CloudSat Anomaly Recovery and Operational Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witkowski, Mona; Vane, Deborah; Livermore, Thomas; Rokey, Mark; Barthuli, Marda; Gravseth, Ian J.; Pieper, Brian; Rodzinak, Aaron; Silva, Steve; Woznick, Paul; Nayak, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In April 2011, NASA's pioneering cloud profiling radar satellite, CloudSat, experienced a battery anomaly that placed it into emergency mode and rendered it operations incapable. All initial attempts to recover the spacecraft failed as the resultant power limitations could not support even the lowest power mode. Originally part of a six-satellite constellation known as the "A-Train", CloudSat was unable to stay within its assigned control box, posing a threat to other A-Train satellites. CloudSat needed to exit the constellation, but with the tenuous power profile, conducting maneuvers was very risky. The team was able to execute a complex sequence of operations which recovered control, conducted an orbit lower maneuver, and returned the satellite to safe mode, within one 65 minute sunlit period. During the course of the anomaly recovery, the team developed several bold, innovative operational strategies. Details of the investigation into the root-cause and the multiple approaches to revive CloudSat are examined. Satellite communication and commanding during the anomaly are presented. A radical new system of "Daylight Only Operations" (DO-OP) was developed, which cycles the payload and subsystem components off in tune with earth eclipse entry and exit in order to maintain positive power and thermal profiles. The scientific methodology and operational results behind the graduated testing and ramp-up to DO-OP are analyzed. In November 2011, the CloudSat team successfully restored the vehicle to consistent operational collection of cloud radar data during sunlit portions of the orbit. Lessons learned throughout the six-month return-to-operations recovery effort are discussed and offered for application to other R&D satellites, in the context of on-orbit anomaly resolution efforts.

  6. Analysis of Renal Anomalies in VACTERL Association

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Bridget K.; Khromykh, Alina; Martinez, Ariel F.; Carney, Tyler; Hadley, Donald W.; Solomon, Benjamin D.

    2014-01-01

    VACTERL association refers to a combination of congenital anomalies that can include: Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiac malformations, Tracheo-Esophageal fistula with esophageal atresia, Renal anomalies (typically structural renal anomalies), and Limb anomalies. We conducted a description of a case series to characterize renal findings in a cohort of patients with VACTERL association. Out of the overall cohort, 48 patients (with at least 3 component features of VACTERL and who had abdominal ultrasound performed) met criteria for analysis. Four other patients were additionally analyzed separately, with the hypothesis that subtle renal system anomalies may occur in patients who would not otherwise meet criteria for VACTERL association. Thirty-three (69%) of the 48 patients had a clinical manifestation affecting the renal system. The most common renal manifestation (RM) was vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in addition to a structural defect (present in 27%), followed by unilateral renal agenesis (24%), and then dysplastic/multicystic kidneys or duplicated collected system (18% for each). Twenty-two (88%) of the 25 patients with a structural RM had an associated anorectal malformation. Individuals with either isolated lower anatomic anomalies, or both upper and lower anatomic anomalies were not statistically more likely to have a structural renal defect than those with isolated upper anatomic anomalies (p=0.22, p=0.284 respectively). Given the high prevalence of isolated VUR in our cohort, we recommend a screening VCUG or other imaging modality be obtained to evaluate for VUR if initial renal US shows evidence of obstruction or renal scarring, as well as ongoing evaluation of renal health. PMID:25196458

  7. Incretin-Based Therapy for Prevention of Diabetic Vascular Complications

    PubMed Central

    Mima, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic vascular complications are the most common cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with numbers of affected individuals steadily increasing. Diabetic vascular complications can be divided into two categories: macrovascular andmicrovascular complications. Macrovascular complications include coronary artery diseaseand cerebrovascular disease, while microvascular complications include retinopathy and chronic kidney disease. These complications result from metabolic abnormalities, including hyperglycemia, elevated levels of free fatty acids, and insulin resistance. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed to mediate the adverse effects of these metabolic disorders on vascular tissues, including stimulation of protein kinase C signaling and activation of the polyol pathway by oxidative stress and inflammation. Additionally, the loss of tissue-specific insulin signaling induced by hyperglycemia and toxic metabolites can induce cellular dysfunction and both macro- and microvascular complications characteristic of diabetes. Despite these insights, few therapeutic methods are available for the management of diabetic complications. Recently, incretin-based therapeutic agents, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, have been reported to elicit vasotropic actions, suggesting a potential for effecting an actual reduction in diabetic vascular complications. The present review will summarize the relationship between multiple adverse biological mechanisms in diabetes and putative incretin-based therapeutic interventions intended to prevent diabetic vascular complications. PMID:26881236

  8. Considerations in the Interpretation of Cosmological Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peiris, Hiranya V.

    2014-05-01

    Anomalies drive scientific discovery - they are associated with the cutting edge of the research frontier, and thus typically exploit data in the low signal-to-noise regime. In astronomy, the prevalence of systematics - both ``known unknowns'' and ``unknown unknowns'' - combined with increasingly large datasets, the widespread use of ad hoc estimators for anomaly detection, and the ``look-elsewhere'' effect, can lead to spurious false detections. In this informal note, I argue that anomaly detection leading to discoveries of new physics requires a combination of physical understanding, careful experimental design to avoid confirmation bias, and self-consistent statistical methods. These points are illustrated with several concrete examples from cosmology.

  9. Chromium isotopic anomalies in the Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Abundances of the chromium isotopes in terrestrial and bulk meteorite samples are identical to 0.01 percent. However, Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende meteorite show endemic isotopic anomalies in chromium which require at least three nucleosynthetic components. Large anomalies at Cr-54 in a special class of inclusions are correlated with large anomalies at Ca-48 and Ti-50 and provide strong support for a component reflecting neutron-rich nucleosynthesis at nuclear statistical equilibrium. This correlation suggests that materials from very near the core of an exploding massive star may be injected into the interstellar medium.

  10. Crustal structure interpreted from magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Frey, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    This review, discusses publications during the last quadrennium (1987-1990) that used aeromagnetic data, marine magnetic data, satellite magnetic data, and rock magnetic and petrologic data to provide information on the sources of magnetic anomalies. The publications reviewed reflect increased integration of rock magnetic property and petrologic studies with magnetic anomaly interpretation studies, particularly in deep crustal magnetization, exploration for hydrocarbons, and inversion of marine magnetic anomalies. Interpretations of aeromagnetic data featuring image display techniques and using the horizontal gradient method for locating magnetization boundaries became standard.

  11. Magnetic and gravity anomalies in the Americas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braile, L. W.; Hinze, W. J.; Vonfrese, R. R. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The cleaning and magnetic tape storage of spherical Earth processing programs are reported. These programs include: NVERTSM which inverts total or vector magnetic anomaly data on a distribution of point dipoles in spherical coordinates; SMFLD which utilizes output from NVERTSM to compute total or vector magnetic anomaly fields for a distribution of point dipoles in spherical coordinates; NVERTG; and GFLD. Abstracts are presented for papers dealing with the mapping and modeling of magnetic and gravity anomalies, and with the verification of crustal components in satellite data.

  12. Non-standard symmetries and quantum anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Visinescu, Anca; Visinescu, Mihai

    2008-08-31

    Quantum anomalies are investigated on curved spacetimes. The intimate relation between Killing-Yano tensors and non-standard symmetries is pointed out. The gravitational anomalies are absent if the hidden symmetry is associated to a Killing-Yano tensor. The axial anomaly in a background gravitational field is directly related with the index of the Dirac operator. In the Dirac theory on curved spaces, Killing-Yano tensors generate Dirac-type operators involved in interesting algebraic structures. The general results are applied to the 4-dimensional Euclidean Taub-NUT space.

  13. Imaging Spectrum of Hemangioma and Vascular Malformations of the Head and Neck in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Venkatraman; Salins, Paul C; Bhat, Varun

    2014-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the head and neck region in children constitute an interesting group of lesions that benefit immensely from imaging techniques. Imaging is essential for identification, characterization, and delineation of the extent of lesion and subsequent follow-up. Infantile hemangiomas, which are vascular tumors with a specific evolution pattern, constitute a large majority of these lesions. On the other hand, there are vascular malformations, which are anomalies of the vascular system, consisting of a range of vascular tissues associated with various flow patterns. When diagnosis is clinically evident, imaging should utilize non-radiation techniques and address the issues necessary for management. Timing and interpretation of imaging methods employed in assessing childhood vascular lesion should also take into consideration the natural history so that imaging is performed to address a specific question. This review highlights the typical appearance of a hemangioma and a group of vascular malformations of the head and neck. For descriptive purpose, an attempt has been made to group lesions into specific subsites, with each one having specific clinical significance. Cases included illustrate the spectrum of the disease ranging from classical form in young children to slightly differing manifestations of the disease in adolescents and adults. The illustrations also provide a novel way of presenting image data using volume-rendering techniques of 3D data. Multi-modality team interaction and management strategies of these complex lesions are also emphasized. PMID:25161800

  14. Vascular endothelial dysfunction and pharmacological treatment

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jin Bo

    2015-01-01

    The endothelium exerts multiple actions involving regulation of vascular permeability and tone, coagulation and fibrinolysis, inflammatory and immunological reactions and cell growth. Alterations of one or more such actions may cause vascular endothelial dysfunction. Different risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, homocystinemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension, smoking, inflammation, and aging contribute to the development of endothelial dysfunction. Mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction are multiple, including impaired endothelium-derived vasodilators, enhanced endothelium-derived vasoconstrictors, over production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, activation of inflammatory and immune reactions, and imbalance of coagulation and fibrinolysis. Endothelial dysfunction occurs in many cardiovascular diseases, which involves different mechanisms, depending on specific risk factors affecting the disease. Among these mechanisms, a reduction in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability plays a central role in the development of endothelial dysfunction because NO exerts diverse physiological actions, including vasodilation, anti-inflammation, antiplatelet, antiproliferation and antimigration. Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that a variety of currently used or investigational drugs, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin AT1 receptors blockers, angiotensin-(1-7), antioxidants, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, endothelial NO synthase enhancers, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, sphingosine-1-phosphate and statins, exert endothelial protective effects. Due to the difference in mechanisms of action, these drugs need to be used according to specific mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction of the disease. PMID:26635921

  15. Vascular endothelial dysfunction and pharmacological treatment.

    PubMed

    Su, Jin Bo

    2015-11-26

    The endothelium exerts multiple actions involving regulation of vascular permeability and tone, coagulation and fibrinolysis, inflammatory and immunological reactions and cell growth. Alterations of one or more such actions may cause vascular endothelial dysfunction. Different risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, homocystinemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension, smoking, inflammation, and aging contribute to the development of endothelial dysfunction. Mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction are multiple, including impaired endothelium-derived vasodilators, enhanced endothelium-derived vasoconstrictors, over production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, activation of inflammatory and immune reactions, and imbalance of coagulation and fibrinolysis. Endothelial dysfunction occurs in many cardiovascular diseases, which involves different mechanisms, depending on specific risk factors affecting the disease. Among these mechanisms, a reduction in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability plays a central role in the development of endothelial dysfunction because NO exerts diverse physiological actions, including vasodilation, anti-inflammation, antiplatelet, antiproliferation and antimigration. Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that a variety of currently used or investigational drugs, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin AT1 receptors blockers, angiotensin-(1-7), antioxidants, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, endothelial NO synthase enhancers, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, sphingosine-1-phosphate and statins, exert endothelial protective effects. Due to the difference in mechanisms of action, these drugs need to be used according to specific mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction of the disease. PMID:26635921

  16. Cyclosporin A Disrupts Notch Signaling and Vascular Lumen Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Raghav; Botros, Mark A.; Nacev, Benjamin A.; Albig, Allan R.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclosporin A (CSA) suppresses immune function by blocking the cyclophilin A and calcineurin/NFAT signaling pathways. In addition to immunosuppression, CSA has also been shown to have a wide range of effects in the cardiovascular system including disruption of heart valve development, smooth muscle cell proliferation, and angiogenesis inhibition. Circumstantial evidence has suggested that CSA might control Notch signaling which is also a potent regulator of cardiovascular function. Therefore, the goal of this project was to determine if CSA controls Notch and to dissect the molecular mechanism(s) by which CSA impacts cardiovascular homeostasis. We found that CSA blocked JAG1, but not Dll4 mediated Notch1 NICD cleavage in transfected 293T cells and decreased Notch signaling in zebrafish embryos. CSA suppression of Notch was linked to cyclophilin A but not calcineurin/NFAT inhibition since N-MeVal-4-CsA but not FK506 decreased Notch1 NICD cleavage. To examine the effect of CSA on vascular development and function, double transgenic Fli1-GFP/Gata1-RFP zebrafish embryos were treated with CSA and monitored for vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and overall cardiovascular function. Vascular patterning was not obviously impacted by CSA treatment and contrary to the anti-angiogenic activity ascribed to CSA, angiogenic sprouting of ISV vessels was normal in CSA treated embryos. Most strikingly, CSA treated embryos exhibited a progressive decline in blood flow that was associated with eventual collapse of vascular luminal structures. Vascular collapse in zebrafish embryos was partially rescued by global Notch inhibition with DAPT suggesting that disruption of normal Notch signaling by CSA may be linked to vascular collapse. However, multiple signaling pathways likely cause the vascular collapse phenotype since both cyclophilin A and calcineurin/NFAT were required for normal vascular function. Collectively, these results show that CSA is a novel inhibitor of Notch signaling and

  17. Vascular parkinsonism: Deconstructing a syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vizcarra, Joaquin A.; Lang, Anthony E.; Sethi, Kapil D; Espay, Alberto J.

    2015-01-01

    Progressive ambulatory impairment and abnormal white matter signal on neuroimaging come together under the diagnostic umbrella of vascular parkinsonism. A critical appraisal of the literature, however, suggests that (1) no abnormal structural imaging pattern is specific to vascular parkinsonism; (2) there is poor correlation between brain magnetic resonance imaging hyperintensities and microangiopathic brain disease and parkinsonism from available clinicopathologic data; (3) pure parkinsonism from vascular injury (“definite” vascular parkinsonism) consistently results from ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes involving the substantia nigra and/or nigrostriatal pathway but sparing the striatum itself, the cortex, and the intervening white matter; and (4) many cases reported as vascular parkinsonism may represent pseudovascular parkinsonism (e.g., Parkinson disease or another neurodegenerative parkinsonism such as progressive supranuclear palsy with non-specific neuroimaging signal abnormalities), vascular pseudoparkinsonism (e.g., akinetic mutism due to bilateral mesial frontal strokes or apathetic depression from bilateral striatal lacunar strokes), or pseudovascular pseudoparkinsonism (e.g., higher-level gait disorders, including normal pressure hydrocephalus with transependimal exudate). These syndromic designations are preferable over vascular parkinsonism until pathology or validated biomarkers confirm the underlying nature and relevance of the leukoaraiosis. PMID:25997420

  18. Vascular Injuries: Trends in Management

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Mohd Lateef; Ahangar, Ab Gani; Ganie, Farooq Ahmad; Wani, Shadab Nabi; Wani, Nasir-ud-din

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Vascular injury presents a great challenge to the emergency resident because these injuries require urgent intervention to prevent loss of life or limb. Sometimes serious vascular injury presents with only subtle or occult signs or symptoms. The patient may present weeks or months after initial injury with symptoms of vascular insufficiency, embolization, pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous fistula etc. Although the majority of vascular injuries are caused by penetrating trauma from gunshot wounds, stabbing or blast injury, the possibility of vascular injury needs to be considered in patients presenting with displaced long bone fractures, crush injury, prolonged immobilization in a fixed position by tight casts or bandages and various invasive procedures. iatrogenic vascular injuries constitute about 10% of cases in most series; however the incidence is an increasing trend because more endovascular procedures such as angioplasty and cardiac catheterization are being performed routinely. Civilian trauma is more frequently seen in young males. However, it can occur at any age due to road accidents, firearms, bomb blasts and diagnostic procedures. Most of the time, civilian trauma causes less tissue damage. There is an epidemic of vascular injuries in Kashmir valley because of problems in law and order in the past two decades. This review deals with the topic in detail. PMID:24350103

  19. Toward Continuous GPS Carrier-Phase Time Transfer: Eliminating the Time Discontinuity at an Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jian; Levine, Judah; Weiss, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The wide application of Global Positioning System (GPS) carrier-phase (CP) time transfer is limited by the problem of boundary discontinuity (BD). The discontinuity has two categories. One is “day boundary discontinuity,” which has been studied extensively and can be solved by multiple methods [1–8]. The other category of discontinuity, called “anomaly boundary discontinuity (anomaly-BD),” comes from a GPS data anomaly. The anomaly can be a data gap (i.e., missing data), a GPS measurement error (i.e., bad data), or a cycle slip. Initial study of the anomaly-BD shows that we can fix the discontinuity if the anomaly lasts no more than 20 min, using the polynomial curve-fitting strategy to repair the anomaly [9]. However, sometimes, the data anomaly lasts longer than 20 min. Thus, a better curve-fitting strategy is in need. Besides, a cycle slip, as another type of data anomaly, can occur and lead to an anomaly-BD. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a new strategy, i.e., the satellite-clock-aided curve fitting strategy with the function of cycle slip detection. Basically, this new strategy applies the satellite clock correction to the GPS data. After that, we do the polynomial curve fitting for the code and phase data, as before. Our study shows that the phase-data residual is only ~3 mm for all GPS satellites. The new strategy also detects and finds the number of cycle slips by searching the minimum curve-fitting residual. Extensive examples show that this new strategy enables us to repair up to a 40-min GPS data anomaly, regardless of whether the anomaly is due to a data gap, a cycle slip, or a combination of the two. We also find that interference of the GPS signal, known as “jamming”, can possibly lead to a time-transfer error, and that this new strategy can compensate for jamming outages. Thus, the new strategy can eliminate the impact of jamming on time transfer. As a whole, we greatly improve the robustness of the GPS CP time transfer

  20. Understanding Magnetic Anomalies and Their Significance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, James H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise testing the Vine-Matthews-Morley hypothesis of plate tectonics. Includes 14 questions with explanations using graphs and charts. Provides a historical account of the current plate tectonic and magnetic anomaly theory. (MVL)

  1. Magnetosheath Flow Anomalies in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaisberg, O. L.; Burch, J. L.; Smirnov, V. N.; Avanov, L. A.; Moore, T. E.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Skalsky, A. A.; Borodkova, N. L.; Coffey, V. N.; Gallagher, D. L.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of the plasma and magnetic field with high temporal resolution on the Interball Tail probe reveal many flow anomalies in the magnetosheath. They are usually seen as flow direction and number density variations, accompanied by magnetic field discontinuities. Large flow anomalies with number density variations of factor of 2 or more and velocity variations of 100 km/s or more are seen with periodicity of about I per hour. The cases of flow anomalies following in succession are also observed, and suggest their decay while propagating through the magnetosheath. Some magnetospheric disturbances observed in the outer magnetosphere after the satellite has crossed the magnetopause on the inbound orbit suggest their association with magnetosheath flow anomalies observed in the magnetosheath prior to magnetopause crossing.

  2. Tunguska Genetic Anomaly and Electrophonic Meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silagadze, Z. K.

    2005-03-01

    One of great mysteries of the Tunguska event is its genetic impact. Some genetic anomalies were reported in the plants, insects and people of the Tunguska region. Remarkably, the increased rate of biological mutations was found not only within the epicenter area, but also along the trajectory of the Tunguska Space Body (TSB). At that no traces of radioactivity were found, which could be reliably associated with the Tunguska event. The main hypotheses about the nature of the TSB, a stony asteroid, a comet nucleus or a carbonaceous chondrite, readily explain the absence of radioactivity but give no clues how to deal with the genetic anomaly. A choice between these hypotheses, as far as the genetic anomaly is concerned, is like to the choice between ``blue devil, green devil and speckled devil'', to quote late Academician N.V. Vasilyev. However, if another mysterious phenomenon, electrophonic meteors, is evoked, the origin of the Tunguska genetic anomaly becomes less obscure.

  3. Lunar magnetic anomalies and surface optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, L. L.; Schubert, G.

    1980-04-01

    Consideration is given to the influence of lunar magnetic anomalies on the darkening of the lunar surface by solar wind ion bombardment. It is shown that lunar magnetic anomalies with dipole moments much greater than 5 x 10 to the 13th gauss cu cm will strongly deflect the typical solar wind, producing local plasma voids at the lunar surface. Direct measurements of lunar magnetic fields have shown most lunar magnetic fields to have moments below this level, with the exception of anomalies detected in the areas of the Reiner Gamma albedo feature, the Van de Graaff-Aitken region and Mare Marginis. Such magnetic anomalies are shown to be capable of accounting for the higher albedo and swirl-like morphology f these features by the deflection and focusing incident solar wind ions, which tend to darken the surface upon impact.

  4. Reduction of satellite magnetic anomaly data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slud, E. V.; Smith, P. J.; Langel, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of global magnetic anomaly maps derived from satellite data is facilitated by inversion to the equivalent magnetization in a constant thickness magnetic crust or, equivalently, by reduction to the pole. Previous inversions have proven unstable near the geomagnetic equator. The instability results from magnetic moment distributions which are admissible in the inversion solution but which make only small contribution to the computed values of anomaly field. Their admissibility in the solution could result from noisy or incomplete data or from small poorly resolved anomalies. The resulting magnetic moments are unrealistically large and oscillatory. Application of the method of principal components (e.g. eigenvalue decomposition and selective elimination of less significant eigenvectors) is proposed as a way of overcoming the instability and the method is demonstrated by applying it to the region around the Bangui anomaly in Central Africa.

  5. US Aeromagnetic and Satellite Magnetic Anomaly Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W. (Principal Investigator); Sexton, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Scalar aeromagnetic data obtained by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (NOO) Vector Magnetic Survey of the conterminous U.S. were screened for periods of intense diurnal magnetic activity and reduced to anomaly form, filtered, and continued upward. A number of correlations between the NOO, POGO and preliminary MAGSAT data are evident at satellite elevations, including a prominent transcontinental magnetic high which extends from the Anadarko Basin to the Cincinnati Arch. The transcontinental magnetic high is breached by negative anomalies located over the Rio Grande Rift and Mississippi River Aulacogen. Differentially reduced-to-pole NOO and POGO magnetic anomaly data show that the transcontinental magnetic high corresponds to a well-defined regional trend of negative free-air gravity and enhanced crustal thickness anomalies.

  6. Geologic analysis of averaged magnetic satellite anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyal, H. K.; Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Ridgway, J. R.; Hinze, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    To investigate relative advantages and limitations for quantitative geologic analysis of magnetic satellite scalar anomalies derived from arithmetic averaging of orbital profiles within equal-angle or equal-area parallelograms, the anomaly averaging process was simulated by orbital profiles computed from spherical-earth crustal magnetic anomaly modeling experiments using Gauss-Legendre quadrature integration. The results indicate that averaging can provide reasonable values at satellite elevations, where contributing error factors within a given parallelogram include the elevation distribution of the data, and orbital noise and geomagnetic field attributes. Various inversion schemes including the use of equivalent point dipoles are also investigated as an alternative to arithmetic averaging. Although inversion can provide improved spherical grid anomaly estimates, these procedures are problematic in practice where computer scaling difficulties frequently arise due to a combination of factors including large source-to-observation distances ( 400 km), high geographic latitudes, and low geomagnetic field inclinations.

  7. Method of Mapping Anomalies in Homogenous Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An electrical conductor and antenna are positioned in a fixed relationship to one another. Relative lateral movement is generated between the electrical conductor and a homogenous material while maintaining the electrical conductor at a fixed distance from the homogenous material. The antenna supplies a time-varying magnetic field that causes the electrical conductor to resonate and generate harmonic electric and magnetic field responses. Disruptions in at least one of the electric and magnetic field responses during this lateral movement are indicative of a lateral location of a subsurface anomaly. Next, relative out-of-plane movement is generated between the electrical conductor and the homogenous material in the vicinity of the anomaly's lateral location. Disruptions in at least one of the electric and magnetic field responses during this out-of-plane movement are indicative of a depth location of the subsurface anomaly. A recording of the disruptions provides a mapping of the anomaly.

  8. Renal Anomalies Associated with Ectopic Neurohypophysis

    PubMed Central

    Özen, Samim; Şişmek, Damla Gökşen; Önder, Asan; Darcan, Şükran

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Although the etiology of ectopic neurohypophysis that leads to pituitary hormone deficiencies is not yet clearly understood, birth trauma or genetic factors have been considered responsible. Concurrent cranial and extracranial congenital anomalies have been reported in such cases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of renal anomalies in nonsyndromic cases with ectopic neurohypophysis. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of 20 patients with ectopic neurohypophysis who were followed up between January 1990 and December 2007 in a tertiary University Hospital. Results: Renal anomalies were identified in three (15%) cases including unilateral renal agenesis in one case, renal hypoplasia in one case, and double collecting system and unilateral renal agenesis in one case. Conclusions: In the present study, the increased frequency of renal anomalies in cases of ectopic neurohypophysis was highlighted, and it was emphasized that there might be common genetic factors that lead to such associations. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21750632

  9. Design and Implementation of an Anomaly Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Bagherjeiran, A; Cantu-Paz, E; Kamath, C

    2005-07-11

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a general-purpose anomaly detector for streaming data. Based on a survey of similar work from the literature, a basic anomaly detector builds a model on normal data, compares this model to incoming data, and uses a threshold to determine when the incoming data represent an anomaly. Models compactly represent the data but still allow for effective comparison. Comparison methods determine the distance between two models of data or the distance between a model and a point. Threshold selection is a largely neglected problem in the literature, but the current implementation includes two methods to estimate thresholds from normal data. With these components, a user can construct a variety of anomaly detection schemes. The implementation contains several methods from the literature. Three separate experiments tested the performance of the components on two well-known and one completely artificial dataset. The results indicate that the implementation works and can reproduce results from previous experiments.

  10. Zinc Isotope Anomalies in bulk Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, P. S.; Boyet, M.; Moynier, F.

    2014-09-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate that Zn isotope anomalies are present in bulk primitive meteorites, consistent with the injection of material derived from a neutron-rich supernova source into the solar nebula.

  11. Chemical Compositions and Anomalies in Stellar Coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    In summary, as the papers cited here and in earlier reports demonstrate, this award has enabled us to obtain a fairly good picture of the abundance anomalies in stellar coronae. The "inverse FIP" effect in very active stars has now been fleshed out as a more complex anomaly depending on FIP, whereas before it appeared only in terms of a general metal paucity, the recent solar abundance assessment of Asplund et a1 will, if correct, challenge some of the older interpretations of coronal abundance anomalies since they imply quite different relative abundances of CNO compared with Fe, Mg and Si. Further investigations have been in into the possibility of modeling some of the recent coronal abundance anomaly results in terms of Alfven wave-driven separation of neutrals and ions in the upper chromosphere. This work still remains in the seed stage, and future funding from a different program will be requested to pursue it further.

  12. Bacterial invasion of vascular cell types: vascular infectology and atherogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kozarov, Emil

    2012-01-01

    To portray the chronic inflammation in atherosclerosis, leukocytic cell types involved in the immune response to invading pathogens are often the focus. However, atherogenesis is a complex pathological deterioration of the arterial walls, where vascular cell types are participants with regards to deterioration and disease. Since other recent reviews have detailed the role of both the innate and adaptive immune response in atherosclerosis, herein we will summarize the latest developments regarding the association of bacteria with vascular cell types: infections as a risk factor for atherosclerosis; bacterial invasion of vascular cell types; the atherogenic sequelae of bacterial presence such as endothelial activation and blood clotting; and the identification of the species that are able to colonize this niche. The evidence of a polybacterial infectious component of the atheromatous lesions opens the doors for exploration of the new field of vascular infectology and for the study of atherosclerosis microbiome. PMID:22185451

  13. Clinical implications for imaging of vascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Baheti, Akshay D; Dunham, Gregor M; Ingraham, Christopher R; Moshiri, Mariam; Lall, Chandana; Park, James O; Li, David; Katz, Douglas S; Madoff, David C; Bhargava, Puneet

    2016-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second largest cause of cancer mortality in the world, with vascular invasion being one of the most important prognostic factors. HCC with tumor thrombus was traditionally considered to have very limited treatment options. However, multiple promising treatment strategies have emerged in recent years, with diagnostic and interventional radiologists playing a major role in patient management. We provide a comprehensive update on the diagnosis and management of HCC with vascular invasion and the role of the radiologist in this condition. PMID:27142384

  14. [Visual fields defects in cerebral hemorrhagic vascular accident].

    PubMed

    Nenciu, A; Stefan, C; Cucea, R; Neacşu, Alina; Balaş, Mihaela; Muşat, Alina; Dachin, Luminiţa; Sîrbu, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    Interpretation of the fields of vision forms a key part of ophthalmic and neurologic examinations. The homonymous hemianopa is a hallmark of a retrochiasmal lesion. Postchiasmal lesions that interrupt the visual pathway may have multiple causes which the circulatory disturbances is one of the most important. The authors present the case of a woman who has an isolated homonymous hemianopa produced by a vascular accident of occipital lobe, dwell upon the only manifestation of the cerebral acute hemorrhagic vascular accident was represented by an visual field defect. PMID:12974025

  15. Vascular infections: exceeding the threshold.

    PubMed

    Cox, T R

    1995-12-01

    During fiscal year 1988, our hospital infection control practitioner identified a 400% increase in the incidence of vascular surgery nosocomial infections. The six graft and six amputation infections were validated as nosocomial against hospital definitions adopted from the Centers for Disease Control. Our Infection Control Committee mandated an audit of the infected vascular surgery patients using a case/control design to identify and examine associated variables that may need attention. The significant finding was microbial resistance to prophylactic antibiotics used during surgery (p > 0.0001, Fisher's exact). The use of vancomycin as a prophylactic antimicrobial agent for all major vascular cases was recommended to the surgeons. PMID:8775383

  16. Arginase: The Emerging Therapeutic Target for Vascular Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhihong; Ming, Xiu-Fen

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation in the vascular wall are essential mechanisms of atherosclerosis and vascular dysfunctions associated with risk factors such as metabolic diseases, aging, hypertension, etc. Evidence has been provided that activation of the vascular endothelial cells in the presence of the risk factors promotes oxidative stress and vascular inflammatory responses, leading to acceleration of atherosclerotic vascular disease. Increasing number of studies from recent years demonstrates that uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), whereby the enzyme eNOS produces detrimental amount of superoxide anion O2− instead the vasoprotective nitric oxide (NO⋅), plays a critical role in vascular dysfunction under various pathophysiological conditions and in aging. The mechanisms of eNOS-uncoupling seem multiple and complex. Recent research provides emerging evidence supporting an essential role of increased activity of arginases including arginase-I and arginase-II in causing eNOS-uncoupling, which results in vascular oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, and ultimately leading to vascular diseases. This review article will summarize the most recent findings on the functional roles of arginases in vascular diseases and/or dysfunctions and the underlying mechanisms in relation to oxidative stress and inflammations. Moreover, regulatory mechanisms of arginases in the vasculature are reviewed and the future perspectives of targeting arginases as therapeutic options in vascular diseases are discussed. PMID:23781221

  17. Abdominopelvic vascular injuries.

    PubMed

    Sriussadaporn, S

    2000-01-01

    The clinical records of 25 patients with 32 abdominopelvic vascular injuries were reviewed. Sixty per cent of patients sustained blunt trauma and 40 per cent sustained penetrating trauma. Nineteen patients (76%) were in shock on arrival, 2 of them underwent ER thoracotomy when they first arrived in the emergency room. Nine patients (36%) had signs of lower extremity ischemia. The Injury Severity Score (ISS) ranged from 16-50, mean 29 +/- 10.0. Nineteen patients (76%) had 35 associated injuries. Of the 32 injured vessels; 8 were external iliac artery, 5 were renal vein, 4 were abdominal aorta, 3 were common iliac artery, common iliac vein, external iliac vein and inferior vena cava, and 1 was superior mesenteric artery, superior mesenteric vein and median sacral artery. Treatments included: 13 lateral repair, 4 prosthetic grafting, 4 nephrectomy, 3 ligation, 3 reversed saphenous vein grafting, 2 end to end anastomosis, 1 internal iliac artery grafting, 1 intravascular shunt and packing and 1 perihepatic packing. Nine patients (36%) died. High mortality was observed in injuries to the abdominal aorta (75%), inferior vena cava (66.7%), common iliac vein (66.7%) and associated major pelvic fractures (50%). Factors significantly associated with mortality were the presence of shock on arrival, associated injuries and high Injury Severity Score. The author concludes that short prehospital time, effective resuscitation and proper surgical decision making are important for survival in these critically injured patients. PMID:10710864

  18. Autophagy in vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Ryter, Stefan W; Lee, Seon-Jin; Smith, Akaya; Choi, Augustine M K

    2010-02-01

    Autophagy, or "self eating," refers to a regulated cellular process for the lysosomal-dependent turnover of organelles and proteins. During starvation or nutrient deficiency, autophagy promotes survival through the replenishment of metabolic precursors derived from the degradation of endogenous cellular components. Autophagy represents a general homeostatic and inducible adaptive response to environmental stress, including endoplasmic reticulum stress, hypoxia, oxidative stress, and exposure to pharmaceuticals and xenobiotics. Whereas elevated autophagy can be observed in dying cells, the functional relationships between autophagy and programmed cell death pathways remain incompletely understood. Preclinical studies have identified autophagy as a process that can be activated during vascular disorders, including ischemia-reperfusion injury of the heart and other organs, cardiomyopathy, myocardial injury, and atherosclerosis. The functional significance of autophagy in human cardiovascular disease pathogenesis remains incompletely understood, and potentially involves both adaptive and maladaptive outcomes, depending on model system. Although relatively few studies have been performed in the lung, our recent studies also implicate a role for autophagy in chronic lung disease. Manipulation of the signaling pathways that regulate autophagy could potentially provide a novel therapeutic strategy in the prevention or treatment of human disease. PMID:20160147

  19. Education in vascular access.

    PubMed

    Moist, Louise M; Lee, Timmy C; Lok, Charmaine E; Al-Jaishi, Ahmed; Xi, Wang; Campbell, Vern; Graham, Janet; Wilson, Barb; Vachharajani, Tushar J

    2013-01-01

    The successful creation and use of an arteriovenous vascular access (VA) requires a coordinated, educated multidisciplinary team to ensure an optimal VA for each patient. Patient education programs on VA are associated with increased arteriovenous VA use at dialysis initiation. Education should be tailored to patient goals and preferences with the understanding that experiential education from patient to patient is far more influential than that provided by the healthcare professional. VA education for the nephrologist should focus on addressing the systematic and patient-level barriers in achieving a functional VA, with specific components relating to VA creation, maturation, and cannulation that consider patient goals and preferences. A deficit in nursing skills in the area of assessment and cannulation can have devastating consequences for hemodialysis patients. Delivery of an integrated education program increases nurses' knowledge of VA and development of simulation programs or constructs to assist in cannulation of the VA will greatly facilitate the much needed skill transfer. Adequate VA surgical training and experience are critical to the creation and outcomes of VA. Simulations can benefit nephrologists, dialysis nurses surgeons, and interventionalists though aiding in surgical creation, understanding of the physiology and anatomy of a dysfunctional VA, and practicing cannulation techniques. All future educational initiatives must emphasize the importance of multidisciplinary care to attain successful VA outcomes. PMID:23432319

  20. Constructal vascularized structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetkin, Erdal

    2015-06-01

    Smart features such as self-healing and selfcooling require bathing the entire volume with a coolant or/and healing agent. Bathing the entire volume is an example of point to area (or volume) flows. Point to area flows cover all the distributing and collecting kinds of flows, i.e. inhaling and exhaling, mining, river deltas, energy distribution, distribution of products on the landscape and so on. The flow resistances of a point to area flow can be decreased by changing the design with the guidance of the constructal law, which is the law of the design evolution in time. In this paper, how the flow resistances (heat, fluid and stress) can be decreased by using the constructal law is shown with examples. First, the validity of two assumptions is surveyed: using temperature independent Hess-Murray rule and using constant diameter ducts where the duct discharges fluid along its edge. Then, point to area types of flows are explained by illustrating the results of two examples: fluid networks and heating an area. Last, how the structures should be vascularized for cooling and mechanical strength is documented. This paper shows that flow resistances can be decreased by morphing the shape freely without any restrictions or generic algorithms.

  1. Retina vascular network recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tascini, Guido; Passerini, Giorgio; Puliti, Paolo; Zingaretti, Primo

    1993-09-01

    The analysis of morphological and structural modifications of the retina vascular network is an interesting investigation method in the study of diabetes and hypertension. Normally this analysis is carried out by qualitative evaluations, according to standardized criteria, though medical research attaches great importance to quantitative analysis of vessel color, shape and dimensions. The paper describes a system which automatically segments and recognizes the ocular fundus circulation and micro circulation network, and extracts a set of features related to morphometric aspects of vessels. For this class of images the classical segmentation methods seem weak. We propose a computer vision system in which segmentation and recognition phases are strictly connected. The system is hierarchically organized in four modules. Firstly the Image Enhancement Module (IEM) operates a set of custom image enhancements to remove blur and to prepare data for subsequent segmentation and recognition processes. Secondly the Papilla Border Analysis Module (PBAM) automatically recognizes number, position and local diameter of blood vessels departing from optical papilla. Then the Vessel Tracking Module (VTM) analyses vessels comparing the results of body and edge tracking and detects branches and crossings. Finally the Feature Extraction Module evaluates PBAM and VTM output data and extracts some numerical indexes. Used algorithms appear to be robust and have been successfully tested on various ocular fundus images.

  2. Implementation of a General Real-Time Visual Anomaly Detection System Via Soft Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominguez, Jesus A.; Klinko, Steve; Ferrell, Bob; Steinrock, Todd (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The intelligent visual system detects anomalies or defects in real time under normal lighting operating conditions. The application is basically a learning machine that integrates fuzzy logic (FL), artificial neural network (ANN), and generic algorithm (GA) schemes to process the image, run the learning process, and finally detect the anomalies or defects. The system acquires the image, performs segmentation to separate the object being tested from the background, preprocesses the image using fuzzy reasoning, performs the final segmentation using fuzzy reasoning techniques to retrieve regions with potential anomalies or defects, and finally retrieves them using a learning model built via ANN and GA techniques. FL provides a powerful framework for knowledge representation and overcomes uncertainty and vagueness typically found in image analysis. ANN provides learning capabilities, and GA leads to robust learning results. An application prototype currently runs on a regular PC under Windows NT, and preliminary work has been performed to build an embedded version with multiple image processors. The application prototype is being tested at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, to visually detect anomalies along slide basket cables utilized by the astronauts to evacuate the NASA Shuttle launch pad in an emergency. The potential applications of this anomaly detection system in an open environment are quite wide. Another current, potentially viable application at NASA is in detecting anomalies of the NASA Space Shuttle Orbiter's radiator panels.

  3. Classifying gauge anomalies through symmetry-protected trivial orders and classifying gravitational anomalies through topological orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we systematically study gauge anomalies in bosonic and fermionic weak-coupling gauge theories with gauge group G (which can be continuous or discrete) in d space-time dimensions. We show a very close relation between gauge anomalies for gauge group G and symmetry-protected trivial (SPT) orders (also known as symmetry-protected topological (SPT) orders) with symmetry group G in one-higher dimension. The SPT phases are classified by group cohomology class Hd+1(G,R/Z). Through a more careful consideration, we argue that the gauge anomalies are described by the elements in Free[Hd+1(G,R/Z)]⊕Hπ˙d+1(BG,R/Z). The well known Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomalies are classified by the free part of Hd+1(G,R/Z) (denoted as Free[Hd+1(G,R/Z)]). We refer to other kinds of gauge anomalies beyond Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomalies as non-ABJ gauge anomalies, which include Witten SU(2) global gauge anomalies. We introduce a notion of π-cohomology group, Hπ˙d+1(BG,R/Z), for the classifying space BG, which is an Abelian group and include Tor[Hd+1(G,R/Z)] and topological cohomology group Hd+1(BG,R/Z) as subgroups. We argue that Hπ˙d+1(BG,R/Z) classifies the bosonic non-ABJ gauge anomalies and partially classifies fermionic non-ABJ anomalies. Using the same approach that shows gauge anomalies to be connected to SPT phases, we can also show that gravitational anomalies are connected to topological orders (i.e., patterns of long-range entanglement) in one-higher dimension.

  4. Congenital Anomalies in Infant with Congenital Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Zahra; Yavarikia, Alireza; Torabian, Saadat

    2012-01-01

    Objective Congenital hypothyroidism is characterized by inadequate thyroid hormone production in newborn infants. Many infants with CH have co-occurring congenital malformations. This is an investigation on the frequency and types of congenital anomalies in infants with congenital hypothyroidism born from May 2006-2010 in Hamadan, west province of Iran. Methods The Iranian neonatal screening program for congenital hypothyroidism was initiated in May 2005. This prospective descriptive study was conducted in infants diagnosed with congenital hypothyroidism being followed up in Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic of Besat Hospital, a tertiary care centre in Hamadan. Cases included all infants with congenital hypothyroidism diagnosed through newborn screening program or detected clinically. Anomalies were identified by clinical examination, echocardiography, and X-ray of the hip during the infant’s first year of life. Results A total of 150 infants with biochemically confirmed primary congenital hypothyroidism (72 females and 78 males) were recruited during the period between May 2006-2010. Overall, 30 (20%) infants had associated congenital anomalies. The most common type of anomaly was Down syndrome. Seven infants (3.1%) had congenital cardiac anomalies such as: ASD (n=3), VSD (n=2), PS (n =1), PDA (n=1). Three children (2.6%) had developmental dysplasia of the hip (n=3). Conclusion The overall frequency of Down syndrome, cardiac malformation and other birth defect was high in infants with CH. This reinforces the need to examine all infants with congenital hypothyroidism for the presence of associated congenital anomalies. PMID:23074545

  5. IDENTIFYING ANOMALIES IN GRAVITATIONAL LENS TIME DELAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Congdon, Arthur B.; Keeton, Charles R.; Nordgren, C. Erik E-mail: keeton@physics.rutgers.ed

    2010-02-01

    We examine the ability of gravitational lens time delays to reveal complex structure in lens potentials. In a previous paper, we predicted how the time delay between the bright pair of images in a 'fold' lens scales with the image separation, for smooth lens potentials. Here we show that the proportionality constant increases with the quadrupole moment of the lens potential, and depends only weakly on the position of the source along the caustic. We use Monte Carlo simulations to determine the range of time delays that can be produced by realistic smooth lens models consisting of isothermal ellipsoid galaxies with tidal shear. We can then identify outliers as 'time delay anomalies'. We find evidence for anomalies in close image pairs in the cusp lenses RX J1131 - 1231 and B1422+231. The anomalies in RX J1131 - 1231 provide strong evidence for substructure in the lens potential, while at this point the apparent anomalies in B1422+231 mainly indicate that the time delay measurements need to be improved. We also find evidence for time delay anomalies in larger-separation image pairs in the fold lenses, B1608+656 and WFI 2033 - 4723, and the cusp lens RX J0911+0551. We suggest that these anomalies are caused by some combination of substructure and a complex lens environment. Finally, to assist future monitoring campaigns we use our smooth models with shear to predict the time delays for all known four-image lenses.

  6. Incidentally Detected Mediastinal Vascular Anatomical Variants on PET-CT: A Pictorial Essay

    PubMed Central

    Paidipati, Kathyayini Gopalkrishna Murthy; Kashyap, Raghava; Tadimeti, Hima; Peyyeti, Mahidhar

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET–CT) is an integral part of oncology practice in the current-day scenario. The hybrid anatomical and metabolic imaging information in this imaging modality provides access to a wealth of incidental findings which can have implications in the management of the patient, especially when surgical options are being considered. In this pictorial essay, we present incidentally detected mediastinal vascular anomalies on PET–CT, along with a review of associated literature. PMID:25883859

  7. Changes in tundra vascular plant biomass over thirty years at Imnavait Creek, Alaska, and current ecosystem C and N dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bret-Harte, M. S.; Shaver, G. R.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Huebner, D. C.; Drew, J. W.; Cherry, J. E.; Edgar, C.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the magnitude of, and controls over, carbon fluxes in arctic ecosystems is essential for accurate assessment and prediction of their responses to climate change. In 2013, we harvested vegetation and soils in the most common plant community types in source areas for fluxes measured by eddy covariance towers located in three representative Alaska tundra ecosystems along a toposequence (a ridge site of heath tundra and moist non-acidic tundra, a mid-slope site of moist acidic tussock tundra, and a valley bottom site of wet sedge tundra and moist acidic tussock tundra) at Imnavait Creek, Alaska. This harvest sought to relate biomass, production, composition, and C and N stocks in soil and vegetation, to estimates of net ecosystem CO2 exchange obtained by micrometeorological methods. Soil C and N stocks in the seasonally unfrozen soil layer were greatest in the wet sedge community, and least in the heath community. In contrast, moist acidic tussock tundra at the valley bottom site had the highest C and N stocks in vascular plant biomass, while nearby wet sedge tundra had the lowest. Overall, soil C:N ratio was highest in moist acidic tussock tundra at the mid-slope site. Aboveground biomass of vascular plants in moist acidic tundra at the mid-slope site was nearly three times higher than that measured thirty years earlier in vegetation harvests of nearby areas at Imnavait Creek. Other harvests from sites near Toolik Field Station suggest that vascular plant biomass in moist acidic tundra has increased in multiple sites over this time period. Increased biomass in the mid-1990s corresponds with a switch from mostly negative to mostly positive spatially-averaged air temperature anomalies in the climate record. All our sites have been annual net sources of CO2 to the atmosphere over nine years of measurement, but in the last two years, the valley bottom site has been a particularly strong source, due to CO2 losses in fall and winter that correspond with a

  8. MAGSAT correlations with geoid anomalies. [magnetic anomalies in the western Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowin, C. O. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    A digital data library of MAGSAT data is described and its applications and capabilities are reviewed. Polynomial trends were removed from each half-orbit in order to estimate and remove ring current effects from the data. The MAGSAT data in the Gulf of Mexico region was analyzed to define better the possible relation of the negative MAGSAT anomaly there to the negative residual geoid anomaly in the western Gulf of Mexico. Since the shape and location of the negative magnetic anomaly are variable depending upon the particular polynomial surface and curve orders used, no definitive conclusion as to the degree of correspondance between the residual geoid and MAGSAT lithosphere anomalies is offered.

  9. Clustering and Recurring Anomaly Identification: Recurring Anomaly Detection System (ReADS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McIntosh, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Recurring Anomaly Detection System (ReADS). The Recurring Anomaly Detection System is a tool to analyze text reports, such as aviation reports and maintenance records: (1) Text clustering algorithms group large quantities of reports and documents; Reduces human error and fatigue (2) Identifies interconnected reports; Automates the discovery of possible recurring anomalies; (3) Provides a visualization of the clusters and recurring anomalies We have illustrated our techniques on data from Shuttle and ISS discrepancy reports, as well as ASRS data. ReADS has been integrated with a secure online search

  10. MicroRNA and vascular remodelling in acute vascular injury and pulmonary vascular remodelling

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Robert A.; Hata, Akiko; MacLean, Margaret R.; Morrell, Nicholas W.; Baker, Andrew H.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular remodelling is an integral pathological process central to a number of cardiovascular diseases. The complex interplay between distinct cell populations in the vessel wall following vascular injury leads to inflammation, cellular dysfunction, pro-growth signals in the smooth muscle cell (SMC) compartment, and the acquisition of a synthetic phenotype. Although the signals for vascular remodelling are diverse in different pathological contexts, SMC proliferation and migration are consistently observed. It is therefore critical to elucidate key mechanisms central to these processes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding sequences of RNA that have the capacity to regulate many genes, pathways, and complex biological networks within cells, acting either alone or in concert with one another. In diseases such as cancer and cardiac disease, the role of miRNA in disease pathogenesis has been documented in detail. In contrast, despite a great deal of interest in miRNA, relatively few studies have directly assessed the role of miRNA in vascular remodelling. The potential for modulation of miRNA to achieve therapeutic benefits in this setting is attractive. Here, we focus on the role of miRNA in vascular inflammation and remodelling associated with acute vascular injury (vein graft disease, angioplasty restenosis, and in-stent restenosis) as well as in vascular remodelling associated with the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension. PMID:22065733

  11. Security inspection in ports by anomaly detection using hyperspectral imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Javier; Valverde, Fernando; Saldaña, Manuel; Manian, Vidya

    2013-05-01

    Applying hyperspectral imaging technology in port security is crucial for the detection of possible threats or illegal activities. One of the most common problems that cargo suffers is tampering. This represents a danger to society because it creates a channel to smuggle illegal and hazardous products. If a cargo is altered, security inspections on that cargo should contain anomalies that reveal the nature of the tampering. Hyperspectral images can detect anomalies by gathering information through multiple electromagnetic bands. The spectrums extracted from these bands can be used to detect surface anomalies from different materials. Based on this technology, a scenario was built in which a hyperspectral camera was used to inspect the cargo for any surface anomalies and a user interface shows the results. The spectrum of items, altered by different materials that can be used to conceal illegal products, is analyzed and classified in order to provide information about the tampered cargo. The image is analyzed with a variety of techniques such as multiple features extracting algorithms, autonomous anomaly detection, and target spectrum detection. The results will be exported to a workstation or mobile device in order to show them in an easy -to-use interface. This process could enhance the current capabilities of security systems that are already implemented, providing a more complete approach to detect threats and illegal cargo.

  12. The strong association of left-side heart anomalies with Kabuki syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ja Kyoung; Ahn, Kyung Jin; Kwon, Bo Sang; Kim, Gi Beom; Noh, Chung Il; Ko, Jung Min

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Kabuki syndrome is a multiple congenital malformation syndrome, with characteristic facial features, mental retardation, and skeletal and congenital heart anomalies. However, the cardiac anomalies are not well described in the Korean population. We analyzed the cardiac anomalies and clinical features of Kabuki syndrome in a single tertiary center. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted for a total of 13 patients with Kabuki syndrome. Results The median age at diagnosis of was 5.9 years (range, 9 days to 11 years and 8 months). All patients showed the characteristic facial dysmorphisms and congenital anomalies in multiple organs, and the diagnosis was delayed by 5.9 years (range, 9 days to 11 years and 5 months) after the first visit. Noncardiac anomalies were found in 84% of patients, and congenital heart diseases were found in 9 patients (69%). All 9 patients exhibited left-side heart anomalies, including hypoplastic left heart syndrome in 3, coarctation of the aorta in 4, aortic valve stenosis in 1, and mitral valve stenosis in 1. None had right-side heart disease or isolated septal defects. Genetic testing in 10 patients revealed 9 novel MLL2 mutations. All 11 patients who were available for follow-up exhibited developmental delays during the median 4 years (range, 9 days to 11 years 11 months) of follow-up. The leading cause of death was hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Conclusion Pediatric cardiologist should recognize Kabuki syndrome and the high prevalence of left heart anomalies with Kabuki syndrome. Genetic testing can be helpful for early diagnosis and counseling. PMID:26300940

  13. Developmental venous anomalies of the brain in children -- imaging spectrum and update.

    PubMed

    Linscott, Luke L; Leach, James L; Jones, Blaise V; Abruzzo, Todd A

    2016-03-01

    Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) are the most common vascular malformation of the brain and are commonly identified on routine imaging of the brain. They are typically considered incidental findings, usually with no clinical significance. However the increasing identification of DVAs as a result of improved imaging technology has led to recognition of their association with a variety of abnormal imaging findings and clinically important conditions. This pictorial essay explores the suspected embryological origin, associated imaging features, and proposed pathophysiological mechanisms of DVAs in the pediatric population. This paper emphasizes newer physiological imaging data, which suggest that DVA drainage has less physiological flexibility than otherwise normal venous drainage development. PMID:26795616

  14. Measuring Vascular Permeability In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Eelco F J; Baish, James W; Padera, Timothy P; Fukumura, Dai

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, in vivo vascular permeability measurements have provided significant insight into vascular functions in physiological and pathophysiological conditions such as the response to pro- and anti-angiogenic signaling, abnormality of tumor vasculature and its normalization, and delivery and efficacy of therapeutic agents. Different approaches for vascular permeability measurements have been established. Here, we describe and discuss a conventional 2D imaging method to measure vascular permeability, which was originally documented by Gerlowski and Jain in 1986 (Microvasc Res 31:288-305, 1986) and further developed by Yuan et al. in the early 1990s (Microvasc Res 45:269-289, 1993; Cancer Res 54:352-3356, 1994), and our recently developed 3D imaging method, which advances the approach originally described by Brown et al. in 2001 (Nat Med 7:864-868, 2001). PMID:27581015

  15. BMP signaling in vascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jie; Pardali, Evangelia; Sánchez-Duffhues, Gonzalo; ten Dijke, Peter

    2012-07-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family that signal via type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors and intracellular Smad transcription factors. BMPs are multifunctional regulators of development and tissue homeostasis and they were initially characterized as inducers of bone regeneration. Genetic studies in humans and mice showed that perturbations in BMP signaling lead to various diseases, such as skeletal diseases, vascular diseases and cancer. Mutations in BMP type II receptor and BMP type I receptor/activin receptor-like kinase 1 have been linked to pulmonary arterial hypertension and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, respectively. BMPs have also been implicated in promoting vascular calcification and tumor angiogenesis. In this review we discuss the role of BMP signaling in vascular diseases and the value of BMP signaling as a vascular disease marker or a therapeutic target. PMID:22710160

  16. How to Prevent Vascular Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... or 911 immediately. @ 2016 Vascular Cures is a tax-exempt, nonprofit organization tax ID#: 94-2825216 as described in the Section ... 3) of the Internal Revenue Code. Donations are tax deductible. 555 Price Ave., Suite 180, Redwood City, ...

  17. Biomaterials for vascular tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Swathi; Chaikof, Elliot L

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the USA. The limited availability of healthy autologous vessels for bypass grafting procedures has led to the fabrication of prosthetic vascular conduits. While synthetic polymers have been extensively studied as substitutes in vascular engineering, they fall short of meeting the biological challenges at the blood–material interface. Various tissue engineering strategies have emerged to address these flaws and increase long-term patency of vascular grafts. Vascular cell seeding of scaffolds and the design of bioactive polymers for in situ arterial regeneration have yielded promising results. This article describes the advances made in biomaterials design to generate suitable materials that not only match the mechanical properties of native vasculature, but also promote cell growth, facilitate extracellular matrix production and inhibit thrombogenicity. PMID:20017698

  18. Social media in vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Indes, Jeffrey E; Gates, Lindsay; Mitchell, Erica L; Muhs, Bart E

    2013-04-01

    There has been a tremendous growth in the use of social media to expand the visibility of various specialties in medicine. The purpose of this paper is to describe the latest updates on some current applications of social media in the practice of vascular surgery as well as existing limitations of use. This investigation demonstrates that the use of social networking sites appears to have a positive impact on vascular practice, as is evident through the incorporation of this technology at the Cleveland Clinic and by the Society for Vascular Surgery into their approach to patient care and physician communication. Overall, integration of social networking technology has current and future potential to be used to promote goals, patient awareness, recruitment for clinical trials, and professionalism within the specialty of vascular surgery. PMID:23321344

  19. Diabetes and Retinal Vascular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Eui Seok; Sorenson, Christine M.; Sheibani, Nader

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes predominantly affects the microvascular circulation of the retina resulting in a range of structural changes unique to this tissue. These changes ultimately lead to altered permeability, hyperproliferation of endothelial cells and edema, and abnormal vascularization of the retina with resulting loss of vision. Enhanced production of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress are primary insults with significant contribution to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR). We have determined the identity of the retinal vascular cells affected by hyperglycemia, and have delineated the cell autonomous impact of high glucose on function of these cells. We discuss some of the high glucose specific changes in retinal vascular cells and their contribution to retinal vascular dysfunction. This knowledge provides novel insight into the molecular and cellular defects contributing to the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy, and will aid in the development of innovative, as well as target specific therapeutic approaches for prevention and treatment of DR. PMID:25667739

  20. Vascular smooth muscle in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Winquist, R J; Webb, R C; Bohr, D F

    1982-06-01

    The cause of the elevated arterial pressure in most forms of hypertension is an increase in total peripheral resistance. This brief review is directed toward an assessment of recent investigations contributing information about the factors responsible for this increased vascular resistance. Structural abnormalities in the vasculature that characterize the hypertensive process are 1) changes in the vascular media, 2) rarefication of the resistance vessels, and 3) lesions of the intimal vascular surface. These abnormalities are mainly the result of an adaptive process and are secondary to the increase in wall stress and/or to pathological damage to cellular components in the vessel wall. Functional alterations in the vascular smooth muscle are described as changes in agonist-smooth muscle interaction or plasma membrane permeability. These types of changes appear to play a primary, initiating role in the elevation of vascular resistance of hypertension. These alterations are not the result of an increase in wall stress and they often precede the development of high blood pressure. The functional changes are initiated by abnormal function of neurogenic, humoral, and/or myogenic changes that alter vascular smooth muscle activity. PMID:6282652

  1. Extracellular matrix synthesis in vascular disease: hypertension, and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ponticos, Markella; Smith, Barbara D.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) within the vascular network provides both a structural and regulatory role. The ECM is a dynamic composite of multiple proteins that form structures connecting cells within the network. Blood vessels are distended by blood pressure and, therefore, require ECM components with elasticity yet with enough tensile strength to resist rupture. The ECM is involved in conducting mechanical signals to cells. Most importantly, ECM regulates cellular function through chemical signaling by controlling activation and bioavailability of the growth factors. Cells respond to ECM by remodeling their microenvironment which becomes dysregulated in vascular diseases such hypertension, restenosis and atherosclerosis. This review examines the cellular and ECM components of vessels, with specific emphasis on the regulation of collagen type I and implications in vascular disease. PMID:24474961

  2. Whole exome sequence analysis of Peters anomaly.

    PubMed

    Weh, Eric; Reis, Linda M; Happ, Hannah C; Levin, Alex V; Wheeler, Patricia G; David, Karen L; Carney, Erin; Angle, Brad; Hauser, Natalie; Semina, Elena V

    2014-12-01

    Peters anomaly is a rare form of anterior segment ocular dysgenesis, which can also be associated with additional systemic defects. At this time, the majority of cases of Peters anomaly lack a genetic diagnosis. We performed whole exome sequencing of 27 patients with syndromic or isolated Peters anomaly to search for pathogenic mutations in currently known ocular genes. Among the eight previously recognized Peters anomaly genes, we identified a de novo missense mutation in PAX6, c.155G>A, p.(Cys52Tyr), in one patient. Analysis of 691 additional genes currently associated with a different ocular phenotype identified a heterozygous splicing mutation c.1025+2T>A in TFAP2A, a de novo heterozygous nonsense mutation c.715C>T, p.(Gln239*) in HCCS, a hemizygous mutation c.385G>A, p.(Glu129Lys) in NDP, a hemizygous mutation c.3446C>T, p.(Pro1149Leu) in FLNA, and compound heterozygous mutations c.1422T>A, p.(Tyr474*) and c.2544G>A, p.(Met848Ile) in SLC4A11; all mutations, except for the FLNA and SLC4A11 c.2544G>A alleles, are novel. This is the first study to use whole exome sequencing to discern the genetic etiology of a large cohort of patients with syndromic or isolated Peters anomaly. We report five new genes associated with this condition and suggest screening of TFAP2A and FLNA in patients with Peters anomaly and relevant syndromic features and HCCS, NDP and SLC4A11 in patients with isolated Peters anomaly. PMID:25182519

  3. Whole exome sequence analysis of Peters anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Weh, Eric; Reis, Linda M.; Happ, Hannah C.; Levin, Alex V.; Wheeler, Patricia G.; David, Karen L.; Carney, Erin; Angle, Brad; Hauser, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Peters anomaly is a rare form of anterior segment ocular dysgenesis, which can also be associated with additional systemic defects. At this time, the majority of cases of Peters anomaly lack a genetic diagnosis. We performed whole exome sequencing of 27 patients with syndromic or isolated Peters anomaly to search for pathogenic mutations in currently known ocular genes. Among the eight previously recognized Peters anomaly genes, we identified a de novo missense mutation in PAX6, c.155G>A, p.(Cys52Tyr), in one patient. Analysis of 691 additional genes currently associated with a different ocular phenotype identified a heterozygous splicing mutation c.1025+2T>A in TFAP2A, a de novo heterozygous nonsense mutation c.715C>T, p.(Gln239*) in HCCS, a hemizygous mutation c.385G>A, p.(Glu129Lys) in NDP, a hemizygous mutation c.3446C>T, p.(Pro1149Leu) in FLNA, and compound heterozygous mutations c.1422T>A, p.(Tyr474*) and c.2544G>A, p.(Met848Ile) in SLC4A11; all mutations, except for the FLNA and SLC4A11 c.2544G>A alleles, are novel. This is the frst study to use whole exome sequencing to discern the genetic etiology of a large cohort of patients with syndromic or isolated Peters anomaly. We report five new genes associated with this condition and suggest screening of TFAP2A and FLNA in patients with Peters anomaly and relevant syndromic features and HCCS, NDP and SLC4A11 in patients with isolated Peters anomaly. PMID:25182519

  4. Persistent anomalies of the extratropical Northern Hemisphere wintertime circulation - Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dole, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    A study identifying horizontal and vertical structures of low patterns occurring with persistent 500 mb height anomalies in the central North Pacific, eastern North Atlantic, and northern Soviet Union regions is presented. The flow patterns of positive and negative anomalies are compared. The relationship between persistent anomalies and small recurrent anomaly patterns is examined. The temporal fluctuations of the persistent patterns are analyzed.

  5. Developmental Anomalies in Farm Animals

    PubMed Central

    Rousseaux, Colin G.

    1988-01-01

    The incidence of developmental abnormalities in domestic animals is low, however there is continuing pressure on the veterinarian to answer concerns of the producer as to why the abnormality occurred and what significance it has for the rest of the herd. Generally, both normal and abnormal development are products of both genetic and environmental factors. These genetic and environmental factors can be single or multiple in nature. Interactions between environment and genes may confuse matters further. In addition, a number of genetic or environmental factors may produce the same abnormality. For these reasons, one must be aware of the complex principles of normal development and how they may be disturbed before attempting a methodological approach to solve etiology. ImagesFigure 3. PMID:17422943

  6. Prenatal Detection of Cardiac Anomalies in Fetuses with Single Umbilical Artery: Diagnostic Accuracy Comparison of Maternal-Fetal-Medicine and Pediatric Cardiologist

    PubMed Central

    Tasha, Ilir; Brook, Rachel; Frasure, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To determine agreement of cardiac anomalies between maternal fetal medicine (MFM) physicians and pediatric cardiologists (PC) in fetuses with single umbilical artery (SUA). Methods. A retrospective review of all fetuses with SUA between 1999 and 2008. Subjects were studied by MFM and PC, delivered at our institution, and had confirmation of SUA and cardiac anomaly by antenatal and neonatal PC follow-up. Subjects were divided into four groups: isolated SUA, SUA and isolated cardiac anomaly, SUA and multiple anomalies without heart anomalies, and SUA and multiple malformations including cardiac anomaly. Results. 39,942 cases were studied between 1999 and 2008. In 376 of 39,942 cases (0.94%), SUA was diagnosed. Only 182 (48.4%) met inclusion criteria. Cardiac anomalies were found in 21% (38/182). Agreement between MFM physicians and PC in all groups combined was 94% (171/182) (95% CI [89.2, 96.8]). MFM physicians overdiagnosed cardiac anomalies in 4.4% (8/182). MFM physicians and PC failed to antenatally diagnose cardiac anomaly in the same two cases. Conclusions. Good agreement was noted between MFM physicians and PC in our institution. Studies performed antenatally by MFM physicians and PC are less likely to uncover the entire spectrum of cardiac abnormalities and thus neonatal follow-up is suggested. PMID:24719766

  7. Differentiation of Multipotent Vascular Stem Cells Contributes to Vascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhenyu; Wang, Aijun; Yuan, Falei; Yan, Zhiqiang; Liu, Bo; Chu, Julia S.; Helms, Jill A.

    2012-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the de-differentiation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from contractile to proliferative/synthetic phenotype has an important role during vascular remodeling and diseases. Here we provide evidence that challenges this theory. We identify a new type of multipotent vascular stem cell (MVSC) in blood vessel wall. MVSCs express markers including Sox17, Sox10 and S100β, are cloneable, have telomerase activity, and can differentiate into neural cells and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like cells that subsequently differentiate into SMCs. On the other hand, we use lineage tracing with smooth muscle myosin heavy chain as a marker to show that MVSCs and proliferative or synthetic SMCs do not arise from the de-differentiation of mature SMCs. Upon vascular injuries, MVSCs, instead of SMCs, become proliferative, and MVSCs can differentiate into SMCs and chondrogenic cells, thus contributing to vascular remodeling and neointimal hyperplasia. These findings support a new hypothesis that the differentiation of MVSCs, rather than the de-differentiation of SMCs, contributes to vascular remodeling and diseases. PMID:22673902

  8. Vascular endothelial growth factor coordinates islet innervation via vascular scaffolding

    PubMed Central

    Reinert, Rachel B.; Cai, Qing; Hong, Ji-Young; Plank, Jennifer L.; Aamodt, Kristie; Prasad, Nripesh; Aramandla, Radhika; Dai, Chunhua; Levy, Shawn E.; Pozzi, Ambra; Labosky, Patricia A.; Wright, Christopher V. E.; Brissova, Marcela; Powers, Alvin C.

    2014-01-01

    Neurovascular alignment is a common anatomical feature of organs, but the mechanisms leading to this arrangement are incompletely understood. Here, we show that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling profoundly affects both vascularization and innervation of the pancreatic islet. In mature islets, nerves are closely associated with capillaries, but the islet vascularization process during embryonic organogenesis significantly precedes islet innervation. Although a simple neuronal meshwork interconnects the developing islet clusters as they begin to form at E14.5, the substantial ingrowth of nerve fibers into islets occurs postnatally, when islet vascularization is already complete. Using genetic mouse models, we demonstrate that VEGF regulates islet innervation indirectly through its effects on intra-islet endothelial cells. Our data indicate that formation of a VEGF-directed, intra-islet vascular plexus is required for development of islet innervation, and that VEGF-induced islet hypervascularization leads to increased nerve fiber ingrowth. Transcriptome analysis of hypervascularized islets revealed an increased expression of extracellular matrix components and axon guidance molecules, with these transcripts being enriched in the islet-derived endothelial cell population. We propose a mechanism for coordinated neurovascular development within pancreatic islets, in which endocrine cell-derived VEGF directs the patterning of intra-islet capillaries during embryogenesis, forming a scaffold for the postnatal ingrowth of essential autonomic nerve fibers. PMID:24574008

  9. Geological reasons for change in intensity of linear magnetic anomalies of the Kursk magnetic anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhavoronkin, I. A.; Kopayev, V. V.

    1985-01-01

    The geological reasons for fluctuations in the anomalous field intensity along the polar axes were examined. The Kursk magnetic anomaly is used as the basis for the study. A geological-geophysical section was constructed which used the results of the interpretation of gravimagnetic anomalies.

  10. Geopotential field anomalies and regional tectonic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandea, Mioara; Korte, Monika

    2016-07-01

    Maps of both gravity and magnetic field anomalies offer crucial information about physical properties of the Earth's crust and upper mantle, required in understanding geological settings and tectonic structures. Density and magnetization represent independent rock properties and thus provide complementary information on compositional and structural changes. Two regions are considered: southern Africa (encompassing South Africa, Namibia and Botswana) and Germany. This twofold choice is motivated firstly by the fact that these regions represent rather diverse geological and geophysical conditions (old Archean crust with strong magnetic anomalies in southern Africa, and much younger, weakly magnetized crust in central Europe) and secondly by our intimate knowledge of the magnetic vector ground data from these two regions. We take also advantage of the recently developed satellite potential field models and compare magnetic and gravity gradient anomalies of some 200 km resolution. Comparing short and long wavelength anomalies and the correlation of rather large scale magnetic and gravity anomalies, and relating them to known lithospheric structures, we generally find a better agreement over the southern African region than the German territory. This probably indicates a stronger concordance between near-surface and deeper structures in the former area, which can be perceived to agree with a thicker lithosphere.

  11. Hyperspectral Anomaly Detection in Urban Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejas Ayuga, J. G.; Martínez Marín, R.; Marchamalo Sacristán, M.; Bonatti, J.; Ojeda, J. C.

    2016-06-01

    We have studied the spectral features of reflectance and emissivity in the pattern recognition of urban materials in several single hyperspectral scenes through a comparative analysis of anomaly detection methods and their relationship with city surfaces with the aim to improve information extraction processes. Spectral ranges of the visible-near infrared (VNIR), shortwave infrared (SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) from hyperspectral data cubes of AHS sensor and HyMAP and MASTER of two cities, Alcalá de Henares (Spain) and San José (Costa Rica) respectively, have been used. In this research it is assumed no prior knowledge of the targets, thus, the pixels are automatically separated according to their spectral information, significantly differentiated with respect to a background, either globally for the full scene, or locally by image segmentation. Several experiments on urban scenarios and semi-urban have been designed, analyzing the behaviour of the standard RX anomaly detector and different methods based on subspace, image projection and segmentation-based anomaly detection methods. A new technique for anomaly detection in hyperspectral data called DATB (Detector of Anomalies from Thermal Background) based on dimensionality reduction by projecting targets with unknown spectral signatures to a background calculated from thermal spectrum wavelengths is presented. First results and their consequences in non-supervised classification and extraction information processes are discussed.

  12. Hyperbolic Orbits and the Planetary Flylby Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, T.L.; Blome, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Space probes in the Solar System have experienced unexpected changes in velocity known as the flyby anomaly [1], as well as shifts in acceleration referred to as the Pioneer anomaly [2-4]. In the case of Earth flybys, ESA s Rosetta spacecraft experienced the flyby effect and NASA s Galileo and NEAR satellites did the same, although MESSENGER did not possibly due to a latitudinal property of gravity assists. Measurements indicate that both anomalies exist, and explanations have varied from the unconventional to suggestions that new physics in the form of dark matter might be the cause of both [5]. Although dark matter has been studied for over 30 years, there is as yet no strong experimental evidence supporting it [6]. The existence of dark matter will certainly have a significant impact upon ideas regarding the origin of the Solar System. Hence, the subject is very relevant to planetary science. We will point out here that one of the fundamental problems in science, including planetary physics, is consistency. Using the well-known virial theorem in astrophysics, it will be shown that present-day concepts of orbital mechanics and cosmology are not consistent for reasons having to do with the flyby anomaly. Therefore, the basic solution regarding the anomalies should begin with addressing the inconsistencies first before introducing new physics.

  13. The Hubble Space Telescope attitude observer anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Arsdall, Morgan M.; Ramsey, Patrick R.; Swain, Scott R.

    2006-06-01

    In mid-2004, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) began experiencing occasional losses of lock during Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) guide star acquisitions, threatening a potential loss of science. These failures were associated with an increasing disparity between the FGS-derived estimates of gyro bias calculated in orbit day and those calculated in orbit night. Early efforts to mitigate the operational effects of this Attitude Observer Anomaly (AOA) succeeded; however, the magnitude of the anomaly continued to increase at a linear rate and operational problems resumed in mid-2005. Continued analysis led to an additional on-orbit mitigation strategy that succeeded in reducing the AOA signature. Before the investigation could be completed, HST began operations under the life-extending Two Gyro Science mode. This eliminated both the operational effects of and the visibility into the AOA phenomenon. Possible causes of the anomaly at the vehicle system level included component hardware failures, flight software errors in control law processing, distortion of the telescope optical path, and deformation of vehicle structure. Although the mechanism of the AOA was not definitively identified, the Anomaly Review Board (ARB) chartered to investigate the anomaly concluded that the most likely root cause lies within one of HST's 6 rate-integrating gyroscopes. This paper provides a summary of the initial paths of investigation, the analysis and testing performed to attempt to isolate the source, and a review of the findings of the ARB. The possibility of future operational impacts and available methods of on-orbit mitigation are also addressed.

  14. miRNAs: roles and clinical applications in vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Jamaluddin, Md Saha; Weakley, Sarah M; Zhang, Lidong; Kougias, Panagiotis; Lin, Peter H; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2011-01-01

    miRNAs are small, endogenously expressed noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression, mainly at the post-transcriptional level, via degradation or translational inhibition of their target mRNAs. Functionally, an individual miRNA can regulate the expression of multiple target genes. The study of miRNAs is rapidly growing and recent studies have revealed a significant role of miRNAs in vascular biology and disease. Many miRNAs are highly expressed in the vasculature, and their expression is dysregulated in diseased vessels. Several miRNAs have been found to be critical modulators of vascular pathologies, such as atherosclerosis, lipoprotein metabolism, inflammation, arterial remodeling, angiogenesis, smooth muscle cell regeneration, hypertension, apoptosis, neointimal hyperplasia and signal transduction pathways. Thus, miRNAs may serve as novel biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets for vascular disease. This article summarizes the current studies related to the disease correlations and functional roles of miRNAs in the vascular system and discusses the potential applications of miRNAs in vascular disease. PMID:21171923

  15. miRNAs: roles and clinical applications in vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Jamaluddin, Md Saha; Weakley, Sarah M; Zhang, Lidong; Kougias, Panagiotis; Lin, Peter H; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2011-01-01

    miRNAs are small, endogenously expressed noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression, mainly at the post-transcriptional level, via degradation or translational inhibition of their target mRNAs. Functionally, an individual miRNA can regulate the expression of multiple target genes. The study of miRNAs is rapidly growing and recent studies have revealed a significant role of miRNAs in vascular biology and disease. Many miRNAs are highly expressed in the vasculature, and their expression is dysregulated in diseased vessels. Several miRNAs have been found to be critical modulators of vascular pathologies, such as atherosclerosis, lipoprotein metabolism, inflammation, arterial remodeling, angiogenesis, smooth muscle cell regeneration, hypertension, apoptosis, neointimal hyperplasia and signal transduction pathways. Thus, miRNAs may serve as novel biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets for vascular disease. This article summarizes the current studies related to the disease correlations and functional roles of miRNAs in the vascular system and discusses the potential applications of miRNAs in vascular disease. PMID:21171923

  16. Anomaly detection enhanced classification in computer intrusion detection

    SciTech Connect

    Fugate, M. L.; Gattiker, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    , this characterization can be compared to data points. Nonstationarity can then be thought of as data that departs from the support of the distribution. Since we can judge that these 'anomalous' examples will be classified poorly, we can treat them difFereritly (or not at all). A second approach uses momaly detection with an assumption that any examples that are different are suspicious, which is an assumption that may or may not be true in an application. We will call this the Outlier Assumption. With this assumption there are simply the performance gains to be had from combining models that have uncorrelated errors into an ensemble with better performance than any of the individual models. This family of techniques has many names, including model averaging, multiple regression, and the very popular boosting approaches. In this approach the two methods are 'peer' results, which are then combined to generate a final result. Staged anomaly detection with the outlier assumption can also be used to create data sub-categories into which the classification method is specifically tuned, or vice-versa. This is an avenue for further work in this application area, and will not be demonstrated in this study. As in our previous work, this report does not attempt to address issues in dataset generation or feature selection. The details of the network and data collection process as well as the way in which this 'raw data' is transformed into well-defined feature vectors is a very important problem. However that exploration is beyond the scope of this effort.

  17. Nucleosynthetic strontium isotope anomalies in carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuya; Fukami, Yusuke; Okui, Wataru; Ito, Nobuaki; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Precise Sr isotopic compositions in samples from sequential acid leaching experiments have been determined for three carbonaceous chondrites, Allende, Murchison, and Tagish Lake, together with those in the bulk aliquots of these meteorites. The chondritic acid leachates and residues were characterized by Sr isotope anomalies with variable μ84Sr values (106 relative deviation from a standard material) ranging from +120 to - 4700 ppm, documenting multiple nucleosynthetic sources within a single meteorite. In addition, the μ84Sr patterns across leaching samples for individual chondrites differed from one another. The highest μ84Sr values were observed for leaching Step 3 (HCl+H2O, 75 °C) for Allende and Murchison likely because of the incorporation of calcium and aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). In contrast, extremely low μ84Sr values were observed in the later fractions (Steps 6 and 7) for Murchison and Tagish Lake, suggesting the existence of s-process-enriched presolar SiC grains derived from AGB stars. A μ84Sr-ɛ54Cr diagram was prepared with the CAIs and bulk aliquots of carbonaceous chondrites and other meteorites (noncarbonaceous) that were plotted separately; however, they still formed a global positive correlation. CAIs presented the highest μ84Sr and ɛ54Cr values, whereas carbonaceous chondrites and noncarbonaceous meteorites had intermediate and the lowest μ84Sr and ɛ54Cr values, respectively. The positive trend was interpreted as resulting from global thermal processing in which sublimation of high μ84Sr and ɛ54Cr carriers generated the excess μ84Sr and ɛ54Cr signatures in CAIs, while noncarbonaceous planetesimals accreted from materials that underwent significant thermal processing and thus had relatively low μ84Sr and ɛ54Cr values. Apart from the global trend, the carbonaceous chondrites and noncarbonaceous meteorites both exhibited intrinsic variations that highlight an isotopic dichotomy similar to that observed in other isotope

  18. Vascularized Bone Tissue Engineering: Approaches for Potential Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Lonnissa H.; Annabi, Nasim; Nikkhah, Mehdi; Bae, Hojae; Binan, Loïc; Park, Sangwon; Kang, Yunqing

    2012-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in bone tissue engineering (TE) in the past decade. However, classical bone TE strategies have been hampered mainly due to the lack of vascularization within the engineered bone constructs, resulting in poor implant survival and integration. In an effort toward clinical success of engineered constructs, new TE concepts have arisen to develop bone substitutes that potentially mimic native bone tissue structure and function. Large tissue replacements have failed in the past due to the slow penetration of the host vasculature, leading to necrosis at the central region of the engineered tissues. For this reason, multiple microscale strategies have been developed to induce and incorporate vascular networks within engineered bone constructs before implantation in order to achieve successful integration with the host tissue. Previous attempts to engineer vascularized bone tissue only focused on the effect of a single component among the three main components of TE (scaffold, cells, or signaling cues) and have only achieved limited success. However, with efforts to improve the engineered bone tissue substitutes, bone TE approaches have become more complex by combining multiple strategies simultaneously. The driving force behind combining various TE strategies is to produce bone replacements that more closely recapitulate human physiology. Here, we review and discuss the limitations of current bone TE approaches and possible strategies to improve vascularization in bone tissue substitutes. PMID:22765012

  19. Cerebral Vascular Injury in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Kimbra; Amyot, Franck; Haber, Margalit; Pronger, Angela; Bogoslovsky, Tanya; Moore, Carol; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic cerebral vascular injury (TCVI) is a very frequent, if not universal, feature after traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is likely responsible, at least in part, for functional deficits and TBI-related chronic disability. Because there are multiple pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies that promote vascular health, TCVI is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention after TBI. The cerebral microvasculature is a component of the neurovascular unit (NVU) coupling neuronal metabolism with local cerebral blood flow. The NVU participates in the pathogenesis of TBI, either directly from physical trauma or as part of the cascade of secondary injury that occurs after TBI. Pathologically, there is extensive cerebral microvascular injury in humans and experimental animal, identified with either conventional light microscopy or ultrastructural examination. It is seen in acute and chronic TBI, and even described in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Non-invasive, physiologic measures of cerebral microvascular function show dysfunction after TBI in humans and experimental animal models of TBI. These include imaging sequences (MRI-ASL), Transcranial Doppler (TCD), and Near InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS). Understanding the pathophysiology of TCVI, a relatively under-studied component of TBI, has promise for the development of novel therapies for TBI. PMID:26048614

  20. Rectal ectasia associated with anorectal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Zia-ul-Miraj, M; Brereton, R J

    1997-04-01

    Rectal ectasia may be associated with anorectal anomalies. If not recognized at the time of surgical reconstruction it may lead to megarectosigmoid, resulting in severe constipation and overflow incontinence postoperatively. The authors treated four patients presenting with this condition. One patient born with a low anorectal anomaly and two with high anorectal anomalies experienced intractable constipation caused by megarectum despite otherwise adequate primary reconstructive procedures. A fourth patient had rectal stenosis in association with megarectosigmoid. The ectatic megarectum had to be resected in all the patients to achieve normal bowel actions. The authors feel that resection or tailoring of the ectatic segment should be an integral part of the primary reconstructive procedure. PMID:9126769

  1. Detecting data anomalies methods in distributed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosiej, Lukasz

    2009-06-01

    Distributed systems became most popular systems in big companies. Nowadays many telecommunications companies want to hold large volumes of data about all customers. Obviously, those data cannot be stored in single database because of many technical difficulties, such as data access efficiency, security reasons, etc. On the other hand there is no need to hold all data in one place, because companies already have dedicated systems to perform specific tasks. In the distributed systems there is a redundancy of data and each system holds only interesting data in appropriate form. Data updated in one system should be also updated in the rest of systems, which hold that data. There are technical problems to update those data in all systems in transactional way. This article is about data anomalies in distributed systems. Avail data anomalies detection methods are shown. Furthermore, a new initial concept of new data anomalies detection methods is described on the last section.

  2. Continental magnetic anomaly constraints on continental reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Crustal magnetic anomalies mapped by the MAGSAT satellite for North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica and adjacent marine areas were adjusted to a common elevation of 400 km and differentially reduced to the radial pole of intensity 60,000 nT. These radially polarized anomalies are normalized for differential inclination, declination and intensity effects of the geomagnetic field, so that in principle they directly reflected the geometric and magnetic polarization attributes of sources which include regional petrologic variations of the crust and upper mantle, and crustal thickness and thermal perturbations. Continental anomalies demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. Accordingly, they suggest further fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution of the continents and their reconstructions.

  3. How to quantify structural anomalies in fluids?

    PubMed

    Fomin, Yu D; Ryzhov, V N; Klumov, B A; Tsiok, E N

    2014-07-21

    Some fluids are known to behave anomalously. The so-called structural anomaly which means that the fluid becomes less structures under isothermal compression is among the most frequently discussed ones. Several methods for quantifying the degree of structural order are described in the literature and are used for calculating the region of structural anomaly. It is generally thought that all of the structural order determinations yield qualitatively identical results. However, no explicit comparison was made. This paper presents such a comparison for the first time. The results of some definitions are shown to contradict the intuitive notion of a fluid. On the basis of this comparison, we show that the region of structural anomaly can be most reliably determined from the behavior of the excess entropy. PMID:25053327

  4. The mineralogy of global magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Experimental and analytical data on magnetic mineralogy was provided as an aid to the interpretation of magnetic anomaly maps. An integrated program, ranging from the chemistry of materials from 100 or more km depth within the Earth, to an examination of the MAGSAT anomaly maps at about 400 km above the Earth's surface, was undertaken. Within this framework, a detailed picture of the pertinent mineralogical and magnetic relationships for the region of West Africa was provided. Efforts were directed toward: (1) examining the geochemistry, mineralogy, magnetic properties, and phases relations of magnetic oxides and metal alloys in rocks demonstrated to have originated in the lower crust of upper mantle, (2) examining the assumption that these rocks portray the nature of their source regions; and (3) examining the regional geology, tectonics, gravity field and the MAGSAT anomaly maps for West Africa.

  5. Density variations and anomalies in palladium compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Back, D.; Jones, T.; Ransick, M.; Walburg, T.; Werkmeister, D.

    1992-05-14

    Low-density compacts of palladium powder have relative densities of about 30{plus_minus}10% TD. The variations in density are of concern for operations such as chemical/hydrogen pump systems because heat, mass, and momentum transport properties can be affected. Variations in density result from the inherent nature and interacting forces of UASA compaction of powder in cylinders. In addition to these expected variations, discontinuous density anomalies, such as cracks or high density ridges, are also found. An anomaly of particular concern was found to resemble a ``steer`s head.`` it is a symmetrical region of low density located at or near the center of a compact. Typically, this region is surrounded by a band of high density, compacted palladium that sometimes exceeds the density of the surrounding compact matrix by a factor of three. This report examines these density variations and anomalies both theoretically and empirically.

  6. Density variations and anomalies in palladium compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Back, D.; Jones, T.; Ransick, M.; Walburg, T.; Werkmeister, D.

    1992-05-14

    Low-density compacts of palladium powder have relative densities of about 30{plus minus}10% TD. The variations in density are of concern for operations such as chemical/hydrogen pump systems because heat, mass, and momentum transport properties can be affected. Variations in density result from the inherent nature and interacting forces of UASA compaction of powder in cylinders. In addition to these expected variations, discontinuous density anomalies, such as cracks or high density ridges, are also found. An anomaly of particular concern was found to resemble a steer's head.'' it is a symmetrical region of low density located at or near the center of a compact. Typically, this region is surrounded by a band of high density, compacted palladium that sometimes exceeds the density of the surrounding compact matrix by a factor of three. This report examines these density variations and anomalies both theoretically and empirically.

  7. Influence of ionospheric anomalies in the positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Caderot, G.; Moreno, B.; de Lacy, M. C.

    2009-04-01

    GNSS observables depend on the satellite-receiver distance, atmospheric effects, satellite and receiver offsets and phase ambiguities, as well as satellite and receiver equipment delays. GNSS observations specific to a receiver and a satellite (undifferenced observations) can be used to estimate the ionospheric effect. In this study, different procedures are used to estimate the ionospheric delay from GNSS data belonging to permanent GPS stations. In particular, these tests intend to detect ionospheric anomalies under certain conditions in equatorial geographical latitudes. From the Slant Total Electron Content (STEC) estimated between one GPS station and several satellites the contribution of the anomalies is isolated and its amplitude and duration are computed. Finally, an analysis of the possible influence of these anomalies in the positioning estimation is carried out.

  8. Satellite anomalies caused by disturbed space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. H.

    2003-04-01

    Seven types of satellite anomalies are discussed and examples are given from historical reports. Types of anomalies and their causes are: o Single Event Upsets (SEU) caused by penetrating energetic ions; o Deep dielectric ("bulk") charging (DDC) by high-energy electrons; o Surface charging by thermal electrons causing electrostatic discharge (ESD) and Phantom Commands (PC); o Magnetopause crossing events (MPE) that reverse ambient fields at geostationary satellite altitudes; o dB/dT of field-aligned currents causing satellite tumbling at lower altitudes; o Optical effects of high-energy ions on star-trackers and limb sensors; and o Power panel degradation from high-energy ions. Recent and older events are considered, in part because the problems recur even though technology has changed to take them into account and awareness of the conditions causing them seems widespread. Systematic anomaly reporting is requested to increase the significance of records collected for particular events.

  9. Trace anomaly on a quantum spacetime manifold

    SciTech Connect

    Spallucci, Euro; Smailagic, Anais; Nicolini, Piero

    2006-04-15

    In this paper we investigate the trace anomaly in a space-time where single events are delocalized as a consequence of short distance quantum coordinate fluctuations. We obtain a modified form of heat kernel asymptotic expansion which does not suffer from short distance divergences. Calculation of the trace anomaly is performed using an IR regulator in order to circumvent the absence of UV infinities. The explicit form of the trace anomaly is presented and the corresponding 2D Polyakov effective action and energy-momentum tensor are obtained. The vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor in the Boulware, Hartle-Hawking and Unruh vacua is explicitly calculated in a rt section of a recently found, noncommutative inspired, Schwarzschild-like solution of the Einstein equations. The standard short distance divergences in the vacuum expectation values are regularized in agreement with the absence of UV infinities removed by quantum coordinate fluctuations.

  10. Inflammatory Cytokines in Vascular Dysfunction and Vascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sprague, Alexander H.; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2009-01-01

    The vascular inflammatory response involves complex interaction between inflammatory cells (neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages), endothelial cells (ECs), vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and extracellular matrix (ECM). Vascular injury is associated with increased expression of adhesion molecules by ECs and recruitment of inflammatory cells, growth factors, and cytokines, with consequent effects on ECs, VSMCs and ECM. Cytokines include tumor necrosis factors, interleukins, lymphokines, monokines, interferons, colony stimulating factors, and transforming growth factors. Cytokines are produced by macrophages, T cells and monocytes, as well as platelets, ECs and VSMCs. Circulating cytokines interact with specific receptors on various cell types and activate JAK-STAT, NF-κB, and Smad signaling pathways leading to an inflammatory response involving cell adhesion, permeability and apoptosis. Cytokines also interact with mitochondria to increasie the production of reactive oxygen species. Cytokine-induced activation of these pathways in ECs modifies the production/activity of vasodilatory mediators such as nitric oxide, prostacyclin, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor, and bradykinin, as well as vasoconstrictive mediators such as endothelin and angiotensin II. Cytokines interact with VSMCs to activate Ca2+, protein kinase C, Rho-Kinase, and MAPK pathways, which promote cell growth and migration, and VSM reactivity. Cytokines also interact with integrins and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and modify ECM composition. Persistent increases in cytokines are associated with vascular dysfunction and vascular disease such as atherosclerosis, abdominal aortic aneurysm, varicose veins and hypertension. Genetic and pharmacological tools to decrease the production of cytokines or to diminish their effects using cytokine antagonists could provide new approaches in the management of inflammatory vascular disease. PMID:19413999

  11. More on Ru Endemic Isotope Anomalies in Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.; Chen, J. H.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    2004-01-01

    We reported last year on endemic isotope anomalies for Ru in iron meteorites, pallasites, ordinary chondrites, and on a whole-rock sample of Allende. We have extended the Ru measurements to more meteorites, to refractory Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI) from Allende, and to a whole rock sample of Murchison (CM2). In a companion abstract we report on new measurements for the Mo isotopes, in some of the same samples. There has been a renewed interest in searching for isotope anomalies in this nuclide region, as Ru and Mo include many isotopes from r-, s-, and p-process nucleosynhesis. Furthermore, the Ru and Mo p-process isotopes show atypically high abundances, which have been hard to explain through the standard nucleosynthetic processes. Effects are possible in Ru-98 and Ru-99 from Tc-98 (with a poorly known t(sub 1/2)=4.2 to 10Ma) and from Tc-99 (t(sub 1/2)=0.21Ma). Natural Tc is now extinct on Earth due to the short half-lives, but may have been present in the early solar system. Both radiogenic and general isotope anomalies are important in understanding the processes for the formation of the early solar system. The current emphasis on Ru and Mo is also the result of the development of Negative-ion Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry and of Multiple-Collector, Inductively-Coupled-Mass-Spectrometry. We have also developed specific chemical siparation techniques for Ru, which eliminated mass interference effects.

  12. Analyzing Global Climate System Using Graph Based Anomaly Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, K.; Agrawal, S.; Atluri, G.; Liess, S.; Steinbach, M.; Kumar, V.

    2014-12-01

    Climate networks have been studied for understanding complex relationships between different spatial locations such as community structures and teleconnections. Analysis of time-evolving climate networks reveals changes that occur in those relationships over time and can provide insights for discovering new and complex climate phenomena. We have recently developed a novel data mining technique to discover anomalous relationships from dynamic climate networks. The algorithms efficiently identifies anomalous changes in relationships that cause significant structural changes in the climate network from one time instance to the next. Using this technique we investigated the presence of anomalies in precipitation networks that were constructed based on monthly averages of precipitation recorded at .5 degree resolution during the time period 1982 to 2002. The precipitation network consisted of 10-nearest neighbor graphs for every month's data. Preliminary results on this data set indicate that we were able to discover several anomalies that have been verified to be related to or as the outcome of well known climate phenomena. For instance, one such set of anomalies corresponds to transition from January 1994 (normal conditions) to January 1995 (El-Nino conditions) and include events like worst droughts of the 20th century in Australian Plains, very high rainfall in southeast Asian islands, and drought-like conditions in Peru, Chile, and eastern equatorial Africa during that time period. We plan to further apply our technique to networks constructed out of different climate variables such as sea-level pressure, surface air temperature, wind velocity, 500 geo-potential height etc. at different resolutions. Using this method we hope to develop deeper insights regarding the interactions of multiple climate variables globally over time, which might lead to discovery of previously unknown climate phenomena involving heterogeneous data sources.

  13. Pediatric Interventional Radiology: Vascular Interventions.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Pediatric interventional radiology (PIR) comprises a range of minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are performed using image guidance. PIR has emerged as an essential adjunct to various surgical and medical conditions. Over the years, technology has undergone dramatic and continuous evolution, making this speciality grow. In this review, the authors will discuss various vascular interventional procedures undertaken in pediatric patients. It is challenging for the interventional radiologist to accomplish a successful interventional procedure. There are many vascular interventional radiology procedures which are being performed and have changed the way the diseases are managed. Some of the procedures are life saving and have become the treatment of choice in those patients. The future is indeed bright for the practice and practitioners of pediatric vascular and non-vascular interventions. As more and more of the procedures that are currently being performed in adults get gradually adapted for use in the pediatric population, it may be possible to perform safe and successful interventions in many of the pediatric vascular lesions that are otherwise being referred for surgery. PMID:26964551

  14. Vascular effect of photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyodorov, Svyatoslav N.; Kopayeva, V. G.; Andreev, J. B.; Ponomarev, Gelii V.; Stranadko, Eugeny P.; Suchin, H. M.

    1996-01-01

    Vascular effect of PDT has been studied in patients with corneal vascularized leucomas (10 patients) and in patients with corneal neovascularized transplant (3 patients). For vascularized leucomas the method of photodynamic therapy consisted of the local injection of dimegin (deiteroporphyrin derivative) into the space of the newly-formed vessels under operating microscope (opton) with the microneedle (diameter 200 microns) and corneal irradiation by the operating microscope light. For corneal neovascularized transplant the injection of photogem (hematoporphyrin derivative) intravenously were made with subsequent irradiation by light of dye laser (5 hours after the injection) with light density of 150 mW/cm2 for 15 minutes. In all the cases at the time of irradiation the aggregated blood flow was appeared, followed by blood flow stasis. In postoperative period the vessels disintegrated into separate fragments which disappeared completely after 10 - 15 days. Taking into account the data of light microscopy, the disappearance of the vessels took place as a result of the vascular endothelium lisis along the vascular walls. Neovascularized cornea and newly-formed vessels in tumor stroms have much in common. The vessel alterations study presented in this paper, may serve to specify the mechanism of photodynamic destruction of neovascularized stroma of tumor.

  15. Inflammation in the Vascular Bed

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Rene; May, James M.

    2008-01-01

    Despite decreases in atherosclerotic coronary vascular disease over the last several decades, atherosclerosis remains a major cause of mortality in developed nations. One possible contributor to this residual risk is oxidant stress, which is generated by the inflammatory response of atherosclerosis. Although there is a wealth of in vitro, cellular, and animal data supporting a protective role for antioxidant vitamins and nutrients in the atherosclerotic process, the best clinical trials have been negative. This may be due to the fact that antioxidant therapies are applied “too little and too late.” This review considers the role of vitamin C, or ascorbic acid in preventing the earliest inflammatory changes in atherosclerosis. It focuses on the three major vascular cell types involved in atherosclerosis: endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and macrophages. Ascorbate chemistry, recycling, and function are described for these cell types, with emphasis on whether and how the vitamin might affect the inflammatory process. For endothelial cells, ascorbate helps to prevent endothelial dysfunction, stimulates type IV collagen synthesis, and enhances cell proliferation. For vascular smooth muscle cells, ascorbate inhibits dedifferentiation, recruitment, and proliferation in areas of vascular damage. For macrophages, ascorbate decreases oxidant stress related to their activation, decreases uptake and degradation of oxidized LDL in some studies, and enhances several aspects of their function. Although further studies of ascorbate function in these cell types and in novel animal models are needed, available evidence generally supports a salutary role for this vitamin in ameliorating the earliest stages of atherosclerosis. PMID:18582947

  16. Anomaly Detection for Discrete Sequences: A Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Chandola, Varun; Banerjee, Arindam; Kumar, Vipin

    2012-01-01

    This survey attempts to provide a comprehensive and structured overview of the existing research for the problem of detecting anomalies in discrete/symbolic sequences. The objective is to provide a global understanding of the sequence anomaly detection problem and how existing techniques relate to each other. The key contribution of this survey is the classification of the existing research into three distinct categories, based on the problem formulation that they are trying to solve. These problem formulations are: 1) identifying anomalous sequences with respect to a database of normal sequences; 2) identifying an anomalous subsequence within a long sequence; and 3) identifying a pattern in a sequence whose frequency of occurrence is anomalous. We show how each of these problem formulations is characteristically distinct from each other and discuss their relevance in various application domains. We review techniques from many disparate and disconnected application domains that address each of these formulations. Within each problem formulation, we group techniques into categories based on the nature of the underlying algorithm. For each category, we provide a basic anomaly detection technique, and show how the existing techniques are variants of the basic technique. This approach shows how different techniques within a category are related or different from each other. Our categorization reveals new variants and combinations that have not been investigated before for anomaly detection. We also provide a discussion of relative strengths and weaknesses of different techniques. We show how techniques developed for one problem formulation can be adapted to solve a different formulation, thereby providing several novel adaptations to solve the different problem formulations. We also highlight the applicability of the techniques that handle discrete sequences to other related areas such as online anomaly detection and time series anomaly detection.

  17. Associated congenital anomalies among cases with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Claude; Dott, Beatrice; Alembik, Yves; Roth, Marie-Paule

    2015-12-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common congenital anomaly widely studied for at least 150 years. However, the type and the frequency of congenital anomalies associated with DS are still controversial. Despite prenatal diagnosis and elective termination of pregnancy for fetal anomalies, in Europe, from 2008 to 2012 the live birth prevalence of DS per 10,000 was 10. 2. The objectives of this study were to examine the major congenital anomalies occurring in infants and fetuses with Down syndrome. The material for this study came from 402,532 consecutive pregnancies of known outcome registered by our registry of congenital anomalies between 1979 and 2008. Four hundred sixty seven (64%) out of the 728 cases with DS registered had at least one major associated congenital anomaly. The most common associated anomalies were cardiac anomalies, 323 cases (44%), followed by digestive system anomalies, 42 cases (6%), musculoskeletal system anomalies, 35 cases (5%), urinary system anomalies, 28 cases (4%), respiratory system anomalies, 13 cases (2%), and other system anomalies, 26 cases (3.6%). Among the cases with DS with congenital heart defects, the most common cardiac anomaly was atrioventricular septal defect (30%) followed by atrial septum defect (25%), ventricular septal defect (22%), patent ductus arteriosus (5%), coarctation of aorta (5%), and tetralogy of Fallot (3%). Among the cases with DS with a digestive system anomaly recorded, duodenal atresia (67%), Hirschsprung disease (14%), and tracheo-esophageal atresia (10%) were the most common. Fourteen (2%) of the cases with DS had an obstructive anomaly of the renal pelvis, including hydronephrosis. The other most common anomalies associated with cases with DS were syndactyly, club foot, polydactyly, limb reduction, cataract, hydrocephaly, cleft palate, hypospadias and diaphragmatic hernia. Many studies to assess the anomalies associated with DS have reported various results. There is no agreement in the literature as to

  18. Central magnetic anomalies of Nectarian-aged lunar impact basins: Probable evidence for an early core dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Lon L.

    2011-02-01

    A re-examination of all available low-altitude LP magnetometer data confirms that magnetic anomalies are present in at least four Nectarian-aged lunar basins: Moscoviense, Mendel-Rydberg, Humboldtianum, and Crisium. In three of the four cases, a single main anomaly is present near the basin center while, in the case of Crisium, anomalies are distributed in a semi-circular arc about the basin center. These distributions, together with a lack of other anomalies near the basins, indicate that the sources of the anomalies are genetically associated with the respective basin-forming events. These central basin anomalies are difficult to attribute to shock remanent magnetization of a shocked central uplift and most probably imply thermoremanent magnetization of impact melt rocks in a steady magnetizing field. Iterative forward modeling of the single strongest and most isolated anomaly, the northern Crisium anomaly, yields a paleomagnetic pole position at 81° ± 19°N, 143° ± 31°E, not far from the present rotational pole. Assuming no significant true polar wander since the Crisium impact, this position is consistent with that expected for a core dynamo magnetizing field. Further iterative forward modeling demonstrates that the remaining Crisium anomalies can be approximately simulated assuming a multiple source model with a single magnetization direction equal to that inferred for the northernmost anomaly. This result is most consistent with a steady, large-scale magnetizing field. The inferred mean magnetization intensity within the strongest basin sources is ˜1 A/m assuming a 1-km thickness for the source layer. Future low-altitude orbital and surface magnetometer measurements will more strongly constrain the depth and/or thicknesses of the sources.

  19. Distribution of branchial anomalies in a paediatric Asian population

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Neville Wei Yang; Ibrahim, Shahrul Izham; Tan, Kun Kiaang Henry

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of the present study was to review the distribution and incidence of branchial anomalies in an Asian paediatric population and highlight the challenges involved in the diagnosis of branchial anomalies. METHODS This was a retrospective chart review of all paediatric patients who underwent surgery for branchial anomalies in a tertiary paediatric hospital from August 2007 to November 2012. The clinical notes were correlated with preoperative radiological investigations, intraoperative findings and histology results. Branchial anomalies were classified based on the results of the review. RESULTS A total of 28 children underwent surgery for 30 branchial anomalies during the review period. Two children had bilateral branchial anomalies requiring excision. Of the 30 branchial anomalies, 7 (23.3%) were first branchial anomalies, 5 (16.7%) were second branchial anomalies, 3 (10.0%) were third branchial anomalies, and 4 (13.3%) were fourth branchial anomalies (one of the four patients with fourth branchial anomalies had bilateral branchial anomalies). In addition, seven children had 8 (26.7%) branchial anomalies that were thought to originate from the pyriform sinus; however, we were unable to determine if these anomalies were from the third or fourth branchial arches. There was inadequate information on the remaining 3 (10.0%) branchial anomalies for classification. CONCLUSION The incidence of second branchial anomalies appears to be lower in our Asian paediatric population, while that of third and fourth branchial anomalies was higher. Knowledge of embryology and the related anatomy of the branchial apparatus is crucial in the identification of the type of branchial anomaly. PMID:25917471

  20. Meteoroid-Induced Anomalies on Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Sporadic meteoroid background is directional (not isotropic) and accounts for 90 percent of the meteoroid risk to a typical spacecraft. Meteor showers get all the press, but account for only approximately10 percent of spacecraft risk. Bias towards assigning meteoroid cause to anomalies during meteor showers. Vast majority of meteoroids come from comets and have a bulk density of approximately 1 gram per cubic centimeter (ice). High speed meteoroids (approximately 50 kilometers per second) can induce electrical anomalies in spacecraft through discharging of charged surfaces (also EMP (electromagnetic pulse?).

  1. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    DOEpatents

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  2. Modeling And Detecting Anomalies In Scada Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svendsen, Nils; Wolthusen, Stephen

    The detection of attacks and intrusions based on anomalies is hampered by the limits of specificity underlying the detection techniques. However, in the case of many critical infrastructure systems, domain-specific knowledge and models can impose constraints that potentially reduce error rates. At the same time, attackers can use their knowledge of system behavior to mask their manipulations, causing adverse effects to observed only after a significant period of time. This paper describes elementary statistical techniques that can be applied to detect anomalies in critical infrastructure networks. A SCADA system employed in liquefied natural gas (LNG) production is used as a case study.

  3. The source of marine magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Christopher G. A.

    1987-01-01

    The Vine-Matthews hypothesis (1963) is examined. This hypothesis suggests that oceanic rocks become polarized in the direction of the magnetic field at the time of their formation, thus recording the polarity history of the earth's magnetic field. This produces the lineated magnetic anomalies on either side of the midoceanic ridge crests. The strength of these magnetic anomalies is studied to determine the strength of magnetization. Indirect determinations of the magnetization intensity of the oceanic crust and direct observations of the oceanic crust are compared. It is found that the average magnetization of a 6-km thick oceanic crust is 1.18 A/m.

  4. Techniques for interpretation of geoid anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    For purposes of geological interpretation, techniques are developed to compute directly the geoid anomaly over models of density within the earth. Ideal bodies such as line segments, vertical sheets, and rectangles are first used to calculate the geoid anomaly. Realistic bodies are modeled with formulas for two-dimensional polygons and three-dimensional polyhedra. By using Fourier transform methods the two-dimensional geoid is seen to be a filtered version of the gravity field, in which the long-wavelength components are magnified and the short-wavelength components diminished.

  5. Adverse Outcome Pathways for Embryonic Vascular Disruption and Alternative Methods to Identify Chemical Vascular Disruptor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemically induced vascular toxicity during embryonic development can result in a wide range of adverse prenatal outcomes. We used information from genetic mouse models linked to phenotypic outcomes and a vascular toxicity knowledge base to construct an embryonic vascular disrupt...

  6. Cloning and characterization of a novel Athspr promoter specifically active in vascular tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Yang, Tao; Li, Xiaoying; Hao, Hongyan; Xu, Shengtao; Cheng, Wei; Sun, Yingli; Wang, Chongying

    2014-05-01

    The vascular system--xylem, phloem and the cambium--is essential for water supply, nutrient transport, and physical support in higher plants. Although it is known that vascular-specific gene expression is regulated by cis-acting regulatory sequences in promoters, it is largely unknown how many regulatory elements exist and what their roles are in promoters. To understand the regulatory elements of vascular-specific promoters and their roles in vascular development, a T-DNA insertion mutant showing delayed growth and diminished resistance to environmental stress was isolated using promoter trap strategy. The novel gene, Arabidopsis thaliana heat shock protein-related (Athspr), was cloned from Arabidopsis ecotype C24. Strong GUS (β-glucuronidase) staining in the original promoter trap line was found in the vascular tissues of all organs in the mutant. The Athspr promoter was cloned and fused with GUS and eGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) reporter genes to verify its vascular-specific expression in Arabidopsis. Further histochemical analysis in transgenic plants demonstrated a similar GUS expression pattern in the vascular tissues. In addition, ATHSPR-eGFP driven by Athspr promoter was observed in vascular bundles of the transgenic seedling roots. Finally, comparative analysis with promoter motifs from 37 genes involved in vascular development revealed that Athspr and all other promoters active in vascular tissues contained regulatory elements responding to phytohormones, light, biotic and abiotic stresses, as well as those regulating tissue-specific expression. These results demonstrated that the Athspr promoter has a vascular tissue-specific activity and Athspr may have multiple functions in vascular development and resistance against various stresses. PMID:24675528

  7. Effects of Longwave Cloud Radiative Forcing Anomalies on the Atmospheric Response to Equatorial Pacific Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, M.; Cess, Robert D.; Zhang, Ming-Hua

    1995-01-01

    The latest version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research community climate model (CCM2) has been used to investigate cloud radiative forcing (CRF) anomalies associated with equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and the effects of the longwave CRF (LWCRF) anomalies on the atmospheric response to the SST anomalies. The SST anomalies cause large CRF anomalies, both longwave and shortwave, as well as latent heat anomalies at low latitudes on a global scale. The relative magnitude of the simulated longwave and shortwave CRF anomalies is consistent with the result of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), implying that cloud height and cloud radiative properties such as emissivity and reflectivity are well simulated by the model. The LWCRF anomaly strongly enhances the precipitation anomaly in the whole tropical belt. The positive (negative) LWCRF anomaly warms (cools) the troposphere and destabilizes (stabilizes) the upper troposphere. The LWCRF anomaly enhances the Southern Oscillation and the related Walker circulation anomaly. The effects of the LWCRF anomaly are essential to the northern hemispheric extratropical circulation anomaly, the Pacific/North American pattern.

  8. Macrophages in Vascular Inflammation: Origins and Functions.

    PubMed

    Decano, Julius L; Mattson, Peter C; Aikawa, Masanori

    2016-06-01

    Macrophages influence various processes of cardiovascular inflammation. Whether they are of embryonic or post-natal hematopoietic origin, their balance in differential activation may direct the course of inflammation. Accelerated macrophage activation and accumulation through a pro-inflammatory signaling pathway may result in extensive tissue damage, adverse repair, and worsened clinical outcomes. Attenuation of such a mechanism and/or promotion of the anti-inflammatory macrophage activation may lead to early resolution of inflammation. Elucidating multiple novel mechanisms of monocyte and macrophage activation leads to a better understanding of their roles in vascular inflammation. In turn, this begets better therapeutic target identification and biomarker discovery. Combined with increasingly sensitive and specific imaging techniques, we continue to push back early detection and monitoring to provide us with a greater window for disease modification. The potential success of cytokine-targeted therapy will be solid proof of the inflammatory hypothesis of atherothrombosis. PMID:27125207

  9. Fetal origin of vascular aging

    PubMed Central

    Pitale, Shailesh; Sahasrabuddhe, Anagha

    2011-01-01

    Aging is increasingly regarded as an independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension and their complications (e.g. MI and Stroke). It is well known that vascular disease evolve over decades with progressive accumulation of cellular and extracellular materials and many inflammatory processes. Metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes are conventionally recognized as risk factors for development of coronary vascular disease (CVD). These conditions are known to accelerate ageing process in general and vascular ageing in particular. Adverse events during intrauterine life may programme organ growth and favour disease later in life, popularly known as, ‘Barker's Hypothesis’. The notion of fetal programming implies that during critical periods of prenatal growth, changes in the hormonal and nutritional milieu of the conceptus may alter the full expression of the fetal genome, leading to permanent effects on a range of physiological. PMID:22145131

  10. Redox regulation of vascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Karimi Galougahi, Keyvan; Ashley, Euan A; Ali, Ziad A

    2016-01-01

    Vascular remodeling is a dynamic process of structural and functional changes in response to biochemical and biomechanical signals in a complex in vivo milieu. While inherently adaptive, dysregulation leads to maladaptive remodeling. Reactive oxygen species participate in homeostatic cell signaling in tightly regulated- and compartmentalized cellular circuits. It is well established that perturbations in oxidation-reduction (redox) homeostasis can lead to a state of oxidative-, and more recently, reductive stress. We provide an overview of the redox signaling in the vasculature and review the role of oxidative- and reductive stress in maladaptive vascular remodeling. Particular emphasis has been placed on essential processes that determine phenotype modulation, migration and fate of the main cell types in the vessel wall. Recent advances in systems biology and the translational opportunities they may provide to specifically target the redox pathways driving pathological vascular remodeling are discussed. PMID:26483132

  11. [Permanent vascular access for haemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Manafov, E N; Batrashov, V A; Sergeev, O G; Yudaev, S S

    2015-01-01

    The presence of a permanent vascular access (PVA) is the pledge of successful treatment of patients being on chronic haemodialysis (CD). Creation and maintenance of a functioning PVA is the priority task of vascular and endovascular surgeons, nephrologists and specialists of haemodialysis departments. According to the KDOQI guidelines, the most preferable type of PVA is a native arteriovenous fistula (AVF). As an alternative it is possible to use a synthetic prosthesis for creating an arteriovenous shunt (AVS) or implantation of a central venous catheter (CVC). Various complications of vascular accesses leading to their loss create the necessity of forming just another PVA, thus negatively influencing the life span and quality of life of this cohort of patients. Improving surgical technique and approaches to treatment, as well as carrying out dynamic monitoring of the condition of the created PVA make it possible to considerably decrease the incidence rate of such complications and to improve the quality of medical care rendered. PMID:26451410

  12. Interpretation of long- and short-wavelength magnetic anomalies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeNoyer, John M.

    1980-01-01

    Magset was launched on October 30, 1979. More than a decade of examining existing data, devising appropriate models of the global magnetic field, and extending methods for interpreting long-wavelength magnetic anomalies preceded this launch Magnetic data collected by satellite can be interrupted by using a method of analysis that quantitively describes the magnetic field resulting from three-dimensional geologic structures that are bounded by an arbitrary number of polygonal faces, Each face my have any orientation and three or more sides. At each point of the external field, the component normal to each face is obtained by using an expression for the solid angle subtended by a generalized polygon. The "cross" of tangential components are relatively easy to obtain for the same polygons. No approximations have been made related to orbit height that restrict the dimensions of the polygons relative to the distance from the external field points. This permits the method to be used to model shorter wavelength anomalies obtained from aircraft or ground surveys. The magnetic fields for all the structures considered are determine in the same rectangular coordinate system. The coordinate system is in depended from the orientation of geologic trends and permits multiple structures or bodies to be included in the same magnetic field calculations. This single reference system also simplified adjustments in position and direction to account for earth curvature in regional interpretation.

  13. Rate of gravitational inflaton decay via gauge trace anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Yuki

    2011-02-15

    We analyze decay processes of the inflaton field, {phi}, during the coherent oscillation phase after inflation in f({phi})R gravity. It is inevitable that the inflaton decays gravitationally into gauge fields in the presence of f({phi})R coupling. We show a concrete calculation of the rate that the inflaton field decays into a pair of gauge fields via the trace anomaly. Comparing this new decay channel via the anomaly with the channels from the tree-level analysis, we find that the branching ratio crucially depends on masses and the internal multiplicities (flavor quantum number) of decay product particles. While the inflaton decays exclusively into light fields, heavy fields still play a role in quantum loops. We argue that this process in principle allows us to constrain the effects of arbitrary heavy particles in the reheating. We also apply our analysis to Higgs inflation, and find that the gravitational decay rate would never exceed gauge interaction decay rates if quantum gravity is unimportant.

  14. Peters anomaly in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    PubMed

    Suedmeyer, Wm Kirk; Pearce, Jacqueline; Persky, Meredith; Houck, Marlys L

    2014-09-01

    A 10-mo-old female red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) presented with a unilateral congenital corneal opacity OD. Complete ophthalmic examination revealed a shallow anterior chamber and a focal area of corneal edema with multiple persistent pupillary membranes extending from the iris colarette to the corneal endothelium adjacent to the edematous area of cornea. High-resolution B-scan ultrasound of the anterior segment showed an area consistent with thinning of Descemet's membrane in the area of corneal edema. Ophthalmic examination and ultrasound findings are consistent with a diagnosis of Peters anomaly, a form of anterior segment dysgenesis. An electroretinogram performed on the affected animal did not reveal any specific abnormalities. Karyotype analyses revealed a normal diploid number (2n = 20, -XX), with an abnormal pericentric inversion in the second largest chromosomal pair. The kangaroo exhibits mild compensated vision deficits in the affected eye. The maternal and paternal adult pairing has been discontinued in an effort to prevent future offspring anomalies. PMID:25314851

  15. TIME SERIES ANALYSIS OF REMOTELY-SENSED TIR EMISSION: linking anomalies to physical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlidou, E.; van der Meijde, M.; Hecker, C.; van der Werff, H.; Ettema, J.

    2013-12-01

    In the last 15 years, remote sensing has been evaluated for detecting thermal anomalies as precursor to earthquakes. Important issues that need yet to be tackled include definition of: (a) thermal anomaly, taking into account weather conditions, observation settings and ';natural' variability caused by background sources (b) the length of observations required for this purpose; and (c) the location of detected anomalies, which should be physically related to the tectonic activity. To determine whether thermal anomalies are statistical noise, mere meteorological conditions, or actual earthquake-related phenomena, we apply a novel approach. We use brightness temperature (top-of-atmosphere) data from thermal infrared imagery acquired at a hypertemporal (sub-hourly) interval, from geostationary weather satellites over multiple years. The length of the time series allows for analysis of meteorological effects (diurnal, seasonal or annual trends) and background variability, through the application of a combined spatial and temporal filter to distinguish extreme occurrences from trends. The definition of potential anomalies is based on statistical techniques, taking into account published (geo)physical characteristics of earthquake related thermal anomalies. We use synthetic data to test the performance of the proposed detection method and track potential factors affecting the results. Subsequently, we apply the method on original data from Iran and Turkey, in quiescent and earthquake-struck periods alike. We present our findings with main focus to assess resulting anomalies in relation to physical processes thereby considering: (a) meteorological effects, (b) the geographical, geological and environmental settings, and (c) physically realistic distances and potential physical relations with the activity of causative faults.

  16. Evolution of Tropical and Extratropical Precipitation Anomalies During the 1997 to 1999 ENSO Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Scott; Adler, Robert; Huffman, George; Nelkin, Eric; Bolvin, David; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The 1997-1999 ENSO period was very powerful, but also well observed. Multiple satellite rainfall estimates combined with gauge observations allow for a quantitative analysis of precipitation anomalies in the tropics and elsewhere accompanying the 1997-99 ENSO cycle. An examination of the evolution of the El Nino and accompanying precipitation anomalies revealed that a dry Maritime Continent preceded the formation of positive SST anomalies in the eastern Pacific Ocean. 30-60 day oscillations in the winter of 1996/97 may have contributed to this lag relationship. Furthermore, westerly wind burst events may have maintained the drought over the Maritime Continent. The warming of the equatorial Pacific was then followed by an increase in convection. A rapid transition from El Nino to La Nina occurred in May 1998, but as early as October-November 1997 precipitation indices captured substantial changes in Pacific rainfall anomalies. The global precipitation patterns for this event were in good agreement with the strong consistent ENSO-related precipitation signals identified in earlier studies. Differences included a shift in precipitation anomalies over Africa during the 1997-98 El Nino and unusually wet conditions over northeast Australia during the later stages of the El Nino. Also, the typically wet region in the north tropical Pacific was mostly dry during the 1998-99 La Nina. Reanalysis precipitation was compared to observations during this time period and substantial differences were noted. In particular, the model had a bias towards positive precipitation anomalies and the magnitudes of the anomalies in the equatorial Pacific were small compared to the observations. Also, the evolution of the precipitation field, including the drying of the Maritime Continent and eastward progression of rainfall in the equatorial Pacific was less pronounced for the model compared to the observations.

  17. Relation of the lunar volcano complexes lying on the identical linear gravity anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Haruyama, J.; Ohtake, M.; Iwata, T.; Ishihara, Y.

    2015-12-01

    There are several large-scale volcanic complexes, e.g., Marius Hills, Aristarchus Plateau, Rumker Hills, and Flamsteed area in western Oceanus Procellarum of the lunar nearside. For better understanding of the lunar thermal history, it is important to study these areas intensively. The magmatisms and volcanic eruption mechanisms of these volcanic complexes have been discussed from geophysical and geochemical perspectives using data sets acquired by lunar explorers. In these data sets, precise gravity field data obtained by Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) gives information on mass anomalies below the lunar surface, and useful to estimate location and mass of the embedded magmas. Using GRAIL data, Andrews-Hanna et al. (2014) prepared gravity gradient map of the Moon. They discussed the origin of the quasi-rectangular pattern of narrow linear gravity gradient anomalies located along the border of Oceanus Procellarum and suggested that the underlying dikes played important roles in magma plumbing system. In the gravity gradient map, we found that there are also several small linear gravity gradient anomaly patterns in the inside of the large quasi-rectangular pattern, and that one of the linear anomalies runs through multiple gravity anomalies in the vicinity of Aristarchus, Marius and Flamstead volcano complexes. Our concern is whether the volcanisms of these complexes are caused by common factors or not. To clarify this, we firstly estimated the mass and depth of the embedded magmas as well as the directions of the linear gravity anomalies. The results were interpreted by comparing with the chronological and KREEP distribution maps on the lunar surface. We suggested providing mechanisms of the magma to these regions and finally discussed whether the volcanisms of these multiple volcano complex regions are related with each other or not.

  18. Vascular Injury in Orthopedic Trauma.

    PubMed

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Panagopoulos, George N; Kokkalis, Zinon T; Koulouvaris, Panayiotis; Megaloikonomos, Panayiotis D; Igoumenou, Vasilios; Mantas, George; Moulakakis, Konstantinos G; Sfyroeras, George S; Lazaris, Andreas; Soucacos, Panayotis N

    2016-07-01

    Vascular injury in orthopedic trauma is challenging. The risk to life and limb can be high, and clinical signs initially can be subtle. Recognition and management should be a critical skill for every orthopedic surgeon. There are 5 types of vascular injury: intimal injury (flaps, disruptions, or subintimal/intramural hematomas), complete wall defects with pseudoaneurysms or hemorrhage, complete transections with hemorrhage or occlusion, arteriovenous fistulas, and spasm. Intimal defects and subintimal hematomas with possible secondary occlusion are most commonly associated with blunt trauma, whereas wall defects, complete transections, and arteriovenous fistulas usually occur with penetrating trauma. Spasm can occur after either blunt or penetrating trauma to an extremity and is more common in young patients. Clinical presentation of vascular injury may not be straightforward. Physical examination can be misleading or initially unimpressive; a normal pulse examination may be present in 5% to 15% of patients with vascular injury. Detection and treatment of vascular injuries should take place within the context of the overall resuscitation of the patient according to the established principles of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocols. Advances in the field, made mostly during times of war, have made limb salvage the rule rather than the exception. Teamwork, familiarity with the often subtle signs of vascular injuries, a high index of suspicion, effective communication, appropriate use of imaging modalities, sound knowledge of relevant technique, and sequence of surgical repairs are among the essential factors that will lead to a successful outcome. This article provides a comprehensive literature review on a subject that generates significant controversy and confusion among clinicians involved in the care of trauma patients. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):249-259.]. PMID:27322172

  19. [Vascular Calcification - Pathological Mechanism and Clinical Application - . Role of vascular smooth muscle cells in vascular calcification].

    PubMed

    Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2015-05-01

    Vascular calcification is commonly seen with aging, chronic kidney disese (CKD), diabetes, and atherosclerosis, and is closely associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Vascular calcification has long been regarded as the final stage of degeneration and necrosis of arterial wall and a passive, unregulated process. However, it is now known to be an active and tightly regulated process involved with phenotypic transition of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) that resembles bone mineralization. Briefly, calcium deposits of atherosclerotic plaque consist of hydroxyapatite and may appear identical to fully formed lamellar bone. By using a genetic fate mapping strategy, VSMC of the vascular media give rise to the majority of the osteochondrogenic precursor- and chondrocyte-like cells observed in the calcified arterial media of MGP (- / -) mice. Osteogenic differentiation of VSMC is characterized by the expression of bone-related molecules including bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) -2, Msx2 and osteopontin, which are produced by osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Our recent findings are that (i) Runx2 and Notch1 induce osteogenic differentiation, and (ii) advanced glycation end-product (AGE) /receptor for AGE (RAGE) and palmitic acid promote osteogenic differentiation of VSMC. To understand of the molecular mechanisms of vascular calcification is now under intensive research area. PMID:25926569

  20. Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Unlike many neurodegenerative causes of cognitive impairment and dementia, vascular damage is preventable. Despite the heterogeneity of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and the complexity of its clinical presentations, the potential for limiting progression and changing the trajectory of damage makes it all the more important for physicians to be educated about the syndrome and to remain vigilant when taking care of patients. In this review, we outline an approach to patients with possible VCI, summarize current treatment and prevention guidelines, and provide an overview with case examples. PMID:26124978